United States        Air and Radiation      EPA 430-B-95-007
      Environmental Protection     6202J        July 1995

&EPA _     e

      ENERGY STAR Buildings Manual
 A Guide for



 Buildings Program

                      Preface	   vn

                      Before You  Begin	  o-i

                      Section 0.1—Program Overview	  0-3
                        The Program	  0-3
                           Flexibility To Meet Your Needs	  0-5
                        In This Manual	  0-5
                      Section 0.2—Partner Support	  0-7
                        Planning and Implementation Support	  0-7
                           Partner Visits	  0-7
                           Telephone Support	  0-7
                           Communications	  0-8
                        Information and Analysis	  0-8
                           Software	  0-8
                           Database of Financing Programs	  0-9
                           Technology Studies	  0-9
                           Computer Simulations	  0-9
                           Technology Briefs	  0-9
                           Technical Advisory Support	  0-9
                      Section 0.3—Implementation Planning	0-11
                        Assemble the ENERGY STAR Buildings Team	0-11
                        The Kickoff Meeting and Ongoing Progress Meetings	0-12
                        Develop a Technical Approach	0-12
                           Selecting the Necessary Expertise	0-12
                           Identifying Facilities	0-12
                           Reporting Progress	0-13
                        Identify Financing Needs and Resources	0-13
                        Develop an Action Plan	0-13
                        Develop an Internal Communications Plan	0-14
                        Employee Involvement and Education	0-14
                        Publicize Activities Externally	'.	0-14
                      Section 0.4—The Importance of Energy Monitoring	0-15
                      Section 0.5—Pre-Upgrade Building Surveys	0-17

                      Stage  1: Green Lights	  1-1

                      Section 1.1—Green Lights Overview	  1-3

                      Stage 2: Building Tune-Up	  2-1

                      Section 2.1—Introduction	  2-3
                        Best Opportunities	  2-3
                        Building Tune-Up Survey	  2-4
                      Section 2.2—Reheat Systems	  2-5
                        Economic Benefits	  2-6
                      Section 2.3—Controls and Testing and Balancing	  2-7
                        Controls	  2-7
                        Testing and Balancing	  2-8
                      Section 2.4—Preventive Maintenance	  2-9
                        Building Management	  2-9
                      Section 2.5—Training	2-11
                      Section 2.6—Additional Considerations	2-13
                      Section 2.7—Tune-Up Actions and Checklists	2-15
                        Building Management	2-16
                        Building Envelope	2-16
                        Lighting Systems	2-17
                        Office Equipment Operation	2-17
                        Interior Space Conditions	2-18
                        HVAC Equipment	2-18
                        Air-Side Equipment	2-19
                        Water-Side Equipment	2-20
                        Daily Preventive Maintenance Checklist	2-21
                        Weekly Preventive  Maintenance Checklist	2-22
                        Monthly Preventive Maintenance Checklist	2-23
                        6-Month Preventive Maintenance Checklist	2-24
                        Annual Preventive  Maintenance Checklist	2-25

                      Stage 3: Load  Reductions	  3-1

                      Section 3.1—Introduction	  3-3
                        Best Opportunities	  3-3
                        Window and Roofing Survey	  3-4
                      Section 3.2—Window Films	  3-5
                        Economic Benefits	  3-6
                        Project Management Considerations	  3-7
                        Preparing Specifications	  3-7
                      Section 3.3—Roofing Upgrades	  3-9
                        Roof Replacement	  3-9
                        Roof Recovering	  3-9
                        Economic Benefits	3-10
                        Project Management Considerations	3-10
iv ENW Siat BUIWK Mm.                                                       SKOHD toman, luu / 995

                     Stage 4: HVAC Distribution System	  4-1

                     Section 4.1—Variable Air Volume System Upgrades	  4-3
                       Best Opportunities	  4-3
                       Variable Air Volume System Survey	  4-4
                       Section 4.1.1—Fan System Downsizing	  4-5
                           Finding the Oversized Fans	  4-5
                              Measuring Amperage	  4-5
                              Checking Vanes and Dampers	  4-5
                              Measuring Static Pressure	  4-5
                           Three Ways To Downsize	  4-5
                              Larger Pulleys	  4-5
                              Static Pressure Adjustments	  4-6
                              Smaller Energy Efficient Motors	  4-7
                           Economic Benefits	  4-7
                           Project Management Considerations	  4-7
                       Section 4.1.2—Energy-Efficient Motors	  4-9
                           Economic Benefits	4-10
                           Project Management Considerations	4-10
                           Preparing Specifications	4-11
                       Section 4.1.3—Variable-Speed Drives	4—15
                           Economic Benefits	4-15
                           Project Management Considerations	4-16
                           Preparing Specifications	4-17
                     Section 4.2—Water-Side Upgrades	4-21
                       Best Opportunities	4-21
                       Downsizing	4-21
                       Variable-Speed Drives	4-21
                       Single Loop to Primary/Secondary Loop Conversions	4-22

                     Stage 5: HVAC Plant	  5-1

                     Section 5.1—Water-Cooled Centrifugal Chiller Upgrades	  5-3
                       Best Opportunities	  5-3
                       Chiller Survey	  5-3
                       Chiller Retrofit	  5-5
                       Chiller Replacement	  5-5
                       Economic Benefits	  5-5
                       Project Management Considerations	  5-6
                       Preparing Specifications	  5-9
                     Section 5.2—Boiler Upgrades	5-13
                       Best Opportunities	5-13
                       Boiler Replacement	5-13
                       Boiler Retrofit	5-13
                       Economic Benefits	5-14
JKW tornou, Mr 1995                                                        tecr Sun BUILDINGS MANUAL v

                       Technical Considerations	5-14
                       Project Management Considerations	5-15

                     Section 5.3—Packaged Air-Conditioning Unit Upgrades	5-17
                       Best Opportunity	5-17
                       Economic Benefits	5-17
                       Project Management Considerations	5-18

                     Additional Opportunities	  e-i

                     Section 6.1—Transformers	  6-3
                       Best Opportunities	  6-3
                       Economic Benefits	  6-4
                       Project Management Considerations	  6-4

                     Section 6.2—ENERGY STAR Office Equipment	  6-7
                       Application to ENERGY STAR Buildings	  6-7
                       Purchasing ENERGY STAR Equipment	  6-8


                     Appendix A—Survey Forms and Instructions	 A-l
                     Appendix B—Indoor Air Quality	 B-l
                     Appendix C—More on Program Management	 C-l

                     Appendix D—Glossary	 D-l
vi [urn STM BUIWIHGS MANUAL                                                     SKOHO Emm, Mr / 995

                 The ENERGY STAR BUILDINGS MANUAL is a guide for
                 ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners to use in planning
                 and implementing profitable energy-efficiency
                 upgrades in their facilities. Its purpose is to provide
                 a concise overview of each of the five recommended
                 stages of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program:
                 Green Lights, Building Tune-Up, Load Reductions,
                 HVAC Distribution System Upgrades, and HVAC
                 Plant Upgrades. The energy-efficiency improvements
                 made in each of these stages build upon the upgrades
                 made in previous stages.

                 This manual is only one of several technical
                 resources that EPA is making available for ENERGY
                 STAR Buildings Partners.  It provides a roadmap to
                 guide participants through the steps that need to be
                 completed during each stage of the program.

                 Following an introductory chapter, the manual
                 is organized according to each of the program's
                 five stages. Each chapter  provides information
                 on upgrade opportunities, including project
                 management considerations and additional
                 points to consider when preparing specifications.
                 Appendices discuss building environmental quality
                 issues and provide supplemental information on
                 program management.

                 This is the second edition of the ENERGY STAR
                 BUILDINGS MANUAL. As we prepare future editions,
                 we welcome the reader's specific suggestions for
                 improvements.  Please call 202-775-6650 or send a
                 fax to 202-775-6680.
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viii  teerSswft/wsAtwuu                                                             SKONO Emm, JULY 1995

Before You Begin

            Before  You Begin
            EPA's ENERGY STAR Buildings Program is here
            to help building owners and managers make
            profitable investments in energy-efficient
            equipment and operations.

            Investments in energy efficiency benefit the Nation
            by reducing pollution and creating jobs. The
            profitability of those investments provides benefits
            to building owners by improving their bottom lines.

            To gain maximum energy savings and profits,
            ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners are encouraged to
            use a comprehensive five-stage strategy for their
            building upgrades. Before learning about the
            specifics of the stages, however, spend some time
            with this introductory chapter. Here you will
            become familiar with the ENERGY STAR Buildings
            Program and some of its key elements.

            This chapter contains the following sections:
            0.1  Program Overview
            0.2  Partner Support
            0.3  Implementation Planning
            0.4  The Importance of Energy Monitoring
            0.5  Pre-Upgrade Building Survey
, Mr 1995
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0-2   EMMY Si/ut BUILDINGS MANUAL                                                                 SKOHD [aim. Jinn 1995

Each year, the energy required to operate
office buildings in the United States:

• Consumes approximately $71 billion
  from the Nation's economy.

• Costs the owner of a typical building
  between $1 and $3 per square foot.

• Adds significantly to the amount of
  pollution released into the atmosphere:

  —16 percent of the carbon dioxide.

  —12 percent of the nitrogen oxides.

  —22 percent of the sulfur dioxides.

The goal of EPA's ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program is to reduce that pollution by
encouraging building owners to voluntarily
implement profitable energy-efficiency
improvements in their buildings.
The Program
A typical large office building consumes
energy (primarily electricity) in four main

• Lighting systems (29 percent).

• Air-handling systems (28 percent).

• Cooling systems (24 percent).

• Office equipment, elevators, auxiliary
  heating, and other (19 percent).

The five stages of the ENERGY STAR Build-
ings Program (Figure 1) include plans for
energy-efficiency tune-ups and upgrades
in each of these areas. Through these
actions, ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners
can expect to reduce total building energy
consumption by 30 percent, on average.
The five-stage strategy developed by EPA
takes into account load-reducing upgrades
at the beginning of the program to provide
maximum savings when the heating and
cooling systems are upgraded at the end.
Although following this strategy is not
required of ENERGY STAR Buildings Part-
ners, it is highly recommended. The chap-
ters of this manual are organized to follow
this strategy.
Each stage of the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program provides opportunities for profit-
able upgrades throughout your building
(Figure 2) and corresponding reductions in
your energy costs. Each stage is briefly
described below.
       Figure 1. ENERGY STAR Buildings Program
              Stages and Activities
  Stage 1: Green Lights
  • Implement Green Lights upgrades
.  WG
  Stage 2: Building Tune-Up
  • Perform building tune-up.
  • Implement preventive maintenance and
    training programs.

  Stage 3: Load Reductions
  • Install profitable window and roofing

  Stage 4: HVAC Distribution System Upgrades
  • Install energy-efficient motors and variable-
    speed drives downsized to new loads (with
    appropriate safety margins).
  • Install and calibrate controls.

  Stage 5: HVAC Plant Upgrades
  • Upgrade or replace plant with downsized,
    high-efficiency equipment.
SKONO torn, M1995

               Figure 2. Opportunities for Profitable Energy-Efficiency Improvements
                         Through the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program
Green Lights and ENERGY STAR

e Lights
If* r tllNm* PMVKTIt
                                      Building Tune-Up
                                                       Improved Roofs
                                                       and Windows
                                  CFC-Free Chillers
                                            71!.; D n L 2
                                                      Improved Controls

  Stage 1—Green Lights
  Get your building upgrades off and
  running by installing energy-efficient
  lighting systems that will provide
  immediate, profitable reductions in
  overall energy consumption.

  Stage 2—Building Tune-Up
  Be certain that building systems are
  operating efficiently by performing a
  comprehensive energy-efficiency tune-up
  of your entire facility, including preven-
  tive maintenance and staff training
  programs. The tune-up provides the
  additional benefits of improved levels of
  occupant comfort and indoor air quality.

  Stage 3—Load Reductions
  Complete the foundation for the heating,
  ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)
  system upgrades in Stages 4 and 5 by
  reducing heating and cooling loads. For
  example, energy-efficient lighting imple-
  mented through the Green Lights  Pro-
  gram gives off much less heat. Therefore,
  new cooling equipment would not need to
  provide as much peak capacity as the
                                 equipment it replaces. Other ways to
                                 reduce heating and cooling loads include
                                 energy-efficient office equipment, such as
                                 computers and printers with the ENERGY
                                 STAR label; reflective coatings for win-
                                 dows; and improved insulation or reflec-
                                 tive coverings for roofs.

                                 Stage 4—HVAC Distribution System
                                 Downsize your air-handling system to
                                 match newly reduced loads by installing
                                 smaller energy-efficient motors and
                                 larger pulleys; converting constant air
                                 volume systems to variable air volume
                                 systems (where applicable); and install-
                                 ing variable-speed drives to control fan
                                 motors and provide maximum efficiency
                                 at reduced airflow.

                                 Stage 5—HVAC Plant Upgrades
                                 Reduced loads achieved in Stages 1
                                 through 4 create the opportunity for
                                 substantial equipment cost savings on
                                 new, high-efficiency heating and cooling
                                 equipment—for example, a smaller, high-
                                 efficiency, CFC-free chiller (an upgrade
0-4  Emr SJM Buiwmes Mum
                                                          SKOHD [turn, JVH 1995

                                                                          Pttoew Otmw
  that should be seriously considered as
  new laws mandating reductions in chlo-
  rofluorocarbons come into effect). You
  will also be installing variable-speed
  drives to control chilled water pumps
  and condenser water pumps and improv-
  ing boilers, cooling towers, and  direct-
  expansion space-conditioning equipment.
Each stage of the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program includes a comprehensive survey
related to the area that is to be upgraded.
These surveys will help you determine
where energy-saving modifications and
upgrades will be most effective.

Flexibility To Meet Your Needs
The five stages of the ENERGY STAR Build-
ings  program provide you with flexibility to
accomplish the entire program at  one time
or in sequence. However, performing the
upgrades in stages will enhance the  return
on your investments because you can
closely match equipment to reduced  loads,
thus building on the success of previous

In This Manual
contains the following information:

• The remaining sections in this introduc-
  tory chapter tell how EPA is prepared to
  support your efforts, provide advice
  on how to organize and manage your
  ENERGY STAR Buildings effort, and
  describe the roles of energy monitoring
  and building surveys.

• Chapters 1 through 5 explain how you
  can obtain energy savings through profit-
  able energy-efficiency upgrades in each of
  the five stages of the program.

• Chapter 6 provides information on addi-
  tional areas where you may be able to
  make energy-efficiency improvements.

• Appendix A contains the building survey
  forms and instructions.

• Appendix B discusses indoor air quality
  issues associated with your building

• Appendix C contains supplemental
  program management information on
  financing and preparing requests for
  proposals and quotations.

• Appendix D is  a glossary of terms and
  abbreviations used in this manual.

MANUAL are welcome at any time.
                                                       Phone 202-775-4650
                                                        Fax 202-775-6680
SKOHO Email, MY 1995
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0-6  [mterSmBiUKMum                                                          SicoimtomoH, JULY 1995

                      Partner Support
The following support is available to all
ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners:

• Planning and Implementation

  —Partner Visits.

  —Telephone Support.

• Information and Analysis

  —Software for Economic Analysis.

  —Green Lights Database of Financing
  —Case Studies Documenting Savings for
    Specific Technologies.

  —Results of Building Energy Usage
    Computer Simulations.

  —Technology Briefs.

  —Technical Advisory Support.

These support activities are described in
the following paragraphs.

Planning and
Implementation Support
EPA stands ready to provide the following
types of planning and  implementation
support as your participation in the
ENERGY STAR Buildings Program begins.

Partner Visits
In some cases, representatives of EPA or
EPA contract personnel may be available
to visit ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners'
facilities to address specific upgrades or
implementation issues. Implementation
issues can include the  following:
• Organizing the ENERGY STAR Buildings
  team, establishing team leadership, and
  designating management roles.

• Establishing lines of communication and
  coordination, both within the team and
  between your organization and EPA.

• Identifying financing needs and

• Conducting the ENERGY STAR Buildings

• Planning trial installations and evaluat-
  ing new technologies.

• Setting goals and developing action

• Determining an approach to use in
  deciding which upgrades to implement.

• Developing strategies for submitting
  progress reports.
EPA or EPA contract personnel can also
help you use the ENERGY STAR Buildings
analysis tools that are available and pro-
vide brief technical reviews of completed
surveys for specific facilities or program
stages. They can help you conduct prelimi-
nary surveys and define trial installation
projects for immediate implementation at
your facility. In some cases,  they can visit
upgraded facilities to gather information for
case studies or to provide  assistance in
determining opportunities for additional
energy^ savings.

Telephone Support
EPA and its contract personnel will main-
tain regular contact with all ENERGY STAR
Buildings Partners.  Periodic calls provide a
convenient opportunity to discuss project
specifics, methodologies, and difficulties and

to answer technical or programmatic ques-
tions. The objective of this support is to help
Partners get the most out of their participa-
tion in the program.
Of course, you certainly do not need to wait
for the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program to
call you; any time you have a question,
problem, or comment you can call or fax us.
               ENERGY STAR Hotline
             Phone 202-775-6650
              Fox 202-775-6680
Because saving energy and preventing pol-
lution is good news, one important goal of
the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program is to
help Partners inform employees, customers,
shareholders, and the business community
about their participation in the program.

Corporate Communications. EPA has
developed a variety of communications
materials and publications to facilitate
participation in the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program. These materials include the
Green Lights Update newsletter, slide
presentations, and ENERGY STAR Buildings
Marketing Briefs.
Case Studies. One of the most successful
ways to promote energy efficiency is
through the use of case studies. These
"success stories" can be used for corporate
recognition, program promotion, education,
and developing  confidence in the profitabil-
ity of building upgrades. ENERGY STAR
Buildings Program staff will work with you
to develop a case study that may ultimately
be publicized in ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program materials, industry publications,
local newspapers, or even national media.
Progress Reporting. Compliance with the
project documentation requirement in the
ENERGY STAR Buildings Memorandum of
Understanding  can be easily met by sub-
mitting an ENERGY STAR Buildings Annual
Report for each  facility once each year.
EPA analyzes each implementation report
form submitted and follows up as needed to
obtain complete information, assist in
selecting future upgrades, or coordinate
case study development. The information is
also entered into an EPA database that is
used to determine the overall impact of the
program and to analyze trends in upgrade
choices, costs, methods, acceptance, and
profitability. These analyses will provide
valuable input for future energy-efficiency
products and services.

Information and Analysis
One of the major obstacles to successful
implementation of energy-efficiency up-
grades is the scarcity of objective informa-
tion to use in deciding which upgrades
provide the proper mix of energy efficiency
and profitability. The ENERGY STAR Build-
ings Program has developed the following
information resources to help Partners
obtain the information they need.

The QuikFan analysis program, which runs
under Microsoft Windows 3.0, is an easy-to-
use software tool designed to assist in
calculating the profitability of implement-
ing fan system upgrades, including the
interactive effects of cooling load reductions
and installation of variable-speed drives on
fan motors in a building. After you enter
engineering and financial data, QuikFan
calculates the cost of the upgrade, the
simple payback period (in years), and the
internal rate of return for a number of
different scenarios.
               QuikFan Software
     EPA Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division
              USEPA/OAR (6202-J)
                401 M Street SW
              Washington, DC 20460
     Or call the ENERGY STAR Hotline: 202-775-6650
               Fax: 202-775-6680
0-8  [HCIttffSnitBlWIHGSMUWL
                            SKONDRmH, JULY 1995

EPA is developing additional software tools
that will help Partners calculate profitable
chiller upgrades and prioritize their build-
ings for upgrading.

Database of Finanting Programs
This directory, developed for the Green
Lights Program, consists of two indexed
databases. Utility Financing contains
information on utility incentive programs
(rebates, direct assistance, and loans) that
encourage energy-efficiency upgrades. Non-
Utility Financing contains information on
companies that provide financing services,
either financing companies or energy ser-
vices companies that coordinate with banks,
leasing firms, or investment groups. The
financing options offered by these firms
include conventional loans, guaranteed
savings insurance, capital leases, and
shared savings.

The Financing databases run on IBM PC or
compatible computers.
            Financing Database Software
     EPA Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division
               USEPA/OAR (6202-J)
                401 M Street SW
              Washington, DC 20460
     Or call the ENERGY STAR Hotline: 202-775-6650
               Fax: 202-775-6680
Appendix C contains more information on
financing options for building energy-
efficiency upgrades.
Technology Studies
EPA will maintain a number of technology
studies documenting energy savings and
internal rate of return for specific upgrades
in specific types of buildings. ENERGY STAR
Buildings Partners can use these studies as
a starting point in determining the type of
energy savings and profits expected from a
particular energy-efficiency upgrade.

Computer Simulations
EPA will offer the results of building energy
usage computer simulations that ENERGY
STAR Buildings Partners can use as a
starting point in determining the type of
energy savings and profits expected from a
particular energy-efficiency upgrade. Com-
paring the results for upgrades and build-
ing types in locations similar to yours can
help you determine if you are moving in the
right direction.

Technology Briefs
EPA is developing a series of Technology
Briefs summarizing various technologies
and implementation issues of interest to
ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners. These
publications are intended to serve as intro-
ductions to these technologies and issues.

Technical Advisory Support
ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners can re-
ceive technical advisory support from EPA
contract personnel as they implement their
pilot ENERGY STAR Buildings upgrades.
This support includes design reviews, tech-
nical analysis, and site visits.
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0-10  f«y Sw BUHDK MANUAL                                                        SKOHD EDWIN, My 1995

This section provides some advice on how to
organize the ENERGY STAR Buildings effort
within your company.

Assembling the
ENERGY STAR Buildings  Team
The first step in organizing the ENERGY
STAR Buildings program in your company is
to assemble the team that will oversee the
program—that is, set goals, establish
timetables, and assign responsibilities.
Such a team typically includes the following

• The ENERGY STAR Buildings Project
  Director serves as the ENERGY STAR
  Buildings "champion," ensuring that your
  company successfully meets the upgrade
  commitments established in the Memo-
  randum of Understanding and acting as
  the primary  program liaison between
  EPA and your company. This individual
  conducts the kickoff meeting, coordinates
  ENERGY STAR Buildings team activities,
  and establishes and oversees the imple-
  mentation plan. The project director also
  directs your company's upgrades. There-
  fore, this role requires a motivated per-
  son who can  engage participation, using
  either direct authority or personal influ-
  ence, and can influence or communicate
  with all corporate functions affected by
  ENERGY STAR Buildings.

• Facility Managers are the primary
  contacts for each of your company's
  facilities and should be the main contacts
  for specific upgrade projects.

• A Financial Analyst decides how to
  secure funding for upgrade projects and
  identifies the most advantageous financ-
  ing options. This individual performs a
variety of financial tasks, such as project-
ing cash flows, calculating after-tax
internal rates of return for upgrades, and
interpreting reports. The analyst also
evaluates financing sources and produces
in-house documents for use in project
approval and procurement.

A Purchasing Specialist researches
and identifies the most cost-effective
purchasing options. The specialist also
negotiates national purchasing agree-
ments to provide a means of reducing
costs and improving service, ultimately
increasing the profitability of your up-
grades. National agreements can enable
your company to streamline purchases of
equipment and ensure competitive prices.

Decision Facilitator. Decisions related
to upgrade projects require approval from
various decision makers at many levels
(for example, building owners, execu-
tives, legal counsel, and comptroller).
At least one team member needs to
understand your company's approval
process for ENERGY STAR Buildings
investments. This team member will use
this knowledge to scrutinize the process
and determine the appropriate places for
streamlining or proposing changes. This
review should precede the kickoff meet-
ing, because it can help ensure that no
organizational conflicts arise during the
meeting. The review also helps get the
internal approval process moving and
can provide helpful information.  For
example, the facilitator may know that
pre-approved funds  are available if
appropriate paperwork is submitted.

The Communications Director focuses
your company's communications efforts
to ensure that your achievements in
                                                              [am STM BUILDINGS MANW  0-11

  protecting the environment are recog-
  nized. For example, this person coordi-
  nates effective uses of the ENERGY STAR
  Buildings logo in advertising, newsletters
  and public areas and develops media
  tools such as press releases. The commu-
  nications director also works with EPA to
  publish case studies of upgrades in trade
  journals or the general media. In addi-
  tion, this person educates employees,
  stockholders,  and customers about the

• For large firms with many facilities,
  Regional or  Division Coordinators
  can play a significant role. In some cases,
  a coordinator  may also serve in the role
  of facility manager, as described above,
  providing building-specific information
  and overseeing surveys and upgrades. In
  other cases, an organization will  select a
  team leader to coordinate the upgrade
  activities for a group of facility managers
  in a region or division.

The K'ukoft Meeting and

Ongoing Progress Meetings
The kickoff meeting begins your company's
participation in  the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program. This meeting is important be-
cause it helps you make the initial plan-
ning, scheduling, and budgeting decisions
needed to get your program under way.
Experience with current ENERGY STAR
Buildings Partners indicates that the
participation of senior management at the
kickoff meeting will help ensure that these
key decisions are made. For this reason, it
is important that participants at the kickoff
meeting include the person in your com-
pany who signed the ENERGY STAR Build-
ings Memorandum of Understanding with
EPA; the members of the ENERGY STAR
Buildings Project Team; decisionmakers
representing the finance, facilities manage-
ment, procurement, environmental affairs,
and communications functions; and the
facility manager and the building manager
of the building selected for the initial
An example agenda for a ENERGY STAR
Buildings kickoff meeting is presented in
Figure 3. Your EPA account manager will
coordinate with you to help finalize the
agenda for your kickoff meeting.

Regularly scheduled progress meetings
should follow the kickoff meeting, once you
begin to implement the ENERGY STAR
upgrades. The  purpose of these meetings is
to measure and discuss progress, resolve
implementation issues, communicate
successes, and  further develop the imple-
mentation plan.

Develop a  Tethn'ual Approach
In addition to the upgrades themselves,
your technical  approach involves three
other important components

Selecting the  Netessary Expertise
The most critical step in carrying out
successful upgrades is the survey and
analysis process. Your company can use one
of two technical approaches to getting the
necessary expertise or combine these two.

•  In-house personnel. An in-house
   survey and analysis process ensures
   employee involvement and provides
   maximum objectivity. However, it
   usually requires some training and time

•  Outside expertise. Outside expertise
   (i.e., consultants, energy management
   companies, product vendors) enables fast
   implementation using experienced per-
   sonnel. However, the scope of products or
   services may not be comprehensive, and
   professional  fees may be required to
   ensure objectivity.

Identifying Futilities
One of the first technical planning activities
you should undertake is developing a list of
facilities to  target for surveys and up-
grades. Usually, it is not feasible to upgrade
all facilities simultaneously, so the facility
managers need to evaluate facilities whose
upgrades will yield the highest internal
rates of return. These facilities receive top
0-12  EiwSJUtBimDiHesMuiuu.
                           SKOND En, JIM 1995

   Figure 3. Example Agenda for an ENERGY STAR
           Buildings Kickoff Meeting
  Welcome and Introductions

  Making ENERGY STAR Buildings a
  Strategic Part of Your Business
  •  Facilities as Assets
  •  Potential for Savings with ENERGY STAR Buildings
  •  Organizing for Success

  Estimating Your Company's Profitability
  •  Buildings To Be Included in the Program
  •  Capital Investment Requirements
  •  Expected Returns
  •  Timeline for the Program

  Pilot Building
  •  Scheduling the Pilot Building
  •  Securing Funding
  •  Upgrade Opportunities

  Questions and Answers


  Tour of the Pilot Building
priority for immediate upgrade efforts. The
savings generated from these upgrades can
then finance subsequent upgrades.

In identifying high-priority facilities, facility
managers should consider a variety of
factors, including:

•  Regional economic factors.

•  Facility characteristics.

•  Corporate priorities.

You should develop an initial list of priority
facilities before the kickoff meeting. You
can view it as a working list, and you
should review and alter it as necessary.
Upgrades  should be scheduled so that the
minimum requirements identified in the
Memorandum of Understanding are met.

Companies with multiple facilities need to
understand that prioritizing facilities can
be time-consuming and difficult. You may
need to consult with several departments
within your organization and even review
real-estate records as part of this process.

Reporting Progress
To document your upgrade progress, com-
plete the standard one-page ENERGY STAR
Buildings Annual Report. This report
establishes the credibility of your pollution-
prevention efforts and shows the benefits of
your energy-efficiency projects to manage-
ment, customers, and stakeholders. In
addition, submitting reports helps identify
and publicize your success stories. Regular
reporting also helps EPA evaluate program
effectiveness and enhance  technical support
to participants.

Identify Financing Needs

and Resources
For your program to  be successful, you need
to allocate sufficient  funds to meet your
upgrade commitments. Your company can
either allocate existing funds or secure
third-party financing. Utility incentives and
financing options can reduce or eliminate
the need for capital, reduce risk, and im-
prove cash flow. In fact, financed lighting
upgrades routinely result in positive cash
flow. Third-party financing also enables you
to retain more of your own capital for use in
your business and thus to begin gaining the
benefits of energy-efficiency upgrades
earlier than might be possible otherwise.
Although you do not  have to make the
decision regarding specific financing op-
tions at the outset, you should begin inves-
tigating them early on. Appendix C
contains more information about financing

Develop an Action Plan
At the close of the implementation planning
process, you will have identified barriers to
successful implementation of the ENERGY
STAR Buildings Program. The number and
severity of these barriers will vary from
company to company. For instance, some
companies will need  creative financing
SKOHD torn, Mr 1995

plans, while others will have difficulty
setting priorities among facilities. You
should develop a written strategic action
plan to help you overcome the barriers you
identify. You can use this plan to clarify the
tasks that need to be accomplished in
specific timeframes and to assign responsi-
bilities. EPA can provide assistance in
developing the plan if necessary.

Develop an Internal
Communications Plan
Once you have assembled the ENERGY STAR
Buildings team, project work begins. To
help keep the project running smoothly, you
should develop an internal plan to regularly
communicate and distribute information.
The cornerstone of this plan is  the kickoff
meeting, conducted in cooperation with
EPA. However, ongoing employee involve-
ment and education combined with external
publicity will help maintain the momentum
generated at the kickoff meeting.

Employee Involvement
and Education
Your company's employees are key partici-
pants in your efforts to prevent pollution.
You should notify employees about your
organization's participation in the ENERGY
STAR Buildings Program as soon as possible
after signing the Memorandum of Under-
standing. Emphasize the importance that
ENERGY STAR Buildings places on  occupant
comfort and explain how high-quality
improvements that save energy, protect the
environment, and save money can be made.
Trial installations provide an excellent
opportunity to demonstrate the efficiency
and quality improvements resulting from
the upgrade project under consideration.
Publicize energy savings information along
with a listing of the quality improvements.
Keeping employees aware of your
organization's ongoing upgrade progress
and resulting savings will maintain their

Publicize Activities Externally
You should also publicize your activities
externally to help raise awareness of the
program and the benefits of your building
upgrades. Several standard publicity
avenues are available—press releases,
advertisements, and case studies published
in trade journals. In addition, networking
with other ENERGY STAR Buildings partici-
pants may provide other creative publicity
                           SKOwBmoit, JULY 1995

Careful monitoring of building systems is
important for maximizing energy saving
measures. Once a baseline is established
and energy consumption is broken down by
end-use, you can develop a better under-
standing of how to most effectively improve
the building. For example, if specific end-
use power readings indicate that an unusu-
ally large amount of energy is being used
for heating, the heating system is probably
oversized or extremely inefficient. Post-
retrofit monitoring is needed to quantify
actual energy savings resulting from en-
ergy-efficiency measures.
EPA recommends detailed monitoring at
your facility as a way to determine where
additional savings can be found and to
ensure that the building is running as
efficiently as possible. Table 1 contains a
list of EPA's recommended monitoring
points. This monitoring plan was success-
fully used by the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Showcase Partners.

• Phase I. Recommended points should be
  monitored prior to the start of the up-
  grades. At a minimum, baseline energy
  consumption broken down by end-use (an
Table 1.
Monitoring Point
Lighting Load
Light levels
Fan Electric Load
Chiller Electric Load
Cooling Tower Electric Load
Office Equipment Electric Load
Electric Reheat Load
Misc. Plug Loads
Pumps Electric Load
Fan Output
Supply Air Temperature
Return Air Temperature
Duct Static Pressure Setpoint
Chilled Water Flowrate
Condenser Water Flowrate
Chilled Water Supply/Return Temperature
Recommended Monitoring Points
Phase Units
,11 kW
,11 fc
, II, III kW
, II, III kW
, II, III kW
,11 kW
, II kW
,11 kW
, II, III kW
, II, III cfm
, II psi
, M, III gpm
, II, III gpm
,11,111 F
Condenser Water Supply/Return Temperature , II, III F
Hot Water Flowrate
Hot Water Supply/Return Temperature
Steam Flowrate
Steam Pressure
Heating Gas/Oil Flowrate
, II, Ml gpm
,11,111 F
, II, III Ib/hr
, II, III psi
,11,111 cfh

End-use breakdown
Light level comparison
End-use breakdown
End-use breakdown
End-use breakdown
End-use breakdown
End-use breakdown
End-use breakdown
End-use breakdown
Cooling/heating load
Cooling/heating load
Cooling/heating load
Airflow requirements
Load changes
Load changes
Load changes
Load changes
Load changes
Load changes
Load changes
Load changes
Load changes

Sim EDITION, im 1995
                     (MUM SIM BUHK MANUAL  0-15

fif/w You BKIH
        Figure 4. Example End-Use Chart

       Annual Energy Consumption by End-Use
         (15 percent)
    (24 percent)
                              (35 percent)
              (16 percent)
                           (10 percent)
  example of which is shown in Figure 4)
  should be compiled.

  Phase II. Once the first three stages of
  the program have been completed, a new
  set of readings should be taken, including
  one-time readings and continuously
monitored points. A new set of footcandle
readings should be taken at the same
locations as were taken before Stage 1
(the Green Lights upgrades). After
completion of Stages 2 and 3 (the build-
ing tune-up and load reductions), it is
important to recalculate the baseline
energy consumption and end-use break-
down. This knowledge will help deter-
mine if fan or motor downsizing in Stages
4 and 5 is possible due to a reduction in
load. Extensive monitoring in this phase
will also confirm savings estimates and
new system parameters due to  earlier

Phase III. After completion of all five
stages, monitoring of all recommended
points should continue and the data
should be analyzed on  a regular basis.
Building managers should adjust operat-
ing systems based on monitored informa-
tion to improve building efficiency when
                           SKOM Earn, IWY 1995

                            'v-                 -X,
                       Building  Surveys
The purpose of the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program is to help you make profitable
investments in energy efficiency. Each
stage of the program  requires an under-
standing of the type of system or equip-
ment to be upgraded and the condition and
energy efficiency of that system or equip-
A comprehensive survey of your building
and its systems will enable you to compile
the information needed to determine where
energy-saving modifications and upgrades
can be implemented.
The survey forms in this manual have been
designed to allow you to choose between
conducting a one-time, building-wide
survey or conducting individual, stage-by-
stage surveys. The forms contain questions
that will help you to determine the most
profitable upgrades and to compile the
information needed to calculate their
economic benefits, prepare implementation
plans, and manage installation. They
require visual inspections of all building
systems and a few specific measurements.
The measurements  are straightforward and
can be conducted in a reasonably short
period of time.

The surveys for each stage of the ENERGY
STAR Buildings Program are described
Stage 1—Green Lights. Surveys related
to your lighting systems are completed as
part of your participation in the Green
Lights Program and are described in the
Lighting Upgrade Manual.
Stage 2—Building Tune-Up. Surveys for
Stage 2 will help you determine the status
of your building's systems. The goal is to
become familiar with the overall condition
of your building and the conditions under
which its systems operate. This in turn will
help you determine the tune-ups needed to
improve operations and prepare your build-
ing for the energy-efficiency upgrades to
follow, making those upgrades as profitable
as possible.
Stage 3—Load Reductions. Surveys for
Stage 3 will help you determine if window
or roofing upgrades can be profitable in
your building. You will be inspecting your
windows and roof and then answering some
basic questions about each.
Stage 4—HVAC Distribution Systems.
Surveys conducted for Stage 4 will help you
determine the types of air-distribution
system upgrades that will be profitable in
your building. You will be inspecting your
air-handling systems and then answering
some basic questions about each.
Note: In this edition of the ENERGY STAR
BUILDINGS MANUAL, the survey deals with
variable volume air-handling systems only.
Future editions will include surveys for
constant volume air-handling systems and
water-side systems.
Stage 5—HVAC Plant. Surveys conducted
for Stage 5 will help you determine the
types of HVAC plant upgrades that will be
profitable in your building.
Note: In this edition of the ENERGY STAR
BUILDINGS MANUAL, the survey deals with
water-cooled centrifugal chillers only.
Future editions will include surveys for
other types of HVAC plant upgrades, includ-
ing boilers and packaged  units.
When you are ready to conduct a survey,
look for people familiar with the following
aspects of your facility:
Building: Floor plans, architectural and
engineering drawings, and location of
equipment rooms and equipment; construc-
SKONI) torn, JM 1995

BffOff You BEGIN
tion materials, insulation materials, and
window types.
Mechanical Equipment: Configuration
and operation of air-handling units and
heating and cooling systems; types and
operation of the controls on these systems.
Electrical Systems: Configuration of the
power distribution system and electrical
systems for air-handling units and heating
and cooling systems; types and operation of
motors; lighting systems.
A survey team might include the building
engineer, an HVAC technician, a controls
technician, and an electrician. If you cannot
assemble the people or materials needed to
conduct the surveys, you may want to turn
to a qualified engineering consulting firm.

To conduct the surveys, you will need the
following items:

• Copies of the survey forms.
  Note: Be sure to copy the survey forms
  and retain the originals for later use or
  use at another building (if applicable).
• Notepad to record additional information.

• Other tools and documents as specified on
  the survey questionnaire. For example:

  —Ammeter, devices to record tempera-
    ture and humidity, calculator

  —Architectural, mechanical, and electri-
    cal drawings and as-built drawings

  —Operations and maintenance manuals

  —Maintenance records for each system

  —Complaint logs.

If your building has an energy management
system, the system can be used to compile
operating schedules, current readings, and
operational sequences for use in conducting
the surveys.
Appendix A contains the survey forms and
describes the information required for each
survey, the materials needed to conduct the
survey, and the personnel recommended for
the survey team.
0-18 turn SIM Buium Mow.
                            SKomEotnoH, JIM 1995

Stage 1:  Green Lights

                 Stage  h
                 Green Lights
                  Stage 1 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program
                  involves your participation in an EPA program
                  closely associated with the ENERGY STAR Buildings
                  Program—Green Lights.

                  As an ENERGY STAR Buildings Partner, you are
                  already committed to participation in the Green
                  Lights Program. Implementing the energy-efficient
                  Green Lights upgrades will get your ENERGY STAR
                  Buildings upgrades off to a very good start.

                  ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners must already
                  be participants in the Green Lights Program.
                  However, for those who are not familiar with
                  Green Lights, this chapter provides a brief
                  description of the program and tells you who to
                  contact for additional information. Comprehensive
                  guidance for implementing a Green Lights upgrade
                  is provided in your Lighting Upgrade Manual.
SECOND [omon, Mr 1995
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                               This page intentionally left blank.
1 -2  teer SIM tow MANUAL                                                                 SKOND EDITION, MY / 995

                                           *\   w
                         Green Lights
Green Lights is a voluntary program that
encourages the widespread use of energy-
             efficient lighting systems.
             When you implement the
             Green Lights Program, you
             will be doing the following:
Determining appropriate
lighting levels.
  Improving the efficiency of components
  and luminaires.

  Implementing controls on operating hours.

  Maintaining or improving lighting quality.

  Maximizing energy savings.
                                            Lighting efficiency can be improved without
                                            reducing lighting quality. In fact, many
                                            efficiency improvements will improve
                                            lighting quality. The following four catego-
                                            ries of lighting upgrades should be imple-

                                            • Adjusting Lighting Levels and Qual-
                                              ity. Put the correct amount of quality
                                              light where it is needed. Improve the
                                              effectiveness of the lighting by reducing
                                              glare and improving color rendering.

                                            • Improving Fixture Component Effi-
                                              ciency.  Upgrade with high-efficiency
                                              lamps and ballasts to increase the effi-
                                              ciency of converting electricity to light.
              Tackling the Barriers to Innovation—Common Problems and the Green Lights Solution
Problem: Lighting Is a Low Priority. Few organiza-
tions focus on the opportunity to invest in their own
lighting systems.
      The  Green Lights Solution:  Green Lights
      Partners see lighting as an  investment—a
      source of profits. Signing the Memorandum of
      Understanding makes lighting an organiza-
      tional priority.

Problem: Lack of Information and Expertise. Light-
ing information travels slowly outside the world of the
lighting industry.
      The  Green Lights Solution:  Green Lights
      provides informational tools to help lighting
 ""*"  investors make informed upgrade decisions.
Problem: Difficulty in financing. Investments in
energy-efficient lighting require up-front capital.
      QThe  Green Lights Solution:  Green Lights
  ;«„  has developed a registry of financing  re-
      sources and provides it  to  all  Green Lights
                              Problem: Restricted  Markets. Low demand for
                              energy-efficient lighting technologies results in lack
                              of consumer understanding about potential cost sav-
                              ings and enhanced lighting. Prices remain high due
                              to small production runs.
                                    The Green Lights Solution:  Green  Lights
                                  ,  promotes energy-efficient lighting technolo-
                               ""^  gies as cost-effective and high-quality prod-
                                    ucts to consumers and informs manufacturers
                                    about the benefits of investing in new tech-
                              Problem: Split Incentives Between Landlords and
                              Tenants. To realize savings from a lighting upgrade,
                              landlords and tenants must renegotiate leases. The
                              landlord rarely installs energy-efficient  lighting  in
                              new construction because utility charges are passed
                              on to tenants.
                                    QThe Green Lights Solution: Green Lights is
                                 •„„  developing standard lease language that re-
SttBt l—GKlHlKHK
  Improving Luminaire Efficiency. Get
  more light from a fixture by retrofitting
  or replacing the fixture with more effi-
  cient reflector and shielding materials.
  Routine fixture cleaning also improves
  luminaire efficiency.

  Controlling Burning Hours. Use
  automatic or manual lighting controls to
  turn lights  off when they are not needed.
EPA's Green Lights support system will
help you select the best technologies to
provide maximum energy savings for your
Refer to your Lighting Upgrade Manual for
detailed guidance on implementing the
Green Lights Program and profitably
maximizing energy savings through light-
ing upgrades.
                                Participating in the Green Lights Program
   Green Lights Partners  sign  a  Memorandum of
   Understanding with  EPA, in which they agree to
   conduct a lighting survey of their facilities and, within
   5 years, implement high-efficiency lighting upgrades
   in 90 percent of their square footage where it is
   profitable and where lighting quality is maintained or
   enhanced. Participants also  agree  to appoint an
   implementation manager to oversee participation in
   the program.
   EPA also signs the Memorandum of Understanding
   and agrees to provide the following support to Green
   Lights Partners:
   •  Decision Support System. A state-of-the-art com-
     puter software package that enables Partners to
     survey lighting systems, assess lighting options,
     and select the most profitable lighting upgrades.
   •  Financing Registries.  User-friendly computer
     databases that describe all available third-party
     financing programs.
   •  Ally Programs. Allies include lighting manufac-
     turers,  lighting management  companies, and
     electric  utilities that have agreed to educate cus-
     tomers about energy-efficient lighting.
   •  Endorser Program. Endorsers are  membership
     associations and other  organizations that pro-
     mote Green Lights.
•  Public Recognition. The Green Lights Program
   places public-service advertising in major maga-
   zines and provides newspaper articles, reports on
   new lighting technologies, a newsletter, and other
   materials. To encourage participants to promote
   their own Green Lights activities, EPA distributes
   ready-to-use promotional materials to all Part-
In  addition, EPA contracts and  grants provide the
following services:
•  Lighting Services Group.  Provides  technical
   support, including a technical  services hotline,
   workshops, and  the comprehensive  Lighting
   Upgrade Manual.
•  National Lighting Product Information Pro-
   gram. Provides "consumer reports" with valuable
   product information on lighting.
For more information about Green Lights:
•  Refer to your Lighting Upgrade Manual.
•  Call the  Green Lights  Information Hotline at
   202-775-6650 or fax at 202-775-6680.
•  Call the Green  Lights  Technical Hotline at
   202-862-1145 or fax at 202-862-1144.
•  Access the Green Lights Electronic Bulletin Board
   from your modem at 202-775-6671.

Stage 2. Building Tune-Up

                 Building  Tune-lip   =
                 Stage 2 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program
                 provides the opportunity to make your entire
                 building more energy-efficient through
                 maintenance activities and modifications to
                 equipment and procedures. Many of these
                 improvements are free or low-cost and thus are
                 profitable on their own; however, they also lay a
                 solid foundation that can make your investments
                 in Stages 3, 4, and 5 even more profitable.

                 The first step in the tune-up process is to survey
                 the building and document its overall condition and
                 the conditions under which its various systems are
                 operating. This information will help you determine
                 which systems need to be tuned up and where
                 energy-saving upgrades will be most profitable. As
                 part of the tune-up, you will also be implementing
                 a preventive maintenance program, and training
                 the facilities staff on the new procedures.

                 This chapter contains the following sections:
                 2.1  Introduction
                 2.2  Reheat Systems
                 2.3  Controls and Testing and Balancing
                 2.4  Preventive Maintenance
                 2.5  Training
                 2.6  Additional Considerations
                 2.7  Tune-Up Actions and Checklists
SKOND torn, Mr 1995

                              This page intentionally left blank.
2-2  [niter SmBiwitiss Mum                                                             SmtomoN, JULY 1995

Building tune-up involves maintenance
activities and modifications to equipment
and procedures—many of which are free or
low-cost—that will enable your building's
systems to operate at their designed effi-
ciencies. This is also known as recommis-
sioning. Energy consumption in many
buildings can be reduced by 5 percent or
more simply by correcting existing minor
problems such as dirty filters and mis-
calibrated controls.
Tune-ups are important at this point in the
ENERGY STAR Buildings Program because
they also lay the foundation for upgrades
implemented later in the  program, allowing
those upgrades to provide the best return
on money invested in energy savings. If the
later upgrades are applied to malfunction-
ing systems, they not be as profitable.
Furthermore, if a system is tuned up to
operate at peak efficiency, substantial
profits can be realized even before more
comprehensive upgrades are undertaken.

The Case Study and the Simulation in this
section show the type of energy savings that
can be expected from building tune-ups.

• Tune-ups increase the reliability of
  equipment and systems.

• Tune-ups save energy, making future
  energy-efficiency upgrades more profit-
  able and providing profits of their own.

Best Opportunities
Most building systems and equipment, as
well as the facility's operations and mainte-
nance program, can be tuned up to improve
overall building performance and reduce
energy consumption. Itemized checklists of
these tune-up opportunities and actions are
provided in Section 2.7. The checklist
format is used because many tune-up
actions need only to be pointed out and do
not require explanation. Before turning to
the checklists however, please take a few
minutes to read the following discussions
on reheat systems, energy management
systems, testing and balancing, preventive
maintenance, training, and project manage-
                                Cose Study: Minneapolis-St. Paul
  The University of Minnesota conducted a study of seven office buildings in Minneapolis-St. Paul and
  found the following .types .of problems:,                  ,                          ,
  •  Excessive  cycling of hot water boilers.   :  >     '
  •  Lights and office equipment  left on during unoccupied hours.
  •  Air handling units left on during unoccupied hours.
  •  Simultaneous heating  and cooling as  a  result of poor perimeter radiation controls.
  •  Heat pumps operating  continuously.             ,
  The analysis led to operational changes 'that provided  utility cost reductions of between 8 and 20
  percent, averaging 15.4  percent, after subtracting-the cost^of the analysis ($0.10 to $0.12 per square
  foot).  The simple payback period for these improvements was 0.67 years, with an  EPA-calculated
  internal rate of return of 147 percent over 5 years.
  Source: Office Building Operations Case Study Reports, Minnesota Building Research Center,  University of Minnesota,
  1991.                     .  ' ^ -,
SECOND torn, JULY 1995
                        ft» Sw BUIIDK AtoiMi  2-3

                                   Simulation: Washington, D.C
   EPA ran a simulation of an office building, in
   Washington, D.C. (10 stories, 100,000'square,
   feet) with the following typical conditions before
   the tune-up:                      •"  ""•>'„"<-
   • Thermostats not calibrated, causing the sum-
     mer setting  to be 1 percent tower than the
     setpoint, the winter setting to be 1 > percent
     higher than the setpoint, and the night-setback
     setting to be 3 percent higher than the setpoint.
   • Humidity setting  10 percent higher than the
   • Supply fan input 15 percent higher than design
Building Tune-Up Survey
The Building Tune-Up Survey is an essen-
tial first step in Stage 2 of the ENERGY
STAR Buildings Program. This survey will
familiarize you with the condition of your
building's systems and enable you to  deter-
mine which systems need to be tuned up.
                                                 ;••  Supply fan and return fan pressures 15 percent
                                                 •    higher than design conditions.
                                                  •  Chilled water pump input 15 percent higher
                                                   \, than design conditions, condenser water pump
                                                   f input 8 percent higher than design conditions,
                                                  ' I-  and cooling tower fan  input 8 percent higher
                                                  :,  than design conditions.
                                                 .'j  Cooling design loads an average of 4 percent
                                                     higher than design conditions across 10 zones.
                                                  In this building, annual HVAC energy consump-
                                                  tion would be .some 15 percent higher than build-
                                                  ing design conditions. The owner of this building
                                                 ; could recover the costs of this unnecessary energy
                                                  consumption by tuning up the building's systems.
                                                The survey has two main tasks: analysis
                                                and inspection. To complete it you will need
                                                to analyze some existing information and
                                                then obtain some additional information by
                                                conducting general inspections in various
                                                areas of the building. The Building Tune-
                                                Up Survey forms begin on page A-5.
2-4  tor 5w Buws/tawi
                                                                                      , Juu 1995

To minimize reheat energy consumption
(see box), you can:

• Monitor reheat year-round. Categorize
  usage into spring, summer, winter, and

• Be sure thermostats controlling reheat
  are calibrated and operating properly.

• Consider turning reheat off in the spring,
  summer, and fall. A well designed reheat
  system should only use reheat in the
  winter months.

• If comfort cannot be maintained in sum-
  mer without reheat, fix or redesign the
  system (as recommended in Stage 4

• When possible, increase supply air tem-
  peratures during the cooling season.
  Maximize savings without compromising
  occupant comfort.
Changes in reheat strategy can sometimes
be accompanied by the HVAC distribution
system upgrades associated with Stage 4.
Upgrades that will maximize reheat effi-
ciency include:

• Converting constant air volume systems
  to variable air volume. It is much more
  efficient to supply a small amount of cold
  air to a space than to supply a lot of cold
  air to supply ducts and have it reheated
  to a comfortable temperature.

• Transferring reheat controls from local
  thermostats to a central energy manage-
  ment system. This allows precise, custom
  control of reheat.
              What Is Reheat?
Reheat is the mechanical heating of an airflow
which has been cooled  to a pre-set minimum
supply temperature. Air supply systems use reheat
for local  control of space temperature. In a con-
stant air volume (CAV) system, the air leaving the
supply fan is at a very  cold temperature, and
heating coils located at each specific inlet duct
reheat the air to the locally desired tempera-
Reheat typically occurs inside ductwork,  which is
hidden behind walls and ceilings. As such, reheat
is almost always overlooked as a source of energy
waste or potential  savings. Although you would
never operate a fireplace during the summer  in
your own home, reheat in large HVAC systems
during the cooling season is accepted as status
Because  reheat occurs simultaneously with cool-
ing, it inherently wastes both heating and cooling
energy. Typically, one cooling source will provide
cooling over many or all spaces and reheat will be
used locally for those areas which require less or
no cooling at all. Even variable air volume (VAV)
systems,  which vary the cooling on a local level,
require reheat for exterior spaces that need heat-
ing in the winter.
The design decision to incorporate  reheat is a
compromise  between higher energy use and in-
creased zoning of the cooling system. Reheat is
often the result of insufficient zoning of the heating
and cooling  system.  Therefore, as  part of the
design of many cooling systems, reheat cannot
always be eliminated. If this is the case, one must
be sure that the reheat  used is minimized.
If reheat is used to control humidity,
considering the use of alternate dehu-
midification methods, such as a desiccant
wheel or a heat pipe.
       , JULY 1995

Economic Benefits
The accompanying box on Reheat Savings
shows the types of energy savings that can
result from changes in a reheat system.

Improving the reheat system provides
energy savings at the reheat coils and
potential energy savings at the air handler
and cooling coils. If the air is universally
cooled to 55 degrees and then reheated to a
local temperature of 65 degrees, removing
reheat and cooling the air to 65 degrees
initially  not only cuts out reheat energy, it
also saves the energy needed to cool the
supply air that extra 10 degrees. Although
  A 7-story office building uses electric reheat year-
  round. Monitoring of the reheat coils on one floor
  shows that a total of 23,930 kilowatthours was
  useo* for reheat during August" 1994. With reheat
  controls, this consumption would have been cut to
  about 7,180 kilowatthours, for a savings of $ 1,340
 ,?>at $0,08 per kilowatthour.
certain zones sometimes need to be cooled
more than others due to solar gain or
conduction through windows, improving
controls can cut reheat energy by about
70 percent during the cooling months.
                                    , JULY 1995

                       Controls  and
                       testing and
An Energy Management System (EMS)
can greatly improve the performance of a
building. A typical EMS includes a main
computer that receives information from
sensors monitoring performance through-
out the building and sends information to
related mechanical and electrical equip-
ment. The sensors record temperatures,
pressures, humidity levels, water or air
flows, power consumption, and other spe-
cific parameters (known as points). The
output information controls equipment run
time or setpoints based on the input. Some
uses for an EMS are outlined below.

• 7-Day Scheduling—HVAC, lighting, and
  heating and cooling systems can be pro-
  grammed to start and stop on a weekly
  schedule. Annual schedules can account
  for holidays and seasonal changes. Run-
  ning systems on a schedule can eliminate
  waste caused by human error.

• Night Setback—Heating and cooling
  setpoints can be changed to allow for less
  cooling during the summer and less
  heating during the winter during unoccu-
  pied nighttime hours. Allowing a lower
  setpoint instead of complete system shut-
  off prevents conditioned spaces from
  becoming too cold or too warm at night.

• Direct Digital Control—Temperature and
  pressure sensors inside air supply ducts
  can be used to control valves and damp-
  ers. If sensors are connected to an EMS,
  air temperatures and humidity levels can
  be maintained closer to the setpoints,
  eliminating waste due to overshooting.

• Duty Cycling—Peak demand can be
  controlled by shutting off certain motors,
fans, pumps, and other HVAC equipment
for short periods of time (10 to 30 min-
utes as necessary). Short system inter-
ruptions generally have a minimal effect
on space temperature, so peak demand
charges can be reduced considerably.

Optimal Start and Stop—In this version
of night setback, heating and cooling
setpoints are controlled not by a time
clock, but by outside air temperatures.
This strategy can be used in conjunction
with, or even in place of, night setback.

Economic /Enthalpy Control—The EMS
can be used to track outside air  temp-
erature and relative humidity and open
outside air dampers when use of outside
air would be beneficial. For example,
when cooling is needed during the sum-
mer and the outside temperature drops
below 65 degrees, the EMS can open the
dampers to allow outside air to mix with
warm return air, thereby reducing the
load on the cooling system. Enthalpy
controls measure temperature and hu-
midity (that is, the total heat content) of
outside air and open outside  air dampers
          Controls Prevent Conflict
In some buildings, the heating and cooling sys-
tems (and sometimes the perimeter and interior
systems as well) work against each other.  For
example, if the heating and cooling systems are
not controlled by the same thermostat, the heating
system may be overheating the space while the
cooling system is operating at a high capacity to
remove that heat. You can resolve this situation by
installing controls that operate both systems to-
gether. These controls can then switch between
heating and cooling as needed.
                    [HtW/SJUtBWBKtbHW  2-7

              Meters Help Save Energy
   Installing meters will help you determine where
   energy is being wasted in your building systems.
   Meters should be installed on a system when the
   annual cost of energy exceeds five times the cost
   of the meter. They can point out conditions that
   can be corrected with little or no capital investment
   but result in energy savings of approximately 5 to
   15 percent.

   Benefits of Metering
   •  Identifies opportunities for energy-efficiency
   •  Ensures consistent system operations.
   •  Provides comparisons with previous or similar
   • Allocates energy costs to various cost centers.
   Submetering To Document Energy Savings
   Submetering enables you to evaluate the energy
   savings that can result from implementing various
   energy-saving options. Evaluating these savings
   will support your efforts to build organizational
   support for additional  profitable investments in
   energy efficiency. In addition, once purchased, a
   meter can be used in all  energy conservation
   projects to continue to evaluate their contribu-
   Selecting a Meter
   Many different types of electric meters are avail-
   able. The appropriate type depends on the func-
   tions required. Newer meters use electronic tech-
   nology and are capable of taking a variety of
   measurements, including cumulative energy con-
   sumption, instantaneous demand, volts, amperes,
   power factors, and harmonics. They can also inter-
   face with energy management systems.
   if this level is below the total heat con-
   tent of the return air.

   Chilled Water Setpoint—The tempera-
   ture setpoint of chilled water can be
   adjusted based on part-load conditions.
   When the setpoint is raised to the tem-
   perature necessary for the cooling load,
   Air-Side Systems
   Air-side systems should be balanced when you
   notice any  of the following conditions:
   • A number of occupant complaints about tem-
     perature in the building.
   • Hot or cold spaces in the building.
   • The fan is unable to overcome the static pres-
     sure in the system or meet load requirements.
     In  such  cases,  check the following first and
     make any necessary repairs before balancing:
     — Clogged filter.
     — Frozen dampers.
     — Inoperable variable air volume boxes.
   The system  should be balanced by a qualified
   testing and balancing firm.
   Water-Side Systems
   Water-side systems should be balanced under the
   following conditions:
   • The system is unable to meet temperature or
     pressure requirements in some areas. In such
     cases, check the air system first and make any
     necessary repairs before balancing.
   • The system is modified, for example, by adding
     or deleting a coil or replacing any component
     that requires a substantial drop or increase in
     system pressure (that is, 5 feet of head or more).
   The system  should be balanced by a qualified
   testing and balancing firm.
   the energy consumption of the chiller is
   Note: This strategy will not work on a
   system with variable-speed drives  pro-
   grammed to reduce flow rates for part-
   load conditions.

Testing and Balandng
A properly functioning HVAC system must
be tested and balanced periodically to
eliminate errors that can waste energy
(see box).
                                SKom torn, JULY 1995

A preventive maintenance program is an
important part of the building tune-up.

• Preventive maintenance helps keep you
   aware of the condition of your building's
   systems at all times, thus eliminating
   many problems and equipment failures—
   and resulting downtime—before they

• It is much more cost-effective than cor-
   rective maintenance.

• Without preventive maintenance, equip-
   ment performance can be expected to
   degrade, increasing the frequency and
   magnitude of repairs and shortening
   equipment life.

• Preventive maintenance more than pays
   for itself in terms of building life-cycle
   costs; without it, you pay more for
   energy, repairs, corrective maintenance,
   and equipment replacement.

Building Management
m Keep an operations and maintenance log
   for major equipment and update it regu-
   larly to help identify opportunities for
   ongoing tune-ups.

• Keep a daily log of temperature and
   pressure levels as a way to determine
   when tubes, nozzles, and heat exchange
   areas need to be cleaned or adjusted.

• If you have an energy management
   system, be sure that system program-
   ming follows the designed sequence of
The box on Preventive Maintenance Sav-
ings on this page shows the types of energy
savings that can result from two illustra-
,tive preventive maintenance actions.
      •    Prtventiw Maintenance Savings
  The following  examples are based on a 25-
  horsepower, 20,000-cfm {cubic feet per minute)
  air-Handling unit with 4-inch water column static
  pressure. The system operates 10 hours a day,
  5.5 days per week, 52 weeks a year.
  Replacing Filters
  Replacing filters can save energy and  improve
  indoor air quality. Pre-fliters are replaced every
  2 to 4 weeks, depending on conditions, and final
  filters are cleaned or replaced every 10 to
  16 months, depending on the pre-filter's quality.
  For the example system, 10 pro-filters (24" x 24"
  X 2", 30 percent efficient for 40 square feet at
  $4.47 each) cost $44.70 and 10 final filters (24" x
  24° x 11.5", 65 percent efficient for 40 square feet
  at $28.95 each) cost $289.50. Labor costs $120
  :per year {$20 per hour x 0.5 hours x 12 times per
  year). The total installed cost of the filters is $946
  per year.   .      ^
  .Air-side energy consumption savings are $1,614
  per year; internal rate of return is 71 percent.
  Calibrating Thermostats
  Thermostats should be calibrated every 6 months.
  A thermostat that varies by 1 degree above the
  heating setpoint relates to an increase of approxi-
  mately 3 percent in energy costs; 1 degree below
  the cooling  setpoint relates to an  increase of
  approximately 5 percent in energy costs.
  For the example system, the heating and cooling
  seasons are' 6! months each. Yearly energy con-
  sumption is 112,100kilowatthoursperyear. Labor
  costs $120 per year {$30 per hour.x 2 hours X
  2 times per year). -      :
  : Air-side energy consumption savings are $364 per
  .year; internal rate of,return is 170 percent.

• A preventive maintenance program
  extends equipment life (which correlates
  directly to capital costs), increases the
  reliability of equipment and systems,
  reduces downtime significantly, and
  saves energy.

                              This page intentionally left blank.
2-10  Eesy SH* tow Maim                                                             Sicom Bum, JULY 1995

Your building staff should fully understand
and be well-trained on the operation of all
building systems. Consider appointing a
training coordinator to ensure that:

• The entire staff (all shifts) receives
  adequate training on new procedures
  related to the preventive maintenance

• The entire staff (all shifts) receives
  adequate training on new equipment.
  Vendors should always provide training
  on new equipment.

• The entire staff (all shifts) receives
  periodic training to keep them up to date
  on new procedures and equipment.

• New employees are trained on the func-
  tions, operating routine, and mainte-
  nance procedures for each piece of
  equipment in their areas of responsibil-
  ity. In addition, new employees should
  understand operations and maintenance
  procedures for all building systems.
The training coordinator should maintain a
log that outlines the training required for
each type of equipment, a log that keeps
track of what equipment each person has
been trained on, and training schedules.
The training coordinator should review this
log regularly to ensure that all personnel
have been properly trained.
To implement an effective preventive
maintenance program, the staff must be an
integral part of that program and under-
stand all aspects of the program. A compre-
hensive training program on each type of
equipment in each system includes the

• System fundamentals.
• How to use reference materials (opera-
  tions and maintenance manuals, as-built
  drawings, and so forth).

• Functions, operational and control
  sequences, and maintenance proce-
  dures—including acceptable tolerances
  for system adjustments, which are cru-
  cial for maximum energy-efficiency

• Warranty information.

• Service guidelines, including how to deal
  with unexpected conditions and emer-
The staff should be trained to keep the goal
of maximum energy efficiency in mind at
all times. A well-trained and responsive
staff will ensure maximum energy savings.
If the building has an energy management
system, training is essential for any staff
member who will be working with that
system. This training should include the

• Computer and programming fundamen-

• How to operate the system.

• Programming in the system's language.

• System maintenance.

• Performing all system functions.
The staff should also be trained to be aware
of indoor air quality issues. The goal is to
obtain maximum energy efficiency while
maintaining good indoor air quality stan-
dards. Appendix B provides more  informa-
tion on indoor air quality issues and how to
implement air quality standards for your
SKom EDITION, Mr 1995
                      EwitttSmBtiiumMutw  2-1

                              This page intentionally left blank.
2-12  [HBtsrSmBiuKMaim                                                              SiamfmoH. JULY 1995

After you complete the Building Tune-Up
Survey and analyze the results, you will
have a good idea of the types of tune-ups
that will be profitable in your building,
making it more energy efficient and also
reducing loads. This section contains some
points to consider as you plan the tune-ups
and implement a preventive maintenance

• Analyze your utility bills (see box) to help
  identify unusual patterns in energy
  consumption that may indicate the need
  for tune-ups.

• Organize the tune-ups according to
  the people needed to do the work. For
  example, an HVAC  mechanic and a
  controls technician are needed for the
  air-side tune-ups in the equipment room.

• Complete all other tune-ups before
  balancing air-side and water-side sys-
  tems. The other tune-ups may make
  balancing unnecessary. If balancing is
  still required, a better-tuned system will
  allow for more precise balancing.

• Be certain that all tune-ups related to a
  particular stage of the ENERGY STAR
  Buildings Program are done before
  determining the upgrades to  implement
  in that  stage.

• If your  facility comprises more than one
  building, begin tune-ups in the building
  with the highest energy costs.

• Most tune-ups will not disturb occupants.
  Schedule tune-ups that may disturb
  occupants for hours when the building is

• Appoint preventive maintenance and
  training coordinators. These positions
  can be filled by the same person.
Develop a preventive maintenance log
and update it regularly. The log should

—Preventive maintenance procedures for
  each type of equipment (what work is
  to be done and how often it should be

—Preventive maintenance records for
  each piece of equipment to indicate
  work done, when, and by whom.

The preventive maintenance coordinator
should review the log regularly to ensure
             Utility Bill Analysis
When you chart costs from your utility bills while
conducting the Building Tune-Up Survey, you can
gain some helpful insights into energy consump-
tion in your building. The following list contains
some areas to analyze.
1. Is energy consumption higher in the spring or
  fall than the winter or summer months? This
  could indicate a heating and cooling problem.
2. Are there significant peaks in any month or
  months? If so, what were the weather condi-
  tions? For example, if the weather was not
  unusually hot, but you notice a major increase
  in  consumption in a summer month, it could
  indicate that all chillers were operating but
  were not needed or perhaps that some equip-
  ment was unnecessarily operating 24 hours a
3. Is energy consumption in any one period con-
  sistently and unexpectedly higher than the oth-
  ers? For example, if October usage is always
  high, central heating and central cooling may
  be running simultaneously.
You can also look at your utility bills to see when
maximum  demand charges are incurred.  If, for
example, maximum demand occurred in August
and the weather was not unusually hot, there
could be problems with equipment or operations.

   that the preventive maintenance
   program is running smoothly.
   Note: Consider buying a computer soft-
   ware package for use in setting up and
   tracking your preventive maintenance

•  Consider establishing a bonus system to
   reward building management personnel
   for sustained building efficiency.

•  The preventive maintenance coordinator
   should periodically inspect equipment to
   ensure that proper maintenance proce-
   dures are being followed.
It is important to have a complete set of
operations and maintenance documenta-
tion, including the following:

•  All operations and maintenance manuals
   for each type of equipment.

•  Up-to-date versions of the building
   drawings  (architectural, mechanical, and

•  A complete set of specifications, including
   addenda and all approved changes.

•  Up-to-date versions of as-built drawings
   for each system.

•  Air and water balancing reports.

•  All energy management system manuals.
Each staff member should be able to extract
information  on the building and its systems
from any of these sources.
              Asbestos Concerns
When doing any cleaning or maintenance in build-
ings more  than 20 years old, be aware of the
possible presence of asbestos-containing materi-
als, particularly in  ductwork and boiler and me-
chanical rooms. While intact and undisturbed
asbestos materials do not  pose a health risk,
damaged or disturbed asbestos materials can
release asbestos fibers into the air and pose a
health risk, particularly for service and mainte-
nance workers. However, removing asbestos ma-
terials is often not a building owner's best course
of action; instead, a proactive management pro-
gram is recommended.
A number of Federal standards and regulations
govern asbestos exposure. For guidance, building
owners and managers should be familiar with two
EPA documents: Managing Asbestos in Place (the
"Green Book") and  Guidance for Controlling
Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings (the
"Purple Book"). To obtain these publications or
other materials related to asbestos or to get addi-
tional information on technical issues, call or write
the Environmental  Assistance Division, Office of
Toxic Substances, U.S. EPA (TS-799), 401 M Street
SW, Washington, D.C. 20460 (202-554-1404).
Many States and localities also have established
standards and regulations related to asbestos.
EPA's Directory of State Indoor Air Contacts, avail-
able from the Public Information Center, U.S. EPA
(PM-211B), 401 M Street SW, Washington, D.C.
20460 (202-260-2080), can help you find the
appropriate contact.
2-14  MM SwBuiwm MANUAL

The following pages contain checklists that
you can use as you plan your building tune-
up and preventive maintenance programs.
The tune-up checklist is organized by area
of concentration, while  separate preventive
maintenance checklists are included for
actions that should be performed daily,
weekly, monthly, every 6 months, and
Note: Some of the actions listed may not
apply to your building or some of its sys-
tems. Refer to your survey results and notes
when considering each item on the check-

When performing any tune-up or preven-
tive maintenance activity, it is important to
follow manufacturers' specifications for
service, maintenance, and replacement
parts. Failure to do so may void warranties
and could damage equipment or cause
improper equipment operation.
                                                                 torn Sw BUILDINGS MANUAL 2-15

     Building  Tune-Up Actions —  Building  Management
       _Keep anqperations and maintenance log_£or^majo£_jequipment and^upda/te
         it regularly. A daily log of  temperature and pressure levels will help
         indicate when tubes, nozzles, and heat-exchange areas need to  be
         cleaned or adjusted.
     	  If you have an energy management system,  be sure that system program-
         ming follows the designed sequence of operations.


     Building  Tune-Up Actions —  Building  Envelope
     	  Install  weatherstripping,  caulking, and seals on doors, windows,
         penetrations, and other openings.
     	  Replace  worn weatherstripping and  missing putty or caulking around
         door and window frames.
     	  Seal openings in walls for piping,  electrical conduit,  through-wall
         units,  and so forth.
         Replace  or repair latches on  doors  that do not close tightly. Adjust
         uneven doors.
         Seal exterior joints such as  foundation-to-wall.
         Maintain adequate insulation  in walls, ceilings,  and roofing.
         Replace  wet insulation.

               Building Tune-Up Actions  — Lighting  Systems
               	  Implement Green Lights upgrades.
                   Adjust schedules  so  that lights are on only  when necessary.

                   Take advantage of natural lighting where possible.
                	   Schedule cleaning tasks for daylight hours.  If this is not possible.
                    instruct the custodial staff to use only necessary lighting,  one room

                    at a time,  and  to turn lights out after a room is cleaned.
                   Clean lamps,  luminaries, and interior surfaces of lighting fixtures

                   on a regular  schedule.
              "Building Tune-tip  Actions — 0"ffice  Equipment
               OpeirEition~  "~~~  •   ~~~»~™™~™      ™™»™~  _,,,,™™~.    -
                    Purchase  ENERGY  STAR computers, printers,  fax machines, and copiers

                    when you  need to buy new equipment.
                    Adjust schedules so that office equipment is on only when necessary.

                    Install timing devices on equipment whenever possible.
SKom torn, JULY 1995
EmrSmBwwesMaiw  2-17

     Building Tune-Up Actions — Interior Space
     	  Locate temperature and humidity sensing  devices away from drafts,
         supply air diffusers,  outside walls,  and direct sunlight, where this
         can be done with minimal reconstruction and rewiring. Consider
         purchasing wireless temperature sensors.
         Install locks on temperature and humidity sensing devices in areas
         where tampering is a problem.
        lww™~,,..™  v~~~~..™,.~. ~-     ~™~~-~™~~..~,         ,.,*.™  ~™™.~~™.™™.~,,™~™*..™™.t.,.™™,,*,*,	~™.,™w..,,......~-~~^  , -s
        _CalJ.brate temperature  and humidity sensing devices.
         Adjust temperature and humidity setpoints within comfort zones
         seasonally—higher in  summer and lower in winter.
         Be sure that radiators and convectors are unobstructed and that air
         is flowing freely.
         Close off and seal unused areas and  reduce heating and cooling in
         little-used areas.

     Building Tune-Up Actions — HVAC  Equipment
         at design values.
     __^JUse jiightjsetback  temperatures during unoccupied hours
    	  Install meters where cost-ef^       _to_mpm^p^trpuble^yreas and
         document energy savings.
     	  Adjust controls to prevent simultaneous operation of heating and
     	  Operate one boiler, chiller, or compressor at 90 percent capacity
         instead of  two at  45 percent capacity.

Building  Tune-Up  Actions  — Air-Side  Equipment
	 _Clean all system components  (for example,  ducts, humidifiers,
     condenser coil  faces,  fan blades,  and motors) regularly.
_^  Clean JDT replace filters  £egularly.
 	  Insulate supply ductwork,  particularly where ducts run through
     unconditioned space).
 	  Be sure that  dampers are tightly closed and repair dampers with loose
     or frozen linkages.
     Recalibrate controls and be sure that they operate as specified in
     the sequence of operation.
     Replace inaccurate gauges and thermometers.
     Replace worn belts and bearings on fans  and motors.
     Maintain proper  shaft alignment on motors  to  reduce noise and
     Keep linkages and bearings  lubricated.
     Maintain tight seals  on dampers  and  air-handling equipment.
     Be sure that pneumatic  lines  are not leaking and that water never
     enters the pneumatic  lines.
     Be sure that the compressed air  system  is maintained and operating
                                                      [NCItetSJUlBllllDKMWUl  2-19

     Building Tune-Up Actions — Water-Side  Equipment
         packet glands,  valves,  rings, orifices, gaskets, couplings,  and
     	  Insulate pipes and tanks.
     	  Recalibrate controls and be sure that they operate as specified in
         the sequence of operation.
     	  Clean or replace strainer screens in pumping systems periodically.
     	  Be sure that air separators  are operating properly and that  no air
         is entering the system.
         Isolate offline boilers and  chillers.
         Reduce domestic hot water temperature setpoints to the minimum
         required  (for example,  by reducing a ISO-degree setpoint to
         120 degrees).
         Flush water systems periodically.
         Use proper water treatment procedures to reduce fouling of  transfer
         surfaces and the potential  for biological growth. Check cooling
         tower bleed-off periodically to ensure that water and chemicals are
         not being wasted.
         Replace inaccurate gauges  and thermometers.
         Clean coils, chillers,  tubes,  tanks,  drain pans,  heat-exchange
         surfaces,  and boilers or furnaces  regularly.
2-20  fmitsr Srat BUIWK MANUAL

                                                                                                27—toWS JUNtUfCHKKUSlS
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Daily Preventive Maintenance Checklist
All Systems Chiller
	 Inspect generally. Look at 	 Check oil level.
gauges to ensure that the Check oil pressure.
equipment is operating 	 Check operating pressures.
normally, perform a visual Cooling Tower
inspection for obvious _ check water level
problems such as leaks , and _, . _„ , , .
I * Check PH value of water.
check for unusual noises .
: Lint Screens
	 Clean or replace.
^ ~ , , v-~~~.« '-s^^^^^^^^^^^.-^^^^^v*™™™^,™^™*.,.^™™™™^^^ , ,™ ,r

— — — — 	 ___. 	 -


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1 	 ™™™_™™» — „ 	 	 ™___ 	

JULY 1995


     Weekly  Preventive  Maintenance  Checklist
    __Air Compressor                 ...........
     Equipment Room .................................    Pumps
          Check, re frigera0tm,leyel.. ............................      Water., Treatment
                                                  ,Clean,,.screens.,,,..,s.trainers—	_t.,
SKONDEomoH, JIM 1995

                                                                         2.7—Bums 7i«HKtff«z/OT
                 Monthly  Preventive  Maintenance  Checklist

                 Air Compressor                         Motors

                  ^           ^^ ____      ^      ^ ^	  ^Lubricate bearings.

                 	  Clean screens, strainers, 		_Check belt tension and

                     and tanks.                             alignment.

                 Controls                                	  Ch12?* P*1 level • _

                 	  Test protective devices.          Pumps

                 Cooling Tower                           	  Lubricate bearings.

                 __  Lubricate bearings.                —Check oil level.

                	 mCheck. ^^jca£^QL,8E§S§H£S§^™™™,™™™.	,™_.™,e^.	____™™™™™™_™™	„„„

                _Dampers	_______________._____J^^               	
                               ,     .                        Check tension and alignment
                                                            of compressor belts.
                			Check	for,	effeetiy.e.....ppera-	
                                                        	  Lubricate bearings.
                     tipn.     	_					
                                                        	  Check PH value of water.
                                                        	  Check compressor rotation and
                                                       Drain Pans
                 	  Check for blade balance.

                 Humidifiers and  Dehumidifiers           —

                 	  Clean strainers and tanks.        Pre-Filters

                 _  Clean sprays.                      —  clean or replace.

                 	  Check for spray erosion.
EHmSJUtBuiUHHKMwiiL 2-23

     6-Month  Preventive  Maintenance Checklist
     Air Compressor                        Dampers
     	  Clean or replace filters.          	  Check alignment.
     Coils                                  	  Check controls.
     	  Remove dust.                     Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers
     	  Check drainage.                    	  Check controls.
     	  Pump down.                        Motors
     Controls                               	  Check for overheating.
     	  Test freeze protection on          	  Remove dust.
         all equipment.                   Operating Schedules
     Chiller                                	  Analyze to ensure equipment is
     	  Check drainage.                        running only when needed.
     	  Pump down.                        Pumps
     	  Check compressor shaft            	  Check for overheating.
         alignment.                         	  Test standby equipment.
     Cooling Tower                         Steam and Water Piping
     —  Clean sprays.                      	  Blow out drip  pockets and
     	  Check for spray erosion.               eliminators.
     Outdoor Air Intake Grills and          	  Check drainage.                 |j
     Screens                                                                   i
     	  Clean or replace.                                                     I
2-24  [HatSfSratBmmsMma.
, JULY 1995

                                                                                    2.7—Bums lUHtUPCHKWSJS
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— — — —



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Annual Preventive Maintenance Checklist
Air Compressor Dampers
j 	 Lubricate bearings. 	 Lubricate bearings.
	 Clean air intake. 	 Check seals for leaks.
	 Check oil chambers . Humidifiers and Dehumidif iers
	 Check alignment. 	 Check thoroughly for leaks.
	 Check controls. Filters and Final Filters
	 Pressure test. 	 Clean or replace.
	 Check valves and rings for Pumps
j wear and leaks. 	 Check alignment.
Air Washer 	 Check oil chambers .
I 	 Check thoroughly for leaks. 	 Check seals.
| Coils Steam and Water Piping
! 	 Check thoroughly for leaks. 	 Check strainers and tanks.
Cooling Tower 	 Check thoroughly for leaks.
I 	 Check thoroughly for leaks . 	 Check traps .
Motors Fans
— Check rotation. 	 Check shaft alignment.

~- 	 __ 	 _ — ™___™m»__™,™_ 	 . 	 	 	 -..

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Scam &m, MY 1995

                              This page intentionally left blank.
2-26  EHBtttSJuBuiimsMmi.                                                             SKOHD[DtnoH,Mrl995

Stage 3. Load Reductions

                 Stage 3:
                 Load Redwtions
                 In Stage 3 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program,
                 you will be reducing the energy loads in your
                 building. By participating in the Green Lights
                 Program and purchasing ENERGY STAR office
                 equipment, you may already have implemented
                 some highly profitable load reductions such as
                 energy-efficient lighting. However, load reductions
                 also include upgrades to your building's exterior
                 systems—its windows and roofs. Window upgrades
                 are profitable for application to many office
                 buildings. They save energy, improve building
                 appearance, and increase occupant comfort and
                 productivity. Roofing upgrades lessen the overall
                 cost of a new or recovered roof by improving energy

                 This chapter contains the following sections:
                 3.1   Introduction
                 3.2   Window Films
                 3.3   Roofing Upgrades
                                                ENERGY STAR BUILDINGS MANUAI  3-1

                                   This page intentionally left blank.
3-2  ENERGY STAR BUILDINGS MANUAI                                                                         SECOND EDITION, JULY 1995

Thus far in the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program, you have taken three major steps
toward reducing building energy loads:

• EPA Green Lights lighting upgrades.

• Building tune-up and preventive mainte-
  nance actions.

• ENERGY STAR office equipment purchases
  (see Chapter 6).
The reduced loads achieved through these
upgrades can make the subsequent HVAC
system upgrades in Stages 4 and 5 even
more profitable by creating the opportunity
to downsize (that is, reduce the size and
capacity of equipment—see Chapters 4
and 5) those systems to match the reduced
In this stage of the program, by considering
the building's exterior "systems," that is,
windows and roofs, you should be able to
find excellent opportunities for further
energy savings, additional downsizing, and
even more profits.

Best Opportunities
To save energy and decrease heating and
cooling loads, consider the following build-
ing exterior upgrades:

• Window films that limit the amount of
  solar heat passing through windows and
  the amount of internal heat escaping
  through windows.

• Reflective roof coverings that reflect
  summer heat away from the building.

• Additional roofing insulation that will
  keep heat out during the summer and
  keep heat in during the winter.
  A building in the northeastern United States has
  , the following attributes:
  •  Gross area = 30,650 sq. ft.       ,  •
  •  Roof area = 7,860 sq.ft.
  •  Four floors
  •  Glass to exterior wall ratio = 40 percent
  The owner of this building implemented Green
  Lights upgrades and purchased ENERGY STAR office
  equipment as old equipment was scheduled for
  The building, located in an industrial park, re-
  ceives direct sunlight throughout most of the day,
  and occupants are complaining about the added
  heat from the sunlight and the glare on computer
  screens. In addition, occupants are using window
  ' ledges to store books and papers, which is making
  the building look bad from the outside. Thus the
  owner decided to install window films.
  The building's roof was scheduled for replace-
  : rrient, so the owner decided to upgrade insulation
  as part of the replacement.
  These combined upgrades provided the following
  "changes in'energy consumption:
 Lighting (watts/sq. ft.)
 Equipment (watts/sq. ft.)
. Shading coefficient
i Insulatipn R-ValCie    -
"The upgrades reduced total energy consumption
" in this building by 43 percent, providing $43,957
 per year in total energy savings with an internal
^'rate of ^return fof 91 percent.
You can implement building exterior up-
grades individually, or combine them to
provide maximum savings. As you develop
your strategy:

• Always consider window films, which
  provide the best  opportunity for low-cost
  fenestration upgrades.
                        ENERGY STAR BUILDINGS MANUAL  3-3

m If the roof on your building is in need of
  replacement, increase the R-value1 of the
  original insulation or add a reflective roof
  covering as part of the replacement.

• If the roof needs to be recovered, use a
  reflective roof covering.

• If your building is a low-rise building
  with a large roof area, consider a roofing
  upgrade (added insulation in northern
  climates, reflective coverings in south-
  ern), even if the roof does not need re-
  placement or recovering.

Window and Roofing Survey
The Window and  Roofing Survey is an
essential first step in Stage 3 of the ENERGY
1 R-value measures the thermal resistance of insula-
 tion. A higher R-value means more resistance to
 heat transfer.
STAR Buildings Program. This survey will
familiarize you with the condition of your
building's exterior shell and enable you to
determine if window and roofing upgrades
can be profitable in  your building. You will
be inspecting your windows and roof and
then answering some basic questions about

The survey contains questions that will
help you to determine the most profitable
upgrades and to compile the information
needed to calculate their economic benefits,
prepare implementation plans, and manage

To complete the survey, you will  need to
visually inspect your building's windows,
roofing, and insulation. You will also need
to analyze some existing information and
perform a few simple calculations.  The
Window and Roofing Survey forms begin on
page A-19.
                            SECOND EDITION, JULY 1995

Window films save energy by reducing heat
loss and heat transfer through windows
(Figure 3.2-1), by allowing better balance
in heating and cooling systems, and by
providing opportunities for HVAC system
downsizing. These thin layers of polyester,
metallic coatings, and adhesives limit both
the amount of solar heat passing through
windows and the amount of internal heat
escaping through windows. They can be
applied directly to the interior surfaces of
all types of glass and generally last from
7 to 12 years.
In the heating season, more heat escapes
from a window than comes in from the sun
(on a 24-hour basis), the extent depending
on the local climate. Window films can help
reduce this costly heat loss by reflecting
indoor radiant heat back into the room. In
the cooling season, even when drapes and
blinds are  closed, most of the  sun's heat
passes through the glass into the room.
Window films stop the heat of the sun at
the window.
      Figure 3.2-1. What Window Films Do
    In summer, keep
    61 to 80 percent
    of the sun's heat
     from entering.
                               Visible sunlight
                          In winter, keep
                          19 to 44 percent
                          of inside heat
                          from escaping.
Most of the energy savings from window
films are a result of solar heat rejection,
which is measured by the window's shading
coefficient1. The remaining savings are a
result of reduced heat transfer, measured
in the window's U-value2.
Note: The shading coefficient and U-value of
your windows should be in the window
manufacturer's data with the building's as-
built drawings or specifications. If they are
not, a manufacturer's representative should
be able to determine these values.
Window films provide additional benefits by
doing the following:

• Increasing productivity by providing a
  more comfortable environment.

• Reducing glare caused by sunlight on
  computer screens.

• Increasing the value of the building by
  improving its appearance and providing
  architectural unity and distinction to

• Reducing fading  of carpets, furniture,
  and other fabrics by filtering out harmful
  ultraviolet rays.

• Increasing privacy by restricting visibil-
  ity from the outside.
1 Shading coefficient is a ratio comparing, under the
 same conditions, solar heat gain through a window
 system to solar heat gain through a single pane of
 clear glass. A lower shading coefficient means less
 heat gain through the window.
2 U-value measures a window's rate of heat conduc-
 tivity, independent of solar radiation. It is a
 measure of the heat transfer that occurs between
 the inner and outer surfaces of the window. A lower
 U-value means better insulation is provided by the
 window. Because U-values increase greatly with
 greater temperature differences, it is important to
 use glass with a U-value appropriate for conditions
 in your area.
                        ENERGY STAR BUILDINGS MANUAL  3-5

Sm3—Low RwaiONS
          Why Window Films Save Energy
  Window films reduce the amount of radiation
  passing through glass (Figure 3.2-2). A pane of
  clear glass 1/8-inch thick transmits about 88 per-
  cent of the solar radiation that strikes it, in approxi-
  mately equal parts of visible daylight and radiated
  heat. A window film on the pane reduces the
  transmitted energy by approximately 50 percent.
  Window films also reduce heat loss in winter and
  heat gain in summer. Shading coefficients can go
  from 0.94 to as little as 0.23 and  U-values from
  between 1.09 and 1.03 to less than 0.5, depend-
  ing on your area of the country (Figure 3.2-3).
   Figure 3.2-2. Films Block Substantially More
        Solar Radiation Than Clear Glass
             1/8" Clear
            Glass Only
1/8" Clear Glass with
Typical Window Film
     E2 Visible Daylight
  Invisible (IR + UV)
  Source: E Source, Inc.
• Protecting employees and property from
  potential harm from shattered glass.

£ronom/c Benefits
The greatest opportunity to profit from win-
dow upgrades is brought about by the fact
that window films result in lower utility bill
demand charges. Additional energy and
capital cost savings can be achieved
through downsizing, which may be possible
because of reduced loads. However, it is
important to remember that window films
increase profits through means other than
energy savings. Profits can be realized
through factors such as increased worker
                            Figure 3.2-3. Window Films Reduce
                          Effective U-Value and Shading Coefficient


HI m
                                 U-Value     Shading Coefficient
                                               (single pane)
                                                O Without Window Film  H With Window Film
                        Source: ASHRAE.
productivity, increased property value, im-
proved building marketability, and longer
lifetimes for furniture and other fabrics.
For example, the owner of a building in
Washington, B.C., with a variable air
volume inlet vane HVAC system and
single-pane windows installed window
films that reduced the shading coefficient
from 0.75 to 0.25. This upgrade reduced
energy consumption by 1.2 percent and
reduced energy costs by 3.3 percent. The
internal rate of return on the window film
investment alone was negligible. However,
because of the reduced loads realized from
these energy savings, the building owner
was  able to install a larger pulley on the
HVAC system's fan (see Section 4.1.1 for
more information on fan downsizing). The
addition of this upgrade provided total
reductions in energy consumption of 4.7
percent and total energy cost reductions of
9.5 percent. The combined internal rate of
return was 23.9 percent.
You  can determine if window films can be
profitable for your building by applying the
following criteria. The more criteria your
building meets, the more  profitable window
films can be.

• Window space on the building is more
  than 25  percent of the building's surface
                                                   SECOND EDITION, Juir 1995

                                                                          3.2—WINDOW FILMS
m The building is in a sunny location (that
  is, there is little natural shade).

• Windows on the south and west sides of
  the building receive direct sunlight.

• Windows have single-pane glass. Single-
  pane glass is found in 68 percent of the
  commercial space and 52 percent of the
  office space in the United States. (Note,
  however, that even buildings with better-
  insulated double-pane windows may
  profit from window films.)

• Windows have no existing tint, color, or
  reflective coating.

• The building is in an area of the country
  that has a great number of sunny days.

• Fan systems and cooling equipment are
  downsized due to peak cooling load

Pro/ecf Management

m If existing windows are of poor quality
  (for example, they contain single-pane
  glass or are prone to leakage), you should
  consider options such as glass replace-
  ment, double glazing, or full window
  replacement. These options are more
  expensive than window films.

• It may be more cost-effective to install
  window films only on the south and west
  sides of the building in places where sun
  exposure is more significant.

• Typical window films cost between $1.35
  and $3.00 per square foot, installed. Of
  that, 80 to 90 percent is for labor.

• Window films must be installed properly.
  Improperly installed films can bubble,
  crack, peel off, or even cause glass to
  crack. Most manufacturers guarantee
  films and installation for 5 to 10 years.

• Have several manufacturers install
  sample films on one or two windows to
  compare their look and effectiveness and
  to obtain feedback from building occu-
  pants. Films look different when on the
  glass, and their look on the glass depends
  on the window type.

• Installation should not disrupt building
  operations. However, if existing films
  must be removed, it must be done when
  the building is unoccupied.

• Always follow the manufacturer's instruc-
  tions for cleaning and maintaining win-
  dow films.

• Window films deteriorate over time. As
  soon as you notice that the film is flaking
  or peeling, it should be replaced.

• Some utilities offer rebates for installing
  window films.

Preparing Spec/fi caffons
In consultation with an engineer or manu-
facturer, choose the window film that is
most appropriate for your building. The
three  general categories of window films,
shown in Figure 3.2-4, are described below.
Scratch-resistance and shatter-resistance
are common on  all three.

Clear or Dyed Nonreflective. Clear non-
reflective films are often used solely for
safety, security, or fade control. Dyes or
colored adhesive coatings can be added
where glare control and privacy are desired.
In either case, energy savings are minimal
because this type of film is nonreflective.

Reflective Without Color. Clear polyester
film is laminated to a second layer of metal-
lized polyester to protect the metallized
surface from exposure to corrosives. While
referred to as reflective without color, they
can appear to be colored (typically silver,
gray, or bronze) because the metal itself is
visible through the clear layers.

Dyed Reflective. The protective layer lami-
nated over the metallic surface is a dyed
film that gives a colored reflection to that
side of the product (usually the exterior).
For colored reflection visible from either di-
rection, another dyed layer can be added to
the film side of the original metallic layer.
                       ENERGY STAR BUILDINGS MANUAL  3-7

      Figure 3.2-4. Types of Window Films
   A. Clear or Dyed Nonreflective

         Release Liner -
                       - — Polyester Film

                         — SR Coating
   B. Reflective Without Color

          Release Liner —
          Polyester Film —
       (Clear or UV Inhibitors)
          Polyester Film  —
        (Clear or Metalized
                           — SR Coating
  C. Dyed Reflective
       Release Liner —
      Polyester Film
    (Dyed or UV Inhibitors)
        Polyester Film -
      (Clear or Metalized
 Polyester Film
                         — SR Coating
When working with the engineer or manu-
facturer to decide on the product for your
building, use the following specifications:

•  Solar Heat Reflection and Absorption
   Control. Choose a film with the lowest
   possible shading coefficient. Typical
   shading coefficients range between 0.23
   and 0.94, where 0.23 is the most reflec-
   tive, usually the darkest, and generally
   saves  the most energy. However, be sure
   that the film does not reduce lighting

•  Degree of Visible Light Transmission.
   All window films reduce light transmis-
   sion. Therefore, a demonstration installa-
   tion is recommended. This will enable
   you to consider the net light transmission
   of films after application. This is a subjec-
   tive decision to some extent; however, if
   window films restrict light excessively,
   energy costs may increase because of the
   need for additional lighting and heating.
   This could negate the energy savings
   realized from reduced cooling loads.

•  Heat  Transfer. Select the lowest pos-
   sible U-value.

•  Absorption of Ultraviolet Radiation.
   Be sure to attain the maximum protec-
   tion from fading.

•  Color. Choose a color that looks good on
   your building.

•  Shatter Protection and Scratch Resis-
   tance. Shatter protection is inherent in
   all window films. Scratch resistance is an
   option common on most types of window
   film. Be sure yours provides both.
Your choice should be the window film that
provides the greatest energy savings at the
lowest cost; however, you want to be sure
that the  window film selected looks good on
your building and does not interfere with
lighting requirements. If the window films
cause a need for additional lighting, energy
savings may be offset.
                                              SECOND EDITION, Mv 1995

If the flat roof on your building is at or near
the end of its useful life, combining energy-
saving upgrades with the repairs will
enhance the profitability of your invest-
ment. The upgrades will also provide more
opportunities for HVAC system downsizing.
The best opportunities for roofing upgrades

• Improving the R-value of insulation when
  you are replacing the roof

• Using a reflective material if you are
  recovering a roof.
Roof Replacement
If an inspection determines the need for
roof replacement, increasing the R-value of
the original insulation as part of the project
will save energy by restricting heat transfer
through the roof. The insulation in most
older buildings has an R-value between
4 and 10. The American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engi-
neers (ASHRAE) recommends a minimum
R-value of 17. For highest energy efficiency,
ASHRAE recommends an R-value between
25 and 30. As long as you are replacing the
roof, you should upgrade to insulation with
the highest R-value that is profitable for
your building.
          Why Roof Upgrades Save Energy
   Insulation with high R-values provides greater
   resistance against winter heat loss and summer
   heat gain. For example, increasing R-value from
   2 to 16 reduces summer heat gain by 85 percent
   and winter heat loss by 80 percent.
   Light-colored roofs reflect more sunlight than dark
   colored roofs, decreasing summer heat gain. A
   dark roof reflects only 10 to 25 percent of solar
   heat, while light roofs reflect 65 to 75 percent.
Roof Recovering
If an inspection determines the need for
roof recovering, either now or in the future,
you should first look into the feasibility of
increasing the R-value of the insulation as
part of the project. If you cannot profitably
increase the R-value of the insulation, you
can recover the roof with a light-colored
material, whether stone, coating, or
membrane, that will reflect sunlight
(Figure 3.3-1). This upgrade is most
effective on buildings with low R-value
insulation in warm climates. In addition to
saving energy, light-colored roofs typically
last longer than dark-colored roofs.
New coverings, where profitable, offer the
following advantages:

• Retaining the investment in existing

• Minimizing the cost of the retrofit.

• Reducing the amount of debris to dispose.

• Minimizing the risk of water or dust
  damage while the work is being done.
The most cost-effective roofing upgrades  are
those applied to low buildings, which typi-
cally have high roof-to-building envelope
ratios1 (Figure 3.3-2). In a high-rise build-
ing, the roof represents a small percentage
of the above-ground building shell, but in
low-rise buildings, the roof area can easily
be 50 to 75 percent of the above-ground
shell. Thus, the roof can be a major con-
tributor to heat gain and loss, and savings
from roofing upgrades can significantly
reduce the building's total energy bill.
Similarly, roofing upgrades are more effec-
1 A comparison of the square footage of the roof to the
 total square footage on the exterior of the building.
                       ENERGY STAR BUILDINGS MANUAL  3-9

         Figure 3.3-1. What Reflective
              Roof Coverings Do
           Load decreases
tive in areas that experience extreme heat
in summer or extreme cold in winter.

fconofiffc Benefits
Energy savings from roofing upgrades vary
with climate, the R-value of existing insu-
lation, and building type and shape. For
example, buildings with large roof areas in
sunny climates may see significant energy
savings from reflective roof coverings, while
buildings in cold or rainy areas may not
benefit from this type of upgrade at all.
Buildings with large roof areas in cold
climates see greater energy savings from
increasing the R-value of roof insulation.
Table 3.3-1 shows the types of energy
savings, payback, and internal rate of
return that can be achieved from roof
insulation upgrades on two types of office
buildings. For example,  improving insula-
tion from an R-value of 7 to an R-value of
13 for a small office building reduces energy
consumption by 5.3 percent, with an inter-
nal rate of return of 2.87 percent. Similarly,
improving wet or deteriorating insulation
(effective R-value of 0) to an R-value of 26
for a small office building provides energy
savings of 30.3 percent, with an internal
rate of return of 13 percent.
Figure 3.3-2. Low Buildings Have Higher Roof-
to-Building Envelope Ratios Than Tall Buildings
                                                   Roof is 70%
                                                  of building shell
                        Roof is 10%
                        of building shell
                                              Source: U.S. Department of Energy.
                                            Pro/ecf Management
Although replacing a roof is expensive, a
new roof will last longer than a recovered
roof. A new roof also provides the best
opportunity to increase the R-value of

Light-colored materials used in recover-
ing will increase roof life anywhere, and
reduce energy costs especially in warm
climates and on buildings with low
R-value insulation.

To retain its effectiveness, light-colored
reflective material on a roof needs to be
cleaned periodically.

Have a contractor or an independent
inspector use an infrared scan to look for
areas with heat loss or cut a small sec-
tion out of the roof to test insulation for
moisture (wet insulation has lost its
effectiveness). Determining the condition
of the roof will help you decide the type of
work that needs to be done.

Be sure the new roof or covering has a
warranty (typically 7 to 10 years)
and that the contractor is available  to
make any repairs that may be necessary.

Look into applicable building codes
before planning a roofing upgrade or
                           SECOND EDITION, JULY 1995

                                                                                  3.3—KOOflHG 1/rtMfS
            Table 3.3-1. Energy Savings and Internal Rate of Return From Roofing Upgrades
           Building Type and
        Improvement in R-Value
Energy Savings
  Simple Payback
Internal Rate of
Return (percent)
     Small Office Building
         0 (wet or deteriorating) to 7
         7 to 13
         13 to 26
     Large Office Building
          0 (wet or deteriorating) to 7
          7 to 13
          13 to 26
    Source: Simulations run on Department of Energy DOE 2.IE program, with the following assumptions:
    Building Located in Washington, D.C.—Small Office Building: Total floor area: 2,250 sq. ft.; Roof area: 2,172 sq. ft.; System type: RTU
    VAV with gas hot water. Large Office Building: Total floor area: 797,124 sq. ft.; Roof area: 19,340 sq. ft.; System type: VAV with gas
    hot water.
    Roofing Upgrade Costs (1993 Means R&R Cost Data)—None or wet to R-Value of 7: $0.77/sq. ft.; R-Value of 7 to R-Value of 13: SI .237
    sq. ft.; R-Value of 13 to R-Value of 26: $1.82/sq. ft.
    Cost of Energy in Washington, D.C.—Electricity: $0.086 per kilowatthour; Gas: $0.60 per therm.
   replacement. Because of roof weight and
   firefighting concerns, some codes limit
   roofs to no more than two layers, thereby
   restricting the potential for recovering a
   roof. Removing existing layers may not
   be cost-effective.

   Recovering a roof will have minimal
   effect on building occupants. However,
   replacing a roof and adding insulation
   probably will affect people working on the
   top floor. Here you will need to decide
   between providing alternate workspace
   or having the work done during off hours
   or on the weekend.

   The time required for the project depends
   on the square footage of the building and
   the type of upgrade and material used.

   Be aware of indoor air quality consider-
   ations associated with roofing upgrades,
   particularly dust and fibers from removal
   of insulation and dirt and emissions from
   roofing repairs or covering. Appendix B
   contains more information about indoor
   air quality.

   Removal of existing roofing may involve
   disposal of materials with asbestos. In
                such cases, recovering may be a better
             The type of deck on the roof is a factor in
             whether a new roof covering can be at-
             tached to the existing roof or through the
             existing roof to the underlying framework.
             Figure 3.3-3 shows the components of a
             typical roof.
                        Figure 3.3-3. A Typical Roof
                            Has Several Layers
Protecting the roof from tearing off in high-
wind conditions is also a consideration. The
existing roof must be strong enough to
support the new covering as well as antici-
pated loads and should drain well.
Select the R-value for insulation and the
color and the level of reflectance needed in
a roof covering based on the climate in your
area, the  type of building, the type of exist-
ing roof (or the new roof if you are reroof-
ing), and  existing insulation. Figure 3.3-4
shows the effectiveness of various colors of
roof coverings.
It is important to work closely with the
roofing materials manufacturer or repre-
sentative to ensure compatibility among the
various roof system components. Many
manufacturers will assist in preparing the
drawings and specifications.
 Figure 3.3-4. Light-Colored Roof Coverings
      Are More Effective in Reflecting
            Solar Radiation
Gray   Beige

Color of Roof
Source: Du Pont Company.
                           SECOND EDITION, Mr 1995

Stage 4: HVAC Distribution System

In Stage 4 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program,
you will be upgrading the energy efficiency and
cost-effectiveness of the distribution equipment
associated with the HVAC systems in your
building, both air-side and water-side. Each section
in this chapter explains opportunities for profitable
upgrades to a particular type of distribution

This chapter contains the following sections:
4.1  Variable Air Volume System Upgrades
     4.1.1   Fan System Downsizing
     4.1.2   Energy-Efficient Motors
     4.1.3   Variable-Speed Drives
4.2  Water-Side Upgrades

                           This page intentionally left blank.
4-2  ImwSwSmimMuiw                                                        SKOND torn, JULY 1995

As you begin Stage 4 of the ENERGY STAR
Buildings program, you have reduced
overall loads in your building through a
combination of Green Lights upgrades,
building tune-ups, ENERGY STAR office
equipment, and window and roofing up-
grades. As a result, fans and motors on the
variable air volume system's air-handling
units in your building are probably over-
sized—that is, they are no longer required
to operate at previous capacities. Oversized
fans and motors waste energy. They are
rarely required to run at full capacity, but
still use the same amount of energy that
full-capacity operation requires. Therefore,
you can save a significant amount of money
by ensuring that fans and motors operate
efficiently at your newly reduced loads.
               Potential Savings
  Potential Air-Side Energy Savings From
  Downsizing, Smaller Energy-Efficient
  Motors, and Variable-Speed Drives    50-85%
  Internal Rate of Return              25-55%
Figure 4.1-1 shows a typical variable air
volume system and air-handling unit.

Best Opportunities
The best opportunities for variable air
volume system upgrades are:

• Fan system downsizing.

• Energy-efficient motors.
                          Figure 4.1-1. Variable Air Volume System
                         Air-Handling Unit
                                   Return Fan
                           Cooling Coil
                                                   "'•  -A
                                                Supply Air
       , JULY 1995
                       [imSjuiliuvmMuiuu.  4-3

Sm 4—MAC Dsmim Srsrw Unws
• Variable-speed drives.

These upgrades are discussed in the subsec-
tions that follow.
Note: This edition of the ENERGY STAR
BUILDINGS MANUAL deals with variable
  ,fr:;-v,'•':-\'y Illi!$tr0%e$0ving$ :,-,'•     * .,."!'-

  A building in the northeastern United States"has
  - thV.following attributes;         .   ,  :
  • Gross area = 30,650 square feet  ,-','/  '  -.
  :,«v:r:out-fl66rs,:-, ,  ,--'. ".;	  ' '• -,  ,,;'--:''
  :|y \ • sqodre/feet. ';The' air-handtlng; system „ f$ a . . -
  f   myltizone variable volume inlet-vari^ systeni,/
  In Stage 4, the building owner decided to downsize
  ->he 'fan,, install a smaller energy-efficient motor,
  and install  a variable-speed drive sized for the,
Fan downsizing can be profitable in most
buildings and can be implemented sepa-
rately or in combination with energy-
efficient motors and variable-speed drives.

Finding the Oversized fans
You can determine if variable air volume
system fans are oversized by measuring the
amperage, checking vanes and dampers, or
measuring static pressure. These methods
are described below.

Measuring Amperage
1. When the variable air volume system is
  operating at its maximum level (for ex-
  ample, on a hot summer day), use an
  ammeter to measure the amperage of the
  fan motor (see Figure 4.1.1-1).

2. Look at the motor's nameplate to find its
  full-load amperage.

3. Compare the full-load amperage to the
  measured amperage. If the measured
  amperage is 25 percent or more lower
  than the full-load amperage, the motor is

Chetking Vanes and Dampers
When the variable air volume system is
operating at its maximum level (for
example, on a hot summer day), measure
the position of the vanes or dampers. The
position can be found  on the actuator's
pressure gauge, or (if there is one) on the
actuator's pilot positioner (Figure 4.1.1-1).
If you have an energy management system,
the position also may be listed on the
computer screen or a printout.
If the vanes or dampers are closed more
than 20 percent, the fan is oversized.
Measuring Statie Pressure
1. When the variable air volume system is
  operating at its maximum level (for
  example, on a hot summer day), the
  inlet vanes or dampers probably are
  already open to 100 percent of their
  design value. If they are not, open them
  to that position.

2. Open all of the variable air volume boxes
  associated with the air-handling unit to
  100 percent of their design values. One
  way to do this is to set the zone thermo-
  stats to a very low setting.

3. A gauge attached to a static pressure
  probe in the ductwork (Figure 4.1.1-1)
  indicates the static pressure controlling
  the vanes or dampers. This reading may
  also be available from an energy manage-
  ment system. Compare the static pres-
  sure reading with the static pressure
  setpoint.  If the static pressure reading is
  less than the setpoint, the setpoint can be
  adjusted to the lower static pressure.

Three Ways To Downsize
You can downsize fans by installing larger
pulleys, adjusting static pressure, or replac-
ing the fan's motor with a  smaller energy-
efficient motor. These options are described

larger Pulleys
Replace the existing fan pulley with a larger
fan pulley. This will reduce the fan's speed,
greatly reducing its power requirements.
For example, reducing a fan's speed by
20 percent reduces its energy requirements
by about 50 percent.
Note that the new pulley should operate the
fan at a reduced speed that matches current
load requirements.
SKOHO torn, Mr 1995

                 Figure 4.1.1-1. Position of Controls Used To Determine Oversizing
                                              Inlet Vanes
                                                                          VAV Box
                                                    Pressure Gauge
                                                                        Pressure Gauge
Sfaf/f Pressure Adjustments
Reduce the static pressure setpoint to match
the measured static pressure. Reducing the
static pressure setpoint from 2.5 inches to
1.5 inches reduces energy consumption by
10 to 35 percent, depending on actual fan
static pressure.
Note: The method for measuring static
pressure is described on the previous page.

Static pressure should be adjusted only if
temperature setpoints can be maintained in
all zones.  If temperature setpoints cannot
be maintained in all zones, increase the
static pressure setpoint in increments of
0.1 inches until the temperature setpoints
can be maintained. This setting then be-
comes your most economical static pressure
If you have an energy management system
that monitors airflow, you can reduce static
pressure and reduce energy consumption
even more. As the measured airflow de-
creases in 25 percent increments, you can
decrease the static pressure setpoint in 40
percent increments. Again, the zone tem-
perature setpoints must be maintained. If
the static pressure is reduced by 40 percent
and the temperature setpoint in any zone
cannot be maintained, increase  the static
pressure in 0.1-inch increments until the
temperature setpoints can be maintained.
             Potential for Downsizing
 If You Reduce Loads By ...
 Green Lights Upgrades
 ENERGY STAR Office Equipment
 Window and Roofing Upgrades
 Total Potential for Downsizing:
  You Probably
  Can Downsize
Airflow (cfm) By.
                             SECOND Com, JULY 1995

                                                                   4. J. /—FAN Snm Oomsaim
Smaller Energy-Efficient Motors
Replace the existing motor with a smaller
energy-efficient motor that matches the
current load requirements. For a given
application where the motor is oversized,
downsizing a 75-horsepower standard-
efficiency motor to a 40-horsepower energy-
efficient motor will result in average energy
savings of 15 percent.
Most motor manufacturers now offer
energy-efficient models that consume a
minimum of 3 to 8 percent less energy than
comparable standard-efficiency motors,
depending on size and load.

You can estimate the expected benefits of
downsizing by running the EPA QuikFan
program. The information required to run
QuikFan is gathered during the Stage 4
Variable Air Volume System Survey (see
Appendix A). Instructions for running the
QuikFan program are provided with the
Pro/ecf Management

The first consideration in downsizing fan
systems is to determine the components of
the downsizing effort. For example, will you
be replacing pulleys, adjusting static pres-
sure, installing smaller energy-efficient
motors, or using a combination of these?

The engineer verifying the downsizing
potential you have calculated will need the
information you collected for the QuikFan
program, as well as the types of and effi-
ciencies of the air-handling units, fans, and
pulleys in your building.
If your company does not have an engineer
on its staff, you should hire a consulting
engineering firm to verify your choices.
Once the potential for downsizing is veri-
fied, qualified personnel should implement
the changes—a controls technician to adjust
static pressure, an electrician to replace
motors and drives, and a mechanic to
replace fan pulleys.
                                                                [urn Srat BUILDINGS Maim  4-7

                            This page intentionally left blank.
4-8  tmMSmBuiuiKMum                                                          SECOND [Dm, Mir 1995

Energy-efficient motors use improved motor
designs, more metal, and high-quality
materials to reduce motor losses and there-
fore improve efficiency. They are more
reliable than standard-efficiency motors
and generally have longer manufacturer's
warranties. These motors reduce operating
costs by:

• Lowering  energy consumption, which
  saves money by reducing the monthly
  electric bill (see Figure 4.1.2-1).

• Postponing or eliminating the need to
  expand the capacity of the electrical
  supply system in the building in response
  to changes in building use or installation
  of additional equipment.

• Reducing downtime, replacement, and
  maintenance  costs.
Energy-efficient motors can be imple-
mented individually or as part of a retrofit
that includes downsizing, variable-speed
drives, or both.
Whenever a  motor is operating, some loss
in efficiency  is incurred. For example, if a
motor is 85 percent efficient (see the for-
mula below), 15 percent of the energy input
dissipates as heat, which increases motor
temperature. This in turn increases wear
and wastes energy. Replacing a standard-
efficiency motor with an energy-efficient
motor reduces those losses and therefore
also reduces  costs (see Figure 4.1.2-2).
Fan motors operate best at 75 to 100 per-
cent of their  fully rated load because the
efficiency curve  peaks between 75 percent
and 100 percent. However, a smaller
energy-efficient motor can improve effi-
ciency when  operating under part-load
conditions. Most savings occur when the
   Figure 4.1.2-1. Energy-Efficient Motors Save
          Thousands of kWh Annually
         (1,800-RPM Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled Motor)
                    20   50
                100  200
              a        •      0
             NEMA     Average   Maximum
            Standard  Energy-Efficiency Efficiency
  Source: U.S. Department of Energy.
           Determining Motor Efficiency
Mechanical Power Output
  Electrical Power Input
motor is properly matched to its load. Thus,
motors operating at less than 60 percent of
their fully rated loads are excellent candi-
dates for replacement with smaller energy-
efficient motors. Table 4.1.2-1 shows the
types of efficiency improvements that
energy-efficient motors can provide.
When energy-efficient motors are part of
a downsizing program, savings increase
significantly. For example, downsizing a
75-horsepower standard-efficiency motor
to a 40-horsepower energy-efficient motor
will result in average energy savings of
15 percent.
      , JULY 1995
                       ENW Smt BUUK MANUAL  4-9

       Figure 4.1.2-2. Improved Efficiency
            Means Reduced Costs
            (For 25-Horsepower Motor, per Year)

       60  65   70   75  80  85  90  95

             Efficiency as Percentage

   Source: U.S. Department of Energy.
Table 4.1. 2-1. Comparison
of Standard-Efficiency Motors
and Energy-Efficient Motors
(1,800-RPM Totally Enclosed Fan-Cooled Motor)
Average Full-Load Efficiency
Note: Older standard-efficiency models have even lower efficiencies than those shown
in this table.
Source: Calculations from Washington State Energy Office's

Motor Master software

Economic Benefits
You can estimate the expected benefits of
an energy-efficient motor upgrade by run-
ning the EPA QuikFan program. The
information required to run QuikFan is
gathered during the Stage 4 Variable Air
Volume System Survey (see Appendix A).
Instructions for running the QuikFan
program are provided with the software.

Pro/ecf Management

Once you have determined the type of
energy-efficient motor to install, the engi-
neer verifying your selection will need
nameplate data and the loads for all motors
you want to replace.
After the requirements are verified, a
qualified electrician should replace the
Consult with the manufacturer to deter-
mine if you will require an adaptor kit for
the motor mounts, which may be needed to
avoid problems with shaft alignment, base
or frame size, and bolthole locations.
Some additional considerations:

• If your organization does not have an
  engineer on its staff, you should hire a
  consulting engineering firm to verify your

• Variable air volume system motors must
  be sized to operate at peak load condi-
  tions. The motor output must be mea-
  sured at maximum load. Worn belts and
  pulleys should be replaced before you
  take these measurements (these actions
  are part of the Stage 2 building tune-up
  and preventive maintenance program).

• For variable air volume systems, the
  replacement motor selected should be the
  next nameplate size above the existing
  motor's output when it is operating under
  full load conditions. For example, if the
  measured full-load output is found to be
  18.5  horsepower, select a 20-horsepower
  motor. Voltage, amperage, kilowatt draw,
                           Stcom EDITION, JULY 1995

                                                                  4.1.2—Emus Y-fmaim Moms
power factor, and slip should be metered
for a variety of motor operating conditions
to accurately determine maximum load.

One of the inherent characteristics of
high-efficiency motors is that they tend to
have less "slip" than standard-efficiency
motors and thus will run at slightly
higher speeds than standard motors.
When replacing a standard motor with a
high-efficiency model of equivalent rated
horsepower, you may need to install a
larger pulley to compensate for the higher
motor speed. Otherwise, the total energy
savings will not be maximized because
the energy saved by the high-efficiency
motor will be partly offset by the addi-
  tional energy used to run the fan at a
  higher speed.

• Replace a standard-efficiency motor with
  a high-efficiency unit of like speed to
  capture maximum energy conservation
  benefits and minimize equipment replace-
  ment costs (pulleys, sheaves, and so

Preparing  SpeciYicoficms
The motor you select should be able to meet
load requirements. The general specifica-
tions on pages  4-12 and 4-13 will help you
determine the requirements for your motors
and ensure that your criteria are met when
the new motors are installed.
    , im 1995
                       EHBffiSJUtlilWIIIKMUtlia.  4-11

        General Specifications  for  Energy-Efficient Motors
          Nameplate Data. Most  of  the specifications for the motor can be
          obtained from the  existing motor's nameplate. The new  motor will need ij
          to improve on the  existing motor as described below.
          Rating. The standard  torque-speed design for the new motor should havej
          a NEMA B rating.
          Efficiency. The motor should have the highest efficiency possible
          for the new horsepower rating (see the motor efficiency table on
          page 4-10).
          Heating.JNpjte_ja.ny_  sp_ecijil_ cooling^
          heat generated by  the motor.
          Inrush Current. Be  sure protective devices  (for
                      ..Ri8,e_ and^Insjulation, ClM            ambient
          required to protect  the r^
                        ^will^bev moremiiefJ|icie^^v-:ar^vJi^w«-^vlc^gjermJLijEe^)v_.
          power, to produce magnetic  fields.  Power factpr range shpuld....be abpye  |.

  	_8...	J.e.Ol4iSr«..J?J:SJtor._J^e._jiej^.,mpJprm           the ability ^tp ..exceed _its.
      	jngc^anicaj.^ppjj^r....oj^tgutiiiirating'i	for ascertain period ..of..^^
         obtain ^a^larger^motor^^ MinJmum^service^Ja^t^^^
SKW torn, JIM 199S

                                                                  4.12—fwr-fmofw Moms
       General  Specifications for  Energy-Efficient  Motors
       11.  Starter-_If you are not installing  a  variable-speed drive, the motor
           should be equipped with a starter.
       12.  Motor Protection^Jfoiu may want  to equip thejmotor with a^jdis connect
           source, overcurrent protection, and overload protection or low-
           voltage protection (or both).
       13.  Torque. The new motor's start  torque  (torque produced at zero speed)
           and breakdown torque (maximum  torque  the motor can produce before
           starting) must be equivalent to  those on the existing motor.
       14.  Environment. Be sure to let the  manufacturer know if the motor will
           be installed in an unusual environment  (abrasion, high altitude,  high
           materials nearby,  or high humidity) .These condi^         necessitate
           special enclosures^,  thermal  protection, space heaters, heavy-duty
           electrical wiring or conduit,  or  other types of protection.
, JULY 1995

                              This page intentionally left blank.
4-14  [NmSmBuiwK MANUAL                                                             SECOND torn, JULY 1995

Variable-speed drives—an efficient and
economical retrofit option—should be
seriously considered for all variable air
volume systems. These devices:

• Operate electronically rather than me-

• Continually adjust the speed of the air-
  handling unit's fan motor to match the
  required load. Thus, the only power
  consumed  is the power required to meet
  the demand (Figure 4.1.3-1).

• Require far less input power than exist-
  ing methods used to control airflow in
  variable air volume systems (such as
  variable inlet-vane control and outlet-
  damper control) (Figure 4.1.3-2).

• Reduce fan speed, resulting in more
  efficient control of airflow, and reduce
  fan noise and vibration.

• Reduce motor wear by controlling current
  surge during  startup. Variable-speed
  drives reduce current surge by replacing
  instantaneous startup with "soft start-
  ing," where startup is gradual, over
  several minutes.
Variable-speed drives can be implemented
individually or as part of a retrofit that
includes downsizing, energy-efficient mo-
tors, or both. In  retrofit applications, the
existing control  (an inlet vane  or outlet
damper) is locked in the fully open position
or removed and  the variable-speed drive
controls the amount of discharge air by
altering the speed of the fan.

Figure 4.1.3-3 shows the configuration of a
variable air volume system with a variable-
speed drive. Detailed technical information
about variable-speed drives, including
   How Variable-Speed Drives Reduce Operating Costs
    Soft-start capabilities allow motor speed to be
    gradually increased, reducing starting currents
    and thermal stresses.
    Controlled  braking results in quick but safe
    reductions in motor speed.
    Soft start, controlled braking, and current re-
    ductions in  response to reduced demand lead
    to longer equipment life. Belts, pulleys, bear-
    ings, motors, and transformers will also last
    Routine maintenance is unnecessary. If service
    is required, the fan can operate independently
    (at full speed or under the original controls),
    which eliminates downtime.
   Figure 4.1.3-1. Variable-Speed Drives Reduce
            Maximum Power Input
'ercent Maximum Power Input

Reduces Required /
Power 50%
  "•     0  10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

                 Percent Speed
  Source: Electric Power Research Institute.
example specifications, are available on the
Green Lights Bulletin Board.

fcofiom/c Benefits
You can estimate the expected benefits
of variable-speed drives by running the
EPA QuikFan program. The information
       , JULY 1995

Swef 4—HVAC DismimoH SKM UKWK
     Figure 4.1.3-2. Variable-Speed Drives
          Reduce Power Consumption
 s.  100
          10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90100

                  Percent CFM
t Outlet
" Damper
% Variable
Inlet Vane
Speed Drive

required to run QuikFan is gathered during
the Stage 4 Variable Air Volume System
Survey (see Appendix A). Instructions for
running the QuikFan program are provided
with the software.

Pro/ecf Management
Once you have determined the type of
variable-speed drive to install, the engineer
verifying your selection will need to know
the type of air-handling units in your
building and all of the information you
compiled for the QuikFan software, includ-
ing the new motor horsepower and
efficiency calculated by the program. If you
cannot run the program, the engineer can
use the load calculations from page 4—5
(see Measuring Amperage) in conjunction
with the survey results to estimate the new
motor size. When the requirements are
verified, select a manufacturer who can
meet your requirements.
Some additional considerations:

• If your organization does not have an
  engineer on its  staff, you should hire a
  consulting engineering firm to verify your

• Evaluate the contractor's capabilities and
  experience in light of the size of drive you
  have selected.

• Evaluate the manufacturer's capabilities
  in conducting harmonic, power factor,
  and torsional analyses.

• Be sure the contractor will be fully re-
  sponsible for getting the job properly
  completed and having the manufacturer
  design around any potential electrical or
  torsional problems.

• Address maintenance contracts, startup,
  spare parts, on-site assistance during
                      Figure 4.1.3-3. Variable-Speed Drive Configuration
       Voltage Input

        !  >•!-•;•  .  •• ,,•- | •; ;';.;..t  , -t- s^"-'i • \_  ..;
  D  Ths power required to run variable-speed drives
     is proportional to rpm3. Therefore, a reduction
     in speed of as little as 10 percent results in a
     27-percent drop  in power consumption
     (1 - 0.93). With a variable-speed drive, a fan in
     a typical variable air volume system runs at
     80 percent speed or less 90 to 95 percent of the
     time. Compare this with a  fan running at
     100 percent speed 90 to 95 percent of the time.
  a  The initial power required to  start a motor is
     about 600 percent of rated current when a
     motor is started at full voltage and frequency. If
     a motor is started at low voltage and frequency
     through use of a variable-speed drive, it will
     never need more than 150 percent of its rated
  installation and precommissioning, and
  training for in-house staff.

n Be sure the manufacturer has a thorough
  functional testing, inspection, and check-
  out plan.

a Specify the types and numbers of draw-
  ings and manuals required.

n A coast-down test to compare mechanical
  resonance with speed response is impor-
  tant. Have the manufacturer bypass the
  When downsizing, be sure to  consider indoor
  air quality.  For example, you must be certain
  that minimum outside air supply requirements
  established by ASHRAE standards or local codes
  are met, and you should ensure  that air is
  always being  supplied to each space (that is,
  the outside air damper  is  never closed when
  the building is occupied).
  Appendix B contains more information on build-
  ing environmental quality issues, including in-
  door air quality basics, ASHRAE standards  and
  guidelines related to indoor air quality,  and
  sources of more  information about indoor air
  quality, including  EPA's IAQ INFO hotline  and
  the EPA/NISOH publication  Building Air Quality:
  A Guide for Building  Owners and Facility Man-
  critical or resonance frequency band(s) of
  the motor or fan to eliminate any noise or
  vibration problems.
A qualified electrician should install the
drives and ensure that they are wired
properly. The drives should be located in a
clean and dry area. In addition, variable-
speed drives must have an isolation trans-
former and power-system ground near the
motor terminals to maintain proper line-to-
ground voltages at the motor. Winding
failures may result from high line-to-
ground voltages at the motor.
Post-startup testing and evaluation consists
of operating the motor at fixed speeds and
determining power requirements at several
load points approximating the load-
duration curve.
The drive you select should be able to meet
both motor and load requirements. The
following steps should be taken to ensure
that the proper drive is selected for a par-
ticular application.

n Obtain the air-handling unit's perfor-
  mance curves from the manufacturer.
  This information, along with information
  compiled for the QuikFan software,
  should be incorporated in the specifica-
  tions to ensure that the proper drive is

n Note any environmental, weight, or space

n Backward-curved or -inclined and airfoil
  fans are the best candidates for variable-
  speed drives. Some axial and forward-
  curved fans have narrow operating
  ranges; if the variable-speed drive oper-
  ates outside this range, the fan will surge
  and the system will have difficulty main-
  taining static pressure. If your system
  has an axial or forward-curved fan, check
  with the fan's manufacturer to determine
  its compatibility with variable-speed
SKomBrnm, Iva 1995
                        EHmSjotBiitmsMmu.  4-17

SMl—HVACDKntiBim Sw Utews
                 Wiring Guidelines
   Do run control wiring in separate conduits. This
   prevents  critical  control-signal  variations that
   can result from  coupled noise in  high-power
   Do wire  the  variable speed  drive  to  a good,
   independent  ground. A variable-speed drive
   grounded through conduit  may cause resis-
   tance between the variable-speed drive and the
   true ground.
   Do Not attempt to eliminate noise by connecting
   a variable-speed drive to another variable-speed
   drive's cabinet. This action will cause the noise to
   transmit between cabinets.
At a minimum, the selected drive should be
equipped with the following options:

•  A pulse-width modulated (PWM) in-

•  A start-stop circuit interlocked with all
   motor disconnect switches.

•  A set of dry contacts to interface with an
   energy management system.

•  A place in the circuitry to install external
   emergency contacts such as low- and
   high-temperature thermostats and
   vibration switches.
It is important that a variable-speed drive
for a high-efficiency motor have isolated
gated bipolar transistors (IGBTs) in the
inverter so that motor overheating does not
occur  at lower operating speeds.
The box on page 4-19 provides additional
general specifications for variable-speed
     Power Quolity and Variable-Speed Drives
The following issues related to power quality
could arise when installing variable-speed drives.
An electrical engineer should be consulted to
analyze any of these occurrences and, if neces-
sary, to review your electrical distribution system.
• Harmonic voltage and current distortion levels
  in a building  should be limited to less than
  approximately 5 percent. Harmonic distortion
  is site-specific and may  have a number of
  causes, either preexisting or resulting from the
  variable-speed drive. Line filters will typically
  control the problem. A low power factor indi-
  cates a harmonic problem and low-efficiency
• Effective  protection against electromagnetic
  interference should be designed into the in-
  verter system.
• To protect the variable-speed drive from shut-
  ting down due to overvoltage or undervoltage
  conditions (nuisance tripping), use a filter or a
  standard isolation transformer.
• The variable-speed drive should be provided
  with ride-through capability so that nuisance
  tripping caused by voltage sags can  be pre-
  vented. Power conditioners and uninterruptible
  power supply systems will  also protect the
  variable-speed drive from tripping.
• Variable-speed drives can generate  audible
  noise due to the several-kHz modulation fre-
  quency. An output filter will decrease the
  higher frequency harmonics seen by the motor
  and, therefore, the audible noise level.
4-18  [Miter SJAfBuiwK MANUAL

              General Specifications for  Variable-Speed  Drives
              1.   Performance Requirements.  The variable-speed drive must be compatible
                   with the motor it will be installed on.  You need to know the motor's
                   horsepower,  efficiency rating,  amperage,  voltage,  frequency range,
                   maximum  torque,  service factor,  and power factor.
              2.   Controller.  Select a controller appropriate for the motor on which the
                   drive is to be installed (pneumatic,  analog,  or digital)  and be sure to
                   specify  the type and extent of remote control,  if required.
              3.   Interface.  Specify if the variable-speed drive  needs to interface with
                   other devices  such as an energy management system. The manufacturer
                   will need to know the type of link required.
              4.   Isolation Transformer.  Let  the manufacturer know if an isolation trans-
                   former will  be needed to separate the variable-speed drive from the
                   inH6mTng"~AC™"power""T'ine'.	—	.,.,_,   _-..	  ™

              5.   Motor Heat Rate versus Load.  The drive manufacturer will need informa-
                   tion on tested heat rate compared with load.  This  can be obtained from
                   the  motor's  manufacturer.
              6.   Fan.  The drive manufacturer will need a comparison of tested fan flow
                   with load and also the fan  curve.  These can be obtained from the fan's
              7.   Environment.  Be sure to  let the manufacturer know  if the drive will be
                   installed in an unusual  environment  (abrasion,  high altitude,  high or
                   low  ambient  temperature,  hazardous or other unusual types of materials
                   nearby,  or high humidity).  These conditions may necessitate special
                            "^  tfi7irinaT~15rol:^ctrc^^

              8.   Power Quality.  A power analysis is essential to determine the presence
                   of low power factors or  harmonics in the building,  if either are found,
                  "corrective measuresV iucH~"ai" iris^
                  '"taken":™"	"""""'""""""	"	'	..„.
SKOND torn, MY 1995

                               This page intentionally left blank.
4-20  EMMY SIM BUIWK MANUAL                                                              SKOHO[Dmon,M'fl995

In a building that utilizes pumps to trans-
port chilled water, condenser water, or
refrigerant, the ENERGY STAR Buildings
approach can reduce pumping system
energy by 50 percent or more. Traditional
pumps use constant-volume flow. When
smaller loads are needed, a throttle valve
reduces the flow. This method is very

Best Opportunities
You can make water-side systems more
energy efficient by implementing any of the
following upgrades:

• Downsizing oversized pumps and motors.

• Installing variable-speed drives on pump

• Converting single-loop configurations to
  configurations with primary and second-
  ary loops.

Downsizing pumps to accommodate lower-
than-expected maximum loads will con-
sume less energy. Replacing a 4-pole motor
with a 6-pole motor and downsizing can
result in energy savings of up to 70 percent.
When pump downsizing is based on load
reductions, the maximum design load on
the new pump must be greater than the
measured maximum load for the system.
It is also important to recognize that pump
motors come in incremental sizes (5 horse-
power, 7.5 horsepower, 10 horsepower,  and
so on). Be certain that the new motor is
sized to meet the maximum load. For
example, if your calculations show that
load can be reduced to 7.6 horsepower, you
can downsize to a 10 horsepower motor—
not 7.5 horsepower.
Savings estimates for downsizing can be
calculated by comparing rated energy
curves at various loads for old and new
pump sizes.

Variable-Speed Drives
Installation of variable-speed drives will
ensure that pumps are performing at
maximum efficiency at part-load condi-
tions.  The  power needed to run the pump
motor is proportional to the cube of the
load. For example, in a pump system with a
variable-speed drive, reducing the load by
10 percent reduces the energy input by
27 percent [1 - (0.9)3 = 0.27]. Variable-
speed  drives are expected to save up to
67 percent of pump energy consumption.
When installing variable-speed drives,
several considerations must be addressed:

• Harmonic, power factor, and torsional
  analyses need to be completed before

• A coast-down test to compare mechanical
  resonance with speed response is impor-

• For chiller pump upgrades, it is impor-
  tant that maximum and minimum flow
  rates through the chiller be met, as
  mentioned above.

• A qualified electrician will need to install
  the  drives on the motors.
Stew Bmii, Mr 1995
                     turn Sm BUIWINGS Mm  4-21

Sr/tfif 4—//WC OismimoH Snm limes
                          Estimating Savings From Pump Variable-Speed Drives
   To estimate annual energy savings gained from installing variable-speed drives on pumps, estimate run times
   for all part-load conditions, based on either monitoring or load calculations. Then compare the efficiency of
   the existing motor at part-load conditions with the efficiency of the motor with a variable-speed drive installed
   at the same conditions. The change in efficiency multiplied by the motor's rating (kW) and  run hours for the
   range of load percentages will give expected energy savings in kilowatthours.
   A 30-horsepower variable-speed drive is installed on a chilled-water pump. The existing flow rate is 1,040
   gallons per minute, existing hours of operation are 3,300 per year, and the pump's energy consumption is
   66,900 kilowatthours per year. The initial cost of the variable-speed drive is $5,100.
   The variable-speed drive reduces average flow to 700 gallons per minute.
   Estimated new annual energy consumption = (66,900)(700 + 1,040)3 = 20,400 kilowatthours per year.
   Estimated annual energy savings (66,900 - 20,400)($0.08 per kilowatthour) = $3,720 per year.
   Simple payback = $5,100 + $3,720 = 1.4 years.
Single Loop to Primary/
Secofit/aiy loop Conversions
For chiller applications, since there is a
rated minimum flow for chilled water
through the chiller (usually 70 percent),
variable-speed drive flow reductions are
limited to that rated flow. However, a
primary/secondary loop configuration can
allow for greater energy reductions without
compromising chiller performance.
For example, a 20-horsepower motor that
pumps chilled water through the chiller
and directly to cooling coils could be
replaced by a 5-horsepower motor pump-
ing water to the chiller loop and a
15-horsepower motor pumping the chilled
water to a separate cooling-coil loop.
A variable-speed drive on the cooling coil
loop motor would have free range to reduce
flow (and therefore motor energy) to match
load conditions without dropping low rates
through the chiller. The 5-horsepower
motor would maintain constant (100 per-
cent)  flow, but would only use a portion of
the energy of the 20-horsepower motor.
4-22  [MM Suit BWWGS Mum
                              SKOND EDITION, JIM 1995

StageS. HVAC Plant

                   In Stage 5 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program,
                   you will be upgrading the energy efficiency and
                   cost-effectiveness of chillers and other equipment
                   associated with HVAC systems in your building.
                   Each section in this chapter explains the most
                   profitable opportunities for upgrades to a
                   particular type of equipment.

                   This chapter contains the following sections:

                   5.1  Water-Cooled Centrifugal  Chiller Upgrades
                   5.2  Boiler Upgrades
                   5.3  Packaged Air-Conditioning Units
SKOND toim, JULY 1995
EHmSJtiBiwmesMmu. 5-1

                              This page intentionally left blank.
5-2  Must Swtwam Num.                                                             SKOND EDITION, Mr 1995

                        Water-Cooled              I
                        Centrifugal Chiller    E
In Stage 5 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program, you will be looking at upgrades to
your building's HVAC plant. This section
deals with water-cooled centrifugal chillers
(see Figures 5.1-1 and 5.1-2). You should
consider investing in these chiller upgrades
for two reasons:
First, upgrades already done in the pro-
gram—the tune-up, Green Lights, ENERGY
STAR office equipment, and window, roof,
and HVAC distribution system improve-
ments—have most likely brought about a
significant reduction in your cooling load
requirements. A  new, smaller, more energy-
efficient chiller can increase the profits you
are realizing from these upgrades.
Second, as of January 1, 1996, the type of
refrigerant (R-ll or R-12) currently used
in water-cooled centrifugal chillers will no
longer be produced (see box). This phaseout
of R-ll and  R-12 is required by the sec-
tions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of
1991 that address chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs). While simply containing or recy-
cling the existing refrigerant may seem like
a viable alternative, consider the following:

• The phaseout that begins in 1996 will
  eventually cause serious shortages of
  R-ll and  R-12.

• The price  of R-ll and R-12 will probably
  increase dramatically beginning in 1996.

Best Opportunities
m Chiller retrofit.

• Chiller replacement.
            CFCs Are on the Way Out
  Eighty percent of today's chiller market is made up
  of centrifugal chillers that use R-l 1 as refrigerant.
  The alternative is HCFC-123. Some centrifugal
  chillers use R-12. Its alternative is HFC-134A.

              Phaseout Dates
  1996:  R-ll, R-12, R-500,  HCFC-152A,
         CFC-114. No new refrigerant containing
         these compounds will be sold. Chillers
         using these refrigerants will no longer be

  2010:  HCFC-22. No new refrigerant containing
         this HCFC will be sold. Chillers using
         refrigerants based on this HCFC will no
         longer be manufactured.

  2020:  HCFC-22. Chillers using refrigerant based
         on this HCFC will no longer be serviced.

         HCFC-123. No new refrigerant contain-
         ing this HCFC will be sold. Chillers using
         refrigerants based on this HCFC will no
         longer be manufactured.

  2030:  HCFC-123. Chillers using refrigerant
         based on this  HCFC will no longer be
Chiller Survey
The Chiller Survey is an essential first step
in Stage 5 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program. This survey will familiarize you
with the condition of your building's chiller
and enable you to determine if it can be
replaced profitably. Some of the information
gathered during this survey will be used in
calculating new cooling loads for your
building. The Chiller Survey forms begin
on page A—41.
SKONO torn, Mr 1995
                       f«r Sw BUIWK Atottu  5-3

                                 Figure 5.1-1. Typical Water-Cooled Chiller System
                                Figure 5.1-2. Centrifugal Liquid Chiller Functions

                                                  Condenser Water
                                               85" F.
                                                                  95° F.
                                                High Pressure Side

                                                Low Pressure Side
40°  F. liquid
40° F. gas   1
  69 psi    A
                                                                                   Compressor   Motor
[40° F. liquid
69 psi

40° F.gas
69 psi
                                      44° F.
                                                   Chilled Water
                                                                      54° F.
                                  Note: Temperatures and pressures shown are approximations only and may vary,
                                  depending on the type of chiller, its application, and the type of refrigerant it uses.
5-4  EHBter Sim BUILDINGS Mm
                                                                   SW) BmOH, M 1995

                                                            5.1—WnwKom Cmiw CHUCK UnrnK
Chiller Retrofit
If your chiller is up to 10 years old, retrofit-
ting that chiller so that it operates more
efficiently at the newly reduced loads and
uses new refrigerants is probably the most
profitable option, simply because it post-
pones investing in a new chiller.
Retrofitting for more efficient operation at
newly reduced loads may involve replacing
orifice plates, replacing impellers, or even
replacing the compressor. The specific
retrofits depend on the type of chiller and
its manufacturer.
If you are replacing refrigerant, use
HCFC-123 in place of R-ll and HFC-134A
in place of R-12. To make your building's
chiller compatible with one of these new
refrigerants, you may also need to replace
some gaskets and  seals and rewind the
Because of their properties, the new refrig-
erants are not as efficient and thus will
affect the chiller's  efficiency by reducing
cooling tonnage at current or even in-
creased levels of energy consumption.
However, this loss will be offset by the
reduced cooling loads obtained through
previous ENERGY STAR Buildings upgrades.

Chiller ftep/acemenf
Replacing the existing chiller with a new,
smaller, more energy-efficient model that
matches the newly reduced loads and uses
new refrigerants can be considered at any
time; however, this option is most profitable
if the existing chiller is more than 10 years
Depending on the  options implemented in
Stages 1 through 4 of the ENERGY STAR
Buildings Program, cooling load require-
ments in your building have probably been
reduced by at least 10 percent and possibly
by as much as 40 percent. Thus you
have the opportunity to downsize the new
chiller accordingly. While the new chiller
must be sized for peak loads, you want to be
sure that it operates efficiently at part-load
conditions because that is where the chiller
operates most of the time.
A new high-efficiency chiller's energy
consumption could range from 0.15 to 0.30
kilowatts per ton less than the existing
chiller's, depending on the efficiency of the
existing chiller.

E€onomi€ Benefits
The following example shows how to deter-
mine the economics of chiller retrofit and
A large office building (northeastern
United States) has a 300-ton water-cooled
centrifugal chiller and a peak cooling load
of 300 tons. ENERGY STAR Buildings up-
grades in Stages 1 through 4 have reduced
peak load to 210 tons (part-load perfor-
mances are shown in Table 5.1—1; the  box
on page 5-7 shows how to calculate the new
cooling load) and the chiller can be resized
Retrofits to switch the existing chiller from
R-ll to HCFC-123 and to downsize the
chiller to 210 tons by installing new gas-
kets, new orifice plates, new impellers, and
a new compressor would cost approximately
$25,000. Total annual energy savings from
this investment would be approximately
15 percent, with an internal rate of return
of 16.5 percent.
A new, energy-efficient 210-ton chiller
that uses the  new refrigerant would cost
approximately $52,000. The difference in
cost between the retrofits to switch to
HCFC-123 (which must be done in 1996
regardless of the downsizing) and the cost
of the new chiller is $27,000. Total annual
cooling energy savings from this investment
are 74,460 kilowatthours,  or 25 percent.
With energy costs of $0.08 per kilowat-
thour, the energy savings bring annual
dollar savings of $8,775. The internal rate
of return on the $27,000 investment is
31.5 percent.
                                                                 IHW Sm Brnmes MWUL  5-5

Table 5.1-1. Energy Savings From Downsizing a 300-Ton Chiller to 210 Tons
Annual Energy Consumption
(kilowatt hours)
Load (tons)
Annual Operating Hours
at Given Operating Load
Annual Energy Savings
From New Chiller
Pro/ecf Management
This section contains some points to con-
sider when planning to upgrade the HVAC
plant in your building. A typical action
plan for a chiller upgrade would include the
following steps:

• Compare the advantages of retrofitting
  with those of replacement.

• Determine the type of chiller best suited
  for the building's cooling load require-
• Evaluate each refrigerant and chiller
  alternative for energy efficiency, profit-
  ability, and environmental acceptability.

• Develop an implementation schedule.
The following information may help you
decide whether to retrofit or replace your

• Energy Efficiency. New chillers are
  30 to 40 percent more efficient than
  chillers more than 10 years old and
  10 to 20 percent more efficient than
  chillers 5 to 10 years old.

• Age. The average life of a chiller is
  20 years.

• Location. It may be difficult or impos-
  sible to remove an existing chiller from
  its present location.  If this is the case, the
  existing chiller and probably a new
  chiller would need to be broken down into
  components, which is expensive.

• Maintenance. An older retrofitted
  chiller may require much more mainte-

                                                                 5. /—WuwKooLto Cmffim Cmm UPSUDIS
When doing load calculations, if is important to
pay attention to the chiller configuration.  Note
that chillers in parallel require that all tonnages be
added together for the full-load rating.
To determine your new cooling load, measure the
a Temperatureofthechilledwatersupply(CHWS).
  A temperature gauge should be found on the
  pipe at the chiller's supply outlet.
D Temperature of the chilled water return (CHWR).
  A temperature gauge should be found on the
  pipe at the chiller's return inlet.
n Flow rate (GPM) in the chilled water supply. A
  flow rate gauge should be found on the supply
  pipe. An energy management system also may
  have this measurement.
These measurements must be taken in the after-
noon on a typical hot summer day to capture the
peak load effects on your system.
Use the measurements to calculate the following
1. CHWS - CHWR = T
2. Load (in tons) = 500 x T x (GPM + 12,000)
3. Load (in tons) x 1.1 = New Load
If you have no means of taking these measure-
ments, you may want to  contact a testing and
balancing company who will have all of the equip-
ment and training necessary to take the measure-
If the new load for the chiller is 30 percent less than
the installed capacity of your existing chiller, you
should seriously consider replacing the chiller. The
efficiency of the chiller decreases sharply below 70
percent loading. Remember, too, that the chiller is
operating most of the time at part-load conditions
with your newly reduced loads, which  makes the
existing system even more inefficient.
For  example, a 300-ton chiller has  a full-load
performance rating  of 0.6 kilowatts per ton. At
80 to 85  percent  load, efficiency actually in-
creases to 0.55 kilowatts  per ton  (this is where
chillers are most efficient). At 70  percent  load,
efficiency decreases to 0.65 kilowatts per ton. At
60 percent load, efficiency decreases to 0.7 kilo-
watts per ton. At 50 percent load,  efficiency de-
creases to 0.8 kilowatts per ton.
  nance than a new chiller. Controls on
  new chillers require less maintenance.

D Cosfc The initial capital cost of a new
  chiller must be weighed against its life-
  cycle costs and the energy savings to be
n Safetiy. Whether you retrofit or replace,
  any conversion to an alternate refriger-
  ant must meet ANSI/ASHRAE 15-1992
  standards and local codes. Some changes
  to the ventilation system in the mechani-
  cal room may be necessary. Always follow
  the manufacturer's guidelines on proper
  handling and care of the alternative
You may want to discuss your building's
requirements with a consulting mechanical
engineer who can verify your cooling load
calculations (see box opposite) and provide
you with insight on the various alterna-
tives. You may also want to have the engi-
neer look at your cooling system's pumps to
determine if variable-speed drives or flow-
control valves can be installed. These
devices can adjust pump flow to match
cooling load requirements.
Because of the specialized type of work
involved, a contractor or a manufacturer's
representative generally must do the work
for both chiller retrofit and chiller replace-
ment. You may also need an electrician to
modify branch circuit protection, overload
heaters, and various protective relays
required for the chiller. Be sure that all
manufacturer's recommendations and
instructions for installation and care of the
chiller are followed.
Some additional retrofit considerations:
a The best time to retrofit is at the 10-year
  overhaul because the chiller is torn down
  at that time.

n If retrofitting, you may want to consider
  replacing the purge controls at the same
  time. Today's purge controls are 98 to 99
  percent efficient.

• Determine if compressor performance
  will be affected when operating at partial
  loads with the new refrigerant.

• The physical location of the chiller plays
  an important role in determining
  whether or not a replacement will be
  possible. If removing the existing chiller
  and installing the new one requires great
  expense, the benefits of the new chiller
  may be offset. In some cases, it may be
  possible to keep the existing chiller's
  shell and replace the compressor and

• Chillers with hermetic motors normally
  cost more to retrofit than those with open

• The manufacturer will guarantee a
  minimum performance level for a new
  chiller for at least 10 years. However, a
  retrofit may have no guarantee.

• The cost to replace a chiller 10 to 20
  years old is typically more than the cost
  of a retrofit; however, the energy savings
  make replacement much less expensive.
  Retrofitting a 300-ton hermetic chiller
  with new gaskets, orifice plates, and
  impellers as well as rewinding the motor
  costs approximately $25,000; a new
  chiller costs approximately $52,000. If
  the new chiller provides 25 percent
  energy savings, the $27,000 difference is
  a good investment.
Some additional replacement consider-

• Absorption-type chillers use lithium-
  bromide instead of refrigerant and are
  driven by either steam, hot water, or gas.
  They typically cost $150 per ton more
  than centrifugal-type chillers. Absorption
  chillers are profitable where demand
  rates are high, where utilities offer
  rebates, and where gas or steam is avail-
  able. Larger plants with several chillers
  may use a combination of absorption and
  centrifugal chillers when demand reduc-
   Environmental Considerations for Centrifugal Chillers
     Refrigerant Type. Be certain that the refriger-
     ant does not contain CFCs. At this time, the
     acceptable replacement for R-l 1 isHCFC-123,
     and  the acceptable  replacement for R-l 2 is
     Refrigerant Leak Test. The new chiller must
     be tested for refrigerant leaks upon installation
     and  periodically thereafter, as recommended
     by the manufacturer.
     Pressure Relief  Line and Discharge. The
     pressure relief line and discharge  should be
     located in a safe  area outside the building to
     prevent contamination caused  by refrigerant
     infiltrating the building.
     Ventilation and Monitoring Requirement for
     New Refrigerant.  New refrigerants require
     adequate ventilation and monitoring of air
     contamination levels as recommended by
     the manufacturer and required by the EPA.
     Evacuation and Dehydration. The chiller
     should be equipped with a vacuum pump for
     evacuation and dehydration to remove, re-
     store, or recycle refrigerant.
     Isolation From Mr-Handling Unit Intake. To
     protect indoor air quality, the chiller should be
     located away from the air-handling unit's in-
     take as  a precaution in case  of refrigerant
  tion is required. For example, the absorp-
  tion chillers would be used during peak
  hours to avoid demand charges and the
  centrifugal chillers would be used during
  off-peak hours when using the absorption
  chillers would require more energy.

• Some manufacturers of rotary chillers
  guarantee that the chiller will maintain
  full-load performance under part-load
Chiller operation is also important. Because
of the efficiencies of chillers at part-load
conditions, you may save more energy by
operating two chillers at 80 percent of their
load rather than operating one chiller at
100 percent and one at 60 percent. On the
other hand, one chiller operating at 100
percent is much more efficient than 2
chillers operating at 50 percent each.
                              SECOND [Dm, JIM 1995

                                                            5. J—WmiKooLU) Cmma. CHUM UPGUDIS
Preparing Specif/cof/ons            If y°u are rePlacmsthe existing chiiier, the

Tr         ' -.,.        ...    ,.„         chiller you select should be sized to meet
If you are retrofitting an existing chiller,       .,     ^   v   ,  ,  ,, ,      ,, -
  J ._  ,.    r  ., °         ,   rt1_         the new cooling loads that result from
specifications for the components of the            .    _,    °  0    _  ..,.    __
 K,   _.  ,     ,   ,,     r.      ,    , ,      previous ENERGY STAR Buildings Program
retrofit depend on the requirements estab-          j   T>         m.            •
,.,,..£     .  .     ^       ,  ,           upgrades. Be aware of the accompanying
lished in the project management phase.           .~  ,.     ,, ,  ,           ,
0     f^            •       •*;<.•          specifications  that also may apply.
Some of the accompanying specifications        r                      J  rr J

may apply as well.
SKOHD[DUiOH,Mrl995                                                     tew Slot SmmsMtNW.  5-9

    General  Specifications  for  Centrifugal Chillers
    1.   The  chiller's  refrigerant must  not  contain CFCs.
    2.   The  chiller's  size  (tonnage)  should be  appropriate  for the new cooling
        loads  that  result  from previous Energy  Star Buildings upgrades.

        centoflpadina.ccordance  with the latestARI  standard 550.
	Specif y™the~-lowest,™£ull-,load~.and..par.t=load™ene

                     to  three  significant^ digits .

        compat i _bl e_ wi t h „_ Y,our_ system' s  existing ,,£oo 1 i ng _t ower ^
        prevent damage to  the  compressor during  startup  and power  outages.
    10.  The chiller's control panel should be  compatible with  NEMA  1  require-
        ments for general applications or NEMA 12  requirements  in very dusty
        applications. The function display should  provide  as much information
        as possible.

    11.  The chiller should be equipped with  direct  digital  control  (DDC)
        interface capabilities that enable it to be  connected  to  an  energy
        management system.
    12.  The chiller's loading rate  (ramp  function) should be  between  2  minutes  j
        and 45 minutes.

                                                                    5. /—WmtfooitD Camim Cum Umots
              General  Specifications for  Centrifugal Chillers
              13.  The chiller should be  equipped with safety shutoff  features and alarms
                   to protect against  low oil pressure, low condenser water flow,  and low

           ;        chilled-water  temperatures.
          i'   14 .  The chiller system  should have a separately driven  (both manual and
          !         automatic) purge  compressor to transfer refrigerant.

           „,	OJ^^Thja^ch^^	
          i •
          J	^^^.Jje^a.d,,	,„_„„„,_„,„_	„	,,„	,,,	_„„,„,„_	.,,„„	,__„_	».,„	,	

          !..!	16,,_.__The. ...chiller's.,mo tor,., should... have....prote,c.tiye	features	to..... guard ..against	

          1.1	electric.	faults,,	phase	imbalance.,	and phase	reversal,.	

          r   17.  The j;hillerm,shpu.ld  be  equipped, .with a self-diagnos.tic  cpntrpl system
          !'""	  	"	'	"'            	"'     ""  "          	    '   	  	


           :   18^.  The chi 1 ler should... be  equipp.ed wijth.....a Ipw-yol tage so f t s tar t (Wye

                   Del ta type.) s tar ter	

            	19 .  If pos.sj.blj!j._.the....cJi:yL!er_^                      	a .variable-speed

                                                                                ed _ s epa -

                                                                    .„,„„,..		.  	

              ..20.....The. manuf acturer_shou                                 assistance or the

                   cpntractpr	should.....provide  factpry-authprized	training  and. ..startup	

                	assi s tanc.e..		M_.._^				

                               ,.	™,,™,™,».,™™™™_.	__,	.

              22 .  Multiple-chiller installatipns	should....be_ .sequenced...and ..interlocked

           ;	properly	to.. aypid s imul tanepus s tar ts and stops,.	

              23.  The chiller's warranty should be adequate (minimum of  10 years).

              24.  The maximum water pressure drop across the chiller's evaporator and

          j!        condenser, when each are  added to  the drop in the rest of the system,

                   should not exceed the  pump's head.
SKOHO Emm, Jm 1995
EHBterSjatBimmsMaim.  5-11

                                 This page intentionally left blank.
5-12  Iwst Sr/w Buwtes MANUAL                                                                  SKOHO EDIJION, JULY 1995

                       Boiler Upgrades
Approximately 20 percent of all commercial
buildings use boilers for space heating. Of
these, about 65 percent are gas-fired, about
28 percent are oil-fired, and about 7 percent
are electric (Figure 5.2-1). The combustion
efficiency of older boilers is generally be-
tween 65 and 75 percent, although ineffi-
cient boilers can have efficiencies between
40 and 60 percent. Boilers frequently
operate at part-load conditions, and poorly
operated boilers lose a significant level of
  Figure 5.2-1. Most Boilers Today Are Gas-Fired

Best Opportunities
  Replace your existing boiler with a new,
  smaller, more energy-efficient model.

  Retrofit the boiler so that it can perform
  more efficiently.
Boiler ffep/acem enf
The best opportunities for energy savings
come with replacing an old or inefficient
boiler with a more efficient system. Newer
energy-efficient boilers have increased
heating surface areas and improved con-
trols for fuel and airflow over the range of
load conditions. A staged system, which
includes several small boilers operating in
combination, can improve overall efficiency
to 85 percent. Small boilers can be replaced
with units with open-loop condensing
systems. Here, combustion efficiency can
be as high as 95 percent.

Boiler Retrofit
Retrofitting existing boilers can dramati-
cally improve peak and part-load efficiency.
It can also extend the useful life of heating
systems. Options include:

• New Burners—More efficient burners
  improve fuel combustion and reduce
  emissions of nitrogen oxide.

• Baffle Inserts—Baffle inserts induce
  combustion gases to flow in a turbulent
  spiral pattern, which increases the
  efficiency of heat transfer to the fire

• Combustion Control—Combustion
  controls,  which include on-off and vari-
  able controls, respond to pressure and
  temperature readings to control the fuel
  flow and  air-fuel combustion.

• Warm-Weather Controls—For hot-
  water boilers, circulation system tem-
  peratures can be reduced to account for
  warmer outdoor air temperatures or
  ambient indoor heat gains.
                     teer Sw BUILDINGS Mmu  5-13

m Economizers—Economizers capture
  waste heat in the exhaust flue gases and
  use it to preheat the recovery feedwater
  before it enters the boiler.

• Condensate Return—Open-loop boiler
  systems drain the condensate from the
  heating unit and replenish the boiler
  with fresh water. This water is usually
  around  60 degrees F. and requires con-
  siderable energy to turn to steam. Con-
  densate return converts this system  to a
  closed loop, where hot condensate water
  (approximately 160 degrees F.) is re-
  turned to  the boiler and recirculated.

• Slowdown Heat Recovery—For very
  large boilers, blowdown water can also be
  used to  preheat recovery water. Blow-
  down water is the used boiler water,
  which is drained on a regular basis and
  then replaced with filtered feedwater.
  The amount of water typically drained is
  about one percent of the tank's capacity,
  so installing a heat-transfer device will
  only be  profitable for large systems
  where significant heat can be extracted.
Improved  operation and maintenance is an
important part of the ENERGY STAR Build-
ings program (see Chapter 2) and can
provide significant energy savings. An
annual tune-up, improved water treatment,
and a preventive maintenance program can
reduce as much as 15 percent of boiler
energy waste.

Eionom'u Benefits
Replacing inefficient or failed systems with
modular boiler systems reduces fuel con-
sumption over the heating season by 10 to
20 percent due to increased efficiency. New,
energy-efficient burners increase combus-
tion efficiency by 5 percent. Other retrofit
options have the capability to increase
combustion efficiency by as much as 15 per-
cent (see Table 5.2-1)
On average,  large commercial buildings
(about 300,000 square feet) use about
4,800,000 Btu per hour  of gas for heating.
Therefore, a one percent increase in effi-
ciency would save about 48,000 Btu per
hour. For a system operating 2,000 hours
per year, this corresponds to an annual
savings of approximately $430 per year per
one percent increase in efficiency. This
number will vary based on loading, original
efficiency, and line and system losses, but it
provides a good baseline estimate.
               Table 5.2-1
    Potential Increase in Combustion Efficiency
 Retrofit Alternative     Efficiency Increase
   Combustion Control           5-10%
   Economizers                5-10%
   Warm-Weather Controls       5-10%
   Condensate Return           10-15%
 fec/imca/ Considerations
 There are limits to boiler heat-loss reduc-
 tions. Because efficiency improvements
 cause more of the burner heat to go to the
 boiler water and less to the exhaust gases,
 increased efficiency lowers the exhaust
 temperature. The flue gases exhausting
 through the stack must be at  a minimum
 temperature of 220 degrees F. for gas and
 330 degrees F. for oil to prevent condensa-
 tion. At temperatures below these mini-
 mums, the gas condenses into sulphuric
 acid on the inside of the stack. This is very
 corrosive to most stack materials. Condens-
 ing boilers do exist, generally for smaller
 applications due to their high material cost.
 These allow lower flue-gas temperatures
 and therefore condensation on specifically
 designed stainless-steel parts.
 Draining a certain amount of the boiler
 water on a regular basis,  known as
 blowdown, is necessary to keep the system
 clean. If open-loop systems are converted to
 closed-loop systems to take advantage of
 condensate heat, modifications must be
 considered to allow drainage and makeup.
5-14 teer Sw BIWIHK MAHIUI

                                                                       5.2—Born UPGWK
Pro/ecf Management
Before considering potential upgrades, it is
advantageous to perform an analysis of the
existing system, both as a baseline for
comparison and as an identifier of potential
energy waste. There are two methods of
boiler analysis1:

• The direct method, which measures fuel
  to steam efficiency.

• The indirect method, which measures
  combustion efficiency.
1 Dyer and Maples, Boilers Efficiency Improvement,
 Boiler Efficiency Institute.
Overall boiler efficiency is defined differ-
ently in each of these methods:

• For the direct method, efficiency is de-
  fined as output power (mass flow of
  steam times enthalpy difference of steam
  leaving boiler and water entering boiler)
  divided by input power (mass flow of fuel
  times heat content of fuel plus pump and
  blower input power).

• For the indirect method, it is defined as
  the enthalpy difference of the products of
  combustion and reactants of combustion,
  divided by the heat content of the fuel.
More detail on these analyses will be pro-
vided in a future  ENERGY STAR Buildings
Technical Brief.
Sam [miw, JIM 1995

                               This page intentionally left blank.
5-16  £w Sw? Humes MANUAL                                                              SKOND EDITION, M 1995

Combination cooling system, air-handling
system, condensing system, and reheating
system units are called packaged air condi-
tioners. Packaged air-conditioning units are
generally used in one-, two-, or three-story
buildings that have small cooling loads (less
than 75 tons). Retail spaces, small office
buildings, and classrooms often use these
Packaged units are typically installed on
rooftops so they do not use up building
space. These units are less efficient than
chiller systems (about 1.2 kilowatts per ton
compared with 0.85 kilowatts per ton), but
the decision to install the packaged unit
may have been based on other consider-
ations. For example:

• They are modular, so they can have their
  own simple control and duct systems

• They can be installed as part of a build-
  ing renovation.

• They require little maintenance because
  they are self-contained.

Packaged units are designed to match a
building's cooling and heating  loads and to
have low operational costs. They can be
designed for single-zone or multi-zone air
supply. The components of packaged units
are described below.

m Vapor compression refrigerant cooling

• Fin-tube heat exchangers.

• Condensers.
• Natural gas heating coils (or electric
  resistance heat coils if electricity is less
  expensive than natural gas).

• Heat pumps, which may be used to
  provide heating by transferring heat from
  the outside air to inside. Heat pumps are
  typically efficient in the heating mode if
  the building is located in a predomi-
  nantly cooling climate.

Best Opportunity
Most currently installed packaged units
typically have energy-efficiency ratings—
defined as cooling capacity (Btu per hour)
divided by total unit power requirement
(watts)—of less  than  9. These systems
could be improved by using higher effi-
ciency compressors, larger condensers and
evaporators, and variable-speed drives for
the fans. Most systems use air to cool their
condensers, but water could be used if a
cooling tower is accessible. If these design
changes were implemented, an energy-
efficiency rating of 13 could be achieved.

fconom/c Benefits
As shown in Table 5.3-1, for a typical
100,000 square foot office building that has
10 standard packaged units (energy-effi-
ciency rating of 9, and 80 percent electric
heating efficiency), electricity costs would
be about $71,300 per year ($53,300 for
cooling and $18,000 for heating, at $0.08
per kilowatthour). If a new energy-efficient
unit had a cooling energy-efficiency rating
of 13,  the electricity costs for  cooling mode
would be about $36,900 per year, a savings
of $16,400 per year. If the heating part of
Sicm torn, MY 1995
                      tar Sm tows Mum.  5-17

Table 5.3-1. Annual Operating Costs of Ten 25-Ton Units
Efficiency Rating
Heat Efficiency
Cooling Hours
Heating Hours
Energy Costs
the system was 90 percent efficient com-
pared with the standard 80 percent, heat-
ing system savings would be about $2,000
per year.

Pro/ecf Management
Certain issues must be addressed before
determining if a retrofit will be profitable.
Installation costs can be reduced consider-
ably if the existing curb can be used with a
replacement unit. This may not be possible
with downsizing and must be considered in
the cost analysis. In general, existing
ductwork will not have to be modified for a
new energy-efficient unit, and existing
supply and return inlets and outlets should
also be compatible with the new unit.

Additional Opportunities

             While the upgrades to your building's systems
             made over the five stages of the ENERGY STAR
             Buildings Program are generally the most effective
             upgrades that can be applied to typical buildings,
             there are several other areas where energy-
             efficiency improvements can be made.  This chapter
             describes these additional opportunities and
             provides general guidelines on how to determine if
             they apply to your facility and the types of savings
             you can expect.

             This chapter contains the following sections:

             6.1  Transformers
             6.2  ENERGY STAR Office Equipment
, JULY 1995

                          This page intentionally left blank.
6-2  EwSwBiiWKMwu.                                                     Stem torn, Mr 1995

Every commercial and industrial building
uses power and lighting transformers.
These devices convert the voltage of elec-
tricity from the supply voltage to the volt-
age necessary to run building equipment
and lighting. They are important because
the voltage of an electric current supplied
by the utility is generally too high to prop-
erly operate equipment.

Commercial and industrial facilities have
numerous transformers in service and thus
numerous opportunities for energy savings.
Most commercial buildings have at least
one transformer on every floor to handle
the electrical load for lighting and outlet
functions such as computers, copiers, and
fax machines. These buildings will also
have one or more larger power transform-
ers. Most industrial buildings have many
transformers to serve motor and equipment

Typical transformers have two basic compo-
nents: the core and the coils. Electricity is
converted by passing a current from one set
of windings to another by means of a mag-
netized core (see Figure 6.1-1). The coils
are usually made of copper or aluminum,
while the cores, at least in commercial and
industrial transformers, are most com-
monly made of steel.
Transformers are a constant source of
energy loss, even when not in use, because
energy must be consumed to energize the
core, which must always be ready to serve
any load that might appear on the system.
This is referred to as "core loss." Core loss
is constant any time a transformer is
connected to the system.
A second type of loss is incurred when the
transformer is in use. This is called "wind-
  Figure 6.1-1. Transformers Regulate Electricity
                         Transformer Core
 voltage from
  line (Vp)
 Output to
ing" or "load" loss and is caused by ineffi-
ciencies in transformer design and materi-
als. Winding loss varies with the square of
the load. Thus, if a transformer is operated
at 50 percent of its rated load, the winding
loss will be approximately one-quarter what
it would be if the transformer were operat-
ing at 100 percent of its rated load.

Best  Opportunities
The most efficient transformers currently
available can reduce energy losses by as
much as 70 percent. Opportunities to
improve transformer efficiencies come in
three main areas:

• First, core materials can be improved.
  For example, higher efficiency silicon
  steel or amorphous metal can be used for
  the core in place of the steel usually
  found in today's commercial and indus-
  trial transformers.
                                                                 [urn Sw BUILDINGS Mtm  6-3

CHtfWt 6—ADDimu. Ommimis FOR teer Sums
• Similarly, higher efficiency copper or
  aluminum windings can be used. Use of
  higher efficiency windings will help
  reduce load losses.

• Finally, energy losses can be reduced
  through the proper sizing of transform-
  ers. Because winding loss increases with
  the square of the load, an undersized
  transformer can cause excessive energy
  losses. Also, because the core experiences
  constant losses, using too big a trans-
  former (with a higher core loss) for the
  necessary load can waste energy and
  money. In general, transformers experi-
  ence peak efficiency when they are at an
  average of 30 to 60 percent of the rated
  load. Thus, the average load on a 75-kVa
  (kiloVolt-ampere) lighting transformer
  should be roughly in the neighborhood of
  25 to 40 kilowatts to achieve maximum

£conom/c Benefits
There are two types of energy loss associ-
ated with transformers. Core loss (or no-
load losses) is related to the power needed
to continuously operate the transformer
and does not change with variations in
load. Winding loss is associated with the
transfer of current through the trans-
former, and is directly proportional to the
square of the percentage load. For energy-
efficient transformers, both core loss and
winding loss are significantly lower than in
standard transformers.
To calculate the annual energy loss of a
transformer, you need to know the core
loss, the winding loss at 100 percent load,
the average on-peak and off-peak load,
and the winding temperature factor.
The formula used is shown below.
It may also be possible to downsize a trans-
former due to initial oversizing or as a
result of load reductions from other energy-
efficiency measures. With downsizing, the
new core and winding losses will be lower
than those for the original units, and more
savings will be realized.

Pro/ecf Management

There are several important factors to keep
in mind when considering an investment in
higher efficiency transformers. First, higher
efficiency transformers cost more, so the
costs and benefits must be carefully consid-
ered. EPA plans to introduce several simple
cost-benefit calculation tools that will allow
facility managers to make accurate cost
                         Calculating Annual Energy Savings for a Transformer
   On-peak losses = Core loss + Winding loss at 100% x (Percent on-peak load)2 x Temperature factor
   Off-peak losses = Core loss + Winding loss at 100% x (Percent off-peak load)2 x Temperature factor
   Annual losses = On-peak losses x On-peak hours + Off-peak losses x Off-peak hours
   A 75-kVa transformer has a 30-percent load factor on-peak and a 16-percent load off-peak.
   Cost of electricity is $0.08 per kilowatthour.
   Standard: 500-watt core loss, 2,660-watt winding loss at 100-percent load
   Efficient: 130-watt core loss, 1,850-watt winding loss at 100-percent load
   On-peak savings: (500-130) + (2660 x  (0.30)2 x 0.8 - 1850 x (0.30)2 X 0.8)= 428 watts
   Off-peak savings: (500-130) + (2660 x (0.16)2  x 0.8 - 1850 x (0.16)2 x 0.8)= 387 watts
                 [$0.08/kWh x (428 x  3120 on-peak hours + 387 x 5640 off-peak hours)] + 1,000
                 = $280/year

comparisons. These tools will be available
to ENERGY STAR Buildings and ENERGY
STAR Transformer program participants.

In addition, you need to be sure that the
higher efficiency transformer can fit within
the space used for the existing transformer.
Transformers are generally made more
efficient by using  a greater volume of
higher efficiency material in the core, which
increase the overall size of the transformer.
Be sure that any item you purchase can
comfortably fit in  the space available.
Third, when changing the size (rating) of
the transformers, you may need to change
the circuit board for lighting and outlet
load. You will need to factor this change
into your cost calculations.
Finally, changing transformers can be a
costly procedure. The best time to consider
high efficiency transformers is when it is
time to replace an obsolete transformer.
However, opportunities may exist for
replacing low-efficiency transformers with
remaining useful life. Because costs are
generally lower if several transformers are
purchased at the same time, you should
consider opportunities to replace other
transformers at the same time you are
replacing an obsolete transformer.
                      torn Sw BUHDINSS MANUAL  6-5

                             This page intentionally left blank.
6-6  Cum SJM BUILDINGS tMm                                                          Smm[Dim,Juul995

                       ENERGY STAR
               Computers and office
               equipment are the fastest-
               growing electric loads in
               the business world. They
               account for 5 percent of
               commercial electricity con-
               sumption and—if action is
not taken—could account for as much as
10 percent by the year 2000. Ironically,
much of this energy is wasted. For example,
research shows that:

• Personal computers are not actually
  in use most of the time they are on, and
  25 to 40 percent of them are left need-
  lessly running at night and over week-

• Printers and fax machines are typi-
  cally left on 24 hours a day, but are
  active only a small percentage of the
  time. In fact, fax machines are in use
  less than 5 percent of the time
  they are on.                     ^^^^
       dioxide pollution by the equivalent of
       5 million automobiles (see Figure 6.2-1).
       ENERGY STAR products are easy to recog-
       nize because they are identified by the EPA
       ENERGY STAR logo (Figure 6.2-2). However,
       their added functionality is invisible, both
       in terms of performance and price.

       4pp/i caff on to
       ENERGY STAR Buildings
       In addition to their direct energy con-
       sumption, office equipment gives offbeat.
       In today's modern office building, a rough
       estimate is that regular office equipment
       contributes one-third the amount of heat
       as the lighting. However, because ENERGY
       STAR office equipment powers down when
       not in use, it gives off less heat. Less heat
       emitted means less load on the building's
       cooling system, thus increasing the oppor-
       tunities for energy conservation and
• Copiers also are idle for several
  hours each day, and are often left
  on overnight and through the
To reduce this waste of energy and
the pollution associated with it,
leading manufacturers of computer
equipment, printers, fax machines,
and copiers have partnered with
EPA to introduce ENERGY STAR
machines that automatically "power
down" when not in use. EPA has
calculated that by the year 2000,
these energy-efficient products
could save enough electricity each
year to power Vermont, New Hamp-
shire, and Maine; cut electric bills
by $2 billion; and reduce carbon
    Figure 6.2-1. ENERGY STAR Systems Save Money
          Conventional System
          on all the time-
          Annual Cost: $105
                       ENERGY STAR System
                       on all the time—
                       Annual Cost: $47
                                  ENERGY STAR System
                                  turned off at night—
                                  Annual Cost: $17
•Compared with a typical computer and monitor left on all day and night,
assuming 150W, 80/kWh. Does not include heat gain from computer equipment.
                             ENBisrSJUiBwiKSMwiu. 6-7

Cmat 6—ADnmoiuL Qmmsm tot £NW SWNSS
potential downsizing of HVAC equipment.
For maximum economic benefit, ENERGY
STAR office equipment, should be consid-
ered prior to the HVAC distribution system
and HVAC plant upgrades in Stages 4 and
5 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program.

The best part about ENERGY STAR office
equipment is that it costs no more than
regular equipment. Therefore, specifying
ENERGY STAR products when purchasing
new equipment or replacing old equipment
is a highly profitable endeavor. Committing
to an ENERGY STAR purchasing strategy is
the first crucial step. The second step is
determining which ENERGY STAR products
to buy; since not all are the same, your
choice will depend on your needs and
preferences. EPA offers a number of infor-
mational fact sheets and brochures on
ENERGY STAR products, and maintains a
   Figure 6.2-2. Look for the ENERGY STAR Logo
detailed list of qualified products that is
updated monthly. For more information ask
your EPA ENERGY STAR Buildings point of
contact, or call the ENERGY STAR hotline at
(202) 775-6650.
Note: EPA seeks only to promote energy
efficiency and pollution prevention and does
not endorse any particular company or its
                           SKOHO EDITION, JULY 1995


                  This appendix contains the forms that you will be
                  using to conduct the surveys described in the
                  Introduction to this manual.

                  Survey forms that can be used during each stage of
                  the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program are included,
                  as listed below.
                  Note: Stage 1 surveys related to your lighting
                  systems are completed as part of your participation
                  in the Green Lights Program. Refer to your Lighting
                  Upgrade Manual for more information.

                  Stage 2: Building Tune-Up	page A-5
                  Stage 3: Windows and Roofing	page A-19
                  Stage 4: Variable Air Volume Systems . . page A-31
                  Stage 5: Chillers 	page A-41

                  Additional survey forms will be added as more
                  sections are developed for this manual.
SKOHOEDmon, JIM 1995

                               This page intentionally left blank.
A-2  [mSMBWDIHKMUIW                                                                SKOHD EDmOH, JULY 1995

This appendix contains surveys for Stages
2 through 5 of the ENERGY STAR Buildings
Program. This section provides a brief
description of each of the surveys, recom-
mends members for the survey team, and
lists some materials that will be useful as
you conduct the surveys.

How To Condutf the Surveys
The survey forms are designed so that
you can conduct each survey when you
are ready to start a particular stage of
the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program. As
an alternative, you can conduct all of the
surveys at one time. You  may even want
to conduct the surveys more than once,
for example, as a way to see before-and-
after results of your energy-efficiency
To help you collect complete and meaning-
ful data, each survey includes information
and examples at each step.  Space to record
your findings accompanies each question.
Copy the survey forms before you
begin the survey.
You can use the copy if you need more room
for additional responses, if you have addi-
tional facilities to survey, or if you want to
conduct the survey a second time at the
same facility.

About The Surveys
This section contains a brief description of
each survey.

Stage I—Green lights
Surveys for Stage  1 are completed as part
of your participation in the  Green Lights
Program and are described  in your Light-
ing Upgrade Manual.
Stage 2—Building Tune-Up
The Building Tune-Up Survey will familiar-
ize you with the condition of your building's
systems and enable you to determine which
systems need to be tuned up in Stage 2 of
the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program.
The Stage 2 survey has two main tasks:
analysis and inspection. To complete it, you
will need to analyze some existing informa-
tion and then gather additional information
by conducting general inspections in vari-
ous areas of the building.

Stage 3—Windows and Roofing
The Window and Roofing Survey will
familiarize you with the condition of your
building's exterior shell and enable you to
determine if window and  roof upgrades can
be profitable for your building in Stage 3 of
the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program.
To complete the survey, you will need to
visually inspect your building's windows,
roofing, and insulation. You will also need
to analyze some existing information and
perform a few simple calculations.

Stage 4—Variable Air Volume Systems
The Variable Air Volume System Survey
provides the data needed to use the
QuikFan computer program to determine
which variable air volume system upgrades
can be profitable in your building in Stage 4
of the ENERGY STAR Buildings Program. It
also provides other information about your
air-handling units and their fans and
motors that may be needed as you plan
your upgrades.
To complete the survey, you will need to
obtain some general information about your
building, perform a few simple  calculations,
Smm Emu, Jm 1995
                      Eim Sw Buium MMUU.  A-3

ArnuDixA—SuKm FORMS m InsmaiOHS
and visually inspect the air-handling units
and record some nameplate information.

Stage 5—Chillers
The Chiller Survey will familiarize you
with the condition of your chiller and
enable you to determine if you can replace
the chiller with a smaller, more energy-
efficient chiller in Stage 5 of the ENERGY
STAR Buildings Program. Some of the
information gathered during this survey
will be used in calculating new cooling
loads for your building.
To complete the survey, you will need to
visually inspect the chiller and record some
nameplate information, then perform some
simple calculations.

Survey Team Members
The Stage 2 survey team should include
the building engineer, an HVAC technician,
and a controls technician.
The Stage 3 survey team should include
the building engineer.
The Stage 4 survey team should include
the building engineer, an HVAC technician,
and an electrician.
The Stage 5 survey team should include
the building engineer, an HVAC technician,
and an electrician.

Items  Needed for the Surveys
The following items should be ready to use
as you conduct each survey.

Stage 2—Building Tune-Up
• As-built drawings for all systems.
• Maintenance logs (including records of
• If you have an energy management
  system, the system logs showing condi-
  tions for a variety of operating schedules,
  sequences, and control conditions.
• Operations and maintenance manuals for
  major systems.
• Utility bills (gas and electric) from the
  last 24 months.

• Sequences of operations for major sys-
• Temperature and humidity probes.

• Green Lights surveys and implementa-
  tion reports (if available).
• Calculator.

Stage 3—Windows and Roofing
• Latest version of the architectural draw-
  ings for your building.

• Maintenance logs (including records of
• If you have an energy management
  system, the system logs showing condi-
  tions for a variety of operating schedules,
  sequences, and control conditions.
• Operations and maintenance manuals for
  major systems.

• Calculator.

Stage 4—Variable Air Volume Systems
• Latest version of the architectural,
  mechanical, and electrical drawings for
  your building.
• If you have an energy management
  system, the system logs showing condi-
  tions for a variety of operating schedules,
  sequences, and control conditions.
• Electric bills from the last 12 months.
• Calculator.

Stage 5-Chillers
m Latest version of the specifications for
  the chiller.
• Operations and maintenance manual for
  the chiller.
• If you have an energy management
  system, the system logs showing chilled
  water supply and chilled water return
  temperatures and flow rates.
• Calculator.

                     "-S>£      "•        l: ;*•  i          V\VA:,:!;!  A ..   4,     ,i ;>
                     Bunding Tune-Up Survey
 I •   Analyze Current Energy Consumption.

tr  Chart your energy consumption (in kilowatthours) for the last 24 months on the
    form on the following page. Do not chart demand.

v  Chart your energy consumption in therms or other units, as reported on your
    gas or steam bill, for the last 24 months on a copy of the same form.

|r  Note any unusual patterns in consumption. These may help you determine
    systems that need to be tuned up.

    • Energy consumption in the spring or fall is exceptionally high.
    • Usage  in a certain month is much higher than consumption for that month in
      the previous year.
    Calculate your average annual cost of energy per square foot. Use the following

    Total Annual Cost of Energy + Total Building Area
SKOHO [omon, 1m 1995                                               teer Siut Bumtss MMW A-5

Amm A—SmvF/ FORMS AHD Imuaitus
                                    24-Month Energy Consumption Table



         J   F  M  A  M  J   J
A   S   O   N   D   J   F


Atlanta, Georgia
Baltimore, Maryland
Birmingham, Alabama
Boston, Massachusetts
Charlotte, North Carolina
Chicago, Illinois
Cleveland, Ohio
Denver, Colorado
Houston, Texas
Source: Building Operating
Average Cost of Energy in Major U.S. Gties
(dollars per square foot per year)
Cost of Energy City
1 .54 Los Angeles, California
2.21 Memphis, Tennessee
1.69 Miami, Florida
1.99 Nashville, Tennessee
1.40 New Orleans, Louisiana
1.49 New York, New York
2.02 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
1.28 Seattle, Washington
1.49 St. Louis, Missouri
Management Experience Exchange Report, 1991.

Cost of Energy

                                                     SKOHD torn, JULY 1995

                                                                  SWfif 2—BUILDING lUHf-Uf SUKVFf
     Contact your local utilities to determine if your average cost of energy falls
     within the average costs for your area and building type.
tr   Compare your annual cost of energy to the average costs for various cities in
     the table on the previous page. Is there a wide variation?
|r   If you have more than one building, compare the annual cost of energy for
     each building.
SKOND Comon, JULY 1995                                                    Emir Sm BUILDINGS MANUAL  A-7

Analyze the Complaint Logs for Your Building.
tr  Record any areas where there have been consistent complaints about tempera-
    ture or humidity.
fth Floor, SW side , ,
* ^ V ""

Temperature too cold In P.M.

Recommended Action
Check location of thermostat
Relocate -If necessary, ,-. *•.*-'•> *
^.^,s\f-«v^. ™^f \-"^V

                                                          SKOND Earn, Mr 1995

                                                           Sm 2—Bums JutttUp Sumr
   • Analyze the Energy Management System Logs.

Ir   If you have an energy management system, look at the logs for the past heating
    or cooling season (or both) and note any areas that consistently do not maintain
    temperature or humidity settings during certain parts of the day.
Zone 16 (4th floor, 5W)

10 -a.m. telnp&rsatare le 72*;- v
^3';p7ni. Wmperaiiiirtf'Ie 61° •, ' ' ' -v

Recommended Action
Check iocifJpn of thermostat
AmmA—Suitm Fowsm Imimns
T»  Inspect temperature and humidity sensing devices, particularly in
      the areas listed in Items 2 and 3.

V  Look for sensing devices located near supply diffusers, drafts, and outer walls
    or in direct sunlight (the best location is near the return air grille).
v  Take temperature and humidity readings with temperature and humidity
    probes. Note the location of sensors whose readings do not match the probes.
§Wmf471 cold in fM ,
•SSS--S5; &• x s MS- * x ^ ^
JfbnV 21%€mpk*fall!hg '

Sensor in direct eunltght
Zone:21*damper, stuck fully open •&

Recommended Action
Relocate.sensof; ,,
a«nf^« «.- 1*- «^ '*
ll^jpair damper
•««• *i ~*.^ * t '" ^

A-i o  f«>r SJM BUILDINGS Atom
SKOND torn, JULY 1995

                                                               Sim 2—BUILDING Jmt-Uf Sum
3 •  Inspect the Building's Exterior Systems.
tr  Walk through the building to inspect the condition of windows, outer doors, and
    other openings. Record the location of the following:
    • Leaks.
    • Drafts (Note: complaint logs may also help locate drafts).
    • Missing or worn weatherstripping, sealant, or caulking.
North entrance lobby

Soottj fie draft^f ~ weatherstripping
arouiid doors fe worn out •

Recommended Action
Replace weal|ierstirippifij3:i , ; >H v\ .

SKOHD torn, JULY 1995

Ammux A—SiKvef FORMS AND lnsmiaions
Inspect the Mechanical Equipment Rooms (Air Side).
    Conduct an inspection of the mechanical equipment rooms in your building and
    note the location of any problems. For air-side systems, look for the following
    types of problems:
    • Ducts: Leaks in ducts or missing insulation in mechanical equipment rooms.
    • Dampers: Leaks, worn seals, or other problems (such as dampers stuck open).
    • Controls: Not calibrated. Not operating according to sequence of operation.
    • Fans: Excessive vibration or noise. Worn or loose belts. Leaking lubricant.
    • Air Filters: Filters need to be cleaned or replaced.
Recommended Action
 ME Room 4N

                                                            Susf 2—BwDW Iwtll? Sum
  • Inspect the Mechanical Equipment Rooms (Water Side).
Conduct an inspection of the mechanical equipment rooms in your building and
note the location of any problems. For water-side systems, look for the following
types of problems:
• Leaks in pipes, steam traps, pumping glands, valves, boilers, and elsewhere.
• Pipes, Tanks: Lack of adequate insulation. Condensation.
• Pumps: Dirty strainers.
• Air Separator: Allowing air into the system.
• Controls: Not operating according to sequence of operation.
• Cooling Towers: Excessive rust. Leaks. Dirty cells. Improper fan operation.
  Faulty freeze protection.
Cooling plant
CHW pump 3

Leak in pumping gland

Recommended Action
Repair or replace pumping gland

                                                          Emuer SUM BUILDINGS MANWH A-13

Armaax A—Sum foms MS ImimNS
       Analyze Operating Schedules (Lights).

tr  Walk through the building during occupied and unoccupied hours. Record
    unoccupied areas where lights are on.
    Note: Stage 1 surveys conducted for the Green Lights Program may already have
    covered this item.
\&eco£d flppr - meeting; ;
lloomVfeConf/ Center, y '

* Lights .on ;lai« In evening, - no ,:,
i;cpriferen|« actMtiee echedujed \-v -;

Recommended Action
;I«stall%ttme(¥,^r:}^ijS!0|f;J,ii all
•meetlnfl-rb(9ml';?-,:;' •' «--/v->-;', :
-; ° -? *• •; • , - ,;->x«: -f jS -v - -* •,: -V . - -• -• - •

                                                                SKomEomoN, JULY 1995

                                                          Sm 2—Bwm JwVt Sum
Analyze Operating Schedules (Office Equipment).
tr   Walk through the building during occupied and unoccupied hours
    (combine these circuits with the lighting survey circuits if desired). Record
    office equipment in unoccupied areas that has been left on.
,,Third: floprM Bflltog stnd ' J
y^coijrit}fi0>'P«ptJ. - ;.-, w

;C^m,F^,^iaMprt(it«rs on affet^
iwj^lnigjjhiWJKs, Copter \e on, tcto.

Recommended Action
Talk to manager about schedule. •
ENERGY '$r AR^ <%%m
 IC • Analyze Operating Schedules (HYAC Equipment).

|r  Record the operating schedules for air-handling units and other equipment and
    compare them to the schedules specified in their sequences of operations.
:6"ixMw"r:' '"
*wE fcW^r";

Unit appears to be on 24 hrs.
Operations sequence says 12 hrs,

^ * "• •, ^ ^
Faulty relay AQG& not turn fan off. \
Repair feulty relay '. ; *; *^ 0

SKONO torn, JIM 1995

                                                             Snsi 2—8mm JiiHtilP SutvF/
O*  Inspect Temperature and Humidity Controls.

tr  Conduct a spot inspection of the accuracy of temperature and humidity con-
    trols. Check at least one interior and exterior area on each floor as well as all
    heat- and humidity-sensitive areas such as computer rooms.
"5tt:flpbr:: '• °'.-:;>%i,
Zone 5-4 -"Xf\:.-

Temp JHumidity Readings
^H^'^:74°V/: Ay -:-v f.K'r1 ifV.',:^ •:
f Probe ~'79SJ;:; %:;jC;; ¥?^-^

Recommended Action
, Rieplaw faully thermpetaii
,X:.Vv°- J-..;A*v-.-v:v
,X.:-^. . • • , * X- 'V

                                                           [NBterSmBiumsMuw  A-17

                                This page intentionally left blank.
A-i 8  EMMY SIM Bumtss Matuu.                                                                 SKOHO EDITION, JULY 1995

 I •  Analyze the Maintenance and Complaint Logs for Your Building.

Ir  List areas where complaints about leaks or drafts, excessive heat or glare from
    windows, or other complaints related to the windows or roof have been recorded.
Room 2E-11

Wndow leaks

Recommended Action
Repair window seals

Sccom torn, JULY 1995

APPENDIX A—Sum ftwsw iNsmaioK
      Analyze the Energy Management System Logs.

    If you have an energy management system, look at the logs for the last heating
    or cooling season (or both) and note any areas on the top floor or on the outside
    perimeter of any floor that consistently do not maintain temperature or humid-
    ity settings during certain parts of the day.
Recommended Action
                          ;  aier

                                                           SHCF 3—WINDOW m ROOFING Suitm
 •3 •  Conduct a General Inspection of the Windows and Roof.

 tr  Note the location of any areas with leakage or damage. Pay particular attention
    to the areas noted in items 1 and 2 above.
NW corner of roof

>••'•'•; ':-; , -:;;v .,*• - -'^vy: :v vv"v;s;r:-;;
Standing water leaks to Insulation

Recommended Action
^;,;- , , ,v *^'. •• •• ^\ " > •• J ;
Repair leak and replace insulation

SKOND Emu, Mr 1995
(am Sw Humes MANW A-21

Mm A—Sum Fomsm Ittsmiam
|r  Describe the general condition of the roof.
    What color is the roof covering and what is its general condition?
|r  Note the location of any areas where the roof insulation is wet.
A-22  EHWSIM BUIWIHSS MAHUAL                                                    SKOHD fa/raw, M W5

                                                            Sm 3—WINDOW m Rows Si/mr
Ir   Record the number, size, and location of each type of window on the building
    (for example, fixed-sash, double-hung, casement).
  Type of Window
 Fixed eaeh
      , ton 1995

V  Record the number, size, and location of windows with each type of glazing (for
    example, single, double, triple).
   Type of Glazing
2nd floor  <»
36x72 t*

                                                               S/Mf 3— WINDOW m Kotm Sum
t/  Note the number, size, and location of windows that have window coatings (for
    example, clear, tinted or colored, reflective).
Type of Coating
Reflective t
,,-,-' v " • - ^

iStfttflobr ~ 'compu'tercerltln^
• fSiff^ci^Y- yfyf '} $ .- ;' .--4r-;f;c,;g|S^Si%t
-iC 4;v,i>,t4;i>-" r->iv '- vv :: -• ! 't?-;-'^???\f^?

'••oi(G'*w- it ' -' ^*' '.rf&Xi - • " '
fOV X /,<- v -'•<••?!*»,«$--•- '
;? ^> - - -\- -,«:«*:mwlk:v • ~
^ -v ^ ' \>. , V,?W^ikv^^ ^

••20| ' ,- ~ •

      , JULY 1995

Ir  Note the number, size, and location of windows with each type of interior shad-
    ing (for example, shades, horizontal blinds, vertical blinds, curtains).
  Type of Shading
         .curtains  -
\&i floor8
72 x 72

                                                            Sm 3—WINDOW m Rmm Sunwt
4«  Record the Following Additional Information About Your
      Building's Roof.

|r  Type of roof construction (for example, built-up, asphalt roll, modified bitumen,
    shingle, metal).
Ir  Type of decking (for example, steel, precast concrete).
K  Type of insulation (for example, mineral fiber, polystyrene, polyisocyanurate,
    foam, fiberboard).
t/  R-Value of insulation (between 0 and 44).
SKOHD Imox, im 1995                                                tow Sw Bumss Mtum A-2 7

  Record the Following Information About Your Building.
Number of floors.
I/ Number of heating days.
I/ Number of cooling days.
I/ Roof-to-building-envelope ratio. Use the following formula:
    Total roof area (square feet) * Total gross area of building exterior (square feet)
    Building is 120 feet long, 100 feet wide, 45 feet high.
    Roof area is 12,000 square feet (120 x 100).
    Total gross area is 31,800 square feet:
    (120 x 100) + [(100 x 45) x 2] + [(120 x 45) x 2]
    Roof-to-building-envelope ratio (12,000 4- 31,800) is 38 percent.
A-28  ENW SIM BUILDINGS MANUAL                                                  SKOND EDITION, MY 1995

                                                               Susf 3—WINDOW m KOOHHS SIMT
V  Glass-to-exterior-wall ratio on each side of the building. Use the following
    First calculate the total area of the wall:

    Width x Height

    Next calculate the total area of windows on the wall:

    Number of Windows x (Width of Window x Height of Window)

    Finally, divide the window area by the wall area:

    Total Window Area + Total Wall Area

    A single-story building has a north wall 100 feet long and 10 feet high.
    The wall has four windows, each 5 feet long and 6 feet high.
    Total wall area is 1,000 square feet:

        100 feet x 10 feet

    Total window area is 120 square feet:

        4 x (5 feet x 6 feet)

    Percent of glass to exterior wall is 12 percent:

        120 square feet 4-1,000 square feet
SKOND EDITION, Mr / 995                                                   teer Sun BUIWIMS MANUM. A-2?

                               This page intentionally left blank.
A-30  tew 5w BUIWK MANUAL                                                              SicomEomoN, JULY 1995

                                         4v  i"
                                         * s . ~ J  *S             x  v        '
                                             J. j>>               N^       ,
                                    ••. ;.  i\ \ o^ »<>J."  i ''''*§ * ^^        s   «• ^ ^

                    Variable Air Volume System Survey
 I •  Record the following information about the building's
      air-handling unit(s).
I/  Unit identification number(s) or serial number(s).
w  Net conditioned area served by each unit (in square feet).
Ir  Operating hours (weekday, Saturday, and Sunday/holiday).
    Note number of holidays.
    Number of Holidays per year

t/  Supply Fan Motor(s):
    Efficiency (in percent). This is the nominal NEMA efficiency from the motor's
    nameplate, or calculate:
    (Output Power •*• Input Power) x 100
SKOfflBmH, JULY 1995                                             EHBtErSJUlBmmSMum A-31

APKNDK A—Sum FORMS m Ittsmms
 V  Type of supply fan (for example, forward curved, backward curved, backward
    inclined, airfoil, radial).
    Supply fan's variable air volume control (for example, inlet vane, discharge
    damper, variable pitch, variable-speed drive).
\/ Air-handling unit's design (installed) airflow (in cubic feet per minute).
    This can be obtained from the air-handling unit schedule in the building's
    mechanical drawings.
\r  Air-handling unit's maximum airflow (percent).
    Measure airflow at maximum load conditions (for example, a hot summer day).
    Divide the result by the design airflow, then multiply the result by 100.

    (Airflow at maximum load •*• Design airflow) * 100
I/ Air-handling unit's minimum outside airflow (percent).
    This can be obtained from the air-handling unit schedule in the building's
    mechanical drawings.
    If the minimum outside airflow is given in cubic feet per minute (cfm) rather
    than a percentage, divide the minimum airflow cfm by the design the airflow
    cfin and multiply the result by 100.
A-32  ENOW Svut BUIWK MANUAL                                                 SKONO EDITION, JULY 1995

                                                          Sm 4—Vmsu An VOWIM Snm Sum
    Ratio of required airflow to design airflow. This is a measure of whether the
    unit is oversized or undersized. To determine the ratio:
    Measure airflow (cfin) at maximum load conditions (for example, a hot
    summer day). Subtract the maximum airflow (cfm) from the design airflow
    (cfm). Divide the result by the design airflow, then multiply the result by 100.

    [(Design airflow - Maximum airflow) -^-Design airflow] * 100

    Example 1 (Undersized System):
    Airflow at maximum load conditions is measured at 12,000 cubic feet per
    Design airflow is 10,000 cubic feet per minute.
    The difference is 2,000 (12,000 - 10,000).
    The percent of design CFM is [(2,000 -=-10,000) x 100].
    The unit is undersized by 20 percent.

    Note that in this case the motor may be operating above 100 percent of its
    rating or static pressure might not be being maintained.

    Example 2 (Oversized System):
    Airflow at maximum load conditions is measured at 8,000 cubic feet per
    Design airflow is 10,000 cubic feet per minute.
    The difference is -2,000 (8,000 - 10,000).
    The percent of design CFM is [(-2,000 -=-10,000) x 100].
    The unit is oversized by 20 percent.
SKOND EDIJIOH, Im 1995                                                  Earn Sm BUIWK MANW  A-33

AppimixA—SiRvir Fowsm Item/raws
    Return Fan Motor:


    Efficiency (in percent). This is the nominal NEMA efficiency from the motor's
    nameplate, or calculate:

    (Output Power + Input Power) x  100
tr  Type of return fan (for example, forward curved, backward curved, backward
    inclined, airfoil, radial, vane axial, tube axial).
w  Return fan's variable air volume control (for example, inlet vane, discharge
    damper, variable pitch, variable-speed drive).
      Calculate the required cooling load for the building.

A. Chiller load method:

\r  What is the installed capacity of the chiller (in tons)?
|r  What is the required cooling load for the chiller (in tons)?
    To determine the required cooling load, take the following measurements in the
    afternoon on a typical hot summer day (to capture peak load effects on your
    Note: an energy management system may also have these measurements.

    a.   Temperature of the chilled-water supply (CHWS). A temperature gauge
        should be found on the pipe at the chiller's supply outlet.
A-34  [am SJAK BWDK MANUAL                                                 SKOUD torn, JULY 1995

                                                              —Vatmi As Voiwc SWIM Sunrn
    b.  Temperature of the chilled-water return (CHWR). A temperature gauge
        should be found on the pipe at the chiller's return inlet.

    c.  Flow rate of the chilled-water supply in GPM (gallons per minute). A flow
        rate gauge should be found on the supply pipe.

        Now do the following calculations:

        CHWR - CHWS = AT

        AT x 500 x (GPM + 12,000) = Load (in tons)

        Load x |. | = Required Cooling Load

        A building has a chiller with an installed capacity of 170 tons.
        Measured CHWR temperature is 55° F.
        Measured CHWS temperature is 45° F.
        Measured flow rate is 300 GPM.

        T = 10 (55 - 45).

        Load = 125 tons [10 x 500 x (300 -=-12,000)].

        Required cooling load = 138 tons (125 x 1.1).
Siam ft/no*, JULY 1995                                                  firo Srat BUIWK MANUAL A-35

AmmxA—Sum fowsm tai/n/oivs
    What is the percentage of chiller utilization?
    To determine the percentage:
    Divide the required cooling load (in tons) by the installed chiller capacity (in
    tons), multiply the result by 100.

    (Required cooling load + Installed chiller capacity) x 100

    Installed chiller capacity is 170 tons; required cooling load is 138 tons, as
    determined in the example above.
    Ratio of required capacity to installed capacity is 0.81 (138 -f 170).
    Percentage of chiller utilization is 81 percent (0.81 x 100).
    What percentage of the chiller's load does this air handling unit represent?
    To determine the percentage:
    From the air-handling unit schedule in the building's mechanical drawings,
    record the cooling coil's flow rating in GPM (gallons per minute).
    Divide this number by the flow rate (also in GPM) of the chilled-water supply
    (see above), then multiply the result by 100.

    Cooling coil's flow rating is 60 GPM.
    Flow rate of the chilled water supply is 300 GPM.
    Ratio of the flow rating to flow rate is 0.20 (60 -i- 300).
    Percentage of the chiller's load is 20 percent (0.20 x 100).
A-36  tmsi Sm BUILDINGS MMWL                                                   SKONDfDiJion,Jutrl995

                                                             —Itosif AJP MM Srcrai S/MV
    b.  Temperature of the chilled-water return (CHWR). A temperature gauge
        should be found on the pipe at the chiller's return inlet.
    c.   Flow rate of the chilled-water supply in GPM (gallons per minute). A flow
        rate gauge should be found on the supply pipe.
        Now do the following calculations:
        CHWR - CHWS = AT
        AT x 500 x (GPM + 12,000) = Load (in tons)
        Load x  |. | = Required Cooling Load
        A building has a chiller with an installed capacity of 170 tons.
        Measured CHWR temperature is 55° F.
        Measured CHWS temperature  is 45° F.
        Measured flow rate is 300 GPM.
        T = 10  (55 - 45).
        Load = 125 tons [10 x 500 x (300 + 12,000)].
        Required cooling load = 138 tons (125 x 1.1).
SKom torn, M1995                                                  EmerSmBumss MANUAL  A-35

AmmA—SiHtm FOWSMD teraws
    What is the percentage of chiller utilization?
    To determine the percentage:
    Divide the required cooling load (in tons) by the installed chiller capacity (in
    tons), multiply the result by  100.

    (Required cooling load + Installed chiller capacity) x 100

    Installed chiller capacity is 170 tons; required cooling load is 138 tons, as
    determined in the example above.
    Ratio of required capacity to  installed capacity is 0.81 (138 •=• 170).
    Percentage of chiller utilization is 81 percent (0.81 x 100).
    What percentage of the chiller's load does this air handling unit represent?
    To determine the percentage:
    From the air-handling unit schedule in the building's mechanical drawings,
    record the cooling coil's flow rating in GPM (gallons per minute).
    Divide this number by the flow rate (also in GPM) of the chilled-water supply
    (see above), then multiply the result by 100.

    Cooling coil's flow rating is 60 GPM.
    Flow rate of the chilled water supply is 300 GPM.
    Ratio of the flow rating to flow rate is 0.20 (60 -=- 300).
    Percentage of the chiller's load is 20 percent (0.20 x 100).
A-36  ter SJM BUILDK MAHUM                                                   SKOND fi». My 1995

                                                            —Vaawf An Vouw Srsrw Smtm
B. Supply-Air Method

|X  From the air-handling unit schedule in the building's mechanical drawings,
    record the design supply-air dry-bulb temperature. Then record the return-air
    dry-bulb temperature, and the return-air wet-bulb temperature.

    Supply-air dry-bulb temperature	

    Return-air dry bulb temperature	

    Return-air wet bulb temperature	
   • Record Load Reductions

A. Lighting

}/  Using Green Lights survey data, record lighting power requirements (in watts
    per square foot) both before and after implementation of Green Lights upgrades.



K  If Green Lights survey data are not available, you should be able to estimate
    lighting power requirements before and after Green Lights implementation by
    using the Quikalc Fixture Table in your Lighting Upgrade Manual:

    1.  Identify the building's most common fixture, lamp, and ballast combination.
    2.   Use the Fixture Table to find the fixture system wattage for that
    3.   Multiply: Fixture System Wattage x Number of Fixtures in a Typical Space.
SKOHD torn, JIM 1995                                                Earn SwBuom MANUAL  A-37

  4.  Divide the result by the Area of the Office (square feet).
  5.  The result is the lighting power requirement in watts/square foot.

Ir  A third alternative is to use the following formula to estimate lighting power
    requirements before and after Green Lights implementation. This formula does
    not take lighting ballast into account, but will provide a reasonable approxima-
    tion of the lighting power requirements.

  1.  Record the number of lighting fixtures in the room.	

  2.  Record the number of lamps per fixture. 	

  3.  Record the wattage of one of the lamps.	

  4.  Multiply:

      Number of Fixtures x Lamps per Fixture x Watts per Lamp
  5.  Divide the result by the Area of the Office (square feet)
  6.   The result is the lighting power requirement in watts/square foot.
A-38  EMMY Sm BUILDINGS MANUO.                                                 SKOND Earn, MY 1995

                                                            Susi 4—Vtxwi Hit VOWMI SWIM Susm
B. Other Load Reductions
|X To determine other load reductions, subtract the required cooling load (in tons)
    from the installed capacity of the chiller.
    See item 2 above for these two numbers.
   '• Determine the Cost of Electricity for the Building
    Calculate the average yearly cost of electricity for your building in dollars per
    square foot. To determine the cost of electricity per square foot:
    From your electric bills for the last 12 months, calculate the total cost of electric-
    ity (kilowatthours plus demand) for the year.
    Divide that total by total kilowatthours used.
    Divide the result by the total square footage of the building.

    [(Kilowatthours + Demand) + Total kilowatthours  used] + Building square footage
SKOHO EDITION, JIM 7 995                                                   ter Sm BUILDINGS MANUAL A-39

                          This page intentionally left blank.
EmKr Sim BOOK Mum                                                              SKom>[mjiON/JiiLrl995

                     Chiller Survey
 I •  Compile the Following Basic Information About Your Chiller
    Type of chiller.
    Compression refrigeration:
    Air-cooled centrifugal  	
    Water-cooled centrifugal.
    Helical Rotary
    Absorption refrigeration:
    Steam heat	
    Hot-water heat
    Direct-fired heat
tr  Manufacturer.
Ir  Type of refrigerant.
    Efficiency (kilowatts per ton).
Sm torn, MY 1995                                              EmSratBwimMwHL  Ml

AmHoaA—Sumf FORMS AND litsmiaioiis
    Size (in tons) (12,000 Btu per hour = 1 ton).
     Calculate the Required Cooling Load for Your Building

|r  What is the capacity of the chiller (in tons)?
    What is the required cooling load for the building (in tons)? To determine re-
    quired cooling load, take the following measurements in the afternoon on a
    typical hot summer day (to capture peak load effects on your system).
    Note: an energy management system may also have these measurements.

    Temperature of the chilled-water supply (CHWS). A temperature gauge should
    be found on the pipe at the chiller's supply outlet.

    Temperature of the chilled-water return (CHWR). A temperature gauge should
    be found on the pipe at the chiller's return inlet.

    Flow rate (GPM) of the chilled-water supply. A flow-rate gauge should be found
    on the supply pipe.

    Temperature of CHWS	

    Temperature of CHWR	
    Flow rate (GPM) of CHWS.
w  Now do the following calculations:

    CHWR - CHWS = AT
    AT * 500 ^ (GPM + 12,000) = Load (in tons)
    Load *  I.I = Required Cooling Load
A-42  EmSmBuvmlfaiiiiiL                                                 S«om Bum, Juu 1995

\r  What is the ratio of required chiller capacity to installed chiller capacity
    (in tons)?

    A building has a chiller with an installed capacity of 170 tons.
    Measured CHWR temperature is 55° F.
    Measured CHWS temperature is 45° F.
    Measured flow rate is 300 GPM.

    T= 10(55-45).
    Load = 125 tons [10 x 500 x (300 + 12,000)].
    Required cooling load = 138 tons (125 x |.|).
    Ratio of required capacity to installed capacity is 0.81  (138+ 170).
SKOND EDITION, Mr 1995                                                    fwrSwfi(//«sAteMi A-43

                        This page intentionally left blank.
tew SWP BUIWK MAHUM                                                          Sm torn, Mt 1995

As you implement upgrades to your
building's systems over the course of the
ENERGY STAR Buildings Program, you must
ensure that the building's environmental
quality is maintained. This appendix ex-
plains the effects of energy conservation
measures on environmental quality and
provides  general guidelines on how to
maintain building environmental quality.

In recent years, the sources and quantities
of pollutants within buildings have prolifer-
ated, increasing the likelihood of indoor air
quality problems. At the same time, in-
creasingly sophisticated HVAC system
designs have raised occupant expectations
for comfort and air quality.  Because most
people spend at least a third of their day at
the workplace, and the quality of the air
they breathe at work affects their comfort,
their health, and even their job perfor-
mance, building occupants are less  tolerant
of fluctuating temperatures, unpleasant
odors, and other departures from ideal
conditions. Therefore, you must be aware of
issues related to indoor air quality and take
steps to ensure that indoor air quality is
not degraded as you implement the various
upgrades of the ENERGY STAR Buildings

The costs of poor indoor air quality to
building tenants include increased absen-
teeism, lower productivity, compensation
claims linked to adverse health effects,
strained relations with employees, and
damage to public image or reputation.
Individuals suffer from illness, lost work
time, discomfort, dissatisfaction, and irrita-
tion. Potential costs to the building owners,
designers, and product manufacturers
include strained relations with tenants or
customers, lost occupancy, damage  to sales
and reputation, and liability expenses.
Soiling of surfaces and furnishings and
damage to equipment and office
machines incur both aesthetic and economic
costs. Many insurance policies do not cover
pollution-related personal or property
Indoor air quality is the result of a combi-
nation of variables and processes controlled
or determined by the building designer, the
building owner, and the building occupants.
Factors  external to the building itself also
play a role. Numerous daily occurrences
such as  ventilation system schedules,
occupant activities, and variations in out-
door air quality are involved.
You can tell if there is poor indoor air
quality in your building by looking for the
following general indicators:

• Increasing number of health problems
  such as coughing, eye irritation, head-
  ache,  and allergic reactions (in extreme
  cases, life-threatening conditions such as
  Legionnaire's disease and carbon monox-
  ide poisoning may be possible).

• Decreasing productivity due to discom-
  fort or increased absenteeism.

• Accelerating deterioration of furnishings
  and equipment.

Factors Affecting
Indoor Air Quality
Four elements contribute to the develop-
ment of indoor air quality problems:

• Source. There is a source of contamina-
  tion or discomfort indoors, outdoors, or
  within the  mechanical systems of the
  building. In some cases, the building's
  occupants and their activities can con-
  tribute to indoor air quality problems.
                      [now SIM BIWINK MMW  B-l

m HVAC System. The HVAC system is not
  able to control existing air contaminants
  and ensure temperature and humidity
  conditions that are comfortable for most

• Pathways. One or more pathways con-
  nect the source of the pollutant to the
  occupants, and a driving force exists to
  move pollutants along these pathways.

• Occupants. Building occupants are
  affected by the contaminants.
It is important to understand the role that
each of these factors plays as you investi-
gate and resolve existing indoor air quality
problems and work to prevent future prob-

Indoor air contaminants can originate
within the building or be drawn in from
outdoors. If contaminant sources  are not
controlled, indoor air quality problems can
arise, even if the HVAC system is properly
designed and well-maintained. Contami-
nants generally fit into the following broad
categories. Note: The examples given are not
intended to be a complete list.

• Sources Outside Building

  —Contaminated outside air (pollen,  dust,
    fungal spores, industrial  pollutants,
    general vehicle exhaust).

  —Emissions from nearby sources (emis-
    sions  from vehicles on nearby roads or
    in parking lots or garages, from
    dumpsters, or from loading docks;
    exhaust air drawn back into  the build-
    ing from the building itself or from
    nearby buildings; unsanitary debris
    near the outdoor air intake).

  —Soil gas (radon, leakage from under-
    ground fuel tanks,  contamination from
    previous uses of the site,  pesticides).

  —Moisture or standing water producing
    excess microbial growth on rooftops or
    in crawlspace.
Equipment Sources (Non-HVAC)

—Emissions from office equipment
  (volatile organic compounds, ozone).

—Supplies (solvents, toners, ammonia).

—Emissions from shops, laboratories,
  and cleaning processes.

—Elevator motors and other mechanical

Human Activities

—Personal activities (smoking, cooking,
  body odor, cosmetics).

—Housekeeping activities (cleaning
  materials and procedures, emissions
  from stored supplies or trash, use of
  deodorizers and fragrances, airborne
  dust and dirt circulated by sweeping
  and vacuuming).

—Maintenance activities (microorgan-
  isms in mist from improperly main-
  tained cooling towers; airborne dust or
  dirt; volatile organic compounds from
  use of paint, caulk, adhesives, and
  other products; pesticides from pest-
  control activities; emissions from
  stored supplies).

Building Components and Furnishings

—Locations that produce or collect dust
  or fibers (textured surfaces such as
  carpeting, curtains, and other textiles;
  open shelving; old or deteriorated
  furnishings; materials containing
  damaged asbestos).

—Unsanitary conditions and water
  damage (microbiological growth on or
  in soiled or water-damaged furnishings
  or carpet; microbiological growth in
  areas of surface condensation; standing
  water from clogged or poorly designed
  drains; dry traps that allow passage of
  sewer gas).

—Chemicals released from building
  components or furnishings (volatile
                         SKOHD Emm, JULY 1995

                                                                           IHDOM Am Qwm
    organic compounds or inorganic com-

• Other Sources

  —Accidents (spills of water or other
    liquids; microbiological growth due to
    flooding or leaks from roofs or pipes;
    soot, PCBs, and odors from fires).

  —Special-use areas and mixed-use
    buildings (smoking lounges, laborato-
    ries, print shops, art rooms, exercise
    rooms, beauty salons, food preparation

  —Redecorating, remodeling, and repairs
    (emissions from new furnishings; dust
    and fibers from demolition; odors and
    volatile organic and inorganic com-
    pounds from paint, caulk, and adhe-
    sives; microbiologicals released from
    demolition or remodeling activities).

HVAC Systems
A properly designed and functioning HVAC
system performs the following functions:

• Provides thermal comfort.

  —Uniformity of temperature is  impor-
    tant to comfort. Temperature stratifi-
    cation is a common problem.

  —Radiant heat transfer can cause dis-
    comfort even though the thermostat
    setting and the measured air  tempera-
    ture are within the comfort range.
    Large window areas  sometimes have
    acute problems with radiant heat gain
    and loss during the day as the sun
    angle changes. Airflow over large
    vertical surfaces can cause problems
    with drafts.

  —Excessively high or low humidity
    affects comfort. High humidity reduces
    the ability to lose heat through perspi-
    ration and evaporation, so the effect is
    similar to raising the temperature.
    High humidity also promotes  the
    growth of mold and mildew.
—The activity level, age, and physiology
  of each person affect the thermal
  comfort requirements of that indi-

Distributes enough outdoor air to meet
the ventilation needs of all building

—The correct blend of outdoor air and
  recirculated indoor air is necessary to
  meet both thermal comfort and venti-
  lation requirements.

—Proper design, installation, testing,
  and balancing and regular inspection
  and maintenance are critical to the
  correct operation of all types of HVAC
  systems, especially variable air volume

—Variable air volume system designs
  should ensure that a minimum supply
  of outdoor air is provided to all zones
  and rooms at all times when the build-
  ing is occupied.

Isolates and removes pollutants through
pressure controls, filtration, and exhaust

—One technique for controlling  odors
  and contaminants is to dilute  them
  with outside air. Dilution can work
  only if there is a consistent and appro-
  priate flow of supply air that mixes
  effectively with room air.

—Another technique is to design and
  operate the HVAC system so that
  pressure relationships between zones
  and rooms are controlled. This is
  accomplished by adjusting the air
  quantities that are supplied to and
  removed from each room. Control of
  pressure relationships is critically
  important in mixed-use buildings or
  buildings with special-use areas.

—A third technique is to use local, or
  dedicated, exhaust systems to ventilate
  a particular  piece of equipment or an
  entire room. Air should be exhausted
                    EHBtSYSmBUIUXHSSMmUl  B-3

    to the outdoors, not recirculated. Spaces
    with local exhaust must be provided
    with make-up air, and the local exhaust
    must function in coordination with the
    rest of the ventilation system.

  —Air cleaning and filtration devices
    designed to control contaminants are
    found as components to HVAC systems
    and can also be installed as indepen-
    dent units. The effectiveness of air
    cleaning depends on proper equipment
    selection, installation, operation, and

Indoor air contamination caused by the
HVAC system can originate from the follow-
ing sources:

• Insufficient outside air intake.

• Microbiological growth in drip pans,
  humidifiers, ductwork, and coils.

• Dust or dirt in ductwork or other compo-

• Cooling tower located near outside air

• Improper use of biocides, sealants, and
  cleaning compounds.

• Improper venting of combustion products.

• Refrigerant leakage.

Pollutant Pathways
Airflow patterns in buildings result from the
combined action of mechanical ventilation
systems, human activity, and natural forces.
Pressure differentials created by these
forces move airborne contaminants from
areas of relatively higher pressure to areas
of relatively lower pressure through any
available openings.
The HVAC system is generally the predomi-
nant pathway for air movement in buildings.
However, all of a building's components
(walls, ceilings, floors, penetrations, HVAC
equipment, and occupants) interact to affect
the distribution of contaminants.
For example, supply air can be diverted or
obstructed from the return grille by parti-
tions, walls, and furnishings. It can be
redirected by openings that provide path-
ways for air movement. In a localized area,
movement of people has a major impact on
the movement of pollutants. Pathways
change as doors and windows open and
close. The stack effect (the flow of air driven
by the tendency of warm air to rise) can
transport contaminants between floors by
way of stairwells, elevator shafts, utility
chases or other openings. Depending on
leakage openings in the building exterior,
wind can affect the pressure relationships
within and between rooms.
Air moves from areas of higher pressure to
areas of lower pressure through any avail-
able openings. A small opening can admit
significant amounts of air if the pressure
differentials are high enough. Even when
the building as a whole is maintained
under positive pressure, there is always
some location (for example, the outdoor air
intake) under negative pressure relative to
the outdoors. Entry of contaminants may be
intermittent, for example, occurring only
when the wind blows from the direction of
the pollutant source. The interaction be-
tween pollutant pathways and intermittent
or variable driving forces can lead to a
single source causing indoor air quality
complaints in areas of the building that are
distant from each other and from the source
of the pollutant.

Building Ottupants
Because of varying sensitivity among
people, one individual may react to a par-
ticular indoor air quality problem while
surrounding occupants have no ill effects.
In other cases, complaints may be wide-
spread. A single indoor air pollutant or
problem can trigger different reactions in
different people. Some may not be affected
at all.

The effects of indoor air quality problems
are often nonspecific symptoms rather than
clearly defined illnesses. Symptoms com-
monly attributed to indoor air quality prob-
                                  , JULY 1995

lems include headache; fatigue; shortness of
breath; sinus congestion; coughing; sneez-
ing; eye, nose, or throat irritation; skin irri-
tation; dizziness; and nausea. All of these
symptoms, however, may also be caused by
other factors and are not necessarily indica-
tors of indoor air quality problems.
Some complaints by building occupants are
clearly related to discomfort. For example,
when the air in a room is slightly too warm
for a person's activity level, that person
may experience mild discomfort. If the tem-
perature continues to rise, discomfort
increases and symptoms such as fatigue,
stuffiness, and headache can appear.
Environmental stressors such as improper
lighting, noise, vibration, overcrowding,
ergonomic stress, and psychosocial prob-
lems such as job stress can produce symp-
toms that are similar to  those associated
with poor air quality. Odors are often asso-
ciated with a perception of poor air quality,
whether they cause symptoms or not.

Developing an Indoor
Air Quality Profile
Creating an indoor air quality profile for
your building is a good first step toward
ensuring that your ENERGY STAR upgrades
are contributing to adequate indoor air
quality. The indoor air quality profile is an
organized body of information that you can
use in planning renovations, negotiating
leases and contracts, and responding to
future complaints. It describes the
building's structural features, functions,
and occupancy levels, all of which affect
indoor air quality. It should enable you to
answer the following questions, which are
key to maintaining indoor air quality:

• How was the building originally intended
  to function? Consider the building's
  components and furnishings, mechanical
  equipment (HVAC and non-HVAC), and
  the occupants and their activities.

• Is the building functioning as designed?
  Compare the commissioning information
  with the current conditions.
• What changes in building layout and use
  have occurred since the original design
  and construction? Determine whether the
  HVAC system has been reset and re-
  tested to reflect the changes.

• What changes may be needed to prevent
  indoor air quality problems from develop-
  ing in the future? Consider potential
  changes in future uses of the building
  and additional ENERGY STAR upgrades.

Steps in Creating an
Indoor Air Quality Profile
Note: This section summarizes the steps
involved in creating an indoor air quality
profile as described in the EPA/NIOSH
publication Building Air Quality: A Guide
for Building Owners and Managers, which
provides more detailed information on
conducting the profile and analyzing the
results and also contains blank forms to use
in compiling the profile.
The process of creating an indoor air qual-
ity profile takes place in three major stages:

1. Collecting and reviewing existing

2. Conducting a walkthrough inspection of
  the building.

3. Collecting detailed information on the
  HVAC system, pollutant pathways,
  pollutant sources, and building occu-
The type of information required for each of
these stages is summarized below.

Collecting and Reviewing Existing Records
• Review construction and operating

  —Commissioning reports.

  —Operations manuals.

  —Addenda for remodeled areas.

  —Plans for addition, removal, or replace-
    ment of HVAC equipment.

  —Plans for changes in room use.
                      ENKGI SJAK BUILDINGS MANUAL  B-5

m  Check HVAC system maintenance
   records against equipment lists. Collect
   existing maintenance and calibration
   records and check them against equip-
   ment lists, mechanical plans, and so
   forth, to see whether all components are
   receiving regular attention.

•  Review records of complaints to identify
   building areas that deserve particular

Conducing a Walkthrough
Inspection of the Building
m  Discuss indoor air quality with staff and
   other occupants. Inform them about the
   concept of indoor air quality and their
   responsibilities in relation to housekeep-
   ing and maintenance. Learn about rou-
   tine activities in the building to help
   clarify elements that should be included
   in an indoor air quality plan.

•  Review facility operation and mainte-

   —HVAC operating schedule.

   —HVAC maintenance schedule.

   —Use and storage of chemicals.

   —Schedule of shipping and receiving,
    including handling of vehicles at the
    loading dock.

   —Scheduling and other procedures for
    isolating odors, dust, and emissions
    from painting, roof repair, and other
    contaminant-producing activities.


•  Review housekeeping activities.

   —Cleaning schedule.

   —Trash storage and collection schedule.

   —Use and  storage of chemicals.

• Review pest-control procedures.

  —Schedule and location of pesticide
  —Use and storage of chemicals.

  —Pest-control activities other than use of

• Look for signs of indoor air quality prob-


  —Dirty or unsanitary conditions, particu-
    larly in equipment and mechanical

  —Visible fungal growth or moldy odors on
    walls, ceilings, and floors.

  —Poorly maintained filters.

  —Staining and discoloration.

  —Smoke damage.

  —Presence of hazardous substances.

  —Potential for soil gas entry.

  —Unusual noises from light fixtures or
    mechanical equipment.

  —Inadequate maintenance.

  —Signs of occupant discomfort.


  —Blocked  airflow.

  —Obstructed or diverted airflow in ple-
    nums. Debris and damaged or loose
    material in plenum area.

  —Concentrations of equipment or lighting.

  —Inadequate pressure relationships in
    special-use areas.

  —Improperly located vents, exhausts, and
    air intakes.

Collecting Detailed Information
m Inspect the HVAC system's condition and
  its operation. Identify equipment that
  needs to be repaired, adjusted, or replaced.
  Record control settings and operating
  schedules for HVAC equipment for com-
                            SECOND EDITION, MY 1995

  parison to occupancy schedules and
  current uses of space.

• Conduct an inventory of potential pollut-
  ant pathways. Observe and record airflow
  between spaces.

• Conduct an inventory of potential pollut-
  ant sources.

• Collect information on building occu-

• Obtain EPA indoor air quality publica-
  tions (see box on page B-10).

Operating and Maintaining
HVAC Equipment To insure
Indoor Air Quality
Maintaining good indoor air quality in your
building involves reviewing and amending
current practices. Once you have created an
indoor air quality profile of your building,
you can use it to develop an indoor air
quality management plan.  Such a plan will
ensure that indoor air quality consider-
ations become a part of routine procedures.
The plan should include the following

• Informing and training staff, occupants,
  and contractors as to their  responsibili-
  ties relating to indoor air quality.

• Maintaining all equipment and controls
  in proper working order.

• Keeping equipment and mechanical
  rooms as well as the interior of ductwork
  clean and dry.
Indoor air quality can be affected both by
the quality of maintenance  and by the
materials and procedures used in operating
and maintaining the building and its sys-
tems, particularly the HVAC  system. The
maintenance staff can best  respond to
indoor air  quality concerns  if they under-
stand how their activities affect indoor air
quality. It may be necessary to change
existing practices or introduce new proce-
dures in any of the following areas:
Equipment Operating Schedules. The
building should be flushed by the ventila-
tion system before occupants arrive.
Occupancy cycles should correspond to
actual occupied periods.

Controlling Odors and Contami-
nants. Maintain appropriate pressure
relationships among building usage
areas. Provide adequate local exhaust.
Ensure that paint, solvents, and other
chemicals are stored and handled prop-
erly, with adequate ventilation provided.

Ventilation Quantities. Compare
outdoor air quantities with the building's
design goal and local and state building
codes. Make adjustments as necessary.
You may also find it informative to
compare your ventilation rates with
ASHRAE standard 62-1989 (or the latest
standard), as it was developed with
preventing indoor air quality problems in

Equipment Maintenance Schedules.
Inspect all equipment regularly to ensure
that it is in good condition and is operat-
ing as designed. Be thorough in conduct-
ing these inspections. Components
exposed to water require scrupulous
maintenance to prevent microbiological
growth and the entry of undesired
microbiologicals or chemicals into the
indoor airstream.

Building Maintenance Schedules.
Schedule maintenance activities that
interfere with HVAC operations or that
produce odors and emissions to occur
when the building is unoccupied.

Purchasing. Request information  from
suppliers about chemical emissions
associated with materials being consid-
ered for purchase.

Preventive Maintenance Manage-
ment. Maintenance "indicators" (for
example, manometers for filter banks)
can help the staff determine when rou-
tine maintenance is required. Computer-
ized systems that prompt the staff to
                    ENW STAR Buiwms MAHUAL  B-7

                         ASHRAE Standards and Guidelines Related to Indoor Air Quality
  The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration,
  and  Air  Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)  has
  published three standards and one guideline re-
  lated to indoor air quality. These standards are
  summarized below. ASHRAE materials are avail-
  able from their Publications Sales Department,
  1791 Tullie  Circle NE, Atlanta,  Georgia 30329
  (Phone 404-636-8400).

  Standard 62-1989,
  Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality
  ASHRAE 62-1989 is intended to assist in designing
  building ventilation systems. It presents two proce-
  dures for ventilation design. With the Ventilation
  Rate procedure, acceptable air quality is achieved
  by specifying  a  given quantity  and  quality of
  outdoor air based on occupant density and space
  usage. The Air Quality procedure is a performance
  specification that allows acceptable air quality to
  be achieved  within a space by controlling known
  and specifiable contaminants. Important features
  of the standard include the following:
  •  A definition of acceptable air quality.
  •  A discussion of ventilation effectiveness.
  •  Recommendation of the use of source control
     through isolation and local exhaust contami-
  •  Recommendations for the use of heat recovery
  •  A guideline for allowable carbon dioxide levels.
  •  Appendices listing suggested  possible guide-
     lines for common indoor pollutants.

  Standard 55-1992, Thermal Environmental
  Conditions for Human Occupancy
  ASHRAE 55-1992 covers several environmental
  parameters,  including temperature,  radiation,
  humidity, and air  movement. It specifies condi-
  tions to ensure the comfort of healthy people in
  normal indoor environments  in winter and sum-
  mer conditions. It also attempts to introduce limits
  on temperature variations within a  space  and
  describes adjustment factors for various levels of
  occupant activity and types of clothing. Important
  features of the standard include the following:

  • A definition of acceptable thermal comfort.
  • A discussion of additional environmental pa-
     rameters that must be considered.
•  Recommendations for summer and winter com-
   fort zones for both temperature and relative
•  A guideline for making adjustments for various
   activity levels.
•  Guidelines for taking measurements.

Standard 52.1-1992, Gravimetric
and Dust-Spot Procedures for Testing
Air-Cleaning Devices Used in General
Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter
This standard describes two ways to test air clean-
ing systems.
The atmospheric dust spot test determines the
efficiency of a medium-efficiency air cleaner by
evaluating its ability to reduce soiling of a clean
paper target. The weight arrestance test is gener-
ally used to evaluate low-efficiency filters by deter-
mining the weight of  a  standard synthetic dust
trapped in the filter. Important features of the
standard include the following:
•  Definitions of arrestance and efficiency.
•  Establishment of a uniform comparative testing
   procedure for evaluating performance of air
   cleaning devices used in  ventilation  systems.
•  Establishment of a uniform reporting method
   for performance.
•  Methods  for evaluating  resistance to airflow
   and dust-holding capacity.

Guideline 1-1989, Guideline for the
Commissioning of HVAC Systems
This guideline is intended to assist professionals by
providing procedures and methods for document-
ing and verifying the performance of HVAC  sys-
tems so that they operate in conformity with the
design intent. Important features of the guideline
include the following:
•  Definition of the commissioning process.
•  Discussion of the process involved in a proper
   commissioning procedure.
•  Sample specification and forms for logging
•  Recommendation for implementation of correc-
   tive measures as warranted.
•  Guidelines for operator training.
•  Guidelines for periodic maintenance and
   recommissioning as needed.
B-8   tew S/M BUDK Mwui
                                SOT) fc/r/OA/, M W5

                                                                         INDOOR Am Qu/m
  carry out maintenance activities at the
  proper intervals are also available.

Diagnosing HVAC-Related Indoor Air
Qualify Problems
Indoor air quality complaints often arise
because the quantity or distribution of
outdoor air is inadequate to meet the venti-
lation needs of building occupants. An
investigation of these complaints should
begin with the components of the HVAC
systems that serve the complaint area and
surrounding rooms and then be expanded
as necessary. The following questions
should be answered:

• Are the components that serve the imme-
  diate complaint area functioning prop-

• Is the HVAC system adequate for the
  current use of the building?

• Are ventilation (or thermal comfort)
  deficiencies evident?

• Should the definition of the complaint
  area be expanded based upon the HVAC
  system's layout and operating character-
An evaluation of the HVAC system may
include limited measurements of tempera-
ture, humidity, airflow, and carbon dioxide
as well as smoke-tube observations.
The following items should be included in
an HVAC system inspection:

• Check temperature and humidity to see
  if the complaint area is in the comfort

• Check for indicators of adequate ventila-

• Check to see if the equipment serving
  the complaint area is operating properly.

• Compare the current system to the
  original design.

• Check to see if the layout of air supplies,
  returns, and exhausts promotes efficient
  air distribution to all occupants and
  isolates or dilutes contaminants.

• Consider whether the HVAC system
  itself may be a source of contaminants.

• Compare the original uses of space to
  current uses.

• Observe the direction of air movement.
A detailed engineering study may be re-
quired if the investigation discovers the
following problems:

• Airflows are low.

• HVAC controls are not working or are
  working according to inappropriate

• Building operators do not understand (or
  are unfamiliar with) the HVAC system.
A review of existing HVAC system docu-
mentation (plans, specifications, testing
and balancing reports) should provide
information about the original design and
later modifications. If there is no documen-
tation, an intensive on-site inspection will
be required.
The building staff can provide important
information about equipment operating and
maintenance schedules and breakdowns or
other incidents. In addition, inspection
reports or other written records may be
available for review. Those who are familiar
with building systems in general and with
specific features of the building under
investigation can be helpful in identifying
conditions that may be causing complaints
about indoor air quality.

Mitigating Indoor Air Qualify

Modifications to ventilation systems are
often used to correct or prevent indoor air
quality problems. This approach can be
effective when buildings are under-
ventilated or when a specific source of
contamination cannot be identified. Venti-
                      Emr Sw BUILDINGS MANUU.  B-9

                            Sources of Additional Information on Indoor Air Quality
   EPA's Indoor Air Quality Clearinghouse, IAQ INFO,
   is an easily accessible central source of information
   and publications on  indoor air quality. It provides
   information on indoor air pollutants and their sources,
   health effects related to indoor air pollution, testing
   and measuring of indoor air pollutants, controlling
   indoor air pollutants, constructing and maintaining
   buildings to minimize indoor air quality  problems,
   standards and guidelines related to indoor air quality,
   and general information on Federal and State legis-
   lation related to indoor air quality.
   An IAQ INFO specialist can quickly put you in touch
   with a variety of resources, including citations and
   abstracts on more than 2,000 books,  reports, and
   articles; an inventory of Federal Government publica-
   tions; and information on more than  150 govern-
   ment,  research, public interest, and private-sector
   organizations involved with indoor  air quality. The
   specialist can answer questions, send Federal Gov-
   ernment publications (most are free)  or a list  of
   publications, refer you to appropriate government or
   other organizations, and provide you with a bibliog-
   raphy on a topic for further reference.
   Among the publications available are the following:
   • The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality
   • Fact Sheet: Respiratory Health Effects of Passive
     Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders
   • Targeting Indoor Air Pollution: EPA's Approach
     and Progress (IAQ-0029)
   • Fact Sheet: Ventilation  and Air Quality in Offices
   • Fact Sheet: Sick Building Syndrome
   • Fact Sheet: Report to Congress on Indoor Air
     Quality (Summary of Report) (IAQ-0006)
   • Fact Sheet: Carpet and Indoor Air Quality
   • Current Federal Indoor Air Quality Activities
   • Directory  of State Indoor Air Contacts
   • Compendium of Methods for Determination of
     Air Pollutants in Indoor Air—Project Summary
   To request any of these  titles (please include the
   catalog number), to request a complete list of titles, or
   to speak to an IAQ INFO specialist, call IAQ INFO's
   toll-free number, 1-80CM38-4318, Monday through
   Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. eastern  time (after hours you
can leave a message). You can write or fax any time.
The address is IAQ INFO, P.O. Box 37133, Washing-
ton,  D.C. 20013-7133. The fax  number  is
The  EPA and  National  Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH) publication Building Mr
Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility
Managers provides valuable information on how to
develop a building profile that can help you prevent
indoor air  quality problems, create an indoor air
quality management plan,  identify causes of indoor
air quality problems and develop solutions to those
problems as they occur, identify appropriate control
strategies, and decide if you need outside technical
assistance.  You will also find sections covering key
causes of  indoor air quality, air quality sampling,
HVAC systems, and moisture problems, plus a wide
variety of  checklists and forms  that can help you
manage indoor air quality  and diagnose problems.
The publication also includes an extensive  listing  of
indoor air quality information resources.
This  publication, published in a looseleaf binder
format, is available for $24 from the Superintendent
of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash-
ington, D.C. 20402-9325 (credit card orders by phone,
202-783-3238, or fax, 202-512-2250).
The National Environmental Health Association's In-
troduction to Indoor Air Quality set, a reference
manual and a self-paced learning module, is avail-
able from the Association at 720 Colorado Boulevard,
970 South Tower, Denver,  Colorado 80222 (phone
303-756-9090). The price is $40 for members and
$47 for nonmembers.
The Survey of Indoor Air Quality Diagnostic and
Mitigation Firms is available in hardcopy  ($44.50)
and microfiche ($12.50) from the National Technical
Information Service, 5245 Port Royal Road, Spring-
field,  Virginia 22161.  Phone 800-553-6847  or
703-487-460. Order item number PB90-130469.
Also available from the National Technical  Informa-
tion Service is the four-volume Report to Congress
on Indoor Air Quality (item number PB90-167362;
$77 papercopy, $34 microfiche). The volumes are
also available individually:  Executive Summary and
Recommendations (item number  PB90-167370;
$17.50 papercopy, $9 microfiche); Volume 1—Fed-
eral Programs Addressing Indoor Air Quality  (item
number PB90-167388; $19.50 papercopy, $9 micro-
fiche); Volume 2—Assessment and Control (item num-
ber PB90-167396; $36.50 papercopy, $12.50 micro-
fiche); and Volume 3—Research  Needs Statement
(item number PB90-167404; $19.50 paper-copy, $9

lation can be used to control indoor air
contaminants by:

• Diluting contaminants with outdoor air.

  —Increasing the proportion of outdoor
    air to total air.

  —Improving air distribution.

• Isolating or removing contaminants by
  controlling air pressure relationships.

  —Installing effective local exhaust at the
    location of the source.

  —Eliminating recirculation of contami-
    nated  air.

  —Locating contamination sources near
    exhaust registers.

  —Using air-tightening techniques to
    maintain pressure differentials and
    eliminate pollutant pathways.

  —Closing doors when necessary to
    separate zones.
Other ways to maintain indoor air quality
include the following:

• Correcting design deficiencies such as
  inadequate outside air intakes or vari-
  able air boxes that close completely
  because they do not have a set minimum.

• Eliminating reentrainment of exhaust air
  and combustion gases.

• Eliminating reentrainment through heat-
  recovery wheels (when applicable).

• Improving the efficiency of the air clean-
  ing and filtration system.

• Ensuring proper operation of the HVAC

• Performing regular maintenance on the
  HVAC system.

• Eliminating or controlling microbiological
  and chemical contaminants.

• Educating the building operating staff
  and tenants about indoor air quality.
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This appendix contains supplemental
program management information on
financing your ENERGY STAR Buildings
upgrades and on preparing requests for
proposals and quotations.

Many profitable upgrade projects are
delayed by restricted availability of capital.
Utility incentives (particularly through
EPA Super Ally Program utility partners),
national purchasing agreements, and
equipment financing (with or without
performance guarantees) can help ENERGY
STAR Buildings Partners overcome financ-
ing obstacles and obtain the financial
advantages of energy efficiency.
Alternatives  to using in-house capital for
energy-efficiency upgrades include conven-
tional financing, leasing (capital leases and
operating leases), and shared savings
financing. These  financing options can
provide positive cash flow when the peri-
odic energy cost savings exceed the amount
of payments. The risk of the investment can
be reduced or eliminated with guaranteed
savings insurance and shared savings
financing. National purchasing agreements,
if applicable, can reduce costs and improve
Several types of utility incentives and
financing options reduce or eliminate the
need for capital, reduce risk, and improve
cash flow. Although third-party financing
may be a slightly more expensive approach
to procuring energy-efficiency upgrades, it
may still be the best alternative because it
allows you to retain more capital for use in
your specific business activities.
This section addresses the  attributes of the
more popular financing options that  can be
used for procuring ENERGY STAR Buildings
upgrades. Note, however, that terms and
conditions for each option will vary among
these financing sources.
You can obtain detailed information about
the utilities and financing companies that
offer the various financing options described
in this section from the Green Lights data-
base of financing programs, described later
in this section.

Utility Incentives
Electric utilities in some areas are helping
their customers reduce the cost of energy-
efficiency  upgrades by offering rebates and
other incentives. By encouraging reduced
customer loads, an electric utility can meet
new customer demand while avoiding the
costs required to add more generating
            Action Steps for Financing
     Use the Green Lights database of financing
     programs to:
     — Determine the availability of utility
     — Review services and terms offered by
       financing organizations.
     Work with your financial and tax analysts to
     determine the appropriate financing option
     based on:
     — Cost of capital.
     — Eligibility for utility incentives.
     — Perceived investment risk.
     — Flexibility.
     Work with manufacturers and service
     companies to investigate national purchasing
Second Edition, July 1995
                       Energy Stor Buildings Manual  C-l

Appendix C
Before you proceed with your ENERGY STAR
Buildings upgrades, contact your local
utility and obtain specific incentive pro-
gram information. Pay particular attention
to customer eligibility criteria and the
specific technologies that qualify for incen-
tives or rebates. Be certain to verify the
deadline for the rebate applications or for
the upgrades themselves. These deadlines
are important for determining whether you
can qualify for rebates or incentives. To
determine the incentives that may apply to
your upgrades,  consult the Green Lights
database of financing programs (described
later in this section).
Specific types of utility incentives are
described below.


  — The utility company reimburses the
     building owner for  a portion of the cost
     of energy-efficiency improvements

  — Rebates may be based on peak load
     reductions (that is, dollars per kilo-
     watt) or based on a fixed rebate for
     each energy-efficient product pur-
     chased (that is, dollars per item).

  — A given  technology may qualify under
     one or more programs offered by the
     utility. Typically, only one incentive
     program application may be submitted
     per building. Check with your utility
     for details.

  — Rebates have been the most common
     form of utility incentive during the
     past several years.

  Direct Utility Assistance

  — The utility pays some or all of the cost
     of the upgrade directly to the install-
     ing contractor selected by the cus-

  — Alternatively, the utility provides
     energy-efficiency products or services
     to the customer through utility per-
     sonnel or contractors selected by the

  Low-Interest Loans

  — Some utilities offer low-interest
     financing for energy conservation
     projects. Loan payments can be added
     to your utility bills.

National Attount Agreements
National purchasing agreements, also
called national accounts, are negotiated
relationships between suppliers and nation-
wide buyers of products and services.
National accounts provide the following

• Streamlined coordination of energy-
  efficiency equipment purchases.

• Guaranteed availability of selected

• Competitive prices.

• Multi-location shipping directly from the

• Standardized installation and mainte-

• Additional support services available
  only from the manufacturer.
National account programs can assist
ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners by simpli-
fying the procurement process for energy-
efficiency upgrades. They may or may not
take the form of written agreements. To be
legally binding, however, the agreements
are written, agreed to, and signed by both
parties. A request for proposals (RFP) to
solicit bids  on a national account may or
may not be necessary.
ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners interested
in exploring national account agreements
should take the following steps:

• Determine the types of upgrades suitable
  for national accounts.

• Determine the quantities and prices for
  the products and services required.
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                            Second fdition, July 1995

                                                                     More on Program Management
m Plan and aggregate company-wide pur-
  chases to gain the maximum discount for
  quantity purchases.

• If possible, reduce the diversity of prod-
  ucts to increase purchase quantities and
  further increase discounts for quantity

• Identify which products will be specified
  for purchase and whether or not substi-
  tutes would be acceptable.

• If applicable, determine annual purchas-
  ing volume.

• Contact the appropriate manufacturers
  to inquire about establishing a national

• If necessary, issue an RFP to solicit bids
  from interested manufacturers or con-
  tractors (see page C-7 for more informa-
  tion about proposals and quotations).

Overview of Financing Options
Financing organizations can provide the
needed capital for implementing your
ENERGY STAR Buildings upgrades. These
financing options are designed to reduce or
eliminate up-front project expenditures and
distribute these costs over time. In many
cases, the periodic energy cost savings
exceed the periodic financing payments,
resulting in positive cash flow from the
beginning of the project. In addition to
providing capital, several organizations
provide the expertise to design and install
the upgrades while assuming some or all of
the performance risk.
There are many variations of financing
options available to ENERGY STAR Buildings
Partners. In the descriptions that follow,
the most common attributes of the financ-
ing methods are described. However, note
that the specific terms and conditions vary
among the large number of financing enti-
ties. To determine the incentives that may
apply to your upgrades, consult the Green
Lights database of financing programs
(described later in this section).
Note: Because tax laws are frequently re-
vised and sometimes are difficult to inter-
pret, check with your tax and financial
analysts to determine bottom-line impacts
before entering into an agreement with a
financing company.
Table C-l provides a summary of the
attributes of the financing options described
in the rest of this section. Other options
may be applicable to projects that involve
cogeneration or thermal storage systems.

Lease Purthase
Two basic types of leases can be used to
finance energy-efficiency improvements:
capital leases and operating leases.
Capital leases are installment purchases.
Little or no initial capital outlay is required
to purchase  the equipment. You are consid-
ered the owner of the equipment and may
take deductions for depreciation and for the
interest portion of the payments to the
lessor. Similar to conventional loans, capi-
tal leasing is "on balance sheet" financing,
meaning that the transaction will be re-
corded on your balance sheet as both a
liability and an asset. Capital leases are
offered by banks, leasing companies, instal-
lation contractors, suppliers, and some
electric utilities.
Under operating leases, the lessor owns
the equipment that is, in effect, "rented"
(leased) to you for a monthly fee during the
contract period. This provides an "off bal-
ance sheet" financing option. Because the
lessor is considered the owner of the
energy-efficiency equipment, he claims the
tax benefits  associated with the deprecia-
tion of the equipment. At the end of the
contract term, you can elect to purchase the
equipment at fair market value (or at a
predetermined amount), renegotiate the
lease, or have the equipment removed.
Some energy-efficiency upgrades may not
qualify for an operating lease based on the
criteria defined by Financial Accounting
Standards Board (FASB) Statement 13.
These criteria disallow automatic owner-
ship transfer and bargain purchase options,
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                       Energy Star Buildings Manual C-3

Appendix C
Table C-l. Comparison of Financing Options

Cash Purchase
1 00 Percent of
Project Cost
Not Applicable
Building Owner
0 to 30 Percent of
Project Cost
Principal Payoff
Building Owner
Depreciation and
Capital Lease
$0 or Deposit
Principal Payoff
Building Owner
Depreciation and
Operating Lease
Fair Market Value
Buyout; Renew;
Shared Savings
Percentage of
Energy Cost
Fair Market Value
Buyout; Renew;
Shared Savings
' Owner's risk may be reduced with guaranteed savings Insurance.
** At end of term.
"* Subject to change In tax laws; consult with tot advisor regarding eligibility.
"** No to benefits to owner. Lessor claims tea benefits associated with depreciation.
set the maximum term of the lease at
75 percent of economic life, and limit the
present value of rental payments (plus
any residual value guarantee) to less than
90 percent of fair value of the leased equip-
ment. In such cases, shared savings financ-
ing may offer many of the advantages of
operating leases.

Shared Savings
Shared savings is a unique financing
method whose primary benefit is that it
reduces the risk of the energy-efficiency
upgrade investment. The features of shared
savings include the following:

• No Down Payment. Entire cost of the
  upgrade is paid for by the third-party
  financing source.

• Third-Party Ownership. Third-party
  investor provides the capital for the
  project and owns the improvements
  during the term of the agreement. As a
result, the financing obligation does not
appear on your balance sheet. At the end
of the contract, you have the option to
purchase the improvements at an agreed-
upon value, renegotiate the contract
terms, or terminate the agreement and
allow the investor to recover the equip-

Performance-Based Payments. Peri-
odic variable "energy service" payments
are based on the measured or calculated
energy cost savings performance attrib-
uted to the upgrades. These payments
will typically be made from your operat-
ing budget (not your capital budget). You
pay a portion of the cost savings back to
the investor according to ratios outlined
in the contract. The energy services
contractor takes responsibility for main-
taining the system in order to ensure
energy savings.
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                          Second Uition, July 1995

                                                                     More on Program Management
m Positive Cash Flow. Because you make
  no down payment and periodic payments
  are taken from realized savings, the
  resulting cash flow is always positive.

• No Performance Risk. Because the
  third-party investor gets paid only in
  proportion to the financial performance
  of the upgrade, the risk of the investment
  is shifted to the third party. However,
  the overall costs associated with reducing
  risk through shared savings should be
  carefully evaluated.

Guaranteed Savings Insurance
Guaranteed savings insurance may be
applied to the following types of financing

• Cash Purchase.

• Conventional Financing.

• Lease Purchase.
The guaranteed savings option consists of
an agreement to ensure that the periodic
energy cost savings will exceed an estab-
lished minimum dollar value. This guaran-
tee is usually provided by the supplier,
installer, or energy services company who
sold the upgrade. In many cases, this
minimum guaranteed savings value is set
equal to the financing payment value for
the same period in order to ensure a posi-
tive cash flow during the financing term.
Entering into a guaranteed savings agree-
ment is like buying an insurance policy. To
compensate the guarantor for assuming
some of the performance risk as well as
costs associated with ensuring guaranteed
performance (such  as maintenance and
monitoring costs), you will pay an indirect
insurance premium. When combined with
conventional or lease financing, this pre-
mium can be added to the monthly payment
or paid directly to the guarantee provider.

Choosing a Finaneing Option
With many options available to ENERGY
STAR Buildings Partners for financing
energy-efficiency upgrades, how does one go
about determining which method is most
advantageous? The final answer can not be
computed by purely quantitative methods.
Instead, the financing decision must take
the following factors into account:

• Cost of Capital.

• Eligibility for Utility Incentives.

• Perceived Risk.

• Impact on Balance Sheet.

• Flexibility.
These factors are discussed in the following

Cost of Capital
In any economic study, the cost of capital
must be considered. The capital cost factor
most often applied in financial analysis is
the Discount Rate, expressed as a percent-
age. Simply put, the discount rate may be
assumed to be the corporation's minimum
required rate of return on invested  capital.
ENERGY STAR Buildings Partners may
choose the prime interest rate plus  six
points to determine their discount rate.
Most corporations have a specific discount
rate that is used in their financial analyses.

There is a simple relationship between the
cost of capital and the attractiveness of
third-party financing. The higher the cost of
capital (that is, the higher the discount
rate), the more attractive third-party
financing becomes. Perform a Net Present
Value analysis of the 20-year cash flows
resulting from your proposed financing
alternatives. The option with the highest
net present value would be the most attrac-
tive financing alternative for your corpora-
tion, based on your cost of capital.

Eligibility for Utility Incentives
Before entering into a shared savings
financing agreement, check with your local
utility to determine who is eligible to
receive any incentives—the ENERGY STAR
Buildings Partner or the third-party inves-
tor. If the investor is to receive the incen-
tive, negotiate reduced payments that take
Second Edition, July 1995
                       Energy Star Buildings Manual C-5

Appendix C
into account the value of the utility incen-
tives paid to the financing entity.

Perteived Risk
Compared with other investments, energy-
efficiency upgrades are low-risk invest-
ments. Nevertheless, returns on these
investments are dependent on such exter-
nal factors as electricity rates, building
occupancy, and usage. To reduce these
risks, your financial officer may choose to
pay additional premiums for a savings
guarantee or enter into a shared savings
agreement. Note, however, that the risks
associated with achieving reduced electrical
load are minimal; actual load reductions
can be easily measured in the field.

Impact on Balance Sheet
With conventional loans or capital leases,
the transaction is recorded on the
company's balance sheet as both an asset
and a liability. For companies that are not
in a position to incur additional liabilities,
or are concerned about impacts on their
return on assets, the shared savings and
operating lease approaches should be
considered. These are the only commonly
available financing options for energy-
efficiency upgrades that are considered to
be "off the balance sheet." Some energy-
efficiency upgrades may not qualify for
financing with an operating lease because
of FASB requirements.

Regardless of the financing approach, verify
that no penalties will be incurred by pre-
payment or early buyout of the financing
liability. For shared savings agreements, be
certain that provisions exist for purchasing
the equipment at fair market value prior to
the end of the contract term. In addition to
these contract termination options, also
look for financing sources that can adapt
the financing agreement to include future
purchases of energy-efficient equipment.

Green lights Database
of Financing Programs
The Green Lights database of financing
programs provides information on both
utility incentives and non-utility financing
options for lighting and other building
upgrades. The database, which is updated
regularly, runs on IBM PC or compatible
computers. You can obtain a copy by calling
the ENERGY STAR hotline at 202-775-6650
(fax 202-775-6680) or writing to EPA's
Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Division,
USEPA/OAR (6202^1), 401 M Street SW,
Washington, B.C.,  20460.
The Green Lights database of financing
programs consists of the following two

Utility Incentives
To quickly identify rebates or other utility
incentives that may apply to your energy-
efficiency upgrades, select the Utility
Financing module from the bulletin board's
main menu. Then select your utility com-
pany from the next menu that is displayed.
You will then see a display of the specific
incentive levels, eligibility criteria, and
contact information. If you want a copy of
the data for future reference, you can
choose a print option from the menu.
For each utility, the following information
is displayed:

• Utility Name.

• Program Name.

• Incentive Type (rebate, loan, etc.).

• Sectors (eligible customer groups).

• Situation (retrofit, new construction).

• Contact Information.

• Program Details.

The database can also be searched for
specific technologies. For example, you
could create a list of all incentive programs
that address water-cooled  centrifugal

Non-Utility Financing Sources
By selecting the Financing Products module
from the bulletin board's main menu, you
can see a list of organizations that provide
C-6  [nergy Star Buildings Manual
                            Second fdition, July 1995

                                                                     More on Program Management
project financing. Note that each organiza-
tion may have minimum requirements for
project size and client gross revenue. Maxi-
mum contract terms and loan amounts are
specified for each organization.
For each financing organization, the follow-
ing information is displayed:

• Name, Address, Contact Name, Tele-
  phone Number.

• Type of Organization.

• For Each Financing Product Offered:

  — Equipment Covered

  — Terms

  — Markets

  — Census Regions.

• Sources of Capital.

• Eligibility Criteria.

Requesting Proposals

and Quotations
Many companies that do not have the
in-house capacity to survey, specify, and
implement a comprehensive energy-
efficiency project will turn to outside con-
sultants, vendors, and contractors. This
section briefly discusses some of the issues
related to requesting proposals and quota-
Note: EPA cannot provide legal advice, and
this section is not intended to do so. Because
RFPs and quotations are legal documents,
appropriate legal advice should be sought
when  writing these documents.

RFPs and RFQs
A request for proposals (RFP) or request for
quotations (RFQ) enables a building owner
to communicate all pertinent information
about a potential project to prospective
bidders. If an RFP or RFQ is complete and
detailed, the bids received in response to
the RFP or RFQ will more than likely be
complete and detailed as well. While there
are many similarities, the purposes of the
RFP and the RFQ are different.
An RFP is an invitation for bidders to
propose a project. It may ask the bidder to
propose one or more of the following:

•  Specification of the scope of work.

•  Specifications for materials.

•  Financing options or terms.

•  Performance guarantee(s).

•  Extended warranty or maintenance

•  Project price.
In short, the RFP is a request for bidders to
determine both the scope of work and the
cost to complete the work. The successful
bidder is awarded the project on the basis
of the quality of the proposal as well as

An RFQ is an invitation for a bidder to
quote a price for a project that is specified
by the building owner in the request. The
determination of the scope and specifica-
tions of the project are made prior to and
separate from the RFQ. The successful
bidder is generally awarded the project on
the basis of cost and the building owner's
confidence in the bidder's capabilities.

Content of RFP and RFQ
The RFP or RFQ should contain all infor-
mation about a project that a prospective
bidder needs to prepare a proposal.  The
items described in this subsection should be

A timetable provides important dates and
deadlines, including the following:

• Dates for pre-bid meetings.

• Schedule for site visits.

• Due date for proposals or bids.

• Date that work may begin.
Second Edition, July 1995
                       Energy Star Buildings Manual  C-7

Appendix C
• Date required for project completion.

Scope of Work
In this section, the services to be performed
by the bidder are defined. The description of
work should be clear and concise so that
there is no confusion as to the require-
ments. For example, the bidder should be
provided the size, location, and number of
buildings included in the project.
A typical scope of work contains the follow-

• Goals and objectives of the project.

• Restrictions and preferences for equip-
  ment to be used.

• Applicable laws, codes, and standards.

• Instructions for disposal of obsolete

• Target values for variables such as load,
  watts per square foot, internal rate of
  return, or shared savings terms.

Bidding Proceovre and Instruttions
The bidder needs specific instructions about
the time, location, and format of the bid.
Minimum bidder qualifications, if any,
should be described. The instructions usu-
ally provide a date by which bidders will be
notified of the results of the proposal evalu-
ation will be complete.
To ensure that bidders provide complete
information in a format that is consistent,
an RFP or RFQ usually includes forms to be
completed by the bidders. These forms
provide information about the bidder's staff,
previous projects, and other data that may
help the building owner choose the best
contractor for the project. The following
items are usually requested on these forms:

• Key project participants, including re-

• Subcontractors.

• Previous projects.

• References.
• Other support and resources available.
A point of contact and telephone number
should be provided in case bidders have any
questions related to the RFP or RFQ.

Se/ecf/on Criteria
To help bidders provide information that is
important to the building owner, the RFP
or RFQ should include a description of the
criteria that will be used to evaluate the
proposals or quotations. This may include
listing the selection factors and the relative
importance of each to the decision.

Financing Methods and Payments
The financing method, if any, should be
outlined in the RFP. For example, if the
building owner desires a shared savings
contract, the terms should be outlined in
this section. Similarly, specific payment
schedules and methods, if desired, should
be explained. Bidders should also know if
the project is to be bid on a lump sum or
unit price basis.

General Conditions
This part of the RFP or RFQ contains
contractual issues and  details. Items in this
section include the following:

• Contract change procedures.

• Insurance and worker compensation.

• Maintenance.

• Guarantees.

• Samples and demonstration installa-

Types of RFPs andRFQs
Because each project is different, with
unique characteristics and objectives, no
two RFPs and RFQs are the same. General
types  of RFPs and RFQs are described
below. An RFP or RFQ may consist of any
combination of these types.

Request for Quotation, Consulting Only
This RFQ is used to solicit engineering and
design services for a project. The actual
installation is not included in this proposal.
C-8  Energy Star Buildings Manual
                            Second Edition, July 1995

                                                                     More on Program Management
As an example, the bidder responding to
this RFQ would develop a proposal to
design an upgrade, provide equipment
specifications, and provide an economic

Request for Quotation, Performance
This RFQ is used to obtain a quotation for
the installation only. The scope of work for
the upgrade in this case is already defined,
so the engineering and design is not part of
this proposal. The proposal would require
estimates of labor and material costs rather
than, for example, internal rate of return,
load, or watts per square foot.

Request for Quotation, fmanual
This request would be used only if financial
analysis is desired. It requests bids on such
items as initial investment, internal rate of
return, simple payback, rebates, and other
financial analyses to ensure the profitabil-
ity of the project. Once again, the scope  of
the project is already defined, so project
engineering and design are not included.

Request for Proposal, Design and Build
Here an RFP is used to solicit proposals for
all design and installation of the energy-
efficiency upgrade. One company will be
selected to perform the survey and analysis
for, design, and install the upgrade. This
RFP is unique from the other RFPs and
RFQs because it is for an entire project,
from start to finish.

Request for Proposal, Shared Savings
This is a specific RFP, similar to the RFP
for design and build described above. How-
ever, here a section of the RFP contains
specific details on how the initial cost will
be financed. In this case, the future energy
cost savings are shared between the build-
ing owner and the bidder. The bidder will
finance the initial cost and receive some of
the energy cost savings as compensation.

Request for Proposal, Guaranteed Savings
This is another specific RFP, similar to the
RFP for shared savings. Here, the bidder
must be prepared to assume the risk of
investment and guarantee minimum energy
savings. The proposal must contain details
on financing and guaranteed energy cost
savings that will free the building owner
from any risk in the project.
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                       Energy Star Buildings Manual C-9

Appendix C
                                   This page intentionally left blank.
C-l 0   [nergy Star Buildings Manual                                                                        Second Edition, July 1995

AC. Alternating current.

Actuator. Device that activates equip-

AHU.  Air-handling unit.

Air-Side Systems. Equipment used to
distribute conditioned air to a space.
Includes heating and cooling coils, fans,
ducts, and filters.
Air-Handling Unit.  The heart of an air-
handling system. Circulates, cleans, heats,
cools, humidifies, dehumidifies, and mixes
interior air.

Air Separator. Device that removes the
circulating air in water-side systems.

Alternating Current.  Electric current
that reverses direction in a circuit at regu-
lar intervals.

Ammeter. Instrument used to measure
electric current.

Ampere.  Unit of electric current in the
meter-kilogram-second system.

ANSI.  American National Standards

ARI. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration

ASHRAE. American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engi-
neers, Inc.

ASMS.  American  Society of Mechanical

Balancing. Process of measuring and
adjusting differential pressures to obtain
design flows. Applied to both air-side and
water-side systems.
Ballast. Power-regulating device that
modifies incoming voltage and controls
current to provide the electrical conditions
necessary to start and operate electric
discharge lamps.

Bleeding.  Process of removing minerals
from the water in an open recirculating
cooling system by draining small amounts
of water that contain concentrated
Boiler. Pressure vessel designed to trans-
fer heat (produced by combustion) or elec-
tric resistance to a fluid. In most boilers,
the fluid is usually water in the form of
liquid or steam.
Calibration.  Process of adjusting equip-
ment to ensure that operation is within
design parameters.
Carbon Dioxide. Colorless, odorless,
incombustible gas formed during respira-
tion, combustion, and organic decomposi-
tion. Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide
in the atmosphere are believed to contrib-
ute to the global warming phenomenon.
CAV. Constant air volume.
CFC. Chlorofluorocarbon.
CFM.  Cubic feet per minute.
Chiller. Device that generates cold liquid,
which is circulated through an air-handling
unit's cooling coil to  cool the air supplied to
a building.
Chlorofluorocarbons.  Halocarbon com-
pounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen,
chlorine, and fluorine, once  used widely
as aerosol propellants and refrigerants.
Believed to cause depletion of the atmo-
spheric ozone layer.
SKm Emu, JULY 1995

Coil, Cooling.  Heat exchanger used to
cool air under forced convection, with or
without dehumidification. May consist of a
single coil section or several coil sections
assembled into a bank.
Coil, Condenser.  In an evaporative con-
denser, heat exchanger used to circulate
vapor from the compressor discharge. The
coil is continuously wetted on the outside
by a recirculating water system. Air is
simultaneously directed over the coil,
causing a small portion of the water to
evaporate. This evaporation removes heat
from the coil, thus cooling and condensing
the vapor.
Coil, Heating.  Heat exchanger that heats
air under forced convection. May consist of
a single coil section or several coil sections
assembled into a bank.
Compressed Air System.  Equipment that
uses compression to boost the pressure of

Condenser. Heat exchanger in a refrigera-
tion system that rejects heat from a system
to some cooler medium. The cool refrigerant
condenses to the liquid state and drains
from the condenser to continue in the
refrigeration cycle.

Constant Air Volume.  Type of air-
handling system that maintains comfort in
buildings by providing a constant airflow
and varying the temperature of that air-

Control.  Device that analyzes the  differ-
ence between an actual process value and a
desired process value and brings the actual
value closer to the desired value.

Convector.  Heat-distributing unit that
operates with gravity-circulated (natural
convection) air. A heating element is sur-
rounded by an enclosure, with an air inlet
opening below and an air outlet opening

Cooling Tower. Device that dissipates
heat from water-cooled systems through a
combination of heat and mass transfer. The
water to be cooled is distributed in the
tower and exposed to circulated atmo-
spheric air.

Dampers. Single blade or multiple blades
that are either manually or automatically
opened or closed to control the amount of
air entering or leaving an air-conditioning

DC.  Direct current.

Demand. Rate at which electrical energy
is delivered to or by a system at a given
time or averaged over a designated period.
Expressed in kilowatts.

Demand Charges. Fees levied by a utility
company for electric demand.

Design (Load) Conditions. Optimal
thermal environmental conditions that
enable HVAC systems to ensure the com-
fort of healthy people in buildings.

Direct Current.  Electric current flowing
in one direction only.
Direct Expansion System. Cooling system
in which the refrigerant runs in the cooling
coil to directly cool the air; that is, there is
no water loop between the refrigerant and
the air to be cooled.
Downsizing. Process of reducing the size
(capacity) of equipment so that it operates
efficiently at design load conditions.
Drip Pocket. Device that holds conden-
sate and sediment removed from steam
Ductwork.  Distribution system for air in
HVAC systems. Usually made of sheet
metal or fiberglass.

Efficiency.  Ratio of power  output to power
Electromagnetic Interference. Un-
wanted electromagnetic signals or noise,
caused by electric or electronic  equipment,
which can affect the operation of other
                            SKONO [WON, JULY 1995

Eliminator. Stationary vanes or louvers
designed to remove water entrained in an

EMI. Electromagnetic interference.
EMS.  Energy management system.
Energy Management System.  Control
system that monitors the environment and
energy usage in a building and adjusts the
parameters of local control loops to con-
serve energy while maintaining a suitable
Envelope (Building). Elements of a
building that enclose the internal space,
including all external materials, windows,
and walls.
Exhaust Air. Air removed from a portion
of a building and not reused.
Fan, Airfoil  Centrifugal fan used in
general HVAC applications. Its 10 to 16
blades of airfoil contour are curved away
from the direction of rotation.

Fan, Axial. Fan that produces pressure
through a change in the velocity of air
passing through the impeller. Common
types are propeller, tube-axial, and vane-
Fan, Backward Curved.  Centrifugal fan
used in general HVAC applications. Its 10
to 16 single-thickness blades are curved or
inclined away from the direction of rotation.
Fan, Cooling Tower. Two types of fans
can be found in cooling towers: (1) axial
fans used to draw air into and discharge
that air out of the cooling tower and
(2) centrifugal fans used  to cool the water in
the cooling tower via forced air.
Fan, Forward Curved. Centrifugal fan
primarily used in low-pressure HVAC
applications. Its blades are curved or in-
clined toward the direction of rotation.
Fan, Inlet Vane. Fan that controls airflow
volume and pressure by automatically
adjusting the position of vanes located at
the air inlet.
Fan, Return. Fan that returns air from a
conditioned area.
Fan, Supply. Fan that provides air to a
conditioned area.
Fan Pulley.  A wheel with a grooved rim
and a belt that transfers electrical energy
from a motor shaft to mechanical energy on
a fan shaft.
Fenestration.  Arrangement, proportion-
ing, and design of windows and doors in a
Filter, Final. Filter that removes fine
particles from the supply airstream in an
air-handling system.
Filter, Line.  Any filter located along the
flow of a substance (water, refrigerant, air,
Filter, Pre-.  Filter that removes debris
from the mixed airstream in an air-
handling system. Located upstream of
the final filter.

Fouling Factor. Performance measure for
a condenser in which scaling and deposits
are measured.

Gaskets.  Seals.

Glass to Exterior Wall Ratio.  Amount of
glass on a wall compared with the total
surface of the wall.
Glass set or made to be set in
GPM.  Gallons per minute. Measure of flow

Harmonics.  Distortion of input signals
which causes an output signal to have
frequency components that are integer
multiples of an input frequency.
Head.  Pressure that a pump or fan has to
work against in order for liquids to flow.
Heat-Exchange Area.  Area where heat is
transferred from one medium to another.

Heat Pump.  Device that extracts heat
from one substance and transfers it to
another portion of the same substance or to
a second substance at a higher tempera-
Humidifier.  Device that adds moisture to
HVAC.  Heating, ventilating, and air-

IEEE.  Institute of Electrical and Electronic

IGBT.  Isolated gated bipolar transistor.
Impeller. The rotating element of a fan or
pump, used to circulate the air or water.
Internal Rate of Return. Compound
interest rate at which the total discounted
benefits become equal to total discounted
costs for a particular investment.
Inverter, Pulse-Width Modulated. Com-
ponent of a variable-speed drive in which
the DC voltage on the intermediate DC link
is inverted into AC current or voltage at a
frequency required to control the motor's
IRR. Internal rate of return.
Isolation Transformer. Transformer
used to separate an electrical device from a
main power source.
Kilowatt.  Unit of power equal to 1,000
Kilowatt Draw. Amount of electrical
energy required to operate a piece of equip-

Kilowatthour. Unit of electric power
equal to the work done by one kilowatt
acting for one hour.
kW. Kilowatt.
kWh. Kilowatthour.

Linkage. Mechanism that uses cranks,
arms, rods, and slides to open and close
Load.  Power required to maintain an
indoor design temperature over a range of
outdoor temperatures.

Luminaire. Complete lighting unit, con-
sisting of one or more lamps together with a
housing, the optical components to distrib-
ute the light from the lamps, and the elec-
trical components (ballast, starters, etc.)
necessary to operate the lamps.
Manometer. Instrument used to measure
the pressure of liquids and gases.
Megawatt. One million watts.
Megawatthour. A unit of electric power
equal to the work done by one megawatt
acting for one hour.

Meter. Device used to measure and display
or record data.
Mixing Box. Component of an air-
handling unit, in which air drawn from the
building and air drawn from the outside  are
mixed to create a uniform airstream before
reaching the heating and cooling coils.
Nameplate. Manufacturer's data for a
piece of equipment, imprinted on metal and
affixed to the equipment.

NEC. National Electric Code.
NEMA. National Electrical  Manufacturers
NIOSH.  National  Institute  for Occupa-
tional Safety and Health.
Nitrogen oxides.  Chemical compounds
that contain nitrogen and oxygen. They
react with volatile organic compounds in
the presence of heat and sunlight to form
ozone, and are a major precursor to acid

Occupancy Sensor.  Device that detects
the presence or absence of people within  an
area and causes equipment to be adjusted
Orifice Plate. Device that measures the
drop in pressure when fluid is forced
through the plate.
                           SKOHD Bum. JOU 1995

Outside Air. Air that is brought into a
building from outdoors through a ventila-
tion system and has not previously been  .
circulated through an air handling system.
Part-Load Conditions. Time when
equipment is operating at less than design
loads; represents the majority of the time
equipment is operating.

Payback, Simple. Measurement of the
elapsed time between an initial investment
and the point at which accumulated savings
are sufficient to offset the initial invest-
Peak Load. Maximum power required to
maintain an indoor design temperature
under the most adverse outdoor air condi-
Pneumatic Lines. Tubing that carries air.
Power Factor. Ratio of real power to total
apparent power.
Pump, Chilled Water. Device that circu-
lates chilled water.
Pump, Condenser Water. Device that
circulates  condenser water.
Purge Control.  Device that regulates
purging operations.
Pumping Down. Process of removing the
refrigerant from a cooling system.
Purge Compressor.  Device  that removes
air and water from refrigerant, then com-
presses and condenses the refrigerant and
returns it to the system.
PWM.  Pulse-width modulated.

R-Value.  Thermal resistance value, a
measure of the ability of a material to
retard the flow of heat.
Radiator. Device that provides warmth to
a space through radiant or convective heat
provided by either steam or hot water.
Recommissioning. Process of performing
maintenance and modifying equipment and
procedures to enable a building's systems to
operate at designed efficiencies.
Refrigerant.  Substance, such as air,
ammonia, water, or carbon dioxide, used to
provide cooling, either as the working
substance of a refrigerator or by direct
absorption of heat.
RF.  Radiofrequency.
Roof to Building Envelope Ratio.  Ratio
of roof area compared with the total exte-
rior area (walls and roof) of a building.

Sequence of Operation. Consecutive
series of operations.

Setpoint. Desired temperature in a space.
Shading Coefficient.  Ratio of solar heat
gain through a given glazing system to that
of a standard pane of glass 1/8-inch thick
under the same conditions.
Sheave.  Wheel or disk with a grooved rim
used as a pulley.
Slip. Difference between the frequency of
the voltage applied to a motor  and the
equivalent mechanical frequency of the
voltage applied to that motor.
Space. Distinct area to which conditioned
air is delivered.
Sprays.  Devices used to dispense water in
the form  of droplets into the airstream for
Static Pressure. Condition that exists
when an  equal amount of air is being
supplied to and removed from a space.
Steam Trap.  Valve that allows water
condensate to flow from a steam supply
line without allowing any of the steam to
Strainer Screen.  Filtering device used in
water-side systems to protect equipment
from dirt, rust, and other particles.
Submeter. Meter installed on a sub-
Sulfur Dioxide.  Heavy, colorless, pungent
air pollutant formed primarily by the
combustion of fossil fuels. It is a respiratory
irritant and a precursor to the formation of
acid rain.
SKOND toman, MY 1995
                      Eim Siut BWIIKS MUIIUI  D-5


Supply-Air Diffuser. Device used to
evenly distribute supply air to a space.
Terminal Reheat.  Type of air-handling
system (commonly integrated with variable
air volume and constant air volume sys-
tems) that maintains comfort in a building
by cooling the air (typically to 55° F.) at the
air-handling unit and then reheating the
air near its point of use.
Thermostat.  Device, as  in a home heating
system, a refrigerator, or an air conditioner,
that automatically responds to temperature
changes and activates switches controlling
the equipment.
U-Value.  Heat-transfer coefficient or
thermal transmittance. The inverse of
R-value; the time rate of heat flow per unit
area under steady conditions from the
warm side of a barrier to the cold side.
Per-unit temperature difference between
the two.

UL.  Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Variable Air Volume. Type of air-
handling system that maintains comfort
in a building by varying the quantity of air
supplied through the building.
Variable-Speed Drive. Device used to
adjust the speed of an AC motor to match
load requirements.
VAV.  Variable air volume.
Volts. International System unit of electric
potential and electromotive force.
VSD.  Variable-speed drive.

Water Column. Common pressure mea-
surement for air at low pressure (that is,
below 1 pound per square inch).
Water-Side Systems. Equipment used to
supply heating and cooling for air-side
systems. Includes pumps, chillers, boilers,
and other devices.
Winding. Conductive path inductively
coupled to a magnetic core or cell.
Zone.  An distinct area of space to which
conditioned air is delivered.