EPA-R2-73-142
JANUARY 1973            Environmental Protection Technology Series
Water  Infiltration  Control
to Achieve
Mine Water  Pollution Control
                        ^ S7%
                                 Office of Research and Monitoring

                                 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

                                 Washington, D.C. 20460

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            RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES
Research reports of the  Office  of  Research  and
Monitoring,  Environmental Protection Agency, have
been grouped into five series.  These  five  broad
categories  were established to facilitate further
development  and  application   of   environmental
technology.   Elimination  of traditional grouping
was  consciously  planned  to  foster   technology
transfer   and  a  maximum  interface  in  related
fields.  The five series are:

   1.  Environmental Health Effects Research
   2.  Environmental Protection Technology
   3.  Ecological Research
   4.  Environmental Monitoring
   5.  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies

This report has been assigned to the ENVIRONMENTAL
PROTECTION   TECHNOLOGY   series.    This   series
describes   research   performed  to  develop  and
demonstrate   instrumentation,    equipment    and
methodology  to  repair  or  prevent environmental
degradation from point and  non-point  sources  of
pollution.  This work provides the new or improved
technology  required for the control and treatment
of pollution sources to meet environmental quality
standards.

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                                                       EPA-R2-73-142
                                                       January 1973
             WATER INFILTRATION  CONTROL TO

         ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL


                   A FEASIBILITY  STUDY
                           By

                     Frank J. Zaval
                     John D. Robins
                    Project 14010 HHG

                     Project Officer

                     Robert B.  Scott
               Mine Drainage Field Site
            Environmental Protection Agency
                      P. 0. Box 555
            Rivesville, West Virginia 26588


                      Prepared  for

           OFFICE OF RESEARCH  AND MONITORING
         U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20460
For sale by the Superintendent of Dqcuments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402
               Price $2,35 domestic poslpaHlite GPO Bookstore
                   '     '

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                   EPA ..REVIEW NOTICE

This report has been reviewed by the Environmental  Pro-
tection Agency arid approved for publication.  Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect
the views and policies of the Environmental Protection
Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial
products constitute endorsement or recommendation for
use.
                           11

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                               ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was the determination of the feasibility
of conducting a full-scale demonstration project showing the effective-
ness of land reclamation measures, at mined-out areas, in establishing
surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine water
pollution.  The Dents Run Watershed, located in Monongalia County,
West Virginia, was the site selected for the study.  It is replete with
strip mines, drift mines, auger mines, refuse dumps, spoil banks, and
discharge boreholes; all of which are significant contributors of acid
mine water pollution.

Project feasibility is based upon the performance and results of inves-
tigative measures which included:  investigation of each mined area and
abandoned drift openings, which resulted in a detailed description of
each site; sampling and analysis of all receiving streams and discharge
pits to determine the severity of acid mine water pollution; and eval-
uation and selection of weir structures, monitor enclosures and instru-
ments to be placed in unattended areas to provide a continuous record
of stream conditions.  A presentation is made of recommendations for
reclamation and treatment at each site; and pertinent cost estimates are
developed for the construction, installation and operation of monitoring
facilities as well as the reclamation work.

This report was submitted in partial fulfillment of Project No. 1^010 HHG
under the sponsorship of the Office of Research and Monitoring, Environ-
mental Protection Agency, and West Virginia Department of Natural Resources
by Cyrus Wm. Rice Division, NUS Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15220.
                                 iii

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                       CONTENTS
SECTION                                              PAGE


    I - CONCLUSIONS                                     1

   II - RECOMMENDATIONS                                 3

  III - INTRODUCTION                                    5

   IV - JURISDICTIONAL FRAMEWORK                        9

        Cognizant Authority                             9
        Existing and Proposed Standards                12
        Site Acquisition                               13
        Authority for Funding                          14
        Water and Mineral Rights                       15
        Prevention of Future Pollution                 16

    V - INVENTORY AND FORECAST                         19

        Physical Conditions                            19
        Water Resources                                29
        Social and Economic Environment                32

   VI - PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING                        41

        Detailed Site Descriptions                     41
          Section B                                    53
          Section C                                    55
          Section F                                    69
          Section G                                    73
        Program Surveillance                           98
        Capital and Operating Costs                   107
        Effectiveness of Project                      113
        Schedule of Engineering and
          Construction                                114
        Collecting and Evaluating Data                117
        Implementation and Operating Plan             118

  VII - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                               121

 VIII - REFERENCES                                    123

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                   CONTENTS  (Cont'd)


SECTION                                              PAGE


  IX - GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND          125
       SYMBOLS

   X - APPENDICES                                    127

       List of Drawings                              128

       Figures 47 and 48                             13

       Tables 5 through 43                           132

       West Virginia Acts and Regulations:           160

       20-5A-2.  Definitions                         160
       20-5A-3.  General Powers and Duties of        164
          Chief of Division and Board with
          Respect to Pollution
        20-5A-4.  Cooperation with other govern-     169
          ments and agencies.
        20-5A-lla.  Power of eminent domain;         171
          procedures; legislative finding.
        20-5A-14.  Control by State as to pollu-     173
          tion; continuing jurisdiction.
        20-6-3.  .Division of Reclamation, duties     174
          and functions; selections, duties and
          compensation.
        20-6-6.  Reclamation commission; duties,     175
          functions and compensation.
        Section 3.  General Conditions not Allow-    177
          able in State Waters.
        Section 5.  Acid Mine Drainage Control       179
          Measures.
        Section 6.  General and Water Use            isi
          Categories.
        Section 13.  Water Uses and Water Quality    183
          Criteria.
                            VI

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                        FIGURES
NO.                      TITLE                       PAGE


 1          County Location Map                         

 2          Location Map - Dents Run Watershed         20

 3          Aerial Photo - Dents Run Watershed         21

 4          Typical Cross Section - Dents Run          2^
            Watershed

 5          Borehole Locations                         2^
                                                       O r
 6          Cross Section - Northeast Area of          "
            Watershed

 7          Graph - Average Precipitation and          27
            Pumping Rate vs. Time - 1966
            Through 1971 - Snider Borehole

 8          Enlarged Section - Dents Run               28
            Watershed

 9          Sample Point Locations                     30

10          Drainage Map                               31

11          Dents Run Tributaries and Sub-             35
            watersheds

12          Map - Dents Run Watershed                  42

13          Mine Map - Pittsburgh Coal  Seam  -          44
            Laurel Point Vicinity

14          Typical Contour Backfill                   46

15          Typical Pasture Backfill                   47

16          Typical Georgia V-Ditch Backfill          48

17          Typical Reverse Terrace  (I)                49
            Backfill
                           vxi

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                    FIGURES (Cont'd)
NO.                      TITLE                       PAGE
18          Typical Reverse Terrace (II)              50
            Backfill

19          Typical Backfill - Deep Mine              51

20          Typical Backfill - Auger Mine             52

21          Photograph - Strip Pit Pond,              56
            Section C, Strip Area B

22          Photograph - Exposed Highwall,            58
            Section C, Strip Area B

23          Photograph - Highwall and Bench           59
            Showing Surface Water Runoff,
            Section C, Strip Area C

24          Photograph - Burning Refuse Dump,         64
            Section C, Strip Area J

25          Photograph - Abandoned Refuse Dump,
            Section C, Strip Area S                   67

26          Photograph - Abandoned Coal Equip-        70
            ment, Section F, Strip Area A

27          Photograph - Typical Reverse              72
            Terrace Backfill, Section F>
            Strip Area B

28          Photograph - Regraded Bench Area          75
            Showing Lack of Vegetation,
            Section G, Strip Area C

29          Photograph - Typical Drift Mine           80
            Entry, Section G, Strip Area G,
            Mine Opening 18

30          Photograph - Sanitary Landfill,           83
            Section G, Strip Area J
                          viii

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                    FIGURES  (Cont'd)
NO.;                     TITLE                       PAGE
31          Photograph - Typical Condition of         89
            "Regraded" Outslope, Section G,
            Strip Area Q

32          Photograph - Fractured Highwall,          90
            Section G, Strip Area Q

33          Photograph - Typical Drift Mine           92
            Entry, Section G, Strip Area Q,
            Mine Opening 53

34          Photograph - Typical Condition of         93
            Bench and Highwall, Section G,
            Strip Area R

35          Photograph - Typical Auger Openings,      94
            Section G, Strip Area R

36          Photograph - Fractured Highwall           96
            Resulting From Extensive Augering,
            Section G, Strip Area R

37          Photograph - Augered Area Illus-          97
            trating Extent of Highwall Undermining,
            Section G, Strip Area R

38          Photograph - "Hot Spot" Area,             99
            Section G, Strip Area W

39          Monitor Station 1 - Precipitation        JL01
            and Flow vs. Time

40          Typical Weir Structure and Monitor       103
            Station

41          Monitor Station - General Arrangement    104

42          Monitor Station - Schematic and          105
            Interconnection Diagram
                           IX

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                    FIGURES  (Cont'd)
NO.                      TITLE                       PAGE

43          Engineering and Construction             115
            Schedule

44          Project Schedule and Milestones          116

45          Data Handling - Tasks & Respon-          118
            sibilities

46          Monitor Stations - Tasks &               120
            Responsibilities

47          Typical Diversion Ditch                  130

48          Bulkhead Seal with Relief Drain          131
                           x

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                        TABLES
NO.                      TITLE                       PAGE


 1          Tabulation of Stream Lengths               33

 2          Tabulation of Subwatershed Areas           34

 3          Tabulation of Rainfall Data - 1960         36
            Through 1971
                     p
 4          Tabulation of Estimated Stream           100
            Flows - 8/30/71 Through 2/25/72

 5          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          132
            Location No. 1

 6          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          133
            Location No. 2

 7          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          134
            Location No. 3

 8          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          135
            Location No. 4

 9          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          136
            Location No. 5

 10          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          137
            Location No. 6

 11          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          138
            Location No. 7

 12          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          139
            Location No. 8

 13          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          140
            Location No. 9

 14          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          141
            Location No. 10

 15'          Water Quality Analysis - Sample          142
            Location No. 11
                           XI

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        TABLES (Cont'd)
NO.
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
TITLE
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 12
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 13
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 14
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 15
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 16
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 17
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 18
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 19
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 20
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 21
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 22
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 23
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 24
Water Quality Analysis
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
PAGE
._
143
144
145
146
147
148
148
149
149
150
150
151
151
152
Location No. 25
              XI1

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                    TABLES  (Cont'd)
NO.                      TITLE                        PAGE
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 26
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 27
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 28
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 29
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 30
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 31
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 33
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 34
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 36
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 37
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 38
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 39
Water Quality Analysis
Location No. 40
Water Quality Analysis
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample
- Sample f
- Sample
152
153
153
154
154
155
155
156
156
157
157
158
158
159
            Location No. 41
                           Kill

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                       SECTION I

                      CONCLUSIONS
1.  This study has shown that a demonstration of the use
    of water infiltration control methods to eliminate
    or control acid mine drainage in the Dents Run
    Watershed is feasible, and this location meets the
    requirements of Section 14 of the Federal Water
    Pollution Control Act.

2.  The volume of acid mine drainage in the Dents Run
    Watershed can be significantly reduced by imple-
    menting surface reclamation techniques to reduce
    surface water entry into abandoned deep mines.

3.  Observed preliminary flow data indicates that, during
    the normal low rainfall periods of the area, a major
    portion of the total flow in Dents Run is comprised
    of borehole discharges from the active mining opera-
    tions of the Christopher Coal Division of the
    Consolidation Coal Company.

4.  Christopher Coal's pumping rates are considerably
    influenced by regional rainfall, and a substantial
    portion of the discharge from active workings comes
    from the diversion of surface water into abandoned
    workings by the unreclaimed surface mines.
    Christopher Coal Company has notified the State of
    their intent to neutralize all the water presently
    being discharged into the watershed from their active
    boreholes.

5.  The normal volumes of water discharged from abandoned
    workings in the watershed do not warrant the use of
    hydraulic seals.  It is anticipated that effective
    surface reclamation techniques will reduce the volume
    of these drainages to insignificant levels.

6.  An unaccountable loss in stream flow was observed
    in Dents Run in the vicinity of Laurel Point.  It
    is believed that this water drains back into the
    Pittsburgh coal seam through fracture zones or
    fissures within the stream bed.

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7.  The effectiveness of the project in controlling
    surface water infiltration into the groundwater
    system can be measured directly by monitoring stream
    flows, Christopher Coal pumping rates and discharges
    from abandoned drift openings.

8.  The cooperative effort of government and industry
    in the control, abatement and treatment of acid mine
    drainage will result in nearly  100% mine drainage
    control within the Dents Run Watershed.

9.  The elimination of acid mine water pollution in the
    watershed will reflect a social and economic environ-
    mental impact by helping to fulfill the increasing water
    usage demand of the public and  serve to encourage in-
    dustrial investment in the area with the availability of
    a more reliable source of usable water.

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                      SECTION II

                    RECOMMENDATIONS
1.  The approval to proceed with the design engineering,
    construction and monitoring phases of this demon-
    stration is recommended.

2.  A network of seven stream monitoring stations should
    be installed at the selected points in the watershed in
    order to effectively document the control measures
    being demonstrated.  These monitoring stations should
    provide a continuous record of flow, pH and conduc-
    tivity.

3.  Event recorders and weirs should be installed at
    each of the borehole discharges to continuously
    monitor the quantity of the discharge at each loca-
    tion.  Monthly water samples should be collected at
    each of the six boreholes and analyzed for alkalinity,
    total acidity, conductivity, pH, turbidity, calcium,
    magnesium, sulfate, total iron, ferrous iron, total
    solids, suspended solids, dissolved solids, settle-
    able solids, aluminum and manganese.  This will
    provide the data required for making a quantitative
    and qualitative estimate of the effectiveness of the
    surface reclamation in reducing infiltration into the
    deep mine workings.

4.  Surface reclamation techniques should be employed to
    backfill the unreclaimed strip mines with emphasis
    placed on those areas which channel surface water
    runoff into intercepted deep mine workings.  The
    priority classifications should be as follows:

    Priority I - Areas showing evidence of water infiltra-
    tion.

    Priority II - Areas contributing to stream pollution
    as a result of contaminated surface water runoff.

    Priority III - Areas contributing to aesthetic pollu-
    tion.

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    The reclamation technique to be used at each site will
    be dependent upon the conditions of that specific area,

5.  Stream flows in the Laurel Point area of Dents Run
    should be further investigated in order to pinpoint
    a specific zone in which the apparent water loss may
    occur.  If a specific area is located, stream
    channelization should be employed to prevent future
    infiltration of this water into the subsurface water
    system.

6.  Weekly water samples should be collected and flows
    measured at each of the nine stream monitor stations.
    These samples should be analyzed for alkalinity, total
    acidity, conductivity, pH, turbidity, sulfates and
    total iron.

    This sampling program should be continued until a
    definite correlation can be developed between these
    parameters and the data recorded by the monitoring
    equipment.  In addition, samples should be collected
    at sample points 1 through 10 once each month and
    analyzed for all other parameters as listed in
    paragraph 3.

7.  In order to achieve a public awareness of the social
    and economic impact of the project, it is recommended
    that as portions of the watershed become pollution
    free this information should be released to State and
    Municipal agencies and the public via press releases.
    This should stimulate public interest as well as the
    interest of industrial, residential and recreational
    developers.

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                      SECTION  III

                     INTRODUCTION
West Virginia is one of the  leading  coal producing  states
in the nation; as a result of  such activity,  acid mine
drainage is and has been  a significant problem in the
surface streams of the State.  Acid  mine drainage has gone
unchecked for years and only until recently have regula-
tions and powers of enforcement been established to
control the deleterious effects of such pollution.

Present regulations and authority have sufficient power
to cause active operators to restore their workings at
the conclusion of operations,  as well as control their
discharges during the period of active mining.  However,
because of the extensive  number of abandoned  sites  in the
Dents Run Watershed, it is necessary for the  State  to
take the necessary action required to control or eliminate
the acid mine drainage from  these sites.  This requires
the implementation of proper procedures and techniques
for regrading the sites,  covering refuse material,
installing compaction seals, conditioning the soil  and
planting various species  of  grasses  and trees.

The feasibility study presented herein is a thorough
analysis of the Dents Run Watershed  as the site of  a
demonstration project to  control mine water pollution by
water infiltration control.

This study has been conducted  consistent with the total
demonstration program of  the U. S. Environmental Pro-
tection Agency.  The program was established  to fulfill
the provisions of the Water  Quality  Improvement Act
of 1970, PL 91-224, which included a subsection titled
"Area Acid and Other Mine Water Pollution Control De-
monstrations" which became Section 14 of the  Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, as amended.

The Dents Run Watershed is located in Monongalia County,
West Virginia, and is a part of the  Monongahela River
Basin (see Figure 1).  The watershed has an area of 14.6
square miles with the main axis being in a generally
east-west direction.  The watershed  is drained by Dents Run

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O
z
LL)
X
      OHIO
                            PENNSYLVANIA
id,.....,ii. ^3 o * i i N *  I I I ^V	-	J
                            COUNTY LOCATION MAP
                                    FIGURE 1

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..and  small  tributary streams which flow from west to
east.  The discharge of Dents Run is into the Monongahela
sRiver  at the City of Granville, which is due west of
ithe  City of Morgantown.
                  j
The  terrain of the eastern part of the watershed can
^generally  be described as rugged where valleys are deep
'and  narrow; the western portion of the watershed has a
imore subdued topography and can generally be described as
rolling.   The relief over the entire area is approximately
800  feet,  with the base line elevation being 830 feet at
the  mouth  of Dents Run.  The watershed is part of the
Appalachian Plateau's physiographic province and is located
in the Allegheny Mountains section.

The  Dents  Run Watershed is underlain principally by sedi-
mentary  rocks of the Pennsylvanian Age.  The principal
coal mining and oil and gas development in this area has
been in  the Monongahela Group of this system.  The Monon-
gahela Group is comprised of the youngest rocks of
Pennsylvanian Age and is typically composed of cyclic
sequences  of sandstone, siltstone, red and gray shale,
limestone  and economically important coal beds.  The most
prominent  and commercially developed beds in the watershed
area are  the Pittsburgh, the Redstone, the Sewickley and
the  Waynesburg.

There  are  presently two active deep mining operations in
the  Dents  Run Watershed; both mines, namely the Osage and
the  Arkwright, are owned and operated by the Christopher
Coal Division of the Consolidation Coal Company and are
located  in the Pittsburgh coal seam.  Extensive mining
of the Pittsburgh coal seam has lowered the water table
in this  area to the base of the coal seam.  In order
to maintain active mining operations within the watershed,
Christopher Coal removes accumulated groundwater through
a system of six boreholes at the average rate of approxi-
mately 3.0 million gallons per day.  Pumping rates are
influenced by the seasonal fluctuation and magnitude of
the  regional precipitation.

.Most of  the unreclaimed surface disturbance has occurred
in the eastern portion of the watershed.  Water that
enters the subsurface water system as a result of numerous
drift  mine interceptions located in the unreclaimed areas
eventually drains into the Pittsburgh seam.  Surface

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reclamation techniques that would backfill the surface
mine pits, cover the exposed seam and seal the exposed
drift mine entries or interceptions would reduce the
surface water entry into the subsurface water system.  The
intercepted runoff would be channeled to the normal sur-
face drainage courses in the watershed.

The watershed is sparsely populated with small individual
homes scattered throughout the watershed along Dents Run.
They represent a population of possibly several hundred
total, except for the Town of Granville and the Morgan
Heights section of the Town of Westover which have a
combined population of approximately 1/500.

Neither the City of Granville nor the Morgan Heights sec-
tion of Westover are sewered.  Both communities rely on
septic tanks with the homes located adjacent to either
Dents Run or the Monongahela River discharging wastes
directly into the stream or the river.  The City of
Westover is considering installation of a sewer system
and piping the sewage under the Monongahela River to
connect into the sewer system and treatment plant of the
City of Morgantown.  The City of Granville has no plans
of its own for handling its sewage.  The Water Resources
Division preliminary plans are for Granville and Westover
to join together and convey the joint sewage under the
river to Morgantown, or to jointly build a treatment
system on the west side of the Monongahela River.  Neither
community has received orders to install sewage treatment
facilities; however, all communities in the State of West
Virginia are required to have at least secondary treatment
by 1975.

While the object of the demonstration project itself
will be the control of water infiltration, the project
is part of an overall watershed plan that involves the
cooperation of government, industry and municipalities.

It is anticipated that successful reclamation of those
areas which are now diverting surface water runoff into
abandoned drift mines could reduce infiltration into the
active drift mine workings by as much as 50 percent.
Consolidation Coal Company is in the process of installing
treatment facilities to treat the discharge from the
boreholes to comply with West Virginia discharge regula-
tions .                             ,                       :

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                      SECTION IV

               JURISDICTIONAL FRAMEWORK
Cognizant Authority

This study has been conducted under the auspices of the
Environmental Protection Agency.  The Agency is subject
to the provisions of the Water Quality Improvement Act
of 1970, PL 91-224.  The Act includes a subsection
titled "Area Acid and Other Mine Water Pollution Control
Demonstrations" which became Section 14 of the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, as amended,  This section
provides for the demonstration of techniques for mine
drainage pollution control and directs that the Environ-
mental Protection Agency shall require such feasibility
studies as necessary in selecting watersheds for the
purpose of the demonstration projects.  Such feasibility
studies are to aid the Environmental Protection Agency
in selecting not only the mine drainage pollution
control method(s), but also the watershed or drainage
area for such application.  The Act requires that the
Environmental Protection Agency give preference to
areas which will have the greatest public value and
uses.

The Environmental Protection Agency, Office of,Research
and Monitoring, issued a Grant for the ;mine drainage
demonstration project, described herein, to the State
of West Virginia, Department of Natural Resources.
Administration of the study has been the responsibility
of the State of West Virginia's Department of Natural
Resources.

The Department of Natural Resources is a statutory unit
of the West Virginia government headed by a Director.
The Department has the authority to exercise all state
administrative functions relating to surface mining and
the reclamation of surface mined lands in West Virginia.
Such administration is performed through the Department's
Division of Water Resources and the Division of Reclama-
tion.

Each division also has subordinate governing bodies es-
tablished under the law within its operating structure.

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The Water Resources Board is an appeal board of the
Division of Water Resources and the Reclamation
Commission is a part of the Division of Reclamation.
The authority of the Reclamation Commission is covered by
Chapter 20, Article 6, Section 6 of the 1967 Surface
Mining Act, which is presented in its entirety in the
Appendices.

The Department of Natural Resources is charged with the
responsibility of administering and enforcing the 1967
Surface Mining Act enacted by the Legislature of West
Virginia on March 9, 1967.  The rules and regulations
established pertain to the reclamation of areas dis-
turbed by surface mining operations, particularly with
regard to requirements for permits, performance bonds,
haulage-ways, backfilling and regrading, revegetation,
sealing and treatment of acid water breakthrough, prospect-
ing, and other mining operations on disturbed areas.

The 1967 Surface Mining Act created, within the Department
of Natural Resources, a Division of Reclamation whose
Chief is responsible for admininstration of all of the laws
of the State of West Virginia relating to surface mining.
The Department has jurisdiction and control over land,
water and soil aspects pertaining to surface mining
operations, and the restoration and reclamation of surface
mined lands and related affected areas.   The authority of
the Division is covered in Section 20-6-3 of the 1967
Surface Mining Act, which appears in its entirety in
the Appendices.

The Director of the Department of Natural Resources also
has the overall supervision of the Water Pollution Control
Act of the State of West Virginia (Article 5A, Chapter 20
of the Code of West Virginia, 1969, as amended).  Authority
for the general administration and enforcement of the Act
has been vested in the Division of Water Resources.  The
Division has within its jurisdiction and supervision, the
administration and enforcement of all laws relating to
water pollution control.

Authority is vested in the Division of Water Resources
under the Water Pollution Control Act to cooperate with
other governments and agencies as provided in Section
20-5A-4 of Article 5A, Chapter 20 of the Code of West
Virginia, 1969, which is presented in its entirety in
the Appendices.
                           10

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The Division of Water Resources is primarily  involved
in the administration of regulations  for the  control
and reduction of pollution in the waters of the  State.
Their authority is directed to direct and indirect
discharge, deposition or disposal of  all treated or
untreated sewage, industrial wastes,  other wastes or the
effluent therefrom, into the waters of the State or any
underground strata.  The Board's primary concern is
the establishment of standards of quality for the
protection of the public health and welfare,  wildlife,
fish and aquatic life and all present and prospective
future uses of the State's waters primarily for
domestic, agricultural, industrial and recreational pur-
poses.  With regard to the foregoing, the agency regulates
mine drainage discharges by monitoring compliance with the
established water quality criteria and controlling dis-
charges by the issuance or revocation of permits.

Although both Divisions aforementioned shall  have juris-
diction in the project, involvement of the Division of
Water Resources will be contingent upon the proper perfor-
mance of reclamation work under the regulations  adminis-
tered by the Division of Reclamation.

Reclamation work in the watershed will be performed in
accordance with applicable regulations (see the  Appendices
for pertinent portions of the laws).

Detailed water quality standards and  reclamation procedures
are now in existence.  The project will be conducted in
compliance with all regulations resulting in  the restora-
tion of the land more nearly to the natural contours of
the area.

Full responsibility for the contractual agreement, adminis-
tration and operation of the demonstration project rests
with the Department of Natural Resources of the  State of
West Virginia; however, the Department may see fit to
delegate the performance of some tasks to competent
contractors.  Therefore, the present  legal and adminis-
trative structure is adequate for conducting  the project
since all authority for water pollution control  and reclama-
tion of surface mined lands is now vested in  the Department
and its Divisions.  This is covered by the foregoing juris-
dictional authority and the pertinent sections of the law
included in the Appendices.
                           11

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Existing and Proposed Standards

The site of the demonstration project is within  the
jurisdiction of the State of West Virginia.  The streams
involved are considered public streams of the  State  and
are thereby subject to the most stringent of all applicable
water quality standards imposed by the Federal Government
and the State of West Virginia.

Present standards relative to wastewater discharges,  in-
cluding acid mine drainage to the Dents Run Watershed,
are subject to enforcement by the Division of  Water  Re-
sources of the State of West Virginia.  The general
standards indicate the quality criteria for such waters,
and are delineated in detail in Section 3 and  5  of the
West Virginia Administrative Regulations presented
in its entirety in the Appendices.

Dents Run, a tributary of the Monongahela River,  is
subject to the specific water use and water quality
criteria applicable to the Monongahela River, which  are
delineated in Sections 6 and 13 of Series II of  the  State's
administrative regulations presented in the Appendices.

At the present time, the water quality standard  for  sulfates
 (see 13.01 b. 9. of the regulations as presented in  the
Appendices) is not considered binding due to the current
level of technology in sulfate removal and the cost
effectiveness of such removal.

The purpose of the project is not designed to  bring  the
streams into total compliance.-  The project as now
envisioned will only monitor the effectiveness of the
infiltration control methods applied with respect to  a
change in stream acidity from the highly acid  conditions
now present to the minimum allowable pH level  of 5.5
stipulated in the established water quality criteria.
However, bringing pH into compliance with the  existing
standards will prove to be of significant value  since the
watershed area is to be capable of meeting the water  uses
specified  (recreation, public water supply and industrial
water supply).  The most noticeable influence  a  change in
pH could make would be its effect in making stream
waters acceptable for swimming and establishing  a
favorable condition for the development of such  (recrea-
tional use), and reduction of treatment requirements  to
make the waters acceptable for public consumption (public
water supply use).
                           12

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Stream compliance with other water quality criteria  can
be accomplished through additional treatment methods,
which of necessity become a part of future projects.
The full impact of the effect of infiltration control
methods applied in this project will not be fully
appreciated until the watershed system reaches a new
equilibrium, vegetative growth is established and
groundwater flow is stabilized.  In accordance with
the provisions of the West Virginia Administrative
Regulations, ^nforcement of said regulations and
related water quality standards is entrusted to the
State Water Resources Board and the Chief of the Division
of Water Resources.  He has the power and authority  to
determine who is responsible for polluting the State's
waters and to prevent, control, eliminate or reduce  such
pollution.  Consideration is given to those that use
available and reasonably practicable methods to control
and/or reduce pollution.  Therefore, since the Division
serves as the State's regulatory agencies, it has the
authority, knowledge, regulations, etc., available to
monitor implementation of the project plans in accordance
with applicable standards.

Site Acquisition

The site of the demonstration project is located within
the boundaries of the State of West Virginia.  Authority
is vested in the Chief of the Division of Water Resources
to acquire land, as required, through the power of eminent
domain as detailed by Section 20-5A-lla of Article 5A,
Chapter 20 of the Code of West Virginia, 1969, which is
presented in its entirety in the Appendices.

The demonstration project site encompasses the entire Dents
Run Watershed, an area of 14.6 square miles.  Due to
its extensive proportions, the land is believed to be
held in private ownership by numerous individuals and
several coal companies.  The property owners for each of
the stream monitor stations and borehole locations have
been identified.  Each of the stream monitor station pro-
perty owners were contacted and a verbal agreement was
made for the installation of the monitor stations and
associated structures.  The State of West Virginia is
presently in the process of obtaining a formal release
from, the owners involved.  At this time, the survey  has
not been completed to.determine the precise ownership of
the affected land within the watershed.  However,
                           13

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reclamation work required to establish infiltration  con-  .
trol in the watershed will eventually require contact with
all affected land owners.  It is not anticipated  that trans-
fer or acquisition of the property will be required, but
that a release may be obtained from the owners involved to
conduct the required project tasks on their_property.  The
owners of the property are under no obligation to
participate in such a project, except as the Division of
Water Resources may have jurisdiction over the maintenance
of the safety, health and welfare of the citizens of the
State.  Successful acquisition of releases to perform
the project tasks will preclude the necessity of  invoking
the power of eminent domain.

Authority for Funding

Federal funding for this project was provided by  a Grant
to the State by the Environmental Protection Agency under
authority of Section 14 of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act, as amended.  The grant offer was made to the
State of West Virginia's Department of Natural Resources.
The 1967 Surface Mining Act, a revision to the Code of
West Virginia, provides that the Director of the  Department
of Natural Resources may receive any Federal funds, State
funds, or any other funds for the reclamation of  land
affected by surface mining.

A source of funding for the Department, a provision of
the 1967 Surface Mining Act, is the requirement that every
applicant for a permit to surface mine coal shall pay to
the Department of Natural Resources a special reclamation
fee for each acre of land to be affected in the mining
operation.  The fees obtained are to be deposited in a
special reclamation fund to be administered by the
Director of the Department of Natural Resources.  The
Director shall use the special reclamation fund for
reclamation and rehabilitation of lands which are unre-
claimed.  The Director may also use some of the special
reclamation fees collected for the purchase of orphaned
surface mined lands, for the reclamation thereof, and for
the engineering, administrative and research costs neces-
sary, providing that Federal funds on a matching  basis
are made available for the purpose of reclaiming  said
orphaned surface mined lands.  Under the Act, any funds
legally available to the Director of the Department of
Natural Resources may be expended and used to reclaim and
                           14

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rehabilitate any lands that have been  subjected  to surface
mining that have not been reclaimed  and  rehabilitated  in
accordance with standards set by the Director  and  which  are
not covered by bond to guarantee such  reclamation.

Whenever acid mine drainage control  measures are an integral
part of a reclamation project, the Chief of the  Division
of Reclamation can execute agreements  with the Chief of
the Division of Water Resources for  the  supervision of
specific reclamation projects, utilizing fees  from the
special reclamation fund.  Such agreements can only be
consummated by direct administrative actions within the
Department of Natural Resources.

The Chief of the Division of Water Resources,  the  water
pollution control agency of the State  of West  Virginia,
may cooperate with all persons, agencies of the  State,
federal or other state agencies, and interstate  agencies
for the control and reduction of pollution in  the  waters of
the State.  Authority for such cooperation is  set  forth
in the Water Pollution Control Act,  Chapter 20,  Article  5
of the West Virginia Code as amended in  1969.  It  also
provides that the Department of Natural  Resources  may
apply for and accept, on behalf of the State,  all  monies
for such endeavors of cooperation between the  Division
and the aforementioned agencies, officers and  persons.
Money so acquired is placed in a special fund  administered
solely by the Chief of the Division  for  the purposes de-
lineated by the grant, gift or contribution.   The  fund also
contains the fees collected for wastewater discharge
permits, some of which originate from  intentions to open,
reopen, operate or abandon a mine, quarry or preparation
plant or to dispose of any refuse or industrial  wastes
from same.

Water and Mineral Rights

Property ownership and the associated  title to the  water
and/or mineral rights in the Dents Run Watershed area,
designated site of the demonstration project,  are  of
major concern with respect to project  progress.  Releases
will be required from all owners of  property upon  which
reclamation work will -be performed,  because it will
involve sealing of drift mines, burial of refuse
material, regrading of spoil banks,  lowering of  highwalls,
and revegetation of areas worked.  Since the project
is being conducted under the direction of the  regulatory
                           15

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bodies of the State, it is anticipated that  there  will
be no problem in obtaining releases and cooperation  for
such work, because it relieves owners and operators  from
such responsibility under the law.

Surface water flowing through a property is  generally
considered as public water of the State of West Virginia.
Ownership of this resource is, therefore, not a question ^
since the project is being implemented by an agency  of
the State, who holds public ownership of same.

The Dents Run demonstration site is underlain with four
major coal seams:  the Pittsburgh, the Redstone, the
Sewickley and the Waynesburg.  The only seam actively      !
mined to any degree is the Pittsburgh, the mineral rights  .
to which are generally considered to be owned by the
Christopher Coal Company.

No purchase or transfer of rights or ownership is
expected for any portion of the project, since active
mining operations will not be disturbed.  The majority
of the individual sites within the project area represent
abandoned drift or strip mines.

Prevention of Future Pollution

The 1967 Surface Mining Act and the Water Pollution  Control
Act of the State of West Virginia, administered .by the
Department of Natural Resources, provide the regulations
necessary for land reclamation and rehabilitation  with
requisite mine drainage control measures, as well  as the
control and reduction of pollution in the State's  waters.

The Water Pollution Control Act of the State of West
Virginia  (Article 5A, Chapter 20 of the Code of West
Virginia, 1969, as amended)  provides for pollution control
and continuing jurisdiction over same as indicated by
Section 20-5A-2, 20-5A-3 and 20-5A-14 of the article,
which are presented in their entirety in the Appendices.

The Water Resources Division has clear jurisdiction  over
control measures applicable to acid mine drainage, as
defined within the Water Pollution Control Act.  Therefore,
at present and in the future, all State waters shall be
subject to the control measures as given in  Section  5,
                          16

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Series I, Chapter 20-5 and 20-5A of  the West Virginia
Administrative Regulations which is  presented  in  its
entirety in the Appendices.

The 1967 Surface Mining Act provides specifically for  the
prevention of future pollution  at  any and  all  sites in the
State because of its provisions governing  reclamation
procedures and administration.  Specific regulations
covering reclamation procedures and  revegetation  techniques
and standards were established  in  Article  6, Chapter 20,
of the Code of West Virginia in 1967,  which are to be
administered under the provisions  of the aforementioned
Act.  Administration of the foregoing rests with  the
Director of Natural Resources,  the Division of Reclama-
tion and the Reclamation Commission, each  of which
has specific areas of responsibility with  respect to the
law, which are defined in detail in  the Act.

The water infiltration control  procedures  outlined for
implementation as a part of this project are in keeping
with the laws and regulations established, and are
applicable to any future work which  might  be required  to
overcome deleterious drainage effects upon the Dents
Run Watershed from adjacent property and workings. Such
property and workings are also  subject to  the  regulations
now on the books and would be required to  comply  with
same; otherwise they would risk the  loss of permits
granted, performance bonds posted  and all  fees paid.

The State of West Virginia assures the Environmental
Protection Agency that it will  exercise its authority
under State statutes to provide legal and  practical
protection to the project area  to  insure against  any
activities which will cause future acid or other  water
pollution.
                           17

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                      SECTION V

                INVENTORY AND FORECAST
Physical Conditions

The Dents Run Watershed lies entirely within Monongalia
County, West Virginia.  The watershed is described on  the
U. S. Geological Survey 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle
maps -  (1) Osage, West Virginia,  (2) Rivesville, West
Virginia, (3) Morgantown North, West Virginia, and .
(4) Morgantown South, West Virginia  (see Figure 2).  The
watershed is traversed along its  southern boundary by
U. S. Route 19, which follows the course of Dents Run
from a point opposite Morgan Heights westerly to Laurel
Point.  Interstate Highway 79 is  presently under construc-
tion crossing Dents Run at the eastern end in a north-south
direction.

The elevation of the highest peak in the watershed is
approximately 1,600 feet, while the valley floor in the
vicinity of Laurel Point is 956 feet with a base of 830
feet at the mouth of Dents Run.   The mountain tops are
forested, while the valley sides  and bottom are open grass-
land and farmland.

Aerial photographs were taken of  the area during Septem-
ber of 1971.  A photographic mosaic of the area is
illustrated in Figure 3.

The valley is underlain with four coal seams that outcrop
along the valley sides beginning  at the mouth of Dents
Run near Granville.  The lowest of these is the Pittsburgh
seam.  The Redstone seam is approximately 30 feet above
the Pittsburgh seam; the Sewickley seam is approximately
90 feet above the Pittsburgh seam; and the Waynesburg  seam
is approximately 350 to 375 feet  above the Pittsburgh
seam.  The Pittsburgh seam and all others above it dip to
the west.  The elevation of the Pittsburgh seam is approxi-
mately 1,000 feet at Granville and about 750 feet in the
western section of the watershed near Sugar Grove.  The
valley floor elevation at Sugar Grove is approximately 1,100
                            19

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I
c
                                              p;   ;  :  K* - 

                                      ^fcJC^ICJ
                                                         .
             j            \'...             >-:
            "V   '  -'/     * -    ,  SS0  B  \ '
            '  l *  /    i 1  '      firf** >'
                                      ^S
                   >',    '.'   .         /  V'^
                                 **^*' ~!-\
                                           '
                   ,  vt.^-
                         1 ..-/
               ^^- = v
                 REFERENCE MAPS

                   U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
                    MORSANTOWN NORTH QUADRANGLE

                    MORGANTOWN SOUTH OUADRANGLE

                    RIVESVILLE QUADRANGLE

                    OSAGE QUADRANGLE
                                              ,,,., ^   DENTS  RUN WATERSHED

                                                         LOCATION MAP

-------

AERIAL PHOTO-DENTS RUN WATERSHED

-------
feet, so the Pittsburgh seam is 350 feet below the valley
floor at this point.  A typical cross section of the
watershed is depicted in Figure 4.

Surface mining of the Pittsburgh-Redstone-Sewickley
seams is thus confined largely to the eastern end of
Dents Run Watershed with surface mining of the Waynesburg
outcrop occurring near the hilltops throughout the
watershed.  The only drift mining noted in the Waynesburg
seam is a few house coal entries.  The Pittsburgh seam and
the Sewickley seam have been drift mined extensively in
the eastern end of the watershed for many years.  Surface
mining of these and the Redstone outcrop has also occurred
in the eastern end of the watershed and was substantially
completed prior to 1952.  Some additional activity of
surface mining of these seams has taken place between
1960 and 1966.  Since 1966, the additional surface mining
has been in the Waynesburg seam, particularly in the area
around Chisler's Knob.

The Christopher Coal Division of the Consolidation Coal
Company maintains six active borehole discharges within
the watershed (see Figure 5).  Five of the six boreholes
discharge water from active or inactive deep mine workings
within the Pittsburgh coal seam.  These pumps are located
within the mine; two of these, the Valotto and the Laurel
Point, are constant discharge pumps.  The Hess, Six Right
and Loar pumps are float controlled.  Surface water which
is intercepted by abandoned unreclaimed mining operations
in the eastern portion of the watershed drains to the Hess
discharge point and then continues on to Laurel Point.
The Laurel Point pumping facilities handle a small portion
of this drainage, while the excess continues on to either
the Loar or Six Right discharge points.  A typical section
of this area is illustrated in Figure 6.

The sixth borehole, Snider, discharges water from the
abandoned workings of the Brock mine which is located in
the Sewickley coal seam.  The Snider discharge represents
the largest single discharge within the watershed with an
average daily pumping rate ranging between 0.3 million
gallons in the dry season to 3.5 million gallons during
the winter and spring months.  The Snider borehole employs
a float controlled surface pump; accurate pumping records
are available for the Snider discharge since 1966 and can
                           22

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                                                                                                                          NOTE.:
                                                                                                                           - VERTICAL EXAGGERATION -15
                                                                                                                           -COAL DIPS 2% TO THE WEST
NJ
U)
I3OO
1280
1260
1240
1220
1200
1180
1160
1140
1120 I
1100
1080
1060
IO40
1020
1000 _
    L
960
9SO
940
920
90O
680
860
840
820
800
                                                                      TYPICAL CROSS SECTION
                                                                       DENTS RUN WATERSHED
                                                                          FIGURE   4

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                                                                       MORGANTOWN
2000   0  2000 4000 6000
      SCALE IN FEET

REFERENCE: FIGURE  12
                             BOREHOLE LOCATIONS
                                   FIGURE  5

-------
to
Ul
                                  1J31P!]JSS5*^
                                           - _  -  -__--.       :"     .  _       - - -JV     _ -' -- -  Cft80NACEOUS SHALE  ~  -   I -2. T  '- ~ ~  '~~     '- ~ ~- ~-~=- J=_T ^Wf-^' "' ~ --V.-T:^-tZ--r^-%l-:^s=:_=-=_=. ^^^~^.~=I^
1050
I CMS
IO40
1035
1030
1025
ioa>
1015
1010
1005
looo ;
995 ]
990 ;
985 <
980
975
970
965
9SO
955
950
945
940
935
                                                                                               SECTION I
                                                                                             NORTHEAST AREA
                                                                                              OF WATERSHED
                                                                                            FIGURE  6

-------
be correlated against recorded rainfall data  for  this  same
period.  The graphical correlation between pumping  rates
and precipitation as illustrated in Figure 7  is typical
of the Snider borehole discharge.

Typically, water discharged from the Sewickley coal  seam
is alkaline in nature.  When acid water does  appear  at
the Snider borehole, it is thought to come from an  old
abandoned mine in the Pittsburgh seam which fills up and
is forced upward into the Sewickley seam through  aban-
doned boreholes and fracture zones.  Drainage accumulates
in a swag at the Snider borehole location and is  pumped to
the surface to prevent overflow of the swag with  conse-
quent flooding into the Arkwright mine shaft  and  Pittsburgh
coal workings (see Figure 8) .  Although this  portion of
the Arkwright mine is inactive with no prospects  of
reopening, the present seals between the inactive and
active portions of the mine are not adequate  to permit
flooding of the inactive section without affecting  active
operations.  Due to the unavailability of land at the
present borehole site, Christopher Coal is planning  to
move the location of this borehole discharge  to a point
just outside the watershed; it is believed that the  same
swag can be used as a subsurface retention pond (refer
to Figure 8) .  While this discharge will be removed  from
the Dents Run Watershed, the borehole will still  be
available as a reference point to determine the effective-
ness of the reclamation work completed in reducing  surface
water infiltration.

Christopher Coal discharges water into Dents  Run  at  the
average rate of 3.0 million gallons per day.  While  this
comprises the vast majority of the acid mine  drainage
within the watershed, several abandoned mines also have
either continuous or seasonal drainages.  During  the dry
season of the year, this flow generally amounts to  a total
volume of less than 25 gallons per minute from an estimated
20 to 25 drift mine openings.  During periods of  relatively
wet weather, this flow may increase by a factor of  ten.  In
addition to these near continuous drainages,  one  drift mine
entry has a seasonal discharge which has been measured at
500 gallons per minute (mine opening 38, Strip Area  M) .
According to one local resident, this discharge is quite
seasonal and did not exist until the time when Strip Areas
Q and R in Section G were developed.  Practically all
                           26

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NJ
            8.0
            7.0
         en  6.0
         UJ
         X
         O
         z  5.0
         O  4.0
                 SNIDER BOREHOLE
         o
         UJ
             2-0
             1.0
120
105  >
    O
                                                                           CO
90
75
60  g
    (T


45  o
    CO
    o
30
15
                                                                          <
                                                                          I
                                                                          o
                  JAN  FEB MAR  APR  MAY  JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT  NOV  DEC

                                    TIME, MONTHS

               AVERAGE PRECIPITATION a PUMPING RATE VS TIME

                                  1966 THRU 1971
                                       FIGURE  7

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                                                                                                                                                      NOTE:
                                                                                                                                                         COAL  DIPS 2% TO THE WEST
                                                                                                                                                         VERTICAL EXAGGERATION-10
                                                                                                                                                  WAYNESBURG COAL

                                                                                                                                                              UNION TOWN COAL
NJ
00
                                                                           	
                                        lb?> ^a^j1jj^g^jj-TT  ;r:r. T.2-z-*
                                                                             :-r-^J^.-^|--'c.
                                                                             MRRiER^HB ^ ^TPM
- 1220
- 1210
- 1200
- 1190
- 1180
- 1170
- I ISO
- 1150
- 1140
- 1130
- 1120
- II 10
- IIOO
- 1090
- 1080 ,_
- loro s
- IOGO
- 1050 -
- 1040 g
- 1030 5
- 1020 
- 1010 UJ
- 1000
-  990
-  980
-  970
-  9SO
-  950
-  940
-  93O
-  920
-  910
-  900
-  890
-  880
                                                                                             ENLARGED SECTION
                                                                                                DENTS RUN
                                                                                                WATERSHED
                                                                                               FIGURE   8

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surface water runoff in these  strip  areas  is  channeled
into auger and drift mine openings and,  apparently,  a
considerable portion of this water drains  through  inter-
connections in the deep mine workings  to finally discharge
at this point.  It is  anticipated that this drainage, as
well as the drainage from other  drift  mine openings  in
the watershed, will be significantly reduced  with  effective
surface mine reclamation.

Water Resources
The Dents Run Watershed drains  an  area which  is
characterized by a heavy concentration of  strip mines,
drift mines, refuse dumps  and spoil  banks  which contribute
significantly to the acid  mine  drainage problems  inherent
in the subject stream  and  many  of  the State waters.

Waters were sampled at various  locations throughout the
watershed and were found,  in most  instances,  to be highly
acidic and exhibiting  significant  concentrations  of iron,
sulfate and dissolved  solids, as well as high specific
conductance.  Such levels  of concentration, in most
cases, were beyond adopted standards and generally
accepted limits.  The  geographic locations of these
sample points are illustrated in Figures 9 and 12.
The results of these analyses are  reported in Tables 5
through 43 which appear in the  Appendices  of  this report.

Based upon the volume  and  quality  of the discharges from
Consolidation Coal Company alone,  there is an average daily
discharge of 48 tons of sulfate, or  17,500 tons per year.
The Monongahela River  at Star City (approximately 1.0
mile downriver from the confluence of Dents Run and the
Monongahela River) reportedly carries an average  sulfate
concentration of 371 ppm or 1262 tons per  day, which is
twice the load of that measured upriver at .Fairmont, West
Virginia.  The marked  increase  in  load was due to the
contribution from tributaries such as Booths  Creek,
Deckers Creek, Scotts  Run,  Robinson  Run and Dents Run.

The local streams that are  continuously affected by acid
mine drainage are identified on the  drainage  map  illus-
trated in Figure 10.

The investigation of the watershed,  Dents  Run and its
tributaries verified that  the watershed consisted of an
                          29

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U)
o
                                                                      MORGANTOWN
        2000   0  2000 4000 6000


             SCALE IN FEET




        REFERENCE: FIGURE 12
DENTS RUN WATERSHED
   SAMPLE POINT LOCATIONS

          FIGURE  9

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                                            PENNSYLVANIA
                   WEST VIRGINIA

                STAR CITY
                 MORGANTOWN
                        DECKERS
                        CREEK
NOTE:
 AREA STREAMS SHOWN ARE
 CONTINUOUSLY AFFECTED
 BY ACID MINE DRAINAGE
MARYLAND
         10   15   20
  SCALE IN MILES
            DRAINAGE  MAP
                  FIGURE 10

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area of 9097 acres and contained 24 miles of streams.
These results are tabulated in Tables 1 and 2 and
are illustrated in Figure 11.

A tabulation of rainfall data for the period 1960 through
1971 is presented in Table 3.  This data represents
precipitation recorded at the Morgantown FAA Airport,
which is located approximately 1.0 mile east of the
Dents Run Watershed.  A recording rain and snow gauge
should be installed near the center of the watershed to
obtain a more accurate appraisal of the actual rainfall
within this area.

Social and Economic Environment

The project area is located within Monongalia County,
West Virginia, and lies due west of the City of
Morgantown.  Points of major interest comparing the
State to national trends are as follows:

1.  During the decade from 1960 to 1970, West Virginia
    was one of three states in the nation losing
    population.  Of the three, it had the greatest
    numerical decline and rate of decline.  The State's
    population dropped 6.2% during the decade.

2.  West Virginia is the only State which lost population
    during two successive decades.  The population loss
    from 1950 to 1960 was 7.2%.

3.  The metropolitan population within the State is
    31% compared to a national average of approximately
    67%.

4.  The State has proportionately more teenagers as a
    segment of its total population than the national
    average.

5.  The proportion of adults in the State who have
    completed one or more years of college is lower than
    the national average.

A significant reason for the general decline in population
in the State is due primarily to increased mechanization
in the coal industry and this reduction in employment
                            32

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               TABLE 1
    TABULATION OF STREAM LENGTHS
      Stream
Identification No.           Length
   M7-Dents Run              8.50 Mi.
   M7-1                      1.90 Mi.
   M7-1-2                    0.85 Mi.
   M7-2                      0.66 Mi.
   M7-3                      0.61 Mi.
   M7-4                      1.37 Mi.
   M7-4-1                    0.09 Mi.
   M7-5                      0.28 Mi.
   M7-6                      1.23 Mi.
   M7-6-1                    0.57 Mi.
   M7-6-2                    0.34 Mi.
   M7-7                      1.06 Mi.
   M7-8                      1.61 Mi.
   M7-8-1                    0.09 Mi.
   M7-8-2                    0-53 Mi.
   M7-8-3                    0.72 Mi.
   M7-9                      0.75 Mi.
   M7-10                     0.66 Mi.
   M7-11                     1.23 Mi.
   M7-12                     1.08 Mi.

                            24.13 Mi.
                33

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             TABLE 2
TABULATION OF SUBWATERSHED AREAS
Subwatershed
Number
M7-A
M7-B
M7-C
M7-D
M7-E
M7-F
M7-G
M7-H
M7-I
M7-1-A
M7-1-B
M7-1-C
M7-1-2
M7-2
M7-3
M7-4
Area
Acres
226.12
1270.66
404.95
350.78
89.20
57.39
255.73
314.83
716-58
59.03
75.42
588.67
252.52
254.16
209.89
560.80
Subwatershed
Number
M7-5
M7-6-A
M7-6-B
M7-6-1
M7-6-2
M7-7
M7-8
M7-8-A
M7-8-B
M7-8-1
M7-8-2
M7-9
M7-10
M7-11
M7-12

Area
Acres
118.06
159.05
147.57
244.32
54.11
395.18
291.87
170.53
88.38
144.30
259.08
221.36
285.32
373.86
457.49

      TOTAL ACRES - 9097.21
             34

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U)
U1
                                                                                                                                     MORGANTOWN
                   lOOO  0   1000 20OO

                      SCALE IN FEET
                                                                 DENTS RUN TRIBUTARIES
                                                                   AND SUBWATERSHEDS
                                                                     FIGURE  11

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                                              TABLE  3
                        TABULATION OF RAINFALL DATA, MORGANTOWN FAA
                                         1960 THROUGH  1971
AIRPORT
YEAR
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
TOT.
AVE.
JAN.
^ta_^BM^V*^^^B^b_
2.39
1.41
2.67
1.42
2.14
3.04
3.60
0.61
1.95
1.56
1.63
2.84
25.26
2.11
FEB.
3.29
3.21
3.99
1.62
2.38
1.31
3.32
2.08
0.63
0.82
1.84
4.08
28.57
2.38
MAR.
1.98
5.80
4.15
6.55
3.91
3.42
1.04
7.29
4.11
1.76
4.54
2.80
47.35
3.95
APR.
	  	  	 ' 	  	 Minimum
1.76
4.42
4.82
1.45
4.66
3.57
4.51
2.92
1.84
3.43
4.81
1.14
39.33
3.28
MAY
4.97
2.84
1.92
1.36
1.25
1|. 29
1.47
6.54
7.47
2.67
2.59
4.86
39.23
3.27
JUNE
^h^B^-^^^_^^>W
2.05
6.87
2.21
5.35
4.62
2.27
0.87
1.56
2.88
2.37
4.26
3.63
38.94
3.25
JULY
III! 1 !  !  1 !
4.94
5.58
2.73
1.39
3.91
3.93
3.13
4.23
2.10
8.71
4.91
6.20
51.76
4.31
AUG.
3.59
3.91
2.84
3.41
4.77
3.05
3.77
3.25
3.84
2.23
3.36
3.60
41.62
3.47
SEPT.
3.10
4.29
4.10
1.90
3.44
4.62
3.45
3.87
3.09
2.05
3.69
6.42
44.02
3.67
OCT.
2.84
3.00
3.22
0.24
0.86
1.88
1.71
2.60
1.77
1.47
3.15
1.14
23.88
1.99
NOV.
1.40
3.44
3.34
3.92
3.50
1.58
3.83
2.91
3.65
2.43
1.86
3.25
35.11
2.93
DEC.
1.62
3.25
3.15
0.92
4.30
0.61
1.71
3.11
2.91
4.44
5.31
2.09
33.42
2.79
YR.TQT.
33.93
48.02
39.14
29.53
39.74
30.57
32.41
40.97
36.24
33.94
41.95
42.05
448.49
37.37
CO
en

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has not been offset  by'increases  in other sectors  of the
State's economy.  Although  the  general State population
trend is a decline,  some  areas  of the state are experienc-
ing a growth in population.   This represents a shift from
rural to metropolitan areas  which is in evidence in  the
towns and cities  within Monongalia County, most of which
are small in size.   Population  changes (1960-1970) have
ranged from +6 to 7% for  Star City and Westover to
+27 to 31% for Granville  and Morgantown.   It is further
evidenced by an accompanying increase in population  (13.3%)
within the County itself.

Pertinent facts relative  to the population density are
as follows:
\
State of West Virginia  (1969 figures)

population/square mile  -  75.5

Monongalia County (1970 figures)

land area - 365 square miles
total population  -  &3,714
population/square mile  -  174.6

The State is running opposite to  national figures  (1970)
when it comes to  data on  population increases in various
age groupings.  Nationwide,  people in the age groups
5 to 14 and 25 to 44 are  increasing in number;  however,
in West Virginia, people  in these same groups show a
clecline of 15%.

Other statistics  (1960) on  the  population in the State
reveal that more  than half  of the State's employed workers
are in blue-collar  occupations, and that one-third of
the families in the  State have  incomes under $3,000. This
is significant since the  State  does not experience
increased population, as  almost all other states,  and
those that are native born  tend to remain in the state of
their birth.  People in the area  are definitely dependent
upon employment in  the vicinity of their home,  since a
low percentage of the work  force  (8.2%)  tends to work
outside the county  of their residence.  The median
level of education  for the  people in the County was  8.6
years of school completed.
                            37

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Agricultural employment represents a" very small portion
of the State's economy as evidenced by a total value of
$92 million of farm products sold in a year  (1964).  Farms
are relatively small in size (153 average acres/farm); the
most prevalent types of farming are dairy, poultry and
livestock and the major crops are hay, apples, corn and
tobacco.  The major sector of the economy is in the area
of non-agricultural work.  The bulk of the labor force
in this area is engaged in manufacturing industries, the
wholesale and retail trades, or government service.  How-
ever, even though the mining industry represents a
smaller number of jobs in the ranking, it commands re-
cognition as a major force in the control of the economy.

Mineral production in the State is of great importance
since West Virginia has been ranked fifth in the nation,
according to 1968 statistics.  The order of importance
of those minerals in terms of value is coal, natural gas,
stone and natural gas liquids.  In Monongalia County,
coal was considered first and stone second, in order of
value, of the minerals produced.  The foregoing is
understandable when you consider that coal represented
85% of the State's mineral output during 1969.

The coal industry naturally has a dominant effect on
growth and the economy within the State.  Counties
experiencing declining population are those heavily
dependent upon the coal industry for support of their
economy, a result of greater mechanization in the industry,

Statistics (1969) on the coal industry, in total for the
State, reveal that mining employment went up 3.3% from
the previous year and the value of the coal mined that
year represented a 4% increase over the previous year
($807.8 million).  Of the total coal produced in the
State, 86% came from 867 underground operations, 10% from
229 strip mines and 4% from 111 auger mines.  Within
Monongalia County, 24 underground mines and 13 strip mines
were in operation, producing a total value of $53.8
million worth of coal production.

Although a diversity of areas exist for employment within
the State and notable industries may dominate the economy,
the factors of minimal education, increased mechanization,
predominance of employment in blue-collar positions,
                            38

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and dependence on employment  in  the  vicinity  of  the home
are significant  factors  indicating-the  limited potential
of the work force.  This  is further  supported by relatively
high unemployment rates  (1960) in  Monongalia  County and
the towns in its jurisdiction as follows:

Monongalia County - 8.9%  of civilian labor  force unemployed

Westover - 6.2%  of civilian labor  force unemployed

Morgantown - 6.1% of  civilian labor  force unemployed

Workers ,are dependent primarily  on work in  the mining
industry, manufacturing  and government  services  within
Monongalia County.  The  need  for increased  job oppor-
tunities' is critical  from the standpoint  that the median
age of the public is  in  the mid-to-late twenties.
Statistics from  the 1960  census  indicated that the median
income per family for Monongalia County was $5,297.

The State of West Virginia now has adequate regulations
and authority  to control the  quality of its waters, as
well as the restoration  of worked  land.  However,
conditions as  they exist today are the  result of years
of neglect and abuse, which will take many  years and a
considerable investment  to correct.

Concern and action to maintain and improve  the State's
waterways is essential to the ability of  the  State to
reverse its pattern of years  of  decline during a general
period of progress in most other states.  Maintenance
of the State's waters within  the water  quality standards
established will make them more  acceptable  for the water
use categories applicable to  such  waters.   The Dents
Run Watershed  falls within the use standards  established
for the Monongahela and  its tributaries, which include
recreation,.public water supply  and  industrial water
supply.

Therefore, it  can readily be  seen  that  improved  water
quality will meet the demand  for increased  water use
by the public  as people  continue to  migrate to the towns
and cities.  It  will  also serve  to encourage  industrial
investment in  the area,  providing  more  job  opportunities,
when industry  learns  that it  can expect and be virtually
guaranteed a good source  of water  to meet the demands
of its operations.
                           39

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One of the greatest potentials for an economic upturn
in the State is in the area of recreation.  West Virginia
has been planning, encouraging and investing in recent
years in a program which includes the development of new
recreational facilities within the State and the promotion
of the State as an ideal place for hunting, fishing and
other vacation activities.  This concerted effort has
been conducted to substantially promote an existing
industry and, in so doing, create many new job oppor-
tunities for residents of the State.   These efforts
can only be continued as new areas of the State may be
opened to such development, which in  some cases requires
the restoration of scarified land and the improvement of
water quality to support fish life and encourage
pleasure boating, swimming, etc.   This project can go
a long way in demonstrating a successful program of
restoring the natural beauty of the land and the service-
ability of the waterways, which is required on an areawide
basis to promote full recreational capabilities.          ;
                          40

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                      SECTION VI

                PRELIMINARY ENGINEERING
Detailed Site Descriptions

The information presented herein  includes  a detailed
physical description of each  strip  area and mine opening
in the project area, as well  as recommendations for
reclamation work required at  each site to  facilitate
proper execution of the project beyond this study.

Each strip area and/or mine opening presented is first
listed under the section letter of  the area of the water-
shed map in which  it is located  (see Figure 12).  The
heading identifying and describing  the particular strip
area or mine opening and its  priority classification then
precedes the paragraph concerning same.  The probable coal
seam is then identified in parentheses immediately below
this heading.  Letters are used to  designate strip areas
which correspond with matching lettered cross-hatched areas
pn the watershed map.  Mine openings are identified by
number and correspond to matching numbered symbols, in
accordance with the legend.

A priority listing has been developed for  the work to be
performed.  Since  the objective of  this demonstration
project is the reduction of mine  water pollution through
water infiltration control, first priority items refer to
those areas which  contribute  significant amounts of drain-
age to the underground mine workings, while second priority
items are those which contribute  directly  to stream
pollution as a result of surface  water runoff.  Third
priority items are those areas which contribute to
aesthetic pollution; this includes  all of  the sites within
the watershed which are not included in the first or
second priority listing.  The priority listings are as
follows:

Priority I - Infiltration

1.  Dents Run - Suspected loss of flow
2.  Section G, Strip Area R
3.  Section G, Strip Area A
4.  Section C, Strip Area C
5.  Section G, Strip Area J
6.  Borehole - Interception(s)
                            41

-------

-------
 Priority II - Surface Water Pollution

 1.   Section G, Strip Area G
 2.   Section G, Mine Dump N
 3.   Section C, Strip Areas J and H
 4.   Section G, Strip Areas D and E
 5.   Section G, Strip Area M
 6.   Section G, Strip Area C
 7.   Section F, Strip Area A
 8.   Section C, Strip Area S
 9.   Section G, Strip Areas P and Q
10.   Section G, Strip Area B
11.   Section C, Strip Area B

 Priority III - Aesthetic Pollution

 All remaining sites in the watershed.

 Items 1 and 6 under Priority I require further explana-
 tion, as they are not discussed in the site descriptions.
 Throughout the investigative portion of this study, signi-
 ficant reductions were observed in the flows measured
 between sample points 4 and 5 in Dents Run.  Subsequent
 investigations have somewhat pinpointed this apparent
 water loss to one general area.  The Pittsburgh coal seam
 outcrops in this area and it is believed that a portion
 of  the  stream flow  finds its way into mine workings
 through fissures or fracture zones present in the stream
 bed.  An extensive  investigation is  scheduled to be
 conducted  during the months of May and June, 1972, to
 determine  the exact point of water loss.  If this area
 can be  defined, it will probably be  necessary to line this
 portion of the stream bed with concrete.  Figure 13 shows
 the extent of mining in the Pittsburgh coal seam in this
 area and the  proximity of  the mining to the stream bed.

 Discussions with Christopher Coal Personnel indicate that
 some of the  drainage that  is pumped  from the Snider bore-
 hole location may  be the  result of water rising from an
 abandoned  mine in  the Pittsburgh  coal ^e
 abandoned  boreholes  and discharging  into
                             43

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                                       CHRISTOPHER COAL CO.
                                       MAIN HAULAGE TUNNEL
                                            (ACTIVE)
                                              MINED OUT SECTION
                                              (PILLARS REMAINING)
1
LAUREL POINT AIRSHAFT
a BOREHOLE DISCHARGE
          y/ /
                                                                                    MINED OUT SECTION
                                                                                    (PILLARS REMOVED)
                               MINE MAP-PITTSBURGH COAL SEAM
                                      LAUREL POINT  VICINITY
                                            FIGURE 13

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suspected boreholes  are  believed to be  in  Section  H
{see Figure 12)  near the village of Harmony  Grove.   If
further investigation confirms  this theory of  intercep-
tions, these  should  be sealed to prevent any future  influx
of water from this area.

The various types of backfill methods presently employed
in West Virginia are illustrated in Figures  14 through
18.  Reclamation work within the watershed would be
primarily concerned  with the contour or pasture type
backfill or a combination of these  two  techniques, depen-
ding upon the conditions encountered at each site.   The
pasture type  backfill will be used  when the  highwall is
relatively sound, whereas the contour backfill will be
used in areas which  have highly fractured  highwalls.  The
backfills will be compacted in  order to prevent excessive
infiltration  through the porous spoil material and into
intercepted deep mine workings.

Where surface mines  have disturbed  relatively  large
drainage areas,  surface  water diversion ditches should
be constructed in order  to prevent  excessive erosion of
the backfill  and permit  better  development of  the vege-
tative cover.   Figure 47 illustrates a  typical diversion
ditch.
1

Figures 19 and 20 show typical  applications  of both
of these surface reclamation techniques.   In the case of
the auger mining, subsidence has not occurred  and the
highwall is relatively intact,  thereby  permitting the use
Of the pasture backfill.  In Figure 19  the interception
of extensive  deep mine workings has resulted in fracturing
Of the highwall  with consequent instability  and relatively
high infiltration rates.  The compacted contour backfill
and surface water diversion ditch serve both to reduce
further fracturing and decrease the rate of  surface water
infiltration.

Site investigations  in the Dents Run Watershed indicate
that the majority of surface mines  have intercepted  deep
mine workings,  highwalls are generally  highly  fractured
and surface water runoff in these areas is usually
channeled directly into  the deep mine workings.

Several of the surface mines presently  contain water
impoundments  in  portions of the unreclaimed  pit areas.  As
reclamation work requires draining  of these  impoundments,
portable treatment facilities will  be employed to provide
adequate treatment of any and all water impoundments
prior to discharge to a  receiving stream.


                             45

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               BACKFILLED GROUND SLOPE
      PIT BOTTOM
TYPICAL CONTOUR BACKFILL
          FIGURE 14

-------
   PIT BOTTOM
TYPICAL PASTURE BACKFILL
         FIGURE 15

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                                           BACKFILLED GROUND SLOPE
*>.
00
       rA-A-A-A-An
                               4'MIN. COVER
                 TYPICAL GEORGIA V-DITCH BACKFILL
                               FIGURE 16

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                                     BACKFILLED GROUND SLOPE
=A=A=A=ArAr
AZAZAZAZAZAZ
ZA=AZAZ,AZAZA
AAA-AA-A
rAnAziArArArA
            HIGHWALL
           60% MAX.
                 4'MIN. COVER
COAL SEAM
        TYPICAL REVERSE TERRACE (I)  BACKFILL
                        FIGURE 17

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en
o
                                         BACKFILLED GROUND SLOPE
        I  I   I  I
      ^A=A=A-A=A
     ~A A A~A A 
             HIGHWALL
                    4'.MIN. COVER
COAL SEAM
               TYPICAL REVERSE TERRACE (II) BACKFILL
                               FIGURE 18

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SURFACE WATER
DIVERSION DITCH
MIN
         COMPACTED CLAY SOIL
  TYPICAL BACKFILL-DEEP MINE
             FIGURE 19

-------
IV!
                    SURFACE WATER
                    DIVERSION DITCH
                    (IF REQUIRED)
      A-A-A-A^A-A^A-
      - A - A A - A - A -A - A
                  MIN
                            COMPACTED SOIL
                    TYPICAL BACKFILL-AUGER MINE
                                FIGURE 20

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SECTION B - Drift Mine  Openirtgs 1,  13 and 14
j            Priority  III (Waynesburg Coal)

prift mine openings 1 and 13 have fallen in and are over-
grdwn with underbrush.   There is a small amount'of water
seepage immediately in  front of these openings.  The
total seepage  from drift mine opening 1 is less than
pne-half gallon  per minute and^the total seepage  from
flrift mine opening 13 amounts to two to three gallons per
fninute.  Drift mine opening 14 is still accessible.  The
present opening  is approximately five feet high by eight
eet wide.  There is  a  pond of water immediately in front
Of this opening  which is '"approximately twenty-five fee't
long by ten feet wide (refer to sample 38,,table 40).  Due
j:o .the relatively high  quality of '"this discharge water
j(p& 8.0) and the present condition of these openings,
additional work  is not  recommended for this site.

$ECTION B - Drift Mine  Openings 4, 5 and 6
;            Priority  I-II (Waynesburg Coal)
*.                            "*

Drift mine openings 4 and 5 are approximately five eet
high by eight  feet wide.  There is a small pond of water
t the mouth of  each  opening.'  These openings appear to
be very shallow  (approximately ten feet deep) and have
Apparently been  opened  strictly for house, coal.  There
is a small seepage of water immediately in front of
these openings.  Drift  mine opening 6 is approximately
five feet high by-ten feet wide at the mouth.  This
bpening also has a small amount of water ponded immedi-
fitely behind the mouth  of the mine.  It appears to have
j>een developed to a greater extent than drift mine' openings
4 and 5; however, it  is impossible to tell how extensive
the mine really  is.   There is also a small seepage 6f
fvater from this  drift mine opening.  The total seepage
from drift mine  openings 4, 5 and 6 amounts to less than
fane gallon per minute.   This seepage was sampled  on
September 20,  1971,  (refer to sample 36, Table 38).  Due
f:o the relatively high  quality of the discharge (pH 7.6)
from  these openings  and the inaccessibility of both
bpenings from  any main  or secondary highway, reclamation
work is not recommended for this site.  .

SECTION B - Strip Area  B
^            Priority  III (Waynesburg Coal)

The total length of this strip area is approximately one
thousand feet, the height of the highwall is approximately
                            53

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twenty feet, and the width of the bench is approximately
one hundred fifty feet.  The height of the outslope averages
approximately thirty feet.  This strip area has been
backfilled with the slope toward the highwall.  It is
apparently a very old strip, as the area is now covered
with a heavy growth of underbrush.  This strip area is not
visible from any of the major or secondary highways in tne
area.  Surface water drainage would be toward the highwall;
however, there is only a slight amount of acidic material
present on the bench of this strip area and there are no
drift mine or auger mine interceptions within the highwall.
Therefore, the pollution problem resulting from this
drainage would be minimal.  Due to the present condition
of this strip area, there would be no significant advan-
tage to performing additional reclamation work at this site.

SECTION B - Strip Area C
            Priority III  (Waynesburg Coal)

The total length of this strip area is approximately 1500
feet; the height of the highwall is approximately fifty
feet, and the width of the bench varies from one hundred
fifty to two hundred fifty feet.  The outslope is
approximately fifty feet high.  This strip area has not
been backfilled, and there is no vegetative cover on
either the outslope or the bench.  There is quite a bit of
acidic material left on the bench and the outslope.  The
strip is highly visible from one of the major highways in
the area  (W- Va. Rt. 46).  There are two deep mine inter-
ceptions in the northeastern portion of this strip area
(mine openings 7 and 8).  Recommended reclamation at the
site includes compacted earth seals of the mine openings
involved, regrading of the spoil banks and the outslope
to near original contour, placement of a surface water
diversion ditch along the upper portion of the highwall,
soil conditioning of the backfill material in  order
to establish a firm vegetative cover and planting of
the area in some species of trees or grass.  It should be
noted, however, that this strip is presently under active
permit and any reclamation work completed at this site
should be the responsibility of the permittee"

Mine openings 7 and 8 are deep mine interceptions rather
than actual drift mine entries.  The entrances of both
interceptions are partially covered by material that has
fallen from the highwall.  Both openings  are approximately
                           54

-------
seven feet high by  twelve  to  fifteen feet  wide.   Mining
in this area would  have  been  to the  dip  so that  surface
water would run into  the mine rather than  drainage
running-out of the  mine.  A compacted earth seal should
be installed in each  of  these openings to  prevent
surface water from  entering the mine.

Drift mine opening  10 was  apparently abandoned quite  some
time ago.  The opening has fallen in and is overgrown with
underbrush.  There  is no evidence of any water seepage at
this-'time or at any time in the past. Reclamation  work  is
not recommended at  this  opening.

Drift *mine opening  11 was  apparently the main opening to
a small drift mine.  The opening is  partially covered by
material which has  fallen  from above the mouth of the
mine.  The present  opening is approximately seven
feet high by fifteen  feet  wide.  There is  no evidence of
any water seepage.  Reclamation work is  not recommended
at this location.

Drift mine opening  12 is almost totally  covered  by  under-
brush and debris.   There is no evidence  of water seepage
from the mine.  Reclamation work is  not  recommended at
this opening.

SECTION C - Strip Area B
            Priority  II  (Waynesburg  Coal)

The total length of this strip area  is approximately
2600 feet.  The height of  the highwall varies from
thirty-five to fifty  feet  and the width  of the bench
varies from one hundred  twenty-five  to two hundred  feet.
This strip mine has not  been  backfilled  and there is  a
significant amount  of acidic  material present on both the
bench and outslope.  There is no vegetation on either the
bench or outslope.  The  height of the outslope is
approximately seventy-five feet and  the  surface  condition
is very rough.  The condition of the highwall varies  between
very firm in some areas  to extremely fractured in other-
areas, which seems  to indicate the presence of drift  mine
interceptions.  There are  three ponded areas in  this  strip
mine and each pond  averages approximately  fifty  feet  wide
by two hundred feet long (refer to sample  20, Table 24).
Figure 21 shows a portion  of  one of  the  ponded areas  in
the northern section  of  the strip pit.  There are two
large shovels and two other pieces of heavy equipment
present at this site. This equipment does not appear to be
                           55

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    STRIP  PIT POND
SECTION  C,  STRIP AREA  B
       FIGURE 21

-------
in operable condition and  should  be  removed.   This
strip mine is highly visible  from one of  the  secondary
roads in the area and may  be  visible from Interstate  79.
Figure 22 shows a portion  of  the  exposed  highwall of  this
strip site as viewed from  W.  Va.  Route  46.  There is  one
drift mine entry in the extreme southern  section of this
strip (drift mine Opening  2).  The roof of this entry has
collapsed and is overgrown with underbrush.   There was
no drainage from this entry  at the time of 5 inspection
and no evidence of any significant drainage at any time
in the past.  Recommended  reclamation at  the  site includes
removal or burial of solid waste  and heavy equipment,
burial of acidic material  present, regrading  of spoil
banks and outslope to contour or  pasture  backfill
conditions, soil conditioning required  to establish a firm
vegetative cover and replanting of the  area in some species
of trees.

SECTION C - Strip Area C
            Priority I  (Waynesburg Coal)

The total length of this strip area  is  approximately  2600
feet, the width of the bench  varies  from  one  hundred  to
one hundred fifty feet, and  the height  of the highwall is
approximately fifty feet.  The condition  of the highwall is
very solid, which indicates  that  there  have been no drift
mine interceptions in this area.   With  the exception
of approximately 500 feet  in  the  northwestern portion
of this strip area, most of  the strip has been backfilled
with the slope toward the  highwall.  This area has
apparently been planted in grasses which  are  just beginning
to grow.  The outslope, however,  has no vegetative cover
and the condition of this  area is very  rough.  The north-
western section of this strip area has  not been backfilled
and the base of the highwall  has  apparently been exten-
sively auger mined.  Since the auger mining would have
been to the dip in this area, all surface drainage
eventually enters these auger mines. Figure  23 shows a
portion of this area with  associated surface  water runoff.
This entire strip area will  probably be visible from  i,
Interstate 79,  Reclamation work  required at  the site :e
should include earth compaction seals in  each of the  auger
mine openings to prevent surface  water  infiltration,
regrading of the spoil 'bank  and outslope  in th northwes-
tern portion of the strip  to  a contour  backfill, planting
of the area in some species  of trees or grasses.
                            57

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   EXPOSED  HIGHWALL
SECTION C,  STRIP AREA B
       FIGURE  22

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HIGHWALL AND BENCH  SHOWING SURFACE WATER RUNOFF
        SECTION C,  STRIP  AREA C
               FIGURE  23

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SECTION C - Strip Area D
            Priority III  (Sewickley Coal)

Strip area D has apparently been abandoned for quite some
time.  The area appears to have been backfilled, although
this may also be the result of natural weathering and
erosion.  The total length of the strip is approximately
six hundred feet and the height of the existing highwall
is ten to fifteen feet.  The strip itself is now covered
with a heavy growth of trees and underbrush.  There is no
evidence of drift mine openings or drift mine interceptions.

Due to the present condition of this strip area, surface
water drainage would probably follow natural courses and
eventually drain into stream M7-1 (refer to Figure 12) .
This drainage should not create any significant pollution
problems.  Due to the natural reclamation of this area and
the relative inaccessibility from any major highway,
additional reclamation work at this site is not warranted.

SECTION C - Strip Area E
            Priority III  (Redstone Coal)

This strip area has been almost totally eliminated by the
Interstate 79 road construction.  The total length of
the remaining strip area is approximately two hundred
feet, the height of the highwall is approximately fifteen
feet, and the width of the "bench is approximately fifty
feet.  The area has been backfilled with the slope toward.
the highwall and has been planted in pine trees.  There
is a good growth of both underbrush and pine on the
backfilled area.  There are no apparent drift mine inter-
ceptions or drift mine openings into this strip area.  Due
to the slope of the backfill, surface water drainage
would probably drain toward the highwall and eventually
into stream M7-1; however, there is very little acidic
material left uncovered in this area and the drainage
should not be contaminated.  Portions of this strip area
will be visible from the new Interstate highway.  From
an aesthetic point of view, these areas should probably
be regraded to an original contour backfill and planted
in some type of trees; however, the area does not present
any significant drainage problems and the money required
to completely reclaim this area could probably be put to
better use elsewhere.
                           60

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SECTION C - Strip Area F
            Priority  III  (Sewickley  Coal)

Strip area F appears  to be  a continuation  of  strip  area G.
The height of the existing  highwall  is  approximately twenty
feet, the width of  the bench is  approximately fifty feet,
and ;the total length  of this strip area is approximately
fifteen hundred feet.  The  extreme northern section of
this strip area has been  reclaimed by the  Interstate 79
road construction.  Natural weathering  and erosion  have
reduced the height  of the highwall and  spoil  banks  in the
remaining section of  the  strip to near  original  contour
conditions.  The area is  now covered with  a very dense
growth of underbrush  and  trees.  There  are four  apparent
drift mine openings in the  extreme northern section of
strip area F  (drift mine  openings 5, 6, 7  and 8).   Two of
these openings have fallen  in and are now  covered over.
The remaining two entries are still  accessible.  Since
these openings would  have been worked to the  dip, any
surface water drainage would drain into the subsurface
water system.  This drainage would probably be insignificant
in quantity since this strip area is located  at  the crest
of a hill; however, the area is  easily  accessible and it
would be relatively inexpensive  to place a clay  compaction
seal in each of the openings to  eliminate  surface water
infiltration.  Due  to the present condition of this strip
area, it is believed  that further reclamation work
attempted in this area would be  more detrimental than
beneficial; however,  several areas are  presently devoid
of vegetative cover and should be revegetated.

SECTION C - Strip Area G
            Priority  III  (Sewickley  Coal)

The height of the highwall  in this strip area is approxi-
mately twenty feet, the width of the bench is approximate-
ly fifty feet, and  the total length  is  approximately
fifteen hundred feet.  This area was apparently  worked
quite some time ago,  and  is now  overgrown  with underbrush
and trees.  There are several areas  along  the base  of the
highwall that appear  to have intercepted drift mine work-
ings; however, they have  fallen  in and  are partially
overgrown.  For the most  part, these drift mine
interceptions would have  been into mines that had been
worked to the rise  in this  area, and therefore any
drainage would tend to be from the drift mine workings
rather than into them.  Drift mine opening 19 is located in
the north central section of this strip area.  This drift
                            61

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mine opening has fallen in and is now overgrown.  There
is no evidence of drainage either into or out of any of  the
drift mine openings or drift mine interceptions located  in
this strip area.  Natural weathering and erosion have re-
duced the height of the highwall and spoil banks to near
original contour conditions.  Since the area has now
stabilized and is presently covered with a heavy growth  of
underbrush and trees and there is no significant drainage
from this strip area, it is believed that any further
reclamation work attempted at this site would be more
detrimental than beneficial.  There are several areas that
have apparently been used as refuse dumps; soil condition-
ing could be utilized in these areas in order to help
establish a firm vegetative cover, providing there are
sufficient funds in the project to permit this work.

SECTION C - Strip Area H
            Priority II  (Sewickley Coal)

The height of the highwall in strip area H varies from
fifteen to thirty-five feet, the width of the bench varies
from seventy-five to one hundred fifty feet, and the total
length of this strip is approximately two thousand feet.
Most of this strip area has been backfilled with the slope
toward the highwall; however, the southern and western
portions of the strip have not been backfilled.  There is
a heavy growth of black locust on the northern section of
the strip which appears to be between five and ten years
old.  There are three drift mine entries into the highwall
of the central and western portions of this strip area
(drift mines 11, 12 and 13).  All of these entries were
apparently worked to the dip and, therefore, drainage
should be into the mine rather than out of the mine.  Each
of the three entries is open and the dimensions of each
of the mine openings is approximately five feet high by
twelve feet wide.  A compacted earth seal should be
adequate at each of these entries since mining was to the
dip and there is no head of water expected on the seal.
There is a pond of water in the western section of the
strip pit which is approximately fifty feet long; the
water in this pond is highly discolored, indicating the
presence of high concentrations of iron.  Recommended
reclamation work at the site should include placement of
a surface water diversion ditch at the base of the highwall
in the northern section  (there would be no advantage to
regrading the entire area since there is a well established
growth of trees in this area), installation of earth
                           62

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compaction seals in each  of  the  drift  mine  openings,
treating and draining  the ponded water in the western
section of the strip,  contour  backfilling of the
remaining portion of the  strip and  soil conditioning
of this portion of the strip in  order  to establish  a
firm vegetative cover.

SECTION C - Strip Area J
            Priority II (Sewickley  Coal)

The height of the highwall in  strip area J  varies from
fifteen to thirty-five feet  and  the width of the bench
averages approximately two hundred  feet.  The condition of
the highwall varies from  solid in the  eastern portion of
the strip to highly fractured  in the western portion.  The
eastern portion of the strip has not been backfilled and
the present spoil bank is approximately twenty  feet high.
The western section of the strip has been backfilled,
apparently to aid in the  development of the drift mine into
the highwall of the strip.  There are  three drift mine
openings in this portion  of  the  strip,  drift mine openings
14, 15 and 16.  These  openings all  appear to have been main
haulage tunnels.  The  mouths of  drift  mine  openings 14 and
15 are still open; however,  the  roof of the haulage tunnel
itself appears to have collapsed a  short distance behind
the mouth of the mine.  The  roof of drift mine  opening 16
has fallen in.  Each of these  openings  could have been
worked to either the rise or the dip and it is  difficult
to estimate the direction of mining without accurate mine
maps; however, drift mine opening 14 was apparently
worked to the rise, since there  is  an  active discharge
from this opening amounting  to approximately two gallons
per minute.  There are several areas along  the  western
portion of the highwall which  have  apparently been  drift
mine interceptions and are now collapsed.   Due  to the
extremely fractured condition  of the highwall in this
area, it is doubtful that any  type  of water seal would be
effective.  There is an actively burning refuse dump just
north of drift mine opening  15.   This  dump  is approxi-
mately fifty feet long by fifty  feet wide by thirty feet
high (see Figure 24).   Recommended  reclamation  work
required at the site includes  installation  of wet seals at
mine openings 14 and 16 (reference  Figure 48),  installation
of a compacted earth seal at mine opening 15, regrading the
strip area to a contour backfill, extinguishing the fire
in the refuse dump, burial of  the material  along the base
of the highwall and conditioning the backfill material so
that the area may be planted in  some species of grass or
trees.
                            63

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-
4.
                                    BURNING REFUSE DUMP
                                  SECTION  C,  STRIP AREA J
                                         FIGURE 24

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SECTION C - Strip Area K
;            Priority  III  (Sewickley  Coal)

Strip Area K appears  to be  quite  old and there  is  a heavy
growth of trees and underbrush along the entire length of
the strip.  The strip extends  along  the  hillside and
is approximately twelve to  fifteen hundred feet long.
Natural weathering and erosion have  reduced the height of
the highwall and spoil banks to near original contour
conditions.  There are no apparent openings into deep mine
workings at this site.  There  would  be little or no advan-
tage to reworking this area.   However, there is one old
coal tipple and several junked automobiles in the  area
which could be removed.

SECTION C - Strip Area L
?            Priority  III  (Waynesburg Coal)
     area was  stripped at the  crest of a hill  and  there  is
only a small portion  of the  highwall remaining.  Other
sections of the highwall have  evidently been removed  in
order to provide material for  the backfill.  This  strip  is
even to eight hundred feet  long by approximately  two
hundred feet wide.  The outslope is fifty to seventy  feet
high.  The condition  of the  outslope is very rough, and
there is only  sparse  vegetative cover on the bench and
outslope.  Recommended reclamation at the site is
^Limited to soil conditioning and planting of the area in
some species of trees.
;,
SECTION C - Mine Dump P

Mine dump P is an  active refuse dump and slurry pond  of
the Christopher Coal  Division  of the Consolidation Coal
Company.  The  slurry  pond area is twelve to  fifteen
hundred feet long  by  four hundred fifty feet wide.  The
area surrounding this pond is  presently being  used as a
refuse dump and is  approximately fifteen hundred feet long
by three hundred feet wide.  There is seepage  from the
south end of the slurry pond of approximately  twenty
gallons per minute  during the  fall of the year (refer to
sample 22, Table 26).  Consolidation Coal is responsible,
under the West Virginia state  regulations, for this area
and the treatment  of  any discharge resulting from  this
Operation.  This problem will  be solved by the completion
date of the project.   As of  this writing, Christopher Coal
Division has not submitted plans for the correction of
the problem area.   Several alternative control methods are
being studied.
                             65

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SECTION C - Mine Dump Q

Mine dump Q is an active refuse dump of the Christopher
Coal Division of the Consolidation Coal Company.   This  dump
is approximately one thousand feet long by three hundred
feet wide and forty to fifty feet deep.  There is  a
continuous discharge from the eastern portion of this dump
which averages twenty-five gallons per minute during the
fall of the year (refer to sample 19, Table 23).   Since
this is still an active refuse dump, Christopher Coal
is responsible for the elimination or treatment of this
discharge under the West Virginia state regulations by
July, 1973.

SECTION C - Strip Area S
            Priority II (Redstone Coal)

The height of the existing highwall in this strip  area  is
approximately thirty feet, the width of the bench  is
approximately fifty feet, and the length of the strip
area is approximately fifteen hundred feet.  This  area
has not been backfilled; however, the site has apparently
stabilized and is now covered with a relatively heavy
growth of underbrush and trees.  Natural weathering and
erosion have reduced the height of the highwall and spoil
banks to near original contour conditions.  There  were
no drift mine interceptions or drift mine entries  located
in this area; however, the presence of several refuse dumps
would seem to indicate that there were several drift mine
openings in this area at one time (see Figure 25) .  These
openings have apparently fallen in and are now overgrown.
These refuse areas should be conditioned with fertilizers
and lime in order to establish a firm vegetative cover.
Due to the present condition of strip area S, it is
believed that any further reclamation attempted at this
site would be more detrimental than beneficial.

SECTION C - Strip Area T
            Priority III (Waynesburg Coal)

The length of this strip is approximately seven hundred
feet, the height of the highwall is generally between
thirty-five and forty feet, and the width of the bench
varies from fifty to two hundred feet.  This is apparently
an old strip cut judging from the dense cover of trees  and
underbrush on the bench and the eroded condition of the
                            66

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-
 !
                 ,
                         " >* f  ^

                      ~~~  "
     *.                 __ i



 ABANDONED REFUSE DUMP

SECTION C, STRIP AREA S

        FIGURE  25

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highwall.  There are several openings  into  drift mine
workings located along the highwall  (drift  mine  openings
17 and 18).  These appear to be interceptions  rather
than actual drift mine entries.  Since the  drift mine
would have been worked to the dip in this area,  surface
drainage would flow into the mine rather than  out of
the mine.  This possibly could be eliminated by  placing
compacted earth seals at each of the openings  and
placing surface water diversion ditches along  the base
of the highwall.  The outslope to this strip is  overgrown
with trees and underbrush, and there would  be  little    --.
advantage to regrading this area.

SECTION C - Strip Area U
            Priority III  (Waynesburg Coal)

The total length of this strip area is approximately one
hundred fifty feet and the height of the highwall is
twenty-five to thirty feet.  The southeastern  portion of
this strip area was apparently worked  quite some time
ago, since the area is now eroded and  overgrown  with
underbrush.  However, the northeastern portion of this area
 (approximately sixty feet) is still apparently being
used by local residents for house coal supplies.   There
are no drift mine entries or drift mine interceptions
in this area.  There is no visible drainage from the area
at this time; however, surface water drainage  from this
area would most likely drain into stream M7-1  (refer to
Figure 12).  The spoil banks and uncovered  acidic material
in this area are insignificant due to  the relatively small
size of the area.  Additional reclamation is not
recommended at this site.

SECTION C - Drift Mine Openings 9 and  10
            Priority III  (Sewickley Coal)

Drift mine opening 10 was apparently a main haulage tunnel
of a small drift mine.  This mine was  evidently  worked to
the rise and, therefore, any drainage  within the mine would
probably be drained from the mine at this point.   The
mine has apparently been abandoned for quite some time; the
roof of the opening has collapsed and  is overgrown with
underbrush and some small trees.  There was no drainage from
this entry at the time of inspection,  or evidence of any
significant drainage at any time in the past.  Reclamation
is not recommended for this site.
                           68

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Drift mine opening  9 was  apparently the  ventilation  course
for the same small  drift  mine.   The mine is  still  accessible
through the ventilation  fan  opening at this  entry.   There
is a_ small pond of  water  immediately in  front of the
opening; however, this appears  to be surface water drainage
rather than drainage from the mine itself.   There does
not appear to have  been  any  significant  drainage from this
entry at any time in the  past.   Reclamation  is not recom-
mended for this site.

SECTION F - Strip Area A
            Priority II  (Waynesburg Coal)

The length of this  strip  is  approximately eighteen hundred
feet, the width of  the bench is one hundred  to one hundred
twenty-five feet.   The height of the highwall averages
approximately thirty feet, and  the outslope  is approximately
fifty feet high.  The highwall  is relatively solid,  and
there are very few  fractured areas.  There are no visible
openings into drift mines.  The strip is located at  the
crest of a hill, and the  overburden between  the coal
seam and the surface area is thirty to forty feet.   The
area has not been backfilled, and there  are  spoil banks
over the entire width of  the bench.  There is some volunteer
growth on the area  which  appears to be about five years
old.  This vegetative cover  is  confined  to a very small
area of the strip,  and the growth in these areas is  sparse.
The entire area  (the bench,  the highwall and the outslope)
contains considerable acidic material, and there is  evidence
of drainage and erosion  on the  outslope.  There were no
indications of drainage  from the area at the time of
inspection.  At present,  there  are two abandoned shovels
and one tractor trailer  on the  strip (see Figure 26) .
These should be removed,  as  it  is doubtful that they can be
moved under their own power. Recommended reclamation at
the site includes removal of all solid wastes, contour
backfilling of the  entire strip area, soil conditioning
of the backfill and planting of the area in  some species
of trees or grasses.

SECTION F - Strip Area B
            Priority III  (Waynesburg Coal)

The height of the highwall is twenty to  twenty-five  feet,
the width of the bench varies from one hundred to three
hundred feet, and the outslope  is fifteen to twenty  feet
high.  The total length of the  strip mine is approximately
six hundred feet.   This  strip is located about one-tenth
                            69

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-1
:
                                  ABANDONED COAL EQUIPMENT

                                   SECTION  F,  STRIP AREA A

                                          FIGURE 26

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of a mile south of  U.S.  Route  19,  but  it is  not  highly
visible from  the  road  due  to the vegetative  growth  in the
area.  The condition of  the  highwall is  relatively  stable,
which indicates the absence  of drift mine entries or inter-
ceptions.  The area has  been backfilled  with the slope
toward the highwall (see Figure 27).  There  are  areas
where there have  been  visible  runoffs  toward the highwall,
but there was no  apparent  seepage  from the area. There  is
a growth of black locusts  on the backfill which  appears  to
be several years  old and the area  has  also been  planted  in
pines which are presently  one  to two feet high.  Recommended
reclamation at the  site  includes soil  conditioning  and
supplemental  planting  of the area  in some species of trees
or grasses.

SECTION F - Strip Area C
            Priority III (Waynesburg Coal)

There are apparently two benches at this strip site.  The
height of the highwall varies  from twenty-five to seventy-
five feet, the width of  the  bench  is approximately  three
hundred feet  and  the total length  of this strip  is
approximately three thousand feet.  This strip has  been
backfilled with a contour  backfill, and  the  backfilled
area has recently been planted in  grasses.   The  highwall
appears very  solid, indicating the absence of drift mine
entries or interceptions.   There appears to  be some acidic
material on the backfill,  but  it does  not appear to be
affecting the growth of  the  grasses.  This is an exception-
ally good backfill; however, from  a purely aesthetic point
of view, the  highwall  should be lowered.  The outslope of
the strip mine is approximately seventy-five feet high.
Portions of this  strip area  have been  planted in grasses
and the remainder has  apparently been  prepared for  planting.
Recommended reclamation  at the site includes regrading
the outslope, soil  conditioning and seeding  of unplanted
areas in some species  of trees.

SECTION F - Drift Mine Openings 1, 2,  3  and  4
            Priority III (Waynesburg Coal)

Drift mine opening  1 has apparently fallen in and is now
sealed.  It is one  opening of  a group  of four.   This drift
mine appears  to have been  abandoned quite some time ago,
as indicated  by the appearance of  the  entries and the mine
tracks in the area. Drift mine opening  2 is still
accessible and is approximately ten feet wide by
                            71

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 I
'
                     _   -.

                              TYPICAL  REVERSE  TERRACE BACKFILL
                                   SECTION  F,  STRIP AREA B
                                     FIGURE 27

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seven feet high.  There  is  a small  amount  of  seepage  from
this entry, totaling  approximately  one-half gallon  per
minute.  The water  was sampled in August,  1971,  (refer  to
sample 30, Table  34).  The  pH at that time was 6.8,
alkalinity exceeded acidity, and total iron was  2.2 ppm.
Drift mine opening  3  has partially  fallen  in.  Part of  the
coal seam is still  exposed.   There  is water ponded  in
the entry; however, there does not  appear  to,be  any seepage
from the opening.   Drift mine opening 4 is apparently part
of the same small drift  mine.  The'entry has  fallen in  and
is now overgrown.   There is no apparent seepage  from  the
entry and no signs  of seepage at any time  in  the past.
There is a small  spoil bank approximately  twenty feet wide
by twenty feet  long and  five feet high' which  is  not
visible from the  road.

The mines are located just  north of an infrequently traveled
dirt road.  There are only  meager signs that  the mines
ever existed in this  area (a small  refuse  dump exists
alongside the road) .   Due to the relatively high quality
of the water discharged  from these  mines and  their  inacces-
sibility, reclamation is not recommended at this site.

SECTION G - Strip Area A
            Priority  I  (Waynesburg  Coal)

The exposed highwall  of  strip area  A averages thirty
feet, the width of  the bench is approximately one hundred
twenty-five feet  and  the height of  the outslope  is
approximately forty feet.  The total length of this
strip is approximately fifteen hundred feet.  The condition
of the highwall is  generally very solid.   There  is  one
section near the  southeast  portion  of the  strip  which is
highly fractured; the fracture zone runs at a forty-five
degree angle to the highwall and extends back approximately
fifty feet.  There  is also  some local subsidence in the
area.  The fracture zone and subsidence area would  require
some type of grout  or clay  compaction seal in order to
reduce surface  water  infiltration.   The strip area  has  been
backfilled and  the  bench dips slightly toward the highwall;
however, there  is no  vegetative cover on either  the bench
or the outslope.  There  are several areas  along  the highwall
in which there  are  exposed  auger holes. Only four  auger
holes are now open  in the area since the strip has  been
backfilled; however,  it  is  probable that augering has been
completed along the entire  length of the strip.   The  surface
                           73

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drainage courses in this area direct all surface water
into the auger openings.  Recommended reclamation  at
the site includes sealing of the fractured area,
placement of a surface water diversion ditch above this
area, compaction sealing of the auger areas, regrading
of the bench and outslope to Pasture backfill, soil
conditioning and establishment of a good vegetative cover
in the area.

SECTION G - Strip Area B
            Priority II  (Sewickley Coal)

Strip area B is located approximately seventy-five feet
below and parallel to strip area A.  Strip area B  was
evidently worked quite some time ago, judging by the
appearance of the spoil banks and the vegetative cover in
the area.  The area has not been backfilled; however,
natural weathering and erosion have reduced the height of
the highwall and spoil banks to near original contour  con-
ditions.  The width of the bench of this strip varies  from
fifty to four hundred fifty feet, and the total length is
approximately two thousand feet.  There appears to be  a
considerable amount of acidic material exposed on  the  spoil
banks and outslope; however, any attempts to regrade or
otherwise disturb this area would probably be more
detrimental than advantageous.  Recommended reclamation
at the site includes conditioning of the spoil banks,
and supplemental planting of some species of trees.

SECTION G - Strip Area C
            Priority II  (Sewickley Coal)

The height of the existing highwall in strip area  C is
twenty to twenty-five feet, the width of the bench varies
from fifty to three hundred feet, and the height of the
outslope is twenty to thirty feet.  The total length of  the
strip is approximately fifteen hundred feet.  The  area has
been backfilled with a slight dip of the backfill  toward
the highwall.  The condition of the outslope is fairly
smooth; however, there is no vegetative cover on the
outslope or the bench (see Figure 28).  There are  no visible
drift mine openings or interceptions in the area.   There is
evidence of surface runoff and, judging from the iron  stains
on the bottom of the stream bed, the drainage is acidic  in
nature.  The location of the strip represents the  head-
waters of stream M7-3.  The total drainage from all of the
                           74

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                                         .

.


          ' 
       -*
                       '

                       *ST~

   _
                 
                   '-.V- ;"  .- r ">- _ t -
             .      '       'I''  '       '   :
r^> ^^ . v-       . - *
              REGRADED BENCH  AREA SHOWING LACK OF VEGETATION
                           SECTION G,  STRIP AREA C
                                   FIGURE 28

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surface runoff from any of the strip mines in the area,
is eventually drained into M7-3.  This stream has been
sampled on several occasions  (refer to sample 24, Table  28).
Recommended reclamation at this site includes soil
conditioning  (neutralization and fertilization) and
planting of some species of trees or grasses.

SECTION G - Strip Area D
            Priority II (Waynesburg Coal)

The highwall in strip area D varies from twenty to fifty
feet, the width of the bench is approximately seventy-five
feet and the outslope is twenty to twenty-five feet
high.  The extreme southeastern section, the portion in
which drift mine opening 31 is located, has recently been
backfilled and planted in grasses.  The existing highwall
in this section is approximately forty feet high.  This
is generally a very good backfill; however, nothing has  been
done to the outslope, and the slope of the backfill itself
is slightly toward the highwall.  The remaining section  of
strip area D, from drift mine opening 30 to the extreme
northern section of this strip, has not been backfilled.
The height of the spoil banks in this section varies from
twenty-five to forty-five feet.  There is considerable
acidic material along the bench and on the spoil banks
of the strip, and very little vegetative cover exists over
most of the area.

Drift mine opening 29 was apparently the main haulage
tunnel for what appears to have been a large drift mine.
The original opening has partially fallen in, and the
existing opening is approximately four feet high by
fifteen feet wide.  This opening, as well as all other
openings which are found in this strip area, has
been mined to the rise so that any drainage would be from
the mine rather than into the mine.  At present, there is
no drainage from this particular opening; however, there
is evidence immediately in front of the opening that there
has been drainage at times.  The drainage course is
highly stained, indicating the presence of high concen-
trations of iron.  Drift mine opening 30 was apparently  an
alternate haulage route.  The dimensions of this opening
are similar to those of drift mine opening 29.  There are
no signs of drainage from the opening either now or in
the past.  Drift mine opening 28 was apparently a ventila-
tion tunnel.   The present opening is approximately four
feet in diameter.  There are no signs of drainage from the
                           76

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entry, either now  or  in  the  past.   Drift  mine  opening  27
appears to have been  a drift mine  interception into  one
of the main haulage tunnels.  The  present opening is quite
large, approximately  five  feet high by twenty  to  twenty-five
feet wide.  There  is  a large pond  of water immediately
behind the material which  has fallen from the  highwall in
front of this opening.   There are  also signs of seepage
immediately in front  of  the  opening.  Drift mine  openings
25 and 26 are very similar in appearance  to drift mine
opening 27.  However, they have partially fallen  in  and it
is not known whether  water is ponded behind each  of  these
falls.  Drift mine openings  23 and 24 are also drift mine
interceptions; however,  they have  fallen  in and are  now
covered over.  There  is  evidence along the base of the
highwall of the strip area that water has drained from
each of the openings  at  one  time or another; however,  the
drainage appears to have been small in quantity.   As
reclamation work is completed at strip area A, Section G,
infiltration into  the deep mine workings  should be
decreased with a consequent  reduction in  the drainage  from
strip area D.

Recommended reclamation  at the site includes installation
of a wet seal at mine opening 29,  installation of compacted
earth seals at the remaining mine  openings, complete
pasture backfilling,  conditioning  of the  backfill in
order to permit the establishment  of a firm vegetative
growth and planting of the area in some species of grasses
or trees.

SECTION G - Strip  Area E
            Priority  III (Sewickley Coal)

Strip area E is located  below and  parallel to  strip  area D.
The strip was evidently  worked quite some time ago and
is now overgrown with a  heavy stand of trees and  under-
brush.  The strip  mine was not backfilled and  there  are
several areas which still  contain  excessive amounts  of
acidic material.   However, any disturbance to  these  areas
would probably be  more detrimental than beneficial.
Natural weathering and erosion have reduced the height
of the highwalls and  spoil banks to near  original contour
conditions.  There is evidence of  two drift mine  openings
in the southern portion  of this strip (drift mine openings
60 and 61) .  These entries have caved in  and are  over-
grown; however, there is a small amount of seepage in  front
of each of the entries.  The seepage amounts to less
                            77

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than one-half gallon per minute.  Due to the present
condition of this strip area the only reclamation re-
commended at this site would be soil conditioning and
revegetation of those areas which are presently devoid  of
vegetative cover.

SECTION G - Strip Area F
            Priority III (Waynesburg Coal)

The highwall in strip area F is thirty-five to forty feet
high, the width of the bench is approximately one hundred
twenty-five feet and the height of the outslope is
thirty-five to forty feet.  The total length of this strip
is approximately six hundred feet.  The highwall is
relatively solid, which indicates the absence of drift
mine interceptions.  Most of the area has been backfilled
with the slope toward the highwall; approximately thirty
yards in the extreme northern section of this strip has
not been backfilled.  There are some grasses and light
underbrush growing on the backfilled area, along with
several small trees.  The strip is highly visible from
U.S. Route 19.  Recommended reclamation at the site
includes soil conditioning of the bench and outslope
and planting of the area in some species of trees.

SECTION G - Strip Area G
            Priority II (Sewickley Coal)

The total length of the strip area is approximately twelve
hundred feet, the height of the highwali varies from
thirty to forty-five feet and the width of the bench
averages about fifty feet.  The highwall is highly frac-
tured, and there are numerous drift mine interceptions
along the entire length of the strip cut.  The area has
not been backfilled and there is considerable acidic
material on both the bench and spoil banks.  There is
very little vegetative cover on either the bench or the
outslope.  The strip area is not visible from any major
or secondary highway in the area.  There are approximately
ten drift mine entries or drift mine interceptions into
the drift mine workings located along the highwall of the
strip area.

Drift mine opening 13 is located at the extreme northern
end of strip area G.  The opening has fallen in and there
are several areas of stagnant ponded water in front of
the opening.  Minimal drainage from this area combines
                          78

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with the drainage  from drift mine  opening 14.   There  is
also an extensive  area of subsidence between drift  mine
openings 13  and  14.

Drift opening  14 appears  to be a drift mine  interception
rather than  an actual  drift mine entry.   The present
opening is approximately  six feet  high by twelve  feet
wide.  Some  water  is ponded behind the material which has
fallen from  the  high wall  immediately in front  of  the
opening, which has resulted in a small amount  of  drainage
seeping through  the material.  The drainage  amounts to
five to seven  gallons  per minute,  which combines  with
other drainage from the highwall of the strip  area  and
finally discharges into stream M7-4 at the rate of  seven
to eight gallons per minute.

Drift mine opening 15  was also apparently a ventilation
shaft.  The  present opening is approximately six  feet
high by seventeen  feet wide.  There is some  drainage  from
the opening, which combines with the drainage  from  drift
mine opening 16  and flows into stream M7-4 at  the rate of
five to seven  gallons  per minute.

Drift mine opening 16  was apparently a main  haulage tunnel.
The present  opening is approximately six feet  high  by
twelve feet  wide.   There  is an extensive subsidence area
above the opening. At the present time, there is a drainage
from the mine  opening  amounting to approximately  three
gallons per  minute.

Drift mine opening 17  was apparently a ventilation  tunnel.
The opening  has  fallen in and there is drainage of  two
to three gallons per minute from the site.

Drift mine opening 18  was apparently a main  haulage tunnel.
The present  opening is approximately five feet high by
twelve feet  wide (see  Figure 29) .   There is  drainage  from
the entry amounting to five to seven gallons per  minute.
The drainage combines  with surface water drainage from
the southern half  of the  strip area and drains into stream
M7-4 at a current  rate of thirty to thirty-five gallons
per minute.

Drift mine opening 19  appears to have been a drift  mine
interception at  the junction of two haulage  tunnels.  The
present opening  is approximately five feet high by  twelve
feet wide.   There  was  no  sign of drainage from this entry
at the time  of inspection.  There  is a very  large subsi-
dence immediately  over the mine opening.
                            79

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        TYPICAL DRIFT MINE ENTRY
SECTION G, STRIP AREA G, MINE OPENING  18
               FIGURE 29

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Drift mine opening  20  was  apparently  used as  a  secondary
haulage tunnel.  The opening  is  partially covered by
material which has  fallen  from the  highwall of  the  strip
cut.  The present opening  is  approximately four feet
high by ten  feet wide.   There is no evidence  of water
behind the partial  seal  and no supporting evidence  of
drainage at  any time in  the past from the opening.

Drift mine opening  21  is approximately twenty-five  feet
north of drift mine opening 22.   It was also  apparently
a main haulage tunnel.   The present opening is  approximately
four feet high by twelve feet wide.  The mouth  of the
opening is partially covered  by  material that has fallen
from the highwall.  There  is  no  water behind  the seal  and
no evidence  of drainage  from  the entry.

Drift mine opening  22  was  apparently  one of the main
haulage tunnels for the  drift mine.  The present opening
is approximately four  feet high  by  six feet wide.   There is
no apparent  drainage from  the drift mine opening at this
time and no  evidence of  any significant drainage in the
past.

There are also several other  areas  that apparently  have'
intercepted  drift mine workings; however, they  have fallen
in and are not accessible  from the  highwall.  Drift mine
workings along the  highwall were apparently worked  to  the
rise; therefore, any drainage would flow out  of the mine
rather than  into the mine. At the  present time, there
is drainage  from six of  the drift mine entries;  however,
it appears to be surface water runoff from the  highwall.
Recommended  reclamation  at the site includes  burial of
all acidic material present,  sealing  of mine  openings  16
and 18 with  a wet seal,  sealing  each  of the remaining
drift mine entries  or  interceptions with a compacted earth
seal, complete pasture backfilling  of the strip area,
sealing of subsidence  areas,  placement of a surface water
diversion ditch along  the  upper  portion of the  highwall,
soil conditioning of the backfill material in order to
establish a  firm vegetative cover and replanting of the
area in some species of  trees and grasses.

The drainages mentioned  above represent a period following
several days of moderately heavy rainfall.  The normal
discharge from the  mine  openings amounts to five to seven
gallons per minute.  Due to the  extensively fractured
                           81

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condition of the highwall and the strip area, it is
doubtful that any type of a hydraulic seal would prevent
future drainage from this area.  In view of this condition,
the money required to install hydraulic seals could not be
justified.  It should also be noted that the majority of
the drainage from the area apparently comes from surface
water runoff from the highwall rather than from the mine
itself.  The installation of a surface water diversion
ditch along the upper portion of the highwall would
reduce the volume of this drainage to insignificant
levels.

SECTION G - Strip Area H
            Priority III  (Sewickley Coal)

The height of the highwall in this strip is approximately 
forty feet, the width of the bench is fifty to seventy-five
feet and the spoil banks are approximately twenty-five
feet high.  The total length of the strip area is approxi-
mately six hundred feet.  The strip has not been back-
filled; however, there is a moderate cover of trees on
both the spoil bank and the bench.  The trees appear to be
at least fifteen years old.

There are three drift mine openings in this strip cut, all
of which are open.  These mines were worked to the rise;
however, there was no drainage from any of the openings
at the time of inspection.  There are signs that there has
been drainage from both drift mine openings 11 and 12.
This probably would have occurred during periods
of relatively high water.  The present dimensions of each
of these openings are approximately six feet high by twelve
feet wide.  Recommended reclamation at the site includes
sealing of the three drift mine entries involved with a
compacted earthen seal, contour backfilling, soil
conditioning of the backfill and planting of the area in
some species of trees and grasses. 

SECTION G - Strip Area J
            Priority I  (Sewickley Coal)

This area is presently being used as a sanitary landfill
for the towns of Westover and Granville  (see Figure 30) .
The sanitary landfill operator has stated that the
expected life of the strip area as a landfill operation
is between four and five years; however, recent public
                           82

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   SANITARY LANDFILL
SECTION G, STRIP  AREA J
       FIGURE  30

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opposition to this site for future landfill usage has
resulted in an injunction against the operator  and  it  is    ,,
doubtful that the area will be reopened.

The total length of strip area J is approximately one
thousand feet.  The width of the bench varies from  seventy-
five to two hundred feet.  The height of the exposed
highwall area varies from approximately twenty  feet in the
areas which have already been landfilled to approximately ;
forty-five feet in areas which have not yet been landfille^d.

There are approximately nine drift mine interceptions  in
the northern section along the highwall of the  strip mine .
area.  Since mining would have been to the dip  in the
area, it is suspected that any surface water falling on
the strip cut or landfill operation would eventually
drain into the drift mine interceptions.  Several areas
of extensive surface subsidence and fracturing  have been
located at the top of the highwall.  These areas intercept
a relatively large drainage area and would effectively
drain any surface water into the abandoned deep mine work-
ings .

Recommended reclamation at the site includes placement of
a surface water diversion ditch along the top of the
highwall, grouting or sealing of the fracture and
subsidence areas near the top of the highwall,  compacted
contour/pasture backfill and planting of the area in trees
and grasses.

SECTION G - Strip Area K
            Priority III (Sewickley Coal)

Strip area K has also been used as a sanitary landfill.
The landfill has been completed and the area is now being
used as a junkyard.  The remaining exposed highwall area
is ten to fifteen feet high.  The highwall is highly
fractured, and there are numerous drift mine interceptions
still exposed in the area.   Drift mining in the area would
have been to the rise and,  therefore, any drainage
associated with the mining operation would drain from  the
mines rather than into the mines.  There are no signs  of
drainage from any of the interceptions in this  area.
However, since the area has been used as a sanitary landfill
operation, it is suspected that any drainage would  percolate
                           84

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through the landfill  and would not be appreciably  noticeable
in the area of  the highwall.   The  outer perimeter  of  the
landfill operation was  checked for drainage.   There
was no visible  drainage at the time and no signs of
excessive drainage -at any time in  the past.   The cover  over
the old landfill  operation is minimal and should be in-
creased to at least six inches in  order to prevent surface
water infiltration.   While the area is a definite  eyesore,
it is not noticeable  from any of the major highways in  the
area, despite the fact  that  it is  immediately adjacent  to
U.S. Route 19.  Since this area is not of major concern
from a pollution  viewpoint,  reclamation is not recommended
at this site.

SECTION G - Strip Area  L
            Priority  III (Sewickley Coal)

The height of the highwall in this strip varies from
twenty to forty feet, the width of the bench  is approximate-
ly thirty feet  and the'total  length of this entire section
is only six hundred feet.  The highwall is highly  fractured,
which is apparently the result of  numerous drift mine
interceptions in  the  eastern  section.  There  is some
vegetative cover  in this area; however, the majority  of the
bench and the outslope  is still barren.  The  strip mine is
located immediately adjacent  to U.S. Route 19, and it is
generally visible from  the highway.  There are several
drift mine openings on  the strip and immediately adjacent
to the strip which could be  sealed.  Each opening
will be discussed on  an individual basis.

Drift mine openings 32  and 33 have apparently been aban-
doned for quite some  time and are  now fallen  in and over-
grown.  There is  no visible  seepage from either of the
areas; therefore, reclamation work is not required at
either of the entries.

Drift mine opening 34 was apparently a main entry  into
this small drift  mine.   The  opening is approximately  six
feet high by fifteen  feet wide. There is no  evidence
of drainage either into or out of  the mine opening.

Drift mine opening 35 was apparently a main haulage
tunnel.  The mine was worked  to the rise so that
drainage would  flow from the  mine  rather than into it.
There were no signs of  drainage from the mine, either
now or in the past.
                            85

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Mine opening 36 is apparently a deep mine interception
rather than a drift mine opening.  The opening has caved
in and is now completely closed.

Mine opening 37 also appears to be a deep mine inter-
ception rather than an actual drift mine entry.  The roof
of this opening has collapsed.  There appear to be three
or four additional interceptions in this area; however,
the highwall is so fractured and fallen that it is
difficult to tell whether they are actual interceptions or
merely areas where the fractured highwall has fallen in.
The only reclamation recommended at this site would be
the placement of a surface water diversion ditch along the
top of the highwall in order to divert surface runoff
away from the fractured highwall of this strip.

SECTION G - Strip Area M
            Priority II  (Sewickley Coal)

The height of the highwall is approximately twenty feet,
the width of the bench is one hundred to one hundred
twenty-five feet and the height of the outslope is twenty
to twenty-five feet.  The highwall is highly fractured,
indicating the presence of deep mine interceptions or
entries.  The total length of the strip is approximately
six hundred feet.  The eastern half of the strip area
has been backfilled; however, a relatively poor job has
been done and the area should be regraded.  The western
section has not been backfilled.  There is some growth on
the eastern section of the strip, primarily pine.  The
western section is devoid of vegetative cover.  Some
material has fallen at the base of the highwall,
concealing openings into the drift mines which may be
located in the area.  There is one opening in the
central section of the strip  (drift mine opening 38) .
There is no discharge from this opening during the dry
season; however, during the winter and spring seasons
there is an almost continuous discharge which has been
measured as high as 400-500 gpm.  There are several areas
that appear to have cut into the drift mine; however,
they are now hidden by the material that has fallen from
the highwall (drift mine opening 39).  The strip is highly
visible from U.S. Route 19.  Recommended reclamation
at the site includes installation of a wet seal at mine
opening 38 and a compacted earth seal at mine opening 39,
regrading of the bench and outslope to a more natural
contour, soil conditioning of the backfill and planting
of trees and grasses.
                           86

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SECTION G - Mine Dump N
            Priority II

This refuse dump is approximately  four  hundred  feet
long, sixty feet high and  varies from fifty  to  one
hundred feet wide.  This area is visible  from U.S. Route
19.  The dump and the area below is  completely  devoid
of vegetative cover and there is evidence of pollution
from seepage water of the  dump.  At  several  points the
toe of the pile encroaches on the  stream  channel.  Re-
commended reclamation at this site includes  removal of
all refuse in or near the  stream  (10 foot minimum) , re-
shaping of the dump to a more natural contour,  rerouting
of surface water drainways, treatment of  the refuse with
fly ash and fertilizers and planting the  area with grasses.

SECTION G - Strip Area P
            Priority II  (Sewickley Coal)

Strip area P is located immediately  below and parallel to
strip area Q.  Much of the area has  been  covered by the
outslope from strip area Q.  In the  areas where strip area
P has not been covered by  the strip  area  Q outslope, the
highwall is twenty to twenty-five  feet  high. The exposed
highwall appears to be very solid  and is  evidently not
extensively undermined.  The area  does  not appear to have
been backfilled; however,  it is apparently a very old
strip and is presently overgrown with trees  and under-
brush.  While this area is generally visible from U.S.
Route 19, the vegetative cover hides most of the strip
mine scars.  The most readily apparent  scar  in  the area is
the outslope from strip area Q.  There  are several points
of seepage from strip area P. The total  seepage from
this area at the time of inspection  amounted to approxi-
mately five gallons per minute.  Recommended reclamation
at the site should include regrading of the  outslope of
strip area Q to cover most of the  exposed sections of
the strip area.  Little advantage  would be gained by
regrading the bench of the strip,  which is  presently
under very heavy vegetative cover.

SECTION G - Strip Area Q
            Priority II  (Waynesburg  Coal)

The height of the highwall in this strip  is  forty to
fifty feet, the width of the bench is approximately one
hundred twenty-five feet and the outslope is approximately
                           87

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seventy-five feet high.  The condition of  the outslope  is
very rough as is illustrated in Figure 31.  The  length  of
this strip is approximately one mile.  There are  twenty_to
twenty-five junked automobiles on the southeastern  section
of the strip, along with a small amount of other  solid
wastes.  There are eight drift mine openings on  the
extreme western section of the strip, two of which  have
active discharges  (refer to sample 18, Table 22,  and  sample
33, Table 36).  The entire strip is highly visible  from
U.S. Route 19.  Portions of the highwall are highly
fractured, presumably caused by the interception  of
drift mines  (see Figure 32).  The strip has been
backfilled with the slope of the backfill toward  the
highwall; however, there are only small areas where
vegetative cover exists on either the bench or the  outslope.

Mine opening 48 appears to be a drift mine intercep-
tion rather than an actual drift mine entry.  The opening
is approximately four and one-half feet high by
twelve feet wide.  There are no signs of water entering or
leaving this opening.

Drift mine openings 49 and 50 show no sign of water flow
into or out of these mine openings.  Mine opening 50  was
apparently a ventilation shaft.  The opening is approxi-
mately four and one-half feet high by six feet wide.

Drift mine openings 49, 50 and 51 appear to be a part of
a small drift mine which is separate from drift mine
openings 52, 53, 54 and 55.  The mine was developed to
the dip and, therefore, any water flow would be into  the
mine.  Drift mine opening 51 was apparently a main
haulage route of this small drift mine.  This opening
is approximately ten feet high by nine feet wide.   The
overburden immediately above the entry is highly  fractured.

Drift mine opening 52 appears to have been a main haulage
route, probably for the same mine as openings 53, 54
and 55.  There is a large pond of water immediately in
front of the opening, which apparently originates within
the mine.  The pond has an active drainage of two to  three
gallons per minute.  The discharge was sampled on August  31,
1971 (refer to sample 33, Table 36).

Mine opening 53 was apparently a main haulage route.
It has partially fallen in and the present opening  is
approximately twelve feet wide by four feet high  (see
                           88

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TYPICAL CONDITION OF "REGRADED"  OUTSLOPE
          SECTION G, STRIP AREA Q
                 FIGURE 31

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VD
O
                                    FRACTURED HIGHWALL
                                  SECTION  G,  STRIP AREA Q
                                  ^ -     FIGURE 32 ...

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Figure 33) .  There  is  drainage from this  opening amounting
to approximately  two gallons per minute  (refer  to sample  18,
Table 22).

Mine opening 54 was apparently an alternate  haulage
route.   It is now partially sealed with  a concrete block
seal; however, there is  an opening through the  seal
approximately three feet in diameter.  There is a small
amount of water ponded behind the seal, which presently
seeps through and joins  the drainage from mine
openings  55 and 53.

Mine opening 55 was a  ventilation shaft  into what
appears  to have been an  extensive drift mine.  The opening
is approximately  four  feet in diameter,  and  there is  a
small amount of water  ponded in the opening. Material has
fallen from the highwall, partially covering the opening.
There is  seepage  through the material from the  drift  mine
amounting to approximately one-half gallon per  minute at
the time  of this  investigation.

Reclamation at the  site  should include installation of wet
seals at mine openings 52 and 53, installation  of com-
pacted earth seals  at  all remaining mine  openings, re-
grading  to a pasture backfill, removal of tipple, tracks,
junk vehicles and trash, soil conditioning of the spoil
and planting the  area  in trees and grasses.

SECTION  G  - Strip Area R
  -          Priority I (Waynesburg Coal)

This strip area can be divided into two sections, an  east
and a west section. Each section is described  separately:

East Section

The highwall in the east section is forty to fifty feet
high, the width of  the bench is approximately two hundred
fifty feet and the  outslope is forty to fifty feet high.
The strip mine has  not been backfilled, and  there is  no
vegetative cover  on either the bench or the  outslope  in
this area  (see Figure  34) .  There is considerable solid
waste in the area which  could probably be buried in the
highwall when the strip  area is backfilled.   The highwall
is highly fractured in certain areas due  to  extensive  -,
auger mining.  There are twenty visible auger openings
(see Figure 35) .  It is  estimated that there may be as
                           91

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-
                           %-   fr-   <  -  .
                            ^-^ -          -     '- _,
                                                *
                                   TYPICAL DRIFT MINE ENTRY
                          SECTION G, STRIP AREA Q,  MINE OPENING  53
                                            FIGURE  33

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D
                     l-x.
       ^-Sr*f>i -   -~>
     jfr^f^*     -*r ...  ^
&  *i^: -"     , '*  jl*-
     i4-^r...^^V/  **



                           TYPICAL CONDITION OF BENCH AND  HIGHWALL

                                   SECTION G, STRIP AREA R
                                           FIGURE 34

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D
                                   TYPICAL AUGER OPENINGS
                                   SECTION G, STRIP AREA R
                                         FIGURE 35

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many as sixty  additional  openings;  however,  material has
fallen from the highwall  and partially covered  most of
these, making  it  impossible to determine the extent of
auger mining in the  area.   There is evidence of water
infiltration into the  auger openings;  however,  no
active drainage was  observed at the time of  this
investigation.

West Section

The height of  the highwall in the west section  is  forty
to fifty  feet, the width  of the bench  varies from  fifty
feet to three  hundred  feet and the outslope  is  approximate-
ly forty  feet  high.  The  highwall is highly  fractured
since the area has been almost totally undermined  by
augering  (see  Figures  36  and 37) .  Many of the  auger
openings  have  cut into drift mine workings;  therefore,
the highwall is only supported by a small pillar of
coal in several areas.  There is no evidence of drainage
either into or out of  the auger openings; however,
there is  a ponded area at the extreme  northwestern section
of the strip approximately forty feet  wide by one  hundred
twenty-five feet  long.  The water in the pond is highly
discolored, indicating the presence of high  concentrations
of iron.  The  water  was sampled on October 21,  1971,
 (refer to sample  39, Table 41).

The total length  of  both  strip sections is approximately
fifteen hundred feet.   Reclamation work at this strip
should include compaction sealing of the auger  openings,
contour backfilling  (compacted), soil  conditioning and
seeding to establish a firm vegetative cover.

SECTION G - Strip Area W
            Priority III  (Waynesburg Coal)

The height of  the highwall in strip area W is twenty to
twenty-five feet, the  width of the  bench varies from
seventy-five to two  hundred feet and the height of the
outslope  is fifteen  to twenty feet. Most of the area
has been  backfilled  with  what appears  to be  contour
backfill.

Both the  bench and outslope are presently covered  with a
heavy growth of trees  and underbrush.   The trees appear
to be fifteen  to  twenty years old and  consist predominantly
                           95

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-

                    FRACTURED HIGHWALL RESULTING  FROM EXTENSIVE  AUGERING
                                    SECTION G,  STRIP AREA R
                                          FIGURE 36

-------
I
                                   INING
                       FIGURE 37

-------
of pine.  Natural weathering and erosion have  reduced the
height of the spoil banks and highwall to near original
contour conditions.

There are three drift mine openings in the  strip  area.
Drift mine openings 57 and 59 have either been covered  or
fallen in and do not require further sealing.   Drift  mine
opening 58 has apparently been opened strictly for  house
coal.  This opening is approximately four feet in diameter
and the dimensions of the one small room that  exists  at
this opening are approximately fifteen feet wide  by
twenty feet long.  There is no evidence of drainage
from any of these openings.

There are two "hot spots" immediately below the area.   Each
of the two areas is approximately fifty feet wide by  two
hundred feet long.  The first area, immediately below
drift mine opening 58, contains approximately  one hundred
dead trees (see Figure 38).  The second area,  below mine
opening 57, is completely devoid of vegetative cover.
Reclamation recommended at this strip site includes
collecting soil samples from each of the "hot  spot"
areas and addition of whatever material may be required
to establish a vegetative cover in the areas.  Additional
reclamation is not recommended at this site.

Program Surveillance

An important part of a demonstration project is the
documentation of the effectiveness of the control
measures being demonstrated.  In the proposed  project,
tabulation of the quality and quantity of natural
streamflows and borehole discharges in the watershed
would show both the reduction of acid mine drainage as
evidenced by Christopher Coal's reduced pumping rates,
and the increase in stream quality due to the  increase
in natural surface water runoff.

The estimated stream flows observed during the course
of this study are presented in Table 4.

The relationship of stream flow to precipitation  was
correlated for each of the stream monitor locations in
order to establish weir ratings.  Figure 39 illustrates
this correlation for Monitor Station No. 1.
                         98

-------
-
                                        "HOT  SPOT" AREA
                                   SECTION G,  STRIP AREA W
                                          FIGURE 38

-------
                                             TABLE  4
                                     ESTIMATED STREAM FLOWS
                                     8/30/71 THROUGH 2/25/72
                                          FLOWS  IN  GPM
Monitor
Station
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
8/30/71
2,020
200
100
3,110
4,040
185
5,300
2,660
450
15
9/20/71
5,335
450
280
5,400
5,390
845
4,540
990
3,185
2,925
10/19/71
980
187
117
1,120
1,337
45
1,569
93
1,634
450
11/15/71
1,960
84
74
1,620
2,673
297
1,688
79
713
392
12/7/71
39,400
4,480
420
26,930
28,160
6,536
26,800
11,300
26,800
21,364
1/14/72
16,200
1,188
297
21,663
16,159
2,228
13,469
4,019
8,406
3,375
2/11/72
11,205
706
392
8,785
10,530
891
6,750
5,400
3,240
2,025
2/25/72
29,581
971
373
27,603
-
3,735
25,599
6,570
15,687
15,859
o
o

-------
 10.00
  5.00
100,000
                                                                                          50,000
  1.00
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      1971
                                            TIME, DAYS

                                   MONITOR  STATION I

                             PRECIPITATION & FLOW VS TIME
                                          FIGURE 39

-------
A network of seven stream monitor stations should  be
installed to record the transient qualitative and
quantitative effects.  These monitor stations should
continuously record pH, conductivity and flow.

The proposed locations of the stream monitor stations
in the watershed are indicated in Figure 12.  The
monitoring instrumentation for each station should be _
housed in a weatherproof-bulletproof enclosure which is
mounted above a stilling well located upstream from the
weir structure.  A typical stream weir structure and
monitor station are illustrated in Figure 40.  The design
for the monitor station enclosure is illustrated in
Figures 41 and 42, General Arrangement and Schematic
Diagram.

Since continuous measurement of all parameters of  interest
is not practical, measurement of the foregoing would,
when correlated with spot sampling and laboratory
analysis, allow reasonable estimates of the remaining
parameters during the interval between samples.  Samples
should be taken on a weekly basis at each of the indicated
stations and analyzed for pH, total iron, sulfate,
turbidity, total acidity, alkalinity, and conductivity.

Samples should be collected at monthly intervals at both
the stream monitor stations and borehole discharges, and
analyzed for alkalinity, total acidity, conductivity,
pH, turbidity, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, total  iron,
ferrous iron, total solids, suspended solids, dissolved
solids, settleable solids, aluminum and manganese.

Due to the relative inaccessibility and sporadic operation
of the borehole discharge pumps, accurate pumping  data
is not available.  This information could be obtained
by installing weir plates and event recorders at each of
the borehole locations.

By an effective program of monitoring it can be shown
that the acid mine drainage has not simply been diverted
from underground to surface water courses.  The monitoring
program should begin following the feasibility study and
continue for the duration of the demonstration project
(approximately two years).

In addition to the foregoing stream monitoring stations,
a recording rain and snow gauge should be installed near
the center of the watershed.
                        102

-------
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                              VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM
                                                                                          VIEW AT OPERATOR STATION
                                            TYPICAL  WEIR STRUCTURE AND  MONITOR STATION


                                                          FIGURE  40

-------
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-------
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-------
All recording charts should be collected at weekly inter-
vals; the information from these charts and from
periodic water sample analyses should be tabulated and  a
program developed to transmit the data in a format com-
patible with the Environmental Protection Agency computer
facilities.

Monitor stations, as proposed, would operate from a
primary 120 volt AC source supplied from local utility
lines.  In the event of a power failure of this primary
system, a standby battery power source would be auto-
matically energized.  The battery circuit has provisions
for testing during routine service inspections.

The battery circuit would function without interruption
and the operation of monitoring instrumentation would
not be adversely affected.  In order to eliminate ex-
cessive drain on the battery, the heat lamp and strip
heater should not operate on the battery circuit.  The
battery has the capability of powering the instruments
continuously for a period of approximately 20 hours.
In the event data recording would be acceptable on a
cycled sequence, 2 minutes every 15 minutes, the battery
would have the capability of providing power for a period
of approximately 6 days.  When this circuit is operating
from the primary source, the battery charger will re-
charge the battery to its full capacity and shut off
automatically.

When the primary power is restored, the power and control
functions are automatically switched back to this source.

The topography of the Dents Run Watershed is such that
surface mining techniques have often been employed to
mine the coal outcrop at opposing sides of a mountain
as is illustrated in Figure 6.  Many of these surface
mining operations have intercepted deep mine workings.
Since the dip of the coal and other substrata is to the
west in this area, water that falls on the unreclaimed
surface mines on the eastern slopes of these hillsides
is generally diverted into the deep mine workings or is
impounded in the abandoned strip pit.

It is theorized that the drainage from several of the
drift mine openings in the watershed originates as
surface water which has been diverted into interconnected
                            106

-------
abandoned deep mine workings  through either unreclaimed
strip pits or surface mines which have employed the
reverse terrace backfill method  (see Figures 17 and 18) .

The following discharges are  believed to be the result of
such interconnections:

Section G, Strip Area D, Mine Openings 23 through 29
Section G, Strip Area M, Mine Opening 38
Section G, Strip Area Q, Mine Openings 52 and 53

These locations should be established as secondary
monitoring points to observe  the effectiveness of
reclamation work on the reduction of surface water
infiltration.

Capital and Operating Costs

As previously mentioned, no acquisition costs should be
involved for the purchase of  land, minerals or water
rights.  The use of the demonstration area would be by
consent of the individual property owners of the affected
land within the watershed.

A cost estimate has been prepared for the completion of
the reclamation work required in the Dents Run Watershed.
The costs of regrading were based on an estimated average
of $0.35 per cubic yard.  Incidental costs such as
dismantling and/or removal of abandoned equipment and
automobiles, compaction of backfill material, treatment
of water impoundments, etc.,  were also included in the
estimated reclamation costs.  The revegetation costs
reflect the costs of soil analyses, limestone treatment,
fertilization, hydroseeding,  mulching (as required) and
supplemental treatment of areas where revegetation was
not successful on the first planting.  The following
is a breakdown of these costs by priority ranking:

PRIORITY I - INFILTRATION

Stream Channelization

Provisions for stream bed 500' long
x 25' wide
                                                $130,000
                            107

-------
PRIORITY I  (Cont'd)
Section G, Strip Area R 0-6 acres)

Reclamation - contour backfill
  128,000 C.Y. @ $0.35                $  44,800
Compaction backfill
  1500 L.F., 2 ft. layers,
  10 ft. deep                            4,500
Disposal 30 derelict automobiles         1,500
Riprap - outslope drainways
  3 @ 100 ft. each                       4,500
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                              8,000

                           Subtotal              $  63,300

Section G, Strip Area A  (10 acres)

Reclamation - pasture backfill
  32,000 C.Y. @ $0.35                 $  11,200
Compaction backfill
  1000 L.F., 2 ft. layers,
  10 ft. deep                            3,000
Riprap - outslope drainways
  3 @ 100 ft. each                       47500          
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                              5,000

                           Subtotal              $  23,700

Section C, Strip Area C  (2 acres)

Reclamation - pasture backfill
  24,000 C.Y. @ $0.35                 $  8,400
Compaction backfill
  100 L.F., 2 ft. layers,
  10 ft. deep                              600
Riprap - outslope drainway
  100 ft.                                1,500
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                              l,QQQ

                           Subtotal              $  11,500
                            108

-------
PRIORITY I  (Cont'd)

Section G, Strip Area J  (9  acres)

Reclamation - contour/pasture
  backfill - 60,000 C.Y.  @  $0.35      $ 21,000
Compaction backfill
  1000 L.F., 2 ft. layers,
  10 ft. deep                            3,000
Compaction sealing - fracture
  zone                                   2,500
Riprap - outslope drainways
  2 @ 100 ft. each                       3,000
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                              4,500

                            Subtotal             $ 34,000

             Strip Areas  -  Subtotal             $132,500
          Stream Channel  -  Subtotal              130,000

                 PRIORITY I -  TOTAL             $262,500


PRIORITY II - SURFACE WATER POLLUTION

Section G,  Strip Area G  (6  acres)

Reclamation - contour/pasture
  backfill  - 56,000 C.Y.  <  $0.35      $ 19,600
Mine bulkhead seals
  3 @ $3,000                             9,000
Riprap - outslope drainways
  3 @ 100 ft. each                       4,500
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                              3,000

                            Subtotal             $ 36,100
                            109

-------
PRIORITY II  (Cont'd)

                             N  (5  acres)
Reclamation  - contour shaping
   20,300 C.Y. mix and move
   @  $0.35                              $   7,105
Flyash conditioning
   6200 T. @  $1.35/T                       8,370
Riprap - outslope drainways
   3  @ 125 ft. each                        5,625
Revegetation - fertilizer,
   grasses, mulch and
   asphalt tack -
   $500/acre                               2,500

                           Subtotal              $  23,600

Section C, Strip Areas J and H  (12 acres)

Reclamation  - contour backfill
   65,000 C.Y. @ $0.35                  $ 22,750
Mine bulkhead seals
   3  @ $3,000                              9,000
Dismantle and remove
   tipple and abandoned mine
   buildings                               6,000
Treat acid mine water
   impoundment - 15,000 gal.                 500
Riprap - outslope drainways
   2 @ 100 ft.                             3,000
Revegetation - fertilizer,
   grasses and trees -
   $500/acre                               6/000

                           Subtotal              $  47,250

Section G, Strip Areas D and E  (5 acres)

Reclamation - pasture backfill
   40,000 C.Y. @ $0.35                  $ 14,000
Flyash conditioning
   1500 T @ $1.35/T                        2,025
Riprap - outslope drainways
   2 @ 100 ft. each                        3,000
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
   $500/acre                               2,500

                           Subtotal              $  21,525


                            110

-------
PRIORITY II  (Cont'd)

Section G, Strip Area M  (4  acres)

Reclamation  - contour backfill
  13,400 C.Y. @ $0.35                 $  4,690
Mine bulkhead seal                       3,000
Riprap - outslope drainways
  2 @ 100 ft. each                       3,000
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees  -
  $500/acre                              2,000

                            Subtotal             $ 12,690

Section G, Strip Area C  (9.5  acres)

Revegetation only
Soil conditioning -  limestone
  6 $100/acre                         $    950
Riprap - outslope drainways
  3 @ 100 ft. each                       4,500
Revegetation - fertilizer
  grasses and trees  -
  $500/acre                              4,750

                            Subtotal             $ 10,200

Section F, Strip Area A  (7  acres)

Reclamation  - contour backfill
  60,000 C.Y. @ $0.35         .       $ 21,000
Riprap - outslope drainways
  2 @ 100 ft. each                       3,000
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees  -
  $500/acre                              3,500

                            Subtotal             $ 27,500

Section C, Strip Area S  (3  acres)

Supplemental revegetation                ,,.,,
Flyash -  1,200 T   $1.35/T           $  1,620
Soil conditioning -  limestone
  6 $100/acre                              30
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees  -
  $500/acre                           	1'buu

                            Subtotal             $  3,420

                            111

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PRIORITY II  (Con't)

Section G, Strips Areas P and Q  (29  acres)

Reclamation  - pasture backfill
  195,000 C.Y. @ $0.35                 $  68,250
Mine bulkhead seals
  3 @ $3,000                              9,000
Riprap - outslope drainways
  4 @ 100 ft. each                        6,000
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                              14,500   '

                           Subtotal              $  97,750

Section G, Strip Area B (3 acres)

Supplemental revegetation only
Flyash conditioning
  1200 T @ $1.35                       $   1,620
Riprap - outslope drainways
  2 @ 100 ft. each                        3,000
Revegetation - fertilizer
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                               1,500

                           Subtotal              $   6,120

Section C, Strip Area B (21 acres)

Reclamation pasture backfill
  220,000 C.Y. @ $0.35                 $  77,000
Treat acid mine water
  impoundment - 3 million gal.            1,000
Removal of abandoned mine
  equipment                                750
Riprap - outslope drainways
  3 @ 100 ft. each                        4,500
Revegetation - fertilizer,
  grasses and trees -
  $500/acre                              10,500

                           Subtotal              $  93,750

                PRIORITY II - TOTAL              $379,905
                            112

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Stream Monitor Stations

Installation  -

  Monitor  Station No.  1  -  $13,600
                   No.  2  -    2,070
                   No.  3  -    2,150
                   No.  4  -    9,500
                   No.  6  -    3,450
                   No.  7  -    8,040
                   No.  9  -    6,200

                Subtotal     $45,010

Construction  Costs

PRIORITY I        -  $262,500
PRIORITY II        -   379,905
Monitor Stations   -    45,010

           TOTAL      $687,415

Effectiveness of  Project

Since the  Dents Run Watershed does  receive  the discharge
from a considerable number of sources  of  acid mine
water and  is  a major source of water for  public and
industrial use, it would serve as an ideal  demonstration
area in which to  measure the effects of good infil-
tration control techniques and methods.   Unfortunately,
there is very little published data available on the
quality of the various  feeder streams  from  the individual
mine sites.   However, based on the  representative sampling
performed  during  this study,  it can be seen that the
Dents Run  Watershed is  a contaminated  stream system and
will continue to  be so  until corrective action is taken.

The implementation of the demonstration project is
expected to show  that proper restoration  and revegetation
of the various mine sites and waste dumps in the area will
virtually  eliminate the high level  of  acid  mine drainage
now present.   It  will require a period of time (approxi-
mately two years)  for significant changes to materialize
since allowance must be made  for sufficient growing
seasons to establish good vegetative cover  and the sub-
sequent stabilization of the  new environmental conditions
                            113

-------
created.  Certainly, the direct contact of air and water
with the mineral rock, refuse and waste materials at
the sites will be greatly reduced, if not eliminated in
most instances; resulting in the inhibition of the standard
chemical reactions which produce acid mine water.  The
effectiveness of the work performed at the various sites
will be measured by the placement of monitor_stations
at select points in the watershed.  Such monitor-
ing should be established before the site work is per-
formed, allowing the establishment of base data for
the existing conditions, as well as the progressive
changes in readings that will occur as site reclamation
proceeds, vegetative cover is established and the new
environmental equilibrium condition emerges.

The concept of this project, when placed in wider use,
can do much to improve the quality of the waters of
the State of West Virginia.  This is important to the
public in that streams can be restored to adequate quality
to encourage the development of recreational activity,
and provide an acceptable water supply for industrial
and public use.

Schedule of Engineering and Construction

The project as originally scheduled established that
the engineering phase would be completed and approved
prior to the initiation of any construction activities.
In order to take advantage of ideal construction weather
during the fall of 1972, it is recommended that the
engineering and construction phases run concurrently.
This would permit the completion of regrading work on
all Priority I areas before the winter season.

A schedule identifying the engineering and construction
time spans has been developed and is illustrated in
Figure 43.

The schedule for the remaining phases of the Grant,
including the reporting schedule, is shown in Figure
44.
                           114

-------
                     FIGURE 43 - ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE


Monitor Stations
Engineering
Installation
Start-up & Test
Dents Run Water Loss
Investigation
Engineering
Construction
Borehole Interceptions
Investigation
Engineering
Construction
Priority I*
Section G, Strip Area A
Section G, Strip Area J
Section G, Strip Area R
Section C, Strip Areas B&C
Priority II*
Section G, Strip Area G
Section G, Refuse Area N
Section C, Strip Area H&J
Section G, Strip Area Q
Section G, Strip Areas D&E
Section G, Strip Area M
Section G, Strip Area C
Section G, Strip Area P
Section G, Strip Area B
Section C, Strip Areas F&S
Section C, Strip Area L
fi^ntirm F. Strir> Area A
1972
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           *Engineering =
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-------
                                         FIGURE 44
                              PROJECT SCHEDULE AND MILESTONES
01
Year
Phase/Quarter
I. Peas. Study
II. Engineering
III. Construction
IV. Monitoring
V. Adm. & Rpts.
1971
3




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1973
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1974
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                                Feasibility Report

                                Engineering Report

                                First Year Report

                                Second Year Report

                                Final Report

-------
Collecting and Evaluating  Data

The data logging  instrumentation  required  to effectively
record the parameters  that will document the effective-
ness of the control measures  proposed  in this study are
discussed in  the  section  "Program Surveillance" and
illustrated in Figure  12.   These  are:

Stream Monitor Stations  	  7
Borehole Flow Recorders  	  5

In order to maintain a continuous flow of  information
pertinent to  the  project,  the data handling system as
identified in Figure 45 should be initiated as each
unit is installed.

Implementation and Operating  Plan

The West Virginia Department  of Natural Resources,
Division of Water Resources,  would have full authority
and responsibility for the demonstration program.
This agency would provide  for routine  servicing for
all recording instruments, maintenance of  stream gauging
stations and  weir structures, and periodic collection
of water samples  from  monitor station  locations, bore-
holes and selected sample  points.

The engineering and construction  schedule  that should
be implemented during  Phase II and Phase III of this
project is illustrated in  Figure  43.   The  proposed
project schedule  and milestones are  shown  in Figure 44.
The construction  of the monitor stations would extend
over a period of  approximately two months, preferably
during July and August when low water  conditions
prevail.  The reclamation  work would require a period of
approximately one year.
                                    s
Construction  bids should be obtained,  evaluated and
contracts awarded during Phase III.  Bids  would be
based on standard uniform  specifications.  Contracts
should be awarded to the lowest responsible bidder,
taking into consideration  the qualifications of the
bidder, conformity of  the  proposal with the specifications,
approval by the Federal government, performance schedule
and budget limitations.  Cyrus Wm. Rice Division - NUS
Corporation should provide construction supervision
assistance to the Division of Water Resources.
                           117

-------
                                        FIGURE 45
                        DATA HANDLING - TASKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
TASK
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Collect all Strip Charts
Read Strip Charts & Record on
Tabular Format
Transmit Charts to Charleston
Office
Collect Stream Samples
Collect Water Samples
Transmit Samples for Analyses
Water Analyses
Transmit Analyses Report to
Charleston Office
Prepare Graphical Presentation
& Computer Input Forms
Prepare Monthly Report & Transmit
Data to EPA, Cincinnati
RESPONSIBILITY
WR-M
X

X
X
X
X -




WR-C

X






X
X
CWR




 "

X
X
X
X
FREQUENCY
AS REQ'D




X
X
X
X


WEEK
X
X
X





X

MONTH


-
X





X
CO
        WR-M  =  Water Resources Division, Morgantown
        WR-C  =  Water Resources Division, Charleston
        CWR   =  Cyrus Wm. Rice Division  - NUS Corporation

-------
The proposed reports as indicated in Figure 43 would be
prepared by Cyrus Wm. Rice Division - NUS Corporation
personnel in cooperation with  the Division of Water
Resources.

A detailed listing of tasks  and  responsibilities for the
monitoring phase is illustrated  in Figure 46.

Construction and operation of  the acid mine water
neutralization plants for the  borehole discharges would
be the responsibility of the Christopher Coal Division-
Consolidation Coal Company.  Christopher Coal has
submitted a schedule  for completion of the required
treatment plants; this  construction will run concurrently
with  the reclamation work being  done.  The communities
of Westover, Granville,  and  Laurel Point, as well as the
individual residents  of the  watershed, should be required
to abate the discharge  of untreated sewage into Dents Run,
                            119

-------
                                       FIGURE 46
                                    MONITOR STATIONS
                               TASKS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
TASK
1.
2.
3.
4.
1 5.
Operation & Maintenance Manual
Operator Instruction
Unit Start-up
Check & Inspect all Stations
Check & Inspect all Stations
Check & Inspect Rain Gauge
RESPONSIBILITY
WR-M




X
X.
.WR-CJCWR



X


X
X
X
X


FREQUENCY
AS REQ'D
X
X
X



DAY






WEEK TMONTH




X
X



X


to
o
     WR-C
     CWR
=  Water Resources Division, Morgantown
=  Water Resources Division, Charleston
=  Cyrus Wm. Rice Division - NUS Corporation

-------
                       SECTION VII

                    ACKNOWLEDGMENT S
The advice and guidance  of Mr.  E.  N.  Henry, Chief,
Division of Water  Resources;  Mr. J. Hall, Assistant
Chief, Division of Water Resources; Mr.  D. E. Caldwell,
Head, Mine Drainage  Section;  Mr. B. C. Greene, Chief,
Division of Reclamation;  and  Mr. J. D. Bracke.nrich,
Chief Engineer of  the  West Virginia Department of
Natural Resources  is sincerely  appreciated.

Mr. W. A. Light, Environmental  Quality Control Manager,
and Mr. V. H. Ream,  Manager of  Water  Treatment, Christo-
pher Coal Division of  Consolidation Coal Company, supplied
mining maps, borehole  pumping data, core boring logs
and gave technical support during  the investigative
portion of this study.

The support of the project by the  Office of Research  &
Monitoring of the  Environmental Protection Agency and the
help provided by Mr. Ronald D.  Hill,  Mr. Elmore C. Grim;,
Mr. Robert B. Scott, the Project Officer, and Mr. Ernst-;P.
Hall, Chief of the Pollution  Control  Analysis Branch,  A:
is acknowledged with sincere  thanks.                   ;;:,,.

The primary investigators of  this  study  were Mr. Frank J.
Zaval, Project Manager,  Mr. John D. Robins, Project      '
Engineer, and Mr.  James  0. McFarland, Engineering Assis-
tant, of the Cyrus Wm. Rice Division"- NUS Corporation,.,:
                            121

-------
                     SECTION VIII

                       REFERENCES
Summary Report - Monongahela  River Mine Drainage Remedial
Project, Environmental Protection Agency/ nivls-jnrj rif "
Field Investigation, Cincinnati  Center, 1971.

Reclamation Handbook, Department of Natural Resources,
West Virginia Reclamation Commission, 1969.

Engineering Economic Study  of Mine Drainage Control
Techniques, "Appendix B  to  Acid  Mine Drainage in
Appalachia, a Report by  the Appalachian Regional
Commission", Cyrus Wm. Rice & Company, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, 1969.

1970 Census of Population and Housing, General Demo-
graphic Trends for Metropolitan  Areas, 1960 to 1970,
West Virginia, PHC  (2) - 50,  a United States Department
of Commerce Publication, July, 1971.

1960 Census of Population,  Volume I, Characteristics of
the Population, Part 50, West Virginia, U. S. Department
of Commerce, Bureau of the  Census, U. S. Government
Printing Office, April,  1963.

1970 Census of Population,  Number of Inhabitants, West
Virginia, Final Report,  PC  (1)- A50, West Virginia,
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census,
U. S. Government Printing Office, May, 1971.

Minerals Yearbook 1969,  Volume III, Area Reports, Domestic,
The Bureau of Mines, U.  S.  Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C., 1971.

Statistical Abstract of  the United States, 1970, 91st
Annual Edition, Prepared under the direction of William
Lerner, Chief, General Reports Division, U. S. Department
of Commerce, July, 1970.

1970 Census of Population,  General Population Characteris-
tics, West Virginia. Final  Report, PC (1) - B50, West
Virginia, U. S. Department  of commerce, Bureau of the
Census, U. S. Government Printing Office, August, 1971.
                            123

-------
                      SECTION  IX

     GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND  SYMBOLS
1.  Auger Mining:  mining  of  coal  from  an exposed vertical
    coalface by means of  a mechanically-driven boring
    machine which employs  an  auger to cut and remove the
    coal.

2.  Backfill:  to place material back into an excavation
    and return the area to a  predetermined slope.

3.  Bench:  the leveled surface of ah excavated area
    measured horizontally  at  any point  in the overburden
    or spoil between the base of the high wall and the
    outer point of original fill bench, or a working
    base extending from the base of a high wall on which
    excavating equipment can  set,  move  and operate.

4.  Bench Width:  the width of the bench as measured
    horizontally from the  base of  the highwall to the
    outer point of the original fill bench.

5.  Contour Surface Mining:   the removal of overburden
    and the mining of mineral that normally approaches
    the surface at approximately the same elevation, a
    contour bench resulting.

6.  Deep or Drift Mining:  removal of the mineral being
    mined without the disturbance  of the surface as
    distinguished from surface mining.

7.  Diversion Ditch:  a machine-made waterway used for
    collecting ground water or a ditch designed to change
    the actual or normal course of ground and/or surface
    water.

8.  Georgia V-Ditch:  a ditch for  the collection of ground
    and surface water, constructed on the solid bench
    area, with the opposing slopes being constructed in
    such a manner so as to permit  the total area to be
    transversed by farm equipment.
                           125

-------
 9.  Highwall:  the vertical or near-vertical wall consis-
     ting of the exposed overlying strata after excavating
     operation.

10.  Outer slope:  the disturbed area extending from the
     outer point of the bench to the extreme lower limit
     of the disturbed land.

11.  Reclamation:  the process of converting disturbed
     land to a stable form for productive use.

12.  Regrade or Grade:  to change the contour of any
     surface by the use of leveling or grading equipment.

13.  Spoil:  all overburden material removed or displaced
     by excavating equipment, blasting or other means.

14.  Stabilize:  to settle, or fix in place by mechanical
     or vegetative means,  including the planting of
     trees, grasses, vines, shrubs or legumes.

15.  Seepage water:  any water entering the ground from
     the surface through capillary action, cracks,
     faults, or any other natural mode of entry and
     finding its way to the surface again.

16.  Storm water:  any water flowing over or through the
     surface of the ground caused by precipitation;
     generally surface runoff.

17.  Surface water:  water, from whatever source,  which
     is flowing on the surface of the ground.
                             126

-------
 SECTION X
APPENDICES

-------
                       DRAWINGS
Drawing
  No.

6219-2A1
6219-2A2
6219-2A3
6219-2A4
6219-2A5
6219-2A6
6219-2A7
6219-2A8

6219-2A9

6219-2A10

6219-2A11

6219-2A12

6219-2A13

6219-2A14

6219-2A15

6219-2A16

6219-2A17

6219-2A18

6219-2A19

6219-2A20

6219-2A21

6219-2A22

6219-2A23
C -
              Title

Watershed Plot Plan
Monitor Station - General Arrangement
Monitor Station Enclosure Details
Dents Run Cross Section
Hess Cross Section
Enlarged Cross Section
Level Recorder Enclosure Details
Event Recorder - Plans & Details
Six Right & Valotto
Event Recorder - Plans & Details
Snider & Hess
Event Recorder - Plan & Detail
Loar
Survey Plan - Strip Area R -
Section G
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section C
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section C
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section F
Survey Plan
Section C
Survey Plan
Section C
Strip Area A -

Strip Areas B &

Strip Area J -

Strip Area G -

Strip Area N -

Strip Areas J & H -

Strip Area D -

Strip Area M -

Strip Area C -

Strip Area A -

Strip Areas F & S -

Strip Area L -
                           128

-------
                   DRAWINGS  (Cont'd)
Drawing
  No.

6219-2A24

6219-2A25

6219-2A26

6219-2A27

6219-2A28

6219-2A29

6219-2A30

6219-2A31

6219-3A1
6219-3A2

6219-3A3

6219-3A4

6219-3A5

6219-3A6

6219-3A7

6219-3A8

6219-3A9

6219-3A10

6219-6A1
Strip Area F -

Strip Area H -

Strip Area L -
              Title

Survey Plan - Strip Area P -
Section G
Survey Plan - Strip Area Q -
Section G
Survey Plan - Strip Area B -
Section G
Survey Plan - Strip Area B -
Section F
Survey Plan - Strip Area C -
Section F
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section G
Survey Plan
Section G
Monitor Station 1 - Weir Arrangement
Monitor Station 2 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station 3 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station 4 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station 5 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station 6 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station 7 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station 8
and Details
Monitor Station 9 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station 10 - Weir Arrangement
and Details
Monitor Station Schematic and
Interconnection
      Weir Arrangement
                            129

-------
REGRADED BENCH
                      FUTURE ACCESS
                         ROADWAY	
  TYPICAL DIVERSION DITCH
          FIGURE 47

-------
U)
                  6'-0
                        MIN. lO'-O
                       MAX. 25'-0
                6'-0
                              OVERBURDEN
            X
            QL
            UJ
            CD
             CD
             x

             CO
_J
CD
d
z
o
o
                  oo
 BITUMASTIC
   COATING

  BACKFILL

CREOSOTE ALL
   TIMBER'
                                      THIS DIMENSION
                                      DETERMINED BY
                                      CONDITION OF
                                      OVERBURDEN
                                                        6"x6"HEADER (TIMBER)
                                                        BACKFILL
EXAGGERATED
   SLOPE

 STONE  RIPRAP-


1
1












QC-
;,,
14
V. ,{'. , , i
.* A, ,  ?  \
*
L- '/'-''"**
'-.^A
-,' -.I
s ; \


 '.... r . r ^ .
:.  !j >.,-,-/--  r. i-
,-'  -'!' v  --  C, ,- '
>: .. . ^ : ,^;- . . .-sV*'/-. ->.

f* " r% i A it




i r* n
-. - ' -  '< - :^iA,:-Vf-/;'^^H
 -  - :- , '- / ^7,- Vr t-- r^KU
V.....-V-- '-', . \  -, '. -.- -.-. '* - -\( ' -' ~YPa
\vc
^
                   FOOTER
                                     UNLESS NOTED OTHERWISE
                                                 DRAINWAY
                        BULKHEAD SEAL WITH  RELIEF DRAIN

                                     FIGURE 48

-------
                                                          TABLE  5
                                                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                  SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  1 (l)
to
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaC03)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Ca/lcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (804)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride  (CD
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)
                                         8/16/71 8/31/71 9/20/71 10/19/7110/21/71  11/15/71  12/7/71  1/14/72
                                         620     2020    5334    980     -         1960      39400    16200

                                         -                                         -         6.9      -
820
1280
4190
2.8
320
72
470
200
1995
3100
280
16.8
4592
20
4572
0.8
108
6.8
200
640
3450
3.2
25
140
281
83
1043
1480
76
11.5
3480
128
3352
3.0
37
7.7
33
119
945
3.3
-
-
94
28
-
570
95
5.1
1075
141
934
2.0
14
1.9
617
816
2770
2.4
-
-
231
86
931
1893
134
20
2985
102
2883
3.0
58
4.9
550
1127
3550
2.5
-
-
265
100
1073
2380
184
23.5
3663
83
3580
2.2
88.9
5.8
194
694
2540
2.9
-
-
346
88
1226
1570
102
12.3
2482
115
2367
3.0
56.0
4.4
-
30
650
5.5
-
-
66
18
238
293
106
10.6
2460
1915
545
10.0
24.0
1.8
40
139
1300
3.5

-
100
36
398
611
48
6.8
1093
153
940
2.4
15.2
1.91
                                                                                   694
                                Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

                               (y  Refer to Figure 12 for location of sample point.

-------
U)
CO
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaC03)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electronictrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (S04)
Total Iron (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)
                                             TABLE 6
                                     WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                     SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 2 

                                    8/31/71 9/20/71 10/19/71 11/15/71 12/7/71  1/14/72
                                    200     450     187      84       4480     1188

                                    -                        -        255
560
1080
4350
3.0
75
120
357
151
1512
2450
280
1.3
4878
192
4686
4.8
48
10.5
394
780
3730
2.9
-

400
142

2500
230
105
4303
248
4055
6.0
53
8.9
942
1327
4440
2.2
-

404
208
1863
3700
316
3.02
5660
187
5473
7.5
61.7
9.9
571
1142
4100
2.7
-
-
463
174
1871
3124
243
102
4774
184
4590
8.0
64
9.1
-
106
1520
6.7
-

590
62
1729
1034
420
1.41
43536
41780
1756
90
320
19
221
407
2370
2.8
-

300
80
1078
1314
130
52.2
2230
277
1953
8.2
35
3.99
                                                             1142
                     Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

                     (l) Refer to Figure 12 for location of sample point.

-------
                                             TABLE 7
                                      WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                     SAMPLE LOCATION  NO.  3 (1)
(jO
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
Free Acidity  (CaC03)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (SO4)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum  (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)
8/31/71
100
1640
3100
4700
3.1
275
70
3.98
109
1442
4370
680
26.3
7323
9
73
<0. 1
183
10.7
9/20/71
50
658
2080
3830
2.8
-
-
380
96
-
3320
500
20.4
5907
11
5896
<0. 1
180
9.6
10/19/71
117
1900
3205
4300
2.1

-
438
146
1694
4461
580
7.55
7543
138
7405
2.0
217
10.6
11/1
74
1734
3010
4140
2.6
-
-
428
114
1537
3978
610
20.6
6488
58
6430
<0. 1
200
11.2
                                                                      12/7/71 1/14/72
                                                                      420     297
                                                              2930
                                                                      458
                                                                      624
                                                                      2000
                                                                      2.6
232
48
777
1214
106
7.42
2054
150
1904
3
47
4.1

644
                      Test results reported  in ppm unless  otherwise  noted.

                       Refer to Figure  12  for  location of  sample point.
        1010
        1384
        3350
        2.5
290
65
992
2162
375
27.0
3675
60
3615
0.3
111
6.43

-------
u>
Ul
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
Free Acidity  (CaCOo)
Total Acidity  (CaC03)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaC03)
Sulfate  (SO4)
Total  Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total  Solids
Suspended  Solids
Dissolved  Solids
Settleable  Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)
                                                TABLE 8
                                        WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                        SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  4 (T)


                                        8/30/71  9/20/71 10/19/71 11/15/71 12/7/71
                                        3110     5400    1120     1620     26930
                                                                  847
                                                                           0.5
24
          1/14/72
          21663
120
420
3600
3.2
5
120
244
91
983
1750
84
4.2
3435
150
3285
4.2
15.5
4.1
116
322
1700
3.1
-
-
112
44
-
910
62
2.4
1524
123
1401
3.0
36
2.3
558
1118
3100
2.6
-
-
229
104
999
2264
176
4.55
3573
65
3508
1.5
102
4.5
469
918
2790
2.8
-
-
183
72
753
1686
102
8.5
2638
83
2555
2.5
63
4.0
-
31.0
656
4.5
-
-
104
21
346
287
82
6.14
1021
517
504
6
7.7
1.1
58
145
1350
3.4
-
-
102
32
386
669
53
7.0
1135
126
1009
1.4
16
1.88
                           Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.
                              Refer to Figure 12 for location of sample point.

-------
u>
en
                                            TABLE  9
                                    WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                    SAMPLE LOCATION  NO.  5(1)
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (SO4)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum  (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)
                                         8/30/71 10/19/71 11/15/71 12/7/71 1/14/72
                                         4040    1337     2673     28160   16159
                                                                   7.4
220
620
3250
3.2
15
540
227
85
916
1990
124
9.5
3649
156
3493
6.3
40
4.0
380
812
2600
2.7
-

171
69
710
1676
124
3.46
2622
100
2522
5.5
76
2.8
337
826
2610
2.9
-
-
221
76
865
1513
78
11.2
2400
116
2284
4.5
54
3.3
-
33
625
5.8
-

56
18
214
169
100
7.82
2462
1970
492
11.0
19
1.2
188
382
1980
2.8
-

130
10
366
895
93
4.9
1482
128
1354
5.0
22
3.9
                                                          765
10
                      Test  results  reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

                      @  Refer to Figure 12  for location of sample point.

-------
                                      TABLE 10
                               WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                               SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  6(1
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaC03)
Total Acidity  (CaC03)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (304)
Total  Iron (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total  Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)
8/20/71 8/30/71 9/20/71 10/19/7111/15/71 12/7/71  1/14/72
140     185     844     45       297      6536     2228

                             "~        _L 5  y     ""
980
1540
8950
2.9
190
145
304
155
1396
3950
680
39.8
6727
65
6662
3.0
62
5.7
880
1520
5800
3.0
140
70
351
177
1603
4870
340
1.9
6525
54
6471
1.3
74
5.6
121
364
2650
3.0
-
-
184
72
-
1590
104
11.7
2705
129
2576
6.0
27
3.4
3
34
1800
4.4


139
47.9
544
1033
7.3
1.02
1617
21
1596
0.45
3
1.7
1050
1693
4590
2.5
~~

389
156.0
1613
3671
380
59.4
5729
149
5580
2.5
95
5.5

34.8
490
6.1
_

190
9.2
513
219
136
5.54
6684
6244
440
12.0
59
2.0
80
183
1500
3.2


108
42
442
762
66
15.6
1327
192
1135
11.0
18
1.1
                                 1612
8.0
                Test results reported in ppm unless  otherwise  noted.

                   Refer to Figure 12 for- location of sample point.

-------
                                              TABLE 11
                                       WATER QUALITY  ANALYSES
                                      SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  7 (T)
to
00
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaC03)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaC03)
Sulfate  (304)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum  (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)
                                8/20/71 8/30/71 9/20/71  10/19/71  11/15/71  12/7/71 1/14/72
                                        5300     4320     1569      1688      26890   13469
                                                                          22.4
        8
2030
3140
8150
2.8
330
110
183
167
1142
4500
520
28.8
7098
33
7065
0.6
180
7.6
100
480
3600
3.1
12
520
247
96
1011
2210
112
10.6
3410
200
3210
8.5
29
3.6
196
480
1870
3.0
-
-
118
46
-
1020
120
16.9
1945
179
1766
6.0
48
1.8
850
1658
3400
2.5
-
-
252
104
1056
2802
290
9.2
4419
156
4263
4.0
122
4.6
785
1377
3050
2.5
-
-
205
83
853
2177
216
15.9
3449
188
3261
7
98.0
5.0

19
570
6.9
-
-
52
14
187
217
44
4.36
888
371
517
4
3.1
0.63
-
47
1160
4.8
-

90
32
356
557
35
6.6
983
111
872
1.1
9.0
1.0
                                                                 1377
12
                       Test results reported in ppm  unless  otherwise  noted.

                       (I) Refer to Figure 12 for  location of sample point.

-------
u>
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (SO4)
Total  Iron (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total  Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)
                                          TABLE 12
                                   WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                  SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  8 (l)


                                  8/30/71 9/20/71 10/19/71 11/15/71  12/7/71  1/14/72
                                  2660    990     93       79        11300    4019
                                                  0        -         -
                                  52      106     163.5    158       39.0     79
12.0
3950
6.2
140
580
241
88
963
1620
60.0
9.6
2904
122
2782
0.7
<0.1
3.8
3.2
810
7.8
-
-
62
22

287
0.50
0.17
581
4
577
<0.1
<0.1
0.72
10.0
1320
8.2
-
-
124
38
466
593
0.29
0.233
1128
1
1127
<0.1
<0.1
0.21
8.0
1090
7.8
-
-
106
31
392
414
0.23
0.041
813
1
812
<0.1
<0.1
0.28
20.0
845
6.6
-
-
76
22
280
350
160
9.5
1595
898
697
7
4.5
2.5
15
1740
7.0


132
48
527
810
36
10.0
1419
61
1358
0.2
0.15
1.58
                                                                     12
                      Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted,

                      Q) Refer to Figure 12  for location of sample point.

-------
                                   TABLE 13
                            WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                           SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 9 (l)
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCOo)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (804)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum  (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)
8/30/71
450
980
2280
4450
2.9
220
170
193
129
1011
3410
440
1.3
5647
146
5501
5.7
141
6.2
9/20
3362
206
458
1800
3.0
-
-
98
38
-
936
90
15.2
1563
169
1394
6.0
40
1.6
10/19/71
1634
813
1579
3250
2.5
230
97
973
2639
284
0.847
4093
128
3965
4.0
122
4.4
11/15/71 12/7/71 1/14/72
713      26890   8406
275
581
2110
2.6
205
59
755
1156
66
5.5
1855
117
1738
5.0
46
3.2

571
18.6

19.5
320
6.2
36
8.4
124
117
40
2.92
742
342
400
6
3.1
0.40

16
56
156
955
3.4
60
24
248
414
46
6.3
757
107
650
2.7
18.0
0.69
              Test  results  reported  in ppm unless  otherwise  noted.

              (l)  Refer  to Figure 12  for  location of sample point.

-------
                                        TABLE 14
                                 WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  10 (l>
Date
Flow (gpra)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (03003)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate,(S04)
Total  Iron (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total  Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (A3.)
Manganese (Mn)
Chloride (CD
Hot Pht.  Acidity (CaCO3)
8/19/71 8/30/71 9/20/71 10/19/71 11/15/71 12/7/71  1/14/72
5       30      2925    450      392      21364    3375
190
162
99
165
164
49
                                          110
                    Test results  reported  in ppm unless otherwise noted.

                   (l)  Refer to Figure 12  for  location of sample point.
98
10.0
560
7.9
25
<5
51
13
181
140
0.39
0.184
349
10
339
<0.1
0.18
0.06
4.0
500
8.0
2
<5
53
13
186
110
0.21
0.073
372
5
367
<0.1
<0.1
0.05
5.6
440
7.6
-

44
12

78
0.23
0.18
340
13
327
0.1
-
<0.1
6.0
595
7.9
-
-
61
17
223
107
0.16
0.093
333
4
329
0.1
0.3
0.02
4.0
535
8.0
-
-
80
21.0
286
99
0.10
0.056
329
2
327
0.1
0.1
0.04
8.9
240
7.0
-
-
56
8.8
176
50
3.0
0.594
324
119
205
0. 6
1.2
0.26
2.0
389
7.9
-

48
16
186
76.7
0.15
0.041
220
<1.0
220
<0.1
0.17
0.02

-------
                                         TABLE 15
                                  WATER QUALITY  ANALYSES
                                 SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  11 (T)
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCOs)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (SOA)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  Unl/l)
Aluminum  (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)
8/16/71 8/31/71 9/21/71
100     60      35
10/19/71 11/15/71 12/15/71 1/14/72
56       56       -

-
640
990
7780
2.8
XLOOO
560
-
-
2912
4280
290
68.3
5492
136
5356
12.0
60.0
8.4
-
-
660
1880
4750
3.4
110
100
494
192
2022
3720
300
38.6
5224
112
5112
4.0
49.0
7.7
-
-
500
845
4350
2.9
-
-
560
156
-
2900
250
25.3
5145
263
4882
5.0
58.0
7.8
-

474
1071
4560
2.6
-
-
491
184
1982
3299
244
3.32
5119
94
5025
1.1
55.5
8.4
-

765
1142
4350
2.5


515
179
2022
3259
286
16.5
593
90
503
1.6
47
8.4
0
0
408
702
3800
2.8
-
-
520
216
2185
3100
240
61.6
5050
377
4673
10.0
52
7.35
-
-
372
619
4430
2.8
-
-
530
180
2063
2800
245
76.0
4948
553
4395
11.5
40
8.06
                                 1142
                  784
                   Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

                  (l)  Refer to Figure 12  for location of  sample point.

-------
                                       TABLE 16
                                WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                               SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 12 
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaC03)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C)  mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity (JTU)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Hardness  (CaC03)
Sulfate (SO*)
Total Iron (Fe)
Ferrous Iron (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese (Mn)
 Chloride (Cl)
 Hot Pht. Acidity (CaC03)
8/16/71
-
200

1830
3240
9350
2.7
392
60

560
2220
5240
950
493
8164
24
8140
0.1
260
9.0
8/31/71
90
-
-
2120
3760
5070
2.8
460
80
242
131
1142
4560
800
2.4
8464
7
8457
<0.1
244
10.8
9/20/71
283
-
-
1400
2880
4520
2.4
-
-
420
130
-
4560
980
362
8093
15
8078
<0.1
250
9.4
10/19/71
252
-
-
2305
3610
4590
2.5
-
-
436
151
1709
4996
760
5.05
8227
151
8076
1.5
260
10.1
11/15/71
281

-
2275
3662
4340
2.4
-
-
460
142
1732
4625
640
8.1
7529
36
7493
0.1
208
10.9
12/15/71
-
0
0
1484
2204
3750
2.6
-
_
377
136
1500
3690
620
157
5403
26
5377
<0.011
189
8.2
1/14/72
-

-
2196
3651
4890
2.5
-
-
400
110
1451
4364
924
279
7872
38
7834
0.1
236
10.0
3448
2320
                   Test results reported in ppm unless  otherwise  noted.

                  (T)  Refer to Figure 12  for location of sample point.

-------
                     TABLE 17
              WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
             SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  13
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity (CaCO3)
Free Acidity (CaCO3)
Total Acidity (CaCO3)
Conductivity (25C) iranhos .
pH (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity (JTU)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Hardness (CaCO3)
Sulfate (804)
Total Iron (Fe)
Ferrous Iron (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaC03)
8/16/71
264
-
-
480
1530
8640
2.9
280
240
690
310
2996
7610
505
311
7720
16
7704
6.0
78
7.4

-
8/30/71
335
-

1060
1880
6000
3.1
240
30
238
218
1489
4800
500
0.9
7886
75
7811
2.1
93
6.3

-
9/20
169
-
-
932
1570
5500
2.9
-
-
460
192
-
4510
500
240
8027
122
7905
2.0
82
5.6

-
                          9/20/71  10/19/71 11/15/71 12/15/71 1/14/72
                                  187
                                 1408
                                 2142
                                 5900
                                 2.5
                                  440
                                  202
                                  1928
                                  5057
                                  500
                                  4.16
                                  7825
                                  196
                                  7629
                                  5.0
                                  114
                                  5.8
187
1622
2356
5560
2.4
499
200
2068
5058
500
194
7862
196
7666
0.7
117
6.6

2356
0
0
1810
2630
5400
2.6
445
236
2080
4830
590
170
7574
40
7534
0.4
141
5.8

2040
1325
2103
4910
2.5
470
220
2077
4367
650
123
7774
347
7427
4.2
137
6.74
 Test  results  reported in ppm unless  otherwise  noted.

(l) Refer to Figure 12  for location of  sample point.

-------
Ul
                                           TABLE 18
                                    WATER QUALITY ANALYSES^
                                   SAMPLE LOCATION  NO.  14 (l,
Date
F low (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCOO
M.O. Alkalinity
Free Acidity  (CaCOo)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (804)
Total  Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total  Solids
Suspended  Solids
Dissolved  Solids
Settleable  Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)
                                                8/30/71
                                                2800

                                                48
12/7/71   1/14/72
58
                                                           10
106
52
3100
5.8
110
280
247
91
991
2020
94
86
2951
72
2879
0.2
<0. 1
3.9
190
300
5.6
-
-
288
88
931
1765
100
98
3109
112
2997
0.2
0.13
4.0
177
2920
6.1


230
85
924
1538
115
95.8
2663
52
2611
<0 . 1
0.15
3.82
                      Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted

                     (D  Refer to Figure 12  for location of sample point.

-------
                                      TABLE 19 -
                               WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                              SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  15 (T)
Date
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (804)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum  (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)
8/16/71 8/30/71
        840
9/20/71 10/19/71 11/15/71 12/15/71  1/14/72
        672
-
-
2500
4230
11430
2.4
400
110
-
-
2962
5480
900
372
10708
4
10704
0.1
170
9.6
-
-
2380
4420
6250
2.8
510
90
150
205
1215
4880
600
3.0
11167
19
11148
<0 . 1
292
10.7
-
-
1140
3850
6600
2.6
-
-
500
220
-
6090
860
306
10792
26
10766
<0. 1
350
10.0
-
-
2940
4428
5400
2.4
-
-
468
241
2158
6584
720
10.2
10621
<1
10620
<0. 1
328
10.4
-
-
2468
4900
6660
2.4
-
-
481
241
2191
6831
740
308
10657
6.0
10651
0.05
302
11.7
0
0
2710
4600
5800
2.4
-
-
464
270
2267
6390
980
396
10490
18.0
10472
<0. 1
357
11.0
-
-
2570
4505
7070
2.3
-

460
230
2093
5698
930
367
10102
58
10044
<0. 1
319
11.6
                                 4900
                          2520
                   Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

                  (l)  Refer to Figure 12  for location of sample point.

-------
                             TABLE 20
                      WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                     SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 16 (l)
Date                       8/16/71  8/30/71  9/20/71 10/19/71 11/16/71
Flow (gpm)                 44       50       50       35       30
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)    -
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)    _        _        _        _
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaC03)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (804)
Total  Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total  Solids
Suspended  Solids
Dissolved  Solids
Settleable  Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)              _        _        _        _
Hot Pht.  Acidity (CaC03)   -        -        -        -         4100


         Test  results  reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

        (l)  Refer to Figure 12 for location  of sample  point.
2810
4260
10540
2.7
920
330
620
285
2719
7360
1000
285
9762
52
9710
2.0
304
8.0
2000
3940
5400
3.0
440
110
-
-
-
5550
920
156
9566
109
9457
1.5
280
7.9
850
3590
4900
2.7
-
-
460
192
-
5270
920
149
9554
35
9519
<0.1
290
6.8
2192
3840
4720
2.5
-
-
460
218
2044
5556
780
9.23
9433
199
9234
2.0
300
7.5
2330
4000
4890
2.6
-

-
-
-
5647
760
80.7
9193
48
9145
0.1
294
8.1

-------
                     TABLE 21
              WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
             SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 17 (l)
00
Date                            8/19/71
Flow (gpm)                      5
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaC03)         340
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)           0
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.      1175
pH  (electrometrically)          8.2
Color (APHA)                    15
Turbidity  (JTU)                 5
Calcium  (Ca)                    29
Magnesium  (Mg)                  16
Hardness  (CaCO3)                138
Sulfate  (S04)                   365
Total Iron  (Fe)                 0.29
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)               0.092
Total Solids                    743
Suspended Solids                4
Dissolved Solids                739
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)        <0.1
Aluminum  (Al)                   <0.1
Manganese  (Mn)                  <0.02
Chloride  (CD
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)
       Test  results  reported in ppm unless
       otherwise noted.
                 ~i
       (l) Refer to Figure  12  for location of
          sample point.
                                                                               TABLE 22
                                                                       WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                       SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  18 (l)
Date                             8/19/71
Flow (gpm)                       10
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity (CaC03)             930
Total Acidity (CaCO3)            1700
Conductivity (25C) mmhos.       7150
pH  (electrometrically)           2.9
Color (APHA)                     200
Turbidity (JTU)                   140
Calcium (Ca)                     370
Magnesium (Mg)                    114
Hardness  (CaCO3)                 1392
Sulfate (S04)                    3750
Total Iron  (Fe)                   364
Ferrous Iron (Fe)                11.9
Total Solids                     5086
Suspended Solids                 50
Dissolved Solids                 5036
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)         2.0
Aluminum  (Al)                    106
Manganese (Mn)                    13.2
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)


 Test results reported  in ppm unless
 otherwise noted.

  Refer to Figure 12  for  location  of
    sample  point.

-------
VO
                     TABLE 23
              WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
             SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 19 (l)

 Date                           8/20/71     9/21/71
 Flow  (gpm)                     25           37
 Pht.  Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
 M.O.  Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
 Free  Acidity  (CaCO3)           900          1140
 Total Acidity (CaCO3)          4090        6940
 Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.     16500        9300
 pH  (electroroetrically)         2.9          3.0
 Color (APHA)                   380
 Turbidity  (JTU)                270
 Calcium (Ca)                   145          380
 Magnesium  (Mg)                 664          680
 Hardness  (CaCO3)               3085
 Sulfate (SO4)                  10054        9560
 Total Iron (Fe)                2240        2940
 Ferrous Iron  (Fe)              1910        2150
 Total Solids                   16247        19661
 Suspended  Solids              129          438
 Dissolved  Solids              16118        19223
 Settleable Solids (ml/1)       9.0          0.1
 Aluminum (Al)                 50           220
 Manganese  (Mn)                 66.8        70.0
 Chloride (Cl)
 Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)


Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise  noted.

(D Refer to Figure 12 for  location  of  sample point.
                TABLE  24
        WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
       SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  20 (T)

Date                             8/20/71
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)             160
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)            200
Conductivity  (25C)  mmhos.       1250
pH  (electrometrically)           3.3
Color (APHA)                     10
Turbidity  (JTU)                  5
Calcium (Ca)                     84
Magnesium  (Mg)                   41
Hardness (CaCO3)                 378
Sulfate (S04)                    541
Total Iron  (Fe)                  5.0
Ferrous Iron (Fe)                0.804
Total Solids                     994
Suspended Solids                 2
Dissolved Solids                 992
Settleable Solids (ml/1)        <0.1
Aluminum (Al)                   13.4
Manganese  (Mn)                   9.4
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)


 Test results reported in ppm unless
 otherwise noted.

(D  Refer to Figure 12 for location of
    sample point.

-------
                         TABLE 25
                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                 SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  21
                                                                           TABLE 26
                                                                    WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                   SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  22 C
Ui
O
Date                            7/27/71
Flow  (gpm)                      -
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)            412
Total Acidity  (CaCOa)           800
Conductivity  (25C) iranhos.      2950
pH  (electrometrically)          2.7
Color (APHA)                    70
Turbidity  (JTU)                 20
Calcium  (Ca)                    248
Magnesium  (Mg)                  87
Hardness  (CaCO3)                970
Sulfate  (SO.)                   2250
Total Iron  (Fe)                 125
Ferrous Iron' (Fe)
Total Solids                    3596
Suspended Solids                64
Dissolved Solids                3532
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)        0.5
Aluminum  (Al)                   65
Manganese  (Mn)                  5.9
Chloride  (Cl)                   7.86
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)
Sodium                          180
Potassium                       5.5
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity (CaCO3)
Free Acidity (CaC03)
Total Acidity (CaCO3)
Conductivity (25C) mmhos,
pH  (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity (JTU)
Calcium (Ca)
Magnesium (Mg)
Hardness  (CaC03)
Sulfate (SO4)
Total Iron  (Fe)
Ferrous Iron (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum  (Al)
Manganese (Mn)
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)
                                                                                                       8/16/71
                                                                                                       3-5
40
640
7310
4.8
380
245
675
280
2836
3550
328
301
4722
110
4612
3.0
6.4
5.8
          Test results reported in ppm unless
          otherwise noted.

         @  Refer to Figure 12 for location of
             sample point.
                                                             Test results reported in ppm unless
                                                             otherwise noted.

                                                            @ Refer to Figure 12 for location of
                                                                sample point.

-------
              TABLE 27
       WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
      SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 23 (l)
                                             TABLE 28
                                      WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                     SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 24 (T)
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (GaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO,)
Total Acidity  (3083)
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (SO/)
Total Iron (Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended Solids
Dissolved Solids
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)
8/20/71
0.5
2130
2760
6900
2.6
400
80
128
172
1025
4250
705
73.2
6634
21
6613
<0.1
108
20.4
 Test results reported in ppm unless
 otherwise noted.

 (l) Refer to Figure 12 for location of
    sample point.
Date                           8/20/71    9/20/71
Flow  (gpm)                     1-2         10
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO-O
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)           580         508
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)          1150        1200
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.     3800        2820
pH  (electrometrically)         3.0         2.8
Color (APHA)                   50
Turbidity  (JTU)                10
Calcium  (Ca)                   297         300
Magnesium  (Mg)                 45          62
Hardness (CaCO3)               927
Sulfate  (SO4)                  1870        1890
Total Iron  (Fe)                81          90
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)              30.1        2.0
Total Solids                   3251        3242
Suspended Solids               2.0        <1.0
Dissolved Solids               3249        3241
Settleable Solids (ml/1)      <0.1       <0.1
Aluminum (Al)                 84         120
Manganese  (Mn)                25.6       20.0
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaC03)
                        Test results  reported in  ppm unless  otherwise  noted.

                       (l)  Refer to Figure 12 for location of  sample point.

-------
                     TABLE 29
              WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
             SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 25 (l)
               TABLE 30
        WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
       SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 26 (T)
 Date                           8/20/71     9/20/71
 Flow  (gpm)                     1-2         135
 Pht.  Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
 M.O.  Alkalinity  (CaCO3)        -           106
 Free  Acidity  (CaCO3)           -
 Total Acidity (CaCO3)          -           5.2
 Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.     505         445
 pH  (electrometrically)         7.2         7.8
 Color (APHA)                   20
 Turbidity  (JTU)                10
 Calcium (Ca)                   68          56
 Magnesium  (Mg)                 14          13
 Hardness  (CaC03)               227
 Sulfate (S04)                  96          89
 Total Iron  (Fe)                0.23        6.5
 Ferrous Iron  (Fe)              0.067       0.47
 Total Solids                   341         631
 Suspended Solids               9           304
 Dissolved Solids               332         327
 Settleable  Solids  (ml/1)       <0.1        0.5
 Aluminum  (Al)                  <0.1        6.2
 Manganese  (Mn)                 0.57        1.3
 Chloride  (Cl)
 Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)
Test  results  reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

(l)  Refer to Figure 12 for location of sample point.
Date                            7/27/71
Flow  (gpm)                      -
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)            1350
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)           2040
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.      4445
pH  (electrometrically)          2.4
Color (APHA)                    >70
Turbidity (JTU)                 54
Calcium (Ca)                    490
Magnesium (Mg)                  46
Hardness  (CaCOo)                1410
Sulfate (S04)                   4486
Total Iron  (Fe)                 780
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids                    6832
Suspended Solids                140
Dissolved Solids                6692
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)        4.0
Aluminum  (Al)                   222
Manganese (Mn)                  7.5-
Chloride  (Cl)                   <0.18
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)

 Test results  reported in ppm unless
 otherwise  noted.

(l) Refer to  Figure 12 for location of
    sample  point.

-------
                         TABLE 31
                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                 SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 27 (l)
                                                                                TABLE 32
                                                                         WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                        SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 28 (
U)
Date
Flow (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Tree Acidity  (CaC03)
Total Acidity  (CaC03)
Conductivity  (25C) nunhos.
pH  (electrometrically)
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)
Magnesium  (Mg)
Hardness  (CaCO3)
Sulfate  (SO.)
Total iron  {Fe)
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)
Total Solids
Suspended  Solids
Dissolved  Solids
Settleable  Solids  (ml/1)
Aluminum (Al)
Manganese  (Mn)
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity
                                    7/27/71     8/30/71
1700
2340
4325
2.4
>70
64
440
37
1250
4152
670

7938
84
7854
3.0
185
7.1
<0.18
1300
2760
5100
2.5
260
60
210
152
1148
4870
460
1.9
6729
64
6665
2.1
192
6.0
 Date                             8/19/71
 Flow  (gpm)                       3-5
 Pht.  Alkalinity (CaCO-,)
 M.O.  Alkalinity (CaCO3)          120
 Free  Acidity (CaCOs)
 Total Acidity (CaC03)            20
 Conductivity (25C)  mmhos.       580
 pH  (electrometrically)           7.9
 Color (APHA)                     10
 Turbidity  (JTU)                  5
 Calcium  (Ca)                     75
 Magnesium  (Mg)                   21
 Hardness (CaCO3)                 274
 Sulfate  (S04)                    220
 Total Iron  (Fe)                  0.25
 Ferrous Iron  (Fe)                0.122
 Total Solids                     395
 Suspended Solids                 3
 Dissolved Solids                392
 Settleable Solid's (ml/1)         <0.1
Aluminum (Al)                   0.16
Manganese (Mn)                  0.07
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)
     Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

    (l)  Refer  to  Figure 12 for location of  sample  point.
                                                                Test results reported in ppm unless
                                                                otherwise noted.

                                                                J)  Refer to Figure 12 for location
                                                                   of sample point.

-------
                        TABLE  3 3
                 WATER QUALITY  ANALYSES
                SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  29 (T)
                                                                              TABLE 34
                                                                       WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                      SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  30 C
Ul
Date                             8/19/71
Flow  (gpm)                       1-2
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO,,)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)          160
Free Acidity  (CaC03)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3>            15
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.       510
pH  (electrometrically)           7.9
Color (APHA)                     5
Turbidity  (JTU)                  11
Calcium  (Ca)                     55
Magnesium  (Mg)                   16
Hardness  (CaCO3)                 203
Sulfate  (S04)                    130
Total Iron  (Fe)                  0.28
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)                0.125
Total Solids                     307
Suspended Solids                 2
Dissolved Solids                 305
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)         <0.1
Aluminum  (Al)                    0.12
Manganese  (Mn)                   0.10
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)
Date                            8/19/71
Flow (gpm)                      0.5
Pht. Alkalinity (CaCO3)
M-.O. Alkalinity (CaCO3)         60
Free Acidity (CaC03)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)           35
Conductivity (25C) mmhos.      480
pH  (electrometrically)          6.8
Color (APHA)                    10
Turbidity (JTU)                 10
Calcium (Ca)                    55
Magnesium (Mg)                   18
Hardness  (CaCO3)                211
Sulfate (SO4)                   220
Total Iron  (Fe)                 2.2
Ferrous Iron (Fe)                0.916
Total Solids                    352
Suspended Solids                9
Dissolved Solids                343
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)        0.1
Aluminum  (Al)                   0.96
Manganese (Mn)                   0.31
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)
        Test results reporte.d  in ppm unless
        otherwise noted.

        (D Refer to Figure 12  for  location
           of sample-point.
                                                              Test results reported in ppm unless
                                                              otherwise noted.

                                                             @  Refer to Figure 12 for  location
                                                                 of sample point.

-------
                       TABLE 35
                WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
               SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 31 (
                                                                              TABLE 36
                                                                      WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                      SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 33 (
UI
 Date                             8/19/71
 Flow  (gpm)                       2
 Pht.  Alkalinity (CaC03)
 M.O.  Alkalinity (CaC03)          150
 Free  Acidity (CaCO3)
Total Acidity (CaCO3)            25
 Conductivity (25C)  nunhos.      480
 pH  (electrometrically)           7.3
 Color (APHA)                     o
 Turbidity (JTU)                  5
 Calcium (Ca)                     55
 Magnesium (Mg)                   15
 Hardness (CaCO3)                 203
 Sulfate (SO4)                   125
 Total Iron (Fe)                  0.21
 Ferrous Iron (Fe)                0.053
 Total Solids              _     321
 Suspended Solids          *     13
 Dissolved Solids                308
 Settleable Solids (ml/1)        0.1
 Aluminum (Al)                   <0.1
 Manganese (Mn)                   <0.02
 Chloride (Cl)
 Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)

 Test results reported in ppra unless
 otherwise noted.

 (D Refer to  Figure 12 for location
    of 'sample point.
 Date                            8/31/71
 Flow (gpm)                       2
 Pht.  Alkalinity (CaCO3)
 M.O.  Alkalinity (CaCO3)
 Free Acidity (CaCO3)             1020
 Total Acidity (CaC03)            1800
 Conductivity (25C) nmhos.       3400
 pH  (electrometrically)           3.3
 Color (APHA)                     250
 Turbidity  (JTU)                  40
 Calcium  (Ca)                     202
 Magnesium  (Mg)                   114
 Hardness (CaCO3)                 972
 Sulfate  (SO/)                    3400
 Total Iron  (Fe)                  460
 Ferrous Iron  {Fe)                95
 Total Solids                    4256
 Suspended Solids                12
 Dissolved Solids                4244
 Settleable Solids (ml/1)        0.1
 Aluminum (Al)                   51
 Manganese (Mn)                  15.4
 Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht.  Acidity (CaCO3)
                                                                      Test results reported in ppm unless
                                                                      otherwise noted.

                                                                     (l)  Refer to Figure 12 for location
                                                                         of sample point.

-------
                         TABLE 37
                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                 SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 34 
                                                                         TABLE  38
                                                                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                 SAMPLE LOCATION NO. 36 (l)
Cn
Date                             9/20/71
Flow  (gpm)                       140
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaC03)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaC03)          138
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCOo)            6.4
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.       678
pH  (electrometrically)           7.9
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)                     60
Magnesium  (Mg)                   18
Hardness  (CaC03)                 224
Sulfate  (S04)                    193
Total Iron  (Fe)                  0.14
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)                0.045
Total Solids                     507
Suspended Solids                 11
Dissolved Solids                 496
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)         0.1
Aluminum (Al)                   <0.1
Manganese  (Mn)                   0.24
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)

 Test results  reported in ppm unless
 otherwise  noted.

 (l) Refer  to Figure 12  for location
    of  sample point.
Date                             9/20/71
Flow (gpm)                       1
Pht. Alkalinity (CaCO,)
M.O. Alkalinity (CaCO3>          43.6
Free Acidity (CaCO3)
Total Acidity (CaC03)            4.8
Conductivity (25C) mmhos.       405
pH  (electrometrically)           7.6
Color (APHA)
Turbidity (JTU)
Calcium (Ca)                     36
Magnesium (Mg)                    13
Hardness  (CaCO3)                 143
Sulfate (S04)                    124
Total Iron  (Fe)                   0.22
Ferrous Iron (Fe)                 0.11
Total Solids                     274
Suspended Solids                 3
Dissolved Solids                 271
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)         <0.1
Aluminum  (Al)                    <0.1
Manganese (Mn)                    0.19
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaCO3)


 Test results reported in ppm unless
 otherwise noted.

(l) Refer to Figure 12  for  location
    of sample point.

-------
                         TABLE  39
                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                 SAMPLE LOCATION  NO.  37 (T)
                                                                               TABLE  40
                                                                        WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                       SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  38(T)
Ul
-J
Date                           9/20/71     12/8/71
Flow  (gpm)                     23
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)        28.4        48.0
Free Acidity  (CaCOo)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)          316         17
Conductivity  (25C) iranhos.     1450        704
pH  (electrometrically)         3.6         6.6
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)                   170         90
Magnesium  (Mg)                 50          30
Hardness  (CaCO3)               630         348
Sulfate  (SO4)                  797         298
Total Iron  (Fe)                9.7         10.0
Ferrous  Iron  (Fe)              5.1         0.239
Total Solids                   1335        704
Suspended Solids              24          66
Dissolved Solids              1311        638
Settleable  Solids  (ml/1)       0.1         0.1
Aluminum (Al)                  18.0        4.5
Manganese  (Mn)                 4.5         1.4
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht.  Acidity (CaCO3)       -           24
Date                             11/15/71
Flow (gpm)                       <0.5
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)          204
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)            4
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.       750
pH  (electrometrically)           8.0
Color (APHA)
Turbidity (JTU)
Calcium (Ca)                     118
Magnesium (Mg)                   27
Hardness  (CaC03)                 406
Sulfate (504)                    150
Total Iron  (Fe)                  1.8
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)                0.20
Total Solids                     461
Suspended Solids                 8
Dissolved Solids                 453
Settleable Solids (ml/1)         0.1
Aluminum  (Al)                   <0.1
Manganese (Mn)                  0.60
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)        0
      Test results reported in ppm unless otherwise noted.

     (2)  Refer to Figure 12 for location of sample point.
                                                                 Test results reported in ppm unless
                                                                 otherwise noted.

                                                                (l)  Refer to Figure 12 for location
                                                                    of sample point.

-------
                          TABLE 41
                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                  SAMPLE LOCATION  NO.  39(I)
                                                                          TABLE  42
                                                                  WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
                                                                 SAMPLE LOCATION  NO.  40(T)
(Jl
00
Date                             10/21/71
Flow  (gpra)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
Free Acidity  (CaC03)             2752
Total Acidity  (CaC03)            4175
Conductivity  (25C) iranhos.       4100
pH  (electrometrically)           2.3
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca>                     184
Magnesium  (Mg)                   142
Hardness (CaCO3)                 1042
Sulfate  (SO4)                    5076
Total Iron  (Fe)                  1060
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)                50.7
Total Solids                     8797
Suspended Solids                 18
Dissolved Solids                 8779
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)         0.2
Aluminum (Al)                    211
Manganese  (Mn)                   31.1
Chloride (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaCO3)

  Test results reported in ppm unless
  otherwise noted.

 (l) Refer to Figure 12 for  location
     of sample point.
Date                             10/28/71
Flow  (gpm)
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)          243
Free Acidity  (CaCO3)
Total Acidity  (CaCO3)            5.0
Conductivity  (25C) mmhos.       630
pH  (electrometrically)           8.02
Color (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)                     81.3
Magnesium  (Mg)                   23.1
Hardness  (CaCO3)                 437
Sulfate  (SO4)                    108
Total Iron  (Fe)                  0.04
Ferrous Iron  (Fe)                0.010
Total Solids                     415
Suspended Solids                 3
Dissolved Solids                 412
Settleable Solids  (ml/1)         <0.1
Aluminum  (Al)                    0.13
Manganese  (Mn)                   <0.05
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity  (CaC03)


  Test results reported in ppm unless
  otherwise noted.

 @ Refer to  Figure 12 for  location
     of sample point.

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                TABLE 43
        WATER QUALITY ANALYSES
       SAMPLE LOCATION NO.  41


Date                             10/28/71
Flow (gpm)                       -
Pht. Alkalinity  (CaCO3)
M.O. Alkalinity  (CaC03)          353
Free Acidity (CaC03)
Total Acidity (CaC03)            5.0
Conductivity (25C)  nunhos .       885
pH  (electrometrically)           8.11
Color  (APHA)
Turbidity  (JTU)
Calcium  (Ca)                     33.4
Magnesium  (Mg)                   13.4
Hardness  (CaC03)                 139
Sulfate  (S04)                    122
Total  Iron  (Fe)                  0.05
Ferrous  Iron (Fe)                <0.005
Total  Solids                     563
Suspended Solids                 2
Dissolved Solids                 561
Settleable  Solids  (ml/1)         <0.1
Aluminum (Al)                    0.19
Manganese  (Mn)                   <0.05
Chloride  (Cl)
Hot Pht. Acidity (CaC03)
tn
   Test results  reported in ppm unless
   otherwise  noted.

   Refer to Figure 12  for location
     of  sample  point.

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Water Pollution Control Act Chapter 20-Article 15A, West
Virginia Code as amended 1969.

20-5A-2.  Definitions

Unless the context in which used clearly requires a
different meaning as used in this article:

(a)  "Director" shall mean the director of the depart-
     ment of natural resources;

(b)  "Board" shall mean the state water resources board;

(c)  "Chief" shall mean the chief of the division of
     water resources of the department of natural
     resources;

(d)  "Person", "persons" or "applicant" shall mean any
     public or private corporation, institution, associa-
     tion, firm or company organized or existing under
     the laws of this or any other state or country; State
     of West Virginia; governmental agency; political
     subdivision; county court, municipal corporation;
     industry, sanitary district; public service dis-
     trict; drainage district; soil conservation dis-
     trict; watershed improvement district; partnership;
     trust; estate; person or individual; group of
     persons or individuals acting individually or as a
     group; or any other legal entity whatever;

(e)  "Water resources", "water" or "waters" shall mean
     any and all water on or beneath the surface of the
     ground, whether percolating, standing, diffused or
     flowing, wholly or partially within this State, or
     bordering this State and within its jurisdiction,
     and shall include, without limiting the generalty of
     the foregoing, natural or articifial lakes, rivers,
     streams, creeks, branches, brooks, ponds  (except
     farm ponds, industrial settling basins and ponds and
     water treatment facilities), impounding reservoirs,
     springs, wells and watercourses;

(f)  "Pollution" shall mean (1) the discharge, release,
     escape, deposit or disposition, directly or
     indirectly, of treated or untreated sewage, indus-
     trial wastes, or other wastes, of whatever kind
     or character, in or near any waters of the State,
                            160

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            ?   3r10n'  manner  or quantity, as does, will
                  t0(A)  cont^inate  or  substantially
                    u
                   the  cont^ination  of  any such waters ,
                   LSUbKtantially  contribute to the
    nr          the  Phvsical'  chemical  or biological
    properties  of any  of such waters, if  such  contamina-
    ^^r alteration,  or the resulting  contamination
    ^  alteration where  a person only contributes
    thereto, is to such  an extent  as to make any of
    such waters (i) directly or indirectly harmful,
    detrimental or injurious to the  public health, safety
    and welfare, or (ii) directly  or indirectly detri-
    mental to existing animal, bird, fish, aquatic or
    plant  life, or (iii) unsuitable  for present or
    future domestic, commercial, industrial, agricul-
    tural, recreational, scenic or other  legitimate
    uses;  and shall also mean (2)  the  discharge, release,
    escape, deposit, or disposition, directly  or
    indirectly of treated or untreated sewage, industrial
    wastes or other wastes, of whatever kind or character,
    in  or  near any waters of the State in such condition,
    manner or quantity,  as does, will,  or is likely
    to  reduce the quality of the waters of the State
    below the standards established therefor in the
    rules  and regulations of the board;

(g)   "Sewage" shall mean water-carried human' or animal
    wastes from residences, buildings, industrial
    establishments or other places, together with  such
    groundwater infiltration and surface waters as
    may be present;

(h)   "Industrial wastes" shall mean  any liquid, gaseous,
    solid  or other waste substance, or a combination
    thereof, resulting  from or  incidental to  any
    process of industry, manufacturing, trade or
    business, or from or incidental to the development,
    processing or recovery of any natural resources;
    and the admixture with such industrial wastes of
    sewage or other wastes, as  hereinafter defined,
    shall  also be considered  "industrial wastes"  within
    the meaning of this article;

(i)   "Other wastes" shall mean garbage, refuse, decayed
    wood,  sawdust, shavings, bark and  other wood debris
     and residues, sand, lime, cinders, ashes, offal,
                            161

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     night soil,  silt, oil, tar,  dyestuffs,  acids,
     chemicals,  and all other materials and  substances
     not sewage  or industrial wastes which may cause
     or might reasonably be expected to cause or to
     contribute  to the pollution  of any of the waters
     of the State;

(j)   "Establishment" shall mean an industrial establish-
     ment, mill,  factory,  tannery, paper or  pulp mill,
     mine, colliery, breaker or mineral processing
     operation,  quarry, refinery,  well, and  each and
     every industry or plant or works or activity in the
     operation or process  of which industrial wastes, or
     other wastes are produced;

(k)   "Sewer system" shall  mean pipelines or  conduits,
     pumping stations, force mains and all other construc-
     tions, facilities, devices and appliances appur-
     tenant thereto, used  for collecting or  conducting
     sewage, industrial wastes or  other wastes to a
     point of disposal or  treatment;

(1)   "Treatment  works" shall mean  any plant, facility,
     means, system, disposal field, lagoon,  pumping
     station, constructed  drainage ditch or  surface water
     intercepting ditch, diversion ditch above or
     below the surface of  the ground, settling tank or
     pond, earthen pit, incinerator, area devoted to
     sanitary landfills, or other  works not  specifically
     mentioned herein, installed  for the purpose of
     treating, neutralizing, stabilizing, holding or
     disposing of sewage,  industrial wastes  or other
     wastes or for the purpose of  regulating or controll-
     ing the quality and rate of  flow thereof;

(m)   "Disposal system" shall mean  a system for treating
     or disposing of sewage, industrial wastes, or
     other wastes, or the  effluent therefrom, either
     by surface  or underground methods, and  shall be
     construed to include  sewer systems, the use of
     subterranean spaces,  treatment works, disposal
     wells and other systems;

(n)   "Outlet" shall mean the terminus of a sewer system
     or the point of emergence of  any water-carried
     sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes or the
     effluent therefrom, into any  of the waters of
     this  State;
                           162

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(o)   "Activity" or "activities" shall mean any activity
     or activities for which a permit is required by
     the provisions of section five  (20-5A-5) of this
     article;

(p)   "Disposal well" shall mean any well drilled or
     used for the injection or disposal of treated or
     untreated sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes
     into underground strata;

(q)   "Well" shall mean any shaft or hole sunk, drilled,
     bored or dug into the earth or into underground
     strata for the extraction or injection or placement
     of any liquid or gas, or any shaft or hole sunk
     or used in conjunction with such extraction or
     injection or placement.  The term "well" shall not
     have included within its meaning any shaft or
     hole sunk, drilled, bored or dug into the earth
     for the sole purpose of core drilling or pumping or
     extracting therefrom potable, fresh or usable water
     for household, domestic, industrial, agricultural
     or public use; and

(r)   "Code" shall mean the Code of West Virginia, one
     thousand nine hundred thirty-one, as amended.
                            163

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Water Pollution Control Act Chapter 20-Article 5A, West
Virginia Code as amended 1969.

20-5A-3.  General powers and duties of chief of division
and board with respect to pollution.

(a)  In addition to all other powers and duties of the
     chief of the department's division of water
     resources, as prescribed in this article or else-
     where by law, the chief, under the supervision of
     the director, shall have and may exercise the
     following powers and authority and shall perform
     the following duties:

     (1)  To encourage voluntary cooperation by all
          persons in controlling and reducing the
          pollution of the waters of this State, and to
          advise, consult and cooperate with all persons,
          all agencies of this State, the federal govern-
          ment or other states, and with interstate
          agencies in the furtherance of the purposes
          of this article, and to this end and for the
          purpose of studies, scientific or other investi-
          gations, research, experiments and demonstra-
          tions pertaining thereto, the department may
          receive moneys from such agencies, officers
          and persons on behalf of the State.  The
          department shall pay all moneys so received
          into a special fund hereby created in the
          state treasury, which fund shall be expended
          under the direction of the chief solely
          for the purpose or purposes for which the grant,
          gift or contribution shall have been made;

     (2)  To encourage the formulation and execution
          of plans by cooperative groups or associations
          of municipal corporations, industries, and other
          users of waters of the State, who, jointly or
          severally, are or may be the source of pollution
          of such waters, for the control and reduction of
          pollution;

     (3)  To encourage, participate in, or conduct or
          cause to be conducted studies, scientific or
          other investigations, research, experiments and
          demonstrations relating to water pollution
          and the causes, control and reduction thereof,
          and to collect data with respect thereto, all
                            164

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      as  may be deemed advisable and necessary to
      carry out the purposes of this article;

 (4)   To  study and investigate all problems con-
      cerning water flow, water pollution and  the
      control and reduction of pollution of the
      waters of the State, and to make reports and
      recommendations with respect thereto;

 (5)   To  collect and disseminate information re-
      lating to water pollution and the control and
      reduction thereof;

 (6)   To  develop a public education and promotion
      program to aid and assist in publicizing the
      need of and securing support for pollution
      control and abatement;

 (7)   To  sample ground and surface water with
      sufficient frequency to ascertain the standards
      of  purity or quality from time to time of the
      waters of the State;

 (8)   To  develop programs for the control and re-
      duction of the pollution of the waters of the
      State;

 (9)   To  exercise general supervision over the
      administration and enforcement of the provisions
      of  this article, and all rules, regulations,
      permits and orders issued pursuant to the
      provisions of this article;

(10)   In  cooperation with the college of engineering
      at  West Virginia University, to conduct
      studies, scientific or other investigations,
      research, experiments and demonstrations in an
      effort to discover economical and practical
      methods for the elimination, disposal,
      control and treatment of sewage, industrial
      wastes, and other wastes, and the control and
      reduction of water pollution, and to this end,
      the chief may cooperate with any public or
      private agency and receive therefrom, on
      behalf of the State, and for deposit in the
      state treasury, any moneys which such agency
      may contribute as its part of the expenses
                        165

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          thereof,  and  all  gifts,  donations or contri-
          butions  received  as  aforesaid shall be expended
          by the chief  according to the requirements or
          directions  of the donor  or contributor without
          the necessity of  an  appropriation therefor,
          except that an accounting thereof shall be
          made in  the fiscal reports of the department;

    (11)   To require  the prior submission of plans,
          specifications, and  other data relative to, and
          to inspect  the construction and operation of,
          any activity  or activities in connection with
          the issuance  and  revocation of such permits
          as are required by this  article, or as he
          deems necessary to carry out the provisions
          of this  article or to carry out the rules and
          regulations adopted  pursuant to the provisions
          of this  article;  and

    (12)   To require  any and all persons directly or
          indirectly  discharging,  depositing or dis-
          posing of treated or untreated sewage, in-
          dustrial  wastes,  or  other wastes, or the
          effluent  therefrom,  into or near any waters of
          the State or  into any underground strata, and
          any and  all persons  operating an establishment
          which produces or which  may produce or from
          which escapes, releases  or emanates or may
          escape,  release or emanate treated or untreated
          sewage,  industrial wastes or other wastes or
          the effluent  therefrom,  into or near any
          waters of the State  or into any underground
          strata,  to  file with the divison of water
          resources such information as the chief may
          require  in  a  form or manner prescribed by him
          for such  purpose, including, but not limited
          to, data  as to the kind, characteristics,
          amount and  rate of flow  of any such discharge,
          deposit,  escape,  release or disposition.

(b)   In  addition to all other  powers and duties of the
     water resources  board, as prescribed in this
     article or elsewhere by law,  the board shall have
     and may exercise the following powers and authority
     and shall perform  the  following duties:
                           166

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          for8perate with any interstate agencies
          S ^  iPUrPSe f formulating, for submission
          ln~  -Legislature, interstate compacts and
          agreements relating to the control and reduc-
          tion of water pollution; and

     (2)   To adopt, modify, repeal and enforce rules
          ana_regulations, in accordance with the pro-
          visions of chapter twenty-nine-A (29A-1-1 et
          seq.) of this Code,  (A) implementing and
          making effective the declaration of policy
          contained in section one (20-5A-1)  of this
          article and the powers, duties and respon-
          sibilities vested in the board and the chief
          by the provisions of this article and otherwise
          by law; (B) preventing, controlling and
          abating pollution; and  (C)  establishing stan-
          dards of quality for the waters of the State
          under such conditions as the board may pres-
          cribe for the prevention, control and abatement
          of pollution.

(c)   The board is hereby  authorized to hire one or more
     individuals to serve as hearing examiners on a
     full or part-time basis.  Such individuals may
     be attorneys at law  admitted to practice before
     any circuit court of this State.  All such hearing
     examiners shall be individuals authorized to take
     depositions under the laws of this  State.

(d)   The board, or any member thereof, and the chief,
     and their duly authorized representatives, shall
     have the power and authority to make investigations,
     inspections and inquiries concerning compliance
     with the provisions  of this  article, or any order
     made and entered in  accordance with the provisions
     of this article, or  any rule or regulation promul-
     gated by the board,  or with  the terms and conditions
     of any permit issued in accordance  with the pro-
     visions of section seven  (20-5A-7)  of this article.
     In order to make such investigations, inspections
     and inquiries, the board, or any member thereof,
     and the chief, and their duly authorized represen-
     tatives, shall have  the power and authority to
     enter at all reasonable times upon  any private or
     public property, subject  to  responsibility for their
     own safety and for any damage to the property
     entered.  All persons shall  cooperate fully with
     the person entering  such property for such purposes.
                            167

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     Upon  refusal  of  the  person  owning or controlling
     such  property to permit  such  entrance or the making
     of  such  inspections,  investigations  and inquiries,
     the board  or  any member  thereof  or the chief may
     apply to the  circuit court  of the county in which
     such  property is located, or  the judge thereof in
     vacation,  for an order authorizing such entrance
     and the  making of such inspections,  investigations
     and inquiries; and jurisdiction  is hereby conferred
     upon  such  court  or judge to enter such order upon
     a showing  that the relief asked  is necessary for
     the proper enforcement of this article.  A dwelling
     occupied for  residential purposes shall not be
     entered  without  a search warrant.

(e)   The board  is  hereby  authorized and empowered to
     investigate and  ascertain the need and factual
     basis for  the establishment of public service dis-
     tricts as  a means of  controlling and reducing
     pollution  from unincorporated communities and areas
     of  the State, and to  present  reports and recommenda-
     tions thereon to the  county courts of the areas
     concerned, together  with a  request that such county
     courts create a  public service district or dis-
     tricts ,  as therein shown to be needed and required
     and as provided  in article  thirteen-A (16-13A-1 et
     seq.), chapter sixteen of this Code.   In the event
     a county court shall  fail to  act to  establish a
     county-wide public service  district,  the board shall
     act jointly with the  state  director  of health, the
     director of the  department  of natural resources and
     the chief  of  the division of  water resources to
     order the  county court to take action to establish
     such  public service  district  or  districts as may
     be  necessary  to  control, reduce,  or  abate the
     pollution, and when  so ordered the county court
     members  must  act to establish such a county-wide
     public service district.
                           168

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Water Pollution Control Act  Chapter  20-Article  5A, West
Virginia Code as  amended  1969.

20-5A-4.  Cooperation  with other  governments  and  agencies.

The division of water  resources is hereby  designated  as
the water pollution  control  agency for this State for
all purposes of federal legislation  and is hereby
authorized  to take all action necessary or appropriate
to secure to this State the  benefits of said  legislation.
In carrying out the  purposes of 'this section, the chief
is hereby authorized to cooperate with the federal water
pollution control administration  of  the United States
department  of interior, other agencies of  the federal
government, other states, interstate agencies and other
interested  parties in'all matters relating to water
pollution,  including the  development of programs  for  con-
trolling and reducing  water  pollution and  improving the
sanitary conditions  of the waters of the State; to apply
for and receive,  on  behalf of this State,  funds made
available under the  aforesaid federal legislation on
condition that all moneys received from any federal
agency as herein  provided shall be paid into  the  state
treasury and shall be  expended, under the  direction of
the chief,  solely for  purposes for which the  grants
shall have  been made,  to  approve  projects  for which
applications for  loans or grants  under the federal legis-
lation are  made by any municipality  (including  any city,
town, district or other public body  created by  or pur-
suant to the laws of this State and  having jurisdiction
over the disposal of sewage, industrial wastes  or other
wastes) or  agency of this State or by any  interstate
agency; and to participate through his authorized re-
presentatives in  proceedings under the federal  legislation
to recommend measures  for the abatement of water  pollution
originating in this  State.   The governor is hereby
authorized, in his discretion, to give consent  on behalf
of this State to  requests by the  secretary of the United
States department of interior to  the attorney general
of the United States for  the bringing of actions  for the
abatement of such pollution.

Whenever a  federal law requires the  approval or recom-
mendation of a state agency  or any political subdivision
                            169

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of the State in any matter relating to the water re-
sources of the State, the director, subject to approval of
the legislature,  is hereby designated as the sole person
to give the approval or recommendation required by the
federal law, unless the federal law specifically requires
the approval or recommendation of some other state agency
or political subdivision of the State.
                           170

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                Contr?1 Act Chapter 20-Article 5A, West
         Code as amended 1969.


                             dmain? Procedures; legis-


(a)   When any person who is owner of an establishment is
     ordered by the chief to stop or prevent pollution
     or the violation of the rules and regulations of the
     board or to take corrective or remedial action,
     compliance with which order will require the acquisi-
     tion, construction or installation of a new treatment
     works_or the extension or modification of or an
     addition to an existing treatment works, (which ac-
     quisition, construction, installation, extension,
     modification or addition of or to a treatment works
     pursuant to such order is referred to in this section
     as "such compliance") such person may exercise the
     power of eminent domain in the manner provided in
     chapter fifty-four  (54-1-1 et seq.) of this Code,
     to acquire such real property or interests in real
     property as may be determined by the chief to be
     reasonably necessary for such compliance.

(b)   Upon application by such person and after twenty
     days' written notice to all persons whose property
     may be affected, the chief shall make and enter an
     order determining the specific real property or
     interests in real property, if any, which are
     reasonably necessary for such compliance.  In any
     proceeding under this section, the person seeking
     to exercise the right of eminent domain herein con-
     ferred shall establish the need for the amount of
     land sought to be condemned and that such land is
     reasonably necessary for the most practical method
     for such compliance.

(c)   The right of eminent domain herein conferred shall
     not apply to the taking of any dwelling house or
     for the taking of any land within five hundred feet
     of any such dwelling house.

(d)   The legislature hereby declares and finds that the
     taking and use of real property and interests in
     real property determined to be reasonably necessary
                            171

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for such compliance promotes the health, safety and
general welfare of the citizens of this State by
reducing and abating pollution in the waters of this
State in which the public at large has an interest
and otherwise; that such taking and use are necessary
to provide and protect a safe, pure and adequate
water supply to the municipalities and citizens
of the State; that because of topography, patterns
of land development and ownership and other factors
it is impossible in many cases to effect such com-
pliance without the exercise of the power of eminent
domain and that the use of real property or interests
in real property to effect such compliance is a
public use for which private property may be taken
or destroyed.
                      172

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              S Sntro1 Act Chapter 20-Article 5A,
              Code as amended 1969.

jurisdicti Cntro1 bv State as to pollution; continuing


No right to violate the rules and regulations of the board
rHF IZ continue existing pollution of any of the waters
or tne State  shall exist nor shall such right be or be
aeemea to have been acquired by virtue of past or future
pollution by  any  person.   The right and control of the
State in and  over the quality of all waters of the State
are hereby expressly reserved and reaffirmed.  It is
recognized that with the passage of time, additional efforts
may have to  be made by  all persons toward control and
reduction of  the  pollution of the waters of the State,
irrespective  of the  fact that such persons may have
previously complied  with all orders of the chief or
board.   It is also  recognized that there should be con-
tinuity  and  stability  respecting pollution control
measures taken in cooperation with, and with the approval
of, the  chief,  or pursuant to orders of the chief or
board.   When a person  is  complying with the terms and
conditions of a permit granted  pursuant to the provisions
of section  seven  (20-5A-7) of  this  article or when a person
has completed remedial action  pursuant  to  an order of
the chief or board,  additional  efforts  may be required
wherever and whenever  the  rules and  regulations of the
board  are violated or the  waters  of  the State are
polluted by  such  person.
                              173

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1967 Surface Mining Act, An Act of the Legislature of
West Virginia, Regular Session, 1967.

20-6-3.  Division of reclamation, duties and functions;
selections, duties and compensation.

There is hereby created within the department of natural
resources a division of reclamation, and the director of
natural resources shall appoint and fix the compensation
of the head of said division who shall be known as the
chief of the division of reclamation.  Said chief shall
have graduated from an accredited four-year college or
university with a degree in the field of engineering,
agriculture, forestry or related resource field, and
shall have four years of full-time paid employment in
some phase of natural resources management, two years of
which must have been in a supervisory or administrative
capacity.

Except as otherwise provided in this article, the division
shall administer all of the laws of this state relating
to surface mining and subject to the approval of the
director of natural resources shall exercise all of the
powers and perform all of the duties by law vested in and
imposed upon said director in relation to said operations.
The division of reclamation shall have within its juris-
diction and supervision all lands and areas of the state,
mined or susceptible of being mined, for the removal of
minerals and all other lands and areas of the state
deforested, burned over, barren or otherwise denuded,
unproductive and subject to soil erosion and waste.
Included within such lands and areas shall be lands seared
and denuded by chemical operations and processes, abandoned
coal-mining areas, swamplands, lands and areas subject
to flowage easements and backwaters from river locks and
dams, and river, stream, lake and pond shore areas subject
to soil erosion and waste.  The jurisdiction and supervision
exercised by the division shall be consistent with other
provisions of this chapter, and the division shall cooperate
with other offices and divisions of the department.
                            174

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                                       Legislature of

                      cornmissi^ duties, functions and


   6*6*  created  and established in the department
   natural  resources  a reclamation commission which shall
be composed of the  director of natural resources, serving
as chairman,  the chief of  the division of reclamation, and
the director of  the department of mines.  The members of
the commission shall  receive no  compensation for their
services on the  commission, but  shall be reimbursed for
their expenses incurred  in performing their functions.
The commission shall  meet  upon the call of any member.
The director, if he deem such action necessary, may
request the attorney  general to  appoint one or more assis-
tant attorneys general who shall perform such duties as
may be required  by  the director.  The attorney general,
in pursuance of  such  request, may select and appoint one
or more assistant attorneys general, to serve at the will
and pleasure of  the attorney general, and such assistant
or assistants, shall  be  paid out of any funds made
available for that  purpose by the Legislature to the depart-
ment of natural  resources.

The commission shall  have  authority to:

(a)  Promulgate  reasonable rules and regulations, in accor-
     dance  with  the provisions of chapter twenty-nine-a
     of this code,  to implement  the provisions of this
     article;

(b)  Make investigations or inspections necessary to
     insure compliance with the  provisions of this article;

(c)  Conduct hearings under provisions of this article or
     rules  and regulations adopted by the commission and
     for the purpose  of  any investigation or hearing,
     hereunder,  the commission or any member thereof may
     administer  oaths or affirmations, subpoena witnesses,
     compel their attendance,  take evidence and require
     production  of  any books, papers, correspondence,
     memoranda,  agreements, or other documents or records
     relevant or material  to the inquiry;
                            175

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(d)   Order,  through the director, the suspension of any
     permit  for failure to comply with any of the provisions
     of this article or any rules and regulations adopted
     pursuant thereto;

(e)   Order,  through the director, a cease and desist order
     of any  operation that is started without a permit
     as required by law;

(f)   Appoint such advisory committees as may be of assis-
     tance to the commission in the development of pro-
     grams and policies;  and

(g)   Review  orders and  decisions of the director.
                           176

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West Virginia Administrative  Regulations -State  Water
Kesources  Board, Chapter  20,  Articles  5 and 5A, Series  I,
Code of West Virginia.

Section  3.  General  Conditions  not Allowable in State
Waters .

3.01   Certain characteristics of sewage,  industrial
       wastes or other wastes  or factors which render
       waters directly or indirectly detrimental to the
       public health or unreasonably and  adversely affect
       such waters for present or future  reasonable
       uses, are objectionable in all waters of the
       State.  Therefore, the State Water  Resources
       Board does hereby proclaim that the following
       general conditions are not to be allowed in any of
       the waters of  the State.

       No  sewage , industrial  wastes or other wastes enter-
       ing any of the waters  of  the State shall- cause
       therein or materially  to  contribute to any of the
       following  conditions thereof, which shall be the
       minimum conditions allowable :

        (a)   Distinctly  visible  floating or  settleable
             solids,  solids, scum,  foam or oily  sleeks of
             unreasonable kind or quantity;

        (b)   Objectionable deposits on  bottom or sludge
             banks ;

        (c)  Objectionable odors in the vicinity of  the
             waters ;

        (d)  Objectionable taste and/or odor in municipal
             water supplies;

        (e)  Concentrations of materials  poisonous to
             man, animal or fish life;
             oxygen depletion;

        (g)  Objectionable  color;

        (h)  Objectionable  bacterial  concentrations;
                               177

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      (i)   Requiring an unreasonable degree of treatment
           for the production of potable water by modern
           water treatment processes as commonly em-
           ployed.

3.02  Waters whose existing quality is better than the
      established standards will not be lowered in quality
      unless and until it has been affirmatively demon-
      strated to the Chief of the Division of Water
      Resources, Department of Natural Resources, that
      such change is justifiable as a result of necessary
      development and will not interfere with or become
      injurious to any present or future assigned uses of
      such waters.  In special cases where the facts
      warrant, more stringent standards or exceptions
      thereto may be established.  In implementing the
      policy of this paragraph as it relates to interstate
      streams, the Secretary,of The,Interior will be, kept
      advised and provided with such information as he will
      need from time to time to protect the interests of ,
      the  United States and the authority of the Secretary
      in maintaining high quality of interstate waters.
                           178

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Resources1^ Administrative Regulations-State  Water

Code of West Vir iniater 2' Articles  5  and  5A' Series *'

        5.  Acid Mine Drainage Control Measures.

      ad?1^ Sid raine drainage  control measures  were
      r-    Y the Ohio  River Valley Water Sanitation
      Commission and promulgated  as  Resolution  No.  5-60,
      as  amended January 10, 1963.   The  State of West
      Virginia is a member of the Ohio River Valley
      water Sanitation Compact and as  such has  agreed to
      carry out  the control measures so  established.
      waters  of  the State  of West Virginia are  being
      polluted by  acid discharges from coal  mining and
      related operations,  hereinafter  referred  to  as
       acid mine drainage", contrary to  the  language and
      intent  of  the  State  Water Pollution Control  Law.

5.02  It  has  been demonstrated that  the  conscientious
      application of  certain principles  and  practices
      will, under certain  conditions,  alleviate the
      pollution  from acid  mine drainage. Therefore, in
      furtherance of  the policy and  procedures  of  the State
      Water Resources  Board,  the  following measures are
      hereby  adopted  by  the Water Resources  Board  for the
      control of acid  mine drainage  pollution in the State
      of  West Virginia:

       (a)   1.   Surface waters  and ground waters shall be
                diverted where  practicable to prevent
                the entry or reduce the flow  of  waters into
                and through workings.

            2.  Water that does gain entry to the workings
                shall  be handled in a manner  which  will
               minimize the formation and discharge of acid
               mine drainage to streams.

       (b)   Refuse from the mining and processing of coal
            shall be handled and disposed of  in a manner
            which will  minimize discharge of  acid mine
            drainage therefrom to streams.  Where acid-
           producing  materials are encountered in the
           overburden  in stripping operations,  these
           materials  shall be handled so as  to prevent
                            179

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     or minimize  the  production of acid mine drainage,
     taking into  consideration the need for stream
     pollution  prevention and all economic factors
     involved.

(c)   Discharge  of acid  mine  drainage  to streams shall
     be regulated insofar as practicable to equalize
     the  flow of  daily  accumulations  throughout a
     24-hour period.

(d)   Upon discontinuance  of  operations  of any mine
     all  practicable  mine-closing measures, con-
     sistent with safety  requirements shall be
     employed to  minimize the formation and discharge
     of acid mine drainage.

(e)   Under appropriate  circumstances, consideration
     shall be given to  the treatment  of acid mine
     drainage by  chemical or other means in order
     to mitigate  its  pollutional  properties.
                     180

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                                               Water
     of west Viginia

Section 6.  General  and  Water  Use Categories
                          aons establish requirements
                     dlschar9e  r  deposit of Sewage,
                     teS  and other wastes ^to the
        04-    the State and  establish general water
      use  categories and water quality standards for
      the  waters of the  State.

6.02  Authority.  These  regulations  are issued under
      authority of the West Virginia Code  (Section 3,
      Article  5A, Chapter 20) .

6.03  Effective Date. These regulations are promulgated
      on April 27, 1970, and become  effective thirty
      days after -.filing  in the Secretary of State's
      Office .

6.04  Filing  Date.  These regulations were  filed in the
      Office  of the Secretary of State on  July 20 ,
      1970.

6.05  Certification.  These regulations  are certified
      authentic by the Chairman of the State Water
      Resources Board by certification number  3.

6.06  Category A.  Water Contact Recreation:   This
      category includes  swimming, fishing,  water skiing,
      and  certain types  of pleasure boating such as
      sailing in very small craft and small outboard motor
      boats .

6.07  Category Bl.  Water Supply, Public:   This  category
      is used to describe all waters used for  public
      supplies.  It does not include water for cooling.

6.08  Category B2 .  Water Supply, Industrial:   This
      category is used to describe all waters  used for
      industrial supplies.  It does not include  water
      for  cooling.

6.09  Category B3.  Water Supply, Agricultural:   This
      category includes  all water used for agriculture,
                             181

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      includes irrigation, as well as livestock watering.
      It is understood that these waters would,also be
      suitable for wildlife watering.

6.10  Category C.  Propagation of Fish and Other Aquatic
      Life:  This category is self-explanatory and does
      recognize the importance of other aquatic life in
      addition to fish.

6.11  Category D-  Water Transport, Cooling and Power:
      This category includes commercial and pleasure
      vessel activity except those small craft included
      in Category A.  Cooling water is that water used
      for industrial cooling.  Power production in this
      definition is hydro power.

6.12  Category E.  Treated Wastes Transport and Assimila-
      tion:  This category includes water of such quality
      as to assure safe passage of fish.
                           182

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Resource! RoJJs   nistrative  Regulations  - State Water
           o
Series n  5  ?apter  20' Articles  5  and 5A,
     s II, Code  of west Virginia.

         3.   Water Uses and Water  Quality Criteria.

13 '01             ng  criteria  are  established for the
                  maintaining  water quality in the Monon-
       Wes  Vir      and a11 its  tributaries from the
               g lnia-pennsYlvania  State  line to the
                       hS  TYgart  ValleY and West Fork
        (a)   Present Uses:   A, Bl,  B2 (See Section 6).

        (b)   Water Quality Criteria for Present Uses:

             Based on a minimum flow of 345 cfs at Lock
             and Dam #8, main stem Monongahela River.  On
             the tributaries of the Monongahela River the
             following stream quality standards are to apply
             at all times when flows are equal to or greater
             than the minimum mean 7 -consecutive -day
             drought flow with a 10 -year return frequency.

             1.  Dissolved Oxygen:  Not less than 5 mg/1
                 at any time .

             2 .  pH :  Values normal for the waters in the
                 area in question, however, generally held
                 between 6.0  and 8.5, except streams
                 carrying significant quantities of acid
                 mine drainage shall have  a pH of not less
                 than 5.5.

             3.  Temperature:  Not  to exceed  87F at any
                 time during  the months of May through
                 November and not  to exceed 73 F at any
                 time during  months  of  December through
                 April .

             4.  Threshold Odor:   Threshold odor not  to
                 exceed a threshold odor  number of  8  at
                 60 C as a daily  average.

             5.  Toxic Substances:   Not to exceed  1/10 of
                 the 96-hour  median tolerance limit.
                              183

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     6.  Bacteria:  The Coliform group is not to
         exceed 1,000 per 100 ml as a monthly
         average nor exceed this number in more
         than 20 percent of the samples examined
         during any month, nor exceed 2,400 per
         ml on any day.

     7. , Radioactivity:  Gross beta activity not to
         exceed 1,000 picocuries per liter (pCi/1)
         nor shall activity from dissolved
         strontium-90 exceed 10 pCi/1, nor shall
         activity from dissolved alpha emitters
         exceed 3 pCi/1.

     8*  Heavy Metals:  Not to exceed the following:

         Constituents             Concentration mg/1

         Arsenic                        0.01
         Barium                         0.50
         Cadmium                        0.01
         Chromium (Hexavalent)           0.05
         Lead                           0.05
         Silver                         0.05

     9.  Other Compounds:

         Constituents             Concentration mg/1

         Nitrates                      45.0
         Chlorides                    100.0
         Sulfates                     200.0
         Phenol                         0.001
         Cyanide                        0.025
         Fluoride                       1.0
         Selenium                       0.01

(c)   Future Uses:  A, Bl,  B2,  B3,  C,  D,  E (see
     Section 6).

(d)   Water  Quality Criteria:

     Same as Present  Uses  as modified below.

     1.   Bacteria:  The Coliform group is not to
         exceed 1,000 per  100  ml as a monthly
                    184

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         average value, nor exceed this number  in
         20 percent of the samples examined
         during any month, nor exceed 2,400 per
         100 ml on any day.

(e)   in special cases  where  the facts warrant,  more
     stringent  standards,  or exceptions to the  above
     standards, may be established in the individual
     case.
                        185
                                     *US. GOVERNMENT WIITTING OFF,CE:1973 M4-1M/166 1-S

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  SELECTED WATER
  RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
  INPUT TRANSACTION FORM
                     1. Report No.
                                                                   3.  Accession No.
  4.  Title water  Infiltration Control to Achieve Mine Water
  Pollution Control - Feasibility Study
  7.  Author(s)
     Zaval, Frank J.   and Robins, John D.
  9.  Organization
     State of West Virginia, Department of Natural Resources
     (Grantee)
     Cyrus Wm. Rice Division - NUS Corporation (Cfigsultant s

  12.  Sponsoring Organization

  15.  Supplementary Notes

             Environmental Protection Agency report
             number, EPA-R2-73-142,  January 1973.
                                          5. Report Date

                                          6.

                                          8. Performing Organization
                                            Report No.

                                         10. Project No.
                                         11. Contract/Grant No.
                                         13. Type of Report and
                                            Period Covered
  16.  Abstract The  study objective was the determination of the feasibility of conducting
  a full-scale demonstration to document the  effectiveness of land reclamation at mined-
  out areas,  in  establishing surface water infiltration control to prevent acid mine
  water pollution.   The study site was the Dents Run Watershed, Monongalia County, West
  Virginia.   It  is  replete with strip, drift,  and auger mines, refuse dumps,  and dis-
  charge boreholes; all of which are significant potential contributors  of acid mine
  water pollution.
            The  project is feasible as based  upon the results of investigative measures
  which included:   investigation of each mine area and opening; a detailed description
  of each  site;  sampling and analysis of all  receiving streams and discharge  points to
  determine the  severity of acid mine water pollution; and evaluation and  selection of
  weir structures,  monitor and enclosures and instruments to be placed in  unattended
  areas to provide  a continuous record of stream conditions.
            A presentation is made of recommendations and cost estimates for  reclamation
  at each  site and  for the installation of monitoring facilities.
            The  impact of the project on the  social and economic environment  of the
  watershed and  the county is presented.
            This report was submitted in fulfillment of Project No. 1^010  HHG under the
  sponsorship of the Office of Research & Monitoring, EPA.
  17a. Descriptors
  Acid Mine Drainage*,  Surface Mines*, Underground Mines*, Land Reclamation*,  revegeta-
  tion, water  quality
  176. Identifiers
  *seals - mine  entry,  ^reclamation - strip mine,  feasibility study, stations - stream
  monitoring, West Virginia
  17c. COWRR Field & Group
  18. Availability
19. Security Class.
   (Report)

20. Security Class.
   (Page)
21. No. of
   Pages

22. Price
                                                       Send To:
                                                       WATER RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION CENTER
                                                       U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                                       WASHINGTON, D. C. 20240
  Abstractor Robert A.  LOOS
              institution Cyrus Wm. Rice Division - NUS Corporation
WRSIC102 (REV. JUNE 1971)
                                                                                  SPO 913.261

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