WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
180500WC12/70
  The Effect of Inorganic Sediment
          On Stream Biota
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  WATER QUALITY OFFICE

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         WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
The Water Pollution Control Research Series describes
the results and progress in the control and abatement
of pollution in our Nation's waters.  They provide a
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Reports should be directed to the Head, Project Reports
Office, Environmental Protection Agency, Room 1108,
Washington, B.C.  202^2.

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          THE EFFECT OF  INORGANIC SEDIMENT

                   ON STREAM BIOTA
                           by
                   James  R.  Gammon
            Assoc. Professor of  Zoology
                  DePauw  University
             Greencastle,  Indiana 46135
                        for the

                 WATER  QUALITY  OFFICE

                         of the

          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                   Grant #18050DWC
                     December  1970
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.25
                      Stock Number 6501-0074

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                 EPA Re-view Notice
This report has "been reviewed by the Water
Quality Office, EPA, and approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the contents
necessarily reflect the views and policies of
the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does
mention of trade names or commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for
use.

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                        ABSTRACT
     Fish and macroinvertebrate populations fluctuated over
a four year period in response to varying quantities of sedi-
ment produced by a crushed limestone quarry.  Light inputs which
increased the suspended solids loads less than 40 mg/1 resulted
in a 25% reduction in macroinvertebrate density below the quarry.
Heavy inputs caused increases of more than 120 mg/1 including
some deposition of sediment and resulted in a 60% reduction in
population density of macroinvertebrates.  Population diversity
indices were unaffected by changes in density because most taxa
responded to the same degree.  Experimental introductions of
sediment caused immediate increases in the rate of invertebrate
drift proportional to the concentration of additional suspended
solids.

     The standing crop of fish decreased drastically when heavy
sediment input occurred in the spring, but fish remained in
pools during the summer when the input was very heavy and va-
cated the pools only after deposits of sediment accumulated.

     After winter floods removed sediment deposits, fish re-
turned to the pools during spring months and achieved levels of
50% normal standing crop by early June.  Slight additional gains
were noted during the summer even with light sediment input.
Only spotted bass (jficropterus punctulatus) was resistant to
sediment, but its growth rate was lower below the quarry than

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above.  Most fish were much reduced in standing crop below
the quarry.

     This report was submitted in fulfillment of project
18050 DWC under the sponsorship of the Water Quality Office
of the Environmental Protection Agency.
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                        CONTENTS


     Section                                             Page


Conclusions                                                1

Recommendations                                            5

Introduction                                               9

Methods                                                   21

The Study Stream                                          27

Operation of the Stone Quarry                             35

Results                                                   37

   Amount of sedimentation in study pools                 37

   Effect of sediment on macroinvertebrate populations    51

   The effect of sediment on the drift rate of macro-
   invertebrates                                          67

   The effect of sediment on the population density
   of fish                                                73

   The effect of sediment on the growth of fish           84

   The effect of sediment on the length/weight
   relationship                                           89

   The effect of sediment on spawning                     90

Discussion                                                93

Acknowledgements                                         105

References                                               107

Appendices                                               113
                            111

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                        FIGURES
Number             Title
  1     Map of Deer Creek showing the location of the
        study pools and riffles                           30

  2     Relationship of weekly discharge from the
        quarry settling basins to weekly production of
        crushed limestone during 1967 and 1968            37

  3     Patterns of sediment accumulation in the pools
        (B) and riffles (RB) of Deer Creek downstream
        from a crushed rock quarry                        49

  4     The density of invertebrates in the B-riffles
        as a percentage of the density in the A-riffles
        in relation to periods of sediment build-up in
        the B-riffles and to input of sediment            55

  5     Average population density of the principal
        taxa in the"riffles above and below the quarry
        outfall                                           58

  6     Drift rate as a function of the concentration
        of stonedust sediment added during 15 minute
        test periods alternated with 15 minute control
        periods                                           69

  7     Estimated standing crop of fish in two pools
        above (A) and three pools below (B) a crushed
        rock quarry                                       77

  8     Estimated standing crop of three species groups
        of fish in two pools above and three pools below
        a crushed rock quarry                             80

  9     Estimated standing crop of four species groups
        of fish in two pools above and three pools below
        a crushed rock quarry                             82
                           IV

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                         TABLES


Number        Title
  1     Chemical and bacterial analysis of Deer Creek
        water sampled above the quarry                    28

  2     Morphometry and composition of bottom material
        of the pools of Deer Creek in mid-July 1968       31

  3     Measurements concerning the riffles sampled
        for invertebrates as determined during the
        summer of 1968                                    32

  4     The average composition of the bottom substrate
        in the riffles of Deer Creek.  Each value rep-
        resents the average of several triplicate sam-
        ples collected at various times during the study
        and represent percentages by weight               33

  5     The distribution of particle sizes of quarry-
        sediment as determined by the bottom tube with-
        drawal method.  Values are given as the percent
        of material by weight which is finer than the
        indicated size                                    39

  6     Amount of sediment contributed to Deer Creek
        from the limestone quarry near Manhattan,
        Indiana from 1967 through 1970                    40

  7     Some measurements of the load of suspended
        solids (mg/1) and turbidity (JTU-Hach) at sam-
        pling stations above the quarry, riffle B-0,
        and the quarry input                              43

  8     Representative measurements of suspended solids
        loads (mg/1) at stations above and below the
        limestone quarry under conditions of light and
        heavy sediment input                              44

  9     Estimated quantity of sediment (kilograms per
        day) settling in pools of Deer Creek              45

 10     Average densities of the macroinvertebrates in
        the above and below riffles and estimated monthly
        input of sediment in kilograms.  Density in num-
        bers per 929 square centimeters (1 sq. ft.) - 2
        x S.E. B/A ratios given as B/A x 100              52

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Number        Title

 11     Average B/A ratios  (x  100) for various taxa
        during periods of light and heavy sediment and
        periods of no build-up and build-up in the
        riffles                                           56

 12     Average indices of  diversity for the macro-
        invertebrate samples collected from A- and
        B-riffles during 1967, 1968 and 1969              64

 13     Increased drift rates  in relation to additions
        of stonedust during two to six test periods
        alternating with control periods                  68

 14     Average body length (mm) of all drift organisms
        and proportion of drift which were chironomidae
        in control and test phases of the sediment in-
        troduction experiments                            71

 15     Catchability values (-b) for the summers of
        1969 and 1970                                     75

 16     Total weight of fish captured in three passes
        as a percent of the estimated standing crop       75

 17     The relationship between magnified scale radius
        (SR) (x22.5) in millimeters and the total length
        (TL) in millimeters                              85

 18     Calculated mean total lengths and standard error
        of means at each age for fish collected from
        pools above and below the crushed limestone
        quarry                                            87
                           VI

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                     CONCLUSIONS





1. Crushed rock quarries are potentially capable of polluting



   water courses with large quantities  of inorganic sediment.



2. Both suspended and settled sediment  caused negative re-



   sponses in the populations of macroinvertebrates in rif-



   fles and fish in pools below the  source of sediment.



3. When more than 80 mg/1 inert solids  were added to the normal



   suspended solids load the populations density of macroin-



   vertebrates decreased to about 40% normal.   When 20 to 40



   mg/1 were present for a part of each day the depression in



   population density was about 75%  normal, but differences



   were not always detected by the particular method of sam-



   pling employed.  Most species were affected similarly and,



   therefore, diversity was not altered.  The ephemeropteran,



   Tricorythoides, increased in density during heavy sedimen-



   tation and adult stages of the beetle, stenelmis, were also



   quite resistant.



4. Sediment which settled out in riffles also caused a decrease



   in population density to about 40% normal regardless of the



   suspended solids concentration.



5. The response of macroinvertebrate populations appears to be



   due to increased drift out of riffles in response to above



   normal concentrations of inert solids.  The experimental in-



   troduction of sediment into a riffle above the quarry re-



   vealed an increase in drift rate  in  direct proportion to the

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   increase in suspended solids concentration up to about
   160 mg/1.
6. The adjustments of population density in relation to sus-
   pended or settled solids was rapid, requiring only a few
   days to decrease significantly or to return to normal.
7. Populations of fish also responded to differences in sus-
   pended and settled solids, but the mode of response was
   somewhat more complex depending upon both the season of
   the year and the species of fish.
8. Only a single species of fish, the spotted bass (uicropterus
   punctulatus) , was resistant as a population to the sediment,
   but its rate of growth below the quarry was lower than above
9. Almost all of the remaining species had distinctly lower
   populations below the quarry than above throughout the per-
   iod of study.  Although each species group tended to react
   somewhat differently, the population of fish as a whole was
   most sensitive to the load of suspended solids during the
   spring months.  During spring 1969 additional suspended
   solids estimated to be 150 mg/1 or more caused a great de-
   crease in density.  Continued high inputs into the summer
   did not, however, cause further reductions until accumula-
   tions of sediment filled the pools and finally forced the
   fish to leave.  Following the removal of the sediment by
   winter and spring floods, the fish in outlying segments of
   the stream invaded the afflicted pools during spring months
   and achieved standing crops about 50% normal by June.
   Further recovery during the summer was relatively slight.

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10.  The populations of fish failed to  completely recover within
    two years following the decimation,  during conditions of
    relatively light sediment input by the  quarry.   Since the
    affected area was relatively short and  normal populations
    existed above and below the  segment,  it is concluded that
    recovery to normal would probably  never be achieved under
    the observed conditions.
11.  Reductions in the standing crops of  fish and macroinverte-
    brates were detected in a short segment of stream which
    received a load of suspended inorganic  solids of no more
    than,  and during the spring  and winter  less than,40 mg/1
    more than the normal concentration during a part of each
    day.  Suspended material  as  well as  settled sediment was
    responsible for significant  reductions  in population density

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                    RECOMMENDATIONS





     Although they are not the only industry to produce sig-



nificant amounts of sediment, crushed rock quarries, as il-



lustrated by the test quarry, are capable of producing tre-



mendous quantities of sediment.   For example, this one quarry



fed into this small creek approximately 1% of the total rock



crushed during 1968 - more than 4,8000,000 kg or nearly 1100



tons of sediment.  The U. S.  Bureau of the Census (1967) es-



timates that there were scattered throughout the United States



in 1963*1882 quarries whose total production was 460,834,000



short tons of crushed rock.  The potential sediment pollution



within this one type of industry is obviously substantial.





     There are several ways in which quarries could reduce  if



not eliminate  sediment pollution.  The most obvious way is



simply to eliminate passing the effluent back into the water



course from which wash water was originally taken.  Such a



plan, which is presently under consideration at the test



quarry, would not alter regular plant operations significantly



and, if done carefully, could actually eliminate the time now



required to clean the settling basins.  A deep water-filled



basin which occupies one part of the quarry proper will serve



as a most adequate settling basin having a long life-time.





     Since settling basins of some sort are already required



by many states, it would seem highly desirable to go one step



further and require a closed system of waste water disposal

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for all such operations.  The arguments for such action are



persuasive.  The  largest amounts of sediment invariably were



produced at times when  the quarry was busiest during which



times, perhaps because  manpower was necessary in other areas,



the settling basins were permitted to fill up with sediment



and overflow.  Manhattan quarry had two brief episodes in



November 1967 and July  1970 and in each of these months the



amount of  sediment which entered Deer Creek was fully one-



third of the total annual contribution.





     Even  the adoption  of a closed system of disposal would



not necessarily eliminate sediment pollution.  The impetus



for removing the  fine particles from the settling basins is



through state regulations and not because the material is



valuable.  Although some crushed rock quarries do market the



fine material as  agricultural lime, topping for gravel roads



or as coating for deep  shaft coal mines, the supply far out-



strips the demand so that the surplus must be deposited es-



sentially  as waste material.  At Manhattan quarry almost none



of the dredged particles is marketable and, therefore, all of



it is hauled to a fairly flat plateau near the edge of the



quarry in  a site which  is elevated above and in close proxim-



ity to DeWeese Branch.  Toward the end of the study erosion



gullies appeared indicating that rainstorms were carrying the



sediment into DeWeese Creek.  This, of course, negates the



primary reason for removing the sediment from the settling



basins, and serves notice that other regulations are necessary

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     Until the dredged material finds a ready market it would
seem necessary to require disposal of the sediment in low-
lying areas from which it would not find its way readily into
water courses.  A pit in the quarry proper would be the best
disposal site from a purely ecological standpoint.
     There also appear to be steps within the crushing opera-
tion which tend to influence the amount of material which
enters the settling basins.  The dryscreening stage normally
used is apparently very important in reducing the sediment
output.  The elimination of this step during 1968 was a major
factor leading to increased sediment pollution.

     In their first approximation toward a suspended solids
criteria, the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission
(1965) stated that "(b) it should usually be possible to main-
tain good or moderate fisheries in waters which normally con-
tain 25 to 80 ppm suspended solids, although the yield might
be lower than from water from category (a)".  The Deer Creek
investigation revealed significant damage to aquatic communi-
ties receiving 15 to 40 mg/1 additional suspended solids or
about double the normal concentration.  These solids were added
for 8 to 18 hours each day during most of the year and caused
reduced standing crops of most fish and macroinvertebrates.
     Thus criterion (b), while it may apply to the biota of
continental Europe, may be too liberal for populations in the
U.S.  Certainly at the ranges from about 50 to 80 ppm or mg/1

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it appears that significant biotic reductions will definite-
ly occur.  Furthermore, the results of the experiments in
which drift rate increased with the amount of suspended sol-
ids concentration indicate that even small quantities of sedi
ment influence some components of the aquatic community.
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                       INTRODUCTION





     Sediment is a pervasive, ubiquitous pollutant which has



been important in the past and continues to pose new problems



as it reaches water courses in the U.  S. in quantities esti-



mated at four billion cubic yards annually.  While some riv-



ers have always carried significant loads of sediment, others



are expanding this functional role in response to a variety



of human activities.  Poor farming and logging practices



which resulted in major contributions in the past have now



been joined by road and bridge building, and the proportion



of sediment from urban construction may overtake the total ag-



ricultural yield in the near future (Wolman and Schick 1967) .





     Regardless of its origin, the movement of sediments from



land to water courses is generally undesirable in every re-



spect, although economic evaluations are uncertain at best.



The useful life-span of reservoirs is closely related to the



sediment load of feeder streams and sediment accumulations in



navigable waterways and harbors are costly to remove.  A con-



siderable portion of flood damage results from the sediment



which remains after flood waters have receded.  Infertile sedi-



ments deposited on the floodplains not only damage questionably



located croplands  but also may reduce the natural fertility of



the soil.  Even moderate loads of sediment seriously impair the



recreational value of rivers, lakes and reservoirs.  They also



add appreciably to the cost of water treatment.

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     The problem of evaluating the effects of suspended and
deposited sediment is especially difficult because of the
variety of types and diverse origins of the sediment and also
because of its sporadic appearance both spatially and tempo-
rally.  Studies of sediment effects, such as are summarized
in the excellent review by Cordone and Kelley (1961) , have
been most often conducted in mountainous regions in associa-
tion with large quantities of sediment generated through min-
ing activities.  These studies generally concluded that the
biota of the  streams was seriously harmed.
     As is the case with many other pollutants, the impact of
chronic inputs of sediment is little known although this is
the most prevalent condition in the biotically rich streams
of the eastern and central U. S.

Fish
     Prior to settlement, much of the eastern United States
was drained by streams which flowed clear and pure throughout
most of the year.  Trautman  (1933, 1939, 1957) has described
the changes that followed the settling of the state of Ohio,
alterations which probably occurred in similar sequence in
other states  as well, and concluded that among the many pol-
lutants which affected aquatic life, soil suspended in water
was the one which had most drastically affected the fish fauna.
Aitken (1936) made similar observations in Iowa.  Ellis (1937)
made 514 determinations of turbidity at 202 locations on major
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rivers throughout the U. S. and noted a gradual decrease in
the proportion of sites having good mixed fish populations
with increasing turbidity of water.
     A questionaire survey sent to river boards in England,
Scotland and Wales inquiring about the abundance of fish in
streams containing suspended solids of industrial origin led
to the conclusion that fisheries were apparently unharmed when
the concentration of suspended solids averaged 100 ppm or less,
but were definitely affected when it exceeded about 300 ppm
(Herbert and Richards 1963).   A critical level of 100 to 300
ppm was indicated.
     Other more specific field studies also indicate deleteri-
ous effects of sediment on the fish and invertebrate popula-
tions of streams.  Herbert, Alabaster, Dart and Lloyd (1961)
found normal brown trout populations where the concentration
of suspended sediment was 60 ppm, but only one-seventh the
normal density in streams carrying 1000 to 6000 ppm of china-
clay wastes.  Saunders and Smith (1964) described a 70% de-
crease in the density of brook trout in response to silt erod-
ed from potato  fields and deposited in stream pools.  The
destruction of hiding places was the apparent cause of the
decrease in density and the stocks quickly increased after the
silt was scoured from the pools by high water.  Both of these
studies noted a scarcity of young trout indicating that repro-
duction was probably affected also.
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     Peters  (1967) examined  a trout stream flowing through
irrigated agricultural  land  which caused increases in both
the sediment  load  and the  temperature of the water.  The two
physical factors occurred  together so that the individual ef-
fects could not be separated.  However, good populations of
trout occurred where the average sediment load varied from
134 to 218 ppm during a two-year period.  Low densities were
found further downstream where the sediment load averaged
from 156 to 324 ppm and the  temperature rose to above 80F.
on 7 consecutive days during one summer.  Egg mortality was
distinctly higher  in the downstream stations.
     The European  Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (1965)
summarized much published  and unpublished information includ-
ing the following.  In  a river in France which supported a
cyprinid fish fauna, fish  were absent from areas containing
up to 570 ppm solids from  coal mines but reappeared further
downstream where the concentration was about 100 ppm.  No
trout were found in another  stream where the concentration
of suspended  stonedust  from  a granite-crushing mill ranged
from 11,300 ppm near the mill to 185 ppm at the stream's
junction with another stream.  Small numbers of trout were
present in certain mountain  streams fed by melting snow where
1000 ppm suspended solids were present for 3 to 5 months of
the year.
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     Two Norwegian streams contained good warm-water fish



faunas in the presence of average suspended solids concentra-



tions of 25 to 50 ppm with occasional concentrations up to



1331 ppm.  Liepolt (1961) reported a trout fishery which was



not harmed by dredging operations which raised the concentra-



tion of solids to about 160 ppm for short periods.





     A section of the South Platte River, Colorado which



carried 80 to 100 ppm suspended solids from a gravel washing



operation was found to contain only 151 to 40% as many fish



as a region above the gravel pit (Anon. 1967) .





     Sediment concentration can directly decrease the survival



of trout and salmon eggs by diminishing the flow of intersti-



tial water within the redds thereby limiting the amount of



available oxygen.  (Shapavolov 1937, Hobbs 1937, Ward 1938,



Shapavolov and Berrian 1940, Neave 1947, Stuart 1953, Campbell



1954, Wickett 1954, McDonald and Shepard 1955, Coble 1961 and



Peters 1965).  Instances of high egg mortality associated



with increased silting have also been recorded for species of



fish which lay their eggs on surfaces, for example, yellow



perch (Perca flavescens") (Munoy 1962) and the European pike-



perch (Lucioperca lucioperca) (Wynarovich 1959).





     Reis (1969) found that eggs of the zebra (Brachydanio



rerior) hatched more quickly in suspensions of limestone dust



of 18,000 to 30,000 ppm  but did not experience greater mor-



tality than controls.  Newly hatched fry, however, died within
                           13

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4 hours in suspensions greater than 4800 ppm.  It is likely
that the fry of many other species are relatively more sus-
ceptible to suspended sediment than older fish, but little
data is available at this time.

     Griffin (1938) stated that salmon and trout fingerlings
lived for 3 to 4 weeks in concentrations of 300 to 750 ppm
silt.  Herbert and Merkens (1961) found that suspensions of
kaolin and diatomaceous earth in concentrations of 270 ppm
and higher resulted in decreased survival of yearling rainbow
trout (salmo gairdneri') with a slight effect noticed at 90 ppm.
The incidence of fin rot and thickened gill epithelium was
greater at the higher concentrations and it was suggested that
the sediment may have somewhat reduced the potential of the
trout to resist other stresses in the laboratory environment.
The growth in length and weight of the survivors was not, how-
ever, impaired.

     Increased mortality was noted in this same species over
a 32-week span in fish kept in a 200 ppm wood fiber suspen-
sion  but not at lower concentrations nor in 200 ppm coal-
washery solids (Herbert and Richards 1963).  However, growth
was depressed increasingly at 50, 100 and 200 ppm suspensions
of both solids.

     Wallen (1951) tested the resistance of several species
of fish to concentrations of sediment as high as 100,000 ppm
and found surprising tolerance for short periods of time.
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This ability would be mandatory for survival in the capricious



environment of streams and rivers.





     It seems fairly clear from the forgoing discussion that



while eggs and fry may be quite susceptible to the direct ac-



tion of suspended sediment, fingerlings and adults are quite



resistant and are capable of enduring temporary periods of



high concentrations of suspended solids.





     Several instances of changes in the normal behavioral re-



sponses of fish in relation to changes in the suspended solids



load have been noted.  Sumner and Smith (1939) found that king



salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) avoided the turbid water of



the Yuba River, California and entered clear tributaries pref-



erentially.  Bachmann (1958) noted that slight turbidity in-



creases caused cutthroat trout (salmo clarki*) to seek cover



and stop feeding.  Hofbauer (1962) noted decreased migration



of the barbel (BarJbus jfluviatilis) during periods of increas-



ing turbidity of the water and increased migration of the Eu-



ropean eel (Angruilla anguilla) .





     Other workers have concluded that even high concentrations



of suspended solids did not seemingly impede the upstream mi-



grations of trout and salmon  (Gibson 1933, Smith and Saunders



1958, Ward 1938).  Cleary  (1956) found evidence that smallmouth



bass (wicropterus dolomieui d.) nested, spawned and hatched



during sporadic periods of high turbidity in streams in Iowa.



He also noted, however, that  streams which remained turbid
                           15

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because of erosional silt for long periods of time seldom pro-
duced either smallmouth bass fingerlings or good smallmouth
bass fishing.
     The European  Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission  (1965)
concluded that  definite water quality criteria for finely di-
vided solids could not be proposed because of the differen-
tial effect exerted by the many different kinds of solids cur-
rently entering water and because of the differential response
of various species of fish to the same material.  Nevertheless,
the following tentative criteria was presented as a first ap-
proximation:
     (a) there  is  no evidence that concentrations of sus-
         pended solids less than 25 ppm have any harmful
         effects on fisheries;
     (b) it should usually be possible to maintain good or
         moderate  fisheries in waters which normally con-
         tain 25 to 80 ppm suspended solids, although the
         yield  might be lower than from waters from category
         (a);
     (c) water  normally containing from 80 to 400 ppm sus-
         pended solids are unlikely to support good fresh-
         water  fisheries although fisheries may sometimes
         be found  at the lower concentrations within this
         range; and
     (d) at the best, only poor fisheries are likely to be
         found  in  waters which normally contain more than
         400 ppm suspended solids.
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     In this country the Ohio River Valley Sanitation Commis-



sion (ORSANCO) (1956) evaluated the available research and



concluded that there was not enough information on which to



base a criteria.   Current efforts to establish a maximum level



for suspended solids have similarly stumbled because of a lack



of information.  (National Technical Advisory Committee 1968) .





Benthic Macroinvertebrates



     The benthos  of flowing water is strongly affected by the



type of substrate available.  Tarzwell (1937) and Gaufin and



Tarzwell (1952) ranked different substrates on their ability



to support macroinvertebrate populations using a scale of from



1 to 452.  Shifting sand supported the fewest number of organ-



isms and rated 1  on the scale while a combination of moss,



gravel, rubble and Elodea rated over 400.  Various substrates



mixed with silt rated no higher than 27.  It is not surprising,



therefore, that studies of the effect of silt and fine sedi-



ment on benthic organisms have shown pronounced effects.





     Taft and Shapovalov (1935) always found lower summer pop-



ulations in streams where mining occurred than in clear streams.



Tebo (1955) found that silt loads of 261 to 390 ppm (turbidity



measurements) created by dragging logs over the ground near the



stream reduced benthic populations to 25% of their normal den-



sity.  Periods of low sedimentation caused slight, statisti-



cally insignificant differences.  Herbert, Alabaster, Dart and



Lloyd (1961) described densities of invertebrates only about
                           17

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11% normal in streams receiving 1000 to 6000 ppm suspended
solids and approximately normal densities in a stream receiving
only 60 ppm.  Bartsch (1960) studied the effects of wastes from
a glass manufacturing plant on the benthos of the Potomac River
and found almost no organisms in the immediate zone of settling
where the turbidity exceeded 5000 ppm.  Recovery was gradually
achieved, but the effect was still noticeable 13 miles down-
stream where the turbidity was normal.
     Hynes  (1963) described an example of replacement of the
normal fauna by high numbers of Chironomus and Tubificidae due
to sediment originating from a colliery, although an organic
pollutant might also have had an effect.  He also stated that
suspended sediment may prevent light from reaching submerged
aquatic plants and result in their reduction or elimination.
Thus, animals dependent upon these plants for food, shelter,
egg deposition sites, etc.  could be affected indirectly.

     The reduction of invertebrates could, in turn, exert an
effect on fish which feed heavily upon them.  Herbert, et. al.
(1961) found little effect on trout, much of whose food con-
sisted of terrestrial forms, but the impact on other species
might be more serious.

     This report summarizes four years of research which
focused upon the quantitative effects of stonedust sediment
arising from a crushed limestone quarry on fish and macro-
invertebrate populations of a small, central Indiana stream.
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The amount of stonedust passing from the quarry to the creek
was quite variable from year to year depending upon the type
of operation and the care with which settling basins were
cleaned.  During periods of low flow the stonedust tended to
settle out in pools and riffles downstream from the quarry.
It was felt that a study of two important biotic groups in
relation to this differential pattern of sedimentation would
lead to a better understanding of the impact that any inert
sediment might exert on running-water ecosystems and, thereby,
contribute to the rational formulation of water quality cri-
teria for this important pollutant.
                           19

-------
                         METHODS





     Contributions of sediment from the crushed rock quarry



to Deer Creek were monitored with a 90 V-notch weir contain-



ing a Stevens type-F water level recorder which provided es-



timates of daily volume of discharge.   The suspended solids



load here and elsewhere was determined by sampling with a



depth-integrating wading-type hand sampler, model U. S. DH-48.



Aliquots of from 25 to 200 ml were filtered through tared



Gelman Type-A glass fiber filters, oven dried at 105C for 24



hours, dessicated, and weighed finally on a Cenco No. 1581



balance, a method adapted from Banse,  Falls and Hobson (1963)



and Wyckoff (1964).  Turbidity was determined routinely on a



Spectronic 20 colorimeter using the Hach method, which was



found by Langemeier (1965) to yield values which were 30% to



60% lower than the platinum wire technique.





     Samples of sediment were analyzed for particle size dis-



tribution using the bottom-withdrawal  tube method (Subcommittee



on Sedimentation, Federal Inter-Agency River Basin Committee,



1943 and 1953).  The various sizes of  material in the riffles



was determined five times during the study by taking three to



five samples per riffle, drying them and sieving with a "Ro-



Tap" shaker.





     Macroinvertebrates were collected with a Surber sampler



having a fine mesh net with 23 threads per inch and, on two
                           21

-------
occasions, with Hester  Bendy plate  samplers.  Monthly collec-
tions consisting  of  three  samples of  each  riffle were made
only during  summer and  fall  because  of frequent flooding and
high water during the remainder  of  the year.

     Samples  taken during  1968 through 1970 were classified
to species where  possible, while those collected in 1967 were
recorded  to  order (Deol, 1967).  Because no species keys are
available for many forms,  analyses  were made at the genus level
for uniformity.   Taxonomic resources  included West  (1931),
Johannsen (1934), Prison  (1942), Ross  (1944), Pennak  (1953),
Usinger  (1963) , Burks  (1953), Gordon  and Post (1965) , Edmondson
(1965), and  Gaufin,  Nebeker  and  Sessions (1966).

     Diversity indices  (Wihlm 1967, Wihlm  and Dorris  1968)
were computed for the pooled monthly  samples from each riffle
based both on order  and genus.
     A series of  experiments were conducted at riffle A-2 up-
stream from  the quarry  to  investigate the  relationship between
the rate  of  invertebrate drift and  sediment loads.  This par-
ticular riffle was selected because it held the greatest vari-
ety of substrate  and bottom fauna.  All tests were conducted
during the early  afternoon on clear days when the flow of Deer
Creek was steady  and the water was  clear.

     Placed  at the foot of the riffle were nylon drift nets
six feet  long with mouth dimensions of one by two feet and a
mesh size of  253  u.  A modified  garbage can which proved to be
                            22

-------
an adequate sediment dispenser was placed near the head of the
riffle.  Below the water line on the upstream side a large
square hole was cut.  A vertical baffle placed perpendicular
to the direction of flow was soldered to the bottom and a
smaller hole was cut in the downstream side.  Sediment measured
into the upstream chamber mixed thoroughly with the incoming
water and maintained a fairly constant suspended solids load.
The sediment introduced was fine material taken from the upper
settling basin.  The coarser fraction of this was trapped in
the bottom of the can.

     Each series of experiments consisted of alternating 15-
minute periods of control and sediment introduction.  Nets were
replaced at the end of each period and any invertebrates con-
tained by the nets were removed and preserved in 70% ethanol.
Approximately mid-way through each period a water sample was
taken half-way between the can and net for determination of
suspended solids load.

     Fish were collected by means of an electric seine construc-
ted and operated in a manner similar to that described by Lari-
more (1961).  The population densities in each study pool were
estimated in 1967 and 1968 by a modified Schnabel method ini-
tially (Ricker 1958) which was based on the catches from three
to seven days of collecting.  A single pass was made per pool
each day.  All fish were identified, marked distinctively by
fin-clipping, measured for total length to the closest mm and
weighed to the nearest gram.

                            23

-------
     The recapture rate was less than expected, probably be-
cause of the lack of  integrity of the blocking nets which quick
ly clogged with leafy debris and usually had toppled by the fol
lowing day.  These difficulties and others prompted the use of
the DeLury  (1947) method  during 1969 and 1970.

     The estimates by the DeLury method were completed within
a single day for each pool, thus reducing greatly the incidence
of exit and entry of  fish.  Each pool was electrofished three
times in succession with  a pause of one hour between the end of
one pass and the beginning of the next.  Fish were processed
and placed in holding nets after each pass.  A regression of
catch in weight per pass  against the previous cumulative catch
extrapolated to the abscissal intercept provided the estimated
weight of any specific species group for the pool.  Weights
proved to be less erratic than numbers and the data was suffi-
ciently linear so the logarithmic transformation, as recom-
mended by Libosvarsky (1962, 1966)^ was deemed unnecessary.  An
examination of the average weight of each species for each suc-
cessive pass revealed no  significant bias for size by the elec-
trof ishing apparatus.

     For a few of the estimates,an overall pooled slope or
"catchability" factor was used together with mean values for
cumulative previous catch and catch per pass.  This was usually
necessary only where populations were small.
                           24

-------
     This same method was used to reestimate the populations of



1967 and 1968 by assuming that the catchability of a group was



the same as during 1969 and 197-0.  Thus, an average catchability



factor was the mean of the catchability factors for 1969 and 1970



In this adaptation of the DeLury method, the ordinate intercept



always lies very close to the weight of fish captured in the



first pass.  Thus, it seemed reasonable to base estimates on the



average weight of fish caught per day (A)  during any particular



series of collections and the average catchability factor, (-b) ,



N = A/-b.





     It is felt that while the DeLury method somewhat underesti-



mated the actual population, the mark and recapture method rather



strongly overestimated it.  Generally the former were about 50%



the value of the latter.





     Estimates of growth rate were made for important species.



The sculptured sides of scales were impressed in plastic and



these impressions magnified 22.5 times with a Tri-Simplex Micro-



projector.  Scales were read by at least two different readers



and readings which did not agree were tested independently at



least once more.  The relationship between magnified scale radius



and total length was generally good except for longear sunfish.



The modified direct proportionality formula of Fraser (1916) and



Lee (1920) was used to compute the estimated length at each age



of life in a computer program modified from Gerking (1965) for



an IBM 1620 computer.
                           25

-------
     Comparisons of the length/weight relationships for species
populations above and below the quarry were also made combining
data from 1967, 1968 and 1969.  The pairs of regressions of log
weight on log length were compared statistically by means of a
single classification analysis of covariance.
                           26

-------
                     THE STUDY STREAM





     Deer Creek is a small stream in Putnam County, Indiana,



which drains approximately 90 square miles.  Arising in pro-



ductive silty soils of the Russell-Fincastle Association



(Ulrich 1966) on the southern edge of the Tipton Till Plain



(Schneider 1966),it flows southwesterly for most of its 25



mile length.  The middle third of the stream is situated on



the Mitchell Plain which further south produces renowned build-



ing limestone and which is everywhere pocked with sink-holes



and laced with caverns.  The lower third cuts its path through



the more deeply dissected Crawford Upland.





     The section of Deer Creek investigated lies within the



Upland at T 13N, R 5W, Sections 23, 24 and 26 near the town of



Manhattan, Indiana.  Its waters are enriched primarily by run-



off from agricultural lands and treated domestic wastes enter-



ing Deer Creek four miles above the study section from the



Indiana State Penal Farm.  Oxygen depletion and fish kills have



occurred in the past through faulty operation of the Farm waste



treatment plant, but no incidents were noted during the period



of study.  Typical chemical and bacteriological characteristics



during periods of low summer flows are shown in Table 1.  Ap-



proximately one mile of stream between the Farm and study sec-



tion was dredged and canalized previous to this study, and two



bridges were constructed during the study.
                           27

-------
Table 1:  Chemical and bacterial analysis of Deer Creek water



          sampled above the quarry.

Analysis
B.O.D.
PH
Alk. (M.O.)
Chlorides
Total Solids
Vol. Total Solids
Susp. Solids
Vol. Susp. Solids
C.O.D.
P04
NO 3
E. Coli
Enterococci
.  , 	 	
July 16, 1967
6.8
8.1
185.0
37.0
340.0
78.0
41.0
16.0
60.0
0.1
0.2
9,300
2,000

July 23, 1967
6.4
7.8
212.0
30.0
360.0
95.0
38.0
30.0

0.1
0.2
2,100
110
                           28

-------
     The region averages 40 inches rainfall annually and the



recorded discharge ranges from 4,430 cfs to 0 cfs and averages



62.7 cfs.  Stable flows from July through November typically



average less than 10 cfs.  The gradient of the creek in the



study section averages only 2.5 feet per lineal mile.





     Five pools and seven riffles were chosen for study in a



segment about 4000 meters long (Figure 1).   Investigations of



fish were restricted to pools and invertebrates to riffles in



order to minimize disturbances.  Most pools and riffles re-



mained quite constant during the four years of the study (Tables



2 and 3), but some temporary alterations were caused by floods



which washed out makeshift gravel bridges,  by the construction



of a bridge and, in the fall of 1968, by a beaver dam which



raised the water level high enough to cover the riffles furthest



downstream.  The average composition of several determinations



of the substrate of riffles is shown in Table 4.





     The introduction of sediment-laden water mid-way in the



study segment did not substantially alter the dissolved, chem-



ical composition of the creek water nor did it affect the tem-



perature or dissolved oxygen concentration even during periods



of heaviest input.
                           29

-------
    Upper           In*fke
Settling Basin~2_

  Lower
Settling
  Basin 	
DeWeese
     Creek
                                   2U-AR-1
        pool B-l-15
       pool B-2-4
                     Taylor's
                      Pool -*
 Figure  1:
Map of Deer Creek showing the location of the
study pools and riffles.  Scale: 8 inches=l mile
                             30

-------
Table 2:  Morphometry and composition of bottom material of the pools of Deer Creek
          in mid-July 1968.
Pool
Parameter
Length - meters
Average Width - m
Surface Area - ha
Average Depth - cm
Total Volume - m3
1 Surface Area 30 cm
1 Surface Area 61 cm
I Surface Area 91 cm
Bottom Material
% gravel
% sand
% mud
I rock
1 silt
A2
100.6
10.8
0.1085
42.8
464.7
67.2
26.2
0.0

52.8
35.9
11.3
0.0
0.0
Al
163.8
12.9
0.211
46.4
978.2
69.6
33.1
4.3

18.0
58.0
22.0
2.0
0.0
BO
41.1
5.9
0.024
13.5
32.9
7.2
0.0
0.0

84.6
0.0
15.4
0.0
0.0
Bl
63.0
9.2
0.0531
33.5
117.8
44.4
16.6
2.8

80.6
0.0
16.1
3.2
0.0
B2
113.0
7.8
0.0803
30.0
240.9
43.6
9.7
1.6

40.0
30.0
30.0
0.0
0.0
Taylor's
112.8
8.1
0.0912
38.3
348.9
55.9
17.4
6.6

46.8
33.2
18.9
1.0
0.0

-------
Table 3: Measurements concerning the riffles sampled for



         invertebrates as determined during the summer of 1968
Riffle
Designation
AR-3
AR-2
AR-1
RB-0
RB-1
RB-2
RB-3
Taylor's
Farm
Distance
from QO.
(m)
1127
966
805
113
178
274
407
966
2897
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Length
of riffle
(m)
20 m
25 m
25 m
26 m
21 m
46 m
10 m
25 m
15 m
Ave. Width
of riffle
(m)
5
8
5
3
8
4
4
3
3
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Ave . Depth
of riffle
(cm)
30
18
46.
15
15
20
20
15
20
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
cm
                          32

-------
Table 4:  The average composition of the bottom substrate in
          the riffles of Deer Creek.  Each value represents
          the average of several triplicate samples collected
          at various times during the study and represent
          percentages by weight.
Riffle

AR-3
AR-2
AR-1
RB-0
RB-1
RB-2
RB-3
Large gravel
and Rubble
>4 mm diam
45.7
70.8
66.0
66.7
74.5
66.8
66.5
Gravel and
Coarse Sand
0.125 to 4 mm
27.8
13.4
32.0
19.7
17.5
20.6
22.0
Fine Sand, Silt
and Clay
<0.125 mm
23.3
20.7
1.0
8.9
8.4
12.1
11.0
                          33

-------
                OPERATION OF THE STONE QUARRY





     Since the quantity of sediment entering Deer Creek from



the quarry was strongly related to the mode of operation of



the quarry, a brief description follows.  Blasted limestone is



carried to a massive grinder where raw blocks are broken into



smaller chunks.  The resulting mixture of fine and coarse



rock is then normally screened dry to remove particles smaller



than about 1 1/2 inches diameter.   Up to 50% of the total



crushed rock consists of this finer material, known locally as



"fifty-three's", which is used for road topping.





     The larger pieces are conveyed to a tower which also re-



ceives water pumped in from Deer Creek.  The rock/water slur-



ry is then screened for the desired sizes of crushed material



which is carried to distribution bins, while the water with



smaller particles is piped to an upper settling basin approxi-



mately 80 m long and 15 m wide.  A smaller settling basin



about 16 m diameter follows, after which the waste water en-



ters Deer Creek.





     The upper part of the upper settling basin normally be-



comes filled in with coarser materials rather quickly, neces-



sitating a regular program of removal.  The lower part of this



basin and the lower basin fill up much more slowly as a rule



and require thorough dredging only about twice each year.



There is little commercial market for the dredged material and



it is hauled away to a flat plateau near DeWeese Branch.




                           35

-------
     This procedure was generally adhered to except during
late 1967 and all of 1968 when increased demands for crushed
rock for construction of near-by U. S. Interstate Highway 70
resulted in double shifts and an altered operational procedure
Two alterations profoundly influenced the sediment input to
Deer Creek:   (1) the first screening stage was omitted with
the result that all of the crushed material was mixed with
water preceeding the final screening and (2) between mid-
August 1967 and October 1, 1968 neither settling basin was
completely dredged.  These events led to an enormous increase
in the quantity of sediment entering Deer Creek during 1968.

     The limestone was 901 calcium carbonate, 81 magnesium
carbonate and 2% other materials.
                          36

-------
                         RESULTS



           Amount of sedimentation in study pools

Characteristics of quarry effluent

     The volume of effluent produced by the quarry was closely

correlated with the amount of limestone crushed when calculated

on a weekly basis (Figure 2), with an average of 0.6182 m3 be-

ing produced for each ton of rock crushed.  This relationship

was used to estimate the volume of flow during 1969 and 1970.



     The amount of suspended solids, however, varied greatly

for the reasons mentioned previously.  When the settling basins
o
iH

 X

fO
 e

 a
H

 0)
 60
 ^
 rt

 0

H


 >s
iH

 0)
   12



   10



    8



    6


    4
  1967

0  1968
                                    Y = 0.6182X
      0    2     4    6     8   10   12   14   16   18    20

             Limestone crushed in tons x 10s per week

Figure 2:  Relationship of weekly discharge from the quarry
           settling basins to weekly production of crushed
           limestone during 1967 and 1968.

                           37

-------
were clean the mean  concentration was  about 0.047 g/1;  when



they were full the mean  concentration  was about 20.1 g/1, an



increase of more  than  400  fold.  The size of the suspended



particles in  the  effluent  depended upon the concentration



which, in turn, was  dependent upon the state of the settling



basins.  When the suspended  solids concentration was low, 90%



of the weight consisted  of particles less than about 10 u in



diameter  (Table 5).  When  the concentration was high, more



than 50% of the weight consisted' of particles exceeding 20 .u



in diameter while those  smaller  than 10 u formed a minute con-



tribution.





     Up to concentrations  of about 350 mg/1 suspended solids^



the turbidity of  the effluent was linearly dependent upon and



highly correlated with (r  =  0.95) suspended solids concentra-



tion.  This relationship is  described  for this particular ef-


                                                        !

fluent by the equation Y = 21.953 + 0.902, where Y equals the



turbidity in  Hach JTU's  and  X equals the suspended solids con-



centration in mg/1.


                                       ^


Sediment input from  the  quarry

                                  "",


     Monthly  contributions of sediment from the quarry to Deer



Creek ranged  from an estimated 157 kg  in .March, 1969 to more  -



than 1,118,000 kg in August  1968 (Table 6).  Relatively little



sediment entered  the creek during winter because of sporadic
         	    -    -        -    -    -   . - : - -  .  _ . i  .  ..


working conditions.  Relatively little sediment was contributed



when the settling basins were cleaned  regularly during the summer.
                           38

-------
 Table 5:  The distribution of particle sizes  of quarry sediment
           as determined by the bottom tube withdrawal method.
           Values are given as the percent  of  material by weight
           which is finer than the indicated size.
Diameter
microns
125.0
62.5
44.2
31.2
22.1
15.6
11.0
7.8
5.5.
Pool B-00
No. 1
Nov- 1967
99
98
97
96
94
90
89
46
3
Pool B-00
No. 2
Nov. 1967
90
90
90
90
90
89
85
79
60
Effluent
6/26/68
95
91
88
87
85
56
8
2
-
Effluent
7/5/68
98
96
91
85
46
2
-
-
-
Effluent
7/24/68
98
97
95
85
39
1
-
-
-
However, dramatic increases resulted as soon as the settling
basins filled up, as they usually did whenever the quarry oper-
ated two shifts daily.
     Sediment from the quarry first had an opportunity to set-
tle out in the long tail of pool B-00 immediately upstream from
the study pools and riffles.  The volume of this pool was about
1020 m3 in 1967 and could accommodate approximately 2,360,000 kg
                           39

-------
Table 6:  Amount of sediment contributed to Deer Creek from
          the limestone quarry near Manhattan, Indiana from
          1967 through 1970.
Sediment in kg x
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total
1967
.80
.40
1.08
1.19
.84
1.45
3.53
2.98
2.56*
6.60
9.24
2.93
27.84
1968
.92
3.73
11.51
744.40*
877.68*
671.81*
943.27*
1118.24*
443.40*
1.52
.65
.79
4817.92
103 during year
1969
.61
1.47
.16
1.96
1.90
2.27
2.43
3.04
1.74
10.31
7.69
1.33
34.91
1970
.17
1.47
1.74
2.33
4.40
9.07*
14.02*
1.06
1.20
0.91
0.44
n.a.
56.80
n.a. = not available
* = double work shifts
                          40

-------
of stonedust assuming a displacement of 2330 kg/m3.  Thus, this
pool exceeded the combined volumes of the other B-pools and
acted as a settling basin with respect to these pools and rif-
fles whose organisms were actually studied.   It played a par-
ticularly important role during periods of heavy sediment entry
by intercepting the larger particles.
Estimates of sedimentation in the study pools.
     The rate of discharge of Deer Creek strongly influenced
the process of sedimentation.  Sediment accumulated in Deer
Creek during the summer and fall when the discharge was low
and these accumulations were mostly removed by floods during
winter, spring and sometimes early summer.  When the discharge
of Deer Creek was very low, pool B-00 trapped considerable
amounts of sediment so that the actual concentration of sus-
pended solids in the water entering the study pools and rif-
fles did not vary as much as would be expected considering the
great differences in input.
     Table 7 shows some point samples collected at different
times throughout the study.  The normal suspended solids load
was generally between 15 and 40 mg/1 during the summer, lower
during the winter and, of course, much, much higher during peri-
ods of floods.  The measured increase in suspended solids load
shown by these and other point samples during periods of light
input are in close agreement with the increases estimated from
the average daily input of sediment  from the quarry during a  10
                            41

-------
hour day  (or 18-hour day  if the quarry operated double shifts)
and the discharge rate.   The  increase in sediment loading due
to stonedust from the quarry  was in the vicinity of 20 to 40
mg/1 bringing the total suspended solids load of the stream be-
low the quarry from  35 to 80  mg/1, an increase of two to three
times normal.
     During periods  of heavy  input the suspended solids load
was initially about  four  to five times normal, approximately
120 mg/1  or more, and then increased sharply when pool B-00
filled up.
     Series of suspended  solids concentrations taken at various
times at  the heads of the B-riffles provided some indication
of the sediment  load passing  through the pools and riffles and
also an indication of the rates of sedimentation in the section
(Table 8).  This data together with estimates of discharge pro-
vided by  the USGS gage station at Putnamville; Indiana, was used
to estimate the  daily rate of sediment accumulation in the B-
pools and riffles  (Table  9).  There are many assumptions concern-
ing uniform input from the quarry, length of the work day, ab-
sence of  sampling bias, and,  especially, the accuracy of the USGS
gaging station during periods of low flow which cast doubt about
the accuracy of  the  estimates, but several features seem worthy
of further comment.

     First, under light sediment input and low creek flow, a
large part of the sediment entering Deer Creek settles out in
                          42

-------
Table 7:   Some measurements of the load of suspended solids
          (mg/1) and turbidity (JTU-Hach) at sampling
          stations above the quarry, riffle B-0; and the
          quarry input.
Date

7-6-67
10-3-67
10-11-67
11-7-67
11-17-67 f}-
7-2-68
7-18-68
7-23-68
8-13-68
6-23-70
7-2-70
7-13-70
7-20-70

8-11-70
Suspended solids
load (mg/1)
Above
22.0
30.0
10.5
9.5
018.0
94.0
22.5
34.0
52.0
36.0
30.0
37.0
33.0
 * *
13.0
RB-0
60.5
35.0
37.0
99.0
42.5
125.0
132.0
222.0
2681.0
56.0
38.0
93.0
57.0

21.0
Turbidity
(Hach JTU)
Above
54
67
36
31
043
75
22
37
74
-
-
-
-

41
RB-0
68
75
73
80
0 70
88
70
112
3950
-
-
-
-

44
Quarry
input
load
(mg/1)
61
100
228
355
1257
7609
1207
3686
33324
275
142
498
229

33
Stream
flow
(cfs)
3.0
0.5
7.4
2.4
9.7
8.3
2.4
2.5
3.4
8.4
4.8
3.2
3.8

1.6
                          43

-------
Table 8:  Representative measurements of suspended solids
          loads  (mg/1) at stations above and below the
          limestone quarry under conditions of light and
          heavy  sediment input.
Station
Date

7-6-67
6-23-70
7-2-70
7-13-70
7-20-70
8-11-70

11-17-67
5-3-68
7-12-68
7-17-68
7-18-68
7-19-68
7-22-68
8-12-68
Quarry
Outfall

61
275
142
498
229
24

1,207
8,904
36,005
19,055
25,716
26,764
14,132
2,768
Above
Quarry
Light
22.0
36.0
30.0
37.0
33.0
13.0
Heavy
16.0
-
-
18.5
22.5
18.2
28.5
52.0
RB-0
Input
60.5
56.0
38.0
93.0
57.0
21.0
Input
42.5
85.0
77.0
95.5
132.0
250.5
139.5
156.0
RB-

42.
44.
45.
78.
60.
21.

41.
74.
74.
73.
104.
185.
166.
-
1

5
0
0
0
0
0

0
5
5
0
0
0
0

RB-

45.
101.
28.
80.
45.
25.

40.
62.
54.
49.
81.
131.
104.
_
2

5
0
0
0
0
0

0
5
0
0
5
5
0

RB-

39.
41.
27.
50.
37.
-

40.
62.
45.
42.
62.
75.
82.
117.
3

5
0
0
0
0


5
0
0
0
5
0
5
0
discharge
cfs

3.
8.
4.
3.
3.
1.

9.
11.
3.
2.
2.
2.
2.
5.

0
4
8
2
8
6

7
0
4
7
4
4
0
3
                          44

-------
   Table 9:  Estimated quantity of sediment  (kilograms per day)  settling  in pools  of
             Deer Creek.
is.
en
Date
7-6-67
11-17-67
*5-3-68
*7-12-68
*7-17-68
*7-18-68
*7-19-68
*7-22-68
*8-12-68
*6-23-70
*7-2-70
*7-13-70
*7-20-70
Discharge Daily Input
of Creek of sediment
(cfs) (kg)
3.0
9.7
11.0
3.4
2.7
2.4
2.4
2,0
5.3
8.4
4.8
3.2
3.8
85
705
20,653
80,130
46,848
64,131
49,206
29,136
3,710
448
501
617
532
Suspended Solids
Concentration of
Effluent (g/1) B-0 B-l B-2
0.061
1.257
8.904
36.005
19.055
25.716
26.764
14.132
2.768
0.275
0.142
0.498
0.229
36.7 14.7
11.9 4.0
118.4 215.4 9.0
16.6 113.8 50.0
99.0 105.8 30.8
109.6 88.1 74.4
256.4 209.4 221.2
115.8 70.1
337.2
164.4 41.2
78.2 7.8
78.3 146.2
74.4 49.6

% of
sediment
Total settled
in B-pools
51.4
15.9
412.8
180.2
235.6
272.1
687.0
185.9
337.2
205.6
86.0
224.5
124.0
60%
2%
2%
0.2%
0.5%
0.4%
1.4%
0.6%
9.1%
45.9%
17.2%
36.4%
23.3%
    *double shifts at quarry

-------
the study pools and riffles immediately downstream from the
quarry.  In a canalized stream with no well defined riffles
and pools this probably could not have occurred.  The propor-
tion of sediment which was carried through the study pools
without settling out  increased with increasing flows of Deer
Creek.

     Secondly, under  heavy sediment input and low creek flow
most of the input  sediment settled out in pool B-00, but the
sedimentation rate in the B-pools downstream increased some-
what over the rate which occurred during light sediment input.
The differences were  not as great as might be thought, however.
An average of 138  kg/day was deposited during periods of low
flow and light sediment input, but double shifts were working
on most of the days used in the calculations.  Therefore, a
deposition of less than 100 kg/day might be expected in a reg-
ular work day during  the summer.  During low flows, heavy sedi-
ment input and double shifts the average deposition increased
to 330 kg/day.

     The third trend  which is evident from the data is a slight
gradation in sedimentation rates with the upstream pools re-
ceiving more material than the downstream ones.   This trend is
rather remarkable  considering the shallowness and small size of
pool B-0.

     The simplest, yet most reliable, method of determining set-
tling rates of this light yellowish sediment was observation.
                           46

-------
It contrasted strongly to the normally dark resident material
and also had a distinctive slippery consistency even when mixed
with bottom material.  Series of substrate samples from riffles
were taken when it was obvious that limestone sediment was ac-
cumulating, yet analyses of particle sizes did not reveal in-
creased amounts of the finer material.

     The question of how much sediment needs to be present for
visual detection and how this relates to the estimated deposi-
tion rates may be illuminated by the following example.   Con-
sider the surface area of the bottom of the B-pools to be about
the same as the surface area of the water - about 16,000 square
meters.  We determined experimentally that 1 kg stonedust dis-
places 430 cc volume, thus 0.233 kg would be required to build
up a layer of sediment 0.1 mm thick over a surface area of 1
square meter.> Considering only the pools and ignoring riffles,
over 3700 kg of stonedust would be needed to coat the bottoms of
the B-pools uniformly with 0.1 mm stonedust.  Nearly 7 work weeks
(single shift) would elapse before this would be achieved at a
settling rate of 100 kg/day and low discharge from Deer Creek.

Build-up of sediment deposits in the B-riffles and pools
     Large quantities of sediment entered Deer Creek during 1964,
1965 and 1966 such that by autumn of those years pools B-00 and
B-0 were nearly full of sediment and pool B-l had deposits up
to ankle-deep.  Pool B-2 accumulated substantially less sediment.
Floods each winter and spring swept most of the sediment from
the pools.

                           47

-------
     In 1967 trace quantities of sediment first appeared in
August near the edges of the pools.  Further depositions failed
to occur because of the increasing volume of discharge from
Deer Creek during the fall.  Even the trace quantities had dis-
appeared by November  (Figure 3).
     During 1968 heavy sediment input from the quarry began as
soon as the weather permitted full operation of the quarry.
However, monthly floods swept through the stream preventing
substantial deposition of  the sediment.  Stable, low flows be-
gan in early June and by July pool B-00 had filled sufficiently
so that finer materials began flowing into the downstream pools
in ever increasing amounts.  Measureable amounts had accumulated
in nearly all pools by the end of July-  By early September
pools B-0 and B-l were completely filled in and pool B-2 was be-
ginning to receive great amounts of material.  Even the riffles
between the pools were filling in with settled material at this
time, some areas having as much as three inches.

     In late September the quarry increased the depth of the
upper settling basin by constructing a low dam between it and
the lower basin.  In early October the Indiana State Board of
Health directed the quarry to dredge the settling pools.  The
combination of these events markedly reduced further sedimenta-
tion.

     Floods during the winter again swept the sediment from
the pools and riffles.  The settling basins were cleaned very
                           48

-------
ffc
vo
         RB-0
          BO
         RB-I
          B-l
       0
         RB-2
          B-2
        RB-3
                           tffcv
                           \7>A
                           JVv
                       1967
                                  ^
III
         vTroea v

                                              \Trac\
                                               v 7T. \
I   floods
                                                                        v TV.
                                    \Jf!\
                                    \Tirv
        1968
   1969
                                                       Year
1970
              Figure  3:    Patterns  of  sediment  accumulation  in  the  pools (B)  and  riffles(RB)

                          of  Deer  Creek  downstream  from  a   crushed  rock   quarry.

-------
regularly in 1969 and with the result that sediment input was



light and no sediment was detected in the pools below the quarry,



However, a different source of sediment appeared on September 1,



1969 when construction began on a new bridge located directly



over riffle RB-0.  Care was taken by the engineers so that very



little sediment was generated by the phase of construction in-



volving driving piles into the stream bed.  However, adjacent



land was denuded with the result that considerable amounts of



eroded soil were swept into Deer 'Creek by frequent rains during



September and October.





     Most of this was trapped by pool B-l in accumulations



measuring 15 to 25 mm deep by October 10, 1969.  Some mud mixed



with'1 sand was found in pool B-2 at this time, but there were no



solid accumulations.
                           50

-------
Effect of sediment on macroinvertebrate populations

            ' om
Population density

     Large numbers of macroinvertebrates were found in all rif-
             *
fles during the summers of 1967 and 1968.  A list of taxa col

lected appears in Appendix Table I.  Somewhat lower densities

were present in the summer of 1969, probably because of periods

of unusually high water.  July was usually the time of greatest

density (Table 10) with a second peak occurring in September

due to hatching of those larval forms that would overwinter.
               ;> '.
The density varied from 8 per square foot in December, 1967 in

the riffles below the quarry (B-riffles) to nearly 1000 per

square foot in the riffles above the quarry (A-riffles) in July,

1968.  Most samples with high densities of invertebrates were

due to extremely high numbers of a single genera; i.e. 537 sim-
                                                          .F'JS.
ulium  per square foot in the A-riffles on July 2, 1968.


     One of the first relations examined was the existence of

a recovery zone between riffles B-0 and B-3.  During some months

in 1967 some recovery appeared between riffles B-0 and B-3 ex-

hibited in regularly increasing densities of organisms.  Because

the differences could well have been caused by the nature o* the

riffles themselves, since they were not uniformly good with re^

spect-to habitat, it was decided that all of the B-riffles could

be regarded as a unit and compared to the A-riffles which were

also grouped as a unit.  To remove seasonal variations in den-

sity, a simple B/A x 100 ratio was used with B being the average
                           51

-------
Table 10:  Average densities of the macroinvertebrates in the
           above and below  riffles and estimated monthly in-
           put of sediment  in kilograms.  Density in numbers
           per 929 square centimeters  (1 sq. ft.) + 2 x S. E.
           B/A ratios given as B/A x 100.
Date
1967
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
Augus t
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1968
Jan.
Feb.
March
A-
riffles

-
-
-
167
63
128
498
226
221 (99)
261 (39)
-
27 (8)

-
-
-
B-
riffles

-
-
-
61
20
88
480
123
1.30 (38)
35 (17)
-
5 (4)

-
-
-
B/A
ratio
x 100

-
-
-
36.7
31.5
68.8
96.3
58.4
59.5
13.4
-
20.0

-
-
-
Sediment Sediment
input accumulation
(kgms) in B-riffles

796
400
1,082
1,189
841
1,449
3,527
2,977 slight
2,557
6,596
9,236
2,931

920
3,734
11,531
                          52

-------
Table 10: (con't)
April
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1969
Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.

50
626
243
318
80
70
44
-

-
-
-
-
124
108
34
121
177
72
52
-

(26)
(105)
(16)
(76)
(42)
(13)
(11)






(39)
(36)
(11)
(25)
(38)
(24)
(34)

-
37
60
102
58
46
149
17
-

-


-
115
112
33
207
123
18
12
-

(20)
(16)
(27)
(9)
(9)
(36)
(10)






(51)
(31)
(20)
(82)
(37)
(9)
(8)

-
74.
9.
42.
18.
57.
212.
36.
-

-
-
-
-
92.
103.
97.
171.
69.
25.
23.
-

7
7
2
1
8
8
2






4
7
0
1
4
0
1

744
877
671
943
1,118
443
1




1

1
1
2
2
3
1
10
7
1
,396
,677
,810
,274
,241
,396
,521
653
793

607
,465
157
,926
,901
,265
,428
,044
,737
,307
,689
,328
-
-
-
slight
heavy
heavy
-
-
-

-

-
-
-
-
-
-
slight
slight
-
-
                          53

-------
density of invertebrate samples from the B-riffles and A the
average density from the A-riffles.  Table 10 and Figure 4
summarize the B/A ratios over the period of collection - 1967
through 1969.

     The average density of macroinvertebrates declined notice-
ably during periods of heavy sediment input (Table 11) result-
ing in a B/A ratio of only 37.0 considering a number of the
most important genera.  When the input was light - less than
about 3500 kg/mo   the B/A ratio averaged 74.6.  B/A ratios
calculated during periods of noticeable sediment accumulation
were only 39.0 while during periods where no visible accumula-
tion of sediment occurred the ratio was 71.0

     Although there was an overlap in the periods of heavy
sediment input and of sediment build-up, both conditions seemed
to affect the invertebrate populations equally.  When periods
both of build-up and heavy input coincided there seemed to be
no cumulative effect which resulted in even further decreases
in density in the B-riffles.

     Collections taken on July 26, 1968 yielded a B/A ratio
that was higher than 100, the only series to do so.  This was
due to one of the three samples taken at RB-2 which contained
nearly 2500 newly hatched Cheumatopsyche.  It should be noted
that the eggs hatched despite the considerable accumulation of
sediment.
                           54

-------
en
Cn
      o
      o
     200

     180

     160

     140

     120

     100

      80

      60

      40

      20

Build-Up
CD
                                  Sediment
                                     Input-
                                                                                  -.IxlO6
                                                                                  - IxlO1
                                                                                    (0
                                                                                    
                                                                                    o>
                                                                           - IxlO4  
IxlO
                                                                                 - IxlO2
3  _
                                                                                    o>

                                                                                   o
                                                                                    0>
                                                                                   CO
              JFMAMJJASONDlJFMAMJJASONDIJFMAMJJASOND
                        1967        '           1968        I           1969
         Figure 4:
               The density of invertebrates  in  the B-riffles as a percentage
               of the density in the A-riffles  in relation to periods of
               sediment build-up in the B-riffles and to input of sediment.

-------
Table 11:  Average B/A ratios (x 100) for various taxa
           during periods of light and heavy sediment and
           periods of no build-up and build-up in the
           riffles.
B/A x 100 ratios
Taxa
Chironomidae
Cheuma to psyche
Caenis
Baetis
Stenomia
Tricorythoides
Stenelmis
Simulium
Overall average
Light
input
84.4
82.2
109.1
122.6
133.3
80.0
107.4
57.2
74.6
Heavy
input
38.0
59.4
11.1
108.3
85.2
148.2
25.9
66.3
37.0
No
build-up
80.0
83.2
95.4
167.3
193.2
71.0
117.7
60.2
71.0
Build-up
26.0
32.5
11.5
69.0
75.8
164.5
59.0
70.8
39.0
                          56

-------
Response of important taxa to sediment



     Most of the ephemeropterans are quite specific in habitat



and, therefore, the changes in the bottom composition of the



riffles produced marked changes in the populations.  Of the



major genera found, Tricorythoides prefers a muddy or silty



bottom type, Baetis and isonychia  prefer small rubble and peb-



bles, and stenomia and Caenis prefer larger stones and rubble



(Burks, 1956; Pennak, 1953).  Baetis (Figure 5 and Table 11)



was the predominant ephemeropteran.  During periods of heavy



sedimentation the B/A ratio was reduced from 122.6 to 108.0.



Sediment build-up in the riffles reduced the B/A ratio even



more drastically from 167.3 to 69.0.  The reactions of stenomia



were quite similar to Baetis.  During periods of heavy input,



the B/A ratio was reduced from 133.3 to 85.2 and during periods



of sediment build-up the B/A ratio was reduced from 193.3 to



75.8.  While reacting to both sediment input and build-up, both



of these genera showed stronger reactions to build-up.  Caenis



was found consistently in low numbers throughout the study pe-



riod.  However, during the July 1968 samples, the A-riffles con-



tained very large numbers of this genus while the B-riffles did



not.  Because only these samples contained high numbers, it was



difficult to ascertain whether this was due to chance or to the



sediment.  Tricorythoides was one of only two taxa which in-



creased in numbers during periods of heavy sedimentation.  This



was probably due to its preference for a silt or mud substrate.



During the periods of heavy input the B/A ratio for Tricorythoides
                            57

-------
     20Q


  cvi.
  ul
  V.
  6  ;


     300


     100


     60

     40

     20
     60

     40

     20
T \ 	 1 B-riff le
)-
0-
s  A-riffles
i | Baetis
\ n
oo\oo\ II II fc . ./In.lltfl^ .0
T :
1 1 Caenis
D '
11 OO^OOO* h 1 10 odo* m. Ji *, t\  - -,
D-
D-
 .0h
)L 60
I'J
i i
1
 Cheumatopsyche
n ll L too. M|ILh.^nJlJlnn-0
1
7 \ 732
1
1 | Chironomidae
L ' I
hhtiljih iH iJih/ln^i/iiik.
//(
> I
H  .n _ II
0 \
\
1 Simulium
i.(Lji jiL^^ji^L^op^.L
i
i
' Stenelmis
\O\00\r, h h h ^n,^ ^ L 1. h 1. a. ^7
A M J J A S 0>D M J J A S 0
-------
increased from 80.0 to 148.2.  During the periods of build-up
the B/A ratio increased from 70.1 to 164.5.

     Only three genera of Trichoptera were found with any con-
sistency.  Cheumatopsyche was very abundant especially in the
late summer months while ffydropsyche and Ochrotrichia were
usually not abundant enough to provide information about a
sediment response.  Cheumatopsyche construct nets and require
a substrate consisting of rubble, large gravel, or plants.
The nets are cone shaped and are attached to the rubble with
the mouth of the cone facing directly into the flow of the
current so as to trap algae and organic detritis.  The pres-
ence of suspended sediment can effectively clog the nets so
the animals can not feed (Pennak, 1953; Hynes, 1963).  During
the periods of heavy sediment input, the B/A ratio for the
Cheumatopsyche was reduced from 82.2 to 59.4.  During the per-
iods when there was sediment build-up in the riffles, the B/A
ratio was further reduced from 83.2 to 32.5.  An unusually
large number of newly hatched Cheumatopsyche found in the B-
riffles in the July 26, 1968 was due to a single sample that
contained stems of submerged Dianthera upon which the Cheumato-
psyche were hatching.  This sample was considered to be unrep-
resentative and was deleted from the B/A ratios.

     Both the young and adults of several coleopterans were
noted in the riffles.  The only abundant genus was stenelmis,
with oineutus - and Helictus being found in small numbers.  The
                           59

-------
adult Elmids are noted indicators of organic pollution due to



their oxygen gathering mechanisms (Sinclair, 1964).  However,



since there was no change  in the amount of available oxygen



caused by the presence of  the sediment, this could not be con-



sidered as a factor  in limiting the number of stenelmis below



the effluent unless  the  sediment interfered with structural



adaptations.  Adult  stenelmis were found in the B-riffles even



during the highest periods of sedimentation.  It was noted that



their entire bodies  were so covered with the sediment that spe-



cies identification  was  almost impossible.  Even though the



larval and adult forms prefer the same rubble habitat and both



feed on algae and organic  detritus, it was found that the young



were more abundant in the  A-riffles and the adults were more



abundant below  the effluent.  This trend remained constant



throughout the  study period and, therefore, both the young and



adults were considered as  a single group.  During the peiods



of heavy sedimentation,  the B/A ratio for the stenelmis was re-



duced from 107.4 to  25.9.   During the periods of sediment build-



up in the riffles there  was a reduction in the ratio from 117.4



to 59.0.  The coleopterans, excluding the Elmids, increased in



numbers during  the periods of heavy input and build-up, even



though their numbers were  always much greater in the A-riffles



than in the B-riffles.   This was due to an increase in the



number of adult Berosus  present during sediment build-up in



the back waters around the B-riffles.  The adult Berosus often



prefer a silty  bottom and  more quiet water.  The individuals
                            60

-------
collected were probably those that had wandered from pools



into the riffles.  Dineutus adults were noted in the A-rif-



fles during the entire study period, but were found only occa-



sionally in the B-riffles.  Since the sampling methods used



were not suited to capturing these fast swimming beetles, no



quantitative measurements could be made of the differences



due to sedimentation.  The other genera collected were not an-



alyzed because they were either found in very low numbers or



were mainly found in the A-riffles due to their close associa-



tion with the Dianthera that was abundant there.





     Several genera of Diptera were found in the riffles.



Chironomidae and simulium were the most abundant while Tabanus,



Tipula, Hexatoma, and Hemerodromia were regularly noted in low



numbers.  The family Chironomidae was the most abundant of the



taxa found in the riffles.  As a family it prefers either a



fine sand and silt habitat or rubble that is covered by a thick



layer of filamentous algae.  The principle food source is di-



atoms and organic detritus (Pennak, 1953).  During periods of



high sediment input, the B/A ratio for the Chironomidae was re-



duced from 84.4 to 38.0.  Similar results were noted during pe-



riods of sediment build-up.  When there was sediment build-up



in the riffles, the B/A ratio was reduced from 80.0 to 26.0.



With the Chironomidae making up as much as 75% of the total den-



sity, the reductions were always clearly reflected in reductions



of the total number of organisms.  The genus simulium was quite



common during late summer on the submerged stems and leaves of
                           61

-------
Dianthera.  The simulium  cling to vegetation or large rubble
where they are scavengers  of  algae and organic detritus.  As
the populations were  definitely related to the amount of Di-
anthera present,  it was not possible to relate any direct ef-
fects of  the  sediment to  this genus.

Response  of community diversity to sediment
     Diversity was measured by the index of Wilhm and Dorris
(1968).   This diversity index has the advantage of being in-
dependent of  sample size  and  allows the comparison of the di-
versity of two or more different sized samples.  The minimum
diversity will occur  if only  one taxa is present and the max-
imum diversity will occur if  each organism is of a different
taxa.  During periods of  heavy input and riffle build-up, no
trends were noted between riffles B-0 and B-3.  Seasonal vari-
ations were noted in  the  indices, however, with the summer
samples being more diverse than the spring or fall samples.
The diversities were  averaged for all of the A-riffles and the
B-riffles for each sampling period.

     As with  density, average diversities were determined for
periods that  had  light sediment input, heavy input, sediment
build-up  in the riffles and no sediment build-up.  When there
was light input and no build-up the diversity of the B-riffles
was slightly  lower than that  of the A-riffles.  During periods
of heavy  input and build-up,a slightly higher diversity was
noted in  the  B-riffles than in the A-riffles.  However, the
                           62

-------
differences in the diversities were not significant at the 95%
level when tested by t-tests.  This slight increase in diver-
sity in the B-riffle during sedimentation probably resulted
from the reduction in numbers of the more populous taxa with
a retention of some of those that occurred in very small numbers
                            63

-------
Table 12:  Average indices of diversity for the macro-



           invertebrate samples collected from A- and



           B-riffles during 1967, 1968 and 1969.
Date
1967
April
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Nov.
Dec.
1968
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Order diversity
Above
1.634
1.248
1.740
1.176
1.910
1.628
0.855
0.744

1.213
0.724
1.784
1.855
1.905
1.661
1.339
Below
1.471
1.757
1.534
1.137
2.136
1.885
0.898
0.748

1.544
1.314
1.126
1.925
1.604
0.691
0.987
Genus diversity
Above
-
-
2.272
1.070
0.744

1.479
-
2.058
2.482
2.633
2.061
1.626
Below
r
-
2.296
1.169
0.748

1.904
-
1.561
2.969
2.342
1.197
1.256
                          64

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Table 12: (con't.)
1969
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.

1.439
1.405
1.869
1.903
1.290
1.267
1.249

1.256
1.552
1.459
1.676
1.408
1.466
1.178

2.219
2.124
2.505
2.526
2.019
1.466
1.897

1.160
2.207
2.112
2.021
2.107
1.642
1.678
                           65

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The effect of sediment on the drift rate of macroinvertebrates

     A series of experiments was designed to measure the ef-
fect of varying concentrations of suspended solids upon the
rate of drift of macroinvertebrates.  The results of the ex-
periments indicate that this environmental factor is highly
influential and help to clarify the mechanism involved in the
regulation of population density by sediment.

     The experiments consisted of collecting drift at the down-
stream end of the riffle for 15 minutes without adding sediment
and following this with another 15 minute collection during
which sediment was continually added.  This alternation of con-
ditions was repeated through one to several cycles.  The normal
suspended solids load in the creek during the control phases of
each series ranged from 10 to 28 mg/1 while during the test
phases the sediment was introduced at uniform rates ranging
from about 18 to 270 mg/1 (Table 13).
     The drift rate increased steadily with increasing suspend-
ed solids concentrations (Figure 6).  The relationship was
roughly linear up to concentrations of 160 mg/1 additional
stonedust.  Only a few trials were made at concentrations high-
er than this, and it is possible that more determinations at
high concentrations would extend the curve even further.
     The increased rates of drift appear to be caused by sus-
pended sediment rather than by settled sediment.  Although
                          67

-------
          Table  13:   Increased drift  rates  in relation to additions of stonedust dur-
                     ing  two  to six test periods  alternating with control periods.
ON
00
Date
Mean suspended solids
concentration mg/l*2SE
Mean drift per
15 minutes -2SE
Increase
Added

8-10-
8-10-
8-21-
7-23-
7-22-
10-12-
6-26-

70
70
70
70
70
69
70
Control
9.7-1.7
11.0-0.8
24.0-1.2
20.3-1.3
27.7*1.3
19.0-0.0
20.2-8.6

28
65
108
125
162
173
291
Test
.3- 2.2
.3* 9.7
.3-13.0
.0- 4.0
.0- 2.8
.5*38.2
.5*46.5
Solids
18
54
84
104
135
154
271
.6
.3
.3
.7
.5
.5
.3
Control
32.0*4.3
25.0*6.2
19.7*5.2
62.0-6.4
62.0*2.0
30.0*9.0
51.0-2.5

40
33
28
117
135
60
96
Test
.3- 4
.0-10
.7* 8
.5-25
.5*41
.5*26
.3-33

.4
.0
.4
.0
.0
.7
.2

25.9
32.0
45.7
89.5
118.5
101.7
88.8

-------
  there was some visible deposition by the end of some series,
  there was no tendency for the drift rate to increase with
  time during the control phase.  During series in which larger
  quantities of sediment were added there was actually a lag in
  the response with a rather slow initial increase and then a
  steady increase with subsequent test periods.

-------
     The species composition of the drifting organisms was
essentially similar to that of the riffle itself (Table 14).
Regular monthly Surber samples of the riffle invertebrates
showed that chironomidae comprised about 60% of the population
with other taxa contributing various proportions of the remain-
der.  The organisms drifting from the riffle during both test
periods and control periods also consisted of about 60% chir-
onomids with other taxa in approximately the same proportion
as their abundance in the riffle.  Thus the total macroinverte-
brate fauna seems to be affected similarly by the sediment.

     In every series there was a rather uniform, but statis-
tically nonsignificant, difference in the size of the organ-
isms drifting from the riffle during the control and test phases
(Table 14) .  The average total body length of drift during the
sediment phase was 5% to 10% smaller than during the control
phase.  This magnitude of difference was maintained regardless
of the amount of sediment introduced.  Although t-tests of the
test and control data were nonsignificant, this regularity sug-
gests that smaller organisms are somewhat more influenced by
the sediment than larger individuals.
                          70

-------
Table 14:
Average body length (mm)  of all drift organisms and
proportion of drift which were chironomidae in con-
trol and test phases of the sediment introduction
experiments.
Average Body
Length (mm)
Date
8-10-
8-10-
8-21-
7-23-
7-22-
10-12-
6-26-
70
70
70
70
70
69
70
Control
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
.76
.78
.66
.55
.03
.63
.85
Test
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
.60
.72
.50
.36
.64
.41
.55
Percent
chironomidae
Control
56
62
60
65
72
76
63
.3
.8
.6
.6
.0
.9
.6
Test
62
51
69
66
60
63
69
.3
.5
.0
.4
.0
.6
.8
Additional
Sediment
mg/1
18
54
84
104
135
154
271
.6
.3
.3
.7
.3
.5
.3
                           71

-------
The effect of sediment on the population density of fish



     The standing crop of fish in each study pool was deter-



mined several times each year during the summer and fall months.



Spring collections would have been valuable, but sufficiently



low flows were never stabilized until early June and often later.





     A total of 49 species of fish were collected and identified



(Appendix Table II).  No doubt other species were present in the



intervening riffles which were not taken.  The majority of these



were species which, in terms of weight and/or numbers, contrib-



uted relatively little to the overall standing crop of fish.



Catostomids and centrarchids formed the vast majority of the to-



tal weight of the collective populations, while cyprinids with



the exception of carp, were never abundant.





     Important species of fish were separated into eight groups,



some with a single species and others with multiple species of



similar ecological characteristics.  They are as follows:



   (1)  suckers and redhorse, dominated by golden redhorse  (MOX-



ostoma erythrurum) with smaller contributions from black redhorse



(M. duquesnei) , silver redhorse (M. anisurum), shorthead redhorse



(M. macrolepidotum), common white sucker  (Catostomus commersoni)



and spotted sucker (Minytrema melanops);



   (2) hog suckers (Hypentelium nigricans), a form which is more



a riffle dweller than an inhabitant of pools;



   (3) carpsuckers, primarily central quillback carpsucker  (Car-



iodes cyprinus hinei) with some northern river  (C. carpio carpio)
                           73

-------
and rarely highfin carpsuckers  (c. velifer);
   (4) carp  (Cyprinus carpio);
   (5) gizzard shad  (Dorosoma cepedianum);
   (6) sunfish, rock bass and crappie, 95%  of which were longear
sunfish  (Lepomis megalotis)  and the remainder divided among  7
other species;
   (7) bass, mostly  spotted  bass  (Micropterus punctulatus) fol-
lowed by smallmouth  bass  (M.  dolomieui) and rarely largemouth
bass  (M. salmoides);
   (8) miscellaneous species  including, in  order of importance,
drum  (Aplodinotus grunniens), yellow bullhead (Ictalurus natalis),
longnose gar  (Lepisosteus osseus), channel  catfish (Ictalurus
punctatus) and a scattering  of others.

     The weight and  size of  the fish in each group was the basis
of the population estimations.  Appendix  Tables III through  VI
present  the  catch data  and population estimations for each pool.
The various pools, despite some morphological and physical dif-
ferences, were similar  enough so  that the electrofishing seine
performed about the  same in  each  pool.  Catchability values  (-b)
were examined for trends from pool to pool  for each group of
fish and none were found.  Likewise, differences from time to
time during  the year were not evident, but  it was felt that  per-
haps fish were more  susceptible to the gear when the water was
cool in the fall.  Overall summer catchabilities for each group
of fish were quite similar in~1969 and 1970 (Table 15), and the
mean of these -was used  to estimate the standing crop from the
                           74

-------
catch data collected in 1967 and 1968.  The total weight of
fish captured in three electrofishing passes constituted from
46% to over 90% of the estimated standing crop of all groups
(Table 16).  Thus each estimate is based upon a sample of
about 75% of the total population.

Table 15:  Catchability values f-bj for the summers of 1969
           and 1970.
Group
Suckers and Redhorse
Hog suckers
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish and crappie
Bass
Other species
1969
0.575
0.520
0.800
0.221
0.390
0.241
0.452
0.481
1970
0.508
0.283
0.834
0.625
0.712
0.242
0.123
0.578
Table 16:  Total weight of fish captured in three passes
           as a percent of the estimated standing crop.
Date
June/July 1969
August 1969
October 1969
June 1970
August 1970

A-l
.736
-
-
.992
.694
Pool
A-2
.461
-
-
.798
.768

B-0/1
.644
.893
.978
.893
.659

B-2
.849
.788
.770
.634
.830
                           75

-------
     The standing crop of fish in the pools above the quarry



decreased from a high of about 220 kg/ha in 1967 to approxi-



mately 160 kg/ha from 1968 through 1970 (Figure 7).  The quan-



tity of fish in the pools below the quarry fluctuated tremen-



dously during this period in response to the quantity of sedi-



ment introduced from the quarry.





     At the beginning of the investigation the fish populations



in the pools below the quarry were probably in a state of re-



covery from considerable amounts of sediment which had accumu-



lated in the two upper pools by fall of 1966.  In June, 1967



the B-pools contained about 40% as many fish (kg/ha) as the



A-pools.  An influx during the next two months increased this



to 60% normal.  Heavy contributions of sediment issued from the



quarry during most of 1968.  Estimations conducted in June, 1968



revealed a decrease in population abundance to only about 25%



normal which, since no sediment had yet settled out into the



B-pools, can probably be attributed to the increased suspended



solids loads and not to settled sediment.





     By the end of July 1968, pool B-00 was completely filled



with sediment, pool B-0 contained 25 to 40 mm sediment over



three-quarters of the bottom, and the bottom of pool B-l was



evenly coated by a layer of stonedust 85 to 125 mm thick.



Parts of pool B-2 even accumulated up to 25 mm sediment.  In



spite of this settled material the fish populations as a whole



were considerably greater than they were in June.
                           76

-------
  320|-


  280

  240
6
PV
M
3> 200
o
b
V)
   |60

   120

   80

   40

     0
   A-pools
oo B -pools
	 Stonedust  input
                                                                             io
                                                                             IO
                                                                             10'
                                                                             o
                                                                             10
             1967
                              1968
    1969
1970
                                       Year
       Figure  7-.  Estimated standing  crop of fish  in  two pools  above (A)
                 and  three  pools  below (B)  a  crushed  rock  quarry.

-------
     This increase is attributed to the influx of fish which



were forced out of pool B-00 and the mouth of DeWeese Creek



by the accumulating sediment because this is exactly what oc-



curred to the fish in pools B-0 and B-l during August and Sep-



tember.  In mid-September 1968 no fish lived in pool B-0 and



few in B-l because both had completely filled in with sediment.



Pool B-2, having up to 50 mm stonedust accumulations in its



deeper, downstream section, supported an estimated 90 kg/ha of



fish.  At this same time, Taylor's Pool, located 1/4 mile down-



stream from pool B-2,contained a normal standing crop of fish,



although not a normal species composition.





     In early October 1968 the quarry cleaned its settling basin



thoroughly and increased its depth with a dam.  No large inputs



of sediment occurred thereafter for some time, but the deep sedi-



ment deposits remained until winter floods swept them downstream.





     Fish returned to the pools with the removal of the sediment,



and achieved population levels about 50% normal by the end of



June 1969.  Continued slow gains to about 60% normal were made



during the remainder of the summer and early fall, despite an



acute dose of soil sediment injected into pool B-l as the result



of bridge construction during September.  Further recovery was



noted by June 1970 when the populations reached 70% of the A-



pool standing crop.





     From mid-June through July 1970 another marked increase in



the amount of sediment coming from the quarry occurred because
                            78

-------
more rock was crushed during the double-shift days and the
attendant difficulty of keeping the settling basins clean.  A
sharp decrease in the standing crop occurred almost exclusively
because gizzard shad vacated the B-pools during this period.

     An examination of the individual response of each species
group of fish is necessary at this point, since each group ap-
peared to respond somewhat differently.

     Suckers and redhorse - These fish rather quickly moved
back into the B-pools in the spring after vacating them during
periods of sediment build-up (Figure 8, A).   A return toward
normal during late summer was facilitated mainly through the
appearance of concentrations of young redhorse, coming either
from natural reproduction in the immediate area or from migra-
tion into the B-pools.  Larger individuals of all species in
this group,except the spotted sucker, tended to avoid the B-
pools, with the result that the average weight of suckers and
redhorse in the pools below the quarry outfall never equalled
and often was only 50% as great as those above the quarry-
Their absence probably accounts for the fact that recovery as
measured by standing crop was never more than about 80% by the
end of the study.  The increased load of suspended solids dur-
ing mid-summer 1970 did not, however, cause further adverse
affects.
     Hog suckers - This species differs from other suckers in
frequenting riffles perhaps more than pools and, since riffles
                           79

-------
   o
   t.
   o
40

30

20

10

 0

50

40

30

20

10

 0

30

20

10
             A.  Suckers  8  Redhorse
                      B.  Carpsuckers
                     C. Hog  sucker
                          o
            1967
                  1968
1969
1970
                             Year
Figure  8:  Estimated   standing  crop   of   three   species
           groups   of   fish  in  two  pools  above ()
           and  three  pools  below  (oo)  a   crushed
           rock   quarry.
                               80

-------
themselves were not electrofished, only a proportion of the to-
tal population was available for capture.  The larger standing
crops in the B-pools  (Figure 8, C) probably is due to the fact
that the B-riffles were larger than the A-riffles.  The extent
to which they are responsive to sediment as a population is
impossible to access here.  The average sizes above and below
the quarry were roughly comparable.

     Carpsuckers - Carpsuckers were the most sensitive fish
with respect to the sediment.  Their minor presence in mid-
summer in the B-pools  (Figure 8, B) resulted from young fish
which entered in small numbers.  Above the quarry, carpsuckers
were an important component in the overall fish population.
     Carp - Individuals were often found in highly turbid water,
but as a population carp were seldom more than 50% as abundant
below the quarry as above (Figure 9, A).  Carp are not generally
numerous in streams of west-central Indiana because of the scar-
city of suitable spawning areas.  Thus, the ones which are pres-
ent are usually large individuals which have migrated into the
smaller streams from some downstream region (Benda and Gammon
1967).  Large numbers of young-of-the-year carp were first col-
lected in Deer Creek in the fall of 1966.  This 1966 year class
contributed significantly to the overall fish population through-
out the period of study, gradually diminishing in importance
each year.  Judging from the similarity in the average weight
of individuals above and below the quarry there was no size-
dependent response to the sediment.
                          81

-------
  75

  50

  25

    0

   75

   50

   25

    0
o  75
  9  50

  |  25
  w
       0

     40
     30
     20

     10

      0


Figure 9:
B.  Gizzard  shad
                   C.  Sunfish  8  Crappie
          1967
  1968        1969
        Year
1970
        Estimated  standing   crop  of  four  species
        groups of fish in  two  pools   above  ()
        and  three pools  below Coo)   a  crushed
        rock  quarry.
                            82

-------
     Gizzard shad - This species'  range in Deer Creek extends
only a small distance upstream from pool A-2.   Annual replen-
ishment of the population may depend upon migrations of fish
into the study area from further downstream,  since the eggs
are pelagic and probably are carried out of the study section
before they can hatch.  Small and relatively constant numbers
were present above the quarry, but only in late summer 1969 and
early summer 1970 when the suspended solids load was at its
lowest point did concentrations of shad appear in the B-pools.
     Thus, it seems that gizzard shad are quite sensitive to
inorganic sediment or to the turbidity which accompanies it.
     Sunfish and crappie - The standing crop of this group was
about 50% as much in the B-pools as in the A-pools both in
numbers and weight.  Average weights did not differ significantly,
The various species in this group appeared to respond to the
sediment in about the same degree.
     Bass - The three species of bass were not very important
contributors to the standing crop of fish  in terms of weight
and numbers, averaging less than 10 kg/ha  during much of the
study.  Only four largemouth bass were  taken during the four
years.  Smallmouth bass were fairly common above  the quarry,
comprising  about  24%  of the catch, but  were relatively uncommon
below, making up  only 12%  of the catch  of  bass.   Usually only
small numbers of  the  smaller and younger  smallmouth bass ap-
peared  in the catch below  the quarry.
                            83

-------
     Spotted bass was much more common and generally supported
the occasional larger densities which occurred in the B-pools
including Taylor's pool.  Furthermore, this species was one of
the last species to leave a pool which was filling with sedi-
ment and among the first to return when the sediment was swept
away by floods.
     Most populations of fish, then, with a few exceptions were
uniformly held to subnormal densities by even the lowest rates
of sediment input characteristic of this quarry.  Carpsuckers
were extremely sensitive to the sediment and were virtually ab-
sent immediately downstream from the quarry.  Smallmouth bass
also seemed to be more  sensitive than most species.  Gizzard
shad tolerated the lower concentrations of introduced stonedust,
but avoided slightly higher concentrations.  Spotted bass, alone
of all the resident species, appeared to be unaffected by even
fairly high concentrations of the suspended solids and might
be called resistant.

The effect of sediment  on the growth of fish
     The rate of growth of fish is responsive to many environ-
mental factors.  Thus,  the growth rates of important species
of fish were estimated  for the populations above the quarry and
below to see if this characteristic was affected by the sediment
                           84

-------
     Correction factors for each species were obtained by exam-
ining the relation between magnified scale radius and total
length.  For most species the relationship was linear (Table
17) and the correction factor (C) for each species except long-
ear sunfish was used in the back-calculations.  The results
for longear sunfish were judged inadequate and a value of zero
was used.
Table 17:  The relationship between magnified scale radius (SR)
           (x22.5) in millimeters and the total length (TL)  in
           millimeters.
                                                        Corr.
    Species          N      Regression Equation     C   Coef.
Smallmouth bass     33    SR = -19.30 + 0.406 TL  47.50  .972
Spotted bass        39    SR = - 4.24 + 0.363 TL  11.68  .946
White crappie       36    SR = - 2.47 + 0.313 TL   7.89  .854
Longear sunfish    515    SR =  10.00 + 0.358 TL -27.93  .829
Golden redhorse    179    SR = -14.44 + 0.441 TL  32.73  .945
Black redhorse      40    SR = - 8.86 + 0.375 TL  23.62  .928
Spotted sucker      38    SR = -10.75 + 0.441 TL  24.39  .938
Gizzard shad       133    SR = -19.99 + 0.476 TL  41.99  .894
     The estimated rates of growth of eight species of fish
collected above and below the quarry are summarized in Table
18.  Pairs of lengths for each age were tested fotf statistical
differences by means of the t-test and only in two species were
the values distinctively different.
                           85

-------
     Golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum) were severely af-



fected within the zone of sedimentation.  The differences be-



tween pairs of estimated lengths at ages I through IV are sta-



tistically significant at the 99% level and the difference at



age V at the 95% level (Table 18).  The maximum difference in



length - about 25 mm - occurred by the end of the second year



of life and appeared then to be maintained for several more



years.  This effect correlates well with the observation that



the older, larger individuals leave the zone of sedimentation,



thus, subjecting themselves to the effects only during their



younger years.





     Spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) also grew at a sig-



nificantly slower rate below the quarry than above.  Spotted



bass above the quarry were about 25 mm longer than those below



at the end of the first year of life and this discrepancy grad-



ually increased until a 50 mm difference occurred by the end of



the fourth year.  The tolerance of this species toward the sedi



ment apparently resulted in individuals remaining in areas where



normal growth was not possible.





     For other species, the growth rates above and below the



quarry were similar.  This probably indicates an avoidance of



the.sedimentation zone, as shown in the distribution pattern



during periods of heavy sediment input.
                            86

-------
Table 18:
Calculated mean total lengths and standard error of
means at each age for fish collected from pools above
and below the crushed limestone quarry.
Above Quarry
Age
Class
N
Mean Length
in mm.
Stand.
Error
Below Quarry
Mean Length Stand.
N in mm. Error
Smallmouth bass (uicropterus dolomieu)
I
II
III
IV
V
VI

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
14
12
11
8
4
2

20
18
14
14
6
2
2
-
100.9
148.2
194.2
221.5
281.6
315.6
Spotted bass
75:4
125.3
170.6
208.8
216.5
237.2
258.8
-
4.943
5.991
11.858
8.864
3.131
0.0
(Micropterus
4.863
9.180
10.066
11.655
10.867
22.030
24.261
-
White crappie (Pomoxis
I
II
III
IV
17
13
5
2
62.5
107.8
148.6
187.6
4.307
8.189
14.268
17.430
19
11
8
4
-
-
97.0
149.4
198.0
227.7
-
-
2.835
5.017
5.512
4.267
-
-
punctulatus)
19
17
16
9
6
5
3
1
annular!
19
14
8
1
51.9
92.1
131.2
158.2
195.5
243.1
295.0
331.0
s)
64.6
120.8
166.7
172.0
2.052
4.863
5.119
5.138
9.286
15.951
12.669
-

3.967
6.032
3.2401
0.0
                           87

-------
Table 18 (con't.)
Age
Class

N
Above
Quarry
Mean Length
in mm.


Stand.
Error

Below
Quarry
Mean Length Stand.
N in mm. Error
Longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis)
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

I
II
III
IV
237
233
217
173
105
36
7
1

61
53
36
20
7
1
1
-

10
9
8
5
32
59
79
97
111
119
132
131
Golden
87
156
221
264
304
329
340
-
Black
70
129
198
260
.4
.1
.9
.3
.5
.8
.3
.4
redhorse
.9
.0
.5
.9
.2
.5
.9

redhorse
.1
.0
.9
.9
0
0
0
1
1
1
4
0
.582
.802
.904
.134
.478
.800
.074
.0
274
265
209
142
71
11
2
-
31.
60.
82.
99.
111.
121.
121.
-
1
4
1
5
1
0
2

0.
0.
0.
1.
1.
2.
7.

442
612
839
080
331
907
133
-
(Moxostoma erythrurum)
4
5
7
5
5
0
0

.161
.586
.009
.352
.921
.0
.0
-
87
36
23
15
10
6
3
2
74.
128.
174.
221.
264.
287.
282.
293.
6
7
7
6
7
4
9
7
1.
3.
5.
8.
11.
15.
24.
37.
013
588
342
998
761
748
033
375
(Moxostoma duquesnei)
5
7
6
7
.430
.005
.753
.640
29
6
4
1
77.
145.
211.
264.
9
6
1
9
2.
9.
6.
0.
889
616
602
0
88

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Table 18  (con't.)
Above Quarry
Age
Class

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
N

16
16
13
11
2
1
1

78
71
39
17
2
1
Mean Length Stand.
in mm. Error
Spotted
68.1
121.3
186.7
240.5
251.0
241.9
287.6
Gizzard
112.5
157.9
198.4
233.8
220.2
225.7
Below Quarry
Mean Length Stand.
N in mm. Error
sucker (Minytreaia melanops)
3.935
7.362
9.494
9.337
13.437
0.0
0.0
shad (Dorosoma
1.880
2.644
4.273
8.214
6.311
0.0
22 70.1
19 127.1
12 210.1
6 210.6
-
-
-
cepedianum)
40 118.0
36 162.7
3 163.1
-
-

3.363
6.575
21.868
9.088
-
-
-

1.930
2.360
3.827
-
-

The effect of sediment on the length/weight relationship
     It has been shown that the growth rate of most species of
fish was unaffected by the sediment pollution under natural
conditions and that perhaps this occurred because of movement
into and out of the zone of sediment loading in response to the
sediment load.  Direct measurement of the direction and rate of
movement was not achieved in this study.  Shetter-type directional
                           89

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weirs placed at riffles B-0 and B-3 for this purpose during



1969 were quickly destroyed by floods and were not replaced.





     Lacking this direct information concerning the period of



time fish spent in the zone of sedimentation, an examination



of the length/weight relationship was made on the presumption



that fish of many species might enter the zone below the quarry



for shorter periods than an entire growing season.  For most



species an insufficient number of individuals were collected to



attempt a year-by-year analysis of the relationship; therefore,



comparisons were made on combined samples.  Adequate data was



available for  longear sunfish so that much finer comparisons



were possible.





     The pairs of regressions of log weight on log length shown



in Table 19 were compared statistically by means of a single



classification analysis of covariance.  There was no difference



in the relationship above and below the quarry for smallmouth



bass  (Micropterus dolomieui), white crappie  (Pomoxis annularis),



golden redhorse  (Moxostoma erythrurum) and carp (Cyprinus carpio).





     A statistically significant difference was found for spotted



bass with the  population below the quarry having the steeper



slope.  At the smaller sizes the differences are minute, but with



larger fish there is rather strong divergence.  This probably  is



due to the greater range in size of the fish obtained below the



quarry where nearly all of the larger spotted bass were collected.



Small individuals are quite slender, while large fish tend to  be



quite chunky.



                           90

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     Spotted sucker  (Minytrema melanops) and gizzard shad (Dor-
osoma cepedianum) also had statistically different log:log re-
lationships with, again, steeper slopes in the population below
the quarry.

     For longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) some of the com-
parisons were different at a statistically significant level,
but there was no logical relationship to the pattern of sediment
input.

     Thus, the fish  in the zone of sediment loading do not appear
to have been affected with respect to the length/weight relation-
ship.  It is possible, again, that they vacate the area before
overall conditions deteriorate strongly enough to have an effect.

The effect of sediment on spawning
     On several occasions when riffles were being sampled for
invertebrates in the spring, concentrations of redhorse, species
unidentified, were noted in the B-riffles.  Previous periods of
high water had swept all vestiges of sediment from the riffles
and, although no eggs were taken in the Surber samples nor were
direct observations made of spawning activities, it seems likely
that spawning of these catostomids could well have occurred.
Although stonedust sediment was being introduced at these times
the water was generally so high and turbid that it had little
effect insofar as increasing turbidity is concerned.  There is
                           91

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nothing, therefore,  that  indicates a deleterious effect of the
introduced  sediment  on  spawning  of suckers and redhorse.
      In August,  1967 when the  concentration of suspended solids
below the quarry was beginning to increase noticeably, the Hester-
Bendy plate samples  in  the upper B-riffles were used as spawning
surfaces by resident minnows,  species unidentified.  Further ob-
servations  particularly during the heaviest periods were, un-
fortunately,  not made.
      In 1968  a  fine  gravel bar extended out into Deer Creek from
the mouth of  DeWeese Branch.   The mouth of this tributary was
electrofished several times during the study and found to contain
a very dense  sub-population of a variety of the usual species.
As water levels  became  lower near mid-summer, this bar emerged to
isolate the clear  waters  of DeWeese Branch from the turbid waters
of Deer Creek.   Spawning  activity was first noted on July 7, 1968
when  the quarry  was  not operating, when 11 longear sunfish nests
were  observed within 10-  12 feet of each other near the tip of
the gravel  bar on  the DeWeese  Branch side.  Each nest was actively
defended by a male.  On this same date two unidentified fish, not
sunfish, were noted  on  the Deer  Creek side of the gravel bar, but
no nests were constructed and  the thin, white layer of sediment
which covered the  gravel  looked  undisturbed.

      Observations  were  continued through July 11 when perhaps
half  of the nests  were  still guarded by male sunfish.  The tur-
bidity of the spawning  area increased noticeably during this
                           92

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period  as  eddy  currents  carried more and more stonedust into
the mouth  of  DeWeese  Branch whose flow diminished during this
same period.  The  turbidity of the water in the vicinity of
the nests  made  observations from directly above difficult
although most of the  nests were in water less than one foot
deep.  Nevertheless,  the guarding males maintained their vig-
ilance.  A careful search for other sunfish nests downstream
from the quarry revealed a single abandoned nest near the head
of pool B-0 which was covered by a thin layer of sediment and
had probably been unoccupied for several days at least.   Other
suitable areas were vacant.
                          93

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                      DISCUSSION





     Many researchers have pointed to the relative insta-



bility of streams compared to lakes and to the resulting



need for resident organisms to adapt to changing environ-



mental conditions.   The influence of man has often increased



the magnitude of otherwise normal environmental processes



and prolonged formerly short-term, adverse conditions.  It



is not difficult to imagine a river biota which would be re-



sistant to acute doses of sediment periodically swept through



the stream by recurrent floods, but it is impossible to con-



ceive this same biota as being unaffected by permanently in-



creased loads of sediment.





     It is assumed that the effects on biota of introduced



limestone dust sediment is similar to that of any inert par-



ticulate matter of similar size and hardness and that this



effect is purely physical, with any accompanying slight chemi-



cal changes falling well within the capacity of adaptability



by the stream organisms.  Furthermore, it seems likely that



the mode of physical effect is other than to directly in-



crease the mortality rates since even during periods of great



sediment input, fish and insect larvae were found living in



water heavily loaded with stonedust.  A possible exception



might be newly hatched fish fry or insect larvae.





     There were no factors present anytime during the study,



except for the sediment, which were experienced by the
                          94

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populations of organisms downstream from the quarry outfall



and not also experienced by those upstream.  Therefore, the



observed changes in population structure were solely due to



the influence of sediment on these populations of macroin-



vertebrates and fish.





     The macroinvertebrate populations in the riffles below



the quarry outfall responded to significant introductions of



sediment by becoming reduced in population density.  The



normal load of suspended solids in Deer Creek tended to range



from 15 to 40 mg/1 during low summer flows.  During 1967 when



the quarry used two consecutive settling basins and kept them



in good operating condition, the suspended solids concentra-



tion of the effluent averaged only slightly higher than this



about 47 mg/1, although the nature of the suspended matter



differed considerably.  The single settling basin in use dur-



ing 1969 and 1970 led to somewhat increased concentrations of



suspended solids which averaged about 75 mg/1 at the effluent



outfall in 1969.





     The actual concentration of suspended solids reaching the



study riffles during these extended periods of light sediment



input varied considerably depending upon the rate of discharge



of Deer Creek, the state of the settling basins, the variabil-



ity of suspended solids concentration in the effluent water,



etc., but the range was probably from 40 to 80 mg/1 for a major



part of each work day with a return to normal concentrations
                           95

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during the night and on Sundays.  An increase in the load of



suspended solids of about 40 mg/1 above normal loads would, .ac-



cording to the drift experiments, cause a 25% increase in the



drift rate and this, in turn, would cause a reduction in the



population density.  Although the population density averaged



75% normal during these periods of relatively light sediment



input, differences were not always detected by means of the



monthly samples consisting of three Surber samples at each rif-



fle.  A more intensive sampling program would be required be-



fore an effect would be detectable for a majority of samplings.





     When the suspended solids load in the study riffles rose



to about four times the normal concentration, a level of about



120 mg/1 or about 80 mg/1 more than normal, the population



density of macroinvertebrates decreased to a degree detectable



even by the relatively simple means employed in this study.



Such increases in the sediment concentration would increase



the drift rate by at least 90%.





     Reductions in population density appeared to occur even



in the absence of visible accumulations of sediment in the



bottom substrate.  This observation is supported by the drift



experiments in which the drift rate responded to suspended



material in the absence of significant settling.  In all prob-



ability, however, stonedust in undetected quantities did set-



tle in the dead spaces of the bottom substrate,and this could



well have been a factor in the resulting decrease in population
                           96

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density in addition to the reaction to suspended solids.  The



bodies of many of the invertebrates collected during times of



very slight sediment accumulations were coated with a fine



layer of sediment.





     On a few occasions sediment was deposited suddenly in



the riffles and remained for some time because of low dis-



charge of the stream.  The deposition of soil particles in



the fall of 1969 was the most noticeable and prolonged period.



The suspended solids load of water passing through the af-



flicted riffles was relatively low, but the mere presence of



the settled sediment caused a definite and strong decrease in



the population density.  Thus, it is concluded that both set-



tled sediment and increased loads of suspended sediment dele-



teriously affected the populations of macroinvertebrates in



the riffles of streams.





     It has been well documented that organic pollutants dras-



tically alter species composition and diversity of the fauna



and flora of streams (Wilhm 1967 and others).  The various



members of the macroinvertebrate fauna apparently have dif-



ferent capabilities to resist the effects wrought by a variety



of organic pollutants.  Thus, some susceptible members are



eliminated while resistant forms may actually increase as the



result of reduced competition.  It is obvious that sediment



pollution has a different influence, affecting nearly all com-



ponents of the population equally without significant changes
                          97

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in either the relative proportions of the components or the



apparent diversity.  The population density decreases resulting



from heavy sediment inputs were accompanied by slight increases



in the diversity index,  perhaps because the sediment caused



reductions in numbers proportionate to the density of both rare



and common species.  Some variability in response was noted in



some genera.  Caenis was the most sensitive, while Tricorythoid.es



and Berosus were resistant.  These taxa, however, were numerically



of minor importance.  Chironomids and cheumatopsyche accounting



for as much as 90% of the total population were generally reduced



to about 35% of their normal density during heavy sedimentation.





     When sediment input was reduced or when floods scoured the



riffles of all accumulated sediment, recovery was found to be



apparently complete within a few days presumably because of the



natural drift into the riffles.  Thus, in this situation the



macroinvertebrate populations responded quickly both positively



and negatively to changes in the load of suspended solids.





     This interesting response has been of practical use to the



Division of Water Pollution Control, Indiana State Board of



Health,in some of their efforts (Winters, personal communication).



In November 1969,a case of possible pollution was investigated



in Shelbyville, Indiana,where a fiberglas batt insulation in-



dustry was discharging effluent at four points into the Little



Blue River just above its confluence with the Big Blue River.



The most obvious pollutants were particles of glass wool, lime
                           98

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solids from the water softening system and latex particles
which turned the stream turbid and heavily coated the bottom.
Qualitative samples of bottom fauna were collected at four
stations with similar bottom substrate:  (1) in the Little
Blue River upstream from the industry, (2) downstream on this
stream, (3) in the Big Blue River upstream from the confluence
with the Little Blue River and (4) below the confluence of the
two streams.  The number of genera collected decreased from
23 above the plant to 3 below in Little Blue River and in Big
Blue River the number dropped from 30 to 4.

     We were asked at this point to comment on the possibility
that the settled solids alone were responsible for the observed
decrease in genera.  In the light of the results of the Deer
Creek study, it was obvious that inert solids alone could not
have caused such a reduction and suggested that some other pol-
lutants must also be present.  Further investigation revealed
significant concentrations of phenol in the waste water.
     The fish populations did not respond as quickly to changes
in suspended solids loads as did the macroinvertebrates and a
different approach is required for evaluating the effects of
sediment on this goup.  As with the invertebrates, fish were
probably not killed directly by the sediment since some were
found even in a veritable slurry of stonedust.  On at least one
occasion carp passed from the stream into the effluent settling
basins during high water and could be seen swimming around in
these basins for several weeks.
                            99

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     The zone of major disturbance was restricted to perhaps



a mile or so downstream from the quarry with normal populations



upstream and near-normal populations further downstream.  Re-



covery of fish populations which are decimated by severe sedi-



mentation seems to be accomplished primarily by the invasion



of fish from these outlying regions and secondarily through



natural reproduction in the area.  The rate of recovery is rapid



initially.  Severe sedimentation reduced population levels dras-



tically late in 1968 and probably also in 1966.  The deposits



of sediment were probably removed by flood early in the fol-



lowing  years and fish returned during the spring.  By June the



standing crops had recovered to 50% of normal.  In the absence



of serious sedimentation there was also a very slight additional



gain through the summer months.





     The scattered literature on movements of resident stream



fishes generally indicates increased rates of movement during



the spring prior to spawning associated with increasing day-



length, discharge rates, or temperature.  Shetter (1938) oper-



ated a two-way fish trap on Canada Creek in Michigan and found



that there was little movement during the winter, very high



rates of catch from mid-April through May, rather limited move-



ment during the summer months and a secondary increase in Septem-



ber and October.
                          100

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     The studies of Gerking (1950, 1953, 1959) and Funk (1957)
and others indicate a strong attachment of individuals of many
species to specific and restricted areas of streams or lakes.
A certain proportion of individuals, however, seem to stray
from place to place thereby providing a mechanism for coloniz-
ing new areas.  These general concepts do not rule out the
possibility that individuals may leave their home territory
for short periods of time and subsequently return, perhaps
after spawning.

     Bowman (1970) recently summarized the life history of the
black redhorse  (tfoxostoma duquesnei) and found that adults
tended to overwinter in deeper pools beginning in October or
November.  They left these in March or early April and moved
both upstream and downstream for several miles to suitable
spawning riffles.  After spawning they moved into pools where
they tended to remain throughout the summer.  Schooling be-
havior changed in September with schools tending to aggregate
near the bank or in the main current of the river prior to a
return to the deeper overwintering pools.  Benda and Gammon
(1968) noted a mass movement of most resident species to deeper
pools in October or November when the temperature fell below
about 12C (55F).

     The young fish produced because of these seasonal movements
away from home areas,together with the colonizing potential of
individuals which tend to stray, are believed to play an important
                          101

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role in colonizing segments of streams from which fish have been



eliminated.  Larimore, Childers and Heckrotte (1959) studied the



repopulation of a stream which had complete removal of its fish



and invertebrate population through drought and rotenone.  They



also noted the seasonal movements described above.  Recovery



was rapid initially with many species returning within two weeks



after normal flow was resumed in the spring, but permanent popu-



lations of some species were not established until two year later



The degree of recovery of  the standing crop was impossible to



evaluate.





     Gunning and Berra  (1968) and Berra and Gunning (1970) ex-



perimentally decimated short segments of a number of small



streams in Louisiana.  Sharpfin chubsuckers (Erimyzon tenuis)



returned to one area in numbers and total weight exceeding the



original level within one  year of decimation.  Longear sunfish



 (Lepomis megalotis megalotis) repopulated four of six segments



to levels equalling or exceeding the original density within



one year.  The main repopulation occurred between March and



late summer and was mainly accomplished by sunfish which were



at least two years old.





     In this study we have observed both the repopulation pro-



cess following the decimation of the total populations of fish



in the two upper B-pools and the original decimation process



brought about by sediment.  The studies previously summarized



help to interpret the response of the various components of
                          102

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the population and the fish population as a whole to the sedi-
ment pollution.

     The almost total absence of carpsuckers,  mostly carpiodes
cyprinus hinei , downstream from the quarry in comparison to
their common occurrence both above the quarry and in the lower
part of Deer Creek attests to the fact that even the very
lowest amounts of sediment entering from the quarry created
conditions unfavorable to the species.  The same sensitivity
to a somewhat reduced degree applied to smallmouth bass (Microp-
terus dolomieui) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum).  Giz-
zard shad, which invaded the study stretch of Deer Creek from
further downstream, were usually absent or occurred in very
small numbers at times when the suspended solids loads exceeded
the minimum input by the quarry.  Even a slight increase, such
as occurred in mid-summer 1970, caused them to leave the area.
Needless to say these species were almost never taken below the
quarry during periods of relatively heavy sediment input.

     Suckers and redhorse (mostly Moxostoma erythrurum) tended
to recover during periods of light sediment input  but never
quite achieved levels typical of the stream above the quarry,
even after two years of relatively low input during which the
summer loads of suspended solids seldom exceeded 80 mg/1.  The
numerical density of suckers and redhorse was often much greater
below the quarry than above, indicating that recolonization for
this group may be accomplished through natural reproduction
                          103

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within the area and/or by direct invasion of young individuals.



Near normal standing crops were re-established two years after



the elimination of fish from the upper B-pools, but the growth



rate of golden redhorse was lower than normal.





     Carp  (Cyprinus carpio) were never more than half as abun-



dant in terms of weight below the quarry as above and showed



no signs of achieving normal levels even after two years of



relatively light sediment input.  All sizes were affected



equally.





     Longear  sunfish  (Lepomis megalotis megalotis) of all sizes



moved  into the decimated zone following the removal of sediment



but never approached the abundance of the population above the



quarry even after two years.  There is evidence that natural re-



production was inhibited in the area.





     The only species which was apparently resistant to sedi-



ment was spotted bass  (Micropterus puctulatus) which were some-



times  present in greater weight in the pools below the quarry



than in those above.  This resistance was purchased at the price



of growing more slowly, however.





     The lack of recovery within a two-year period following



decimation of the population of fish is evidence that a depres-



sive effect is exerted on mixed, warmwater populations of fish



by suspended solids loads which include not more than 40



mg/1 additional inorganic fine sediment.  This effect was found
                          104

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under conditions where the additional sediment was added only
during about 10 hours of each day, 6 days a week.   This level
is regarded as a very conservative one because the determina-
tions mostly were made during periods of low stable flows when
the concentrations would be greatest.

     The ultimate effect of the sediment in eliminating exist-
ing populations of fish is the obliteration of habitat as was
also shown by Saunders and Smith (1965) , but avoidance reactions
were obvious in this study which clearly were with regard to
suspended sediment in the absence of significant deposition.
Recovery of the population after a severe decimation was accom-
plished during the spring months when movement of fish is max-
imum, except during the spring of 1968.  During this period there
was a substantial increase in the load of suspended solids, on
the order of 150-200 mg/1 over normal, but no sediment was de-
posited in the study pools.  A marked reduction in population
density resulted through movement of fish out of the B-pools and
perhaps an avoidance of the zone by fish from other areas which
may well have been moving upstream and down at this time.

     This response contrasts strongly to what occurred later in
the summer when fish were literally forced to leave because of
accumulating sediment.  At this time the suspended solids loads
were much, much higher ranging from at least 200 mg/1 to 2000
mg/1, yet the fish were extremely reluctant to move and, in fact,
did not move out of the pools until habitat was obliterated.
                           105

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                   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS





     It is hoped that the many students who have made signif-



icant contributions to this research project have benefitted



as much from their involvement as the project has from their



efforts.  Special recognition is extended to Ujjal Deol, David



Allard, Ed Stullken, Michael Baaske and, especially, to David



White.





     The personnel of the quarry at Manhattan, Indiana, through



most of the period owned by Standard Materials Corporation,



were of great assistance throughout the entire period of study



and provided valuable information concerning quarry operation



and records of production.  Mr. Les Gray was especially helpful.





     Mrs. John McKee has been invaluable throughout the past



four years as she devoted long hours in editing and preparing



progress reports and the final research report.





     Although not directly concerned with the projects, but,



nevertheless, directly affected by it, are the spouses of those



who conduct research.  A very special thanks to my wife, Pat,



who tolerated many inconveniences throughout the past four years.





     During the final two years of the project Dr. William



Brungs served as Project Officer and offered several construc-



tive ideas during that period.  The research itself was made



possible by financial support through research grant 18050 DWC
                          106

-------
by a governmental agency which has traveled widely through the
bureaucratic structure of the federal government since the in-
itiation of the project, but which recently has become the
Water Quality Office of the Environmental Protection Agency.
                           107

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                          109

-------
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                          110

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                          113

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                       APPENDICES
Table          Title                                     Page No

 I     List of the macroinvertebrate taxa collected from
       the riffles of Deer Creek during 1967, 1968 and
       1969                                                 115

 II    List of species of fish collected in Deer Creek
       during the study                                     118

 III   Average total weight (kg) and number of fish cap-
       tured per electrofishing pass in pools of Deer
       Creek during 1967 and 1968                           119

 IV    Total weight (kg) and number of fish captured in
       three electrofishing passes in the study pools
       of Deer Creek during 1969 and 1970                   124

 V     Estimated standing crop of fish (kg/ha) in pools
       of Deer Creek 1967 through 1970                      127

 VI    Estimated standing crop of fish (no/ha) in pools
       of Deer Creek - 1967 through 1970                    135

 VII   Average weight of fish (grams) captured in the
       pools of Deer Creek above (A) and below (B) the
       limestone quarry                                     139
                          114

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Appendix I:  List of the macroinvertebrate taxa collected

             from the riffles of Deer Creek during 1967,

             1968 and 1969.
Order Family
Ephemeroptera Baetidae


Siphlonurinae

Baetinae

Caenidae
Heptageniidae





Ephemeridae

Potomanthidae
Tricorythoidae

Genus Species
Baetis cingulatus
B. phoebus
B. baetis
Ameletus sp.
Isonychia sp.
Callibaetis sp.
Neocloeon sp.
Caenis sp.
Arthoplea sp.
Rhithrogena sp .
Stenomia Carolina
S. rubrum
S. femora turn
S. ithica
Hexagenia sp.
Ephoron sp.
Potomanthus verticis
Tricorythodes
sp.
Trichoptera
Coloeptera
Hydropsychidae
                    Hydroptylidae
                    Limnaphilidae
                    Rhaycophilidae
Elmidae
Hydropsyche orris
H.          bifida
H.          frisoni
H.          simulans
Cheumatopsyche
            sp.
Hydroptila  sp.
Agraylea    sp.
Mayatrichia sp.
Ochrotrichia
            sp.
Neophylax   sp.
Rhaychophila
            sp.
Amphizoa    sp.
                    Hydrophilidae

                    Haliplidae
Narpus?
Stenelmis
S.
Dubiraphia
Ancyronyx
Berosus
Laccobius
Peltodytes
sp.
sexilineata
6-vittata
4-notata
variegatus
peregrinus
agrilis
edentulus
                           115

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Appendix I:   (con't.)
Order
Coleoptera (con't.)








Diptera











Odonata


Neuroptera
Plecoptera




Hemiptera




Family
Staphylinidae
Psephenidae
Curculionidae
Gyrinidae
Dryopidae

Chrysomelidae

Heteroceridae
Chironomidae


Simuliidae

Tipulidae

Heleidae
Empididae

Chaoborus
Ce.ratopogonidae
Argionidae
Calopterygida
Lestidae
Sailodea
Perlidae


Perlodidae

Corixidae
Gymnocerata
Cicadellidae
Gerridae
Veliidae
Genus



Dineutus
Helictus
H .
Donacia
Altica
Heterocerus
Pentaneura
Chironomus
other
Simuli urn
S .
Tipula
Hexatoma
Bezzia
Hemerodromia

Frivittatus
Culicoides
Agrion
Hetaernia
Lestes
Corydalus
Isoperla
Neoperla
Perlesta
Isogenus
Isoperla



Trepobates
Rhagouelia
Species



sp.
striatus
fastigiatus
sp .
sp.
sp .
sp.
sp .

sp . a
vi ttatum
sp .
sp .
sp .

sp.
sp .
sp .
sp.
sp.
sp .
sp.
sp.
sp.
sp .
sp.
sp.



sp.
obesa
Homoptera
Hymenoptera
Collembola
Aphididae
Scdioidae
Smynthuridae    Smynthurides
                                               sp,
                          116

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Appendix I:   (con't.)
    Order
   Family
Genus
Species
Oligochaeta
Nematoda
Gordiida
Gastropoda
Pelecypoda
Chelicerata
Hirudinea
Triciadida
Megaloptera
Tubificidae
Gordia
Pulmonata
Physidae
Bulimidae
Phanorbidae
Arachinidae
Hirudidae
Planariidae
Aialidae
Physida
Physa
Bulmis
Helisoma
Araneida

Dugesia
Sialis
sp.
sp.
sp,
sp,
sp,

sp
sp
                           117

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Table  II:
List of species of fish collected in Deer Creek
during the study.  A=abundant, C=common, R=rare
Ooccasional.
     Common Name
                      Scientific Name
Abundance
Brook Lamprey
Longnose Gar
Shortnose Gar
Golden Redhorse
Black Redhorse
Silver Redhorse
Shorthead Redhorse
Common White Sucker
Spotted Sucker
Creek Chubsucker
Hog Sucker
Central Quillback Carpsucker
Northern River Carpsucker
Highfin Carpsucker
Bigmouth buffalo
Bluntnose minnow
Silverjaw minnow
Suckermouth minnow
Stoneroller
Spotfin Shiner
Striped Shiner
Redfin Shiner
Sand Shiner
Creek Chub
Carp
Goldfish
Gizzard Shad
Blackstripe Topminnow
Brook Silversides
Channel Catfish
Flathead Catfish
Yellow Bullhead
Black Bullhead
Freshwater Drum
Smallmouth Bass
Spotted Bass
Largemouth Bass
Longear Sunfish
Green Sunfish
Bluegill Sunfish
Orangespot Sunfish
Rock Bass
Warmouth
White Crappie
Black Crappie
Log Perch
Orangethroat Darter
Greenside Darter
Blackside Darter
                   Lampetra lamottei
                   Lepisosteus osseus
                   L. platostomus
                   Moxostoma erythrurum
                   Moxostoma duquesnei
                   Moxostoma anisurum
                   Moxostoma macrolepidotum
                   Catostomus commersoni
                   Minytrema melanops
                   Erimyzon oblongus
                   Hypentelium nigricans
                   Carpiodes cyprinus hinei
                   Carpiodes carpio carpio
                   Carpiodes velifer
                   Ictiobus cyprinellus
                   Pimephales notatus
                   Ericymba buccata
                   Phenacobius mirabilis
                   Campostomum anomalum
                   Notropis spilopterus
                   Notropis crysocephalus
                   Notropis umbratilis
                   Notropis stramineus
                   Semotilus atromaculatus
                   Cyprinus carpio
                   Carassius auratus
                   Dorosoma cepedianum
                   Fundulus notatus
                   Labidesthes sicculus
                   Ictalurus punctatus
                   Pilodictus olivarus
                   Ictalurus natalis
                   Ictalurus melas
                   Aplodinotus grunniens
                   Micropterus dolomieui
                   Micropterus punctulatus
                   Micropterus salmoides
                   Lepomis megalotis
                   Lepomis cyanellus
                   Lepomis macrochirus
                   Lepomis humilis
                   Ambloplites rupestris
                   Chaenobryttus gulosus
                   Pomoxis annularis
                   Pomoxis nigromaculatus
                   Percina caprodes
                   Etheostoma spectabile
                   Etheostoma blennioides
                   Percina maculata
    0
    C
    R
    A
    A
    C
    C
    0
    C
    R
    A
    A
    0
    R
    R
    A
    A
    C
    A
    A
    A
    0
    0
    R
    A
    R
    A
    C
    0
    C
    0
    C
    R
    C
    C
    C
    R
    A
    C
    C
    0
    0
    R
    C
    0
    0
    0
    R
    R
                          118

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Tablelll:  Average total weight  (kg) and number of fish captured per electro-
           fishing pass in pools of Deer Creek during 1967 and 1968.
Species
Group
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species

A-l
2.20(12.6)
-
3.83(11.7)
2.19(27.7)
2.15(23.7)
1.01(59.3)
0.13(0.7)
0.03(0.3)

A-2
June
1.32(10.3)
0.44(4.3)
3.29(11.0)
2.96(35.7)
0.84(13.0)
1.99(90.7)
0.30(2.7)
0.36(1.0)
Pool
B-0
26 - 28, 1967
0.31(4.7)
0.10(3.2)
0.01(0.2)
0.26(4.5)
0.13(2.2)
0.38(15.2)
0.08(1.7)
_

B-l
0.14(1.7)
0.14(1.0)
0.01(0.2)
0.51(2.7)
0.08(1.5)
0.23(10.2)
0.06(0.7)
_

B-2
0.74(4.0)
0.08(1.7)
0.10(0.5)
0.75(3.5)
0.20(3.2)
0.27(12.7)
0.01(0.2)
0.10(0.2)
   Total
11.54(136.0)    10.34(168.7)    1.28(32.0)     1.17(18.2)
2.24(26.2)

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Table III: (con't)
Species
Group
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hogsuckers
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species

A-l
1.33(10.0)
0.14(2.0)
4.88(15.3)
4.07(40.3)
0.94(8.0)
1.23(53.7)
0.24(4.0)
0.17(0.3)

A-2
July 24 -
1.58(11.0)
0.40(4.0)
1.64(5.5)
3.95(29.5)
0.48(5.0)
1.63(74.0)
0.36(4.0)
0.09(1.5)
Pool
B-0
August 18, 1967
0.36(10.0)
0.34(5.5)
-
0.15(1.0)
-
0.29(15.2)
0.27(3.7)
0.01(0.2)

B-l
0.59(10.0)
0.23(2.5)
-
0.32(2.2)
0.12(1.2)
0.69(43.2)
0.33(2.2)
0.07(0.5)

B-2
0.67(16.7)
0.03(1.5)
-
0.70(5.2)
0.26(2.2)
1.02(60.2)
0.20(3.0)
0.04(0.5)
   Total
13.00(133.6)
8.55(134.5)   1.40(35.7)
2.361(62.0)   2.921(89.5)

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       Table  III:   (con't.)
N>
Species
Group
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog suckers
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total

A-l
2.06(9.7)
0.05(1.0)
3.52(10.0)
5.10(9.2)
1.66(14.0)
0.62(21.5)
0.48(2.0)
0.53(1.2)
14.02(68.6)

A- 2
June
2.31(9.7)
0.11(2.0)
2.01(5.0)
2.50(6.0)
0.94(8.7)
0.80(25.3)
0.18(2.0)
0.11(0.7)
8.97(59.4)
Pool
B-0
6 - 11, 1968
0.19(1.0)
0.06(1.5)
0.05(0.2)
-
-
0.05(2.3)
0.01(0.2)
-
0.37(5.1)

B-l
0.18(0.7)
-
0.14(0.6)
0.76(0.6)
0.01(0.6)
0.11(5.3)
-
0.13(0.3)
1.33(8.0)

B-2
0.13(0.7)
0.05(0.7)
0.10(0.6)
-
-
0.43(2.7)
-
0.52(0.3)
0.84(5.0)

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       Table  III:   (con't.)
ISJ
Species
Group

Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog suckers
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Pool
A-l


0.19(1.2)
0.04(0.5)
2.87(7.5)
0.83(1.7)

1.00(8.5)

0.65(30.0)
0.24(2.3)

0.78(4.5)



0.
0.
0.
1.

0.

0.
0.

0.
A-2


91(4
93(1
45(1
72(6

51(5

87(4
20(1

28(5

July

.3)
.0)
.3)
.0)

.7)

5.3)
7)

.3)

10 -

0.
0.
0.
0.



0.
0.

0.
B-0
28,

25(4
27(4
01(3
75(2

-

11(6
08(3

07(2

1968

 0)
.0)
.0)
.0)



.0)
.0)

.0)
B-l


0.82(3.
-
-
0.64(2.

-

0.10(7.
0.18(1.

0.01(1.



0)


0)



0)
0)

0)
B-2


0.57(5
-
0.01(1
0.70(2

-

0.13(9
-

0.16(4



.0)

.0)
.0)



.0)


.0)
          Total
6.59(5.6.2)
5.86(70.5)    1.52(24.0)     1.65(14.0)     1.56(21.0)

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Table III:  (con't.)
Species
 Group
                                              Pool
                                 A-2
B-0
B-l
B-2
Suckers f|
 Redhorse
Hog suckers
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
 Shad
Sunfish 
 Crappie
Bass
Other
 Species
   Total
                                     September  19,  1968
           0.01(1.0)
           0.12(1.0)
           0.02(1.0)
           0.01(1.0)
                         0.23(3.0)
           2.03(3.0)

           0.32(1.0)

           0.17(4.0)
           0.17(2.0)
           0.157(4.0)     2.93(13.0)

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Table   IV:  Total weight  (Kg) and number of fish captured in
             three electrofishing passes in the study pools
             of Deer Creek during 1969 and 1970.
Species
Group
Pool
A-l
A- 2
B-0/1
B-2
June/July 1969
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total

5.69(23)
5.28(16)
8.68(23)
0.18(2)
3.75(336)
0.66(4)
1.26(7)
25.50(411)

5.09(24)
1.04(8)
2.72(11)
2.89(8)
-
2.42(161)
0.81(7)
0.46(3)
15.43(222)

1.05(25)
0.79(9)
1.53(4)
0.06(1)
2.45(172)
0.28(4)
1.63(4)
7.79(219)

1.99(16)
0.18(2)
0.59(2)
0.04(1)
0.56(41)
0.01(1)
-
3.37(63)
                                  August 1969
Suckers 
 Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
 Shad
Sunfish 
 Crappie
Bass
Other
 Species

   Total
1.32(25)
0.76(17)
0.64(3)
0.50(1)

2.59(14)

1.12(84)
0.33(7)

0.19(8)
1.33(7)
0.29(22)
0.22(1)
0.90(2)
0.39(40)
0.28(5)
7.45(159)    3.41(77)
                          124

-------
Table   IV:  (con't.)
Species
brouP A-l A- 2
Pool
B-0/1

B-2
Suckers 
 Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
 Shad
Sunfish 
 Crappie
Bass
Other
 Species

   Total
                                 October 1969
                          0.82(42)
                          1.73(41)
                          1.55(160)
                          0.40(13)
                          4.50(256)
                          1.54(17)
                          1.33(43)

                          2.04(1)
                          0.86(98)
                          1.56(17)
                           7.33(176)
                                  June 1970
Suckers 
 Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
 Shad
Sunfish 
 Crappie
Bass
Other
 Species
1.82(11)
0.39(13)
0.97(3)
20.07(15)
5.20(33)
1.54(80)
0.30(4)
0.96(4)
0.29(7)
1.52(4)
0.92(2)
1.03(10)
1.09(48)
-
1.08(28)
0.72(9)
-

5.59(35)
1.26(63)
0.36(7)
0.90(7)
0.12(5)
-
~
1.88(11)
0.27(13)
1.19(5)
2.39(9)
0.32(3)
   Total    32.68(168)    6.13(78)
0.93(3)
0.10(1)
                           9.94(145)     4.46(42)
                          125

-------
Table  IV:  (con't.)
Species
Group

Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total
Pool
A-l


4.91(57)
1.69(25)
0.03(5)
2.95(6)

-

6.11(439)
1.51(26)

0.54(5)
17.74(563)
A-2
August

3.48(18)
1.52(16)
-
4.68(7)

0.73(3)

5.40(289)
0.38(19)

0.18(5)
16.37(357)
B-0/1
1970

0.97(13)
0.77(14)
-
0.36(1)

0.46(1)

1.43(103)
0.13(17)

0.01(1)
4.13(150)
B-2


2.45(21)
0.36(7)
0.01(1)
-

-

0.35(31)
0.30(12)

-
3.47(72)
                          126

-------
Table V:  Estimated standing crop of fish (kg/ha) in pools
          of Deer Creek 1967 through 1970.
Species
Group
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total

A-l
37.00
-
42.55
46.94
35.51
38.03
4.11
0.57
204.71

A- 2
June
20.85
9.31
34.22
59.68
13.07
70.57
8.94
0.58
217.32
Pool
B-0
26 - 29,
18.00
8.04
0.04
19.13
7.60
49.02
9.08
-
110.90

B-l
1967
4.76
6.42
0.18
21.67
2.70
16.99
3.79
-
56.49

B-2
19.08
2.87
1.65
24.93
5.22
15.60
0.10
2.55
71.98
                           127

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Table V:  (con't.)
 Species      	P01
  Group         A-l       A-2       B-0       B-l       B-2

         July 24-26  (A-pools) and August 15-18, 1967 (B-pools)

Suckers 
 Redhorse      22.33     24.96     20.63     19.76     17.37

Hog sucker      3.22      8.42     26.37     10.39      1.05

Carpsuckers    54.21     17.15

Carp           87.48     79.67     10.70     13.70     23.31

Gizzard
 Shad          15.43      7.43       -        4.08      6.52

Sunfish 
 Crappie       46.51     57.59     37.30     52.02     59.59

Bass            7.47     10.57     28.73     20.89      9.68

Other
 Species        2.95      1.47      0.06      2.57      1.01

   Total      224.16     207.26    123.81    123.41    118.52
                          128

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Table V:  (con't.)
Species
Group
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total

A-l
18.02
0.64
20.42
57.14
14.27
12.25
7.92
4.73
140.13

A- 2
June 6
39.35
2.43
22.73
54.42
15.76
30.71
5.84
1.95
173.21
Pool
B-0 B-l
- 11, 1968
14.79 6.36
6.54
2.37 3.20
33.62
0.47
9.17 8.68
1.75
4.67
34.62 57.01

B-2
2.96
1.49
1.56
-
-
2.22
-
42.80
41.03
                           129

-------
Table V:  (con't.)
Species
Group
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total

A-l
1.64
0.47
16.62
9.29
8.57
12.74
3.93
7.03
60.30

A- 2
July
15.54
2.14
5.04
37.39
8.44
33.12
6.49
4.85
112.95
Pool
B-0 B-l
10 - 28, 1968
18.96 28.40
28.25
0.46
73.88 28.49
-
18.33 7.89
11.04 11.81
5.21 0.53
156.13 77.12

B-2
13.05
-
0.05
20.61
-
6.97
-
3.75
44.43
                          130

-------
Table V:  (con't.)
 Species                           Pool
  GrUp         A-l       ~2       ]To
                            September 19,  1968
Suckers 
 Redhorse                            -         -         5.39
Hog sucker                           -
Carpsuckers                          -        0.23
Carp                                 -        5.52     59.90
Gizzard
 Shad                                -         -         7.27
Sunfish 
 Crappie                             -        1.49      8.94
Bass                                 -        0.26      7.47
Other
 Species                             -
   Total                             -        7.50     88.97
                          131

-------
Table  V  :   (con't.)
Species
Group
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total
Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total

A-l A-2
June 23

30.65 47.16
9.93
23.87 23.95
76.75 35.06
0.74

27.65 38.47
2. '88 7.81

6.60 4.67
169.14 167.05
August







Pool
B-0/1
- July 14, 1969

17.83
10.98
29.44
0.66

56.00
3.59

23.42
141.92
14 - 15, 1969
15.77
9.09
4.62
11.91
40.95

19.25
4.28

2.35
108.22

B-2

27.36
1.81
13.66
0.49

8.67
0.10

-
52.09
18.55
3.49
2.96
20.66
-

5.11
3.13

-
53.90
                         132

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Table   V :   (con't.)
Species
Group

A-l A-2
Pool
B-0/1

B-2
Suckers 
 Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
 Shad
Sunfish 
 Crappie
Bass
Other
 Species

   Total
                             October 7 - 10, 1969
                       11.30
                       23.87
                        21.44
                         3.06
                        59.67
                        24.02
                        20.66

                        41.73
                        12.45
                        19.73
                       118.59
                              June 11 - 25, 1970
Suckers 
 Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
 Shad
Sunfish 
 Crappie
Bass
Other
 Species

   Total
  9.69
  5.12
  5.05
 88.30

 22.62

  8.06
  4.53

 12.84

178.20
11.70
 3.89
14.94
 9.74

10.42

16.76
 3.34

70.80
 13.36
  8.96
 74.25

 27.41
  5.44

 11.83-

141.92
12.23
 1.46
21.52

 3.51
44.76

 1.25

85.40
                          133

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Table   V
(con't.)
Species
Group

Suckers 
Redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard
Shad
Sunfish 
Crappie
Bass
Other
Species
Total
Pool
A-l


28.51
9.98
0.24
14.10

-

44.03
21.52

2.84
122.07
A- 2
August 4 -

33.24
16.63
-
43.26

6.80

84.29
10.18

2.16
188.76
B-0/1
10, 1970

17.51
14.58
-
3.98

6.64

31.45
5.25

0.30
80.70
B-2


33.27
6.45
0.04
-

-

6.93
3.65

-
50.33
                         134

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Table VI:  Estimated standing crop of fish (No/ha)  in pools

           of Deer Creek - 1967 through 1970.
   Species Group
Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish crappie
Bass
Other species

            Total
Pool
A-l
June 26 -
213
-
129
594
390
2337
21
8
A- 2
29, 1967
163
92
115
719
201
3208
79
16
B-0

273
251
1
330
127
1961
189
-
B-l

59
45
6
118
49
772
47
-
B-2

104
61
8
115
83
743
11
7
3591   4577
3132
1096   1133
                        July 24 - 25, 1967
Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Other species

            Total
168
45
170
866
132
2022
127
6
173
85
57
595
77
2618
119
24
573
425
-
73
-
1963
405
30
335
113

96
41
3251
142
17
434
52
*
174
57
3505
147
13
3536   3630
3470   3996   4383
                        June 6-11, 1968
Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish crappie
Bass
Other species
            Total
86
12
58
103
120
422
33
11
165
46
56
131
145
960
68
12
77
156
8
-
-
399
24
-
                        25
 845   1582
 664
                16

                 9


               139
                          135

-------
Table VI:   (con't.)
                                         Pool
Species Group

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Other species
Total
Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Other species
Total


Species Group

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Other species
A-l
July 10 -
11
6
44
20
73
579
37
40
810
September




A-l
June 23 -
124
72
203
8
2475
17
37
A-2
28,
73
2
15
131
95
1743
54
93
2206
19,




A-2
July
222
77
97
97
2563
68
30
B-0 B-l
1968
306 104
415
153
197 89
1018 564
442 66
158 35
2689 858
1968
23
44
78
65
211

Pool
B-0/1
14, 1969
153
125
77
11
3927
51
58
B-2

115
17
59
465
94
750
69
88
23
208
87
475


B-2

220
20
46
11
639
17
            Total
2936
3154
4402
953
                         136

-------
Table VI:  (con't.)
                                         Pool
Species Group

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish $ crappie
Bass
Other species
Total

Suckers $ redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Other species
Total


Species Group

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish 5 crappie
Bass
Other species
' Total

August 14 - 15, 1969









October 7-10, 1969










Pool
A-l A-2
June/July 1970
53 49
168 95
16 39
66 21
148 101
424 728
60
48 31
983 1065
B-0/1

501
203
22
24
221
1447
92
98
1911

578
566

-
-
2212
92
-
3448


B-0/1

318
101


464
1827
105
38
2994
B-2

98
268
13
46
-
521
56
-
1002

265
668
-
20
-
1420
215
-
2588


B-2

95
58

~
126
167
188
12
761
                          137

-------
Table  VI:  (con't.)


                                         Pool
   Species Group            A-l    A-2          B-0/1    B-2
                        August 1970

Suckers  redhorse          297    173           233     286
Hog sucker                  149    175           265     122
Carpsuckers                  27                            4
Carp                         29     65            11
Gizzard shad                 -      28            14      -
Sunfish  crappie          3145   4436          2246     630
Bass                        371     55           656     146
Other  species                26     62            16

            Total          4280   5147          3728    1471.
                         138

-------
Table VI I:  Average weight of fish (grains) captured in the

           pools of Deer Creek above (A) and below (B) the

           limestone quarry.
   Species Group
Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass
Suckers   redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard  shad
Sunfish   crappie
Bass
Pool
A-l
June 20
174
-
328
79
91
17
195
July 24-
133
71
318
101
117
23
59
June 6 -
211
54
352
552
119
29
240
July 10
150
80
382
474
117
22
1056
A- 2
- 29, 1967
128
101
299
83
65
22
113
25, 1967
144
99
299
134
96
22
89
11, 1968
239
53
403
416
109
32
86
- 28, 1968
212
93
344
286
89
19
121
B-0

66
32
38
58
60
25
48
August
36
62
-
146
-
19
71

192
42
279
-
-
23
72

62
68
3
375
-
18
25
B-l

81
142
32
184
55
22
80
15-18,
59
92

142
99
16
147

256
-
244
1321
25
21
"

272
-
-
320
-
14
180
B-2

184
47
193
215
63
21
9
1967
40
20
-
134
114
17
66

180
67
179
-
-
16
"

113
-
3
350
-
15
-
                          139

-------
TableVII: (con't.)

Species Group

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass


Species Group


Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish  crappie
Bass

Suckers  redhorse
Hog sucker
Carpsuckers
Carp
Gizzard shad
Sunfish & crappie
Bass

A-l
September









A-l

June 23 -
247
-
330
377
91
11
116
August 14







October 7







June 11 -
240
41
380
460
103
19
-
Pool
A-2 B-0
19, 1968
-

-

-
-


Pool
A-2

July 14, 1969
212
130
248
361
-
15
165
- 15, 1969







- 10, 1969







July 7, 1970
167
30
323
1338
153
20
76

B-l

-
-
10
124

19
4


B-0/1


117
88
-
383
60
14
70

31
45
212
500
185
13
' 47

20
42

-
-
10
31

48
81
-
-
160
21
52

B-2

78
-

678
322
43
86


B-2


124
92
-
297
45
14
6

190
13
220
450
-
10
55

91
31
-
2041
-
9
92

129
25
-
-
171
24
238
                         140

-------
TableVII:  (con't.)
                                         Pool
   Species Group            A-l    A-2          B-0/1    B-2
                        August 4-11, 1970

Suckers  redhorse           96    192            75     116
Hog sucker                   67     95            55      53
Carpsuckers                   9     -             -        8
Carp                        492    669           362
Gizzard shad                 -     243           461
Sunfish  crappie            14     19            14      11
Bass                         58     20             8      25
                         141

-------
BIBLIOGRAPHIC*
      J.  R.  Gammon,  DeP&uw University.   The Effect     ACCESSION NO.
cf  Inorganic Sediment  on Stream Biota.  Final
Report Water  Quality OFfice  of  E.-.A. Grant N0.
18050 D*C. December 1970
ABSTRACT

     Fish  and mecroinvertebrate  populations
fluctuated over a four year period  in response
to verying quantities of sediment produced ty a
crushed limestone quarry.  Light  inputs which
increased  the  suspended solids less then lC mg/1
during a part  of each day ccused  a 25* reduction
in macroinvertebrate populzitionu  belov. the cuarry.
Heavy inputs caused elevations of more than 120
rag/1 with some periods of sediment accumulation
and a t>Q%  reduction in macroinvertebrate popula-
tions.  Diversity indices were not effected.
                                                          
-------
1
Access/on Number
w
5
r\ Subject Field & Group
05C
SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
INPUT TRANSACTION FORM
Organization
            Greencastle, Indiana
   Title
       THE  EFFECT OF INORGANIC SEDIMENT ON STREAM BIOTA
1 Q Authors)
Gammon, James R.
16

21
Project Designation
18050 DWC
12/70
Note
22
    Citation
     Water  Pollution Control Research Series  18050 DWC  12/70   141pp
23
Descriptors (Starred First)
   *Water pollution effects, *sedimentation rates, *stream fisheries,
   *aquatic  insects, standing crop, growth rates, fish behavior,
    insect behavior, Indiana.
 25
    Identifiers (Starred First)
   *stonedust pollution, population density, population diversity
27
    Abstract
        Fish  and  macroinvertebrate populations fluctuated over a four
   year period  in response to varying quantities of sediment produced
   by a crushed limestone quarry.  Light inputs which increased the sus-
   pended solids  less  than 40 mg/1 during a part of each day caused a 25%
   reduction  in macroinvertebrate populations below the quarry.  Heavy  in-
   puts caused  elevations of more than 120 mg/1 with some periods of sedi-
   ment accumulation and a 60% reduction in macroinvertebrate populations.
   Diversity  indices were not affected.  Experimental sediment introductions
   caused immediate  increases in drift rate proportional to the concentratioi
   of suspended solids.  The standing crop of fish decreased drastically when
   heavy sediment input  occurred in the spring, but fish remained in pools
   during the summer when sediment input was very heavy and left the pools
   only after deposits of sediment accumulated. After winter floods removed
   sediment deposits,  fish returned to the pools during spring months and
   achieved 50% normal standing crop by June. Only slight improvements
   occurred during summer even with light sediment input. Only spotted  bass
   (Micropterus punctulatus) was resistant to sediment, but its growth  rate
   was lower  below the quarry than above. Most fish were much reduced in
   standing crop  below the quarry.	.	.	
Abstractor
    J.  R.  Gammon
                      Institution
                             DePauw University
 WR:102 (REV. JULY 1969)
 WRSIC
                    SEND. W.TH COPY OF DOCUMENT. TO, WATER RESOUHCM^ENT JF^JN FORMAT , ON CENTER
                                             WASHINGTON. D. C. 20240
                                                                  * QPO! 1670-389-830

-------