WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES •/613Q 6FI 06/71
   Potential Environmental Effects
     of an Offshore Submerged
       Nuclear Power Plant,
            Volume 1
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY • WATER QUALITY OFFICE

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     WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES
The Water Pollution Control Research Series describes
the results and progress in the control and abatement
of pollution in our Nation's waters.  They provide a
central source of information on the research , develop-
ment, and demonstration activities in the Water Quality
Office, Environmental Protection Agency, through inhouse
research and grants and contracts with Federal, State,
and local agencies, research institutions, and industrial
organizations.

Inquiries pertaining to 'Water Pollution Control Research
Reports should be directed to the Head, Project Reports
System, Office of Research and Development, Water Quality
Office, Environmental Protection Agency, Room 1108,
Washington, D. C.  20242.

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    POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF AN
  OFFSHORE SUBMERGED NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
                       VOLUME 1
                          by

                 GENERAL DYNAMICS
                 Electric Boat Division

               Groton, Connecticut, U6340
                        for the

          WATER QUALITY RESEARCH OFFICE
       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                   Program 16130 GFI
                   Contract 14-12-918
                       June 1971
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, B.C. 20402 - Price $2.50
                      Stock Number S501-0119

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            EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Water
Quality Office, EPA, and approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the contents
necessarily reflect the views and policies of
the Environmental Protection Agency, nor does
mention of trade names or commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for
use.
                     11

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                             ABSTRACT

Potential environmental effects of wastes from an 1190-Mwe pressurized-
water nuclear power plant, submerged 250-ft deep at four representative
sites off the U.S. mainland, were studied. The thermal field of the plant's
cooling water discharge, and the  distribution of radionuclides in the sea, were
analyzed.   In every case, the thermal "mixing zone" (by the most stringent
present standards) was found to end before either a surface or subsurface
field was established,  and to be much smaller than for a plant in shallower
waters.  Fewer organisms would be killed by entrainment in the cooling water
than at a coastal plant. A "batch" release of radionuclides,  after the worst
hypothetical nuclear accident, would harm life, requiring suspension of local
fishing for about 10 weeks.  No potential ecological damage was predictable
from the ordinary minute release of radionuclides, the thermal discharge,
or other wastes.
This report was submitted in fulfillment of program 16130 GFI, Department
of Interior Contract 14-12-918, under sponsorship of the  Federal Water
Quality Administration (subsequently the Water Quality Research Office of
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency).
                                   111

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                             CONTENTS
        Note on Organization:  Volume 1 presents the rationale,
        analyses, and results of the complete study.  Volume 2
        is a descriptive treatise and collation of data on the re-
        presentative offshore sites, which forms the basis for
        application of the analytical models to those sites, and for
        the assessment of the effects of power plant wastes on the
        marine biota.
                        Volume 1. Analysis

Section                                                          page

1       CONCLUSIONS                                            1

2       RECOMMENDATIONS                                     5

3       INTRODUCTION                                          7
            Site Selection                                        13

            References                                          19

4       NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTES                       21

            Thermal Discharge                                   21

                References                                      22

            Radionuclide Release to the Sea                       23

                Normal Plant Operation                          23
                Reactor Operation                                24
                Waste Management System                        25
                Radionuclide Release                             27
                Qualifying Accidents                              3 5
                Loss of Primary Coolant                          3 5
                Breach of Containment                           3 8
                Nonqualifying Accidents                          42
                References                                      47

            Nonthermal, Nonradioactive Liquid Wastes              48

                Wastes                                         48
                Waste Disposal                                  50
                Conclusions and Recommendations                 53
                References                                      55

5       THERMAL DIFFUSION ANALYSIS                         57

            Background                                         57

            The Basic Model                                     58
                                   IV

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Section                                                           Page
            The Buoyant Jet in a Stratified Infinite Fluid             60
                The Zone of Flow Establishment                    61
                The Zone of Established Flow                       66
            The Effect of the Ocean Surface                         75
            Application of Results to Specific Sites                   82
                Waters off Southeastern Florida                    84
                The Gulf of Maine                                  86
                The New York Bight                                89
                Waters off Southern California                      92
            Condenser Discharge Recirculation                      92
            Commentary                                          97
            References                                           99
            Nomenclature                                        103
6       POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF THERMAL DISCHARGES ON
        MARINE POPULATIONS                                   107
            Plant or Animal Considerations                        107
            Considerations Involving Environmental Factors         109
            Ecological Considerations                             110
            Thermal Discharge Standards as Guidelines             111
            Thermal Tolerances  of Marine Animals and Plants       112
            Operating Experience with Power Plants                124
            Thermal Regimes at  the Sites Studied                   124
                Waters off Southeastern Florida                   131
                The New York Bight                               132
                The Gulf of Maine                                 132
                Waters off Southern California                     132
            Potential Biological Effects of Projected Thermal
            Discharges                                          133
    !
            Bibliography                                         143
7       RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION IN THE SEA                149
            Method of Analysis                                    155
            Radionuclide Concentration in the Buoyant Jet           157
                Theory                                          158
                Results                                          158
            Radionuclide Concentration in the Downstream Plume    158
                Theory                                          163
                Results                                          168

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Section                                                       _Pงgง.
            Radionuclide Concentration in the Re circulating Volume  168
               Theory                                        170
               Results for Wiscasset, Maine Site                 171
            Accidental Radionuclide Release                      171
               Theory                                        175
               Radionuclide Concentrations for Nuclear Accidents  178
            References                                        178
 8      EFFECT OF RADIONUCLIDES ON MAN AND MARINE
        BIOTA                                                181
            Concentration Factor Method                         183
            Specific Activity Method                             186
            Relative Merits of MPCC and MPSA                   193
            Effect on Man During Normal Operation                196
            Effect on Marine Biota During Normal Operation        199
            Effect on Man After a Nuclear Accident                201
            Effect on Marine Biota After  a Nuclear Accident        203
            Conclusions                                        205
            References                                        206
 9      RESEARCH NEEDS                                     207
            Thermal Diffusion                                  207
            Biological Sciences                                 207
10      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                 209

Appendix
A       REDUCTION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA                 211
B       THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF A ROUND HORIZONTAL
        BUOYANT JET IN A GENERAL STREAM OF HOMO-
        GENEOUS DENSITY                                    221
C       DERIVATIONS OF DOWNSTREAM RADIONUCLIDE CON-
        CENTRATIONS WITH RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAINS OF
        ONE, TWO, AND THREE RADIONUCLIDES                239
D       DISTRIBUTION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE SEA           247
                                VI

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            Volume 2. Representative Site Descriptions
                   (See Volume 2 for Details)
Section                                                   Page
1      GENERAL COMMENTARY ON SITE DESCRIPTIONS          1
2      SITE DESCRIPTION FOR THE GULF OF MAINE            11
3      SITE DESCRIPTION FOR THE NEW YORK BIGHT           69
4      SITE DESCRIPTION FOR WATERS OFF SOUTHEASTERN
       FLORIDA                                          131
5      SITE DESCRIPTION FOR WATERS OFF SOUTHERN
       CALIFORNIA                                       189
                              vn

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                           ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure                                                           Page_
 1        Projected U.S. Requirements for Power-generating Capa-
            city                                                   7
 2        Current Production of Electricity on the U.S. East and
            West Coasts as a Percentage of National Total            8
 3        Distribution of Potential Sites                            13
 4        Radioactive Waste Management System                    29
 5        Pressure in Containment Vessel Versus Time After Loss-
            of-Coolant Accident                                    39
 6        Extended Aeration Sewage Treatment                      52
 7        Extended Aeration Equipment                            54
 8        Dimensionless Length of the  Zone of Flow Establishment
            vs Froude Number                                    64
 9        Deflection of the Jet Centerline at the End of the Zone of
            Flow Establishment vs Froude Number                  64
10        Jet Centerline Path in the Zone of Flow Establishment for
            Various Froude Numbers                              65
11        A Dimensionless Plot of Surface Field Temperature vs
            Radius for Various Values  of n                         78
12        Surface  Temperature vs Radial Distance with No Diffusion  79
13        Centerline Paths of a Horizontal Buoyant Jet Discharging
            into an Infinite Body of Homogeneous Fluid with  Various
            Following and Opposing Current Conditions              83
14        Thermal Field for the Site off Southeastern Florida under
            Extreme  Following and Opposing Curraits -- Summer    85
15        Thermal Field for the Site off Southeastern Florida under
            Extreme  Following and Opposing Curreits -- Winter      85
16        Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temperature Rise vs Time
            for Flow in the Condenser and Jet for the Site off South-
            eastern Florida in the Summer and Winter with  Zero
            Current                                              87
17        Thermal Field for the Gulf of Maine Site under Extreme
            Following and Opposing Currents                        88
18        Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temperature Rise vs Time
            for Flow in the Condenser and Jet at the Gulf of  Maine
            Site in the Summer and Winter with Zero Current         90
19        Thermal Field for the New York Bight Site in the Summer
            under Extreme Following and Opposing Currents         91
20        Thermal Field for the New York Bight Site in the Winter
            under Extreme Following and Opposing Currents         91

                                   viii

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Figure                                                            Page

21        Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temperature Rise vs Time
            for Flow in the Condenser and Jet at the New York Bight
            Site in the Summer and Winter with Zero Current          93

22        Thermal Field for the Southern California Site in the Sum-
            mer under Extreme Following and Opposing Conditions     94

23        Thermal Field for the Southern California Site in the Win-
            ter under Extreme Following and Opposing Currents        95

24        Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temperature Rise vs Time
            for Flow in the Condenser and Jet at the Southern Cali-
            fornia Site in the Summer and Winter with Zero Current    95

25        Plot of Equation Showing the Minimum Vertical Separation
            to Prevent Ingestion of a Heated Layer                    96

26        Idealized Rate of Response to Environmental Influence       109

27        Kill Ratio vs Coastal Range of Skeletonema costatum (New
            York Bight)                                            137

28        Kill Ratio vs Coastal Range of Centropages typicus and
            Pseudocalanus minutus (New York Bight)                 138

29        Kill Ratio vs Net Offshore Flow (Southeastern Florida site)   139

30        Relative Radipnuclide Concentration in the Buoyant Jet in
            Winter During Normal Operation                        150
31        Relative Radionuclide Concentration in the Buoyant Jet in
            Summer During Normal Operation                       151

32        Isoconcentration Lines in the Down-current Plume for Ra-
            dionuclides Having One-day Half-lives                    153

33        Isoconcentration Lines in the Down-current Plume for Ra-
            dionuclides Having Half-lives Greater than 100 Days       154
34        Dimensionless Ambient Temperature  and Density vs Dimen-
            sionless Vertical Distance for Miami Site in Summer
            and Winter                                            218

3 5        Dimensionless Ambient Temperature  and Density vs Dimen-
            sionless Vertical Distance for Wiscasset Site in Summer   219

36        Dimensionless Ambient Temperature  and Density vs Dimen-
            sionless Vertical Distance for Sea Girt Site in Summer    219

37        Dimensionless Ambient Temperature  and Density vs Dimen-
            sionless Vertical Distance for San Onofre Site in Summer
            and Winter                                            220

38        Schematic Diagram of the Jet                             222

39        Velocities in the T, u^ Plane                              224

40        Centerline Path of a Horizontal Buoyant Jet Discharging
            into an Infinite Fluid of Homogeneous Density with Vari-
            ous Current Conditions                                 233
                                   IX

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                              TABLES
Table
 1      Summary of Site Conditions                                  17
 2      Forked River Nuclear Station, Unit 1: Predicted Radioac-
          tive Liquid Discharge Operating with One Percent Fuel
          Cladding Defects                                          29
 3      Trojan Nuclear Plant:  Estimated Annual Release by Isotope    32
 4      Forked River Nuclear Station, Unit 1: Annual Radioactive
          Gas Discharges Based on Operation with One Percent
          Failed Fuel                                              36
 5      Trojan Nuclear Plant:  Estimated Annual Gaseous Release
          by Isotope                                                36
 6      Core  Inventory at Shutdown Following Equilibrium Operat-
          ing Conditions at 3560 Mwt, and Curies Released to Sea
          Following Loss-of-Coolant Accident (Forked River Plant)    40
 7      Maximum Fission and Corrosion Product Activity in the
          Reactor Coolant at 70ฐF (Forked River Nuclear Station,
          Unit 1)                                                   43
 8      Maximum Fission Product Activity in the Fuel Gas  Gap
          (Forked River Nuclear Station, Unit 1)                      46
 9      Estimated Volume of Liquid Wastes and Concentration  of
          Pollutants                                                49
10      Factors Used in Describing Environment                    110
11      Thermal Tolerances of Various Marine Animals and Plants   114
12      Thermal Tolerances of Various Groups of Marine Organisms 123
13      Patuxent Estuary Operating Experience                     125
14      Biscayne Bay, Turkey Point Operating Experience           126
15      San Francisco Bay, Contra Costa Plant Operating Experi-
          ence                                                  127
16      California Coast, Morro Bay Operating Experience          127
17      Related Fresh Water Studies on Thermal Discharges         128
18      Thermal Characteristics of Water at the Four Sites Studied,
          Under Warmest Conditions Recorded                     130
19       Radionuclide Concentrations in the Buoyant Jet, Normal
           Operation                                             159
20       Average Radionuclide Concentrations, Wiscasset Site  One-
           box Model, Normal Operation                           172
21       Maximum Permissible Concentration of Radionuclides in
           Sea water                                             187

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Table                                                             Page
22      Calculations of Maximum Permissible Specific Activity       191
23      Concentration of Elements in Sea Water                     194
24      Fraction of Permissible Levels for Radionuclides at Dis-
          charge During Normal Operation                          198
25      Important Radionuclides: 1-hr, 1-nm Down Current After
          Accidental Release                                      201
26      Oceanographic Data for the Miami, Florida Site              214
27      Oceanographic Data for the Wiscasset, Maine Site            215
28      Oceanographic Data for the Sea Girt, New Jersey Site         216
29      Oceanographic Data for the San Onofre, California Site        217
                                  XI

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Frontispiece.  Artist's Rendering of 1190-Mwe Submerged Offshore Power Station

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                               Section 1
                           CONCLUSIONS

The menace to the ecological balance in coastal, estuarine, and inland waters
produced by the rapid increase in power-generating capacity has been widely
recognized.  An alternative to present practice has been considered, in which
a nuclear power plant is submerged offshore in waters about 250-ft deep (see
frontispiece, opposite).  The studies for this report were made to ascertain
whether or not such a power plant would have discernible effects on life
in continental shelf waters at several representative sites off the U.S.  main-
land.  The studies were based on a pressurized-water reactor plant having
characteristics typical of large commercial nuclear plants in operation today.
"Worst case" conditions were commonly used in the analyses.  For instance,
thermal fields were predicted for a single discharge without optimization. No
attempt was made to improve the thermal field by varying design parameters
such as flow conditions  or discharge geometry.  The radionuclide analyses in-
clude compounded conservatisms, such as the assumptions that the concentra-
tions of all radionuclides in the reactor plant's primary coolant water would
reach their core cycle maxima simultaneously, that these concentrations would
persist over a full year, and that the radionuclides released to the condenser
cooling water would be diluted in only a fraction of the available  flow.  No con-
sideration was given in site selection to seek locales where the power plant
would be less likely to have detrimental effects. For these reasons, the con-
clusions  drawn from the results are considered to be conservative.  The prin-
cipal conclusions are :
    1.   From the data reviewed and the theoretical analyses made, ecological
         damage from the normal operation  of a large nuclear power plant ap-
        pears to be unlikely at any of the sites considered.
    2.  In every case,  the thermal "mixing zone, " as defined by the most
        stringent standards presently applied to coastal installations,  ends
        before either a surface or subsurface field is established. This is
        an important finding, because any surface field that might result will
        be at a temperature that is acceptable under these standards.   Typical
        values were chosen for the condenser operating condition and discharge
        design.  For any given deep water site, these variables could be

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manipulated to give  an improved thermal field.  Moreover, any
possibility of re circulating the condenser cooling water can be pre-
cluded.
Analysis indicates that the discharge of heated waters at depth re-
sults in a mixing zone that is considerably smaller than that which
results in shallow water -- about 5 percent of the volume in a typi-
cal instance.
Total radioactivity added by the power plant to the condenser dis-
charge waters at the point of discharge,  based on very cautious as-
sumptions, would be at most just half that of the naturally occurring
potassium-40 activity in the sea, and this would be rapidly reduced
by dilution in sea water and radioactive decay.
A major nuclear accident of the worst sort that can be hypothesized
(i.e., breach of containment, an accident that has not occurred in
any nuclear power plant to date), would harm marine biota in the
area of the plant,  and the effects might linger for about 10 weeks
after the accident. Suspension of fishing activities could minimize
the hazard to man. Calculations of radionuclide concentrations and
specific activities after an accident, related  to "maximum permis-
sible" standards,  and based on extremely conservative assumptions,
indicate a very low probability of any ultimate damage to man after
a major nuclear accident.
At the representative sites considered, nonthermal, nonradioactive
liquid wastes such as sewage would have inconsequential effects,
even if discharged to  sea in an essentially untreated condition.  Eco-
nomical and effective treatment systems are available,  moreover,
for plants at sites where they might be advantageous.
Since phytoplankton population densities vary with light intensity, at
a depth of 250-ft few phytoplankton  ordinarily would be entrained in
the cooling water, except possibly in very clear water where the
eutrophic zone is deep, as off the eastern coast of Florida.   Of the
phytoplankton present and entrained in the cooling water at these
depths, few would experience temperatures in excess of their known
thermal tolerances, and depletion of the phytoplankton population

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    seems improbable.  Review of the literature on thermal tolerances
    and effects of hydrodynamic buffeting, leads to the judgment the juve-
    nile fish and fish eggs should suffer little damage in passage through
    the condensers, and that fish acclimated to the thermal plume will
    not experience  severe cold shock if the plant is shut down.  Sufficient
    knowledge apparently exists to keep entrainment of adult fish at in-
    consequential levels, by appropriate design of the cooling water in-
    takes.  Higher  plants and attached algae  do not occur at the depths
    considered.
8.  Some larval and adult holoplanktonic zooplankton and meroplanktonic
    forms of benthic organisms will be killed by entrainment.  Fewer
    species of the latter will be entrained than at a coastal power plant,
    since the populations will be less dense.   Some larval fish immediate
    to the plant  might suffer heavy mortality seasonally, as spawned
    eggs hatch.
9.  Phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic diversity indices should remain
    unchanged at all of the sites considered,  because the waste heat will
    be rapidly dissipated, and the assortment of diverse and very widely
    distributed species prevalent over the continental shelf will be con-
    tinuously renewed by water transport.

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                               Section 2
                        RE COMMENDA TIONS

1.    In order to minimize thermal pollution of coastal, estuarine, and inland
      waterways, and the potential effects of a major nuclear accident, more
      consideration should  be given to the construction of nuclear power plants
      offshore, in relatively deep continental shelf waters.
2.    In addition to potential effects, and the economics and technical develop-
      ment of offshore siting, questions such as property rights,  regulatory
      jurisdiction, fiscal policy, nuclear indemnification, fishing and naviga-
      tion privileges,  etc., should  be examined by the appropriate govern-
      ment agencies  and the legislature.
3.    Between the shore-based plant and the completely submerged plant,
      there are many compromises in which some or most of the  principal
      ecological advantages of the deep-water plant might be realized at
      lower capital cost. Hence, consideration should be given to studies of
      potential effects of power plants in waters shallower and closer to shore
      than in this report.
4.    Studies should also be undertaken of the environmental implications of
      nonnuclear power plants offshore.
5.    Specific research programs,  such as described in section 9 of this
      report, are recommended as  well, to close some of the gaps in present
      knowledge and techniques.  This would permit  more thorough evaluation
      of offshore power plant siting.

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                               Section 3
                           INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this study was to predict the potential effect of thermal and
radioactive wastes from an offshore,  submerged, nuclear power-generating
station on its environs.  The power station was considered as situated in
waters about 250-ft deep at several representative sites on the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts of the United States. The frontispiece shows the general con-
cept on which the study was predicated.  This plant has a pressurized water
reactor with a net electrical output of about 1190 Mw(e). The concept entails
shipyard construction of the whole plant, and its subsequent emplacement on
the seabed.  It would be manned through an access trunk to a platform above
the sea's surface.  Studies had been made of the general arrangement and
structural characteristics, hydrostatics and ballasting, construction feasi-
bility and schedule, transmission of power to shore by submarine  cables,
feasibility of emplacement,  and market demand and economics.  This pre-
vious work had shown the concept to be technically feasible, economically
competitive with plants of similar size on land (Marble et al, 1970), and it
was believed that the probability of detrimental effects on the environment
would be smaller than for a similar power plant on land. Extrapolation of
curves  showing growth in demand for power, figure 1, with the influence of
        2000
        1500
        1000
        500
                      1970
                                   1980
                                                  "*/; '/ nuclear offshore
                                                  :/•
                                               1990           2000
  Figure 1.  Projected U.S. Requirements for Power-generating Capacity

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the increasing concern for environmental quality,  had indicated a large poten-
tial demand for such stations by the 1980s.  Cautious projections of demand
for electricity had shown that over the next 20 years, 1-million megawatts of
new generating capacity would be required, and that over half of that growth
would be nuclear.  That is, the equivalent of about 500 nuclear power-generat-
ing stations of 1000 Mw(e)  each (an average size for large baseload central
stations projected for construction over the next few years) will have to be
designed and built if the country's energy needs are to be met. Figure 2,
which shows the distribution today of demand for electricity on the east and
west coasts, indicates that a considerable portion of this growth might be met
by offshore generating stations.
Among the principal motives for development of the offshore power plant con-
cept had been recognition of:
      1.     The detrimental effects of waste heat discharge on inland and
            estuarine waters caused by the exponential growth in demand for
            electricity.
Figure 2. Current Production of Electricity on the U.S. East and West Coasts
   as a Percentage of National Total (Stipling Indicates Population Density)
                                   8

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      2.    The rapidly mounting difficulities confronting the utilities in find-
           ing sites for power plants on land.
It was felt that a power plant offshore in deeper water would overcome the
first of these impediments by using the immense heat sink of the open sea for
heat rejection by its condensers.  Heat rejection offshore in 250 ft of water
had also been expected to disturb life less than heat rejection near or on
shore: biota of the littoral zone typically are restricted to narrow areas
when compared with those that favor the open shelf; they frequently are ex-
posed to temperatures near the upper limit of their tolerance; and generally
poorer circulation of new water is found as the physiographic boundaries con-
strict.  If a littoral zone wefe altered,  the biota in it might not have areas
adjacent with temperatures and salinity conditions suitable for survival. Off-
shore at depth it was thought, prevailing temperatures would be more  constant,
biological populations would be typically less dense and scattered over larger
areas, and the flushing rates would be usually greater and more consistent.
Thus, the general opinion was that great numbers of such power plants  might
be built without measurable thermal damage  to even small portions of the en-
vironment, but this remained to be shown. Among the conditions foreseen
that might interfere with the dispersal of heat or cause other troubles were:
      1.   Stratification of the water column which might retard convection.
      2.   Weak currents, which even if only seasonal or intermittent, might
           allow the general  temperature to rise to unacceptable levels.
      3.   Sediment instability, siltation, or scouring on certain bottoms,
           which might make them unacceptable as sites.
      4.   Extended periods  of onshore winds which might cause warm sur-
           face waters to accumulate inshore.
The safety of offshore nuclear plants,  as concerns radioactive hazards  to
population centers, has been considered in other studies.  One of these was
done by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory of the AEC, for a boiling water
reactor housed in a concrete caisson below sea level and surrounded  by an
artificial island. It concluded that such a plant might be slightly more expen-

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sive than one with a conventional reactor containment, but that there would

be substantial safety advantages:

      "3.   Underwater containment of water-cooled reactors should provide
            improved post-accident retention of fission products.  This conies
            about because (a) the external sea pressure opposes out-leakage
            of fission products ...  and (c) the sea pressure furnishes con-
            tinuous leak testing of the outer containment barrier.

      "4.   Underwater containment systems provide more reliable decay
            heat removal following a reactor accident, since heat can be re-
            moved by a continuously operating natural circulation heat ex-
            changer without electrical power, moving equipment, or other
            mechanical action.

      "5.   Accidental flooding of the caisson with seawater would result in
            an economic loss; however, this accident would not present a
            significant hazard to the public.

      "6.   Although no significant release of fission products to the sea is
            anticipated following a major reactor accident, the sea would
            provide important hold up and dilution for any fission products
            that might be released to the sea. Exposure of the shore popula-
            tion to fission products in the ocean following a maximum credi-
            ble accident would be quite unlikely.

      "7.   Underwater caisson containment is about $7,000,000 more expen-
            sive than conventional containment for a large boiling water re-
            actor.  However, the improved safety brought about by underwater
            containment may result in smaller exclusion and low-population
            zones, so that for sites with expensive land, underwater contain-
            ment  would reduce overall plant capital costs  significantly.

      "8.   Underwater containment should be considered for large power
            reactors near population centers where conventional land sites
            are not available, or  where augmented reactor safety may be
            essential."
                                                 (Klepper and Bell, 1968)


These general conclusions also apply to the offshore submerged plant with

pressurized water reactor,  except that out-leakage of fission products is

even less likely against its greater submergence pressure.  Questions that
have not previously been considered  in any depth are those of the potential

effects on the marine biota and ecological balance of: the  minute quantities
of radioisotopes that would be released from present reactor plant designs

into the sea; and the effects  of fission product release on life  in the plant's
environs if there were a major nuclear accident.


                                 10

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It was recognized at the outset that there were substantial difficulties in ans-
wering these questions of thermal and radioactive effects on the marine eco-
logical balance with any measure of precision:
      1.     Considerable variation in physiographic and biological conditions
            exists among potential offshore sites.  A thermal discharge at
            one site might be beneficial to a fishery, where it would be harm-
            ful at another.
      2.     Waste discharges will vary considerably with the design of the
            plant.  The radioisotopes that do escape from present plants and
            their quantities are not the same in all designs.  With a virtually
            limitless supply of cooling water available, the designer of the
            offshore plant has great latitude in selecting a flow rate and tem-
            perature rise through the condensers to minimize detrimental
            thermal effects that might occur.
      3.    Ignorance prevails as to the exact ecological effects of heat,  and
            more so, radiation over protracted periods, on most marine or-
            ganisms.  Radiation effects have been studied in great depth re-
            lative to man,  but even here there is wide disagreement as to
            ultimate effects.
In view of these variations in environmental conditions and plant discharges,
the undeveloped analytical technique, and the biological uncertainties, the
following plan of  attack was used:
      1.     The discharges from the plant and their potential effects were con-
            sidered on a "worst case" basis.
      2.     It was decided to select several representative sites at widely
            separated geographic locales  to typify distinct physiographic and
            biologic regimes.  These sites were described, and were  analyzed
            individually for their thermal fields at different seasons.
                                   11

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      3.    Present techniques for ascertaining the thermal field resulting
           from a single jet discharge were extended where neces-
           sary to describe the horizontal discharge of a hot water jet in
           deep water, with boundary conditions, stratification, and currents
           taken into account. The model was developed in nondimensional
           form, for ready adaptation to variations in plant discharge para-
           meters  and environmental conditions.
      4.    A specific pressurized water plant was studied in detail, with
           help from its manufacturer, for the  radioisotopes that would es-
           cape from it in ordinary operation, and the fission products that
           might escape in a severe casualty. Although other designs  would
           differ in some particulars from the one studied, this was consi-
           dered to be a careful course in view of the "zero discharge" nu-
           clear power plants now on the drawing boards.
The study was accordingly broken down into the  following technical tasks:
      1.    Select representative power plant sites in northerly, temperate,
           and subtropical waters.  Define the relevant physical and biologi-
           cal characteristics of the selected sites.
      2.    Analyze the thermal field resulting from the power plant's  waste
           heat discharge.  Apply the resulting model to specific sites, tak-
           ing into  account currents, density gradients,  etc., insofar as the
           analytical procedures allow.
      3.    Define the radioactive wastes from the power plant and associated
           hazards for normal operating and casualty conditions.
      4.    Ascertain,  where established, the biological  tolerance levels of life
           in the plant's environs to power plant effluents, and predict the eco-
           logical effect of the effluents where possible.
                                    12

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SITE SELECTION
A survey was made of the Atlantic,  Pacific, and Gulf coasts of the contiguous
United States, for areas on the 250-ft isobath where the submerged power
plant might be situated within 25 miles of land.   Twelve site areas were se-
lected  initially, figure 3.  The criteria for their selection were geographic
distribution and,  where a choice could be made within  a region, proximity to
land and to existing load centers or major power transmission networks.
The 25-mile offshore distance limit was not based on the technical limitations
of power transmission by submarine cables so much as a somewhat cautious
assessment of the distance over which such transmission might be economi-
cally acceptable.
                Figure 3.  Distribution of Potential Sites

 Two of the sites were eliminated in the preliminary evaluation because they
 were considered to be improbable on pragmatic grounds.  That due south of
 the Mississippi delta because:
      1.     There seemed to be little motive to go offshore in this  area in
            view of many potential riverside sites in an area of low popula-

                                  13

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           tion density, on one of the largest rivers in the world.  There is
           also less potential demand for nuclear power in this area because
           of the proximity of natural gas fields.
     2.    To serve a major load center, the offshore site would require a
           long "overland" tie through swampy bayou country.
     3.    The seabed off the delta is soft and would be subject to rapid
           siltation.
     4.    In any case, the off-delta site would be unique rather than one
           "representative" of the Gulf coastal area.
The site off Cape  Hatteras was rejected because:
     1.    The tie from the beach to major transmission lines would be over
           lagoon and marsh terrain, and even more distant that at the delta
           site.
     2.    The area that would be served is one of modest population density
           and demand for electricity.
     3.    The plant  emplacement site,  near this "graveyard of the North
           Atlantic," might be more hazardous than other sites.
These eliminations reduced the areas to be considered to the ten below.
For convenience,  most of these were identified by a coastal landmark ad-
jacent to the area studied.
     1.    Wiscasset, Maine:  coastal area between latitudes 43ฐ 30'  and
           43ฐ 50' out to the 50-fathom isobath.
     2.    Block Island Sound and Eastern Long Island Sound.
     3.    Sea Girt,  New Jersey: coastal area between latitudes 40ฐ 00' and
           15' out to  longitude 73ฐ 30'.
     4.    Miami,  Florida:  coastal area between latitudes 25ฐ 40' and
           27ฐ 40' out to the 50-fathom isobath.
     5.    Puget Sound, Washington:  east of 122ฐ 30' longitude.
     6.    Tillamook Head, Oregon:  coastal area between latitudes 45ฐ 20'
           and 46ฐ  10' out to the  50-fathom isobath.
                                  14

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      7.    Humboldt Bay, California:  coastal area between latitudes 40ฐ 20'
           and 50' out to the 50-fathom isobath.
      8.    Moss Landing, California:  coastal area between latitudes 36ฐ 30'
           and 37ฐ 00' out to the 50-fathom isobath.
      9.    Morro Bay, California:  coastal area between latitudes 35ฐ 05'
           and 35' out to the 50-fathom isobath.
     10.    San Onofre, California:  coastal area between latitudes 33ฐ 10'
           and 30' out to the 50-fathom isobath.
The table below relates these sites to their distance from their probable
shore ties.
                                              Approximate Distance to Tie
                                                         (nm)
Site Area
Wiscasset
Block Island Sound
Sea Girt
Miami
Puget Sound
Tillamook Head
Humboldt Bay
Moss Landing
Morro Bay
San Onofre
*Nonnuclear central
Shore Plant or Tie
Maine Yankee
Millstone
Oyster Creek
Turkey Point or
Fort Pierce
Various transmission
lines
Trojan Station
Humboldt Bay or
Cottonwood*
Moss Landing*
Morro Bay*
San Onofre
power stations
Submarine Cable
2-3
4+
20-30
less than 5
less than 1
4
10
1
1/2
1-1/2

Overland
12-17
--
20
--
--
40+
--
--
8
5

Oceanographicand biologic data were gathered on these areas in order to se-
lect from among them a smaller number of sites that would be fairly repre-
sentative of their regions.  Later in the study, the Gulf coast was reconsi-
dered, because of the dearth of the sites there.  Besides the  previously re-
jected off-delta site, only one other area on the whole Gulf coast could be
considered to fall within the depth and distance-from-shore groundrules of

                                  15

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the study:  this was a point due south of Pensacola, Florida, near the 25-nm
limit. Data was gathered on the physical chracteristics of this site for use
with the thermal field model, but limitations of time prevented a more
thorough study of its biologic regime.
The data for the 10 areas above were then summarized, table 1, and the list
reduced to four representative  sites.  The factors governing this reduction
were:
      1.    To ensure inclusion of one semitropical area, one temperate
           area, and one northerly area.
      2.    To study areas of substantially different oceanographic conditions.
      3.    To study areas of different biologic regimes.
      4.    To exclude any site area that appeared to be an improbable loca-
           tion for the  underwater power plant.
Areas having similar general conditions were first grouped.  On the east
coast, Wiscasset, either Block Island Sound or Sea Girt, and Miami, satisfied
the conditions for a range of climatic  conditions.  The same groupings were
also valid for  thermal conditions and biologic province (Hedgpeth, 1957;
Hazel, 1970).   The Wiscasset and Miami areas were then obvious choices.
Of Block Island Sound and Sea Girt, Block Island Sound in the area of the Race
(at the eastern end of Long Island) was found to have current velocities that
might be disadvantageous for emplacement of a power station.  The Sea Girt
area was believed to be more attractive for study purposes because it was in
the interesting location  of a submarine channel, it was farther from the coast
(20 nm) than any site except that off Pensacola, and it would supply a major
power consumption area (New York and Philadelphia).  However, serious ques-
tions  arose as to how representative the Sea Girt  area really was in the bio-
logical sense.  The site is near a sizable area of  the New York Bight that has
been contaminated by massive dumping of dredging spoil and sewage sludge,
discharges from ships in the three major shipping lanes that converge on the
Ambrose Light, and effluents from the badly polluted Hudson and East Rivers.
The water in some places has almost no oxygen in it, and the seabed is devoid
of visible life.  It was  felt then,  that the area considered for the submerged
power plant, although farther offshore,  might be an anomaly in the large gen-
eral field that  is described as the Virginian biological province.  Better bio-

                                   16

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Table 1.  Summary of Site Conditions

Site
Wiscasset
Block Island
Sound
Sea Girt
Miami
Puget Sound
Tillamook
Head
Humboldt
Bay
Moss
Landing
Morro Bay
San Onofre


Climate
"Northern"
Temperate
Temperate
Semi-
tropical
"Northern"
"Northern"
Temperate
Temperate
Temperate
Temperate


Biologic
Province
Nova
Scotian
Virginian
Virginian
Caribbean
Aleutian
Aleutian
Californian
Californian
Californian
Californian

Water
Temperature
Surface
Range
8.3-2.8
18.8-10.0
14.1-2.2
22.3-11.6
11.2-3.6
23.7-16.8
26.9-21.7
29.7 -28.2
12.9-4.9
22.4-9.9
12.0-7.0
17.9-9.0
11.8-10.4
15.7-8.4
14.6-12.0
14.9-9.8
15.8-11.4
15.2-10.4
19.0-12.9
22.2-15.9
or Winter
Summer
Max Temp
Difference
to 225 ft
<1
8.5
<1
8
1.5
16.0
3.5
16.0
1.4
11.5
<1
8
<1
5
2
5
3
5
4
8

Current Conditions
Combined coastal
drift; tidal; up-
welling
Very strong tidal
Shelf drift; rotary
tidal
Strong coastal drift;
eddies
Weak currents
Variable
Seasonally changing
drift
Seasonally changing
drift
Seasonally changing
drift
Seasonally changing'
drift

Limita-
tions as
a Site

Currents
very
strong

Poor
bottom






-------
logical information was available for the area from the eastern tip of Long is-
land through Block Island Sound,  so it was decided to use this information as
the basis for the biological description since, except in unusual circumstances,
the prevalent biota vary very little with distance over the open continental shelf.
Of the west coast sites, two groupings were apparent from the climatic and
biologic criteria:  Puget Sound and Tillamook; and Humboldt Bay, Moss Land-
ing, Morro Bay, and San Onofre-  The two northerly sites were both the sub-
ject of concurrent  EPA study projects, and it was decided that a better ana-
lysis of these sites would be possible after completion of those studies.  It
was also felt that Puget Sound was not really representative of "offshore" lo-
cations, and that the precipitous underwater escarpments of this fjord would
make power plant emplacement there problematic.  Of the four Californian
sites, San Onofre differed from the others in thermal  conditions.  Since it
was impractical within the  time available to conduct a full analysis of more
than four areas, it was decided to choose San Onofre as the final area for de-
tailed study.
The four representative areas thus selected are, then: Wiscasset represent-
ing the Gulf of Maine; Sea Girt, representating a mid-Atlantic region; Miami
representing semitropical waters off Florida; and the San Onofre area repre-
senting the waters off southern California.
These sites represent  diverse environmental conditions.  The site off sou-
thern Florida is a subtropical site on a narrow shelf (technically, the site
lies on the continental  slope), where conditions are dominated by a major
oceanic current system, the Florida Current, practically to the exclusion
of other factors such as winds and tide.  Temperature and salinity are very
uniform throughout the year. The waters are very warm and currents are
strong.  The circulation pattern is one of direct northward transport inter-
spersed with small eddies, both mechanisms flushing shelf waters into the
Florida Current at a relatively rapid rate.   The site off Southern California
is also on a narrow shelf (i.e., less than 12-nm wide) and the climate is
warm-temperate with warm, dry summers and short, mild winters.  The
shelf waters derive principally from California Current waters that have
been warmed up in the large eddy off Southern California.   Shelf circulation
patterns vary, being determined primarily by wind conditions. The site in
the New York Bight, off Sea Girt, New Jersey,  is the farthest offshore (about

                                  18

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20 nm) on the open shelf.  The climate may be described as temperate.  The
site is the only one off the mouth of a major river, the Hudson, and the waters
are made up of typical Atlantic shelf waters with admixture of river discharge
in proportions that vary with the season.  The water changes  seasonably from
well stratified to mixed,  and circulation depends in uncertain proportions on
many factors: winds,  tide,  coastal drift,  river discharge, and topography.
This Sea Girt site is unusual in that it is in the Hudson Channel, some 120
feet below the adjacent shelf.  The Gulf of Maine site is in a more or less en-
closed coastal sea having a boreal or "northerly" climate.  Stratification is
seasonal.  The waters are from several sources, and the circulation is some-
what estuarine in character. Perhaps  more than the other sites, the Gulf of
Maine site is close to several estuaries.
Although other locations  on the U.S. continental shelves would have different
environmental conditions, the studied sites represent a good assortment of
coastal areas where an offshore power plant might be placed, and with regard
to coastal processes on the open shelf, most of the important factors are op-
erative in one or more of these sites.  Volume 2 of this report presents the
descriptions of these four representative sites, on which the predictions of
potential effects on the offshore marine environment of a submerged nuclear
power plant are based.

 REFERENCES
 1.   Marble,  R. W., et al,"Offshore  Submerged Nuclear Power-generating
      Station',1 Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, report P400-452-
      70, 130 pp, July 1970.
 2.   Bell, C.G., and Klepper, O.H., "Underwater Containment for Power
      Reactors," Nuclear Engineering Design 7, North-Holland Publishing
      Co., Amsterdam,  pp  262-278.
 3.   Hedgpeth, J. (ed.) Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology,
      Chapter 13, pp 359-382,  1957.
 4.   Hazel, J., "Atlantic Continental Shelf and Slope of the United States:
      Ostracode Zoogeography in the Southern Nova Scotian and Northern
      Virginian Faunal Provinces, " Geological Survey Professional Paper
      529-E,  21 pp, 1970.
                                   19

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                              Section 4
                 NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTES

The wastes from an offshore nuclear power plant may be considered to fall
into three categories:
      1.    The cooling water discharge from the plant's condensers.
      2.    Radionuclides that escape from the  reactor plant during ordinary
           operation or that might escape in a  nuclear casualty.
      3.    Other wastes occasioned by the presence of the plant or people,
           such as antifoulants or sewage.
The "thermal" discharge per se,  being odorless, tasteless, and invisible,
is a "waste" only to the extent that it promotes  pollution or disrupts the eco-
logical balance. Thermal transients or hydrodynamic buffeting experienced
in passage through the condensers of a large plant can be sufficient to over-
stress or kill certain organisms, especially if the plant is not engineered to
minimize such effects.  Radionuclides are ordinarily released from nuclear
power plants in quantities so minuscule that,  until recently, many authorities
would have considered them to be something less than a "waste," and as yet,
there have been no nuclear casualties in commercial power plants that have
eventuated in substantial release of radioactivity.  Nevertheless, the growing
number of nuclear power plants in operation, and the subtle ecological damages
wrought by other pollutants once thought to be "harmless," have raised the issue
of whether or not minute quantities of radionuclides in excess of the natural
levels might be incrementally hazardous to life in some environs.  The third
category of wastes is little different from  those that might emanate from an
anchored ship.  Until recently, at least, such wastes have been considered
to be  inconsequential in the open sea.  That premise, too, may be subject to
challenge in certain types of offshore environment. This section discusses
these three categories of wastes, and gives the quantities and rates at which
they might be released from a typical offshore nuclear power plant.

THERMAL DISCHARGE
To predict the environmental effects of an offshore nuclear power plant it is
necessary to  choose a power plant size and operating condition.  Electric
Boat division of General Dynamics has investigated in a company-financed
study (R. W.  Marble et al, 1970), the technical and economic feasibility of an
                                  21

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offshore installation having an 1190-Mwe pressurized- water reactor plant.
The preliminary design of this power plant was used in the present study to
size components when this information had a bearing on the environmental
results.  For instance, the condenser flow rate affects  the temperature to
which organisms entrained in the cooling water are exposed and the duration
of exposure.
The factor that has  the greatest effect on the thermal discharge is the con-
denser heat rejection rate.  The heat rejection rate chosen was 7. 8 x 10
Btu/hr, which is the rate used in the design of the 1129-Mwe Forked River
Station 1 in New Jersey, referred to elsewhere in this  report (docket 50-363).
This heat rejection  rate corresponds with about 34 percent thermal efficiency
for an 1190-Mwe power plant.
For a given condenser heat rejection rate, there  is a wide range of cooling
water flow rate and temperature rise that will meet the cooling requirements.
For example,  the cooling water temperature rise is about 60ฐF in the Forked
River Station and about 20ฐ F in the planned 819- Mwe Shoreham Nuclear Power
Station on Long Island (docket 50-322).  In the present study, a nominal value
of 25ฐF is chosen for the temperature rise of the cooling water through the
condenser.  This temperature rise results in a corresponding cooling water
flow of 1355 ftVsee ฐr about 600,000 gpm for a heat rejection rate of 7.8 x
109 Btu/hr. These values are representative of those found in present-day
nuclear power plants and are used throughout this study.
References
1.
      1970.
      Abstract of a Long Island Lighting Co. report. "Environmental Statement,
      Shoreham Nuclear Power Station,  Plant Unit I, " docket 50-322  1 June
      1970.
2.    "Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, Forked River Nuclear Station
      Unit 1, " Jersey Central Power and Light Co. , docket 50-363   revised
      15 July 1970
3.    R.  W. Marble et al, "Offshore Submerged Nuclear Power Generating
      Station," report P400-452-70,  Electric Boat division of General Dyna-
      mics, July 1970

                                 22

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RADIONUCLIDE RELEASE TO THE SEA
Radionuclides that would be released to the sea by a typical pressurized water
reactor in an undersea power plant were analyzed. More than half of the  com-
mercial power plants in operation or projected for construction at the present
time employ this type of reactor. Radionuclides originate in three ways.
      1.     Fission products generated within a fuel rod may leak into the
           primary coolant water through a defect in the fuel rod cladding.
            "Tramp" uranium, which occurs as dust on the outside of the fuel
           rod, fissions and introduces fission products directly into the
           primary coolant.  A one-percent defect in fuel rod cladding  is
           assumed for  safety analysis though normal operation is expected
           to have less.
      2.    Activation of corrosion products in the reactor coolant system
           produces radionuclides in the primary coolant.  Most activity
            comes from material eroded outside the core,  deposited in the
            core, and re-released to the primary coolant.  A zirconium alloy
           is selected for the fuel cladding because of its low corrosion rate
           and low production of radionuclides.  The primary coolant piping,
           steam  generator, and pumps are usually stainless steel.
      3.    Impurities or additives in the primary coolant become activated
           when deposited in the core or when passing through it.

Normal Plant Operation
A short description of the power plant operation is necessary to understand
the paths by which radionuclides enter the environment.  The primary cool-
ant gains heat in passing through the core, loses  heat through the steam gen-
erator,  and is pumped back to the core.  The secondary coolant vaporizes in
the steam generator, leaves the reactor compartment, propels the turbine
blades,  liquefies in the condenser, and is pumped back to the steam generator
in the reactor compartment.  Sea water passes through the condenser and
back to the sea at a higher temperature.  During normal plant operation, li-
quids are collected that contain radionuclides,  most of which are removed by
a waste management system similar to that represented by figure 4.  If the
trace amounts of radionuclides remaining in the liquid waste are below those
                                   23

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of government specifications, the waste is discharged into the sea via the con-
denser cooling water.
The power plant is contained by a 110-foot diameter cylindrical pressure hull
with a hemi-head on each end.  The pressure hull rests on the sea-floor at a
depth of 200 to 250 feet, with the reactor compartment located at one end of
it.  The pressure hull and one bulkhead constitute the  containment vessel in
the event of a nuclear accident.  Fresh air is supplied to personnel spaces
by forced circulation of atmospheric air via a trunk from the surface to the
pressure hull.  Any  release of gaseous fission products within the plant space
will be circulated to the surface via the fresh air ventilation system and re-
leased to the atmosphere.  This method of gas release is the same as that of
present land-based nuclear power plants having pressurized water reactors.

Reactor Operation
The most  economical reactor is the one with maximum core life (time between
refuelings). To achieve this, a commercial reactor is  controlled by boron com-
pounds dissolved in the primary coolant instead of by mechanically driven con-
trol rods.  Because the boron is homogeneously distributed throughout the cool-
ant, the power density is more uniform than in a rod-controlled core.  The
average core temperature in the boron-controlled core is closer to the peak
temperature in the hottest channel than in the rod-controlled core. Since the
core is temperature  limited by the hottest channel, the average core  tempera-
ture and average coolant outlet temperature are higher in a boron-controlled
core.  The power output for the same size of core and uranium loading is
greater for the boron-controlled core than for the rod-controlled core.  Con-
sequently,  there is more efficient fuel utilization with boron control.
During the life of the core,the boron concentration is progressively reduced
to compensate for the burnup of uranium 235 and so maintain a critical core.
During normal operation, a power reduction is followed by an increase in
xenon 135 concentration to a maximum, which is followed by a decrease to
an equilibrium concentration. Xenon 135 is a fission product and  a strong
absorber of neutrons.  The maximum xenon concentration, which  occurs
about ten hours after the power change, must be offset by a temporary reduc-
tion in the boron concentration in the primary coolant  to maintain  criticality.
The boron concentration is reduced by removing primary coolant and replen-
ishing with pure water, and is subsequently increased  by removing primary
                                 24

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coolant and replenishing with water having a high boron content.  The primary
coolant removed in maintaining the proper boron concentration is called pri-
mary coolant letdown.  The letdown is processed in the waste management
system for reclamation of boron and removal of radionuclides.

Waste Management System
The purpose of the waste management system, represented by figure 4, is
to reduce the radionuclide release for normal power plant operation to accept-
able levels.  Maximum permissible concentrations of each radionuclide re-
lease are specified in reference 1 (10 CFR 20). Present practice is to design
the system so that the radionuclide release is below specified limits by a fac-
tor of 100 or more.  Some reactor manufacturers are promoting a "zero" re-
lease system in which radionuclide release is minimized by drumming all
liquid and solid wastes and bottling all the gaseous wastes.  Such a system
has advantages for the power plant environment, but it raises problems in
the storage, transportation, and disposal of  the containers.
A typical waste management system for a pressurized water reactor in an
undersea power plant is derived from current nuclear power plants on land.
Quantities of primary coolant water containing boron, fission products, and
erosion and corrosion products, are collected mostly as the result of chang-
ing the boron concentration in the primary coolant during changes in power
level. Leaks and sampling of primary coolant are other sources of liquid
waste.
The  recoverable primary coolant waste is processed in the boron recovery
system.  This liquid waste is sprayed into a flash tank to remove hydrogen
and fission gases. The liquid waste then goes to holdup tanks, to a filter and
an ion exchanger,  and then to the boric acid  concentrator.  The bottoms from
the concentrator may go  the boric acid makeup tanks for reuse or be drummed
off for disposal.  The distillate from the concentrator passes through an ion
exchanger and is then stored in tanks for reuse, further processing, or re-
lease to the sea.
The remaining liquid wastes are collected in the miscellaneous waste tank,
where defoaming or neutralizing agents may be added as required for effici-
ent concentrator operation.  The wastes are filtered and enter the concentra-
                                 25

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to
05
                                                PRIMARY COOLANT WATER
                                                                                                                                  LAUNDRY
                                                                                                                                  DRAIN TANK
MISCELLANEOUS
WASTE TANK
                                                                                                                                 MISCELLANEOUS
                                                                                                                                 AERATED
                                                                                                                                 TANKS
                                                                                                                                  PLANT
                                                                                                                                  VENTILATION
                                                                                                                                  SYSTEM
                                                                                                     * ALL UNITS MARKED THUS ARE SOURCES OF GASEOUS
                                                                                                       RADIOACTIVE WASTE WHICH IS PURGED WITH
                                                                                                       NITROGEN AND THE GASES PIPED TO THE GAS SURGE
                                                                                                       TANK.
OMS Uซ 	
BORIC ACID
CONCENTRATOR




*

CONOENSATE
ION EXCHANGER


CONDENSATE
TANK

DRUMMING
" STATION
!

OFFSITE
DISPOSAL

^-


                                                Figure 4 .   Radioactive Waste  Management System

-------
tor where the concentrates are collected and drummed off for disposal.  The
condensate is transferred to a tank for eventual release  to the sea, though its
limited reuse might be possible.
All liquid waste is analyzed for radioactive content prior to discharge to the
sea.  Inadvertent discharge is prevented by having two valves, one of which
closes automatically if the radiation level of the liquid discharge exceeds a
preset limit.
Gaseous  wastes originating in the cover-gas system for  the liquid waste tanks
are swept out by nitrogen to a surge tank and compressed into the gas decay
tank.  The waste gases may remain in the decay tank for a period of thirty to
forty days until most radioactivity other than Kr85 decays away.  The gases
are then released to atmosphere via the ventilation system, in concentrations
well below those of 10CFR20 (reference 1).  The potential hazards of releasing
radioactive gases to the atmosphere are analyzed in the  safety reports of cur-
rent land-based plants.  The analysis for the underwater plant is the  same
and not repeated for this study.
Any small gas leaks from the primary coolant loop, or from the waste man-
agement system, are detected by an air radiation monitoring system. Any
gases released in the plant spaces are sent to the atmosphere via the ventila-
tion system.

Radionuclide Release
The quantities of radionuclides released from a nuclear  power plant are cal-
culated and given in the preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) required
for licensing.  This calculation is based on an assumed one percent defective
fuel element cladding.  The quantities may vary somewhat among power plants
due largely to the degree of conservatism  used in the calculations. Differences
in the site and design of the reactor coolant purification  and waste management
systems also lead to some variation in the calculated releases.
Two pressurized water plants that represent the  latest in nuclear power plant
design were examined for their amounts of radionuclide  release.  They are:
      1.    Forked River Nuclear Station, Unit 1, owned by the Jersey Cen-
           tral Power and Light Company; reactor built by Combustion En-
           gineering; power level is 3390 Mwt or 1129 Mwe (reference 2)

                                   27

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      2.    Trojan Nuclear Plant,  owned by the Portland General Electric
           Company; reactor built by Westinghouse; power level is 3423 Mwt
           or 1106 Mwe (reference 3).
The predicted quantities of radionuclides released by the Forked River plant
(table 2 ), are generally higher than those of the Trojan plant (table 3), and are
therefore chosen for this environmental study.  The radionuclides in table 2
include those given in the preliminary safety analysis report  (PSAR, reference
2), plus all fission products having a half-life of more than six hours andji
yield higher than 1CT3 percent.  Radionuclides with yields of  less than 10
percent are not produced in quantities that have significant concentration in
the sea.
Since there are no apparent hard and fast rules by which to qualify nuclides
for PSAR analysis, reasons for  choosing those listed in the tables are given
below.  For convenience,  the nuclides are grouped into gases, halogens,  and
volatile solids that diffuse through the UC>2  and enter the reactor coolant
through assumed cladding defects; a fourth  group consists of  important activa-
tion products expected to originate in the primary coolant.
      Gases -- The gaseous isotopes Kr and Xe are the primary sources of
      radiation to be handled in the ^-purging system shown by figure 4, and
      are among the main contributors to the whole body dose received offsite
      from airborne activity released during postulated incidents.
      Halogens — The halogens  are considered to be sources of radiation in
      the liquid waste system, and are also main contributors of the offsite
      dose because of their assimilation and retention by the  human body.
      They are retained particularly by the thyroid.
      Volatile Solids and Daughters in the Decay Chains --In general, radio-
      active nuclides in this group, such as cesium,  strontium,   and ruthenium
      are considered because of their affinity for the human body, and their
      retention in the food chain. Others, such as molybdenum and yttrium,
      are considered because of their apparent lack of retention by the purifica-
      tion system, thus allowing some buildup in the reactor coolant.
      Activation Products —  Nuclides in this group,  such as  cesium-134, tri-
      tium , and corrosion products, are considered because of their relative
      abundance due to the  chemistry and materials of the Combustion Engineer-

                                  28

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           Table 2.  Forked River Nuclear Station -- Unit 1
           Predicted Radioactive Liquid Discharge Operating
               with One Percent Fuel Cladding Defects

Nuclide
H-3*
Cr-51*
Mn-54*
Fe-55
Co- 58*
Fe-59*
Co-60*
Ge-78
As -78
Br-84*
Rb-88*
Rb-89*
Sr-89*
Sr-90*
Y-90*
Sr-91*
Y-91*
Y-93
Zr-95*
Nb-95
Zr-97
Mo-99*
Ru-103*
Rh-105
Ru-106*

Annual
Discharge
(Curies)
385.0
5.85(-3)#
4.19(-5)
2.30(-4)
7.20(-3)
3.24(-5)
9.00(-4)
3.31(-8)
6.50(-8)
1.00(-3)
5.50(-2)
1.36(-3)
1.43 (-4)
3.19(-6)
1.06(-4)
8.36(-5)
7.59(-2)
5.98(-4)
1.44(-6)
1.48(-4)
6.60(-5)
4.10(-1)
1.16(-4)
1.16- (5)
4.46(-6)
Maximum
Average
Concentration
(/iCi/cm3)
5.23(-6)
1.68(-10)
1.21(-12)
5.80(-12)
2.05(-10)
9.39(-13)
20 f\ / 1 1 \
• O V/ I • _^ _l_ I
9.50(-16)
1 . 85(— 15)
2 QOf— 11^
1.59(-9)
3.95(-ll)
4.04(-12)
1.91(-13)
5.54(-12)
2.40(-12)
1.42(-9)
1.84(-11)
4.12(-14)
4. 53 (-12)
1.90(-12)
11 i"7/ o \
• x I \~ O /
3O "1 / "1 O \
• Oil"™ JLซ /
4.65(-13)
1.91(-13)
*Nuclide from PSAR list (ref 2); other nuclides are added for this study.

#( ) denotes power of 10

                                   29

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Table 2 (Continued)


Nuclide
Pd-109
Ag-111
Cd-115
Sn-119m
Sn-121
Sn-123
Sn-125
Sb-125
Te-125m
Sb-126
Sb-127
Te-127m
Te-127
Te-129m
Te-129*
1-129*
Te-131m
1-131*
Te-132*
1-132*
1-133*
Te-134*
1-134*
Cs-134*
1-135*
Cs-136*
Cs-137*
Cs-138*
Ba-140*
La- 140*
Ce-141

Annual
Discharge
(Curies)
3.16(-7)
4.28(-7)
6.05(-8)
2.04(-7)
1.38(-7)
11 T/ O\
• J. i \ ™" O )
1.30(-9)
1.03(-7)
1.06(-5)
2.33(-8)
2.84(-6)
3.90(-5)
1.65(-4)
2.05(-6)
6.66(-4)
1.27(-9)
6.55(-4)
1.08(-1)
8.64(-3)
2.54(-l)
1.40(-1)
5.67(-4)
1.34(-2)
4.64(-l)
6.19(-2)
3.00(-2)
4.43
1OO / 1 \
• uO ( ™ -L /
1.71 (-4)
1.65(-4)
1.50(-4)
Maximum
Average
Concentration
i ii CA / f*m )
y * A *•* \ ** A w /
1.24(-14)
1.77(-15)
7.90(-15)
3.88(-15)
3.35(-16)
2.54(-17)
5.48(-15)
3.66(-13)
6.76(-16)
8.25(-14)
1.49(-12)
4.95(-12)
2.45(-ll)
1.91(-11)
5.43(-17)
1.89(-11)
3.13(-9)
2. 49 (-10)
7.35(-10)
4. 03 (-9)
1.63(-11)
3.87(-10)
2.74(-8)
1.79(-9)
7.97(-10)
1.00(-7)
3.56(-9)
4.84(-12)
4.70(-12)
4.35(-12)
        30

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 Table 2 (Continued)
Nuclide
Ce-143
Pr-143*
Ce-144*
Pr-145
Nd-147
Pm-147
Pm-149
Pm-151
Sm-151
Sm-153
Eu-155
Eu-156
Eu-157
GkJ-159
Annual
Discharge
(Curies)
1.43(-4)
1.49(-4)
7.70(-5)
2.20(-5)
5.10(-5)
1.93(-5)
6.05(-6)
7.05(-8)
3.64(-6)
3.22(-7)
7.00 (-8)
1.24(-8)
                Maximum
                Average
                Concentration
                (/xCi/cm3)
                4.27(-12)
                2.95(-12)
                6.35(-13)
                5.85(-13)
                5.62(-13)
                4.30(-15)
                6.23(-15)
                9.30(-15)
                3.56(-16)
         31

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                     Table 3 .  Trojan Nuclear Plant
                Estimated Annual Liquid Release by Isotope
                                   Estimated Annual
                    Isotope         Release Q"*Cij
                    Mn-54           0.21
                    Mn-56           0.01
                    Co-58            6.67
                    Fe-59            0.28
                    Co-60            0.20
                    Sr-89            1.53
                    Sr-90            0.46
                    Y-90             0.03
                    Sr-91            0.12
                    Y-91             0.16
                    Mo-99            5.66(2)#
                    1-131             7.96(2)
                    Te-132           7.62(1)
                    1-132             0.24
                    1-133             6.28(2)
                    Cs-134           5.91(1)
                    1-135             6.13(1)
                    Cs-136           8.27
                    Cs-137           3.19(2)
                    Ba-140           0.08
                    La-140           0.21
                    Ce-144           1.11
                   H-3               4.77(9)
                   Unidentified       1.99(3)
#(  ) denotes power of 10
                                  32

-------
     ing (CE) reactor coolant system.  Cs-134 is produced by the activation
     of Cs-133, a daughter of the principal fission gas Xe-133.  Most of the
     tritium is due to activation of the boron, deuterium, lithium, and nitro-
     gen in the coolant.  Corrosion products are, of course, released from
     the system materials.
Many radioactive nuclides in the groups above were rejected because of low
yield, short half-life,  rejection by or lack of affinity for the human body, lack
of retention in the food chain, or chemical similarity with a more radioactive
isotope.
Two quantities are given in table 2: the annual discharge in curies,  and the
"maximum average" concentration in  ^Ci/ce. Each quantity is calculated
independently.  The major difference  between the two calculations is the choice
of assumptions. A conservative assumption for one calculation may be ultra-
conservative and not used for the other.  Consequently, the two quantities
are not easily related.
The calculation of annual discharge is based on the amount of fission and
activation products produced and available for release during the last year
of operation of one core. Of all the fission products produced during the year,
I percent is assumed to occur in the failed fuel elements.  Fission product
leakage into the primary coolant from these 1 percent failed fuel elements
is  calculated from escape rate coefficients (see table 11-2, reference 2)
which are conservatively based on measured fission product leakage rates
from perforated fuel elements heated  to centerline melting temperature in an
autoclave.  These fission products are carried by normal amounts of primary
coolant letdown and leakage, and are processed by the waste management
system.  The resultant curies of liquid waste are presented as annual dis-
charge in table 2.
The "maximum average" concentration is calculated as follows.  At some time
during three equilibrium core cycles  each radionuclide reaches a maximum
concentration in the primary coolant.  Although these maxima occur at differ-
ent times for different radionuclides,  they are conservatively assumed to
occur at the same time for this calculation.   Thus:  assume normal  letdown
and leakage of the maximum activity primary coolant for one year, and as-
sume that this radioactive waste is processed by the waste management sys-
                                  33

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 tern. Divide the maximum release of each radionuclide by the volume of
 water that passes annually through the condensers of the Forked River power
 plant, operating at 80 percent of maximum power. The resulting quotient is
 the "maximum average" concentration found in table 2 .  This concentration
 is maximum because the maximum activity of the primary coolant is assumed
 to exist for one year, and is average because continuous release is assumed.
 Note that the intake water for condenser cooling is assumed to have zero ra-
 dionuclide concentration. Actually, the intake concentration is not expected
 to exceed 1 percent of the discharge concentration, based on concentrations
 calculated in the radionuclide distribution section of this report.  The maximum
 annual release of each radionuclide based on maximum activity of the primary
 coolant is about 10 times larger than the annual discharge  in table 2, because
 of differences in conservative assumptions. Much of the conservatism is
 caused by the unlikely assumption that maximum activity exists in the primary
 coolant for one year.
 An additional 2.6 factor of conservatism in the maximum average concentra-
 tion for the  underwater power plant is accounted for by the difference in cool-
 ing water flow rate between it and the Forked River plant.  The condenser cool-
 ing water flow rate is 608,000 gpm for the underwater power plant, as against
 230,000 gpm for the  Forked River plant.  Consequently, the maximum average
 concentrations  of table 2 correspond with 40 percent of maximum condenser
 cooling flow for the underwater power plant.
 Other cautious  assumptions are made: the discharge and concentrations in
 table 2 are based on  operation with 1 percent failed fuel cladding; and no re-
 duction in the amount of radionuclides from natural decay during waste pro-
 cessing is taken into account.
 In spite of these compounded conservatisms in the maximum average calcula-
 tions, it is possible to exceed these concentrations for limited periods, since
 discharge of the liquid waste is normally done in batches instead of continuously.
 The batch releases are made at the discretion of the plant operator.
 The liquid waste is sampled and analyzed for radioactive content prior to dis-
posal. If  discharge directly to the  environment is permissible, a flow indica-
tor and appropriate valving will permit controlled release from the condensate
tank.  The condenser coolant flow rate varies with power level, and must be
                                 34

-------
 considered by the operator before dumping.  It is common practice for the
 operator not to dump, if radionuclide concentrations in the condenser coolant
 discharge  will exceed one-tenth of the maximum permissible concentrations
 in drinking water.  This guideline is not known to be documented.  The flow
 rate and activity of all liquids discharged from the waste disposal system
 will be indicated, recorded, and alarmed. However, the alarm is set at
 about 20 percent above the measured activity level in the condensate tank as
 a safety feature, so that discharging a mass  of highly radioactive liquid will
 activate the interlock and stop the discharge. Comparison of annually aver-
 aged concentrations with the maximum permissible concentrations of radio-
 nuclides is made in section 8.
 The normal releases of gaseous radionuclides from the Forked River and
 Trojan plants are given in tables 4 and 5, respectively.  Since the normal
 release is composed of noble gases, is vented to the atmosphere, and doe^
 not enter the marine environment in significant amounts, this type of release
 is not further studied in this report.

 Qualifying Accidents
 To qualify for analysis in this report, accidents must meet two essential
 stipulations:
      1.    They must be credible; that is, conform with the criteria of cre-
            dibility set forth in the AEC report on reactor safety and contain-
            ment (reference 4).
      2.    Radionuclides must be released to the sea.
 Only the following two credible accidents can result in radionuclide release
 to the sea, and therefore qualify for analysis.

 Loss of Primary Coolant
 First is the most serious accident that could  occur in current nuclear plants:
 this is a double break in the primary coolant  pipe, with the coolant flashing to
 steam within the containment vessel. The radioactive impurities and corro-
 sion products  of the primary coolant are carried with the steam.  The fission
products released from the core to the containment vessel are:
                                   35

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            Table 4.  Forked River Nuclear Station — Unit 1
              Annual Radioactive Gas Discharges Based on
                Operation with One Percent  Failed Fuel
Nuclide
Kr-85
Xe-131m
Xe-133
Average Maximum Fraction of
Annual Average Annual Permissible Maximum
Discharge Concentration Concentration Permissible
(Curies) (/u,Ci/cc) ( /tCi/cc) Concentration
2436.0 1.10(-9)#
70.6 5.37(-ll)
238.0 1.91(-10)
3 (-7)
4(-7)
3(-7)
3.67(-3)
1.35(-4)
6.39(-4)
                    Table 5.  Trojan Nuclear Plant
              Estimated Annual Gaseous Release by Isotope
                 Isotope
                 Kr-85
                 Kr-85m, 87,
                 Xe-133
                 Xe-135, 138
Estimated Annual
Release (Curies)
24,800
negligible
 5,200
negligible
#(  ) denotes power of 10
                                  36

-------
                     100 percent of the noble gases
                      50 percent of the halogens
                       1 percent of the solids
These percentages are assumed in the safety analysis of all pressurized water
plants for site evaluation, and originate in the report by DiNunno et al (refer-
ence 5).  They result in quantities that are extremely conservative since the
engineered safeguards system prevents melting of the fuel or cladding.  A
leakage rate of 0.1 percent per day is assumed for the contents of the contain-
ment vessel to the surrounding environment.  This is conservatively estimated
to be about 10 times higher than the expected rate.  For the undersea power
plant| the containment vessel is the pressure hull and the reactor compartment
bulkhead.  The reactor compartment is at one end of the pressure hull, and
any leakage out of the containment vessel would most probably occur through
the bulkhead for the following reasons:
      1.     The pressure difference between the reactor compartment and the
           plant spaces  is greater than the pressure difference between the
           reactor compartment and the sea. In a loss-of-coolant accident,
           the peak pressure within the containment vessel would be 80 to  85
           psig.  The pressure in the rest of the plant is atmospheric.  If
           the plant is resting on the bottom of the sea at about 200 feet and
           the pressure hull is 110 feet in diameter, the top of the plant is
           90 feet below the surface where the sea water pressure is 39 psig.
            Consequently, the pressure drop across the bulkhead to the plant
           spaces is 80  to 85 psig, and across the pressure hull to the sea is
           41 to 46 psig at the top, decreasing and changing sign toward the
           bottom.
      2.    The bulkhead has many more penetrations than  the pressure hull,
           thus offering a higher probability of leakage.
In an actual accident, most of the radionuclides leak into the turbine room and
are subsequently sent to  atmosphere by the ventilation system.  Since the ra-
dionuclide leakage to the sea is not known, the full 0.1 percent per day leakage
is, for the purpose of this study, assumed to go to sea. A  porous weld in the
hull  could be responsible for such leakage, which is taken as (reference 5):

                                  37

-------
                     100 percent of the noble gases
                      25 percent of the halogens
                       1 percent of the solids
The other 25 percent of the halogens is assumed to plate out within the con-
tainment vessel.  The rate of release of each radionuclide is calculated from
the foregoing assumptions.  At about 20 seconds after the accident,  the pres-
sure rises to the maximum of 80 to 85 psig, and at this time the safeguard
spray turns on to cool the reactor compartment, and decrease the pressure.
In about 15 minutes, the pressure drops below the sea pressure of 39 psig
and leakage to the sea ceases.  The variation in containment vessel pressure
with time after the accident is shown in figure 5.  This figure was derived for
a land-based power plant and multiplied by the free volume ratio of the surface
plant to the  underwater plant.
The inventory of radionuclides in the core at shutdown is given in table 6.
The amount of each radionuclide released to the sea following a loss-of-cool-
ant accident, equals the amount in the core inventory, times the fraction re-
leased to the containment vessel, times the constant leakage rate of 0.1 per-
cent/day for 15 minutes.  Those amounts are given in table 6.  The accident
is analyzed  as a batch release.

Breach of Containment
The second  qualifying accident is a breach of the pressure hull by collision
with a submarine or a sinking ship.  The breach occurs in the reactor com-
partment.  It is assumed that the containment vessel has no shield for exter-
nal missiles. Sea water floods the reactor compartment and a primary cool-
ant pipe opens through thermal or mechanical shock.  The coolant escapes
instantaneously to the sea water, discharging the radionuclides originating
from one percent failed fuel elements. The inventory of radionuclides in the
reactor coolant is given in table 7 for the  Forked River plant.  Emergency
core cooling, and cooling by sea water,  prevent melting of the fuel or cladding.
A convection cooling loop from the core to the sea removes after-heat in the
event of a total power failure within the plant. However,  we assume that the
sudden pressure drop in the primary coolant loop causes perforations in 99
percent (say, 100 percent for practical purposes) of the cladding,  which is of

                                 38

-------
CO
CO
                                                                             MINIMUM SAFEGUARDS SYSTEM
                                                                                    T	1  I I  I I
m
tc
C/3
(/)
111
cc
a.
               DOUBLE ENDED
               BREAK, 42" PIPE
                                                         SINGLE-ENDED
                                                         BREAK
                             NO SAFEGUARDS
                             WALL HEAT LOSS
                                                             SAFEGUARDS SPRAY
                                                             3500 GPM EQUIVALENT
                                                        TIME, SECONDS
                                                                                      1000

                                                                           At = 800 SEC = 13.3 MIN ซ 15 MIN
                                                                                                                      10,000
             Figure 5.  Pressure in Containment Vessel Versus Time After Loss-of-Coolant Accident

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   Table 6. Core Inventory at Shutdown Following
   Equilibrium Operating Conditions at 3560 Mwt,
        and Curies Released to Sea Following
              Loss of Coolant Accident
                Forked River Plant
                                  Curies Released
                                  to Sea   	
                                  1.63(2)
                                  4.09(2)
                                  1.12(1)
                                  7.86(2)
                                  1.12(3)
Nuclide
Noble Gases
Kr-83m
Kr-85m
Kr-85
Kr-87
Kr-88
Xe-131m
Xe-133m
Xe-133
Xe-135
Xe-138
Iodines
1-131
1-132
1-133
1-134
1-135
Solids
H-3
Br-84
Rb-88
Rb-89
Sr-89
Sr-90
Y-90
Sr-91
Curies ii

1.57(7)#
3.93(7)
1.08(6)
7.56(7)
1.08(8)
6.65(4)
5.14(6)
2.02(8)
4.37(7)
1.78(8)

8.78(7)
1.31(8)
2.02(8)
2.36(8)
1.86(8)

2.82(4)
2.79(7)
1.08(8)
1.43(8)
1.43(8)
8.23(6)
8.23(6)
1.74(8)
                                  5.35(1)
                                  2.10(3)
                                  4.55(2)
                                  1.85(3)

                                  2.28(2)
                                  3.41(2)
                                  5.25(2)
                                  6.14(2)
                                  4.84(2)

                                  2. 93 (-3)
                                  2.90(0)
                                  1.12(1)
                                  1.49(1)
                                  1.49(1)
                                  8.56(-l)
                                  8.56(-l)
                                  1.18(1)
#  (  ) denotes power of 10
                       40

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               Table 6 (Continued)
Nuclide
Curies in Core
Curies Released
to Sea
Y-91
Mo- 99
Ru-103
Te-127m
Te-129m
Te-129
Te-132
Te-134
Cs-134
Cs-136
Cs-137
Cs-138
Ba-140
La- 140
Pr-143
Ce-144
1.77(8)
1.85(8)
9.01(7)
1.05(6)
1.05(7)
2.70(7)
1.28(8)
2.07(8)
1.92(6)
1.08(5)
8.38(6)
2.02(8)
1.89(8)
1.90(8)
1.77(8)
1.35(8)
1.84(1)
1.93(1)
9.38(0)
1.09(-1)
1.09(0)
2.81(0)
1.33(1)
2.15(1)
2.00(-1)
1.12(-2)
8.71(-1)
2.10(1)
1.97(1)
1.98(1)
1.84(1)
1.40(1)
                       41

-------
course a cautious assumption.  The activity in the fuel rod gap  (the space in
the rod between the fuel pellet and the cladding) is released to the sea, table
8.   There are sufficient control rods in the core to prevent supercriticality
when it is flooded with sea water.  The accident is analyzed as a batch release
to  the sea of all the radionuclides in tables 7 and 8.
A breach of containment may also occur during refueling,  but negligible radio-
activity is released to the sea.  For refueling, the pressure vessel head is
removed, exposing the core with control rods in and flooded with borated wa-
ter slightly above room temperature.  No  gap release occurs since there is
no sudden pressure drop that might cause  a cladding perforation.   Coolant
activity is substantially reduced prior to refueling by purification and dilution,
and the core is designed so that flooding with sea water will not cause super-
criticality.

Nonqualifying Accidents
Accidents found to release radionuclides to plant space or  the atmosphere,
but not the sea, are listed here. The amount released is below 10CFR20
limits.
      1.    Liquid waste from a leakage or ruptured holding tank enters a
           drain and is pumped back into  the waste  management system.
     2.    Gaseous waste leaks from the  pressurized gas decay tank. The
           gas escapes to the plant space and is ventilated to atmosphere.  It
           may be possible to contain the waste in one compartment of the
           plant and then control its release to the atmosphere.
     3.    In the case of dropping and breaking a bundle of spent fuel ele-
           ments in the fuel pool,  the gaseous radionuclides are released
           to the space above the pool and thus ventilated  to atmosphere.
           The possibility exists of containing the gas in  one compartment
           and then controlling its release to the atmosphere.
     4.    A primary to secondary leakage occurs from a break in a steam
           generator tube.  If the leak is  one gpm or  less, plant operation
           continues and radionuclides are released via the air ejector and
           blowdown.  The liquid wastes are routed to the waste management
                                   42

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        Table 7.  Maximum Fission and Corrosion Product
              Activity in the Reactor Coolant at 70ฐF
              Forked River Nuclear Station - Unit 1
Nuclide
H-3 fission
activation in coolant
CEAs
total
Cr-51
Mn-54
Fe-55
Co- 58
Fe-59
Co-60
Ge-78
As- 78
Br-84
Kr-85m
Kr-85
Kr-87
Kr-88
Rb-88
Rb-89
Sr-89
Sr-90
Y-90
Sr-91
Y-91
Y-93
Zr-95
Nb-95
Zr-97
( At Ci/ cm'
.1849
.5495
.0128
.7472
5.32(-3)#
3.85(-5)
1.86(-4)
6.52(-3)
2.98(-5)
7.27(-4)
2.47(-6)
4. 83 (-6)
7.52(-2)
2.41
5.42
1.30
4.19
4.13
1.02(-1)
1.05(-2)
4.95(-4)
1.72(-3)
6.24(-3)
4.40(-1)
5.71(-3)
1.31(-6)
1.17(-2)
4.93(-3)
                                               Coolant Inventory
                                               (Curies)	
                                               1.18(2)
                                               1.29
                                               9.3(-3)
                                               4.5(-2)
                                               1.58
                                               7.2(-3)
                                               5.97(-4)

                                               1.82(1)
                                               5.83(2)
                                               1.31(3)
                                               3.14(2)
                                               1.01(3)
                                               1.00(3)
                                               2.48(1)
                                               2.54
                                               1.51
                                               1.06(2)
                                               1.38
                                               3.17(-4)
                                               2.83
                                               1.19
#(  ) denotes power of 10
                                43

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                      Table 7 (Continued)
 Nuclide
 Mo-99
 Ru-103
 Rh-105
 Ru-106
 Pd-109
 Ag-111
 Cd-115
 Sn-119m
 Sn-121
 Sn-123
 Sn-125
 Sb-125
 Te-125m
 Sb-126
 Sb-127
 Te-127m
 Te-127
 Te-129m
 Te-129
 1-129
 Te-131m
 1-131
 Xe-131m
 Te-132
 1-132
 1-133
Xe-133
 Te-134
1-134
Cs-134
1-135
                           Specific
                                        .„
                                   6
Coolant Inventory
(Curies)
3.63
8.60(-3)
1.21(-3)
4.96(-4)
2.36(-5)
3.23(-5)
4.59(-6)
2.06(-5)
1.04(-5)
8.7(-7)
9.68(-8)
1.42(-5)
9.5(-4)
1.76(-6)
2.14(-4)
3.9(-3)
1.29(-2)
6.4(-2)
4.97(-2)
1.44(-7)
4.91(-2)
8.12
3.55
6.47(-l)
1.91
1.05(1)
3.52(2)
4.24(-2)
1.01
7.11
4.65
8.79(-2)
2.08
2.93(-l)
1.20(-1)
5.71(-3)
7.81(-3)
l.ll(-3)
4.98(-3)
2.52(-3)
2.10(-4)
2.34(-5)
3. 43 (-3)
2.30(-1)
4. 26 (-4)
5.18(-2)
9.35(-l)
3.12
1.55(1)
1.20(1)
3.49(-5)
1.19(1)
1.97(3)
8.59(2)
1.57(2)
4.62(2)
2.53(3)
8.53(4)
1.03(1)
2.44(2)
1.72(3)
1.13(3)
                              44

-------
                      Table 7 (Continued)
,-.  ..,                     Specific Activity    Coolant Inventory
Nuchde ~                 QCi/cm3)        (Curies)
Xe-135
Cs-136
Cs-137
Xe-138
Cs-138
Ba-140
La-140
Ce-141
Ce-143
Pr-143
Ce-144
Pr-145
Nd-147
Pm-147
Pm-149
Pm-151
Sm-151
Sm-153
Eu-155
Eu-156
Eu-157
Gd-159
1.17(1)
2.46(-l)
3.11(1)
5.74(-l)
1.10
1.26(-2)
1.22(-2)
1.13 (-2)
1.08(-2)
1.1K-2)
7.67(-3)
1.64(-3)
3.85(-3)
1.52(-3)
1.46(-3)
4.55(-4)
1.12(-5)
2. 73 (-4)
1.62(-5)
2.42(-5)
5.21(-6)
9.27(-7)
2.84(3)
5.95(1)
7.52(3)
1.39(2)
2.67(2)
3.04
2.96
2.73
2.61
2.69
1.86
3.97(-l)
9.31(-1)
3.68(-l)
3.53(-l)
1.10^-1)
2.71(-3)
6.60(-2)
3.29(-3)
5.85(-3)
1.26(-3)
2.24(-4)
                              45

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Table 8.  Maximum Fission Product Activity
           in the  Fuel Gas Gap
   Forked River Nuclear Station -  Unit 1
Nuclide
Kr-85
Kr-85m
Kr-87
Kr-88
Xe-131m
Xe-133
Xe-133m
Xe-135
Xe-135m
Xe-138
1-131
1-132
1-133
1-134
1-135
Activity (Curies)
4.69(5)#
8. 58(5)
9.11(5)
1.93(6)
6.78(4)
1.99(7)
3.22(6)
5.86(6)
2.97(5)
9.03(5)
1.52(7)
3.97(6)
1.53(7)
4.45(6)
9.31(6)
    #(  ) denotes power of 10
                   46

-------
           system and the gaseous waste is discharged to atmosphere.  If
           the radionuclide release becomes excessive, the plant is shut
           down and the tube repaired.
     5.    A steam line break, happening outside the containment vessel and
           upstream of the isolation valve, results in the loss of the secondary
           coolant.  If there is primary to secondary leakage, radionuclides
           are released within the plant space and thus to atmosphere.
     6.    A complete loss of all the fission products to the sea is not a cre-
           dible accident, because dual safeguard systems are used to keep
           the  core subcritical and to remove the decay heat. The possibility
           of a core meltdown occurring from simultaneous failure of two
           independent safeguard systems is not a credible accident.

References
1.   United States Atomic Energy Commission, Rules and Regulations,
     Title 10,  Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20.
2.   "Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, Forked River Nuclear Station,
     Unit 1," Jersey Central Power and Light Company, Docket 50-363.
3.   "Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, Trojan Nuclear Plant," Portland
     General Electric Company,  Docket 50-344.
4.   Cottrell,  W.B.. and Savolainen, A.W., "U.S. Reactor Containment
     Technology," vl and 2, ORNL-NSIC-5, Aug 1965.
5.   DiNunno, J.J., Anderson, F.D., Baker, R.E.,  and Waterfield, R.L.,
     "Calculation of Distance Factors for Power and Test Reactor Sites,"
     TID-14844, March  23, 1962, 2nd printing.
                                47

-------
NONTHERMAL, NONRADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTES
The wastes that will be produced by the presence of people in the underwater
power station were estimated on the basis of available design data.  The non-
radioactive,  nonthermal liquid wastes would consist of effluent from the gal-
ley, showers and lavatories, laundry,  toilet facilities, and from miscellan-
eous laboratory and industrial facilities.  The quantity and concentration of
wastes from  these sources will vary with the number of people required to
operate the plant,  and their scheduled stay at the power station.   Environ-
mental differences, operating schedules, and transportation arrangements
might alter the quantity and composition of wastes from one power station
site to another. Since it was necessary to estimate reasonable waste  quan-
tities representative of all potential sites, the data below are presented on a
unit basis so that estimates can be scaled up or down to approximate the ac-
tual conditions.
Based on operating requirements of similar shore-based power stations, and
of offshore installations such as oil-well platforms, the personnel were esti-
mated as 50 full-time residents.  Pollutant quantities were taken from the
high end of various ranges reported in  the literature, to account for the ex-
pected predominance of adult male inhabitants, rather than a composite of both
sexes and all ages.

Wastes
Table  9 presents the volume of liquid wastes and concentration of pollutants
from each source, and aggregate values for the composite waste stream.
Toilet wastes represent the major nonthermal, nonradioactive pollutant from
the power station.   The organic load added through the  toilets was estimated
from medical studies performed for the aerospace industry, and from mea-
surements  of household waste effluents from apartment buildings and separate
homes.  The  volume of the toilet wastes will depend on the amount of flushing
water used by the toilets.   If standard toilets are used, the volume will be ap-
proximately 5 gallons per  flushing, and an average of 5 to 6 flushings  per man-
day is  expected •.
The galley  was  assumed to have full capabilities  for food preparation, gar-
bage disposal, and dishwashing,to serve the full  complement of the power

                                48

-------
             Table 9.  Estimated Volume of Liquid Wastes
                    and Concentration of Pollutants
Source
Toilets
Ultimate BOD
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Galley wastes
Ultimate BOD*
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Showers and
lavatories
Ultimate BOD
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Laundry
Ultimate BOD
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Total wastes
Ultimate BOD
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
One
Man
Per Day
95.01
73. Og
9.0
1.4
51.01
44.0 g
0.3
0.6
75.01
6.8g
0.6
0.35
4.71
4.0 g
0.1
0.7
225.71
127.8
10.0
3.0
50 Men Percent
Per of
Day Total
4,7501
3,650g
450
70
2,5501
2,200g
15
30
3 , 750 1
340 g
30
17.5
2351
200 g
5
35
11,2851
6,390g
500
152
42%
57%
90
46
23%
35%
3
20
33%
5%
6
11
2%
3%
1
23
100%
100%
100
100
Percent
Concen- Removable by
tration Filtration
--
770 mg/1
95
15
--
863 mg/1
6
12
91 mg/1
8
5
--
850 mg/1
21
149
--
565 mg/1
44
13
__
30%
40
30
--
10%
25
8
11%
23
9
__
13%
19
3
__
21%
38
17
*Includes 5 to 10 gram/capita of grease.  BOD: biochemical oxygen demand.
                                  49

-------
 station.  It was assumed that a garbage grinder would be used.  The principal
 components of the galley wastes will be soil, grit (bones, egg shells, glass
 and metal  chips,  etc.), food particles, grease, and cleaning compounds for
 dishes and utensils.  Such wastes rapidly decay to produce offensive odors
 and degrade water quality.  Generally,low concentrations of pathogenic bac-
 teria would be expected; however, relatively high concentrations of fecal-type
 coliforms  have been detected on occasion.
 The wastes from the shower and  lavatory can contain countless different sub-
 stances, but will consist primarily of body soil, and various ointments and
 body  cleansers, such as soap, toothpaste, and shampoo.  The total pollution
 load is not expected to be high; however,  there will be substantial amounts of
 nitrogen and phosphorus from the cleansers.  There is a minor possibility of
 disease bacteria surviving in the effluent.
 The volume of the laundry wastes will depend to a great extent on the time
 spent by personnel at the station, and the types of services supplied to them.
 Duty periods at the power station probably would not exceed two weeks, and
 it seems reasonable to assume that most  laundering would be done ashore.
 About half the usual figures for laundry volume and pollutants were used in
 the estimate.  In general, pollutants in laundry wastes will be few, and bac-
 teria will be  controlled by the bactericidal effects of cleaning compounds,
 bleaches, and hot water.
 Laboratory and industrial wastes would normally occur in very small quanti-
 ties,  which could be treated or disposed of separately from the sewage wastes.
 For example, strong acids or bases should be neutralized before disposal.
 Biological poisons and other harmful chemicals can be destroyed or contained
 for disposal on shore.
 The effect  of the quality of the added water  (for example the  water used for
 toilet flushing) was not considered.  However, the concentrations of the
 major pollutants considered in this  analysis are dilute in most natural waters
 including sea water, and the estimated values should be valid.

Waste Disposal
The quantity of wastes is very small. A few calculations readily show that
the dispersal of the effluent into only 3000 cubic meters of sea water (equi-
valent to, say, a vertical cylinder about 23 ft in diameter for a plant situated
                                  50

-------
in 250 ft of water) would reduce the BOD concentration to 2 mg per liter, the
nitrogen to less than 0.2 mg/1 and the phosphorus to less than 0.05 mg/1.
Thus, unless the power station were located in an area of essentially no cir-
culation, the small quantities of wastes discharged into the open sea would be
assimilated by marine organisms without detriment.  Dispersal could be en-
hanced by finely grinding all solids in the wastes, and discharging the wastes
into the cooling water effluent plume.
The discharge of all wastes without treatment  would be the easiest and
most  economical method of waste disposal.  If it becomes necessary to do
so, there are methods within present technology for treating the wastes be-
fore discharge.  Methods that would not entail a severe cost burden include:
filtration of solid materials and discharge of the clear filtrate; secondary
treatment of all wastes, with discharge of the  treated effluent; and secondary
treatment of all toilet and galley wastes only,  the remaining wastes being
discharged without treatment.
Filtration, as shown by table 9, would remove slightly more than one-fifth
of the pollutional load, including most of the aesthetically objectionable ma-
terial.  The substances removed would, however, then have to be disposed
of. Incineration would require additional equipment,  maintenance, and super-
vision.  Disposal ashore would require special storage and handling facilities.
A system for secondary treatment of all wastes could be provided in the power
station at moderate expense.  The major portion of potential pollutants pro-
duced by the power plant could be eliminated at less cost  by treating just the
toilet and galley wastes. These wastes contain an estimated 92% of the ulti-
mate  BOD, 93% of the nitrogen compounds,  and 66% of the phosphorus com-
pounds, suspended in 65% of the total liquid  volume.  Toilet and galley wastes
are also the major source of pathogenic bacteria.  Thus, separation of the
waste streams  would permit the use of a more compact and more efficient
waste treatment system.
Of the systems of waste treatment that are commercially available today,
probably the best suited for the offshore power plant would be an extended
aeration biological system.  Extended aeration treatment is widely used by
many small municipalities  and all kinds of industries. Its use has grown
rapidly because of its reliable, low-maintenance performance on a wide variety
of wastes.  In addition to domestic sewage,  these wastes include petroleum
                                    51

-------
compounds, phenols, organic processing wastes, and even wastes containing
toxic substances such as heavy metals, cyanides, and pesticides. The meth-
od is readily adaptable to differences in salinity, and thus would operate effi-
ciently if sea water were used for flushing toilets, etc.  It is doubtful that
anything liable to enter the power plant's sewage stream would seriously
impair the operation of such a system. Little attention to extended aeration
plants  is usually required and, since they operate as biological incinerators,
disposal of sludge is minimized.

Figure 6 is a schematic of the extended aeration system of waste treatment.
The raw waste enters the aerated reactor where it is mixed with a culture
of aerobic bacteria acclimated to the digestion of sewage.  The bacterial parti-
cles rapidly absorb the waste particles and soluble nutrients from the waste
and use it for energy and the synthesis of new cells.  The sewage is retained
in the aeration chamber for a relatively long (18- to 30-hour) period of aera-
                  WASTE MATTER
                  OXIDIZED TO
                  C02, H2O, IMH3
  RAW SEWAGE
                  AERATION
                  CHAMBER
               ACTIVE BACTERIAL
               MASS (3-8000 mg/l)
       ACTIVE BIOLOGICAL
       SLUDGE
                                CONCENTRATED
                                SLUDGE REMOVED
                                FROM EFFLUENT
CLARIFICATION
CHAMBER
                       TUBE
                       SETTLER
                                                       SKIMMER
                                       CLARIFIED
                                       TREATED
                                       EFFLUENT
           OXYGEN
           EQUIVALENT
           TO 1.4 LB/O2
           PER LB BOD
OCCASIONAL
WASTING OF
INERT SOLIDS
AT APPROXIMATELY
5-MO. INTERVALS
               Figure 6.  Extended Aeration Sewage Treatment
                                    52

-------
tion, which keeps the culture in a state of endogenous respiration.  This
means that, because of insufficient food, excess bacterial cells are them-
selves being broken down and oxidized.  This condition also promotes the
rapid absorption of nutrients from the entering waste.  The liquid is thus
rapidly depleted of nutrient matter,  and treated effluent is obtained simply
by separating the solid matter (flocculated bacterial cells) from the liquid.
Although positive clarification methods such as  filtration  and membrane se-
paration are available, gravity separation  is generally more economical and
is considered appropriate for this case. Innovations such as the slanted tube
clarifier greatly improve gravity separation efficiency and are available
from several  manufacturers. Floatable solids that do not  settle are removed
by a skimming device (which is standard on most commercial units),  before
the effluent is discharged. The solids which settle from the effluent and which
are removed by the skimmer are returned to the aeration chamber to be
further oxidized, with the eventual products being water,  carbon dioxide, and
ammonia.  Combined with the loss of small quantities of floating, highly oxi-
dized sludge in the effluent,  the self-oxidation of excess bacterial cells nearly
eliminates the need for separate solids wasting. The only solids removal re-
quired is the periodic disposal of mineral matter such as  grit and metal and
some highly resistant organic materials. If required by local conditions and
laws, refinements  such as effluent filtration and disinfection are commercially
available.  Additional equipment for  the removal of phosphate is also obtainable,
but in most cases the additional cost and operational difficulty would not be
warranted  by  the small quantities of phosphate discharged in the power sta-
tion sewage.  A complete system for all of the power plant's sewage and si-
milar wastes  would occupy about 750 cubic feet  of space and consume about
16 kw of power.  Figure 1 shows a typical  equipment arrangement.

Conclusions and Recommendations
Except in very unusual environs, a power station in  the open sea would cre-
ate no pollution of consequence from the nonthermal, nonradioactive liquid
wastes.  Thus, direct discharge of these wastes into the sea would be accept-
able.  Dispersion of the wastes might be promoted by directing the waste
discharge into the  cooling water effluent plume to increase mixing and circu-
lation.  Grinding of the wastes would overcome  aesthetic  objections, and re-
duce the possibility of sludge accumulations.
                                   53

-------
     RAW SEWAGE
     FROM GALLEY, LAUNDRY,
     BATH AND TOILETS
MOTORS FOR AERATION AND
SKIMMER
(AIR MAY BE SUPPLIED
BY BLOWER OR
MECHANICAL MIXER)
          AERATION CHAMBER
          (WASTES ARE MIXED WITH
          ACTIVE BACTERIAL SLUDGE
          AND AERATED)
                                            SKIMMING DEVICE TO
                                            REMOVE FLOATING
                                            SOLIDS
                                                               CLARIFIED
                                                               EFFLUENT
                                                      SLANT TUBE
                                                      CLARIFIER
                                                      (SOLIDS SETTLE
                                                      BACK INTO AERATION
                                                      CHAMBER)
                   APPROXIMATE EQUIPMENT SIZE 8x7x12 FT

                   EQUIPMENT WEIGHT ซ 10,000 LB

                   POWER REQUIREMENTS ซ* 16 KW
                 Figure 7.  Extended Aeration Equipment


There might be offshore areas where such unrestricted waste discharge would
be impermissible.   Such cases are more probable where power stations are
within restricted waters, and  treatment is required for all sewage.  (Public
Law 91-224, The Water Quality Improvement Act of 1970, requires treatment
of wastes from all  vessels in navigable waters.  Conceivably, this require-
ment might be extended to fixed structures such as the power station, even if
they were in open water.)

Extended aeration treatment of the wastes would be sufficient to meet all re-
quirements and would be relatively economical to install and operate.  Where
possible, waste segregation to treat only galley and toilet wastes would allow
pollution control at reduced  installation and operating costs.
                                   54

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References

1.  Webb,  P. M.D., "Bioastronautics Data Book," National Aeronautics
    and Space Administration, 1964.

2.  Olsson, E., Karlgren, L., and Tullander,  V., "Household Waste Water,"
    National Swedish Institute for Building Research, Report 24, 1968.

3.  Watson,  U.S.,Farrell, R.P., and Anderson, J.S., "The Contribution
    from the Individual Home to the Sewer System," JWPCF, v 39, n 12,
    Dec. 1970.

4.  Watson,  K.S.,  "Water Requirements of Dishwashers and Food Waste
    Disposers," JAWWA, v 55, n 5, May 1963.

5.  "A Study of Flow Reduction and Treatment of Waste Water  from House-
    holds," Electric Boat division of General Dynamics, Report U-413-69-
    114  (for  the Federal Water Quality Administration).
                                 55

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                               Section 5
                   THERMAL DIFFUSION ANALYSIS

In this section, the thermal field resulting from the discharge of a nuclear
power plant's condenser cooling water is predicted for each of the four sites
under consideration.
The basic investigation concerns a buoyant, turbulent jet discharging into a
fluid with a free surface, density stratification, and currents. Some of these
aspects are not adequately treated  in the literature, but a more detailed
study than the present one will be required to correct these deficiencies.
The basic procedure used here, therefore, is to adapt existing methods of
investigation, and to make engineering assumptions as  required.  In this
connection, one function of the study is to identify areas in which further
work is necessary.

BACKGROUND
A literature search was made for methods of predicting the thermal field.
This search was greatly facilitated by the work of Parker and Krenkel (25) ,
in which various aspects of thermal pollution are discussed and a  compre-
hensive list of references presented.  Other studies of a general nature were
consulted (3, 4, 8, 9,  16, 18,  21,  25, 26, 29, 30,  31, 32, 33, 34). The
primary emphasis in the literature search was to find information that dealt
with elements intrinsic in the offshore case; i.e., relatively deep water,
density stratification,  and ocean currents.  The basic problem was formulated
as one of discharge from a single jet. This model was  chosen for simplicity,
and because the results can be applied to a diffuser with many jets, as long
as the spacing is such that interference does not occur.  With this basic
model,  the thermal field is  defined by the temperature distribution in the
buoyant jet.  Ideally, therefore, the goal of the study is to characterize a
buoyant jet discharging into a fluid  of finite depth with density stratification
and a current.
Among the work dealing with a buoyant jet (1,2, 11, 12, 13,  17, 22, 23, 24),
is the fundamental integral approach of Morton et al (23), which is the basis
for all recent analysis, and the work of Abraham   (1), who considers buoy-
Ambers in parenthesis indicate references listed on page 99 ff.

                                   57

-------
ancy forces within the zone of flow establishment.  The effect of a free sur-
face is investigated to some extent by Hart (17), and in the experimental work
of Frankel and Gumming (13).  The buoyant jet in a stratified fluid is dis-
cussed by many authors (7, 11,  12, 14, 17, 28); however, the state  of the art
is best exemplified by the work of Fan (11,  12), who also considers  a cross
flow and various angles of  discharge.  The effect of a current is also consi-
dered by many authors (6,  10, 11, 12, 19, 35, 36); however, again the work
of Fan (11,  12) is the most comprehensive.
To sum up, methods are available in the literature for predicting the thermal
field for the basic model of a single jet discharging into an infinite body of
fluid.  There is, however, a notable lack of analytical methods  and experi-
mental data that apply to a buoyant jet  in a finite body of fluid (one with a free
surface). The treatment of density stratification appears to be  adequate, but
the work on currents is not sufficiently general.

THE BASIC MODEL
Coastal and riverside nuclear power plant installations normally require large,
expensive diffuser systems to meet existing standards for thermal discharge.
These systems are necessary because of  the relatively shallow  receiving wa-
ter (usually less than 20 feet deep).  This situation is not encountered with an
offshore station discharging at a depth of  about 250 feet, therefore a basic
model of a single point discharge is chosen.  If the resulting thermal field is
acceptable from an ecological viewpoint, no further optimization need be
carried out. For the power plant operating conditions described in section
4,  a discharge diameter of 15 feet gives  a reasonable velocity  of 7.65 ft/sec.
Also, from  section  4, the temperature rise across the condenser is taken
to be 25  F and is independent of the temperature at the condenser inlet.
Compared with a buoyant vertical jet,  a horizontal one undergoes greater
dilution and thus greater cooling on its way to the surface.  For these reasons
the basic model chosen is a horizontal, buoyant, turbulent jet with the
following initial conditions:
                    u       =7.65 ft/sec
                    D       = 15 ft
                    V'oa   =25ฐF

                                  58

-------
where the subscripts o and oa indicate conditions in the jet at the point of
discharge, and in the receiving water at the discharge depth respectively.
All notation is defined under Nomenclature at the end of this section.  It
is assumed that the  condenser discharge is sufficiently removed from the
ocean floor to eliminate interaction between the jet and the bottom.
                                  59

-------
 THE BUOYANT JET IN A STRATIFIED INFINITE FLUID
 The present level of development in the treatment of buoyant jets in an infinite
 fluid is reflected in the work of Fan (11), who considers a variable discharge
 angle, density stratification, and cross currents.  Fan's work deals primarily
 with the zone  of established flow, which is defined as the region in which the
 velocity and temperature distribution can be characterized by a gaussian pro-
 file. This profile is not fully established until the jet is about six diameters
 downstream from the point of origin.   In this region, called the zone of flow
 establishment, the velocity and temperature distributions are changing from
 the  "top hat" profiles at the point of discharge to the gaussian distribution in
 the  zone of established flow as shown in the following sketch.
                   ZONE OF FLOW ESTABLISHMENT
                      APPROXIMATELY 6 DIA.
   ZONE OF
*- ESTABLISHED
   FLOW
Fan assigns to this region a correction factor of 6.2 diameters, a figure ob-
tained from the work of Albertson et al (2).  This is adequate for most appli-
cations; however,  because of the 15 ft discharge diameter,  the zone of flow
establishment is extensive in this case and will be further investigated.

                                  60

-------
The Zone of Flow Establishment
The most comprehensive treatment of the zone of flow establishment is pre-
sented by Abraham (1),  who includes buoyancy in his analysis. Though ther-
mal stratification is neglected, it should not be important in this zone.  The
buoyancy effect is  especially significant at the low densimetric Froude number
which is obtained with the basic model.  The Froude number,  which appears
later in the governing equations, is dimensionless and indicates the relative
importance of momentum and buoyancy effects in a jet.  A momentum jet has
a large Froude number, and a buoyant jet a low one.
The working results of Abraham, and most authors,  are presented primarily
for large values of both the  Froude number and the dimensionless distance
from the point of discharge.  For our basic model, results are required for
relatively low values of the  Froude number, and a vertical distance from the
point of discharge  of less  than 20 diameters.  Because of this, the results
presented by Abraham cannot be used directly, and his basic equations must
be solved for values in the region of interest.
The geometry and  coordinate system shown below, and the subsequent ana-
lysis,  are taken directly from Abraham's report, except that  temperature
has been substituted for concentration.
                                              r
               i!
 The above sketch defines the dimensional coordinates x, y, s, r, and the
 inclination angle ft .  In the subsequent work it will be convenient to use the
 dimensionless coordinates defined below:
                                  61

-------
                               X = x/D
                               Y = y/D
                               S =s/D
                               R = r/D
where D is the diameter of the discharge pipe.
In addition, the following dimensionless velocity, temperature, and density
are defined as:
                            U = u/u0
                            P =
                                      - po
Whenever possible,  lower case letters are used to indicate dimensional quan-
tities and upper case letters to denote dimensionless quantities.
At the end of the zone of flow establishment the gaussian distributions of both
velocity and temperature are given by Abraham as :

                     U(R,S)  =  Uc(S)e-k(R/S)                          (1)

                     T (R,S) = T (S)e" ^k(R/S)2                         (2)
                                o

where the subscript  c denotes conditions at the jet centerline, and the bar
over a quantity indicates a function of both R and S. The quantities /* and k
are local variables given by:

                     k  = -304  (-1)   + 228   (-f)  + 77                 (3)
                                    n             O
                     M-  = 0.96  (4)  -0.72  (-|) +0.80
(4)
In the zone of flow establishment, the flow is in the transition between the
"top hat" profile at the point of discharge and the gaussian profile given above.
In this region, Abraham uses the results of Albertson et al (2), to obtain the
following equation:

                                  62

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                                                                      (5)
where F is the Froude number and Se is the dimensionless centerline length
at the end of the zone of flow establishment.
The Froude number, discussed previously, is given by:
                      F =
where all quantities have been defined except g, which is the gravitational
constant.
When applied at S = Sp, equation (5) yields:
Another expression relating Se and  /?e is obtained from the continuity equa
tion as :
                      s  2 =  k(l+/i)2  cos ,                          (
                      e                    e
 Equations  (6) and (7) were solved for Se and ฃe as a function of F, resulting
 in the curves of figures 8 and 9- From geometry,  it is apparent that dX/dS =
 cos ft and  dY/dS = sin ft , so that the coordinates of the jet centerline are
 given by :
                               S
                     X =   /     cos ft d S                           (8)
                           -o
                               S
                      Y =   /     sin ft d  S                           (9)
                            o
                                   63

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                                   5      6
                                      F
                                                                 10
Figure 8.  Dimensionless Length of the Zone of Flow Establishment vs Froude
Number
   100


   90-


   80-


   70-


  1 60


  ? 50


   40


   30
   10-
                                                                  10
Figure 9.  Deflection of the Jet Center line at the End of the Zone of Flow
Establishment vs Froude Number
                                  64

-------
While the integrations cannot be carried out in closed form, equations (8)
and (9) were evaluatednumerically on a digital computer, using equation (5)
to evaluate the integrand.  The results are plotted in figure lOfor several
values of the Froude number.  From figure 10,it can be seen that  for low
values of F,  there is  a significant jet deflection  in the zone of flow establish-
ment.  This deflection would have been neglected if Abraham's method had
not been used for this zone.  The results presented in figures 8,  9, and 10
are used as initial conditions for the more general approach of Fan in the zone
of established flow.
                                             ENVELOPE OF THE ZONE OF
                                             FLOW ESTABLISHMENT
 Figure 10. Jet Centerline Path in the Zone of Flow Establishment for Various
 Froude Numbers

                                  65

-------
The Zone of Established Flow
In this region,  the method of Fan (11) is used to predict the thermal field
from a horizontal buoyant jet.  The basic difference between the approach of
Fan and that of Abraham is in the assumed form of the velocity and density
or temperature distributions.  Fan assumes the following form:
                      Pa(s) -  P(r,s)  = [Pa(s)-p(s) i   _(r/xb)5
                                                 I  ^
 where b is a function of the centerline distance s,  and pa, the ambient water
 density, can be a function of y, and, therefore, also of s.  The parameter
 X is the turbulent Schmidt number, and is taken to be 1.16 for a round,
 buoyant jet.  A comparison of equations (1) and (2) with equations (10) and
 (11) indicates that the distribution of Fan and Abraham are equivalent if:

                     b2 = s2/k
and
                      X2  =

In Abraham's method,  ^ and k, as given by equations (3) and (4), are empiri-
cally determined functions  written explicitly in terms of the jet centerline
inclination angle ft, and, therefore, implicitly in terms of the centerline dis-
tance s.  In Fan's  method,  b is an unknown function of s and becomes a
dependent variable in the problem.
In addition to the gaussian distributions given above, the fundamental premise
in Fan's   method is that the entrainment rate along the jet path is given by:

                         =  2™U(.b                                  (12)

where Q is the flow rate in ft3/sec and a. is the entrainment coefficient  which
is taken as 0.082 for a round jet.  Using these expressions, the governing
equations  are obtained by applying the principle of conservation of mass,  mo-

                                66

-------
mentum, and density,  resulting in the following equations as taken directly
from Ditmars (7).
                     ds
   = 2gX    Pa" P   sin/?-uc
   " ""
                                                   2ua
                                                                      (13)
                     ds
                           -<
                             (14)
                                          cos
                                               (15)
                     "ds
 —-  si
LdyJ
                                               (16)
In addition there are the geometrical relations:

                                                                      (17)
                                                                      (18)
The above system of coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations is
sufficient to completely determine the path of the jet when  Pa is specified
as a function of y.
The primary quantity of interest is the thermal field, which cannot be ob-
tained directly from the above system of equations.  The temperature and
density are not simply related, because the salinity and depth also affect the
density.  For this reason, another equation is required to account for the
temperature.  This additional expression is obtained from the conservation
of energy law which can be written as:
           27T
u (t-toa)rdr
              uc b
                                   67

-------
 where equation (12) is used for the entrainment rate.

 As in equation (11), a gaussian temperature distribution is assumed with re-

 spect to the ambient temperature:
t(r,s)- Us)
                                      tc(s) - t(s)
                                                                      (20)
 The above equation can be written in terms of dimensionless temperature

 as:
                     T(r,s) - Ta(s) =  [Tc(s) - Ta (s)j e '


Writing equation (19) in terms of dimensionless temperature yields:
                                                                      (21)
                     d
                    "ds1
                              ']rdr|=ซu(
                                                                      (22)
 Using equation(10), and carrying out the integration, gives:

                             .2  /         2
                     ds
                          u_b
                                            [TcTa]
 The basic form of the continuity equation,  before being rearranged and com-

 bined to give equation (13),  was:
                         ucb
                                                                      (24)
 Equations  (18),  (23), and (24), can be combined to yield:
                     dT
                      ds
                                                                       (25)
which  is the required additional expression.


                                  68

-------
The governing equations are now rewritten in terms of dimensionless quanti-
ties defined previously, and the dimensionless variable B, where B = b/D:
                            2 A2
                                                    B

                         = 2ซ  -         (P-Pa) sin/5               (27)
                                5  (P - Pa) cos ft                      (28)
                     ง  = -TT  (p-pa)  -  -h   ^   sin/3          <29>
                                             A    dY
                     dTc   =    _2a (T  T  x   1_   dTa
                     dS         B    c" a'" A2   ~^r  sin^          (30)
                         =  cos/3                                    (31)
                         =  sin ft                                     (32)
This system of equations must be solved by numerical integration on a digital
computer.  It represents the solution for the thermal and flow fields from a
turbulent, buoyant jet discharging into an infinite body of fluid that has arbi-
trary density and temperature stratification.
Before the governing equations can be integrated, initial conditions are re-
quired for the variables X, Y, S, U, T, P, B, and ft. Some of these values can
be obtained from figures 8,  9, and 10, which give the conditions at the end of the
zone of flow establishment, and, therefore, at the beginning of the zone of
established flow.
                                  69

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Although the Froude number changes from site to site, a nominal value of
F = 5 is chosen to obtain the initial conditions from figures  8,  9, and 10 as
given below:
                 Figure 8   Se = 5. 5
                 Figure 9   /3  = 17. 5ฐ = 0.305 radians

                 Figure 10

where the subscript e indicates the end of the zone of flow establishment.
A problem arises in determining Be, because this quantity does not exist
in Abraham's approach.  However, the velocity distributions should be iden-
tical at the junction of the two zones and, as discussed previously,  this oc-
            2    2
curs when b = s /k or B_ = S A/k .  The value of k  can be computed from
                        C   c  v   6                c
equation (3) with /?= ฃe =0.305 radians.
Carrying out the computation gives:
                            k  =  78.87
                             G
and
                            rป   -    v. 55  _   a<)A
                            Be  ~ V78T8T" -  -624
The other required initial values are, by definition:
                            Uc  = 1,  P =  1, Tc  =  1
With these initial conditions,  equations (26) through (32) are integrated num-
erically on a digital computer, using the simple Taylor series expansion such
as:
                     Tc
The equation of an isotherm can be obtained by setting T(S,R) equal to y, a
constant, in equation (21), thus yielding:
= Tc
S +AS
S
dS
AS
S
                                   70

-------
                              = e-(Rr/\B)2
or
R-v =  A.B  In
                                                                     (33)
Ry is the radius at which the local temperature T equals a constant, y .  This
equation must be solved in conjunction with equations (26) through 02)
When the centerline temperature Tc equals y , the radius goes to zero and
the isotherm forms a closed surface.  The volume of water within this sur-
face is of interest  and can be computed from:
                                      /Sv
                                          2  ,
                                          r*  ds
                                  se
where
      vg = volume of the zone of flow establishment
      se = jet centerline distance at the beginning of the zone of established
          flow
      sy = jet centerline distance where r  goes to zero.
                                           o
Defining a dimensionless volume as V  =  v/D ,  and assuming that the volume
                                              p
of the zone of flow establishment is  v =  [7r/4]D s , so that V_  =[7r/4]SQ =
                                   6            t?          G        G
4.32, the above expression can be written as:
                                        Q
                     V =  4.32  + TT   f y Ry dS                    (34)
                                    5.5

This integration was also carried out on the digital computer.
As far as temperature rise is concerned, the ambient water most affected by
the nuclear power plant  is that passing through the condenser.  Also affected,
of course, is the ambient water entrained by the  discharge jet.  For these
reasons, the jet How rate is a quantity of interest and is expressed by:
                                  71

-------
                                 /ou
                                 u r d r

With the condenser discharge QQ given by:

                     Qo  = |-  D  UQ


the flow rate ratio is:

                     &  = 8   /U Rd R

Using equation (10), and carrying out the integration, yields:
                         = 4 U  B2                                    (35)
                              c
so that the flow rate can be determined from a simple additional computation.
Ano
by:
Another important quantity is the mean jet temperature,  t  ,  which is given
Using equations (10), (20), and (35), the integration yields:

                      m ~ฐ ti
                      ~-  =          =0.573
or, in dimensionless form
                     T   _ T  =  0.573                                (36)

With Ta available from the initial conditions, and TC determined from com-
puter results, the mean jet temperature can easily be computed.
                                   72

-------
Finally, the time- temperature history of the water, and, therefore, of the
entrained organisms that travel through the condenser and into the jet, are
of interest.  In the condenser, it can be assumed that the temperature in-
creases linearly as the water passes through the tubing at a constant velocity.
A velocity of 9 ft/sec and 100 ft of condenser tubing, are also assumed.
Through the condenser, the water temperature is increased by 25ฐF in 11
seconds.  The discharge duct is taken to be 100 ft of 15- ft diameter pipe,
and the discharge velocity,  7.65 ft/sec.  In this region, the temperature in-
crease remains constant at 25ฐF for 13 seconds. Turbulent flow results in
relatively uniform velocity and temperature profiles, so that it may be as-
sumed that all the water going through the condenser is subjected to the con-
ditions given above.  In the jet,  organisms have different time-temperature
histories, depending on their location with respect to the centerline.  How-
ever,  those organisms on the centerline are subjected to the highest tem-
perature for the longest period of time, and are of primary interest.  In the
zone of flow establishment, the centerline  velocity is a constant at 7.65 ft/sec
over the dimensionless length of S0  = 5.5 (page 7:0), or s = 82 ft for a 15-ft
diameter pipe. In this region, the temperature rise remains at 25ฐF for 11
seconds .
In the  zone of established flow, the centerline velocity and temperature  are
part of the general solution.  The. time in the zone of  established flow is given
by:
                            s
                               /ds
                               ^
                           e
 or, in dimensionless form:
             r
il,   = 1.96   /      -
                                                                     (37)
                                 5.55     C
 The time- temperature history just described is sketched below, up to the be-
 ginning of the zone of established flow where computer results are required.
                                   73

-------
             LU
             t/3
             CC
             Q.
25 -


oc
LLJ
to
LU
Q
Z
0
z
0
Q
LU
/
/
*
/
/
f
U- 1

ID ILU
z is
s!|
ฐ|3
^
p ง
LU ILL.
m,
1
1
1
j
1
1
1
I
LL.1
ฐ'>
^'1 o
2 1 _J
Si"-
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Z'H
C5|LU
LU
OQ|
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                         11
                 24
35  TIME IN SECONDS
Equations (26) through (35), and equation (37), were solved on a digital com-
puter, using the temperature and density profile obtained from the oceano-
graphic data for each site under consideration.  The method by which the
oceanographic data were reduced to the dimensionless form required by the
governing equations, is presented in appendix A.    Before giving results
for each site,  the effect of the ocean surface will be considered.
                                   74

-------
THE EFFECT OF THE OCEAN SURFACE
In an analysis of the thermal field resulting from the discharge of power plant
cooling water, the effect of the surface of the receiving water must be consi-
dered. Eventually all the heat discharge is transferred through this surface
to the atmosphere, the receiving water being simply a heat exchanger in the
overall process.
The surface temperature may be influenced to a considerable extent by the
plant designer who can vary the velocity or the direction, or both, of the cool-
ing water discharge so as to get maximum dilution of the hot stream before
it reaches the ocean surface. For example, a higher discharge velocity for a
horizontal jet will project a longer stream into the receiving water, to result
in a correspondingly greater dilution and thus lower surface  temperatures.
Of course, a proportionately larger  amount of subsurface water is simultan-
eously affected by the warm stream.
From an ecological viewpoint the optimal thermal field for a specific site
must be determined by a marine biologist. It is of interest to note that  the
thermal field for an ocean discharge can be regulated to a much greater de-
gree than for river or coastal discharges.
The thermal and flow fields from a horizontal buoyant jet discharging in the
vicinity of the ocean surface are sketched below.

         	-A   s'~~\   ^-'"
                       77                       TT
    SURFACE FIELD    * y  TRANSITION REGION   )/ SURFACE FIELD
                                                   4	
                                   75

-------
The coordinate system is identical to that already described.  As stated ear-
lier, a literature search reveals a notable lack of analytical methods and
very little experimental work on the combined problem of the buoyant jet and
the surface field, although these problems are treated separately.  The me-
thods for analyzing a buoyant jet in  an infinite fluid were presented previously.
Results, based on these methods,  are applicable  in the jet region shown above
where the surface effect is negligible. The point of departure from the jet
to the transition region cannot be determined at this time.
The other extreme  of the problem, which is the surface field, is treated in
the literature, and  one applicable analysis is that of Lawler et al (20),
who consider an axisymmetric model with uniform conditions over a given
constant field depth h. The authors assume that the heat transfer to the atmo-
sphere is proportional to the temperature difference between the surface and
the atmosphere.  With these assumptions,  the governing  equation becomes
Bessel's equation which has a closed form solution.  Of course, the actual
mechanism of heat  exchange with the environment is very complex, and in-
cludes radiation, conduction, convection, and evaporation as discussed by
Parker and Krenkel (25),  and others. Because of the unknown coefficients
associated with the  actual modes of heat transfer, the author's assumption of
one overall heat transfer coefficient is reasonable and widely accepted.
The governing differential equation for this model of the surface field is:
                                                       = 0
                        dr'

All notation is defined under Nomenclature.  The above equation can be written
in dimensionless form as:

                    d2T*     1          
-------
                            ih=r  r
                            Qs
                     n  = -j—r
The subscript m refers to the mean temperature at the center of the surface
field, and the subscript s refers to the surface field.   The boundary conditions
for equation (38) are:
                      C =  0   T* = 1

and the appropriate solution is:
                       *      9       n
                     T  =
                       s
where r is the gamma function and 1C is the modified Bessel function of the
second kind and of order n.  Equation (39) is valid for all values of n=ป0; how-
ever, in his report, Lawler introduces another solution for n not equal to an
integer.  This solution does not meet the boundary condition as ฃ-~K>   and
is not valid.  This does not change the results given in the report, because
only values of n that are integers are considered, and for this case the authors
use equation (39), which is  valid.  The solution of equation (39) is plotted in
figure llfor several values  of n.
As pointed out by our consultant,  Dr. D. R. F  Harleman, in an unpublished
communication,  there is a more conservative method for predicting the
surface  field.  In order to evaluate equation (39), it is necessary to  choose
values for the surface heat transfer  coefficient K , the thermal diffusion
coefficient E, and the depth of the surface field h.  None of these values
can be predicted with confidence, and results  which depend on all three are
certainly subject to question.  Fortunately, a  solution can be obtained which
eliminates two of these parameters and yields conservatively high results
for the surface temperature.  If thermal diffusion is neglected,   the
                                    77

-------
 Figure 11. A Dimensionless Plot of Surface Field Temperature vs  Radius
 for Various Values of  n
 governing equation becomes:
                       dr  T ฃ„ pg g Cp   re  =
The solution to this equation,  in dimensionless form, is:

                    T*  -  e -NR2
                      o
                                                                     (40)
where
                    N  =
which is independent of the parameters E and h.  Equation (40) is plotted in
figure 12for three values of N.  For a typical surface heat transfer coefficient
of 150 Btu/ft2 day ฐF, and a surface flow rate of Qg = 10 QQ,  the value of
N is 1.4 x 10" . For this condition, the dimensionless surface temperature
is  down to less than 30 percent of the maximum value at a radial distance of
15000 ft.  This is a higher temperature than would be obtained with Lawler's
                                   78

-------
method,  and is conservative in the sense of predicting a more severe
surface field than would actually be obtained.  For this reason, equation
(40) is used to predict the temperature distribution in any surface field
that might arise.
     1.0
  jo .6
   (
  ฃ

* u>  .4
                        N,
                   irK'D2
                                               'O-g
             too
                   200
                         300
                               400
                                     500
                                    r/D
                                           600
                                                 700
                                                      800
                                                            900
                                                                  1000
Figure 12. Surface Temperature vs Radial Distance with No Diffusion (Equa-
tion 40).
The problem to be considered now is that of relating the results for a buoy-
ant jet in an infinite body of water, to the surface field which must be charac-
terized in terms of a flow rate Qs, and a maximum temperature tm.  Because
analytical methods are not available, these values must be estimated from
experimental results which are rather scarce.
Some experimental work was carried out by Frankel et al (13), who measured
concentrations  and,  by implication,  temperatures, in the region where the
jet reaches the surface.   The authors state that, in this region, there is a
great deal of mixing within the jet but very little additional dilution by the
ambient fluid, so that the concentrations are greater than would occur in the
absence of the ocean surface.  Also, the authors found that the maximum sur-
face concentration is the same as the concentration at a certain point on the
centerline of a  buoyant jet in an infinite body of fluid.   This point is at a
vertical height  which is 75 percent of the surface height.  An estimate of
                                   79

-------
the depth of the surface field, and  the size of the transition region where the
buoyant jet becomes a surface field,  are presented by Hart (17), based on the
experimental work of Rawn et al (28).  The author gives the relative dimen-
sions in a sketch as shown below.
Based on the above information,  the following assumptions are made to re-
late the jet region to the surface field:
     1.    The path of the jet centerline is unaffected by the ocean surface.
           This determines the  center of the surface field,  and the dimen-
           sionless centerline path length Ss, which was normalized with
           respect to the discharge diameter D.
     2.    There is no further jet dilution above a vertical height which is
           75 percent of the surface height, so that the mean temperature
           and How rate at this point may be used to characterize the surface
           field.
                                 80

-------
     3.    The surface field is antisymmetric and uniformly mixed over the
           depth h, so that tg = tg (r).
The last assumption neglects the jet momentum which would result in a thicker
field in the direction in which the jet was pointed. The limiting case is when
the jet centerline is normal to the surface, and  the resulting field is truly
axisymmetric.
Using the above assumptions, the temperature distribution in the surface field
can be estimated by the following procedure:
      1.    Plot the thermal field and centerline path for a buoyant jet in an
           infinite fluid, using methods described previously.
      2.   Superimpose the ocean surface at ฅ„.
                                             s
      3.   Determine tm and Qg at Y = 0. 75  Ys, from computer results
           obtained in step 1.
      4.   Compute N and determine the temperature distribution in the
           surface field from equation (40), or figure  12.
Results predicted with the method outlined above are approximate but con-
servative in nature.  A thorough treatment of this problem would involve ex-
tensive analytical or experimental investigations beyond the scope of this
study.  It is shown later that the surface fields at each site are sufficiently
low in temperature so that the exact description of the temperature distribu-
tion is not critical.
                                   81

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APPLICATION OF RESULTS TO SPECIFIC SITES
In this section, the analyses developed previously and in appendix B  are
applied to the four chosen sites. Of necessity,  the results involve assump-
tions and engineering judgment, but are made on a conservative or worst
case basis.  For this reason, the predicted thermal field is larger, and higher
in temperature, than would be expected at each site.   The thermal field for
the basic model of a single horizontal discharge,  is determined for each site
in both the summer and winter.  These seasons represent extreme conditions,
under which different thermal fields may be considered acceptable. The lines
of constant temperature difference from the ambient are predicted for 1.5ฐF
in the summer, and 4ฐF in the winter. The choice of  these values is in keep-
ing with the New York  State standards (27), and the federal guidelines,  which
are  discussed elsewhere.   The mixing zone is defined as  that region where
the temperature difference exceeds the above standards.
In the oceanographic data presented in volume 2,  maximum, minimum, and
average values are given for density,  temperature, and salinity at each site.
Considering all three cases is not warranted, and the  maximum value of tem-
perature and the corresponding minimum value of density are used.  This
choice ensures that the maximum temperature is  being considered, although
it is possible that other combinations of temperature and  density may result
in larger mixing zones.
The boundary effect, due to the ocean surface, is estimated by using the pro-
cedure outlined on page 81.  In this procedure,  the flow rate and maximum
temperature of the surface field are taken to be the flow  rate and mean tempera-
ture of the jet at a certain vertical height from the point of discharge.  This
height is 75 percent of  the vertical distance to the surface.  This is taken as
the transition point between the jet and the surface field.  If the mixing zone,
as predicted for a buoyant jet in an infinite body of fluid,  lies wholly below
this  transition point, then the resulting surface field is sufficiently low in
temperature to meet the standards, and the temperature distribution is not
predicted.
The  combination of the results for  a current and stratification presents a
more difficult problem. The analysis described in appendix B considers
a buoyant jet in an infinite, homogeneous fluid,  with a current of arbitrary

                                  82

-------
direction.  However, the results depend on two constants which must be de-
termined experimentally; at present, they are available only for a vertical
jet in a cross flow (11).  As was done in appendix B,  this difficulty can be
overcome, for some cases, by choosing values for the constants that yield
results for the worst case. These constants were used to obtain the results
shown by figure 13, which predicts the deflection of the jet centerline for vari-
ous current velocities in a homogeneous fluid.  The amount of deflection is
not highly dependent on the Froude number, which varies from site to site,
with an average value of about six.  On this basis, the results shown by
figure 13are applied to all sites. Only the cases of a following and an oppos-
ing current have been considered, because these represent the worst condi-
tions with respect to extending the size of the thermal field, and recirculat-
ing condenser discharge.
    -16
                                                               64
                                      x/D
 Figure 13  Centerline Paths of a Horizontal Buoyant Jet Discharging into an
 Infinite Body of Homogeneous Fluid with Various Following (+) and Opposing
 (-) Current Conditions.  F = 6.0

 In a stratified fluid, the effect of a current on the jet is approximated by a
 single, horizontal translation of the jet centerline by an amount equal to that
 given by figure 13.  In other words, a point on the jet centerline in a stratified

                                   83

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fluid, at a vertical distance y, is shifted horizontally by the same amount as
a jet in a homogeneous fluid with a current at the same vertical distance.
It is assumed that the isotherms are translated in the same manner.
The only justification for this procedure is,  that the results of figure 13 are
conservative to such a degree that the application of the method outlined above
also yields conservative results.
Using the methods just discussed, and the ambient temperature and density
distribution given in appendix B, the thermal fields for the chosen sites are
predicted below.

Waters off Southeastern Florida
In the case of the waters off Southeastern Florida, the thermal field with no
current is predicted and the results shown by figure 14for the summer, and
figure 15for the winter. Additional jet centerline paths are shown for a 2-knot
current, both following and opposing, and for a 4-knot following current.
The paths were determined by the method described previously.  The 2-knot
and 4-knot current magnitudes are the highest values given in the oceano-
graphic data for the Southeastern Florida site.  The 4-knot case is due to
occasional excursions of the Gulf Stream into the site,  resulting in a high
velocity toward the north.  It is assumed that the condenser discharges to the
north so that the 4-knot opposing current need not be considered. The 2-knot
case represents a maximum condition under normal circumstances.   The
velocity can be either northerly or southerly, so both a following and an op-
posing current must be considered.
From figure 14it can be seen  that, in the summer, the jet only rises about
130 ft.   Actually, at 80 ft from the bottom, the jet centerline temperature is
the same as the ambient ocean temperature, but the vertical momentum car-
ries the jet another 50 ft.   The ocean surface, to a depth of 150 ft, is unaffec-
ted thermally by the condenser discharge.  The gross effect is an insignificant
thickening of the epilimnion caused by the addition of the heated water.  If the
jet were discharging into a confined body of water, such as a lake, the thic-
kened epilimnion would alter  the cycle by which the thermal stratification
changes during the year.  The same phenomenon occurs in the sea but to a
minute degree.  Tidal currents and coastal drift ensure that, for all practical

                                   84

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                                  SURFACE
 I
                                            TERMINAL RISE OF JET
                         VOLUME = 2 x 105 FT3
     0      60     12ฐ     180     240     300     360     420     75   80  85   90  95
                            HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
   240
Figure 14.  Thermal Field for the Site Off Southeastern Florida in the Summer
under Extreme Following (+) and Opposing (-) Currents.  F = 5.35
  240
   -60
                60
                      120
 180    240    300

HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
                                                360
                                                      420
                                                            480
75  80  85  90

   DEGREESF
Figure 15. Thermal Field for the Site Off Southeastern Florida in the Winter
under  Extreme Following (+) and Opposing  (-) Currents.  F = 5.35
                                     85

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 purposes, the discharge water is thermally indistinguishable from the ambi-
 ent water beyond the region shown in figure 14.
 In the summer, the volume of the mixing zone is 2 x 105 ft  , which can be
 compared with the maximum mixing zone of the planned Shoreham Nuclear
 Power Station. The latter zone will probably have an average depth of 15 ft*
 and a maximum radius of 300 ft, giving a volume of 42.4 x 105 ft .  This
 coastal power station, which will be one of the first to meet the stringent
 New York State requirements, will affect a body of water about 20 times
 larger than would a deep water ocean installation.
 In winter, the jet reaches the surface as shown in figure 15,but at a depth of
 60 ft, which is the transition point, the centerline temperature rise is less than
 3ฐF.  Equation (36) gives a maximum surface temperature rise of tm - ta =
 0.573 x 3 = 1.72ฐF.  This value easily meets the winter standards, and it
 can be seen that the mixing zone ends below a depth of 90 ft, so that  the ocean
 surface is not affected by the discharge water.   The volume of the mixing
 zone is the same as in the summer.
 A further item of interest is the temperature-time history of the  cooling
 water, which is the environment of the organisms drawn through  the  con-
 denser.  Considering the centerline (the hottest portion of the jet), the lower
 curve of figure legives  the duration of the maximum temperature  to which
 the plankton could be exposed.  Also shown by figure 16is the jet flow rate
 as a function of time.  It can be seen that the flow rate of the jet increases
 by entrainment to about nine times the condenser flow rate before a surface
 field is formed in the winter.  The entrainment occurs at the periphery of the
 jet where the temperatures are the lowest, so that most of the entrained water
 never reaches the maximum centerline temperature given by figure  16.

 Gulf of Maine
 The mixing zone and jet centerline paths for maximum current conditions in
 the selected Gulf of Maine area, are shown by figure 17 for the summer and
 for the winter. The 1-knot current is the highest value given in the oceano-
 graphic data for the Gulf of Maine site.  The ambient temperature distribution
*Taken from an abstract of a Long Island Lighting Co report entitled Environ-
 mental Statement, Shoreham Nuclear Power Station, Plant Unit 1; Docket
 50-322, June  1, 1970.
                                   86

-------
         10
      0ฐ
                                                     1
                                 A -END OF CONDENSER

                                 B -BEGINNING OF THE
                                   ZONE OF FLOW
                                   ESTABLISHMENT

                                 C -BEGINNING OF THE
                                   ZONE OF ESTAB-
                                   LISHED FLOW

                                 D -JETCENTERLINE
                                   TEMP. REACHES
                                   AMBIENT (SUMMER)

                                 E -JET FORMS A
                                   SURFACE FIELD
                                   (WINTER)
                                                           Q0-CONDENSER FLOW
                                                             RATE = 1355 FT3/SEC
                                                             OR 600,000 GPM
                  20
 40       60
TIME IN SECONDS
                                                    100
Figure 16. Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temp Rise vs Time for Flow in
the Condenser and Jet for the Site off Southeastern Florida in the Summer
and Winter with  Zero Current.
                                      87

-------
                                           SURFACE
z
X
   60
   120
   180
   240
                 -1Kt
            60      120
                                        TERMINAL RISE OF JET
                                     OKt
                                 t-ta=1.5ฐF
                                 VOLUME = 4.06 x 105 FT3
                                                       • +1Kt
180      240     300

HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
                                                   360     420
50   55   60   65  70

     DEGREESF
                                 In the Summer.  F  = 6.18
                                             SURFACE
   240
                                                            TEMP.
">







ENT""











*

















1
1
1
1
1
1
I C
. T
1
1
\
\







ENTER
=yp.




i
S
X




LINE








V
                    120      180
                                    240     300      360
                                 HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
                               420
                                       45
                                           50   55   60
                                              DEGREES F
                                                       65
                                In the Winter.  F = 6. 48
 Figure  17.   Thermal Field for the Gulf of Maine Site under  Extreme Follow-
                    ing (+) and Opposing (-) Currents
                                          88

-------
is characterized by a sharp, but relatively shallow, thermocline in the sum-
mer,  and an isothermal profile in the winter.  In the summer, the jet center-
line temperature is reduced to that of the ambient at a depth of about 100 ft,
and the jet does not rise appreciably beyond this point.  The ocean surface is
completely unaffected at depths less than 100 ft.  The 1.5ฐF mixing zone ter-
minates at a depth of about 120 ft and has a volume of 4.06 x 105 ft3.

In the winter, the mixing zone terminates at a depth of about 60 ft, which is
the transition point between a buoyant jet and a surface field for a depth of
240 ft.  Using equation (36), the maximum temperature of the surface field
is found to be:

                     tm - ta = 0.573x4 = 2.3ฐF

This  value is well within the winter standards,  and it  can be seen that the
ocean surface is relatively unaffected to a depth of 60 ft.  The volume of the
mixing zone is 2.9 x 10 * ft3 in the winter.
The maximum temperature and flow rate versus time of the cooling water
and the jet are shown by figure 18.  These results are similar to those of
the Southeastern  Florida waters except in the summer, when the jet reaches
the ambient temperature much more quickly in the Florida area.

The New York Bight
The mixing zone and jet centerline temperatures for the selected region of
the New York Bight, are plotted in figure 19 for the summer, and figure 20
for the winter.  The maximum current expected at this site is 0. 5 knot, so that
that the centerline paths given in the figures for a 1-knot current are clearly
worst cases.  The ambient temperature distribution is similar to that of the
Gulf of Maine site except that the stratification in the summer is more
severe in the bight.  The mixing zone volumes  are 3.95 x 10  ft  in the sum-
mer, and 2.8 x 105 ft3 in the winter.  The surface field that forms in the
winter is practically identical to that at the  Maine site,  and has a maximum
temperature rise of 2.3ฐF.  In the summer, the jet centerline temperature
reaches that of ambience about 100 ft from the  bottom, so that the sea water
is unaffected thermally to a depth of about 140 ft.
                                   89

-------
        10
                                                         A - END OF CONDENSER

                                                         B -BEGINNING OF THE
                                                            ZONE OF FLOW
                                                            ESTABLISHMENT

                                                         C -BEGINNING OF THE
                                                            ZONE OF ESTAB-
                                                            LISHED FLOW

                                                         D -JETCENTERLINE
                                                            TEMP. REACHES
                                                            AMBIENT (SUMMER)

                                                         E -JET FORMS A
                                                            SURFACE FIELD
                                                            (WINTER)

                                                         Q0- CONDENSER FLOW
                                                            RATE = 1355 FT3/SEC
                                                            OR 600,000 GPM
      u.
      o
      ta
      oc
      a.'
                  20      40       60

                         TIME IN SECONDS
80      100
Figure 18.  Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temp Rise vs Time for Flow in
the Condenser and Jet at the Gulf of Maine Site in the Summer and Winter
with Zero Current
                                     90

-------
  60
ฃ 120
I
  180
  240
              i
*


\
           60
                              OKI
                '/
                                              SURFACE
                                      TERMINAL RISE
                                      OF JET
            VOLUME =3.95 x 105 FT3
           	I	L_
                  120     180     240      300

                         HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
                                                      +1Kt
                               360     420
                                                                   AMBIENT
                                                                   TEMP.
                                                                        CENTERLINE
                                                                        TEMP.
                                              50  55   60  65  70  75

                                                    DEGREES F
Figure  19.  Thermal Field for the New York Bight Site in the Summer under
Extreme Following (+) and Opposing  (-) Currents.  F = 6-12
                                          SURFACE
                            t - ta = 4ฐF
                            VOLUME = 2.8 x 105 FT3
  240
           60
                  120
          180      240     300     360

               HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
                                                      420
IKtx


AMB



ENT
TEMP. ^-ป.










1






CE
•""TE

\
\
\
V
\

1
MTERLINE
VIP.





i^
X








                                                               45  50   55  60   65
Figure 20.  Thermal Field for the New York Bight Site in the Winter under
Extreme Following (+) and Opposing (-) Currents.  F = 6.17
                                       91

-------
The flow rate and jet centerline temperature versus time are shown by figure
21. Again, the results are similar to those in the Gulf of Maine area except
that, in the summer, the centerline temperature reaches ambient level more
quickly in the bight.

Waters off Southern California
In regard to the waters off the southern Californian coast, the mixing zones
and jet centerline temperatures are shown in figure 22 for the summer, and
in figure 23 for the winter.  The maximum current at this site is less than
0.7 kt. The mixing zones in the summer and winter are similar,  and ter-
minate below a depth of 120 ft.
In summer,  as in winter, the predicted terminal rise of  the jet is  beyond the
transition point where the jet forms a surface field.  In both cases, the cen-
terline temperature reaches ambient level before the transition point,  so that
the surface field is formed because of momentum and is  at the ambient tem-
perature. The ocean surface is unaffected thermally to a depth of 100 ft all
year.  The mixing zone volume is 3. 5 x 105 ft? in the summer, and 1.75 x 10
ft? in the winter.  The  flow rate and centerline temperature versus time are
plotted in figure 24, and are similar to those at the other sites.

CONDENSER DISCHARGE RECIRCULATION
Li any  power plant installation, heated discharge water should not be recircu-
lated through the condenser.  This possibility is  minimized in a deep water
plant where the condenser intake is at the bottom and the heated water rises.
For the entrainment of discharge water to occur, the intake suction must
overcome the discharge buoyancy. Flow under these conditions is governed
by the  dynamics  of a nonhomogeneous fluid as discussed  by several authors
(5, 15, 37).  An  estimate of the inlet velocity required to recirculate the
discharge water  can be obtained from an equation given by D. R. F. Harle-
man (15). The equation and geometry for the two-layered axisymmetric model
are given below.
                                  92

-------
     Q/QO
                            A  END OF CONDENSER

                            B -BEGINNING OF THE
                               ZONE OF FLOW
                               ESTABLISHMENT

                            C -BEGINNING OF THE
                               ZONE OF ESTAB-
                               LISHED FLOW

                            D -JETCENTERLINE
                               TEMP. REACHES
                               AMBIENT (SUMMER)

                            E -JET FORMS A
                               SURFACE FIELD
                               (WINTER)

                            Q0-CONDENSER FLOW
                               RATE=1355FT3/SEC
                               OR 600,000 GPM
      1/3
      oc
                   20
 40       60

TIME IN SECONDS
                                            80
                                                    100
Figure 21   Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temp Rise vs Time for Flow in
SfSSidiser and^efaTthe New York Bight Site in the Summer and Winter
with Zero Current
                                      93

-------
                                          SURFACE
  240
           60
                         180      240     300
                         HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
                                                        + 1Kt
                             t-ta=1.5ฐF
                             VOLUME = 3.5 x 106 FT3
                                I       I
                                              360     420
              55 60  65   70  75
                    DEGREES F
Figure 22.  Thermal Field for the Southern California Site in the Summer
under Extreme Following (+) and Opposing (-) Currents.   F = 5.74
                                              SURFACE
  240
                         180     240     300
                             HORIZONTAL DISTANCE (FT)
360     420
                                                                         CENTERLINE
                                                                     f	TEMP
                         t - ta = 4ฐF
                         VOLUME = 1.75 x 105 FT3
               55  60  65   70  75
                     DEGREES F
Figure 23.  Thermal Field for the Southern California Site in the Winter
under Extreme Following (+) and Opposing (-) Currents.  F = 5.62
                                      94

-------
           10
       Q/Q0
                                          A
A -END OF CONDENSER

B -BEGINNING OF THE
   ZONE OF FLOW
   ESTABLISHMENT

C  BEGINNING OF THE
   ZONE OF ESTAB-
   LISHED FLOW

D -JETCENTERLINE
   TEMP. REACHES
   AMBIENT (SUMMER)

E -JETCENTERLINE
   TEMP. REACHES
   AMBIENT (WINTER)

DO - CONDENSER FLOW
   RATE = 1355FT3/SEC
   OR 600,000 GPM
         —
         tr
         a.'
         ai
           10
                     20      40       60

                             TIME IN SECONDS
                                               80
                                                      100
Figure 24.  Flow Rate Ratio and Maximum Temp Rise vs Time for Flow in
the Condenser and Jet at the Southern California Site in the Summer and
Winter with Zero Current
                                       95

-------
                                         I
                                                  ป
                                                                     (41)
Any velocity greater than Vc will cause ingestion of the heated layer.  Equa-
tion (41) can be written in terms of the flow rate Qo,  to give the following
relationship between the distance yc and the density difference (PI - p
                        5 _
                                                                     (42)
                 v
With QQ = 1355 ft /sec,  and using a linear relationship between temperature

and density,  equation (42) is plotted as figure  25.
                    36
                   5 32
                    24
                    20
                           REGION
                           OF INGESTION
                                10     15     20

                                  t2-t| IN DEGREES f.
                                                 26
                                                      30
Figure 25.  A Plot of Eq (42) Showing the Minimum Vertical Separation to
Prevent Ingestion of a Heated Layer at Temp to through Inlet at ti (see sketch
above), with a Flow Rate of 1355 ft3/sec
                                    96

-------
The results show that recirculation can be avoided if any part of the jet that
has a temperature in excess of the ambient, remains at least 50 ft above the
inlet.  Although these results are based on a rough model of the actual geo-
metry, they do indicate the approximate extent of the required separation.
The worst  case arises when the current carries the condenser discharge in
the direction of the inlet.  This  is why the centerline displacement for an
opposing current is plotted for each site, although the values chosen are con-
siderably higher than the bottom current which is usually much less than 2
knots. The results, and the general shape of the isotherms in the jet, pro-
vide some  insight as to the thermal field in the vicinity of the inlet.  There
are also design options such as  arranging the discharge to flow in the direc-
tion of the  prevailing current, and positioning it above the inlet.
In summary, recirculation can be avoided by controlling the thermal field to
the extent possible with a deep water discharge, although model tests may be
required for a final design.

COMMENTARY
All thermal fields presented for the specific sites illustrate the advantages
of a deep water discharge.  Although this may appear to be an obvious con-
tention, the results given herein provide support for it.
The mixing zones are considerably smaller than those of a coastal installa-
tion,  and are confined to the lower regions of the ocean sites.  The biological
aspects of  this are discussed elsewhere.  The thermal fields are predicted
for the basic model of a single-point discharge with no attempt at optimiza-
tion.  In every  case, the mixing zone ends before either a surface or sub-
surface field is established. This is an important finding because, in a sur-
face field,  the temperature decreases very slowly with distance, and it would
be difficult to meet the thermal  standards if the maximum temperature rise
exceeded the allowable values of 1. 5ฐF in the summer, and 4ฐF in the winter.
Furthermore, such a field might affect shoal areas by drifting or upwelling.
This situation does not develop in any of the cases treated here, because there
is enough dilution of the jet so that the maximum  temperature rise at the sur-
face is safely below the thermal standards.
                                   97

-------
It is emphasized that these results are obtained using rather arbitrarily
chosen values for the condenser operating condition and discharge design.
For any given deep water site, these variables could be manipulated to give
an improved thermal field.  Similarly, any possibility of recirculating the
condenser cooling water can be precluded.
                                 98

-------
REFERENCES


 1.      Abraham,  G.,  "Horizontal Jets in Stagnant Fluid of Other Density, "
        J. of Hydraulics Div.. ASCE, July 1965, pp 139-154.
 2.      Albertson, M.L., Dai, Y.B.,  Jensen, R.A., and Rouse, H.,
        "Diffusion of Submerged Jets, " ASCE Trans. Paper 2409.
 3.      Arnason, G.,  "Estuary Modelling, " Center for the  Environment and
        Man, Inc., Hartford, Conn., March 1970.
 4.      Baumgartner, D. J ,  and Trent, D. S., "Ocean Outfall Design^'
        Part I,  FWQA,  Northwest Re gion,  Pacific  Northwest Water Lab
        Corvallis, Oregon, Ap 1970.
 5.      Brooks, N. H.,  and Koh, C. Y., "Selective  Withdrawal from Density
        - Stratified Reservoirs. " J.  of Hydraulics Div., ASCE, July 1969,
        pp 1369-1400.
 6.      Csanady, G. T., "The Buoyant  Motion within a Hot  Gas Plume in
        a Horizontal Wind, " J.  of Fluid Mech.. v 22, n 2,  1965, pp 225-
        239.
 7.      Ditmars, J. D., "Computer Program for Round Buoyant  Jets into
        Stratified Ambient Environments,  "  W. M.  Keck Laboratory of
        Hydraulics and Water Resources,  California Institute of Technology,
        TM-69-1,  March  1969.
 8.      Edinger, J.E.,  and Geyer,  J.C.,  "Analyzing Steam Electric
        Power Plant Discharge, " J.  Sanitary Engr., ASCE, SA4, 1968,
        pp 611-623.
 9.      Edinger, J.E.,  and Geyer,  J.C.  "Heat Exchange in the Environ-
        ment," Edison Electric Institute, June 1,  1965.
 10.     Edinger, J. E ,  and Polk, E. M., "Initial Mixing of Thermal
        Discharge into a Uniform Current", Report Number 1, Dept. of
        Environmental and Water Resources Engineering,  Vanderbilt
        University, Oct 1969.
                                  99

-------
11.      Fan, L.N.,  "Turbulent Buoyant Jets into Stratified or Flowing
        Ambient Fluids, " Report KH-R-15,  W. M. Keck Laboratory of
        Hydraulics and Water Resources,  California Institute of Technology,
        1967.
12.      Fan, L. N.,  and Brooks,  N. H., "Numerical Solutions of Turbulent
        Buoyant Jet  Problems," Report KH-R-18, W. M. Keck Laboratory,
        California Institute of Technology, Jan 1969.
13.      Frankel, R.J., and Gumming, J.D. "Turbulent Mixing Phenomena
        of Ocean Outfalls, "   J. of Sanitary Eng.,  ASCE, April 1965,
        pp 33-58.
14.      Grigg,  H.R.,  and Stewart, R.W., "Turbulent Diffusion in a
        Stratified Fluid," J. of Fluid Mechanics, v 15,  1963, pp 174-186.
15.      Harleman, D.R.F.,  "Stratified Flow, " Handbook of Fluid Dynamics,
        ch 26,  Streeter, V. L., ed.,  McGraw-Hill Book Co., N. Y., 1961.
16.      Harleman, D.R.F.,  Hall, L. C., and Curtis, T.G., "Thermal
        Diffusion of  Condenser Water in a River During  Steady and Unsteady
        Flows, " MIT Hydro.  Lab., Report 111, Sept  1968.
17.      Hart, W. E., "Jet Discharge into a Fluid with a Density Gradient, "
        AD 250-244, J. of Hyd. Div.. ASCE, v 87,  HY6, Nov 1961,  pp
        171-200.
18.      "Industrial Waste  Guide on Thermal Pollution, " Dept. of the
        Interior, Sept  1968.
19.      Keefer, J. F., and Baines, W.D., "The Round Turbulent Jet in a
        Cross Wind, " J.  of Fluid Mechanics, v 15,  n 4, 1963,  pp 481-496.
20.      Lawler, J.P.,  Leporate, J. L., and Lawler, P.J., "Receiving
        Water Temperature Distribution from Power Plant Thermal
        Discharges -- A Lake Model," Quirk, Lawler,  Matsuky Engineers,
        Environmental Science and Engineering Consultants, 505 Fifth Ave.,
        N. Y.
                                 100

-------
21.      Morton,  B.R., "On a Momentum Mass Flux Diagram for Turbulent
        Jets,  Plumes, and Wakes, "  J. of Fluid Mechanics, v 10, n 1, 1961,
        pp 101-112.

22.      Morton,  B.R., "Forced Plumes, " J.  of Fluid Mechanics, v 5,
        1959, pp 151-163.
23.      Morton,  B.R., Taylor, G.I., and Turner,  J.S.,  "Turbulent
        Gravitational Convection from Maintained and Instantaneous Sources, "
        Proceedings. Royal Society.  Series A, London, England, v 234,
        1956, pp 1-23.
24.      Okubo, A., "Preliminary Report on the 'Rising-Plume'  Problem in
        the Sea, " NY0-3109-28, Chesapeake Bay  Institute, Johns Hopkins
        University, July  1967,
25.      Parker,  F. L., and Krenkel, P. A., "Thermal Pollution:  Status of
        the Art," Report  3, Dept.  of Environmental and Water Resources
        Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Dec  1969.
26.      Parker,  F. L. $ and Krenkel, P. A., Engineering Aspects of Thermal
        Pollution,  Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, Tennessee, 1969.
27.      Philbin,  T.W.,  and Philipp,  H.D., "Thermal Effects Studies  in
        New York  State",  Presented  at the Intl Atomic Energy Agency
        Symposium on Environmental Aspects of Nuclear Power  Stations,
        UN Hdqfers, N. Y.  Aug 12, 1970.
28.      Rawn, A.M. ,  Bowerman, F.R., and Brooks, N. H., "Diffusers
        for Disposal of Sewage in Sea Water, " J.  of Sanitary Engr.  Div.,
        ASCE, March 1960, pp 65-105.
29.      Ricou, F. P., and Spalding,  D. B.,  "Measurements of Entrainment
        by Axisymmetrical Turbulent Jets, " J. of Fluid Mechanics, v 11,
        1961, pp 21-32.
30.     Sami,  S.,  Carmody, T.,  and Rouse,  H., "Jet Diffusion  in the
        Region of Flow Establishment, "  J. of Fluid Mechanics,  v 27,
        1967, pp 231-252.
                                 101

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31.      Seaders, J.,  and Delay, W. H.,  "Predicting Temperatures in
        Rivers and Reservoirs. " J. Sanitary Eng., ASCE, 92, SA1, 1966,
        pp 115-134.
32.      Sundaram, T.R., Easterbrook,  C.C., Prech, K.R., and Rudinger,
        G.,  "An Investigation of the Physical Effects of Thermal Discharge
        into Cayuga Lake, " CAL No. VT-2616-0-2, Cornell Aero. Labs.,
        Nov 1969.
33.      Trentacoste,  N., and Sforza,  P.M.,  "An Experimental Investigation
        of Three-Dimensional Free Mixing in Incompressible,  Turbulent,
        Free Jets, " Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Mar 1966.
34.      Tyldesley, J.R., "Transport Phenomena in the Turbulent Flows, "
        Int.  J. of Heat and Mass Transfer, v 12, 1959,  pp 489-496.
35.      Vizel,  Y. M., and Mostinskii,  I. L., "Deflection of a Jet Injected
        into a Stream, "  J. of Engineering Physics, v 8, n 2, 1965, pp 160-
        163.
36.      Wygnanski, I., "Two-Dimensional Turbulent Jet in a Uniform,
        Parallel Stream, "  AIAA Journal, v 7, n 1, Jan 1969.
37.      Yih,  C.S.,  'Dynamics of Nonhomogeneous Fluids , Macmillan
        Co., N.Y., 1965.
                                 102

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                           NOMENCLATURE

English Symbols

                     dimensionless local characteristic radius
                     local characteristic radius (ft)
                     specific heat (Btu/lb ฐF)
                     discharge jet  diameter (ft)
                     thermal diffusion coefficient (ft2/sec)

                          densimetric Froude number
                                                     n
                     gravitational acceleration (ft/see )
                     dimensionless surface field depth
                     surface field depth (ft)
                     surface heat transfer coefficient (Btu/ft sec  ฐF)

K =	T-          temperature dissipation coefficient (I/sec)
        D
k =                  dimensionless local variable defined  in equation (3)

     7rK*D2
N =  7=5	        dimensionless parameter
           cp
n =                  dimensionless parameter
 P =  -         dimensionless density ratio
     %a - po
 Q =                  flow rate (ft3/sec)
 R = r/D             dimensionless radial distance from the jet centerline
 r =                  radial distance from jet centerline (ft)
 S = s/D             dimensionless distance along the jet centerline
 s =                  distance along jet centerline (ft)
                                   103

-------
T*  =  -? - —     dimensionless surface temperature
  8
                   dimensionless temperature ratio
             -
        o~  oa
                                ฐ
t   =              temperature (F)
U  = u/u          dimensionless velocity ratio
u   =              velocity (ft/sec)
          o
V  = v/D         dimensionless volume
                             q
v   =              volume (ft )
X  = x/D         dimensionless horizontal coordinate
x   =              horizontal coordinate (ft)
Y  = y/D         dimensionless vertical coordinate
y   =              vertical coordinate (ft)
Greek Symbols
oc  =              dimensionless entrainment coefficient
ft  =              angle of inclination of the jet center line (radians)
*7  =              time (sec)
y  =              dimensionless constant temperature difference
A.   =              dimensionless turbulent Schmidt number
At   =              dimensionless local variable defined in equation (4)
                                       Q  A
P   =              water density (Ib-sec /ft )
e   = tg - ta       surface temperature difference (ฐF)

          r        dimensionless surface radius
                                  104

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Subscripts

a   =               condition in the ambient fluid
c   =               condition at the jet centerline
e   =               end of zone of flow establishment
y   =               condition on a surface of constant  temperature difference
m  =               mean condition
o   =               condition in the jet at the point of discharge
oa =               condition in the ambient fluid at the discharge depth
s   =               surface

Note:               barred quantities are functions of both R and S
                                    105

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                               Section 6
          POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF THERMAL DISCHARGES
                      ON MARINE POPULATIONS

Despite a large literature concerning the effects of temperature on marine
organisms, the available information generally cannot be used to predict
quantitatively the ecological effects of thermal discharges. The reasons are:
      1.    The various responses to anticipated temperature changes of or-
           ganisms important to offshore sites have not been studied.
      2.    The coefficients relating responses to temperature changes have
           not been derived.
      3.    The distribution of various organisms in space and time, and
           their interdependence, have not been defined in the detail re-
           quired.
      4.    The physiochemical environment at sites of thermal discharges
           is not known in sufficient detail.
The physiological or behavioral response of organisms to thermal discharge
can range from the beneficial  to the lethal. The response depends on the
change in temperature, the rate of change, the period of exposure to the new
temperature, the physiological state of the organism, and the environment
of the organism when subjected to the thermal change.  Similar considerations
apply to any other environmental influence; some of these are discussed
briefly below.

PLANT OR ANIMAL CONSIDERATIONS
Plants and animals evolve through a succession of stages, generally distin-
guishable morphologically.  Each stage may respond to or be affected by an
environmental influence differently.  As a consequence, when plants or ani-
mals are studied to determine tolerances, biological characteristics such as
life stage, age, size, weight,  physiological state, adaptive state, prior environ-
mental history, and genetic constitution, must be defined as  carefully as pos-
sible,  if the experimentally determined tolerances are to be  generally useful.
Definition of  all these factors  is technically difficult and compromises are
                       i
generally made.

                                   107

-------
The survival of an organism depends on:
      1.    Maintenance of subcellular organization as determined genetically.
      2.    Availability of an energy supply and environment suitable for
           growth and sustenance.
      3.    The capacity to reproduce at a satisfactory rate.
Environmental influences on an organism are often termed normal, optimal,
sublethal, or lethal. Normal refers to the  range of environmental conditions
that an organism generally experiences in its habitat, and with which it can
successfully cope for survival. Optimal refers to environmental conditions
in which energy expended by the organism for survival is minimal.  An organ-
ism barely capable of coping with an influence, but capable of adjusting to it
or regaining its former viability if the influence is removed in time, is said
to be stressed or subjected to a sublethal influence.  When the organism's
ability to adjust is  exceeded, and the effect on it becomes irreversible be-
cause of subcellular disorganization, the environmental influence is termed
lethal. A highly idealized curve giving rate of response to environmental in-
fluences is shown in figure 26 to illustrate these relationships.  Responses of
organisms to environmental influences are  largely exponential functions.
Biologists use many different measurements of life processes in assessing
the effects of the environment.  These can be conveniently grouped into four
categories: physiological, morphological, behavioral, and populational. Some
examples of these measurements  are:
      Physiological -- photosynthetic rate,  respiratory rate, feeding rate,
      digestion rate, heart beat rate, fecundity, susceptibility to parasites
     and disease,  and enzyme activity.
     Morphological -- mean size, ontogenetic development, and chromosome
     aberrations.
     Behavioral -- swimming speed, success in food capture,  migration,
     and spatial distribution.
     Populational  -- growth rate and reproduction  or mortality rate for popu-
     lations of single, specific organisms; diversity indices for populations
     of mixed organisms.
                                  108

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                             PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT
                            ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCE
    Figure 26.  Idealized Rate of Response to Environmental Influence

Physiological, morphological, or behavioral measurements are used primarily
in defining the optimal or sublethal environmental influences, while measure-
ments of populational characteristics are used for establishing lethal as well
as optimal or sublethal effects.

CONSIDERATIONS INVOLVING ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS
Environmental characteristics used in describing the environment under vari-
ous circumstances are often grouped under physical, chemical, geological,
and biological headings as shown by table 10.  Some features that are biologi-
cally important are given under each heading.
It is important to note the many characteristics that collectively define environ-
ment, the many interactions possible between organisms and their environment,
and the interdependence of many physical or chemical characteristics  even in
the absence of life.   For example, if temperature is increased, water viscosity
and the solubility of dissolved gases will diminish. In evaluating thermal effects,

                                   109

-------
       Table 10.  Classification of Environmental Characteristics
Physical
Chemical
Biological
Temperature
  Absolute
  Rate of change
  Duration
  Distribution in space/
    time
Salinity
  As above
  Density

Pressure
  Absolute
  Rate of Change

Light
  Intensity
  Quality
  Photoperiodicity
  Turbidity
  Distribution

Dissolved gases (O9,
C02,  etc)
  Quantity
  Distribution in space/
    time
Water circulation
  Direction
  Rate
  Period

Boundary conditions
  Estuary, ocean
  Intertidal, benthic,
    pelagic, etc.
Nutrients:  inorganic     Species
  and organic
  Kinds
  Quantities
  Oxidation states
  Distribution in space/
    time
  Essential-nonessential
  Stimulatory -- inhibi-
    tory-lethal
  PH
  Numbers and kinds
  Mass and size
  Life stages
  Distribution in space/time
  Metabolic role
  Ecological role
          Geological
          Substrate classification
          Mineral composition
          Quantity of organic matter
          Topography
therefore, indirect as well as direct temperature effects on living organisms

must be considered.  The indirect effects in some cases may be more impor-

tant than the effects of the temperature increase itself.


ECOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Considering the thousands of species of organisms involved and the compli-
cations mentioned above, it must be apparent that ecology — the study of

organisms interacting with their environment — is a very complex subject.
                                  110

-------
Consequently, certain simplifications are commonly employed.  For example,
plants and animals associated with one another are classified into communities
based on the dominant species, or grouped into trophic levels.  Thus, phyto-
plankton as a group are used as a measure of primary productivity, and
ecological stability is evaluated in terms of diversity indices.  The point is
that ecology has not progressed far enough to accurately predict power plant
influences with any considerable  degree  of confidence.  Empirical evaluations
must be made, based on "before  and after" field observations,  complemented
by a study of simpler life systems in the laboratory.
Biological field studies  often suffer from the disadvantage of spectacular na-
tural variation,which makes the detection of small ecological changes difficult
statistically.  Elucidating the factors responsible for any real biological  change
is also difficult, because multiple factors are simultaneously affecting mea-
surements.  Since life affects the physiochemical world and vice versa, living
organisms cannot be studied apart from  their environment, and relatively
subtle changes in environmental characteristics can have profound effects on
living things.  Furthermore, the reproduction of real environmental conditions
in the laboratory is extremely difficult in multifactorial experiments. While
some of the  studies needed to improve on ecological prediction are underway,
much remains to be done, particularly with regard to the tropical environment.

THERMAL DISCHARGE STANDARDS AS GUDELINES
The increasing need for electrical power, and the projected increase in ther-
mal discharges, has prompted the Environmental Protection Agency to adopt
standards for thermal discharges to minimize harmful ecological effects.
Based on a careful review of available information and personal experience,
a panel of experts constituted as  the Subcommittee for Fish, Other Aquatic
Life and Wildlife of the  National Technical Advisory Committee, reached a
"best-judgment" consensus that the following thermal standards should apply
to estuarine or coastal waters exclusive of the zone of passage:
                                    111

-------
      "Monthly means of the maximum daily temperatures recorded at
      the site in question and before the addition of any heat of artificial
      origin should not be raised by more than 4 F during the fall, win-
      ter, and spring (September through May), or by more than 1.5 F
      during  the summer (June through August).  North of Long Island
      and in the waters of the Pacific Northwest (north of California),
      summer limits apply July through September; and fall, winter,
      and spring limits apply October through June.  The rate of tem-
      perature  change should not exceed 1ฐF per hour except when due
      to natural phenomena.  Suggested temperatures are to prevail out-
      side of established mixing zones as discussed in the section on
      zones of passage."  (FWPCA, 1968)
 The definition of the  size of the passage zone is left to the proper administra-
 tive authority with the recommendation that the area, depth,  and volume of
 water flow be sufficient (about 75 percent) to provide a usable and desirable
 passageway for fish and other aquatic organisms.  Although the subcommittee
 recommends  that the size of the mixing zone be minimized, this zone is im-
 plicitly written off for the survival of aquatic life.
 On the basis  of our review of readily available information on thermal toler-
 ances of marine organisms and the operational experience of coastal power
 plants, we consider the thermal standards adopted are reasonable measures
 on the basis of  present knowledge.  Furthermore, we have arbitrarily selec-
 ted any exposure to 90ฐF (32.2ฐC) as a boundary at which harmful biological
 effects (sublethal as well as lethal) are assumed to occur, to permit compari-
 son of thermal  discharges at the various sites.  This appears to be valid ex-
 cept, perhaps,  in the case of marine organisms that inhabit cold water only;
 it can be revised when additional information becomes available.

 THERMAL TOLERANCES OF MARINE ANIMALS AND PLANTS
 There are a number of bibliographies (Kennedy and Mihurshy,  1967; Raney
 and Menzel,  1969) and review articles available that contain information on
 thermal tolerances of aquatic organisms: Mayer (1914), Britt (1956, I960;
 1970),  Gunter (1957), Johnson (1957), Kinne (1963, 1964), Bullard (1964),
Wurtz and Renn (1965), TVA (1967), McWhinnie (1967), Mihurshy and  Kennedy
 (1967), Welch and Wojtalik (1968),  and Coutant (1968,  1969, 1970).  Much of
this information pertains to fresh water aquatic organisms, however.  The
book of Altman  and Dittmer (1966), and the  review articles of deSylva  (1969)
and Jensen et al (1969), are particularly valuable to this study because they

                                  112

-------
contain summary tabular data on thermal tolerances of marine organisms
retrieved from papers published in journals of many specialties.  Much of
this summary data has been incorporated into table 11.
It is important to note that the assembled data on thermal tolerances for the
most part were not originally derived with the object of evaluating thermal
effluents.   Furthermore,  experimental techniques and animals used by vari-
ous biologists in obtaining the values differ greatly, so that results are not
directly comparable even for the same species.  It is prudent, therefore, that
the numbers in general only be used as guides for qualitative evaluations.
Quantitative evaluations of thermal effects  will require experimental deriva-
tion of mortality rate coefficients for the various life stages of marine or-
ganisms under thermal regimes and environmental conditions that simulate
the situations  at power plant sites.  Before mortality coefficients can be de-
rived, however, the techniques for handling many important marine organisms
in the laboratory will have to developed.
The thermal tolerance limits presented in table 11 have been generally given
in terms of LDso (lethal dose) or TLm (median tolerance limit) by investigat-
ing biologists. These terms refer to the level of any intentionally imposed
factor causing death of 50 percent of the  total number of  experimental animals
per unit time  (a convenient fixed  interval such as 24, 48, or 96 hours is often
used).
In some cases the value cited is the upper limit or lethal temperature and,
in the case of phytoplankton, the  values cited are temperatures that inhibit
growth.  The  thermal tolerances in table 11 have been summarized for the
major groups of organisms and are presented in table 12 in the order of de-
creasing thermal sensitivity.  The intertidal, near-shore forms, including
barnacles, corals, polychaetes,  brown algae, echinoderms,  and molluscs,
are in the upper portion of the list.  Ctenophores, green and red algae,  phyto-
plankton,  scyphozoans, copepods, fish,  and chaetognaths,  which are largely
pelagic forms, appear in the lower part  of the list.  The highest thermal tol-
erance limit  (53.7ฐC) is recorded for the barnacle (Chthalmus stellatus) a
form normally occupying a habitat above mean high water.  The  lowest value
(14.8ฐC) is listed for a fish, the  California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis). The
haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is  another fish that has a rather low

                                   113

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Table 11.  Thermal Tolerances of Various Marine Animals and Plants
Class Species
Chondrichthyes Raja erinacea (little skate)

R. ocellata (winter skate)
R. radiata (thorny skate)
Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish)
Osteichythyes Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife)




Brevoortia tyrannus (Atlantic menhaden)

Clupea harengus (sea herring)





Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish)




F. parvipinnis

Gadus morhua (Atlantic cod)


Girella nigricans (opaleye)

Haemulon bonarience (black grunt)
Hippoglossoides platessoides (Am. plaice)
Leuresthes tenuis (California grunion)

Tolerance
Limit
(ฐC)
29.1-29.5
30.2
28.0
26.5-26.9
28.5-29.1
23.0
26.7-32.2
31.4
29.0

34.0
31.9
23.0
20.8-24.7
18.0
22.0-24.0
19.5-21.2
5.5
34.0
40.0
37.0
40.5-42.0
25.0
35.0
37.0
19.8-24.4
14.0
10.0
31.0
30.0
35.0-40.0
22.1-24.5
14.8-26.8
26.8
Time of Acclimation
Exposure Temperature Reference
(hr) (ฐC) Size or Life Stage (p 122)
	
--
--
--
--
90
__
__
--

132
73
24
—
__
_-
_-
—
--
—
--
--
--
24
24
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
- __
—
	
--
--
--
--
15
__
__
--

21
22
15.5
—
—
__
—
—
20
_-
28
--
--
20
30
__
--
--
20,28
12
--
--
__
--
	
j uvenile
juvenile
juvenile
--
__
__
__
egg hatching time
2 days
juvenile
yearlings
—
juvenile- adult
larva
larva
adult
hatch time 20-34 d
-_
—
--
j uvenile-adult
hatching time 12 d
--
--
adult
hatching time 8.5 d
embryo
juvenile
yearling
--
--
	
hatching time 9 d
1
1
1
5
1
1
1
1
2

3
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
5
5
1
1
5
5
5
1
1
1
1

-------
                                                Table 11 (Cont'd)
Class Species
Osteichthyes Limanda ferruginea (yellowtail flounder)
(con ) Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper)
Macrozoarces americanus (ocean pout)
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (haddock)

Menidia menidia (Atlantic silverside)

<
Microgadus tomcod (Atlantic tomcod)


Mugil cephalus (striped mullet)
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (sculpin)
Oncorhynchus tschawytscha (chinook salmon)

O. nerka (sockeye salmon)

O. keta (chum salmon)

O. gorbusha (pink salmon)


O. kitsutch (coho salmon)

Osmerus mordax (American smelt)
Pollachius virens (pollack)
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (winter)
flounder)



Marone saxatilis (striped bass)

Tolerance
Limit
24
35.0-40.0
26.6-29.0
18.5-22.9
14.0
22.5-32.5
22.0
32.0
19.0-20.9
23.5-26.1
25.8-26.1
32.0
28.0
21.5
25.1
22.2
24.8
21.8
23.7
23.9
22.5
21.3
22.9
25.0
21.5-28.5
28.0
29.0
27.9-30.6
22.0-29.0
27.0
20.6
32.0
17.9
Time of Acclimation
Exposure Temperature Reference
(hr) (ฐC) Size or Life Stage (p 122)
	
—
--
--
—
_.
--
24
__
_-
—
--
--
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
168
--
--
__
__
--
--
--
-_
--
	
—
__
--
—
__
--
--
__
__
--
--
--
5
20
5
20
5
20
20
10
5
5
20
—
--
__
__
--
--
--
__
—
	
--
--
--
hatching time 8.8 d
adult
hatching time 8-9 d
adult
2 cm
14-15 cm
22-29 cm
prolarvae, postlarvae
--
juvenile
j uvenile
juvenile
juvenile
j uvenile
j uvenile
juvenile
j uvenile
j uvenile
juvenile
juvenile
--
—
	
__
juvenile
adult
hatching time 15 d
adult
hatching time 2 d
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1

5
7
7*
7
7
7
7
5
5
5
7
7*
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
*For reactions to temperatures warmer than 25ฐC, see Templeton and Coutant, 1970.

-------
Table 11 (Cont'd)
Class
Osteichthyes
(cont'd)









Thaliacea
Ophiuroidea

Ascidiacea




Echinoidea








Chaetognatha

Merostomata


Species
Scomber scombrus (Atlantic mackerel)

Sphaeroides maculatus (northern puffer)
Tautoga onitis (tautog)
Tautogolabrus adspersus (cunner)



Urophycis chuss (squirrel hake)

U. tenuis (white hake)
Salpa africana
Ophioderma brevispinum

Asterias forbesi


A. vulgaris

Arbacia punctulata


Echinus microtuberculatus
Lytechinus varigeatus
L. anamesus
Strongylocentrotus franciscanus
S. purpuratus
S. lividus
Sagitta elegans

Limulus polyphemus


Tolerance
Limit
(ฐc)
21.0
21.0
28.2-33.0
<31.0
29.0
22.0
29.0
25.0
27.3-28.0
15.6
24.5-25.2
37.7
40.5
37.0
42.0
36.0
32.0
32.0

42.0
38.0
37.0
39.1
37.7
31.5
29.5
29.5
40.7
25.5-27.5

46.2
41.0
41.0
Time of
Exposure
(hr)
1
1
24
1
1
1
summer
winter
1
1
1
--
9 min
28 min
9 min
9 min
43 min
1ฐ increase
/5 min
9 min
45 min
89 min
--
--
1
1
1
--
1ฐ increase
/ i™
/5 mm
--
—
--
Acclimation
Temperature
(ฐC)
	
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
_-
--
--
--
—
—
	
—
--
20

_.
—
--
--
24.6-25.1
--
—
--
—
20

30
22
16
Reference
Size or Life Stage (p 122)
embryo
hatching time 2 d
juvenile
adult
--
hatching time 1.7 d
--
--
_-
hatching time 4 d
hatching time 4 d
--
__
—
__
—
—
--

--
—
--
--
--
—
--
--
—
__

--
--
--
1
1
1
6
1

5
5
1
1
1
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

5
5
5
5
5
8
8
8
5
5

5
5
5

-------
Table 11 (Cont'd)
Class Species
Malacostraca Allorchestes littoralis

Asellus aquaticus
Calliopius laeviusculus

Cancer irroratus
Carcinus maenas
Corophium volutator

Callinectes sapidus








Cragon septemspinostB



Gammarus locusta
G. marinus
G. roselii
G. morroculodes
Homarus americanus









Menippe merinaria
Mysis stenolepis
Neomysis americana



Tolerance
Limit
(ฐC)
34.5-35.0

43.5
26.7-29.7

32.0-33.2
38.0
36.5-37.5

38.7
36.9
34.7
33.1
39.0
39.0
39.0
35.3
33.0
31.0-33.0
28.0
30.0-32.5

32.2-34.8
30.1-32.5
36.0
29.0
<26.0
32
29.5
28.2
22.1
32.5
34.2
34.0
34.9
33.4
32.7
27.5-29.5
31.0-33.0
25.0
16
20
Time of Acclimation
Exposure Temperature
(hr) (ฐC)
1ฐ increase 20
/5 min
__
1ฐ in crease 20
/5 min
20
__
1ฐ increase 20
/5 min
48 30
48 22
48 14
48 6
48 30
48
48 22
48 14
48 6
24 25-35
24 15
1ฐ increase 20
/5 min
20
20
__
24 15
sustained --
22 d 27.5
25.0
15
5
15
25
15
20
15
sustained 30
20
24 25-35
24 15
24 1
24 5
Size or Life Stage
._

-_
--

--
—
--

adult
—
--
--
juv 40-60 mm
juv 40-60 mm
juv 40-60 mm
juv 40-60 mm
juv 40-60 mm
adult
adult


__
--
__
adult
	
	
__
—
__
stage 3
stage 4
stage 4
stage 5
stage 5
egg hatching
adult
adult
adult

Reference
(p!22)
5

5
5

5
5
5

9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
5

5
5
5
10
11
12
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
13
5
14
10
10
10

-------
                                               Table 11 (Cont'd)
00
Class
Malacostraca
(cont'd)






















Cirripedia




Copepoda




Branchipoda

Species
Orchomenella pinguis

Pagurus acadianus
P. prideauxii
Palaemonetes vulgaris


P. inter medius

Pandalus montagui

Paneus duorarum

Palaemonetes pugio
Periclemenes americanus

Panuilirus interruptus
Pugettia producta
Rhithropanopeus harrisi

Taliepus nuttali
Uca pugilator


Balanus balanoides
B. perforatus
Chthamalus stellatus
Eliminus modestus
Lepas fasicularis
Acartia tonsa

Calanus finmarchicus

Eurytemora affinis
Alonia affinis
Eurycercus lamellatus
Tolerance
Limit
(ฐC)
27.5

29.6-32.0
36.0
42.0
37
34
36.5
37.0
22.8-27.8

30.9-31.9
-37.0
35.0-38.3
34.2
37.0
38.0
32.5
35.0-38.3
33.0
32
46.0
41.0
40.0
45.3
47.0
53.7
49.5
42.3
35.0
>30.5
26.5-29.5

30.0
40.5
35.0
Time of Acclimation
Exposure Temperature
1ฐ increase 20
/5 min
20
__
4 min
9 min
52 min
5d 30
2 min
1ฐ increase 20
/5 min
sustained 30
sustained
24 25-35
5d 30
2 min
sustained
1
24 25-35
24 15
1
5 min
18 min
82 min
—
__
__
__
29
3 25
brief
1ฐ increase 20
/5 min
12 25
— 	
--
Size or Life Stage
_ _

--
--
--
--
--
gravid female
__
--

nauplii
adult
adult
adult
__
--
--
adult
adult
--
--
__
—
__
--
--
--
--
adult
—
--

adult
	
--
Reference
(p 122)
5

5
5
5
5
5
13
13
5

13
13
10
13
13
11
8
14
10
8
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
15
10
5

10
16
16

-------
Table 11 (Cont'd)
Class
Polychaeta




Cephalopoda
Pelecypoda




























Gastropoda


Species
Eunice fucata
Hydroides dianthus

Tomopteris catharina

Octopus vulgaris
Astarte undata

Cardita borealis
Caridum pinnulatum
Crassostrea virginica



Gemma gemma
Hiatella rugosa

Macoma balthica
Mercenaria mercenaria
Modiolus modiolus
Musculars discors
M. nigra
Mya arenaria

Nuculana tenuisulcata

Mytilus edulis

Pandora trilineata

Placopecten magellanicus
Spisula solidissima

Yoldia sapotilla
Zirfoea crispata
Astrea undosa
Buccinum undatum
Littorina littoralis
Tolerance
Limit
(ฐC)
42.7
>30.0
>32.0
31.6

36.0
33.5

31.6
33.2
47.5
41.0
48.5
33.0
35.0-38.3
32.8

42.3
45.2
36.3
31.9
34.9
40.6
31.0-33.0
31.5

40.8
28.0
33.5

23.5
37.0

34.8
35.5
35.0
29.0
44.3
Time of Acclimation
Exposure Temperature
(hr) (ฐC)
29
31d
7
1ฐ increase 20
/5 min
__
1ฐ in crease 15
/5 min
15
15
rapid inc. 24
slow inc. 24
—
8 27
24 25-35
1 increase 15
/5 min
15
15
15
15
15
15
24 25-35
1ฐ increase 15
/5 min
__
20- 100 variable
1ฐ increase 15
/5 min
summer
nat. water
15
15
15
sustained —
_-
—
Size or Life Stage
4- 5 d old
adults
larvae
--

--
	

—
__
--
_-
adults
egg and larva
adult
--

—
__
_-
—
__
__
adult
__

adult
adult


—
--
__
--
--
_ _
__
--
Reference
(p 122)
5
17
18
5

19
5

5
5
5
5
19
20
14
5

5
19
5
5
5
19
14
5

19
6
5

5

5
5
5
8
5
5

-------
                                               Table 11 (Cont'd)
CO
o
Class
Gastropoda
(cont'd)































Nuda


Anthozoa


Species
Littorina littoralis




L. neritoides

L. palliata


L. rudis




Nassarius obsoletus







Norrisia norissii
Haliotis corrugata
H. rufescens
Patella athletica

P. vulgata
P. depressa
Tellina tenuis
T. fabula
Thais lapillus
Beroe cucumis
B. ovatus

Anemonia sulcata
Favia fragum
Meandra accolata
Tolerance
Limit
(ฐC)
44.3

41.0
43.5
43.7
46.3

41.8
42.2
42.5
45.0

42.4
43.0
43.2
46.0

43.0

42.0

41.0

34.5
35.0
33.0
41.7

42.8
43.3
32.6
32.6
35.0-35.5
29.7-30.0
40.0
36.4
40.9
37.1
36.8
Time of Acclimation
Exposure Temperature
(hr) (ฐC) Size or Life Stage
1ฐ increase —
/5 min
low tide
mid tide
-- high tide
1 increase —
/5 min
low tide
mid tide
high tide
1ฐ increase —
/5 min
low tide
mid tide
high tide
lethal 5 --
min
lethal 9
min
lethal 27 --
min
survived
1-2
sustained —
sustained
sustained
1ฐ increase —
/5 min
—
_-
sustained 14-15 larvae
sustained — larvae
--
14
sudden
sudden
	 	 	
_-
—
Reference
(p!22)
5

5
5
5
5

5
5
5
5

5
5
5
5

5

5

5

8
8
8
5

5
5
21
21
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

-------
                                                    Table  11 (Cont'd)
Class
Anthozoa
(cont'd)

Scyphozoa





Species
Porites astraeoides
P. clavaria
P. furcata
Aurelia aurita

Chrysaora quinquecirrha

Cyanea artica
Pleurobrachia pileus
Tolerance
Limit
(ฐC)
35.8
36.4
36.8
38.5
30.0
34.3
35.0
26.8-28.0
<26.0
Time of
Exposure
(hr)

__
-_
__
	
24
24
__
--
Acclimation
Temperature
(ฐC)

__
—
29
14
__
15
14
-_
Size or Life Stage

	
--
_ _
	
medusae
medusae
	
-_
Reference
(p!22)
5
5
5
5
5
14
10
5
16
Hydrozoa        Pennaria tiarella

Chlorophyceae   Enteromorpha compressa
                Rhizoclonium hookeri
                Ulva lactuca

                Valonia macrophysa
                Penicillus capitatus
                Dictyosphera cavernosa
                Chalmydomonas spฃ Kr
                Chlorella sp (UHMC)2
                Dunaliella euchlora^
                Nannochloris (582)1
                Platymonas sp  (#1)22
                Protococcus sp (T3)9
                Protococcus sp (T9r

 Bacillariophycea Chaetoceros (581)1
                Detonula coi^ervacea^
                Melosira sp^
                Nitzchia laevis^
                Phaeodactylum tricornutum2

 Chrysophyceae  Isochrysis galbana2
                Monochrysis lutherr

 Cinophyceae    Grymnodimium (581)
                Gymnodimium (5822)
                           34.7
22-26
35.0
35.0
30.0
35.0
31.2*0.2
31.0
33.0-34.0
32.0-35.0
32.0-35.0
39.0
40.0
35.0
26.0
35.0
41.0
16.0
27.0-30.0
30.0
29.0-35.0
27.0-35.0
29.0-35.0
32.0
34.0
12
__
—
_ _
3 d
5d
sustained
	
__
	
—
__
—
--
_ _
	
—
_.
—
— _
--
_ _
_-
_ _
__.
--
_ _
23
23
23

__
__
__
-_
--
--
__
	
__
__
—
__
--
__
__
                                                                adult
                                                                adult
                                                                adult
                                      22
                                        5
                                        5
                                        5
                                      13
                                      13
                                      13
                                      24
                                      24
                                      24
                                      23
                                      24
                                      24
                                      24

                                      23
                                      25
                                      24
                                      24
                                      24

                                      24
                                      24

                                      23
                                      23
 1.  Upper temperature limit
2.  No growth

-------
                                                Table 11 (Cont'd)
CO
to


Class Species
Isogeneratae Dictyota dichotoma

D. divaricata
Pylaiella littoralis
Cyclosporeae Ascophylum nodosum
Fucus serratus
F. vesiculosus

Bangiophyceae Porphyra umbilicans
Florideae Callithamnion hookeri
Polysiphonia elongata
P. ferrulacea
Hydrochari- Thalassia testudium (turtle grass)
taceae
Potamogeto- Ruppia maritima (marsh grass)
naceae Potamogeton perfoliatus
References
1. deSylva (1969) 8. North and Shaefer
2. Edsall (1970) 9. Tagatz (1969)
Tolerance
Limit
(ฐC)
27.0
32.0
32.0
30.0
39.3-41.5
39.0-40.7
41.6-42.5
41.9
30.0
30.0
27.0
35.0
33.0

<35.0
<45.0

(1964)

3. Lewis and Hettler (1968) 10. Mihursky and Kennedy (1967)
4. Spector (1956) 11. Wright (1965)
5. Altman and Dittmer (1956) 12. McLeese (1956)
6. Pearce (1969) 13. Bader et al
7. Brett (1952) 14. Mihursky (1969)




Time of Acclimation
Exposure Temperature
(hr) (OC) Size
	 -(. 	
— —
__
--
__
__
__
--
--
12
12
12
sustained 23

sustained
25-35

15. Heinle (1969)
16. Jensen et al (1969)
17. Leone (1970)
18. Gaucher et al (1967)
19. Gunter (1957)
20. Kennedy et al (1969)
21. Barnett and Hardy (1969)


or Life Stage Reference
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
28

27
28

22. Biebl (1962)
23. Thomas (1966)
24. Ukeles (1961)
25. Smayda (1969)
26. Thomas (1966)
27. Roesler and Zieman (1969)
28. Anderson (1969)

-------
thermal tolerance limit (18.5<>C).  The killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) ex-
hibits a high thermal tolerance (42ฐC).  Three common plankton forms,  Cala-
nus finmarchicus (copepod), Gymnodinium sp. (dinoflagellate),  and Chaetoceros
sp. (diatom), all cosmopolitan species, are cited as having thermal tolerance
limits of 26, 5 to 29. 5ฐC, 32ฐ to 34ฐC, and 41ฐC,  respectively. Of the 22
groups of organisms represented in table 12,17 have mean tolerance limits between
30ฐ and 40ฐC, three have tolerance limits above 40ฐC, and only two have ther-
mal tolerance limits below 30ฐC.

           Table 12. Thermal Tolerances of Various Groups of
             Marine Organisms  (Based on Values  in Table 11)

Cirripedia
Merostomata
Gastropoda
Branchipoda
Thaliacea
Sea grasses
Anthozoa
Polychaeta
Phaeophyceae
E chinodermata
Cephalopoda
Pelecypoda
Hydrozoa
Nuda
Chlorophyceae
Malacostraca
Phytoplankton
Scyphozoa
Rhodophyceae
Copepoda
Fish
Chaetognatha
Mean (ฐC)
47.6
42.7
40.8
37.8
37.7
37.6
37.3
37.1
37.0
36.3
36.0
36.0
34.7
34.0
33.2
32.9
32.2
31.2
30.5
30.3
28.6
26.5
Range (ฐC) Number of Values
42.3-53.7
41.0-46.2
29.0-46.0
35.0-40.5
37.7
33.0-45.0
35.8-40.9
30.0-42.7
27.0-42.5
29.5-40.7
36.0
23.5-48.5
34.7
29.7-40.0
30.0-35.0
16.0-46.0
16.0-41.0
26.0-38.5
27.0-35.0
26.5-35.0
14.8-42.0
25.5-27.5
___^^__— — — — — — •— — —
5
3
27
2
1
3
6
3
11
17
1
25
1
4
8
62
22
7
4
5
53
2
__ 	 	 — • — '•••
                                   123

-------
 OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH POWER PLANTS
 Before evaluating probable thermal effects at the sites selected, it is instruc-
 tive to examine past experience at operating power plants.  Synopses of the
 operating experience of some power plants in estuarine and coastal waters
 are given in tables 13 through 16.Related studies on river or lakes are
 listed in table 17. A review of these  studies and the publications of Naylor
 (1965), Warrinerand Brehmer (1966), Adams (1969), and Hechtel (1970),
 indicate that the following adverse ecological effects have occurred from
 power plant influences :
       1.    A reduction in the photosynthetic capability of entrained plankton.
       2.    Total mortality of many  species of entrained zooplankton.
      3.    A reduction in the quantity of aquatic plants or epibenthic algae
            in the immediate vicinity of the discharge.
       4.    Lower diversity indices  of plant-animal communities in the im-
            mediate vicinity of the discharge with thermally tolerant  unde-
            sirable species  sometimes succeeding the desirable species.
       5.    An increase in the quantity of fouling organisms in the immediate
            vicinity of the discharge, and unseasonable reproduction of  some
            fouling organisms.
      6.    Severe mortality of fish  (by impingement on screens) if water
            intakes are not carefully designed.
 The operating experience of power plants indicates, in general,  that adverse
 effects, where they occur, are highly localized and seasonal.  Each plant
 site must be examined individually to assess the relative effect.  Results  of
 additional studies now underway should help provide the information needed
 for predicting the extent and severity of power plant discharge effects on
 life.

 THERMAL REGIMES AT THE SITES STUDIED
 The pelagic biota at all of the four sites selected can be subjected to thermal
 effects by:  (1) passage through the condenser with the cooling water, (2) in-
voluntary entrainment into the discharge water jet, and (3) swimming volun-
tarily into the mixing zone.  The time-temperature profile the biota experiences
                                   124

-------
          Table 13. Patuxent Estuary -- Operating Experience*
Number of power
  plants

Rated capacity

Cooling water

Temperature rise

Ambient summer
   temperature

Phytoplankton
 Aquatic plants
 Zooplankton
 Fish
 Benthic organisms
   Opossum shrimp
   Soft-shell  clam
   Oyster
355 Mw each

250,000gpm each

11.5to23ฐF


84-90ฐF

68-94% reduction in photosynthetic capability from en-
  trainment during summer and fall (chlorine contribu-
  tion possible).  No recovery within four hours of pas-
  sage.  Effect on standing crop indeterminate and being
  studied further
Primary production of organisms in the cooling water
  reduced 91%

Ruppia maritima population reduced in area of effluent
  discharge
Potamogeton perfoliatus population increased

Copepod mortalities 100% from entrainment (chlorine
  contribution probable).  Mortality of sea nettles, also.
Standing crop of Acartia tonsa and other estuarine cope-
  pods not reduced.  Standing crop of ctenophores and
  sea nettles (jellyfish) reduced

Winter attraction to warm effluent with movement away
  during the summer
White perch population remained constant, striped bass
  population increased, while white catfish and hogchokers
  decreased in abundance. Decline of hogchoker and cat-
  fish possibly caused by entrainment of larval stages and
  entrapment of juveniles  and adults on intake screens
Indication of a decrease in diversity indices of fish
  species
Effect on standing crop of  fish eggs or larvae indeter-
  minate at this  time
Effect on standing crop indeterminate at this time
Effect on standing crop indeterminate at this time
No important effect on growth,mortality or condition
  in oyster beds.  When placed in effluent canal 100%
  mortality and "greening" occurred (mortality possibly
  caused by copper rather than thermal influences)
*Mihursky (1969), Morgan and Stross (1969)  Heinle (1969)  Cory and Nauman
 1969), Nauman and Cory (1969),  Rosenburg (1969), Hamilton, et al (1970).
                                  125

-------
                         Table 13 (Continued)

Fouling organisms   Increase in standing crops and production at effluent
                      station over the intake.  Earlier spring sets of cer-
                      tain organisms and unseasonable set of barnacles
     Table 14. Biscayne Bay,  Turkey Point — Operating Experience*
Number of power
  plants

Rated capacity

Cooling water

Temperature rise

Ambient summer
  temperature

Phytoplankton

Aquatic plants
Zooplankton

Fish
                     2  (2 additional nuclear plants proposed, 760 Mw each)


                     432 Mw each

                     286,000 gpm each

                     5ฐC


                     30-31ฐC
                     Thalassia (turtlegrass) population killed or reduced
                       within +4ฐC discharge isotherm.  Species diversity
                       index of macro-algae reduced within 43ฐC isotherm.
                       Replaced by a blue green and filamentous algal mat

                     EPA (WQO) National Marine Water Quality Laboratory
                       conducting studies
                     Fewer species and numbers of fishes in area of dis-
                       charge
Benthic organisms
  Crustaceans

  Molluscs
                     Fewer crustaceans in area of discharge but greater
                       numbers within +3ฐC isotherm
                     Fewer molluscs in area of discharge but greater num-
                       bers within +3ฐC isotherm

                     Settling of benthic fouling organisms, including oysters,
                       inhibited during summer in effluent canals but settle-
                       ment occured during winter

*Bader et al, Roessler and Zieman (1969), Ferguson Wood and Zieman, 1969
 Nugent (1970)
Fouling organisms
                                 126

-------
            Table 15. San Francisco Bay, Contra Costa Plant
                         Operating Experience*
 Rated capacity

 Cooling water

 Temperature rise

 Ambient summer
    temperature (sur-
    face)

 Phytoplankton

 Aquatic plants

  Zooplankton

  Fish
1298 Mw

845 cfs

16ฐF



45-74ฐF
Intake design and velocity very important in preventing
  fish kills.  Juvenile salmon suffered no mortality
  after passage through the condenser, with a AT 25ฐF
  exposure for 10 min, when held afterwards for 10 days
Juvenile striped bass survival was 94% after passage
  and 5-day holding period
No information on survival of eggs or larvae passing
  through condensers, but mortaility was 100% when
  impinged on screens
  Benthic organisms

  Fouling organisms
 *Adams (1968, 1969),  Kerr (1953).


      Table 16. California Coast, Morro Bay -- Operating Experience**

  Rated capacity

  Cooling water

  Temperature rise
  Ambient summer
    temperature

  Phytoplankton

  Aquatic plants
1000 Mw

1050 cfs

20ฐF


48-62ฐF
Algal abundance and diversity diminished for approxi-
  mately 200 meters from discharge canal
**North (1969), Adams (1968)
                                   127

-------
                         Table 16 (Continued)

Zooplankton         ?

Fish                Striped bass (Roccus sexatilis) and opaleye (Girella
                      nigricans) present in discharge canal

Benthic or epiben-   Abundance and diversity diminished for approximately
  thic organisms       200 meters from discharge canal.  Less severely
                      affected than flora. Sea anemones abundant in dis-
                      charge canal.  Limpets (Acmaea), snail (Tegula), and
                      crab (Pugettia) present in canal
                    Pismo clams, immediately north of plant, not harmed
                    Cold water flora and fauna replaced by warm water
                      species

Fouling organisms   ?	


     Table 17.  Related Fresh Water Studies on Thermal Discharges

 1.  Alabaster, J.,  1964.  "The effect of heated effluents on fish."  In Ad-
     vances in Water Pollution Research.  Southgate,  R.(ed):  Volume I.

 2.  Buck, J., 1970.  "Connecticut River Microbiology, "Oct. 1956-Sept
     1969.  Summary report to FWQA, Contract 14-12-177,  162 pp.

 3.  Cairns, J., Jr.,  1956.  "Effects of increased temperatures on aquatic
     organisms." Ind. Wastes, 1:150-152.

 4.  Churchill, W. and T.  Wojtalik, 1969. "Effects of heated discharges on
     the aquatic environment,  the TVA experience."  Paper presented at Am.
     Power Conference, April 22-24,  Chicago, 111.

 5.  Clark, J., 1969.  "Thermal pollution and aquatic life. " Sci. Amer.,
     220:19.                                           	

 6.  Drew, H. and J. Tilton, 1970.  "Thermal requirements to protect
     aquatic life in Texas reservoirs." J.W.P.C.F., 42:562-572.

 7.  Merriman, D.,  1970. "Does industrial calefaction jeopardize the
     ecosystem of a  long tidal river?" Symposium on environmental aspects
     of nuclear power stations, IAEA preprint SM-146/31, 33 pp.  (Progress
     reports on various aspects of this study are on file with the State of
     Connecticut, Water Resources Commission, Hartford, Connecticut).

 8.  Moyer, S. and E. Raney, 1969.  "Thermal discharges from a large
     nuclear plant." J. Sant.  Engr. Div.  A.S.C.E.. 95:1131rll63.

 9. Nakatani,  R., 1969.  "Effects of heated discharges on anadromous
     fishes."  In Biological Aspects of Thermal Pollution,  P. Krenkel and
     F. Parker (eds), Vanberbilt University Press, pp. 294-317.


                                 128

-------
10.   Parker  F. and P. Krenkel, 1969. "Thermal pollution.  Status of the
                                    Resources En^r- ***• 3, Vanderbilt
11.   Philbin, T. and H. Philp, 1970.  "Thermal effects studies in New York
                                         aspects of nuclear P™*r stations,
12.   Templeton, W. and C. Coutant, 1970. "Studies on the biological effects
      of thermal discharges from nuclear reactors to the Columbia River at
      Hanford. ' Symposium on environmental aspects of nuclear power sta-
      tions, IAEA preprint SM- 146/33.
13.   Tennessee Valley Authority, 1967. "Thermal and biological studies in
      the vicinity of Widows Creek steam plant. " Mimeo report, 20 pp.
14.   Tennessee Valley Authority, 1967. "Thermal and biological studies in
      the vicinity of Colbert steam plant. " Mimeo report, 20 pp.
15.   Trembly,  F. , 1960.  "Research project on effects of condenser dis-
      charge water on aquatic life." Progress report,  1956-59, The Insti-
      tute of Research.  Lehigh University.
16.   Trembly,  F. , 1965.  "Effects of cooling water from steam- electric
      power plants on stream biota. "  Biological Problems in Water Pollu-
      tion, USDHEW, Public Health Service Publ. 999-WP-25.
17.   Welch, E., 1968.  "Discussion of biological and chemical effects  of
      thermal pollution. " Symposium on thermal pollution, Vanderbilt Uni-
      versity, August 14. _

will differ in each case but will be most severe in the case of passage through
the condensers in the absence of water currents that disperse the thermal
plume.  Benthic organisms on or in the bottom will not ordinarily be subjec-
ted to thermal effects, as the jet discharge will not contact the bottom.  Un-
usual current conditions might occasionally expose them to the thermal dis-
charge, however.
The thermal characteristics of the waters during the summer and winter at
the four sites examined are given in table 18. On the basis of ambient water
temperature at a depth of approximately 250 ft, the southeastern Florida,
southern California, and New York Bight/Gulf of Maine sites represent
waters of distinct thermal characters.   Surface water temperatures in the
southeastern Florida region are the warmest, yet undergo the least winter-
summer temperature  change (5ฐF); Atlantic waters off the northeast coast
are the coldest, but show the greatest winter-summer temperature change
                                  129

-------
                       Table 18. Thermal Characteristics of Water at the Four Sites Studied,
                                  Under Warmest Conditions Recorded
Site

Florida
New York Bight
Gulf of Maine
California
Intake
Ambient
Temperature
W S
78 76
50 52
47 50
61 58
Condenser
Maximum
Temperature
W S
103 101
75 77
72 75
86 83
Surface
Ambient
Temperature
W S
80 85
50 75
47 66
66 77
Surface
Field
Present
W S
yes(2)* no
yes(3)* no
yes(3)* no
no no
CO
o
Temperature in  F

W-winter, S-summer
*max  F above ambient temperature

-------
(25 F).  Maximum water temperatures attained in passage through the con-
denser at the four sites may exceed local summer surface temperatures by
2 to 15ฐF momentarily,  depending on location. Because of thermal stratifica-
tion, the thermal plume does not reach the surface at any of the sites  during
the summer. This is also true for southern California during the winter.
When the plume does reach the surface in winter,  the maximum temperature
exceeds ambient by 3ฐF, at most.

Waters off Southeastern Florida
The maximum time-temperature exposure profile  of organisms passing
through the condenser at the southeastern Florida  site is shown by figure 16,p87.
The figure indicates that organisms are subjected  to a temperature of 25ฐF
above the intake ambient for a  period of 24 sec. During the summer, the tem-
perature at the plume centerline  reaches ambient temperature of the sea
within 59 seconds. During the winter, the thermal plume reaches the surface
in approximately 103 sec at a temperature less than 3ฐF above ambient.
Superimposing these  results on the data in table 18, the figures indicate  that
organisms in the cooling water will be subjected to temperatures greater than
90ฐF for 37  sec during the summer and a maximum of 101ฐF for  24 sec. Dur-
ing the winter, organisms will be exposed to temperatures greater than 90ฐF
for 41 sec, with a maximum temperature of 103ฐF (39ฐC) for 24 sec.  Also,
entrained organisms  will be pumped from a temperature stratum of 76ฐF and
placed in a temperature stratum  of 84ฐF during the summer, a change of 8ฐF
in less than  one minute (see temperature profile, figure 14, p 85.)
During the winter, entrained organisms will be extracted from an ambient
temperature of 78ฐF and jetted to an ambient surface temperature of 80ฐF
in about two minutes.
The thermal fields projected in section 5 show that the volumes  of water
bounded by the summer and winter mixing zones are both approximately 2 x
105 ft3, which is very small.  Although the plume will move  about under the
influence of  currents, this volume of water is  the maximum amount that will
be subjected to sustained temperatures greater than the standards selected
in the analysis.
                                 131

-------
The New York Bight
The maximum time-temperature exposure profile of organisms passing
through the condenser in this region is shown by figure 21, p. 93. As at all sites,
this figure again indicates that organisms will be exposed to a temperature
of 25ฐF above ambient for 24 sec.   During the summer, ambient sea tem-
perature is attained in 59 sec.  During the winter,  the thermal plume forms
a surface field in 96 sec. The maximum temperature at the surface is less
than 3ฐF above ambient.
Using ambient temperatures given in table 18, the figure shows that entrained
organisms will be subjected for  24 sec to maximum temperatures of 77ฐF
during the summer and 75ฐF during the winter,  while passing through the
condenser.  Organisms during the summer will be removed from a tempera-
ture stratum of 52ฐF and jetted to a temperature stratum of 55ฐF in less than
a minute (see temperature profile,  figure 19, p 91).      During the winter,
the water is isothermal at 50ฐC  from the surface to a depth of 250 ft, and
the plume reaches the surface at a temperature less than 3ฐF above ambient.
The additional volumes of water entrained in the water jet after discharge
from the condenser are shown by figure 21.  Because of the temperate
absolute temperature reached, adverse biological effects should be minimal.
The thermal fields projected in section 5 show that the volumes  of water in
the summer and winter mixing zones are approximately 4xl(P and  3 x 10
  Q
ft , respectively.

The Gulf of Maine
The thermal regime predicted for the  Maine area is shown by figure 18. Since
the regime  is almost identical to that of New York Bight, except for slightly
lower summer and winter temperatures, the thermal regime will not be dis-
cussed further.

Waters off Southern California
Figure 24 shows the maximum time-temperature exposure profile of organ-
isms passing through the condenser in waters off the southern Californian
area.  The data indicate that ambient temperatures are attained in a little
over a minute during  both summer and winter.  Organisms will be jetted
                                 132

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from an ambient temperature of 58ฐF to 66ฐF in 88 sec in winter (see ther-
mal profile in figure 23, page 94).    The maximum temperature that en-
trained organisms will be exposed to in summer and winter are 83ฐ and 86ฐF
respectively.  These temperatures will occur for 24 sec during passage
through condensers.
The thermal fields projected in section 5 show that the volume of water is
about 3.5 x 105 in the summer mixing zone and 2 x 105 ft3 for the winter
mixing zone.

POTENTIAL BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PROJECTED THERMAL DIS-
CHARGES
 From a biological standpoint, the most important findings of the thermal re-
gime analysis are these:
      1.    Entrained organisms will face maximum temperatures exceeding
           90ฐF only in southeastern  Florida, where they will be exposed to
           temperatures hotter than 90ฐF both summer and winter for about
           40 sec,  and temperatures  of 101ฐF to 103ฐF for 24 sec,  at a flow
           rate of 600,000 gpm.
      2.   Entrained organisms will undergo rapid, marked, and sustained
           temperature changes, in addition to that produced by passage
           through condensers,  in two instances.   One will occur in south-
           eastern Florida during the summer, where organisms living in
           waters at 76ฐF will be jetted to waters of 84ฐF in a matter of a
           minute.  The other occurs in southern California during the sum-
           mer, where organisms living in water of 58ฐF will be jetted to
           water of 66ฐF or more in about 78 sec.
      3.   Temperature drops off very rapidly once the water leaves the
           condenser.
      4.   Thermal effects from entrainment are minimal at the Maine  and
           New York Bight sites, the regions of coldest water.
      5.   The projected volume of the mixing zone is quite small,  and
           moves away from the bottom so that benthic organisms are not
           exposed to the thermal plume.
                                  133

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Organisms passing through condensers of many operational power plants are
commonly subjected to potentially toxic substances as well as to heat.  Some
power plant operators deliberately add chlorine to control slime buildup and
fouling organisms within the condenser tubing.  There is no doubt that chlorine
is harmful biologically; otherwise it would not be used to control growths in
condenser tubing.  Various cleaning chemicals or detergents are also used
ocasionally to clean condenser walls, and other chemicals may be used as
corrosion inhibitors or to regenerate resin beds.  Toxic materials,  such as
copper,  can be leached from materials of construction or from antifouling
paints used to protect structures.  The toxicity of copper to many plants and
animals, at a level of about 0.05 ppm, is well known.  It is  difficult to state
what the situation would be with an underwater power station, as the design
at this stage is conceptual and actual operating procedures and materials of
construction are  not defined.  Toxic substances might be kept to minute traces
if the design of the plant were so directed.  For instance, reversal of flow
through  condensers is feasible and has been successfully applied in some
plants, for the control of fouling, and mechanical devices are available for
keeping  condenser tubing clean. Thus, operating procedures and design
specifications might adopt such principles to circumvent potential pollution.
Organisms are also subject to turbulent shear when pumped through the con-
densers. To our knowledge, the importance of this stress to marine organ-
isms has not been investigated.  Some small organisms (1-10 microns) appar-
ently are not harmed, since the fermentation industries vigorously agitate
fungi to maintain  highly aerobic conditions  in some of their processes, and
algae such as Chlorella have been  pumped without any apparent harm. Juve-
nile fish have also been passed through coastal power plants without adverse
effect.
In view of the potential biological harm that  might be caused by entrainment,
it is of interest to view the power plant as a predator, and conduct some hy-
pothetical calculations on the ecological effect, assuming that either 100%
or 5% of the entrained organisms are killed.
In order to estimate the potential effect of a single power station on the popu-
lation of some planktonic organisms, the condenser "kill rate" has been cal-
culated and compared with  the normal  mortality rate for a few species of
phytoplankton and zooplankton.
                                  134

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The condenser kill rate (CKR) is given by the following equation:

           CKR = ffc x GI x Q, number of plankton per unit time          (1)

     where   Cj = local plankton concentration, number per unit volume
              Q  = flow rate of condenser cooling water, volume per unit  time
              fk = fractional kill per pass
Uniform mixing by adequate circulation over the geographical range of inter-
est is assumed so that the plankton concentration is not locally depleted. This
is a cautious assumption in terms of its effect on the total population of a
specific organism.  To estimate the normal mortality rate for a specific plank-
tonic organism,  we need only assume that a certain time-average steady-state
population level  has been attained for that organism.  Then we can set the
normal mortality rate (NMR) equal to the mean reproduction rate (MRR) in
accordance with the following expression:

           NMR = MRR =  K x Cm x  V, number of plankton per unit time  (2)

      where   K = exponential growth constant,  time ~1
                      0.693
                  doubling time
             C  = mean concentration, number per unit volume
              V = volume  of sea water contained in assumed geographical
                  range of the species
 A kill ratio (KR) is then defined as:

            _  _ CKR _ ^^1^-                                (3)
            101  ~ NMR " KxCmxV

 Because uniform mixing was assumed, Cj = Cm

                  fkQ                                                (4\
 and        KR  = —                                               (  '
                   KV

 Hence, the kill ratio becomes independent of the plankton concentration.
                                  135

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This approach was applied to the proposed New York Bight site, and kill
ratios were calculated for a typical phytoplankton CSkeletonoma costatum)
and two zooplankton (Centropages typicus, Pseudocalanus minutus), based
on a power plant water intake rate of 1355 cu ft/sec,  and generation (doubling)
times of 13 hr for the phytoplankton (Fogg, 1965) and 0.33 yr for the zooplank-
ton (Deevey,  1952).  The following  expressions were obtained:
                           17
           KR = 9'15xlฐ fk     (phytoplankton)                     (5)
                       V

           KR = 2-02xlฐ  fk    (zooplankton)                       (6)
These are plotted in figures 27 and28 for f, values of 0.05 and 1.0.  For ease
of comprehension, the original abscissa units of offshore volume were con-
verted into offshore area, based on mean depths of 75 ft for the phytoplankton
population and 200 ft for the zooplankton.  The graphs show that both the phy-
toplankton and zooplankton populations suffer a negligible increase in their
mortality rates when their total range of occurrence (15,000 to 40,000 sq mi)
is considered.  For the condenser kill ratios to become detectable,  based on
an assumed threshold of detectability of 10 percent, their geographic ranges
would have to be restricted to areas of less than 0.4 sq mi for the phytoplank-
ton, and less than 35 sq mi for the zooplankton. At this point, however, the
effect of coastal currents should be considered, and they would probably de-
press the kill ratio by at least an order of magnitude.
The maximum quantity of dead plankton produced per power plant will be ap-
proximately 42, 500 cu ft (1400 tons) per. year, based on an fv of 1.0, and a
                           o                             **
plankton density of 1.0 cc/m . The rate of deposition will, of course, be a
function of local velocity distributions (horizontal and vertical) and turbulence
at the site, as well as the manner in which the condenser effluent is dis-
charged.  The zooplankton will, in general, settle about twice as fast as the
phytoplankton with a far greater deposition rate.  Assuming a net current
speed of 1 knot and an average settling velocity of 200 ft/hr for the zooplank-
ton (Sverdrup, 1942; Grice and Hart, 1972), settling areas of at least 0.1
sq mi should be produced with deposition rates of less than 1  cm per year,
if no consumption of the dead plankton is assumed.

                                   136

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                      APPROXIMATE THRESHOLD OF DETECTABILITY
                                              CHESAPEAKE    NOVA
                                                 BAY    'u SCOTIA
                                                           10,000  OFFSHORE
                                                                 AREA(SQ. Ml)
                                                 (2.1x1012)  <2.1x1013) OFFSHORE
                                                                 VOLUME (FT-5)

Figure 27. Kill Ratio vs Coastal Range of Skeletonema costatum (New York
Bight)
An alternate method for estimating the effect of entrainment on plankton popu-
lations, which might be more appropriate for the Florida site, is to relate the
local plankton  "consumption" rate to the natural population drift past the site
due to  coastal  currents.  The kill ratio  is then defined as:
KR  =
                   f  x C x Q
                                                                         (7)
where Q  is the net offshore flow past site, cu ft/day.  With the assumption
of uniform mixing in the plane perpendicular to the coastal drift,  equation (7)
becomes:
                                    137

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                                    APPROXIMATE THRESHOLD OF D6TECTABILITY
 O
     io-3J
     10^-
                                             CHESAPEAKE   CAPE
                                                BAY    TO COD"
                                                   100% KILL PER PASS
       0.1
      (5.5x108)
                (5.5x10
 10

(5
                                     I
                                    100
OFFSHORE
AREA|SO Ml)
                    1000       10,000

i.5x1010)    (5.5x1011)    (5.5x1012)    (5.5x1013)  OFFSHORE
                                     VOLUME(FT I
Fi
ca
igure 28. Kill Ratio vs Coastal Range of Centropages typicus and Pseudo:
alanus minutus (New York Bight)
            KR =
                                                                       (8)
Figure29 shows a plot of KR vs Qo at values of 0.05 and 1.0 for ffc.  The mag-
nitude of the net offshore drift past the proposed Florida site has been esti-
mated at 2. 5 x 10*3 cu ft/day (Sverdrup,  1942), based on the velocity distri-
bution and water mass in a 100-meter deep section through the narrowest
part of the Straits of Florida between Fowey Rocks and Gun Cay.  At this
flow, the corresponding kill ratio at an f^ of 1.0 is only 4.7 x 10-6, indicating
that hypothetically 10,000 power plants could be installed in the vicinity of
the proposed site before a measurable (10 percent) kill ratio is produced.
The calculations show that the effect of entrainment on the total plankton
population levels will be insignificant.  However, the assumption of uniform
mixing must be investigated. Organisms that reproduce slowly and are re-
stricted  in distribution appear to be the forms most subject to  extinction if
entrainment effects are severe.
                                   138

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                              APPROXIMATE THRESHOLD OF DETECTABILTIY
                                            ESTIMATED NET FLOW OF PLANKTON
                                            THROUGH STRAITS OF FLORIDA
     10
                           10"       10"       10
                            NET OFFSHORE FLOW,FT3/DAY
 Figure 29. Kill Ratio vs Net Offshore Flow -- Southeastern Florida Site

 Perusal of table 11 indicates that reactions of organisms exposed to the tem-
 perature regimes projected for the four sites have not been investigated.
 However, the information generally shows that many organisms, except "cold
 water" forms, remain viable when exposed to temperatures of approximately
 90ฐF for many hours.  The thermal regimes  predicted through entrainment
 for southeastern Florida both during the summer and winter, and southern
 California during the summer, present situations of greatest potential ther-
 mal stress to the biota.  Acclimation to the temperatures projected is impos-
 sible because water temperature is increased 25ฐF over the ambient in less
 than a minute during condenser passage, and organisms are jetted within a
 few minutes to a temperature stratum 8ฐF over ambien^ where they remain.
 Since organisms are not naturally  subjected to the rapid temperature changes
predicted for these sites, we must assume that entrained organisms will be
                                  139

-------
harmed physiologically, unless there is evidence to the contrary.  On the
basis of information reviewed, the following subjective predictions can be
made:
      1.    Other than organisms in the mixing zone,  the marine biota should
           not be affected by heat, as they will not be exposed to temperatures
           greater than 4ฐF above ambient during the winter or 1.5ฐF above
           ambient during summer.
      2.    Because pelagic  organisms are distributed everywhere over the
           continental shelf to depths of 250 ft at all sites, many organisms
           will be entrained in the condenser  cooling water.
      3.    Positioning of the intake below 200 ft should minimize entrainment
           of phytoplankton  at all sites, except perhaps  in southeastern
           Florida, because the intake of the plant will be situated below the
           euphotic zone.
      4.    The diatoms entrained should survive, but their photosynthetic
           capacity may be  lowered.  Dinoflagellates and nanoplankton gene-
           rally should react similarly, but there is little information on
           which to base a judgment.  The largest numbers of diatoms will
           be entrained in the early spring; dinoflagellates during the sum-
           mer.  Diurnal fluctuations in the numbers of dinoflagellates en-
           trained may occur.
      5.    Because of high reproductive rates, sporulation capacity, and
           wide geographical distribution of phytoplankton, the probability
           of depleting populations of phytoplankton species is very low --
           the lowest of all  groups surveyed.
      6.    The number of various zooplankton entrained will vary
           diurnally, seasonally, and yearly.  The greatest numbers will
           be entrained in spring and the fewest during winter.  The  young
           stages of most pelagic  organisms will be encountered during
           late spring and early summer.  Seasonal differences in the bio-
           mass of the zooplankton entrained  should be greatest in Maine
           and least in southeastern Florida.
                                 140

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 7.    Mortality through entrainment of larval and adult stages of holo-
      planktonic zooplankton can be anticipated.  The mortality of large
      soft organisms such as siphonophores or salps, which cannot
      withstand large shear forces, should be  more severe than forms
      possessing tough integuments such as copepods and euphausiids.
 8.    Some meroplanktonic larval forms of benthic organisms will also
      be killed, but fewer species should be entrained than at coastal
      stations,because  fewer species live at depths of 250  ft.
 9.    Phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity  indices at all sites should
      remain unchanged, because of rapid heat dissipation by dilution
      and water transport by currents.
10.    Juvenile fish and fish eggs should suffer little damage by passage
      through the condensers.  Larval fish that are entrained may suf-
      fer severe mortality. Maximum numbers will be entrained in
      late spring and early summer as the  spawned eggs hatch, and
      during daylight hours, because many species migrate vertically,
      preferring deep water during the day.
11.    Most, if not all,  adult fish will tend to avoid the thermal plume
      during the summer and many species will be attracted during the
      winter, including undesirable forms such as rays and sharks.
      Additionally,  many species of fish may be attracted  to the water
      currents  induced, or attracted to the underwater structure, as
      observed in artificial reef construction.
12.    Power plant shutdown during the winter will not result in severe
      cold shock to fish acclimated to plume temperatures at any of the
      sites.
13.    Because of the small volume of water affected, inshore-off shore
      and northward-southward fish migrations will not be affected.
      Fish  at sea apparently spawn over large geographical areas, a
      desirable characteristic which will help  avoid depletion of this
      relatively slow reproducing group.
14.    If intake structures are not properly  designed, the attractiveness
      of the plant to fish generally and excessive water velocities at the

                             141

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       intake could result in impingement of fish on intake screens and
       their subsequent death.  The design information required to avoid
       this exists, however.
16.    Adult benthic animals will not be exposed to the thermal plume
       because it is buoyant and moves away from the bottom.  If unusual
       current conditions were to force the plume to the bottom, sexually
       mature benthic animals actually exposed to the plume might con-
       ceivably be induced to spawn out of season.  Diversity indices of
       benthic animals will remain unchanged.
17.    Higher plants and attached algae will not be affected by the ther-
       mal plume as they will not occur at the water depth being consi-
       dered.
18.    Fouling will occur unless the structure is suitably protected with
       antifouling paints.  Fouling groups such as hydroids, bryozoa,and
       calcareous tubeworms willpredominate. If allowed to occur, the
       fouling community that develops may attract mobile species such
       as fish.
                            142

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    marine algal species," Biol. Bull, 120, 1961, pp 255-264.

Warriner, J., and Brehmer, M., "The effects of thermal effluents on ma-
    rine organisms, " Air and Water Pollut. J.,  v 10, 1966, pp 277-289.

Welch, E., and Wojtalik, T., "Some effects of increased water temperature
    on aquatic life," Term.  Valey Authority, Div. of  Health and Safety, Mimeo
    Rpt,  Chattanooga, Tenn., 48 pp, 1968.

Wright, E., "A comparative study of the effect of temperature on crustacean
    motor axons," Proc. Soc.  Exp. Biol. Med., v 119, 1965, pp 506-509.

Wurtz, C., and Renn, C., 'Water temperature and aquatic life," Research
    Project Rpt  49, John Hopkins  Univ, 99 pp, 1965.
                                  147

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                               Section 7
             RADIONUCLIDE DISTRIBUTION IN THE SEA

The purpose of releasing low-level radioactive waste to the sea  during nor-
mal operation is to reduce the radionuclide concentration greatly below per-
missible levels by dilution with large amounts of sea water.  The rate of
dilution is controlled by the following processes :
     1.    Motion of the sea water.
     2.    Radioactive decay.
     3.    Settling to the bottom.
     4.    Chemical reactions.
     5.    Biological uptake and release.
These processes are best understood by describing the natural forces that
determine the path of the radionuclides after they are released by the under-
water power plant. The intake pipe for the condenser cooling water is near
the seabed.  The denser bottom sea water is generally more saline as well as
cooler  than surface water. During normal operation, the liquid radioactive
waste is pumped into the condenser cooling water as it passes through the
condensers.  In our typical plant, the condenser cooling water temperature
rises 25ฐF and is discharged to the sea as a horizontal jet from a 15-ft dia-
meter pipe.  Because the  discharge water is hotter, it is less dense than the
water around it, and the jet curves upward because of its buoyancy (see figures 30
and 31, and section 5  on thermal diffusion analysis).  The concentration of
each radionuclide in the buoyant jet is reduced by entrainment of the enveloping
water.   The upward motion of the jet is halted either by the surface or by a
thermocline which often prevails in summer.
At either of these levels,  the mixed discharge water spreads, and as the in-
ertia of the jet declines, the motion of the sea water becomes the dominant
process in mixing.  The mixed discharge water cools by mixing with sea
water and by losing heat to the atmosphere. When the temperature of the
mixed discharge water near the surface drops to within a few degrees Fahren-
heit of  the sea water around it, the density of the former will equal the den-
sity of  the latter, since the mixed discharge water will be more saline.  When
the temperature  of the mixed discharge water and the enveloping sea water
are the same, the more saline mixed discharge water will be denser, and

                                  149

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             -r
             40
T
80
                 120      160      200      240      280
HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM END OF COOLANT DISCHARGE PIPE (FEET)
320
Figure 30.  Relative Radionuclide Concentration in the Buoyant Jet in Winter,
Normal Operation

it will descend.  The descent of the mixed discharge water will contribute to
vertical mixing of the radionuclides in the sea.
The chemical form of each radionuclide may or may not be the same as that
of the naturally occurring element.  If the chemical form is the same, it will
be indistinguishable, for any chemical process in the sea, from the naturally
occurring element.  If the chemical form is different,  uptake of the radio-
nuclide by marine biota  may differ from uptake of the naturally occurring
element.  The radionuclide may change to the  chemical form of the naturally
occurring element,  or may adsorb to  particular matter, either organic or
                                  150

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            40       80       120      160      200      240      280
            HORIZONTAL DISTANCE FROM END OF COOLANT DISCHARGE PIPE (FEET)
320
 Figure 31.  Relative Radionuclide Concentration in the Buoyant Jet in Summer,
 Normal Operation

silt, and may settle to the bottom.  Evidence of changes in the physical or
chemical form of radionuclides have been observed at the mouth of the Col-
umbia River in Washington.  These radionuclides, originating at the Hanford
reactors many miles upstream, are deposited in greater quantities on the
bottom at the mouth of the river than either upstream or farther out to sea.
The course of the radionuclide-laden water, after it comes to the end of the
jet, is determined primarily by the sea water motion in the neighborhood of
the site.  Such motion may vary in size from several hundred miles to mole-
cular size. The effects of these sea water motions are complex and best

                                  151

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described by dividing the motions into three groups based on size:  much
larger than,  comparable with, and much smaller than the volume of the radio-
nuclide-laden water.  Examples and descriptions of sea water motion and
mixing  can be found in previous  sections of this report and in references 1,
2, and 3.
Sea water motion much larger than the size of the radionuclide-laden water
has the effect of a current flowing past the site.  This current may be part of
an ocean current such as the edge of the Gulf Stream  off southeastern Florida,
part of  a gyre or large eddy, part of a tidal flow, part of a wind-driven cur-
rent, part of the characteristic flow in an estuary, or a combination of all of
these.  The presence of some current at all times and at all four sites is
assured by drift bottle measurements which indicate continual flow, although
the direction and magnitude of these flows may vary with time.  A plume of
higher radionuclide concentration will be detected down current from the
power plant.  If the current at the site were uniform in strength and direction,
this  down-current plume for continuously released radionuclides would be
symmetric, and a line of constant concentration would  resemble a teardrop in
the down-current direction  (see figures 32 and 33). Radionuclide  concentration
would decrease with distance from the site because of mixing and natural de-
cay.  However, currents past the site are often uniform neither in direction
nor magnitude. The direction may change with time or with distance from
the site.  In either case, the change should be slow, since these currents are
caused by relatively large ocean movements.  The velocity across the cur-
rent may vary, such as decreasing from the surface to the bottom or as one
approaches the shore. If such a velocity gradient exists, the downstream
plume will be distorted, but not greatly: the shearing or elongation of the
plume will usually occur in the direction of the-current.  At longer distances
from the site, any regularity or symmetry in the shape of the downstream
plume will eventually be lost to shore, island, or bottom boundary effects;
or to irregular eddies or spurs from adjoining currents.
                                   152

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                      4        6        8       10
                         DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM SITE (NM)
 T"
12
14
16
 Figure 32.  Isoconcentration Lines in the Down-current Plume for Radionu-
 clides Having One-day Half-lives
Sea water motion comparable in size with the downstream plume causes the
greatest irregularity in radionuclide concentrations.  Eddies of comparable
size,  changing tides, or winds perpendicular to large current flows will
cause irregular  or difficult-to-predict radionuclide distributions. The sur-
face current may flow in one direction while the bottom current flows in the
opposite, as is typical in estuaries. This might occur at the Sea Girt site,
which is in the Hudson River Channel.
Sea water motion much smaller than the size of the downstream plume will
usually consist of small eddies.  These small eddies are the major cause of
mixing or diffusion of radionuclides with surrounding sea water. Radionu-
                                 153

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                                     1	1	r
                             6       8       10
                       DISTANCE DOWNSTREAM FROM SITE (NM)
r
12
14
16
Figure 33. Isoconcentration Lines in the Down-current Plume for Radionu-
clides Having Half-lives Greater than 100 Days
elide diffusion caused by molecular motion is inconsequential when compared
with small eddy diffusion.  Experimental measurements on dye releases in-
dicate that dye  diffusion is proportional to distance downstream from the site,
regardless of current velocity (pages 91 through 120,  reference 1).
Beyond the effective range of the downstream plume, a natural barrier may
confine the radionuclide-laden sea water and allow only partial mixing with
the open ocean.  This condition exists in the Gulf of Maine where Georges
Bank and Browns Bank partially confine the sea water in the Gulf, and mixing
within the Gulf  is dominated by a large gyre that is present for most of the
year.  Part of the radionuclides released from the power plant are carried
to the open ocean, while part are  recirculated past the site, increasing the
                                  154

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radionuclide concentration in the recirculating volume.  The average radio-
nuclide concentration will reach an equilibrium that depends on the release
rate from the power plant, the loss rate from natural radioactive decay, and
the percentage that mixes with the open ocean.  The radionuclide concentra-
tion within the  recirculating volume will vary with location, depending on the
current pattern and on time elapsed after release as related to natural radio-
active decay.
As mentioned in the previous paragraphs,  natural radioactive decay substan-
tially reduces radionuclide  concentration:  the shorter the half-life, the greater
the reduction.  Exceptions are radionuclides having long half-lives such as
cesium-137, 30.0 yr; strontium-90,  27.7 yr; and tritium,  12.26 yr.  The
usual result of natural decay is a  stable isotope which presents no potential
hazard,but some  radionuclides decay to a second radionuclide, which in turn
may decay to a third radionuclide before decaying to a stable isotope. These
decay chains of two or three radionuclides, which are also being released
directly from the power plant, complicate prediction of the radionuclide dis-
tribution in the sea.
Mixing can also occur through biological uptake of radionuclides  by pelagic
marine organisms in regions of high radionuclide concentration,  followed by
release of these radionuclides by  the same organisms in regions of low radio-
nuclide concentration.  Little is known about mixing by biological uptake and
release, and it would be difficult to predict radionuclide concentrations from
this type of mixing. Mixing caused by biological uptake and release is small
in comparison  with mixing from the motion of sea water, and is not studied
in this report.

METHOD OF ANALYSIS
Release of radionuclides is assumed to occur continuously during normal
operation.  This  assumption is  discussed in the section on release of radio-
nuclides and in the section on effect of radionuclides on man and  marine
biota.
No information was available from the reactor manufacturer about the chemi-
cal form of the radionuclides on release.  Chemical activity and  the food web
are intimately  related, and are analyzed together under effect on man and ma-

                                    155

-------
rine biota, p 181.   The effect of chemical reactions on radionuclide distribu-
tion in the sea is not studied in this report, but the biological effects are dis-
cussed below under effect on man and marine biota. The settling of radionu-
clides to the bottom is not studied in detail. The omission of deposition in
the calculation of radionuclide concentration in the sea water is a cautious
assumption, since a loss term is omitted which results in a higher radionu-
clide concentration in the sea water than would actually occur.  The effects
of radionuclides settling to the bottom on man and marine biota are considered
below.  The effects of sea water motion and radioactive decay on radionuclide
distribution in the sea are analyzed concurrently.

Because of the extremely complex interrelations among patterns of sea water
motion, only the more regular motions can be easily analyzed.  For this ana-
lysis, sea water motion is  divided into:
      1.   The  buoyant jet.
      2.   The  downstream plume.
      3.   The  recirculating volume.
Simplifying assumptions are made for each type  of motion,and radionuclide
concentrations in sea water are calculated beginning at the highest concentra-
tion at the end of the discharge pipe, and progressing to lower concentrations
in greater volumes of sea water at greater distances from the site.  This
data is believed  necessary by the following reasoning.  Any effect of radio-
nuclides released from a submerged plant on man,  must begin with uptake
of radionuclides by marine organisms.  If the average radionuclide concen-
tration in a volume of water that is the natural habitat of these marine or-
ganisms is known, sufficient information is available to begin calculating the
amount of each radionuclide carried  to man via the food web.  Radionuclide
concentrations are required for a range of sea water volumes, since natural
habitats range from the small habitat of shellfish to the large habitat of typi-
cal sportfish.
                                  156

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RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATION IN THE BUOYANT JET
The buoyant jet is defined as the jet of condenser cooling water discharged hori-
zontally at an elevated temperature by the power plant.  The shape of this jet
as it turns upward depends on the diameter of the discharge nozzle, on the exit
velocity of the coolant, on the density difference between the jet water and en-
veloping water, and on the velocity and direction of the sea water flowing past
the power plant.  The density difference between the jet water and the envelop-
ing water depends on the corresponding temperature and salinity differences.
All of these quantities vary with time and location except for the nozzle diame-
ter (15 feet) and the maximum coolant exit velocity  (7.67 fps).  To calculate
radionuclide concentrations in the jet at all four sites  and for all naturally
occurring combinations of these variables, would produce a plethora of data
with but small variations in concentration and jet volume among them.
In this study a buoyant jet is analyzed for a single site and for average sea
conditions, and is assumed to provide sufficient data for  evaluation of the effect of
radionuclides on man and marine biota.  The site chosen is that off Miami,
Florida.  Radionuclide concentrations and corresponding volumes of water
are calculated in the Miami jet for average temperature and salinity depth
profiles in both summer and winter for zero current past the site, and for
zero radionuclide concentration at the intake.  Summer and winter conditions
are separately calculated, since a thermocline often exists during  a summer
day, forming a barrier to the upward motion of the  thermal plume.  The as-
sumptions of zero current and zero radionuclide intake simplify the analysis,
but are academic  since neither are true in the natural state, and it is difficult
to imagine their coexistence.  Drift bottle data prove  that some current always
exists at each site,  and this current would transport the radionuclides away
from the site.  This current will displace the jet but not greatly distort it,
so the zero current assumption will give valid results.  Since sea water re-
circulates past the power plant at some  sites, radionuclides will reenter the
condenser cooling channel.   These reentering radionuclide concentrations are
expected to be less than 1 percent of the discharge concentrations (radionu-
clide recirculation is discussed further, below).  Consequently, the assump-
tion of zero intake is valid for practical analysis.   Finally, natural radioac-
tive decay is not included in the calculation of radionuclide concentrations
in the jet,since time spent (about 2 min) in the jet is short relative to the
radionuclide half-lives.
                                   157

-------
Theory
Entrainment of enveloping sea water is the process that reduces radionuclide
concentration or temperature in the buoyant jet.  Consequently, the same
mathematical theory is used to calculate the radionuclide concentrations or
temperature in the jet.  Consult the section on thermal diffusion analysis for
theory on this process.

Results
Isoconcentration lines are calculated for 60, 40, 20,  and 10 percent of the
maximum radionuclide concentration at the discharge nozzle.  These isocon-
centration lines show the shapes of the buoyant jets in summer and winter in fig-
ures 30 and 31  for the maximum coolant discharge rate of 600,000 gpm.  The
radionuclide concentrations and specific activities at the end of the discharge
pipe and for 60, 40,  20, and 10 percent of discharge  concentration are given
in table 19. The concept of radionuclide specific activity is described below
under effect on man and marine life.  Volumes of water within the isoconcen-
tration surfaces, of which figures 30 and 31 are two-dimensional section views,
are also given in table 19.

RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATION IN THE DOWNSTREAM PLUME
The existence of a downstream plume is certain, yet under the influence of
changing wind,  tide,  and currents the plume will meander, change direction,
and be asymmetric.  Mathematical models expressed as differential equations
have been formulated to predict the three-dimensional time-dependent distri-
bution of radionuclides in the downstream plume (see reference 1).  These
differential equations are either impossible or very difficult to solve in the
present state of the art.  They also require oceanographic data which is not
available in the literature.  In addition, some simplifying assumptions have
to be made which reduce the effectiveness of these complex models in pre-
dicting actual radionuclide concentrations; e.g., in some models natural
radioactive decay is  omitted.
If conservative assumptions are allowed, a simpler mathematical model can
be formulated in keeping with the purpose of this study, which is to evaluate
the effects of radionuclides on man and marine life and not to predict the  de-

                                 158

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                   Table 19.  Radionuclide Concentrations in the Buoyant Jet, Normal Operation
CJl
CO
                                            Cone.  = concentration,
                                            SpAct. = specific activity,  //Ci/gm
                                            (  ) = power of ten
Max Permissible Discharge
Nuclide Cone. SpAct. Cone. SpAct. Cone
H-3 4.7(-2)
Cr-51 5.0
Mn-54 3.8
Fe-55 2.5
-7)
-9
-8)
Co-58 2.3(-8)
Fe-59 4.7(-9)
Co-60 1.5(-8)
Ge-78
As-78
Br-84
Rb-88
Rb-89



Sr-89 7.9(-6)
Sr-90 7.9(-8)
Y-90 3.8(-7)
Sr-91 4.0
Y-91 5. 7
Y-93 5. 7
-5
-7)
1.4(-3) 5.23
3.1
5.8(
5) 1.68
2 1.21
-6)
4.84(-5) 3.15(
-10)3.36(0) 1.011
60% 40% 20%
SpAct. Cone. SpAct. Cone. SpAct.
-6) 2.91
-10) 2.01
-12 6.05(-4) 7.26(-13) 3.63
3.9(0) 5.80(-12) 5.80(-4) 3.48(-12) 3.48
8.9(1) 2.05(-10)4.10(-1) 1.23(-10) 2.46
8.9(-l) 9.391
3.3(1) 2.301
— —
--
--
-13)9.39
-11
9.50(-16
1.85(-15
2.90(-11
1.59
3.95
1.1(3) 4.04
-9)
-11
-11
4.60
1.36
6.17
4.46
-5) 2.10
0) 6.72
-4) 4.84
-4) 2.32
-1) 8.20
(-6)
1.94(-5) 1.05-6)
(-11) 1.34(0) 3.36
-13) 2.42(-4) 2.42
-12) 2.32(-4) 1.16
-11
-13
-12
9.68
) 6.72
) 1.21
) 1.16
-6
-1
-4
-4
10%
Cone. Sp Act.
5.23
1.68
1.21
5.80
-7)
-11
4.84(-6
) 3.36(-l
-13) 6.05(-5
-13
-11) 1.64(-1) 4.10(-11) 8.20(-2) 2.05(-11
-5) 5.64(-13) 5.64(-5) 3. 76(-13) 3. 76(-5) 1.88(-13
-2) 1.38(
-5) 5.70(
-7) 1.11(
-11) 2.76(-2) 9.20(-12) 1.84(-2) 4.60(-12
-16) 8.16(-6) 3.80(-16
-15) 3.69(-7) 7.40(-16
-7) 1.74(-11) 2.67(-7) 1.16
1.33(-2) 9.54
)3.29(-4) 2.37
) 5.05(-6) 2.43
4.2(0) 1.91(-13)2.39(-8) 1.15
3.0(4) 5.54(-12) 1.85(-2) 3.33
7.8
2.3
-7) 1.3
Zr-95 9.5(-7) 1.0
4) 2.40
3) 1.42
5) 1.84
-12)3.00
-9)
-11
3) 4.12(-14
4.73
)6.13
) 1.87
-7) 1.44|
0) 8.52(
-2) 1.101
-10) 7.98
-11) 1.98
-11) 3.03
-13) 1.43
-12) 1.11
-12) 1.80
>-10) 2.84
-11) 3.69
-3) 6.36
-4) 1.58
-6) 1.62
-8) 7.64
-2) 2.22
-7) 9.60
0) 5.68
-2) 7.36
) 1.88(-5) 9. 39 (-14
) 9.20(-3)
2.30
) 5.44(-6) 1.90(-16) 2.72(-6) 9.50
) 2.46(-7) 3.70(-16) 1.23(-7) 1.85
-12
) 5.80(-5
) 4.10(-2
) 9.39(-6
) 4.60(-3
-17) 1.36(-6
-16) 6.17(-8
[-11) 1.78(-7) 5.80(-12) 8.92(-8) 2.90(-12) 4.46(-8
-10) 5.32(-3) 3.18(-10) 2.66(-3)
-11) 1.32(-4) 7.90(-12) 6.58(-5)
-11
-14
-12
-13
-10
-12
-3) 2.47(-14) 1.12(-3) 1.65(-14
) 2.02
) 9.56
) 7.40
1.20
1.89
2.46
7.48
Nb-95 9.5(-7) 1.8(3) 4. 53 (-12) 4. 53(-l) 2.72(-12) 2. 72(-l) 1.81(-12) 1.81
Zr-97 3.2
Mo-99 7.5
Ru-103 1.3
Rh-105 1.9
. 7
— 7
/ป
/ป
Ru-106 1.6(-7
1.8(4) 1.90

2.7(3) 1.17(-8)
__
--
—
3.31(-12
4.65(-13
1.91
(-13
) 8.64(-2) 1.14(
1.17(0) 7.02|

1.98!
-12) 5.19(-2) 7.60(-13) 3.46(
-9) 7.02(-1) 4.68(-9)
'-12) — 1.32(
II 2.79(-13) — 1.86(
--
1.15
-12
-13
-13) — 7.64(-14
4.68(
--
--
--
(-6) 8.08(-12
(-9 3.82(-14
1-3) 1.11(-12
-7) 4.80
0) 2.84
-2) 3.68
-4) 8.24
-13
-10,
1.01
4.78
3.70
) 6.00(
) 9.46(
-12) 1.23(
-6)
-9)
-3)
-8)
-1)
-2)
-15) 3.74(-4)
-1) 9.06(-13) 9.06(-2)
-2) 3.80
-1) 2.34
6.62
9.30
-13) 1.73(-2)
-9)
-13
-14
3.82(-14
2.34(-l)

*w ^
—



1.59(-10
3.95(-12
4.04(
1.91i
5.54(
-12
-14
-13
2.40(-13)
1.42(
-10
1.84 (-12)
4. 12(
-15]
4.53(-13)
1.90
1.17
3.31
4.65

-13)
-9)
-13)
-14)

) 1.33 (-3
) 3.29(-5
5.05(-7
2.39(-9;
1.85(-3j
3.00(-8)
4.73(-l)
6. 13 (-3
1.84(-4
4.53(-2
8.64(-3)
1. 17(-1)
	
_ _
--

-------
Table 19 (Continued)
Max Permissible Discharge 6
Nuclide Cone. Sp Act. Cone. Sp Act. Cone.
Pd-109 1.3
Ag-111 1.5
Cd-115 5.7
Sn-119m --
Sn-121
Sn-123
Sn-125 3.2
Sb-125 1.6
Te-125m 1.6
Sb-126
Sb-127
Te-127m 9.5
Te-127 3.2
Te-129m 3.2
Te-129 1.3
1-129 6.3
Te-131m 6.3
1-131 3.2
f-6
-8
I

9.10
"• 1 'S
1 — —
} 1.3(0) 1.24(-14) 4.13
(-9) 7.1(2) 1.77(-15


_-
--


7.90(-15
3.88(-15
1.61
2.63
1.29
5. 46 (-15
-5) 7.44(-15
0%
Sp Act.
\ "
) 2.48(-5
-5) 1.06(-15) 9.66(-6
-6)4.74(-15) 1.58(-6
40% 20%
Cone. Sp Act. Cone. Sp Act.
Cone
10%
Sp Act,
3.64(-15) -- 1.82(-15) -- 9.10(-16) --
4.96(-15) 1.65
7.08
3.16
-6)2.33(-15) 7.74(-7) 1.55
-16) 6.44
-15) 1.05
-15) 5.16
-5) 2.48(-15) 8.26(-6)
-6) 3.54(-16) 3.22(-6)
-6) 1.58(-15;
5.26(-7)
-7) 7.76(-16) 2.58(-7)
3.35H6) 1.12(-7)2.01(-16) 6.72(-8) 1.34(-16) 4.48(-8) 6.70
(-5
r7



f-7
(-6
(-7
3.1(2) 2.54
7.0(1) 5.48
7.0(-1) 3.66
--
__
3 . 5


'-"
6.76
8.25
I) 1.49
2.3(1) 4.95
1.8
-"
L) 2.45
(-5) 6.9(1) 1.91
-10) 7.5
-7) 2.2
-91
Te-132 3.2(-7)
1-132

3.2
7.3
1.1
(0
0
•4
5.43(
1.89(
3.13(
1 7
1 f\
-13
8.47(-9) 1.53(-17
1.10(-5)3.30(-15
) 5.07(-9
) 6.60(-6
) 1.02(-17) 3.38(-9) 5.08
) 2.20(-15) 4.40(-6) 1.10
-17) 2.24
-18) 1.69
-15) 2.20
-8)
-9)
-6)
2.19(-13) -- 1.46(-13) -- 7.32(-14)
-16) 1.35(-6)4.05(-16) 8.10(-7) 2.70(-16) 5.40(-7) 1.35(-16) 2.70(-7)
-14
1 9
1 9
1.65(-4)4.85
--
__
"iij -
8.94
2.97
1.47
-14
-13
-12
-11
-11) -- 1.15(-11
-17]
-11
-9)
9.05flO)3.27
1.13
5.22(-2) 1.88
-1) 2.49(-10) —
3) 7.35(-10)
1-133 l.l(-8) 1.2(2) 4. 03 (-9)
Te-134
1-134 1.6
Cs-134 9.0
1-135 3.2
9.90(-5) 3.20
_-
--
--
--
5.96
1.98
-14
-13
-12
9.80(-12
7.64(-12
-17) 5.43(-10) 2.18
-11) -- 7.56
-9)
3.12(-2 1.25
1.49(-10) --
6.60(-5) 1.65
--
--
2.98
9.90
-14
-13
-13
3.30(-5)
--
-_


4.90(-12) --
3.82(-12) --
-17) 3.62(-10) 1.09
-12) -- 3.78
-9)
9.96(-ll,
1.23 (-2) 4. 41 (-10) 7.38(-3) 2.94(-10
6.72(-2) 2.42
1.63(-11) --
-7)
-7)
1.9
1.5
-8) 3.7
3) 3.87(-10)
-2) 2.74(-8)
2) 1.79 (-9)
6.45(
7.20(
2.98(
9.78
-3)2.32
-5) 1.65
-2) 1.07
-9)
4.02(-2) 1.61
-12) -
6.52
-10) 3.87(-3) 1.55
-8)
4.32(-5
-10) 7.15(-3
) 1.10
) 7.16
-9)
2.08(-2) 6.26
)• —
-17
-12
-10
4.98(-ll
1.24(-15) 4.36(-6)
1.77(-16) 1.16(-6)
7.90(-16) 2.63(-7)
3.88(-16) 1.29(-7)
3.35(-17) 1.12(-8)
2.54(-18) 8.47(-10)
5.48(-16) 1.10(-6)
3.66(-14) --
6.76(-17) 1.35(-7)
8.25(
1.49(
-15
-13
4.95(-13
1.65(-5)
-_
__
2.45(-12) --
1.91(
-12
i
1.81(-10) 5.43(-18) 9.05(-11)
1.04(-2) 3! 13 (-10) 5. 22 (-3)
I

2.49l
-11
1
) 4.92(-3) 1.47(-10) 2.46(-3) 7.35(-ll) 1.23(-3)
2.68(-2) 8.06(-10) 1.34(-2) 4.03(-10
-12) -
-10) 2.58
-8)
2.88
-10) 1.19
3.26
-3) 7.74
-5) 5.48
-3) 3.58
-12) --
-11) 1.29(-3
-9)
1.44(-5
-10) 5.96(-3
1.63
3.87
2.74
1.79
-12
) 6.72(-3)
) -
-11) 6.45(-4)
-9)
"" 1 CJ
7.20(-6)
) 2.98(-3)

-------
                                 Table 19 (Continued)
Max Permissible Discharge
Nuclide Cone. Sp Act. Cone. Sp Act. Cone
Cs-136 6.0(-6)
1.4(-1) 7.97(-10) 2.10(-6
Cs-137 2.0(-6) 2.1(-2) 1.00
Cs-138
Ba-140 3.2(-6)
La- 140 3. 8 (-7)
Ce-141 1.7(-6
Ce-143 7.6(-7
Pr-143 9.5(-8
Ce-144 1.9(-7
Pr-145 —
3.56
1.5(2) 4.84
4.8(3) 4.70
-7) 2.73
-9) 9.36
-12) 1.61
-12) 1.57
1.2(3) 4.35(-12) 1.45
6.8(3) 4.16(-12
1.8(3 4.27
2.3(1) 2.95
6.35
-12
-12
-13)
Nd-147 l.l(-7) 1.9(3) 1.48(-12
Pm-147 3.8(-7) 1.6(2 5.85(-13
Pm-149 7.6(-8) 9.5(3) 5.62(-13
Pm-151 -- -- 1.75(-13
Sm-151 5.0(-7) 1.6(2) 4.30(-15,
Sm-153 1.5(-7) 1.6(4) 1.05
Eu-155 3.8(-7) 2.7(2) 6.23
Eu-156
Eu-157
9.30
2.01
Gd-159 1.5(-7) 2.4(4) 3.56
Total Activity
-13
-15
-15
-15
-16
1.39
1.42
-4
-6
:l
60% 40%
Sp Act. Cone. Sp Act.
4.77(-10) 1.26(-6) 3.18(-10
6.00
2.13
2.91
2.72
-8)
-9
-12
-12!
1.64-4
5. 61 (-6
) 9.66
) 9.42
i-35
4.00
1.42
1.94
1.88
-8)
-9)
20%
Cone. Sp Act.
) 8.40(-7) 1.59(-10
1.09 (-4
3.74-6
-12) 6.44(-5
-12) 6.28(-3
) 2.00(-8)
) 7.12(-10
9.68-13
) 9.40(-13
10%
Cone. Sp Act.
) 4.20(-7) 7.91
5.46-5
1.87(-6
3.22(-5
3. 14 (-3
'(-11) 2.10(-7
1.00(-8) 2.73(-5
3.56(-10) 9.36(-7
4.84(-13) 1.61(-5
4.70(-13) 1.57(-3
-2) 2.51(-12) 8.70(-3) 1.64(-12) 5.80(-3) 8.70(-13) 2.90(-3) 4.35(-13) 1.45(-3
-2) 2.49(-12) 8.34(-3) 1.66(-12
0
9.83-3
2.12(-3
2.56(-12) 8.52(-3) 1.71
1.47-12J
4.93(-3) 8.88(-13
1.95(-3)3.51(-13
1.87
5.83
) 1.43
) 3.50
2.08
3.10
6.70
-3
-5
:l
-5
-6
1.19(-6
3.36(-13
1.05(-13
2.58(-15
6.30(-14
3.75-15
5.58(-15
1.21
2.13
1.57(-7)
f-15
f-16

1 5.91(-3) 9.80
1 1.27(-3) 2.54
) 2.96
1.17
1.12
3.51
8.58
2.10
1.25
1.55
4.02
7.14

Volume of Water (cc) 17,000
-12
-13
-13
-3) 5.92(-13
-3) 2.34(-13
A
t
C6
-4
c
— J)
c
rj
2.24
7.00
1.72
4.20
2.50
3.72
8.04
1.42
5. 56 (-3
5. 68 (-3
) 8.32(-13) 2.78(-3) 4.16
(-13) 1.39(-3
) 8.54(-13) 2.84(-3) 4.27(-13) 1.42(-3
3.94(-3) 4.90(-13) 1.97(-3) 2.95(-13) 9.83(-4
) 8.48(-4) 1.27(-13) 4.24(-4) 6.35(-14) 2.12(-4
) 1.97(-3
) 7.80(-4
-13) 7.48(-4
-14) 2.34(-4
-15) 5.72(-6;
-14
1 R
-15
i a
*t a

1.40
8.32
9.30
2.68
4.76

jt
A
/>
/>
n

43 , 000
2.96(-13,
) 9. 86 (-4)
) 3.90(-4
I.'l2(-13) 3.74(-4)
) 3.50(-14) 1.17(-4)
) 8.60(-16) 2.86(-6)
2.10(-14
1.25-15
1.86(-15
4.02(-16)
7.00
4.16
6.20
1.34
7.12(-17) 2.38


-5)
-6
-6)
-6)
-7)

1.48(-13) 4.93(-4,
5.85(-14) 1.95(-4
5.62(-14) 1.87(-4/
1.75(-14) 5. 83 (-5J
4.30(-16) 1.43(-6)
1.05
6.23
9.30
2.01
3.56

220,000
-14) 3.50
-16) 2.08
-16) 3.10
-16) 6.70
f*
a
— V
-17) 1.19(-7

380,000*


*Only the volume to the open end of the 10%isoconcentration line of figures 30 and 31.

-------
tailed motion of ocean currents.  Such assumptions result in a higher calcu-
lated radionuclide concentration than actually would occur.  First, we may
ignore the effects of eddies and currents comparable in size with the down-
stream plume.  Secondly, we assume that the current past the site is uniform
in strength and direction,  so that there is no shearing of the downstream
plume.  These assumptions  compound the conservatism, since both omit
effects contributing to greater mixing.  It is further assumed that good verti-
cal mixing occurs at the site from action of the buoyant jet and thermal con-
vection.  Dye release  experiments have shown that there is much less vertical
than horizontal mixing in ocean currents.  For this study, no vertical mixing
is assumed to occur past one nautical mile down-current from the site; i.e.,
beyond the effective limit of the buoyant jet.  The model chosen for continuous
release from a fixed source is the "spreading disk" model recommended by
Okubo and Pritchard (1969) and by Ito,  Fukuda, and Tanigawa (1966).   The
model is  described under Theory, below.
The release rate of radionuclides used for the downstream plume calculation
is the annual discharge given in table 2, p 29.
The current velocities used in the calcuation are from the site data as fol-
lows:

                                   Velocity (nm/day)
              Site               Maximum   Minimum
              Wiscasset, Me.         9.72       0.54
              Sea Girt, N.J.        11.00       2.00
              Miami, Fla.          24.00       6.00
              San Onofre, Cal.      16.80
              All sites              24.00       0.50

Radionuclide concentrations are not  calculated beyond 40 nm down current
from the  site because  the accuracy of the mathematical model becomes limi-
ted with distance.
                                 162

-------
Theory

The following sketch shows an isoconcentration line in the downstream plume
where  the plux x-coordinate is down Current, the y-coordinate is perpendicu-
lar to the current,  and the origin is at the site.

                             Isoconcentration Line
              i ,
                 ^^
          Site

        Current

The following derivation initially assumes negligible radioactive decay (half-
life >  100 days), and assumes constant concentration with depth.  The spread-
ing disk model assumes that the radionuclide distribution perpendicular to
the current is a normal distribution:          2

                       
-------
To evaluate oS(x,0), let
      Q = radionuclide release rate at the site (curies/year)
By conservation of radionuclides :
                                   +/*ฐ         -- 22
                     Qdt  = DUQdt      (x,0)  e 2c x   dy
where :
      D = depth of water (assumed constant) (nm)
     Uo = velocity of current (nm/day)
      dt = time interval
Integrating :                                         0
                                                   y
                                                   J
                                            oo  -.
                     Qdt  = 2DU0 <ฃ(x,0) dt f e 2c x    dy
                                          o

                     Qdt  = 2DU0<ฃ(x,0) dt ^^J2  ex
                                   DU0cx
Substituting :
                                     Ocx
This basic equation mus t be modified to include radioactive decay for decay
chains of up to three radionuclides.  The following formulas for the i^n radio-
nuclide concentration in the decay chain are derived in appendix C:
                                    f^x)   e" 2c2x2
                                   DU0cx
where f^(x) = Q e uo
for the first of a 1, 2, or 3 radionuclide chain, where:
                                   164

-------
for the second of a 2 or 3 radionuclide chain, where:
                                                                - X
                      f(x\ = —*	4 -x  u* -gj   i    Un          U

                       3W   A     TTZ    TT   \e   ฐ    - e   uo
                                       fd2fd3  .e
                                                C
                                                "~Uo~
                                              e       -   e

                                ~3 - Al


                           + Q3 e



for the third radionuclide in a chain, where:


      .                = decay constant for the i^ (day~^) radionuclide =

      A                 .639/half-life


      f^2              = decay fraction of first radionuclide to second, (l-fdo)

                        decays directly to the third radionuclide


      fjjg              = decay fraction of second radionuclide to the third,

                        (l-fd3) decays directly to the stable nuclide.




The formula for the shape of the isoconcentration curve is derived as follows


for the ith radionuclide.  By definition of the isoconcentration line:
where X. = downstream terminal value of x on the isoconcentration curve.
                                  165

-------
Substituting:

                                     2
                                   Ys
                     fi(x)       -ฃTO
                   r  DU0 ex                >2   DU0cx

Solving :

                     ys2 -  2c2x2 In

Examples of the shape of the  isoconcentration curves in the down-current
plume for single radionuclides having half-lives of one day and greater than
100 days are given in figures 32 and 33.
Since isoconcentration curves for all radionuclides would be a formidable
task, the maximum width, ym, of each isoconcentration  curve is derived.
The derivation is done first for a single radionuclide where decay is insigni
ficant (half-life> 100  days) beginning with the isoconcentration curve:
                                  in
By setting the derivative -   = 0,
                       QX.
                               =  -607xt
where xm = distance down current (nm) for maximum y.  This formula for
xm is assumed valid for isoconcentration curves with radioactive decay, and
can be visually verified from figure 32. This formula for xm is also assumed
valid in this study for the second or third radionuclides  in a decay chain.
The formula for the volume of water within an isoconcentration line and over
a depth, D,  is derived. The  definition of the volume, V, is:

                                 xt
                     V =  2D  f    ysdx
                              o
                                   166

-------
Substitute for ys for a single radionuclide where decay is insignificant (half
life > 100 days).
The evaluation of this integral yields :
Substituting :
Evaluate ym in term s of Xj for a single radionuclide with negligible decay
beginning with the formula for yg :
                                    in

Substituting for x   = j=-
                     „  2  _
                     vm   ~  e
or
                     cxt

Substituting in the volume for one
                     V =         Dxtym  = 1.46Dxtym
                             2

This volume formula is assumed valid for iso concentration curves with radio-
active decay, and has been numerically checked against the 10-nm isoconcen-
tration curve volume in figure 32 for a one-day half- life and found to have a 2.2
percent error.   This volume formula is assumed valid in this study for iso-
concentration curves for the second and third radionuclides in a decay chain.
                                   167

-------
The final quantity of interest is the average radionuclide concentration in the
volume of water within an isoconcentration curve of the down- current plume.
The exact formula involves a hopelessly difficult integral for this engineering
study. A  simple recursion formula is used to approximate the average radio-
nuclide concentration within the ntn isoconcentration curve.  Knowing the
average radionuclide concentration for the n-l^h curve:
                         _   Vn.!    0    + 4,     1    Vn_! \
where :
      c6   = average radionuclide concentration within the n   isoconcentration
           curve
         - radionuclide concentration at the n^n isoconcentration curve.
      n
      Vn = volume of water within the nm isoconcentration curve.
The average radionuclide concentration for the first isoconcentration curve,
at Xj. = Inm, is assumed equal to the centerline concentration at x = 0. 5 nm;
that is,

                   0X (1.0)  = 0(0.5,0)

Results
For each of 70 radionuclides ,  iso- and average concentrations and average
specific activities in sea water in the down- current plume are given in appen-
dix D. Data is given for three values of current velocity: 0.5, 4.0, and
24.0 nm/day.   Concentrations are highest for the lowest velocity since the
least  mixing water passes the plant in one day. 'The depth used is 200 feet =
.0329 nm.  Concentrations are calculated for 1, 2, 4, 10, 20, and 40 nm
down  current.  The half- width and volume of water for each isoconcentration
curve are also calculated.

RADIONUCLIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE RECIRCULATING VOLUME
Flow patterns based on drift bottle studies were investigated at each of the
four sites, to ascertain whether the,site were within a semiconfined body
of water in which only partial mixing with the open ocean would occur.

                                   168

-------
The Wiscasset, Maine site is the only one that definitely has this condition.
The boundary is an imaginary line from Nova Scotia to Cape Cod over Browns
Bank and Georges Bank (see sketch below, left).  A one-box model is used
to calculate the average radionuclide concentrations in the Gulf of Maine as
described under Theory, below. The data necessary for the calculation are
the volume of water in the Gulf of Maine,  which was calculated from a Coast
and Geodetic Survey chart, and the flow of water leaving the Gulf.  The flow
rate was calculated from an estimate of the cross sectional flow area from
bottom to surface over Georges Bank between Cape Cod and the Gulf of Maine
channel, and from the average current velocity for  this cross sectional area
estimated from surface currents based on drift bottle measurements.  Water
not escaping to the open ocean re circulates in the large gyre usually present
in the Gulf of Maine.  The Sea Girt, New  Jersey site has a potentially semi-
confined volume at certain times of the year. This volume exists in the Hud-
son River estuary,  and is bounded on the  north by Long Island and on the west
by New Jersey, as shown by the sketch to the right.
  N.H.
                  MAINE
        /  .'  \
     '/y'1-
  •X//
  GEOtfGE&'SANIV-p-
  _  -"••<*
            s<^   <.....A*
 —         _     )^   ^ANK

This volume may recirculate when aided by a southwest wind.  Radionuclide
concentration in the recirculating volume was not calculated, since means of
estimating the volume of water that escapes to the open ocean are not readily
available in the literature.  No semi confined volume exists at the Miami site
except for large eddies that move slowly northward  over the site.  Since these
eddies do not remain over the site, no average radionuclide concentrations
are calculated for them.  Radionuclides released from the power plant would
                                 169

-------
be carried northward along the Florida coast while decaying,  mixing with the
Gulf Stream in about one week.  No evidence of a semiconfined volume exists
for the San Onofre, California site.  Because of the inconsistencies of ocean
currents and the lack of complete data, these box model calculations are only
approximate.

Theory
The one-box model is used to calculate radionuclide concentration in equili-
brium by equating production and loss terms as described on page 134 of
reference 1.   The radionuclide concentration is averaged over the semicon-
tained volume or box.  By conservation of nuclei for the general case of the
ith radionuclide in a decay chain:
    nuclei
    released
+
   i-1
precursor
decay
      Qi      +VivVifd,i
  i-2
precursor
decay
_ decay    dilution
  loss      loss
where:
      Qi
= release rate of the i
  (curies/year)

                     radionuclide from the power plant
      Xi      = decay constant of i   radionuclide (yr   )
      V       = volume of water in the box (cc)
      TTj       = atom density of i*n isotope in sea (atoms/cc)
      S       = volume flow rate of water leaving the box (cc/day)
      f
-------
                                        S  + X.  V

Results for Wiscasset, Maine Site
The calculated average radionuclide concentrations in the Gulf of Maine are
given in table 20. Note that these concentrations become  less meaningful for
shorter-lived radionuelides, since radioactive decay becomes the predominant
loss term and concentration decreases rapidly with distance from the site.
Meaningful average concentrations exist for radionuclides having half-lives
comparable with or greater than the cycle time of the gyre,  which is 100 to
200 days.  Since these concentrations are well below permissible levels,
the data  are  not used in this study. These concentrations might be useful
if more were known about food webs.
The volume of water in the Gulf of Maine is calculated at 1.6 x 10*9 cc. The
calculated flow of water leaving the Gulf of Maine over the Georges Bank,  is
an annual average from seasonal estimates based on surface current data,
as follows:
                                                           1 fi
              Season            Volume Outflow (cc/day x 10  )
              Spring                   2.35
              Summer                  4.70
              Fall                     1.61
              Winter                   2.26
              Annual average           2.73

ACCIDENTAL RADIONUCLIDE RELEASE
During a loss-of-coolant accident or a breach-of-containment accident,  it is
postulated that an amount of radionuclides are unintentionally released  to sea
(see section 4, radionuclide release), which is conservatively assumed to be
larger than the actual amount would be.  For either accident the  radionuclides
are contained in a gaseous  mixture of air and steam which is released over
a short duration.  As the bubbles of gas ascend to the surface, they collapse
or disintegrate into finer bubbles, and most radionuclides are absorbed by

                                  171

-------
 Table 20.  Average Radionuclide Concentrations,
Wiscasset Site, One-box Model, Normal Operation
Radionuclide
H-3
Cr-51
Mn-54
Fe-55
Co- 58
Fe-59
Co-60
Ge-78
As- 78
Br-84
Rb-88
Rb-89
Sr-89
Sr-90
Y-90
Sr-91
Y-91
Y-93
Zr-95
Nb-95
Zr-97
Mo- 99
Ru-103
Rh-105
Ru-106
Pd-109
Ag-111
Cd-115
Sn-119m
Sn-121
Sn-123
Sn-125
Sb-125
Te-125m
Sb-126
Half -life
(day)
.447(4)
27.8
303
949
71.3
45.6
1921
.0613
.0632
.0221
.0124
.0107
52.7
10110
2.67
.403
58.8
.429
65.5
35.0
.708
2.78
39.5
1.49
368
.560
7.50
2.23
.25(3)
1.15
125
9.40
989
58.0
.375
Radionuclide
Release Rate Concentration
(Ci/yr) (//Ci/cc)
3.85(2) 3.54
5.85(-3) 3.74
4.19(-5) 1.79
-11)
-17)
-18
2.3(-4) 1.61(-17
7.20(-3) 1.07(-16
3.24(-5
9. 00 (-4
3.31 -8
6.50-8
3.26
7.45
4.98
6.00
-19
-17
-24
-16
1.00-3) 5.40(-21
5.50 -2
1.36-3
1.43 -4
1.67
3.60
1.64
3.19-6) 3.08
-19)
-21
-18)
-19)
1.06(-4) 3.75(-19)
8.36(-5
7. 59 (-2
5.98(-4
1.44(-6
1.48(-4
8.30(-21)
9. 58 (-16)
6.30(-20)
2. 00 (-20)
1.19(-18)
6.60(-5) 1.14
4.10(-1) 2.78
1.16(-4) 1.02
1.16 (-5) 5.36
4.46C-6) 2.12
3.16(-7
4.28(-7
6.05(-8
2.04(-7
1.38(-7
1.17(-8
l!30(-9
1.03 -7
1.06 -5
4.35
7.71
3.30
-20
-16
-18
-16
-19
-23)
-22)
-23)
7. 57(-21)
3. 89 (-23)
2.70
2.93
7.30
1.34
-22
-24
-21
-19)
2.33 -8) 2.14(-24)
                       172

-------
                   Table 20 (Continued)
Radionuclide
Sb-127
Te-127m
Te-127
Te-129m
Te-129
1-129
Te-131m
1-131
Te-132
1-132
1-133
Te-134
1-134
Cs-134
1-135
Cs-136
Cs-137
Cs-138
Ba-140
La- 140
Ce-141
Ce-143
Pr-143
Ce-144
Pr-145
Nd-147
Pm-147
Pm-149
Pm-151
Sm-151
Sm-153
Eu-155
Eu-156
Eu-157
Gd-159
„ ... Radionuclide
Halt-life Release Rate Concentration
(day) (Ci/yr) (^Ci/cc)
3.88 2.84(-6) 2.68(-21)
109 3.90(-5) 8.26(-19)
.392 1.65(-4) 1.50(-19)
34.1 2.05(-6) 1.58(-20)
.0477 6.66(-4) 1.79(-20)
6.2(9) 1.27(-
1.25 6.55(-
8.05 1.08(-
-9) 1.27-22
-4) 2.00-19
-1 2.09-16
3.24 8.64(-3 6. 82 (-18)
.0942 2.54(-l 1.27(-17)
.846 1.40(-1) 2.90(-17
.0292 5.67(-4) 4.10(-21
.0361 1.34(-2) 1.23(-19
748 4.64(-l) 3.0H-14
.278 6.19(-
-2) 4.22(-18)
13.7 3.00(-2) 9.76(-17)
10950 4.43
4.28(-13)
.0224 1.23-1) 6.76(-19)
12.80 1.71-4) 5.21(-19)
1.676 1.65-4) 5.87(-19)
32.5 1.50(-
1.37 1.43(-
13.59 1.49(-
284 7.70(-
-4) 1.11(-18
-4) 4.79-20
-4 5.27-19
-5 3.17-18
.249 2.20(-5 1.35(-21
11,1 5.10(-5) 1.35(-19)
62.9 1.10(-
2.21 1.93 -
1.16 6.05-
.318(5) 7.05
-5) 1.59 (-18)
-5) 1.04 (-20)
-6) 1.71(-21)
-8) 6.97(-21)
1.95 3.64(-6) 1.74(-21)
661 1.14(;
-7) 7.06(-21)
15.4 3.22(-7) 5.61(-14)
.629 7.00(-8) 1-08(-SJ
.750 1.24(-8) 2.28(-24)
( ) Denotes power of ten.
                          173

-------
the sea water.  Some of the bubbles will reach the surface, but only some of
the noble gases such as krypton and xenon will remain and be released to the
atmosphere.  The radionuclides absorbed by the sea water will initially cause
very high radionuclide  concentrations near the site.  The same dilution pro-
cesses will reduce the  radionuclide concentrations as in  continuous release
during normal operation, but at a greater rate for the accidental batch re-
lease. As in the analysis of normal release, motion of the sea water and
radioactive decay are considered,  but settling to the bottom, chemical re-
actions, and biological uptake and release are ignored. Since the bubbles rise
to the surface while radionuclides are absorbed, good initial vertical mixing
of radionuclides in sea water is assumed.  Conservatively, all of the radio-
nuclides released are assumed to be absorbed in the sea.
As in the normal release, the sea water motion is divided into three sizes re-
lative to the cloud of radionuclide-laden water; viz., much larger than, com-
parable with, and much smaller than the size of the radionuclide cloud.  The
shape of this cloud as it is carried down current can be surmised from experi-
mental instantaneous releases of dye in the ocean. Two shearing effects will
tend to give the cloud a long tail similar to that of a comet: the velocity gradi-
ent from the surface to the bottom, and the velocity gradient across the cur-
rent.  Photographs and worthy discussions on the shape of dye patches can be
found in references 1 and 2.  Eddies of comparable size, spurs from adjoining
currents, wind-driven currents, tides, and countercurrents at different depths
easily distort the shape of the cloud of radionuclide-containing water.  How-
ever, the principal means of mixing is small eddy diffusion.
In this analysis, a uniform current past the site and small eddy diffusion are
considered as the only effects on the cloud of radionuclide-laden water.  The
currents that produce an asymmetric shape of the cloud are ignored. This
assumption is conservative since some mixing processes are being ignored.
The radionuclide concentrations are calculated from 1 to 40 nautical miles
downstream from the site.  This range is chosen because it is  beyond the
range of mechanical mixing near the site, but does not exceed the practical
limit of the analytical model.
The model chosen for the mixing analysis of the batch release in the sea,
assumes  a normal or Gaussian distribution radially, with the center of the

                                   174

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cloud traveling with the current as described in references 1 and 3.  More
complex models are available, but are not suitable for this engineering study
for reasons given under the description of radionuclide distribution for nor-
mal release.

Theory
The following sketch shows a circular isoconcentration line down, current from
the site which is the plus x-direction.

                                          Isoconcentration Line
                                S       ,
        Site
                -ป• + x
        Current = uo
 The following derivation assumes constant concentration over depth, and
 initially assumes negligible decay (half-life > 100 days). Assume the radio-
 nuclide concentration to be   Gaussian in the radial direction:
 where:
      
-------
                                            r2
                                            22
                                          2c x
By conservation of radionuclides :
                   /ฐ                              f    2r2x2
                   I  0(x,r) 2;rrDdr  = 2 nDd> (x.O)  I   e  c    rdr
                  /                               ^
                 •^                               o
where
      Q = total radionuclide release  (curies)
      D = depth of water
                     Q  -

Solving for 0 (x, 0) :
                               2 TT Dc2x2

Substituting:
                                              r2
This empirical formula is recommended by Okubo and Pritchard on1 page 39
of reference 1, and is recommended and verified with experimental.data on
dye releases in reference 3.  A value of c =0.1 was determined to fit best
with experimental data in reference 3.
This basic equation must be modified to include radioactive decay  for decay
chains of up to three radionuclides.  The following formulas for the ith radio-
nuclide concentration in the decay chain are derived in appendix C:
                                  176

-------
where
for the first of a 1, 2, or 3-radionuclide chain, where
                                        Xlx      X2X
                                       ~~
                                             - e        + Q2  e

 for the second of a 2 or 3-radionuclide chain, where:
               f  M -   ซ>   *  ^1 d2 d3      ~o
               In I A.) —  ~f\    J  TT-T	r \ p    v
               3V      (A0 -A0)( An, -A-Ht
uo
     -  e
                        ซlWd3    I    U0
                                        AgX        A..X
                                      e   "   -  e
                A, Qi  (l-fH2) L  Uo         Uo
                  o   i     d^  \ e       -  e

              -r    ,	.     \ e   u      e      /
                   A-o  "" ^o
                    ^^     ^H
                       ^3X
              +  Q3  e  Uo

for the third radionuclide in a chain, where:
      Aj = decay  constant of the ith (day~ ) radionuclide = .593/half-life
      UQ = downstream current velocity (nm/day)
     f J9 = decay fraction of first to second radionuclide, (l-fdo) decays
          directly to the third radionuclide
     frfซ = decay fraction of second to third radionuclide (1-f^g) decays
          directly to the stable nuclide.
The formula for the average radionuclide concentration,  0 (x,r), within a
circle of radius r is derived as follows for the i   radionuclide:

                                  177

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-------
3.   N. Ito, M.  Fukuda, and Y. Tanigawa, "Small-Scale Horizontal Diffu-
     sion Near the Coast," Symposium on the Disposal of Radioactive
     Wastes into Seas, Oceans, and Surface Waters, IAEA, Vienna,  1966,
     STI/PBU/126.
                                  179

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                              Section 8

     EFFECT OF RADIONtCLIDES ON MAN AND MARINE BIOTA


This section presents the results of  the study made to ascertain the effect of
radionuclides released from an underwater nuclear power plant on man and
marine biota.  Radionuclide release used in this study is typical of that from
a pressurized water reactor in current commercial operation.  We take as a
guiding principle for this study the following quotation from Handbook 69 (re-
ference 1):  "Because of the many assumptions and approximations made in
applying much of the data in this publication, it is concluded that detailed re-
finements in the calculations generally are unwarranted." In other words,
equal accuracy of calculations throughout the analysis avoids spending a dis-
proportionately large amount of time on one part of the analysis.  It is as-
sumed that a conservative yet realistic approach will yield an estimated an-
nual dose  in which the conservatisms will have more than balanced the un-
knowns, but not  excessively so.  Assurance that this balance occurs is pro-
vided by the procedure of applying individual conservatisms to individual un-
knowns, although this procedure often results in an excessively conservative
estimated annual radiation dose.
An evaluation of the biological effect of radionuclides on man and marine biota
must begin with  a qualitative description of the physical and biological pro-
cesses involved  in transporting the radionuclides from the sea water to man.
Since radionuclides of an element are chemically indistinguishable from the
stable nuclides of the same element, each radionuclide will be transported
from organism to organism as its element progresses through a food chain
that  may end with man.   A typical food chain begins with uptake of the element
by phytoplankton or zooplankton from the sea water. The plankton may be
eaten by copepods or other microscopic crustaceans which, in turn,may be-
come food for small fish such as  smelt. The element might then pass from
the smaller fish to mackerel,  to tuna,  to man. Other food chains end with
large crustaceans such as lobsters or crabs.  Molluscs such as clams, oys-
ters, and  scallops, filter the plankton from the sea water at the bottom, where
radionuclides in the sediment might  contribute to mollusc uptake.  Radionu-
clides in the sediment are taken up and concentrated by  marine algae or sea-
weed, and may also end in man.  Kelp, for instance, is harvested on the
Pacific Coast for use in chemical industries.  A gelatinous extract from sea-
weeds is also used to thicken  ice cream and in cosmetics.
                                 181

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A multitude of food chains exist and are interrelated to form food webs.  Lit-
tle  quantitative information about intake rates and retention of radionuclides
by marine organisms in the food web is available in the literature.   Many or-
ganisms in the web concentrate the elements, since the elements are neces-
sary for biological functions.  Consequently, the concentrations of radionu-
clides in marine organisms are usually greater than in the sea water.
Part of the contaminated food eaten by an organism is  assimilated and part
passes through its digestive system.  Concurrently, radionuclides are being
eliminated from the organism at a rate proportional to the concentration of
the radionuclide within the organism.  If an adult organism remains in con-
taminated water for a long enough time, the concentration of a radionuclide
in the  organism will reach an equilibrium whereat the rate of assimilation
equals the rate of elimination of that radionuclide.  The time that it  takes
for the radionuclide concentration in the organism to reach one half  of this
equilibrium value is called the biological half-life of the organism for that
radionuclide.  The rate of radionuclide transport to man is determined by the
rate of assimilation of each organism, competing with the rates of dilution and
radioactive decay.  Dilution occurs in two ways: dilution by sea water, and
"market dilution," which refers to dilution by consumption of uncontaminated
with contaminated food by all marine organisms and man.  Growing  organisms
have a greater assimilation rate than adult organisms, but their elimination
rate is not shortened.  It is possible for a growing organism to increase its
radionuclide concentration in the higher concentration  regions after  an acci-
dental release, and have higher concentrations relative to surrounding water
for a period thereafter.  Although internal radiation dosage from ingested ra-
dionuclides is the more serious  possibility, an external dose might be received
by a commercial fisherman from handling fishing gear that had dragged through
contaminated silt. One might also receive external dosage by lying  on con-
taminated beach sand.
The chemical  form of the radionuclide  determines its path through the food
web.  If the radionuclide is in the same chemical form as the naturally occur-
ring element,  the radionuclide and element are indistinguishable.  If the
chemical form of the radionuclide differs from that of  the element,  the paths
may differ, either increasing or decreasing the effect  on  man.   For example,
a chemically different radionuclide might preferentially adsorb onto particu-
                                  182

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late matter such as silt or microorganisms.  The silt would settle to the bot-
tom and might not be a hazard, but the microorganisms might be selectively
eaten by other biota and thus bypass  some dilution by the naturally occurring
element.

There are two methods of analyzing the effect of radionuclides on man: by
concentration factors, or by specific activity as described below.

CONCENTRATION  FACTOR METHOD
Maximum permissible concentrations of radionuclides in sea water (MPCC)
can be calculated from maximum permissible concentrations in drinking wa-
ter (MPCW), with concentration factors for marine food webs. A complete
explanation of this concept is given by A. M. Freke (reference 2), and is
summarized as follows. Maximum permissible concentrations in /xCi/cc of
radionuclides in drinking water are given in Handbook 69 (reference 1) for
occupational exposure.   These MPCw's are recommended by the International
Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), Committee II on Permissible
Dose for Internal Radiation  (reference 3).  The lowest value of the MPCW
 (which defines the critical organ) for a 168-hr week is used for each radio-
nuclide in this study.  To keep the average dose to the general public as low
as possible, the MPCw's for radiation workers are reduced by a factor of
ten.  The MPCw's are based on a daily intake of 2200 cc of water continuously
 over 50 years so that the average annual dose from a single radionuclide
 equals the maximum annual dose to the critical organ.   If more than one ra-
 dionuclide is ingested,   its fraction of MPCW must be added for each organ
and compared with 1.0.
 The maximum daily intake of a radionuclide in  fiCi/day is :
                                     2200

 Assume the daily protein requirement of an individual is 1-gm protein per kg
 body weight.  The body weight of the standard man is 70 kg as adopted by the
 ICRP.  Each class of seafood - fish, crustacean, mollusc, or edible sea-
 weed - has a protein content expressed as  Pc, a percentage of seafood weight.
 The daily intake in grams/day of a particular seafood that is assumed to sup-
 ply the entire protein requirement to the standard man is:
                                   183

-------
For fish, which is 17.5 percent protein, the daily intake is 400 gin, or about
0.9 Ib.  The maximum permissible concentration of radionuclides in a parti-
cular class of seafood, MPCsf in  /iCi/gm, is calculated by dividing the maxi-
mum permissible daily intake of radionuclides by the maximum daily intake
of seafood giving:

                              MPCW 2200 P
                     MPCsf =	-
                                 10-10-100

Concentration factors for fish, Crustacea, mollusks, and  edible seaweed have
been tabulated by Freke (reference 2).  The concentration factor is defined
as the number of microcuries per gram of seafood divided by the number of
microcuries per gram of sea water in which the seafood is assumed to have
existed for sufficient duration that all organisms in the food web have effec-
tively reached biological equilibrium. Assuming that the  approximate density
of sea water is 1 gm/cc, the formula for  the maximum permissible concentra-
tion in sea water for each radionuclide is:

                             MPC   2200  ?„
                     MPCC
                              10 • 70 • 100 Cf
where:
      MPCC = maximum permissible concentration ( ^iCi/cc) of a radionu-
              clide in sea water
      MPCW = maximum permissible concentration ( ^Ci/cc) of a radionu-
              clide in drinking water as recommended by the ICRP for 168-
              hr/week occupational exposure to the critical organ
      Pc    = percent protein content for the particular  class of seafood
      Cf    = concentration factor for the radionuclide from sea water to
              seafood per. unit mass of each.
The average protein content for each class of seafood by weight percentage
is tabulated below.  In the cases of fish, Crustacea, and  mollusks, the pro-
tein content is given for the flesh only.
                                  184

-------
            Average Protein Content for Marine Organisms
Protein Content of Edible Portion
Organism (Weight %) (Reference 2)
Fish
Crustacea
Molluscs
Algae
17.5
16.0
6.0
50.0
The possibility of exposure of individuals to an external radiation dose from
silt (commercial fisherman dragging the bottom or bather on a mud flat) must
be considered. The method of calculating the dose rate is that presented by
Freke in reference 2.  Based on the permissible dose rate to the general pub-
lic of 0.5 rem in one year, and assuming that the exposure time might be as
high as 1000 hours, the allowable dose rate is :

                           = 5 x 10~4 rem/hr

The dose rate in rem/hr from a plane surface of an infinitely thick layer of
uniformly contaminated silt is approximately equal to:

                                  CE

where:
      C = specific activity of contaminated material ( ^Ci/gm)
      E = effective energy per disintegration (Mev)
Assuming that the effective decay gamma energy per disintegration of the
radionuclide is 1 Mev, the specific activity of the silt would be:

                      5 x 10" 4  MCi/gm

 If the concentration factor from sea water to silt is Cf, the formula for MPCC
 from external radiation becomes:

                      MPCC =  5cf10"

                                   185

-------
Following Freke's example, the concentration factor from sea water to silt
is arbitrarily assumed equal to the concentration factor from sea water to
mollusc.  Since the mollusc may live in the silt, we are assuming that mol-
lusc and silt each have the same specific activity per gram.
The calculation of the MPCC's for all radionuclides is given  in table 21. The
organism  having the highest concentration factor (fish, crustacean, mollusc,
or algae) and that for  silt is also given. The  concentration factor and the
MPCW are given.  Note that the concentration factor for fish is not the high-
est for any radionuclide,  yet man probably consumes more fish than other
marine organisms.
Concentration factors have been compiled by Polikarpov (reference 12) for
many varieties of marine organisms, and for many parts  of the higher forms;
e.g., muscles, bones, blood,  eggs, etc.  These detailed  concentration fac-
tors were not used in  this study because they  represent the next level of sophis-
tication in analysis of radionuclides in the sea.

SPECIFIC ACTIVITY  METHOD
The specific activity method has the advantage of establishing maximum per-
missible radiation levels in the sea, without requiring knowledge of the food
web. Complete explanations of this concept are found in references  4 and 5;
a summary is given here.  There are two maximum permissible quantities
given in Handbook 69  (reference 1) as recommended by the ICRP (reference
3).  These quantities are the maximum permissible concentration in drinking
water (MPCW) which is discussed in the section on concentration factors,  and
the maximum permissible body burden  (MPBB), in microcuries, for various
"organs" in the human body.  The maximum permissible  specific activity
(MPSA) in fj. Ci/gm is defined as the maximum permissible burden in micro-
curies of radionuclide in the critical organ, divided by the average number
of grams of the element in the critical organ. The specific activity of each
radionuclide in the sea can be calculated by dividing the concentration of the
radionuclide in microcuries per cc of sea water by the natural concentration
of the element in grams per cc of sea water.
Since neither the human body nor any marine  organism is an isotope separa-
tor, the proportion of radionuclide to element will not increase as the radio-

                                 186

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Table 21.  Maximum Permissible Concentration of
       Radionuclides in Sea Water (MPCC)
Derivation: Algae
Crustacea
Molluscs
Silt
Nuclide
H-3
Cr-51
Mn-54
Fe-55
Co- 58
Fe-59
Co-60
Ge-78
As- 78
Br-84
Rb-88
Rb-89
Sr-89
Sr-90
Y-90
Sr-91
Y-91
Y-93
Zr-95
Nb-95
Zr-97
Mo- 99
Ru-103
Rh-105
Ru-106
Organism
Algae
Silt
Molluscs
Silt
Crustacea
Molluscs
Crustacea
--
--
—
_ _
Algae
Algae
Molluscs
Algae
Molluscs
Molluscs
Algae
Molluscs
Algae
Molluscs
Algae
Molluscs
Algae
MPCW
.03
10-3

*AiV
5x10-4
3x10-4
--
__
— —
--
10-4
10-6 „
2x10- 4
5xlO-4
3xlO~4
3xlO-4
6x10-4
10-3
2xlO-4
4x10-4
8x10-4
10-3
lO-4
MPCC = L58l-
MPCC = . 504 (
TWfDfT1 - 1 ftQ I
ivljrv^Vv — • loo I
TV/FT?/"1/"1 " ^ ^
ivlJrv^U — (^
Lf
Cone. Factor
Cf
1 3
5xlQ4
2xl04
1Q4
2xl04
104
--
--
— —
--
20
&
200
102
102
103 9
2x10^
103
lO2
1Q3
102
103
— ~~ w \
~cT) ^ci
MPCW\
Cf /
MPCW\
Cf )
-4

MPCC
(fiCi/cc)
4.7x10"?
5.0x10"^
3.8x10"^
2.5x10 ซ
2.3xlO"b
4. 7x10"?
1.5xlO~b
--
--
— —
--
7. 9x10" o
7.9x10 7
3.8x10"'
4.0x10"^
5. 7x10" A
5. 7x10" A
9.5x10 I
9.5x10"'
3.2x10"!
7. 5x10" R'
1.3xlO"5
1.9x10"?
1.6x10"'
                                                    cc
                      187

-------
Table 21 (Continued)
Nuclide
Pd-109
Ag-111
Cd-115
Sn-119m
Sn-121
Sn-123
Sn-125
Sb-125
Te-125m
Sb-126
Sb-127
Te-127m
Te-127
Te-129m
Te-129
1-129
Te-131m
1-131
Te-132
1-132
1-133
Te-134
1-134
Cs-134
1-135
Cs-136
Cs-137
Cs-138
Ba-140
La- 140
Ce-141
Ce-143
Pr-143
Ce-144
Pr-145
Nd-147
Pm-147
Pm-149
Pm-151
Sm-151
Organism
Molluscs
Molluscs
Molluscs
—
--
_ _
Algae
Algae
Algae
--
_ _
Algae
Algae
Algae
Algae
Algae
Algae
Algae
Algae
--
Algae
_ _
Algae
Crustacea
Algae
Crustacea
Crustacea
_ _
Algae
Molluscs
Molluscs
Molluscs
Molluscs
Molluscs
--
Molluscs
Molluscs
Molluscs
__
Silt
MPCW
7x10- |
4x10"!
3x10 4
—
--
— A
2xlO"4
io-3
10'3
--
-~ A.
6x10"?
2xlO:3
2x10 \
BxW~6
4x10-6
4x10 4
2x10 |
2x10 I
6xlO-4
7x10" 5
— — q
10
9xio"r
2x10"*
6xlO"f
2x10" 4
~ ~~ A
2xlO"|
2xlO~4
9xlO"i
4x10";
5xlO~*
10-4
--
6xlO"4
2x10"!
4xlO"4
	
—
Cone. Factor
Cf
IO2 ซ
5xiฐ
105
--
--
_ _
10A
103
W6
--
— o
10^
10^
10^
10d
IO4
101
io4
IO6
--
IO4
— — A
IO4
504
IO4
50
50
"" "" o
IO2
IO2
IO2
IO2
10^
IO2
--
IO3
10^
10d
•. ซ•
IO3
MPCC
(^Ci/cc)
1.3x10"?
1.5x10"ฐ
5. 7x10" y
—
--
— — R
3 . 2x10" ?
1.6xlOซ
1.6xlO"b
--
— 7
9.5x10"'
3.2xlO~E
3. 2x10" 4
1.3xlO"D
6.3xlO"7ฐ
6.3x10"'
3.2xlO~7
3 . 2x10" '
__
l.lxlO"8
•"" *™ MV
1.6x10"'
9x10-7 a
3. 2x10" b
6.0xlQ"6
2x10- 6
^ ^ C
3. 2x10" X
3 . 8x10" '
1.7x10" ^
7. 6x10" p'
9. 5x10" S
1.9x10"'
--
i.ixio"!
3. 8x10" n
7. 6x10" a

5x10" 7
         188

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                         Table 21 (Continued)
Nuclide
Sm-153
Eu-155
Eu-156
Eu-157
Gd-159
Organism
Molluscs
Molluscs
Molluscs
Cone. Factor
iVAA^V-j— -, _ I . P
W ^"^ T
-4. Q
8xlO_J 10^
8xlO~4 103
MPCC
1.5xlO~!
3 . 8x10" '
l.SxlO"7
nuclide passes through the food web to man. If the specific activities of the
radionuclides in the sea, in places where food organisms develop and dwell,
can be maintained below the maximum permissible specific activities of these
radionuclides in man, an individual cannot exceed the allowable radiation dose
by consumption of marine products.
The formula for the MPSA is derived as follows :  The MPBB given in Hand-
book 69  is the total number of  ^Ci in all organs of the body, and is such that
the fraction of the MPBB in the organ of reference produces the maximum
annual dose to that organ for radiation workers . Each element has a natural
distribution among the organs of the body , depending on the chemical affinity
of each element for each organ. The fraction of each radionuclide in the
"organ-of-reference" to that in the whole body is given as f2 in table 12 of re-
ference  3 .  The MPSA is calculated using the MPBB of the critical organ,
which is the organ having the lowest MPCW. The maximum permissible bur-
den in the critical organ in  ^iCi for the general public is:
                            MPBB  f
                              10    *2

in which the MPBB for occupational exposure is reduced by a factor of 10 for
application to the general public.  The number of grams of the  carrier ele-
ment in the critical organ equals the product of the mass of the critical organ
in grams, g, times the average concentration, C  in grams, of  the element
per gram of wet tissue of the critical organ:  g C.  Both g and  C are found in
table 12 of reference 3.  The MPSA without the decay factor becomes:

                            MPBB • f 2
                             10 gC

                                189

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If man slowly assimilates a radionuclide that has a physical half-life which is
short in comparison with its biological half-life in man,  natural decay during
the slow assimilation process will produce a specific activity in the critical
organ less than the specific activity of the seafood consumed.  A decay factor
which is the ratio of SA in the organ divided by the SA in the seafood has been
derived for man in reference 4, and equals:
                                  X+ B
                                   B

where:
      X = physical decay constant (day  )( \ = .693/physical half-life)
      B = biological decay constant (day~1)(B = .693/biological half-life)
If the physical half-life is long relative to the biological half-life,  the decay
factor approaches 1.0. Including the decay factor for man, the MPSA for-
mula is then:
                     MPSA  = MPBB
                                10 gC
where :
      MPSA = maximum permissible specific activity (n Ci/gm) for the
              general public
      MPBB = maximum permissible body burden (/z Ci) for occupational
              exposure
      1%     = fraction of radionuclide in the critical organ
      g     = mass of critical organ (gm)
      C     = concentration of carrier (gm/gm wet tissue) in critical organ
      10     = factor to reduce allowable radiation level from radiation worker
              to general public.  This factor should be 100 for H3,C,S,V,Fe,
              Co,Cu,  and  Zn Because of differences  in their chemical form
              (see subsection below on relative merits of methods)
The calculated values of the MPSA are given in table 22.
                                    190

-------
Table 22.  Calculation of Maximum Permissible Specific Activity (MPSA)
Radionuclide
H-3
Cr-51
Mn-54
Fe-55
Co- 58
Fe-59
Co- 60
Ge-78
As- 78
Br-84
Kr-85m
Kr-85
Kr-87
Kr-88
Rb-88
Rb-89
Sr-89
Sr-90
Y-90
S-91
Y-91
Y-93
Zr-95
Nb-95
Zr-97
Mo-99
Ru-103
Rh-105
Ru-106
Pd-109
Ag-111
Cd-115
Sn-119m
Sn-121
Sn-123
Sn-125
Sb-125
Te-125m
Sb-126
Sb-127
Carrier
H
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Fe
Co
._
__
—
.„
—
_.
__
—
Sr
Sr
RE
Sr
RE
RE
Zr
Nb
Zr
Mo
--
__
—
--
Ag
Cd
.-
__
--
Sn
Sb
Te
-~
"
RE: rare earth
(Y is carrier)


Critical
"Organ"
Body tissue
(Total body)***
(Total body)
Spleen
(Liver)
(Total body)
(Total body)
—
__
--
..
__
_.
__
--
Bone
Bone
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Liver)
(Total body)
(Liver)
Liver
GI**
GI
GI
GI
(Total body)
(Kidney)
—
__
--
(Bone)
(Total body)
Liver
--
"
MPBB
IxlO3
(800)***
(40) 3
lxlOJ
(200)
(20)
(10)
__
	
--
..
.„
__
__
--
4
2
(3)
(3)
(5)
(2)
(40)
(40)
(10)
20
--
__
_-
--
(50)
(5)
—
__
--
(7)
(60)
100
--

Fracti
1.0
(1.0)
1.0
.02
.02
1.0
1.0
—
_.
—
..
__
__
__
--
.99
.99
.75
.76
.75
.75
.07
1.0
.07
.15
--
__
—
—
1.0
0.1
—
-_
--
.35
1.0
.08
--

**GI: gastrointestinal tract.



Ion of MPB in
D ฎ (^Ci)
IxlO3
800
40
20
4.0
20
10
__
	
--
..
_._
__
,_
—
4
2
2.25
2.28
3.75
1.50
2.8
40
0.7
3.0
__
„
—
—
50
0.5
—
__
—
2.45
60
8.0
_-

Mass of ฎ
fem)
4.3x101
7.0x10*
7xl04
150 ,
1.7xlOd
7xlo!
7x10*
	
: 	
--
..
._
__
__
--
7x10?.
7xlฐ3
7xl03
7x1 of
7xl03 ,
1.7X1013
7xl04 „
1.7xlOJ
1 . 7xl03
„_
__
-_
--
7xl04
300
	
	
—
7x1 03,
7x10* ,
1.7xlOJ
—

ฉin'ฎ
(gm/gm)
.16* B
8.6xlQ"B
3x10-7 ,
5.3x10"**
3xlO-7
5.7xlO~g
<4.3xlO~ฐ
	
	
--
..
__
__
__
--
1.9x10"?*
1.9x10"ฐ*
7.2x10"-*
1.9x10"ฐ*
7.2xlO"l*
7.2x10 *

-------
                                                          Table 22 (Continued)
CO
(D
(D
Radionuclide Carrier
Te-127m
Te-127
Te-129m
Te-129
1-129
Te-131m
1-131
Xe-131m
Te-132
1-132
1-133
Xe-133m
Xe-133
Te-134
1-134
Cs-134
1-135
Xe-135m
Xe-135
Cs-136
Cs-137
Xe-138
Cs-138
Ba-140
La- 140
Ce-141
Ce-143
Pr-143
Ce-144
Pr-145
Nd-147
Pm-147
Pm-149
Pm-151
Sm-151
Sm-153
Eu-155
Eu-156
Eu-157
Gd-159
Formulae :
Te
Te
Te
Te
I
Te
I
„_
Te
I
I
__
—
_„
I
K
I
_-
__
K
K
--
Ba
RE
RE
RE
RE
RE
—
RE
RE
RE
<_.
RE
RE
RE
--
._
RE
MPSA -
1
ฎ
Critical
"Organ"
Liver
(Liver)
(Liver)
(Liver)
Thyroid
(Liver)
Thyroid
__
(Liver)
Thyroid
Thyroid
-1
—
__
Thyroid
Total body
Thyroid
-_
__
Total body
Total body
—
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
--
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
	
(Bone)
(Bone)
(Bone)
--
__
(Bone)
1 _ q'
Off I..ivt

MPBB
50
(100)
20)
(40)
3
(30)
0.7
-_
(20)
0.3
0.3
--
--
._
0.2
20
0.3
_-
__
30
30
--
(4)
(10)
(40)
(10)
(20)
(5)
--
(20)
(60)
(20)
--
(100)
(30)
(80)
--
--
(20)
X+B .
> A
B

Fraction of
ฎ inฎ
.09
.05
.08
.09
.2
.05
0.2
-_
.06
0.2
0.2
-_
—
__
0.2
1.00
0.2
--
__
1.00
1.00
--
.7
0.4
0.31
0.30
0.4
0.38
--
0.35
0.52
0.35
	
0.78
0.35
0.50
--
--
0.45
1

MPB in
ฎ (Ci)
4.5
5.0
1.6
3.6
.6
1.5
.14
--
1.2
.06
.06
--
—
—
.04
20
.06
--
—
30
30
--
2.8
4
12.4
3.0
8.0
1.9
--
7.0
31.2
7.0
	
78
10.8
40
—
—
9.0

physical half-life

Mass of ฎ
(gm)
1.7x10?
1 . 7x10^
1 . 7x1 0^
1 . 7xlO'3
20
1.7xl03
20
-~ n
1.7xlOJ
20
20
--
—
__
20
7xl04
20
--
~™ A.
7x10*
7xl04
--
7xl03
--
__
--
--
--
--
__
—
--
__

Cone.
ฉinฎ
(gm/gm)
lO"3
10 n
10-3
ID'3
4x10"*
ID'3
4x10 *
~~ O
ID'3
4x10'*
4x10" 4
--
—
~~ A
4x10'*
2x10"?
4x10'*
--
i
2x10
2xlO'3
--
1.6xlO"6
--
__
—
--
—
--
—
—
—
—


Quantity No- decay Physical
(2) in (3) MPSA Half- life
(gm) , (piCi/gm) (days)
1.7
1-7 (
1.7 (
1.7 (
265 105
.294) .39
.0941) 33
.118) .051 „
.008 7.5 6.3x10'
1.7 (
.008 1
-_
1.7 (
.008
.008
-_
—
__
.008
140
.008
__
-_
140
140
-_
.0112 (
.0504 (
. 0504 (
.0504
.0504
.0504
--
.0504
.0504
.0504
-_
.0882) 1.25
.75 8.0
_
.0706) 3.2
75 .097
75 .87
_
.
_
50 .036
0143 840
75 .28
_
_
0214 13
0214 l.lxlO4
._
25.0) 12.8
8.0) 1.68
24.6) 32
6.0) 1.33
16.0) 13.7
3.77) 290
._
14.0) 11.3
62.0) 920
14.0) 2.2
"- -" A
.0504 (156) 3.7x10'
.0504 (20.8) 1.96
.0504 (80) 621
--
--
--
B l
--
--
--

B ~ biological half- life
--
	
.0504
'-
-- 	
(18.0 .75
#Use factor of 100 in place of
7.n hpr>niiRp nf rhpmical HiRRi

Biological
Halt-lite
(days)
30
30
30
30
138
30
138
__
30
138
138
-_
—
~_
138
70
138
--
-_
70
70
—
65
1000
1500
1500
1500
1500
--
1500
1500
1500
_-
1500
1500
1500
--
--
1000
10 for H3, Cu,
milarittpfi hpf-ui
Decay
Factor
X+ B MPSA
B (^tCi/gm)
1.30 .346
77 (22.6)
1.88 (.177)
589 (69.4)
1.0 7.5
25 (2.20)
18.2 31.8
-_
10.3 (.730)
1420 1070
158 119
--
--
-_
3830 1920
1.08 .015
493 370
--
--
6.36 .136
1.0 .0214
--
6.08 (152)
595 (4760)
48.5 (1190)
1130 (6770)
110 (1760)
6.17 (23.3)
--
134 (1880)
2.63 (163)
682 (9540)
	
1.04 (162)
765 (15900)
3.42 (273)
--
— ซ_
1330 (24,000)
S, V, Fe, Co, Cu,
ppn rAlAaco/1 clement
                                         q' = MPB in (
                                                        nb'
                                                              quantity of (D in ฎ
                                                                                      and natural element.

-------
Although the usual carrier for each radionuclide is its element, often it is
advantageous to group elements of common chemical properties and consider
the group as the carrier.  This is valid as long as the  MPSA and SA in the
sea are in identical units of  ^Ci/gm of carrier.  Promethium provides an
example, since it does not occur naturally; i.e., it has no stable isotope.
Promethium is one of the group of rare earths that are chemically similar
and may be considered as a group carrier.  Since data for elemental concen-
tration in various organs exist  only for yttrium, it is chosen as the car-
rier for the rare earths.  Yttrium is included in this group because of its
chemical similarity to the  rare earths. Another group includes cesium with
potassium.  This grouping procedure is accurate, since chemically similar
elements are indistinguishable in biological processes. The concentrations
of elements in sea water are given in table 23.

RELATIVE MERITS OF MPCC AND MPSA
Although the MPCC and MPSA are parallel methods for the same task, there
are notable differences between them.   For many radionuclides that are only
slightly assimilated by man, the greatest  dose rate comes from the gastrointes-
tinal tract.  For them, the gastrointestinal tract is the critical "organ, " and
the concept of MPSA has less application.  The radionuclide content of the
gastrointestinal tract is determined by the concentration of radionuclides in
the seafood intake upon which the MPCC concept is based.
The maximum permissible body burdens and  concentrations in drinking water
are conservatively established by the ICRP for a 50-year adult occupational
dose.  However, the ICRP emphasizes the provisional  nature of their  recom-
mendations for other  than the occupational dose.
The concentration factor method is approximate, since concentration factors
may vary widely among a given seafood species because of variation in uptake
rates, which depend on size or life-stage  of the organism. Concentration
factors have been observed to be constant over a wide  range of concentra-
tions.  The assumption that an individual might derive  his entire protein re-
quirements from a type of seafood having  the greatest  concentration factor
is highly unlikely and definitely cautious.
                                   193

-------
Table 23.  Concentration of Elements in Sea Water
Element
H
K
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ge
As
Se
Br
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr
Nb
Mo
Tc
Ru
Rh
Pd
Ag
Cd
Sn
Sb
Te
Kr
Xe
I
Cs
Ba
La
Ce
Pr
Nd
Pm
Sm
Eu
Gd
Concentration (gm/cc)
.108
3.8-4
5.0-11
2.0-9
1.0-8
5.0-10
7.0-11
3.0-9
4.0-9
6.5-5
1.2-7
8.0-6
3.0-10
2.2-11*
1.0-11
1.0-8
--
—
—
--
3.0-10
1.1-10
3.0-9
5.0-10
--
3.0-10
1.0-10
6.0-8
5.0-10
3.0-8
3.0-10
4.0-10
6.4-13*
2.8-12*
Does not occur naturally
4.5-13*
1.3-13*
7.0-13*
    *These concentrations are from reference 14.
     Other concentrations are from reference 13
     of which Goldberg is the source.

                      194

-------
The addition of specific activity or concentration ratios to determine the total
effect of all nuclides compounds the caution.  For example, strontium may
provide 50 percent of the permissible dose to the bone and 5 percent to the
thyroid, while iodine may provide 50 percent of the dose to the thyroid,  and
5 percent to the bone, but together these two radionuclides would provide 55
percent of the dose to the bone and thyroid instead of the 100 percent obtained
by addition of dose regardless of organ. A less conservative procedure would
be to add percent permissible separately for each organ.
The  MPSA is more conservative than the MPCC method in that no decay fac-
tors are included in the marine food web in calculating MPSA, whereas they
are inherent in the concentration factors.  Ideally, a decay factor such as
that applied to man should be applied to each marine organism in the food
chain.  Such decay factors would account for the reduction of specific activity
or concentration as  a result of natural  radioactive decay during the time re-
quired for the radionuclide to progress through the food web to man.
The effect of "market dilution" is also  ignored in both MPSA and MPCC cal-
culations.  Specific activity or radionuclide concentration is reduced by con-
sumption of uncontaminated food along with contaminated food*  Market xlilu-
 tion occurs for all organisms from man down to the microscopic marine
 organisms.
An observed nonconservatism of both MPSA and MPCC calculations is the
assumption that the radionuclides behave chemically in the same manner as
 the  carrier element.  This is not always true.  If the chemical form of a
 radionuclide on release is different from the chemical form of the carrier
 element in the sea,  then in some  cases the radionuclide adsorbs onto parti-
 culate matter and is consumed preferentially by a marine organism without
 the  benefit of dilution by the carrier element.  The MPSA method compensates
 by a factor of 10 for differences in chemical form that have been observed
 for  certain elements (see section on specific activity method).
Another nonconservative assumption in both methods is that no other source
 of radiation dose exists for the general public besides natural background
 radiation.  Consideration must be given to the possibility of other nuclear
power plants in the neighborhood.
                                   195

-------
EFFECT ON MAN DURING NORMAL OPERATION
Although the fields of concentration in the sea have been calculated,  the high-
est concentration, or specific activity, occurring at the condenser cooling
water discharge, is used here to analyze the effect on man. This premise is
highly conservative: it implies that a complete food chain exists  right at the
end of the cooling water discharge pipe, and that it provides an individual
with his sole source of protein over the years.
Only the lowest of the two ratios, SA/MPSA or  CC/PPCC, should
be summed to assess the total fraction of maximum permissible dose, as
may be  understood by the following reasoning.  If the SA of a single radionu-
clide exceeds the MPSA, the allowable dose to the critical organ  could be
exceeded if this  radionuclide were so concentrated in the food web that a man's
daily intake of that radionuclide exceeded permissible levels.  In short, the
radionuclide concentration would have to exceed the MPCC for this radionu-
clide. On  the other hand, if the radionuclide concentration exceeds the MPCC,
the allowable dose to any critical "organ" except the gastrointestinal tract
would be exceeded only if the radionuclide percentage of the carrier element
in the sea had previously exceeded the permissible radionuclide percentage
of carrier  in the critical organ.  In short, the SA must also exceed the MPSA;
otherwise, an individual could consume seafood having the highest radionu-
clide concentration and suffer no ill effects.
That the release of radionuclides from the power plant during normal opera-
tion is analyzed  as being continuous, whereas in actual  practice they might
be released in batches as seldom as once per year, must be considered.
Handbook 69 (reference 1) states that the annual occupational exposure of
workers can be received over a short duration provided that no additional
dose is  received during the remainder of a year.  The major proviso is that
control  must be  maintained over the dose received by these workers for the
rest of the  year  by monitoring their environmental air and water  and their
external radiation dose.  Such control could not obtain once the radionuclides
were released to the sea.  Consider the possibility that a  fisherman might
catch his annual  supply of fish from an underwater radionuclide cloud  that had
originated as a batch release of radionuclides.  He then takes the fish home,

                                 196

-------
freezes them, and eats only those fish for a full year.  As highly unlikely as
this is, it must be considered.  Yet the annual dose to this fisherman is not
expected to exceed the permissible amount.  Concentrations using continuous
release analysis  (which assumes the eaten fish are in equilibrium with the
concentration of radionuclides in the sea), are well below permissible levels
(see data in next paragraph).  Furthermore, the MPCC's and MPSA's are cal-
culated for equilibrium conditions in which more radionuclides are trans-
ported to man than during the momentarily higher concentration  of a batch re-
lease.  For the latter,  the decreasing concentration in the sea limits the ef-
fective period during which uptake and concentration processes can occur in
the food web. Furthermore,  the analysis presumes many conservatisms.
The fraction of permissible dose for each radionuclide of consequence taken
at their discharge concentration, is given in table 24.

 In conclusion, a man whose total food intake consists  of organisms that de-
 rive their mineral content from the power plant discharge during normal
 operation, assuming no natural decay, would receive  3 percent  (table 24)
 of his maximum permissible annual dose of 0.5 rem/yr.  This  received dose
 is extremely unlikely because of the following reasons :
       1.    There is natural decay.
       2.    Man does not subsist solely on marine life,  least of all from a
             single location.
       3.    The permissible annual dose is based on a 50-year  exposure
             (see reference 1).
                                   197

-------
   Table 24.  Fraction of Permissible Levels for
Radionuclides at Discharge During Normal Operation
Radionuclide
H-3
Cr-51
Mn-54
Fe-55
Co- 58
Fe-59
Co- 60
Y-91
Nb-95
Mo- 99
1-131
Te-132
1-133
Cs-134
1-135
Cs-136
Cs-137
Ce-144
CC/MPCC*
.00011
.00034
.00032
. 00023
.0089
.00020
.0015
.0025
. 0000048
.016
.98 .
.00078
.37
.030
.056
.00013
.05
.000016
SA/MPSA*
.035
.000011
.0000010
.00015
.0046
.00011
.0014
.0021
.00025
. 00043
.0016
__
.00056
.0048
. 000081
.000015
.013
. 00043
Total

Minimum Total
                   1.52
.064
                           .030*
   *When both ratios are below .0001 the radionuclide is
    omitted as being inconsequential.

   #The minimum total is the smaller of the two ratios
    for each radionuclide summed over all radionuclides.
                       198

-------
EFFECT ON MARINE BIOTA DURING NORMAL OPERATION

No harmful effect on marine life is expected, since radionuclide concentra-

tions or specific activities in the sea are not harmful to man.  To quote Fos-
ter and Rice  (reference 6):


      "The radiation  dose received by fish and other aquatic forms will
      be greater than that received by people who drink the water  or eat
      the fish.  Even so, this does not place the fish in risk of suffering
      radiation damage.  The radiation protection guides  for people have
      been established with prudence, for continued exposure over a nor-
      mal life span, with appropriate risk (safety) factors. Virtually all
      of the available evidence shows that the concentrations of radionu-
      clides  in the fish and shellfish  that would  limit their use as food are
      substantially below the concentration that  would injure the organisms
      from radiation."

 Very little experimental data is available on observed biological or ecological

 effects on marine life that might be caused by low concentrations of radionu-

 clides in the sea. The following observations have been paraphrased from a

 paper by W.  Templeton entitled "Resistance of  Fish Eggs to Acute and Chronic
 Irradiation"  (849, reference 7).


      The Russians looked at fish egg hatching mortalities in controls
      and in  water with Sr 90 at concentrations  from 1 x 10-9 ^ Ci/cc
      to 2 x 10~2  n Ci/cc.  The proportion of abnormal fry hatched in-
      creased from 3% to  70% over this range.  However,  a dose from
      Sr 90 - Y90 of  10"" '  /xCi/cc has been calculated to be only 0.1 of
      the natural background dose.  The English have failed to see such
      marked effects even at 10~6 to  10-4 in ^Ci/cc. Chronic doses of
      103 tinB s background "produced little, if  any, differences between
      experimental and control groups."


For the underwater power plant, the concentrations of Sr90 and Y90 at the

cooling water discharge are 1.9 x 1Q-13  M Ci/cc and 5.5 x 10"12  ^Ci/cc

respectively, which are six orders of magnitude below background concen-

trations.

The lack of any Zn 65 released by the Forked River Plant  is conspicuous.

The reactor manufacturer assures us that this particular activation product

is not present in the radioactive waste of their pressurized water plant.  Zn

65 has been observed  in the discharge canal of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant

of the Pacific  Gas and Electric Company (reference 8).  This plant has a boil-
                                   199

-------
ing water reactor.  The Zn 65 was detected by using oysters, which have a
concentration factor of about 104, and require zinc for sexual reproduction.
However, it was found that because the Zn 65 concentrations were only in the
range of 0.1  to 2.0 x 10~8  ^Ci/cc the greatest concentration that a human
would derive from a protein diet of  oysters raised in the canal would be well
within the maximum permissible body burden.
The total radioactivity of all of the radionuclides together, except tritium,
at the discharge pipe, is 1.6 x  10~7 ^ Ci/cc.  This is only half of the back-
ground radiation (3.2 x 10~7  fxCi/cc), because of naturally occurring K40,
which contributes 90 percent of natural background radiation in the sea.
                                                           f*
The concentration of tritium at the discharge pipe is 5.2 x 10~D  //Ci/cc,
                                                                      o
which is greatly below the maximum permissible concentration, 4.7 x 10
 ^ Ci/cc.  Tritium concentrations of 7.1  ^ Ci/cc (no exponent) in the fresh
water habitat of common guppies produced no toxic effect or genetic abnor-
malities even to the third generation (reference 11). In this experiment, not
only were all of the fish that survived normal and healthy,  but 18 of the initial
20 tritiated guppies survived, as compared with 13  that survived of the
initial 21 guppies in the  control group, which suffered a severe infection.
The possibility exists that radioactive tritium  might have improved the health
of the guppies by destroying infection-causing  bacteria.
Maximum radionuclide concentrations of 1.2 to 2.0 x 10"6  nCi/cc of Cr 51
were observed in the Columbia River during peak years of the Hanford opera-
tion (reference 9).  This maximum  Cr 51  concentration caused no observable
harm to marine life, and is a factor of 104 above the 1.7 x 10"^^  ^ Ci/cc
released at the discharge of the underwater power  plant.  Cr 51  is not an im-
portant contributor to the activity of the underwater power plant's cooling
water discharge.
Concentrations of 0. 75 x 10~9  ^Ci/cc of Sr 90 and 0.2 x 10~9  MCi/cc of Cs
137 were detected in the Columbia River at Portland, Oregon in July 1964
(reference 9).   Concentrations of 0.3 x 10~9  ^Ci/cc of Sr 90 and 0.8 x 10~9
 n Ci of Cs 137 were detected farther out to sea at  the same time.  These ra-
dionuclides were from nuclear  bomb testing fallout. The underwater power
plant release of Sr 90 at the discharge is 1.9 x 10~13  ^Ci/cc, which is well
                                 200

-------
below the ocean concentrations produced by fallout.  For Cs 137 it is 1.0 x
10"   nCi/cc, which would be reduced to the concentration produced by fall-
out over large areas , within 1 nm of the site .
EFFECT ON MAN AFTER A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT
The quantity of radionuclides carried to man after a nuclear accident requires
a time -dependent analysis, and knowledge of assimilation and elimination rates
of the marine organisms in the food web.  This data is not available in the
literature.  Comparison of the radionuclide concentration or specific activity
in the sea water with the MPCC or MPSA is highly conservative, since the
MPCC and the MPSA are derived for a steady state concentration which would
not exist after the accident.  However,  comparison of the MPCC or MPSA
with radionuclide concentrations in the sea will provide an indication of the more.
important radionuclides.  The radionuclides 1 hr after the accident, 1 nm down
 current, which would have specific activities above MPSA are given in table 25.

             Table 25.  Important Radionuclides :  1 hr, 1-nm
                  Down Current After Accidental Release
                    Breach- of - containment
                           Accident
Loss -of- coolant
   Accident
    Radionuclide    CC/MPCC    SA/MPSA   CC/MPCC     SA/MPSA
Co- 58
Y-91
Nb-95
Mo- 99
Ag-111
Te-129m
Te-131m
1-131
Te-132
1-132
1-133
1-134
Cs-134
1-135
Cs-137
La- 140
Pr-143
Ce-144
4.9
13.0
0.21
—
0.037
3.5
1.3 R
3-4x10ฐ
35.0
--
9 . 7x10?
9- 0x10 D
140 r,
1.9x10'
268
2.0
0.70
2.5
11.0
11.0
--
1.4
—
5. 6x10 5
--
3200
1.5xl05
1300
22.0 4
2.7x10*
67.0
0.36
19.0
— ซ•
2.3
--
1.8
— —
--
5100
2.9
— —
3300
130
980
"•" —
3.7
14.0
5.3
__
1.9
--
0.050
•* •"
__
8.4
	 .
"-* "•*
5.0
0.18
1-4
""
0.98
2.4
140
                                   201

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Iodine-131 is clearly the nuclide of greatest concern in either accident. After
a breach-of-containment accident, food organisms collected near the plant
would probably be too contaminated for human consumption for several weeks.
A problem might arise from rapid accumulation of radioiodides by commer-
cially harvested kelp in a nearshore area.  However, that the chances of 1-131
getting to man in quantity appear slim,must be emphasized.  1-131 has  an 8.05
day half-life, which is short relative to the total probable transport time to
man, including flow time to the kelp beds, assimilation time by the kelp, har-
vesting time, processing time for the kelp  and final product, and distribu-
tion time to man.  Meanwhile, there would be market dilution by uncontaminated
kelp.

Fishing would lave to be curtailed following an accident.  Sea water and fish
would have to be monitored until sufficiently low levels were reached to re-
sume fishing.  Aside from actual radiological considerations, the economic
and psychological effect on commercial fisheries and their markets over a
wide area might be momentous if there were such an accident.
In summary, radioactive hazards from the breach-of-containment accident
would be of concern, especially if the  contaminated waters were transported
ashore.
Another problem after the breach-of-containment accident would be that of
salvaging the highly contaminated plant itself.  Obviously,  either total re-
covery or a suitable permanent encasement would be imperative.  A good
possibility exists that an effective barrier to the breach-of-containment acci-
dent can be designed and thereby prevent the more serious of the two postu-
lated accidents.
One possible method of evaluating a nuclear accident would be to average the
concentrations over a year.  Handbook 69 places no restriction on timing of
a dose received except that the maximum permissible dose in one year is not
to be exceeded.  This  method was not  used because of practical limitations.
Factors that make it unrealistic are:
     1.    Fishing would be terminated for a while.
     2.    In marine  organisms that are growing, uptake is more rapid than
           elimination of radionuclides from the body.

                                 202

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     3.    A single catch of fish having higher than average contamination
           might conceivably serve as food for a single fisherman over a
           whole year.
EFFECT ON MARINE BIOTA AFTER A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT
For either nuclear accident, the crucial marine organism will be the most
radiosensitive animal that remains in the center of the contaminated water
mass until the radionuclide  concentrations have been dispersed to neg-
ligible levels.   Exposure to ionizing radiations  from radionuclides
around the marine organisms, as well as those accumulated internally,
must be considered.  Since  radioactive 1-131 exceeds permissible levels by
the greatest amount, a hazard might arise from rapid accumulation of radio-
iodides by marine algae.  Herbivorous fishes feeding on such plants might
experience the greatest thyroid injury (W. C. Hanson, "Iodine in the Environ-
ment, " pp 581-601 in reference  10).  Few data on the biological effects of 1-131
on marine or aquatic organisms are available.  For example, in the fresh
water eel, Anguilla angullla, 25  fiCi/gram of body weight is considered to
be a thyroid ablating dose.  Larvae of the frog Hyla versicolor, immersed in
a solution of 20  \L Ci/cc of 1-131 for 24 hours showed thyroid damage.
Since ionizing radiation is proportional to the internal concentration of radio-
nuclides, the assimilation rate must be known relative to the loss rates by
decay or excretion.  Some comments on the uptake of radionuclides by phyto-
plankton and their role in the food web are therefore appropriate.  Cycling of
radionuclides by phytoplankton is affected largely by:
      1.    Capacity of phytoplankton to ingest the radionuclide,  either by
           adsorption to surfaces or assimilation.
      2.    Physical and chemical form of the radionuclide in sea water.
      3.    Digestibility of the phytoplankton.
      4.    Rate at which phytoplankton are grazed by herbivorous animals.
      5.    Production rate  (i.e., rate of increase of new phytoplanktonic
           biomass).

                                   203

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Accumulation of radionuclides by phytoplankton depends on the physiochemi-
cal form of the radionuclides, the total concentration of the radionuclide (and
metabolically similar elements in sea water), and other rates such as loss
rate of the radionuclide from phytoplankton.  Concerning the uptake rate of
phytoplankton, Gushing at Hanford in a river study (Renfro, reference 9)
states that the accumulation of some Hanford radionuclides reached steady
state in a matter of hours. Rice  ("Role of Phytoplankton in Radionuclide
Cycling, " reference 10) found that Nitzschia reached peak Ce 144 activity in
one day (lab study).  Corcoran and Kimball (reference 10) showed that a num-
ber of phytoplanktonic species took up Sr 90 at concentration factors of 19 to
182 (adsorption was important).   Concentration of stable Sr in sea water was
not so important in the laboratory conditions in which they worked.

External radiation in the water 1  hr after  the breach-of-containment accident
could amount to 1 to 10 rad/hr, mostly from radioiodides.   All radioiodides
except 1-131 have half-lives of less than one day, and therefore decline to
levels of a few mrad/hr in 10 days.  1-131 decays more slowly (8.05-day half-
life), and continues to  contribute  external radiation for a longer period. The
integrated external dose would not exceed 1000 rad, which is several times
lower than external doses to marine organisms that have produced observed
lethality.  Internal dose might be more important than external, but not by
much:  for organisms of a size smaller than the effective range of the ionizing
radiation emitted in natural decay, it matters little whether the source is in-
ternal or external, depending on the degree of radionuclide concentration by
the organisms.  If a lethality hazard exists with marine organisms,  it will be
caused by exposures to contaminated water during the first 10 weeks after
the breach-of-containment accident, for beyond this time all radionuclide con-
centrations will have dropped below MPCC and MPSA levels.
                                   204

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CONCLUSIONS
No harmful effects on man or marine biota are expected from normal radio-
nuclide release from the underwater nuclear power plant.  The activity of
coolant discharge water from all of the radionuclides released is at most one
half of the natural K40 activity in the sea.
Harmful effects on marine biota are possible for a 10-week period after a
nuclear accident.  A period of suspended fishing can prevent these immediate
effects from reaching man. Even if steady-state conditions were assumed
to prevail after a major nuclear accident, which would not be the case, the
radionuclide concentrations and specific activities in the sea, as related to
"maximum permissible" standards (which are conservative in themselves)
would not constitute a grave menace to man.
The analysis has been done without provision for radiation doses to man from
other sources such as medical (x-ray) exposure or from other coastal nuclear
power plants.  However,  radionuclide concentrations in the sea are presented
 (appendix D) from which estimates can be made of the radionuclide concentra-
 tions from multiple power plants.
                                   205

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 REFERENCES

 1.    National Bureau of Standards Handbook 69, "Maximum Permissible
       Body Burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radio-
       nuclides in Air and Water for Occupational Exposure, " June 5,  1969.

 2.    A. M. Freke, "A Model for the Approximate Calculation of Safe Rates
       of Discharge of Radioactive Wastes into Marine Environments, " Health
       Physics Journal, Pergamon Press 1967, 13,  pp 743-758.

 3.    "Report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection
       (ICRP),  Committee H on Permissible Dose for Internal Radiation"
       (1959), reprinted in Health Physics Journal, Pergamon Press, June
       1960,  v 3, pp 1-380.

 4.    "Disposal of Low-level Radioactive Waste into Pacific Coastal Waters, "
       National Academy of Sciences, NAS-985, 1962.

 5.    Frank G. Lowman, "Radionuclides of Interest in the Specific Activity
       Approach, " Bioscience, v 19,  11 Nov 1969.

 6.    Richard F.  Foster and T. R. Rice, "Radioactive Materials in Fresh
       and Marine Waters, " Health Physics Journal, v 11, pp 553-964.

 7.    Disposal of Radioactive Wastes into the  Seas, Oceans, and Surface
       Waters, " IAEA Symposium in Vienna, 1966, STI/PUB 126.

 8.    Ernest O.  Salo,  and William L.  Leet, "The Concentration of Zn 65
       by Oysters Maintained in the Discharge  Canal of a Nuclear Power
       Plant, " in the Proceedings of the Second National Symposium:  at
       Ann Arbor, Michigan,  May 1967, CONF 670503.

 9.    Personal communication with Drs. W. C.  Renfro and N.  H. Cutshall
       of Oregon State University, 1970.

la    Schultz and Klement,  editors of Radioecology. Reinhold Co., 1963.

11.    Donald M. Skauen, "The Effects of Tritium Oxide on Aquatic Organisms,"
       Oct 12, 1964, University of Connecticut, Contract AT (30-1)3039.

12.    G. G.  Polikarpov,  Radioecology of Aquatic Organisms,  Reinhold
       1966.                                        	

13.    N. M. Hill,  The Sea,  Vol. 2,  Interscience Pub.

14.    Karl K.  Turekion,  The Oceans, Streams, and Atmosphere,   Chap. 10.
                                  206

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                               Section 9
                          RESEARCH NEEDS
THERMAL DIFFUSION
Present technology is inadequate in some respects for accurately predicting
the thermal field caused by discharging condenser cooling water into rela-
tively deep ocean water.  The turbulent, buoyant jet rises, and at some point
begins spreading,  to form either a submerged or surface field, depending on
temperature stratification in the ocean and the degree of jet dilution.  There
are no available analytical methods nor experimental results that can be used
to accurately describe the transition region and  the spreading field, which
can be quite extensive,  to be at an acceptably low temperature.  The sub-
merged field is not as important ecologically, because it will only remain
submerged if it is  at the ambient temperature of a given stratum.  To accu-
rately predict the surface field, it is recommended that the interaction of a
turbulent buoyant jet and a free surface be studied both analytically and experi-
mentally.
Another matter that requires further work is the effect of ocean currents on
a buoyant jet. As  presented in appendix B,  the problem can be treated analy-
tically; however, the  results depend on parameters that must be established
experimentally and are available only for a vertical buoyant jet in a cross
flow. It is recommended that an experimental program be carried out to
establish the parameters  required by the general analysis presented in appen-
dix B.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
In the process of investigating and synthesizing biological data from many
sources, it was apparent  that knowledge of the offshore marine ecology is
still mainly in the  observational-descriptive stage-  Much remains to be done
in basic field research, before accurate predictive techniques will emerge.
There is,  nevertheless, a wealth of information extant that could be of value
to the practicing engineer in minimizing potential hazards to marine life, if
the  knowledge were in more useful, consistent,  and available form:
                                   207

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      1.    Comprehensive monographs on the ecology of important estuaries
           and coastal areas should be compiled to describe their abiotic and
           biota constituents quantitatively in time and space,  and define the
           most important constituents and their interdependencies.  Boun-
           daries of the ecological system should also be defined.  Where in-
           formation is  lacking, research programs should be sponsored to
           meet specific needs rather than random interests.
      2.    Handbooks on biological response of important aquatic organisms
           to environmental influences (including pollutants) should also be
           compiled.  Although local environmental conditions may vary,
           coefficients derived under standard conditions should fall within
           ranges useful for evaluation in mathematical models. A great
           deal of applied research appears to be necessary in this area to
           meet current needs.
      3.    Handbooks on kinds and quantities of wastes discharged to impor-
           tant estuaries or coastal areas should be prepared to assess the
           cumulative ecological effect.
      4.    Better mathematical models describing functioning  of the aquatic
           environment  should be developed for predictive purposes,  includ-
           ing provision for handling biotic aspects.
Since the ecological effects of entrainment of organisms through a power
plant's condensers depend on water circulation,  the distribution of pelagic
organisms in the water proximate to the plant site, and the reproductive rate
of the organisms, it appears that in areas of limited water circulation,  popu-
lations of organisms having low reproductive capacities might be reduced by
entrainment.  Research is required to establish changes in the  quantitative
balances between "desirable, " and "undesirable"organisms, and what organisms
are really "undesirable," since little is known of the interactions among many
organisms.
Research is needed on entrainment, to ascertain the relative importance of
shear forces,  heat, condenser cleaning, anticorrosion materials, and anti-
fouling procedures on marine organisms.  More should also be learned of
sporadic events  such as locally high concentrations of pelagic organisms (e.g.,
jellyfish), and their effects on power plant operation and the ecological  balance.

                                   208

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                              Section 10
                        ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This report was prepared with the assistance of consultants whose interest in
the study, critiques of work performed, and substantive contributions are
hereby gratefully acknowledged.  All of the  radionuclide release data for the
Forked River Plant and much of the plant description came from Combustion
Engineering,  Inc., Windsor Locks,  Connecticut.  Much of the assessment of
the effect of radionuclides on man and marine biota was obtained from Dr.
William C. Renfro and Dr. Norman H. Cutshall of the Department of Oceano-
graphy, Oregon State University,  Corvallis, Oregon.  Dr. Donald R. F.  Har-
leman of the Hydrodynamics and Water Resources Division of Massachusetts
Institute of Technology was most helpful in the thermal diffusion analysis.
Mr.  C. A.  Griscom, environmental consultant of Westerly, R.I., was closely
involved in the preparation of certain portions of the physical oceanographic
descriptions.
The principal investigators for General Dynamics were:
     Thermal diffusion analysis:                 Dr. R. F. Robideau
     Effects of thermal discharges:              Dr. E. A. Zuraw
                                                Mr. D. E. Leone
                                                Mr. S. Cohen
     Radionuclide release, distribution, and      Mr. R. A. Chapman
        effects:                                 Mr. E. L. Czapek
     Representative site descriptions —
        oceanography:                           Mr. M.  F. McDonald
        biology                                 Dr- E- A- Zuraw
                                                Mr. D. E. Leone
The study program was managed by Mr. R. W. Marble, and technical direc-
tion was provided by Mr. L. V. Mowell. Mr. R. W. Jones organized and con-
trolled preparation of the report,  with much of the editing performed by Mr.
E. W.  Williams and Mr. R. S. Malcolm.
The project officer for the Water  Quality Research Office, U.S.  Environmen-
tal Protection Agency, was Mr. J. Lewis,whose recognition of the complexi-
ties and difficulties in doing this study is especially appreciated.
                                  209

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                              Appendix A
               REDUCTION OF OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA

This appendix presents the method for reducing the oceanographic data for
each site to a form appropriate for use in the thermal diffusion analysis.  The
data will be put in the dimensionless form required by the analysis described
in section 5 .  Advantages of the nondimensional form are twofold: first,
either metric or nonmetric  units of measure can be used and second, results
are applicable to all systems having geometric, thermal, and hydrodynamic
similarity.  Of course,  dimensional results can easily be obtained from the
nondimensional results when the normalizing values are given.
As described in the thermal diffusion analysis given in section 5, p 62 ff,
the data needed for predicting the thermal field with stratification as to both
temperature and density, are two dimensionless functions defined by:


                     T  =-                                         (1)
 and
                     P  =   ao -                                    (2)
                       a   "ao - PC

 In these equations, t is  temperature, Pis density, while the subscripts, a, o,
 and ao refer respectively to the  condition in the ambient fluid, at the point of
 discharge, and in the ambient fluid at Y = 0.  The quantities must be deter-
 mined as functions of the dimensionless vertical distance Y = y/D where y is
 measured from the discharge jet center and D is the discarge jet diameter.
 In order to carry out the data reduction and thermal diffusion analysis, some
 characteristics of the power plant and site must be assumed.  These values
 are:
      Electrical output                            119ฐ
      Heat rejection                              7.8 x 10^ Btu/hr
      Temperature rise across condenser          25 F
      Cooling water flow rate                      13 55 ft  /sec
      Discharge diameter                         15 ft
      Ocean depth                                25ฐ ft (approximately)
                                  211

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 From the oceanographic data presented in the separate site descriptions, the
 worst case will be selected for analysis.   From a biological point of view,
 the highest ambient temperature presents the most severe condition and it
 will be the only temperature used.  The corresponding minimum density will
 also be chosen.  Since the assigned ocean depth is 250 ft, the 75-meter data
 will correspond with data at Y = 0.  The reference temperature difference
 t_ - tao is 25ฐF or 13.9ฐC.  The reference density difference PaQ - Pa is
 determined,  using tables of o-j.*, as follows:
       1.    The salinity corresponding to the  maximum temperature and
            minimum density will be determined from the tables; e.g.,
            (o-t)ao = 32.8 for tao = 10.3ฐC and o-t = 25.19 at the Maine site
            in the summer.
       2.    Using the same salinity, a value of o-^ is determined from the
            tables at a temperature of to; e.g.,  t  = 10.3 + 13.9 = 24.7ฐC
            and (o-t)0 = 21.94ฐC.
       3.    The density difference is computed; e.g.,
              Pao ~ P0  = 1.025 19 - 1.921 94 = 0.00325.
 The dimensionless density can also be defined in terms of 
-------
This quantity can also be written,  in terms of the flow rate Q, as

                            	4Q
                     F =
Using the values of Q and D given above, the Froude number becomes
 The denominator in this expression changes considerably with site location,
 primarily because of difference in salinity. The Froude number, therefore,
 must be computed for each site.
 The reduced oceanographic data for the four sites are presented in tables
 26 through 29, and the dimensionless temperature and density are plotted
 in figures 34 through 37.  The ocean current data for each site are not
 presented here because their reduction is unnecessary.
                                   213

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                           Table 26.  Oceanographic Data for the Miami, Florida Site
              SUMMER
t0 -
= 13. 9ฐC,
o = 4.34(o-t),  F = 5.35
Y
0
5.46
9.84
12.00
14.20
16.40
ta(ฐ0
24.89
28.85
29.30
29.65
29.63
29.70
(ซa - *ao)ฐC
0
3.96
4.41
4.76
4.74
4,81
T
0
0.285
0.317
0.342
0.342
0.346
EQUATION
^__
^^ Cv
p~Ta = 0.237 +

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                         Table 27.  Oceanographic Data for the Wiscasset, Maine Site
              SUMMER
Y
0
5.46
9.84
12.00
14.20
18.40
ta(ฐ0
10.27
11.75
12.93
15.00
17.77
18.80
<*a - ^C
0
1.48
2.66
4.73
7.50
8.53
T
0
0.106
0.191
0.340
0.540
0.613
EQUATION
s
PTa = 0.0195Y
J
-Ta = 0.60 +
a 0 08Y
VT - n ORQ j.
rJ-o — u . uoy T
^ 0.033Y
Pa(^t)
25.19
24.95
23.86
23.37
22.71
22.49
<*o-*>*t| Pa
0 0
0.24 p. 074
1.33 p. 409
1.82 p. 560
2.48 p. 763
2.70 b-830
EQUATION
V
r


T> n
pa ฐ


       *Because variations in temperature and density are not within the accuracy of the data, these quantities
        are assumed to be constant.

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                        Table 28. Oceanographic Data for the Sea Girt, New Jersey Site
              SUMMER
t0-tao = 25ฐF = l3.9ฐC,  pao- po=3.32(crt),  F = 8.12
Y
0
5.46
9.84
12.00
14.20
1G.40
ta(ฐc)
11.0
11.5
15.5
21.0
23.0
24.0
tta - tac/C
0
0.5
4.5
10.0
12.0
13.0
T
Aa
0
0.036
0.324
0.720
0.864
0.935
EQUATION
>m f\ rtrt^OTr
Ta - 0.0066Y
r^rp n fw R j.
1 Ij.--U.OOOT
S 0.1045Y
h-To = 0.135 +
^ 0.0488Y
Pa(ฐ-t)
24.9
24.9
24.5
22.0
21.3
21.3
(Pao-^a)ฐ"t
0
0
0.4
2.9
3.6
3.6
Pa
0
0
0.1205
0.87
1.255
1.255

v.^

X

X1
3
EQUATION

	 P. = 0.1225^
d

„ - -2.44 +
r a 0.26Y
1 	 p - 1 2^5
• — -^JT— XซฃJi/t^
Ct
CO
h-1
05
WINTER*
                13.9ฐC,
                                                        -  pQ = 3.27(crt),  F=6.17
0
5.46
9.84
12.00
14.20
16.40
10.7
10.6
10.5
10.2
9.8
9.5
0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.5
-0.9
-1.2






s




^


nn A
Ta 0


26.0
25.9
25.8
25.8
25.7
25.7
0
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3






''N.




^


TT\ f\
Pa = 0


       *Because variations in temperature and density are not within the accuracy of the data, the quantities
        are assumed to be constant.

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                     Table 29.  Oceanographic Data for the San Onofre, California Site
           SUMMER
= 25ฐF = 13' 9ฐC> "
                                                   ao
= 3 • 77(>  F =  5" 74
Y
0
5.46
9.84
12.00
14.20
16.40
ta(ฐc)
14.35
15.80
17.06
18.12
22.50
25.00

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         16
                                      WINTER
                           .2
                                    .3       .4
                                        a, ra
.5
         .6
Figure 34. Dimensionless Ambient Temperature (Ta) and Density ( Pa) vs
Dimensionless Vertical Distance for Miami, Florida Site in Summer and
Winter
                                 218

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   16'
   12-
            	^~_

            V-
                  .2
.3

                                            .6
                                                   .7
                                                         .8
                                       .9
Figure 35. Dimensionless Ambient Temperature (Tj and Density (Pa) vs
Dimensionless Vertical Distance for Wiscasset, Maine Site in Summer.
Figure 36  Dimensionless Ambient Temperature (Tj and Density (Pa) vs
Dimensionless Vertical Distance for Sea Girt, New^Jersey Site in Summer
                                 219

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Figure 37. Dimensionless Ambient Temperature (Ta) and Density (Pซ) vs
Dimensionless Vertical Distance for San Onofre, California Site in Sumrr
   V ซ V • •                                     *
and Winter.
ummer
                                 220

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                             Appendix B
                T                OF A ROUND HORIZONTAL BUOYANT
          JET IN A GENERAL STREAM OF HOMOGENEOUS DENSITY
Introduction
This note presents a theoretical analysis of the behavior of a round,
buoyant jet, ejected horizontally into an infinite body of fluid that has a
homogeneous density and a current with all three velocity components.
The technique employed follows that of Fan* who considered a round,
vertical buoyant jet being ejected into a cross stream.

Analysis
As shown by figure 38, the jet emerges with an initial diameter D,  uniform
velocity uo, and density  Po.  The jet centerline describes a path s, in
space, and at point E on the path, the jet flow is fully established.  At a
general point P, the unit vector T, which is tangent to the centerline, has
an elevation angle  (3 , and an azimuth angle  P.  The velocity of the jet on
the centerline is Uj and is coincident with T. The ambient fluid  has homo-
geneous density pa, and three components of velocity, ux, uy, uz. The
components comprise a velocity vector u^, such that:
                 "a = ux   + uy  + uz
and
*Fan  L  N   "Turbulent Buoyant Jets into Stratified or Flowing Ambient
Fluids, " Report KH-R-15, W. M.  Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and
Water Resources,  California Institute of Technology, 1967.
                                221

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Figure 38.  Schematic Diagram of the Jet




                  222

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The vectors, ua and T, are separated by an angle, B , as shown by figure 39.
The projection of ua parallel to T is ua cos 0 .  The magnitude of the jet velo-
city along the center line is, therefore,
                         u.
u
cos 6 +  u
                          J

where u is the excess over the ambient velocity component.

The assumptions in this analysis are:
    1.   The jet and ambient consist of the same incompressible fluid.
    2.   The jet and ambient densities differ by virtue of temperature differ-
         ence alone.
    3.   The Boussinesq assumption applies.
    4.   The jet fluid density is a linear function of temperature.
    5.   The jet is turbulent with no Reynolds number dependence.
    6.   The curvature of the jet's path is sufficiently small so that any
         effect of such curvature may be neglected.
    7.   The jet retains axial symmetry and the velocity profile is Gaussian
         above the component of ambient velocity in the direction parallel to
         the jet.  That is:
                     u*( r, s) =  luj cose + u(s) e                    (1)

         where r is a radial coordinate normal to the jet centerline,and b is a
         local characteristic jet radius which depends on s in a manner to be
         determined from the analysis.  The angle 6  is also a function of s;
         thus the analysis applies only to the zone of established flow, where
         all profiles are fully developed.
     8.   The density profile is also Gaussian.

                                               ..   -(r/b)2
                     Pa-  P  (r ,s) =  pa  -P(s) J e                     (2)
                      ^*               L_
                                  223

-------
Figure 39-  Velocities in the T, ua Plane
                      224

-------
 9.      The jet entrainment relationship is represented by the equation:
              ds
                 = 2-n- a  b
                                                 (3)
        where a is the entrainment coefficient and  u". - u I is the
        magnitude of the vector difference of the two velocities.
10.     The effect of the pressure field can be lumped into a gross drag
        term, proportional to the square of the velocity component of
        the oncoming stream normal to the jet axis.
11.     Schmidt number equals unity.
Continuity.  The continuity equation,  based upon the assumed entrainment
mechanism, can be expressed:
                ds
A  /-u*
ds  /
   JA
      (h
                     = 27TQ!
22     2 \|
  sin 0 + u
                                                  (4)
The integral can be evaluated from the assumed velocity profile as follows:
                                                    -  (r/b)?
                          cos e + u e
                                                            rdr
which may be approximated by:
                          v.
 /Vd A = 27r (|ua|  cose/"
<     .       (          o
                                                         ^0ฐ  -(r/b)
                                                rdr  + u/  re       dr
                                                         o
                         =  77 b2 (2  |uฃ
                        cos 0  + u)
                                         (5)
                                225

-------
The continuity equation may be written then in the form:
ฃ[**
(2  fsj
               costf
                                     =2ab(
                               u.
2 sin20 +
                  (6)
Momentum.   The momentum equations,  one for each direction, can be written
in integral form utilizing the drag on an infinitesimal element, ds, apportioned
to the respective directions.

x Direction.  The change of jet momentum rate in the x direction, in a dis-
tance ds,  is equal to the momentum rate, in the same direction, of the en-
trained ambient fluid plus the x component of drag force.
              ,J    -  *  *  *
              __  / P u  (u cos ft cos <ฃ ) dA =
           P2 Trb ซux (
                                 u*)* + (F.)
       d^x
                                                                  (7)
where (F(j)x is the x component of total drag per unit length which will be for-
mulated in a further section of this note.  Performing the necessary integra-
tions :
ds~~2~
                     cos
                           2   u
                                          a|
                                     2 sin20
                                                        (8)
y Direction.  The change of jet momentum rate in the y direction, in a dis-
tance ds, is equal to the momentum rate, in the same direction, of the en-
trained ambient fluid, the y component of drag force, and the buoyancy force.
         _d
         ds
   .* *, *
  /.    ,
  IP u  (u  sinฃ ) dA = 2 TT  Pa<*bii  (
,/                       *    y
                              u.
sin 0 + u )2  +
                 fe( Pa - P  ) dA
                                                                   (9)
                                 226

-------
Performing the integrations:
                     .
               ds  ( 2
                             in0
                   / 2  uj cos e + u |  I
                         "•V0,   ps
                           cos 0 +


                          2   2     2\i
                            sin 6  + u  \2 + (F,)  +
                                      /      ^* y
                     +  Tib  g (/>-P)
                                                   (10)
z-Direction.  Momentum in the z direction is formulated similarly to that
in the x direction.  Formulating it, the result may be written:
               _   \TL P_b   cos/? sin <ฃ [2
               ds    2  a               \
                            Uj COS0+U
                       a   z   \  a
                                   2     2     2\i
                                      sin 0 + u 1     +
                                        d'z
                                                   (U)
Conservation of Density,  The density flux is conserved since the ambient

fluid is homogeneous.  Thus:
-    *
                                dA =
                                                   (12)
After evaluating the integral:
A(b2(2 u_|
ds          I
               ds (
             cos^+u)  (
                                                =0
(13)
Geometry.  It can be found from figure 38 that:

               dx = cos/? cos^ds
                                                   (14)
                                227

-------
                            dy     =    sin/3ds                       (15)
                            dz     =    cos/3 sin<ฃds                   (16)

Accordingly, T = cos /3 cos^ i + sin ft f + cos /3 sin 4> k.  The angle 6 can be
found from a dot product of vectors u^ and T  as follows:

            Q  .f     Sc              uv         uz
             f\        *•*               j           ^*"
    cos 9	iu -  h~  cos^ cos0 +i^~i  sinyff +  ^-,  cos/S sin0       (17)
            ua
 Drag Force.  The drag force on an infinitesimal length of the jet is a vec-
 tor whose magnitude is assumed to be:
= Cd  pjuj  sin e   f2b
                                                                     (18)
 The direction of the drag force is normal to T.  Since components of the
 drag force in the cartesian directions are required,  it is necessary to
 determine the drag force direction cosines.  This is done by evaluating
 the triple product T x(uo x T), giving a vector normal to T.
                       ci
          _   (         2     2                           2           )
 T x (ua x T) =jux(l-cos (3 cos <ฃ ) - u  cos/3sinฃcos0-uz cos ft cos0sin) - ux cosyg cos4>sin$-u  cos^Ssin/3sin^fk
              (                                       y             i

                                                                     (19)

 Defining, for convenience,

                    Tx (uxT)=Ai + Bf+E^
                                228

-------
The force components may be written:
                   )  _ 	
                  d x   fA 2  , T> 2
           (
                               B.
                               E
                                d
                       -i   F,
                                                       (20)
                                                                    (21)
                                                                    (22)
Initial Conditions.  The initial conditions taken at the beginning of the zone
of established flow, point E, are:
                u(e) = u
                b(e) = b
                    =  Pe
                             x(e) =x
                             y(e) = y
                             z(e) = z
 All equations require integration from these values except the conservation
 of density, equation (13).  This can be expressed as:
       b  (2
u.
cos0+u) ( Pa -p) = b   (2
                            u
                                           a
cos fl + u_) (/> -  P_)
                                                           a
                                  = constant
                                                      (23)
 Normalized Equations and Dimensionless Parameters.  The set of equations
 can be normalized by defining dimensionless parameters as follows:
                velocities:
                U = U/U
                dilution.:
                          =  P
                                  uz = uzu
                                 229

-------
               Froude number:
               geometry:

               X =x/D

               Y = y/D

               Z =z/D
                   S=

                   B = 2i/2 b/D
In addition, a few nondimensional terms are defined as follows:
                      U,
                     U,
            COS0+ U
            sin0
Equations (6),  (8),  (10), (11),  (13) may be restated in terms of the non-
dimensional parameters as:
              ds
(B Uj) -
                                    2    2  i
                                 (Un  + U ) 2
                                                   (24)
               d
              ds"
 22
B U.
    J
        9    9 ) -
        *    * [ 2
    ;un +u    <
                                                   (25)
     2  2         )
—j|B U.  cos/3 sin 4> =
ds(    J          )
 H ( 2  2
-3-JB U.  si
ds (    ]
                                  16
                           2    2)|    ,
                                   + W
z Un  +U^
                                                         d
                                       U
                                        n
                                                                 (26)
                                           y   (27)
                                                                 (28)
                               230

-------
The primed drag force terms are the indicated components of the dimension-
less drag force obtained from equation (18):
                                                                    (29)
Method of Solution.  Solutions to equations (24) through (27) may be obtain-
ed by any convenient method of numerical integration.  Although the  de-
pendent variables,  B,  U, 0, /3 ,  and 4> do not appear as sole arguments
of a derivative,  they may still be determined by algebraic solution of
actual derivative arguments.
 Discussion
 The  preceding formulation is achieved by extension of the analysis in the
 reference on page 221. The computation of any intended condition may be
 made using the developed equations,  but input data such as drag coeffic-
 ient and entrainment data, to suit, must be available before the condition
 may be computed with confidence. A few drag and entrainment data are
 available   (these also appear in the reference),  but do not cover the
 complete range of conditions that the formulation can handle now.  Con-
 siderably more experimental data are needed before the generality of
 the formulation can  be used with confidence.

 One limitation of the formulaticn as it presently  exists is constant drag
 and entrainment coefficient.  The quantities realistically vary with the
 angle of incidence, 6.   To include this effect is an easy extension of
 the formulation,  but again,  drag and entrainment data must be available
 to obtain reliable results.

 Another limitation is homogeneous stream velocity.  Realistically,
 stream velocity is a function  of space,  (x, y,  z).  This effect may also
 be easily accommodated, if desired.
                                231

-------
Results
A sample problem, that of a horizontal current in the plane of a jet, is
analyzed to indicate the potential capability of the analysis.  The results
are shown by figure 40.

This particular problem is chosen because the path of the jet is  in a vert-
ical plane and thus the results can be clearly presented.  Two extreme
cases are computed; where the current and the jet discharge are in the
same direction, and where they are opposed.

The entrainment of the ambient fluid is proportional to the velocity
difference between the jet and the current.  In the first case, where the
direction of flow is the same,  the entrainment and the consequent dilution
are less than if there were no ambient flow.  This decrease in dilution
is offset to some degree by the tendency of the current to extend the path
of the jet horizontally. In the second case, with the current opposing the
jet, and assuming that the condenser intake and outlet are also in opposite
directions, a worst case  is presented for the recirculation of part of the
discharge water.

The jet centerline paths with  a one-knot current both following and oppos-
ing the discharge jet are  shown by figure 3, along with the case of no
current. A Froude number of five is used for the calculation which gives
a ratio of current velocity to  jet velocity of 0.261. Drag coefficient and
entrainment coefficient are chosen Cd = 0.1 and  a  = 0.082, respectively.

Points of common centerline  temperature are also indicated for  y = 0.2 and
0.4,

where
            y = " ~  ""a     and t =  local temperature
                              ta= ambient temperature
                              tQ= discharge temperature
                               232

-------
to
CO
CO
              Figure 40.  Center line Path of a Horizontal Buoyant Jet Discharging into an Infinite Fluid of
                         Homogeneous Density with Various Current Conditions.  F = 5.0.

-------
For the sake of clarity, the isotherms have not been plotted.  The coordinates
have been nondimensionalized with respect to the discharge diameter.

The values of the drag and entrainment coefficients are low compared with
those used by Fan for the vertical jet. They are chosen to give "worst case"
results and thus ensure that the predicted thermal effect on the environment
is greater than would be expected under actual conditions.

A low drag coefficient produces a predicted jet path that rises rapidly and
therefore has a correspondingly low dilution and a greater  effect on the ocean
surface. The low entrainment coefficient is that used for a jet with no ambi-
ent current, thus the jet incurs substantially lower dilution than it would in
the presence of a current.

There are no experimental data available in the literature for the cases con-
sidered here, and it must be  emphasized that the significance of the results
is mainly qualitative.
                                  234

-------
                           NOMENCLATURE
English Symbols
A =
B = 2V2F/D
U
U
u =
                     jet cross-sectional area normal to the jet axis (ft2)
                     dimensionless local characteristic radius
                     local characteristic jet radius (ft)
                     dimensionless drag coefficient based on projected area
                     discharge jet diameter  (ft)

                     densimetric Froude number

                     dimensionless total drag force per unit length
                     total drag force per unit length (Ib/ft)

                     components of drag force per unit length (Ib/ft)
                                                    ft
                     gravitational acceleration (ft/sec )
                     unit vectors in the x, y, z directions, respectively
                     jet How rate (ft3/sec)
                     radial distance from jet centerline (ft)
                     dimensionless distance along the jet centerline
                     distance along jet centerline (ft)
                     temperature (ฐF)
                     dimensionless velocity ratio

                     dimensionless components of ambient velocity
                     jet velocity along the centerline in excess of the ambi
                     ent velocity component (ft/sec)
                                  235

-------
                     ambient velocity (ft/sec)
                     jet velocity along the center line (ft/sec)

                     components of ambient velocity (ft/sec)

                     dimensionless horizontal coordinate
                     horizontal coordinate  (ft)
                     dimensionless vertical coordinate
                     vertical coordinate (ft)
                     dimensionless transverse coordinate
z =                  transverse coordinate (ft)

Greek Symbols
 a =                  dimensionless entrainment coefficient
 )3=                  elevation angle of jet (radians)
 y=~ "  a            dimensionless temperature
    to " 'a
 0=                  angle between tangent to the jet and ambient velocity
                     (radians)
 P=                  water density (Ib-sec2/ft4)
  '   pa ~p
 P= ~7>	7f          dimensionless density
     % ~ ฐ
 =                  azimuth angle of jet (radians)
                                 236

-------
Subscripts
a =                   condition in the ambient fluid
e =                   beginning of the zone of established flow
o =                   condition at the point of discharge

Superscript
 * =                   a function of s and r
                                    237

-------
                              Appendix c

         CHAINS OF ONE, TWO, AND THREE RADIONUCIIDES

The formula for the concentration of a nuclide having negligible decay and be
ing released continuously is :
                                        y  v
                                   62cV
                           DUQcx
where:
     <ฃ(x,y)  = radionuclide concentration in the sea (n Ci/cc)
     Q      = release rate of radionuclides (Curies/yr)
     D      = depth of water
     Uo     = velocity of current past the site
     x      = downstream  coordinate
     y      = cross current coordinate
     c      = constant
The formula for the concentration of a nuclide having negligible decay and
being instantaneously released is:

where all quantities are the sane as continuous release except Q = quantity
of radionuclides released (Curies).
The derivation of these two formulas can be found in the descriptions of theory:
normal operation, downstream plume; and nuclear accidental release in the
section on radionuclide distribution in the sea (section 7, p 149 ff).
The effect of decay will be derived here for the case of continuous release,
but because of the similarity of the formulas will be applicable to batch re-
lease.  The center line atom density in sea water plotted against downstream
distance is shown as the zero decay curve in the graph below:
                                 239

-------
Atom
Density
N (atoms/cc)
                                        Zero Decay Curve
             0
Down-current Distance, x (nm)
A single radionuclide being released and decaying will have an atom density,
N]_, less than the zero decay curve, shown typically as shaded portion 1 of the
graph.  If the first radionuclide decays to a second radionuclide,the typical
atom density of the second radionuclide is shown as stipled portion 2 of the
graph.  Note that the sum of the atom densities of the first and second radio-
nuclides, N^ + No, cannot exceed the zero decay curve because of conserva-
tion of radionuclides.  If the second radionuclide decays to a third radionuclide,
the atom density of the third radionuclide is typically shown as portion 3 of the
graph.  Again,  the sum of the atom densities of the first, second, and third
radionuclides, N^ + N2 + NS ,  cannot exceed the zero  decay curve.
Assume the two causes of reduction of radionuclide concentration (dilution and
decay) to be mathematically separable as follows:
              _ /initial concentration^   /reduction by
                \reduced by dilution /   \decay
                                  240

-------
The decay factor equals the ratio of the decay rate of the i*h radionuclide


divided by the initial decay rate of the first radionuclide assumii^ no dilution

and is expressed as follows:


                                 Xi\F
                               ,1  i 'I *

              decay factor  = —^—^	
                               A: JN<
where:

      Xi  = decay constant of the i*n radionuclide

      Nj  = atom density of i*n radionuclide is sea water

      NI  = initial atom density of first radionuclide (at time = 0)
        o


 The initial atom density iN-  corresponds with the zero decay curve.




 FIRST RADIONUCLIDE


 For a single radionuclide or the first in a chain,  the concentration can be ex-

 pressed as follows:
                          o
                                        u



 where i  (x,y) = radionuclide concentration for no decay.
         o


 The decay formula for a single radionuclide is:





                        o


 where t = time after release = yr
                               uo


 Substituting:                   2                 ix
                                   241

-------
SECOND RADIONUCLIDE
The decay scheme of a two-radionuelide chain is shown schematically below:
                                               Stable
A fraction, f
-------
The solution is:
              N2
                 o
                     -X0t
                       2
By substituting for the variables, the concentration formula becomes:
                                       MX)
where
                            2c2x2
                                                 Q9e
                                                        U
THIRD RADIONUCLIDE

The decay scheme of a three-radionuclide chain can be any of those shown by the
illustration on the next page.

A fraction, f^, of the first radionuclide decays to the second radionuclide,

while the remainder, (l-fjg)* decays directly to the third radionuclide.  Like-

wise a fraction, fjq, of the second radionuclide decays to the third radionu-

clide, and the remainder (l-f^o) decays to the stable nuclide.  Considering

decay from the first and second radionuclides and direct  release of all three

radionuclides, the concentration of the third radionuclide is as follows:

                         first radionuclide release      first radionuclide re-
             <6Q(x,y) =  decaying to second decay-  +   lease decaying directly
              6          ins to  third                    to third
ing to third

second radionuclide re-
release decaying to
third
                                                      direct release of
                                                   +  third radionuclide
                             fd2fd3
                                      X3N3
                                          oJ
                                             1,2,3
                              o
                                              1,3
                                  243

-------
fd2=1'ฐ
                                  Stable
                                   Stable
                                   Stable
            244

-------
rx3N3 1
X9N9
. o.
1 J.
+ \
9 •?
rx3Ns i
X..N.J
. d do
The values of p3/N2o] 2 3 and[N3/Nlo| 1,3  are derived for the two-nuclide
chain.  The value of SN      2 3 is the solution for the often-solved triple

decay chain problem, beginning with the following differential equation:
              ซ&-  X,N.
     -   2
     -   *
                                   -o.  o
                                   33
using N9  =
               -  e
and the boundary condition of No =0 when t = 0.
The solution is:
N3
Nl
                 o
                         Xl  X2
                     (X3 -  Xl) (X2
                        (e
                                         (e
                          -XQt
                            3
         — \ซjt
     -   e  2)
                                               -  e
By substituting for the variables the concentration formula becomes:
where
                            DUQcx
      _
 3
                   fd2 fd3
XgX
u_
                                                       U
                                                        o
   X3  X2 Q! fd2 fd3
     X  - XX   -
                   (X3 - Xl)(X2
                                         X3X
                                         Uo
        "u
                                  245

-------
                                X-jX


                  ปJ -
                                oX         ซ>
             +  x    x       ป e       -  e
                A3 "  X2
                      XoX
BATCH RELEASE
For batch release of radionuclides the concentration formula is;
                            2
                               246

-------
                               Appendix D
          DISTRIBUTION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE SEA
This appendix is a computer printout tabulation that gives the down-current
distribution of specific radionuclides at three current velocities (0.5, 4, and
24 nm/day) and distances to 40 nm from the site.  The  methods used in ob-
taining these results are explained in the body of the report.  The radionu-
clides are presented in the order of increasing mass number in three sections:

                                                             Pages
      Normal operation,  continuous release                 248 through 265
      Loss-of-coolant accident, batch release                266 through 285
      Breach-of-containment accident, batch release         286 through 325

Computer limitations prevent the use of some conventional notation; thus,
microcuries (/xCi) is represented by UCI in the printout, and numbers follow-
ing a plus or minus  signify the power of 10 (e. g., . 185 + 14 means . 185 x 10  ).
                                  247

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
CO
ฃ>•
00
         CURRENT   PLUME    HALF      VOLUME

         VELOCITY  LENSTH   WIDTH    IN PLUME

          NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPEC*
  ISO*     AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UCI/CC     UCI/GM
         HALF LIFE   ซ117*01 DAYS             H 3

         RELEASE RATE   .185*03 CURIES PER YEAR
         NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEA*ATER  .108*00 GRAMS PER Cc
         MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .-470-01       .110-02
.so
.so
• SO
.so
.so
.50
1.00
i.oo
1.00
1.00
1.QO
,1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.12
.21
• 61
1.22
2.11
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.13
.06
• 12
.21
.61
1.21
2.13
. 18S*H
.710*11
.296*15
. 185*16
.712*16
.297*17
.185*11
.710*11
.296*15
.185*16
.710*16
.296*17
•185*11
.710*11
•296*15
.185*1*
•710*16
.296*17
.102-07
.201-07
.100-07
.101-08
.200-08
.792-0,9
.502-08
.251-08
.126-08
•502-09
•251-09
.125-09
.837-09
.119-09
.209-09
.837-10
.119-10
.209-10
.801-07
,127-07
,220-07
.911-08
.160-08
.227-08
.100-07
.531-08
.275-08
•1 18-08
.577-09
.285-09
.167-08
.890-09
.158-09
.196-09
.962-10
,176-10
.711-06
.395-06
.203-06
.871-07
.126-07
.210-07
.930-07
.191-07
.251-07
,109-07
.531-08
.261-08
,155-07
,821-08
,121-08
,182-08
.891-09
,111-09
         HALF LIFE   ,278*02 DAYS            CR SI
         RELEASE RATE   .595-02 CURIES  PER YEAR
         NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER It SEAKATER  .500-10 GRAMS PER CC
         MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .soo-06       .310*06
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.13
.26
.72
1.62
3.89
.06
.12
.21
.62
1.27
2.65
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.17
.189*11
.768*11
,318*15
,218*16
,989*16
,171*17
, 185*11
•711*11
.299*15
,189*16
,775*16
,321*17
•185*11
,711*11
,296*15
, 186*16
.716*16
.301*17
.581-12
.276-12
.125-12
.371-13
.113-13
.208-11
.759-13
.377-13
.186-13
.717-11
.337-11
.119-11
.127-13
.635-11
.317-11
.126-11
.623-15
,305-15
•119-11
,616-12
,301-12
.113-12
.138-13
,111-13
.152-12
,806-13
.112-13
.171-13
.823-11
,382-11
.251-13
.135-13
.691-11
.297-11
.115-11
.708-15
.238-01
.123-01
.602-02
.226-02
,877-03
.288-03
.301-02
.161-02
.821-03
.217-03
.165-03
.763-01
,509-03
,270-03
,139-03
.591-01
.289-01
.112-01
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF      VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENSTH   HIOTH    IN PLUME

  NM/OAY      NM      NM       CC
CONCENTRATION   AVฃ. SPEC.

  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY

UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/GH
                             HALF LIFE   .303*03 DAYS            MN 51
                             RELEASE RATE   .119-01  CURIES PER YEAR
                             NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAHATER   .200-08 GRAMS PER CC
                             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .3eo-oe       .5eoปo3
.50
.SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1.00
2.00
1,00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2,00
1,00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 12
.21
.62
1,26
2.59
.06
.12
.21
,61
1,22
2,15
,06
,12
,21
,61
1,21
2,13
.185*11
,713*11
,298*15
•188*16
.766*16
.317*17
.185*11
.710*11
.296*15
,185*16
.713*16
,299*17
.185*11
.710*11
,296*15
•185*16
•711*16
,296*17
.135-11
.217-11
.107-11
.118-15
•200-15
.91 1-16
,516-15
.273-15
.136-15
.511-16
.270-16
.131-16
.911-16
.156-16
.228-16
.910-17
•155-17
•227-17
.873-11
.163-11
,237-11
.100-11
.179-15
,226-15
,109-11
.581-15
.299-15
.128-15
,621-16
,307-16
,182-15
,968-16
,198-16
.211-16
.105-16
.517-17
.136-05
.231-05
.118-05
.501-06
.210-06
.1 13-06
.517-06
.290-06
•119-06
.639-07
.312-07
.151-07
.911-07
.181-07
.219-07
.107-07
.523-08
.258-08
                             HALF  LIFE   ,919*03 DAYS            FE 55
                             RELEASE RATE   ,230-03 CURIES PER YEAR
                             NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  ,100-07  GRAMS PER CC
                             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        ,250-07        .390*01
.50
.SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1,00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2,00
1,00
10,00
20.00
to, oo
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1,00
2,00
1,00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
,12
.21
• 61
1.23
2.18
.06
,12
,21
,61
1*21
2.13
,0*
• 12
,21
• 61
1,21
2. 13
,185*11
,711*11
•297*15
• 186*16
,718*16
,303*17
•185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
•711*16
•297*17
,185*11
,710*11
,296*15
•165*16
.710*16
.,296*17
,210-13
,120-13
,597-11
,237-11
,117-11
,566-15
•300-11
,150-11
,750-15
,300-15
,150-15
,715-16
.500-15
.250-15
•125-15
.500-16
.250-16
.125-16
.180-13
,255-13
,131-13
,S59ป|1
.272-11
.132-11
.600-11
.319-11
.161-11
.703-15
.311-15
.170-15
,100-11
,531-15
.271-15
.1 17-15
.571-16
.281-16
,180-05
.255-05
.131-05
.559-06
.272-06
.132-06
.600-06
.319-06
.161-06
.703-07
,311-07
.170-07
,100-06
.531-07
.271-07
.117-07
.571-08
.281-08

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION,  Continuous Release
HO
       CURRENT   PLUME     HALF     VOLUME
      VELOCITY  LENGTH    WIDTH    IN PLUME
        NM/DAY      NM       NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVEป SPEC*
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/SN
      HALF LIFE   .713*02  DAYS            CO 58
      RELEASE RATE   .720-02  CURIES PER YEAR
      NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .500-09  GRAMS PER CC
      MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         1230-07        .aปo*02
• so
.so
.so
.so
• so
.so
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.oo
i.oo
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
t.oo
10.00
20.00
10.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.12
.25
• 65
1.39
3. OS
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.S2
.06
.12
.21
>6|
1.22
2.11
•186*11
.751*11
.305*15
•199*16
.816*16
.376*17
.165*11
.711+11
.297*15
' 187*16
•751*16
.307*17
.185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
•712*16
•298*17
.737-12
.362-12
•171-12
.619-13
.255-13
.861-11
.937-13
.168*13
.233-13
.917-11
.118-11
•213-11
.157-13
.782-11
.391-11
.156-11
.777-15
.385-15
• 119-H
.782-12
.395-12
•160-12
.711-13
.292-13
.188-12
.996-13
ฐS|1-|3
.218-13
.105-13
.508-11
.313-13
.146ซI3
.856-11
.366-11
.179-11
.883-15
.298-02
.156-02
.789-03
.321-03
.112-03
.581-01
.375-03
.199-03
.102-03
.135-01
.210-01
.102-01
.626-01
.333-01
.171-01
.733-05
.358-05
.177-05
       HALF LIFE   .156*02 DAYS            FE 59
       RELEASE RATE   .321-01 CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN  SEAWATER  .100-07 GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .170-08       .890*00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
'•1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1,00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
10,00
.06
.12
.25
.68
1.18
3.39
.06
.12
.21
.62
1.25
2.57
.06
• 12
.21
• 61
1.22
2.15
•187*11
•757*11
•310*15
.206*16
.900*16
.111*17
•185*11
•712*11
•298*15
•188*16
•762*16
•313*17
.185*11
.710*11
.296*15
•185*16
.711*16
•299*17
.328-11
•159-11
.719-15
.250-15
•921-16
•251-16
•121-15
.210-15
.101-15
•107-16
•196-16
.908-17
.701-16
.352-16
.176-16
.700-17
.318-17
.172-17
.666-11
.318-11
•171ซ11
.685-15
.289-15
.109-15
.811-15
•117-15
.229-15
.973-16
.167-16
.222-16
.111-15
.718-16
,385-16
.165-16
.801-17
.395-17
.666-06
.318-06
.171-06
.685-07
.289-07
.109-07
.811-07
,117-07
.229-07
.973-08
.167-08
.222-08
.111-07
.718*08
.385-08
.165-08
.801-09
.395-09
 CURRENT    PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY   LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/OAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE.  SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCJ/GM
                               HALF LIFE    ซ|92ป01 DAYS            CO  60
                               RELEASE RATE    .900-03 CURIES PER YEAR
                               NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .500-09 GRAMS PER CC
                               MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .iso-07       .330*02
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.15
• 06
• 12
.21
.61
1.21
2ซ13
.06
• 12
.21
• 61
1*21
2.13
•185*11
.710*11
.296*15
•186*16
•711*16
•299*17
•185*11
•710*11
.296*15
•185*16
•710*16
•296*17
.185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
•710*16
•296*17
.939-13
.169-13
.231-13
.933-11
.163-11
.228-11
.1 17-13
.587-11
•291-11
•117-11
•586-15
•293-15
.196-11
.979-15
.189-15
.196-15
.978-16
.189-16
.188-12
.998-13
.513-13
,220-13
•107-13
.526-11
.235-13
.125-13
.612-11
.275-11
.135-11
.666-15
.391-11
.208-11
.107-11
.159-15
.225-15
.111-15
.376-03
.200-03
.103-03
.139-01
.211-01
.105-01
.170-01
.250-01
.128-01
.551-05
.270-05
.133-05
.783-05
.116-05
.211-05
•918-06
.150-06
.222-06
                               HALF LIFE    >613-01 DAYS           SE 78
                               RELEASE  RATE   .331-07 CURIES  PER. YEAR
                               NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .700-10 GRAMS  PER  CC
                               MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .000          .000
.50
• 50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I. 00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.26
.73
2.06
8.11
22.92
61>78
• 11
.28
.76
2.92
8.18
23.02
.07
• 16
.38
1 .32
3.52
9.65
.802*11
.118*15
•251*16
•217*17
.110*18
.790*18
.332*11
.173*15
.931*15
.892*16
.199*17
.281*18
•217*11
.977*11
.166*15
.101*16
•215*17
•118*18
•521-27
•397-37
• 000
.000
• 000
.000
•256-19
.758-21
.133-23
.230-31
.000
.000
.119-19
.110-19
.273-20
.618-22
.292-21
.118-28
.851-22
.152-22
.271-23
.276-21
..188-25
.863-26
.210-18
.511-19
.978-20
.102-20
.183-21
.325-22
,111-18
.182-19
•167-19
.318-20
.621-21
.113-21
.122-1 1
.218-12
.388-13
.391-11
.697-15
.123-15
.300-08
•730-09
.110-09
.116-10
.261-1)
.161-12
.163-08
.688-09
.239-09
.151-10
.887-11
.162-11

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
CO
Ul
o
        CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
       VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
         NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPEC*
  ISO-    AVEt   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UCI/CC     UCI/GM
       HALF  LIFE   .432-01 pAYS           AS 78
       RELEASE RATE   .650-07 CURIES  PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .300-08 GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .000          .000
       DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RAO IONUCLIOE, DECAY FRACTION  •  ItOOOO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20. GO
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.25
.72
.00
.00
.00
.00
.10
.26
.73
2.81
8.02
.00
.07
• 15
• 35
1*21
3.32
9.30
.776+11
.138+15
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.302+11
.160+15
.885+15
.867*16
.189*17
.000
.203+11
.893+11
.122+15
.370+16
.203+17
.111+18
.185-25
•101-35
.000
.000
.000
.000
.128-18
.629-20
.210-22
.110-29
.000
.000
.110-18
.111-19
.108-19
,165-21
.381-23
.331-27
.135-20
.239-21
.000
tOOO
.000
.000
.725-18
.191-18
.372-19
.381*20
.671-21
.000
.251-18
.116-18
.151-19
.101-19
.201-20
.366-21
.119-12
.795-13
.000
.000
.000
.000
.212-09
.637-10
.121-10
.127-11
.225-12
.000
.837-10
.386-10
.150-10
.338-11
.680-12
.122-12
       HALF LIFE   .221-01  DAYS            BR 81
       RELEASE RATE   .100-02  CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAKATER  .650-01 GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .000          ,000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.13
1.21
3.12
13.19
38.11
107.81
• 16
.11
1.23
1.80
13.53
38.20
.09
.21
.55
2.01
5.63
15.75
.131+15
.739+15
.117+16
.111*17
•233*18
•132+19
.195+11
•270+15
•150+16
.116+17
.825+17
.166+18
.263+11
•129+15
.669+15
.621+16
.311*17
.192*18
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
•511-17
.101-20
.786-28
.000
.000
• 000
.589-15
.797-16
.292-17
.160-21
.187-27
,000
.503-26
.893-27
.158-27
.160-28
.281-29
.502-30
. 518-15
•970-16
.175-16
.179-17
.318.18
.563-19
.226-11
•727-15
.171-15
,200-16
.362-17
.618-18
.773-22
•137-22
.211-23
.217-21
.137-25
.772-26
.797-11
•119-11
.269-12
.275-13
, 189-11
.866-15
,318-10
.112*10
.268-11
.308*12
.557-13
.997-11
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENGTH   *IDTH    IN PLUME
  NM/OAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVฃซ SPEC.
  ISO-    AVEt   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/GM
                               HALF LIFE   .121-01  DAYS            RB 88
                               RELEASE RATE   .550-01  CURIES PER YEAR
                               NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAHATER   .120-06 GRAMS PER CC
                               MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .000          .000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.5U
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.57
1.41
1.56
IB. 00
50.90
113.95
.21
.58
1.63
6.39
18.03
50.95
• 10
.26
.70
2.67
7.11
20.92
.175*15
.981+15
.556+16
.519*17
.311+18
.176+19
.611+11
•355+15
•199*16
•195+17
.110*18
.622*18
.311*11
.160*15
.851*15
.813*16
•151*17
•255*18
• 000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
•611-18
.263-21
.960-37
.000
.000
.000
.117-13
•568-15
•269-17
.922-21
.355-31
.000
.615-35
.109-35
.193-36
.195-37
.315-38
.000
.133-11
.210-15
,129-16
.137-17
. 771-18
.137-18
.717-13
.195-13
.387-11
.108-15
.731-16
.130-16
.512-28
.908-29
•161-29
.163-30
.288-31
.000
.111-07
.200-08
.357-09
.361-10
.615-1 1
.111-11
.622-06
.162-06
.323-07
.310-08
.609-09
.108-09
                               HALF LIFE    .107-01 OATS           RB 89
                               RELEASE  RATE   .136-02 CURIES  PER  YEAR
                               NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .120-06  GRAMS PER CC
                               MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .000          .000
• 50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .00
2.00
1,00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.62
1.71
1.9|
19.38
51.80
151.96
.22
.62
1.75
6.87
19.11
51.81
.11
• 28
.75
2.86
8.00
22.50
•188+15
•106+16
•599+16
•591+17
•331+18
•189+19
•686*11
•381+15
•213*16
•210+17
•118+18
•669+18
•327+11
•170+15
•912+15
•872+16
•188+17
•271+18
,000
,000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
•165-20
.766-28
.000
.000
.000
.000
•199-15
.670-17
•152-19
.561-27
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
•IOB-I6
.195-17
.318-18
.351-19
.627-20
.111-20
,153-11
,379-15
.732-16
.766-17
.137-17
.213-18
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.902-10
.162*10
.290-11
.295-12
.523-13
.925-11
.128-07
.316-08
.610-09
.638-10
.111-10
.203-11

-------
                         Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous  Release
CO
en
        CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
       VELOCITY  LENGTH   HIDTH   IN PLUME
         NM/OAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UC1/CC  UCI/CC     UC1/GM
       HALF  LIFE    t527ซ02 DAYS            SR 89
       RELEASE  RATE   .113-03 CURIES PER  YEAR
       NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN  SEANATER  1800-05 GRAMS PER  CC
       MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .7ซoปos       .110*01
       DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIDE i DECAY FRACTION •  1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10,00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
• 06
• 12
• 25
.67
1.44
3.28
.06
.12
.24
.61
1.24
2.55
.06
.12
.24
.61
1.22
2.45
•187*14
.755*14
.308*15
.203*16
•880*16
•400*17
•185*14
.742*14
•298*15
•187*16
•759*16
•311*17
•185*14
.740*14
•296*15
•185*16
.743*16
•299*17
.146-13
• 710-H
.337-11
.115-14
.442-15
.131-15
.186-14
.929-15
.461-15
.181-15
.875-16
.410-16
.311-15
.156-15
.777-16
.310-16
.154-16
.762-17
.295-13
.155-13
.774-14
.309-14
.133-14
.515-15
.373-14
.198-14
.102-14
.431-15
.208-15
.992-16
.623-15
.331-15
.170-15
.729-16
.356-16
.175-16
.369-08
.193-08
.967-09
.386-09
.166-09
.643-10
.167-09
.247-09
•127-09
.539-10
.259-10
.124-10
.778-10
.413-10
•213-10
•911-11
•445*11
•219-11
        HALF LIFE   .101*05 DAYS            SR 90
        RELEASE RATE   .319-05 CURIES PER YEAR
        NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .800-05 GRAMS PER  CC
        MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .790-07       .420*01
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
1.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24. on
I. 00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
• 06
• 12
• 24
• 61
1.21
2.43
• 06
.12
.24
.61
1.21
2.43
.06
.12
.24
• 61
1.21
2.43
•185*14
•740+14
•296*15
•185*16
•741*16
•297*17
•185*14
.740*14
•296*15
•185*16
•740*16
.296*17
.185*14
.740*14
.296*15
•185*16
.740*16
.296*17
.333-15
.166-15
.832-16
.333-16
.166-16
.828-17
.416-16
.208-16
•104-16
.416-17
,208-17
.104-17
.694-17
.347-17
.173-17
.694-18
.317-18
.173-18
.666-15
.354-15
.182-15
.780-16
.382-16
.189-16
.833-16
.442-16
.228-16
.976-17
.478-17
.237-17
.139-16
.737-17
.379-17
.163-17
.797-18
.394-18
.833-10
.442-10
.228-10
.976-11
.478-11
.236-11
.104-10
.553-11
.285-11
.122-11
.598*12
.296-12
•173*11
.921-12
•474-12
.203-12
.996*13
.493-13
 CURRENT    PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY   LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/DAT      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE.  SPEC.
  ISO-    AVEt    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/GH
                               HALF LIFE   .267*01  DAYS            Y  90
                               RELEASE RATE   .104-03  CURIES PER YEAR
                               NATURAL CONCENTRATION  OF  CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .300-09 6RAMS PER  CC
                               MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .380-0*       .300*05
                               DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIDE. DECAY FRACTION -  i.oooo
.so
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
4.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
24.00
21.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10,00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4,00
10,00
20.00
40.00
1,00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
40,00
.07
.16
.38
.94
1.28
2.43
.0*
• 13
.27
.74
1 .6V
3.93
.0*
.12
.25
.43
1.31
2.79
•2I8*|4
.982*14
.459*15
.267*16
,781*16
.297*17
.190*14
.776*14
.324*15
.225*16
•103*17
.480*17
•186*14
.746*14
.301*15
.192*16
.798*16
•341*17
.672-14
.207-14
.120-15
.392-16
.166-16
.828-17
.130-14
.610-15
.269-15
.743-16
.204-16
.354-17
,228-15
.113-15
.553-16
.208-16
.935-17
.380-17
.172-13
.724-14
.253-14
.597-15
.237-15
.716-16
.268-14
,138-14
.664-15
.242-15
.900-16
.287-16
.459-15
.242-15
.123-15
.513-16
.238-16
.106-16
.574-04
.241-04
,843-05
.199-05
.790-06
.239*06
.894-05
.459-05
.221-05
.808-06
.300o06
,958-07
.153-05
.808-06
.411-06
.171-06
.794-07
.351-07
                               HALF LIFE   -403*00 DAYS            SR  91
                               RELEASE RATE   .836-04 CURIES PER YEAR
                               NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAftATER   .800-05 GRAMS PER CC
                               MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .400-04       ,780*05
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4,00
10,00
20,00
40,00
1,00
2.00
4.00
10,00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2,00
4,00
10.00
20.00
40,00
.12
.31
.83
3.21
9.01
25.36
• 07
• 16
.37
1.27
3.38
9.25
• 06
• 13
• 27
.76
1.77
4.38
.356*14
•187*15
.102*16
.980*16
.550*17
.309*18
.214*14
.958*14
•454*15
•387*16
•206*17
•113*18
•190*14
•781*14
•328*15
.231*16
•108*17
•534*17
•280-15
•449-17
.231-20
.101-29
.000
.000
.710-15
.231-15
.489-16
.148-17
.101-19
.928-21
.169-15
.788-16
•341-16
.888-17
.217-17
•259-18
•313-14
.710-15
.132-15
.138-16
.245-17
.436-18
.176-14
.758*15
.270-15
.539-16
.107-16
•197-17
.351-15
.179-15
.857-16
,306-16
.109-16
.317-17
.391-09
.887-10
.166-10
.172-11
.307-12
.545-13
.220-09
.948*10
•338-10
.671-11
.134-11
.216-12
.139-10
.221-10
.107-10
.382-1 1
.136-1 1
.396-12

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION,  Continuous Release
CO
Ul
CO
        CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
       VELOCITY  LENGTH   *IDTM   IN PLUME
         NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPEC.

  ISO-     AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UC1/CC     UCI/GM
       HALF LIFE    .588*02 DAYS            Y   91
       RELEASE  RATE    .7S9-01 CURIES PER YEAR

       NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEA*ATER  .300-09 GRAMS  PER  CC

       MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .570-06       .230+01

       DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RAD IONUCL IDE i  DECAY FRACTION •  1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.SO
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.12
.25
.66
1.12
3.20
.06
• 12
.21
.61
1.21
2.51
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.11
.187+11
.751*11
.307+15
.201+16
.866+16
.391+17
.185+11
.712+11
.297+15
•187+16
.757+16
.309+17
.185+11
.710+11
.296+15
•185+16
.713+16
.298+17
•771-11
.378-11
.180-1 1
.626-12
.217-12
.772-13
.988-12
.192-12
.215-12
.962-13
.167-13
.220-13
.165-12
.825-13
.112-13
.161-13
.817-11
iHOS-11
.157-10
.821-1 1
.112-11
.166-11
.720-12
.286-12
.198-1 1
.105-11
.538-12
,229-12
.110-12
,529-13
,330-12
.175-12
.902-13
.386-13
.189-13
.929-11
.522-01
.271-01
.137-01
.552-02
.210-02
.953-03
.659-02
.350-02
.179-02
.763-03
.368-03
.176-03
.110-02
.581-03
.301-03
.129-03
.629-01
.310-01
       HALF  LIFE    .129+00 DAYS            Y   93
       RELEASE  RATE   .598-03 CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN  SEAHATER  .300-09 GRAMS  PER  CC
       MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .570-06       .130+06
.50
.50
.50
.SO
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1,00
10,00
20.00
10.00
1 ,00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20,00
10.00
1.00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
• 11
.30
.81
3.12
8.71
21.59
.07
• 16
,37
1 ,21
3,29
B. 99
,06
,13
,27
,75
1.71
1.28
.318+11
.183*15
.989*15
.951*16
.533*17
.300*18
,2)2*11
,916*11
,116*15
.378*16
.201*17
.1 10*18
.190*11
.778+11
.326*15
.229*16
.106*17
.523*17
.217-11
.188-16
.381-19
,581-28
,000
,000
,521-11
.171-11
.388-15
.138-16
.121-18
.188-22
.122-11
.568-15
.218-15
.661-16
.169-16
.220-17
.218-13
•575-11
.108-11
.113-15
.201-16
.357-17
.128-13
,556-11
.202-11
.115-15
.838-16
,151-16
.252-11
.129-11
,619-15
,223-15
.807-16
.210-16
.827-01
.192-01
.361-05
.375-06
.669*07
.119-07
.125-01
.185-01
.672-05
.138-05
.279-06
.513-07
.838-05
.129-05
•206-05
.711-06
.269-06
.801-07
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  MM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.    ACTIVITY

UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/SM
                              HALF LIFE   "455*02 DAYS            ZR  95
                              RELEASE RATE    .ISM-OS CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN  SEAWATER  .220-10 GRAMS PER CC
                              MAXIMUM ."ERHISSIBLE                        .950-06       .I00ป0f
.50
.SO
.SO
.SO
• 50
.50
1.00
4.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.12
.25
.66
1.10
3.13
.0*
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.53
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.11
.187*11
<7S2*11
.306*15
.200+16
.851*16
.382+17
•18S+I1
.712+11
.297+15
.187+16
.755*16
.308+17
.185+11
.710+11
.296+15
•185+16
.713+16
.298+17
.117-15
.721-16
.315-16
.122-16
.192-17
.161-17
.187-16
.935-17
.1*5-17
.183-17
.891-18
.123-18
.313-17
.156-17
.782-18
.312-18
.155-18
.769-19
.298-15
. 156-15
.786-16
.318-16
.110-16
.566-17
.375-16
.199-16
.102-16
.135-17
.210-17
.101-17
.626-17
.333-17
.171-17
.733-18
•358-18
.176-18
. 135-01
.710-05
.357-05
. |1b-05
.636-06
,257-06
.171-05
.905-06
.165-06
.198-06
.955-07
.159-07
.286-06
.151-06
.778*07
.333-07
.163-07
.802-08
                              HALF LIFE   '350+02  DAYS            NB 95
                              RELEASE RATE   .118-03 CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .100-10 GRAMS PER CC
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         ,950-06       ,180+01
                              DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RAOlONUCLIDEi  DECAY  FRACTION •  1,0000
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.SO
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 12
,26
.69
1.51
3.62
.06
.12
.21
• 62
1.26
2.61
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.16
•188*11
•762*11
•311*15
•212*16
.910*16
.112*17
•185*11
•713*11
•298+15
•189+16
.768+16
.318+17
.185*11
.710*11
.296*15
.186*16
•715*16
.300*17
.119-13
.711-11
.330-11
.101-11
.353-15
.811-16
.192-11
.956-15
.173-15
.181-15
.876-16
.397-16
.322-15
.161-15
.802-16
.319-16
.158-16
.779-17
.303-13
.158-13
.778-11
.300-11
.122-11
,130-15
.385-11
.201-11
.105-11
.112-15
.211-15
.992-16
.611-15
.312-15
.176-15
.752-16
.367-16
.180-16
.303-02
.158-02
.778*03
.300*03
.122-03
.130-01
.385*03
.201-03
.105*03
.112-01
.211-01
.992-05
.611-01
.312-01
.176*01
.752-05
.347*05
.180-05

-------
                             Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous  Release
to
Ul
CO
           CURRENT    PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
          VELOCITt   LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
            NM/DAY       NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVEt SPEC.
  ISO-     AVE.   ACTIVITT
UCI/CC   UCI/CC     UCI/GM
          HALF LIFE    .708*00 DAYS            ZR 97
          RELEASE RATE   .660-01 CURIES PER  YEAR
          NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN  SEAWATER  .220-10 GRAMS PER CC
          MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .320-06       .teo+os
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.10
.25
.65
2.16
6.81
19.20
.07
.11
.32
1.01
2.67
7.16
.06
.13
.26
.70
1.5S
3.67
•295*11
•150+15
•792*15
•719*16
•117*17
.231*18
•202*11
.871*11
•391*15
.316*16
•163*17
•873*17
•188*11
•763+11
.311+15
.213+16
.918*16
.117*17
.973-15
.687-16
.685-18
.217-23
.312-32
.000
.671-15
.261-15
.809-16
.715-17
.323-18
.121-20
.138-15
.662-16
.305-16
.955-17
.317-17
.702-18
.518-11
. 111-11
.300-15
.320-16
.571-17
.102-17
•152-11
,711-15
.292-15
.750-16
.177-16
.311-17
.281-15
.116-15
.721-16
.277-16
•111-16
.389-17
.235-03
.651-01
.136-01
.115-05
.261-06
.165-07
.693-01
.325-01
•133-01
.311-05
•805-06
.156-06
.128-01
.661-05
•328-05
.126-05
.507-06
.177-06
           HALF  LIFE   .278*01 DAYS            MO 99
           RELEASE RATE   .110*00 CURIES PER YEAR
           NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .100-07 GRAMS PER CC
           MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .750-06       .270*01
• so
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
%.oo
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.07
.16
.39
1.35
3.61
9,91
.06
.13
.27
.71
1.71
1.18
.06
.12
.25
.63
1.31
2.79
•218*11
.989*11
•171*15
.111*16
• 220< 17
.121*18
•189*11
•775+11
•321+15
•226*16
.101*17
•509*17
•186*11
•716*11
.301*15
•192*16
.798*16
•311*17
•260-10
•790-11
.116-11
.293-13
.100-15
.231-20
• 503-1 I
•236-11
.101-11
.287-12
.769-13
.11 1-13
.883-12
.137-12
.211-12
.801-13
.362-13
.117-13
.667-10
.279-10
.952-11
.176-11
.310-12
.619-13
.101-10
.533-11
.257-11
,938-12
.316-12
,106-12
,177-11
.937-12
.177-12
.199-12
.921-13
.111-13
.667-02
.279-02
.952-03
.176-03
.310-01
.619-05
.501-02
•233-03
',,257-03
•938-01
•316-01
.106-01
.177-03
.937-01
.177-01
.199-01
.921-05
. 1.1 1-05
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENSTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVฃ. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/GH
                              HALF LIFE   .395+02 DAYS            RU  103
                              RELEASE RATE    .II6-03 CURIES PER  YEAR
URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER
IMUM PERMISSIBLE
.50
.SO
.50
• SO
.50
.50
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
ป00
21.00
21.00
2S. 00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2,00
ItOO
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.04
.12
.26
.49
1.5|
3.52
.06
.12
.21
.62
1.25
2.59
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.15
.188+11
.760*11
.312*15
.207*16
.922*16
.129*17
.185+11
.713*11
•298*15
.188*16
.765*16
.316*17
•185+11
.710*11
.296*15
.186*16
.711*16
.299*17
.000 GRAMS PER CC
.130-05
.117-13
.561-11
.263-11
.853-15
.300-15
.711-16
.151-11
.750-15
.372-15
.115-15
.693-16
.318-16
.252-15
.126-15
.629-16
.250-16
•121-16
.613-17
.238-13
.121-13
.615-11
.210-11
.990-15
.360*15
.302-11
.160-11
.820-15
>317'15
.166-15
.786-16
.501-15
>268-IS
.138-15
.589-16
,288-16
.111-16
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
                              HALF LIFE   >|19*01 DAYS           RH 105
                              RELEASE  RATE   .I61-01 CURIES PER YEAR.
URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER
itMUM PERMISSIBLE
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20,00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1ป00
10.00
20,00
10.00
.08
.19
.18
1.75
1.79
13.33
.06
• 13
• 28
• 81
2>01
5,23
• 06
• 12
.25
.65
1.39
3.08
.213*11
.116*15
.586*15
.533+16
.292+17
•163+18
•193+11
.805+11
•316*15
•256*16
•121*17
.638*17
.186*11
•751*11
•305*15
•199+16
•815*16
•375*17
.000 GRAMS PER CC
•190-05
.665-15
.132-15
.103-16
.158-19
.715-21
.330-32
.187-15
.833-16
.330-16
.659-17
•103-17
.510-19
.313-16
.168-16
.810-17
.289-17
•119-17
.101-18
.21 1-11
.758-15
.207-15
.271-16
.500-17
.898-18
.397-15
.198-15
.907-16
.291*16
.908-17
.221-17
.691-16
.365-16
.181-16
.717-17
.332-17
.136-17
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000

-------
                            Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION,  Continuous Release
CO
01
           CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME

          VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME

            NN/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UCI/CC     UCI/6M
          HALF LIFE   .348*03 DAYS           RU  106

          RELEASE RATE    .116-05 CURIES PER  YEAR
URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER .000 6RAMS PER CC
IMUM PERMISSIBLE
.so
.so
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
(.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
i.oo
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 12
• 21
• 62
I. 25
2.57
.06
.12
• 21
.61
1.22
2.11
.06
• 12
• 21
• 61
1.21
2.13
•185+11
.712*11
.278*15
.188*1*
.762*16
.313*17
•185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
•713*16
•298*17
•185+11
•710+11
•296+15
•185+16
•710+16
•296+17
.160-06
.161-15
•231-15
.115-15
.118-16
.216-16
.100-16
•582-16
.291-16
•115-16
•579-17
•288-17
•113-17
.970-17
.185-17
•212-17
.969-18
.181-18
.212-18
.929-15
.193-15
•253-rS
•107-15
.511-16
.215-16
•116-15
.618-16
.318-16
.136-16
•665-17
.328-17
.191-16
.103-16
•530-17
.227-17
.111-17
.550*18
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
          HALF LIFE   ซ561+00 DAYS            PO J09
          RELEASE RATE   .316-06 CURIES PER  YEAR
'URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER •
IMUM PERMISSIBLE
.50
• so
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .00
2,00
1,00
10,00
20.00
10.00
1,00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20,00
10.00
I .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.10
• 27
• 72
2.71
7.66
21.51
• 07
• 15
.31
1.12
2,91
7.95
.06
• 13
.26
.72
1.63
3.93
•317+11
•161+15
•877+15
.837+16
.167*17
•263+18
•206+11
•902+11
•116+15
•313+16
•179+17
.969+17
•189+11
•769+11
•319+15
•219*16
•996+16
•179+17
,000 GRAMS PER cc
.130*05
•279-17
,118-18
•121-21
.615-28
• 000
• 000
,303-17
.111-17
.300-18
.188-19
.128-21
.115-21
•653-18
,310-18
.I10-1B
•111*19
•123-19
•219-20
.192-16
.189-17
,961-18
,101-18
.181-19
.321*20
.707-17
.321-17
.125*17
.292*18
.635*19
.119*19
.131-17
.692*18
.338-18
.126-18
.186-19
•158-19
.000
.000
.000
,000
,000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
.000
.000
.000
.000
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH    IN PLUME
  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION

  ISO-     AVE.
UCI/CC   UCI/CC
ปVE.  SPEC.
  ACTIVITY
    UCI/GM
                             HALF LIFE   .750*01 DAYS           AG III
                             RELEASE RATE    .128-06 CURIES PER  YEAR
                             NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .300-09  GRAMS PER CC
                             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .iso-o?        .130*01
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 11
.31
.95
2.10
6.31
• 06
• 12
• 25
• 66
1.12
3.19
.06
.12
• 21
• 62
1.25
2.57
. 198+11
.811+11
•372+15
•290+16
•116+17
•773+17
•187+11
•753+11
•307+15
•201+16
•861+16
•389+17
•185+11
•712+11
•298+15
•188+16
•762+16
•313+17
.371-16
.151-16
.533-17
.701-18
.555-19
.688-21
.516-17
.267-17
.127-17
.113-18
.176-18
.551-19
.927-18
.162-18
.229-18
.8*6-19
•131-19
.200-19
.815-16
.393-16
.169-16
.180-17
.126-17
.261-18
.110-16
.579-17
.291-17
.117-17
.510-18
.203-18
.186-17
.985-18
.505-18
.211*18
.103-18
.188-19
.272-06
•131-06
.561-07
.160-07
•119-08
.868-09
•368-07
•193-07
.970-08
.390-08
.(70-08
.678-09
.619*08
.328-08
.168-08
•711-09
•313-09
.163*09
                             HALF LIFE   .223*01 DAYS            CD  115
                             RELEASE RATE   .605-07 CURIES PER  YEAR
                             NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN  SEAWATER  .110-09 GRAMS PER CC
                             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        ,570*08       .710+03
.50
• so
.50
• 50
.50
,50
.00
• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
• 00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1 .00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1,00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.0Q-
10.00
20.00
10.00
.07
.17
• 12
1.17
3.98
11.00
.06
• 13
.27
.77
1.81
1.50
.06
.12
.25
.61
1.13
2.88
.226*11
•101+15
•509+15
.119+16
•213*17
.131+18
•191+11
• 781+H
•330+15
•235+16
•110+17
.519+17
.186+11
.717+11
.302*15
•191+16
•812+16
•351+17
•339-17
.91 1-18
.131-18
•126*20
•126-23
.252-29
.731-18
.338*18
.115-18
.363*19
.835-20
.862-21
.130*18
.611-19
•312-19
•116*19
•508-20
•196-20
.926-17
.369-17
.117*17
•191*18
.359-19
.650-20
.152-17
.771*18
.366*18
.129*18
.151-19
.127-19
.261*18
.138-18
.700*19
.290*19
.133-19
.577-20
.812*07
.336*07
.106-07
.171-08
.326*09
.591*10
.138-07
.703-08
.331-08
.118-08
.110*09
.116-09
.238-08
.125-08
.636-09
•263-09
.121-09
.525-10

-------
                              Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
IN9
Ol
CJ1
           CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
          VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
            NM/DAY      NM      NH     CC
CONCENTRATION   AYE. SPEC.
  ISO*    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/SH
          HALF LIFE   .250*03 DAYS            5NI19M
          RELEASE RATE   .204-04 CURIES  PER YEAR
          NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAWATER
          MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        ,
      •300-08  GRAMS PER CC
     000          .000
• SO
• so
.50
.SO
.50
.50
4.00
1.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24,00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
I. 00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20,00
40.00
1.00
2,00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
.0*
• 12
.24
.42
1.24
2.63
.0*
.12
.24
.61
1.22
2.4S
.04
.12
.24
>ซ1
1.21
2.43
.185*14
.743*14
•299*15
.189*14
.772+1*
•321*17
•185*14
.740*14
.294*15
•185*14
.744*16
•299*17
•185*14
•740*14
.294+15
•185*16
•741*1*
.297*17
.212-14
•105-16
•521-17
•201-17
.953-18
•427-18
.266-17
.133-17
.664-18
.2*4+18
.131-18
•447-I9
.444-18
.222-18
.111-18
.443-19
.221-19
.110-19
.425-16
.225-16
.115-16
.486-17
.231-17
.108-17
.532-17
.283-17
.145-17
.622-18
.304-18
.149-18
.887-18
.471-18
.243-18
.104-18
.509-19
•252-19
•142-07
.750-08
•384-08
.162-08
•770-09
•360-09
.177-08
.942-09
.485-09
.207-09
•101-09
.497-10
.29*-09
.157-09
.809-10
.347-10
•170-10
.839-11
           HALF LIFE   S4*-09
.242-09
.733-10
.207-10
.457-11
.|98>09
.104-09
.519-10
.208-10
.897-11
.352-11
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENSTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/BAY      NM      NH      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE.  SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/SH
HALF LIFE    .125*03 DAYS            SN 123
RELEASE RATE   .117-07 CURIES PER YEAR
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .300-08 SRAMS PER CC
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .000          .000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40,00
• 06
• 12
.25
• 63
1.31
2.82
.06
.12
.24
• 41
1.23
2.48
• 06
.12
.24
.61
1.22
2,43
.186*14
.746*14
.301*15
.193*16
.802*1*
.344*17
.185*14
.741*14
.297*15
.186*16
.748*16
•302*17
•185*14
•740*14
•296*15
•185*16
•741*1*
•297+17
•121-17
.597-18
.292-18
.109-18
.489-19
.196-19
.152-18
.7*1-19
.380-19
.151-19
.743-20
.361-20
.254-19
.127-19
.434-20
.254-20
.127-20
.430-21
.243-17
.128-17
.452-18
.271-18
.125-18
•555-19
.305-18
.1*2-18
.833-19
.356-19
.173-19
.843-20
.509-19
.270-19
•139-19
.596-20
.292-20
.144-20
.810-09
.428-09
.217-09
.904-10
.418-10
.185-10
.102-09
.540-10
.278-10
. I19ซ10
.57*-! 1
.281-11
•170-JO
.901-11
.4*4-11
.m-ii
.972-12
.48Q-12
HALF LIFE    .940*01 DAYS           SN  125
RELEASE  RATE   .uo-os CURIES  PER-YEAR
NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .300-08 GRAMS PER CC
MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .320-04       .310*03
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
.0*
.13
.29
.89
2.21
5.7*
.0*
.12
• 25
.45
1.38
3.05
.0*
• 12
.24
• 41
1.24
2.54
.195*14
.821*14
.358*15
.272*1*
.135*17
.703*17
.184*14
•751*14
.304*15
•198*1*
•841*14
•372*17
•185*14
•742*14
.297*15
.187*1*
.758*16
.310*17
.117-18
.505-19
.186-19
.311-20
.354-21
.931-23
.147-19
•818-20
.394-20
.141-20
.587-21
.203-21
.282-20
.141-20
.498-21
•274-21
.133-21
.425-22
.252-18
.124-18
.551-19
.148-19
.474-20
.104-20
.334-19
.177-19
.892-20
.344-20
.142-20
.472-21
.545-20
.299-20
.154-20
.453-21
.315-21
.151-21
.840-10
.413-10
.184-10
.559. II
.159-1 1
.354-12
.112-10
.589-11
.297-11
.121-11
•540-12
.224-12
.188-1 1
.998-12
.512-12
.218-12
.105-12
.502-13

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION,  Continuous Release
CJ1
O5
        CURRENT   PLUME     HALF     VOLUME
       VELOCITY  LENCTH    WIDTH   IN PLUME
         NM/OAY      NM       NH      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPECt
  ISO-    AVE,   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/SM
       HALF LIFE   .989*03  DAYS            SB 125
       RELEASE RATE   .103-06 CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .500-09 GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .160-04       .700*02
       DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIDE• DECAY FRACTION -  1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1,00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1,00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1.00
2,00
1.00
10,00
20.00
10,00
1,00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
,06
,12
• 21
• 61
1,23
2,18
.06
. 12
.21
.61
1.21
2.13
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.13
.185*11
,711*11
,297*15
•186*16
,718*16
,302*17
,185*11
,710*11
,296*15
.185*16
•711*16
•297*17
•185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
•710*16
,296*17
,107-16
.536-17
.267-17
,106-17
.523-18
,251-18
•131-17
.672-18
.336-18
•131-18
•670-19
.331-19
.221-18
.112-18
.560-19
.221-19
.112-19
•559-20
.215-16
.111-16
.586-17
.250-17
.122-17
.591-18
.269-17
.113-17
.735-18
.315-18
.151-18
.761-19
.118-18
.238-18
.123-18
.525-19
.257-19
.127-19
.130-07
.228-07
.117-07
.501-08
.213-08
.1 19-08
.538-08
.286-08
.117-08
.630-09
.308-09
.152-09
.896-09
.176-09
.215-09
,105-09
.515-10
.255-10
       HALF LIFE   .580*02 DAYS            TE12SM
       RELEASE RATE   .104-01 CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .000    GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .160-05       .700*00
       DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RADlONUCLlDEt DECAY FRACTION -   .2200
.50
.50
.50
.50
,50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1,00
2,00
1.00
10,00
20,00
10,00
1,00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
,12
,25
,66
1,12
3,21
,06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.51
.06
.12
.21
• 61
1,22
2.15
.187*11
.751*11
.307*15
.202*16
.868*16
•391*17
•185*11
•712*11
.297*15
.187*16
.757*16
.310*17
.185*11
.710*11
,296*15
,185*16
,713*16
.298*17
.108-11
.528-15
.251-15
.872-16
.311-16
.107-16
.138-15
.688-16
,312-16
,131-16
,652-17
,307-17
,230-16
•115-16
•575-17
.229-17
.111-17
.565*18
.219-11
.115-11
.575-15
.231-15
.100-15
.398-16
.276-15
.117-15
,752-16
.320-16
.151-16
.739-17
.161-16
.215-16
.126-16
.539-17
.263-17
.130-17
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
,000
,000
,000
,000
,000
.000
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY   LENSTM   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/OAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/SM
                              HALF LIFE   .375*00  DAYS            SB 124
                              RELEASE RATE   .231-07 CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .500-0* GRAMS PER CC
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .000          .000
.50
.50
• 50
.50
.50
.SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
liOO
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.12
.32
.8*
3.33
9.33
24.29
.07
• 16
.38
1.31
3.19
9.57
.06
.13
.27
.77
1.80
1.19
•3*6*11
,193*15
,105*16
•101*17
•569*17
•321*18
.216*11
.973*11
.161*15
.398*16
.313*17
•117*18
•191*11
.781*11
.330*15
.231*16
•110*17
•518*17
.601-19
•719-21
•231-21
.216-31
.000
.000
.192-18
.603-19
.120-19
.300-21
.118-23
.716-28
.169-19
.217-19
.931-20
.235-20
.513-21
.582-22
.766-18
•170-18
.315-19
.327-20
.582-21
.103-21
,183-18
.205-18
.716-19
.138-19
.270-20
.193-21
.975-19
•197-19
.236-19
.833-20
.291-20
.825-21
.153-08
.310-09
.630-10
.653-11
.116-11
.207-12
.965-09
.110-09
. 113-09
.275-10
.510-1 1
.985-12
.195-09
.991-10
.173-10
.167-10
.582-1 1
.145-11
                              HALF LIFE   .388*01  DAYS            SB 127
                              RELEASE RATE   <2B1-OS  CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .500-09  GRAMS PER CC
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .000          .000
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1,00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
,07
.15
.35
1,18
3,12
6.19
.06
,13
.26
• 7|
1.S6
3.76
.06
.12
• 25
• 62
1.2B
2.70
.209*11
•925*11
•131*15
•361*16
•190*17
•101*18
•188*11
.766*11
.316*15
.215*16
.966*16
.159*17
•186*11
•711*11
•299*15
•190*16
•762*16
•329*17
.207-15
•726-16
•178-16
.833-18
•117-19
,162-23
.351-16
.169-16
.775-17
.237-17
.759-18
•155-18
.413-17
•301-17
•150-17
.573-18
.266-18
• 1 15-18
•196-15
•221-15
•828-16
.181-16
.377-17
.698-18
.725-16
.376-16
.185-16
.703-17
.278-17
.916-18
.123-16
.651-17
.333-17
.110-17
.657-18
.301-18
.992-06
.111-06
•166-06
.361-07
•751-08
.110-08
•11S-06
.752-07
•369-07
•111-07
.556-08
.189-08
.216-07
.130-07
.665-08
.279-08
.131-08
.6D1ป09

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION,  Continuous Release
CO
en
        CURRENT   PLUME     HALF     VOLUME
       VELOCITY  LENGTH    WIDTH   IN PLUME
         NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVEt    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/GH
       HALF LIFE   .109*03  DAYS            TEI2JM
       RELEASE RATE   .390-01 CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   >ooo    GRAMS PER cc
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .950-04       .350*00
       DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RAOIONUCLIDE, DECAY FRACTION "   .1400
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1(00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 12
.25
.61
1.33
2.87
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.23
2.19
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.11
.186*11
.717*11
.302*15
.191*16
.811*16
.350*17
.185*11
.711*11
.297* 15
•186*16
.719*16
.303*17
•185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
.711*16
•297*17
•102-11
• 199-H
.968-15
.359-15
.158-15
.612-16
.508-15
iZSI-15
.126-15
•501-16
•217-16
•119-16
.818-16
.121-16
.212-16
.816-17
.122-17
•210-17
.809-11
.127-11
.217-11
.897-15
.111-15
.179-15
.102-11
.510-15
.277-15
.1 18-15
.575-16
.280^16
.170-15
.901-16
•161-16
•199-16
•972-17
•180-17
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
        HALF LIFE    .392+00 DAYS           TE 127
        RELEASE  RATE    .145-03 CURIES PER  YEAR
        NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .000    GRAMS PER CC
        MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .320-05       .230*02
        DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RADIONUCL10Ei DECAY FRACTION •  I.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.08
• 11
.27
.68
1.11
3.01
.07
.15
• 31
• 73
1.31
2.67
.06
.13
.26
.72
1.51
3.11
•232+11
•828+11
•325+15
•207+16
•857+16
•367+17
•207+11
•891+11
•382+15
.223+16
.811+16
.326+17
•189*11
•772*11
•321*15
•218*16
•911*16
•380*17
.160-11
.207-11
.988-15
.361-15
.159-15
.615-16
.158-11
.603-15
.203-15
.511-16
.255-16
•121-16
.310-15
.161-15
.726-16
.219-16
.755-17
.257-17
.130-13
.601-11
.268-11
.988-15
.136-15
.186-15
.367-11
.169-11
.703-15
.227-15
.912-16
.369-16
.698-15
.360-15
.175-15
.660-16
.266-16
.101-16
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
 CURRENT    PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY   LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE.  SPECt
  ISO-    AVE.    ACTIVITY

UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/GN
                                HALF LIFE   .3tl+02 DAYS            TE129M
                                RELEASE RATE   .205-05 CURIES  PER  YEAR
URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER .000 GRAMS PER CC
IMUH PERMISSIBLE
.SO
.SO
.SO
.SO
.so
.so
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.13
.2*
.70
1.55
3.66
.0*
• 12
.21
.42
I. 26
2.6I
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.16
.188*11
.763*11
.311+15
.213*16
.918*16
.117+17
•!8S*11
.713*11
.298*15
.189+16
.769*16
.319*17
.185*11
.710*11
.296*15
.186*16
.715*16
.300*17
.320-06
.205-15
.987-16
.155-16
.113-16
.175-17
. 105-17
.266-16
.132-16
.655-17
.251-17
.121-17
.516-18
•115ปI7
.223-17
.111-17
.112-18
.219-18
.108-18
.119-15
.218-15
.107-15
.113-16
.166-14
.581-17
.531-16
.283-16
.115-16
.612-17
.292-17
.137ซ17
.891-17
.173-17
.213-17
.101-17
.508-18
.219-18
.180*00
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
                                HALF LIFE   .177-01  DAYS            TE 129
                                RELEASE RATE   .666-03  CURIES PER YEAR
                                NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .000    GRAMS PER CC
                                MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .130-01        .690*02
                                DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RAOIONUCLIDE. DECAY FRACTION •   .6100
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 13
.26
• 70
I.SS
3.66
.12
.25
.26
.62
1.26
2.61
• 07
• 17
.11
1.31
1.52
2.16
.188*11
•763*11
.311*15
.213+16
.918*16
•117*17
•358*11
•151*15
•319*15
•189*16
.769*16
.319*17
.225*11
•103*15
•502*15
•101*16
•929*16
.300*17
.132-15
.632-16
.291-16
.911-17
.301-17
.675-18
.217-15
.115-16
.120-17
.163-17
.771-18
.350-18
.792-15
.217-15
.328-16
.623-18
.111-18
•691-19
.269-15
.110-15
.689-16
.265-16
.107-16
.373-17
.286-11
.762-15
.373-15
.655-16
.170-16
.152-17
.211-11
.861-15
.276-15
.192-16
.215-16
.672-17
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000

-------
                           Down-current Distribution for  NORMAL OPERATION,  Continuous Release
CO
ut
00
         CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME

        VELOCITY  LENGTH   HIDTH   IN PLUME
          MM/DAT      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPECi
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UCI/CC     UCI/SH
        HALF  LIFE   .420*10 DAYS           I 129
        RELEASE RATE   .127-08 CURIES  PER YEAR

        NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .600-07 GRAMS PER CC
        MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .630-09       .750*01

        DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RAOIONUCLIDEi DECAY FRACTION  •   I.OOOO
.SO
.so
.so
• so
.so
.so
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
i .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
to. oo
20.00
10.00
.0*
.-12
.21
.61
1.21
2.13
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.13
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.13
•185*11
.710*11
.296*15
.185*16
.710*16
.296*17
•185*11
.710*11
.296*15
•185*16
•710*16
.296*17
.185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
•710*16
•296*17
.133-18
.663-19
.331-19
.133-19
.663-20
.331-20
.166-19
.829-20
.111-20
.166-20
.829-21
.111-21
.276-20
.138-20
.691-21
.276-21
.138-21
.691-22
.265-1%
.111-18
.725-17
.3)1-19
.152-19
.751-20
.331-19
.176-19
.906-20
.389-20
.190-20
.912-21
.552-20
.293-20
.151-20
.618-21
.317-21
.157-21
.112-1 1
.235-11
.121-11
.518-12
.251-12
.126-12
.552-12
.293-12
.151-12
.618-13
.317-13
.157-13
.921-13
.189-13
.252-13
.108-13
.529-11
.262-11
        HALF LIFE   -125*01  DAYS            TE131M
        RELEASE RATE   .655-03 CURIES PER YEAR
URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER .000 GRAMS PER CC
IMUN PERMISSIBLE
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.08
.20
.51
1.89
5.21
11.51
.06
.13
.29
.88
2,16
5.62
.06
• 12
.25
.66
1.12
3.19
.253*11
.123*15
.627*15
.577*16
.318*17
•177*18
•J9Sป|1
.817*11
.355*15
.268*16
.132*17
•686*17
.187*11
.753*11
.307*15
.201*16
.861*16
.389*17
.630-06
.226-13
.372-11
.203-15
•105-18
.800-21
.936-31
.711-11
.321-11
• 123-H
.211-15
.267-16
.836-18
.139-11
.680-15
.325-15
.113-15
.119-16
.111-16
.786-13
.266-13
.679-11
.828*15
.150-15
.270-16
.160*13
.787-11
.353*11
.109-11
.317*15
.723-16
.282-11
.118-11
.712-15
.299-15
.130*15
.519-16
.220*01
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN  PLUME
  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION

  ISO-     AVE.
UCI/CC   UCI/CC
AVE.  SPEC.
  ACTIVITY
    UCI/GM
                              HALF  LIFE   .805*01  DAYS            I  131
                              RELEASE RATE   .IOB*OO CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAftATER  .600*07 GRAMS PER CC
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .320-08        .320*02
                              DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIDEi DECAY FRACTION  •   1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
• SO
• SO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20,00
10.00
i.OO
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.11
.30
.93
2.31
6.15
.06
.12
.25
.66
1.10
3.11
.06
• 12
• 21
• 61
I. 25
2.56
.197*11
.831*11
.368*15
•281*16
.113*17
.750*17
.187*11
• 752*M
.306*18
.200*16
.656*16
•383*17
•185*11
•712*11
•298*15
•188*16
•760*16
•312*17
•950-11
.100-11
.112-11
.202-12
.180-13
•288-15
.138-11
.675-12
.323-12
.111-12
.159-13
.119-13
.231-12
.117-12
.579-13
.227-13
.109-13
.509-11
.207-10
.100-10
.137-1 1
.127-11
.311-12
.723-13
.279-11
.116-11
.737-12
,298-12
.131-12
.528-13
.169-12
.219-12
.127*12
.511*13
.260*13
•121-13
.315-03
. 167-03
.729-01
.212-01
.569-05
.120-05
.165*01
.211-01
.123*01
.196-05
.216-05
.880-06
•782-05
.111-05
.212-05
.902-06
.133-06
.207-06
                              HALF  LIFE   .321*01 DAYS            TE 132
                              RELEASE RATE   .861-02 CURIES  PER YEAR
URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER .000 GRAMS PER CC
[MUM PERMISSIBLE
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I. DO
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.07
.16
.37
1.27
3.37
9.23
.06
.13
.26
.72
1.65
3.97
.06
.12
.25
• 63
1.30
2.75
•211*11
.957*11
.153*15
.387*16
.206*17
•113*18
•189*11
•770*11
•320*15
.221*16
.100*17
.185*17
•186+11
•715*11
•300*15
•191*16
•790*16
•335*17
•320*06
.588-12
.192-12
.107-13
.125-11
.868-17
.835-21
.107-12
.507-13
.228-13
.661-11
.193-11
.332-15
.186-13
.923-11
.153-11
.172-11
.786-15
.329-15
.116*11
.628-12
.221*12
.118-13
.891*11
.161*11
.220*12
.113-12
.551-13
.206-13
.785-11
.252-11
.371-13
.198*13
.101*13
.122*11
.197-11
.891-15
.730*00
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
to
en
CO
        CURRENT    PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
       VELOCITY   LENSTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
         NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPECi
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UC1/GM
       HALF LIFE    ,942-01 DAYS            I  132
       RELEASE RATE    .2S4ป00 CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   ซAOo-ซo7 GRAMS PER cc
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         >000          ,110*04
       DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RADlONUCLIDEi  DECAY FRACTION •  1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20,00
10.00
1 .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
• 07
• 1*
• 37
1.27
3.37
9.23
• 09
.20
.32
.72
1.45
3,97
.07
.15
.33
1.00
1.7*
2.7V
•215*11
.957*11
•153*15
•387*16
.206*17
•113*18
.278*11
.121*15
•391*15
.221*1*
.100*17
.185*17
•205*11
•893*11
.106*15
.306*16
•108*17
.310*17
.606-12
.197-12
.120-13
.129-11
.891-17
•8*0-21
.618-12
.926-13
.210-13
.680-11
.199-11
.312-15
.112-12
.151-12
.138-13
.124-H
.8*8-15
•339-15
•153-11
.655-12
.233-12
.1*1-13
.921-11
.149-11
.278-11
.901-12
.325-12
.701-13
•188-13
.183-11
.953-12
.137-12
•173-12
.138-13
.113-13
.191-11
.255-01
•109-01
.388-05
.773-0*
.151-0*
.282-07
.1*3-01
.150-01
•511-05
•117-05
.311-0*
.805-07
•1B9-Q1
.728-05
.289-05
.730-0*
•238-0*
.823-07
        HALF LIFE    .816*00 DAYS            I 133
        RELEASE RATE    .110*00 CURIES PER  YEAR
        NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN  SEANATER  .600-07 GRAMS PER CC
        MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .110-07       .120*03
.50
• SO
• 50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
24.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1,00
10,00
20,00
10,00
1,00
2.00
1,00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1,00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20,00
10.00
• 09
• 23
.60
2.2*
6.28
17.59
.07
.14
.31
• 98
2>19
6.42
.0*
,12
.2*
.48
1,50
3.19
.280*11
.110*15
.735*15
.490*16
.383*17
.215*18
.199*11
.851*11
.380*15
.299*16
.152*17
.808*17
.187*11
.760*11
.311*15
.208*1*
.917*1*
.126*17
.281-11
.276-12
.521-H
.112-18
.430-2*
.000
.119-1 1
,407-12
.201-12
.236-13
.152-11
.127-1*
.291-12
.112-12
.4*1-13
.214-13
.7*9-11
.191-14
,129-10
.382-11
.842-12
.921-13
.146-13
.296-11
.330-11
.157-11
.666-12
.183-12
.160-13
.929-11
.599-12
.312-12
.155-12
.606-13
.251-13
,918-11
,215-03
.637-01
.140-04
.153-05
.276-06
.493-07
.550-04
.2*2-04
.111-04
.305-05
.7*7-0*
.155-0*
.998-05
.520-05
.258-05
.101-05
.418-0*
.153-0*
 CURRENT    PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY   LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE.  SPEC.
  ISO-    AVEi    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/6H
                               HALF LIFE   .292-01  DAYS            TE 131
                               RELEASE RATE    .5*7-03 CURIES PER YEAR
URAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER
IMUM PERMISSIBLE
• SO
.50
• 50
.50
• 50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1ซ00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
t.oo
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.38
1.04
2.98
11.71
33. IB
93.83
• H
• 39
1 .08
I.I?
11.7V
33.25
• 08
• 19
• 19
1.80
1.91
13.75
•115*15
.411*15
.343*16
•358*17
•202*18
•111*19
.111*11
•238*15
•131*16
•128*17
•719*17
.104+18
•217*11
.118*15
.400*15
.518*1*
•301*17
•1*8*18
•000 GRAMS PER CC
.000
.111-33
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.194-16
•2*0-19
•912-25
• 000
.000
.000
.159-15
•853-1*
•590-17
.424-20
•159-21
•201-33
.581-23
.101-23
.181-21
.187-25
.330-2*
.581-27
.7*2-15
.119-15
.270-1*
.278-17
•493-18
.875-19
.150-11
.529-15
.111-15
.181-16
.329-17
.590-18
.000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.00k,
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
                               HALF LIFE    .3*1-01 DAYS            I  131
                               RELEASE RATE    .131-01 CURIES  PER  YEAR
                               NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN  SEAWATER  .600-07 GRAMS PER  CC
                               MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .1*0-0*       .190*01
                               DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RAD IONUCLIDE, DECAY FRACTION •  1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
l>00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.31
.95
.00
.00
.00
.00
.13
.35
.97
3.78
.00
.00
.08
• 18
.15
1.43
1.17
12.11
.103*15
•580*15
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
•102*11
.216*15
•119*1*
•115*17
.000
.000
.235*11
•1 10*15
.551*15
.198*1*
•273*17
•151*18
.319-28
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
•1*2-11
.688-17
•237-21
.296-31
.000
.000
.135-13
.311-11
.325-15
.113-17
.193-21
.109-28
.152-19
•270-20
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
•312-13
•703-11
•128-11
.132-15
• 000
.000
.397-13
.150-13
.137-lซt
•629-15
•115-15
. 201-14
•253-12
•150-13
.000
.000
.00'"
• 000
.570-0*
.117-0*
.213-07
.220-08
• 000
,000
.662-06
•25Q-0*
•729-07
•105-07
,192-08
.314-09

-------
                           Down-current Distribution  for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
OS
o
        CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
        VELOCITY  LENซTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
         NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPEC*
  ISO-     AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UCIVCC     UCI/6M
       HALF LIFE   .748*03 DAYS            CS 131
       RELEASE RATE   .i6i*oo CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .380-03  GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .900-0*        .iso-oi
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24,00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
I .00
2,00
4,00
10,00
20,00
40,00
I. 00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
,06
.12
.24
.61
1.23
2.50
.06
• 12
,24
• 61
1.22
2.43
.06
,12
• 24
.61
1.21
2.43
.185*11
.741*11
.297*15
•186*16
.751*16
•304*17
.185*11
,740*11
,296*15
•185*16
•741*16
•297+17
•185+14
•740*14
•296*15
•185*16
•740*16
.296*17
.484-10
.241-10
.120-10
.476-11
.233-11
.112-11
.605-11
.303-11
.151-11
.604-12
•301-12
.150-12
.101-11
.505-12
.252-12
.101-12
•504-13
.252-13
.968-10
.514-10
.264-IP
.1 13-10
.546-11
.265-11
.121-10
.643-1 1
.331-11
• 142-U
.694-12
.343-12
•202-11
•107-11
.552-12
.237-12
.116-12
.573-13
.255-06
. 135-06
.694-07
.296-07
.144-07
.697-08
.319-07
.169-07
.871-08
.373-08
.183-08
.901-09
.531-08
.282-08
.145-08
.623-09
.305-09
.151-09
       HALF LIFE   .278*00 DAYS            I 135
       RELEASE RATE   .619-01  CURIES  PER YE.AR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER  !H SEAWATER  .600-07  GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .320-07       .370*03
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4,00
4,00
4.00
4.00
4.00
1.00
21*00
21>00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
I. 00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1 .00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
• 13
.36
• 99
3.85
10.82
30.49
.07
• 17
• 42
1.47
3.99
11.02
• 06
.13
.28
.82
1.97
5.01
•411*14
.220*15
.121*16
•117*17
,660*17
,372*18
•226*14
•104*15
.509*15
.450*16
•243*17
•134*18
•192*14
•798*14
•341*15
•249*16
•120*17
•612*17
.442-13
.151-15
.353-20
.144-33
.000
.000
.433-12
.116-12
•167-13
•159-15
.156-16
.301-24
.121-12
.547-13
.222-13
.476-14
.843-15
.528-16
.1.07-11
.217-12
.396-13
.408-14
.726-15
•129-15
•118-11
.472-12
.149-12
.244-13
.457-14
.827-15
.256-12
.128-12
.595-13
.198-13
.633-14
.160-14
.178-04
.362-05
.660-06
.680-07
.121-07
.215-08
.197-04
.786-05
.219-05
.406-06
.762-07
.138-07
.426-05
.214-05
.992-06
.330-06
.105-06
.267-07
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/OAY      N*      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   ป'E. SPEC*
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/S"
                             HALF LIFE   .137*02  DAYS            CS 116
                             RELEASE KATE   .300-01 CURIES PER YEAR
                             NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .380-03 GRAMS PER CC
                             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .600-05       .110*00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
H.OO
H.OO
4.00
4.00
H.OO
1*00
21.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
40,00
1,00
2,00
4,00
10,00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40. on
• 06
.13
.28
.81
1*95
1.94
.06
.12
.25
.64
1.33
2.87
.06
• 12
.24
.61
1 .23
2. SI
.192*14
•797*1"
.340*15
.248*16
.119*17
.606*17
.186*14
.747*14
.302*15
• 19'4ป16
.810*16
•350*17
.185*14
.741*14
.297*15
•187*16
•752*16
,306*17
.281-11
.128-11
.522-12
.114-12
.207-13
.137-14
.387-12
,191-12
.930-13
.345-13
•152-13
•590-14
.651-13
.325-13
•162-13
.639-14
.313-14
.150-14
.596-11
.300-11
.139-11
.465-12
.150-12
.384-13
.778-12
.410-12
.208-12
.863-13
,396-13
.173-13
.130-12
,692-13
,355-13
,151-13
,733-14
,3S5-|4
,157-07
.788-08
.366-08
.122-08
.395-09
.101-09
.205-08
.108-08
,549-09
,227-09
.104-09
.454-10
.343-09
,182-09
,935-10
,398-10
,193-10
,934-1 1
                              HALF LIFE   .109*05 DAYS            CS 137
                              RELEASE RATE   .443*01  CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .380-03 GRAMS PER  CC
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .200-05       ,210-01
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1,00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
.06
• 12
.24
.61
1.21
2.43
.06
.12
,24
.61
1.21
2.43
.06
.12
.24
,61
1,21
2.43
,185*14
.710*14
.296*15
•185*16
•741*16
•297*17
•185*14
.740*14
•296*15
•185*16
.740*16
.296*17
•185*14
•740*14
.296*15
•185*16
•740*16
•296*17
•462-09
.231-09
.116-09
.462-10
.231-10
•115-10
•578-10
•289-10
.145-10
.578-11
•289-11
.144-11
.964-11
.182-11
.241-11
.963-12
.482-12
•241-12
.925-09
.491-09
.253-09
.108-09
.531-10
.262-10
.116-09
.611-10
.316-10
.136-10
.664-11
.329-11
•193-10
.102-10
.527-11
.226-11
,111-11
.548-12
.243-05
.129-05
.665-06
,285-06
.140-06
.690-07
.304-06
.162-06
.832-07
.357-07
.175-07
.865-08
.507-07
.269-07
.139-07
.595-08
.291-08
.144-08

-------
                           Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous  Release
CO
        CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
        VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
         NM/OAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/GN
       HALF LIFE   .221-01 DAYS           CS  138
       RELEASE RATE   .123*00 CURIES  PER  YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .380-01 GRAMS  PER  CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .000          .000
.SO
.so
.so
• so
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.oo
H.OO
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I.QQ
Z.OO
1.00
10.00
20,00
10.00
I .00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
10.00
.13
1.20
3.10
13.10
37.88
107.12
.14
.11
1.22
1.77
13.11
37.91
.09
.21
.SS
2.03
5.60
15.45
.130*15
.731*15
.111*1*
.109*17
.231*18
•131*19
.193*11
.249*15
.119*14
.116*17
.820*17
.143*18
.263*11
.129*15
.666*15
.618*16
.311*17
•191*18
.172-37
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.702-15
.151-18
.117-25
.000
.000
.000
.737-13
.102-13
.385-15
.675-19
.851-25
.270-36
.911-21
.167-21
.296-25
.300-26
.531-27
.939-28
.672-13
.126-13
.227-11
.233-15
.113-16
.731-17
.281-12
.906-13
.218-13
.252-11
.156-15
.816-16
.218-20
.110-21
.780-22
.790-23
.110-23
.217-21
.177-09
.332-10
.598-11
.612-12
.109-12
.192-13
.739-09
.239-09
.573-10
.663-11
. 120-11
.215-12
        HALF LIFE   .128*02  DAYS            BA |10
        RELEASE RATE   .171-03  CURIES PER YEAR
        NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .300-07 SRAMS PER CC
        MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .320-05       .150*03
.50
.50
• 50
• SO
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20,00
10,00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
• 06
.13
.28
.83
2.00
5.09
.06
.12
.25
.61
1.31
2.90
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.23
2.51
.193*11
.801+11
.313*15
.252*16
•122+17
.622+17
.184+11
.718+11
.302+15
.195+16
.815*16
.353+17
•185+11
•711+11
.297+15
.187+16
.753+16
•306+17
.160-13
.719-11
.289-11
.605-15
.102-15
.587-17
.220-11
.109-11
.528-15
.195-15
.851-16
.325-16
.371-15
.185-15
.921-16
.361-16
.178-16
.850-17
.338-13
.170-13
.782-11
.258-11
.813-15
.203-15
.113-11
.231-11
.119-11
.190-15
.221-15
.968-16
.713-15
.391-15
.202-15
.862-16
.117-16
.202-16
.1 13-05
.565-06
.261-06
.859-07
.271-07
.676-08
.118-06
.779-07
.395-07
.143-07
.715-08
.323-08
.218-07
.131-07
.675-08
.287-08
.139-08
.672-09
 CURRENT    PLUME    HALF     VOLUME

VELOCITY   LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME

  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVฃ.  SPEC.

  ISO-    AVEt    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCI/SH
                               HALF  LIFE   .148*01 DAYS            LA  110
                               RELEASE RATE   .145-03 CURIES PER  YEAR
                               NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN  SEAWATER   .300-09 SRAMS PER CC
                               MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .380-0*       .180*01
                               DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIDE. DECAY FRACTION •  1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00-
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.13
.28
.82
2.00
5.09
.06
.12
.21
.62
1.30
2.87
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.15
. 188*11
.779*11
.338*15
.252*16
.122+17
.622*17
.185*11
.739*11
.297*15
.189*16
.796*16
.350+17
•185*11
.710+11
.296+15
.185+16
.710+16
.299+17
.170-13
.795-11
.330-11
.696-15
.118-15
.675-17
.2)6-11
.108-11
.510-15
.210-15
.953-16
.372-16
.359-15
.180-15
.899-16
.360-16
.180-16
.891-17
.315-13
.178-13
.813-11
.286-11
.911-15
.229-15
.131-11
.2,29-11
.118-11
.501-15
.235-15
.105-15
.718-15
.382-15
.196-15
.813-16
.113-16
.201-16
.115-03
.593-01
.281-01
.951-05
.305-05
.763-06
.111-01
.765-05
.393-05
.167-05
.781-06
.319-06
.239-05
.127-05
.655-06
.281-06
.138-06
.679-07
                               HALF  LIFE   .325*02 DAYS            CE 111
                               RELEASE RATE   .1SO-03 CURIES PER YEAR
                               NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .300-09  GRANS  PER CC
                               MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .170-05       .120+01
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.13
.26
.70
1.57
3.71
.06
• 12
.21
.62
1.26
2.62
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.22
2.16
.188+11
.761+11
.315+15
.211+16
.957+16
.153+17
.185+11
.713+11
.298+15
.189+16
•770+16
.320+17
•185+11
.710+11
.296+15
.186+16
.715*16
.300*17
.150-13
.719-11
.330-11
.102-11
.331-15
.711-16
.195-11
.968-15
.179-15
.186-15
.880-14
.395-16
.326-15
.163-15
.813-16
.323-16
.160-16
.787-17
.407-13
.159-13
.783-11
.300-11
.120-11
.112-15
,390-11
.207-11
.106-11
.117-15
.213-15
.997-16
.652-15
.316-15
.178-15
.742-16
.371-14
.182-16
.102-03
.530-01
.261-01
.999-05
.399-05
.137-05
.130-01
.689-05
.353-05
.119-05
.709-06
,332-06
,217-05
•1 15-05
.591-06
.251-06
.121-06
.407-07

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
CO
Oi
CO
        CURRENT   PLUME    HALF      VOLUME
        VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH    :N PLUME
         NM/DAY      NH      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-     ปVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UCl/CC     UCI/GN
       HALF LIFE   -137*01  OATS            CE 113
       RELEASE RATE   .143-03  CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .300-09 6RAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .760-0*       .680*01
• SO
.so
.so
.so
.so
.so
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
I. 00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
.20
.so
l.8|
1.98
13.88
.0*
.13
.29
.86
2.10
5. 11
.06
.12
• 25
.65
1.10
3.13
.218*11
•1 19*15
.605*15
.553*16
.301*17
.169*18
•191*11
.810*11
•350*15
•261*16
.128*17
•660*17
.187*11
•752*11
.306*15
.200*16
•851*16
•381*17
.515-11
.991-15
.662-16
.626-19
.131-23
.115-32
.165-11
.725-15
.282-15
.529-16
.751-17
.302-18
.305-15
.119-15
.715-16
.252-16
.102-16
.336-17
.180-13
•631-11
•167-11
.212-15
.386-16
.692-17
.350-11
.171-11
.790-15
.251-15
.753-16
.177-16
.616-15
•323-15
.163-15
.659-16
.290-16
.118-16
.601-01
.210-01
.556-05
.706-06
.129-06
.231-0?
.117-01
.580-05
.263-05
.836-06
.251-0*
.591-07
.205-05
.108-05
•512-06
•220-06
•966-07
.392-07
       HALF LIFE   ซ136*02  DAYS            PR 113
       RELEASE RATE   .119-03 CURIES PER YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER   .300-0? GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .950-07       .iaoซoi
       DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCL1OEi DECAY  FRACTION •  1.0000
• SO
• SO
• so
.50
,50
,50
.00
.00
.00
.00
,00
,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
1,00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10,00
1 .00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20,00
10,00
• 06
,13
• 28
• 81
1,96
1.98
• 06
• 12
• 21
• 63
1,31
2.86
• 06
• 12
• 21
• 61
1,22
2.17
•189*11
•785*11
•338*15
•218*16
•119*17
•607*17
•185*11
•712*11
•298*15
•191*16
,801*16
.319*17
•185*11
•710*11
•296*15
•185*16
•711*16
•301*17
.150-13
• 692-H
•286-11
.622-15
.112-15
.729-17
.191-11
.969-15
.180-15
.181-15
.826-16
•323-16
•321-15
.162-15
.810-16
.323-16
,161-16
.787-17
,307-|3
,157-13
,710-11
,251-11
.812-15
.208-15
.389-11
,206-11
.106-11
.115-15
.208-15
.919-16
.618-15
,311-15
.177*15
.759-16
.371-16
•182-16
.102-03
•S23-01
.217-01
.837-05
•271-05
.692-06
.130-01
.687-05
.352-05
•118-05
.692-06
.306-06
.216-05
.115-05
.591-06
.253-06
.121-06
•606-07
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  KM/BAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE- SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCl/fiM
                              HALF LIFE   .281*03 DAYS            CE  111
                              RELEASE RATE   .770-01 CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN  SEAWATER  .300-09 GRAMS PER CC
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .190-0*       .230*02
.SO
• SO
.50
.50
.50
• SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10,00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 12
.21
.62
1.26
2.61
.06
• 12
.21
• 61
1.22
2.15
.06
• 12
.21
.61
I. 21
2.13
•185*11
•713*11
•298*15
•189*16
.768*16
.318*17
•185*11
• 710ซ.H
•296*15
•185*16
•711*16
•299*17
•185*11
.710*11
.296*15
•185*16
.711*16
•296*17
.800-11
•398-11
.197-11
.766-15
.365-15
.165-15
.100-11
.502-15
•251-15
•999-16
.196-16
.215-16
.167-15
.837-16
.119-16
.167-16
•836-17
.117-17
•160-13
.850-11
.135-11
. 181-11
.878-15
.113-15
•201-11
•107-11
.519-15
.235-15
.115-15
.561-16
.335-15
.178-15
.916-16
•393-16
•192-16
.950-17
,535-01
.283-01
.115-01
.613-05
.293-05
•138-05
.670-05
.356-05
.183-05
.783-06
.382-06
•188-06
.112-05
.593-06
,305-06
•131-06
.611-07
.317-07
                              HALF LIFE   .219*00 DAYS            PR 115
                              RELEASE RATE   .220-01 CURIES PER YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .
                                            •300-09 GRAMS PER  CC
                                           000          .000
• SO
• so
• 50
.50
.50
• SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.11
.38
1.01
1.06
11.12
32.21
.08
.18
.13
1.51
1.19
11.61
.06
.13
.28
.81
2.01
5.23
•129*11
•231*15
•127*16
•121*17
•697*17
•393*18
•230*11
•107*15
•529*15
•171*16
•256*17
•112*18
•193*11
•805*11
•316*15
•256*16
•121*17
•638*17
•878-17
.168-19
.123-21
.000
.000
.000
.113-15
.357-16
•111-17
•273-19
•130-22
.587-29
.126-16
.190-16
.752-17
.150-17
.235-18
.116-19
.281-15
.563-16
.102-16
•105-17
•187-18
•332-19
•105-15
.157-15
.179-16
.736-17
.137-17
.217-18
.903-16
.151-16
.207-16
.669-17
.207-17
•502-18
.917-06
•188-06
•311-07
.351-08
.623-09
.111-09
•135-05
•521-06
•160-06
.215-07
.155-08
.822-09
•301-06
.150-06
•689-07
•223-07
,689-08
,167-08

-------
                          Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
to
Q>
       CURRENT   PLUME     HALF     VOLUME
      VELOCITY  LENSTH    WIDTH   IN PLUME
        NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE. SPfct.
  ISO-    AVE.    ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UC1/CC     UCI/GH
      HALF LIFE   .111+02  DAYS            ND It?
      RELEASE RATE   .BIO-OS CURIES PER YEAR
      NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAHATER
      MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         ,
      •300-09  6RAMS PER CC
     110-06        .190+01
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.06
• 13
.29
.85
2.09
5.10
.06
• 12
.25
.61
1.35
2.96
.06
.12
.21
.61
1.21
2.52
•191*11
.810*11
•350*15
.261*16
.128*17
.658*17
.186*11
.719*11
.303*15
.196*16
.826*16
.362+17
.185+11
.711+11
•297+15
•187+16
•755+16
•308+17
.170-11
•207-11
.806-15
.152-15
•217-16
.886-18
.455-15
.323-15
.156-15
.569-16
.213-16
.889-17
.111-15
.552-16
.271-16
.108-16
•526-17
.250-17
.100-13
.197-11
.226-11
.718-15
•216-15
.509-16
.132-11
.696-15
.352-15
.115-15
.653-16
.277-16
.222-15
.118-15
•603-16
,257-16
.121-16
.597-17
.333-01
.166-01
.752-05
.239-05
.719-06
.170-06
.110-05
.232-05
.117-05
.182-06
.218-06
.921-07
.739-06
.392-06
.201-06
.856-07
.113-07
.199-07
       HALF LIFE   .629*02 DAYS            PM  117
       RELEASE RATE   .110-01 CURIES PER  YEAR
       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN  SEAftATER  .300-09  GRAMS PER CC
       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .380-06       .160+03
       DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RAOIONUCL1DE>  DECAY FRACTION •  1*0000
• SO
• SO
• SO
• SO
• SO
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1 .00
2,00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
• 06
• 12
.23
.59
1.31
3.09
• 06
• 12
• 21
.59
1.15
2.28
.06
.12
.21
.60
1.20
2.37
.180+11
.708+11
.279+15
.180*16
•801*16
•378*17
•181*11
.731*11
.292*15
.179*14
•701+16
•279+17
•185+11
•739+11
.295+15
.181+16
.731+16
.289*17
.123-11
.651-15
.351-15
•151-15
•689-16
•235-16
.115-15
.732-16
.373-16
.156-16
.832-17
.150-17
.210-16
.120-16
.602-17
.213-17
.123-17
.635-18
.238-11
.131-11
.706-15
.321-15
.157-15
.698-16
.289-15
.151-15
.801-16
.352-16
.179-16
.931-17
.179-16
.255-16
.131-16
.566-17
.279-17
.110-17
.795-05
.136-05
.235-05
.107-05
.525-06
.233-06
.962-06
.511-06
.267-06
.117-06
.596-07
.310-07
.160-06
.819-07
.138-07
.189-07
.932-08
.168-08
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENSTH   *IDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE.  SPtC.
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC    UCI/6M
HALF LIFE    .221*01 DAYS            PM 119
RELEASE RATE    .193-01 CURIES PER YEAR
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .300-09  GRAMS  PER CC
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .7*0-07        .950*01
.so
.50
.50
.SO
.SO
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.07
.17
.12
1.18
1.00
11. OS
.06
.13
.27
.77
1.81
1.52
.06
.12
.25
.At
1.33
2.88
.226*11
.101*15
.511*15
.151*16
•211*17
.135*18
.191*11
.781+11
•331*15
.235*16
.111*17
.551*17
.186*11
.718*11
.302*15
.191*16
.813*16
.352*17
.108-11
.287-15
.110-16
.381-18
.360-21
.612-27
.233-15
.108-15
.160-16
. 115-16
•263-17
•271-18
.111-16
.201-16
.996-17
.368-17
.162-17
.622-18
.295-11
.117-11
.370-15
.603-16
.113-16
.201-17
.181-15
.217-15
.117-15
.112-16
.113-16
.103-17
.831-16
.110-16
.223-16
.923-17
.122-17
.181-17
.982-05
.391-05
.123-05
.201-06
.376-07
.681-08
.161-05
,822-06
•390-06
.137-06
.177-07
•131-07
.278-06
.117-06
.711-07
.308-07
.111-07
.612-08
                                HALF  LIFE   .116+01 DAYS           PM  151
                                RELEASE  RATE   .605-05 CURIES  PER  YEAR
                                NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .300-09 GRAMS PER CC
                                MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .000          .000
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.08
.21
.53
1.96
5.10
15.08
.06
.13
.29
.89
2.22
5.79
.06
.12
.25
.66
1.13
3.21
•258*11
•126*15
.616*15
•597*16
•329*17
•181*18
•196*11
•822*11
•359+15
•273+16
•135+17
•707+17
•187+11
•751+11
.307+15
.202*16
.873+16
.395+17
.191-15
.289-16
.133-17
•109-21
•132-26
.277-37
.680-16
.293-16
.109-16
.177-17
.199-18
.502-20
.128-16
.626-17
.298-17
.103-17
.100-18
.122-18
.695-15
.230-15
.569-16
.675-17
.122-17
.219-18
.117-15
.719-16
.320-16
.969-17
.271-17
.607-18
.260-16
.136-16
.683-17
.271-17
• 118-17
•161-18
•232-05
•767-06
•190-06
.225-07
.108-08
.731-09
.188-06
.210-06
•107-06
•323-07
•913-08
.202-08
.866-07
.151-07
•228-07
.912-08
•391-06
•155-08

-------
                              Down-current Distribution  for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous  Release
to
O)
           CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
          VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
            NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVE. SPEC.
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCl/fiM
          HALF LIFE    .316+05 DAYS            SM  151
          RELEASE RATE    .705-07 CURIES PER YEAR
          NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN  SEASATER  .300-0* GRAMS  PER CC
          MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .500-0*       .1*0*03
          DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RAD IONUCLIDEi  DECAY  FRACTION •  1.0000
.50
.50
.50
.50
• SO
• 50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1 .00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
.06
.12
.24
• 61
1.21
2.43
• 06
• 12
• 24
• 61
1.21
2.43
.06
.12
• 24
• 61
1.21
2.42
.185+14
.710+14
.2*6+15
.185+16
•710+16
.2*6+17
•165+14
.740*11
•2*6+15
•185*16
.740*16
.296*17
.185*14
.740*14
.296*15
.185*16
.740*16
.296*17
.738-17
.369-17
.185-17
.738-18
.369-18
•184-18
.920-18
.460-18
.230-18
.922-19
,461-19
.231-19
•153-18
•767-1*
•383-19
,153-1*
•768-20
•384-20
.147-16
.783-17
.403-17
.173-17
.848-18
.419-18
.184-17
.978-18
.504-18
.216-18
.106-18
.524-1*
•307-18
.163-16
.83ป-19
.360-19
.176-19
.673-20
.4*1-07
.261-07
•134-07
•577-08
.263-08
.140-08
.613-08
.326-08
.168-08
.720-0*
.353-09
.175-09
.102-08
.543-09
.260-09
•120-09
.588-10
.291-10
          HALF LIFE    .1*5+01 DAYS            SM  153
          RELEASE RATE    .3*1-05 CURIES PER YEAR
          NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .300-0* GRAHS  PER CC
          MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .iso-o*       .i*o+os
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40,00
1 .00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
.06
• 18
.44
1.56
4.24
11.73
,U6
.13
.27
.7*
1.88
4.73
.06
.12
.25
.64
1.35
2.94
.231+14
.108+15
.533+15
.475+16
.258+17
.143+18
•1*1+14
•7*0+14
.335+15
.241+16
•115+17
.577+17
.186+14
•74*+14
.303+15
•1*5+16
•622+16
•358+17
.167-15
.459-16
.553-17
.311-1*
.127-22
.427-2*
,435-16
,lปป-|6
.632-17
.195-17
.402-18
•340-19
.780-17
•384-17
•187-17
.663-18
.294-18
.109-18
.533-15
.206-15
.621-16
.ป43-17
.175-17
.315-18
.909-16
.460-16
.216-16
.743-17
.249-17
.670-16
.157-16
.828-17
.420-17
.173-17
.783-18
.335-18
.178-05
.685-06
.207-06
.314-07
.582-08
.105-08
.303-06
.153-06
.721-07
.248-07
.631-06
.223-08
.524-07
.276-07
.140-07
.576-08
.261-08
•112-0*
 CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
  NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION   AVE. SPEC*
  ISO-    AVE.   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC  UCI/CC     UCl/SM
                              HALF  LIFE   .461*03 DAYS           EU 155
                              RELEASE  RATE   .ns-o* CURIES  PER YEAR
                              NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAWATER  .300-0*  GRAMS PER cc
                              MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                        .380-0*        .270*03
.SO
.50
.SO
.50
.SO
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
24.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
to. oo
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
I. 00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
.06
.12
.24
.41
1.23
2.60
.06
• 12
• 24
.61
1.22
2.44
.06
.12
.24
.61
1.21
2.43
> 185*1 4
.741*14
.297*15
.187*16
.752*16
•306*17
.185*14
.740*14
.296*15
•185*16
.741"* 14
.297+17
.185+14
.710+14
.296+15
•185+16
.740+16
.296+17
.119-16
.593-17
.295-17
.1 17-17
.571-16
.274-18
.149-17
.743-18
.372-18
.118-16
.740-19
.368-19
.248-18
.124-18
.620-19
.248-19
.124-19
.619-20
.238-16
.126-16
.648-17
.276-17
.134-17
.647-18
.2*8-17
.158-17
.813-18
.346-18
.170-18
.841-1*
.496-18
.263-18
.136-18
.581-19
.285-19
.141-19
.793-07
.421-07
.216-07
.921-08
.446-08
.216-08
.992-06
.527-08
.271-06
.1 16-08
.568-0*
.280-0*
.165-08
.878-0*
.452-0*
. 194-0*
•*4ป-IO
.469-10
                              HALF LIFE    '154*02 DAYS            EU  156
                              RELEASE RATE    .322-06 CURIES PER  YEAR
                              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN  5EAWATER  ,300-0* GRAMS PER  CC
                              MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .000          .000
.50
.50
• 50
.50
.50
.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
24.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10,00
20.00
40.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
10.00
20.00
40.00
.06
.13
.27
• 79
1.8*
4,75
• 06
• 1?
• 25
.63
1.32
2.82
.06
.12
.24
.61
1 .23
2.50
•191+14
•7*1+14
•335+15
•242+16
•115+17
•580+17
•186*14
.746*14
.301+15
.1*3+16
.803+16
•344+17
•185*14
.741+14
.2*7+15
•186+16
•751+16
•305+17
.307-16
.140-16
.586-17
.137-17
.276-18
.230-1*
•416-17
.205-17
•100-17
.375-18
.168-18
.670-1*
.6*9-16
.349-18
.174-18
.687-19
.337-1*
. 162-19
.643-16
.325-16
.153-16
.523-17
.175-17
.468-16
,636-17
.441-17
.224-17
.932-16
.430-18
.190-18
•I4Q-17
.743-16
.381-18
.163-18
.789-1*
.383-1*
.214-06
.108-06
.509-07
.174-07
.583-06
.154-08
.279-07
.147-07
.748-08
.311-06
.143-08
.635-0*
.466-08
.248-06
.127-08
.542-0*
.263-0*
.128-09

-------
                         Down-current Distribution for NORMAL OPERATION, Continuous Release
CO
OS
                                        CURRENT   PLUME    HALF     VOLUME
                                       VELOCITY  LENGTH   WIDTH   IN PLUME
                                         NM/DAY      NM      NM      CC
CONCENTRATION  AVEซ SPECซ
  ISO-    AVEt   ACTIVITY
UCI/CC   UCI/CC     UCI/6M
                                       HALF  LIFE   .429*00  DAYS            EU  157
                                       RELEASE RATE   .700-0?  CURIES PER YEAR
                                       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAKIATER  .300-09  6RAMS PER CC
                                       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        >000          .000
• SO
.50
.SO
.SO
• SO
i.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1.00
1.00
H.OO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
z.oo
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10. DO
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
.10
.26
.68
2.60
7.25
20.35
.07
.15
.33
1 .OB
2. SO
7.5S
.0*
• 13
.26
.71
1.5?
3.7V
.304*11
•156*15
.131*15
•792*16
.112*17
.218+18
•201*11
.886*11
.101*15
.329*16
.171*17
.921*17
.188*11
.766*11
.317*15
.216*16
.971*16
.163*17
.807-18
.115-19
.272-21
.197-27
.265-37
.000
•691-18
.263-18
.759-19
.581-20
•185-21
.375-21
•115-18
.691-19
.317-19
.962-20
•301-20
•607-21
.186-17
.129-17
.261-18
•275-19
.191-20
.879-21
.159-17
.735-18
.293-18
.719-19
.163-19
.310-20
.298-18
.151-18
.756-19
.287-19
.113-19
.381-20
.162-07
.131-08
.869-09
•918-10
.165-10
•293-11
•531-08
.215-08
•978-09
.210-09
.512-10
•103-10
.992-09
.511-09
•252-09
.957-10
.377-10
.127-10
                                       HALF LIFE   .750*00 DAYS            GO  159
                                       RELEASE RATE   >121-07 CURIES PER YEAR
                                       NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER IN SEAWATER
                                       MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                       •
      •300-09 GRAMS  PER CC
     150-06       .210*05
• 50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
10.00
20.00
10.00
• 10
.21
• 63
2.39
6*65
18.47
.07
• 11
• 32
1 .02
2.61
6.98
.06
.12
.26
• 69
1.51
3.41
•290*11
.116+15
•773*15
.729*14
•106*17
•228*18
.204*11
•861*11
•389*15
•311*16
•159*17
•851*17
•188*11
•762*11
•313*15
•211*16
•938*16
•110*17
•201-18
•161-19
•199-21
•122-26
.575-35
• 000
•128-18
•510-19
•161-19
.161-20
.797-22
.393-21
•260-19
.125-19
.578-20
.181-20
.621-21
.115-21
.103-17
.292-18
.618-19
.661-20
.119-20
.213-21
.288-18
.136-18
.563-19
•118-19
•356-20
.498-21
.529-19
.275-19
.136-19
.526-20
.211-20
.758-21
.313-08
•973-09
.206-09
.221-10
.398-11
.709-12
.961-09
•153-09
•188-09
•192-10
•119-10
.233-11
.176-09
.917-10
.153-10
.175-10
.713-11
.253-11

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COO LA NT Accident, Batch Release
            f AI>10NL'fLtOF    H  3
            HAtF LIFK   .117+01 DATS
            TOTAL HELFASE  .293-02 CURIES
            NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF
in sr.A-'ATF.p  .|ORปnp GRAMS  PER cc
            .170-01     .110-02
CURRENT
DOปN
KADIUS
VELOCITY CURRENT
*! M / 0 A Y N M N *

.SP
.50

• SO
.50

.50
.5'.'
1.00
I.OC
1.0P
I.OC
I.OCi
I.OC
1.00
1.00
1.0P
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. On
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .C?
1 .PP
1 .09
B.OO
8. OP
8.00
"0.00
10.00
10.00
1.00
1 .OP
1 .pp.
B.OP
8. on
8.00
10.00
10. or
10.00
1 .OP
1 .00
1 .00
B.OO
B.OP
a. OP
10.00
10.00
10. OC
• us
. n
.20
.in
.SP
1 .60
2. UP
i .ue
8. UP
.us
• i ti
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.LTJ
1.UC
B.un
.US
• 1 0
.20
.10
.BO
1 .60
2. 00
1.UO
B. uo
TIME
DAYS
2.09
2.00
2.00
16. OP
16.00
16.00
80.00
80. OP
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2. OP
2.00
2.00
10.00
10. OP
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUt'E
CC
• 16"* 1 3
.657*1 3
.263+11
• 105+15
• 12T+ lฅi
. 168+16
.263+|6
.ior,+ i7
•12n+t7
. 161+13
•657+13
•263+|1
• 105+15
•120+15
. 16R+1 A
•263+16
•J05+1 7
•12P+17
• 161+1 3
•657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
•121+15
.168+16
.263+16
.105+17
•120+17
CONCEMTBATIO* AVE.SPEC.
iso-
UCI/CC
. 197-0"
^ 1 35-09
.302-10
.307-1 1
.21 1-11
•170-12
.121-12
•B35-I3
.186-13
. 197-09
.135-09
.302-10.
.3C7-1 1
.211-11
.171-12
. 123-1?
.811-13
. 188-13
. 197-09
.135-09
.307-10
.307-1 1
•21 1-1 1
•171-1 Z
. 1Z3-1 2
.815-1 3
. 189-13
AVf.
UCI/CC
.209-09
. 175-09
.9*2-10
.326-1 1
.273-1 I
.150-11
.179-12
. 108-12
.591-13
.209-09
• 175-09
•963-10
.327-1 1
.271-1 1
. 150-1 1
.131-12
.109-12
.601-13
.209-09
. 175-09
.963-10
.327-1 1
'.271-1 1
.150-1 1
.131-12
• 109-12
•602-13
ACTIVITY
UCI/S"
•191-08
. 162-08
.891-09
•302-10
.253-10
.139-10
• 120-1 1
• 100-1 1
.559-12
. 191-08
•162-08
.891-09
.303-10
.253-10
. 139-10
•121-11
•101-11
.556-12
. 191-08
. 162-08
.891-09
.303-10
.251-10
•139-10
•121-11
.101-11
.557-12
            HALF LIFE   .775-01 DAYS
            TOTAL RELFASE  .163+03 CURIES
NATURAL C^NCENTRAT lo^ QF <
MAXIMUM PrR"!SSiBLฃ
CURRENT DOWN RADIUS
VELOCITY CUBRFNT
'IM/









i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
21
2"
21
21
71
21
21
21
71
DAY
• SP.
.sn
.So
• 5CJ
.50
.5
K
B
10
•19
10
NM
• 09
• CC
• CO
.OC
.00
.00
.00
.OP
• OP
.pp
.90
.OP
.09
.00
.OC
.OP
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OP
• CO
• PP
ป CO
.en
:ARซIER
TIME
>••" BAYS
• us
• i B
.20
.in
• tin
1 .60
2.UO
I.On
H .00
• US
. 10
• 23
.in
• bP
1 .60
2.00
1.0"
8.00
• US
. 10
.20
.10
.8n
] .60
2.U"
i .un
8 . un
2
2
2
16
.00
.OC
.00
.09
16.09
16
80
80
83



2
2
2
1C
10
10






1
1
1
• 00
• on
.00
.OC
.25
.25
.25
.99
• On
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
• 33
• 33
.33
.67
.67
.67
IN SEA '"AT
VOLUME
CC
* 161+ | 3
.<.57ป|3
•263*11
. 105+15
• 17.0*15
. 16P+I 6
.263+16
.105+1 7
.120+ | 7
. 161+13
.6S7+1 3
.263+11
• IPS+lb
•120+lb
• 1 68+1 6
.263+16
• 10S+17
.170*17
• 161+13
•657+1 3
•263+|1
. 105+15
•120+iS
• 1 68+16
•^263+ 16
• 105+17
.120*17
ER .inft-Ti GRAMS PEN CC
.3U1 .000
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
TS'l- AVE. ACTIVITY
UC I/CC
• 1 ป7
• I 79
.if^
• |lf1 0
.0ฐ0
• IT'S
• Ono
,0nn
. !J " n
.117
.X"S
-1 7.
- 1 y
-! 3






-OS
-C">
. i qn-ns
.?ฐ3
• 2n 1
.119
• U^C
• TOO
.000
. 7B'H
.% 1 S
.116
-I '4
- 1 1
-1 S



-f*S
-R5
-OS
. M f P. . n q
.597
.13.1
.231
. ISM
. JSป
-01
-08
- 1 1
-11
-IS
UCI/CC
• 199-12
. 1*7-12
.916-13
.one
.900
.000
.000
.000
• 0013
. 125-05
. 101-05
.573-06
.311-11
.761-11
.113-11
.090
• OOP
.000
•8P2-05
.672-05
.369-05
.921-08
.773-08
.125-08
•715-11
• 205- |1
• 1 13-11
UCI/6M
•661-U3
.556-03
.305-03
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 115 + 01
.318+01
. 191+01
• 101-U1
.869-US
•177-05
.000
• 000
• OOP
•267*U5
.221*05
.123 + 115
.308+02
.258+02
• 112 + 02
•818-05
•681-OS
•376-05
                                    266

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident,  Batch Release
                        BR 81
            HALF LIFE   .221-01 DATS
            TOTAL RELEASE .270*01 CURIES
            NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIES IN SFAJATER
                                                 .650-01 GRAPS PER CC
                                                   .nun       .000
CURRENT DO*W RADIUS
VELOCITY CURRENT
NNI/DAY









1
1
t
1
1
1
1
H
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
..SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• S>0
.60
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
• 00
.00
.00
• ot?
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• on

1
1
1
8
8
8
in
10
"0
1
1
1
3
8
B
10
10
10
1
1
I
8
8
8
HO
10
10
NH
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0?
.00
.00






1
2
1
fll





1
2
1
8





1
2
1
q
Ml
• US
ซ 1!?
.20
.1(3
.80
.60
• un
.00
.00
.1)5
. in
.20
.11
.80
.6(1
.0:1
.DP
.00
.US
. 10
.20
.11
.HO
• 6T
• U">
.un
.un
TIME
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.00
• on
.00
.00
• 03
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME
CC
• 1*1+|3
.657*13
• 2A3*| 1
. 105*15
•120+15
•-166*1*
.263*1 6
. 105+1 7
.120+1 7
. 161*1 3
.657*13
.263*11
. 1 1.1 5 * | b
.120*15
. 1 6 <( + | 6
.263*1*
• 105+17
.120*17
•161*13
.657*13
•X*3+|1
• 105*|S
• 120* 1 5
. 163*16
• 263*1 A
• 105*1 7
.ซ?1 + 1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVf. JCTIVITY
'JCI/CC
. 1 13-33
. 776-31
. 173-31
• ona
.000
.300
• 010
.dPO
. o y o
./67-10
.527-10
.113-13
. 1 76-35
• 171-35
•*7t-36
.rjnn
• OCO
.0"0
.•>27-07
•3A2-07
.•H--9-08
.S79-I3
• 6"1-1 3
• 1 35-13
•2S1-32
. 16P-32
.375-33
UC1/CC
• 120-33
• 101-33
.552-31
.OOP
.000
.000
• 000
.000
• 000
.816-10
.663-10
•37S-10
. 188-35
. 157-35
•863-36
• 000
.000
.000
.561-07
.170-07
.258-07
.935-13
.783-13
.130-13
.260-32
.218-32
•120-32
UCI/GM
=185-29
.155-29
.850-30
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.126-05
. 105-05
.577-06
.289-31
•212-31
.133-31
.000
.000
.000
.863-03
.722-03
.397-03
. 111-08
.120-08
.461-09
.100-28
.335-28
.181-28
RADIONUCLTOE   KR 85M
HALF LIFE   .183*00 DAYS
TOTAL RF.LFปSE  .109*33 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
                                       IN SEA-ATE*
,3Cn-09 GRAMS PER CC
  .901       oOOfl
CURRENT
DO'"N RADIUS
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DAY NM
.50 I. 00
.50 1.00
.50 1-00
.50 8.0?
.50 8.00
.53 8-00
.50 10.00
.50 10.00
,50 10.00
1.00
1.CO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.CO
1.0O
21.00
21.00
21.0')
21.00
21.00
21-00
21.00
21.00
21.00
1 .00
I. 00
1 .0?
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1.00
t .co
1 .00
9.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10ซ00
MM
• us
. in
.20
.10
.BO
1 .60
2.00
1.01
8.UO
1 1 C
• us
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.U?
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.UO
1.00
8 no
• uu
TIME
OAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
RO.OO
80.00
. ?t;
• fc ^y
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10-00
10.00
13.00
n u
• UM
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1.67
1.67
1 .67

VOLUME
CC
. 161*13
.657+1 1
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
. 1*8+1 *
.2*3+16
. 105+17
.120+17
.161+13
.657+13
.2*3+11
.105+15
.120+15
. 1*8+1*
.263+1*
.105+|7
.120+17
.161+13
.657+13
.2*3+11
. 105+15
.120+15
.168+16
.263*16
.105+17
.120+17

Cri'TE'lTRATlON AWE. SPEC-
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCl/CC
. 1M1-07
.970-08
.216-01
,2">}-3?
. lซ3-32
.J19-33
.0*10
.0^0
.013
.117-01
.732-05
.163-05
.220-09
.152-09
.338-10
.* 11-21
.122-21
-9<)2-25
.235-01
.1*1-01
.3*0-05
. 121-"*
.835-17
. 186-07
.J12-IO
.211-10
.178-1 1

UCI/CC
. 150-07
.126-07
.*90-08
.222-32
.185-32
.102-32
.000
.000
.000
.1 13-01
.919-06
.521-05
.235-09
. 196-09
. 108-09
.651-21
.517-21
.301-21
.250-01
.209-01
. 1 15-01
.129-06
.108-06
.591-07
.332-10
.278-10
.152-10

UCI/GM
.500+02
.119+02
.230+02
.739-23
.618-23
.310-23
.000
.000
.000
.378*05
.316+05
,171+05
.782+00
.655+00
.360*00
.218-11
.182-11
,100-H
.832+06
.696+05
.383+06
.131+03
.3*1+03
.198+03
.1 1 1+00
.925-01
.508-01

                                     267

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
             HADIONUCLIDE   *ป  8
             HALF LIFE   .39301
             TOTAL RELEASE  ,112+02
UATURปL CINCENTRAT ION OF CARRIER
DAUGHTER r>F PREVIOUS R A(5 I ONUCL I DE
CURRENT OO*'-N RADIUS TIME
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM'OAY N*









i
i
i
4
i
i
i
i
i
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.S'l
.so
.so
.50
.sn
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00
• on
.00
• on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1
1
1
B
8
ft
10
10
10
1
1
1
s
a
8
10
10
10
1
1
I
8
8
8
10
10
10
.00
.00
.00
.00
• CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00





1
2
1
8





1
2
1
8





1
2
1
a
N1
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
.60
.uo
.uo
.1)0
.05
• 10.
.20
• 10
.00
.60
.un
.uo
.00
.05
• 10
.20
.10
.80
.60
.00
• 00
.00
DAYS
2,
2.
2.
16.
16.
16.
00.
no-
80.
.
.
.
2.
2.
2.
10.
10.
10.
.
.
.
,
.
.
1 .
1 .
1.
on
oc
00
00
00
00
00
oc
00
25
25
2S
00
00
00
00
00
00
01
01
01
33
33
33
67
67
67
IN Sf A* A TER .300-"9 GRAMS PEK CC
.000 .000
, DECAY FRACTION ซ ,2300
VOLl'MF CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
CC
.161+13
.657+13
.Z63+11
. 105+15
.120*15
. 16S+16
ซ2iS3*i6
. 105+17
.120+17
. 161+1 3
.657+13
.2*3+11
= 1H5.+ IB
•12H+15
. 1 6R*16
^26.1*16
. 105+17
.120*17
• 161*13
.657*13
.263+11
ซ 105+15
.120+lS
- 168+16
.263+16
.105+17
.120+17
UCI/CC
. 752-06
.&I7-06
. 1 15-06
. I 17-07
,806-08
. 180-OB
.161-09
.319-09
.711-10
.'52-06
.517-06
. 1 15-06
. 1 18-07
.808-09
. 180-Ofl
.169-09
.323-09
.720-10
.752-06
.517-06
. 1 1S-O6
. 1 18-07
.808-08
. 180-08
.170-09
.323-09
.721-10
UCI/CC
.800-06
.670-06
.368-06
. 125-07
. 101-07
.571-08
.193-09
.113-09
.227-09
.800-06
.670-06
.368-06
;12S-07
.105-07
.575-08
.199-09
.118-09
.230-09
.800-06
.670-06
.368-06
. 125-07
.105-07
.575-08
.600-09
.119-09
.230-09
UCI/Gn
.267+01
.223+01
. 123+01
.116+02
.318+02
. 191+02
= 161+01
.138+01
.756+00
.267+01
.223+01
.123+01
.117+02
.319+02
. 192*02
. 166+01
.139+01
.766+00
.267*01
.223+01
. 123+O1
.117+02
.319+02
. 192+02
. 167+01
.110+01
.767+00
            RADIONUCLlDE   KR 87
            HALF  LIFE  .S2B-OI DAYS
            TOTAL RELEASE  .786*03  CURIES
            NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER
            MAXIMUM REMISSIBLE
.300-09 GRAMS PER CC
  .000       .000
CURRENT
DO*N
RAOIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM./DA*
.50
.50
,50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00.
1.00
1.00
l.on
1.00
1.0C
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. On
21. OC!
2L CO
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .CO
8.00
8. CO
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1.00
fl.oo
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.0"
10.00
1.00
1 .00
1 .00
a. OP
P. CO
a. or
HO.OI?
MO. OP
1C. 00
NM
.IIS
. Ill
.20
.10
.80
1.60
2.UO
1.00
8.UH
.05
• It?
.20
• 1C
.BO
1 .60
2 .UO
1.00
8.00
.US
.IP
.20
.10
.HO
1 .*0
z.iin
t .1)0
6.UO
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16,00
80.00
80.00
BO. 00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1.67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
. I 61*1 3
.657+13
.263+11
.105+15
.120+15
.168+16
.263+16
.105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+1 3
•263+11
. 10S+15
.izn+is
. 168+16
•263+16
.105+17
.120*17
. 161*13
.657+1 3
• 263'+ |1
• 105+15
•120+lS
. 168+16
•263+16
• 105+17
.120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
UCI/CC
.ZlO-^S
.111-15
•J22-16
.000
.000
.090
• o?.o
.on%
.000
. 198-05
. 136-05
.301-06
.32R-17
.226-17
.S?3-1S
.ono
• 0?Q
.000
.3176-01
.21 0-01
.167-05
. 1 ?1-07
. 7 11-nn
.159-n*
. 1 01- 1 A
.717-17
• 1 6G-I 7
AVE =
UCI/CC
.223-15
. 187-15
•103-15
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.21 1-05
• 177-O5
•971-06
.319-17
•292-17
• 161-17
.000
.000
.000
.325-01
.272-01
. 119-01
. 1 10-07
.925-08
.608-08
•111-16
.929-17
.510-17
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.715-06
.623-06
.313-06
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.703+01
.589+01
.321+01
.1 16-07
.971-08
.535-08
.000
.000
.000
. 108+06
.907+05
.1V8+D5
.368+02
•308+02
. 169+02
.370-07
.310-07
. 170-07
                                     268

-------
IXmn-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident,  Batch Release
             RAniONUCLTDF   KR 86
             HALF LIFE   .117*00 PAYS
             TOTAL RELEASE  .112+01 CURIES
             NATURAL CONCENTRATION or CARRIER IN SEAGATE*
             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
•300-09 GRAMS  PER CC
  •000       .000
CURRENT DOWN
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DAY NM
.50 1 .00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.5n
.53
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.0C
1.00
1.00
1.00
21. on
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I .DC
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1. 00
8.00
8.0r>
8. on
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
I .OP
i .on
8.00
8,00
8.00
10. on
10.00
10.00
RAPIUS
N't
.us
. 10
.20
.10
.BC
1 .60
2.UO
1.UO
8.00
.05
. 10
• 20
.in
.80
i ป6n
2.00
1.UO
8.00
.05
. in
.zn
•10
.BO
1 .60
2.00
i.uo
fl.UO
TIME
DAYS
2.00
2. on
2.00
16.00
16. on
lA.OO
83. On
80.00
83-00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2. on
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
> 161*1 3
•657*13
.263*11
. 10S+15
.120*15
.168*16
.263* 1 6
ซ 101*17
.12P*17
•16ซ+| 3
.657*1 3
.263*11
= 105*15
•12P*1S
= 168*16
.263*16
•105*17
•120*17
. 161*1 3
.657*13
.263*11
=105*15
.120*15
= 168*16
.263*1 6
• IDS* 17
•120*1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC L'CI/CC UC1/GN
.539-09 .573-09 .191*01
.370-00
•B27-10
.000
.000
.000
.ono
.000
.000
•171-01
.1 18-01
• Z62-C15
•B12-1 1
.579-1 1
.129-1 1
.888-33
•6| 1-33
• 136-33
.588-01
.101-01
.901-05
.163-06
. 1 12-06
.250-07
.213-1 1
. 167-1 1
.372-12
.180-09
•261-09
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
. 182-01
.152-01
.837-05
.896-1 1
.750-1 1
.112-1 1
.915-33
.791-33
.135-33
.625-01
.523-01
.288-01
.171-06
.115-06
.798-07
.258-1 1
.216-11
•119-11
.160*01
.879*00
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.607+05
.508+05
•279+05
.299-01
.250-01
.137-01
.315-23
.261-23
. 115-23
.208+06
.171+06
.958+05
.579+03
.181+03
.266+03
.860-02
.720-02
.396-02
             RAOIONUCLIOF:   RB so
             HALF LIFE   .121-P1 DAYS
             TOTAL RELFASE   .112*02 CURIES
             NATURAL C^NCENTRAT inw OF CARRIER IN SEAGATE"  .120-04 GRAMS PER cc
             MAXIMUM PFRM. issi FILE                         >oun      .oon
             DAUGHTER nF PREVIOUS Pป11ONUCLIOE, DECAY  FRACTION •  1.0000
CURRENT
OOnN
RADIUS
T
1ME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
WM/









1

q
^
(J
1

q
1
21
21
21 -_
DAY
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.59
.50
.50
.on
. 00
.00
.00
.00
. uc
.on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.nn
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00

1 .
1.
1.
8.
8.
8.
10.
10.
10.
1 .
| ,
1 .
8.
8.
8.
10.
10*
10.
J .
I .
I.
8.
a.
8.
10.
10.
10.
NM
on
Ct?
00
on
00
on
00
00
03
no
00
on
oo
00
on
00
oo
00
00
00
on
00
00
on
00
00
00






l
2
1
8





I
2
1
8


1
2
1
3
NM
.05
. n
.20
.10
.80
• 6T
• un
.00
,un
.US
• I 0
• 20
.10
• Bn
.60
.UO
.on
.00
.U5
.in
• 2?
.10
.80
.00
.00
.00
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
80
80



2
2
2
10
10



1
1
.on
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.05
• 00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.47
CC
.161+13
.657+13
.263+11
.105+1.5
.120+1 5
. 1M*I 6
.263*16
. 105*17
.120*17
. 161* 1 3
.657*13
.263*11
. 105*15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
.105+17
.120+17
. 161 + 13
•657+13
.263+11
.105+15
.120+15
.168+16
•263+16
• 105+17
.120+1?
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
UCI/CC
,603-09
.111-09
•925-10
.uno
.010
.Ono
.010
.000
.000
. 191-0')
. 132-01
.293-0'S
• 912- 1 1
.617-1 i
.111-11
.991-33
.683-33
. 152-3}
.576-01
.396-01
.883-05
. l?3-06
. 125-06
.280-07
.271-1 1
. 187-1 1
.116-12
AVE.
UCI/CC
.611-09
.537-09
•295-09
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.201-01
. 170-01
.936-05
.100-10
.039-1 1
.161-1 1
. 106-32
.885-33
.186-33
.613-01
.513-01
.282-01
. 191-06
.163-06
.893-07
.289-1 1
.212-1 1
.133-1 1
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.531-02
.117-02
.216-02
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.170+03
. 112+03
.780+02
.835-01
.699-01
.381-01
.881-26
.737-26
.105-26
.51 1+03
.128+03
.235+03
.162+01
. 135+01
.711+00
.211-01
.201-01
.111-01
                                      269

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
             RR 89
HALF LIFE   .107-01 OAYS
TOTAL RELEASE  .119+02 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEA*ATER
ซAXIMUป" PERMISSIBLE
                                                      .120-06 GRAMS PER CC
                                                        .000       .000
CURRENT DO**
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DAY N M
• S3
.Sfl
.50
• &n
• SO
.SO
.SO
.515
• SO
"4. tin
1.00
1.00
1.00
I.On
i.oo
i.oo
1.00
i.on
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
I .0?
1 .ns
1.00
8.02
s. on
6.00
10.00
10.0?
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
9.00
8. 00
8. on
to. oo
10.00
10.00
1 .en
1.00
1 .on
8.00
8.00
8.00
•40.00
10.00
40.00
RADIUS
NH
.us
. n
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.DT
1.00
8.0.1
.US
. in
.20
.10
.80
1.63
2.00
1.UO
8. GO
.US
. 10
.20
.10
.8?
l.ftO
2.00
i.oo
8.00
TIME
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
1 A. 00
16.00
16. CO
80.00
80.00
eo.oo
.25
.29
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
.1*1*13
.657*13
.263+11
. 105*15
.120*15
. 168*16
.263*16
. 105*17
.120*17
.161*13
.657+13
•263*11
.105*15
.120+15
. 16B+16
.263*16
.105*17
.120*17
.161*13
.657*13
.263*11
•105*15
.12G*|S
. 168+16
.263*16
.105*17
.120*17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/CC UCI/GM
.000
.OPO
.000
.goo
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
. 930-13
.637-13
. 113-13
• ooo
.ono
• 000
.000
.oco
.000
.673-07
.163-07
. 103-07
.658-17
.152-17
.101-17
.000
.000
.000
.000
.noo
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
•989-13
.828-13
.1SS-13
.000
.000
.noo
.opo
.000
.000
.716-07
.600-07
.329-07
.700-17
.586-17
.322-17
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.821-06
•690-06
.379-06
• 000
.000
• ooo
• 000
• ooo
.000
.597+00
,500+00
.275+00
.583-10
.1S8-10
.268-10
• ooo
.000
.000
             KADIONUCLIDE   Sซ 89
             HALF LIFE   .527+02 OATS
             TOTAL RELEASE  .119+02 CURIES
             NATURAL CONCENTRATION Or CARRIER IN SEAB'ATER  .SCO-05 GRAMS PER CC
             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                          .790-05     .110+D1
             DAUGHTER IF  PREVIOUS RAD IONUCLIDE, DECAY FRACTION .  1.0000
CURRENT OOAN
VELOCITY CUR-RENT
NM/OAY
.sn
• SO
.50
.50
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.0D
l.on
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
1.CO
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00,
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.03
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .on
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
"0.00
1.00
i .00
1 .00
R.OO
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
"o.oo
1 .on
1 .O1?
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10. BO
10.00
RADIUS
NM
• us
• 10
.20
• in
.80
1 . 60
2.UH
1.00
fl.un
.05
.10
• 2C
.in
.sn
1 .6'J
2. on
1.00
8.00
.us
. in
• 2n
.10
.Bn
1 .6n
2.UO
1.00
8.00
TIME
OAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80.03
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10. DC
13.00
• 01
• 01
• 01
• 33
• 33
• 33
I .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
.161+13
•657+13
•263+11
> 105*15
.i'20+15
•168+16
.263+16
•105+17
•12H+17
•161+13
•6S7+13
•263*11
•10S*|5
•120*15
•168+16
•263*1*
• 105*17
•120*17
•161*13
•657+13
.263*11
• 105*15
•120+15
• 168+16
•263+16
•105*17
•120*17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE = ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
.975-06
.673-06
• 150-06
. 127-07
.871-08
. 191-09
.218-09
• 1SD-09
.335-10
.V98-06
.6*6-06
. 1^3-06
. 152-07
•1TS-07
•231-ns
•S18-09
•377-09
.81 | -1 n
• im-os
•6S7-06
. 153-06
. 156-07
• 107-07
.239-08
.61 2-09
.121-09
•9J8-IO
UCI/CC
.101-05
.868-06
.177-06
.135-07
.113-07
.620-08
.232-09
• 195-09
•107-09
• 106-05
.888-06
.188-06
. 162-07
. 136-0?
.715-08
.583-09
.188-09
.268-09
. 106-QS
.891-06
.189-06
•166-07
•139-07
•762-08
.651-09
.515-09
.299-09
UCI/GM
•130+00
•109+00
.596-01
• 168-02
•111-02
.775-03
.290-01
.213-01
•131-01
.133*00
•111*00
.610-01
.203-02
> 170-02
•932-03
.729-01
•611-01
•335-01
•133+00
•1 1 1+00
•612-01
•207-02
•173-02
•952-03
•811-01
.681-01
•371-01
                                       270

-------
Down-current Distribution for IX)SS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
             fADIONUCLtOE   SR 90
             HALF  LIFE   .ioi+os OATS
             TOTAL RELEASE  .856*00 CURIES
             NATURAL CONCENTRATION or  CARRIER
             MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
IN SEAKATER  .800-05 GRAMS PER CC

             •791-07    .120*01
CURRENT 00*N
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY NM
.50 1.00








1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
2ซ
• bO
.50
.50
• 50
.50
.50
.60
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
ซor>
.0"
• or
.or
.OP
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
1
1
8
8
A
10
10
10
I
1
1
n
8
8
10
10
10
I
I
1
8
8
8
10
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
..00
• 00
.00
.00
.e?
.00
• 00
• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
• 00
• oo
• oo
• On
• 00
• 00
10.00
10
• 00
RADIUS
NM
.05
• 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.UO
.05
• 10
.20
• If!
.BO
1 -60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
• 10
•2C
ซir
.80
1 .61
2.00
1.01
8.00
TIME
OATS
2.00 -
2.
oo
2.00
16.
16.
16.
do
00
00
80.00
80.
80.
.
.
.
2.
2.
2.
10.
10.
00
00
25
25
25
00
00
00
oo
00
•
•
*
•
ซ
*
•
•
•
VOLUME
CC
161*13
6S7*|3
263*11
105*15
12P+IS
168*16
263*16
105*17
120*17
161+13
•657+|3
•263+11
•
105+15
•120+15
ซ
*
•
10400 •
.
.
.
.
.
•
1 .
1 .
1.
01
01
01
3.1
33
33
67
67
67
.
ป
•
*
•
0
•
.
.
168+16
263+16
105*17
120*17
16ซ+fJ
6S7+I3
263*|1
105*15
120*15
16S+16
263*16
IQ5*|7
120*17
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/CC UCI/SM
•575-07 .611-07 .761-02
•395-07
.881-09
.897-09
.6) 7-09
•138-09
•357-10
•214-10
• 548-1 I
.575-07
.395-07
.882-08
.898-09
.617-09
. 138-09
.359-11
.217-10
.551-11
.575-07
•395-07
•BS2-08
• "(98-09
.6)7-09
• 138-09
•J59-IO
•217-10
.551-11
•512-07
.281-07
.951-09
.799-09
.139-09
.380-10
.318-10
•175-10
.612-07
•512-07
•281-07
•955-09
.800-09
.139-09
.382-10
.320-10
. 176-10
.612-07
.512-07
•281-07
.956-09
•SOO-09
.ซ39-09
.382-10
•320-1C
•176-10
.610-02
.352-02
. 1 19-113
.999-01
•519-01
.175-05
•398-05
•219-05
.761-02
.610-02
.352-02
. 1 19-03
. 100-03
.519-01
.177-05
.100-05
•220-U5
.761-02
.610-02
.352-02
.1 19-03
.100-03
.519-01
.178-05
.100-05
.220-05
              KAOIONUCLIDE    i 90
              HALF LIFE    .?67+01 DAYS
              TOTAL RELEASE  .SS6+00 CURIES
              NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAGATE"  ..101-09 GRAMS PER cc
              MAXIMUM pFK^ISS'RLE                          .380-06    .30n*05
              CAUSMTER OF  PREVIOUS RปOIPซUCLIOF, DECAY FRICTION  ซ  1,0000
CURRENT DOB*
VELOCITY CURRENT
RADIUS
MM/DAY Nซ









1
1

H
if
if
if
if

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
            PAfiiONUCLlDE   5R 91
            HALF LIFE   .103*00 OATS
            TOTAL RELEASE  .181*22 CURIES
            MATUR*L CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
            MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
IN sEAซATF.i
.800-05 GRAMS PER CC
  .100-01    .780*05
CURRENT ROM
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DAY









1
1
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.sn
• 5C'
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.on
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
• 00
• ro
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00
NM
1 .00
i .on
1.00
8.0C
8.00
B.OO
10.00
10.00
10.00
I .00
1 .00
1 .00
B.OO
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1.00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
RADIUS






1
2
1
8





1
2
1
NM
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
.60
• 00
.00
.uo
.05
. in
.20
.10
.80
.60
.00
.00
8.-QO





1
2
1
8
.05
• 10
.20
.10
.80
.60
.00
• 00
• 00
TIME
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
BO
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






i
i
i
• 00
• OP
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.25
• 25
.25
• on
• 00
• 00
.00
• 00
• 00
.01
• 01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME
CC
. 161*13
.657*13
.263*11
•105*(5
• 170* |5
• 168* 1 6
.263+16
. 105+17
•12H+17
.161+13
.657+13
.263+11
• 105+15
•120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
•105+17
•120+17
. 161+1 3
•657+|3
.263+Jl
• 105+15
•120+15
. 168+|6
•263+16
• 105+17
•120+|7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE? ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
.390-07
.268-07
•S98-PS
.211-19
. 1 17-19
.328-20
• OTO
.000
.000
.791-06
.bll-06
. 121-06
.609-09
.119-09
-V35-10
.259-16
. 178-16
.396-17
. 1 13-05
.778-06
. 171-06
.107-07
.736-08
. 161-08
.132-10
•297-10
.663-1 1
UCI/CC
.115-07
.317-07
•191-07
.227-19
•190-19
.101-19
.000
.000
.000
•811-06
.701-06
•387-06
.618-09
.513-09
.298-09
.275-16
.230-16
. 126-16
. 1 20-05
•101-05
•551-06
.1 11-07
•953-08
.521-08
.160-10
.385-10
.212-10

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
*
*
•
•
*
•
*
•
•
•
•
•
.
*
.
•
*
•
•
UCI/SM
519-02
131-02
239-02
281-11
238-11
131-11
000
000
000
105+00
880-01
181-01
810-01
678-01
373-01
311-1 1
288-1 1
158-1 t
150*00
126*00
692-01
112-02
I 19-02
655-03
575-05
181-05
261-05
                  CLroe    Y  91
            HALF LIFE  .588*02 OATS
            TOTAL RELF.ASE  .iai*02 CURIES
            NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER |N SEA.VATER  .303-09 SRAMS PER CC
            KAXJMUM PERMISSIBLE                          .570-06    .230*01
            DAUGHTER IF PREVIOUS RAOIOMJCLIDE , DECAY  FRACTION  ซ  i.oooo
CURRENT 00ปN
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DA*
.50
.50
• SO
.50
.50
• so
.5"
.50
.50
1.00
i.on
i.oo
i.on
i.on
1.00
I.on
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.0:1
21.00
21.09
21.00
21. cr
21.03
21.00
21.03
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
'.OP
8.00
8. on
in. co
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
ป .00
fl.oo
8,03
10.00
'* 0 . 0 0-
10.30
1 .00
1 .00
1 .GO
8. 00
8.00
3.00
10.00
10.0"
10.00
RADIUS
u*
.05
• ID
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.1IH
i.ua
8.00
.05
. 10
.2n
.in
.3T
1 .60
2.00
i .00
* . 0 n
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.do
1 .60
2.00
1.00
3.UO
TIME
UAYS
2.00
2.00
2. on
16.00
16.00
14.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10. On
10.00
10.00
• 01
.01
• 01
• 33
.33
;33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
t I61*i 3
•657*13
.263+1"
. 105+1 5
.120+ |5
. 16S+1 k
.263*16
. 105*17
.120* [7
. 161*1 3
•657*13
.263*11
. 105*15
.120+ 15
. 168+ 16
•263+16
. 105+17
.120*17
. 161+ (3
•657+J3
.263+11
•105+15
.120+15
• 1 6 8 * ,[ A
•26H* 1 6
• 105*1 7
• 120+ 1 7
COUCEMTRAT tON AVE. SPEC-
ISO- AVEซ ACTIVITY
UC1 /CC
.171 -05
•935-06
. 186-06
.1*1 -07
. 1 1 1-07
• 21JF-08
.303-09
.208-09
.161-10
. 1 23-05
.819-06
. 189-06
. 190-07
. 1 30-07
•291-08
•691-09
.175-09
. 11^-09
. 1 21-05
• H 19-06-
. 1S9-06
. 193-07
• 1 33-07
.296-08
.7A2-P9
.521-07
. 1 1 7-09
UCI/CC
• 129-05
=108-05
.591-06
.171-07
. 113-07
.788-08
.322-09
.270-09
.118-09
• 131-05
• 1 10-05
•601-06
.202-07
. 169-07
.929-08
.735-09
.615-09
.338-09
. 131-05
• 1 10-05
.605-06
•205-07
= 172-07
.911-08
.81 1-09
.679-09
.373-09
UCI/G"
.131 *D1
.361+01
. 198*01
.571+02
.178*02
.263*02
. 107*01
•899*00
.191*00
.138*01
•367*01
.201*01
.673+02
•563+02
•310+O2
•215*01
•205*01
• 1 13*01
.138*01
•367*01
.202*01
.681*02
.573*02
.315*02
.270*01
•226*01
• 121*01
                                     272

-------
Down-current Distribution for IOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
"AOlONUCLlDE   MO 99
HALF LIFE  .278+01 OAYS
TOTAL RELEASE  .173+02 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAX I MUM
                                         IN SEA1VATER  .100-07 SRAMS PER CC
                                                      •750-04     .270+01
CURRENT DOWN
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY NM
•Sn 1 '00
.50 1.00
• Sn
.SO
• bn
• SO
.60
• S'J
.50
1.00
1.CQ
1.00
t.oo
1.00
t.on
t.co
t .00
t.oo
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. On
1 .00
8.00
a. co
9. QO
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 -00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8 . gn
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1ซ00
1 .00
s. on
s. pn
s. on
10.00
10.00
to. oo
RADIUS
NM
• us
.10
.20
.in
.80
1.6n
z. no
t.oo
8.UO
.OS
• 10
• 2p
.to
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8-00
.05
.10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
t.on
8.00
TIME
OAYS
Z'OO
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
BO.OO
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.03
2.00
10.00
10. on
10.00
.01
• 31
.01
• 33
.33
.33
1 .67
I .67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
•I6t+|3
•657+13
•263+1 t
> 1HS+15
•1Zn+]5
. 169+16
"2*3+16
• ins + i7
ซ120+i 7
.161+13
.657+13
"263+1 t
• 105*15
•1ZO*15
• 168+16
•263+16
• 105+17
•12n+l7
. 161+13
•657+13
•263+11
•105+15
•121+15
. 16C+1 A
•263+1*
• 105+17
,142"+) 7
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
uci/cc uci/cc UCI/SM
•7B7-Q6 .838-Q6 .838+02
.511-06 .701-06 .701+02
•171-06
.375-09
.258-09
.575-10
.177-17
.122-17
•271-18
•122-05
•ซ37-06
.187-06
.123-07
•ป1S-08
.189-08
.670-ln
.160-10
• 103-10
.128-05
.882-04
.197-04
.186-07
. 128-07
•286-08
•535-09
.367-09
•820-10
•385-06
.399-09
.331-09
•181-09
.188-17
.158-17
.865-18
. 130-05
. 108-05
.596-06
.131-07
.1 10-07
.602-08
.71Z-IQ
.594-10
.328-10
.136-05
.1 11-05
.628-06
. 198-07
.166-07
.912-08
.569-09
.174-09
.242-09
.385+02
.399-01
.331-01
.181-01
.138-09
. 158-09
.865-10
. 130+03
.108+03
.596+02
.131+01
.1 10+01
.602+00
.712-02
.596-02
.328-02
.136+03
.1 11+03
.628+02
. 198+01
. 166+01
.912+00
.569-01
.176-01
.262-01
                          .*!.'  103
             HALF LirE   ซ3vs+o.2 OATS
             TOTAL RELFASE  .938*31  CURIES
             NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAGATE*  .nnn   GRAMS PER CC
                    PERMISSIBLE                         .131-05    .000
CURRENT
VELOCITY f
MM/DAY
.50
.50
• 50
• SO
.SO
• 50
• 50

• 50
*t . on
** * n n
u n n
•t * u I
u p n
~ . U •}
u - r, 'i
•* • i j ' l
t.co
t.on
1.00
21.00
? t . c o
21.00
21. CO
21.00
21.00
21 >C"?
21.00
2 i , no
I) 0 t! 'H
-UซRENT
NM
1 .170
1 .00
1 .00
t.on

9.00

MO. on
to.oo
1 .09
1 ซ00
1*00
8 • 00
8. 00
8.00
10.00
10.0"
to.oo
1 .0"
1 .00
1 .00
6.00
8. on
s,. 00
to.oo
10.00
10-00
RADIUS

NM
• 0*
. n
.20
. in
.35
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
Z.OD
2. on
10.00
10.00
10.00
.ot
.Ot
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
I .47
VOLUME

CC
. 161* I 3
.657+13
.263*1 t
. 105+lS
> 1 2 !) + 1 S
. 168+16
.263+1*
. 105*1 7
.120*17
. 1 61*[3
.657*13
.263+11
. 105+lS
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+17
. 161+1 3
.657+13
.263+1"
. 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
. 105+17
.12n+l7
CONCENl
ISO-
UCI/CC
. * " ป - r 4
." 11-06
.V33-C7
. 7ซ3-OR
.S! 1-08
. 1 1 t-L'T
.9t,7-l ?
.445-1 0
• I f-IO
.627-06
• 13 1-04
•96Z-Q7
•vso-on
.653-^3
. 1 16-OS
.330-09
•133-P6
.VAS-07
,673-nn
. 150-08
.3B2-09
.263-n<ป
. 5 -1 4 - 1 n
•RATION f
AVFซ
UCI/CC
.617-04
.512-04
.298-06
.791-08
.462-08
.361-08
. 103-09
•S62-10
.173-10
.667-06
.559-06
.307-06
. 101-07
.B16-08
.145-08
.351-09
.291-09
.162-09
.670-06
.561-06
•30S-06
. int-07
•S7 1-08
."179-08
.107-09
.311-09
- 187-09
iVE.SPEC.
ACTIVITY
UC1/6M
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.ODQ
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.00(1
.000
• oon
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
                                      273

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
                       TF127*
           HM.F LlFF   .lO^ + OS HAYS
           TOTAL KELFASE  .109*00 CURIES
           NATURAL CONCENTRATION Of CAH"IEi
|N
.000   G•>•









1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.50
.5'J
.50
.50
.50
.5"
• Sn
.5i!
.52
.['n
• DO
• O'J
• 00
.On
.01!
.01
• D>'
.00
.OR
.00
.on
.00
. nn
. C<'
.DC
.01
.00
1
1
1
5
P
fl
'ID
10
10
1
1
1
n
i
D
n r)
10
u nt
1
1
I
8
8
n
'!"
10
1"
.01
.11
.CD
.CO
. C i
.1"
• cr-
• 1 0
• 00
.00
• CO
• no
• 00
.or
.01
.Dr
• IP
.Of
• 01
• 00
• 00
• CD
• cr
.or
.Or.
.CD
.00
>•! Kl
.!ir>
. 1 1
.
1.00
s.ro
T,1F
OAYS
2
.'
2
16
16
16
80
60
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.1?
.0ฐ
• or
.00
• 25
.25
.25
• 00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.0.1
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOI. UปE
CC
. ] 4 '1 * 1 3
.657ป| J
.263*1 1
.105*15
.120+ tS
. I6BปI 6
.26?.+ ! 6
• 10?.+ 1 7
. 1 2 P ป 1 7
. 161*1 3
• 657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
•120* | 5
. 16fl*l 6
•263*16
• 105+1 7
•120+17
. 161+1 3
.657+1 3
.263+11
. 105+ |5
•120*15
. 168*16
•263*16
• 105+1 7
• 120* 1 7
C i '.: r F. M T R A T I 0 N A
ISO- AVEซ
UCI/CC
.7r3-07
• 1 " 3 - 0 7
. 1 18-07
• Hi'6-09
. t,/,fi_n9
. 1 27-09
. v i o - 1 1
.6(9-1,
.130-11
.72P-P7
.511-07
. I 12-07
; 1 1 0-OR
. 755-09
. 1 68-09
.373-10
•257-1 0
. 5 7 3 - y
-7? 1 -07
.513-17
. i 12-"7
. 1 1 1-11
. 7B I -19
. l 71-po
.112-10
.311-10
.678-1 1

.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
'.'C4/CC
718-07
626-07
311-07
879-09
736-09
101-09
958-1 1
S02-1 1
110-1 1
775-07
619-07
356-07
1 I 7-08
978-09
537-09
397-10
333-10
183-10
778-07
651-07
358-07
121-08
101-08
556-09
170-10
391-10
216-10
''E.5PEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
• OOQ
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
                                  274

-------
Down-current Distribution for U>SS-OF-COOLANT Accident,  Batch Release
            KADIONUCLIDF   TE i2v
            HALT lift   ,17'7-DI  OATS
            TOTAL RFLFAซE  ,281+ei ci-im:s
--' -- -t ป ^ -*• - ^ *. ' •* i •ซ ^ v t 'j t^i v r i ** ~ ^ i p w
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
DAUGHTER nF PREVIOUS R'AO 1 ONUCL I DC
CURRENT pnซN
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY NM
1* A . 	 _









"*
1
4





1
21
21
21
?1
21
21
21
21
21
L
• SO
• 50
• so
• so
• so
• so
• S(3
.50
• or
.00
• or
• on
• 00
• 15
• or.
• PC
• 00
• on
• oc
• 01
• or
• Of.'
.00
• on
• 00
• 00
1
1
1
A
8
A
• 00
,00
• 00
• CO
• oc
• 00
"O.OP
*4 P
MO
1
1
1
8
8
A
"0
10
43
1
I
1
ft
0
8
IT
10
10
• or
..00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
• ei
• 00
.00
• op
• PC
.OP
• 00
.00
.or
• 00
• Cr
• CO
RAM us
NM
• U5
• 10
.20
.-10
• eo
) .6,1
2.0"
ซ.ur
b.no
• 05
• I"
.21
ป 4 n
.HI
1.61
2.01
1.00
8 • (j 0
• 05
• 10
• 21
• in
,ttn
1 .61
2.un
i.uo
^•Gn
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
BO
"0
ป0



?
7
?
10
10
10






1
I
1
.01
.00
• 00
.00
• 00
• 0*7
.0?
• -1"1 ,n
.Qi
.25
.25
.25
.0"
• Or
• n ~*
• on
,nn
• 01
• 01
.01
,C1
.33
,33
.33
.67
.67
.67
1* SF.A'ATER ,000 GRAMS PER CC
•130-01 ซ69o*00
, DECAY FRACTION - .4100
VOI.UKF
re
• 161+13
.657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
•168+16
•263+16
• i ns + i 7
•120+1 7
• 161+1 3
•657+13
•263+11
•105+15
• 121+-15
• 168+16
•263+ 16
• lOS+l 7
• 1.20+1 7
• 161+1 3
.657+1 3
•263*14
• 105+15
•420+15
• 1 68 + | 6
•763+16
• I05+J7
• "*71+ | 7

.
•
•
.
•
•
CONCEN1
ISO-
l'CI/CC
150-07
310-07
69i-ns
530-09
361-09
812-11
•S77-1 1
.
397-M
•885-12
•501-07
•
•
9
.
•
•
.
,
•
•
*
•
347-07
773-08
714-09
1*4-09
108-09
239-10
141-11
367-1 I
I 'I-PA
851-07
191-07
716-09
.512-09
•
,
.
•
1 11-09
2f!3-ln
1 95-1 0
135-1 1
tRATION A^E.SPEC.
AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/6K
.179-07
.101-07
.220-07
.563-09
.172-09
•259-09
•611-1)
•511-11
•282-1 1
•536-07
•1ซ9-07
.217-07
.719-09
.627-09
.311-09
•255-10
.213-10
.117-10
•132-06
• 1 1 1-06
.^Pd-n?
•793-09
.664-09
.365-09
.302- 10
.252-10
. 139-10
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• oao
• 000
.000
• 000
• ooo
• 000
• 000
• ono
• 000
• 000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
• 000
.000
• 000
.000
• 030
• 000
• 000
• 000
• OOr;
            RADIONUCLIDE   i 131
            HALF LIFE   .B05+CI DAYS
            TOTAL RELEASE   .228+03 CURIES
            NATURAL CONCENTRATIOI-, or CAHซIEB IN SEAGATE*
,600-n7 bPAMS PER CC
  •320-08    .320+U2
CURRENT DO*N
VELOCITY TUPRENT
NM/OAY









q


14


J

M Jl
•
•
g
|
•
9


g

^



*
•
*
•
5f!
50
SO
50
50
SO
50
50
SO
00
00
nn
If U
nn
V -
n n
Lf j
n n
L* \J
00
nn
U ".
n n
U '-
n n
2 ™ * u v
24. OC
24ซ00
21-00
24.00
24ซ00
21.0P
24.00
24.00
1
i
i
a
8
8
10
10
10
1
1

8

.j
40
10

1
1
1
1
8
8
8
40
10
40
MM
• OQ
.00
.00
.oc
.00
• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
• 00
• on
• 00
• 00
. nn
• U V
• CC
• 0.0
• 00
.00

.00
.00
.00
• 00
• DO
.00
.00
.00
RAPIUS
NM
.U5
.in
.20
.4"
.80
1 •li.O
2. on
4.UP
8.00
.05
. 10
.2P
.41
• ป0
1 .60
2.00
i. on
B.or
• us
.10
.20
.40
.80
1 .60
2.00
4.00
8.00
T IMF
DAYS
2.
2.
2.
16.
16.
16.
8C,
so.
eo.
.
.
i
2.
2.
2.
10.
1C.
10.
*
1 •
1 .
1.
00
oo
QO
oo
oo
oo
01
00
00
25
25
25
00
on
00
00
00
00
04
04
04
33
33
33
67
67
67
VOLUME
CC
• 164ป(3
•657+13
.263+14
.105+15
•izn+is
•16P+16
.263+16
. 105+17
.420+17
.164+13
.657+13
.263+14
•105+15
•12P+IS
.168*16
.263+16
•105+17
•12n+| 7
•164*13
•657+|3
•263+14
•105+|5
•420+1*
•168+|6
•263+16
.105*17
•420*17
CONCF.MTPATION AvEซSPEC<
ISC- AVF. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
.129-01
.HR6-C5
.198-05
.613-07
.411-117
.925-0"
.977-1 1
.672-1 I
.150-1 1
• 150-04
.103-01
.230-05
.2H-P6
.138-06
.309-07
.278-0?
.620-09
.153-04
.115-04
.234-05
.232-06
. 160-06
.357-07
.829-08
.S70-OS
.127-OH
uci/ce
. 1 37-04
. 1 15-04
.631-05
.642-07
.537-07
.295-07
, 104-10
.C70-I 1
.478-1 1
.159-04
.133-04
.733-05
.214-06
. 179-06
.985-07
.430-08
.360-08
.198-08
. 167-04
. 136-04
.746-05
.217-06
.207-06
. 1 11-06
.882-08
.738-08
.406-08
UCl/G"
•229*03
.191+03
.105+03
. 107+U1
.896+00
.492+00
.173-03
. 145-03
. /Y7-04
.266+03
.222+03
•122+U3
•357+01
.299*01
• 164 + 01
.717-01
.601-01
.330-01
.271+03
.226+03
. 124+03
.412+01
•345*01
• 190*01
. 147*00
. 123+00
.676-01
                                   275

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
1ปOIOMUCL!DF XEI3II'
HALF LIFE .1 lfl+02 BAYS
TOTAL RELEASE .691*CO CURIES
NATURAL Cnf.'CtMTPAT 1 Of, OF CARRIER
* ป X 1 ซ u K PERMISSIBLE
DAUGHTER nF PREVIOUS R AD t ONUCL I ฃ>E
CURRENT or,t-N RADIUS TIME
1 W SEA^ATER . I C 0 •
• 01
, DECAY FRACTION -.
VOLUME CnNCENI
VELOCITY CURRENT
•~.H / 0 A Y
.50
.50
.SO
.50
.50
• 50
• 50
• SO
.50
i.on
1.0?
1.0"
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. On
21.00
21.00
NM
1 .on
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
R.OO
n.oo
in.on
io.cn
"O.OC
1 .CO
1 .00
1 .0?
R .nn
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10. on
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8. CO
8.00
8. on
10.00
10.00
10-00
Ml
.05
. in
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
fi .on
.05
. 10
• 20
• in
.8n
1 .60
2. (JO
'I.on
8.00
.05
.10
• 20
• 10
.an
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8. on
DAYS
2.00
2.02
2. on
16.00
16.00
1 6.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.03
10.00
10.00
• 01
.01
.01
.33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
C C
. 1 61* 1 3
.657*13
.263*11
• IDS* IS
.120*15
•16P+I6
• 26.1+16
. 105+17
•120+1 7
. 161*| 3
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120*15
. 168*16
•263+16
. 1(15+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+1 3
.263+1 1
•105*15
•i2n*is
. 1 68* ]6
.263*16
. 105*17
.120*17
ISO.
ur |/cc
.506-07
.31B-07
.776-08
.710-09
.1*8-09
• 1 H9-09
. 1 26-1 1
.867-12
. 193-:?
•171-07
.323-07
* 722-OR
.791-09
•513-09
• 171-09
.325-10
.221-ln
.199-1 |
.165-07
•320-07
.713-08
.718-09
.508-09
.1 1 3-09
.31 3-1(1
.215-10
• ซRP- 1 1
•n9 SPAMS PER CC
jn .000
= .0060
I9ATION AVE. SPEC.
AVE.
UCI/CC
.538-07
.151-07
.218-07
.756-09
.632-09
.317-09
. 131-1 1
•112-11
.617-12
.501-07
.119-07
.230-07
.811-09
;701-09
.387-09
.316-10
.290-10
. 159-10
.195-07
.111-07
.228-07
.786-09
.658-09
•361-09
.333-10
.279-10
.153-10
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.538+03
.151+03
.2H8+03
.756*01
.632+01
.317+01
.131-01
.1 12-01
.617-02
.501+03
.119+03
.230+03
.811+01
.701+01
.387+01
.316+00
.290+00
. 159*00
.195+03
.111+03
•228+03
.786+01
.658+01
.361+01
.333+00
.279+00
. 153+00
            RADIONUCL IDF.   TE 132
            HALF LIFE   .321+01  DAYS
            TOTAL RELEASE  .133*02 CURIES
                   cnwcEwTKAr i ON OF CARRIER  JH SEAWATEP
                   PF.RMISSIfLE
.nno   SPAMS PER cc
  •32n-n6    .73n*00
CURRENT D0-'<*i R A n i U S TjME
VELOCITY CUaRFNT
NM/DAY
.50
.50
.50
• *>0
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.CO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1 .00
1.CO
I.nn
i.on
i.no
2i.on
21 .on
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
2 1 . C 0
21.00
21.00
NM
1 .00
1 .00
I .00
R.OO
R.OO
R.OO
10. on
10.00
lO.cn
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8 .00
8.0-0
R .0"
io.no
ic.co
'40.00
1.0"
i .no
1 • 00
fi . nn
8. 00
8.00
10.00
"0.00
1 0 ซ CO
HM
.05
• 10
.20
.10
,un
1 .60
2. on
i.on
8.00
.05
. 10
.20
• 10
.an
1 . 6n
2. on
1.00
8.00
• OS
• 10
• 20
• 10
• sn
1 -60
2.0CJ
1.00
R.OO
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
• 25
.25
2.00
2.0C
2.00
10.00
1 0.00
1 O.nn
.01
.01
• 01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
. 1 61+ 1 3
.657+13
• 263+ 1 1
• 105+1?
•120+15
. 1 65+ 1 6
.263+ 1 6
. 105+1 7
.120+17
. 161*1 3
.657*|3
•263*11
•105*15
•12H+ [5
. 16R+ ] 6
•261+16
• in^ + i 7
• 120* 1 7
• 161*1 3
•657*13
.263+11
• 105*15
• tzn* i 5
. 1 6Pป j 6
•263ป| 6
• 105+17
•120+1 7
CnurtMTRAT ION AVE. SPEC-
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UC1/CC
.532-06
.Mnn-n6
•893-07
.156-09
•3(3-09
.699-10
.2"r7-l6
- 1 "2-1 6
.317-17
,ซI47_Rฃ
.SR2-C6
- 130-06
•9 | r-OS
• 625-OR
• 1 10-0"!
•6SK- 1 n
.137-10
. 1 r 1 - 1 n
. I)pi5-n4
, 6 n H - n <,
. l i f, . n f.
. 1 3 n - 0 7
. t ? 3 - O'a
. 1 9 9 - y R
.391 -C9
.269-09
.599-1 n
UCI/CC
•6J9-06
.519-06
.285-06
.185-09
.106-09
.223-09
•220-16
• 1 81-16
• 101-16
•901-06
•751-06
•1 11-06
.'69-08
•R 10-08
.115-08
.699-10
.586-10
.322-10
.942-06
.788-06
. 113-06
. 138-07
. 1 16-07
.636-08
.1 I 6-09
.31R-09
.191-09
UCI/GM
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
                                    276

-------
Down-carrent Distribution for IOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
RADIONUCLIDE I 132
HALF LIFE .912-01 DAYS
TOTAL RELEASE .311*03 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIDE
CURRENT OOM
VELOCITY CURRFNT
NM/DAY MM









*
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
• •>a
.50
.50
• 50
.50
• 50
.50
• 53
.50
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• no
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
I
l
l
8
B
n
10
10
10
1
1
1
Q
fl
0
in
HO
10
i
i
i
8
8
B
10
10
10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.03
.00
.00
.0?
• Of!
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.0?
.on
• on
• CO
.00
.CO
.00
.on
• on
• on
.00
RADIUS
NM
.us
• 10
• 21
• 10
.80
1 .An
2.00
1.00
B.an
.us
.13
• 21
• 10
.BO
l .6n
2.00
l.tin
R.on
.05
. in
. ?;l
.in
.60
1 .6n
2.00
i.on
8.00
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
1*
80
80
80



2
2
Z
10
10
10






1
1
1
.00
• 00
• 0?
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
• 00
• oo
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.oc
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
IN SF.A*ATER .400-07 GRAMS
• noo
, DECAY FRACTION > I.OODO
VOLUME
CC
. 161* 1 3
•657*13
.2*3*11
. 105ป]5
.120*15
. IAS* 1 *
.2*3*1*
. 105*1 7
.120+1 7
. 161+1 3
.657*13
.2*3+1 1
.105+15
•120+ 1 S
. I6R+ |6
.2*3+1*
ซ tOS+l 7
•120*17
. 1 * 1 * | 3
.657*13
.2*3*11
. 105*15
.120*15
. l*s*16
• 263*1 A
. insป|7
.120+1 7
PER CC
.1 10*01
Cnf!CrMTRปTION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/CC UCI/GW
.Ano-o*
.112-06
.920-07
.1*9-09
.322-09
.719-10
.213-16
. M6-16
.327-17
.137-05
• f"3-05
.670-06
•937-03
. 6 1 >t - (J ^
. 1 11-08
.677-10
•165-10
. Ini-tO
.171 -01
• 1 1 7-01
•7*7-05
•130-07
.295-n7
•AS'-O*
. 1 n 3 - 0 9
.277-09
.*17-n
.633-06
.531-06
.293-0*
.499-09
.118-09
.230-09
.227-16
.190-16
. 101-16
.1*1-05
.389-05
.211-05
.997-08
.835-08
.159-08
.720-10
.603-10
.331-10
. 182-01
. IS2-01
.836-05
.157-07
.383-07
•210-07
.128-09
.359-09
. 197-09
.106*02
.890*01
.189*01
.832-02
.696-02
.383-02
.378-09
.316-09
. 171-09
.771*02
.618+02
.356+02
. 1*6*00
. 139*00
.761-01
. 120-02
. 101-02
.552-03
.303*03
.251*U3
.139*03
.762*00
.638*00
.350*00
.7] 1-02
.5919-02
.328-02
                      i 133
           NALF LIFE   .816+00 DATS
           ToTAL R^LTASE  .525+03 CURIES
           NATURAL CONCENTRATION or CARRIER
•AdO-07 SPAMS PER CC
 . 1 l'J-07    . 12nป03
CURRENT ODWN
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAr W*
• Sn
• SO
.50
• *D
• 50
• 5D
• 50
• 50
• 50
** • on
** • no
M • pn
*f * on
** • on
** • on
H.nn
H • DO
*< • n n
? *t * n n
ฃ • • U ' -J
21.00
21. CO
21. on
21.00
21.00
2i.cn
21ซ00
21.00
1 .0?
i .on
i .on
8. on
s.cn
3.0C
10. CO
15.00
'"0.00
1 .On
i . on
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
'i n , o n
u n . oo
l . on
1 .00
B.OO
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10. on
RAD|US
NM
.us
. in
.21
• 10
.8n
\ .*n
2. on
1 . U.~!
s .on
• 05
. IP
.20
.IT
.80
1 "*C
2.00
1.0?
8.0"
.05
.10
.20
.In
.80
1 .An
2.00
i.on
s.oo
TIME
DAYS
2. on
2, On
2,00
16.00
1 6. on
16. OB
80.00
CO. 00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10. 00
10. OC
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
. 161*13
.657+13
.2*3*11
. 105+15
•i2n+ts
. 168+16
.2*1+1*
.Io<;+i7
. 1 2 n + 1 7
. 161+1 3
.657+13
.263*11
.105*15
.120* 1 5
. 168*1*
.2*3*1*
. 10S+|7
.i?n*i 7
. 161*1 3
.*S7+|3
•2*3* 1 1
• 105*15
•120*]5
.168*1*
.2*3*1*
. 105+1'
.120+17
ISO-
"CJ/CC
. 6RS-OS
.17 i-nb
. irs-ns
. 1 1 2-1 1
.7*9-1 7
• 172-1 ?
.7*1-3*
.57S-34
. 1 17-3*
.7P7-C1
. 197-ni
.111-05
. I n 7 - 0 A
.'34-n7
.lfl-07
.*! 0-1 1
.170-1 1
.93*-12
.31 1 -01
.1 19-PA
.A13-07
.5A3-C1
. JS7-OB
FfปปT|nN AVE.SPEC'
AVE= ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/GM
.729-05
.6 10-05
.335-06
.119-11
.997-12
.518-12
.813-36
.680-34
.371-36
,306-01
.256-01
•111-01
, I 11-06
.953-07
.521-07
.511-1 1
.299-1 |
.362-01
.303-01
. 167-01
,116-06
.373-06
.205-06
.599-08
.501-08
.775-08
.121+03
. 102+U3
.559+02
. 198-01
. 166-01
.913-05
.135-28
. 113-28
.623-29
.509+03
.126+03
.231+03
. 190+01
. 159+01
.873+00
.108-03
.906-01
.198-01
.601+03
.506*03
.278*03
.713*01
.622*01
•312*01
.998-01
.835-01
.159-01
                                277

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
HALF LIFE .?2(. + OI DAYS
TOTAL REIFASF .535+07 CURIES
K-AT|jRAL CONCENTRATION OF CปKR1Eป
f'Axiปuh PERMISSIBLE
DAUGHTER rf PREVIOUS RAniowcLiat
CURRENT pn*M RADIUS TIME
VELOCITY i
NM/ctAY
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
i.no
I.OP
I.OP
I.Ofi
1.00
1.00
1.00
2i.cn
21.0(3
21. OC
21.00
21. OC
21. OC
21.00
21.00
21.00
CURRENT
NM
1 .PP
1 .00
1 .OP
8. CO
8.00
8.0"
"C.P.P
IP. 00
10.00
1 .00
1 .0?
i .or
8.CID
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10. CO
l.OC
I.OP
1 .OP
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10. or

UK
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
B-OP
.05
• 10
• 20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
I.OP
8.00
• OS
. in
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.DD
1.00
e.oo

13 A Y S
2.00
2. 00
2. OP
1 6.00
16.00
16. OP
80. OP
80.00
80. op
.25
.25
.25
2. OP
2.00
2. OP
10. OP
10.00
10.00
.0ซ
.01
.01
• 33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1.67
I .67
IN SFA^ATER .ica-no GRAMS PER cc
.PUP .000
, -DECAY FRACTION * l.POOO
VOLUME CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.

CC
. 161+13
.657+13
• 263+lft
• 105+ 1 5
•120+15
• 168* 1 6
•2*3+1*
• 105+17
•120+17
• 161+| 3
•657+13
"263+11
ซ 105+15
• 17P + |S
.148+)*
• 263+ 16
• 105+1 7
• 12P+ 1 7
. 141+13
.657+13
•263+|1
.105+15
"120+15
ซ 168+16
•263+1 6
• 10S+|7
.120+1?
1SO-
'-'CI/CC
-927-05
•637-05
. 112-05
•285-OR
. 196-08
.138-09
•313-18
•235-18
.525-19
.5*8-05
.390-05
•871-0*
• 1ป5-06
•996-P7
•222-07
.715-09
•192-09
. 1 10-09
.399-05
.271-05
•6| 1-06
.971-07
•670-07
. 119-07
•589-09
• 1-35-08
•V03-09
AVF.
UCI/CC
.986-05
.826-05
.151-05
•301-08
•251-OB
. 110-08
.361-18
.305-18
.168-18
.601-05
.506-05
.278-05
- I5':-06
•129-04
•709-07
.7*1-09
.637-09
.350-09
.121-05
.355-05
.195-05
.101-04
.848-07
.177-07
.427-08
.521-08
.288-08
ACTIVITY
UCI/6ซ
.986+05
.824*05
.151*05
•301+02
.251*02
. 110*02
.341-08
.305-08
.168-08
.601+05
.506+05
.278+05
. 151+01
. 129+01
.709+03
.761+01
.637+01
.350+01
.121+05
.355+05
.195+05
. 101+01
.868+03
.177+03
•627+02
•521+02
.288+02
                          XE 133
             HALF LIFE   .527+01  DAYS
             TOTAL REI.FASE   .210+01 CURIES
             NATURAL  CONCENTRATic^ OF CA^KIER JN SFA'>VปTER  .inn-o? GRAMS PER  cc
             I--A*IMUM  PERMISSIBLE                          .000       .000
                    of PREVIOUS RA^inNUcLlDE, DECAY FR*CTION  •  i.oooo
CURRENT DO*N
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM /DAY Nh
.50, l.CP








1
K
1
•i
q
1
1
1
"4
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
?1
21
.50
.SP
• sn
.50
.SP
.5 P.
.50
.50
.OP
.PP
• OP
• PC
• or
• OP
• Cn
• on
• OP
.DP
• OC'
. C!P
.00
.PC
• or
.PP
.00
.pn
1 .
1 .
q.
8.
8.
•40.
10.
10.
1 .
1 .
1 .
R.
R.
8.
1C.
HP.
in. •
1 .
1 .
1 .
8.
8.
".
1C.
OC
00
On
DP
OP
OP
OP
O.P
OP
OP
00
OP
Qn
OP
OP
PP
OS
C"
OP
On
PC
on
OP
00
10 . pn
1Cซ
CO
RADIUS
.05
. l?
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.Ljn
l.UP
8.00
.as
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2. (in
i.O?
f . un
• P5
.IP
.20
.in
.en
1 .60
2.00
1 .UP
ft.nn
TIME
t'AYS
2. OP
2
2
16
1*
16
ซ0
89
80



?
2
2
10
in
1C






i
i
i
.OP
.00
.00
.00
.00
• OP
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
• DO
• PP
.00
.OP
.00
• PO
• 01
• 01
• 01
.33
.33
.33
,67
.67
.67
VOLUME
cc
. 161+13
.657*1 J
•263* |1
. 105* IS
.120+15
. 168+1 6
.2*3+1 *
. 105+1 7
.120+17
. 161+13
•657+13
.263+11
. 106+ 1 5
•120+15
. 168+1*
.263+1 6
•105+17
.120+17
.161+13
.657+13
.263+1 1
• 105+lf
•120*1 5
• 1 68* | A
•2*1+1*
• 105+1 7
•120+1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- ' AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/CC UCI/GM
. 1 1 T-03 . 1 17-03 ; 1 17+07
.758-C'l
. 149-on
, 7111-04
.202-0*
.151-P7
.2*2-1 1
. 1BO-1 1
.102-17
. 137-03
. V19-04
. 2 1 .n - P '4
. 1 72-05
. 1 1 ป-P5
.761-06
.26A-P7
. 176-07
• .ป 9 2 - R R
. 1 <40-03
. V f, >| - Q i|
• 7. \ 5 -n i
•2|| -05
. 1 15-05
. 321-06
.718-07
." 9 3 - 0.7
. 1 10-07
.982-01
.510-01
.313-06
.242-06
. 111-06
.279-1 1
.231-1 1
.128-1 1
. 115-03
.122-03
•668-U1
-183-05
; 153-05-
•813-06
.272-07
.228-07
• 125-07
• 119-03
•125-03
.6B6-01
•225-05
. 18ซ-OS
.103-05
.763-07
.639-07
.351-07
*
*
•
*
i
*
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
.
.
.
.
ซ
•
.
.
.
.

.
982+**
sn+o*
313+01
262+01
1 11+01
279-01
231-01
128-01
1 15+07
122+07
66B+U6
183+05
153+05
813+01
272+03
228+03
125+U3
119+37
125+U7
686+06
225+05
188+05
103+as
763*03
639*U3
351+03
                                      278

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
           *ปPIONUfl_IDE   TE 13S
           ป*LF LIFE  .792-01 DAYS
           TOTปL RELEASE  ..215*02 CURIES
'ซ n > V ^ A I.
MAXIMUM
L'j^ttNiKAi n
PERMISSIBLE
}N OF CARSIER |N SEA'.VATER .nOO GRAMS PER CC
• I.I U '.'
CURRENT
VELOCITY
NM/DAY
.50
.50
.So
• 5r
• 5n
.50
.Sn
.50
• 5u
t.on
1.00
f.on
l-Of!
i-On
i.nc
l.oo
LOO.
I.OQ
2t.cn
21.00
21. Of1
21.00
21.0-3
21. on
21.03
2i.no
21.00
nn*N RAO i.us
CURRENT
NM NH
1*00 .US
I. on
1 .00
".00
a.oo
8. CO
10.00
117. on
10. CO
1.00
1 .00
I .00
R.ro
fl.CO
e.n-i
10.01
IP. 00
MO. 00
1 .00
i .on
1 .01
8.01
a. 00
8.00
in.ci
10.00
10.00
• ir
.20
.10
• 8tl
1 .60
2.0n
".On
R.OO
• 05
. in
•20
.In
• 8n
1 .6n
z.ur
i .On
8. on
• OS
. 10
• 2n
• in
,8n
1 .60
?ซun
i.on
B.ui
TIME
BAYS
2.03
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
83. On
83.00,
SO,. OB
.25
.25
.2S
2.00
2.00
2.0"
10.0.1
10.05
10. OC
• ni
.01
.01
.33
.3.1
• 33
I -A7
1.67
1 .67
VOLUME
cc
•161ป|3
•657*13
•263*11
• 1QS*|5
.120*15
• 16&*16
.263* | &
. 10S+I 7
•120*17
. 161*13
•657*|3
.263*11
•105*15
.170* IS
• 16f>ซl*
.263* 16
.105*17
•121*1 7
. 161*1 3
•657ป| 3
• ?'.3*1 1
. 105*15
.120*15
. 1 6R*|6
•2A3*|fr
. 105*17
•12P+J7
COWCEMTRATInw
ISO- AVE.
UCt/CC UCI/CC
.351-26 .373-26
.211-26
.538-27
• 000
.000
.000
• Qf>0
• U10
.000
•3R3-OA
.263-0*
•5a7-09
.510-Zfl
•377-2S
.B'H-29
.ono
.nno
.000
.537-06
> 169-04
•H71-07
.ป27-l 1
•569-! 1
. 127-1 1
• 5<ปS-26
.11 1-26
.'18-27
.313-26
•172-26
.000
.000
.000
• noo
• 000
• 000
.107-08
•311-08
. 187-08
.581-28
.189-28
.268-28
.000
.000
.000
.571-06
.178-06
•263-06
.380-1 1
,737-1 1
.105-1 1
.637-26
.c.33-26
.293-26
• uuo
AVE. SPEC.
'.CT1V1TY
UC1/GM
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
SAOIONUCLtDF 1 131
HALF LIFE .361-01 DAYS
TOTAL RELEASE .611*03 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAXIMUM PI-RHISSIBLE
DAUGHTER ?F PPEv!0uS * AD I ON|jCL I DE
CURRENT PO'iJ KA3!US r ] ME
IN SEA*ซTER .600-07 SRซMS PER CC
.160-06 .190*01
, DECAY FRACTIO" = 1.0000
VOLUME CnNCENTRATlON A^E.SPEC.
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/OAY
.60
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.SO
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1 . 0 !l
1.00
1.00
1.00
i .on
1.00
7 1 • n n
ฃ " . \J '
21. on
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
N'1
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
B.OO
s.oo
9.00
10.0"
10.00
10.00
I .00
I .00
I .00
8. CO
8.03
8. On
10.00
10.00
io.ro
I .OP
i .or
1 .00
8.03
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
NM
• 05
• in
.20
.10
• 8.0
I .6T
2. On
i.un
8. OP
.05
. 1"
.20
• n
.BO
t .60
2. on
1.00
B.OT.
.05
• 10
• 20
.10
• 80
1 .61
2.UU
i.nn
8.UO
f)AYS
2.00
2.3C
2.00
16.00
16.00
16. OC
80. 0"
so.no
8-3.00
.25
.25
.25
2. OP
2.00
2.00
13.00
10.00
10.00
• 01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
. 161*13
•657*13
.263*11
. 105*15
.120*15
. 168*16
.263+16
•105*17
.120*1 7
. 161*13
.*57ป1 3
.263*11
>105*lS
.120*15
ป 168*16
.263*16
.105*17
.120*17
. 161*13
•657*i:
.263+11
•105+15
.120*15
. 168*16
.261+1 6
. 105+1 7
.120+1'
isn-
uei /cc
• i ro-zo
.ttiV-Zl
. 151-21
. Onn
• 000
.000
.ano
.000
.arc
.371-06
.257-06
.i73-07
. 157-72
. lns-22
.210-73
.000
.000
.000
. ] 90-01
. 131-01
.291-05
•120-OS
.172-P9
. 133-29
.377-21
.259-71
.571-2?
AVE =
MC1/CC
. 107-20
.893-21
.191-21
.000
.000
.PCD
.noo
.COO
.000
.39B-06
.333-06
.183-06
.167-22
. 11H-22
.767-23
.000
.000
.000
.702-01
. 169-01
.930-05
. 127-08
- 106-08
.585-09
.ini-2I
.336-21
. 181-21
ACTIVITY
UC1/SM
. 178-13
•119-13
.818-11
.000
.000
.oon
.000
.000
.000
.663+01
.555*01
.305*01
.278-15
.233-15
.128-15
.DUO
.000
.000
.337*03
.282*03
. 155+03
.212-01
. 1 77-01
.975-02
.668-11
.559-11
.307-11
                                 279

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
           RADICINUCL tDF  CS 131
           rtVLF LIFF   ,719+03 OATS
           TOTAt RELFASE  .200*0.1
           NATURAL COUC f'jTOAT 1 ON OF CARRIER
|N SEA-STEP  .3an-ri3 GRAMS  PER CC
            .700-0*     .150-01
CURRENT
VELOCITY C
N M / 0 A Y
.50
.5.1
.50
.50
.50
.50

.50
.50
1.00
i.on
1.00
1 .On
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. On
nn'.'.'M
;UปRFNT
NM
1 -00
1 .CO
1 .C?
3.0?
8. CO
i.co
40.00
10.00
MQ.OO
1 .00
1 >00
1 .00
8. On
8. 0?
fl.OO
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .CO
fl.OO
8.00
8.00
in.no
10.00
10.00
RADIUS

MM
.us
. 10
• 20
.10
.("3
1 .60
2.un
1.UO
8. DO
.OS
• in.
• 20
• 10
• an
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
. 10
.20
.in
• 80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
TI ^f.

3AYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
Ru.OO
80.00
83.00
.25
.25
.25
2. on
2. 00
2.00
10. on
10.00
10. on
.Of
.01
• 01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME

CC
. 1 A ซ ซ 1 3
.657+13
.263+1 1
. 105+ 15
.120+1 5
• 16R+ | 6
.263+16
. 1 05+)7
.120+17
• 141+1 3
• 657*1 3
•263*lt
• ins*i5
.120*15
• 1 6fl* 1 6
•263*16
• 105*1 7
•120* 1 7
• 161*] 3
.657*1 3
.263*11
. 105* 1 5
.120*15
. 168*16
•263+1 6
• 105+17
• 1211+17
CONCEMTRAT ION AปE.SPECซ
1SO-
"CI/CC
. 131-07
• ' ? 1 - 0 9
• -JT6-08
.207-09
. 112-09
.317-10
. '30- 1 1
.534-1 1
• 1 20-1 1
. 131-07
•923-08
•206-Dn
• 209-09
. 1 11-09
. J71-1 0
•832- 1 1
•b72-l 1
• 1 2B-1 1
. 131-07
•973-08
•20*-08
.210-09
. 1 11-09
• 372-.1T
• a 3 s - 1 1
.576-1 1
• 1 29-1 1
AVE.
UCI/CC
.113-07
.1 19-07
.656-08
•220-09
. 181-09
. 101-09
.87.9-1 1
•691-1 1
.381-1 1
.113-07
. 120-07
.657-08
.221-09
. 1 87-09
. 102-09
.885-1 1
.711-1 1
.107-1 1
. 113-07
. 120-07
•6S7-OB
•Z23-09
.187-09
. 103-09
•B92-1 1
.716-1 1
•110-11
4CTIVITY
UCI/GM
.375-01
.311-01
. 173-01
.579-06
.185-06
.266-06
.21ซ-07
. 183-07
.100-U7
.376-01
.315-01
. 173-01
.584-06
.191-06
.270-06
.233-07
.195-07
. 107-07
.376-01
.315-01
.173-01
.587-06
.192-06
.270-06
.235-07
. 194-07
.108-07
            RAD10NUCLTDE   I 135
            HALF LI^E  .77s*oo OATI;
            TOTAL RFLEASE  .181*93 CURIES
            NATURAL CO"CF.NTRATION OF
IN SEA'-ATEB  .600-07 GRAMS PER CC
            .320-07     .370*03
CURRENT OOWN
VELOCITv CUKRENT
N M / D A f
.50
.50
• SO
.5?
.50
.50
• C'J
.5,0
.50
I.on
1.00
1.00
l.CP
I.On
1 . 0 r:
1.CO
1 .on
I.Cr.
21. OP
21. CC
21. on
21. on
21. on
21.00
2 1 • 0 0
21 .CC
21.cn
NM
1 .00
1 .CO
1 .01
8.00
ft. CO
8.00
1 0 • 0 o
•jo.rn
10.00
1 .rn
1 .00
1 .no
fl.Qn
<=.oo
P. on
ip.cn
in. oo
10- On
1 .Or
1 .00
1 -00
a. en
s. en
f ซC?
ID-no
""•no
1C.DO
RADIUS
,\JM
.US
. 10
.20
.10
.8n
1.60
2. [1C
1 . 0 r>
a . U n
.US
. 10
'21
.in
. rin
1 .60
2 . Lin
1 .Dn
1 .nrj
• 05
• 1 n
• 20
• in
.BO
1 .6n
2 ป 1 1 !?
1.00
fi.O"
TIME
"AYS
2. On
2.00
2.00
1 6.00
1* .on
16.00
BO. on
33. on
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.01
2. Co
2.00
in.c?
10.cn
1C. OC>
• 01
.01
• 01
• 33
• 33
.33
) .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
. 161+13
.A57+13
•263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
.168+1*
• 263+1 6
•105+17
• 1 2 P + 1 7
• t 61+1 3
^S'+l 3
.263+11
•105+15
•12n+|S
• 1 6P+ 1 A
.263+16
• 105*1 7
•17n*| 7
• 161*1 3
•657+13
•263+lu
•105+15
•120+lb
. I6H+ ] 6
•263+ 1 6
.105+17
•120+1 7
CONCENTRATION AvE.SPEC.
ISP- AVE. ACTIVITY
"CI/CC
.272-04
. 153-OA
. J'i 1-07
.212-23
. 1 AA-23
.371ซ*21
. or rf
• On"!
. 0 " 0
. 171-01
. 1 ?Q-Q1
. 267-05
.3"i7-ofl
•23ฐ-OH
.532-09
. 303- 1 s
.ZOH- 1 n
.1*5-19
.293-01
. 2 •- 1 - o i
, M^9_n^
.221-04
, i c, f . o ^
. 33V-/17
.3 1 9-P9
.21 V-C9
.in?- 1 n
UCI/CC
.236-06
.199-06
. 109-06
.258-23
•?16-23
. I 18-23
.000
.000
.000
• 185-01
. 1 55-01
•P53-05
.369-08
. 3P9-Q8
.170-08
.323-18
•270-18
. 118-18
•312-01
•26 1 -01
• 113-01
.235-04
. 197-04
. 1 08-04
•339-09
•7P1-09
. 154-09
UCI/GM
.39M+01
.330+01
-. 1 8 1 + U I
.129-16
.359-16
.197-16
.000
.000
.000
.309+03
. 259+03
.112+03
•616-U1
.515-01
.283-01
• 538-1 1
.150-1 1
.217-1 1
.519+03
.135+03
.239+03
•392+01
•328+01
• 1 BO + U 1
•545-02
.173-02
•260-02
                                    280

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release



             RAOIONUCLIOE   XT t3s
             MปLF LIFE   .381+00 DAYS
             TOTAL RELEASE  .155+03. CURIES
             NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER .,N SEAGATE*  .10n-09 GRAMS PER CC
             KปXIMUซ PERMISSIBLE                         .,;„,,        OQ
             DAUGHTER nF PREVIOUS RAP IC*UCLIDE. DECAY FRACTION'.   l.nQOO
CURRENT DOWN
VELOCITY CURRENT
NH/DAY NM









"<
1
H
1
14
1

e
10
10
10
l
i
i
n
8
8
10
in
IP
1
1
1
s
8
R
10
in
10
• on
• OP.
.or
.CP
.00
• or;
• OP
.00
• OP
.00
.OC
• PO
.00
.00
.on
.on
.00
.on
,nr>
• c1?
.oc
• OP
.00
• on
.on
.00
.(in
RADIUS
N>!
,05
.10
.zn
• IT
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.UO
B .U"
.US
. 1"
.2n
.in
.SfJ
1 .60
2. on
i.un
8. on
.05
. in
.2n
• 10
.60
1 .60
2.01
1.0P
8.00
TIMF
CAYS
2
2
7
1 6
16
16
80
PO
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.OP
.00
.00
. n n
.00
• 00
"05
• DO
.00
.25
.25
.25
• on
.00
.00
• T ^
.00
.on
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
voi UME
CC
. 1 6"+] 3
.657+13
.263+1 1
• 105+15
.120+15
• 16B+I 6
"263+16
. 105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
. 1 6 B + l 6
.263+16
• 105+17
>i2n + i 7
. 1 61+ 1 3
.657+1 3
"763+11
• 105+lS
.120+15
. 1 6 8 + l 6
•263*16
. 1H5+J7
.120+17
CONCENl
150-
"CI/CC
.251-05
. 173-05
.385-06
.121-18
.292-18
.651-19
.nnr)
• oon
.Onn
• zic-ni(
.193-01
.130-05
.393-07
.27007

.931-15
.61413-15
. 1 '4 3 - 1 5
. 3™6-01
.210-pt
."69-DS
• •*! 1-06
.2*52-06
.630-07
.271-08
. 1H6-0")
•"15-09
"RATION A"E.SPECซ
AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/GN
.267-05
.721-05
. 123-05
•151-18
.378-18
•2nB-18
.000
.000
.000
•29B-P1
.250-01
. 137-01
.118-07
•350-07
.192-07
.991-15
.829-15
.156-15
.325-01
.272-01
" 150-01
.137-06
.366-06
.201-06
.288-08
.211-08
. 132-08
.267+05
.221+05
.123+05
.151-08
.378-08
.208-08
.000
.000
• 000
.293+06
.250+06
.137+06
.118+03
.350+03
. 192+03
.991-05
.829-05
.156-05
.325+06
.272+06
. 150+06
.137+01
.366+01
.201+01
.288+02
.211+02
. 132+02
             CS 136
HALF LIFE   .137+02 OAYS
TOTAL RELFASE  .112-01 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAGATE*
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
                                                      un-nj GRAMS PER CC
                                                      .600-0%    .110+00
CURRENT
VTLOCITV
NM/DAY
.5n
.sn
.50
.sn
.sn
• 5U
.sn
• 5C
• sn
1.00
i.on
i.on
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.on
21.00
2 1 ซ o n
21.00
71 . on
21.00
21 .on
21. on
21.01
21.00
00*'N
* U a R E N T
NH
1 .00
1 .on
1 .00
8.00
8. OP
8.00
". n . 0 n
10.00
10.00
1 .00
l .on
1 .00
a. oc
8.00
8.CC
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
i .on
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00

RADIUS

N*
.05
. 10
.zn
.in
.so
1 .60
2 • ni
i.no
8. t'n
.05
.11
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
. 10
.zn
.10
.an
1.61)
2.00
i.on
8. on
T I ME

DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
80-00
.25
.25
.25
2.02
2. PC
2.0C
10.00
I'O.OO
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME

CC
. 16M+|3
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
.16B+16
.263+16
.105+|7
• 120+1 '
. 16-4+13
•657+13
.263*11
. 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
• IUS+I7
.120+17
. 161+1 3
.657+13
.263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
"263+1 6
•10S+|7
.120+17
C n N c E N 1
isn-
'JCl/CC
.680-09
.167-09
. lnn-39
.b23- 1
.360- 1
.802- 2
"ป22- 1
.bite.- U
. 176-11
.713-09
.51 0-P9
. 1 11-09
. 106-11
.730-1 1
. 1 63-1 1
.Zซ3-l 2
. 195-1?
.135-1 3
.751-09
.516-09
. I 15-"9
. 1 16-in
. 79q-l l
. !77-l 1
."32-1?
.297-1 2
.663-1 3
FRATION A
AVF.
UCI/CC
.723-09
.605-09
.333-09
.557-1 I
.166-1 1
.256-1 1
.S71-1 1
.732-11
.10Z-H
.790-09
.661-09
.363-09
. I 13-10
.916-1 1
.570-1 1
.302-12
.252-12
=139-12
.798-09
.668-09
.367-09
. 1Z3-10
. 103-10
.565-1 1
•160-1Z
.385-12
.211-12
vE.SPEC.
ACTIVITY
IJCI/C.M
. 190-05
.159-05
.875-06
.116-07
. 123-07
.67M-OB
.230-10
.193-10
. 106-10
.208-05
.171-05
.956-06
.297-07
.219-07
.137-07
.79<4-U9
.661-09
.365-09
.210-05
.176-05
.966-06
.321-07
i27|-07
. 119-07
. 121-08
. 101-08
.556-09
                                      281

-------
Down-current Distribution for  LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
            SAIMONUCLIDE   CS U7

            H41F {.Iff   .109*05 DAYS

            TOTAL RELEASE  .371*03 CURIES

            NATURAL CiNCENTPATION OF CARRIER  IN SF.AIf.'ATER
.380-03 GRAMS PER CC
  .200-05     .210-01
CURRENT OOปN
VELOCITY rURRFNT
MM/DAY NM
.50
.50
.so
.50
• so
.sn
.61
.50
• SO
i.oo
1.00
i.on
1.00
i .cn-
1r€0
1.00
H.OO
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. CO
21.00
21.00
21. CO
21.00
I .03
1 .00
1.00
fl.OO
B.nn
e.oo
10.00
MO. 00
HO. 00
1 .00
t .00
1 .00
fl.OO
8.00
".00
10.00
10.00
'10.00
1 .00
1.00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
RADIUS
NM
.us
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2,00
1.00
8.110
• U5
.10
.20
.in
.30
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.83
1 .60
2.00
1.0?
8 .00
TIME
OATS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
. |*1*l3
.657+13
.243+11
.105*15
•120*15
. 168*16
.263*16
• 105*17
.120*1 7
.161*13
.657*13
•263+|1
• 105*|5
•120*|5
• 168+16
•263+16
• 105*17
.120*1 7
= 161*|3
• 657+-13
•263+1"
. 105+15
.120*15
• 168*16
ซ2A3*|6
.105+17
.120+ 1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE.S.PEC.
ISO- AVF. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/CC UCI/GM
.SSS-07
.102-07
.177-08
.'13-09
.628-09
. 110-09
. 3 A 1 - J 0
•250-10
.558-1 |
.585-07
.102-07
.897-08
.911-09
.628-09
. 110-09
.365-10
.251-10
.560-1 1
•S85-07
•102-07
.397-08
•911-09
•628-09
• 110-09
.366-10
.251-10
.561-1 1
.622-07
.521-07
.286-07
.971-09
.813-09
.117-09
.387-10
.321-10
. [78-10
.622-07
.521-07
.784-07
.972-09
.811-09
.117-09
.389-10
.325-10
. 179-10
.622-07
.521-07
.286-07
.972-09
.811-09
.117-09
.389-10
.326-10
•179-10
• 161-03
. 137-03
.753-01
•256-05
.211-05
•118-05
. 102-06
.852-07
.168-07
. 161-03
. 137-03
.753-01
.256-05
.211-05
.1 IB-OS
.102-06
.856-07
.170-07
•161-03
.137-03
.753-01
.256-05
.211-05
. 1 18-05
• 102-06
.857-07
.171-07
            RAOIONUCUDF   XE 138
            HALF LIFE   .122-01  OAYS
            TOTAL RELEASE  .las+oi CURIES
            NATURAL CONCENTRATION or CARRIER  IN SEAKATEB
                   PERMISSIBLE
.100-09 GRAMS PER CC

  •001       .000
CURRENT 0 0 ป N
VELOCITY rURRFNT
NM/DAV









1
1
1
1
1
1
14
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.On
.00
.on
.On
.on
.01
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.on
.00
.00
.00
• oc
• nn
.On
1
1
1
8
8
R
10
10
10
1
1
1
B
B
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
8
H
8
10
up
qn
•N"
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
• nn
.on
.on
• CO
• on
• on
.03
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
• on
.On
RADIUS
MM
.us
• 10
• zn
.in
. flr
I .6C
2 . u n
1.00
8 . 'J n
• 05
. in
.2n
• 10
.an
1 ซ*0
2.un
1.UO
B.yn
.[15
.10
.20
•10
.80
1 .60
2.UO
1.00
8.UO
TIIE
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
83
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.Oi
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME
cc
. 1 A1+1 3
.657+13
.263+11
. 105*15
.120*15
. 163*16
•263*16
.105*1 7
.120+17
• 161+13
•657+13
•263+11
.105+15
•120+15
. 168+16
.263*16
.105+17
.120+1 7
. 161+1 3
.657+13
•263+11
•105+15
.120+15
- 168*16
.263*16
•105*1 7
•120* 1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
'JCI /CC
• OOf)
.0?0
.Onn
.000
.0^0
.000
• 303
.0"?
.000
•HHS- i n
•ssi-in
.130-10
.T,"T
.Ono
.000
• 3 ni
.000
.000
. 1 17-ni
.Rni-05
. 179-05
.116-1-3
.798-11
. 173-1 1
• OnO
.Onn
, nn n
uci/cc
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.899-10
.753-10
.113-10
.000
.000
.000
.noo
.000
.000
. 121-01
. 101-01
.570-05
. 121-13
. 1 03-13
.568-11
.000
.nOC
.000

•
•
•
•
•
*
•
*
ซ
•
*
•
•
*
t
,
•
•
•
•
•
•
.
•
•
•
•
UCI/GM
000
000
000
ooo
000
000
000
000
000
899+00
753*00
11 3*00
000
000
000
000
000
000
121*06
101*06
570*05
121-03
103-U3
568-01
000
000
000
                                     282

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF- COOLANT Accident,  Batch Release
            RAD10NUCLIDE   CS  138
            HALF  LIFE  .221-01 DAYS
            TOTAL RELEASE  .210*0?
                                                       "
            DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS -AD10NUCL lot .  DECAY FRACTIO
                                                         ,.0000
CURRENT nOWN
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DAY
f tm









1
M
"*
11
1
"*
**
*
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
• TปU
.50
• 50
• 50
• bO
• 50
• sn
• 50
• 50
• on
• 00
• CO
• 00
• 00
• 00
• on
• 00
• no
• nn
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
• 00

'
1
1
*
8
'
10
10
40
1
1
1
ft
fl
8
10
ซ0
MO
1
1
1
8
8
8
10
10
10
NM
• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
• On
• 00
• 00
• 00
• on
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
• CO
• 00
• oc
• 00
• 00
• CO
• 00
• oo
• on
• 00
• go
.on
RADIUS
TIME
NI DAYS





1
2
1
8





1
2
M
a





l
2
1
S
• Oft
• 10
.20
.10
.80
.6n
.on
.1.0
.00
.05
• 10
• 20
.in
.80
.60
.01
.on
• Of!
• US
.10
.2n
• 10
.fln
.60
.un
• 00
• 00
2.
2.
2.
16.
I*.
16.
80.
?0.
SO.
•
•
*
2.
2.
2.
10.
10.
10.
•
•
.
•
•
*
1 .
1 .
00
oo
on
on
oo
On
00
00
00
25
25
25
00
00
00
00
oo
oo
01
01
01
33
33
33
67
67
1 .67
VOLUI'E
CC
• 161* 13
.657*13
.263*11
* 105*15
•120*15
• 168*16
•263+16
• 105*17
•120*17
• 161*|3
•657*13
•263*11
• 105*15
•120*1 5
-- 168*] 6
•263*16
•106*17
•12nป| 7
• 1*1*1 3
•iS7*|3
•263*11
• 105*15
•12D*15
• I6ปป] 6
•263*1 6
• 105*|7
•120*1 1
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
'•ICI/CC
•201-30
•I38-3T
•309-3
• 000
• 000
• 000
• Ono
• unn
• Ooo
•655-07
•150-07
• 100-07
•315-3?
•216-32
•183-33
.000
• uoc
.000
.271-01
> 188-01
•120-05
.778-10
•535-10
• 1 19-1?
.379-29
•261-29
•SS1-30
AVE-
UCI/CC
•211-30
•179-3Q
•986-31
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
.697-07
.581-07
•321-07
•335-32
•280-32
•151-32
• 000
• 000
• 000
•291-01
,21ซ4-oi
•131-01
•828-ln
.693-10
•381-10
•103-29
•338-29
•1S5-29
ACTIVITY
UC1/GM
•561-27
•172-27
•259-27
• 000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
•183-03
• 151-03
.811-01
.881-29
•738-29
•105-29
• oot
.000
.000
•767-01
•612-01
.353-01
•218-06
. 182-06
s 100-06
• 106-25
•88R-26
.188-26
            PAOIONUCLIDF.   R*  HO
            HALF  LIFE  .i2ซ*oz OซYซ;
            TOTAL RFLFASF  .197*02 CURIES
            ""ATURAL cn&cf>TRATioN CF CARRIES IN SFAJ/ATER
            MAXIMUM
 n.ny GRAMS PER CC
.320-01     .150*03
CURRENT POW-J RADIUS
VELOCITY CURRENT
^M/DAY










q
If


u
ซ
4
2*ป
2**
2**
2**
2ซ
2**
• 50
• 5C*
• 50
• 50
• 50
• 50
• sn
. t O
• 3 LJ
. nn
• \J U
* nr
• u u
• 00

• CO
• CO
• en
p n
• LJ ' '
.on
.on
• on
. OC
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
1 1
1
t

f.
p
10
10
10

1
1



"0
10
1

ft
8
B
MO
ซ+o
40
NW
.01
.00
.on
.or>
• or*
.on
• CD
• vn
• 00
* oc
• 00
• 00
, QH
n n
• U ' J
. nn
• v U
.00
• nn
• U -
.oc-
.01
o n
• f J "
• 0 "
.00
• on
• 00
.00
.00
• no
TIME
N!" DAYS





I
2
1
8





1
2
1
A


2
1
n
• US
. in
.2fl
.10
.80
.60
.00
.00
.00
,0f>
. 10
.20

. 8n
.An
.nn
.nn
.on
.0%
.in
. 2 n
• 10
.80
• UO
.00
.00
2
2
2
1 6
16
16
80
80
80



2

2
10
10
10


1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
• oo
.00
• 00
.01
• 0"
• 01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUMF
CC
. 161*13
.657*13
•263*11
•105*15
•120+15
.168*16
•263*16
•tOSป|7
•120+17
.1*1*13
.657*13
.263*11
• 10S*l5
•120*15
. 161+16
.263*16
.105*17
•12n*l7
. 161+1 3
.657*13
.263*11
.120*15
. 16C+16
.2*3*16
. 105*17
•120* 1 1
CONCENTIป*T!nN A
ISO- ซVE.
UCI/CC
.1 19-05
.816-06
.182-1*
.869-08
.597-01
.133-08
.109-10
.717-1 1
. 167-1 1
,131-05
.897-06
•2np-06
. 186-07
.127-n7
.2B1-ni!
.181-09
•331-n9
•738-in
• 132-05
.ฅ"7-06
.202-06
•2n3-07
. 110-07
.31 1-08
.756-P9
.519-09
. 1 16-09
UCI/CC
. 1 26-05
. 106-05
.581-06
.925-08
.771-08
.125-08
.116-10
.9*?-! 1
.532-1 1
.139-05
.1 16-05
.639-06
.197-07
.1*5-07
."08-08
.612-09
.129-09
.235-09
. 110-05
. 1 11-05
.616-06
.216-07
.181-07
.993-08
.801-09
.673-09
.370-09
VE.SปEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.121*02
.352*02
.191*02
.308*00
.258*00
. | 12*00
.386-03
.323-03
. 177-U3
.143*02
.387*02
.213*02
.658*00
.551*00
.303*00
.171-01
. 113-01
.785-02
.168*02
.392*02
.215*02
.720*00
.603*00
.331+00
.248-01
.221-01
.123-01
                                     283

-------
Down-current Distribution for LOSS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
                         L*  no
            HALF LITE  •141+01 UAY?
            TOTAL RFLFASF  .198*02  C'JSIES
            NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIED IN SEA-ATER  ,30fl-?>9 GRAMS PEN CC
            fftX|ซUM PFH-MSSIBLE                         .38n-06    .180*01
            CAU6HTER nF PREVIOUS RAD IONUCLIDE ,  DECAY FRซCTION  =  1.0000

n n ?• N
RAOIUS
LOCIT" CURRENT
NM/OAY
• SO
.50
.50
.sr.
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
t-on
21.0.0
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
IONUCLTDE   PR 113
            HALF LIKF.   .134+02  DAYS
            TOTAL RELFASE  .181+02 CUKIES
"JATyRAL C1NCtปiTRAT I0>) OF CซซR1ER
IN SEAwATER .310-
MAXIMUM PFป*isS!flLE .95
CURRENT
VELOCIT"
NM/PAV
.50
.51
.51
• S-3
.51
.50
.SO
.51
.50
1.GO
I.L'O
1.00
1.C1
i.cn
1 - CO
l.no
I.CO
1 ซ DO
2 1 . C 0
21.00
21. M
21.01
21.00
21.00
21.?."]
2i.ro
71.10
no*N
CURRENT
f.'M
1 .00
1.00
1 .00
8.00
D.QO
n.oa
10.00
10.10
•< 0 . 0 0
1 .".1
1 .11
1 .00
fl.OO
ซ.oo
".00
10.00
'10.00
10-00
1 .en
1 .11
I -GO
3 .00
8.1.1
8.00
10 .10
I0.no
10-00
KAO]US

MM
• U5
.10
.21
.11
.30
1 .60
2.01
1 . U1
8.111
• 05
. 10
• 20
.10
.80
1 -40
2. no
1 .1.10
8 . 0 n
• OS
• 1')
• 2i
• 10
• so
1 .40
2.U1
1-UO
8.UQ
TjMF

OAYS
2.00
2.01
2.00
14.00
16.00
16.00
flo.as
ซ0.oo
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.01
2. OQ
2.00-
10.00
10.00
i o.oa
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .47
1 .67
VOLU!"E

CC
•161+13
•657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
•121+15
• 148+14
•243+16
•105+17
•120+ 17
• 141+ 1 3
•657+13
•243+[1
• 105+15
•120+15
• 148+ 1 6
•243+16
• 105+17
•120+ 1 7
• 1 61+1 3
•657+| 3
• 243+1 1
• 105+15
•120*15
• 168+J6
•263+16
. 1 11 5 + 1 7
.120+17
CONCEN1
isn-
UCl/CC
• 1 1 2-05
.767-16
. 17 t-04
.S51-08
•587-nq
. 131-08
. I 3 t'- 1 1
.89ซ-l 1
.201-1 1
. 127-05
.139-14
- 1S7-04
. 1 7U-17
.170-17
.247-03
,1^U-J9
. 3 1 9 -IP
• M 1-10
. 123-05
. 8 H 7 - 0 4
. i nv-nt,
. 19C-07
. 130-D7
.29 1 -is
.719-19
. 1 B P. - 0 9
. 1 09-19
• 19 GRAMS PER CC
;n.07
•RAT JIN
AVr.
UC1/CC
. 1 1'9-05
.991-06
.514-06
.909-08
•760-08
•" 18-08
- 1 39-10
.114-10
.439-1 1
- 1 30-05
• 109-05
•597-C4
. 1 BS-07
. 155-07
•R53-08
.193-09
.11 3-09
.727-09
. 131-05
. 1 10-05
.413-04
.207-07
. 149-07
o9?9-08
.755-09
.432-09
.317-09
.181*01
AvE.SPEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.394+01
.331+01
. 182+01
.303+02
.253+02
. 139+D2
.163-01
.38B-01
.21 3-01
.133+01
•362+01
. 199+01
.618+02
.51 8+U2
.281+02
. 141+01
. 1 38+01
.754+00
.137+01
•346+01
.201+01
•6/3+02
• 563 + 'J2
•310+02
•252+01
•211+01
. 1 16+01
                                    284

-------
Down-current Distribution for IX)SS-OF-COOLANT Accident, Batch Release
                      CE 111
           HALF LIFE  .281+03 OATS
           TOTAL RELEASE  .110+02 CURIES
           NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  ]N SEASiATER
           MAXIMUM "ER11SSI3LE
.300-09 6RAMS PER CC
 -190-0*    .230*02
CURRENT OQ'.ซN RADIUS
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY NM NM
•50 1.00 .U5
1







1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2t
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
".00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• rn
.00
.00
.00
1 .00
1 .00
0.00
s. no
9.00
10.00 '
10.00
10.00
I .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8 .00
10. SO
io.ro
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
a.oo
10.00
10.00
10.00
•
•
.
•
1 .
2.
1.
8.
.
9
.
•
•
1 •
2.
•ป.
8.
•
,
•
*

1 .
2.
1 .
8.
10
20
10
81
60
un
on
00
OS
in
2n
10
80
60
00
00
on
05
in
20
10
60
60
00
00
00
TIMF
DAYS
2.00
2
2
1 6
16
16
SO
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
• 03
• 00
• on
• 00
• 00
• 00
• 00
.On
• 25
.25
.25
.CD
.00
• 03
• 00
.00
• 00
• 01
• 01
• 01
• 33
• 33
• 33
• 67
.67
.67
VOLUME
CC
• 161+1 3
.657+ l 3
.263+1 ••
. 105+15
•170+15
• 168+16
•263*16
• 105+1 7
•120+17
• 1 61+13
.657+1 3
•263+11
.105*15
•120+15
. 1 68+ 1 6
.263+16
• 105+17
•120+17
• 161 + 13
•657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+1 5
• 168+ 1 6
•263+16
. 1U5*17
.120*1 7
ISP-
UCI/CC
• 9.16-06
.613-04
. 113-06
. 11 1-07
•97 1-08
.217-08
.193-09
. 332-09
•711-10
•9HO-06
,616-06
. 1 11-06
. 1 "6-07
. 100-07
.2?1-08
.573-09
,391-09
• 379-M
•91Q-P6
.616-0*
. 111-06
• 117-07
• 101-n7
•225-08
.585-09
•1H2-09
.S98-11
RATION AVE.S"EC.
AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCt/GM
.995-06 .332*01
*
•
*
•
.
•
*
*
•
•
833-06
158-06
150-07
126-07
691-08
511-09
131-09
237-09
100-05
837-06
• •460-06
•
*
•
•
•
•
A
•
•
•
•
*
•
•
•
156-07
130-07
7 15-08
610-09
51 1-09
281-09
1 00-05
837-06
160-06
156-07
131-07
718-08
623-09
521-09
286-09
.278*01
.153*01
.501*02
.119+02
.230+02
.171+01
. 111+01
.788*00
.333*U"
.279*01
. 153+01
.518+02
.131+02
.238+02
.203+01
. 170+01
.935+00
.333+01
.279+01
. 153+01
.521+02
.136+02
.239+02
•208+01
. 171+01
.951+00
                                285

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
          .10E    H  3

   HALF  LIFE   .117+01 DAYS

   TOTAL RELFASF  .181*03 CURIES
   '!ATURjL c"f'Cc''-!T''Alr I ON OF
          PERMISSIBLE
IN
            l"n + r>|1 <5ซAMS PER CC
             .H70-01     .HO--02
C U R " ฃ tj T
00ป 10
.20
.in
.80
.60
.on
.un
• on
• 0*
. in
.2(1
.10
.80
.60
.00
.(in
10. On 8.00
3 AYS
7
7.
2
16
16
16
80
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






I
1
1
• on
• nn
.00
.00
.00
• 00
• on
• 03
• on
.25
.25
.25
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.on
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
• 67
.67
• 67
cc
. I 6M+ | 3
.657+13
•263+11
. ins+15
.120+15
. 16B+| A
.263+16
. IOS+1 7
.120*17
. 161+1 3
• 657* 13
•263*11
•105*15
•120*15
. 168*16
•26J+16
.'105*17
•120*17
. 161*13
.657*13
•263*11
' 105*15
.120+15
. 16S+1 6
•263+16
• 105+17
.120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
'JCI/CC
.921-07
•S66-07
. 126-07
.908-09
.621-09
. 139-09
. '37-1 1
.507-1 1
•113-11
.861-07
.592-07
. 132-07
• 129-08
."85-09
. 197-09
-122-10
•290-10
.617-1 i
.865-07
.595-07
. 1 33-07
. 131-08
.973-09
.206-09
,bl9-ln
.357-10
;797-ll
AVE.
UC1 /CC
.877-07
.731-07
.103-07
.966-09
.809-09
.111-09
.781-1 1
.656-1 1
.361-1 1
.9|6-07
.767-07
.121-07
.137-08
.1 15-08
.630-09
.119-10
.376-10
.206-10
.921-07
.771-07
.123-07
.113-08
.120-08
.657-09
.553-10
.163-10
.251-10
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
. 175+01
. 117+01
.806+03
. 193+02
• 162 + 02
.889+01
. 157+00
. 131+00
.721-01
.183+01
•153+01
.812+03
•271+02
.229+02
.126+02
.898+00
.752+00
.113+00
. 181+01
. 151+01
.817+03
.286+02
.239+02
• 131+02
.111+01
•925+00
•508+00
                             286

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   RADIONUCLIDF.  MN S
   HALF LIFE   .303*03
   TOTAL RELEASE  .930-03 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
IAXIMUK PERMISSIBLE
CURRENT 00','iN RAD|US TjMฃ
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY









1
ซ4
44
<4
1
t
q
1
<4
2"
• r>n
.50
.50
.50
• SO
.SO
.50
.SO
.50
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
21. on
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.no
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00

1
1
1
8
8
8
N"
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
10. CI
'40
10
I
1
1
fl
8
8
10
•to
10
1
1
1
8
8
R
10
10
10
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.03
.00
.00
.00
. 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00






I
2
1
a





1
2
1
8





1
2
oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
10.00






1
1
1
.01
.01
.0"
.33
• 33
.33
.67
.67
><57
IN SEAGATE' .700-0" GPAM5 PER CC
.181-13 .580 + 03
VOLUlE COi.'CEMTRAT [Ox AVE. SPEC-
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
CC
•161+13
.657+13
•263+11
.105+15
.121+1 5
. 168+16
.263+1 1
.105+1 7
"120+17
. 16"+ 1 3
.657+13
•263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
• 168+16
•263+16
•105+|7
•120+17
.161+1 3
•657+13
"263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
. | 68+ 1 6
•263+16
• 105+1 7
.120+17
'JCI /CC
.677-09
.177-09
.953-10
••'I 1-1 1
. 4 M 7 - 1 1
• 1M1-1 1
..175-1 7
.273-12
•199-I3
•471-09
.179-09
•9R7-I r
.971-11
. 6 f. fl - 1 I
. 119-1 1
.3S?-I 7
.262-1 2
. 5 B 5 . | 3
.67S-09
.•470.09
.95(1-11
•97S-1 1
.470-1 I
• 150-1 1
.3S<>-1 7
. 267-1 7
.596-1 1
UCI/CC
.461-09
.551-09
.3P1-09
. 100-10
.838-11
.140-1 I
.314-12
.790-12
•159-12
.661-09
.556-09
.305-09
. 103-10
."45-1 1
.175-1 1
.116-12
.310-12
. 187-12
.661-09
.556-09
.316-09
. 111-10
.868-1 1
.177-1 1
.111-12
.316-1 2
• 190-12
UCI/SN
.331+00
.277+00
. 152 + 00
.500-02
.119-02
.230-02
. 173-03
. 115-03
.795-01
.332+00
.278+00
. 153+00
.517-02
.133-02
.238-02
.203-03
. 170-03
.933-01
.337+00
.278+00
. 153+00
.519-02
.131-02
.239-02
.207-03
.173-03
.951-01
XAOIONUCLTCC  FE 55
HALF LIFE   .919+03 DAY?
TOTAL RELEASE  .iso-oi CURIES
NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN
MAXIMUM
                                        .100-17 GRAMS PER CC
                                          .251-07    .3VO+01
CURRENT nn''"-N
VELOCITY CURRFNT
MM/DAY NM,
.50
so
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.OO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
2i.ro
7 1 . nn
^ T . IJ 1
2** ป fin
2*4 , co
2*4 * no
<• ii n n
2 1 . C"i
21.00
21.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .CO
8.00
8.00
8.00
-10.00
10.00
10.00
I .00
1 -00
1 .00
a. oo
8.00
8. CO
10.00
10.00
10.01
1 .en
1 . 00
1 . 00
8 .00
8.00
8.00

10.0"
10.00
RADIUS
• iJ5
. I n
.20
.10
.BO
1 .60
2.00
1.01
s.m
.05
• 10
.20
.If
.81
1 .60
2.UO
1.00
O.EIO
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.11
8.01
TIME
DAYS
2.00
2.0-1
2.00
16.00
14.00
1 6.00
80.00
8 0.00
SO. 00
• 25
.25
.25
2.00
2.0"
2.00
10.00
10.00
10. or
*0i
'. C4
.01
.33
.31
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUปE
CC
. 141+1 3
.657+13
.263+ | 1
• 105+1b
.170+15
."168+16
.263+1 6
• 1 05+17
. u 7 n + l 7 '
. 141+1 3
•657+13
.263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
• 1 4fl+ | 4
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+1 7
. 1 '•'4+1 3
.457+13
.263+1 1
• 105+15
.120+ 1 5
. 148+16
.243+16
. 105+1 7
.121+17
ClN'CENTRATInN AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVF. ACTIVITY
"Cl/CC UC1/CC UCI/GM
. 312-08
.207-08
."43-09
.147-1 0
.371-10
.'16-11
. 178-1 1
. I 72-1 1
.273-1?
.302-08
.2"8-09
.163-09
.172-10
.321-10
. 773-1 1
. IS8-1 1
. 129-1 |
.288-12
.302-08
.219-08
.1A3-09
.172-10
.171-10
.771-1 |
. 18V-1 1
• 130-1 1
.2
-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   R*niONUCLfDC   CO 58
   HALF LIFE   ;7i3*o2
   TOTAL RELEASE  .158+01 CURIES
   Ml T U R AI  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN 5 F A I* A V E R
   MAXIMUM  PF
           ,c;pn-n9  G"AM.S PER CC
             .230-07     .890*02
CURRENT
VELOCITY '
NM/DAY








1
H
1
q
M
14
1
1
6n
2. CO
1.UO
8.UO
• 05
v 10
•25
• 10
.BO
1 .6n
2. on
l.on
8. on
f.
2
2
16
14
16
K1
83
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
• uu
• 00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
• On
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
• 33
.33
.33
• 67
• 67
.67
CC
.657+13
.2*3+11
. 105+ j 5
.120+ 15
. 1*9+1 6
. 2 4 3 + 1 A
. 105+17
"120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
> 105+ (5
.120+15
• 168+16
•263+16
. 105+17
•120+ 1 7
•161+1 3
•657+13
•263+)1
• 105+15
•120+15
. 168+1 6
•263+1*
• 105 + 1 7
.120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVf. ACTIVITY
DC I/CC
.715-07
. 160-07
. 1 12-08
.975-09
.218-09
.JOS- in
,2-19. l T
.1*7-1 I
. 106-06
•77S-07
. 162-07
. 1*3-08
. 1 1 Z-Ofl
. ?M9-09
.607-1(1
.111-10
.923-1 1
. l"A-n*
. 729-07
. 1*3-07
. 165-OB
. 1 11-OR
.253-09
.653-tn
.11*8-10
. 100-1 o
uci/cc
.927-07
.509-07
• 151-08
. 126-08
•691-09
.321-10
.271-10
.119-10
. 1 13-06
.913-07
•518-07
. 1 73-08
. 115-08
.796-09
.610-10
•53*-10
•291-10
• 1 13-06
.91(5-07
.519-07
. 1 76-08
. 117-08
.109-09
.691-10
•5S1 -10
.319-10
UC1/GM
. 185+03
. 102+03
.302+01
.253+01
. 139+01
.618-01
.513-01
.298-01
.225+03
. 189+03
.101+03
.316+01
.290+01
. 159+QI
. 128+00
,107+00
.589-01
.2-26 + 03
. 189 + 03
. 101+03
.352+01
.29M+01
. 162+01
. 139+OO
. 1 14+00
.639-01
   RAOIONUCLIDE  FE 59
   HALF LIFE   .156+02 DATS
   TOTAL RELFASE  .720-02 CURIES
   NATURAL CnNCENTRAT ION OF CARRIER
   MAXIMUM PCซMISSIHLE
IN SFAWATEP
           .100-07 GRAMS PER CC
            .170-08    .890+00
CURRENT
DOWN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.6"
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.5"
.5C
1.00
i.on
l.on
i.OO
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
21. on
21.00
21. on
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
21-02
21. on
NM
I .on
1 .00
i -co
8. on
fl.on
8. on
10. on
'1 0 . 0 0
IO.OP
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.0C
B^GO
S.pn
10. On
1". 00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
l .on
8.00
8ซca
s. en
10.00
i o . o n
10.00
NM
•"5
• 10
.20
.10
. ar?
1 .60
2 .no
1-00
8.00
.05
• in
.20
.10
.60
1 .6n
2. On
1.00
8.00
.05
. in
• 20
•10
.fln
1 ป6C1
2.UO
l.nn
8 .on
DAYS
2.00
2. 00
2.00
16.00
16. On
16.00
80. UO
80.00
80,0?
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2. on
13.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
• 01
• 33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
. 1 (Su + l 3
•657+13
•263+1 1
• 10S+15
•120+15
. 168+16
•263+16
•105+17
•120+17
• 161+1 3
•6b7+|3
•263+lH
• 105+1 5
•1Zn+ | 5
• 168+16
•263+16
• 105+17
• 12fl+ t 7
• 161+ 1 3
• 657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+11
• !*ซ+]*
•243+1*
ซ 105*17
•120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
uci/cc
•H6'-"9
. J22-09
•'19-10
•5"2-l I
• 1H7-1 1
•9P9-12
•W96-1 3
• M4T1 3
• 137-13
•182-09
.331-09
.739-10
.733-1 1
.5H1-1 1
.112-11
.260-1?
. 178-1 2
.398-13
.183-09
.332-09
.741-10
.752-1 1
.517-1)
.115-11
.295-17
.203-1 2
.152-1 3
AVE.
uci/cc
.1,99-09
.118-09
•229-09
.630-1 1
.528-1 1
.290-1 1
.953-13
.798-13
.138-13
.512-09
•129-09
.234-09
.790-1 1
.653-1 1
.359-1 1
.276-12
•231-12
• 127-12
.511-09
.130-09
.236-09
.800-1 1
.6.69-1 1
.368-1 1
.313-12
.262-12
. 111-12
ACTIVITY
UCI/GW
.1(99-01
.118-01
.229-01
.630-03
.528-03
•290-03
.953-05
.798-05
.H38-OS
.512-01
.129-01
.236-01
.780-03
.6S3-03
.359-03
.276-01
.231-01
.127-01
.511-01
.130-01
.236-01
.800-03
.669-03
•368-03
.313-01
•262-OH
. 111-01
                            288

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
    RA010NUCL10F.  CO 60
    HALF LIFE   .192*01 OAYS
    TOTAL RELFASE:  .i?6*ao CUซIES
    NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
    MAXIMUM P
IN SFAซ'ATER
            OO-H9 GRAMS PER CC
            .|Sn-n7    .330*02
CURRENT nnrn
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DAY nป
.50
.50
. 50
.50
.50
. Sn
.5n
.SO
• 5n
i.on
1.00
I.OfJ
I.On
1.00
LCD
1.00
l-.Cn
l.on
21. On
Z1.C-?
21. C3
21.00
21. fin
21.00
21. On
21 .cn
21.00
I .00
\ .00
I .00
8.PO
8.PD
8.00
'10. PO
in, pn
10.00
1 .00
1 .CO
1 .00
B.no
B.OP
8. PC
10 .00
10.00
10. oc
1 .no
1 .00
1 .on
B.oo
?.oo
n.on
•(".00
'15.00
10.00
RAOIUS
NM
ซI35
. in
.20
.in
.an
1 . 6n
2 . un
•^.Qn
p'.on
.05
• 10
•20
• in
• SO
1 .60
2. UP
1.00
8. tin
• US
. in
.2.3
.in
.8n
1 .60
2. on
1.0 n
s.O"
TIME
BAYS
2.00
2.00
2. on
16.00
16,00
16. OC
80.00
SO. 00
sn.oo
.25
.25
• 25
2.00
2. 00
7. OP
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
. I61*]3
•657*1 3
.263*11
• lf)Sป|5
•120*15
• 16B+16
•263*|6
• 105*17
•120*17
. 161*13
•6S7*|3
•263*|1
• 105* 15
•I2n+i5
. 16(>*I 6
•263*16
•105*|7
•120*17
• 161*13
•657*13
•263*11
• Inn* (5
•120*1 5
• 168*1 6
•263*1 6
. !05*(7
•12n+i7
CONCENTRATION AvE.sPEC.
ISO- AVF. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/CC. UCI/GM
• 1 JB-07
.8 I 2-08
• 1 ? 1-On
. 1 B1-09
. I 76-f>9
. 782-10
•7 1 B-l 1
.193-1 1
.117-11
. 1 18-07
• PI 2-ns
• 18 1-08
. 105-0.9
. 127-no
•7fl3- in
.'36-1 1
.5r-6-l 1
.113-11
. 1 1 B-07
•ซ 17-na
. 1ซ I -tin
. 1 85-09
• 177-09
.zป3-n
. / .1 B - 1 1
•5-7-1 1
.113-11
. 126-07
. 105-07
.578-08
. 195-09
. 161-09
.898-10
.761-1 1
.639-1 |
.351-1 1
.126-07
. 105-07
.578-08
-'196-09
. 161-09
.903-10
.7B3-1 1
.656-1 1
.360-1 1
• 1 76-07
. 105-P7
•57B-Q8
• 196-09
. 1 61-09
•903-10
.785-1 1
.657-1 1
.361-1 1
•251*02
.210*02
•1 16*02
•391*00
•327*00
• 180*00
.153-01
• 128-01
•702-U2
•251*02
•211*02
•I I6*U2
.393*00
.329*00
• 181*00
•157-01
. 131-01
.720-02
.251*02
.21 1*02
• 1 16*02
.393*00
.329*00
.181*00
.157-01
•13I-U1
•722-02
   RAOIONUCLIDE   SE 7a
   HALF LIFE   .613-01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .597-03 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEA*ATER
           .700-10 GRAMS PER CC
            •nan       ซoop
CURRE&.T
VELOCITY /.
00*N
*Uf?**EN'T
NM/DAY
.50











i4


<4
1 - -
.SO
.50
.50
.50
. 50
.50
.&n
.50
• nn
• UL'
• nn
. L- J
. fjl
. U • '
.on
• nn
. U J
.00
. nn
t.no
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21ซ00
21.00
21 .00.
21. CO
21.00
1
1
1
B
fl
a
IP
1C
10
1
1
1
1
B

f)
10
10
10
i
i
i
B
9
A
'40
to
10
NM
.CO
.00
• CD

.00
.00
.on
.en
.PC
. nn
. tj •-
.00
• 00
. PO
.On
. nn
.03
.00
• OD
.00
• on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.On
.00
RADIUS
TIMC
MW 'JAYS
.05
. in
.20
.10
.ao
1 .60
2. on
1.0"!-
a.nn
.05
. in
.zn
.in
.ftn
1 .6n
Z.on
i.nn
s.uo
.US
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2. (1C
1.00
9. on
2.
2.
2.
16.
16.
16.
83.
80.
80.
.
.
,
2.
2.
2.
10.
10.
10.
1 .
1 .
1 .
00
00
OP
0"
on
PO
00
On
OC
25
25
25
TO
On
OC
OC
on
00
01
01
33
33
33
67
67
67
VOLUME
CC
• 161*1 3
•657*1 3
•263*11
•105*15
• 12n*rS
•168*16
•263*16
. ins*] 7
• 120*1 7
• 161*1 3
.657*13
•263*11
• 105*15
•120* 1 S
. 1 6 '} ซ 1 6
•?63*16
. 105*17
.MZn* 1 7
.1*1+13
.657+)3
.763*1"
. 10S*|S
.120*15
. 168*1*
•263*1*
. 105*17
•12n*|7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE- ACTIVITY
''CI/CC
.6PB
.118
• 932
• OnT
.onn
.Cpg
.000
• onri
• D*!"?
.237
. 1 .O
.361
.OU?
.653
. 116
. 0 n 0
-20
-7n
-21






-1 1
-1 1
-12
-72
-77
-22

.OOP
.250-10
. 1 72-10
.3.11-1 1
. 115-13
.991- 1 <4
.222-11
. 1*1-21
.113-21
.ZS2-27
UCI/CC
.616-20
.511-20
.297-20
-non
.000
.000
.000
.000
.ono
.253-1 1
.211-11
.116-11
.101-21
.B15-22
.161-22
.000
.000
.000
.266-10
.223-10
.122-10
.151-13
. 129-13
.708-11
-175-21
•116-21
.805-22
UCI/GN
.923-10
.773-10
.125-10
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.361-01
.302-01
. 166-01
. 111-1 I
.121-11
.661-12
.onn
.000
.000
.380*00
.31B*00
. 175*00
.220-03
. 181-03
. 101-03
• 250-1 1
•209-1 1
•115-11
                             289

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                 Accident, Batch Release
HALF LIFE .632-01 DAYS
TOTAL RELEASE .117-02 CURIES
'.ATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAXIMUM PFR'iissiBLE
DAUGHTER nF PREVIOUS RAOIONUCLIDE
CURRENT OO'-N RADIUS TJHE
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY









14
t
1
1
q
1
4
1
M
21
.50
.50
.50
.sn
.50
.50
.sn
.50
.50
.00
.on
.01
.on
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
• on.
21.00
21
21
.00
.00
21.00
21
21
21
21
• 0'T
.pn
.00
.00
i
i
i
8
8
H
'10
10
10
1
1
1
fl
8
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
8
8
R
NM
.00
• cm
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• on
.On
.on
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
.00
• on
.on
.00
.00
.00
10.00
10
10
.00
.00
N'.I r>nYs
• us
. n
.20
.10
• f>0
I .60
2.00
1.00
8. Cm
.US
.10

• id
.an
l .6n
2.00
1.00
8.00
• OS
• 10
.20
.10
.60
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
2
2
2
16
16
16
CO
HO
eo



2
?
2
10
.On
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
or>
• 00
.00
.on
10.00
10






1
1
1
.00
.01
.01
• 01
.33
• 33
• 33
.67
.67
.67
IN SEAH'ATER ,snn.no GRAMS
.riQO
. DECAY FRACTION = 1.0000
VOLUME CONCENTRAT 1 ON A
ISO- AVF.
CC
•161+13
.657+] 3
.263*1 V
.-105*15
.120*15
. 168*16
.263+16
.105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263*11
• 105*15
•12U*!5
. 16B*]6
.263*16
. 105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
•657+13
.263+11
•105+15
.120+15
. I6fl*l6
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+1 7
UCI/CC
.211-
. 117-
.329-
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.119-
.815-
. IS2-
.335-
.230-
.511-
• ono
.000
.000
.613-
• 121-
.910-
.877-
.603-
.135-
• 161-
.317-
.7n7-
11
1"
19






10
11
1 1
20
20
21



10
10
I |
1 3
13
1 •}
20
2n
21
UCI/CC
•22B-18
.191-18
. 105-18
.000
.000
.000
.000
.GOO
.000
. 126-10
•104-10
.580-1 1
.356-20
.298-20
. 161-20
.000
.000
• 000
.652-10
.516-10
.300-10
•933-13
.7R1-13
•129-13
.191-20
.11 1-20
.226-20
PER CC
.non
VE.SPEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.760-10
.636-10
.350-10
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.121-02
.352-02
. 193-02
.1 19-11
.991-12
.516-12
.000
.000
.000
.217-01
.182-01
•9ฐ9-02
.31 1-01
.260-01
.113-01
.161-1 1
.137-11
.752-12
   RAOIONOCLIDE   OR "1
   HALF LIFE   .221-01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .182+02
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SFAWATER
   MAXIMUM
SO-OH GRAMS PER CC

•000       .000
CURRENT
00ปN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRFWT
NM/DAY
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
I.on
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
i.on
i.on
21. on
21. on
21. on
21. on
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
NT*
l.rjn
1 .00
1 .CO
?.oo
8.00
8.00
10. on
"O.OC
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
tf.oo
1.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 "OC1
B.nn
8.00
fl.OO
11.00
10-00
10.00
NM
• U5
.10
.20
.10
.80
1.60
2.UO
1.00
B.or
.OS
= 10
•20
.10
.sn
1 .6fl
2. on
1.0P
8.00
• OS
•10
.20
.in
• sn
i >6n
2.00
1.00
8. UP
BAYS
2. on
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
so. on
83.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
in. oo
• 01
.01
.01
.33
• 33
• 33
1 .47
1 .67
1.67
CC
•16i+|3
•657+1 3
•263+1 1
• 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+1 A
• 105*1 7
.120+17
. 161+1 3
•657+|3
.263+11
• 105*15
•120*15
.148+16
.263+1 6
•105+17
.120+17
ซ 161+13
.657+1 3
•263+11
•105+15
•120+15
' 168+16
•263+16
• 105*17
.120*17
CnNCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
I'Cl/CC
. /09-33
.187-33
.139-33
.000
.000
.000
• 0!?0
• 000
• Ono
•181-09
•331-09
.738-10
. 1 1 1-31
.761-35
• 170-35
.000
.000
• OC'J
•331-06
.2^7-06
•507-07
.551-12
•J79-12
•H16-I 3
.153-31
.ins-Si
.235-32
AVE.
UCI/CC
.751-33
.631 -33
.317-33
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.512-09
.129-09
.236-09
. I 18-31
.986-35
.512-35
• 000
• 000
.000
.352-06
.295-06
. 162-06
.587-12
.-191-12
•270-12
•163-3]
.137-3|
.750-32
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
. 1 16-28
.971-29
.533-29
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.788-05
.660-05
.362-05
.181-30
•152-30
.133-31
.000
.000
.000
.512-02
.453-02
.219-02
.903-08
.756-08
.115-08
.251-27
.210-27
.115-27
                           290

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
RAOIONUCL1BE   KR BSM
HALF LIFE   .183+00 DAYS
TOTAL RELEASE  '.859 + 06 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
                                 IN SEAK'ATEP
                                            ,30n-r>9  GKKKS PER CC
                                             •ooo       .oon
CURRENT 00^f(kl *? A 0 t US
VELOCITY CURRFNT
NM/OAV








H
M
*l
*l
ซ
H
1
t
**
*)
2M
2**
2**
2H
2H
21
• ^n
• A i
.50
c n
.50
.50
. 50
.50
.50
. 00
.0"
• 00
. 00
. 00
.On
.on
.00
.00
• 00
.On
.nn
.00
.00
.on
2M.OQ
2**. DO
2H
.00
i
i

l
"
8
i|n
40
•10
I
1
1
*
fl
3
in
40
40
i
i
i
9
9
8
40
in
in
NM
A f*
• on
.00
. 00
• 00
• 00
• on
• 00
.00
.or
.00
.00
.00
• oc
• On
.00
• on
.00
• 00
.On
• on
.00
• On
.00
.00
.on
.00
•> ^ O
TIซE
MH DAYS




i
2
4
8





I
2
1
s





i
2
4
fl
• ur>
• 1 0
.20
.40
.SO
.6n
. 0 f)
. un
.00
.05
• 10
• 20
.10
.80
.60
.00
• on
.00
• OS
• 10
.20
.in
.8n
.60
• L'O
.on
.un
z.on
2.00
2
16
16
16
80
Rn
SO



2
2
2
10
'10
10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
• On
.00
.25
•25
• 25
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
.00
• 00
.01
.04
.04
• 33
• 33
• 33
.67
• 67
.67
VOL""E
CC
• 164*13
•657*13
.263+14
•105+15
.420+1 5
. 168*16
.263*16
. 105*17
.420*17
. 164*13
•657ป|3
•263+11
f 105+15
•420*15
. 168*)6
• 263+f*
• 105 + ! 7
•42fl*|7
. 164* | 3
.657*13
.263*11
.105*15
.120*15
. 1*8*1*
.2*3*16
.105+17
.120+) 7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
1SO-
UCI/CC
.296-01
.204-04
.455-05
.137-29
•30I-J9
•67l-3n
.000
.000
.onn
.224-01
. 151-1)
.313-0.2
•463-OA
.310-06
.7)0-07
.179-2(1
.887-21
.198-2)
•493-0]
•339-? |
•756-0?
.255-03
. 175-03
•39 | -04
.6^5-07
.450-07
. i np-07
AVf.
I'CI'/CC
.315-04
.261-01
. 145-04
.1*5-29
• 390-29
.214-29
.ono
. noo
.000
.23ซ-Ol
• 199-01
•1 10-01
.193-06
."12-06
.227-06
. 137-20
.1 15-23
.631-21

."39-01
.211-01
.271-03
.227-03
•12b-03

• F.K3-07
.370-07
iCTIVITY
UCI/GM
.105+06
.880+05
.183+05
. 155-19
. 1 30-19
.713-20
.000
.000
.000
.791+08
.661+08
.365+08
. 164+01
. 137+04
.755+03
.158-1 1
.383-1 1

.175+09
. 116+09
.803+08
.905+06
.757+06
•116+06
•232+03
. 194+03
. 107+03
   RAQIONUCLIDF   KR 85
   HALF LIFE   .393+01 OATS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .170+06 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION or CARRIER \n SEAปArER  .300-09 GRAMS PER cc
   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                          ซooo       .oon
   DAUGHTER nF PREVIOUS RAD IONUCL1OE, DECAY FRACTION ป   .2300
CUPREKT OOftN
VELOCITY CURRENT
NP/OAY NM
• 50
• 50
• 50
• 50
• 5D

• 50
• 5-?

11 n rt
~ • U L
u n n
** • UU
t| t gn
M • on
11 f\ r\
*• • u r,i
H.OP
M • OD

2 ** • 00
2** • yn
21.00
24.00
24.00
2LOO
2ซ.OP
24ซ00
24.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
40*00
40.00
40.00
I . 00
1 • n n
1 . J U
i . nn
1 • U 4-04
.298-05
.316-01
.217-Pl
.uijM.n.?
."73-03
.337-03
.756-04
. [97-04
. 135-01
.3CZ-OS
.316-0]
.217-01
.181-02
.193-03
.339-03
,756-n4
. 197-n4
. 136-04
.302-05
.336-01
.281-01
.154-01
.523-03
.438-03
.211-03
.207-04
.173-04
.952-05
.336-01
.281-01
.154-01
.521-03
.439-03
.241-03
.20ป-04
.175-04
.963-05
.336-01
.281-01
.154-01
•5ZS-03
.439-03
.241-03
.210-04
. 176-04
.965-05
.1 12+09
.937+0*
.515+08
= 174+07
.146+07
.ซ02+06
.690+05
.577+05
.317+05
.112+0'
.937+08
.515+08
.175+07
. 14&+Q7
.804+06
.69P+OS
.585+05
.321*05
.1 12+09
.937+U8
.515+08
.175+07
. 146*07
.804+06
.699+05
.585+05
.322+05
                              291

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF- CONTAINMENT
                Accident, Batch Release
   •^ A L F LlfE"  • *• 2 * - ^ 1 HAYS
   TOTAL RFL^ASE  ,911+0-*. cuUO
8 .nn
•? 88
+ 00 n A Y 5
193 + 37 C1.
NATURAL CONrEVTHAT ION or
TlfE

0 A Y 5
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.30
1 6.00
16.30
80. on
83.00
n a . o o
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.03
10.00
I'J.OO
n • o "
• 01
• 01
• 01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67


^IE-5
CARRIER
IN SF:AปATER .ion-n
-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   RAOIONUCLTOF   RR ปป
   HALF LIFE   .121-01  DAY;
   TOTAL RELEASE.  .100+01 COPIES
                     OF
   •UI'GHTE* OF PREVIOUS R A T I ONUcL 1 OE , DECAY
                                               ,.1000
CURRENT
VELOCITY (
n o '•'; n
:'J!5RE"'T
N M / D A Y









1
1
1
1.
1
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
ซb3
.50
• SO
.50
.50
.5H
.50
• 5n
.ST
.00
.On
.CO
.OP
,nn
.00
.00
.00
. n n
.On
• On.
.03
.on
.00
.OP
• On
.00
21. OS
1
1
1
H
8
a
10
-10
10
1
1
t
*
n
a
10
MO
10
1
t
1
8
8
9
10
in
10
KM
.00
.00
.00
.00
• Co
.00
.01
.00
.on
• PI
• 00
.On
.01
,nn
.00
.00
.00
. On
.on
.On
.00
.00
.on
. pn
.00
• On
.on
RAntus
TIME
iซ •' DAYS
• us
. in
.20
. 11
.BO
1.60
2.00
•< .bO
6. on
.Ob
. 1-1
.20
.IP
. -sn
1 .60
2 .UP.
H • (1 O
(*.01
ซU">
- 1 J
• 20
• 10
.80
i .6n
2.0"
i .no
('.no
2
2
2
14
14
14
ป'J
SO
SO



2
2
Z
10
n
i n






i
i
i
.00
• oc
.00
.00
.00
.oc
.or
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.0.3
.00
.OT
.00
.00
. 00
.01
.01
.01
.1.1
.33
.33
.67
.47
.67
VOLUME
cc
• 161+ | 3
.457+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+15
• I6R+I6
•263+14
• 105+1 7
•120+17
• 161*13
•657+13
•261+11
. 1 n^+ 1 5
.120+15
. 1 6ซ+ I 6
•263+ 1 6
•105*1 7
•1Zn+ 1 7
• 161+t 3
•6S7+I 3
• 263+1 1
• 10S+J5
•••20+ IS
> 1 6"+l6
"263+1 6
ซ 105+ 17
•12n+l7
ISO-
HC I /CC
. 1 P1-05
.'11-06
• I1V-06
.rjrp
.0"?
,rjp 11
.000
.010
.OOP
.330-01
• 2 ? 7 - P l
.bP6-n?
. 14J-Q7
. 1 12-07
,719. no
. 171-2?
. 1 ! K-?9
. 2 (, .1 - 1 n
.992-3 1
. 6ฎ l --1 l
.152-01
.315-01
.214-03
.1S2-01
.16ซ-03f-3n
. 1 05 + 00
.BP3-CI
. "85-01
.135-03
.280-03
. 151-03
•S 77-08
.116-08
.729-08
/E.SPEC.
ACTIVITY

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
s
.
.
.
UCI /SM
971+rji
77 i +ai
121+01
000
000
000
000
oon
000
29?+Q6
215+06
1 31+06
1 11 + 00
120+00
662-01
152-22
127-22
498-23
879+06
736+06
101+06
279+01
233+01
128+01
11S-CJ1
317-01
191-01
   KUDlONUfLIOE   R8 89
   HALF LIFE   .107-01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE   .218+02 CURIES
NATURAL
MAXIMUM
CURRENT
VELOCITY
NM/OAY
.50
• Sf
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 5"
.Sn
.5"
1.01
1.00
1.0P
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

1.00
21 "00
21.00

21 . CO
7. 1 . 0 0
21.00
21.00
2 n , n n
21. 0"
CONCENTP ATIOK' OF
C6WK !ER
IN SEA"ปTEป
PFR"ISSIปLE
OOปN
CURRENT
hM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
R.OO
8.00
6.00
10.00
11.01
10.0?
1 .00
1.00
I .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10,00
10.00
1'O.OP
1 .00
1 .00
1.00
"•30
fi.OO
s.oo
u c . oo
10.00
10.00
RADIUS

Nil
.05
. in
.20
.10
• ซ1
1 .*n
2. [10
i.nn
n.Dp
.05
. 10
.21
.10
.80
1 .60
2. 'JO
1 .110
(j.Oi
.C5
. 10
.20
.11
.81
1 .60
2.00,
i.on
B.nn
TIME

KAYS
2, On
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.09
16.00
80.10
"0. 01
PO.OO
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10. ni
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME

CC
•141+13 .
.657+13 .
.263+11 .
•105+lb .
•12P+ 1 5 .
-163+14 .
.261+16
•105+17 .
.120+J7 .
. 161+1 3 .
.6b7+)3
.263+11 •
• 105+ 1 5 .
. 1 2 n + 1 5
. 16fi+|6 .
.263+16 .
.105+17
.120+17 .
. 1 61+ 1 3 .
•657+13
•263+|1
=105+15 .
.120+ 15 •
.168+16 .
.263+16
•lns+17 .
•12n+ 1 7 .
. 1 2T1-P
.00"
6 GRAMS PER CC

Cnr'CE'HPปT!ON
ISฐ-
UCI/CC
010 ซ
ono .
OP 0 •
uno .
coo
000 •
000 .
o"n .
000 .
155-12 •
106-1 2 .
237-13 "
000 .
DOT. .
or-o
Oi u .
Q n n .
Oil •
112-06 .
77U-07 >
172-07 .
110-16 .
7S3-17 .
1 6H- 1 7 .
010 .
pp o .
o p r .
AVE.
UCI/CC
001
POO
000
000
ono
000
000
000
000
165-12
138-12
757-13
000
000
000
000
000
110
1 19-06
998-07
510-07
117-16
975-17
536-17
OOQ
000
000
.000
AVE. SPEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/6M
.000
.OOn
.OOP
.000
.000
.000
.000
.ono
.000
. 137-05
.1 15-05
.631-06
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.991+00
.832+00
.157+00
.971-10
.813-10
.117-10
.000
.ooc
.OOn
                            293

-------
Down-cur rent Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                 Accident, Batch Release
RARIOMUCL'DF SK "9
*ALF LIFE .527 + 02 PAYS
TOTAL RF.LFASE .25H+11 CURIES
•UTURAL Cn''CENTซATIOM OF CA'IMER
"AXtMUP PFKซISStซLE
"AUGHTE" nF PPf'/lOUS HAMM^UCLIBt
CURRENT DOf'W RAP I US T]MF.
VELOCITY CU"FKT
N M / 0 A r









1
1
1
1
1
1
1
H
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
,5n
.50
.51
.50
.50
.5"
.50
.50
• SO
.00
.on
.CO
.0ฐ
.00
.00
.on
.00
.or
.00
.00
.on
• 00
• 00
.00
21.00
21
21
• Of
.00
1
1
1
8
8
R
in
HO
'40
1
1
1
R
A
fl
HO
10
10
1
1
1
0
1
*
10
•40
10
Nn
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00






1
2
1
a





1
2
1
8





1
2
1
8
rr-i
• us
. In
.20
.in
• BO
.60
• On
.00
.00
.05
• 10
• 21
• ID
.80
.60
.00
.01
.00
• on
• 10
.21
• HO
.81
• tn
•UO
.01
.01
0
2
2
1.
16
16
16
HO
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
to






1
1
1
AY?
.00
.00
.00
.05
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
• 00
• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
• J7
• 67
IN SEA-'ATE" . n01-nS +|7
•120+17
• 161+ | 3
•657+13
•263+1"
• 105+J5
•120+15
•168+16
•263+16
•105+17
•120+17
UCI/CC
. 166-06
. 1 J1-06
.255-07
.216-08
. 117-08
•3J2-09
.373-10
.254-10
.572-1 1
. 170-06
. 1 17-06
.261-07
.2*0-0"
, 1 79-n Q
.399-09
.917-10
.611-10
. 1 '4 1 - 1 0
. 171-06
; 1 17-06
.242-07
.746-08
. 183-08
.108-09
. IPS-09
.718-11
. 160-10
UCI/CC
. 1 77-06
. 118-06
.B15-07
.230-06
• 193-08
. 106-08
.397-10
.332-10
. 183-10
.181-06
.152-06
.833-07
•?77-08
.732-98
.127-08
.596-10
.031-10
.158-10
. 182-06
. 152-06
.836-07
.283-08
.237-08
. 1 30-08
• 1 1 1-09
.931-10
•511-10
UCI/6M
.221-01
. 185-fll
. 102-01
.288-03
.211-03
. 132-03
.196-OB
.115-05
.228-U5
.227-01
. 190-01
.101-01
.316-03
.290-03
.159-03
.125-01
. 101-01
.573-05
.227-01
. 190-01
. 101-01
.351-03
.296-03
. 163-03
. 139-01
.1 16-01
.639-05
IAOIONUCLIDE   SR vo
HALF LIFE   .'.oi+cs
TOTAL RF.LfAsr  .120+30 CURIES
NATURAL CO'JCFNTSATI
      PFf"!ISSI3l-E
                                SEA"ปTEP
                                        .300-05 SffAMS PER CC
                                         .790-07    .120+01
CURRENT OOAN
VELOCITY CURRENT
ปAO!U";
MM/DAY . nซ.









1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
• SO
.50
.51
.50
.51
.50
.50
.50
.50
.01
• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
• oo
.00
.00
.00
21.00
21
Z1
.00
• 00
1
1
1
8
9
a
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
10. PI
10
10
1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
•00
.00





1
2
1
8



8*00
8
A
10
10
10
1
1
1
A
A
8
10
in
10
• 31
• 00
.00
.00
• 0?
>0?
.00
• oo
• CO
• 01
• On
• 01
• 00
• 00

1
2
1
a





1
2
1
3
HI
• OS
. 11
.20
• 1-1
.11
.63
• J!1
.01
• uo
• us
• n
.20
.10
.HI
.60
• DO
• 00
• UD
• OS
.10
•20
• 10
• in
.60
.(11
• no
.01
TIME
DAYS
2.
2.
2.
14.
1 4.
16.
80.
80.
ฐ3.
.
.
.
2.
2.
2.
10.
10.
13.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 .
I .
1 .
0"
30
00
00
00
00
00
00
or
25
25
25
CO
00
00
0?
on
on
OH
01
OH
33
33
33
67
67
67
VOLUME
CC
. 141+13
•657+13
•263+11
• 105+ I 5
•120+ IS
• 1 68+1 6
•263+1 6
• 105+1 7
•120+1 7
• 14H+1 3
•657+13
•263+11
= 105+15
•120+15
• 169+1 6
•243*16
• 1H5+ 1 7
•120*17
• 161+1 3
•657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120*15
• 16P*|6
•263+16
•105+]7
•120+1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
.806-08
.S51-OR
. 121-08
^ 126-09
."61-10
. 193-10
•501-1 1
.3H1-1 1
.768-12
."16-08
.551-08
.121-03
.126-09
.S65-IO
• 193-10
.503-1 1
.316-1 1
•772-12
•H06-OS
•551-08
. 121-08
• 1 26-09
•165-10
. 193-10
•511-1 1
.316-1 1
.772-12
UCI/CC
.857-08
.718-08
.391-08
. 131-09
. 1 12-09
.615-10
.533-11
.116-1 1
.215-11
.857-08
.719-08
.391-08
. 131-09
•1 12-09
.616-10
.535-11
.118-1 1
.216-11
.857-08
.718-08
.391-08
.131-09
.1 12-09
.616-10
.536-1 1
.119-1 1
.216-1 1
UCI/SM
. 107-02
.897-03
.193-03
. 167-01
. 110-01
.769-05
.666-06
.558-06
.304-06
. 107-02
.897-03
.193-03
. 167-01
. 110-01
.770-05
.669-136
.560-06
.308-06
. 107-02
.897-03
.193-03
. 167-01
• 110-01
•770-OS
.670-06
.561-06
•30P-06
                           294

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
RAOIONUCLIDE Y 90
HALF L'Ff. .?67ป01 OArs
TOTAL RELTASE .116*30 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION ep CARRIER
•UXIMUM "FRMISSPiLE
3A AT I OMUCL I nE
CURRENT 0 0 *' N WAOI'-'S T 1 1* E
VELOCITY CURRENT
NN/OAY NM H-< DAYS
.bO
• bO
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.50
.50
.Sn
1.00
1.00
Mr* n
• *J ' '
1.00
H.O"
1.CO
i.nn
i.cn
i.on
2i.nn
21.0!)
21.00
2i.no
21.0"
21.00
21. on
21.0"
21. on
1 ,7"!
\ -00
t .00
3. CO
n.Ot
B.OO
10.Cn
'to.no
"0..00
1 -00
1.00
I.nn
P. OT
f>.PO
8.00
1 0 . n n
10.00
1 n , n n
I .pn
1 -CO
1 .00
a.CO
ซ. CO
* . C 0
"O.CO
'1 0 . C 0
10.00
.05
> 10
.20
.in
.81
1 .60
2. m
H.HO
a. on
• OS
. 10
.20
• in
• B^
1 .6n
2 . 0 ' i
i.un
B . C 0
.OS
'• in
.20
• I'l
.fjn
1.60
2. on
1 . OP
9. on
2. on
3.0C
2.0C
1 4.00
16.00
14. On
B O.OC
ao.oo
80.00
.25
.25
• 25
2. or
2.0?
7.00
13.00
13. on
10. or
.01
• 01
.01
.31
.3.1
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
IH SEA*ATEป .100-09 SHAMS
. DECAY FRscTIOf * 1.0000
VOLUME CONCENTRATION A
ISO- AVE.,
CC MCl/CC t.lCI/CC
. I61*|3
.657*13
.263*11
. 101+ |5
•170+ |5
• 1*8+1 6
•263+16
. 105+1 7
.120*17
. 161*1 3
.657*13
•261*|1
• 105*1 5
•120*15
• 16ฐ* | 6
•263*16
• 105*|7
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
ซ263+|1
ซ 105ป|5
"120*15
. 168*| 6
.263*1 6
• 1115*1 7
.170+17
. 1 99-07
• 1 17-07
.J-S-O*
. 1 31-09
•HfB-ln
,2ri9-|n
.5-->t-t 1
.311-1 l
.76S-12
.267-07
. IB. 1-0 7
.1?9-OB
• 11 1-09
• / 1 1-09
•177-10
.596-1 1
• 1 1 .? - 1 1
.911-17
• 277-rj;
.19| -ny
.125-0")
•11 1-09
•237-09
•630-10
. 1 3 1 -1 n
.900-1 I
•201-1 1
.212-07
. 1 77-07
.973-08
. 139-09
.1 16-09
•639-10
.533-1 1
.116-1 1
.7M5-1 |
.281-07
.238-07
. 131-07
.331-09
.277-09
. 152-09
.631-1 1
.531-1 1
.292-1 1
.295-07
.217-07
•1 36-07
.137-09
.366-09
•201-09
. 139-10
.117-10
• 61 1-11
PER CC
.300+05
'E.SPEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.705+02
.590+02
.321+02
.163+00
.300+00
.213+00
. 178-01
.119-01
.817-02
.916+02
.792+02
.135*02
. 1 10 + 01
.922+00
.507+00
.21 1-01
. 1 77-01
.977-02
.933*02
.823*02
.152+02
. 116+01
. 122+01
•670+UO
.161-01
.389-01
.211-01
    RAnlONUCLIDE   SR 91
    HALF LIFE  .103+00 DAYS
    TOTAL RELEASE  .151+01 CURIES
    NATURAL CONCENTRAT10W OF CARRIER  IN SฃA*ATฃR  .800-05 GRAMS PER CC
    MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE.                        .100-01    .7so+os
CURRENT
00ปN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NH/DAY
.50
•SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.50
• SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
i . on
1 . 00
1.0?
1 • 00
21 . On
21.00
21 . On
i u n o
e. ^ • i." '
94 . nn
* ~ • 'j i ป
21.00
21.00
21.00
2i.cn
NM
1 .00
1 "00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10. DO
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
S.on
s.oo
8.PO
10.00
19.00
ip.nn
T t- • y '.
i .or
1 .00
1 .00
o nn
n . 'j L
3.00
S.OO
in.rn
'10.00
tn.ro
NM
.US
• in
.20
.10
• an
1 .60
2.C.m
1.00
f .on
.OS
. in
.2n
.in
.8')
1 .60
2.U9
1.00
B.cn
.0*
.1"
.2r
.in
.81
1 .*0
2.00
I.On
H.OO
OAYS
2.00
2ซ00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80. On
SO. 00
ปoปon
.25
.25
.25
2. or
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
IP. 00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
. J3
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
. 161+1 3
.657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+ |5
. 1-6B+1 6
.261*16
. 105*17
.12n+|7
• 161+|3
•657+|3
•263+11
• 105+15
•120*15
. 163+16
.263+16
.105+17
,120*1 7
. 161*13
.657*1 3
.26 J*l 1
• IDS* 15
.12P+15
. 16P+! 6
.263+16
. 105*17
.120*1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
ISO-
UCI/CC
.325-08
•221-OH
,199-09
.178-20
. 172-20
.273-21
.000
.000
.000
.660-07
.153-07
. mi-07
.5ne-ln
.319-in
.7BO-11
.2J6-17
.118-17
.331-18
.911-07
.619-07
. 115-07
.P93-09
.611-09
. 137-09
.361-1 1
.218-1 I
.553-12
AVE.
UCI/CC
.316-08
•2*0-08
. (59-08
. 190-20
.159-20
.872-21
.000
.000
.000
.702-07
.580-07
.323-07
.511-10
.153-10
.219-10
.229-17
. 192-17
. 106-17
. 100-06
.011-07
.162-07
.950-09
.795-09
.137-09
.3*1-1 1
.321-1 1
.177-1 1
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.133-03
.362-03
. 199-03
.237-15
.198-15
.109-15
.000
.000
.000
.877-02
.731-02
.103-02
.676-05
.566-05
•31 1-05
.287-12
.210-12
.132-12
.126-01
.105-01
.577-02
.1 19-03
.991-01
.516-01
.180-0*
.102-06
.221-06
                             295

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT

                  Accident, Batch Release



   HADIONUCLIDE   Y  vi
   HALF LIFE   .588*0? DATS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .106+03 CURIES
   "•'ATURปL CONCENTRATION OF CARTER  IN SEAWATER  .-JOO-09  GRAMS PER CC
   KAซlMUM PERMISSIBLE                         .570-0*     .231+01
   PAU6HTEK CF PREVIOUS R Afl 1 OMUCL IOE , DECAY  FRACllnN .  1.0000
CURRENT DOWN
VELOCITY CURRENT
RADIUS
NM/OAY NM









t
1
1
t
H
1
1
1
M
21
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.5!)
,50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.on
• tjn
.on
.on
• or.
.oc
• on
21.00
21. on
21
21
21
21
21
21
.00
.oc
.OP
.00
.00
.00
i
t
i
a
8
8
to
10
10
1
1
I
a.
n
R
10
ซo
to
1
1
1
8
8
8
to
to
10
.00
.on
.OP
.on
.00
.00
.oc
.00
.05
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00
.00
• OP
.on
.00
• on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00





1
2
t
8





1
2
1
8





1
Z
t
B
NM
.05
. in
.20
.to
ซ8P
.60
.un
.00
.un
.05
• 10
.21?
• 10
.Hn
.br,
•00
.00
.DC!
• OS
. in
• 2n
• n
.8n
.60
.0"
.00
.00
TIME
BAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
60
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
• 33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME
cc
. 161 + 13
•657+13
•263+|1
.105+15
•120+15
. 168+1 A
•Z63+16
• 105+17
•120+J7
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
ซ 105+15
•120+15
•168+16
•263+16
• 105*17
• 120+1 7
. 161*1 3
•657*13
•243+11
• 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
•2*3+16
. 105+17
.120+1 7
ISO-
UCI/CC
.695-05
.178-05
. 107-CS
.921-07
.633-07
.111-07
. 173-00
. 1 19-08
.2*6-09
.710-05
.188-05
. 109-05
.109-06
•717-07
.1*7-07
.395-08
.272-08
.677-09
.712-05
.189-05
• 109-05
• 1 I 1-06
.7*2-07
.170-07
•134-08
•3ro-OB
.6*9-0?
I"ATION AVE.SPEC.
AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
.710-05
.619-05
.310-05
.980-07
.820-07
.151-07
. 181-08
. 151-08
.818-09
.755-05
.632-05
.317-05
. I 16-04
.968-07
.532-07
."21-08
.352-08
.1'3-OS
•757-05
.631-05
.318-05
. 1 18-06
.987-07
.512-07
.lit-OB
.389-08
.213-08
UCI/GM
.217+05
.206+05
. 1 13+05
.327+03
.273+03
. 150+03
.615+01
.511+01
.283+01
.252+05
.21 1+05
. 1 14+05
.385+03
.323+03
. 177+03
. 110+02
• 1 17 + 02
•615+01
.252+05
.21 1+05
.116+05
.393+03
.329+03
. 181+03
.155+02
. 130+02
.712*01
   RAOIONUCLJOE   Y  93
   HALF LIFE   .120+00 PAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .138+PI CURIES
   NATURAL CCNCFNTRAT ION  OF CARRIER IN SEJ*ATER
   MAXIMUM PFR-ISSIBLE
.300-09  GRAMS PER CC

  •570-06     .130+06
CURRENT
no*N
"AOIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
• sc
.50
.Sn
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
i.no
1.00
i.oo
21.0"
21.00
21. on
21.00
21. on
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
N*
1 ซ00
1 .00
1 .00
e.oo
8. DC
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
i .00
I.OO
8.00
a. on
8.00
10. on
10. pn
10.00
i .00
1 ซSO
1 .00
8.00
8.00
B.OO
10,00
10.00
10.00
NM
.us
. in
.20
.10
.30
1 .60
2.00
1.UO
8 .CO
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
I >6n
2.UO
1.00
8.UO
.05
• 10
• 21
• 10
.00
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16. on
16.00
flO.OO
80.00
80. On
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
• 33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1.67
CC
•161+13
.657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+IS
. 16ซ*16
•263*16
. 105*1 7
.120+17
•161+13
•657+13
•263+11
• I05+1&
•120+15
• 16R+16
• 24,3+16
• 105+17
•120+17
. 161+1 3
•657+13
•263+11
•105*15
•120+15
• 168+16
•263+16
•105+17
•120+] 7
CONCENTRATION AซE.SPECซ
ISO-
UCI/CC
•3*6-08
.252-0"
.5*2-09
.8*3-20
•593-20
• 132-20
.Onp
.000
• one
.619-07
•175-07
•919-03
.572-10
.393-10
•K7R-1 I
.559-17
•3ซt-17
.857-18
•8*6-07
.596-07
. 133-07
.815-09
•581-09
• I 30-09
•392-1 1
.270-1 1
•ซn?-l2
AVF:
UCI /CC
•390-08
.326-08
. 179-08
.918-20
•768-20
•122-20
• ooo
.000
.000
.658-07
.551-07
•303-07
.609-10
•510-10
.280-10
•595-17
.198-17
•273-17
.922-07
•772-07
.121-07
.B'99-09
.753-09
.111-09
.117-11
•319-1 1
. 192-1 I
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
=130+02
.109+02
.597+01
.306-10
.254-10
.111-10
.000
.000
.000
.219+03
. 181+03
•101+03
.203+00
. 170+00
.933-01
.198-07
.166-07
.91 1-08
•307+03
.257+03
•111+03
.300+01
.251+01
•138+01
•139-01
•1 14-01
•610-02
                            296

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident,  Batch Release
   RAOIONUCLIOE   7.0 *5
   HALF LIFE   .655+02 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .317-03  CU*IES
   NATURAL CHNCCNTRATION OF CARRIER JN SE*WปTER
   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
•270-11 GRAMS PER CC

  •95n-06     .100+01
CURRENT
OOKN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.so
.50
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.51
.50
1.00
1.0"
1.00
l.nn
i.on
1.0.1
1.01
1-.03
1.00
21. on
21.00
21.01
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1.00
8. CO
f .00
".00
IP. 01
in, 01
10.00
1 .00
I .On
! .00
8.01
8. on
8. CO
10.00
1C. 00
in. 00
1 .00
1 .00
1 -00
8.01
S.Oi
8.00
MO. 00
10.00
11.01
NM
.OS
. 10
.21
.10
• 8n
1 .60
2. or;
i-UO
8.QC
.05
. in
.21
• n
• 8n
1 .60
2.01
1.UO
8. on
• 05
. in
v20
• 10
.Bn
1.60
2. on
'ซ.oo
0.01
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.01
14.00
80.00
80.00
80,01
• 25
.25
• 25
2.00
2.00
2ป01
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
• 01
• 33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 ,67
1 .67
cc
• 161+13
•657+1 3
•263+11
•105+15
.121+15
. 168+16
•263+16
. 105+17
•120+17
•161+13
.657+13
•263+11
• 115+15
•120+15
• 162+16
•263+16
.105+17
•120+17
• 161+13
•457+13
•263+11
• 10S+|5
•121+lS
• 168+16
•263*16
• |15*l7
•120+17
CONCENTRATION AuE.SPEC.
ISO.
UC1 /CC
.218-10
ซ 113-in
.320-1 |
•281-1?
• 103-17
•131-13
.571-11
.392-11
,87^- | t;
•212-11
•116-11
.326-1 1
.376-1?
•221-1 1
•199-1 3
• 120-1 3
.923-1-4
• 1 R1-1 1
.211-11
. 1 16-1 1
.326-1 I
.331-1 2
.228-1?
.518-1 3
• 131-13
.899-1 1
•211-1 1
AVF.
uci/cc
.222-10
. 186-10
. It'2-10
.299-12
.250-12
•137-12
.607-1 1
.508-11
.279-11
.226-10
. 1R9-10
. ini-lo
.344-12
.290-12
.159-12
• 127-13
• 107-13
.586-11
.226-10
. 190-10
. 101-10
.353-12
.295-12
•162-12
• 139-13
•116-13
•61Q-I1
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.101+01
.811+00
.161+00
• 136-01
. 1 11-01
•625-02
.276-03
.231-03
.127-03
. 103*01
.859+00
.172+00
•157-01
. 132-01
•721-02
.579-03
.185-03
.266-03
. 103+01
.861+00
.173+00
• 160-01
. 131-01
.737-02
•632-03
.529-03
•291-03
    RADIONUCLIDE   MB 95
    HALF LITE   .35H+02
    TOTAL RELEASE  .283+01  CURIES
    NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CARRIES IN SEAWATER  .100-10 GRAMS PER cc
    MAXIMUM  PERMISSIBLE                         .?so-p*     .IBO+OI
    DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RAOIUNUCLIOE,  DECAY FRACTION •  i.oooo
CURRENT
OOftN
KAD1US
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
.SO
.SO
.50
.50
.50
• So
.SO
1.00
l.on
i.on
l.on
1.00
1.00
1.0!)
1.00
1.00
21. on
21 . 09
21.00
21 ป 00
21.00
ฃ ' • U ')
21.00
21 • OH
21.00
21.01
(ซ•<
1 .00
1 .00
1 -00
R.OO
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10-00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.01
10.00
10. on
10-00
1 .00
1 .00
1 -00
8. CO
8.00
B. on
10.01
10.00
10.00
H'l
• us
.11
.20
.10
.80
1 .61
2.01
1.UO
8 . [11
.05
. 11
• 20
• 10
.80
1 .61
2.01
1.1.' 1
H.01
.05
. 10
.21
• 10
.81
1 .60
2. no
1.00
8.U1
OAYS
2.01
2.01
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80. On
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.0"
2.0C
10.00
10.01
1 0.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1.67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
• 1 61+1 3
.657*13
.263+11
. 105+tS
.121+15
.I6R+16
•263*1*
•1Q5*|7
•120+17
.161+13
.657*13
•263+11
• ins+i5
•120+1 5
•I6ซ+|6
•263+16
• 105*17
•120*17
.161+13
.657+13
.263+11
•ICS+lS
.120+15
. 16B+|6
.263+1 A
. 10^+17
.12T+]7
CONCENTRATION AซE.SPECซ
ISO-
"Cl/CC
. 1H3-06
. 126-06
.281-07
.216-08
= J19-08
.332-19
.211-10
- 148-10
• 371-1 1
. 189-06
. 130-06
.290-07
• 285-0"!
. 196-03
• 138-09
.97&-10
•670-10
. 1 19-10
. 190-06
. 131-06
.291-07
.295-08
.213-C?
.152-09
. 1 15-09
•790-10
. 176-10
AVE.
UCI/CC
. 191-06
.163-06
.891-07
•230-08
•193-08
•106-08
.259-10
•217-10
•1 19-10
•201-06
. 168-06
•925-07
.301-08
.251-08
• 110-08
•101-09
.868-10
.177-10
.212-06
•169-06
.929-07
•311-08
•263708
. 111-08
. 1 22-09
. 102-09
.562-10
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.191+05
. 163*05
.891*01
.230+03
.193+03
.106+03
.259+01
.217+01
.119+01
.201+05
.168+05
.925+01
.301+03
.251+03
. (10*03
.101+02
.868+01
.177+01
.202+05
.169*05
.929*01
.311+03
.263+03
. 111*03
.122+02
• 102 + 02
.562+01
                             297

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
   RAOIONUCLIDE   ZR 97
   HALF  LIFE   .70A*00 DAY!
   TOTAL RELFASE  .119*01 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER
.220-10 SHAMS PE* CC
  .320-136    .180*05
CURRENT D 0 h N
KAOIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VF.LOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY









1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
.51
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.5"
.50
.SO
.00
.00
.00
.00
,nn
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
21.00
21
21
.00
.00
1
1
1
8
A
A
MO
10
10
1
1
I
8
8
A
10
10
10
I
1
I
8
8
8
10
"0
10
MM
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.0"
.00
.00
.00
.00






1
2
t
6





1
2
M
8





1
2
1
8
NM
.05
. 10
.2f>
.10
.on
.61
.00
.an
.00
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.60
.60
.00
.00
.00
.US
.10
.20
.in
.80
.60
. 0"
.00
• 00
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
BO
80
80



.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
CC
.161*13
.657*13
.263*1 '1
•105+15
•120+15
• I4S+I 6
.263+16
.105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
.105+15
.120+15
.168+1*
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+17
•161+13
•657ซ|3
•263*11
•I05*|5
•120+15
. 166+1*
•263+16
• 105+17
•120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
IJC1/CC
. 1 13-07
.776-0*
.173-OW
. 197-15
. I 36-15
.302-16
.000
.000
.000
.626-07
.130-07
.960-08
. 176-09
• 121-09
.270-10
.280-11
.193-11
.130-15
.767-07
.577-07
. 1 18-07
.901-09
.6)9-09
. 1 38-09
.977-1 1
.672-1 1
• 150-1 I
AVE.
UCI/CC
.120-07
.100-07
.552-08
.210-15
. 176-15
•965-16
.000
.000
.000
.666-07
.557-07
•306-07
. 188-09
. 157-09
.863-10
•298-11
.750-11
.137-11
.816-07
.683-07
.375-07
.959-09
.802-09
•111-09
• 101-10
•B70-I 1
.178-1 1
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.516+03
.157+03
.251+03
.951-05
.798-05
.139-05
• ooo
.000
.000
.303+01
•253+01
. 139+01
.853+01
.711*01
.392+01
.136-03
. 1 13-03
.623-01
.371+01
.31 1+01
.171+01
.136+02
.365+02
.200+02
.173+00
.396+00
.217+00
   RADIONUCLIDE  wo 99
   HALF  LIFE   .278+01  DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .379-01 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIES IN SEAWATER
   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
.100-07 GRAMS PER cc
  .7SO-06    .27n*01
CURRENT
DOWN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
.50
.5?
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
l.on
i.OO
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
21.00
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
B.OO
8.00
e.oo
10.00
10.00
10.00
I .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10. OP
I .00
1 .00
1.00
8.00
H.on
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
NK
.05
.10
• 2D
.10
.90
1.60
2.UO
1.00
S.DO
.05
. 10
.20
.MO
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
. in
.20
.10
.83
1 .60
2.00
^•UO
e.oo
DAYS
2.00
2.0D
7.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
fc.ao
80. On
80-00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
z.oo
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
CC
. 161+|3
•657+|3
•263*|1
• 105*15
.120*15
. 168*16
.263*16
.105+17
•12C+17
• 161*|3
.657*13
.263*11
•105*15
.120*15
.168*16
.263+16
•105+17
•120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
•120+15
. 16A+16
•263+16
• 105+17
•120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
UCI/CC
.3S9-08
.216-08
.550-09
.171-1 1
.117-11
.262-12
.806-20
.551-20
.121-20
.555-08
•3*1-08
.851-09
.560-10
.385-10
.859-1 1
.305-12
•210-12
.168-13
.581-08
.102-OB
•896-09
.819-10
.583-10
. 130-10
.211-1 1
.167-1 1
.373-12
AVE.
UCI/CC
.38I-Ofl
.319-08
.175-08
.182-1 1
•IS2-I 1
•836-12
.867-20
.717-20
.391-20
.590-08
.191-08
.271-08
.596-10
.199-10
.271-10
.321-12
.272-12
. 119-12
.621-08
•520-08
•286-08
•903-10
•756-10
•115-10
•259-1 1
.217-1 3
. 1 19-1 |
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.381+00
.319+00
.175+00
.182-03
.152-03
.836-01
.857-12
.717-12
.391-12
.590+00
.191+00
.271+00
.596-02
.199-02
.271-02
.321-01
.277-01
.|19-01
•621+00
.520*00
.286*00
.903-02
.756-02
.115-02
•259-03
.217-03
.119-03
                              298

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release


   RADIONUCLlDE  RU 103
   HALF LIFE   .3*5*02  r>AY$
   TOTAL  RELEASE  .zos+ri CURIES
   '•ATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAGATE"!  .000    GRAMS PER CC
   MAXIMUM P^MSSIRLE                          -131-05     .000
CURRENT ROKM RADIUS
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.51!
• SO
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
• oc
.00
1.0C
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. On
21.00
21. On
21. On
21. On
21..00
MM
1 .00
1 >00
1 .OP
8.00
8.00
8. DC
10. OP
10.00
ic.oc
1 .00
1 .f)0
l.OP
B.OO
a. 00
ซ.oo
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
i. or
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
•40.00
10.00
MM
.'.'5
. 11
.21
.10
,8n
1 .61
2. Jil
1.01
8.01
.or>
. 10
.zn
.i"
.31
1 "60
2.00
1.00
B.OO
.C5
.13
• Zi
.10
.en
1 .60
2.00
1.01
8.01
T (ME
PAYS
2. on
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16. on
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
z.oo
2. on
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
VOLUME CONCENTRATION A"E.SPECซ
ISO- AVE" ACTIVITY
CC
. 161*1 3
• 657*1 3
• 2 6 1 * 1 1
• 105*15
.121*15
. 1 6R+ l 6
.263*1 6
. 105*17
•120*17
. 161*1 3
.657*13
.263*1 1
• 105*15
• 120* |b
. 169*16
•263*14
.105*17
•120*17
. 161*13
•657+13
.263+11
. 105*15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263*16
=105+17
.120*17
I'CI/CC
. 1 35-06
•927-07
•2?7-07
• 1S5-08
• 1 13-08
•?b3-0?
.215-10
.117-10
.329-1 1
. 139-06
.956-07
.2) 3-07
.21 1-08
. 115-18
. J23-09
.733-10
.Sซ3-10
. 1 12-10
. i 'ia-06
.959-07
.211-07
.217-lfl
• 119-08
.333-09
• 8=48-10
.593-10
. 1 10-10
UC1/CC
. 113-06
. 120-06
.660-07
. I75-U8
. 117-08
.807-09
.228-10
.191-10
. 105-10
•118-06
. 121-06
.680-07
.221-08
• 188-08
•103-08
.779-10
.652-10
.358-10
. 118-06
. 121-06
.683-07
.231-08
.193-08
.106-08
•902-10
.755-10
.115-10
UCI/GM
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
    RAOIONUCLIOE  RH 105
    HALF LIFE   .119*01  DAYS
    TOTAL RELEASE  .293+00 CURIES
    NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .000   GRAMS PER cc
          PERMISSIBLE                          .190-05    .000
CURRENT
OOV'N
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
VELOCITY CURRENT 150-
NH/bAY
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.59
.50
• 50
.50
1.00
i.oo
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21. DO
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
71 • nn
ฃ i . U U
21.00
NM
I.OO
I .00
I .09
8.00
8.nn
8.00
10.00
ip. 00
10.00
1 .CO
1 .00
i .co
B.OO
9.00
9.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
i-.oo
1 .CO
1 .OD
8.00
8.00
8.01
10.00
10 . 00
10.00
N ^
.05
. n
.21
.10
.80
1 .61
2.01
1.0-1
8 • u n
.05
. 11
.21
.10
.80
1 .6?
2.00
1.00
8.01
.05
.10
.20
• 10
• 83
1 .60
Z.Q-1
1.0.?
8.01
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
83.0C
80.05
eo.O"
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
I .67
CC
. 161+) 3
.657+13
.263*11
•105+15
.120+15
.168+16
•263+16
• 105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+1"
. 105*15
.120*15
. 164*16
.263*16
. 105*17
.120*17
. 1 61*1 3
.657*1 3
.263*11
.105+15
.121+15
•I6B+16
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+17

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   RADIONUCLTRE   RU 106
   H4LF  LIFE  .36S+03 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .120*00 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN
   1AXIMUซ PF.R"ISSISLE
,non    ป;PAMS PER cc
  •i6n-06     ซ00n
CURRENT
DOซ.N
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
N M / D A r
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.oo
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
MM
I .00
1 .00
I .00
8.00
B.Q3
9.00
10.00
in. no
10.00
1 .03
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
a. on
MO.PO
io.no
10.00
1 .00
i .60
1 .00
B.OO
8.00
R.OO
10 . On
10.00
10.00
Ml
.05
> in
.20
.n
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2. on
1.UO
8.00
.05
.10
.20
.10
.BO
1.40
2.00
t.OO
8 .00
OAYJ
2.0C
2. 00
2.00
16.03
14.00
14.00
80.00
80.00
B o . a a
.25
.25
.25
f'On
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
• 01
.33
.33
.33
1 .47
1 .47
1 .47
CC
. 141*13
.457+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+16
• 168+ 14
.261+14
. 105+17
.120+17
. 161+1 3
.657+13
.263+11
• 1 115+ IS
.120+ 15
. 1 48+ | A
.263+16
.105+17
•120+1 7
• 161+1 3
.657+13
•243+11
• ins* is
•120+15
• 168+16
•243+16
• 105+1 7
.120+1 7
CflMCENTRATION AVE'SPEC.
150-
UCI/CC
.H03-08
•S52-OS
. 1 23-08
. 172-09
.310-10
. 197-10
.133-1 1
.298-1 1
.661-12
• HfiA-OB
.551-08
. 121-08
.125-09
.862-10
. 102-10
.10t-l |
.310-1 1
.758-12
•H06-08
.551-08
. 121-08
. 126-09
.B6S-10
.193-10
.502-1 1
.315-1 1
.770-12
AVE"
UCI/CC
•BS1-08
.715-08
.393-08
• 130-09
• 1 09-09
•598-10
.161-1 1
.386-1 1
.212-11
.857-08
.717-08
.391-08
.133-09
. 1 12-09
.All-ID
.526-1 1
.110-1 1
.212-1 1
.R57-08
.718-08
.391-08
•131-09
. 1 12-09
.616-10
•531-1 1
.1ซ47-1 1
.216-1 1
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
• 0 00
• 000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
    RAGIONUCLIOE  "o 109
    HALF LIFE   .541+00 DAYS
    TOTAL RELEASE  .571-02 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIES'
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
CURRENT nof-N RADIUS TIME
IN SFAHATER .nOO GRAMS
.130-OS
VOLUME CONCENTRATION A
i/ELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
• 5<_l
• 50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.03
i.on
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. 'DO
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
s.on
8.00
10.0"
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .CO
I.OO
8.00
?.oo
8.00
10.00
10.00
10-00
I .00
i .or
1 -or
8.00
8.00
9.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
NM
.05
.10
.20
.1C
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.0"
8 . u n
.05
.10
• 20
.in
.80
1.60
2.00
i.on
3.0C
.05
. 10
• 20
• 10
• 8n
I .60
2. Of!
1.UO
B.QO
DAYS
2.00
2. or
2.00
16.00
14.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
in. 00
.01
.01
• 01
.33
• 33
• 33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
CC
• 161+13
.657+13
• 21' 3 + 11
• 105+15
•120+15
. 168+16
•263+16
• 105+17
.120+17
. 161-+13
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
. 105+17
."120+17
. 161 + 13
.657+1 3
.263+11
.105+15
.120+15
.168+16
•263+16
.105+17
•120+17
ISO-
HCI/CC
•321-10
.223-10
.197-1 1
. 156-19
. 107-19
.210-20
.OPO
.000
.000
•282-09
• 171-09
•132-10
.507-12
.J18-12
.777-13
. 103-17
.711-18
.159-18
•3*1-09
.250-09
.559-10
.397-1 1
•273-1 1
•609-12
•306-13
.210-13
•169-1H
AVF.
UCI/CC
.315-10
•2R9-10
•1S9-10
• 166-19
• 1.39-19
.765-20
• ooo
• ono
.000
•300-09
•251-09
• 138-09
•F39-12
•151-12
.219-12
• 1 10-17
.921-18
•506-18
.387-09
.321-09
.178-09
.122-1 1
.353-1 |
.191-1 1
.325-13
.272-13
•150-13
PER CC
.000
VE.SPEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
                              300

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
   RAOIONUCLTDE   AG III
   HALF  LIFE   .750+01  DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .781-02 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER JM SEAปATFป
   MAXIMUM PHRMISSIBLE
 .30n-n? C.RAWS PER cc
  •150-D7    .I3n+01
CURRENT DO*N RAP.
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY NM
.50 i .on








1
1
1
1
t
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
.5P
• 5n
.5(3
.50
.50
• 50
• 50
• SO
.00
.CO
.an
• on
.00
.no
.on
.on
• DC
• 00
.00
.no
• on
zt.cn
21
21
21
21
• on
.on
.00
.on
I
!
R
B
8
in
in
10
i
i
i
8
8
0
in
10
10
i
i
i
8
3
8
an
10
in
.an
• 00
.On
• on
.00
• cm
• on
• 00
• on
.00
• 00
• on
• on
• on
• on
• 00
• on
• on
• cn
• on
• no
• 00
• on
.pn
.on
• 0?




i
2
M
8





1
Z
1
ft





1
2
1
8
NM
• or.
• in
• zn
. tn
.tin
• 6n
• on
.0"
.On
.[15
. 10
•20..
. tn
• an
• &n
.on
.0?
• on
.05
. 10
• ZP
.1"
.80
• 6T
.on
.on
• 'jn
TIME
DAYS
2 .OP
2.PQ
2.0"
1 6. Or
16.00
lA.On
80. on
en. op
n n . n n
• 2S
• 25
.25
7.00
2.0P
•!.on
10.00
1 0.00
1".QO
.01
.01
• Ot
• 33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLU-E
cc
• 1 h t * I 3
.657*13
.263*1 1
. 105*15
.120+ 1 5
. 168+16
.263+16
. 105*1 7
.120+17
. 161+) 3
.657+ 1 3
.263*1 1
• 105+ Jb
•12H+I5
• 168*1 A
•2A3+16
. 105+17
•120+17
; 161+ 1 3
•657+|3
.263+11
• 105+15
•120+15
• 16P+1 6
•263*16
• i ns* 1 7
ซ1ZO*l7
150-
.Hnn-09
.669-
• 13
16.00
so-o?
so. o-i
80.00
• 25
.25
.25
2.00
2. On
2.00
10. 01
10.00
10.00
.01
."1
.01
.33
• 3.3
• 33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME

cc
. 161*13
•657*13
•263*11
•105*15
•120*|5
•168*16
.263*16
• 105+17
•1ZO+1?
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
• 105+15
•IZn+15
. 168+16
•263+16
. 105+17
• 120+ 1 7
. 16ซ+1 3
.657*13
.263+11
• 105*15
• 12(1*15
.263*]6
• in5* i'
•120*1'
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
150-
I'CI/CC
•ino-io
.275-10
.611-11
.807-11
.555-11
• 121-11
•711-2ซ
•51 1-21
• 1 11-21
•690-10
-171-10
. 106-10
.626-12
•I3n-l2
.959-13
.2nB-li
.113-11
.319-15
•736-ln
•506-in
. 1 13-in
.105-1 1
.722-12
.161-12
.278-13
. l"l-l 3
.126-11
AVE.
UCI/CC
•12A-10
.357-10
•- 196-10
.858-11
.719-11
.395-11
.791-21
.662-21
.361-21
•731-10
•611-10
.337-10
.666-12
.557-12
.306-12
.222-11
. 185-11
. 102-11
.783-10
.655-10
.360-10
.112-11
.935-12
.511-12
.295-13
.217-13
• 136-13
ACTIVITY
UCI/6M
.387+00
.321+00
. 178+00
.780-01
.653-01
.359-01
.719-11
.602-11
.331-11
.667+00
.558+00
.307+00
.605-02
.507-02
.278-02
.201-01
. 169-01
.926-05
.712+00
.596+00
.3Z7+00
.102-01
.850-02
.167-02
.Z68-03
.ZZ5-03
• IZ3-03
                             301

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
   RAI5IONUCL I^E   SN1 19M
   *ปLF LIFE  .251*03 OAV?
   TOTAL RELEASE  .198-22 C'-
•v N
ION Or CARRIE'
t
RADIUS TIME
IN SEA*AT
VOLUME
VELOCITY CU3RFNT
NM/DAf
.SO
.SCI
.50
.60
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.0!)
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.0.0
21.00
2i.no
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
N •*
1 .CD
1 .00
1*00
a. CO
8.00
8.00
10. nn
10.03
10.03
1 .00
i .on
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8. no
10.00
io.no
10.00
1 .00
i .on
1 .00
8.CTJ
8.00
8.00
10.00
in. on
io.cn
Ml
.05
. in
• zn
.in
.an
1.60
2.00
i.on
8.00
.05
. 10
.20
.in
.80
1 .60
2.un
1.00
8.00
.05
• in
.2n
.in
.80
1 .60
2.00
i.on
8.01
OAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80. On
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.0"
2ซoo
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
• 01
• 33
• 33
• 33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+1 1
. 105*15
.120*15
. 168*16
•263*16
• 105*17
•120*|7
. 161*13
•657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120*15
• 16ft* 1 6
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
•168+16
•263+16
= 105+1 7
.120+17
E 3 . .5 0 n - n f> GRAMS PER CC
,nun .oon
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
UCI/CC
. 1.13-09
.2?9-09
•S10-10
• 500-1 1
.311-1 1
.767-12
. 167-12
.115-12
.257-13
.331-09
.210-09
.513-10
.520-1 1
• 157-1 1
./97-12
.203-1 2
. 110-12
.312-13
.331-09
.230-09
•513-ln
.522-1 1
•359-1 1
•801-12
.208-12
. 113-12
.319-13
AVF.
uci/cc
.351-09
.296-09
. [63-09
.532-1 1
.115-1 1
.215-1 1
= 178-12
.119-12
.B19-13
.356-09
.298-09
.161-09
.553-1 1
.163-1 1
.251-1 1
.216-12
.181-12
.995-13
.356-09
.298-09
. 161-09
.555-1 1
.165-1 1
.255-11
.221-12
•185-12
•102-12
SCTIVITY
UCI/GM
. 1 18*00
.987-01
.512-01
•177-02
. 118-02
.815-03
•591-01
.197-01
.273-01
. 1 19*00
.992-01
.515-01
.181-02
. 1S1-02
.818-03
.721-01
.601-01
.332-01
.1 19+00
.993-01
.515-01
. 185-02
.155-02
.851-03
.738-01
.618-01
.339-01
   KACIONUCLIDE   SN  121
   HALF LIFE   .115 + 01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .252-02 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAGATE"
   MAXIMUM PFRMISSIBLE
.300-os G-RAMS PER cc
  .000       .000
CURRENT
DO'*M
RADIUS
Tine
VOLUME
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
VELOCITY CURRENT IsO-
HM/DAY
.50
.50
.50
• 50
• 50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
MM
1.00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10. en
10-00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.03
ft. CO
10.00
10.00
10.00
I .on
1 .00
1 -CO
8.00
a. on
8.00
10.00
io.cn
in. 01
MM
.OS
. 10
.20
.10
.BO
1 -60
2.00
i.on
8.00
.05
• n
•20
.10
.83
1 .6n
2.00
1.00
8. on
.05
• IP
.2n
. in
.80
1 .60
2. on
i.on
8. on
DAYS
2.00
2. on
2. DO
16. on
16.00
16.00
80.00
80. On
30.00
.25
.25
• 25
2.00
2.00
2. on
i a.on
10.00
10.00
• 01
.01
.01
.33
• 33
• 31
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+lS
•120+15
. 148+16
•263+16
• 105+17
•120+1 7
• 161+13
.657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+15
.I68+J6
•263+16
• 10S+|7
•120+17
• 161+1 3
•6S7+I 3
•263+11
• 105+lS
•120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
. 105+17
• 120+ 17
UCI/CC
.537-10
.3i9-m
.778-1 1
.172-15
.118-15
.261-16
. 122-33
.811-31
. 188-31
• 116-D9
. 100-09
•223-10
• 792M2
.515-1 2
. 122-12
•255-15
. 176-15
.392-16
•165-09
•1 13-09
•253-10
•216-1 1
.119-1 1
.312-12
.387-13
.266-13
.591-1 1
AVF..
UCI/CC
.539-10
.152-10
.218-10
. 183-15
.153-15
.810-16
•130-33
•10*-33
.599-31
.155-09
. 130-09
.712-10
.813-12
•706-12
.388-12
•272-15
•227-15
•125-15
•1 76-09
•117-09
•807-10
• 230-1 1
M93-1 1
• 106-1 1
•112-13
• 315-1 3
• 19P-1 3
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
• 180-01
.151-01
.827-02
.609-07
•510-07
•2BO-ti7
.131-25
.363-25
.200-25
•516-01
.132-01
.237-01
.,281-03
•235-03
•129-03
.906-07
.758-07
•117-07
•585-01
•190-01
.269-01
•767-03
.612-03
.353-03
. 137-01
. 1 15-01
•632-05
                             302

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   RAD10NUCLIDE   SN 123
   HALF  LIFE   .125*03 OAY<;
   TOTAL RELEASE  .210-33 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION or
   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
IN SEAGATE*
           •30n-na GRAMS PEW CC
            •oon       .000
CURRENT DOViN
VELOCITY CURRENT
\'M/DAY fJM









1
1
1
1
1
•4
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
• 50
.50
• 5n
• sn
.50
.50
.5rv
.50
.50
.on
.on
.on
• on
.on
.00
.no
• Qt)
• 00
• On
• on
• on
.on
• 00
• 00
• oa
• 00
• on
i
i
i
R
R
R
10
10
10
1
1
1
H
8
R
10
10
10
!
1
1
B
e
B
10
10
in
• CO
.no
• 00
• co
.00
.CO
• Pn
• Pn
.on
• cn
.no
• OD
• oo
.00
.00
.no
.nn
• 00
• CO
• on
• CO
• 00
• 00
• CO
• l?n
• 00
.00
PA01U?





1
2
1
a





I
2
1
8





1
2
1
B
• 05
. 1'J
• 2n
• "n
• Sn
• 6D
• on
.un
.Lin
• 05
• in
• 20
• n
• sn
.6n
.on
.un
.on
. u r.
• in
• 2n
• in
• 8P
.60
• On
.[in
• on
TIME
DAYS
i
z
2
16
16
16
80
no
BO



2
1
7.
10
10
10






i
i
i
• On
• On
• OP
• 00
• 00
• on
• op
• nn
.00
.25
.25
• 25
• m
• on
• 05
.00
• on
• 00
.0"
.01
• 01
.33
• 33
• 33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME
cc
. 161ป| 3
•657*13
.263*11
•105*15
•120+15
• 168+16
•263+14
•105+17
•120+|7
• 161+ | 3
.657*1 3
.263*11
• ins*!1;
• i2n*i s
• 16B*)6
•243*1 6
• 105*17
•120+17
•161*13
•657*13
•263*11
•105*15
•120*15
• 169*16
•263ป|6
•105*17
•12n*|7
CflNCEMTRATlON AvE.SPEC.
ISO- AVฃ- ACTIVITY
'JCI/CC IICI/CC UCI/GM
. 1 .1 9 - 1 n
•9S9-1 1
•211-1 1
•2n?-l7
.139-17
. 3nซ.) •(
•566-1 1
•3P9-1 1
.868-15
•111-10
.968-1 1
•216-11
' i \ 8- 1 7
•15C-12
•331-1 3
.811-11
.573-11
•12R-11
• MI-10
•9A9-1 |
.216-11
•270-1?
• 151-1?
•337-13
.073-11
,Ann-iq
- 1 31-11
• 118-10
. 12f-IO
•6B2-I 1
•215-12
• 180-12
•9H7-I3
•602-11
•soi-11
•277-11
• 150-10
. 125-10
•689-j !
•232-12
• 191-12
•107-12
•SP7-11
.713-11
.10R-11
• 150-10
• 176-10
.690-1 I
•231-12
•196-12
•108-12
.929-11
.778-11
.127-11
.195-02
.111-02
.227-02
.715-01
.599-01
.329-01
.201-05
.168-05
.923-06
.199-02
.11R-02
.230-02
.773-01
•617-U1
.355-01
•296-05
.218-05
. 136-05
.500-02
.119-02
.230-02
.780-01
.653-01
•359-01
.310-05
.259-05
• 112-05
   RAOIONUCLIDE   Sซ  125
   HALF  LIFE   .910+01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .231-01 CURIFS
   NATURAL CnNCENTRATION OF CARRIER |N SEAAATER
          PERMISSIBLE
          •300-08 SRAMS PER CC
            •3Zn-01     .310+03
CURRENT
00*1-1
RAPIUS
TI"E
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
• SO
• 50
.50
.50
.SO
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
i . oo
1.00

1 • 00
1.00
i • 00
1.00
71.00
f~ • \. u
2 1 • 00
21 • C n
— it f\n
Z " • U '.'
21 • on
21.00
21.00
21. on
NM
1 .00
i .on
1.00
s. on
8.00
a. oo
ic.or
10.00
10ซPO
1 -00
1 .00

B.OO
B.on

in. on
10. on
iD.pn
1 • 00
1 ซ00
1 .On
ซ• n n
• u -
8ซOC>
fl.on
10-00
ID-OP
NM
• US
. 10
.20
• 10
.81
1 .60
2.00
1.UO.
8.0n
.05
. in
,2n
.IP
.80
1 .60
2.00
l.cn
8. on
. in
.20
. HH

1 .60
2. on
1.00
B.on
OAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16. on
16.00
16.00
80. on
80.01
BO. OCI
.25
.25
.25
2.n.n
2.00
2.0D
10.00
10.05
in.co
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1.67
I .67
1 .67
cc
.161*13
.657*13
.263*11
• 105*15
•120*15
. 168*16
•263*16
• 10S*l7
.420+17
. 161+13
•6S7*l3
•263*11
• 105*15
.121*15
. ]6n*)6
.263*16
.105*17
•120*17
. 161*1 3
.657+1 3
•263ป|1
•105+15
•170+lS
•14P+J6
.263*1*
• 105*1 1
•120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
UCI/CC
. 136-1 1
.932-12
.208-12
.755-11
.519-11
.1 16-11
.270-17
• IB5-17
-111-18
• 151-1 1
• 106-1 |
•237-12
.212-13
. 116-13
. J2S-11
.170-15
.J23-I5
.721-16
.157-1 |
. infl-1 I
.210-12
.210-13
. 165-1 3
.367-11
.•577-15
• 1 33-15
AVf .
UCI/CC
. 111-1 1
.121-11
.663-12
.803-11
.672-11
•369-11
•287-17
•710-17
= 132-17
-161-11
• 137-1 |
.755-12
•225-13
. 189-13
. 101- I 3
.500-15
•1IC-IS
.230-15
• 167-1 1
• 110-1 1
.767-12
.255-13
•213-13
•117-13
.921-15
.771-15
.125-15
4CTIVITY
UCI/G"
.181-03
.103-03
.221-03
.268-DS
.221-05
.123-05
.956-09
.800-09
.110-09
.517-03
.158-03
.252-03
.751-05
.629-05
.316-05
. 167-06
. 139-06
.766-07
.556-03
.165-03
.256-03
.850-05
.71 1-05
.391-05
•30B-06
.268-06
•112-06
                            303

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   *UOIOMUCLTDF   SO 125
   HALF  LIFE   . o 8 "> + 0 3 "AYS
   TOTAL RELFASE  .311-32 CURIES
          C9MCฃNTI**r 10" or CAR^IEW r1* SFA*ATE*  .500-09 G'AMS PER cc
          PFซ"i 1SSIHLE                          .160-0*     .700+02
   OlUGHTEH OF  PREVIOUS <* A") 11MUCL I DE , PECAY  FRACTION •  I."000
CURRENT OOfcN
VELOCITY CURRENT
MM/DAY









<(
1
t
1
H
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
71
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 53
• sn
.01
• 00
• OD
.DO
• 00
• 00
• on
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
• On
• 0.0
• no
1
1
1
B
8
(>
10
10
HO
1
1
1
a
s
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
8
8
fl
10
10
MM
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.C1
.00
• 00
.00
• 00
• 00
• CO
• r^
• no
.On
.00
• 00
• 00
• oo
• 00
.00
• CO
• 00
• 03
.O'n
• on
1 0 • 0 0
RAnius
TIME
NM DAYS





1
2
1
0





1
2
1
8





1
2
4
8
• L11;
• 10
• 20
• in
• an
• 6n
.Of)
ป On
.00
• OS
• 10
• 2n
. 1?
.8.3
.60
• 00
• 00
• on.
.05
. in
• 2n
• 1")
.an
.6n
.on
. (in
• 00
2
2
2
1*
16
16
80
on
HO



2
'i
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.03
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
• 25
• 25
• 25
4 D ^
• or
• 00
• 00
• 00
• 00
• 01
• 01
• 01
• 33
.33
• 33
• 67
• 67
.67
VOLUME
cc
. 161+13
.657+1 3
.2*3+11
•-105+15
.120+15
. 16B+16
.263+1 6
•105+17
.120+1?
. 161+ 13
.657+ (3
.263+1 1
• 105+15
.120+1 5
= 168+1 6
•261*16
. 105+|7
•120+17
. 161* 13
•657+13
•263+11
• 105+lS
•120+15
• 1*8+16
•263+) 6
• 105+] 7
•120+1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UC1/CC
.230-09
. i?.a-09
.353-10
.356-1 1
.215-1 1
• 516-1 7.
. 136-1?
.936-13
.209-1 3
.230-09
• 158-09
.353-10
. J59-1 |
.217-1 1
.551-12
. 113-12
•9P3-1 3
.219-13
•230-09
. 158-09
•353-10
.J6X)-1 |
.217-1 1
.552-12
. 111-1 2
. V1P-I3
•221-13
MCI/CC
.215-09
.205-09
.! 13-09
.379-1 1
.317-11
. 171-1 1
.115-12
• 121-12
.666-13
•215-09
.205-09
.1 13-09
.382-1 1
.320-1 1
.176-1 1
• 152-12
•127-12
•699-1 3
•215-09
•205-09
. 1 13-09
• 383-1 1
.320-1 I
• 176-1 1
.153-12
•128-12
•701-13
UCI/GM
.189+00
.1 1U+00
.225+00
.757-02
.631-OZ
•31S-02
.290-03
•212-03
.133-03
.190+00
.110+00
.225+00
.765-02
•610-02
.352-02
.301-03
.255-03
. 110-03
.190+00
.1 10+00
.225+00
.766-02
.611-02
•352-02
.306-03
.256-03
• 111-03
   HซLF  LIFE   .580+02 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .230+00 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEA-ICATFR  .000    GRAMS PER cc
   IปXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                          .160-05     .700+00
   DAUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS RAn1ONUCLIDE , DECAY FRACTION *   .2200
CURRENT
00ซN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
• SO
• SO
.50
.50
• 50
• 50
.50
.SO
.50
1.00
1.DO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
NM
1.00
1.00
1.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
1 .03
1 .00
8.00
9.0?
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 .00
i .ro
1 .00
8.00
a.oo
".no
10.00
10.00
10ซ00
MI
• U5
• 10
.20
.10
.80
1.60
2 . 0 '.1
1.00
8.03
• 05
. 10
• 20
• 10
.80
1 -60
2.00
1 .IJ1
8.01
.05
. in
.20
• n
• 8n
1.60
2.0'1
1.00
s. on
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16. on
16.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
• 25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
13.00
• 01
.01
• 01
.33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
cc
. 161+13
.657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+15
. 169+1 6
.263+) A
• 105+1 7
•120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
•105+15
•120*15
• 1 68+1 6
•263+16
• 105+17
• 12fl*|7
•161*13
.657* (3
.263+11
. 105+15
•120+15
• 168 + 1 t>
.263+16
. 105+1 7
•120+17
CONCENTRATION A
ISO-
UCI/CC
. 151-07
. 101-07
•231-Ofl
. 199-09
.137-09
.306-10
• 3 7 3 - -1 1
.256-1 1
.572-12
.151-07
• 106-07
•236-OS
.236-09
. 162-09
•361-10
.857-1 1
.589-1 |
.131-11
; 151-07
. 106-07
.237-08
.210-09
. 165-09
.369-10
• 9
-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   A c cident,  Batch Re leas e
RADIONUCL IDE   SB 126
HALF LIFE   .375*00  DAYS
TOTAL RELEASE  .126-03 CURIES
'IATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAXIMUM PFRMISSIRLF
                                   SFA'"ATER
                                           .501-139 GRAMS PER CC
                                             •oon       .000
CORREf'T
"ELOCHY r
nn1: *4
•IJRRFMT
MM/DAY









14
4
<4
i
i
i
i
i
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
• 50
•<50
• 50
.50
• 50
• 50
.50
.50
• 50
.On
.on
• no
.on
• 0n
• PC
• 00
.-On
• 00
.00
• ro
.nn
• 00
• 00
. 0 0
.on
.on
.00
1
1
1
3
8
*
10
10
10
1
1
1
q
A
S
10
'40
10
1
1
1
9
8
8
in
"0
10
MM
.00
.00
.n
• 00
.On
.00
• OP
.On
.CO
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.on
.on
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00
.nn
• 00
.00
•00
.00
.00
"AOIUS
rj tป
• 05
. in
• 20
.10
.Bn
1 .6n
z.un
1.01!
)3-01
*
•
,
•
•
•
•
*
•
,
•
321-01
174-01
236-01
198-01
109-01
359-12
300-12
16S-12
561-01
172-UI
259-01
.511-03
•
•
•
•
•
130-03
236-03
175-05
116-05
801-06
   RAOIONUCLIOE   Sf 127
   HALF LlFฃ  .388+01 WAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .SIB-OI CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  IN SEAGATE*
          PERMISSIBLE
                                        •500-09 GRAMS PER CC

                                         .no"       .OOn
CURRENT
on*N
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY

.50
.50
• E>!1
• SP.
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.01!
1.00
1.00
1ซQP
1.00

1.00
1.00
1ซOC
21.00
21 .00
21.00
71.00
21.00
21.00
7 1 • pn
ฃ• ' . LJ J
21.00
21-00
NM
i .or
1 .00
1.00
3.00
s-oo
B.OO
10.00
10.00
10.00
I .OP
1.00
1 .00
8 . on
fl.OO
8. no
10.00
13.00
in. no
1 .00
i -on
1 .on
% . on
8.00
0.00
4 n ^ no
10. jn
n.nn
Nn
.us
. 11
• 20
.ir
.80
1.60
2.00
1 . 0 n
8 .nn
.115
• in
.2?
• *1 n
• Ml]
1-60,
2.00
1 >UO
s.oo
.05
. 10
.2"
.in
.81
1 >eO
R.un
OAYS
2. on
2.00
2.00
1 6.00
16. on
16.00
Bn.on
80.3"
80.00
.25
.25
• 25
2,00
2.00
2 , on
1 0 . 0 n
10.00
10.00
.01
,01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
.161+13
.657*13
.263*11
. 105*15
• 120.+ )S
. 168+16
.263+16
.105+17
•I2n+i7
. 161+13
.657+1 3
.263+11
. 105+15
•12P+ 1 5
•I6P*|6
•263*)6
. 105*1 7
.170*17
. 161*13
.657*1 3
.263+11
. 105+iS
.120+15
.168*16
.263*16
. 105*17
•12P*l7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
iso-
UCI/CC
.213-CB
. 167-OB
.373-07
.312-11
•211-1 |
.178-12
. I 35-17
.931-11
.203-18
.333-08
.229-08
.510-09
.380-10
.26 1- 1 n
.583-1 1
.361-12
.250-1 2
.559-13
.315-08
.237-08
.530-09
•512-ln
.352-10
.735-1 1
.161-11
.111-11
.218-1 2
AVF.
UCI/CC
.259-08
.21 7-08
, 119-08
.332-1 1
.778-1 1
.153-1 1
.111-17
.121-17
.663-18
.351-08
.296-08
. 163-08
,105-10
.339-10
. 186-10
•38B-1 2
.325-12
. 178-12
.367-08
.308-08
. 169-08
.515-10
.156-10
.251-10
.172-1 1
•111-1 1
.790-12
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.518*01
.13.3*01
.238*01
.661-02
.556-02
.305-02
.288-08
.211-08
. 133-08
.708*01
•593*01
.326*01
.809-01
.677-01
.372-01
.775-03
.619-03
.357-03
.735*01
.615*01
.338*01
. 109+00
.912-01
.501-01
• 343-1)2
.288-02
. 158-02
                             305

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
KS'M ONUCL 1 OF TE127!'
HALF LITE .100*03 DAYS
TOTAL RELEASE .935*03 CURIES
'•ATURAL CONrF."TR/vTION OF CAซP|Eซ
UXIM'J>- PrR-.|sSIp>LE
DAUGHTER r>F PREVIOUS "AIIONUCLIDE
CURRENT nOV'N RADIUS T|ME
IN SEAGATE* .000 GRAMS PES CC
.950-06 .350+00
, DECAY FRACTION • .1*00
VOL'-lwE CONCENTRATION AUE.SPEC.
VELOCITY CURRENT
NซI/DAY
.50
.50
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.51
ซ5C
.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
M.OP
1.00
i.on
1.00
i.on
21. on
21.00
21. CO
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. Of
21.0H
>-."
l -on
1 .00
1 .00
B.OO
a. on
B.OO
'in.cn
10. 00
10.00
! ,00
i .on
1 .00
R.C?
8 .en
is. on
10. on
10.00
in. oo
i .on
1 .PC
1 .00
8. 00
R.CO
o.OO
10. on
io.cn
10.00
N'l
.OS
.in
• 2n
.11
.80
1 .60
2. on
1.00
8.00
.05
..in
• 21
.10
.80
1 .60
2.un
1.00
a. on
.05
.in
• 2n
.1C
• DO
1 .60
2.00
I.On
B.un
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2. OH
16.00
16. 00
16.00
SO. 00
P.O. 00
SO. 00
• 25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
rc
.1*1+1 3
.657+13
.263+11
. 1.05+ 15
.120*15
. 168*16
•263*1*
. 105*17
•120*17
. 161+13
.657+13
•263ป|1
ซ 105+15
.120+15
. 168*16
•263+16
. 105*17
.120+17
•161*|3
.A57+13
•2*3*11
•105+15
.120*15
. 16B+16
.263*16
. 105*17
•120+17
isn-
uci/rc
•A20-07
.176-07
.951-08
.H87-09
.609-09
. 136-19
.236-10
. 1*2-10
.3*2-1 1
.427-07
.131-07
.941-08
.9*9-09
.6*6-09
. 119-09
.3*8-10
.253-10
.565-1 1
.628-07
.131-07
.9*3-08
.979-09
.673-09
. 150-09
. see-in
.2*7-10
.596-1 |
AVE.
(JCI/CC
.6*0-07
.552-07
•303-07
.913-09
•7R9-09
.131-09
.251-10
•210-10
.115-10
.667-07
.558-07
.307-07
; 1P3-08
•B63-09
.M7i|-09
.392-10
.328-10
. 180-10
.668-07
.559-07
.307-07
. inl-OB
.872-09
.179-09
.113-10
.316-10
. 190-10
ACTIVITY
UCI/6M
.ono
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
   KAOIONUfLIDE   TE  127
   HALF LIFE  .392+00 OATS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .312*01  CUKIES
   'UTURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEA*ATER  .100    &RAp>5 PER CC
   MAXIMA PFRMISSIRLE                         .320-05    .230+02
   PAUSHTER OF PREVIOUS "AC IONUCLIUE ,  DECAY FRACTION *  1.0000
CURRENT
fiotn
RA3IU5
T i ME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRF.MT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
.50
.50
.so
.50
.Sn
.50
.5n
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
i.on
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
M-l
1 .On
1 .00
1 .On
8. on
8. CO
8.00
lO.rn
10. PC
10.00
1.00
1 -00
1 .on
3. on
9. 0?
8.00
10.0P
10. on
10.cn
1 .On
1 .On
i .00
8.00
S.OO
8.00
10.00
10.00
10,00
NM
• US
. 10
.20
•10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
• 10
.20
• 10
.80
1 -*0
2.00
1.00
8.00
• 05
• in
.20
• in
.8n
1 .60
2.un
i.nn
8. on
UA*S
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
?.oo
2.00
1 0.00
10.01
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
• 161+1 3
.657+13
.263+11
•105+15
•120*15
. 160*1*
•263*16
=105*17
•12P+17
. 161+13
.657+13
•263ป|1
• 105*15
•120*15
. 168*16
.263*1*
•105+17
•120+17
•1*1*13
•657*13
.263*11
• 105*15
•120+15
• 1*8+1*
•263+16
• 105+17
•12n+ | 7
CONCENTRATION AvE.SPEC.
ISO-
uci/cc
.687-07
.172-07
. 105-07
.893-09
.613-09
. 137-09
.237-10
- 1*3-10
.3*3-1 1
. 158-06
. 109-06
.212-07
• 107-08
.738-09
. 165-09
.373-10
•256-10
.572-1 |
.199-06
.137-06
.306-07
.227-OB
. 156-OR
.318-09
.152-10
.311-10
•693-1 1
AVE.
UC1/CC
-731-U7
.612-07
.334-07
.950-09
.795-09
.137-09
•252-10
•211-10
. 1 16-10
• 1*8-06
. 111-06
•771-07
• 1 H-08
•956-09
•525-09
.397-10
.332-10
. 183-10
•212-06
. 178-06
.975-07
.212-08
•202-08
•1 1 1-08
.181-10
•102-10
•221-10
ACTIVITY
UC1/6N
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
                             306

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                    Accident,  Batch Release
                 TE129M
   ซALF LIFE   .31|ป02  OATS
   TOTAL RELFASF'  .155*02 CURIES
   NATURAL  CONCENTRAT ION OF
   'UXINJM  PERMISSIBLE
IN SEA*ATEป  .nil   GRAMS  PER CC
             •320-06     ,|80ซ00
CURRENT
VELOCITY
MM/DAY
.50
^50
.50
.50
.51
.50
.50
.51
.60
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.01
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.01
1.00
71.01
71.01
21.01
21.01
21.11
21.00
21. CO
21 .10
21.00
DOปM
CURRENT
MM
1 .On
1 .nn
1 .Of
8. on
B.nfl
* .00
10.00
10.00.
10.00
1 >C1
1 .00
1 .00
a. oo
B.OO
8. CO
10.00
in.nn
10.00
1 -0ฐ
1 .00
I .00
1.00
s.oo
B.01
10.01
10.00
10.00
H ซ D 1 U S

NH
.05
. 11
.2n
.10
.80
1 .60
2.ni
1.00
8. no
.05
. 10
.20
.10
• so
1 .61
2.00
1.00
s. on
• us
. in
.-20
.in
.BO
1 .60
2.UO
i.cn
8. on
TIME


-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   RATIONUCLTOE   I  1?7
   HALF LIFF  .420*10 DATS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .317-01 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER
MAXIMUM PFR"ISSIBLF
nAur,HTE" OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIOE
CURRENT rtO'ซN RADIUS TIME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY









4
4
4
4
4
4
4
M
4
21
21
24
21
21
24
21
24
24
.50
.50
.50
• so
.bO
.50
.50
• BO
.50
.00
• 00
• OC
• en
.00
.00
• 00
• oa
• on
.no
.on
.on
.00
.00
• on
.00
.00
.on
i .
1 .
i.
fl.
a.
8.
MO.
40.
MM
00
00
00
on
00
OP
00
oc
10.00
1 .
1.
1 .
8.
a.
R.
M3.
MO.
MO,
1 .
I.
1 •
A .
8.
3.
in .
10.
MO.
on
00
0"
no
00
CO
00
00
00
oo
oc
oc
CO
00
en
oc
on
on
t.ป DAYS





1
2
M
8





1
2
1
H





I
2
4
8
• U5
- 10
.20
.40
,f>n
.60
.00
.00
.00
.05
. 10
• 20
• 10
.80.
,60
.00
.00
.on
• 05
• i1}
.20
• MO
• gn
.60
.00
,00
.00
2
2
2
16
16
1 6
80
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






I
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.03
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
• oo
.00
.04
• 04
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
IN SEAWATER .400-07 GPAMS PER CC
.430-07 .750*01
, DECAY FRACTION . l.PDOO
VOLUME CONCENTRATION AwE,.SPECซ
ISO- AVE- ACTIVITY
CC
.161*13
.657*13
•263*|1
• 105ป|5
.420*15
• 1 68* 1 6
•263*16
• 105*17
•12Pป|7
. 161*|3
•657*13
.263+11
• 105*15
.120*15
. I68*)6
.263*16
. 105*17
.12Q+I 7
. 161+1 3
.657+] 3
.263+1 1
. 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
• 105*17
.420*17
UCI/CC
.231-1 1
• 1*1-1 1
•357-12
.366-1 3
.252-1 3
.562-1 1
. 117-11
.101-11
.225-15
.231-1 1
• 161-11
.359-12
.366-13
.252-13
.562-11
. 1M7-1 M
.101-11
.2JS-15
.231-1 1
.161-1 1
.357-12
.366-13
.252-13
.562-1 1
.147-14
.101-14
.225-15
UCI/CC
.217-1 1
.207-1 1
• 1 15-1 1
.370-13
•326-13
.177-13
. 156-14
•131-11
.718-19
.217-1 1
•207-1 1
•115-11
.370-13
.326-13
• 179-13
. 156-11
• 131-11
.717-15
.217-1 1
.207-1 I
•115-11
.370-13
.326-1 3
•177-13
• 156-11
•130-11
.717-15
UCI/GM
.116-01
.348-04
.171-01
.650-06
.514-06
.277-06
.260-07
.218-07
. 120-07
.116-01
.318-01
. 171-01
.617-06
.541-06
•277-06
•260-07
.218-07
. 120-07
.416-01
.318-01
•171-01
.617-06
•541-06
•277-06
•260-07
.217-07
.1 19-07
   RAOIONUCLIDE
   ^ALF LIFE   .125*01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .117*02 CURIES
   "ATURAL CONCENTRATION UF CARRIER IN  SFAR'ATER
   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
•000    GRAMS PER CC
  •630-06     .220*01
CURRENT
DOWN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
• 50
.50
.50
.50
• SP
.5C
.50
.50
.50
M.OC
1.00
1.00
M.OO
M.OO
M.OO
M.OO
M.OO
M.OO
21.00
21.00
21.00
2i.on
21.00
21.00
24.00
24.00
21.00
NH
1 .CC
1 .00
1 .00
8. no
fl.OO
8.00
10. CP
10. 00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
fl.OO
10.00
40,. 00
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .CO
8.00
fl.OO
8. CO
40.00
MO.on
MO. 00
NM
.05
• 1C
.20
• MO
• BO
1 .40
2.00
M.OO
8.00
.05
• IP
.20
• in
.80
1 .60
2. UO
M.tjo
8.00
• 05
• 10
.20
• in
.80
I .60
2.00
4.01?
8.00
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
ซ0. 00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
• 04
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
. |64*)3
.657*13
.263*1 4
. 105*15
.120*15
. 168+16
•263+ 1 6
. 105+17
•120+17
• 161+1 3
•657+1 3
•263+1M
.105+15
.120+15
. 168+ J6
.243+1 6
• 105+17
.120+1 7
. 16M+|3
.657*13
.263*14
. 105*15
.120+1 5
* 168+16
.263+J6
• 105+17
•120+17
CONCF.NTRAT ION AvE.SPEC.
ISO-
uci/cc
•26M-06
. 1S1-06
.MOM-07
. 175-1 1
.121-11
.267-12
.273-26
.188-28
.M19*29
.696-06
.478-06
•107-06
•M12-08
.283-Ofl
.63Z-09
. 175-1 1
. 111-1 1
.30.0-12
.781-06
.537-06
. 120-06
. 101-07
•7 13-08
.159-08
. 198-07
. 136-07
.301-10
AVE.
uci/cc
•781-06
•215-06
. 129-06
.187-1 1
.156-1 1
.R58-12
.291-28
.213-28
.1 31-28
.740-06
.620-06
.340-06
.438-08
.367-08
•202-08
.208-1 1
• 1 7 4 - 11
.756-12
.831-06
.675-06
.382-06
.1 10-07
•721-08
.508-08
.21 1-07
.177-07
.770-10
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
• 000
.000
• 000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
• 000
                             308

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF- CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   fAllICNUCLIOE   I  131
   HALF LIFE  .sos+o.1
   TOTAL RELEASE  .152+08 CURIES
                      OF
   DAUGHTER OF P'REVIOUS RAMONUCLITC. DECAY FRACT.ON  .'  ,nooo
                                                      '
CURRENT 10ซ'N
VELOCITY CURRENT
M " / 0 A Y hi M









M
i
i
a
ซ
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
. DH
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.50
• s'n
.50
.00
.00
.00
• CO
.00
.00
.on
• oo
• oo
• on
• On
• 00
• 01
.00
• 00
• no
• 00
• 00
1
1
1
p
B
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
8
8
8
10
10
• c r>
• oo
• 0."
.00
.PC
.or
.on
.00
.00
,00
.CO
.or
• on
.00
.05
.oc
• DO
"O.C"
1
1
1
8
B
3
10
10
10
• 00
.0"
• 00
• CO
• or
.CO
• 00
.00
.0"
RADIUS
UM





1
2
1
8





1
2
1
8





1
2
1
8
• US
• 1 0
• 20
• 1.1
• 80
.60
.On
• un
.00
.05
.10
.20
• 1C
• 8n
• 6n
• uo
• on
• on
.05
• 1"
• 2n
.10
• an
.6.1
.Lin
.no
.UO
TIME
DAYS
2.
2.
2.
1*.
1*.
1*.
80.
80.
80.
•
•
•
2.
2.
2.
10.
10.
10.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 .
1 .
1 .
00
00
On
00
00
00
00
00
00
25
25
25
00
00
00
00
00
00
01
01
01
33
33
33
67
67
67
VOLUME
CC
.1*1+1 3
•657+(3
•263+! 1
• 105+15
•120+15
. 16P+|6
.261+] 6
•105+17
•120+1 7
.161*1 3
•657*13
•263+1 1
•105+15
•120+1 5
•16S+1A
•263+1*
• 105*17
•120+1 7
• 1*1+1 3
•657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+1 5
. 1 AS+l A
•2*3* 1 6
• 105+1 7
• 12Q+ 1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVf. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/CC UCI/GM
•W59+00
•591+00
• I 32 + 00
•102-07
.277-02
.617-03
•651-04
•IIP-o*
.999-07
.999*00
.6fl7+0n
. 153+00
. 13 "-01
.923-07
.206-02
.270-03
. ies-03
.11 1-01
. ine+ci
. *99 +pn
• 154*00
• 1 '•• 5 - 0 1
• t"7-0l
.238-02
•553-03
• -ISO-OS
.813-01
.91 1*00
•7*5*00
.120+00
•128-02
.358-02
•197-02
.693-06
•580-06
•319-06
•106*01
•890+00
.189*00
.113-01
. 120-01
•657-02
.287-03
.210-03
.132-03
. 108*01
.906*00
.198*00
.'165-01
.138-01
.756-02
.5"B-03
.192-03
•270-03
. 152*08
. 128*08
.701+07
.713+05
.597+05
.328+05
.1 15+02
.967+01
.531*01
.177+08
. 118*08
.815*07
.238*06
•199*06
• 109*06
.176*01
.100*01
.220*01
. 180*08
.151*08
.829*07
.275+06
.230+06
.126+06
.980+01
.820+01
.151*01
   XAOIONUCLIOE   XE131M
   HALF LIFE   .118+02 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .687*05 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SFAUIATER  .100-09 GRAMS PER cc
   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                        .noo       .000
   DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS "A?IOMUCL1!!>E, DECAY FRACTION =   .0060
CURRENT
D0'*ป-i
RAIIU>
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DปY
.5n
.50
.50
.50
• 50
.50
.60
.50
. SO
H • o o
• • U V
a . nn
' • V \J
** • tn
1 • DO
H . nn
* 9 \,1 'j
a . ft n
* ' v" _
t| • 00
q • ft1"1
' • U '-j
1 • On
9 u ซ nn
ฃ. ™ • U -J
21.00
21.00
21.00
21-00
21.00
21. On
21.00
21. On
NM
1 .on
1 .00
I .00
e.oo
sซoo
S .00
in.co
10.00
10.00
1 * CO
J.OO
i • or
8.00
8.00
8 • no
1 0 • C n
10 • on
10 • 00
1 • nn
i • j • -
I .00
1 .00
e.oo
8.00
8.00
10. CO
10.00
10.CO
KM
.us
• 10
• 2n
• in
.BO
1 .6n
2. no
1.00
B.OO
.05
• 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.UO
8.00
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
i.C'.O
H .CO
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
8U.03
80.00
.25
.25
• 25
2.00
2. On
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
• 01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1.47
cc
. 1*1+13
.657+1 J
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
•"lSB+16
•263+ 16
• 1Q5+J7
•120+1 7
. 161+13
.657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
•120+15
.148+14
•243+16
• 105 + 17
•120+17
. |61+]3
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
. 16R+[6
•263+1*
•105+17
•12n*]7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
IS'.'-
oc i/cc
• •*72-02
•325-02
.725-03
.564-01
.389-01
•H6B-05
.927-07
.637-07
. 1 12-07
.143-02
.319-02
.71 1-03
.73P-01
.507-01
. 1 13-01
.270-05
. 195-05
.113-06
.162-02
.317-02
. /OB-03
.725-01
.198-01
. I I 1-01
.295-05
.203-05
•152-06
AVE.
UCI/CC
.503-02
.121-02
.231-02
.602-01
.501-01
•277-01
.987-07
.826-07
."51-07
•193-02
•113-02
•227-02
.785-01
.657-01
.361-01
.287-05
.210-05
. 132-05
.191-02
.11 1-02
•226-02
.771-01
.616-01
.355-01
•313-05
.262-05
•111-05
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
•503*08
.121*08
.231*08
.602*U6
.501*0*
.277*04
.987*03
.826*03
.151*03
.193+08
.113*08
.227*08
.785*06
.657*04
.361*06
.287*05
.210*05
. 132+05
.191+08
.11 1+08
.226*08
.771+04
.416+04
.355+04
.313+05
.242+05
. 111+05
                            309

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
                TE 132
   HALF LIFE   .32q+OI DAYS
   T'lTAL RELEASE  .157 + 03 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF c ป R s i E s
   MAXIMUM RFRMI5SIRLF
IN SEAWATER
           .000    GRAMS PER CC
             • 320-0*    .73(1+00
CURRENT DOfcN
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 5C!
.50
1.00
1.00
1 .on
q.op
q.oo
q.on
q.oo
q.oo
q.op
zq.oo
Z1.0D
zi.or
zi.on
zq.o"
Z1.00
Zl.on
Z1.00
Z1.0C
MM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.0"
8.00
ID. on
qo.oo
qo.oo
1 .00
1.00
1 .00
ซ.co
a.on
8.00
qo.oo
qo.oo
qo.oo
1 .GO
LOO
1 .00
8.00
8. on
0.00
qoซnn
qo.on
qo . oo
RAnjUS
Ml
.05
.10
.20
.to
.80
1 .60
z.un
q.uo
B.O?
.05
.10
• 2(5
• tn
.80
1 .40
2.00
q.uo
B.OO
.0=;
.10
.20
.qn
.pn
l.*0
2.00
q.oo
P. On
TIME
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
BO. on
SO. 00
80.00
.2S
.25
.25
2.00
?.oo
2.00
10.00
10.00
10. on
• oq
• oq
• cq
.33
• 33
• 33
i .67
1 .47
1 .67
VOLUME
CC
• 1 61+1 3
•657+1 3
.263+|1
. 105+lS
•120+15
. 168+16
•263+16
. 105+1 7
•120+17
.161+13
.657+1 3
•263+11
. 10S+|5
•1ZO+15
. 14fl+|4
.263+16
• 105+|7
•120+17
• 161+13
.657+13
•263+11
•105+|5
•q20+l5
. 168+1*
.263+1 *
•105+17
•q20+]7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC*
ISO- AVF.. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
.687-05
.172-05
.105-05
.536-08
.370-08
.8Z5-09
•zqq-is
. 168-15
.371-1*
•999-05
.687-05
.153-05
• 107-06
.738-07
. 165-07
.774-09
.533-09
. I 19-09
.105-01
.718-05
. 1*0-05
. 153-04
. 105-04
•235-07
.1*1-01
.317-08
.708-09
UCI/CC
.731-05
.612-05
.336-05
.672-08
.179-08
.263-08
.2*0-15
.Z17-15
•119-15
.106-01
.890-05
. 189-OS
•1 11-06
.957-07
•525-07
.826-09
.491-09
.380-09
•1 1 1-01
.931-05
•51 1-05
•143-04
.137-04
.751-07
•191-08
•11 1-08
.224-08
UCI/GM
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
• ooo
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
   RADIONUCLIDE   I  132
   HALF LIFE  .?q2-01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .397+07 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF  CARRIER  IN SEAWATEP  .fOO-07  GRAMS PER CC
   MAXIMU* PERMISSIBLE                          .000       .iio+ot
   DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS PAD 1ONUCLIOE, DECAY FRACTION •  1.0000
CURRENT DO*N
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
.50
• sn
.50
.sn
.50
.50
.50
q.oo
q.oo
q.oo
q.on
q.oo
q.oo
t.on
q.oo
t.OD
zq.oo
21.00
2H.OO
2i.on
2q.oo
2q.oo
zq.on
zq.oo
2q.oo
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
qo.oo
qo.oo
qo.on
1 .00
l.OP
I .OP
'.or
S.CP
a.oo
qo.oo
qo.oo
qo.co
i .no
1.00
i .on
ป.oo
8.00
8.00
qo.oo
qo.oo
qo.oo
RADIUS
NM
.U5
•10
.20
.qo
.80
1 .60
2.00
q.oo
8.00
.OS
.10
• zo
.qn
.80
1 .6n
2.00
q.OC
8.00
.05
.10
• ZO
• qn
.80
1 .60
Z.OP
q.oc
8.00
TIME
BAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
8Q.OO
80.00
PO.OO
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
z.oo
10.00
10.00
10.00
.oq
.oq
• oq
.33
.33
.33
1.67
1.67
1.67
VOLUME
cc
•I6q+i3
.657+13
•263+lt
•lOS+jS
•qzo+iB
. 166+16
.263+16
•105+17
ซq2o+i7
>16q+i3
.657+13
•263+lt
•10S+1S
•q20+lS
.168+16
.2*3+16
• 105+17
•q2n+i7
.l*q+i3
•657+13
.Z63+Iซ
•105+15
•q2o+is
•168+1*
•263+16
•10S+17
•qzo+i7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC"
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCt/CC
.719-05
.H9q-05
• 1 10-05
.ssq-oe
.381-09
.8q9-09
.251-15
.173-15
.386-16
•tzq-oi
•291-01
•*SO-02
• 1 1Z-06
.772-07
.172-07
.799-09
.5t9-09
• 123-09
. 196+00
. 135+00
•301-01
.359-03
•2q7-03
.550-01
.551-08
•381-08
•850-09
UCUCC
.765-05
.6qo-os
.352-05
.58ป-Oe
.H93-08
•271-08
.267-15
•22H-15
• 123-15
•tSl-01
.377-01
•207-01
•1 I'-O*
• 100-06
•5*0-07
.850-09
.712-09
.391-09
.209+00
.175+00
.960-01
•382-03
•320-03
•176-03
.589-08
.t93-08
.271-08
UCI/GM
.127+03
. 107+03
.SB6+Q2
.982-01
.822-01
.15Z-01
.qM6-08
.373-08
.205-08
.752+06
.629+06
•3q4+06
.199+01
. 167+01
.916+00
•112-01
.1 19-01
•65Z-02
•3tB*07
•291+07
•16T+07
.636+01
.533+01
•293+Qq
.982-01
•822-01
•qS2-01
                              310

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident,  Batch Release
   KAOIONUCLrOE   I 133
   HALF LIFE   ,pซ6ปon PAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  ,i53*os CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAP.'ATER
   MAXIMUM PFRMISSIPLE
.400-07 6RAMS PER CC

  . I 10-07     . 120*03
CURRENT DOWN
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY NM









1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.sn
.sn
.50
.5n
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.OP
.00
.00
.00
.on
.on
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
i
i
i
8
8
8
10
10
10
I
1
1
8
8
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
8
8
8
10
10
10
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
RADIUS





I
2
1
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
.60
.00
.00
8.00





1
2
1
8





1
2
1
8
.05
.10
.20
•10
.80
.60
.00
.00
.00
.05
.10
.20
.10
.80
.60
.00
.00
.on
TIME
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
80
80



2
2
2
10
• On
.00
.00
.00
.on
.00
.00
• 00
• 00
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
• 00
.00
10.00
10






1
1
1
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME
CC
. 161*13
•657*|3
.263*11
. 105*15
.120*15
. 168+16
.263+|6
•105+17
•120+17
. • I61ป| 3
•657+13
•263+11
• 105+lS
•120+15
•168+16
•2*3*16
•105*17
•120+17
•1*1+13
.657+13
.263*11
.105*15
•120*15
• 168*]6
•263*16
• 105*17
•120+1 7
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC-
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC UCI/tC UC1/6M
.200+00
. 137+00
.306-01
.326-07
.221-07
.500-08
.223-31
.153-31
.311-32
.837*00
.575*00
.128*00
.3)2-02
.211-02
.178-03
.178-0*
.122-0*
.273-07
.993*00
.683+00
.152*00
.122-01
.810-02
.187-02
. 1*1-03
.1 13-03
.251-01
.212+00
.178+00
.977-01
.317-07
.291-07
.1*0-07
.237-31
.198-31
.109-31
.891+00
.716+00
.110+00
.332-02
.278-02
•153-02
.189-0*
.158-06
.870-07
.106+01
.881+00
.186+00
.'130-01
.109-01
.598-02
•171-03
.116-03
,802-01
,351+07
.296+07
.163+07
.578+00
.181+00
.266+00
.395-21
.330-21
•182-21
.118+08
,121+08
,683+07
,553+05
,163+05
.251+05
.315+01
•2*1+01
•115+01
.174*08
•117+08
.810+07
.217+0*
.181+06
.996+05
.291+01
.213+01
.131+01
   RADIONUCLfDE   XE133M
   HALF LIFE  .226+01  OAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  ,322+07 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER  .100-09  GRAMS PER cc
   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                          .000       .000
   DAUGHTER OF PREVIOUS RADIONUCLIDE, DECAY FRACTION •  i.oooo
CURRENT
00*N
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY
• 50
.50
• 50
.50
.50
• 50
.50
• 50
• SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1 . 00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21 . CO
?<4 • on
ฃ ' . w U
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. OP
NM
1 .00
1 .00
I .00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10ซ CO
10.00
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
8. DO
8.00
10.00
10.00
40.00
1 .00
1 .00
1.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
NM
.05
.10
.20
.10
.80
1.60
2.00
i.oo
8.00
.05
• 10
.20
.10
.80
1.60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
.10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
CC
•161+13
•657+13
•263+J1
.105+15
.120+15
.168+1*
.263+1*
•10Sป|7
.120+17
.161+lS
.657+13
.263+11
.105*15
.120*15
. 168+16
.263+16
.105+17
.120+17
.161+13
.657+13
.2*3+11
.105+15
• 12tl+lS
. 168*16
.263+16
• 105+17
.120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
1SO-
UCI/CC
.331*00
.227+00
.507-01
.961-01
.660-01
. 117-01
.115-13
.792-11
.177-11
,2*9+00
.185+00
.112-01
.517-02
.355-02
,792-03
.211-01
.166-01
,369-05
.226+00
.156+00
.317-01
.111-02
.303-02
.677-03
.213-03
.117-03
.327-01
AVE.
UCI/CC
.352+00
.291+00
.1*2*00
.102-03
.856-01
.170-01
.123-13
•103-13
•561-11
,286+00
.239+00
•131*00
,550-02
,160-02
,253-02
.256-01
.215-01
.1 18-01
.211+00
.202+00
.1 1 1*00
.1*9-02
.393-02
.214-02
.227-03
.190-03
.101-03
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.352+10
.291+10
.1*2+10
,102*07
,656+06
,170+0*
,123-03
.103-03
.561-01
.286+10
.239*10
.131+10
.550+08
,1*0*08
,253*08
.256*0*
.215+06
.118+06
.211+10
.202+10
.111*10
,1*9+08
.393+08
.216*08
.227*07
.190*07
.101*07
                              311

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT

                   Accident, Batch Release


   RAOIONUCLIOE   XE 133
   HALF LIFE   .527*01  DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .200*0.1 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION OP CARRIER  IN SEAIHATER  .100-09 GRAMS PER cc
   "AXIMUM PERMISSIBLE                          .000       .000
   DAUGHTEP nF  PREVIOUS KAOIONUCLIDE , DECAY FRACTION ซ  i.oooo
CURRENT DO''.'N
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY









1
t
q
1
1
4
•4
14
"4
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
.50
.BO
.50
.50
.SO
• 50
.SO
.50
.SO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
1
I
1
S
9
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
8
ft
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
R
e
9
10
10
10
NM
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
RADIUS






1
2
H
8





I
2
1
a





I
2
1
8
NM
.OS
. \n
.20
.10
.80
.40
.110
.00
.00
.OS
.10
.20
.10
.80
.60
.00
.00
.00
.OS
. 10
.20
.10
.80
.60
.00
.00
.01
TIME
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
eo
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
I
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.26
.25
.2S
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME
CC
.161*13
.657*13
.263*11
.105*15
•120*15
.168*16
.263*16
•105*17
• •(20*17
. 161*13
.657*13
.263*11
. 105*15
•120*15
.168*16
•263*16
"105*17
.120*17
. 161*13
.657*13
•263*11
•105*15
.120*15
. 168*16
.263*16
• 105*17
.120*17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
.11 1*01
.761*00
• 170*00
.34
1
q
q
•4
21
21
21
21
21
2M
21
21
21
.50
.SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
• or
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.on
i .
i.
i.
8.
8.
6.
10.
10.
10.
1 •
1.
I .
8.
8.
8.
10.
10.
10.
1 .
1 .
1 .
0.
8.
9.
10.
10.
10.
NM
00
00
00
CO
00
00
00
0"
00
00
00
00
00
00
CO
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00






1
2
1
a





1
2
1
3





1
2
1
8
NM
.05
• 10
• 20
.10
• so
.60
.00
• OP
.on
• us
• 10
• 20
• 10.
.80
.60
.00
.00
.00
.05
• 10
• 20
• 10
.80
.60
.00
.0?
.00
PAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
80
• oo
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
80.00



2
2
2
10
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
.00
10.00
10






1
I
1
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
IN SEAWATER .000 GRAMS PER CC
•000 .000
VOLUME CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
CC
•161*13
.657+13
.263*11
• 105*15
.120+15
.168*16
.263*16
. 105*17
•120*17
• 161*13
•657*13
•263*11
• 105*15
.120*15
• 168*16
.263*16
. 105+17
..*12nซI7
.161*13
.657*13
.263*11
. 105*15
•120*15
• 168*16
•263*16
•10S+1 7
,120*17
UCI/CC
. 168-26
. 1 16-26
.258-27
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.183-08
.126-08
.281-09
.263-28
. 181-28
.103-29
.000
.000
.000
.257-06
.177-06
.395-07
.396-1 1
.272-1 1
.608-12
.287-26
.197-26
.110-27
UCI/CC
. 179-26
. 150-26
.823-27
.000
.000
,000
.000
.000
.000
.195-08
.163-08
,897-09
.280-28
.231-28
.129-28
.000
.000
.000
.271-06
.229-06
.126-06
.122-1 1
.353-1 1
.191-11
.305-26
.255-26
. 110-26
UCI/GM
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
• 000
.000
                             312

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release


   RAOIONUCLIDE   I 131
   HALF LIFE   13*1-01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .115+07 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION or CARTER IN  SEAปVATER  .*oo-n? GRAMS PER cc
   ซAXIMUซ PFRMISSIBLE                          .i6o_0ป     .190+01
   OAUGWTE" OF PREVIOUS RAn IONUCLIDE , DECAY FRACTION -  1.0000
CURRENT DO*N
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY
.50
• 50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
^ • On
1ป00
1.00
1ซJ30
".00
1.00
1ซnn
2ซ.nn
2". 00
21. On
2". 00
24 . On
21.00
21.00
2". 00
21.00
MM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
3.00
ซ.nn
8. 00
M 0 . 0 n
10.00
"0 . On
1 .00
i .or
I . 00
 1 48+1 6
.263+14
- 105+17
.120+) 7
• 161 + 13
•657+13
.263+11
•105+15
•120+15
. 16P+16
•263+1 6
• 1 05+J 7
.120+) 7
CONCENTRATION AvE.SPEC.
ISO. AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
•633-17
.135-17
•971-10
.ono
.Unn
.000
.000
• ono
.000
.216-02
.16ซ-02
.377-03
.'89-19
.680-1 9
• 152-19
.000
.000
• 000
• 1 31+00
• 923-01'
•204-01
.777-05
.531-05
. 1 19-05
.238-17
.163-17
•345-18
uci/cc
.473-17
.541-17
•310-17
.000
.000
.000
.noo
.000
.000
.242-02
•219-02
• 120-02
. 105-18
.881-19
•181-19
.000
.000
.000
. 113+00
• 120+00
.657-01
.826-05
.692-05
.380-05
.753-17
.212-17
.116-17
UCI/GM
• 1 12-09
.910-10
.516-10
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.136+05
.365+05
.201+05
. 175-1 1
•117-1 1
•807-12
.000
.000
.000
.238+07
. 199+07
. 1 10+07
. 138+03
. 1 15 + U3
.633+02
.122-10
.353-10
.191-10
RADIONUCLIDE   CS  131
HALF LIFE   .710+03 DAYS
TOTAL RELFASF.  .172 + 01 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
                                IN SEASATER
                                           .380-03  GRAMS PER CC
                                             .9UO-06     .I50-U1
CURRENT nOf.N
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/DAY Nซ <•'"









M
14
M
1
1
4
1
u
1
j H
i ~
2<*
? 14
ฃ ™
? (4
ฃ
21
Zn
~
2"
.50
.50
• SO
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• on
.00
.00
• On
.CO
.00
.00
n n
• i* _
• CO
• r n
• DC
, nn

ป n o
• U L
n n
.00
.00
1
1
1
8
8
R
10
10
"0
1
1
1
s
R
fl
10

"0

1
1
p
fl

10
u n

.00
.00
.On
.00
• CO
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.0"
.00

.00
.CO
.on
f nn
.00
, n n
n n
. I-
.00

.us
. 10
.20
.10
.sn
1 .6n
2.UO
H.UO
P. 'JO
.05
. 1 0
.20
.10
.yn
1 .60
2. cm
1.00
O.'iO
.n?

.2n
.10
.Sn
1 . 6n
2 . 0 n
H . On
fi . On
DAYS
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
80
80



2
2
2
10
10
10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.On
.00
.On
.25
.25
.25
.00
.on
.CO
. nn
.00
.CO
.01
• C'l
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
CC
.161+13
.657+13
.263+11
• 105+15
•12n+)5
. 168 + 1 *
•263+!4
• 105+17
.120+1 7
. 161+1 -i
.457*13
.243+1"
. 105+ J E
.120+1 5
. 16!>+l 4
.263+16
. 105+J7
•12n+ 1 7
. 161+1 3
.457*13
.263+1 1
. 105+ 15
.120+ {*•
. 16S+, 6
.263+16
. 105+17
.12n+!7

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
.
*
•
.
•
•
*
.
.
*
•
•
.
•
•
•
ISO-
UC1/CC
1 15-03
702-01
177-01
178-05
1 22-05
273-06
670-07
141-07
103-07
1 15-03
79M-n
-------
Down- current Distribution,  BREA CH-OF- CONTAINMENT
                Accident, Batch Release
   W.n IC'.IUCLIOF   1 135
   "ftLF LIFE  . 2 7 ซ ป 0 P l> 11 S
   TOTAL RfL^ASE  .931+n7 Ct'F.'IFS
         Cr'7    .370+03
C U R R F K: T
VFLOCITY <
n 0 '•' *.'
P A P ] U S
N M / n A Y N M N •*









1
M
44
1
4
ป
•4
(4
44
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
71
.50
.50
.50
.5"
.50
.50
.5"
.50
.60
.or.1
.00
.00
.0'.'
. nn
.00
. nn
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
.nn
.0.0
.On
.00
1
1
1
n
s
R
"n
un
u n
1
1
I
8
B
p.
10
1C
1?
1
1
1
8
ซ
8
10
1 0
in
.00
.r"
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• P"
.00
.nn
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
• 00
. "n
.00
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.0"
.00
• L'5
. 1"
.20
• 10
.80
1 .40
2.00
i .yo
8 . 0 0
.05
. in
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2 . CO
1.0"
fc.'JO
.05
. n
. 2n
• H"
.8n
1 .60
2.00
1 .(in
fl , Q n
T
I ME
(It Y S
^
2
2
14
1 *
16
p.n
BO
eo



2
2
2
1C
10
10






1
1
1
.DO
• 00
.00
.00
.On
.00
.00
.0-
, nn
.25
.25
.25
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOLUME CO';CEMTRATI'1N A
ISO- AVF.
CC
. 1 6 " + 1 3
.657+13
•263+11
• 10.5+lb'
•12n+l 5
. 166+1 6
. 2 6 3 + 1 <
. 105+17
.120+17
. 161+13
.657+13
•263+lu
. 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+16
.105+17
"120+ 1 7
.161+13
.457+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263+|6
• 105*17
.170*1 7
UCI/CC
.127-02
.291-02
.655-03
.if>6-19
.320-19
.711-20
.000
.coo
.000
.335+00
.230*00
.511-01
.668-01
.HS9-01
. 102-01
.583-11
.111-11
.891-15
.561*00
. 3fl7+00
.841-01
.126-02
.293-02
.653-03
.613-05
.121-05
.910-04
uci/cc
.155-02
.381-02
.209-02
.195-19
.1IS-19
.228-19
• 000
.TO
.000
.357+00
.799+00
. | 41+00
.710-01
.595-01
.327-01
.620-11
.5)9-11
.285-11
.600+00
.502+00
.774+00
.153-02
.379-02
.208-02
.652-05
.516-05
.300-05
•,'E.SPtC.
ACTIVITY

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
*
•
UCI/GM
758+nS
631+05
319+Ob
826-12
491-12
380-12
000
000
000
.591+07
•
ซ
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
198+07
273+07
1 18+01
991+03
515+03
103-06
866-07
176-07
999+07
834+07
160+07
755+05
632+06
317+05
109+03
910*02
500*02
"ป1
.131
.899
.201
.000
.000
.000
• 9q?
.617
• 1 11
• 188
. I 29
.288
. If 1
.113
.251
. 118
-f'3
-03
-19
-20
-20



-0|
-0|
-0!
-01
-nu
-05
-11
-11
-15
+ 00
.101 +00
.274
. 120
-01
-02
.17"+15 .822-03
. I6">*1 6
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+1 7
.1P3
. 1 72
.118
.261
-03
-05
-05
-0*
. 128-02
• 107-02
.587-03
• 139-19
•116-19
.610-20
• nco
.000
.000
• 100 + 00
.839-01
.161-01
.700-01
. 167-01
.918-05
. 1 71-1 1
. l'16-ll
.PD7-15
. 157+00
.131+00
.722-01
. 127-02
. 106-02
.585-03
. 183-05
. 153-05
.813-06
PER CC
.000
"E.SPEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/S"
.178*08
.107*08
.587*07
. 1 39-09
.1 16-09
.610-10
.000
.000
.000
. 100*10
.839*09
.161*09
.200*06
.167*U6
.918+05
. 171-01
.1M6-01
.802-05
. 157*1O
.131*10
.722+09
.127*08
. 106*08
.535*07
. 183*05
.153*05
. 813+01
                        314

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                Accident, Batch Release
f A.niONUCLiOE XE 13V
HALF LI^E .381+0,0 l'AปS
T(.TAL RELEASE ,5fi6+f:7 CITIES
N A T V; 9 A L C 0 '\ C F !•> T D A T ! 0 f: OF C A " ซ I E K
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-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
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T 1 T A L
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                                           .200-os
                                       C 01, C E N T
                                         ISO-
                                       'JCI/CC
                                       .S05-03
                                       .117-03
                                       .7 7H-OM

                                       .512-05
                                       .121-05
                                       .311-06
                                       .216-06
                                       . 14R2-07
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                                       .217-06
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.712-05
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.331-06
.280-06
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.150-03
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.386-05
.336-06
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.717-03
. P39-05
.703-05
.386-05
.336-06
.281-06
.151-06
 PE1* CC
 • 211-'J1

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 .I 18 + 01
 •651+00
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•277-01
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                             316

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
               Accident, Batch Release
             CS I3H

      .LIFE   .721-0.1 3.-.TS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .2A7 + T.1
4
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.657+13
•261+ l 1
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.121+ | S
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•170+17
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.763+11
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• 07 r, ซ A M S
PES'MSSItLe .320-05
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CU3PFNT
\
-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                 Accident, Batch Release
" ป 0 I 0 N U C L ! 0 F LA 1 1 g
•i ปLF LIFE .1 AO + OI OJrs
T-iTAL HfLFASt .79A + 01 C'"ปtKS
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Cf'TRATION OF CARRIER
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PREVIOUS


•'A1IONUCLIDE
C'JOPENT 1o<-" RADIU?
VELOCITY c1-1
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1.00
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21.00
21.00
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21.00
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21.00
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16.00
14.00
16.00
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80.00
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10.00
10.00
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1 .67
IN SFAiMTEff

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.161+1-1 .
.657+1?
.263+11 •
•105+15 .
.120+ IS .
•168+16 .
.263+16 .
. 1Q5+1 7 .
•120+17 .
.300-
.38
09 R R A r-'
l-t)6
S PER CC
. 181*01
CT 10" ซ 1 .OOOC
C 0 " C E N T
ISO-
U C I / C C
1 '5-04
1 i"-n<,
299-07
1SH-C")
11.6-03
237-09
193-1 I
133-! 1
294-12
199-06
1 17-06
.105-07
J05-08
21 9 -n 3
147-09
S"i 1 -1 0
585-1 "
1 30-10
199-04
1 ?7-04
3ns-07
.11 1-08
Z 1 1-08
177-09
1 73-09
B11-1 0
188-10

SVF .
UCI /CC
.707-04
. 1 71-06
.951-07
.161-08
.137-08
.755-09
.205-1 1
. 172-1 1
.915-12
.212-06
. 177-06
.971-07
ซ32"-08
.271-08
. I 19-08
.9(15-10
.758-10
."16-10
.212-06
• 177-06
.973-C7
.331-08
.277-08
.152-08
. 1 31-09
. 109-09
.601-10
Ave.SPEC.
iCTI VI TY
UCI/GM
.491+03
.579+03
•318+03
.517+01
.153+01
.752+01
.685-02
.573-02
.315-02
.704+03
.591+03
.325+03
. 108+02
.901+01
.197+01
.302+00
.253+00
.139+00
.705+03
.590+03
.321+03
; I 10 + 02
.921+01
.508*01
.134*00
.365*00
.200+00
              CK 111
   '•ULF LIFE   .125+02
   TOTAL RE1.F.ASF.  .273 + 01 CURIES
         CONCSซTปATION  OF
                            IN SEAป.'ATEป
                                      .300-09 R9AM5 PER CC
                                        •17P-05    .120+01
CURRENT 0 n '.-. M
VELOCITY rU'RFNT
MX/DAY
.50
• 50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• SO
1.00
i.nn
1,00
1.00
1,00
1,00
1.00
1.0"
1.00
21.01
21.00
21.00
21,00
21.00
21.00
21. fin
71 . ro
21 • nn
"M
1 .00
1 .CO
1 .00
8. On
8.ni
S.nn
10.0?
1 0 . C i
11 , n n
1 .00
1 .00
1.00
s.oo
8 . 0.1
8 . CO
10.00
10.00
10. on
I . in
1 .00
1 .00
8 . Qi
8. 00
8.00
10.00
11 , ni
10.01
RAO 1US
NM
ซL"j
• 10
. 2i
.in
,eo
I .An
2. DO
1.00
8 .UO
.05
- 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .6n
2.00
1 .tin
8.00
.05
.10
• 20
.11
,6n
I .60
2.UO
1.00
H . o .1
TIME
:)AY<;
2.00
2.00
2.0n
16.00
16.00
16. ni
80.00
."0.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.50
2.00
Z.OO
10.00
1'J.OO
i a . o o
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
t .67
VOLUME
CC
. 1 61 + ] 3
.657+13
.243+11
. 105+15
•120+15
. 16ซ+ (6
•241+16
• 1 05* ) 7
•120*17
•161*13
.657+13
.263+11
. lrj^+15
.120+15
= 160*1 6
.263*16
. 105+17
.T2H+J7
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
• 105+15
•120+lS
. 148+1 6
.263+16
. 105+17
.120+17
CONCENTRATION A
ISO- AVF.
'JCI/CC
• 176-04
. 1 21-06
. 269-07
.201-08
. 1 10-08
.31 2-09
.208-1 o
.113-10
"319-11
• 182-06
. 175-OA
.280-07
•275-08
• 189-OS
•171-09
•924-10
•636-10
• H2-10
, 1 83-06
• 176-04
.281-07
.281-08
. 195-08
.136-09
. 1 1 1-09
.760-11
. 170-10
uci/cc
. 187-06
.156-06
•860-U7
.217-08
.18! -08
.996-09
.221-10
. 185-10
. 10.2-10
.191-06
.162-06
.092-07
.292-08
,211-08
. 1 31-08
.985-10
.825-10
.153-10
• 195-06
. 163-06
.896-07
.303-08
.253-08
.139-08
.1 18-09
.985-10
.=11-10
VE.SPEC"
UCI/GM
.423+03
.522+03
.287+03
.722+01
.605+01
.332+01
.738-01
.618-01
.339-01
.617+03
.511+03
.297+03
.973+01
.P15+OI
.118+01
.328+00
.275+00
.151+00
.450+03
.511+03
.299+03
. 101+02
.811+01
.161+01
.392+00
.328+00
. IBn + L'O
                         318

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   "ปซniONiKL|OiC   CE 113
   -"ALF LIFE   ..137 + ni a.rs
   TOTAL RlLTAiF.  ,761*01  CURIES
   "IATUHAL CO^CENT5>AT]OM OF
                              IN
                                        .iOn.n<> C,BAKS PErt CC
                                          • 76n-riiS    • 68? + Q*t
CU^BE^T nov-N
VELOCITY (
MM/5AY









u
u
1
1
1
1
M
1
1
21
7"
2"
21
2"
21
2"
2"
2"
• =>•-'
• 50
• 5"
.50
.5"
.50
.5"
.5^
.50
. 00
,nn
.00
,nn
.00
.00
.02
, nn
• On
• On
, nn
. nn
.nn
. nn
.fin
• On
.nn
• t- n
•tjas
1
1
I
8
8
*
in
40
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1
1
1
a
o
8
Mn
Mn
u n
1
1
1
8
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8
'I 0
10
10
FK'!
• GO
. n n
• 0 n
, nn
, nn
• 0 0
. n n
• 0"
,00
,00
; n n
• 00
,nn
• 00
. nn
.00
.70
• 0™
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• Or
• 00
. n n
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• 00
. n n
. Oi?
s A r> HI ^
h -1
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. in
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.Hn
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1 .60
2. tl''
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fi . c •••
• L11^
• n
.2"
.Mn
• 80
1 •< n
2. no
1 * 0 n
8 . U 0
.05
. n
.20
• Mn
.81
I .6n
2.yn
1 . u -i
8.0"
T

"AYS
2
2
2
1 ป
16
1 6
"0
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*• 0



2
2
2
i a
13
u






i
i
i
• CO
.00
.00
• 00
, nn
• 00
• nc
.00
.00
.25
.25
.25
.r.n
.0?
.00
.00
.00
.nn
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
. 33
• 67
.47
.47
il'JLUvE
rc
• I4M+ | 1
• 657+ 1 3
.243+ 1 1
. 1 05* 15
•120+ (5
• 166*16
.263*16
• 105*1 i
. 1 2 '1 + 1 7
• 161+13
•657+13
.763*11
• 105+15
• 12r* 15
. 16ป* 1 6
.2*3*16
" 10'>+! 7
•12nปi 7
• 16M* 1 3
• 657*1 3
•263*11
• 105*15
•120+15
• I6C + 1*
•2*3+16
• 105+17
* i?n+ i 7
C n M-
CM
isn-
'"•I /CC
. 4, M n —
. Mun-
. V 8 1 -
.162-
.592-
. 1 32-
.330-
.2??-
.518-
. 155-
ซ 1 n6-
.237-
. 1 nn-
• 6S7-
. 1 c, 3 -
• 7 n 9 -
. 1 <-. 7 -
. I n9-
.172-
07
07
01
12
1 2
12
77
77
28
06
04
"7
0!)
09
09
1 7
1 7
1 7
06
. 1 1 '-06
• 2*3-
• 732-
. 159-
07
np
nfl
.355-09
• M73-
. J2f-
• 7?S-
in
10
1 1
r P t T i n M
Avr.
"CI/CC
•6*0-07
•570-07
•31 3-07
•9)7-12
•767-12
.122-12
.3*0-27
.3H1-27
.145-27
• 161-06
. 138-0*
.756-07
. 106-08
.890-09
.M89-09
•7&1-I2
.432-12
.317-12
. 1 W3-06
. 153-06
.810-07
.216-08
.206-08
• 1 13-08
• 50.3-10
.121-10
•731-10
SPEC-
ACTIVITY
UCI/6K
.227*03
. 1 90*03
.101*03
.306-02
.254-02
.111-02
. 120-17
. 100-17
.551-18
.518*03
.159*03
.252*03
.351 + 1)1
.297+01
•163+01
.251-02
.21 1-07
. 1 14-02
.409+03
.51"+n3
.280+03
.821+01
•487+P1
.378+01
. 1 4 ป + '] U
. 1 in + oo
.771-01
               PK  113
       LIFE   .i3**D2 n/i
   TOTAL RELEAsr  ,249*01
         CnnCFwTRATlOM OF CAS^IEW IV SEA'fATES  =300-09 BRAMS PEH  CC
         prSMISS MLE                       .9Sn.n7    ,I8n*l]1
   -UUGHTER OF  PREVIOUS 1A1 I O^'JCL. I CE ,  DECAY  FRnCTIO'J =  1.0000
CURซE';T 0"ซ\ซj
VELOCITY CU^EMT
N IX / r) 4 Y









i
M
4
M
q
<|
M

.nn
.00
.00
.00
• 00
. n n
• 00
, nn
, nn
. nn
Itrilvt
H-*
T
!)
'INF
A*5
• D-- 2.C-1
• n
• 2i
, M n
• Bn
1 . 6H
2. .'JO
1 . DO
8.L"i
. ฃ.' 5
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• 2-1
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1 .<•. n
2 . 1) 0
8 • 00
. r-'5
. in
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• 10
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1 ,4n
2.UO
1 . U n
8.0T
2
2
14
14
16
60
80
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2
2
7
10
10






1
1
1
,nn
• 0?
.00
• 0?
.0^
.00
.00
,nn
.25
.75
.75
. 0 n
.0™
.00
* C ^
.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
.67
.67
.67
VOUJME
CC
. 16ซ+ 1 3
•657+13
.263+11
•105+15
.120+15
. 16=ป16
.263*16
. 105*1 7
i12f>+l7
. 161*1 3
•657*1 3
.263*11
. JO6.*! 5
. 12n* 15
• 1 68* 1 6
• 26.1*16
•105*17
•170*17
. 161*1 3
•657*13
•263*11
. I05+J5
.120+15
.168*16
.263*16
=105*|7
.120*17


•
•
•
ซ
•
•
.
.
.
*
•
.
•
•
•
•

.
.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
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''cl/cc
! 7M-n,i,
1 19-04
264-07
1,18-08
952-09
71 2-09
2I7-II
I M4 - 1 1
325-12
1P-0-06
1 71-04
277-07
771-18
187-08
116-09
751-in
516-10
1 1 S-l"
181-06
171-04
277-07
782-08
191-08
112-09
1 1 n-n9
751-11
15H-10
rsaTinn A/E.SPEC.
AซE. ACTIVITY
'icl/cc
. 1 85-06
•155-06
.850-07
. 117-08
.123-08
.677-09
•725-1 1
• 189-1 l
•ini-1 1
•192-04
. 161-06
.883-07
.789-08
•212-08
. 1 33-08
.799-10
.469-10
.36"-IO
. 192-0*
. 141-06
.881-07
.300-08
.251-08
. I 38-08
.1 17-09
.977-10
.537-10
Uc I /Gซ
.616*03
.516*03
.283*03
.191*01
.11 1+01
.226+UI
.751-02
.429-02
.316-02
.610*03
.516*03
.291+03
.943+01
.806*01
.113*01
.246*00
.223*00
. 173*00
.611+03
.536+03
.295+03
.999+01
.834*01
.160+01
.389+00
.324+00
. 179+00
                           319

-------
Down- current Distribution, BREACH-OF- CONTAINMENT
                Accident, Batch Release
        C   CE Ml
HปLF LIFF   .?8M*"'3 0;YS
TOTAL SFIF4SF.  .18**?! CUUjfS
NATURAL Cn.NCฃVTiปAT ION CF CiP"IE* H SEAGATE"
                9 A 0 I IIS   T t M E   VOLUME
                                     .3RH-P9 K9AMS PER CC
                                      .|9n_o*    .230*02
^ i-: L o c i T Y CURRENT
N M / 0 A Y









q
q
q
q
a
i
1
i
1
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21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
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.50
• SO
.50
.60
.50
.SO
,50
.60
,nn
.00
.00
.nn
.nn
. PO
.00
.00
.nn
.nn
.00
.00
.00
.00
."0
• 00
.00
.nn
1
1
1
8
8
f
'10
10
10
1
1
1
9
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8
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to
10
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i
9
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9
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10
NM
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• ^ n
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.00
.CO
.00
. nn
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.nn
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• CO
.00
;,••< DAYS
• US
. i"
.20
.in
• en
1.60
2.ur
q .on
9.D.T
• 05
. 11
• 20
• in
.en
1.41
2. on
1.0?
8.0"
• 01
. in
• 2n
• in
• 8n
1 -6n
2. tin
1.00
8 . nn
2
2
2
16
16
16
80
80
60



2
2
2
10
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10






1
1
1
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
. nn
.00
.02
.25
.25
.25
.nn
.00
.00
.00
.00
.On
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
• 33
.67
.67
.67
CC
. 161+1 3
•657+13
.263+1 "
•105+15
• 120+ |5
•168+16
•2*3+!6
• 105+17
.120+1 7
. 161+1 3
.657+13
•263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
. 168+16
.263*16
•105*17
•120+17
> 161+ | 3
•6S7+13
.263+11
. 105+15
•120+15
. 168+16
•263+16
• i ns+i 7
.120+17
isn-
i.'CI/CC
. 121-06
. 851-07
.191 -07
. 188-03
. 1 79-0"
•2B9-09
.612-10
. 1 'l 1 - 1 n
-9S5-1 1
. 125-04
.868-07
. 191-07
. 191-OS
•133-0ซ
,298-OV
. 762-ln
.521-10
.117-10
. 125-06
.8"S8-07
. 192-07
.195-03
.13-1-0*
.299-09
.778-in
•531-10
•119-10


•
•
•
•
•
.
•
ซ
•
*
•
•
•
*
ซ
.
•
*
•
:
•
•
*
•
•
•
•
AVE.
IICI/CC
1 32-06
1 1 1-06
608-07
200-08
167-08
918-09
683-in
572-10
311-10
131-06
1 1 1-06
61 1-07
207-OB
173-08
'50-09
8 10-10
679-ln
373-10
133-06
I 1 1-06
61 1-07
207-08
1 71-08
951-09
827-10
692-10
380-10
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
.111+03
.369+03
.203+03
.666+01
.557+01
.306*01
.228*00
. 191+00
,105+00
.113+03
.371+03
.201+03
.689*01
.577*01
;317*Q1
.270*00
.226+00
i 121+00
.113+03
.371+03
.201+03
.692+01
.579*01
.318*01
.276*00
.231*00
. 127*00
              PR 115
      LITE   .219 + 00 OAYS
   TlTAL KtLEASE  .397+30 CURIES
   NATURAL  CONCENTRATION OF CAW'ME'* IN SEA.VATE3
                                    .300-H9 GRAMS PER CC
                                      .OUO      .000
CURRENT
VELOCITY l
NM/DAY
• SO
• 513
.50
• 50
.sn
• 5>n
• 50
.50
• 50
1 . 00
1 .00
1.0?
1.DO
1.0T
1.00
1.00
i.pn
i.nn
21. nn
21.00
21.00
2ซ.00
21.00
21.00
21. no
2i.ro
?1.00
r> o i* N
•USRFNT
ปl!1
1 .On
1.00
1 .On
8.00
8,00
8.nn
10.00
to . CO
tn.nn
1 .00
1 .00
1 .0?
8.nn
9. O?
9.00
10. nn
10. 00
"O.nn
1 .00
1 ,nn
1 .00
9.00
8.00
8.00
1 0 . 0 n
10.00
10.00.
RADIUS

MM
• US
. in
.20
• 10
• ijn
1 .6n
2 . On
1.00
8.1'n
.05
• 10
.29
.In
.8n
1 .4n
2. OP
l.rjn
8.nn
.05
. in
• 20
• in
• en
1 .6n
2.UO
1 • On
8.0'1
TIME

DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
14.00
14.00
14.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2. On
2. CO
2.nn
10. OP
10.00
j n . nn
.01
.nu
.01
.33
.33
.33
1.47
1 .67
1 .47
V 0 L il * E

CC
• 161*13
.457*13
•263*11
• 105*15
•12n*i5
• 168*14
•243+16
• 105+17
•120+17
•161+]3
•457+13
•263*11
• 105*15
•120*15
•148+16
•2*3+16
• 105+17
.12*)+ 1 7
. 161+13
•657+1 3
•263+11
• 105+15
.120+15
. 148+16
•243+14
. 105*1 7
•120*17
CONCENTRATION AVE. SPEC.
150-
UCI/CC
. 102-09
•701 -1 n
• 156-ln
. 191-28
• 1 3 1-28
.293-29
• 000
.000
• 000
.133-07
. 9 i q-ng
.201-0"
• 159-1 l
.110-11
.211-12
• 134-22
•937-23
•209-?3
•^37-07
• 1*3-07
• 341-08
. 145-09
• 1 1 3-09
.253-10
•141-12
• 1 1 1-12
.217-13
AVE?
UCI/CC
• 108-09
.908-10
.199-10
.703-28
. 17H-28
•933-29
• nno
• nOO
.000
.111-07
• 1 18-07
•650-08
. 1 69-1 1
•112-11
•78T-12
.115-22
•121-22
•4*7-23
.253-07
.211 -07
• 1 14-07
. 1 75-09
. 117-09
.806-10
•171-12
.111-12
•789-13
ACTIVITY
UCI/QM
•342*00
.303*00
•164*00
•476-19
.566-19
•311-19
.000
.000
.000
.171*02
.395*02
.217*02
.565-02
.173-02
.260-02
.181-13
•105-13
.222-13
.812+02
•705*02
.387+02
•581+00
.189+00
.269+00
.571-03
.178-03
.243-03
                         320

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
   >ซ \010NUCL IDE   NO 117
   HALF .LIFE   .111 +02
   TOTAL  KELFASE  .931*00
          crucfNTปซTION or
          PF RSI 1SS I1LF
                            I1* SEAGATE'S
                                       .300-09 SKAMS PEK CC
                                         • I 10-0*     ,190*01
CURRENT
0 0 '. N ^ A 0 i U 5
MM/DAY









q
q
q
q
1
a
i
• ^>n
• 50
.50
• 50
.5"
• 50
.'•.n
.SO
.50
.00
.00
.00
.00
.PA
• 00
• on
I-, nn
q
71
71
71
2"
71
21
71
71
71
.00
. nn
• nn
.00
.no
.00
• 00
. nn
• 00
• o?
1
1
1
8
A
8
10
•40
"40
1
1
1
8
3
A
10
10
"0
1
1
1
R
'
6
in
10
•40
~NM
• 00
.00
.00
.00
.on
• pn
.nn
.00
.00
• On
.00
,0n
.00
.CO
.00
.00
. nn
• 00
. nn
• 00
. nn
.00
. C-n
.00
. nn
.nn
. nn
TIME
ซ ••' n ซ Y s
.05
. n
• ?n
.in
.en
1 . An
2. on
1.00
8.00
.US
. 10
.20
.10
.Sn
1 .40
2 . cm
l.nn
8 .P'l
.as
. 1 1
.2n
ซ.i->
.tin
1 ,6n
2.0?
I.On
8 .On
2.
2.
2.
16.
i A.
1 4.
80.
BO.
ซ0.
.
.
.
2.
2.
2.
1 0.
1 0.
10.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 .
1 .
1 .
00
00
00
00
00
On
00
00
nn
25
25
25
00
on
00
00
nn
00
01
01
01
33
33
33
67
67
67
VOLUME
CC
•161+13
.657+13
•263+ (1
• 105+lS
.120*15
.169*16
.243*14
. 105*17
.120* (7
. 161*1 3
.657*13
•263*11
•105*15
•12n*i 5
. 1 68*16
•263*14
. 105+17
.120*1 7
.161*! 3
•457*13
.263*11
• 1 05+ 15
•120ป|5
. 168*16
.263+14
• 105+1 7
•1?nป! 7
COUCF'JI
ISO-
uci/cc
•552-07
.379-07
.H'46-np)
•358-09
.214-09
,e,r3n-|n
.240-1 7
. 179-17
. 399-13
.6(6-07
.173-07
. vqq. nfl
.H{,?.n,9
.5=2-09
. 132-09
.7n9- 1 n
. 1 1 1 - 1 n
.3?n-l l
.671-07
,<479-n7
•9S6-C8
.917-09
.4^,8-09
. 1 '4 ;-09
, 1H2-I r\
.212-10
.5in-j 1
F9

•TION A
AVF.
UCI/CC
.587-07
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
,
.
.
.
.
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
.
.
.
191-07
770-07
381-09
319-07
1 75-09
777-12
232-12
127-12
655-07
518-07
301-07
917-09
748-09
172-09
722-10
1P4-10
107-in
463-07
555-07
305-07
102-OS
852-09
"48-09
371-10
313-10
177-10
I'E.SfEC.
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
. 19&+U3
. 161*03
• 9I.10ซIJ2
.127*01
. 104*01
.585*00
.927-03
.777-03
.121-03
.218*03
. 183*03
. 100*03
.304*01
• 2i4 + !JI
- 1 1| *01
•711-01
•620-01
.311-01
.721 *03
- 195*03
. 102+03
.339*01
.281*01
• 156*01
. 125*00
•101+00
.571-01
ซซOIOซ(UCl.!OF.   PM  117
HALF LIFE   .629*02 OATS
TOTAL RELEASF  ,368*00 CURIES
NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF
     M PF9HISSIBLE
                               IN SF'AK'ATEl?  .300-09 GsAMS PEป CC
                                            .380-06     .160*03
   DAUGHTER ?f  PREVIOUS 9 AD I ONUCL 1 DE ,  DECAY FRACTION
                                                1.0000
C'JSfE" T
VELOCITY (
'•I " f D A Y
.SO
.50
.50
. 5n
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
l.nn

1 . On
1.00
1.00
21 . nn
7 u nn
^ • • — .
2 1 . nn
7 1 • f n
t ~ • ' • .
^q • n n
— • 'j '-'
71 • nn
ฃ T 9 • *
7 (4 m (i n
* ~ 9 \- 1
21.00
0 n ••* ^j
-U^BENT
*i M
1 .on
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
9.00
8 .00
10. "0
10.00
"0.00
1 .00
1 .00
l.nn
8.00
8.00
8.0"
io.ro
10.00
10.00
I .00
l.nn
I .00
R , nn
8.00
8 . On
10. C*1
10.0ฐ
10.00
RADIUS
t\-M
.05
. 10
.20
.in
.80
1 .60
2.nn
1.PO
8. an
.05
. 10
.2n
.10
.Si

2.00
1.00
8.UD
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60

1 .On
8. on
r IMF
MAYS
2.00
2.0?
2.nn
14.00
1 6.00
14.01
80.00
80.00
R ri • n n
.25
.25
.24
?.Cn
2.00
2.00
10.00
13.00
13 .00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
VOLUME CONCENTRATION AvE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
CC
. 1 61* 1 3
.657*13
•263*11
= 105*15
.120+15
. 14rt+l 4
.243+14
• 105+1 7
.120*17
. 161+13
.657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.170*15
.168*14
.263*16
. 105*17
.120* 1 7
.161*13
.457*13
.243+1"
• 105 + J 5
.120+15
. 168+16
.243+14
. 10S+17
.120+1 7
"Cl/CC
.25!,-n7
. 17b-07
.390-03
.122-09
.29n-n9
.417-10
•'"O-l 1
.673-1 1
. 150-1 1
,?'I!ป-D7
. 171-07
•3ซ 1 -08
. J9H-0?
.773-09
. 4 1 0 - 1 n
. 168-10
.114-10
. 258-1 1
.717-07
i 1 70-07
.379-03
.3S8-09
.247-09
.595-10
. 158-10
. 109-ln
.213-1 1
UCI/CC
.271-07
.227-07
.125-07
.119-09
.374-09
.704-09
. 101-10
• 877-1 1
.179-1 1
.241-07
.721 -07
. 121-07
.173-09
.351-09
. 195-09
. 179-10
. 150-10
.B21-1 1
.243-07
.220-07
.121-07
.11 3-09
.314-09
.190-09
. 169-10
.111-10
.775-1 1
UCI/G"
.903+02
.756+02
.115+02
. 150+01
. 125*01
.688*00
•317-01
.291-01
. 160-01
.880*02
.737*02
.105*02
.ill *OI
. 1 18*01
.619+00
.597-01
.500-01
.275-01
.ซ77*OZ
.731+02
.103+02
. 1 38+01
= 1 15+01
.633+00
.567-01
.170-01
.258-01
                            321

-------
Down-current Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                   Accident, Batch Release
   *J<1! ONUCL IDE   PM  If
   -4LF LIFE  .721+01 DAYS
   TOTAL FELEASE  .353+00 ci>n
• 05
.10
.20
• to
.80
1 -60
2. (JO
1.00
8.00
.05
. 10
• 20
.10
• Bn
1 .60
2.UO
1.00
8.00
PAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
1 6.00
16.00
80.00
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
• 33
.33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
CC
.161+13
.657+1 3
.263+11
.105+15
.120+15
. 168+] 6
.263+16
. 105+17
.H2n+| 7
.161+13
•657+13
.263+11
. 105+15
.120+15
. 16P+16
•263+16
. 105+17
.121+ )7
• 161+1 3
.657+13
•263+11
.105+15
.120+15
•168+16
.263+16
•105+17
•12n+l7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
"CI/CC
.221-08
. 151-08
.313-09
.BlS-11
.560-11
. 125-11
.809-32
•556-32
.121-32
.636-08
•137-08
.976-09
.319-10
.210-10
.536-1 1
.117-13
•807-11
• 1 80-1 1
•721-08
.195-03
.1 I 1-08
.916-111
.650-10
. 115-10
.171-11
.1 17-1 I
.262-12
AVE.
UCI/CC
.238-08
. 199-08
.109-08
.867-11
.726-11
• 399-|i|
.861-32
•721-32
.396-32
•*77-08
•567-08
.311 -08
.372-10
.311-10
.171-10
•125-13
•105-13
.575-11
.767-08
.612-08
.353-08
. 101-09
.812-10
.163-10
•181-11
• 152-1 1
•835-12
ACTIVITY
UCI/GM
•793+ni
.661+01
.365+01
.289-01
.212-01
. 133-01
.287-22
.210-22
.132-22
.226+02
.189+02
• 101*02
. 121+00
. 101+00
.570-01
.116-01
.319-01
. 192-01
.2S*+02
•21H+02
. 1 18+02
.335+00
.281+00
. 151+00
.605-02
.506-02
.278-02
                             322

-------
Down- current Distribution, BREACH-OF- CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
ซ*0 IPNUCLlDE   SM 151

HALF LITE   .3le*9S  0ปY<;

TOTAL RELEASE  .771-02 CL'SIES

••-•ATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER  tM SEAซATER
~ซX|ซUK PERMISSIBLE

,,,C(6*TEH OF PREVIOUS RA-M-VU-CLIOE, OECA*
                                         .301-09 GRAMS PER  CC
                                           inn OA     ,?  n,

                                              ~?tnP00
CURRENT OOV.'N
VELOCITY CURRENT
MW/OAY \M
C. n • ป* •*









1
1
1
1
1
1
4
a
1
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
• T* \.l
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
• 50
• 50
.50
.no
.00
.00
.rjr.
,nr
.00
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.Of!
.00
.CO
.00
.00
.00
.00
1
1
1
B
fl
*
'(0
in.
10
1
1
i
9
8
8
10
10
10
1
1
1
til
s
s
10
10
10
. -.' U
. 00
.00
.DO
• on
. nn
• or>
. 00
.00
.00
.00
.0"
.00
.nn
• 00
.00
.00
• 00
. 00
• cr
.nn
.^n
.00
.00
• Cn
.00
.00
RADIUS
NM
•
.
•
•
.
1 .
2.
1.
8.
•
.
.
.
.
1 .
2.
1.
H.
*
•
•
•
•
1 .
2.
1 .
S.
US
n
20,
10
ซo
40
ill
On
On
as
10
2"
10
80
40
UO
nn
00
OF.
10
2"
10
ftp.
41
uo
L'n
On
TIME
JAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
14.np
1 4.00
14.00
8 0 . 0 0<
80.00
80.00
.25
.25
.25
7. on
2.00
7.00
13.0"
10.03
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1.47
1 .47
VOLUME
CC
• 144*1-1
"457*13
• 2 * 3 * | 1
ซ !OS*lS
.120*15
* 148*14
•243*14
•105ป]7
•120*17
• 141* l 3
•457*13
•263ซ|l
•105*15
• 121'* )5
" 148*14
•243*14
• 105*17
•42n*l 7
•161*13
•657*13
•263*11
• 105*15
•120*15
•148*16
•263*J6
• 105*1 7
•120*17
CONCENTRATION AUE.S"EC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
uci/cc uei/cc UCI/SM
. 182-09
.175-09
.279-11
.285-1 1
.196-1 1
"137-12
.111-12
.787-13
.171-13
.182-09
.125-09
.279-11
.285-1 1
. 196-1 1
•137-12
.111-12
.783-13
.175-13
. 182-09
. 17.5-19
.279-10
.281-1 1
. 195-1 1
.136-12
. 1 1 1-1?
•7S2-13
. 175-13
•

•
*
ซ
•
*
•
*
•
•
.
,
•
*
•
,
*
.
•
•
•
•
•
*
•
•
191-09
162-09
891-10
303-1 1
251-11
I3V-1 1
121-12
1CI-12
•554-13
191-09
142-09
891-10
303-1 1
253-1 1
139-1 1
121-12
101-12
557-13
191-19
142-09
890-10
303-1 1
7S3-1 1
139-1 1
1.71-12
101-12
557-13
.414*00
.511*00
.297*00
. 101-01
.815-02
.141-02
.103-03
.338-03
.185-03
.615*00
.510*00
.297*00
.101-01
.815-02
.164-02
.101-03
.338-03
.186-03
.645*00
.511*00
.297*00
•int-ot
.811-02
.164-02
.404-03
.338-03
.184-03
   RAOIONUCLIOE  sซ 153
   HALF t.lFE   .195*01 DAYS
   TOTAL RELEASE  .440-01 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION or CARKIER IN SEAWATER
         PERMISSIBLE
                                     .300-09 GRAMS PER CC

                                       =15"-04    .140*05
CURRENT
00"N
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NX/DAY









4
4
4
4
4
4

4
4


21
21
** U
.50
.50
• SO
• 50
• 50
• SO
• 50
• SO
.50
• 00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
.00
• 00

.00
• nn
• u u
.00
• DC
n n
Z " • t? ' •
21.00
21.00
21. PQ
24.00
1 .
1 .
1 .
8.
8.

in.
40.
10.
1 .
1 ป
I .
8.
8.
8.
10 .
10.
40.
1 -
t •
1 ,
I .
8.
f
8.
1(1.
10.
10.
NM
00
00
00
00
00

00
00
on
00
on
Op
00
00
CP
00
oo
on
**.~:
00
oc
00
00
00
00
00
00






1
2
4
8





1
2
4
B



1
2
4
8
NM
• U5
.11
.20
.40
• 80
.40
• an
• 00
.00
.05
.10
.21
• 40
.80
.41
.00
.00
.on
.05
. n
.2n
.41
.80
.60
• 01
.00
.01
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
14.00
16.00
14.00.
80.00
eo.oo
80.00
.25
.25
.25
2.01
2.01
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.04
.04
.33
.33
.33
1 .47
1 .47
1.47
CC
. 164*13
.457*13
.263*14
.105*15
.420*15
'.168*16
.263*14
•105*17
•420*17
•164*13
•657*13
•263*14
•105*|5
• 42(1*15
• 168*16
•263*14
• 105*17
•420*17
.144*13
•657*13
.2*3*14
•105*1 5
•120*15
•168*16
.263*16
. 105*17
•420*17
CnNCENTRซTlซN AvE.SPEC.
ISO-
UC1/CC
.218-08
.150-08
.334-09
.235-12
. 161-12
.340-13
.125-23
.HS4-21
•191-24
•4n4-p8
.279-08
.422-09
.340-ln
.231-10
.522-1 |
.793-13
.545-13
.172-13.
.437-08
.310-08
.670-09
.4)5-11
.423-10
.V43-1 I
.153-1 1
.115-1 1
.235-12


•
•
*
AVE. =
uct/cc
232-08
191-08
107-08
•250-12
.
.
.
.
209-12
1 15-12
132-23
111-23
.409-24
.
.
.
.
.
.
ซ
.
.
.
.
.
•
•
431-08
361-08
198-08
347-10
303-10
166-10
843-13
706-13
388-13
165-08
389-08
214-08
454-10
548-10
.301-10
.163-1 1
.136-11
.750-12
ACTIVITY
UCI/GH
.772*01
.444*01
.355*01
.833-03
.697-03
.383-03
.441-14
•370-14
.203-11
. 144*02
.120*02
.661*01
.121*00
. 101*00
.555-01
.28|-03
.235-03
. 129-03
.155*02
.130*02
.712*01
.218*00
. 183*00
.100*00
.543-02
.455-02
.250-02
                            323

-------
Down-cur rent Distribution,  BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
   RAD10NUCL1DE   FU 155
   HALF LIFE   .461*03 OATS

   TOTAL RELEASE  .329-02 CURIES
   NATURAL CONCENTRATION or CARRIER IN SFA*ATER

   MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
..100-09 GRAMS PER CC
  .380-04     .270*03
CURRENT
DOWN
RADIUS
TtME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/D.A.Y
.so
.50
.55
.SO
.50
.50
• 50
.50
.50
1.00
1.00
1.0Q
1.00
.00
.00
.00
.00
• 00
2-t.OO
21.00
21.00
Zi.OO
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
NM
1 .00
1 .00
1 .00
8.00
a. on
8.00
10.00
10.00
1C.JJI!
1 .00
1.00
1 tOO
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1.00
1 .00
1.00
a. oo
s.oe
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
Nป1
.05
. 10
.20
.10
.80
1.60
2.00
1.UO
S.OQ
.05
.10
• 2_0
• 10
.80
I .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
.05
.10
.20
.10
.80
1.60
2.00
1.00
8.00
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
lป.00
30.00
60.00
SO.D.O.
.25
.25
25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1.67
1 .67
CE
.161*13
•6S7ซ|3
.263*11
.insปis
•120*15
.148*16
.263*16
.105*17
ซ 120*1 7
.141+13
.657*13
.263*1"
=105*15
.120*15
.148*16
.263*16
.,105*17
•"l2n*l 7
•161*13
.457*13
.263*11
. 105*1 5
•120+lS
.148*16
.243*14
•105*17
ซ120*|7
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO-
UC.I/CC
.270-09
.152-09
.338-10
.339.11
.233-1 1
.521-12
.127-1?
.873-13
.195-13
.221-09
•152-09
•339-10
.315-11
.237-1 1
. 578-12
-137-12
•939-13
.210-13
.221-09
.152-09
.339-10
.315-1 1
•237-11
.529-12
.138-12
•917-13
•211-13
AVE.
UCI7CC
.235-09
.196-09
.108-09
.361-11
.302-11
.144-J1
. 135-12
.113-12
•62I-J3
.235-09
.197-09
.108-59
.366-1 1
.307-11
.169-11
.115-12
.122-12
.669-13
.235-09
.197-09
.108-09
.367-11
.307-11
•169-11
•117-12
•123-12
•671-13
ACTIVITY
AIC.1/GM
.782*00
.655*00
•360*00
.120-01
. 101-01
•551-02
.150-03
.377-03
.207-03
.783*00
.656*00
•360*00
.122-01
.102-01
.562-02
.185-03
.106-03
.223-03
•783*00
•656*00
.360*00
•122-01
•102-01
.5*3-02
.189-03
.109-0)
.225-03
    RADIONUCLIDE  EU 154
    HALF LIFE   .151*02  DAYS
    TOTAL RELEASE  ...585-^ CUBIE5
    NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAWATER
    MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
.300-09 GRAMS PER CC

  •QUO       .000
CURRENT
TOWN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/O-AY
.51
.50
• 50
.50
• so
.50
.50
.50
• SO
1.00
1.00
1.00
i.oo
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21.00
21. on
21.00
21.00
21.0?
NM
1 .00
1 .00
l.QO
a. oo
8.00
?.oo
10.00
10.00
1D.OO
1.00
1.00
It OO
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10-00
i .oc
1 .00
! .CP
8.00
8.00
8.00
10.00
10. OP
io.cn
N.M
.05
.10
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8,QP
.05
.10
• 20
.10
.an
1 .6?
2.00
1.00
8.00
.0?
.10
.2P
.10
.80
, 1 .6C!
2.00
H.Q1
8.00
DAYS
2.00
?.oo
7.00
16.00
16.00
1 * ซ 00
80.00
80.00
80. 00
.25
.25
• 25
2.00
2. Of
2.03
10.00
10.0?
10. go
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
1 .67
CC
• I61+| 3
•657*13
•263*11
•in5*is
.120+15
;L48*l4
.243*16
. 105*]7
•12Q*l7
. 161*|3
.657*13
•263*lป
•ins+is
.120*15
.168*16
ซ26J*16
.105*17
.120*17
. 161*13
.657*13
•263*11
.105*15
•120*15
.168*16
>263*]6
•105*17
•120*17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
1SO-
UCt/iC
.359-09
.217-09
.551-10
.299-1 1
.20S-ป1
.158-12
.671-11
.161-11
.103-11
.388-09
.267-09
.576-10
.561-11
.386-1 1
•B60-12
.157-12
.108-12
.210-1 3
.392-09
.270-09
.601-10
.605-1 1
.116-1 I
.927-12
.228-12
.157-12
.319-13
AVE.
UCI/CC
.382-09
.320-09
• 176-0_9
.318-11
.266-11
•11A-I1
.711-11
.597-11
.328-11
.113-09
.316-09
•190-09
•597-11
.500-1 1
.271-11
•167-12
•139-12
•766-13
•117-09
.319-09
.192-09
.613-1 1
.539-11
.296-1 1
.212-12
.203-12
• I 1 1-12
ACTIVITY
UCI/SM
.127*01
.107*01
.586*00
•106-01
.887-02
.187-02
.238-01
.199-01
•1.09-01
•138*01
•1 15+01
•631+00
=199-01
•167-01
•915-02
.555-03
.166-03
.255-03
•139+01
.1 14+01
.610*00
.211-01
•180-01
.986-02
.808-03
.676-03
•372-03
                               324

-------
Down-current Distribution, BREACH-OF-CONTAINMENT
                  Accident, Batch Release
    PA1IONUCLIDE   El' 157
    f-ACF LIFE   ,*29+oc
    TOTAL RELEASE  .126-02  CURIES
    NATURAL CPNCFf.'TFJATlOfi or
    MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
IN SEAKATE9
           •300-09 SPAMS PER CC
             -non       ,000
CURRENT ntU'jN
VELOCITY CURWFNT
'•IM/OAY
• SO
• 50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
t.OO
1.00
"•.DO
1.00
t.OO
t.OO
t.OO
t.OO
t.OO
21.00
2t.oo
Zt.00
2H.OO
21.00
Zt.OO
21.00
21.00
21.00
MM
1 .DC
! .on
! .00
9.00
s.On
8.00
to. or
to.ro
to, co
1 .00
I .00
1 .CO
p . nn
8.00
R.np
tn.CO
to. 00
ซ0. 00
1 .OP
i.nr
1 .00
8.00
R.oo
8.00
10.00
to. oo
'ป0. OP
RADIUS
MM
.us
.in
.20
.to
.80
1 .40
?.OD
t.OO
B.OO
.05
.10
.20
.to
• 81?
! .60
2.U1
t.OO
e.o?
.05
. 1?
.20
.10
.80
1 .60
2.00
1.00
8.00
TIME
DAYS
2.00
2.00
2.00
16.00
16.00
lซiOO
80.00
80. OC
"0.00
.25
.25
.25
2.01
2.00
2.00
HI.O?
10.0?
ip.oo
.01
.at
.Ot
.33
.33
.33
1 .67
1 .67
I .67
VOLUME
CC
•161+13
.657*13
.263+1 t
.105+15
•120+15
•168+16
.263*16
. 105*17
•170+17
. 161+13
•657+13
•263+Jt
•105+15
.120+15
.1*8+16
•263+16
•105+17
.120+17
• 161+13
.657+13
•263+11
•105+15
•120+15
. 168+)6
.263+16
.105+17
•120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC.
ISO- AVE. ACTIVITY
UCI/CC
•931-1 1
•6t2-l 1
.ItS-l 1
.292-19
.201-19
.118-20
.OPO
.000
.000
.612-10
•112-10
.985-11
.116-12
.100-12
•221-13
.868-18
.597-18
.133-18
.808-10
.555-10
.121-10
•916-12
.629-12
.110-12
.Bt3-11
.579-11
.129-11
IJC1/CC
.991-11
.832-1 1
.157-11
.311-19
.2*0-19
. 113-19
• noo
.000
• cop
.683-10
.572-10
.3)1-10
.155-12
.130-12
.711-13
.973-18
.773-18
.125-18
.860-10
.720-10
.395-10
.971-12
.816-12
.118-12
.897-11
.751-11
.112-11
UCI/6M
.331-01
•277-01
•152-01
.101-09
.867-10
.174-10
.000
.000
.000
.228+00
.191+00
.105+00
.518-03
.133-03
.238-03
.308-08
.258-08
.112-08
.287*00
.210+00
. 132*00
.325-02
.272-02
.119-02
.299-0*
.250-01
.137-01
    RADIONUCLIDE   GD 159
    HALF LIFE   .750+00 DAYS
    TfrTAU RELEASE  .221-03 CURIES
    NATURAL CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER IN SEAHATER
          PERMISSIBLE
           .300-09 GRAMS PER CC
            •150-06    .210+05
CURRENT
DOWN
RADIUS
TIME
VOLUME
VELOCITY CURRENT
NM/OAY
.50
.50
• 50
.50
• 50
• SO
.50
.50
• 50
.00
• oo
.00
• 00
• 00
i.oo
1 .00
1<00
t.OO
^** . 00
21.00
21. OP
21 • on
21,00
21. on
21.00
21 *00
21.00
N.M
1 .00
1.00
iซ_Df>
8.00
8.00
BiQO
to. 00
10.00
10.00
I.OO
1.00
1.10
8. CO
8.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
1 >00
1 .00
I ซ(JO
8.00
8.00
8,00
10. on
to.oo
10. QO
NM
.05
.10
.20
.10
• en
1 ,40.
2.00
1.00
8. GO
.05
.10
.20
.10
.80
1.6Q
2. on
1.00
8.00
.US
.11
.20
.10
.en
1 .60
2.00
1.0"
B.OO
PAYS
2.00
2.00
2*00
16.00
16.00
16, .QO
80.00
80.00
BO. 00
.25
.25
.25
2.00
2.00
2.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
.01
.01
.01
.33
.33
.33
1.67
1.67
1 .67
CC
•161+J3
•657+13
.263+1.1
•105+15
.120+15
•168+16
•263+16
•105+17
•120+17
•161*13
•657+13
•263*]1
•105*15
.120*15
.168+16
•263*16
•105+17
•12n+l7
• 161+13
.657+13
•263+J1
•105+15
•120+15
•168+16
.263+16
.105+17
.120+17
CONCENTRATION AVE.SPEC,
ISO-
UC 1/CC
.237-1 |
.1*3-1 1
,3*3-12
.892-19
.613-19
•137-1?
.000
.000
.000
.119-10
.821-1 1
.183-1 1
,370-1 3
.255-13
.568-11
.913-18
.627-18
.110-16
. 115-10
.995-1 I
,222-1 1
. 173-12
,1 19-12
.2*5-13
,202-11
. 139-11
.309-15
AVf .
UCI/CC
.252-11
.211-11
•116-11
.919-19
.795-19
.137-19
.000
.000
.000
.127-10
.106-10
.581-1 1
.391-13
.330-13
.181-13
,971-18
.813-18
.117-18
.151-10
..129-10
.708-1 1
,181-12
,151-12
.815-1}
.211-11
. 180-11
.986-15
ACTIVITY
UCT/6H
.810-02
.701-02
.387-02
316-09
.265-09
•114-09
• 000
• 000
.000
.123-01
.351-01
.195-01
. 131-03
•1 10-03
•601-01
.321-08
•271-08
,119-08
.513-01
,130-01
.236-01
,613-03
,513-03
.282-03
,715-05
.59B-OS
.329-0*
                              325

-------
1 Acc
w


SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
INPUT TRANSACTION FORM
J 1 General Dynamics Electric Boat Division
Groton, Connecticut 06340
  6 \™* Potential Environmental Effects  of an Offshore Submerged Nuclear Power
——*     Plant, Volume I.
10 \AaOtot(a)
	 ' R.W. Marble
T TT Vt__ 	 1 1
| g I Project Deaigruttian
 22       ter pollution control Research,  Series,  16130GFI06/71, 327 p.,
         June, 1971, 40 fig.,  29 tab.,  14 ref.
 23
Descriptors (Started First)
    Thermal Pollution, Offshore Power  Plant,  Nuclear Power Plant
    Environmental Effects
  25
Identifiers. (Starred First)
    Nuclear Tower Plant
 27
     Abstract
         Potential environmental  effects of wastes from an 1190-Mwe pressurized-
         water nuclear power  plant,  submerged 250-ft deep at four representative
         sites off the U.S. mainland,  were studied.  The thermal field of the plant's
         cooling water discharge, and  the distribution of radionuclides in the sea, were
         analyzed.  In every  case, the thermal "mixing zone" (by the most stringent
         present standards) was found  to end before either a surface or subsurface
         field was established, and  to be much smaller than for a plant in shallower
         waters.  Fewer  organisms would be killed by entrainment in the cooling
         water than at a coastal  plant.  A "batch" release of radionuclides, after the
         hypothetical nuclear accident, would harm life, requiring suspension, of local
         fishing for about 10 weeks.  No potential ecological damage was predictable
         from the ordinary minute release of radionuclides, the thermal discharge,
         or other wastes.

         This report was submitted in  fulfillment of program 16130 GFI, Department
         of Interior Contract 14-12-918, under sponsorship of the Federal Water
         Quality Administration (subsequently the Water Quality Research Office
         of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
 Abstractor
                                Institution
  WR:IOZ (REV. JULY 1969)
  WRSIC
                        SFKJD WITH COPY OF DOCUMENT. TO: WATER RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFORMA1
                        5E.NU. Wl n ป.^r-i                  DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                                        WASHINGTON. D. C. 20240
                                                                                       CENTER
                                                                               6PO: 1970 - 4O7 -891

-------