WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES  12130 EGK 06/71
        Biological Treatment of
         Chlorophenolic Wastes
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY  WATER QUALITY OFFICE

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             Water Pollution Control Research Series

      The Water Pollution Control Research Reports describe
the results and prpgress in the control and abatement of
pollution in our Nation's waters.  They provide a central
source of information on the research, development, and
demonstration activities in the Water Quality Office, in the
Environmental Protection Agency, through in-house research
and grants and contracts with Federal, State, and local agen-
cies, research institutions, and industrial organizations.

      Inquiries pertaining to Water Pollution Control Research
Reports should be directed to the Head, Project Reports System,
Water Quality Office, Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, D. C. 20242.

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        BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF CHLOROPHENOLIC WASTES
The Demonstration of a Facility for the  Biological Treatment


                              of a


                 Complex Chlorophenolic Waste.
                               by


              The City of  Jacksonville, Arkansas

                 Jacksonville, Arkansas 72076
                             for the
                     WATER QUALITY OFFICE,

                ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                     PROJECT NO. 12130 EGK
                   (formerly No. 11060 EGK)

                           June, 1971
 For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.50

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                EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Environmental
Protection Agency and approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the contents neces-
sarily reflect views and policies of the Environ-
mental Protection Agency.
                        11

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                          ABSTRACT
Installation of a completely stirred aeration lagoon between
an existing conventional sewage treatment plant and existing
stabilization ponds avoided hydraulic overloading of the
former and reduced BOD loading of the latter. Joint treatment
of domestic sewage and an industrial waste having high BOD
and chlorophenols was facilitated. The study confirmed earlier
findings that the organisms present in domestic sewage readily
destroy complex chlorophenols and related materials. Glycolates
and acetates contributing to the high BOD of the industrial
waste were also readily oxidized biologically. High sodium
chloride levels in the treated mixed waste did not adversely
effect biological activity. Joint treatment of the complex
chlorophenolic wastes combined with normal sewage gave rise
to biolgical data which did not differ in any significant
manner from that to be expected in a similar system receiving
only normal sewage.

An historical background of the problem at Jacksonville,
Arkansas; design and construction information, and the
chemical and biological data resulting from the system study
are presented.

This report was submitted in partial fulfillment of Project
No, 12130 EGK between the Water Quality Office, Evnironmental
Protection Agency and the City of Jacksonville, Arkansas.
                          111

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                        CONTENTS
Section




 I       Conclusions




 II      Recommendations



 III     Introduction




 IV      Development of Treatment Process



 V       Hydrologic and Climatic Data




 VI      Operational Studies



 VII     Chemical Studies



 VIII    Rate Studies



 IX      Biological Studies




 X       Cost Analysis



 XI      Discussion



 XII     Acknowledgements




 XIII    References



 XIV     Appendices:    A



                       B




                       C



                       D
  1




  2




  3




  9




 19




 25




 37




 59




 77




 87




 89




 92




 93




 94




128




157




165
                           IV

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                        DRAWINGS

                                                     Page

1    General Layout- Sewage Treatment Plant           12

2    Aerated Pond Details                             13

3    In-Plant Waste Treatment                         17

                          MAPS

1    Headwaters of Bayou Meto, Arkansas                7

2    Bayou Meto in Relation to the Arkansas River      8

                      PHOTOGRAPHS

1    Empty Lagoon                                     14

2    Filled Lagoon                                    15

                        FIGURES

1    Chloride Content v Time                         52

2    Change of BOD,- In A Mixture of Industrial
     Plant Effluent Under Constant Aeration           62

3    Change of Mixed Chlorophenol Concentration
     With Time                                        63

4    Log   DO Remaining In A 1:100 Dilution Of
     Industrial Waste in Aeration Lagoon Effluent     65

5    Removal Of 2,4-DCP and 2,4-D Acid                67

6    Removal of 2,6-DCP and 2,6-D Acid                68

7    Removal of 2,4-DP Acid                           69

8    Removal of 2,4,5-TCP and 2,4,5-T Acid            70

9    Removal of 2,4,6-TCP and 2,4,6-T Acid            71

10   Removal of 2,4,5-TP Acid                         72

11   Change In Pentachlorophenol Concentration        75

12   Log-.Q Of Pentachlorophenol Concentration
     Reacted vs Time                                  76
                           v

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                         FIGURES
                         (Cont.)
                                                     Paqe
B-l  Sampling Point Locations - Bacteriological       78

B-2  Coliform Organisms - Seasonal Intensives         82

B-3  Seasonal Variation in Plankton                   84

B-4  Period of Plant Operation - Relationship to
     Seasonal Intensive Biological Studies            85
                          VI

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                          TABLES

                                                     Page

I    Averaged Flow Data                               20

II   Climatological Summary                           22

III  Rainfall                                         23

IV   Wet-Well Contents                                28

V    Aeration Lagoon Influent                         29

VI   Filter Effluent                                  30

VII  Terminal Manhole - Air Base Sewer Line           32

VIII Terminal Manhole - City Sewer Line               33

IX   Data Obtained 5/27-9/30 1969                     42

X    Loading and Disposition 5/27-9/30 1969           43

XI   Average Unit Efficiencies 5/27-9/30 1969         43

XII  Data Obtained while Aerator No. 1 Not
         In Service                                   44

XIII Averaged Loading of Industrial Waste and
         Disposition                                  46

XIV  Unit Efficiencies 1/17-4/17 1970                 47

XV   Data Obtained 4/20-5/11 1970                     48

XVI  Data Obtained 5/11-6/12 1970                     48

XVII Averaged Loading of Industrial Waste and
         Disposition 4/20-5/11 1970                   49

XVIII Averaged Loading of Industrial Waste and
         Disposition 5/11-6/12 1970                   49

XIX  Unit Efficiencies 4/20-5/11 1970                 50

XX   Unit Efficiencies 5/11-6/12 1970                 50

XXI  Analysis of Industrial Waste                     51

XXI-A Chlorophenol Content of Industrial Waste        51
                          VII

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                           TABLES
                          (Cont'd)
                                                      Paqe
 XXII    Averaged  Data  Obtained  7/13/70  -  9/11/70
            During  Operation  as Indicated              53

 XXIII   Apparent  Efficiency of  Aeration Lagoon
            With  Low Industrial Waste                   55

 XXIV    Data From East Jacksonville  Sewage
            Treatment  Plant                             55

 XXV    Bayou Meto  at  Arkansas  Highway  161              56

 XXVI    BOD  - COD Relationship                          57

 XXVII   Data for  Rate  Constant                          60

 XXVIII  Aerated Mixture of Plant Effluent and
            Aeration Lagoon Effluent                   61

 XXIX    Change in DO Content  of 1:100 Dilution  of
            Industrial Plant  Effluent in  Aeration
            Lagoon  Effluent

 XXX    Change in Pentachlorophenol  Concentration       74

 Appendix-A   Survey  Summary of  Plankton Organisms       94

 Appendix-B   Bacteria  and Plankton -
                        Fall  Intensive                128
                        Winter  Intensive              135
                        Spring  Intensive              141
                        Summer  Intensive              147

Appendix-C   Biological  Survey  -  Upper  Bayou Meto
                                 Dec. 1969            157

Appendix-D   Biological  Survey  -  Upper  Bayou Meto
                                 Dec. 1970            165
                           Vlll

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                        SECTION I
                       CONCLUSIONS
Biological degradation of the complex waste associated with
the manufacture of herbicides, specifically 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T
and 2,4,5-TP acids, may be accomplished under actual field
conditions of operation of a sewage treatment plant with the
proper dilution obtained by joint treatment.  This project
demonstrated that the pilot plant studies related to such
wastes reported in other literature are valid.

Following new construction and operation of the joint treat-
ment system, complaints regarding taste and odor in fish and
of the receiving stream have not occurred, although analyt-
ical data indicated a level of phenolics somewhat above the
threshold values reported in the literature.

The biological information gathered in this study indicates
that conditions prevailing in the joint treatment system do
not differ in any significant way from those to be expected
in a similar system that does not receive complex chloro-
phenolic wastes combined with the normal sewage.

Iii vitro experiments with individual chlorophenols and the
related chlorophenoxy acids diluted with aeration lagoon
effluent indicated that these substances are rapidly
decomposed when sufficient biological population has been
developed.  Obviously the nutrient requirements for good
bacterial growth must have been met by the aeration lagoon
mixture.

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                         SECTION II
                      RECOMMENDATIONS
Although the industrial plant manufacturing phenoxyalkanoic
herbicides did not operate continuously during the period of
this study, for reasons beyond our control, the information
and data provided is valid, if somewhat incomplete in some
respects.  It would have been more satisfactory to have had
all operating conditions nearly constant throughout the
study period.

Further research into the biological and chemical character-
istics of the system would be desirable.  Neither time nor
personnel permitted isolation of the bacterial strains
responsible for the apparent ring-opening of the chlorinated
phenolics and derivatives or chemical determination of the
specific breakdown products.

It is suggested that in future studies of chemicals which
show refractory or poor biological degradation when mixed
with biota of normal sewage, that they be carefully exam-
ined by means of prolonged in vitro methods to permit
development of bacterial strains capable of their rapid
destruction by metabolic or enzymatic destruction.

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                        SECTION III

                       INTRODUCTION

The City of Jacksonville, Arkansas, typical of many rapidly
developing communities in the southern United States, faced
a serious problem at one of its two sewage disposal plants.
This situation resulted in part because of population
growth and in part because an industry discharged a waste
having a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), including a
portion of chlorophenolics related to herbicidal manufacture.

The results of a special survey in the upper Bayou Meto
basin, conducted by the Arkansas Pollution Control Commis-
sion in 1967 led to the conclusion that the West Sewage
Treatment system of Jacksonville was both hydraulically and
organically overloaded.  It therefore was stipulated that
there should be no new industrial waste, or industrial
expansion with accompanying increase in organic waste
material or other toxic substances which could further
upset the system.

The industry involved was requested to take further
measures to reduce to a minimum the output of chlorophenolic
materials in their process waste water, thereby reducing the
possibility of toxic materials being discharged to Bayou
Meto from the sewage treatment system.

Accordingly, a proposal designed to relieve the organic
overloading of Bayou Meto and to improve the removal of
chlorophenolics prior to discharge to the receiving stream
was developed by consulting engineers retained by the City
of Jacksonville.  This proposal consisted essentially in
providing an aeration basin in addition to the existing
West Treatment Plant facilities.  It was proposed that the
aeration basin be located so as to permit aeration of the
total flow in the system following treatment of a part
of the total flow through the existing conventional treat-
ment plant.  Thereby hydraulic overloading of the existing
plant could be avoided, but the combined treated and
untreated portions could then be aerated before discharge
to the existing stabilization ponds which discharge to
Bayou Meto the receiving stream.  The aeration step was
predicated on the assumption that it would promote the
bacterial degradation of the chlorophenolic industrial
waste, based on published articles  (1/2,3,6) and private
communications (4,5).

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 Purpose and Scope:

 The purpose of this project was  to finalize the design,
 construction,  and operation for  joint treatment of  an
 industrial waste together with a municipal waste; to  study
 the biological and chemical effects of the treatment,  and
 to provide hydraulic data which  would permit evaluation  of
 the joint treatment.

 The scope of the design,  construction, and operation  work
 was intended to permit the demonstration  of the process
 of joint treatment of an  industrial herbicidal waste  in
 conjunction with a municipal waste by a biological  treat-
 ment system under full scale operation of the Jacksonville
 West Sewage Treatment Plant.   The adequacy of nutrients
 from the domestic waste on the bio-degradation of the
 industrial waste was to be determined and optimized with
 due consideration of peak hydraulic loads.   Also, the
 efficiency and feasibility of the overall system for
 effective treatment and control  of chlorophenoxy herbicide
 concentrations of receiving waters was to be established.

 The biological study was  to include investigations  of  the
 factors  which  influence the removal of chlorophenolics by
 the biological system,  and a study of the organisms in
 various  parts  of the treatment system and receiving waters.

 The chemical study  was  to include the choice of suitable
 methods  for  the  identification and determination of the
 various  chlorophenolics encountered and where feasible to
 apply the methods  to determine the relative rates of
 biochemical  degradation.

 The  hydraulic  study was to obtain necessary quantity  and
 quality  data of  the various waste sources  flowing into the
 West Treatment Plant as well  as  the effluent from the
 industrial plant  and the  waste waters  within the plant,  to
 permit evaluation of the  project.

 The  overall project study  was  to  permit evaluation  of  the
 feasibility and performance of the  joint  treatment  of
 herbicidal-domestic wastes, and pollution  abatement of
 receiving waters, as  a  result of  the  project actions and
 the  treatment  system used  during  the  period of  the  project.

Historical Background;

 In 1961  the City of  Jacksonville, Arkansas,  improved their
existing West Sewage  Treatment Plant.   At that  time, in
addition to rehabilitation of  the pumping station and

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clarigesters, a new secondary digester was added, with
sludge drying beds and gas heating equipment/ and 44 acres
of stabilization ponds were provided.

Generally, these facilities were designed to serve a
projected equivalent population of 17,800 persons;
estimated to consist of 10,300 persons on the Little Rock
Air Force Base and 7,500 persons in the City.  The design
was for an average daily flow of 1.78 million gallons per
day (MGD), with a maximum installed pump capacity of
4.8 MGD to the plant, and 6.8 MGD to the ponds.

The organic load used in the design of those existing
sewage treatment facilities was 3,560 pounds of 5-day
biochemical oxygen demand (6005) per day.  It was assumed
that 63% would be removed in the conventional plant, or a
total of  2,250 pounds per day, leaving 1,310 pounds per
day in the influent to the stabilization ponds.

Since 1961 the waste from a plant manufacturing phenoxy-
alkanoic herbicides in Jacksonville has been added to the
west treatment plant.  When the City of Jacksonville first
considered accepting the waste from the plant for treatment
in the municipal treatment facility, it was believed that
the only objectionable qualities in the industrial waste
were its  low pH and its chlorophenolic content.  It was
not anticipated at that time that the industrial waste
would also be high in organic loading.  The plant installed
facilities for neutralizing the acidity of the industrial
waste and the City of Jacksonville then accepted the waste
for treatment in the municipal treatment system.  The
industrial waste water, neutralized to pH 7.2, was added
to the City sewer at a low rate of flow on August 18, 1964,
reaching the full plant effluent flow on October 1, 1964
by gradually increasing rates during that period.

Prior to this arrangement for treating the industrial
waste, commercial fishermen and residents along Bayou Meto
had frequently complained of odors in Bayou Meto, odd odors
and taste in fish, and also of occasional fish kills in the
stream.  After the City had accepted the industrial waste
for treatment in the municipal plant, these complaints
continued, though reduced in number, resulting in a special
survey in the Upper Bayou Meto Basin by the Arkansas
Pollution Control Commission in the first half of 1967.
This special survey indicated that the average sewage flow
reaching the Jacksonville West Treatment Plant in June,
1967 was 2.4 MGD, containing a BODs of 372 mg/1.  Thus, the
total BODg in the sewage treatment plant  (STP) influent was
7,650 pounds per day.

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 The survey further indicated that the existing
 clarigester-roughing filter treatment plant was removing
 only approximately 1,968 pounds of 8005  per day,  with
 5,682 pounds per day going to the 44 acres  of stabiliza-
 tion pond.  This represented a loading on the existing
 ponds of approximately 130 pounds of 3005 per acre  per
 day.  Such a loading exceeded the level  recommended by the
 Arkansas State Department of Health by 100  pounds BOD,, per
 acre per day.

 In spite of this tremendous overload, the City's  sewage
 treatment facilities were producing a reasonably  satisfac-
 tory effluent  in June,  1967.  The average BOD5 in the
 effluent from  the stabilization ponds was 55 mg/1,  includ-
 ing the  oxygen demand of the algae content  of the effluent.
 The average total phenol content of the  influent  to the
 ponds was 6.2  mg/1 during March and April,  1967 and also
 in June,  1967,  as reported in the Special Survey  of Bayou
 Meto. The pond effluent averaged 1.0 mg/1  of total phenol
 during this period,  representing a reduction of 85  percent
 across the ponds.  However, spot checks  of  the phenolic
 content  of the pond effluent earlier in  the year, when
 algae growths  in the ponds were materially  less by  reason
 of winter weather,  indicated that in the winter little or
 no removal of  phenolics  was being accomplished.

 Past complaints indicated that Bayou Meto might be  one of
 the most  polluted streams in Arkansas.   Lawsuits  by
 property  owners along Bayou Meto below Jacksonville have
 occurred  because of  this alleged pollution.   It was there-
 fore imperative that any pollution occasioned by  the
 effluent  from  the City's West Sewage Treatment facility be
 reduced  to a minimum.

 Bayou Meto

 Bayou Meto, the receiving waters  of effluent from the
 Jacksonville West STP, is a sluggish stream having  a total
 drainage  area  of about 995 square miles  at  its mouth.   Its
 headwaters  lie  generally northwest and west of Jacksonville,
 Arkansas,  from  which it  flows  meanderingly  in a direction
 southeasterly  through lowlands  and farming  country.  It
 empties into the Arkansas River at a point  about  10  miles
 northwest  of Pendleton,  Arkansas.

Map No. 1  shows  the  location of Jacksonville and  the Little
 Rock Air Force  Base  in relation to the headwaters of Bayou
Meto.  Map No.  2  shows the extent and general location of
 the bayou  in relation to the Arkansas River.

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                                 MAP NO. I
                      HEADWATERS OF BAYOU METO. ARKANSAS
             FAULKNER  /I
             COUNTY
0   Sewage Treatment  Plant'

9   Industrial Plant

          SCALE
I     0    I     2     3    4

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                  MAP NO.  2




BAYOU METO IN RELATION TO  THE ARKANSAS RIVER

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                        SECTION IV

             DEVELOPMENT OF TREATMENT PROCESS

Development of Proposed Method of Treatment

In the special survey of the Upper Bayou Meto Basin by the
Arkansas Pollution Control Commission, the average sewage
flow reaching the Jacksonville West Treatment Plant in
June, 1967 was 2.45 MGD, of which some 85,000 gallons was
the flow from the industrial plant.  The data presented
in that report shows typical analyses of the combined flow
reaching the City STP and of the industrial waste water,
separately.

                        "TABLE I
                TYPICAL CHEMICAL ANALYSES
                 JACKSONVILLE,  ARKANSAS
                       June, 1967

                                Combined
                            Municipal  and      Industrial
                           Industrial Waste        Waste

pH                   ppm           7.2                7.3
Total Alkalinity     ppm         195                896
BOD                  ppm         372              5,328
COD                  ppm         543              6,768
Total Solids         ppm       3,286             83,610
Suspended Solids     ppm         171                762
Settleable Solids    ml/1          5.8               40
Chlorides            ppm       1,449             38,160
Phenol at pH 10      ppm           2.6               59.6
Phenol at pH 7.9     ppm           6.2              121.8
Flow at STP          MGD           2.47
Flow from Plant      Gal.                        85,000  "

The analyses presented then suggest that it would be
extremely difficult to treat the industrial waste separate-
ly, but that when it is mixed with the municipal sewage the
combined flow is susceptible to conventional treatment.
Also, the analyses indicate that the problem of adequate
treatment involves primarily removal of organic load as
measured by 5-day biochemical oxygen  demand and removal of
phenols.

Simple phenolic wastes that are too dilute for practical
recovery can be treated and the phenols decomposed by some
form of oxidation.  Aeration in the activated sludge
process and oxidation in film flow biological oxidation

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 systems  (trickling filters),  or as  a combination  of  these
 two treatment processes,  have been  successful.  On the
 basis  of the literature  cited,  it was believed  that  the
 more complex chlorophenols,  under properly  controlled
 conditions,  could also be removed by these  methods.  How-
 ever,  such conventional  treatment methods are costly, both
 in  initial construction  cost and in operation and mainte-
 nance  cost.

 Experience with  the combined wastes at Jacksonville  during
 1964-1967  indicated that  the removal of phenols,  including
 chlorophenols, can be effected most economically  in  surface
 aerated  oxidation ponds.   This  experience also  indicated
 that during winter months when algae activity in  such
 lagoons  is reduced,  the  removal of  both BOD5 and  phenols is
 poor.  These facts suggested that the most  economical
 method for supplementary  treatment  of the combined wastes
 might  be the installation of an aerated lagoon  ahead of the
 existing two 22-acre stabilization  ponds.

 On  the basis of  then current knowledge of aerated lagoons,
 it  appeared that the construction cost of a lagoon in the
 case of  Jacksonville would be materially less than for
 conventional activated sludge or trickling  filters,  and
 that the annual  operation and maintenance cost  would be
 less.

 As  a result,  it  was  proposed  in early 1968  that the
 existing clarigester-fliter  plant be continued  in service,
 treating a 1 MGD portion  of  the combined sewage flow at a
 uniform  rate.  This  1 MGD of  treated sewage, together with
 all  of the rest  of the combined flow,  would then  be  pumped
 to  an  aerated lagoon.  After  passing through the  aerated
 lagoon,  the  effluent from that  process would then flow into
 the  existing 44-acres of  stabilization ponds, which  would
 in  effect  become  finishing ponds.   The effluent from the
 stabilization ponds  would enter the receiving stream via an
 existing earthen  ditch.

 From the best information then  available, it appeared that
 this plan  would  involve an aerated  pond with an effective
 area of  approximately three  (3)  acres.   The pond  contents
would require complete stirring  and provision of  oxygena-
 tion capacity of  about 745 pounds of  oxygen per hour. This
was estimated to  be  adequate  for  treatment  of an  applied
BOD5 of  9,650 pounds per  day with a pond volume of 8.64 MG
and an average influent of 2.88 MGD with a  BOD  of about
400 mg/1.                                     5
                          10

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This proposal was found acceptable by the Arkansas
Pollution Control Commission and the Arkansas State
Department of Health, and formed the basic process system
of the present study.

                 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

The design was finalized, plans and specifications were
prepared, and construction was begun on November 4, 1968.
No unanticipated problems arose during the construction
period, which was essentially complete on May 7, 1969.  The
usual minor delays due to availability of specialized parts
and equipment were not serious.

Details of the aeration lagoon and its relationship to the
existing facilities are shown in Drawings No. 1 and 2.
The lagoon has a capacity of approximately 8.4 MG, with a
3-day detention time at an average flow of 2.88 MGD.  The
bottom of the basin was excavated to a uniform grade to
provide a normal operating depth of approximately 12 feet.
Under normal conditions the average flow of 2.5 MGD results
in a detention time of about 3.4 days and an operating
depth of about 11.5 feet.

The upper section of the inside slope of the dike was
surfaced with crushed stone to prevent soil erosion at the
water's edge.  The top of the dikes was surfaced to
facilitate vehicular access around the basin.

Each of the 75 hp floating aerator units is held in posi-
tion by three radial anchor cables attached to deadmen
buried in the levee fill.  One cable for each unit also
supports the power service cable from the control panel to
the motor.

The aeration units each have the capacity to transfer 249
pounds of oxygen per hour.  The combined design capacity
is sufficient to transfer 23,900 pounds of oxygen per day,
which is considered adequate to treat an applied 6005 load
of at least 9,650 pounds per day with an excess of 2 mg/1
of dissolved oxygen  (DO) in the effluent.

Each aerator drive mechanism is supported by a circular,
fiberglass, doughnut type raft consisting of a three-
compartment circular pontoon.  The rotating element turns
within the circular pontoon and consists of a fabricated
steel blade plate which carries 32 cupped blades, 8 feet
in overall outside diameter.  The oxygenation capacity of
each aerator may be varied from a maximum of 249 pounds
                            11

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5
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                             NEW  AERATED  POND
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                                                                                           IS Swr
                                                                                           Little Rock
                                        V
                                                                                          lf>' Sswaf  from*
                                                                                          ity of Jacksonville
      you

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                                                                                  Crushad  Stona
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                                                                      Bottom /. 244.0
                                                                                                                P. 264.0
                                                                    SECT ION  A- A
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                                                               POND   LAYOUT
                                                                      /*' 100'
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                                                 PHOTOGRAPH NO. 1
                                                   EMPTY LAGOON

,

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PHOTOGRAPH NO. 2
  FILLED LAGOON

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 per hour to a minimum of 166 pounds per hour by varying the
 submergence of the rotating blades.  Submergence is
 controlled by ballast water within the hollow pontoon
 sections.   Each drive unit is fitted with geared speed
 reducers to slow the speed of the rotating aeration element
 to a maximum of 37 RPM.

 The four units have a pumping rate of 51,000 gallons per
 minute each/  and when operating together can change the
 contents of the lagoon approximately every 41 minutes.
 The average velocity of  liquid throughout the lagoon with
 four units in operation  is about 0.5 foot per second.

 The position  of the aerators in the empty lagoon is shown
 in Photograph No.  1.   Influent to the lagoon is on  the
 bottom below  aerator No.  4 in the foreground of the
 picture.   Photograph No.  2 illustrates the filled lagoon
 with the four aeration units in operation.

 Pumping Facilities;

 Sewage reaches the Jacksonville West STP via separate  lines
 from a large  part  of  the  City of Jacksonville and from  the
 Little Rock Air Force  Base.   These two lines terminate  in
 a  common underground wet-well located adjacent to the
 Jacksonville  West  STP  pump house.

 The  combined  sewage may be handled by four different pumps
 from the wet-well:  One 700  gallons  per minute (GPM) pump
 may  be used continuously  to  feed the conventional sewage
 treatment  system,  which was  designed for a flow of  one
 MGD.   Treated liquor from this  system is returned
 continuously  to the wet-well after passing over the rocks
 of  the film flow biological  oxidation section (trickling
 filters).   Two 1,320 GPM  pumps,  piped in parallel,
 discharge  into a 12-inch  force  main  which connects  to an
 18-inch  force  main line leading directly to the inlet
 structure  of  the aeration basin.   These pumps operate
 automatically,  singly  or  together  as required,  to maintain
 a  level  in  the wet-well for  total  flows up to about 3.8
 MGD.   For  greater  flows,  one 2,570  GPM pump is  piped
 separately  from the wet-well to the  18-inch force main.
 This pump  automatically cuts-in to handle flows in  excess
 of 3.8-4.0 MGD.

 Industrial Plant Pre-Treatment;

A schematic diagram of the industrial plant waste stream
pre-treatment  is shown in Drawing  No.  3.   The industrial
plant waste is  collected  by  an  in-plant system of
                            16

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                         DRAWING -3
II
                           Plant Process Wast
IN-PLANT WASTE TREATMENT

  Hercules Incorporated

      Jacksonville
        Arkansas
11 x- Tile  Drainage
\W
                       Flow Gauge
                        & pH Control
                          Lime Slurry
\
N
   'To Jacksonville
     Sewage  Treatment Plant
         juime t>zurry &     ~j  ^ 
        * N.Linie^ Storage      i    *t
                 Neutralization
                     Ditch
 Scale:  1" =  @  40'
                           17

-------
underground pipes with skimming sumps for removal of light
or heavy liquid phases.  The aqueous phase is processed
through a crushed limestone filled neutralization ditch
fabricated of acid resistant brick.  The liquid passes
through successive "piles" of limestone which serves to
impede flow, permitting time for neutralization.  Effluent
from the ditch passes to the in-plant equalization pond at
pH of about 5.3-5.8.  The effluent from the equalization
pond is further adjusted to pH 7.2 by automatic addition of
slaked lime slurry in a continuously stirred pit.  The
neutral waste overflows to a rectangular settling pit or
turbulence quieting section and thence over a weir, reach-
ing the City sewer via a six-inch pipe.  Measurement of pH
is made within the liming pit for purposes of continuous
record and control.  The quantity of waste leaving the
industrial plant is continuously measured by level in the
quieting section ahead of the outlet weir.
                          18

-------
                        SECTION V

              HYDROLOGIC AND CLIMATIC DATA

Flow Measurements:

Total flow in the system was measured by a newly installed
level recording device at the influent section of the aera-
tion lagoon.  This recorded the level of flow over a
Cipoletti weir having a three (3) foot crest.  The charts
were changed daily and the flow in MGD was determined with
the aid of a graph relating depth of flow over the weir to
volume.

Flow from the stabilization ponds was measured by a newly
installed level recording device at the outlet of Pond
No. 1.  Since the pond outlet weirs are at the same eleva-
tion and are as nearly identical as possible, the flow at
the outlet of Pond No. 1 was doubled to obtain the total
out-flow to a ditch leading to Bayou Meto, the receiving
stream.

Flow from the Air Base was determined from an existing
automatic level detector recording instantaneous flow in
MGD and employing a seven day chart.  This device was used
to record flow through a Parshall flume located close to
the wet-well, in the sewer line from the Air -Base.
Measurements with this flow meter were not wholly satis-
factory.  Calibration was difficult to maintain accurately.
However, enough measurements were made available to
indicate that the flow from the City and from the Air Base
were practically equal during periods of dry weather.

Considerable infiltration of the sewer lines was noted
during periods of heavy general rain.  Most of this
appeared to come through the City lines which are consider-
ably older than those of the Air Base.  Installation of the
high capacity pump in the system, to keep the wet-well
level below the flood point of the entering lines, made
measurement of the relative separate flows more practical
by visual observation.

Total flow through the aeration lagoon and from the
stabilization ponds is presented in Table I.  The data
shown represents averaged flow for two week periods from
May 16, 1969 through July 15, 1970.
                            19

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                           TABLE  I
AVERAGED
Time Period

May 16-31, 1969
June 1-15
June 16-30
July 1-15
July 16-31
August 1-15
August 16-31
September 1-15
September 16-30
October 1-15
October 16-31
November 1-15
November 16-30
December 1-15
December 16-31
January 1-15, 1970
January 16-31
February 1-15
February 16-28
March 1-15
March 16-31
April 1-15
April 16-30
May 1-15
May 16-31
June 1-15
June 16-30
July 1-15
FLOW DATA
Aeration Basin
Influent

2.24
1.97
2.30
1.95
2.45
2.12
2.40
2.13
2.09
2.45
2.45
2.01
2.50
2.77
2.74
3.70
3.09
3.37
3.36
3.97
3.59
2.88
4.12
2.93
2.41
2.59
2.26
2.01
DETN . *
13
11
13
14
16
15
14
14
13
11
9
15
14
15
12
10
16
6
11
10
12
14
11
11
10
13
15
15
Stabilization Ponds
Effluent

2.82
1.91
2.57
1.84
2.03
1.47
2.13
1.52
1.51
1.57
 **
1.57
2.42
2.34
2.16
3.62
2.68
3.80
2.93
4.33
3.30
2.90
4.25
2.70
1.76
2.29
1.58
1.44
DETN . *
16
15
14
7
15
15
12
15
15
8
0
11
14
*
15
11
11
10
6
9
14
9
15
15
15
15
15
11
9
*DETN. - Number of days for which measurements were avail-
           able.
           ition Pond Recorder stolen on or a]

           1969 - Replaced November 3, 1969.
           able.
**Stabilization Pond Recorder stolen on or about October  9,
                           20

-------
Weather Conditions:

A summary of the average  air  temperature and  amount of
rainfall during the period May,  1969  through  August,  1970
is given in Table  II.  Dates  and amounts of rain measured
at the Little Rock Air Force  Base weather station are
reported in Table  III.

Evaporative Effects:

It was not possible to determine effects of evaporation
due to aeration.  For practical  reasons, the  effluent
volume was assumed to be  identical to that of the influent.

The volume of effluent from the  stabilization ponds was
found to vary from the daily  total flow in an understand-
able, but unpredictable way.  The average volume leaving
the ponds generally was less  than the average volume of
flow through the lagoon,  but  heavy rain readily reversed
this behavior.  Although  there were indications of heavy
infiltration of the sewer system, the rapid reaction of
the ponds to heavy rain was due  to simple entrapment by
the 44 acre surface.  This is to be expected when it is
remembered that one inch  of rainfall on 44 acres represents
nearly 1.2 MG of volume.

During the summer months  the  ratio of volume  leaving the
ponds to that entering approached 70%, but there did not
seem to be a practical way to separate concentration
effects.
                           21

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                         TABLE  II
                 CLIMATOLOGICAL SUMMARY
               May,  1969  - August,  1970
Month

1969;

May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1970:

Jan.
Feb.
March
April
May
June
July
Aug.
         Daily  Temperature
Mean
Max. F
80.7
86.6
94.7
88.7
83.9
74.1
60.4
49.3
45.6
52.2
56.4
74.8
83.2
87.6
89.4
89.9
Mean
Min.F
59.1
66.9
76.5
66.8
62.5
52.0
36.5
32.1
25.6
32.2
39.3
57.9
59.7
66.8
68.9
70.9
Range'F
42 - 88
47 - 97
68 -103
59 -100
51 - 93
36 - 91
20 - 72
25 - 67
 6
13
26
32
75
70
75
84
44 - 92
53 - 98
56 -101
59 - 96
     Number     Total
      Days  Precipitation
      Rain    (Inches)
10
7
6
4
5
9
5
12
9
11
12
12

4
6
7
8
4.60
4.34
2.84
2.60
2.02
5.08
3.81
8.20
1.23
4.21
5.76
8.58
53.27
0.74
2.48
2.88
1.98
                            22

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TABLE III
RAINFALL
May, 1969 - August, 1970
DATE

1969:
May 4
7
8
11
12
17
18
24
28
29

June 9
13
14
18
20
O T
21
23
24
July 1
13
19
24
25
26
27

Aug. 14
15
16
17
18
20
21
22
31



AMOUNT
(Inches)

0.40
0.64
0.07
0.02
0.18
2.32
0.23
0.18
0.05
0.51
4.60
0.42
0.12
0.04
tr
0.24
1C" *"l
. 52
1.09
0.91
4 34
T   J_
0.07
2 .60



DATE

1969:
Sept. 2
3
4
7
16
23

Oct. 6
10
1 1
JL. -L
12
13
25
29
30
31

Nov. 2
3
7
11
13
14
16
17
18
27

Dec. 5
6
7
18
20
21
24
25
27
28
29
30
31
AMOUNT
(Inches)

0.27
0.20
tr
0.04
0.53
0.98
2.02
1.32
0.32
0 "3Q
\j  .j _/
0.14
0.92
0.02
0.03
1.84
0.10
5.08
0.09
tr
tr
0.07
tr
tr
tr
2.21
1.23
0.21
3.81
0.25
1.94
0.12
0.01
0.10
0.32
0.25
0.04
0.03
2.91
1.61
0.62
tr
DATE
AMOUNT
(Inches)
1970;
Jan. 5
6
10
11
16
17
18
19
20
21
28

Feb. 1
2
5
6
8
14
15
22
23
24
25
28
Mar. 1
2
3
4
7
11
12
16
17
18
19
21
25
28
30


0.20
0.14
0.50
0.06
0.02
0.11
0.16
tr
0.01
0.03
tr
1.
1.41
0.16
tr
! J_
0.10
0 .13
0.52
1.17
0.12
0.06
0.15
0.10
0.29
4.
0.09
0.87
1.23
0.01
tr
0.79
0.01
tr
1.52
tr
0.02
0.19
0.72
0.27
0.04
5.










23








21










76
       8.20
23

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TABLE III - Cont'
d:



RAINFALL
DATE

1970:
Apr.










May 1











1
5
12
15
16
17
18
19
22
23
24
25
27
28
29
30


9
10
15
16
27
28
29
30
31
AMOUNT
(Inches)

0.07
0.01
0.04
0.01
0.42
1.72
0.10
2.02
0.01
tr
0.97
1.43
tr
tr
tr
1.78
8.58
tr
tr
tr
0.08
tr
tr
0.15
0.04
tr
0.47
May, 1969 -
DATE

1970:
June 1
2
3
4
6
12
21
24
26
July 7
8
11
15
16
18
20
21
22
23
25
26
27
28
31


August,
AMOUNT
(Inches)

0.99
0.46
tr
0.04
tr
0.17
0.45
tr
0.37
2.48
tr
0.51
tr
1.89
0.18
tr
0.01
tr
tr
0.11
0.07
tr
0.11
tr
tr
2.88

1970
DATE

1970;
Aug. 2
5
7
9
10
16
18
20
21
22
31















AMOUNT
(Inches)

0.45
tr
0. 84
0.33
0.07
0.01
0.01
tr
0.18
0.09
tr
1.98















0.74
               24

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                        SECTION VI

                   OPERATIONAL STUDIES

Upon completion of the major construction and installation
of the aeration equipment, sewage flow was diverted from
its prior path to the empty basin.  The water level
reached the level of the outlet weir within four days.  At
that time, final adjustment and check-out of the equipment
was performed.  Operation became routine immediately
following acceptance of the completed work by the City's
consultant engineers.

Operational difficulties have been at a minimum.  For
example, the ambient temperature within the electrical
starter panel was high enough during the hot summer months
of 1969 to permit tripping of the heater elements in the
starters.  This problem was eliminated by the addition of-
larger elements to the starters.

Only one major difficulty was encountered.  This was the
failure of the gear speed reducer in the Number 1 aerator,
nearest the outlet end of the lagoon.  This failure
occurred after nine months of operation and required moving
the aerator to the outlet end bank, with removal of the
parts for shipment to the manufacturer for repair by the
manufacturer under their warranty.

Access to the aerators for maintenance and cleaning was
provided by a light weight rowboat which was stored upside
down on the outer bank of the dike when not in use.  When
inspection or maintenance of the aerators was done, at
least two persons were present as a safety precaution.

Each aerator was stopped for examination and maintenance
on a routine basis.  The aerator Number 4 located immedi-
ately above the end of the influent pipe required most
attention.  It required blade cleaning more frequently
than the others because of build-up of adhering solids.

At the beginning of the study, greatest concern was with
the behavior of the aeration lagoon.

It was noted immediately that BOD values of aeration
lagoon influent samples were considerably lower than those
reported in the Special Survey of Bayou Meto - 1967 for
the raw waste reaching the Jacksonville West STP.  This
was believed to be due in part to the fact that the
industrial plant had been operating at a greatly reduced
level.  Also, because a considerable portion of the raw
                            25

-------
 sewage was routinely processed through the conventional
 STP ,  as planned in the proposed method of joint treatment.

 Composition of Wet- We 11 Contents :

 That  portion of the total flow treated through the
 conventional system (1 MGD)  originated in the  wet-well
 which also feeds the aeration lagoon.   The treated  sewage
 was returned to the wet-well at an average rate of  1 MGD
 to  mix with the incoming raw sewage.   This returning
 treated stream thus diluted  the incoming raw sewage, so
 that  the strength of the feed to the conventional system
 and to the aeration lagoon normally would be less than that
 of  the raw sewage.

 In  such a system,  the fractional amount of the total flow
 treated per day equals the volume  pumped to the convention-
 al  system divided by the total flow per day.

 The degree of  dilution of the biologically oxidizable
 contents (and  separable solids)  depends upon the total flow
 per day divided by the sum of the  total flow per day plus
 the volume per day circulated through  the conventional
 system.

 FC  =    .  c     = Fraction treated  through conventional STP
Fn =    QT     = Dilution  factor
     QT + Qc

where QT = total flow in MGD

      Qc = constant flow to conventional STP in MGD

For a constant flow of 1 MGD through the conventional
system and an assumed total flow of 2.5 MGD the fractional
amount treated through the conventional system would be
1 MGD/2.5 MGD or 0.4 (40%).  The dilution  factor of the
raw sewage in the wet-well would be 2.5 MGD/3.5 MGD or
0.714 (71.4%) .

The strength of the wet-well contents, in  this assumed
instance, would be equal to the BOD,- of the entering raw
sewage times 0.714 plus 0.286 times the BOD5 of the
treated sewage stream returning to the wet-well from the
filters of the conventional system.
                            26

-------
       Wet-well BOD5 = FD x Raw Sewage BOD5 +

            (1-F-J x treated waste BOD5

Thus the  average strength of the waste in the wet-well will
be below  that of the incoming waste stream if the conven-
tional STP  removes BOD effectively.   It  should be weakest
for low total flows near the volume circulated, approaching
incoming  raw waste strength for exceedingly high total
flows.

It was assumed that the chemical composition of the wet-
well contents and that of the aeration lagoon influent
would be  nearly identical.  The relatively short length of
force main  leading to the lagoon influent structure and the
rate of flow favor this assumption.

A test of this assumption was made by means of grab samples
taken nearly simultaneously from the  wet-well and from the
aeration  lagoon influent well.  Grab  samples were necessary
because no  suitable equipment was available for sampling at
the depths  involved.  The data obtained  during late
September and October, 1969, when the industrial waste flow
was negligible, is shown in Tables IV and V.

It was found that the averaged values of BOD5 of samples
taken from  the wet-well and from the  aeration lagoon
influent  were 77.8 mg/1 and 75.4 mg/1, respectively.

Samples of  the filter effluent from the  conventional
system on its way to the wet-well were also taken during
this same period.  The averaged BODs  of  the treated stream
was found to be 21.4 mg/1, as shown in Table VI.

Although  the reliability of grab samples should always be
suspected,  the average value of the wet-well BOD,- and that
of the filter effluent obtained during this period, when
the average total flow was 2.45 MGD,  gives an opportunity
to estimate the probable averaged strength of the mixed
raw sewage.  Using the method outlined above to calculate
the strength of the wet-well BOD5, a  mixed raw sewage
having an assumed BOD5 of 101 mg/1 would account for the
observed  average value of 77.8 mg/1;  the calculated value
would be  77.9 mg/1.
                            27

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                        TABLE  IV




                  WET-WELL  CONTENTS




      West  Jacksonville Sewage  Treatment Plant




                  9/17  -  10/24,1969
DATE
9/17/69
9/18/69
9/19/69
9/26/69
10/1/69
10/2/69
10/3/69
10/6/69
10/8/69
10/9/69
10/10/69
10/13/69
10/15/69
10/16/69
10/17/69
10/20/69
10/22/69
10/23/69
10/24/69
BOD5
mg/1
80
102
95
95
62
135
63
70
54
70
63
43
76
64
72
104
68
76
86
pH
6.9
6.9
6.9
7.1
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.6
7.4
7.0
7.0
6.9
7.1
7.2
7.1
7.3
7.3
7.2
7.1
DO
mg/1
0
0
0.5
0
0.3
0
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.9
0
0
1.1
1.0
0.5
0
0.4
0.3
0
Temperature
C
_












22
22
23
20
21
21
Average:       77.8      7.15        0.3           21.5




   (Average volume to Conventional  STP  -  1  MGD;



    Average volume to Aeration Lagoon - 2.45  MGD.)
                          28

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TABLE V

West


DATE
9/17/69
9/18/69
9/19/69
9/26/69
10/1/69
10/2/69
10/3/69
10/6/69
10/8/69
10/9/69
10/10/69
10/13/69
10/15/69
10/16/69
10/17/69
10/20/69
10/22/69
10/23/69
10/24/69
AERATION
Jacksonville
9/17 -
BOD5
mg/1
72
110
111
97.5
72
120
53
60
40
58
62
65
58
67
51
94
80
70
93
LAGOON
Sewage
10/24,

PH
7.0
6.9
7.0
7.2
7.9
7.1
7.3
7.3
7.5
7.7
7.3
7.0
7.6
7.5
7.4
7.3
7.4
7.2
7.3
INFLUENT
Treatment
1969
DO
mg/1
0
0
0.2
0
0.7
0
0
0
0.4
0.3
0
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.2
0
0
0
0

Plant

Temperature
C
_


-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
22
22
23
22
21
21
Average:        75.4     7.3        0.17



     (Average volume of influent - 2.45 MGD.)
21.8
                           29

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TABLE VI
FILTER EFFLUENT
West


DATE
9/17/69
9/18/69
9/19/69
9/26/69
10/2/69
10/3/69
10/6/69
10/8/69
10/9/69
10/10/69
10/13/69
10/15/69
10/16/69
10/17/69
10/20/69
10/22/69
10/23/69
10/24/69
Jacksonville
9/17 -
BOD5
ng/l
10
18
21
18.5
24
18
19.5
16
29
30.5
19.5
17
17
19
24
26.5
29
28.5
Sewage
10/24,

pH
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.3
7.2
7.2
7.3
7.2
7.2
7.3
7.2
7.4
7.3
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.3
7.3
Treatment
1969
DO
mg/1
4.5
4.9
5.5
5.1
5.2
5.1
4.5
5.2
5.1
3.8
5.4
5.1
5.9
5.4
4.7
5.7
5.8
5.9
Plant

Temperature
C

-


-

-
24
-
24
23
22
20
20
22
22
19
19
Average          21.4     7.3        5.15




     (Average volume from STP - 1 MGD;



      Average total flow - 2.45 MGD.)
21.5
                            30

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Determination of the chlorophenol and chlorophenoxyacid
content of some of the samples yielded the following
averages:

                             Wet-Well  Filter Effluent

   Chlorophenols, mg/1         0.33          0.15
   Chlorophenoxyacids, mg/1    0.88          0.91

The apparent efficiency of the conventional system with
respect to removal of 6005, chlorophenols and chloro-
phenoxyacids during the period was as follows:

       BOD5                     72.5% Removal
       Chlorophenols            54.5% Removal
       Chlorophenoxyacids        0.0% Removal

Estimation of Raw Mixed Waste BOD;

In order to estimate the approximate BODs of the combined
raw waste from the Air Base and the City during the period
when the industrial waste was practically nil, another
series of grab samples was taken from the terminal manholes,
The data developed from these samples is given in Tables
VII and VIII.

The average BOD^ of the sewage from the Air Base and the
City during this period was found to be 99.4 mg/1 and
104.4 mg/1, respectively.  At an average total flow of 2.45
MGD, of which 1.23 MGD represented flow from the Air Base,
the calculated BODs fr t*16 mixed raw waste would be 102
mg/1 which agrees well with the value assumed in the
previous section.
                            31

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                         TABLE VII
           TERMINAL MANHOLE - AIR BASE SEWER LINE

          West Jacksonville Sewage Treatment Plant

          	11/12 - 12/24, 1969	
DATE
mg/1   pH  mg/1
Temperature
    C
Average:   99.4 7.47  1.15
                     17.5
  Total
Alkalinity
  pH 4.2   Chloride
   mg/1	mg/1
11/12/69
11/13/69
11/14/69
11/17/69
11/19/69
11/20/69
11/21/69
11/24/69
11/28/69
12/1/69
12/4/69
12/5/69
12/8/69
12/10/69
12/11/69
12/12/69
12/15/69
12/17/69
12/19/69
12/22/69
12/24/69
143
123
100
134
74
86
60
80
27
150
112
150
90
98
98
130
103
108
115
53
53
7.4
7.5
7.5
7.2
7.0
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.3
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.6
7.7
7.5
7.8
7.4
7.5
0
0
0.3
0
1.0
3.4
3.0
0.5
5.5
0
0
0
2.7
0.9
2.3
2.0
0.2
0.9
0.3
4.3
4.8
21
20
20
20
18
17
18
19
18
19
18
18
16
17
13
17
17
16
16
15
15
270
277
253
209
119
182
138
-
-
-
292
285
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

34
32
35
24
22
17
18
-
-
-
37
37
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

                225
              28.4
   (Average flow to STP - 1.23 MGD;
     Total combined flow average - 2.45 MGD.)
                             32

-------
                         TABLE VIII

             TERMINAL MANHOLE - CITY SEWER LINE

          West Jacksonville Sewage Treatment Plant

          	11/12 - 12/24/ 1969	
DATE
11/12/69
11/13/69
11/14/69
11/17/69
11/19/69
11/20/69
11/21/69
11/24/69
11/28/69
12/1/69
12/4/69
12/5/69
12/8/69
12/10/69
12/11/69
12/12/69
12/15/69
12/17/69
12/19/69
12/22/69
12/24/69
BOD5
mg/1
137
100
140
148
50
100
65
77
83
157
138
136
49
72
113
143
150
60
115
67
93
PH
7.5
7.5
7.4
7.1
6.9
7.2
7.0
7.4
7.3
7.5
7.4
7.4
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.4
7.2
7.4
7.6
7.3
7.3
DO Temperature
mg/1 C
0
0.3
0.3
1.4
1.8
4.1
2.5
0.7
3.0
0
0.2
0.3
4.8
1.8
2.7
2.0
0.4
2.8
2.3
4.2
2.9
21
20
18
18
18
18
18
18
17
18
17
15
13
16
11
16
16
16
16
14
13
Total
Alkalinity
pH 4.2
mg/1
262
233
229
143
120
138
135
-
-
-
211
213
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Chloride
mg/1
39
33
34
39
22
32
27
-
-
-
32
39
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Average:  104.4 7.32  2.0
16.3
187
33
  (Average flow to STP - 1.23 MGD;
    Total flow combined average - 2.45 MGD.)
                            33

-------
 Uniformity of  Mixing;

 In order to test the uniformity of  mixing produced by  the
 aerators,  sixteen samples  were  taken  approximately one foot
 below the surface of the lagoon.  The sample  points were
 spaced evenly  from each of the  aerators  along the south
 positioning cables, four points per cable.  The  average
 DO of the samples taken was found to  be  5.3 mg/1, with a
 range of 5.0 to 5.7 mg/1.   This set of samples indicated
 excellent distribution  of  oxygen throughout the  lagoon.

 Visual observation of continuous movement of  the floe
 suspended in the lagoon contents, together with  considera-
 tion  of the general similarity  of the averaged values  for
 suspended solids of the influent and  effluent confirmed
 that  mixing was attained in all parts of the  lagoon.

 Although the incoming sewage always has  a low DO content,
 the DO content of samples  taken in  the immediate vicinity
 of aerator number 4, located above  the end of the influent
 pipe,  were nearly the same as those taken elsewhere in the
 lagoon.

 The DO content of samples  taken from  the stabilization
 ponds,  at  a depth of about six  inches and about  two feet
 from  the effluent weirs, was found  to average 11.3 mg/1
 for the period May 27 through July  15, 1969,  presumably
 due to supersaturation  associated with algae  photosynthesis
 during daylight hours.   It was  noted  that the DO content of
 the samples was nearly  identical in both ponds.  However,
 quick  breaking foam (similar to that  of  carbonated water)
 was observed below the  spillways.   This  was associated with
 rapid  loss  of  DO,  for samples taken below each spillway
 at a distance  of about  four feet from the point  of free
 fall  invariably were found to be lower in DO  than those
 samples  taken  above the spillway.   The foaming was
 apparently  the result of release of oxygen from  a super-
 saturated condition of  the water above the spillways.

 It was  decided to  reduce the number of samples to be
 handled  and at the same time determine the DO of the
 combined oxidation pond effluent, after  effective mingling
 of the  outfall  of  both  ponds.   Accordingly, a new sampling
 point  was chosen at a point in  the  outfall ditch approxi-
mately  in line  with the south side  of  the south  oxidation
 pond.
                            34

-------
Samples taken from this point showed an average DO of
3.9 mg/1 for the period July 16 through September 16, 1969,
This value of DO then represented the probable average
oxygen content supplied to Bayou Meto from the ponds.
Surprisingly the average DO found in Bayou Meto at a
point about two miles down-stream was 3.9 mg/1 for the
period July 16 through September 16, 1969.
                            35

-------
36

-------
                      SECTION VII

                    CHEMICAL  STUDY

Sampling:

Semi-continuous Sampling:

Samples were taken regularly of the influent to and
effluent from the aeration lagoon.  The influent sampling
point was located adjacent to the influent level recording
device.  The effluent sampling point was located about
four  (4) feet from the effluent weir.

Both sampling devices (Trebler samplers) were identical and
are available commercially.  They consist of narrow, clear
plastic dippers mounted to rotate in a plane vertical to
the water surface.  The curved portion of the dipper is
designed to remove a portion of water proportional to the
flow at the time of dipping.  A l/150th HP motor drives the
dipper by means of a chain geared to produce one revolution
in about two minutes.  At the average flow rate (@ 2.2 MGD)
the samplers were set to take a sample every 12 minutes.
This was accomplished by means of an adjustable interval
timer and micro-switch cut-off.  Total sample volume
varies somewhat with the daily flow but averages about
2.25 gallons.

The samples taken at both points were fed into .plastic pipe
and containers.  The containers were square, flexible
polyethylene bottles enclosed in a close-fitting wooden box
for ease in handling.  They were housed within small square
electric refrigerators which are obtainable locally.  The
shelving and other internal pans were removed to provide
room for the containers.  Inlet openings were bored care-
fully through the insulating wall for the sample tubing
and for a small vent opening.  These were sealed after
placing supporting pipe and small glass tube for the vent,
to prevent moisture collecting within the walls.  The small
refrigerators were protected from direct sunlight and rain
by small plywood sheds painted white to reflect as much as
practicable.  In this way the samples taken semi-continu-
ously could be chilled almost immediately to a temperature
of 5-10C (40-50F).

Spot Sampling:

"Grab" samples were taken regularly of the influent and
                           37

-------
 effluent for the measurement of temperature and for  DO
 determinations.   Grab samples of stabilization pond
 effluent were taken because the detention time of  the
 ponds was about  25-30 days, hence changes were not rapid.
 Grab samples were necessary at several  other points  because
 suitable continuous sampling equipment  was not available.
 One  battery operated type was tried with poor performance
 because of solids accumulation in the pumping mechanism.

 Methods of Analysis:

 The  methods of analysis  used for the determination of the
 values reported  here were those set forth in the book
 "Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste
 Water," 12th Edition (1965), with the exception of  the
 determination of chlorophenols and chlorophenoxyalkanoic
 acids.

 Chlorophenols present in the waste samples were determin-
 able by three methods:

 1.   The first method was that set forth in "Standard
 Methods"  for phenol which involves distillation of a
 portion of the sample at pH 4.0 to separate the phenolic
 fraction,  followed by treatment to develop a colored
 solution.   The color intensity developed in the treated
 solution  is  compared  with that developed in standard
 solutions  of known strength by means of a Bausch and Lomb
 colorimeter.   The method was originally devised for  phenol
 and  relatively simple derivatives,  for  which it is quite
 satisfactory.  However,  the colors developed are not all
 alike  nor  does color  development occur  at the same rate
 for  various  phenolic  materials.   Where  mixtures are
 involved,  application of the standard method is not  a
 method  of  choice.   In the present case,  the method gave
 lower  results  because of the mixtures encountered  and
 because of  the difficulty of co-distillation of the  family
 of chlorinated phenol compounds present.   The number of
 grams  of water per gram  of compound to  be volatilized
 increases  enormously  at  low concentration,  since the rate
 of co-distillation is proportional to the mole fraction
 of the  compound  to be distilled and to  its vapor pressure
 at the  temperature of the distillation.

 2.   The second method, which was  adopted as the routine
method, involved  pH adjustment of a 50  ml measured sample
by the addition of  solid sodium bicarbonate.   Approxi-
mately  0.5 gm  of  sodium  bicarbonate was  sufficient for
samples with an initial  pH of  6 to 8; samples  outside this
range were first  adjusted by the  dropwise addition of
                           38

-------
dilute hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide.  After pH
adjustment, the chlorophenols were extracted into an equal
volume of spectro-grade isooctane containing 5% by volume
of tributylphosphate, using a glass stoppered conical
separator fitted with a Teflon stopcock plug.  The upper
layer containing the chlorophenols was isolated by draining
away the lower water layer into a second separator.  The
solvent layer was washed once with about 5 mis of water
down the neck and sides of the original separator  (not
shaken - merely to wash the walls).  The wash water was
drained to the second separator and combined with the water
raffinate layer.  This layer was retained for later similar
extraction of the more acidic materials present in the
sample after careful acidification with 10 mis of 1:1
hydrochloric acid and elimination of carbon dioxide.

The washed solvent layer containing chlorophenols was
passed through a small dry filter paper into a small
Erlenmeyer flask.  Portions of the filtered extract were
then used to rinse and finally fill a 10 cm fused quartz
cuvette.  The filled cuvette was placed in the sample-side
cuvette holder of a Cary-15 double-beam spectrophotometer
for visible or ultraviolet work.  The absorption spectrum
of the sample solution was then obtained in the wavelength
range 2400 to 3500 Angstroms relative to a portion of the
clean extracting solvent used in the matching cuvette of
the spectrophotometer.

Although the specific absorption spectra of the different
compounds which were to be expected are different in
magnitude at many wavelengths, they are sufficiently close
to permit reasonable quantitative estimation of total
phenols at the wavelength of 2,915 Angstroms.

3.  The third method involved carbon tetrachloride
extraction of a measured portion of the sample, after pH
adjustment with solid sodium bicarbonate.  The extraction
was done in 1000 ml Erlenmeyer flasks.  The flasks were
fitted with a ground glass stopper at the top and with a
short, approximately 8 mm glass tube and stopcock fused to
the side of the flask at a point as close as possible to
the flat bottom.  (This point allows the flask to sit on a
magnetic stirrer without tilt, but also permits draining
away the heavier than water extract layer.)  Extraction is
accomplished by adding a measured amount of sample
together with a measured amount of extracting solvent to
the extractor containing a Teflon coated or glass enclosed
magnet.  The clean ungreased stopper is placed and the
contents is stirred on a magnetic stirrer for five minutes.
Stirring is carried out so that a vortex develops,
                            39

-------
 sufficing  to bring  the heavy extracting liquid into
 intimate contact with the water layer.  Violent stirring
 sometimes  caused emulsification which may be broken on
 standing or by  the  addition of a small quantity of
 chloroform.

 The  separate extract is filtered to remove traces of
 liquid water and evaporated to dryness in a water
 aspirator  vacuum at 35-40C.  The residue is dissolved
 in 1 ml of carbon tetrachloride containing a known
 concentration of pure ethyl palmitate as an internal
 standard.  This solution is then examined by gas-liquid
 chromatography  using hydrogen flame detection.  Typical
 conditions are  given below:

 Column:      5  feet of 1/8 inch pyrex glass tubing.

 Packing:     1.5% FFAP (Varian Aerograph Co.) on
             Chromosorb G acid washed DMCS - 100/120 mesh.

 Conditions:  Injector Temp.  200C
             Column Temp.    150C
             H2 flow          25 ml/min
             N2 flow          25 ml/min
             Air flow        125 ml/min
             Chart  Speed       0.5 in/min

 The chromatograph obtained reveals the individual chloro-
 phenols present together with the standard substance in
 the extract.

 The order  of elution is:  1.  ortho-chlorophenol
                          2.  phenol
                          3.  2,6-dichlorophenol
                          4.  2,5-dichlorophenol
                          5.  2,4-dichlorophenol
                          6.  ethyl palmitate
                          7.  2,4,6-trichlorophenol
                          8.  para-chlorophenol
                          9.  2,4,5-trichlorophenol

By comparison of the retention volumes for various pure
chlorophenols, the  presence of various components in the
sample may be determined.  Quantitative amounts present
may be estimated by comparison of the relative areas under
the corresponding peaks of the chromatograph with that of
the internal standard.
                            40

-------
This method may be reasonably extended to low concentrations
by multiple extraction prior to concentration in vacuum.
As applied here, 500 to 1000 ml of sample were extracted
with a minimum of three  (3) successive 50 ml portions of
carbon tetrachloride, effecting a 500:1 to 1000:1
concentration of the chlorophenolics present.

Routine Sampling and Analyses;

Routine sampling and analyses were begun as soon as the
automatic samplers were installed and adjusted to provide
an adequate volume of sample per day.  A summary of the
data obtained from samples of aeration lagoon influent
and effluent, stabilization ponds and Bayou Meto at
Arkansas Highway 161 during the period May 27 through
September 30, 1969 is presented in Table IX.

Total and suspended solids of the samples of stabilization
pond effluent and Bayou Meto are not shown since the
greatest attention was placed upon the determinations
reported.

The figures given in brackets under Industrial Effluent
are not representative averages, but are intended to give
an order of magnitude.  They are the averages of several
determinations made during the preliminary study.  The
industrial plant was forced by other circumstances to
curtail the manufacture of chlorophenoxy acids shortly
after the time routine analyses were begun.  A more
complete study was done later in early 1970 after the
plant began temporary continuous operation.

The loading and average unit efficiencies of the aeration
lagoon and the stabilization ponds during this period are
given in Tables X and XI.  Percent total reduction across
lagoon and stabilization pond appears in brackets in the
table.

Sampling and analysis were continued during the three (3)
month period that the No. 1 aerator was out of service
for repair of the gear speed reducing mechanism.  The
data obtained at that time, broken into two intervals, is
summarized in Table XII.  The figures given in the table
represent average values obtained for the number of
samples noted in each column.

Using the data shown in Table XII,  the averaged load on
the West STP contributed by the industrial waste may be
estimated.   This loading and the subsequent disposition
of BOD5,  phenols and phenoxy-acids across the aerated
                            41

-------
                          TABLE  IX
DATA OBTAINED 5/27 - 9/30, 1969


Industrial
Effluent
Temp .  C
PH
Total
Alkalinity
pH 4.2 mg/1
(17.5)
(7.3)
(1720)
Settleable Solids
ml/1 (25)
Total Solids
mg/1
(53120)
Suspended Solids
mg/1 (1255)
Chloride
mg/1
DO mg/1
BOD5 mg/1
COD mg/1
Phenols
mg/1
Phenoxy
Acids mg/1
Volume/Day
Number of
Samples
(26950)

(4340)

141
370
13340
gpd
12

Aeration
Lagoon
Influent
25.5
6.9
163
3.6
580
110
206
0.7
72
210
0.8

2.22
mgd
88

Aeration Stabilization Bayou Meto
Lagoon Pond at
Effluent Effluent Hwv 161
26.8 27.3 25.2
6.8 8.3 6.8
108 119 66
5.3 Tr . Tr .
532
108
174 183 54
5.5 11.3 3.9
3.9
26 10.4 (3)
100 55 27.5
0.2 0.06 0.07* 0.05 0.08*
1.06* 0.85*
(2.22) 1.91
mgd mgd
78 85 21* 55 39*
*Data from UV Method.
                            42

-------
TABLE  X

LOADING AND DISPOSITION
5/27 - 9/30, 1969



Aeration Aeration Stabilization
Lagoon Lagoon Pond
Influent Effluent Effluent
Total Alkalinity
pH 4.2 Lbs./Day 3015 1997
Chloride Lbs./Day 3809 3218
BOD5
COD
Phenols

Lbs./Day 1331 481
Lbs./Day 3883 1849
Lbs./Day 14.8 3.7
TABLE XI
1893
2911




165
875
1.1

AVERAGE UNIT EFFICIENCIES
WEST JACKSONVILLE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT
5/27 - 9/30, 1969

Aeration Lagoon
Raw Flow (MGD) 2.22

Total
Alkalinity
to pH 4.2
mg/1
Settleable
Solids
ml/1
BOD5
mg/1
COD
mg/1
Phenols
mg/1
ppm Lbs./Day
Influent 163 3015
Effluent 108 1997
% Reduction 33.8
Influent 3.6
Effluent. 5.3
7o Reduction Q.O
Influent 72 1311
Effluent 26 481
% Reduction 63.3
Influent 210 3883
Effluent 100 1849
% Reduction 52.3
Influent 0.8 14.8
Effluent 0.2 3.7
7o Reduction 75.0
Stabilization Pond
1.91
ppm
108
119
5.3
Tr.
100
26
10.4
100
55
0.2
0.07

Lbs./Day
1997
1893
5.2
(37)
(100)
481
165
65.7
(87)
1849
875
52.7
(77)
3.7
1.1
70.3
                                (92)
  43

-------
TABLE XII
DATA OBTAINED WHILE AERATOR NUMBER 1 WAS
1/17 - 4/17, 1970
Industrial
Effluent
1/17-3/7 3/10-4/17
Temp. C
PH
Total
7.1
7.35

15.1
7.33

Aeration Lagoon
Influent
1/17-3/7 3/10-4/17
12.5
6.9

14.8
7.15

NOT OPERATING
Aeration Lagoon
Effluent
1/17-3/7
10.2
7.2

3/10-4/17
13.7
7.2

Stabilization
Pond
Effluent
1/17- 3/7
8.0
7.55

3/10-4/17
13.7
8.1

Alkalinity to
pH 4.2 mg/1
Settleable
Solids ml/1
Chloride mg/1
DO mg/1
BOD5 mg/1
Phenols mg/1
Phenoxy
Acids mg/1
Number of
Samples
Volume /Bay

763

7.7
5848

704
84.7

154.4

23
41960
gpd
2176

24.4
21688
(4-6)
2456
153.7

296.6

15
47500
gpd
107

2.5
91.5
(0-3
70.3
1.02

2.15

18
3.21
mgd
145

3.2
309
.5)
88.5
1.65

4.14

17
3.47
mgd
106

0.25
86
(4.
22.7
0.45

1.51

23
3.21
mgd
132

0.51
268
5-6.5)
23.2
0.21

1.73

15
3.47
mgd
102

Tr.
90
5.9
13.4
0.13

1.10

19
3.13
mgd
109

Tr.
226
10.9
15.9
0.10

1.48

20
3.34
mgd

-------
lagoon and stabilization ponds is shown in Table XIII.

The unit efficiencies are shown in Table XIV.

After the Number 1 aerator had been replaced in service,
the continuing study yielded data summarized in Tables
XV and XVI.  The loading and unit efficiencies for the
periods 4/20-5/11, 1970 and 5/11-6/12, 1970 are shown in
Tables XVII and XVIII and Tables XIX and XX, respectively.

The results of analyses of the industrial plant waste
effluent at intervals are shown in Table XXI to illustrate
the variability of this stream over the period of start-up,
operation and after shut-down of the chemical plant.

Table XXI-A presents the relative content of various
chlorophenols present in the samples reported in Table XXI.

Figure 1 shows the variation in chloride content of the
stabilization pond effluent with time in relation to
the number of pounds per day of chloride discharged from
the industrial plant.

Studies of Varied Operation;

Although the main object of the project work was the joint
treatment of industrial-domestic waste, it seemed
desirable to study the treatment of the domestic waste
with a low level of industrial waste through the aeration
lagoon only.  For this reason the conventional treatment
section of the process was valved out of service on
July 10, 1970.  Accordingly, continued sampling of the
aeration lagoon influent was typical of the combined raw
waste from the city and the air base.  For a period all
four aerators were continued in operation.  Then for six
successive weeks, aerators were turned off while the rest
ran in the following pattern:

                      Aerators Running   Aerators Off

       First Week:       2, 3 and 4           1
       Second Week:      1, 3 and 4           2
       Third Week:       1, 2 and 4           3
       Fourth Week:         1 and 4        2 and 3
       Fifth Week:          2 and 4        1 and 3
       Sixth Week:          3 and 4        1 and 2

Routine sampling was continued through this period and
the averaged results of analysis are shown in Table XXII.
The data shown is limited to chloride, BOD5 and volume
                            45

-------
                      TABLE XIII

AVERAGED LOADING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND ITS DISPOSITION
	1/17 - 4/17, 1970	

                                                     Stabilization
Industrial     Aeration Lagoon  Aeration Lagoon         Pond
  Waste            Influent          Effluent            Effluent
1/17-3/7
Settleable
Solids
(CFD)
Chloride ion
(Lbs./Day)
BOD5
(Lbs./Day)
Phenols
(Lbs./Day)
Phenoxy Acids
(Lbs./Day)
Volume/Day


43

2044
246

30
54
41960
3/10-4/17


155

8580
972

61
117
47500
1/17-3/7 3/10-4/17 1/17-3/10 3/10-4/17


1075

2447
1880

27
57
3.21


1490

8930
2558

48
120
3.47


108

2300
607

12
40
3.21


237

7746
671

6
50
3.47
1/17-3/7


--

2347
349

3.4
29
3.13
3/10-4/17


--

6288
442

2.8
41
3.34

-------

UNIT
TABLE XIV
EFFICIENCIES


1/17-3/7, 1970
Aeration Stabilization
Lagoon Ponds
BOD5
Lbs . /Day
Phenols
Lbs. /Day
Phenoxy
Acids
Lbs. /Day
Influent
Effluent-.
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
1880
607
67.7
27
12
55.5
57
40
29.8
607
349
42.5
12
3.4
71.6
40
29
27.5
Overall
81.4
87.4
49.1
3/10-4/17, 1970
BOD5
Lbs. /Day
Phenols
Lbs . /Day
Phenoxy
Acids
Lbs. /Day
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
2558
671
73.7
48
6
87.5
120
50
58.3
671
442
34.1
6
2.8
53.3
50
41
18
82.7
94.1
65.8
47

-------
                                 TABLE XV


DATA

OBTAINED

4/20 - 5/11
Aeration
Industrial Lagoon

Tempera ture C
PH
Total Alkalinity
pH 4.2
Settleable Solids
Chloride
DO
BOD5
Phenols
Phenoxy-Acids
Number of Samples
Volume/Day





mg/1
ml/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1



Effluent
24
7.4

2806
32
28305
3.5
2896
103.8
198
14
46890
SPd
Influent
18.8
7.2

156
3.7
377
2.4
80
1.22
2.58
13
3.47
mgd
, 1970
Aeration
Lagoon
Effluent
19.4
7.3

134
2.9
352
6.6
25.6
0.13
1.12
13
3.47
mgd

Stabilization
Pond
Effluent
22.5
7.65

138
0.2
316
5.4
14.3
0.1
1.12
14
3.44
mgd
TABLE XVI


DATA

OBTAINED

Industrial

Temperature C
PH
Total Alkalinity
PH 4.2
Settleable Solids
Chloride
DO
BOD5
Phenols
Phenoxy-Acids
Number of Samples
Volume /Day





mg/1
ml/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1



Effluent
26.7
7.2

1829
29
27055
3.2
2673
77
275
44
29590
gpd
5/11 - 6/12
Aeration
Lagoon
Influent
23.3
7.3

163
3.7
343
2.3*
114
1.2
3.64
38
2.35
mgd
, 1970
Aeration
Lagoon
Effluent
24
7.0

141
2.6
404
7.3
31.4
0.2
1.0
37
2.35
mgd

Stabilization
Pond
Effluent
26.8
8.95

128
0.31
442
6.0
15
0.08
0.77
39
2.14
mgd
*Grab samples were nearly always  0  to 0.1 DO.
                                  48

-------
                         TABLE XVII

AVERAGED LOADING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND ITS DISPOSITION
                     4/20 - 5/11,  1970


Total Alkalinity
pH 4.2 Lbs./Day
Settleable
Chloride
BOD5
Phenols
Solids
CFD
Lbs./Day
Lbs./Day
Lbs./Day
Phenoxy Acids
Lbs./Day
Industrial
Effluent
1096
201
11056
1131
40.5
77.3
Aeration
Lagoon
Influent
4509
1720
10897
2312
35.3
74.6
Aeration
Lagoon
Effluent
3873
1348
10175
740
3.8
32.4
Stabilization
Pond
Effluent _
3954
92
9055
410
2.9
32.1
TABLE XVIII
AVERAGED LOADING


Total Alkalinity
pH 4.2 Lbs./Day
Settleable
Chloride
BOD5
Phenols
Solids
CFD
Lbs./Day
Lbs./Day
Lbs./Day
OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND ITS DISPOSITION
5/11 - 6/12, 1970
Industrial
Effluent
451
115
6669
659
19
Aeration
Lagoon
Influent
3191

6714
2232
23.5
Aeration
Lagoon
Effluent
2760

7909
615
3.9
Stabilization
Pond
Effluent
2282

7880
267
1.4
Phenoxy Acids
       Lbs./Day
68
71
19.6
13.7
                         49

-------
    TABLE XIX
UNIT EFFICIENCIES
4/20 - 5/11, 1970
Aeration
Lagoon
BOD5
Phenols
Lbs./Day
Phenoxy Acids
Lbs./Day
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
2312
740
68
35.3
3.8
89.2
74.6
32.4
56.5
Stabilization
Ponds
740
410
46
3.8
2.9
23.7
32.4
32.1
0.9
Overall
82.3
91.8
57
    TABLE XX
UNIT EFFICIENCIES
5/11 - 6/12, 1970
Aeration Stabilization
Lagoon Ponds Overall
BOD5
Lbs./Day
Phenols
Lbs . /Day
Phenoxy Acids
Lbs . /Day
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
Influent
Effluent
% Reduction
2232
615
72.4
23.5
3.9
83.4
71
19.6
72.39
615
267
56.6
3.9
1.4
64.1
19.6
13.7
30.1
88.0
94.0
80.7
      50

-------
                             TABLE XXI
ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL PLANT WASTE
1970
Date Sampled January 25
Temperature - C 12
pH 7.5
Total Alkalinity
to pH 4.2 mg/1 560
BOD5 mg/1 515
COD mg/1 700
Total Solids mg/1 6960
Suspended Solids
mg/1 160
Settleable Solids
mg/1 6
Chloride mg/1 3000
Chlorophenols mg/1 68
Phenoxy- acids mg/1 167
Volume Gallons 9950
DO mg/1 6
Weather Clear

March 3 April 21
18 21
7.6 7.4
2250 3960
1680 3840
2500 6200
40100 76320
360 380
16 40
19350 37350
118 125
183 241
95430 30320
5.8 3.0
Heavy Rain Clear
TABLE XXI-A
May 28
28.5
7.4
4510
6315
8315
104860
580
40
52150
112
235
20650
-
Clear

August 27
24
7.0
305
400
1290
11000
nil
1.3
4950
74
199
1450
-
Clear

RELATIVE CHLOROPHENOL CONTENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE
Date Sampled January 25
%*
Phenol Type
2-chloro- 2.9
Phenol 3.4
2,6-dichloro- 9.9
2,5-dichloro- Tr
2,4-dichloro- 73.6
2,4,6-trichloro- 2.8
4-chloro- 2.5
2,4,5-trichloro- 4.7
1970
March 3 April 21
7o* %*
6.1 Tr
6.2 1.7
41.7 38.8
6.2 1.7
17.9 20.0
9.9 19.5
12.1 18.3
Tr Tr
May 28
% *
Tr
24.8
30.5
Tr
11.4
13.3
20.0
Tr
August 27
ftW
/o
Tr
Tr
3.0
1.8
89.0
3.4
2.8
Tr
*Percent of total phenols present,
                                51

-------
                                         CHLORIDES  vs.  TIME
JAN.
FEE,
MAR.
APR.        MAY
          TIME IN DAYS
                                                            JUNE
                                                               JULY
                                                                AUG.
                                                                                                SEPT.

-------
                                                     TABLE XXII

                                        AVERAGED DATA OBTAINED 7/13 - 9/11, 1970

                                             DURING OPERATION AS INDICATED

                                            (Conventional System  Bypassed)

DATE
7/13
to
7/31
8/1
to
8/6
8/7
to
8/14
8/15
to
8/20
8/21
to
8/23
8/29
to
9/4
9/5
to
9/11
AERATIOK
4
(1,2,3,4)

3
(2,3,4)

3
(1,3,4)

3
(1,2,4)

2
(!,'->)

2
(2,4)

2
(3,4)

PLANT EFFLUENT
Cl"
Ib/day

540


240


105


59


99


90


75

BOD5
Ib/day

56


23


12


6


8


7


5

V
gal/day

7400


4650


2610


1440


2350


1915


1505

AERATION INFLUENT
cr
Ib/day

1499


916


1005


834


849


1096


850

BODS
Ib/day

1907


1858


1930


1915


1917


2015


1620

V
MGD

2.12


2.03


2.09


1.94


2.09


2.25


2.04

AERATION EFFLUENT
Cl"
Ib/day

1621


1212


1147


944


948


980


956

BODS
Ib/day

699


541


582


583


462


535


217

V
MGD

(2.12)


(2.03)


(2.09)


(1.94)


(2.09)


(2.25)


(2.04)

STABILIZATION
POND EFFLUENT
Cl"
mg/1


267


185


162


143


128


112

100

BODs
mg/1


10.1


12.2


10.3


11.5


13.0


13.3

9.5

DO
mg/1


6.4


5.6


5.8


5.7


6,,1


5.9

5.9

Ui
u>

-------
 for  the  industrial  plant  effluent,  lagoon influent and
 effluent and pond effluent.

 Table  XXIII presents  the  apparent efficiency of the aera-
 tion lagoon alone during  this time  of  staggered operation.
 Although this data  is limited,  it appears to show an
 upward trend in efficiency with decrease in the number
 of aerators functioning.

 East Jacksonville STP Analyses:

 A series  of 15 grab samples was taken  from points in the
 East Jacksonville Sewage  Treatment  Plant between 9/16 and
 11/10, 1969 as a check on the BOD5  of  that system for
 purposes  of comparison.   The averaged  values found are
 presented in Table  XXIV.

 Receiving Stream Analyses:

 A summary of data obtained on samples  taken from Bayou
 Meto at Arkansas Highway  161 at a point roughly two (2)
 miles  from the receiving  point  of the  stream is given in
 Table  XXV.

 BOD-COD Relationship:

 A series  of BOD5 and  COD  values for unfiltered samples
 taken  during the period July 17 to August 7, 1969 are
 shown  in  Table XXVI.   These were obtained during full
 operation of the joint treatment process, but at a time
 of reduced industrial  waste flow.  The average reduction
 in BOD5 across the  lagoon from  this data is 60.8%, while
 that of the COD is  53%, with a detention time of about
 3.5 days.

 BOD of the Industrial  Plant Waste;

 Glycolic  acid and,  to  a lesser  extent, acetic acid are
 present in the industrial plant waste  at variable levels
 of concentration.   The glycolic acid arises from
 hydrolysis of a portion of the mono-chloroacetic acid
 used in the plant processes.  The acetic acid is present
 as a contaminant of hydrochloric acid  generated during
manufacture of mono-chloroacetic acid  and, to a lesser
 extent, as a contaminant of the mono-chloroacetic acid
produced.  Each of  these compounds is  susceptible to
bacterial oxidation, and they constitute the major portion
of the organic loading of the industrial plant waste.
                            54

-------
                            TABLE XXIII
APPARENT EFFICIENCY OF AERATION LAGOON WITH LOW INDUSTRIAL WASTE -
 CONVENTIONAL SYSTEM BYPASSED AND ALL OR FEWER AERATORS OPERATING.
                                                              Average
                                                             Settleable
                       BOD,      BODS      BODS                Slids
                          j         j         j                  in
           AERATORS      In       Out     Removed       5     Effluent
  DATE     OPERATING  Ibs./day  Ibs./day  Ibs./day  Removed    mls/1
1970
7/13-7/31 4
(all)
8/1-8/6 3
(2,3,4)
8/7-8/14 3
(1,3,4)
8/15-8/20 3
(1,2,4)
8/21-8/28 2
(1,4)
8/29-9/4 2
(2,4)
9/5-9/11 2
(3,4)


1907 699 1208 63 1.9

1858 541 1317 71 .45

1930 582 1348 70 .77

1915 583 1332 70 .90

1917 462 1445 75 1.06

2015 535 1480 73 .64

1620 217 1403 86 .10

TABLE XXIV
DATA FROM EAST JACKSONVILLE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT



Temperature - C
PH
Total Alkalinity mg/1
Chloride mg/1
Initial DO mg/1
BOD5 mg/1
Phenols (Total) mg/1
% Reduction:
Phenols - 81.0
BOD5 - 83.0
9/16 - 11/10, 1969
S.T.P. Stabilization Pond Stabilization Pond
Influent Influent Effluent
20.8 16.7 12.5
7.3 700 7.7
281 132 210
36 23 33
0 2.5 4.7
115 51 19.5
0.2 - 0.04



                                  55

-------
TABLE XXV
BAYOU METO AT
(Roughly 2 miles

Temp.
(C)
1969:
April 17.6
May 17.9
June 23.1
July 27.6
Aug. 25.4
Sept. 23.2
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1970:
Jan. 4.3
Feb. 5.8
Mar. 11.1
Apr. 16.6
May 22.0
June 24 . 5
July 26.1
Aug. 25.9
Sept. 26. 5


PH

6.7
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.2




7.3
6.5
6.7
6.8
6.9
7.5
8.3
7.3
7.45

DO
(mg/1)

7.0
5.2
3.7
2.5
3.2
3.9




9.9
9.7
8.9
7.3
5.4
5.9
6.3
4.9
5.35

BOD ^
(mg/1)











4
3.8
3.0
3.0
4.5
7.6
9.6
6.4
6.6
ARKANSAS HIGHWAY 161
from Receiving Point)
Total
Alkalinity
(mg/1)

33
54
68
85
87
116




57
21
33
42
61
109
90
79
83

Chloride
(mg/1)

28
53
64
86
o
62




13
8.3
7.8
19
121
278
272
130
105

Phenols
(mg/1)

0.03
0.03
0.03
0.07
0.07
0.05
0.07
0.05
0.04

0.04
0.05
0.045
0.04
0.055
0.05
0.065
0.06
0.05
Phenoxy
Acids
(mg/1)







0.6
0.5
0.35

0.37
0.5
0.45
0.42
0.46
0.55
0.50
0.59
0.46
  56

-------
                              TABLE XXVI


BOD -

COD RELATIONSHIP

Aeration
Lagoon
Influent

1969
7/17
7/18
7/19
7/20
7/21
7/22
7/23
7/24
7/25
7/26
7/27
7/28
7/29
7/30
7/31
8/1
8/2
8/3
8/4
8/5
8/6
8/7
BOD5
mg/1
88
53
76
67
41
71
67
76
75
66
82
70
76
64
70
58
55
52
66
68
50
58
COD
mg/1
305
280
199
228
176
355
215
160
291
142
177
234
216
168
152
135
199
113
152
269
191
289

Weather
and
Rain In
Inches
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
1.06
.04
c
1.20
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
- AERATED LAGOON 7/17 -



Aeration
Lagoon
Effluent
BOD 5
mg/1
29
25
36
21
15
15
28
20
37
35
31
26
25
36
26
31
24
20
18
25
24
21
COD
mg/1
117
116
79
91
97
78
150
53
210
64
124
127
117
168
46
52
89
31
78
106
85
104
Influent
Volume
mgd
2.16
2.21
2.17
2.17
2.34
2.17
2.21
2.17
2.87
2.71
2.34
3.25
3.02
2.70
2.48
2.33
2.23
2.44
2.00
2.45
2.15
1.98
8/7, 1969


Stabilization
Ponds
Effluent
BOD 5
mg/1
4.5
2.5
8.2
8.6
15.6
12.5
17.0
16.0
9.0
9.3
13.2
13.2
15.2
14.8
10.9
10.2
16.0
13.0
8.3
8.6
4.5
2.5
Vol.
mgd
1.46
1.40
1.38
1.46
1.38
1.40
1.46
2.40
3.50
2.60
2.34
3.02
2.54
2.26
1.86
1.76
1.60
1.42
1.34
1.40
1.38
1.52
Averages:

65.9
211.2

25.8
99.2
2.39
10.6
1.86
Average detention time in 8.4 MG Lagoon    3.5 days

Average
Lbs/Day:
      1312   4205             514    1975

Average Reduction Across Lagoon:   BOD5 - 60.8%      COD -  53.0%
                                  57

-------
Standard BOD tests were applied to show that the
acclimated bacterial population in the aeration lagoon
effluent can readily promote oxidation of both glacial
acetic acid and reagent grade mono-chloroacetic acid as
well as hydrolyzed mono-chloroacetic acid when these
substances are added as the neutral salts.  The following
results were obtained:
                BOD5
Concentration  Found
     mg/1     mg O2
                                     BOD
                                 Theoretical    % of
                                   mg O2/mg  Theoretical
Acetic Acid     4.07
Mono-chloro-
  acetic Acid   8.47
Glycolic Acid   6.82
                0.762

                0.390
                0.484
1.066

0.508
0.631
71.5

76.8
76.7
The COD values determined for the prepared solutions ranged
from 97.5 to 99 percent of the theoretical values.  The
interference possible from the presence of chloride was
eliminated by the use of mercuric sulfate as directed in
Standard Methods.  Care was taken to add the silver-
sulfuric acid down the condensers to avoid loss of acetyls.
                            58

-------
                        SECTION VIII

                        RATE STUDIES

A typical determination of the rate constant, k, in the
case of a grab sample of aeration lagoon influent is
presented in Table XXVII.  It was noted generally that the
initial rate constant appeared to be larger than the
average for a particular experiment.  This was interpreted
as the result of variable ease of oxidation of the various
components of the complex mixture in the aeration lagoon
influent.

In order to demonstrate the degradation of chlorophenols
and chlorophenoxy-acids in the industrial plant waste
stream in vitro, at a much higher concentration than that
encountered in the normal aeration lagoon influent, a
1:11 dilution of the plant effluent was made with aeration
lagoon effluent.  1,600 ml of industrial plant effluent was
mixed with 16,000 nl of aeration lagoon effluent.  The
results obtained on samples taken during continuous
aeration of this mixture are shown in Table XXVIII.  A plot
of the log]_Q of the percent BOD5 remaining versus time in
days is shown in Figure 2.  The estimated rate constant, k,
in the equation:
                log-,0% BODc Remaining = 2 - kt

in which t represents time in days, was found to be 0.145.
The overall reduction in BOD5 was 85% in six days, while
the reduction in chlorophenols and chlorophenoxy-acids,
respectively, was 97% and 32% in seven days.  The change in
chlorophenol content is shown graphically in Figure 3.

Another experiment with the same sample of industrial plant
effluent, diluted 1:100 with aeration lagoon effluent was
made to demonstrate the rate of oxygen uptake.  A portion
of aeration lagoon effluent which had been aerated in a
glass bottle for 48 hours was used to prepare the dilution.
400 ml of industrial plant waste were added to 3,600 ml of
the lagoon effluent.  Immediately after mixing, a 400 ml
portion of the initial dilution was added to a second
3,600 ml portion of the lagoon effluent.  This final
mixture was mixed rapidly and filled into DO bottles which
were then stored in the incubator.  Each of the solutions
had been maintained at 20-21C, which was the temperature
maintained in the laboratory.  The results of DO determina-
tions made immediately after mixing and at intervals of
about one hour are shown in Table XXIX.  A plot of Iog10 %
DO remaining versus time in days is shown in Figure 4.
                            59

-------
TABLE XXVII
DATA FOR RATE CONSTANT, k, OF
OXYGEN UTILIZATION

Date: 7/25/69
Bottle
No.
90
92
93
100
111
112
117
Slope of log
AERATION


Time
(Days)
0
0.75
1.72
2.69
3.73
4.7C
5.70
OF

LAGOON INFLUENT

pH = 7.3
DO
mg/1
7.7
6.5
5.9
5.5
4.9
4.3
4.15
Average

Dilution:
% DO
Remaining
100
84.4
76.6
71.4
63.6
55.8
53.9
. % D0_, versus time =

5%
k

.098
.067
.054
.053
.054
.047
.062
.054
                      R
Probable BOD^ of Aeration Lagoon Influent
83 mg/1
                             60

-------
                                   TABLE XXVIII

           AERATED MIXTURE OF PLANT EFFLUENT  AND  AERATION  LAGOON EFFLUENT
                                    (11:1 RATIO)



5/27/70
"A" Plant Effluent
"B" Aeration Lagoon
Effluent
1600 ML "A"
16000 ML "B" Mlxed
5/27/70
5/28/70
5/29/70
5/31/70
6/1/70
6/2/70
6/3/70
6/4/70



pH
7.30

7.95


7.65
7.65
7.95
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.00
7.95
Total
Alkalinity
To pH 4.2
mg/1
4442

194


596
594
620
674
620
388
392
""


Chloride
mg/1
51660

595


5230


__


5235


COD
Millipore BOD
Filtered mg/1
5225

41


500
520 340
305
127 183
120 133
70
78



Phenols
mg/1
115.3

0.09


9.5
8.3
6.1

1.1
0.55
0.44
0.28

Phenoxy-
Acids
mg/1
2326

0.78


23.9
23.9
24.0

21.5
20.8
19.1
16.2
Percent Overall Reduction
34.5%
85%
97%
32%

-------
            CHANGE OP BODs  IN
MIXTURE OF INDUSTRIAL
               PLANT EFFLUENT  WITH AERATION LAGOON
                EFFLUENT  UNDER CONSTANT AERATION
Log10(BOD5t / BOD5o)  =  2  - kt
t in days; k =  Rate  Constant = Slope = 0.145
                      TIME IN DAYS
                         62

-------
      I        Till1        *

                           FIGURE 3


  CHANGE  OF MIXED CHLORQPHENOL CONCENTRATION WITH TIME
        IN A MIXTURE OF INDUSTRIAL PLANT EFFLUENT
               AND AERATION LAGOON EFFLUENT
V                UNDER CONSTANT AERATION

 \
  \



   \


        \

        \
          \
          \

           \
            \
               \
               \
                \
                 \
                 \
                  \
                   \

                    \
                     \
                      V
                      \
                       \
                       \
                        \
                         \
                         \
                          \
                           \
                           \
                            \
                             %
                             f.
                              I	I
                      345

                        Time in Days




                            63

-------
                      TABLE  XXIX

        CHANGE IN DO  CONTENT  OF  1:100  DILUTION OF
 INDUSTRIAL PLANT EFFLUENT  IN AERATION LAGOON EFFLUENT


	Temp. = 20C	pH  =  7.25	


 Time      Bottle       DO         % DO         Time
 (min.)	No.	(mg/1)	Remaining	(days)

   0         76        8.1           100         0

  60         81        6.8           84         0.042

 136         84        5.0           62         0.094

 189         87        3.9           48         0.131

 280        112        2.4           30         0.195

 340        119        1.3           16         0.237
                          64

-------
                                  I          I
                                   FIGURE 4
                          PERCENT  DO REMAINING IN
                    DILUTION OF  INDUSTRIAL PLANT EFFLUENT
                         IN AERATION LAGOON EFFLUENT
                             AT  oH  7.25 and 20C.
10
                             Ti:.;;;  in  Days
                                65

-------
 These experiments prompted an in vitro study of the
 behavior of mixtures of pure chlorophenol with the
 corresponding pure chlorophenoxy-acid when mixed in  known
 concentration in aeration lagoon effluent.

 One of the objectives of the project was to attempt  to
 determine the rates of removal of chlorophenols and  other
 related potentially toxic contaminants from the waste
 stream.  Such determinations were not deemed practical  if
 attempted directly on the constantly changing lagoon
 system.  In the course of the work,  however,  the change in
 concentration of several chlorophenols in mixtures with
 corresponding chlorophenoxy-acids and aeration lagoon
 effluent was studied.

 Several bottles of differing mixtures were maintained in
 conditions of continuous aeration at about 20C by means
 of  a common air supply.   The air to  each of the bottles
 was passed through a wash bottle containing distilled
 water to minimize loss of water from the various test
 bottles.   Air flow was equalized to  each bottle by adjust-
 ment of screw type pinch clamps,  noting the number of
 bubbles of air.   Each test bottle contained an equal
 volume taken from a "grab" sample of the aeration lagoon
 effluent.   This sample was used as a common diluent  and was
 collected in a five gallon bottle, aerated and stirred
 during removal of the quantity needed for each test  bottle.

 Known amounts of a chlorophenol and  the corresponding
 phenoxy-acid were added  to separate  test bottles as  solu-
 tions in distilled water.   Each mixture was adjusted to
 pH  7.0 prior to mixture  with the aeration lagoon effluent.
 In  each instance,  50 ml  of the neutral solution were added
 with stirring to make  a  final volume of two (2)  liters  in
 each test bottle.   In  this way the initial  bacterial
 population and nutrients were as  nearly identical as
 practicable.   Blanks were prepared with 50  ml of each of
 four of the mixtures containing chlorophenols in distilled
 water only.   These blanks were aerated to the same extent
 as  the test bottles to determine the rate of  vaporization
 of  the chlorophenol.

 The  concentrations of  the various  compounds and the  changes
 produced  at various times following  initial mixing are
 shown  graphically  in Figures  5,  6, 7,  8,  9  and 10.

A solution  of  technical  pentachlorophenol was  prepared  to
contain 1.586  gm/1  by  first dissolving  the  'penta' in 0.5
normal  sodium  hydroxide  and then diluting with  distilled
                            66

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too
 I   I   I   I   I   I    I   I    I
                    FIGURE 5
REMOVAL OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL AND 2,4-DICHLORO-
 PHENOXYACETIC ACID FROM SOLUTION IN AERATION
    BASIN EFFLUENT BY CONTINUOUS AERATION
150
100
 50
        2.4-DCP Concentration
                       Initial Conditions:

                        64 ppm 2,4-DCP
                       174 ppm 2,4-D Acid
                                                   MM
                       Aeration Lagoon Effluent

                       pH of acid-phenol mixture
                        adjusted to 7.00 just before
                        mixing with effluent

                       Temperature: 20-21C.

                       Constant slow stream of air
                        bubbled through mixture.

                       Control samples same as above
                        without Aeration Lagoon    _
                        Effluent.  Only distilled
                        water as solvent.
                                     2,4-D Acid  Concentration
                                     Distilled Water  Control
                           6   7   8   9  10
                            Time In Days
                               67

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200
^   I    I    I    I    I    I   I    I    I   I   I
                     FIGURE 6

REMOVAL  OF  2,6-DICHLOROPHENOL AND 2,6-DICHLORO-

  PHENOXYACETIC  ACID  FROM SOLUTION IN AERATION

    BASIN EFFLUENT BY  CONTINUOUS AERATION
150
     2,6-D Acid Concentration
100
                                  Initial  Conditions;

                                   64  ppm  2,6-DCP
                                  178  ppm  2,6-D Acid

                                  Aeration Lagoon  Effluent
                      pH  of  acid-phenol  mixture
                        adjusted  to  7.00  just  before
                        mixing with  effluent.
                                 Temperature:   20-21C.
                      Constant stream of  air
                       bubbled through mixture.

                      Control samples same  as  above
                       without Aeration Lagoon
                       Effluent.  Only distilled
                       water as solvent.
        Distilled Water Control
 50
       0	1
                    2,6-DCP Concentration
                        J	I    \   J,
                                                 II
L
J	LJ
                               789

                             Time in Days
                                TO   llj|12   13   14  15
                                68

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I   i    i    i    i    rI   i   i   i    i    r   i    i
                        FIGURE 7

     REMOVAL OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYPROPIQNIC ACID

FROM SOLUTION IN AERATION BASIN EFFLUENT BY CONTINUOUS

                        AERATION
              T5-
2,4-DP Concentration
j Seeded with  100 mis from
I  bottle which had contained
  the 2,4-DCP mixture.
Initial Conditions:

186 ppm 2,4-DP Acid

Aeration Lagoon Effluent

pH of acid solution adjusted to
 7.00 just before mixing with
 effluent.

Temperature:  20-21C.

Constant slow stream of air bubbled
 through mixture.

No control - non-volatile.
                        I
 I
I
tf.
\	L
                    67891
                      Time in Days
             13   14   15   16   17
                        69

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                              FIGURE 8

           REMOVAL OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL AND 2,4,5-TRI-

              CHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID FROM SOLUTION IN
              AERATION BASIN
       EFFLUENT
BY
CONTINUOUS
mg/1


 60
      AERATION

Initial Conditions:

50 ppm 2,4,5-T Acid
18.8 ppm 2,4,5-TCP

Aeration Basin Effluent

pH of acid-phenol mixture adjusted to
 7.00 just before mixing with effluent.
Temperature: 20-21C.

Constant slow stream of air bubbled
 through mixture.

Control samples same as above without
 Aeration Basin Effluent.  Only
 distilled water as solvent.
 50
 40
 30
 20
 10
                                         Distilled Water Control
                                       -T Acid Concentration
                                         Distilled Water Control
                                           I
                            6   7   8  9  10
                             Time in Days
                                70

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mg/1

  70



  60
                      FIGURE  9

       REMOVAL OF 2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL AND
2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID FROM SOLUTION IN

  AERATION BASIN EFFLUENT BY CONTINUOUS AERATION


                          Initial Conditions;

                          18.5 ppm 2,4,6-TCP
                          53.0 ppm 2,4,6-T Acid
                          Aeration Lagoon Effluent
                          pH of acid-phenol mixture
                           adjusted to 7.00 just before
                           mixing with effluent.
                          Temperature: 20-21C.
                          Constant slow stream of air
                           bubbled through mixture.

                          Control samples same as above
                           without Aeration Lagoon
                           Effluent.  Only distilled
                           water as solvent.
2,4,6-T Acid Concentration
  40
  30
             Distilled Water Control
  20
  10
        J	I
                   2,4,6-TCP Concentration
               J	I	L_l	I	I	1	1	1	L
                            6   7   8   9  10
                               Time in Days
                                      11  12  13  14  15
                                71

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mg/1
 150
    >
 100
                      FIGURE 10

    REMOVAL OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYPROPIONIC ACID

FROM SOLUTION IN AERATION BASIN EFFLUENT BY CONTINUOUS

                      AERATION

                         initial Conditions:

                         107.5 ppm 2,4,5-TP Acid
                         Aeration Lagoon Effluent

                         pH of acid solution adjusted
                          to 7.00 just before mixing
                          with effluent.
                         Temperature: 20-21C.
                         Constant slow stream of air
                          bubbled through mixture.
                         No control - Non-volatile.
   2,4,5-TP Concentration


  	*	   m
                               Seeded with 100 mis
                                from bottle which had
                                contained the 2,4,5-TCP
                                mixture.
  50
       1
                   I   t   I    I   I //
                   6   7   8   9  10//
                   Time in Days
                                72

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water.  A portion of this solution was used to prepare two
liters of a mixture with aeration lagoon effluent to
contain 39.5 mg/1 of pentachlorophenol.  The mixture was
aerated continuously and samples were removed for analysis
at intervals.  At this concentration the pentachlorophenol
appeared to be in solution, but the mixture was shaken
thoroughly before taking each sample to ensure uniformity.
The results obtained are shown in Table XXX under Experi-
ment 1.  No significant change occurred up to the time the
aerated mixture was seeded with a portion of aeration
lagoon influent as noted in the Table.  Thereafter, by the
third day the concentration of pentachlorophenol was
reduced to 0.5 mg/1.

A second mixture containing about 81 mg/1 of pentachloro-
phenol was prepared using aeration lagoon influent.  This
mixture was aerated continuously and sampled for analysis.
The data obtained is shown in Table XXX under Experiment 2.
As in the first experiment with 'penta' in aeration lagoon
effluent, little change in concentration occurred until the
mixture was seeded with a portion of mixed liquid from the
first experiment.  Then in 30 hours the concentration fell
to 0.6 mg/1.

A third experiment employing 1440 ml of the residual liquid
from the second experiment made up to a total volume of
1640 ml with BOD dilution water and neutralized pentachloro-
phenol solution.  This mixture, having an initial
concentration of about 81 mg/1 of pentachlorophenol, was
aerated continuously and sampled for analysis as before.
The results obtained are shown in Table XXX under
Experiment 3.  This mixture lost pentachlorophenol smoothly
until a level of about 9 mg/1 was reached, at which time it
was noted that the pH of the mixture had dropped to 5.2 and
change had ceased.

The data given in Table XXX is plotted in Figure 11 to
illustrate the changes graphically.  In figure 12, the
log^Q f tne amount of pentachlorophenol which had
disappeared in Experiment 3 is plotted versus time.
                            73

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                      TABLE XXX
       CHANGE IN PENTACHLOROPHENOL CONCENTRATION

    IN AERATED SOLUTIONS IN AERATION LAGOON EFFLUENT
Time
(Days
0
0.8
2.8
3.8
4.8
7.7

Seeded
Lagoon
Experiment 1
Concentration
(mg/1)
40.3
38.9
39.8
40.4
39.6
38.1

with 100 mis Aeration
Influent at 7.70 days
(100 mis + 1475 mis)

0
1.0
2.0
3.0

35.6
32.0
17.1
0.5
Experiment 2
Time Concentration
(Days) (mg/1)
0
0.25
1.04
1.47
1.94
5.13
6.0
6.4

Seeded with 150
Experiment 1
(150 mis + 1529

0
1.25
81.1
80.0
77.9
78.5
79.3
74.3
74.1
75.8

mis of

mis)

62.3
0.6
                     Experiment 3

     Residue from Experiment 2 with added 'Penta*
 Time
(Days)
                    Concentration
                       (mg/1
             Amount  Disappeared
             	(mg/1)
0
0.97
1.09
1.26
       pH 7.1
1,
1,
  61
  96
2.24
2.45
2.95
3.28
       pH 5.2
81.5
70.3
67.4
63.9
53.0
38.6
21.1
 9.75
 8.82
 8.85
 0
11.2
14.1
17.6
28.5
42.9
60.4
71.75
72.68
72.65
                        74

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                    FIGURE- 11
 CHANGE IN PENTACHLOROPHENOL CONCENTRATION IN

AERATED SOLUTIONS IN AERATION LAGOON   EFFLUENT
                            Seeded
                                    Seeded
                 5678
                 Time in  Days
10
11  12
                      75

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  100

   90

   80

   70

   60


   50



   40

Mg/1


   30
   20
   10
                                      FIGURE  12

                 LOG PLOT OF  PENTACHLOROPHENOL CONCENTRATION REACTED
                                      VERSUS
                    TIME IN DAYS FOR EXPERIMENT No. 3 WITH  'PENTA1
             Illustrates apparent logarithmic disappearance of  'Penta1
	*-X
                                     TIME IN DAYS
                                       76

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                        SECTION IX

                     BIOLOGICAL STUDY

Time Period Covered;

Biological sampling and analyses were carried out during
the period of June 6, 1969, until June 29, 1970.  A total
of 100 samplings at each of 12 sample points was made
during this time, which included four seasonal intensive
sampling periods of two weeks each, during which samples
were taken at all sampling points each day.  At other
times weekly samples were taken at all twelve points.

Sampling Procedure:

Aeration Lagoon;  The aeration lagoon or basin was sampled
at the influent and effluent on each sampling day, and
water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen measured at
both points.  The influent and effluent were designated
Station 1 and Station 2, respectively.  Samples of the
algae growing on the aeration basin rocks were taken on a
random basis.

Oxidation Lagoons;  Five samples were taken at each
oxidation lagoon or pond during each sampling day:  four
at grid points, and one at each effluent  (see diagram of
sampling point locations, Fig. B-l).  Water temperature,
pH, and dissolved oxygen were determined, as were those
of the aeration lagoon, when samples were taken.  Air
temperatures were also recorded on sampling days, and all
samples analyzed for total and fecal coliform bacteria
and for plankton organisms.  Intermittent bottom sampling
produced virtually no benthic organisms.

Methods of Analysis:

Plankton;  Plankton samples were obtained by means of a
small plastic bucket.  Whenever possible, plankters were
counted immediately upon return to the laboratory,
unpreserved.  Whenever it was necessary to preserve
plankton samples for counting at a future date, this was
done by adding 10% formalin adjusted to pH 7.0 with
borax powder.  Plankton samples were concentrated in the
largest quantities practicable - usually from 25 to 100
ml - by passing the water through a membrane filter
(Millipore type HA) of pore size 0.45 u.
                           77

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       BIOLOGICAL STUDY

SAMPLING  POINT LOCATIONS
          OCTOBER, 1970
 AERATED
 LAGOON
            OXIDATION   PONDS
            

        FIG. B-l
          78

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Plankters were identified and counted by using a
Sedgwick-Rafter all-glass counting chamber and binocular
microscope.  Total chamber counts were made, and the
appropriate concentration factors applied in order to
determine the number of organisms per liter.  Since there
was no significant difference in the kinds and numbers
of plankters found at the various grid sampling points of
the oxidation ponds, the mean of the numbers of plankters
at these points was used as the "Body of Oxidation Ponds"
station of the plankton graphs  (Fig. B-3).  Plankters
examined in the samples covered by this report reveal that
these organisms were few in generic types, and are in
general those types normally associated with sewage
lagoons.  Appendix A presents averages per liter of each
of the plankton genera identified at each station during
the non-intensive sampling periods.

Organisms Growing on Aeration Basin Rocks:

Four genera of plankton organisms predominated on the
stones of the aeration basin levees:  Phormidium, Ulothrix,
Anacystis, and Navicula.  Of these, Anacystis is
consistently the more numerous, followed by the others in
the order in which they are listed above.  Phormidium and
Anacystis are blue-green algae and pollution-tolerant,
Ulothrix is a green alga and pollution-tolerant, and
Navicula is a diatom which is also pollution-tolerant.
When they are operating, the trickling filters of the old
portion of the sewage treatment plant have organisms of
these four genera growing on their rocks.  The numbers of
individuals of each of these genera, in both trickling
filters and aeration stones, varies somewhat with the
seasons of the year.

Microbiological Sampling and Analyses:  Counts of total
coliform bacteria and bacteria of the fecal coliform group
were made for each sample taken at each sampling station.
There proved to be no significant difference in the number
of coliform organisms found at the various grid sampling
points of the oxidation lagoons; therefore, the mean of
the numbers of coliforms at these points was used in
obtaining the "Body of Oxidation Ponds" station point B of
Fig. B-2.  Microbiological technics employed in treating
these samples were as follows:

1.  Total Coliform Bacteria:  Total coliform counts were
obtained by the membrane filter method.  Type HA Millipore
filters with a pore size of 0.45 u were used.  Three
filtrations of each sample  (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 ml) were
                            79

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 made,  and the stainless steel filtration funnel  rinsed
 three  times following filtration with 10-20  ml of
 phosphate-buffered distilled water,  while the membrane was
 still  in place.

 All  membrane filters  were rolled on  to blotter-type  filter
 pads saturated with m-ENDO BROTH MF  (Difco), rehydrated
 by using 100 ml  distilled water  and  2.0 ml ethyl alcohol
 for  each 4.8 gm  of the dried medium.   Filters were
 incubated on their pads for 22-24 hr. at 35C +  0.5C in
 the  inverted position (in order  to prevent the accumula-
 tion of  water on the  surface of  the  membrane filter).  The
 average  number of coliform organisms  per 100 ml  of sample
 water  was obtained by noting the number of colonies
 (exhibiting a golden  sheen)  that grew during each incuba-
 tion,  converting this to numbers per  100 ml, then
 averaging the three in order to  obtain the average number
 per  100  ml in the sample.

 2.   Fecal Coliform Organisms:  Counts of fecal coliform
 organisms were obtained in a manner  similar  to that
 employed for total coliforms,  with notable exceptions.  In
 brief, the method used was as  follows.   Difco mFC BROTH
 BASE was used, and the medium rehydrated by  suspending
 3.7  grams in 100 ml distilled water.   Following  rehydra-
 tion,  one ml of  a 1%  solution of rosolic acid in 0.2N
 sodium hydroxide was  added.   The solution was heated to
 boiling,  cooled  to room temperature,  and each absorbent
 pad  saturated with the medium as in  the total coliform
 procedure (approximately 2 ml  per pad).   After saturation,
 excess medium in each petri  dish was  discarded.  Each pad
 and membrane were encased  in a plastic  petri dish with
 tight-fitting cover,  or several  petri dishes were enclosed
 in a water-tight plastic bag,  and incubation carried out
 by submerging the dishes in  the  inverted position in a
 water  bath  maintained at a temperature  of 44.5C +_ 0.5C
 for 24 hours.  Dark blue colonies are indicative of fecal
 coliform organisms, and averages per  100 ml are  obtained
 as in  the method for  enumerating total  coliform  bacteria.
Averages  of  total  and fecal  coliform  counts for  each
 station  are  presented in Tables  B-l,  B-3,  B-5, and B-6
 (see Appendix B).   The  data  in Appendix B reflect relevant
 items  in  Fig.  B-2, which shows the numbers of total and
 fecal coliform organisms  at  the  influent of the  aeration
basin,  the body  of  the  oxidation lagoons,  and the effluents
of these  lagoons,  during each  of  the  four seasonal
 intensive  studies.

pH:  Determination of  pH was made immediately upon samp-
ling by  employing  a Hach Model 1975 battery-operated pH
                             80

-------
meter, calibrated frequently by means of standard buffers.

Dissolved Oxygen and Water Temperature;  Dissolved oxygen
in parts per million and temperature of the water (and air)
in degrees centigrade were obtained as soon as each sample
was taken, by means of a Model 54 Oxygen Meter (battery
operated), manufactured by the Yellow Springs Instrument
Company.  The meter was calibrated periodically against the
Winkler method for the determination of dissolved oxygen.

EXPLANATION OF TABLES

Following this discussion, twelve tables are presented
which summarize the biological work carried out during this
survey at the Jacksonville, Arkansas, sewage treatment
plant:  Tables B-l through B-8 summarize water tempera-
tures, pH, dissolved oxygen, total and fecal coliform
organisms, and kinds and numbers of plankters found during
the intensive sampling periods.  Tables B-9 through B-12
summarize the bacteriological and physical data accumulated
during the entire survey, presenting maximums, minimums and
averages for the parameters measured.

Discussion and Conclusions:

The information gathered in the biological portion of this
study indicates that the general conditions prevailing in
the Jacksonville treatment plant do not differ in any
significant way from conditions to be expected in a similar
setup that does not receive complex chlorophenolic wastes
combined with the normal sewage.

As seen in Figure B-3, a conventional pattern of plankton
growth occurred both in time and space.  A low level of
plankton growth occurred in the aeration pond influent,
with a slight increase in the effluent, and a large
increase in the body of the ponds.  The characteristic
pattern of increasing spring plankton populations followed
by peak summer blooms, decreasing in autumn to a winter
low, occurred at all points except No. 2, the aeration
lagoon effluent, where an uncharacteristic dip occurs in
the summer population.  Since this anomaly was not
reflected in the body of the oxidation ponds, it is
doubtful that it is of any real significance; rather it  is
more probably the result of inconsistent counting practices,
chiefly involving the ubiquitous blue-green algae
Anacystis, which is quite difficult to count.
                            81

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                         FIGURE B-2

                  COLIFORM ORGANISMS
                SEASONAL INTENSIVE STUDIES
    25-i
V)
X
o
o
o
 b
o
o
o
2
cr
O
oc
o
o
o
 STA.  I  2  8 7 8

        FALL- 69
I  2 B 7  8

WINTER-70
12178

SPRING- 70
 2  B  7  8

SUMMER-70
                            82

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The reduction in coliform organisms across the system is
quite good, as shown in Figure B-2.  The general picture
of coliform density also adheres quite closely with what
one would expect in a similar normal system, with high
summer counts, low winter counts, and intermediate spring
and fall counts.

The Hercules plant was shut down during much of the time
period covered by this study.  Interpretations of the data
in relation to the subject of this research project is,
therefore, quite difficult.  The plant was in operation
during only 23% of the biological study period, and most
of this occurred during the last five months.  The plant
operated only 7% of the days during the first eight months,
while it operated 50% of the days of the final five months.
Figure B-4 shows the periods of operation during the
thirteen months of the study, and also shows the intensive
seasonal studies in relation to the periods of plant
operation.  The plant did not operate at all during the
fall intensive and had not operated for nearly four months
prior to it.  The plant did not resume operations until
near the end of the winter intensive.  On the other hand,
Hercules operated fairly regularly before and during the
spring and summer intensive studies.  In spite of these
facts, nothing could be found in the data which would
indicate that the biological aspects of the ponds were
influenced in any significant way by the immediate presence
or absence of waste from the Hercules plant in the
influent.
                         83

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              SEASONAL  VARIATIONS  IN NUMBERS OP PLANKTON IN
                 AERATION  LAGOON INFLUENT AND EFFLUENT
                    AND IN BODY OF OXIDATION PONDS
                                                              CM
                                                              CO
J

K
&
to
CD
K
O
O
O
O
                            FIGURE B-3
                                                           Body of
                                                         Oxidation
                                                           Ponds
                                 84

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CO
01
                                              FIGURE B-4
                              PERIODS OF HERCULES. INC.  PLANT
                             OPERATION  SHOWING  RELATIONSHIP TO
                           SEASONAL  INTENSIVE BIOLOGICAL  STUDIES
             I 23456  7  8 9 10 II  12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 2021 222324252627 28293031
      70
JUNE
JULY
AUGUST
SEPTEMBER
OCTOBER
NOVEMBER
DECEMBER
JANUARY
FEBRUARY
MARCH
APRIL
MAY
JUNE
                                                                                          1969
1970
             I 2  345  6  78 9 10  II  12 13 14 15  16 17 18 19 2021 2223242526 27 262930 31
                                        DAYS OF MONTH
                         LEGEND:
                       If PERIODS OF OPERATION
                         PERIODS OF  INTENSIVE STUDY
                         PERIODS OF  BOTH

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86

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                        SECTION X

                      COST ANALYSIS

Installation;

The cost of installation of the pump station revisions,
force main, aerated lagoon and appurtenances as designed
for the joint treatment of herbicidal-domestic wastes in
the modified Jacksonville west sewage treatment plant are
presented here as a matter of record.  Obviously, the
costs of such an installation at other locations will vary
from these costs with the treatment requirements of a
particular municipality, construction costs in the area
and the availability and cost of the necessary land.
However, the costs presented should serve as the basis for
an order of magnitude estimate.

Cost of Construction:
       Compacted Fill:                $ 13,764.80
       Class "A" Concrete:               3,802.50
       Class "B" Concrete:                 731.25
       Reinforcing Steel:                  750.00
       Sewer Pipe:                       8,533.00
       Crushed Stone:                    2,125.00
       Gravel Cut and Replaced:             85.00
       Lump Sum Items (Electrical,
         Fencing, Clearing, Etc.):      34,673.60
       Aeration Equipment:              65,987.00
       Engineering:                     11,965.39
                         Total:       $142,417.54

Operation;

The principal cost of operation of an aerated lagoon is
that of electrical power for the pumps and aerators.
This cost also will vary with the location because of
different power rate structures and with the requirements
of a particular municipality.

During one year, from May 16, 1969 to May 15, 1970
inclusive, one billion gallons of sewage flowed through
the aeration lagoon.  This represents an average flow of
83.3 million gallons per month or 2.74 MGD.  The cost of
power for the aerators during that period was $16,289.17.
The average cost per month was $1,357.43 or $44.63 per
day.  Thus, the sewage was aerated at an average cost of
1.63 cents per thousand gallons.
                            87

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The total BOD^ load on the aeration lagoon, based on an
average BOD5 content of the influent of 77 mg/1,  was
639,100 pounds.

The total BOD5 content of the effluent, based on an average
BOD5 content of 25 mg/1, was 208,250 pounds.

The 6005 satisfied by up-take of oxygen in the aeration
lagoon was therefore 430,850 pounds of 6005, removed at a
cost of 3.78 cents per pound.
                           88

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                         SECTION XI

                         DISCUSSION

The industrial waste under study in this joint treatment
project arises from the manufacture of hormone type
herbicides, principally 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
(2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
The former is made by coupling 2,4-dichlorophenol (2-4-DCP)
with monochloroacetic acid (MCA) in alkaline medium, the
latter by employing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP)  in
place of 2,4-DCP.

The interaction of chlorine gas bubbled into dry molten
phenol contained in a glass system, maintained at nearly
constant temperature slightly above 50C, proceeds readily
without a catalyst as an exothermic reaction evolving
hydrogen chloride.  Chlorine replaces hydrogen in phenol
most readily in the 4- position, less readily in the
2- position.  As chlorination is continued,  both 2- and
4- chlorophenol may yield 2,4-DCP and 2-chlorophenol may
yield 2,6-dichlorophenol  (2,6-DCP).  By the time 2 molar
equivalents of chlorine per mol of phenol have been added,
a small amount of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol  (2,4,6-TCP) may
be present.  Further chlorination yields more 2,4,6-TCP
readily at the expense of the 2,4-DCP and 2,6-DCP compounds,
but little higher chlorination occurs without higher
temperature and added catalyst.

Technical dichlorophenol thus may consist of from 86-92%
of 2,4-DCP with 11 - 6% of 2,6-DCP and variable small
amounts of 2-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol  (if under-
chlorinated) and 2,4,6-TCP (if slightly overchlorinated).

Technical 2,4,5-TCP is not a product of direct chlorina-
tion and may contain small amounts of 2,5-dichlorophenol
(2,5-DCP) and other materials depending on conditions of
manufacture.  2,4,5-TCP is produced by alkaline dechlorina-
tion of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene, which may contain small
amounts of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene.  The latter compound
yields 2,5-DCP upon dechlorination in the process used.

Thus the neutral aqueous waste stream from a plant using
technical 2,4-DCP and technical 2,4,5-TCP to produce
chlorophenoxy acid based herbicides would be expected to
have a variable mixed chlorophenol content.  A greater
content of 2,6-DCP would be expected in the waste stream
because 2,4-DCP appears to couple with MCA nearly five
times as rapidly as does 2,6-DCP.  The waste stream would
                            89

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 also  exhibit  a  variable  content of  the  salts of various
 chlorophenoxy-acids  and  of  the highly water soluble,
 by-product hydrolysate salts of the chloroalkanoic acids
 used  in  the manufacturing process.   A relatively high
 concentration of  salts of the mineral acid used to liberate
 the organic acids in the process would  be expected as the
 major constituent of the waste.
Mills    reported on the removal of  "dichlorophenol"
present  in a  2,4-D waste water  stream using a pilot plant
designed as a combined trickling filter and activated
sludge system.  The pilot plant unit was seeded with
activated sludge from a local sewage plant and the waste
stream was diluted to one-tenth strength with water before
treatment.  He states that the  average removal of "dichloro-
phenol"  during the most efficient period of operation was
86%.  It is assumed that the "dichlorophenol" present in
the waste studied by Mills was  comparable to the complex
chlorophenol  mixture encountered in the present study,
although the  mineral acid salt  content may have been
different.

It was demonstrated that the nature of the industrial
waste studied here did not change significantly during the
time between  the special survey of the Upper Bayou Meto by
the Arkansas  Pollution Control Commission, as shown in
quoted Table  I and the time of the demonstration project.
However, the  magnitude of the waste components did change
from time to  time during the project as noted in Table XXI.
These changes were brought about by intermittent operation
of the plant  and improved in-plant recovery processes.

During the first four months of this study of joint treat-
ment, a  period of minimal industrial plant activity, the
average  reductions in BOD5 , COD and chlorophenols across
the aeration  lagoon and stabilization ponds were found to
be 87%,  77% and 92%, respectively, for unfiltered samples.

Removal  of chlorophenols by the aerated lagoon alone
during the period of industrial plant operation ranged
from 55  to 89%, while the overall removal of chlorophenols
b;y both  the lagoon and stabilization ponds ranged from
87 to 94%.  Removal of chlorophenoxy acids was definitely
less, ranging from about 30 to 70% within the lagoon,
while removal by the lagoon and ponds ranged from 49 to
80%.

However, the  stabilization pond effluent quality during
this period was good:  The average unfiltered 3005 was
15 mg/1; chlorophenols, 0.1 mg/1; and chlorophenoxy acids,
                            90

-------
1.1 mg/1.  Chloride climbed to a peak of about 540 rag/1,
which might have been near steady state concentration, had
plant production continued.

It is apparent that during the period 1/17-4/17, 1970, when
the No. 1 aerator was out of service, that the increasing
load from the industrial plant seemed to induce greater
efficiency of overall removal of BOD5, chlorophenols and
chlorophenoxy acids by the aerated lagoon.

When the No. 1 aerator was returned to service, fractional
removal of 6005 was not changed significantly.  Some
improvement noted in the fractional removal of chloro-
phenols and chlorophenoxy acids may have been due to
reduction in their loading.

When the effect of the number of aerators in service is
considered, it would appear that BOD5 removal within the
lagoon is somewhat improved by less stirring with an
approximately constant BOD load.  The average linear
velocity within the lagoon is lowered as the pumping
capacity decreases (fewer aerators operating).  This would
permit some settling of floe with consequent increase in
mixed liquor settleable solids relative to biochemically
oxidizable material.  This behavior was subjectively
confirmed by the observation that changing aerators when
fewer than all four were running, always resulted in a
temporary increase in settleable solids within the lagoon.

It is believed that oxidation within the lagoon could be
improved by interposing a settling section from which
active floe could be continuously returned and mixed with
the influent flow to the lagoon.

Since the BODs of a waste is dependent among other factors
on the nature of the waste and the bacterial population, a
system subjected to a relatively constant high through-put
volume should perform more efficiently if the flow is
constantly fortified with acclimated bacterial floe.

It was observed that the BODs of the influent rose sharply
immediately after a heavy rain.  Infiltration apparently
"scoured" the lines, bringing down a greater amount of
oxidizable material and also a larger number of viable
organisms.  Continued heavy rain served to dilute both
oxidizable waste and organisms, with consequent reduction
in
                            91

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                         SECTION XII

                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 Mr.  S.  Ladd Davies,  Director,  Arkansas  Pollution  Control
 Commission,  and members  of the scientific  and  technical
 staff  of  the Commission,  particularly Mr.  Bobby G.  Voss
 and  Mr. James R.  Shell,  have  been most  cooperative  and
 helpful since the inception of the grant proposal.

 The  design  and construction phases of the  project were
 under  the able execution and  supervision of  Marion  L. Crist
 & Associates,  Inc.,  Little Rock,  Arkansas.   Mr. Marion L.
 Crist, Mr.  Arnold J.  Tyer,  and Mr. Robert  Yeatman of that
 organization are  especially deserving of many  thanks for
 their  continued interest and  assistance during the  course
 of the project study.

 Mr.  Elmer H.  Hines,  Superintendent,  Jacksonville  Water &
 Sewer  Department  and  Mr.  Oscar Peeler,  operator of  the
 Jacksonville West Sewage  Treatment Plant,  deserve the lions
 share  of  credit for  the  actual operation of  the combined
 treatment system.

 Many thanks  go also  to Mr.  Curtis Mahla and  Mr. James T.
 French of the  Design  and  Technical Section,  Base  Civil
 Engineers,  Little Rock Air  Force  Base in appreciation of
 their  advice during  discussions and for aiding in provision
 of local  climatological  information.

 It is with  deepest gratitude  that the assistance  of Mr.
 James R.  Shell and Mr. Neil Woomer,  both of  the Arkansas
 Pollution Control Commission,  and of Dr. Clarence B.
 Sinclair, Chairman of the  Department of Life Science, the
 University of  Arkansas at  Little  Rock,  is  acknowledged in
 connection with the biological study.

 Finally,  it  must  be acknowledged  that without  the full
 cooperation  of  Mr. George  C.  Putnicki and  other members of
 the  staff of  the  Federal Water Quality  Administration; Mr.
 John H. Harden, Mayor, and  members of the  Jacksonville City
 Council;  the Officers and  Directors  of  the Synthetics
 Department,   Hercules  Incorporated,  Wilmington, Delaware,
 and  the staff  of  the Arkansas  Pollution Control Commission
 together with  the hard, dedicated work  of  Mr.  Israel C.
Haidar, who  performed most  of  the analytical tests  and
Mr.   Bobby C. Brewer who performed most  of  the  U V analyses,
 this report would not have  been possible.

                                William Evans, M.S.  Zoology

                                Albert  E. Sidwell,PhD.  Chem.
                          92

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                    SECTION XIII

                     REFERENCES

Mills, R. E., "Development of Design Criteria for
Biological Treatment of an Industrial Effluent
Containing 2,4-D Waste Water," 14th Industrial Waste
Conference, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana,
pp 340-358 (1959).

Faust, S. D., and Aly, 0. M., "Studies on the Removal
of 2,4-D and 2,4-DCP from Surface Waters,"  18th
Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University,
Lafayette, Indiana, pp 6-8  (1963).

Ingols, R. S., Gaffney, P. E., and Stevenson, P. C.,
"Biological Activity of Halophenols," J. Water
Pollution Control Federation, pp 629-635, April 1966.

"Waste Water Study for Hercules Powder Company,
Jacksonville, Arkansas Plant," conducted by Department
of Environmental Science, Rutgers University, Brunswick,
New Jersey, September 6, 1963.

A. W. Busch,  Consulting Engineer, Houston, Texas, "A
Study of Chemical and Biological Oxidation of a 2,4-D
Waste Water," September 1963, prepared for Hercules
Powder Company.

"Special Survey  in Upper Bayou Meto Basin - 1967,"
Arkansas Pollution Control  Commission.
                        93

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                         APPENDIX A
 Scientific Name
SURVEY SUMMARY OF PLANKTON ORGANISMS

         6/5/69 - 10/11/69
            19  Samples

            Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Anabaena
 Anacystis
 Cladophora
 Filinia
 Lecane
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Synedra
 Ulothrix
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Coelosphaerium
Cyclops
Filinia
Gonium
Itura
Lecane
Lepadella
Lyngbya
Melosira
Monostyla
Nematode
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Pediastrum
Phacus
Philodina
             Station 1

        blue-green alga
        blue-green alga
        green alga
        rotifer
        rotifer
        blue-green alga
        green flagellate
        protozoan
        diatom
        green alga
        green alga
        ciliated protozoan

             Station  2

        blue-green alga
        blue-green alga
        rotifer
        rotifer
        green alga
        green alga
        green alga
        blue-green alga
        copepod
        rotifer
        green flagellate
        rotifer
        rotifer
        rotifer
        blue-green  alga
        diatom
        rotifer
       micro-round worm
        blue-green  alga
       blue-green  alga
       green flagellate
       green alga
       protozoan
       rotifer
       TNTC
       TNTC
        105
        105
         52
         52
        105
        210
        578
         52
         52
         52
       TNTC
       TNTC
         52
        578
        368
        157
      1,736
        105
         52
        157
        421
        210
        105
      1,368
         52
        157
        105
         52
        157
      1,736
        315
        157
      1,052
        475
                         94

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Scientific Name
    Common Name
Average No./Liter
Platyias
Pleodorina
Pleurotrocha
Surirella
Synedra
Tardegrada
Ulothrix
Volvox
Voronkowia
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Bosmina
Brachionus
Chlamydomonas
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Coelosphaerium
Cyclops
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Lepadella
Lyngbya
Melosira
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Ostracoda
Pandorina
Phacus
Pleodorina
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Voronkowia
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
diatom
diatom
water bear
green alga
green alga
rotifer
ciliated protozoan

     Station 3

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
micro-crustacean
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
blue-green alga
copepod
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
diatom
rotifer
blue-green alga
fairy shrimp
green flagellate
protozoan
green flagellate
diatom
green alga
green alga
rotifer
ciliated protozoan

     Station 4

blue-green alga
blue-green- alga
        210
        368
        210
        315
      1,157
         52
        105
      1,315
      1,421
        789
       TNTC
       TNTC
        526
        210
      1,473
        157
        210
        578
        526
        947
         52
        210
        526
        210
        736
        105
        157
        315
         57
      1,578
      2,368
         52
      7,578
      4,000
        263
      2,684
        105
        736
        157
        157
    170,930
    205,315
                         95

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 Scientific  Name
     Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Asplanchna
 Brachionus
 Chiamydomona s
 Chloroccus
 Cladophora
 Clostridium
 Conochilus
 Euglena
 Filinia
 Gonium
 Hexarthra
 Itura
 Lecane
 Lyngbya
 Monostyla
 Nostoc
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Philodina
 Platydorina
 Platyias
 Pleodorina
 Synedra
 Tetramastix
 Ulothrix
 Volvox
 Voronkowia
 Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlamydomonas
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Conochilus
Cyclops
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Itura
Lecane
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green  flagellate
 green  alga
 green  alga
 green  alga
 rotifer
 protozoan
 rotifer
 green  flagellate
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 blue-green alga
 green  flagellate
 protozoan
 rotifer
 green  flagellate
 rotifer
 green  flagellate
 diatom
 rotifer
 green  alga
 green  alga
 rotifer
 ciliated protozoan

     Station 5

 blue-green alga
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green  flagellate
 green  alga
 green  alga
protozoans
 green  alga
rotifer
 copepod
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
        368
        736
        947
      6,842
      1,368
         52
        105
      1,263
         52
        263
        210
        157
        421
         52
        842
         52
      3,263
      3,000
      3,630
        684
         52
      1,000
        315
      4,421
        105
        368
        526
         52
        894
    163,421
    184,894
        526
        789
        368
        684
      6,157
        526
        315
        157
        210
      1,526
        473
        315
        210
        105
                         96

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Scientific Name
Common Name
Average No./Liter
Lepadella
Lyngbya
Melosira
Mono sty la
No s toe
Oscillator ia
Pandorina
Pediastrum
Phacus
Philodina
Platyias
Pleurotrocha
Surirella
Synedra
Tardegrada
Ulothrix
Volvox
Voronkowia
Vorticella

Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chi amy domon a s
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Conochilus
Cyclops
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Itura
Keratella
Lecane
Lyngbya
Melosira
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Philodina
Phormidium
rotifer
blue-green alga
diatom
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
diatom
water bear
green alga
green alga
rotifer
ciliated protozoan
Station 6
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
protozoans
green alga
rotifer
copepod
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
diatom
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
blue-green alga
263
210
263
842
473
4,000
2,421
52
3,631
578
473
157
52
3,894
105
157
1,052
52
263

93,105
101,052
315
1,105
842
3,210
789
1,157
157
105
210
894
421
52
52
526
52
52
1,368
263
4,421
3,894
4,894
157
105
                         97

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 Scientific Name
    Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Platyias
 Pleodorina
 Synedra
 Tetramastix
 Ulothrix
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Ch1amydomonas
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Conochilus
Cyclops
Cyclotella
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Itura
Keratella
Lecane
Lepadella
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Nematode
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Ostracoda
Pandorina
Phacus
Philodina
Platyias
Pleurotrocha
Synedra
Tabellaria
Tardegrada
Tetramastix
Volvox
Vorticella
rotifer
green flagellate
diatom
rotifer
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan

     Station 7

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
green alga
green alga
rotifer
copepod
diatom
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
micro-round worm
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
fairy shrimp
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
diatom
water bear
rotifer
green alga
ciliated protozoan
        473
        263
      1,526
        157
         52
      1,052
        421
    135,210
    155,263
      1,210
      1,736
        684
        578
      5,210
      1,578
        315
        210
        315
        789
        526
        236
        157
        157
        263
        157
        368
        789
         52
        315
      4,105
         52
      6,526
      5,631
        315
        631
        421
      5,052
        175
         52
        157
        736
        894
                         98

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Scientific Name
    Common Name
Average No./Liter
Anabaena
Anacystis
Ankistrodesmus
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlamydomonas
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladoceran parts
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Itura
Keratella
Lecane
Lepadella
Lyngbya
Melosira
Monostyla
Navicula
Nematode
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Ostracoda
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Pluerotrocha
Synedra
Tardegrada
Ulothrix
Volvox
Voronkowia
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Bosmina
Brachionus
Ch1amydomonas
     Station 8

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
green alga
protozoans
water fleas
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
diatom
rotifer
diatom
micro-round worm
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
fairy shrimp
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
water bear
green alga
green alga
rotifer
ciliated protozoan

     Station 9

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
micro-crustacean
rotifer
green flagellate
    112,315
    140,947
         52
        947
      1,263
        421
      1,684
     19,947
        315
        473
      1,736
      1,421
        578
        263
        210
        315
         52
        105
        157
         52
        105
        947
         52
         52
        473
      5,894
        157
      2,947
     29,315
      2,000
        421
      4,000
         52
        105
      1,473
         52
        736
     104,473
     119,789
         157
          52
         894
         526
                         99

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 Scientific  Name
     Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Chlorella
 Chlorococcus
 Cladoceran  parts
 Cladophora
 Conochilus
 Euglena
 Filinia
 Gonium
 Hexarthra
 Keratella
 Lecane
 Lepadella
 Monostyla
 Navicula
 Nostoc
 Ocystis
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Pediastrum
 Phacus
 Philodina
 Platydorina
 Platyias
 Synedra
 Tetramastix
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladoceran parts
Cladophora
Cyclops
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Itura
Lecane
Lyngbya
Melosira
green alga
green alga
water fleas
green alga
rotifer
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
blue-green alga
green alga
blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
diatom
rotifer
green alga
ciliated protozoan

    Station 10

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
water fleas
green alga
copepod
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
diatom
        947
     21,842
        210
        789
         52
      1,105
        421
        157
        105
        157
        368
        105
      1,052
        368
      1,052
        210
      3,789
      1,368
         52
     26,631
        263
        368
      1,947
      3,105
        263
      1,894
        263
    165,789
    177,631
        315
        473
      1,421
     28,947
        105
        157
        421
         52
      1,473
        526
        421
        105
        105
        315
        157
        105
                         100

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Scientific Name
    Common Name
Average No./Liter
Monostyla
Navicula
Nostoc
Ocystis
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Philodina
Platyias
Pleodorina
Synedra
Volvox
Vornokowia
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chiamydomonas
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Cladoceran parts
Cladophora
Cyclops
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Itura
Keratella
Lecane
Lepadella
Melosira
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Ostracoda
Pandorina
Phacus
Philodina
Platyias
Pleodorina
Synedra
Tardegrada
Volvox
rotifer
diatom
blue-green alga
green alga
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
diatom
green alga
rotifer
ciliated protozoan

    Station 11

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
green alga
water fleas
green alga
copepod
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
fairy shrimp
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
diatom
water bear
green alga
        105
        315
        578
        105
      2,631
      2,421
     24,578
        263
      1,473
        105
      3,736
      2,315
        105
        473
    141,315
    153,421
        473
      1,947
        894
      1,947
     28,105
        210
        368
        105
      1,526
      1,052
        526
        157
        157
        368
         52
        105
        157
      1,105
        315
      3,526
         52
      5,105
     25,578
        157
      2,000
         52
      5,105
         52
      1,210
                         101

-------
Scientific Name
    Common Name
Average No./Liter
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlamydomonas
Chlorella
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladoceran parts
Cladophora
Coelosphaerium
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Lepadella
Lyngbya
Melosira
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Philodina
Platyias
Synedra
Tardegrada
Volvox
Voronkowia
Vorticella
ciliated protozoan

    Station 12

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
green alga
protozoans
water fleas
green alga
blue-green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
diatom
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
water bear
green alga
rotifer
ciliated protozoan
        105
    125,210
    150,315
        894
      1,210
      2,315
     16,421
        789
        263
        736
         52
      1,105
        368
        526
        315
         52
        105
        157
        210
        315
        421
      3,368
      2,789
     26,631
        368
      2,210
      4,052
         52
        736
        157
        473
                         102

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            SURVEY SUMMARY OF PLANKTON ORGANISMS
              November 2, 9, 16, 23,  30,   1969

Scientific Name	Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anabaena
Anacystis
Chiamydomonas
Cladophora
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Oscillatoria
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlamydomonas
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Gonium
Itura
Lepadella
Melosira
Philodina
Pleodorina
Surirella
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Voronkowia
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
   Station 1

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
diatom
green alga
green alga

   Station 2

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
green alga
green alga
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
rotifer
green flagellate
diatom
diatom
green alga
green alga
rotifer
ciliated protozoan

   Station 3

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
   12
TNTC
   24
   47
   71
    3
    6
    3
  229
  569
    1
 TNTC
    3
   66
    9
  127
    2
   79
   11
   76
  729
  191
   15
   68
   27
  917
    2
6,100
  303
   16
   61
1,425
  149
  870
1,331
                         103

-------
 Scientific  Name
    Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Ciliates
 Cladophora
 Euglena
 Hexarthra
 Monostyla
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Synedra
 Ulothrix
 Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyle
Pandorina
Phacus
gynedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Conochilus
Euglena
Keratella
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
protozoana
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga

    Station 4

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga

    Station 5

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
rotifer
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
        113
        281
        328
         59
        178
      1,302
        189
      1,117
        142
      2,115
        101
      9,831
        212
        856
      1,297
        222
        364
        482
         71
        269
      1,515
        191
      1,369
        166
      2,008
         88
      1,012
        261
        743
      1,421
        156
        179
         10
        340
          5
        243
      1,615
        134
      1,212
      1,468
                         104

-------
Scientific Name
    Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladoceran parts
Cladophora
Euglena
Keratella
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Tetramastix
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Keratella
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
   Station 6

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
water fleas
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
rotifer
green alga

   Station 7

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga

   Station 8

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
  245
1,119
    2
  281
  546
1,407
    1
   91
  134
   33
  134
1,216
  249
  896
    3
1,601
  257
1,804
  256
  619
  909
    1
   69
  168
   49
  127
  669
  397
1,012
1,963
   19
  323
  701
1,304
9,463
  488
1,039
1,294
   29
  360
                         105

-------
 Scientific  Name
     Common Name
Average No./Liter
 lie cane
 Monostyla
 Oscillatoria
 Pendorina
 Phacus
 Platyias
 Synedra
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Vorticella
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

   Station 9

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

  Station 10

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
        211
        861
      2,909
      1,016
      9,473
        179
      3,100
      1,043
        417
          1
        412
        811
        913
      8,900
        396
        999
        906
        293
        187
        616
        911
        763
      5,494
         44
        911
        836
        287
        215
        696
      1,014
      9,300
        199
      1,041
      1,212
        314
        199
        608
      1,215
        896
      6,132
         29
      1,096
                         106

-------
Scientific Name
    Common Name    Average No./Liter
Ulothrix
Vorticella
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
green alga
ciliated protozoan

  Station 11

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga

  Station 12

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga
  733
  331
  311
  502
  997
9,901
  259
1,414
1,639
  414
  798
1,624
  966
7,342
   36
  996
  604
  219
  212
  319
  804
  717
  213
1,012
1,793
  309
  688
1,002
  468
5,130
   12
  866
  519
   98
                         107

-------
            SURVEY SUMMARY OF PLANKTON ORGANISMS
                December 1, 14, 21, 28, 1969

Scientific Name	Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anacystis
Ch1amydomona s
Cladophora
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chiamydomonas
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Cyclops
Gonium
Itura
Lepadella
Melosira
Nematode
Ostracoda
Philodina
Pleodorina
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlroella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Melosira
Monostyla
Nematode
   Station 1

blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga

   Station 2

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
green alga
green alga
green alga
copepod
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
micro-round worm
fairy shrimp
rotifer
green flagellate

   Station 3

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
rotifer
micro-round worm
 TNTC
   18
   44
   70
    4
    6
  229
  495
   15
 TNTC
    2
   39
   12
  131
    6
   67
    9
   15
   68
  616
  215
   98
    1
   12
   54
  808
  135
1,087
1,576
   82
  672
  478
   76
   21
   84
    1
                         108

-------
Scientific Name
   Common Name
Average No./Liter
Pandorina
PHacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Phormidium
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Phormidium
Synedra
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan

  Station 4

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
blue-green alga
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga

  Station 5
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
blue-green alga
diatom
green alga

  Station 6

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
      1,460
        186
        985
        123
      1,926
         93
        560
        119
      1,166
      1,697
         76
        590
        379
         84
         41
          2
      1,653
        190
         15
          3
      5,472
        110
      1,293
         12
        621
         75
      1,019
      1,314
        196
        324
         16
         79
      1,916
        129
         47
        989
      1,212
          17
         787
          88
                         109

-------
 Scientific  Name
   Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Chlorella  (vulgaris)
 Chlorococcus
 Cladophora
 Euglena
 Monostyla
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Phormidium
 Synedra
 Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Cyclops
Euglena
Keratella
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Phormidium
Synedra
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
blue-green alga
diatom
green alga

  Station 7

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
copepod
protozoan
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
green flatellate
protozoan
blue-green alga
diatom
green alga

  Station 8

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flatellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
      1,511
      1,739
        137
        309
        160
      1,089
        297
        956
        864
      1,505
         31
        864
        100
      1,620
      1,588
        153
          1
        333
          6
          2
        229
        823
        303
        414
        911
      1,739
        611
        811
      1,519
      9,190
        516
      1,240
        993
         37
        412
        292
        901
      2,263
      1,161
     10,513
        199
                        110

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

 Station 9

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
      4,556
      1,191
        608
        402
        551
      1,003
      6,010
        212
        913
        496
          3
        184
         57
        499
      1,123
        616
      8,361
         59
      2,413
        811
        315
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
 Station 10

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
        415
        711
      1,176
      7,112
        319
      1,019
        459
         20
          3
        568
      1,202
        723
      8,181
         84
      2,323
        987
        516
                         111

-------
 Scientific  Name
   Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Anacystis
 Brachionus
 Chlorella  (vulgaris)
 Chlroococcus
 Cladophora
 Euglena
 Filinia
 Hexarthra
 Monostyla
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Platyias
 Synedra
 Ulothrix
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladoceran parts
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pediastrum
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
  Station 11

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan

  Station 12

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
water fleas
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan
        319
        844
      1,269
      8,281
        476
      1,438
        597
         36
        694
      1,503
      1,782
      7,309
         93
      2,982
        511
        991
        413
        212
        648
      1,119
      1,762
        289
        498
         24
        505
      1,407
      1,822
      6,903
         87
      3,115
        409
        962
        212
                         112

-------
             SURVEY SUMMARY OF PLANKTON ORGANISMS

                 February I,  8, 15,  22,  1970

Scientific Name	Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anacystis
Ch1amydomonas
Cladophora
Filinia
Hexarthra
Synedra
Anacystis
Brachionus
Cyclops
Cyclotella
Itura
Lepadella
Melosira
Surirella
Synedra
Voronkowia
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Melosira
Monostyla
Navicula
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Vorticella
  Station 1

blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
diatom

  Station 2

blue-green alga
rotifer
copepod
diatom
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
diatom
diatom
rotifer

  Station 3

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
rotifer
diatom
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

  Station 4
 TNTC
   27
   43
   69
    6
  212
 TNTC
   62
    6
    1
   61
  590
  247
   15
  709
  253
1,013
   39
  103
1,321
1,576
   81
  462
  322
   81
   23
   93
    4
1,462
  191
  983
  144
   63
                         113

-------
 Scientific Name
    Common Name    Average No./Liter
 Anacystis
 Brachionus
 Chlorella (vulgaris)
 Chlorococcus
 Ciliates
 Cladophora
 Coelosphaerium
 Euglena
 Filinia
 Hexarthra
 Keratella
 Monostyla
 Pandorina
 Podiastrum
 Synedra
 Ulothrix
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Pandorina
Synedra
Volvox
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Monostyla
Pandorina
Synedra
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 green  alga
 green  alga
 protozoans
 green  alga
 blue-green alga
 protozoan
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green  flagellate
 green  alga
 diatom
 green  alga

  Station 5

 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 green  alga
 green  alga
 protozoans
 green  alga
 protozoan
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green  flagellate
 diatom
 green  alga

  Station 6

blue-green alga
 rotifer
rotifer
green  alga
green  alga
protozoans
green  alga
protozoan
rotifer
green  flagellate
diatom
  747
  256
  860
1,213
   79
  179
   12
  230
    1
   86
    2
   81
1,670
   97
1,590
   23
  880
   89
  990
1,359
  143
  182
  241
   12
   76
1,767
1,309
   47
  972
    5
  129
  690
1,295
  136
   12
  207
   24
  898
  903
                         114

-------
Scientific Name
   Common Name    Average No./Liter
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Monostyla
Pandorina
Synedra
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
  Station 7

blue-green alga           724
rotifer                   197
green alga                823
green alga              1,026
protozoans                 74
green alga                 66
protozoan                 222
rotifer                    89
green flagellate          667
diatom                  1,004

  Station 8

blue-green alga           313
rotifer                   343
rotifer                   407
green alga              1,947
green alga             10,650
green alga                515
protozoan                 769
rotifer                   905
green flagellate           37
rotifer                   404
rotifer                   305
rotifer                   936
blue-green alga           319
green flagellate          909
protozoan               8,120
rotifer                   200
diatom                  4,667
green alga                932
ciliated protozoan        619

  Station 9

blue-green alga           187
rotifer                   213
rotifer                   222
green alga                936
green alga              5,510
green alga                396
protozoan                 353
rotifer                   449
green flagellate           12
rotifer                   311
rotifer                    96
                         115

-------
 Scientific Name
    Common Name
Average No/Liter
 Monostyla
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Platyias
 Synedra
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 green  flagellate
 protozoan
 rotifer
 diatom
 green  alga
 ciliated protozoan

  Station 10
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green  alga
 green  alga
 green  alga
 protozoan
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 green  flagellate
 protozoan
 rotifer
 diatom
 green  alga
 ciliated protozoan

  Station 11

 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green  alga
 green  alga
 green  alga
protozoan
 rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green  flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
        387
         97
        415
      3,995
         59
      1,864
        405
        313
        169
        119
        121
        496
      3,516
        367
        943
        511
        316
         87
        219
        486
        651
      4,141
         23
      2,209
        499
        412
         56
         27
         69
        161
      2,151
        276
        804
        324
        211
        196
        269
        591
      5,101
         12
      2,196
        328
        294
                         116

-------
 Scientific Name
   Common Name
Average No./Liter
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
  Station 12

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
         44
         12
         28
         76
      1,915
        269
        706
        229
        107
        212
        278
        463
      4,009
      1,699
        228
        182
                         117

-------
           SURVEY SUMMARY  OF  PLANKTON  ORGANISMS
                 March  1,  8f  15,  22,  1970

 Scientific  Name	Common  Name	Average No./Liter
 Anacystis
 Chlamydomonas
 Cladophora
 Filinia
 Synedra
 Ulothrix
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Cladophora
Coelosphaerium
Cyclotella
Itura
Lepadella
Nematode
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Pleodorina
Surirella
Synedra
Volvox
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachinous
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Keratella
Monostyle
Phacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
    Station 1

blue-green alga
green  flagellate
green  alga
rotifer
diatom
green  alga

    Station 2

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green  alga
green  alga
blue-green alga
diatom
rotifer
rotifer
Micro-round worm
blue-green alga
green  flagellate
green  flagellate
diatom
diatom
green  alga

    Station 3

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green  alga
protozoans
green  alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
protozoan
diatom
green alga
 TNTC
   15
   39
   71
  334
  126
   97
 TNTC
   50
   12
   89
  126
    2
   72
  513
  101
   28
   67
   59
   21
  808
3,109
  896
    3
  183
1,155
   82
  299
  254
   34
   15
   96
  215
  802
  101
                         118

-------
Scientific Name
   Common Name    Average No./Liter
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Ciliates
cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Mono-style
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Anacystis
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Monostyle
Synedra
Tetramastix
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Cladophora
Ciliates
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Synedra
Ulothrix
Anacystis
Brachionus
green alga
ciliated protozoan

    Station 4

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
protozoan
diatom
green alga

    Station 5

blue-green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
rotifer
green alga

    Station 6

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
protozoans
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
green alga

    Station 7

blue-green alga
rotifer
1,706
   59
  666
  151
  609
   97
  156
  217
   39
   54
   62
6,003
1,317
  866
1,006
  179
   96
  137
   43
  519
   29
  987
  689
  153
  919
   79
   64
   87
    1
    2
  134
  491
1,059
  799
  218
                         119

-------
 Scientific Name
    Common Name    Average No./Liter
 Chlorella (vulgaris)
 Cladophora
 Euglena
 Monostyla
 Synedra
 Volvox
Anacystis
Anki strodesmus
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  {vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Itura
Keratella
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
 green  alga                761
 green  alga                124
 protozoan                  50
 rotifer                   243
 diatom                   619
 green  alga              1,231

   Station 8

 blue-green alga           211
 green  alga                123
 rotifer                   309
 rotifer                   283
 green  alga              1,176
 green  alga             12,511
 green  alga                697
 protozoan                 799
 rotifer                   777
 green  flagellate          136
 rotifer                   144
 rotifer                   146
 rotifer                   111
 rotifer                   694
 blue-green alga           206
 green  flagellate        1,090
 protozoan               6,209
 rotifer                   143
 diatom                 3,565
 green  alga              1,028
 oiliated protozoan        444
Anacystis
Ankistrodesmus
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Conochilus
Euglena
Filinia
Genium
Hexatella
Itura
    Station 9

blue-green alga
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
rotifer
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
173
 10
215
107
930
844
213
 21
297
276
 35
 87
 78
                        120

-------
Scientific Name
   Common Name
Average No./Liter
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Ankistrodesmus
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Itura
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachicnus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Itura
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

   Station 10

blue-green alga
green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

   Station 11

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
         26
        399
        109
        111
      4,311
         91
      1,090
        623
        199
        116
        113
         97
        980
        766
        319
        276
        191
         23
         48
        425
        213
        811
      5,113
         96
      1,209
      7,121
        314
         94
         83
         49
        491
        360
        211
        187
        100
         18
         51
        252
        103
        819
       4,211
                         121

-------
Scientific Name
   Common Name	Average No./Liter
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Itura
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

  Station 12

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
   86
  987
  409
  208
   63
   34
   26
  202
  262
  119
  302
  137
   23
   31
  198
   94
  486
3,490
   44
  707
  323
  192
                         122

-------
            SURVEY SUMMARY OF PLANKTON ORGANISMS
Scientific Name
 May  3,  10,  17,  24,   1970

	    Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anabaena
Anacystis
Chlamydomonas
Cladophora
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pleodorina
Synedra
Ulothrix
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlamydomonas
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Coelosphaerium
Cyclops
Gonium
Itura
Lepadella
Melosira
Nematode
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Pleodorina
Synedra
Volvox
Voronkowia
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Bosmina
Brachionus
       Station  1

     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     green  alga
     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     diatom
     green  alga

       Station  2

     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     rotifer
     rotifer
     green  flagellate
     green  alga
     green  alga
     green  alga
     blue-green alga
     copepod
     green  flagellate
     rotifer
     rotifer
     diatom
     micro-round  worm
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     green  flagellate
     diatom
     green  alga
     rotifer

       Station  3

     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     rotifer
     micro-crustacean
     rotifer
   27
 TNTC
   16
   41
   19
   13
   20
  307
  322
  557
 TNTC
    1
   62
    8
   78
    3
   33
  411
    4
   10
   36
  316
  200
   91
  662
   59
   44
  413
3,346
   27
  661
1,596
   12
    9
   54
                         123

-------
 Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Cladoceran parts
 Coelosphaerium
 Conochilus
 Hexarthra
 Lyngbya
 Monostyla
 Oscillatoria
 Phormidium
 Platyias
 Tetramastix
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Cladoceran parts
Coelosphaerium
Hexarthra
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Phormidium
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Conochilus
Hexarthra
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Phormidium
Synedra
Ulothrix
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Hexarthra
water fleas
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer

  Station 4

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
water fleas
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga

  Station 5

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
diatom
green alga

  Station 6

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
rotifer
         31
          5
          1
         50
         47
         68
        441
        342
          3
         13
      1,061
        615
        259
         84
         17
         35
         56
         64
         72
        514
        512
        981
        111
         11
      1,010
          3
         34
        187
         78
      1,096
        568
          5
          7
        701
        819
        117
        919
          7
                        124

-------
Scientific Name
   Common Name	Average No./Liter
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Phormidium
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Cyclops
Keratella
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Phormidium
Synedra
Anabaena
Anacystis
Ankistrodesmus
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Ostillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
Anabaena
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga

   Station 7

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
copepod
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
diatom

   Station 8

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan

   Station 9

blue-green alga
   201
   135
 1,291
   887
   664
   907
   159
 1,012
     1
     3
   236
   123
 1,611
   919
     3
20,690
17,000
    92
    22
    44
 1,212
 1,069
   744
   531
   402
   319
    10
    14
    96
 1,094
   737
19,937
    23
 2,010
   745
   901
    56
26,972
                        125

-------
 Scientific  Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Anacystis
 Ankistrode sinus
 Asplanchna
 Brachionus
 Chlamydomonas
 Chlorella  (vulgaris)
 Chlorococcus
 Cladophora
 Euglena
 Filinia
 Gonium
 Monostyla
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Platyias
 Synedra
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
blue-green alga        21,341
green alga                 50
rotifer                    13
rotifer                    21
green flagellate           62
green alga                804
green alga              1,111
green alga                881
protozoan                 616
rotifer                   211
green flagellate          459
rotifer                    66
blue-green alga           699
green flagellate          313
protozoan              12,373
rotifer                    10
diatom                  1,818
green alga                559
ciliated protozoan         68

  Station 10

blue-green alga        30,869
blue-green alga        26,444
rotifer                    40
rotifer                    29
green alga                811
green alga              1,229
green alga                611
protozoan                 519
rotifer                   119
rotifer                   168
blue-green alga           701
green flagellate          424
protozoan              15,436
rotifer                    66
diatom                  2,323
green alga                618
ciliated protozoan         62

  Station 11

blue-green alga        37,968
blue-green alga        30,546
rotifer                    51
rotifer                    19
green alga                513
green alga                936
                        126

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Cladophora
Eugleua
Filinia
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Monostyle
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
       423
       624
       329
       179
       811
       512
    23,634
        74
     2,515
       519
        26
    43,936
    40,498
        24
        10
       315
       429
       319
       506
       416
       101
       613
       418
    25,448
        66
     2,444
     3,999
        11
                         127

-------
to
00
                                 BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA*


                                           FALL INTENSIVE


                                             TABLE B-l


                                   October 18 through  31, 1969


          Station  Water  (C)       Dissolved    Avg.  No. of Coliform Organisms/100 ml
          Number  Temperature   pH  Oxygen(ppm)
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
NO.
No.
No.
NO.
No.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
22
18
16
15.3
15.5
15.7
15.3
15.5
15.7
15.5
15.6
15.4
7.1
7.9
8.5
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.4
8.9
8.9
8.7
8.6
8.8
3.1
7.6
12.7
12.9
12.6
12.8
12.9
13.1
12.2
12.7
12.5
12.7
Total
176,900
83,117
1,961
1,590
2,343
2,807
1,321
1,677
2,991
3,000
2,692
2,555
Fecal
159,300
70,009
1,640
1,467
2,000
2,322
1,219
1,299
1,591
1,898
2,100
2,112
cn

h

(D


cn



U
S!
H-
3
rt
(D
                                                                                             cn
                                                                                             V
                                                                                             H
                                                                                             H-
                                                                                             CU
                                                                                             3
                                                                                             O4

                                                                                             cn
          *Average  of 14 Samples.
(D
h

H
3
rt
(D
3
w
H-
                                                                                             (D
                                                                                             cn

-------
                        TABLE B-2
            PLANKTON ORGANISMS - FALL INTENSIVE

                October 18 through 31,  1969

Scientific Name	  Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anabaena
Anacystis
Chlamydomonas
Cladophora
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Oscillatoria
Phormidium
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Ciliates
Cladophora
Itura
Lepadella
Melosira
Phacus
Pleodorina
Surirella
Synedra
Volvox
Voronkowia
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Station No. 1

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green flgaellate
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
diatom
green alga
green alga

Station 2

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
protozoans
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
protozoan
green flagellate
diatom
diatom
green alga
rotifer

Station 3

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
   37
 TNTC
   22
   51
   78
    2
    6
   19
   20
  222
  599
    5
 TNTC
   69
  134
    2
   81
   68
  761
  186
   24
   72
   25
  975
6,303
  310
   56
1,399
  163
  913
1,297
   99
  296
                            129

-------
Scientific Name
 Common Name
Average No./Liter
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga

Station 4

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga

Station 5

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
Protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
         301
          95
         152
       1,252
         198
       1,007
         167
       2,002
         884
         431
         230
         890
       1,010
          62
         156
         204
          71
          83
         357
       1,232
          92
       7,021
          52
       1,005
         133
         518
         113
         912
       1,475
          96
         184
         156
          10
         293
         496
       1,712
         229
       1,515
       1,769
                         130

-------
Scientific Name
 Common Name
Average No./Liter
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Pediastrum
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Cyclops
Euglena
Keratella
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Station 6

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
protozoan
diatom
green alga

Station 7

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
copepod
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga

Station 8

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
         140
         672
         169
         821
       1,054
          66
         138
         119
         139
       1,096
       1,848
           5
         293
         766
       1,296
         166
         722
         255
         890
       1,273
          46
         120
           1
         229
           6
         122
       1,313
         787
         301
         818
       1,314
         143
         497
          80
         361
         918
       1,019
          83
         154
         313
                         131

-------
 Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Filinia
 Gonium
 Hexarthra
 Lecane
 Lepadella
 Monostyla
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Phormidium
 Platyias
 Synedra
 Volvox
 Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Phormidium
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
 rotifer
 green flagellate
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 green flagellate
 protozoan
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 diatom
 green alga
 ciliated protozoan

 Station 9

 blue-green alga
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green alga
 green alga
 green alga
 protozoan
 rotifer
 green flagellate
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 green flagellate
 protozoan
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 diatom
 green alga
 green alga
 ciliated protozoan

Station 10

 blue-green alga
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green alga
          27
          12
         217
           9
          13
         180
       If227
         762
         422
          22
          75
       1,226
         807
          19
         159
         404
          97
         443
         990
       1,178
         149
         456
          33
          17
         156
          28
         199
       1,576
         877
         573
          41
          89
       1,363
         397
         991
          10
         133
         501
         129
         467
         496
                         132

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Lepadella
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Phormidium
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Phormidium
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
 green alga
 green alga
 protozoan
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 green flagellate
 protozoan
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 diatom
 green alga
 ciliated protozoan

Station 11

 blue-green alga
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green alga
 green alga
 green alga
 protozoan
 rotifer
 rotifer
 rotifer
 blue-green alga
 green flagellate
 protozoan
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 diatom
 green alga
 green alga

Station 12

 blue-green alga
 blue-green alga
 rotifer
 rotifer
 green alga
       1,199
         263
         688
          49
         188
           9
         128
         233
       1,499
         916
         981
          68
         156
       1,414
       1,050
          15
          97
         211
         163
         988
         596
      13,119
         465
         789
         499
         268
         415
       2,398
         911
       1,019
          78
         189
       1,672
         493
       1,151
         126
         252
         197
         968
         436
                         133

-------
Scientific Name	Common Name	Average No./Liter

Chlorococcus            green alga              10,337
Ciliates                protozoans                  13
Cladophora              green alga                 547
Euglena                 protozoan                  878
Filinia                 rotifer                    509
Hexarthra               rotifer                    198
Monostyla               rotifer                    502
Oscillatoria            blue-green alga         40,019
Pandorina               green flagellate           816
Phacus                  protozoan               22,111
Phormidium              blue-green alga             86
Platyias                rotifer                    293
Synedra                 diatom                   1,918
Ulothrix                green alga                 511
Volvox                  green alga               1,015
                         134

-------
U)
Ul
                                  BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL  DATA

                                           WINTER INTENSIVE
                                              TABLE B-3
Station
Number
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
January 4 through 17, 1970
Water (C) Dissolved Avg. No.
Temperature pH Oxygen (ppm)
13.
12.
13.
13.
13.
13.
13.
13.
13.
13.
13.
13.
9
0
1
0
0
2
1
1
2
1
0
1
4
6
8
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
7
8
.8
.9
.1
.9
.8
.7
.0
.0
.1
.2
.9
.1
5.
6.
9.
9.
9.
9.
9.
9.
9.
9.
9.
9.
5
7
3
3
5
5
6
9
4
5
1
0
of Coliform Organisms/100 ml
Total
153
79
3
2
3
3
2
2
3
2
2
2
,212
,226
,493
,997
,222
,005
,001
,509
,233
,569
,655
,489*
Fecal
121
78
3
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
,111
,113
,005
,600
,801
,504
,559
,116
,881
,991
,459
,696*
          Average of 14 Samples
         ^Average of 13 Samples

-------
                         TABLE B-4
            PLANKTON ORGANISMS - WINTER INTENSIVE

                January 4 through 17,  1970

 Scientific Name	Common Name	Average  No./Liter
Anacystis
Chlamydomonas
Cladophora
Filinia
Hexarthra
Synedra
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Cyclops
Cyclotella
Itura
Lepadella
Melosira
Nematode
Philodina
Surirella
Synedra
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Cyclops
Euglena
Hexarthra
Melosira
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
  Station  1

blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
rotifer
rotifer
diatom

  Station  2

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
copeped
diatom
rotifer
rotifer
diatom
micro-round worm
rotifer
diatom
diatom

  Station  3

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
copeped
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
 TNTC
   16
   46
   78
   18
  448
 TNTC
   50
   63
    4
    2
   54
  495
  205
   97
    9
    9
  682
  997
  119
1,199
1,601
   93
  401
    6
  313
   88
   27
  109
1,319
  202
    7
1,016
                         136

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Ciliates
Cladophora
Conochilus
Euglena
Monostyla
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Keratella
green alga
green alga

 Station 4

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga

 Station 5

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
protozoans
green alga
rotifer
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga

 Station 6

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
        134
      1,873
        575
        230
      1,016
         99
        742
        209
         56
         19
      1,597
         95
         13
      1,290
        126
      1,335
        711
        123
      1,010
        143
        242
          1
        174
         12
      1,379
          5
      1,478
         29
        984
        832
        176
        834
        165
        129
          99
          3
          6
                         137

-------
 Scientific Name
   Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Monostyla
 Pandorina
 Synedra
 Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Monostyla
Pandorina
Synedra
Volvox
Anabaena
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
rotifer
green  flagellate
diatom
green  alga

 Station  7

blue-green alga
rotifer
green  alga
protozoans
green  alga
protozoan
rotifer
green  flagellate
diatom
green  alga

 Station  8

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green  alga
green  alga
green  alga
protozoan
rotifer
green  flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green  flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green  alga
ciliated protozoan

 Station 9

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
         33
        810
        906
      1,018
        913
        263
        900
         76
        140
        101
         12
        713
      1,023
        799
        519
        797
        933
      1,823
      9,965
        703
      1,408
      1,055
         43
        521
        327
      1,090
        437
      1,216
      9,316
        205
      5,640
      1,009
        771
        303
        478
        439
      1,132
      4,343
                         138

-------
Scientific Name
 Common Name
Average No./Liter
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Mono sty la
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
350
819
812
12
119
94
708
175
817
4,410
199
2,234
719
344
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Station 10

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

Station 11

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
        259
        406
        491
        913
      4,619
        366
        911
        919
         97
        126
        538
         98
        292
      3,916
        227
      3,001
        514
         76
        225
        411
        563
      1,015
        612
        469
      1,121
        908
        132
                        139

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan

Station 12

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan
        719
         68
        283
      3,872
        419
      2,938
        211
        422
         64
        210
        314
        416
        985
        715
        511
      1,301
      1,015
        222
        505
         52
        198
      2,987
        311
      2,123
        190
        222
         98
                         140

-------
*>.
                                 BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA*

                                          SPRING INTENSIVE

                                             TABLE B-5

                                  March 29 through April 11, 1970
Station Water (C)
Number Temperature
NO.
NO.
No.
No.
NO.
No.
NO.
No.
No.
NO.
No.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
17
17
17
18
17
17
17
17
17
18
17
17
.6
.1
.9
.0
.8
.9
.8
.9
.9
.0
.9
.9
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
7
7
8
pH
.4
.3
.8
.6
.9
.7
.7
.1
.0
.9
.9
.1
Dissolved
Oxygen (ppm)
6
7
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
.1
.3
.7
.8
.8
.0
.9
.6
.7
.6
.9
.1
Avcj . No .
of Coliform Organisms/100 ml
Total
197
160
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
2
,367
,112
,433
,867
,929
,006
,123
,779*
,722
,512
,916
,873
Fecal
160
112
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
3
2
2
,501
,199
,100
,222
,113
,615
.877^
,781*
,451
,127
,079
,555
           Average of 14 Samples
          ^Average of 13 Samples

-------
                          TABLE B-6
             PLANKTON ORGANISMS  - SPRING INTENSIVE

                March 29  through April  II,  1970

 Scientific  Name	   Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anacystis
Ch1amydomonas
Cladophora
Filinia
Synedra
Ulothrix
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Cladophora
Coelosphaerium
Itura
Lepadella
Nematode
Nostoc
Pleodorina
Synedra
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Dipteran Larvae
Euglena
Melosira
Navicula
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
 Station 1

blue-green alga
green flagellate
green alga
rotifer
diatom
green alga

 Station 2

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
micro-round worm
blue-green alga
green flagellate
diatom
green alga

 Station 3

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
midge
protozoan
diatom
diatom
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga
 TNTC
   16
   41
   77
  501
  468
  112
 TNTC
    2
   62
    9
   71
  152
   99
  612
  129
   53
   72
  613
4,401
  992
  197
1,339
  910
   93
  401
    1
  333
   10
    5
1,414
  251
1,002
  143
1,830
                         142

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Vorticella
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Hexarthra
Keratella
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Ciliates
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Keratella
ciliated protozoan

 Station 4

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
green alga
ciliated protozoan

 Station 5

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga

 Station 6

blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
protozoans
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
         69
        699
        178
        800
        ,069
         78
        139
        216
        620
         88
        ,200
        139
        ,051
         36
        899
          3
        921
        991
      1,603
        159
        151
        144
          1
          4
        982
        222
          3
        820
      1,512
      Ir098
        178
        855
      1,653
        168
        112
         96
          1
          4
         15
                         143

-------
 Scientific Name
   Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Lepadella
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Volvox
 Anacystis
 Brachionus
 Chlorella  (vulgaris)
 Chlorococcus
 Ciliates
 Cladophora
 Euglena
 Keratella
 Pandorina
 Phacus
 Ulothrix
Anacystis
Ankistrodesmus
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlamydomonas
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Ulothrix
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
 rotifer                     l
 green  flagellate        1,002
 protozoan                  422
 green  alga              1,212
  Station 7

 blue-green alga         1,801
 rotifer                   212
 green  alga                 888
 green  alga              1,438
 protozoans                 147
 green  alga                 76
 protozoan                  180
 rotifer                   29
 green  flagellate           801
 protozoan                  512
 green  alga                 722

  Station 8

 blue-green alga            235
 green  alga                 274
 rotifer                    119
 rotifer                    198
 green  flagellate           413
 green  alga              1,296
 green  alga             12,967
 green  alga                 896
 protozoan                  613
 rotifer                    571
 green  flagellate           461
 rotifer                    59
 rotifer                    88
 rotifer                    387
 blue-green alga            153
 green  flagellate        1,219
 protozoan               4,370
 rotifer                    56
 diatom                  3,333
 green alga                 912
 green alga              1,556
 ciliated protozoan         211

 Station 9

blue-green alga            113
                        144

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
green flagellate
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan
         74
         69
        872
      6,678
        397
        232
        456
        198
         13
         23
        390
         76
        813
      4,409
         27
      2,002
      1,600
        103
                        Station 10
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

 Station 11

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
         92
         62
         54
        729
      7,701
        463
        359
        664
         29
         44
        511
        294
        918
      5,656
        197
      2,916
      2,611
         54
         66
         12
         32
        418
                        145

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Phacus
Platydorina
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Hexarthra
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Phacus
Phormidium
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
protozoan
green flagellate
rotifer
diatom
green alga
ciliated protozoan

 Station 12

blue-green alga
rotifer
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
protozoan
blue-green alga
rotifer
diatom
green alga
      8,879
        623
        493
        446
         22
        413
        299
      5,133
        816
        102
         28
      2,715
         29
         78
          9
         12
        212
      4,648
        319
        348
        267
         13
        323
        360
      5,234
        702
         93
         15
      2,219
                        146

-------
                         BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL DATA*
                                  SUMMER INTENSIVE
                                     TABLE B-7

                              June 16 through 29, 1970
Station
Number
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Water (C)
Temperature
25
25
26
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
.5
.0
.9
.3
.4
.8
.5
.5
.2
.6
.8
.5
pH
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
.1
.6
.4
.8
.5
.6
.5
.7
.8
.9
.5
.7
Dissolved
Oxygen (ppm)
3.
6.
13.
13.
13.
14.
14.
12.
12.
12.
13.
13.
0
4
9
8
7
2
1
1
4
6
3
6
Avg . No .
of Coliform Organisms/100 ml
Total
240,
167,
4,
4,
5,
4,
4,
5,
4,
5,
5,
5,
401
077
476
929
251
983
501
115
906
507
262
188
Fecal
179
113
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
3
4
,600
,227
,511
,909
,876
,400
,107
,623
,444
,019
,721
,591
Average of 14 Samples

-------
                         TABLE  B-8
            PLANKTON  ORGANISMS - SUMMER  INTENSIVE
 Scientific Name
 June  16  through  29,  1970

	Common Name	Average No./Liter
Anabaena
Anacystis
Chlamydomonas
Cladophora
Filinia
Hexarthra
Lecane
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Phormidium
Synedra
Ulothrix
Anabaena
Anacystis
Chlamydomonas
Coelosphaerium
Gonium
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Pleodorina
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Coelosphaerium
Conochilus
Hexarthra
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Platyias
Tetramastix
       Station  1

     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     green  alga
     rotifer
     rotifer
     rotifer
     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     diatom
     green  alga

       Station  2

     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     green  flagellate
     ciliated  protozoan

       Station  3

     blue-green alga
     blue-green alga
     rotifer
     rotifer
     blue-green alga
     rotifer
     rotifer
     blue-green alga
     rotifer
     blue-green alga
     green  flagellate
     rotifer
     rotifer
  173
 TNTC
    9
   13
   23
    1
    5
   49
   66
   77
  507
  226
1,593
 TNTC
    9
  586
   27
   29
  787
  153
   66
   27
  816
1,701
   22
   73
   12
    2
   79
   60
   17
  573
1,112
   13
   24
                        148

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Coelosphaerium
Hexarthra
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Synedra
Tetramastix
Ulothrix
green alga

 Station 4

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
diatom
rotifer
green alga
     1,010
       626
       230
        10
        43
        63
        74
       101
       737
     1,442
        50
        17
        19
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Hexarthra
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Synedra
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Cladoceran parts
Hexarthra
Lyngbya
Monostyla
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Synedra
 Station 5

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
diatom

 Station 6

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
water fleas
rotifer
blue-green alga
rotifer
blue-green alga
green flagellate
diatom
     1,310
       718
       112
       909
        43
       174
        96
     1,073
     1,814
       925
     1,512
       913
       126
     1,005
         2
        36
       212
       137
     1,111
       989
       816
                        149

-------
 Scientific  Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
 Anabaena
 Anacystis
 Brachionus
 Chlorella  (vulgaris)
 Cyclops
 Lyngbya
 Monostyla
 Oscillatoria
 Pandorina
 Synedra
Anabaena
Anacystis
Ankistrodesmus
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Coelosphaerium
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Platyias
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Ankistrodesmus
Asplanchna
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
 Station  7

blue-green alga        2,100
blue-green alga        1,025
rotifer                  206
green alga             1,150
copepod                    1
blue-green alga          266
rotifer                  159
blue-green alga        1,502
green flagellate       1,010
diatom                   953

 Station  8

blue-green alga      235,111
blue-green alga      222,110
green alga                50
rotifer                   10
rotifer                   39
green alga               411
green alga               321
green alga               237
blue-green alga          101
protozoan                353
rotifer                  102
green flagellate         111
rotifer                   12
blue-green alga          813
blue-green alga        3,596
green flagellate         638
protozoan             38,904
rotifer                    1
diatom                   992
green alga               311
ciliated protozoan        26

 Station 9

blue-green alga      343,432
blue-green alga      291,502
green alga                36
rotifer                    1
rotifer                   22
green alga               191
green alga               166
green alga               103
                         150

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Coelosphaerium
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Vorticella
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Cyclops
Cyclotella
Euglena
Filinia
Gonium
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Euglena
Filinia
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
blue-green alga           76
protozoan                415
rotifer                   99
green flagellate         151
rotifer                   22
blue-green alga          537
blue-green alga        4,679
green flagellate         746
protozoan             43,837
diatom                   877
green alga               221
ciliated protozoan         5

 Station 10

blue-green alga      356,513
blue-green alga      312,429
rotifer                   27
green alga               211
green alga               199
green alga               191
copepod                    9
diatom                    11
protozoan                612
rotifer                  213
green flagellate         101
rotifer                   34
blue-green alga          473
blue-green alga       10,769
green flagellate         649
protozoan             44,900
diatom                   989
green alga               311

 Station 11

blue-green alga      375,613
blue-green alga      340,356
rotifer                   22
green alga               109
green alga               190
green alga               101
protozoan                413
rotifer                  210
rotifer                   29
blue-green alga          232
blue-green alga       23,847
                         151

-------
Scientific Name
  Common Name
Average No./Liter
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
Anabaena
Anacystis
Brachionus
Chlorella  (vulgaris)
Chlorococcus
Cladophora
Cyclops
Euglena
Filinia
Monostyla
Nostoc
Oscillatoria
Pandorina
Phacus
Synedra
Volvox
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga

 Station 12

blue-green alga
blue-green alga
rotifer
green alga
green alga
green alga
copepod
protozoan
rotifer
rotifer
blue-green alga
blue-green alga
green flagellate
protozoan
diatom
green alga
        468
     45,300
        894
        212
     401,312
     376,605
          12
          98
          89
          64
          12
         293
         186
          44
         395
      21,936
         239
      34,900
         986
         194
                         152

-------
H
Ul
Ul
                               SURVEY SUMMARY OF BACTERIOLOGOCAL DATA


                                     COLIFORM ORGANISMS/100 ML*

                                            TABLE B-9


                                     June 5 through Oct. 11,1969
Station
Number
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Maximum
Total
253,000
176,000
5,000
4,950
5,050
5,200
4,985
5,600
5,500
6,125
4,995
4,668
Fecal
198,000
91,000
9,500
4,425
4,000
4,200
4,200
4,100
4,005
4,000
4,150
4,025
Minimum
Total
126,000
62,000
2,100
1,100
2,000
2,050
2,105
1,200
2,075
2,340
1,200
2,010
Fecal
85,000
46,500
1,750
600
1,452
1,312
1,516
1,050
1,385
1,460
752
1,420
Average
Total
183,473
90,092
3,595
3,458
3,646
3,605
3,487
3,711
3,632
3,646
3,366
3,339
Fecal
130,815
68,281
3,066
2,867
3,432
2,969
2,833
2,815
2,790
2,793
2,615
2,665
          Average of 19 Samples

-------
un
                                SURVEY SUMMARY OF BACTERIOLOGICAL DATA


                                     COLIFORM ORGANISMS/100 ML*


                                           TABLE B-10


                                October 18, 1969 through June  29,1970
Station
Number
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Maximum
Total
242,000
168,000
4,500
5,000
5,225
4,990
4,995
5,300
4,936
5,644
5,382
5,566
Fecal
177,000
88,000
3,890
3,596
3,552
3,467
3,499
3,600
3,110
3,934
3,881
3,465
Minimum
Total
119,000
57,000
2,000
2,300
2,601
2,331
2,200
2,100
2,200
2,373
2,222
2,321
Fecal
71,000
45,000
1,623
1,555
1,463
1,500
1,650
1,900
2,000
1,765
1,900
1,872
Average
Total
169,123
81,054
3,504
3,004
3,339
3,109
2,900
3,000
2,969
2,929
2,501
2,498
Fecal
136,801
71,311
3,050
2,745
2,661
2,699
2,659
2,595
2,649
2,223
1,876
1,789
         *
          Average of 81 Samples

-------
Ul
1/1
                                       SURVEY SUMMARY OF PHYSICAL DATA

                                                 TABLE  B-ll
June 5 through October 11,

Station
Number
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
No. 10
No. 11
No. 12

Temp.
(C)
30
32
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
Maximum

PH
8.5
8.9
10.5
10.6
10.8
10.8
10.7
10.8
10.9
11.0
11.1
11.3
1969
Minimum
D.O.
(ppm)
4.1
8.8
14.1
14.1
15.1
13.1
14.1
14.1
14.6
14.5
14.1
14.2
Temp.
(C)
22
18
17
17
18
18
17
18
17
18
17
17

pH
5.9
6.6
7.1
8.3
8.2
8.2
8.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.1
7.9
D.O.
(ppm)
2.8
5.9
8.9
9.0
8.9
18.2
9.0
9.2
9.0
9.2
8.9
9.0



Average
Temp.
(C)
26
26
27
27
25
26
27
25
26
26
26
27

PH
7.0
7.9
9.4
9.1
9.5
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.6
9.8
9.7
9.7
D.O.
(ppm)
3.3
7.2
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.4
10.7
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.6
10.5
             Average of 19 Samples

-------
                         SURVEY SUMMARY OF PHYSICAL DATA




                                    TABLE B-12
October 18, 1969 through June 29, 1970

Station
Number
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4
No. 5
No. 6
No. 7
No. 8
No. 9
No. 10
NO. 11
No. 12

Temp.
(C)
26.0
25.0
29.0
28.5
29.0
28.7
28.6
27.8
25.9
25.0
24.8
24.6
Maximum

PH
8.0
8.1
10.7
10.5
9.9
10.4
10.6
10.2
10.0
10.3
10.0
10.5
Minimum
D.O.
(ppm)
7.7
9.0
13.8
14.1
13.6
12.6
13.4
12.9
11.9
12.1
13.0
13.4
Temp.
(C)
12.1
9.0
5.5
5.1
5.6
6.1
5.2
6.0
5.8
6.0
5.9
6.1

PH
6.3
5.9
6.9
6.8
6.7
6.6
6.5
7.0
6.7
9.1
8.9
9.2
D.O.
(ppm)
1.8
6.1
8.8
8.9
8.0
8.9
9.0
8.9
9.0
9.9
10.0
9.8
Average
Temp.
(C)
18.1
18.1
17.8
17.6
17.1
18.0
17.9
17.1
17.7
17.9
17.7
17.6

pH
6.7
7.3
9.1
9.3
9.5
10.0
9.4
9.0
8.9
9.9
9.3
9.9
D.O.
(C)
4.6
7.9
10.0
10.6
10.9
11.8
10.7
10.3
10.1
11.0
10.7
10.9
Average of 81 Samples

-------
                      APPENDIX  C



        Biological  Survey  of  Upper  Bayou Meto


        Arkansas  Pollution Control  Commission

                    December,  1969


Introduction:

A short-term biological survey of Upper Bayou Meto was
conducted to determine the general condition of the stream
in early December, 1969.  Plankton, benthos and coliform
bacteria samples were taken, along with grab samples for
chemical analysis, on each of three separate days.  The
results of these analyses are given in the attached tables.

Discussion:

Bayou Meto is a sluggish stream, meandering in a south-
easterly direction from Jacksonville through intensely
farmed flatlands to the Arkansas River.  Sample points
No. 1 and No. 2 are located above and below the effluent
from the Jacksonville sewage treatment plant.   The dramatic
increase in total biomass and the increase in all the
chemical parameters show considerable enrichment, but the
degradation is by no means severe.  While most of the
organisms found at point No. 2 are generally considered
pollution tolerant, several clean-water type plankton and
benthos genera were found.  The bacteria counts were not
excessively high, with the averages for No. 1 and No. 2
being drastically reduced in comparison with the results
obtained from similar tests in the spring of 1967.

The lower two points, located about 9 and 18 miles,
respectively, below the Jacksonville STP show good
recovery, with slight increases in several parameters
between No. 3 and No. 4 being attributable to agricultural
runoff.  No odors were discernible in the stream at any
time.  Water temperatures at all points ranged between 5
and 7 C.
                        157

-------
en
oo
                                       UPPER BAYOU METO STREAM SURVEY


                                   CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL  RESULTS


                                              Station No.  1


                        Bayou Meto -  West of Jacksonville City Limits - Above STP
Date Collected
PH
Total
D.O. ,
5-Day
Total

Alkalinity, ppm
ppm
BOD , ppm
Solids, ppm
1-A
12/2/69
6.5
12
6.7
1.1
76
Chlorides, ppm
Total
Fecal
Coli. per 100 ml
Coli. per 100 ml
490
24
1-B
12/3/69
6.5
15
7.1
1.4
72
7.5
240
66
1~C
12/4/69
6.6
16
7.3
1.7
60
6.5
220
40
Average
6.5
14.3
7.3
1.4
69
7.0
320
43
Average
Spring '67
6.
14
5.
1.
89
4
1260
-
2

4
8





-------
Ul
VD
                                   UPPER  BAYOU  METO STREAM SURVEY

                                CHEMICAL  AND  BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS

                                            Station No.  2

                    Bayou Meto at Highway 67  -  0.5 miles below Jacksonville STP
Date Collected
PH
Total Alkalinity, ppm
P.O., ppm
5-Day BOD, ppm
Total Solids, ppm
Chloride, ppm
Total Coli. per 100 ml
Fecal Coli. per 100 ml
2 -A
12/2/69
7.1
26
8.0
8.0
135
-
2600
230
2-B
12/3/69
7.1
28
7.9
6.7
126
17.5
3400
260
2-C
12/4/69
7.2
30
7.9
7.4
122
16.5
7800
920
average
7.1
28
7.9
7.3
127
17.0
4600
470
Average
spring '67
6.9
24
5.8
5.8
186
78
43700
-

-------
                UPPER BAYOU METO STREAM SURVEY




             CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS




                        Station No. 3




Bayou Meto at Interstate 40-9 miles below Jacksonville STP
Date Collected


M
cn
o


PH
Total
D.O. ,
5-Day
Total

Alkalinity, ppm
ppm
BOD, ppm
Solids, ppm
3 -A
12/2/69
6.9
30
7.1
1.4
118
Chloride, ppm


Total
Fecal
coli. per 100 ml
Coli. per 100 ml
230
120
3-B
12/3/69
6.9
28
7.3
3-. 2
121
16.5
430
180
3-C
12/4/69
6.9
26
7.8
2.6
112
15.0
330
220
Average
6
28
7
2
117
15
330
170
.9

.4
.4

.7



-------
H1
CTi
                                   UPPER BAYOU METO STREAM SURVEY

                                CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS

                                           Station No. 4

                    Bayou Meto  at Highway 31-18 miles below Jacksonville STP
Date collected
PH
Total
D.O. ,
5-Day
Total

Alkalinity/ ppm
ppm
BOD, ppm
Solids, ppm
4 -A
12/2/69
7.4
53
6.8
2.3
169
Chloride, ppm
Total
Fecal
Coli. per 100 ml
Coli. per 100 ml
310
240
4-B
12/3/69
7.4
57
8.7
3.9
155
17.5
630
250
4-C
12/4/69
7.5
58
8.7
3.4
152
16.0
630
190
Average
7
56
8
3
158
16
520
230
.4

.0
.2

.7



-------
PLANKTON ORGANISMS
Sample
Point
No. 1













No. 2


















No. 3









Scientific
Name
Trachelomonas
Aphanizomenon
Synedra
Diatoma
Euglena
Stauroneis
Oscillatoria
Pinnularia
Crucigenia
Eunotia
Nitzschia
Anacystis
Brachionus
Phacus
Anacystis
Bodo
Chlamydomonas
Mallomonas
Scenedesmus
Ankistrodesmus
Actinosphaerium
Aphanizomenon
Trachelomonas
Nitzschia
Agmenellum
Synedra
Navicula
Pinnularia
Chromogaster
Polyarthra
Bosmina
Brachionus
Cyclops
Bodo
Scenedesmus
Melosira
Trachelomonas
Synedra
Ankistrodesmus
Anacystis
Navicula
Gomphosphaeria
Euglena
Common
Name
Flagellate
EGA
Diatom
Diatom
Flagellate
Diatom
BGA
Diatom
GA
Diatom
Diatom
BGA
Rotifer
Flagellate
BGA
Protozoan
Flagellate
Flagellate
GA
GA
Protozoan
BGA
Flagellate
Diatom
BGA
Diatom
Diatom
Diatom
Rotifer
Rotifer
Cladoceran
Rotifer
Copepod
Protozoan
GA
Diatom
Flagellate
Diatom
GA
BGA
Diatom
BGA
Flagellate
No ./Liter
4,750
3,625
2,125
1,625
875
625
500
250
250
125
125
125
125
125
3,382,000
1,770,000
1,396,000
255,000
67,000
13,000
5,000
5,000
3,400
2,200
1,900
1,300
1,100
190
190
38
26
6
6
36,000
25,200
20,400
18,800
12,400
5,800
5,400
2,600
1,900
1,000
Sig.
P
F
C
C
P
C
P
C
7
7
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
F
C
7
F
P
P
7
C
C
C
P
P
M
P
F
P
F
C
P
C
C
P
C
F
P
  162

-------
Sample Scientific
Point Name
Oocystis
Selenastrum
Pleurosigma
Crucigenia
Diatoma
Nitzschia
Tetrastrum
Dif f lugia
No . 4 Chlamydomonas
Ankistrodesm
Scenedesmus
Trachelomonas
Anacystis
Melosira
Crucigenia
Euglena
Navidula
Oscillator ia
Pediastrum
Dif f lugia
Agmenellum
Nitzschia
Oocystis
Synedra
Phacus
Tetraedron
Gomphosphaeria
Asplanchna
Gyrosigma
Spirulina
Stauroneis
Common
Name
GA
GA
Diatom
GA
Diatom
Diatom
GA
Protozoan
Flagellate
GA
GA
Flagellate
EGA
Diatom
GA
Flagellate
Diatom
EGA
GA
Protozoan
EGA
Diatom
GA
Diatom
Flagellate
GA
EGA
Rotifer
Diatom
EGA
Diatom
No. /Liter
900
900
500
400
400
250
125
125
195,000
155,000
71,000
60,000
46,000
6,200
5,800
4,600
3,100
1,700
1,500
1,100
1,000
1,000
800
800
600
600
600
400
400
200
200
Sig.
p
?
P
p
C
P
p
C
P
C
F
P
P
C
p
P
C
P
F
C
p
P
p
C
P
?
F
P
7
P
C
163

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BENTHIC ORGANISMS
Sample
Point
No. 1









No. 2


Scientific
Name
Lymnaea
Tendipes
tentans
Helobdella
stagnalis
Sialis
Pisidium
Tubifex
Gammarus
Astacidae
Chaoborus
Dina fervida
Gammarus
Common
Name
Pond snail

Midge larvae

Snail leech
Alderfly larvae
Fingernail clam
Tube worm
Sideswimmer
Crayfish (immature)
Phantom midge
Leech
Sideswimmer
No. /Yd2
24

9

6
6
12
6
39
3
48
27
66
Sig.
P

P

M
P
P
P
C
?
F
P
P
Tendipes tentans









No. 3


Pisidium
Physa
Trichocorixa
Cloeon
Berosus
Asellus
Astacidae
Hydroporus
Pisidium
Tubifex
Midge larvae
Fingernail clam
Pouch snail
Water boatman
Mayfly nymph
Beetle larvae
Aquatic sowbug
Crayfish (immature)
Diving beetle
Fingernail clam
Tube worm
6
21
9
54
6
3
3
3
3
54
6
P
P
F
C
C
C
P
P
M
P
P
Tendipes tentans




No. 4









Chaoborus
Chironomidae
Chironomidae
Cambarus
Pisidium
Hydrospsyche
Cloeon
Stenonema
Palaemonetes
kadiakensis
Chironomidae
Gammarus
Bloodworm
Phantom midge
Midge larvae
Midge larvae
Crayfish
Fingernail clam
Caddisworm
Mayfly nymph
Mayfly nymph

Fairy shrimp
Midge larvae
Sideswimmer
12
3
45
27
3
3
36
42
6

12
24
3
P
F
?
y
P
P
C
C
C

C
?
C
    164

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                         APPENDIX D

            Biological Survey of Upper Bayou Meto


            Arkansas Pollution Control Commission

                       December, 1970

Purpose:

A short-term biological survey of upper Bayou Meto was
conducted during the week of December 7, 1970 for the
purpose of assessing the general condition of the stream
with particular reference to the Jacksonville sewage
treatment plant and the Hercules Incorporated wastewater
effluent which is discharged to the treatment plant.

This survey essentially duplicates one carried out in
December, 1969, and is similar to portions of a larger
scale survey done in the spring of 1967.  This report
will attempt to evaluate the biological condition of upper
Bayou Meto in December, 1970 and compare it with the
conditions found in 1969 and where possible, 1967.

Methods and Procedures;

Samples were taken at four points in the Bayou, one above
the Jacksonville STP outfall, and the others at one-half,
nine, and eighteen miles, respectively, below the outfall.
These same points were sampled in 1969 and the two upper-
most points were included in the 1967 survey.

Biological parameters, including plankton, benthos, and
coliform bacteria, were sampled on three consecutive days,
and chemical grab samples were taken on four consecutive
days.  All sampling and analyses were done according to
procedures given in the Twelfth Edition of Standard
Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater.

Bacteriological and chemical results are given in Tables 1
through 4.  Results of plankton and benthos analyses are
given in Appendix I.

Discussion;

As was the case in December 1969, the Bayou seems to be in
generally good condition, with some degradation of water
quality immediately below the Jacksonville sewage outfall,
but with fairly rapid and complete recovery being
achieved at the downstream locations.
                            165

-------
If anything,  the  initial degradation  just below the STP
outfall was  less  severe in  1970.  The total plankton
population was less than two million  per liter, while the
1969 population was nearly  seven million per liter.  Also,
the biochemical oxygen demand was somewhat lower.
Coliforms, however, were three to six times higher this
year than in  1969, which is possibly  due to the relatively
milder weather experienced  in the area this winter.

The two lower sample points were virtually identical in
every respect when compared with 1969  data.  In both cases
there was a rather dramatic decrease  in total plankton
nine miles below  the outfall, followed by a less severe
increase eighteen miles below.  This  latter increase is
undoubtedly due to increased fertility from runoff in this
intensively farmed area.  This conclusion is supported by
the observed recovery at sample point 3, where good clean
water organism associations, both planktonic and benthic,
were found.  At point 4, enrichment from runoff has
apparently allowed the pollution-tolerant plankton to
become abundant,  but the benthic community remains very
good, with some 90% of the organisms  found belonging to
genera usually considered intolerant  of organic pollution.

In general, there seems to have been  little change in
Bayou Meto during the twelve months separating the 1969
and 1970 surveys.  Both surveys indicate that the Bayou
is doing an adequate job of assimilating the treated
sewage from the Jacksonville plant and that the stream is
recovering rather quickly from the degradation that does
occur.
                         166

-------
                         UPPER  BAYOU METO  STREAM  SURVEY

                      CHEMICAL  AND  BACTERIOLOGICAL  RESULTS

                          STATION NO.  I  -  Dec.  1970

             BAYOU  METO  - WEST  OP JACKSONVILLE  CITY LIMITS  - ABOVE STP
Parameter*
PH
Temperature (C)
Total Alkalinity
Chlorides
Dissolved Oxygen
B.O.D.
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Maximum
6.7
8
19
8.5
6.9
1.1
66
58
10
1900
830
Minimum
6.6
7
15
7-5
5-5
0.8
59
50
6
780
420
Average
6.7
7.5
17
7.8
6.2
0.9
62
5^
8
1290
620
Average
Dec. 1969
6.5
-
14.3
7.0
7-3
1.4
69
-
-
320
43
Average
Spring 1967
6.2
-
14
4.0
5.4
> 1.8
89
-
-
1260
-
* All chemical parameters expressed as parts per million;
  coliforms as organisms per 100 ml.

-------
(Ti
CO
                                    UPPER  BAYOU METO  STREAM SURVEY

                                 CHEMICAL  AND BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS

                                     STATION NO.  2 -  Dec.  1970

                      BAYOU METO AT  HIGHWAY 67 - 0.5  MILES BELOW JACKSONVILLE STP
Parameter*
PH
Temperature (C)
Total Alkalinity
Chlorides
Dissolved Oxygen
B.O.D.
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Total Coliform
Pecal Coliform
Maximum
7
9
37
57
7.4
5-7
193
164
29
22,000
4,400
Minimum
6.7
6
31
54
5.7
3.9
147
157
3
8400
990
Average
6.9
7.5
34
55
6.3
4.7
172
I60t
21t
15, lOOt
2,630t
Average
Dec. 1969
7.1
-
28
17.0
7.9
>7.3
127
-
-
4600t
470t
Average
Soring 1967
6.7
-
24
18
5-8
>5.8
186
-
-
43,700t

           * All chemical parameters expressed as parts
             per million; coliforms as organisms per 100 ml.
tAverage three samples

-------
VD
                                  UPPER BAYOU METO STREAM SURVEY

                               CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS

                                  STATION NO. 3  - Dec.  1970

                    BAYOU METO AT INTERSTATE 40  - 9 MILES BELOW JACKSONVILLE STP
Parameter*
PH
Temperature (C)
Total Alkalinity
Chlorides
Dissolved Oxygen
B.O.D.
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Maximum
6.9
10
31
50.5
7.3
1.9
164
159
28
500
240
Minimum
6.8
7
28
48
5.6
0.9
147
122
3
180
110
Average
6.9
8
30
49
6.3
1.2
159
147
12
390
180
Average
Dec. 1969
6.9
-
28
15.7
7.4
2.4
117
-
-
330
170
           *  All  chemical parameters expressed as parts per million;
             coliforms  as organisms per  100 ml.

-------
                       UPPER BAYOU METO STREAM SURVEY

                    CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL RESULTS

                       STATION NO. 4 - Dec. 1970

         BAYOU METO AT HIGHWAY 31 - 18 MILES BELOW JACKSONVILLE STP
Parameter*
PH
Temperature (C)
Total Alkalinity
Chlorides
Dissolved Oxygen
B.O.D.
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Total Coliform
Fecal Coliform
Maximum
7.3
11
50
36
9.6
3.2
191
154
42
830
310
Minimum
7.1
7
35
30.5
8.9
0.9
156
122
16
1300
820
Average
7.2
8
44
34
9.4
2.3
168
143
24
1110
530
Average
Dec. 1969
7.4
-
56
16.7
8.0
3.2
158
-
-
520
230
* All chemical parameters expressed as parts per million;
  coliforms as organisms per 100 ml.

-------
                     APPENDIX  I
                  PLANKTON ORGANISMS

         UPPER BAYOU METO SURVEY - Dec.  1970
Sample Scientific
Point  Name	

 #1    Ankistrodesmus
       Aphanizomenon
       Oscillatoria
       Trachelomonas
       Navicula
       Anacystis
       Anabaena
       Scenedesmus
       Euglena
       Diatoma
       Nitzschia
       Synedra
       Phacus
       Gymnodinium
       Mallomonas
       Vorticella
       Golenkinia

 #2    Golenkinia
       Chlorococcus
       Anacystis
       Chlorella
       Scenedesmus
       Micractinium
       Agmenellum
       Oocystis
       Navicula
       Gymnostomata
       Ankistrodesmus
       Chlamydomonas
       Coelosphaerium
       Nitzschia
       Ciliata
       Pediastrum
       Chrysococcus
       Synedra
       Brachionus
       Schroederia
       Tetraedron
       Mallomonas
       Actinastrum
       Stephanodiscus
       Arthrodesmus
Common
Name

GA
BGA
EGA
Flagellate
Diatom
BGA
BGA
GA
Flagellate
Diatom
Diatom
Diatom
Flagellate
Flagellate
Flagellate
Protozoan
GA

GA
GA
BGA
GA
GA
GA
BGA
GA
Diatom
Protozoan
GA
Flagellate
BGA
Diatom
Protozoan
GA
Flagellate
Diatom
Rotifer
GA
GA
Flagellate
GA
Diat.om
GA
 #/Liter

 17,300
 14,700
 12,600
  4,900
  4,000
  3,500
  3,300
  1,900
  1,600
  1,400
  1,200
  1,200
    700
    500
    500
    500
    20.0

787,700
636,500
113,900
 78,400
 42,900
 39,500
 33,600
 28,000
 16,800
  9,300
  5,600
  3,700
  3,700
  3,700
  3,700
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
  1,900
                        171

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                 PLANKTON ORGANISMS
                       Cont.
Sample Scientific
Point  Name
 #3
#4
       Navicula
       Ankistrodesmus
       Trache lomonas
       Golenkinia
       Anacystis
       Scenedesmus
       Nitzschia
       Tetraspora
       Diatoma
       Pleurosigma
       Synedra
       Aphanlzomenon
       Oocystis
       Crucigenia
       Coelastrum
      Melosira
      Euglena
      Vorticella
      Pediastrum
      Oscillatoria
      Staurastrum
      Selenastrum
      Difflugia
      Nauplius
      Phacus

      Anacystis
      Phacus
      Scenedesmus
      Ankistrodesmus
      Navicula
      Aphanizomenon
      Oscillatoria
      Pleurosigma
      Stephanodiscus
      Agmenellum
      Chrysococcus
      Chlorococcus
      Coelosphaerium
      Actinastrum
      Nitzschia
 Common
 Name

 Diatom
 GA
 Flagellate
 GA
 BGA
 GA
 Diatom
 GA
 Diatom
 Diatom
 GA
 BGA
 GA
 GA
 GA
 Flagellate
 Diatom
 Flagellate
 Protozoan
 GA
 BGA
 GA
 GA
 Protozoan
 Copepod
 Flagellate

 BGA
 Flagellate
 GA
 GA
 Diatom
 BGA
 BGA
 Diatom
 Diatom
 BGA
 Flagellate
GA
BGA
GA
Diatom
 #/Liter

 53,900
 18,200
 10,500
  9,300
  8,900
  7,200
  5,400
  4,200
  4,000
  3,700
  3,300
  2,600
  2,100
  1,600
    700
    700
    700
    500
    500
    500
    500
    500
    500
    200
    200

200,000
155,400
121,800
 37,800
 35,000
 33,600
 21,000
 13,100
 12,600
 11,700
 10,300
  8,400
  4,700
  4,200
  2,800
                       172

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                  PLANKTON ORGANISMS
                        Cont.

Sample Scientific        Common
Point  Name	        Name                    ff/Liter

 #4    Synedra           Diatom                   2,800
       Gymnostomata      Protozoan                2,800
       Trachelomonas     Flagellate               2,800
       Pediastrum        GA                       2,300
 GA  - Green Algae
 EGA - Blue Green Algae
                         173

-------
  Sample
  Point
                        BENTHIC  ORGANISMS

                UPPER BAYOU METO SURVEY  - DEC., 1970
Scientific
Name
Common
Name
#./Yd:
 No.  1     Gammarus
           Tendipes  tentans
           Pisidium
           Physa
           Viviparus
           Ischnura
           Dytiscidae
           Helobdella
           Erythrodiplax
           Taeniopteryx

No. 2      Gammarus
           Asellus
           Tendipes tentans
           Physa
           Ischnura
           Pisidium
           Helobdella
             stagnalis
           Peltodytes
           Chaoborus
           Trichocorixa
          Astacidae
           Somatochlora

No.  3      Gammarus
          Hydropsyche
          Pisidium
          Tendipes tentans
          Caenis
          Hyponeura
          Cambarus
          Simulium
          Corixinae
          Musculium
          Dytiscidae
          Helisoma
          Palaemonetes
             kadiakensis
          Macrobdella
          Ophiogomphus
          Micromyia
                  Sideswimmer              102
                  Bloodworm                147
                  Fingernail clam            6
                  Pouch snail                3
                  Snail                     12
                  Damselfly larvae           3
                  Diving Beetle larvae      24
                  Snail Leech                3
                  Dragonfly larvae           3
                  Stonefly larvae            3

                  Sideswimmer              663
                  Aquatic sowbug           147
                  Bloodworm                147
                  Pouch snail               30
                  Damselfly nymph           21
                  Fingernail clam            9

                  Snail leech                9
                  Crawling Water beetle       6
                  Phantom midge              6
                  Water Boatman              3
                  Crayfish                   3
                  Dragonfly nymph            3

                  Sideswimmer               75
                  Caddisfly larvae          39
                  Fingernail clam           23
                  Bloodworm                 14
                  Mayfly nymph              11
                  Damselfly larvae           2
                  Crayfish                   9
                  Blackfly larvae            6
                  Water Boatman              6
                  Fingernail clam            4
                  Diving Beetle larvae       2
                  Snail                      2

                  Fairy shrimp               2
                  Leech                      3
                  Dragonfly larvae           1
                  Clam                        1
                          174

-------
Sample   Scientific        Common
Point    Name              Name                      f/Yd:

No. 4    Hydropsyche       Caddisfly larvae          87
         Gammarus          Sideswimmer               63
         Cloeon            Mayfly nymph              18
         Stenonema         Mayfly nymph              15
         Tubifex           Sludgeworm                 9
         Tendipes tentans  Bloodworm                  7
         Lumbricidae       Aquatic earthworm          7
         Palaemonetes
            kadiakensis    Fairy shrimp               6
                         175

-------
30 -


25 -

20

 IS

 10
                                            1969

                                            1970

                                            COMMON TO
                                            BOTH YEARS
                                          BAYOU
                                           METO
TABLE I.
                           A COMPARISON OF TOTAL PLANKTON GENERA IN BAYOU
                           METO IN 1969 AND 1970, SHOWING THE NUMBER COMMON
                           TO BOTH YEARS.

-------
                                                             1969
20


 15


 10


 5


 0
                                                             1970

                                                             COMMON TO
                                                             BOTH YEARS
                               BAYOU
                                                          METO
                TABLE 1C.
A COMPARISON OF TOTAL BENTHIC GENERA IN BAYOU
METO IN 1969 AND 1970, SHOWING THE NUMBER COMMON
TO BOTH  YEARS.

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     Accession Number
  w
                             Subject Field & Group
                                 05D
SELECTED WATER RESOURCES  ABSTRACTS
      INPUT TRANSACTION FORM
     Organization
        City of Jacksonville, Arkansas
       ie  Biological Treatment of Chlorophenolic Wastes 
       The Demonstration of a Facility for the Biological Treatment of a Complex
       Chlorophenolic Waste
 10
     Authors)
       Albert E.  Sidwell Ph.D
                                     ix.  Project Designation

                                     ~       12130BGK (11060BGK)
                                     21
                                        Note
 22
     Citation
 23
     Descriptors (Starred First)
       Biological Treatment*,  Aeration
 25
     Identifiers (Starred First)
       Chlorophenol  , Lagoons,  Plankton Organisms
 27
     Abstract
     Installation of a completely stirred aeration lagoon between an  existing conventional
sewage treatment plant and existing stabilization ponds avoided hydraulic  overloading of
the former and reduced BOD loading of the latter.  Joint treatment of domestic sewage and
an industrial waste having high BOD and chlorophenols was facilitated.   The  study confirmed
earlier findings that the organisms present in domestic sewage readily destroy complex
chlorophenols and related materials.  Glycolates and acetates contributing to the high
BOD of the industrial waste were also readily oxidized biologically.   High sodium chloride
levels in  the treated mixed waste did not adversely effect biological activity.   Joint
treatment  of  the complex Chlorophenolic wastes combined with normal sewage gave rise to
biological data which did not differ in any significant manner from that to  be expected
in a similar  system receiving only normal sewage.

An historical background of the problem at Jacksonville, Arkansas; design  and construction
information,  and the chemical and biological data resulting from the  system  study are
presented.

This report was submitted in partial fulfillment of Project No. 12130 BGK  between the
Water Quality Office, Environmental Protection Agency and the City of Jacksonville,
Arkansas.
Abstractor
        A.E. Sidwell
                               Institution
                                       Hercules Incorporated,  Jacksonville,  Arkansas
 WR:'02 IREV. J U I-V 19691
 WRSIC
                             SEND  WITH COPY OF DOCUMENT. TO: WATER RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION CENTER
                                                       U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                                       WASHINGTON. D. C. 20240
                                                                               * GPO: 1970  389-930

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