September 1991
              PICTURE BOOK
United States
Environmental Protection
Pesticide Programs (H7506C)
Washington, DC 20460
Endangered Species
Protection Program
                                            Printed on Recycled Paper

   EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program

    This coloring book is published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office
 of Pesticide Programs (OPP). OPP's Endangered Species Protection Program is dedicated to
 protecting threatened and endangered species from potentially harmful exposure to pesticides
 while at the same time maintaining viable agricultural production in the United States.

    The plants and animals depicted here are not necessarily threatened by pesticides; however, they
 are representative of the many different species our program is protecting. The Endangered Species
 Protection Program will place use limitations on pesticides that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service  '
 determines may jeopardize endangered or threatened species. The labels on these pesticides will
 instruct the user to follow instructions in a County Bulletin, which will explain where the threatened
 or endangered species lives, list pesticides that may harm the species, and explain how individuals
 can use the product in a way that will not harm the species. Until the program formally begins, EPA
 is providing this information in the form of Interim Pamphlets.

    In addition to the bulletins and pamphlets, EPA is developing a series of fact sheets on endan-
 gered and threatened species in the United States to assist the public in learning about endangered
 and threatened species.
EPA wishes to tiiank the US. Department of Agriculture, the USL Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Reference Service for their help in developtngOPPs Endangered Species Protection
Program and in developing and reviewing this publication.

What Are Endangered
and threatened Species?

       A century ago, a bird called the passenger pig-
eon lived in North America. There were so many
passenger pigeons that people often saw great flocks of
them flying overhead containing thousands, even
millions, of birds. Today, there is not a single one left.
What happened?

       The passenger pigeon became extinct. All liv-
ing passenger pigeons disappeared from the earth. The
passenger pigeon became extinct for two reasons.
First, the forests where it lived were cut down to make
way for farms and cities. Second, many pigeons were
shot for sport and because they were good to eat. At
that time, there were no hunting laws to protect
endangered species like there are now.

       The passenger pigeon is one of many plants and
animals that once lived on our planet and have become
extinct. For example, dinosaurs, mammoths, and
saber-toothed tigers all became extinct long ago. More
recently, the dodo bird and the sea mink have
disappeared.  Extinction has occured since life began
on earth. Today, extinction is happening faster than
ever before.

       There are hundreds of endangered or threatened
species in the United States today. Endangered
species are plants and animals that are so rare they are
in danger of becoming extinct. Threatened species
are plants and animals whose numbers are very low or
decreasing rapidly. Threatened species are not
                   endangered yet, but are likely to
                         become endangered
                          in the future.
How Does Extinction Happen?

Species disappear because of changes to the earth that
are caused either by nature or by the actions of people.
Sometimes a natural event, like a volcano erupting, can
wipe out an entire species. Other times, extinction will
happen slowly as our natural world changes. For
example, after the Ice Ages, when the great glaciers
melted and the earth became warmer, many species
became extinct because they could not live in a warmer
climate. Newer species that could survive a warmer
environment took their places.

People can also cause the extinction of plants and
animals. The main reason that many species are
gered or
today is
because peo-
ple have
changed the
homes or
habitats upon
which these
species depend.  A habitat includes not only the other
plants and animals in an area, but all of the things
needed for the species'  survival- from sunlight  and
wind to food and shelter. The United States has many
habitats, from ocean beaches to mountain tops. Every
species requires a certain habitat. A cactus, for
example, needs the sunny, dry desert to grow.  A polar
bear, on the other hand, would not live in a desert,
because it  could not find enough food and water.

Pollution can affect wildlife and contribute to extinc-
tion.  The Nashville crayfish is endangered mainly
because the creek where it lives has been polluted.
Pesticides and other chemicals can poison plants and
animals if they are not  used correctly. The bald eagle
is one bird that was harmed by pesticides. In the past,
a pesticide called DDT was used by many farmers.
Rains washed the pesticide into lakes and streams
where it poisoned fish. After eating the poisoned
fish the eagles would lay eggs  with very thin shells.
These egg shells were usually crushed before they

could hatch. Today, people are
not allowed to use DDT, and the
bald eagle, has been upgraded
to threatened throughout
most of its' habitat.
       People can also
endanger plants and animals
by moving, or introducing,
new species into area where
they do not naturally live.
Species can be introduced on
purpose, with  good intentions, such as improving the
fishing. However, some of these species do so well in
their new habitat that they endanger those species
already living there, called the native species. For
example,  when some fish are introduced into a lake or
stream, they may prey upon, or eat the food of the
native fish. The native species may then have to find a
new source of food or a new home, or risk becoming
endangered or extinct.

Another way that people harm animals and
plants is by taking them
from the wild. Some people
might catch an insect like
the  Mission Blue Butterfly
for a butterfly collection.
Others might  capture a wild
 animal for a pet, or pick a
 flower because it's pretty.
 In addition, some people
 illegally hunt animals for
 food, skins, or fur.  In the
 past, lots of American
  crocodiles were killed so
 that their skins could be
 made into shoes and other
 clothing.  This crocodile is now endangered.

 Why Protect Endangered
  and Threatened Species?

        Can you imagine walking in the woods without
 hearing birds singing in the trees, or picture what a
 field would be like without wildflowers blooming  in
 the grasses? Our plants and wildlife make the world a
 more interesting and beautiful place. More
 importantly, all living species, including people,
  depend on other species for survival.  For example, if a
  fish such as the Shortnose sturgeon becomes extinct,
  all of the species that rely on it for food will suffer and
  may become threatened or endangered.
  We all depend upon plants and wildlife.  From
  studying them, we have learned new ways of growing
  foods, making clothing, and building houses.
  Scientists have discovered how to use certain plants
  and animals as sources of medicines. If we fail to
  protect threatened and endangered species, we will
  never know how they might have improved our lives.

  Endangered and threatened species need our help.
  Government agencies, such as the U.S. Environmental
  Protection Agency, the U.S. Department  of
  Agriculture, the  U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and
  the National Park Service, along with state fish and
  wildlife agencies and private groups are making
  information available so people can better protect
  endangered and  threatened species and their habitats.
  To do your part, contact these agencies for information
  and join the challenge in helping to protect endangered
  and threatened species, and all wildlife, from
  This picture book will introduce you to 21 endangered
  and threatened plants and animals found in the United
  States. As you color these pages, you will journey to
  oceans, swamps, deserts, and islands and bring to life a
  variety of plants and animals. If we all work together,
  we can continue to share the earth with these
  fascinating and important species and enjoy them in
  the wild- not only in the pages of books.

                    Shortnose  Sturgeon
This fish gets its name from its short pointy nose. The
shortnose sturgeon is shaped like a torpedo and can swim
very fast. It has two homes. In the winter and spring, the fish
lives in rivers and swims upstream to lay eggs. This trip can
be over 100 miles long! Then, in the summer and fall, die fish
swims out to  its second home in the ocean.
                                                               In what states is the
                                                             shortnose sturgeon found?

                  Dwarf Wedge Mussel
See the squiggly line on the river bottom? It wasn't made by a
snake or worm. It was made by the dwarf wedge mussel.
These animals look like small clams, and have hard shells
and soft bodies. Female mussels can carry thousands of eggs
inside their shells, and these shells are only an inch or
two long.
                                                         In what states is the
                                                      dwarf wedge mussel found?

                       Nashville  Crayfish
The Nashville crayfish looks like a very small lobster. Like
a lobster, the crayfish has claws that can pinch! As a young
crayfish grows, it gets too big for its shell. When this happens,
it grows a bigger shell and casts off the old one like a snake
                                                                In what states is the
                                                              Nashville crayfish found?
  ^j - —  —	«^«J
sheds its skin.

             Red-Cockaded Woodpecker

High up in the trunk of a pine tree, the red-cockaded
woodpecker digs a hole with its sharp beak. Sap flows from
the tree and collects around the hole. Because the sap is
sticky like glue, it keeps enemies such as snakes away. In this
and other holes in nearby trees, a family of nine birds will live
quite happily.
                                                       red-cockaded woodpecker found?

                 Eastern  Indigo Snake
When full grown, the eastern indigo snake is longer than
most people are tall. Indigo is the blue-black color of the
snake's skin. This animal eats birds, frogs, and even other
                                                             In what states is the
                                                        i eastern indigo snake found?

                         Florida  Manatee
This gentle animal lives in the coastal waters of Georgia,
Florida, and Puerto Rico. It is about 10 feet long and can
weigh up to 2,000 pounds—as much as a car! Manatees eat
only plants. After eating, they may swim to the bottom and .
rest for awhile. Manatees can hold their breath for up to 12
minutes at a time.
                                                                     Where is the
                                                                 Florida manatee found?

                          Monito  Gecko
                                                                  k K

                                                                   Where is the
                                                                 Monito gecko found?
This little lizard with bulging eyes is quite an acrobat. It races
easily across cliffs and can even walk upside-down! Full-grown
Monito geckos are about as big as your thumb—only 1-1/2
inches long.

                           Florida Panther
The Florida panther has a cowlick in the middle of its back
and a crook at the end of its long tail. Like housecats, the
Florida panther keeps clean by licking its fur with its tongue.
These graceful cats make a lot of different noises, including
chirps, peeps, growls, and hisses. Panther kittens make a
sound like a whistle to tell their mother where they are. There
are fewer than 50 Florida panthers alive, making this cat one
of the rarest animals in the world.
                                                                    In what states is the
                                                                   Florida panther found?

                      Green Pitcher  Plant
This plant eats bugs! When an insect lands on one of the
plant's leaves, it gets stuck in a gooey liquid. Then it slides
down the leaf into the plant's hollow stem where the bug
is digested like food in our stomachs.
                                                               In what states is the
                                                            green pitcher plant found?

               Mississippi  Sandhill Crane
This tall, grayish bird is very rare. Sometimes, a group of
cranes will dance in a great circle. The cranes bow to their
partners and leap into the air. It would be sad if these graceful,
dancing birds were to disappear.
                                                             In what states is the
                                                         Mississippi sandhill crane found?

                    Ozark Big-Eared  Bat
This bat has big ears and orange-red fur. During the day, it
sleeps hanging upside-down inside of caves. At night, the bat
hunts for moths and other insects. On summer evenings, you
might see bats flying back to their caves. Hungry babies are
waiting to be fed!
                                                              In what states is the
                                                            Ozark big-eared bat found?

                         Leopard Darter
These little fish have leopard spots and leopard speed! They
zip through rivers in a wink of an eye, darting after insects,
which they eat Leopard darters grow to only 3 inches long
and live for 1 to 3 years.
                                                              In what states is the
                                                             leopard darter found?

                       Wyoming  Toad
The Wyoming toad has green skin with dark blotches. This
coloring helps it blend into the grass and hide from animals
that might want to eat it, like raccoons and gulls. These toads
have lived in Wyoming a long time—since the great glaciers
of the Ice Age disappeared more than 12,000 years ago!
                                                               In what states is the
                                                              Wyoming toad found?

                        Black Lace Cactus
This tiny cactus, only 6 inches tall, grows in the deserts of
southern Texas. The plant's pink and purple flowers with
red centers are very pretty. But watch out! This plant, like
most cacti, has spines as sharp as pins.
                                                                 In what states is the
                                                                black lace cactus found?

       Attwater's  Greater Prairie Chicken
Oo-loo-woo, sings the male prairie chicken to his mate. Prairie
chickens sing and dance every spring in the grasslands of
Texas. Their dancing area is called the "booming ground"
because of the loud songs of the males.
                                                           In what states is the
                                                     Attwater's greater prairie chicken found?

                          Desert Tortoise
This tortoise lives in the deserts of Arizona, southern Utah,
Nevada, and California. Actually, it mostly lives under the
desert! In the summer, the tortoise digs tunnels underground
to hide from the sun. All winter it sleeps, or "hibernates,"
in deep holes.
                                                                  In what states is the
                                                                 desert tortoise found?

         Valley Elderberry  Longhorn  Beetle
Some insects are endangered, too. The valley elderberry
longhorn beetle lives only in elderberry trees in California.
Female beetles lay their eggs in cracks and crevices in the
tree bark. It takes 2 years for an adult beetle, with its bright
green wings trimmed with orange, to appear!
                                                            In what states is the
                                                      valley elderberry longhorn beetle found?

                     Mission Blue Butterfly
The mission blue butterfly flits and flutters, looking for just
the right flower in which to lay its eggs. In a few weeks, these
eggs hatch into caterpillars. Sometimes, these caterpillars
are guarded by ants that protect them from enemies, like
flies and other insects. The caterpillars "pay" the ants back
by giving off a sweet, gooey liquid that the ants like to eat.
                                                                  In what states is the
                                                               mission blue butterfly found?

                 Mauna Kea Silversword
                                                              In what states is the
                                                           Mauna Kea silversword found?
The Mauna Kea silversword is found only in the State of
Hawaii on the island of Maui. The pretty pink flowers of this
plant can rise over 7 feet high! At the bottom of the plant is a
ball of pointed, silvery leaves that look like swords. The leaves
are sharp as swords, too!

                                  Bald Eagle
^<^->  A
   The bald eagle is our national symbol. Its eyesight is so good
   that it can spot a fish from more than a mile away. It is so fast
   that it can swoop down through the air at 100 miles an hour
   to catch this tasty meal with its strong claws.
                                                                       In what states is the
                                                                       bald eagle found?

                             Grizzly Bear
You'd look pretty short standing next to this 8-foot tall bear!
The grizzly bear is one of the biggest animals in North
America. Adult grizzly bears are shy and usually live alone.
Young cubs stay with their mother for several years.
She teaches them to hunt, fish, and find berries and nuts.
                                                                     In what states is the
                                                                     grizzly bear found?

                        Index of Species1 Common Name,
                             Scientific Name, and Status
3         Shortnose sturgeon
4         Dwarf wedge mussel
5         Nashville crayfish
6         Red-cockaded woodpecker
7         Eastern indigo snake
8         Florida manatee
9         Monito gecko
10        Florida panther
11        Green pitcher plant
12        Mississippi sandhill crane
13        Ozark big-eared bat
14        Leopard darter
15        Wyoming toad
16        Black lace cactus

17        Attwater's greater prairie
18        Desert tortoise
19        Valley elderberry longhorn
20        Mission blue butterfly
21        Mauna Kea silversword

22        Bald eagle

23        Grizzly bear
Acipenser brevirostrum
Alasmidonta heterodon
Orconectes shoupi
Picoides borealis
Drymarchon corals couperi
Trichechus manatus
Sphaerodactylus micropithecus
Felis concolor coryi
Sarracenia oreophila
Grus canadensis pulla
Plecotus tovmsendii ingens
Percina panther ina
Bufo hemiophrys baxteri
Echinocereus  reichenbachii
var. albetii
Tympanuchus cupido attwateri

Gopherus agassizii
Desmocerus californicus
Icaricia icarioides missionensis
Argyroxiphium sandwicense
ssp. sandwicense
Haliaeetus leucocephalus

  Ursus arctos (=Ua. horribilis)



 threatened (except in
 AZ, NM, where it is)
 (48 conterminous states)
                                                         U.S. EPA Headquarters Library
                                                                Mail code 3201
                                                         1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
                                                            Washington DC 20460

                                                                   Mission Blue Butterfly
                                          Dwarf Wedge Mussel
                Eastern Indigo Snake
                                     Sandhill Crane

Valley Elderberry
Longhorn Beetle
Attwater's Greater
Prairie Chicken

        Green Pitcher Plant
                                                  Ozark Big-Eared Bat
                  If you would like more information about EPA's
                  Endangered Species Protection Program, contact:

                  Endangered Species Protection Program (H7506C)
                  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                  401 M Street, SW.
                  Washington, DC 20460
                           Monito Gecko
Mauna Kea Sllversword