United States
Environmental Protection
Agency
Office of Water
Regulations and Standards
Washington, DC 20460
Water
                                                June. 198?

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                                 PREFACE
     This document is one of  a  series  of preliminary assessments dealing
with  chemicals  of potential  concern  in municipal  sewage  sludge.   The
purpose of these  documents  is to:   (a)  summarize  the  available data for
the  constituents  of  potential  concern,  (b) 'identify  the key environ-
mental pathways  for  each  constituent  related  to  a reuse and disposal
option (based on  hazard  indices),  and  (c) evaluate  the  conditions under
which such a pollutant may  pose a hazard.   Each document provides a sci-
entific basis  for making an  initial  determination  of whether  a pollu-
tant, at levels currently observed  in sludges, poses  a  likely  hazard to
human health  or  the  environment  when  sludge  is disposed  of by  any of
several methods.   These  methods include landspreading on  food  chain or
nonfood chain  crops,  distribution  and marketing  programs, landfilling,
incineration and ocean disposal.

     These documents  are intended  to  serve as a rapid screening tool to
narrow an initial list of pollutants to those  of  concern.   If a signifi-
cant hazard  is  indicated by  this  preliminary analysis,  a  more detailed
assessment will   be  undertaken  to  better  quantify the  risk  from  this
chemical  and to derive  criteria if warranted.   If a hazard  is  shown to
be unlikely, no further  assessment  will be conducted  at  this time;  how-
ever, a  reassessment will  be  conducted after  initial  regulations  are
finalized.  In no case,  however,  will criteria be  derived  solely on the
basis of  information presented in  this document.

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                            TABLE OP CONTENTS


                                                                     Page

PREFACE	   i

1.  INTRODUCTION	.	  1-1

2.  PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS FOR VINYL CHLORIDE IN MUNICIPAL
      SEWAGE SLUDGE 	  2-1

    Landspreading and Distribution-and-Marketing 	  2-1

    Landfilling	  2-1

    Incineration	  2-1

    Ocean Disposal 	  2-1

3.  PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDICES FOR VINYL CHLORIDE IN MUNICIPAL
      SEWAGE SLUDGE 	  3-1

    Landspreading and Distribution-and-Marketing 	  3-1

    Landf illing 	  3-1

    Incineration 	  3-1

         Index of air concentration increment resulting
           from incinerator emissions (Index 1) 	  3-1
         Index of human cancer risk resulting from
           inhalation of incinerator emissions (Index 2) 	  3-4

    Ocean Disposal	  3-6

4.  PRELIMINARY DATA PROFILE FOR VINYL CHLORIDE IN MUNICIPAL
      SEWAGE SLUDGE	  4-1

    Occurrence	  4-1

         Sludge 	  4-1
         Soil - Unpolluted 	  4-1
         Water - Unpolluted 	  4-1
         Air	  4-1
         Food 	  4-2

    Human Effects 	  4-2

         Ingestion	  4-2
         Inhalation	  4-3

    Plant Effects 	  4-4
                                   11

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS
                               (Continued)

                                                                     Page

    Domestic Animal and Wildlife Effects 	  4-4

    Aquatic Life Effects 	  4-4

    Soil Biota Effects 	  4-4

    Physicochemical Data for Estimating Fate and Transport 	  4-4

5.  REFERENCES	  5-1

APPENDIX.  PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDEX CALCULATIONS FOR
    VINYL CHLORIDE IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE 	  A-l

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                                SECTION 1

                               INTRODUCTION
     This  preliminary  data  profile  is  one  of  a  series   of  profiles
dealing  with chemical  pollutants  potentially of  concern  in municipal
sewage  sludges.    Vinyl  chloride  was  initially  identified   as  being of
potential concern when sludge  is  incinerated.*  This profile is a compi-
lation  of  information that  may be useful  in determining  whether vinyl
chloride poses an  actual  hazard to human health  or the environment when
sludge is disposed of by this method.
     The  focus   of   this  document  is  the   calculation of   "preliminary
hazard  indices"  for  selected  potential exposure  pathways,   as  shown in
Section  3.   Each  index illustrates  the hazard  that  could  result  from
movement  of  a"  pollutant  by a  given  pathway  to  cause  a  given  effect
(e.g., sludge * air -* human  toxicity).    The  values  and  assumptions
employed  in  these  calculations tend  to represent a  reasonable  "worst
case"; analysis of  error  or uncertainty has been  conducted  to a limited
degree.   The resulting value  in most cases  is  indexed to  unity;  i.e.,
values   >1   may  indicate   a   potential  hazard,   depending  upon   the
assumptions of the calculation.
     The data used  for index calculation have  been selected or estimated
based  on  information  presented  in  the  "preliminary  data  profile",
Section 4.   Information in  the profile is based  on a compilation  of the
recent  literature.    An attempt has been  made to  fill out  the  profile
outline to the greatest extent possible.  However,  since  this  is  a  pre-
liminary analysis, the literature has not been exhaustively perused.
     The  "preliminary conclusions" drawn  from each  index in  Section  3
are  summarized  in  Section  2.   The preliminary  hazard indices will  be
used as  a  screening tool  to determine which pollutants and  pathways may
pose a  hazard.   Where a potential hazard is  indicated by  interpretation
of  these  indices,  further analysis will  include  a more detailed  exami-
nation  of  potential  risk.s  as  well  as  an  examination  of  site-specific
factors.   These  more rigorous  evaluations  may  change the  preliminary
conclusions  presented in  Section 2,  which are  based  on a reasonable
"worst case" analysis.
     The  preliminary  hazard   indices   for   selected   exposure   routes
pertinent to  incineration  practices are included  in this  profile.   The
calculation formulae  for  these indices are  shown in the Appendix.   The
indices are rounded to two significant figures.
* Listings  were  determined  by  a  series  of expert  workshops  convened
  during  March-May,  1984  by   the  Office  of  Water   Regulations   and
  Standards (OWRS)  to  discuss landspreading, landfilling,  incineration,
  and ocean disposal,  respectively,  of  municipal  sewage  sludge.
                                   1-1

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                                SECTION 2

  PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS FOR VINYL CHLORIDE IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE
     The  following  preliminary  conclusions  have  been  derived  from the
calculation of  "preliminary hazard  indices",  which  represent  conserva-
tive or  "worst  case" analyses  of  hazard.   The  indices and  their basis
and  interpretation  are  explained   in   Section  3.    Their  calculation
formulae are shown in the Appendix.

  I. LANDSPREADING AND DISTRIBUTION-AND-MARKETING

     Based  on  the recommendations of  the experts  at the OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  and  assessment  of this  reuse/disposal  option is
     not being,  conducted  at  this time.   The U.S.  EPA reserves  the right
     to conduct such an assessment  for this option in the future.

 II. LANDFILLING

     Based  on  the recommendations of  the experts  at the OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  and  assessment  of this  reuse/disposal  option is
     not being  conducted  at  this time.   The U.S.  EPA reserves  the right
     to conduct such an assessment  for this option in the future.

III. INCINERATION

     The  concentration   of  vinyl chloride  in  air  is   not  expected  to
     increase   above  the  background   concentration  when  most   vinyl
     chloride-contaminated sludges are  incinerated.   A slight  increase
     above the  background concentration  is expected  only when  worst-case
     conditions prevail  (see Index  1).

     The incineration  of vinyl  chloride-contaminated sludges  will  not,
     in most cases,  increase the risk  of  cancer above  the  pre-existing
     risk  attributable   to  background  concentration.     A   potential
     increase  in  the   risk  of  cancer  (of  about  1  per  100,000)  is
     indicated   only when worst-case  conditions  are  assumed  for  all
     parameters  (see Index 2).

 IV. OCEAN DISPOSAL

     Based on  the recommendations  of  the  experts  at  the  OWRS  meetings
     (April-May, 1984),   and  assessment  of  this reuse/disposal  option  is
     not being  conducted  at  this time.   The  U.S. EPA reserves the  right
     to conduct  such an  assessment for  this option  in the future.
                                   2-1

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                                SECTION 3

              PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDICES FOR VINYL CHLORIDE
                        IN MUNICIPAL  SEWAGE  SLUDGE
  I. LANDSPREADING AND DISTRIBUTION-AND-MARKETING

     Based on  the recommendations  of  the experts  at the  OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,   1984),  an assessment of  this reuse/disposal option  is
     not being conducted at  this  time.   The U.S.  EPA reserves  the right
     to conduct such an assessment for this option in the future.

 II. LANDPILLlNG

     Based on- the recommendations  of  the experts  at the  OWRS  meetings
     (April-flay,   1984),  an assessment of  this reuse/disposal option  is
     not being conducted at  this  time.   The U.S;  EPA reserves  the right
     to conduct such an assessment for this option in the future.

III. INCINERATION

     A.   Index of Air Concentration Increment Resulting from
          Incinerator Emissions (Index 1)

          1.    Explanation  -  Shows  the  degree  of  elevation   of  the
               pollutant concentration in  the air  due to  the  incinera-
               tion of  sludge.  An input sludge with thermal  properties
               defined  by  the  energy parameter  (EP) was analyzed  using
               the  BURN model  (Camp  Dresser  and  McKee,   Inc.  (CDM),
               1984).    This  model  uses   the  thermodynamic   and  mass
               balance  relationships  appropriate  for  multiple  hearth
               incinerators  to  relate the  input  sludge  characteristics
               to the  stack,  gas parameters.   Dilution and  dispersion  of
               these stack gas releases were described by the U.S.  EPA's
               Industrial  Source   Complex  Long-Term  (ISCLT) dispersion
               model from  which  normalized  annual  ground  level  concen-
               trations were predicted (U.S.  EPA,  1979).'   The  predicted
               pollutant concentration can then  be compared to  a  ground
               level concentration used to  assess risk.
                                                       
          2.    Assumptions/Limitations -  The  fluidized  bed incinerator
               was  not  chosen  due  to  a  paucity  of  available  data.
               Gradual plume rise, stack tip downwash, and  building wake
               effects   are  appropriate  for  describing plume behavior.
               Maximum  hourly  impact values   can  be  translated  into
               annual average values.

          3.    Data Used and Rationale

               a.   Coefficient  to correct for mass and time units  (C)  =
                    2.78 x  10~7 hr/sec x  g/mg
                                   3-1

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b.   Sludge feed rate (DS)

       i. Typical = 2660 kg/hr (dry solids input)

          A  feed  rate  of  2660  kg/hr  DW  represents  an
          average  dewatered  sludge  feed rate   into  the
          furnace.   This  feed rate would  serve  a commun-
          ity of approximately 400,000 people.   This rate
          was incorporated  into  the  U.S.  EPA-ISCLT model
          based on the following input data:

               EP = 360 Ib H20/mm BTU
               Combustion zone temperature - 1400F
               Solids content - 28%
               Stack height - 20 m
               Exit gas velocity - 20 m/s
               Exit gas temperature - 356.9K (183F)
               Stack diameter - 0.60 m

      ii. Worst = 10,000 kg/hr (dry solids input)

          A  feed rate  of  10,000  kg/hr  DW  represents  a
          higher feed  rate and would serve  a major U.S.
          city.   This rate  was incorporated  into the U.S.
          EPA-ISCLT   model based  on   the  following  input
          data:

               EP = 392 Ib H20/mm BTU
               Combustion zone temperature -  1400F
               Solids content - 26.6%
               Stack height - 10  m
               Exit gas velocity - 10 m/s
               Exit gas temperature - 313.8K (105F)
               Stack diameter - 0.80 m

c.   Sludge concentration of pollutant (SC)

     Typical     0.43 mg/kg DW
     Worst     311.94 mg/kg DW

     The  typical  and worst case  concentrations are  the
     geometric  mean  and  95th  percentile,  respectively,
     statistically derived  from sludge concentration data
     from a  survey of 40  publicly owned  treatment  works
     (POTWs) (U.S.  EPA,  1982).  (See Section  4,  p. 4-1.)

d.   Fraction of pollutant emitted through stack (FM)

     Typical    0.05  (unitless)
     Worst      0.20  (unitless)

     These values  were  chosen as  best  approximations  of
     the  fraction  of  pollutant  emitted  through  stacks
     (Farrell, 1984).  No  data was available  to validate
                    3-2

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          these values; however,  U.S.  EPA is currently testing
          incinerators for organic emissions.

          Dispersion parameter for estimating maximum annual
          ground Level concentration (DP)
          Typical     3.4
          Worst      16.0  ug/m3

          The  dispersion  parameter  is  derived  from  the  U.S.
          EPA-ISCLT short-stack model.

     f.   Background concentration of pollutant in urban
          air (BA) = 43.316 Ug/m3

          The average concentration of vinyl chloride in air
          within a 5 mile radius of a polyvinyl chloride or
          vinyl chloride plant was calculated to be 17 ppb
          (U.S. EPA, 1980).  This value was used to calculate
          the concentration given above because it represents
          the expected air concentration where vinyl chloride
          is used in industry and would, thus, be a possible
          pollutant in sludge.  This value was the only data
          immediately available.

          The value, 17 ppb, was converted to Ug/m3 of air by
          multiplying by the vapor density of vinyl chloride
          relative to air (Sax, 1984) and the appropriate unit
          conversions.  (See Section 4, pp. 4-1 to 4-2.)

4.   Index 1 Values
                                              Sludge Feed
     Fraction of   -                          Rate  (kg/hr DW)a
     Pollutant Emitted    Sludge
     Through Stack     Concentration      0     2660  10,000
Typical
Typical
Worst
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
     Worst               Typical        1.0     1.0     1.0
                         Worst          1.0     1.0     1.1
     a The typical (3.4 ug/m^) and worst (16.0 ug/m3)   disper-
       sion  parameters  will  always  correspond,  respectively,
       to the  typical  (2660  kg/hr DW) and  worst  (10,000  kg/hr
       DW) sludge feed rates.
5.   Value  Interpretation  -  Value  equals  factor  by  which
     expected air  concentration  exceeds background  levels  due
     to incinerator emissions.
                         3-3

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     6.   Preliminary  Conclusion  -   The   concentration  of  vinyl
          chloride  in  air  is  not  expected to  increase  above  the
          background   concentration   when   most   vinyl   chloride-
          contaminated sludges  are  incinerated.   A  slight increase
          above the  background  concentration is expected  only when
          worst-case conditions prevail.

B.   Index of Human Cancer Risk Resulting from Inhalation
     of Incinerator Emissions (Index 2)

     1.   Explanation - Shows the increase  in human  intake expected
          to result  from  the incineration  of sludge.   Ground level
          concentrations   for carcinogens  typically  were  developed
          based upon assessments published  by the U.S.  EPA Carcino-
          gen Assessment  Group  (CAG).   These ambient concentrations
        -  reflect  a dose  level  which, for a  lifetime  exposure,
          increases  the  risk   of   cancer  by  10~^.     For  non-
          carcinogens,  levels typically were derived from  the Amer-
          ican  Conference   of   Government  Industrial   Hygienists
          (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs)  for  the  workplace.

     2.   Assumptions/Limitations  -   The   exposed    population   is
          assumed  to  reside  within   the   impacted area  for   24
          hours/day.   A  respiratory  volume of 20 m-Vday  is  assumed
          over a 70-year  lifetime.

     3.   Data Used and Rationale

          a.   Index of air concentration increment  resulting from
               incinerator emissions  (Index 1)

               See Section 3, p. 3-3.

          b.   Background concentration  of  pollutant in  urban  air
               (BA) = 43.316 Ug/m3

               See Section 3, p. 3-3.

          c.   Cancer potency = 1.74  x 10"^ (mg/kg/day)"^-

               The cancer potency value was  derived  from  studies  in
               which rats were exposed to a  range of vinyl chloride
               levels  in  air.    The   effect of  concern  in  these
               studies  was  hepatic  angiosarcoma  (U.S.  EPA,  1980).
               (See Section  4,  p. 4-2.)

          d.   Exposure criterion (EC) = 0.20 ug/m^

               A lifetime  exposure level which would  result in a
               10~6  cancer  risk  was  selected  as  ground   level
               concentration  against   which  incinerator   emissions
               are compared.   The  risk  estimates developed  by  CAG
               are defined as the lifetime incremental  cancer risk
               in   a  hypothetical  population  exposed  continuously
                              3-4

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                    throughout    their    lifetime    to    the    stated
                    concentration  of   the  carcinogenic  agent.     The
                    exposure criterion  is  calculated  using the following
                    formula: 

                            _  10"6 x  103  ug/mg  x 70  kg
                         t.C -                	^
                              Cancer potency x 20 mj/day
          4.   Index 2 Values
                                                        Sludge Feed
               Fraction of                              Rate  (kg/hr DW)a
               Pollutant Emitted    Sludge
               Through Stack     Concentration      0     2660  10,000


               Typical             Typical        220     220     220
                                   Worst          220     220     220

               Worst               Typical        220     220     220
                                   Worst          220     220     230

               a The typical (3.4 ug/nr*) and worst (16.0 Ug/m3)   disper-
                 sion  parameters  will  always  correspond,  respectively,
                 to the typical  (2660  kg/hr DW) and worst  (10,000 kg/hr
                 DW) sludge feed rates.
          5.   Value Interpretation  - Value  > 1  indicates  a  potential
               increase  in  cancer  risk  of  >  10~6  (1  per  1,000,000).
               Comparison with   the   null  index  value  at  0  kg/hr  DW
               indicates  the degree to which any hazard is due  to  sludge
               incineration,  as   opposed   to  background   urban   air
               concentration.'

          6.   Preliminary  Conclusion  -   The  incineration   of   vinyl
               chloride-contaminated   sludges  will  not,  in  most  cases,
               increase the risk  of   cancer  above  the pre-existing  risk
               attributable  to  the  background concentration.   A  poten-
               tial   increase  in  the  risk  of  cancer (of  about  1  per
               100,000) is indicated   only when worst-case conditions  are
               assumed  for all parameters.

IV.  OCEAN DISPOSAL

     Based on  the  recommendations of  the experts  at  the  OWES meetings
     (April-May,  1984), an  assessment of this  reuse/disposal  option  is
     not being conducted at this  time.   The  U.S.  EPA reserves  the  right
     to conduct such an assessment for this option  in  the future.
                                   3-5

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                              SECTION 4

PRELIMINARY DATA PROFILE FOR VINYL CHLORIDE IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE
 I. OCCURRENCE

   A.   Sludge
   B.
        1.   Frequency of Detection

             33 of 477 samples (7%) from 50 POTWs
             contained detectable levels of vinyl
             chloride

        2.   -Concentration

             For 13 POTWs reporting analyses for
             vinyl chloride, the following results
             were found:
             Minimum:          not detected
                               not detected
                                 0.43 mg/kg DW
                                69.82 mg/kg DW
                               311.94 mg/kg DW
                               686.54 mg/kg DW
     Median:
     Geometric mean:
     Arithmetic mean:
     95th percentile:
     Maximum:
Soil - Unpolluted

Vinyl chloride does not occur in nature.
                                                U.S. EPA, 1982
                                                (pp. 42, 50)
                                                Values
                                                statistically-
                                                derived from
                                                U.S. EPA, 1982
   C.   Hater - Unpolluted

        No evidence of vinyl chloride in unpolluted
        environments

   D.   Air

        1.   Frequency of Detection
                      
             Data not immediately available.

        2.   Concentration

             a.   Urban

                  The average concentration within a
                  5-mile radius of a polyvinyl chloride
                  or vinyl chloride plant was
                  calculated to be 17 ppb.
                                                        NAS, 1977
                                                        (p. 783)
                                                U.S. EPA, 1980
                                                (p.  C-2)
                                                U.S.  EPA,  1980
                                                (p.  C-54)
                                 4-1

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                   17 ppb was converted to 43.316
                   by using the vapor density of
                   2.15 for vinyl chloride relative to        Sax 1984
                   air and appropriate unit conversions.

              b.   Rural

                   Data not immediately available.

    E.   Food

         1.   Total average intake

              Data not immediately available.

         2.  - Concentration

              Vinyl chloride has been found in foods   U.S.  EPA,  1980
              packaged in polyvinyl chloride wraps     (p.  C-7)
              and containers, especially alcoholic
              beverages, oils,  and cider or vinegar.

              Product Type          Range (ug/mL)

            Alcoholic beverages    0.025 to 1.60
            Vegetable oil          0.3   to 3.29
            Cider or vinegar       ND    to 8.40

II. HUMAN EFFECTS

    A.  Ingestion

        1.  Carcinogenicity

            a.  Qualitative Assessment

                Data for humans are not immediately    U.S.  EPA,  1980
                available, but  at least one study      (p.  C-36)
                using rats indicates that vinyl
                chloride is carcinogenic when
                ingested.

            b.  Potency

                Cancer Potency = 1.4 x  10"1            U.S.  EPA,  1984
                (mg/kg/day)'1                          (p.  35)

            c.  Effects

                In the study using rats,               U.S.  EPA,  1980
                angiosarcomas of the liver and         (p. C-36)
                thymus gland were noted.
                                  4-2

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    2.  Chronic Toxicity

        Data not presented because cancer
        potency will be used to assess hazard.

    3.  Absorption Factor

        Data not immediately available.

    4.  Existing Regulations

        Interim U.S. EPA target risk levels and    U.S. EPA, 1980
        the corresponding water quality criteria   (p. C-61)
        (assuming average daily consumption of
        2 L drinking water and 6.5 g of fish and
        shellfish)

           Risk Level        Criteria  (yg/L)

             10~7                  0.2
             10~6                  2.0
             ID'5                 20

B.  Inhalation

    1.  Carcinogenicity

        a.  Qualitative Assessment

            Viny chloride has been shown to be     U.S. EPA, 1984
            carcinogenic when inhaled.

        b.  Potency

            Cancer potency = 1.74 x 10~2           U.S. EPA, 1980
            (mg/kg/day)"1                          (p.  C-82)

        c.  Effects

            Vinyl chloride has  caused  significant   U.S. EPA, 1984
            increases in the incidence  of  hepatic   (p.  12)
            angiosarcomas, and  has been
            implicated as a causal factor  in
            increased incidences  of lung,  brain,
            breast, pancreatic, and other  tumors
            among polyvinyl chloride and vinyl
            chloride workers.
                             4-3

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         2.  Chronic Toxicity

             a.  Inhalation Threshold or MPIH

                 10 mg/m3 time weighted average (TWA)
             b.  Effects

                 Angioneurosis,  dermatitis, acro-
                 osteolysis,  hepatomegaly,  spleno-
                 megaly, liver fibrosis, thrombocyto-
                 penia,  and others

         3.  Absorption Factor

             In rats,  vinyl chloride has been
             reported  to be absorbed rapidly from
             the lungs into the  bloodstream.

         4.  Existing  Regulations

             10 mg/m3  TWA

             2.6 mg/m3 8-hour TWA

             13 mg/m3  average over any period
             <15 minutes
III. PLANT EFFECTS

     Data not immediately available.

 IV. DOMESTIC ANIMAL AND WILDLIFE EFFECTS

     Data not immediately available.

  V. AQUATIC LIFE EFFECTS

     Data not immediately available.

 VI. SOIL BIOTA EFFECTS

     Data not immediately available.
American
Conference
of
Governmental
Industrial
Uygienists
(ACGIH),  1983
U.S. EPA,  1984
(p. 7)
U.S. EPA, 1984
(p. 2)
ACGIH, 1983

Occupational
Safety and
Health Admini-
stration (Code
of  Fed.    Reg.,
1981)   as   cited
by    U.S.    EPA,
1984 (p. 30)
                                  4-4

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VII. PHYSICOCHEMICAL DATA FOR ESTIMATING FATE AND TRANSPORT
     Chemical composition:
     Molecular weight:
     Vapor density
     relative to air:
     Water solubility:
CH2CHC1
62.5

2.15
2760 mg/L at 25C
1100 mg/kg at 28C
     Octonol/water partition
     coefficient:              24 (estimated)
     Bioconcentration
     factor:
     Half-life
         Air: -
       Water:
2.97 (estimated)
1.2 days
1 to 5 days (estimated)
Sax, 1984
U.S. EPA, 1984
U.S. EPA, 1984

U.S. EPA, 1984

U.S. EPA, 1984
                                  4-5

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                                SECTION 5

                                REFERENCES
American  Conference  of  Governmental   Industrial   Hygienists.     1983.
     Threshold Limit Values  for Chemical Substances  and  Physical Agents
     in the Work  Environment  with Intended Changes  for  1983-84.   Second
     Printing.  ACGIH,  Cincinnati, OH.   93 pp.

Camp Dresser  and  McKee, Inc.   1984.   Development   of Methodologies  for
     Evaluating Permissible  Contaminant Levels  in  Municipal  Wastewater
     Sludges.   Draft.   Office  of  Water Regulations  and  Standards,  U.S.
     Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Farrell,  J.   B."   1984.    Personal   Communication.    Water  Engineering
     Research    Laboratory,    U.S.   Environmental   Protection   Agency,
     Cincinnati,  OH.   December.

National  Academy   of   Sciences.    1977.    Drinking  Water  and  Health.
     National  Academy of Sciences, Washington,  D.C.   939  pp.

Sax, N. I.  1984.   Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials.   Sixth
     Edition.   Van Nostrand  Reinhold  Co., Inc., New York,  NY.

U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency.   1.979.   Industrial  Source  Complex
     (ISC) Dispersion  Model  User Guide.    EPA  450/4-79-30.    Vol.  1.
     Office of  Air  Quality  Planning  and  Standards, Research  Triangle
     Park, NC.  December.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.   1980.   Ambient Water Quality  Cri-
     teria for  Vinyl  Chloride.   EPA  440/5-80-078.   Office  of  Water
     Regulations   and   Standards,   Criteria   and   Standards   Division,
     Washington,  D.C.   October.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.   1982.    Fate of  Priority  Pollu-
     tants in  Publicly-Owned  Treatment  Works.   Final Report.  Volume  1.
     EPA 440/1-82-303.   Effluent  Guidelines  Division, Washington,  D.C.
     September.

U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency.   1984.   Health  Effects  Assessment
     for Vinyl  Chloride.    ECAO-CIN-H036.   Environmental  Criteria  and
     Assessment Office,  Cincinnati, OH.   November.
                                   5-1

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                                APPENDIX

        PRELIMINARY HAZARD INDEX CALCULATIONS FOR VINYL CHLORIDE
                       IN MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE
  I. LANDSPREADING AND DISTRIBUTION-AMD-MARKETING

     Based on  the recommendations  of  the experts  at  the OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,   198A),  an  assessment of  this  reuse/disposal option  is
     not being conducted at  this  time.   The U.S. EPA  reserves  the right
     to conduct such an assessment for this option in the future.

II.  LANDPILLING

     Based on'  the recommendations  of  the experts  at  the OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,   198A),  an  assessment of  this  reuse/disposal option  is
     not being conducted at  this  time.   The U.S. EPA  reserves  the right
     to conduct such an assessment for this option in the future.

III. INCINERATION
     A.  Index of Air Concentration Increment Resulting  from Incinerator
         Emissions (Index 1)

         1.   Formula

             T .,   1    (C x PS x SC x FM x DP) + BA
             Index 1 = 		


             where:

               C  =   Coefficient to correct  for  mass and  time units
                     (hr/sec  x g/mg)
               DS =   Sludge feed rate  (kg/hr DW)
               SC =   Sludge concentration of pollutant  (mg/kg DW)
               FM =   Fraction of pollutant emitted through  stack
                     (unitless)
               DP =   Dispersion parameter for estimating  maximum
                     annual ground  level  concentration  (pg/m3)
               BA =   Background concentration of pollutant  in urban
                     air  (ug/m3)

          2.    Sample Calculation

     1.0 = [(2.78 x  10"7  hr/sec x g/mg x  2660 kg/hr DW  x  0.43 mg/kg DW x 0.05

             x 3.4 wg/m3) + 43.316  yg/m3] * 43.316 ug/m3
                                  A-l

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     B.  Index  of  Human  Cancer   Risk  Resulting  from  Inhalation  of
         Incinerator Emissions (Index 2)
         1.  Formula

                          ! - 1.) x BA] + BA
             Index 2 =
                                 EC
             where:

               II = Index 1 = Index of air concentration increment
                    resulting from incinerator emissions
                    (unitless)
               BA = Background concentration of pollutant in
                    urban air (ug/m3)
               EC = Exposure criterion (yg/m3)
         2.  Sample Calculation


             216 58 _ f(1.0 - 1) x A3. 316 Ug/m3]  *  43.316  ug/m3

                                        0.20
IV.  OCEAN DISPOSAL

     Based on  the  recommendations of  the experts  at  the OWRS  meetings
     (April-May,  1984),  an  assessment of  this  reuse/disposal option  is
     not being conducted at  this  time.   The U.S. EPA reserves the  right
     to conduct such an assessment for this option in the future.
                                  A-2

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