U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency

                        OFFICE OF WATER PROGRAMS

                          MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT STAFF

                                 R. F. Guay, Director
Academic Training Branch
State and Local Operator Training
Office of Environmental Activities
Direct Technical Training Branch

    National Training Center
    Cincinnati,  OH  45268
                           REGIONAL MANPOWER OFFICES
    Manpower Development Branch
    Division of Air and Water Programs
    424 Trapelo Road
    Waltham,  MA 02514
    Manpower Development and Training Office
    Air and Water Programs
    26 Federal Plaza
    New York,  NY  10007
    Manpower Development Office
    Air and Water Programs
    Curtis Building
    6th and Walnut Streets
    Philadelphia, PA  19106
    Manpower Development Branch
    Division of Air and Water Programs
    1421 Peachtree Street,  NE, Fourth Floor
    Atlanta, GA 30309
    Manpower Development Branch
    Office of Air and Water Programs
    1 N. Wacker Drive
    Chicago, IL 60606

    Manpower Development Branch
    Air and Water Programs Division
    1600 Patterson
    Dallas, TX 75201


    Manpower Development Branch
    Air and Water Programs
    1735 Baltimore
    Kansas City,  MO  64108

    Manpower Development Branch
    Air and Water Division
    1860 Lincoln Street - 9th Floor
    Denver, CO 80203


    Manpower Development Branch
    Air and Water Division
    100 California Street
    San Francisco, CA  94111


    Manpower and Training Branch
    Division of Air and Water Programs
    1200 Sixth Avenue -  Mail Stop 345
    Seattle, WA 98101

    This course is offered for employees of regulatory
    agencies who are assigned direct responsibility for
    response to nonrecurring discharges of oil.  It is not
    intended to dictate arbitrary solutions to technical
    problems in spill control but will familiarize students
    with alternatives and provide opportunity to practice
    response under realistic constraints and measures of
    success.  In particular,  students who complete this
    course will be able to function within the guidelines  of
    Federal, State, or interstate Contingency Plans in
    effect in the area where the course is presented.
             Office of Water Programs

                 September 1972

These manuals are prepared for reference use of students enrolled in
scheduled training courses of the Office of Water Programs, Environmental
Protection Agency.
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The reference outlines in this manual have been selected and developed with
a goal of providing the student with a fund of the best available current
information pertinent to the subject matter of the course.  Individual
instructors may provide additional material to  cover special aspects of
their own presentations.

This manual will be useful to anyone who has need for information on the
subjects covered.  However,  it should be understood that the  manual will
have its greatest value as an  adjunct to classroom presentations. The
inherent advantages of classroom presentation  is in the give-and-take
discussions and exchange of information between and among students and
the instructional staff.

Constructive suggestions for  improvement in the coverage, content, and
format of the manual are solicited and will be given full consideration.
                                  Joseph Bahnick
                                  Acting Chief
                                  Direct Technical Training Branch
                                  Division of Manpower and Training
                                  Office of Water Programs
                                  Environmental Protection Agency

                        TRAINING   PROGRAM
Through the Office of Water Program, Environmental Protection Agency•> conducts
programs of research, 'technical assistance,  enforcement, and technical
training for water pollution control.

Training is available at five installations of the Agency.  These are: the
National Training Center located at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering
Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; the Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center, Ada,
Oklahoma; the Southeast Water Laboratory, Athens,  Georgia; the Pacific
Northwest Water Laboratory, Corvallis, Oregon; and the Hudson-Delaware
Basins Office, Edison,  New Jersey.

The objectives of the Training Program are to provide specialized training in
the field of water pollution control which will lead to rapid application of new
research findings through updating of skills of technical and professional
personnel, and to train new employees recruited from other professional or
technical areas in the special skills required. Increasing attention is being
given to development of special courses providing an overview of the nature,
causes, prevention, and control of water pollution.

Scientists, engineers, and recognized authorities from other Agency programs,
from other government agencies,  universities, and industry supplement the
training staff by  serving as guest  lecturers.   Most training is conducted in the
form of short-term courses of one or two weeks'  duration.  Subject matter
includes selected practical features of plant operation and design,  and water
quality evaluation in field and laboratory.  Specialized aspects and recent
developments of  sanitary engineering, chemistry, aquatic biology, microbiology,
and field and laboratory techniques not generally available elsewhere, are  included.

The primary role .and the responsibility of the States in~the training of wastewater
treatment plant operators are recognized.  Technical support of operator-training
programs of the  States is available through technical consultations in the planning
and development  of operator-training courses.  Guest appearances of instructors
from the Environmental Protection Agency, and the loan of instructional materials
such as lesson plans and visual training aids, may be available through special
arrangement.  These training aids, including reference training manuals,  may be
reproduced freely by the states  for their own training programs.  Special categories
of training for personnel engaged  in treatment plant operations may be developed
and made available to the States for their own further production and presentation.

An annual Bulletin of Courses is prepared and distributed by the'^Office  of Water '
•Programs.  The  Bulletin includes descriptions of courses, schedules, application1
blanks, and other appropriate information. Organizations and interested indi-
viduals not on the mailing list should request a copy from one of the training centers
mentioned above.


Title or Description                                                  Outline Number


General Information on Effects, Causes and Control of Hazardous              1
Material Spills

Personal Safety During Hazardous Material Spill Operations                   2


Oil Pollution - Report to the President                                       5

Oil Pollution - Magnitude of the Problem                                     6

Oil Refinery and Terminal Operation                                         7

Complex Wastes Associated with Petroleum Refineries                        8

Platform Operations - Offshore Oil Production                                9

Biological Effects of Oil Pollution                                           10


Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Petroleum                         12

Fate and Behavior of Spilled Oil                                            13

Oil Sampling                                                              14

Analysis of Oil Samples                                                    15

Microbiology of Petroleum                                                 16


Oil Tanker Operations                                                     17

Treatment of Oil Spills - Dispersants                                       18

Proposed EPA Tests on Oil Dispersant Toxicity and Effectiveness             19

Title or Description                                                  Outline Number
Treatment of Oil Spills -
   Sinking Agents                                                          20
   Burning Agents                                                         21
   Gelling Agents                                                          22
   Sorbents                                                               23
Control of Oil Spills - Booms                                               24
Treatment of Oil Spills, Oil Skimming Devices                               25
Cleanup of Oil-Polluted Beaches                                            26
Waste Treatment Methods for Refineries                                    27

Legislation Affecting Oil                                                   29
National and Regional Contingency Plans                                     30
Functions, Responsibilities and Role of the On-Scene-Commander             32


                                             Outline Number

General Information on Effects, Causes              1
and Control of Hazardous Material Spills

Personal Safety During Hazardous Material           2
Spill Operations

                             OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS

 More than two billion tons of potentially
 hazardous materials were produced and
 handled in the United States during  1968-
 1969.   It  is projected that the annual pro-
 duction quantities of these materials will
 approximate four billion tons in 1980.  Over
 70 percent of these quantities are transported
 by motor truck,  railway, water barge and
 pipeline.  As long  as the tonnage of liquid,
 solid and gaseous hazardous chemicals
 produced, handled, and transported by our
 land and waterways continue to follow the
 present upward trend,  the accidental spillage
 of these materials poses a real and growing
 threat of  pollution  to our watercourses.

 The effects of these materials on watercourses
 and the plant and animal life associated with
 them may vary, widely.  In general, most
 chemicals, when present in the environment
 above certain critical concentrations, are
 toxic to biological life and detrimental to the
 environment's aesthetic quality.  Although
 many substances are obviously hazardous to
 aquatic and marine life due to direct acute
 toxicity,  other substances are equally
 detrimental to water ecosystems by virtue
 of indirect toxicity resulting from depletion
 of the dissolved oxygen supply required to
 support various life forms.  Still others,
 although originally present at less than  toxic
 or  inhibitory levels,  may become concentrated
 to these levels by residual accumulation through
 a succession of food chain transfers.  In
 addition to direct effects of the spilled haz-
 ardous materials, there may be other effects
 of the products of reaction between the pollutant
 and water or other materials in the watercourse.
 Our present knowledge of the adverse effects
 of a particular spill on the environment,
 especially the persistence of the spilled
 material and its immediate and long term
 effects,  is very limited.

 A General

    The accidental entrance of a hazardous
    material into a watercourse can occur in
    a variety of ways.  Spills or sudden
    discharges can result from mechanical
    malfunction, collision,  fire or human
    error in connection with rail, highway
    and water modes of transportation or
    with stationary sources such as manu-
    facturing or  storage facilities.  The
    most serious type of spill occurs when
    a container is violently ruptured and
    large quantities of the hazardous material
    are spilled almost instantaneously. In
    some cases, the material may be dis-
    charged directly into a  watercourse,
    while in others the spilled material may
    flow or be washed into  sewers,  drainage
    channels or percolate slowly into ground
    water supplies.

 B Transportation Sources

    A significant portion of the total problem
    of hazardous material spills is caused by
    transportation accidents. While derail-
    ment presents the major potential for
    railroad tank car spills, collision and
    sinking are obvious sources of barge
    spills.  Spills may also occur at tank
    truck,  tank car and barge loading/unloading
    facilities due to defective transfer pump
    and flange connections,  hose failures and
    valve packing and seal deficiencies.

 C Stationary Sources

    1  One  of the largest single sources of
       pollution incidents in industrial plants
       is failure or breakdown of manufacturing
       or process equipment.  These failures
       include broken pipelines  in chemical
       plants, leaking tanks,  malfunction of
       refrigeration equipment,  overflowing
       of chemicals from tanks  during
WP.HA. 1.5.71

 General Information on Effects, Causes and Control of Hazardous Material Spills
       manufacture, faulty pressure gauges
       and valves,  pump breakdown, oper-
       ational errors, metal failure due to
       corrosion in acid transport pipes,
       explosions and fires.  These sources
       of pollution incidents are compounded
       to some degree by the many intentional
       discharges of unwanted hazardous
       materials into our nation's waters.

       Storage facility spills also contribute
       to the overall problem.  Numerous
       fish kills result from leaks from
       storage tanks and broken lagoon dikes.
       The leaching action of rain water on open
       stockpiles of hazardous chemicals stored
       in the open at water edge locations has
       also greatly added to the contamination
       of our waterways.

 A  Prevention

    It is generally agreed that the prevention
    of hazardous material  spills constitutes
    the  most desirable method for effective
    water pollution control.  Unfortunately,
    previous efforts to provide adequate
    safeguards for handling these materials
    and for preventing their release into the
    aquatic environment have not been very
    successful.  A recently completed study
    initiated by EPA's Office of Oil and
    Hazardous Materials (Water Quality
    Office), concluded that there are presently
    no uniform industry-wide standards in the
    United States for spill prevention and,
    consequently,  preventive techniques,
    equipment and operational procedures
    need to be developed to protect the public
    health  and welfare.

 B  Countermeasures

    1  Although prevention remains the first
       and most important line of defense, it
       must be recognized that even with the
       most comprehensive precautionary
       techniques, accidents involving the
       uncontrolled release of detrimental
       substances  to the environment must be
   anticipated and appropriate response
   measures must be developed to
   minimize undesirable ecological effects.
   Existing countermeasure techniques
   have been developed primarily for
   continuous  discharge waste treatment
   systems under controlled conditions.
   However, because of the rapid response
   required in the case of spills, the
   majority of these available techniques
   are not  satisfactory for application in
   the aquatic environment.

   Hazardous  materials involved in spills
   which enter a watercourse may be
   categorized on the basis of their
   densities and solubilities in water.
   The heavier,  insoluble materials such
   as ethylene dichloride and sulfur will
   sink to the  bottom of waterways.  The
   removal of these contaminants by
   physical means, such as suction or
   dredge type devices, is a possibility.
   Less dense water insoluble chemicals
   such as decyl alcohol will tend to float.
   The mechanical separation of these
   materials by confining the spill to a
   small area by booms and removing
   the materials by skimming should be
   relatively successful.  In the case of
   water soluble materials such as phenol
   and acrylonitrile,  mechanical means
   of removal are no longer possible
   since the spilled material will be in

2  Priority ranking system

   Because water soluble chemicals present
   the greatest threat to the water eco-
   system from a countermeasure point
   of view, a priority ranking system for
   estimating  the theoretical inherent
   hazard of these chemicals was pre-
   pared as part of an EPA sponsored
   state-of-the-art study '^) on hazardous
   material spills.   The ranking system
   is based on (a) the lowest concentration
   range at which a material impairs any
   of the beneficial uses of water, (b) the
   quantity shipped annually by each mode
   of transport and (c) the probability of
   an accidental spill to surface waters

           General Information on Effects, Causes and Control of Hazardous Material Spills
      for each transport mode.  Since a
      material's ranking is then representative
      of its potential threat to water quality,
      it is expected that this  system should
      provide the guidelines for determining
      which chemicals receive the greatest
      attention relative to the development
      of spill countermeasure techniques.

      To illustrate this ranking system,  the
      top twenty water soluble substances
      are arranged in order of decreasing
      priority in Table  1.
                  TABLE 1
Rank                  Substance
  1              Phenol
  2              Methyl Alcohol
  3              Cyclic Rodenticides
  4              Acrylonitrile
  5              Chlorosulfonic Acid
  6              Benzene
  7              Ammonia
  8              Misc. Cyclic Insecticides
  9              Phosphorous Pentasulfide
 10              Styrene
 11              Acetone Cyanohydrin
 12              Chlorine
 13              Nonyl Phenol
 14              DDT
 15              Isoprene
 16              Xylenes
 17              Nitrophenol
 18              Aldrin-Toxaphene Group
 19              Ammonium Nitrate
 20              Aluminum Sulfate

These substances include both organic and
inorganic materials and range from solids
to liquids to gases under standard conditions
of pressure and temperature.
3  Defensive and offensive measures
   The state-of-the-art study   also
   provides a summary of possible
   measures that can be employed in
   responding to hazardous material
   spills.  The countermeasures are
   divided into two major classifications:
   defensive and offensive.  The
   defensive measures, which 'do not
   counteract the contaminant in the
   environment, consist of notifying all
   downstream water users of the
   occurrence of a spill and physically
   removing all bags, barrels and other
   containers which may still be leaking
   into the watercourse.  The offensive
   measures include:

   a  The addition of acidic or basic
      solutions to neutralize the spill.

   b  The addition of specific complexing,
      chelating or precipitating agents
      for the formation of solids or
      compounds less toxic than the
      originally spilled contaminant.

   c  The utilization of large scale equip-
      ment  to treat contaminated water  in
      place with powdered activated
      carbon, a coagulant such as alum
      and a polyelectrolyte so that the
      resulting chemical floe precipitates
      the carbon together with the adsorbed

   d  The physical removal of floes,  solids
      and liquids which have sunk to the

   e  The use of booming and skimming
      equipment to remove and contain
      light solids or  liquids floating  on
      the surface.

General Information on Effects, Causes and Control of Hazardous Material Spills
Aid natural dilution to reduce con-
centrations of spilled materials to
a level below critical concentrations
by means of mechanical mixers,
such as outboard motors, to augment
flow of the materials.

Contain spilled soluble materials so
as to prevent diffusion throughout
the aquatic environment,  since
most countermeasures are more
effective with concentrated pollutants.

Burning of floating volatile materials
where air pollution and safety con-
siderations permit.
   4  Critique of countermeasures

      In the critique of these countermeasures,
      the referenced study '^) points out the
      possible dangers that might result in
      applying several of these in that the
      resulting chemical compounds or
      precipitates may be more harmful to
      the environment than the  original
      hazard.  Disadvantages of existing
      carbon treatment methods are that
      granular carbon treatment can be
      employed only where some type of
      treatment facility already exists,  and
      in the case of powdered carbon, the
      method is listed as speculative.  Caution
      is advised in the use of the carbon
      techniques since there is reason to
      believe that the tremendous increase
      in the solids load may have undesirable
      effects.  Removal of products which
      sink to the bottom by suction devices
      is listed as speculative since this
      method might involve the removal of
      large quantities of benthos along with
      the contaminant. Booming and skimming
      techniques, which have been widely used
      in the case of oil spills, provide a
      possible solution for spills of light
      insoluble materials.  Mixing techniques
      for promoting dilution would be of value
      in only a limited number  of circumstances.
      Containment techniques for soluble
      materials are not readily available.
      Burning techniques could be applied only
      in a very limited number of cases where
      the material remains confined in a small
   isolated area so as to minimize threats
   to safety and air quality.

5  Current status

   It is clear from the above that adequate
   control, neutralization and treatment
   techniques for countering spills of
   hazardous materials are practically
   nonexistent.  These countermeasures
   for the most part require technology
   not presently available.  Nevertheless,
   it is considered that new and useful
   techniques can be developed by intensive
   experimental programs on spill con-
   trol and cleanup methods.

   Inasmuch as the Water Quality
   Improvement Act of 1970 (PL 91224)
   requires the designation of appropriate
   methods and means of removal of
   spilled hazardous materials, EPA's
   Division of Applied Science and
   Technology (Water Quality Office) has
   initiated Request for Proposal WA
   71-513 on the development of methods
   to treat and control spills of selected
   high priority hazardous materials.
   The methods to be developed are to
   satisfy the following basic criteria:

   a Result in no reactivity problems
     causing secondary damage to the
     environment including generation
     of harmful sludges.

   b Easily obtainable and transportable
     equipment and chemicals.

   c Minimum amount of auxiliary

   d Light in weight.

   e Reasonable first costs.

   f Rapid application in both congested
     and remote areas.

   g Safe to handle by untrained

         General Information on Effects, Causes and Control of Hazardous Material Spills
Responsive proposals to the RFP are
currently being evaluated and several
contracts are expected to be  awarded
by June 1971. These contracts will
cover a wide range of countermeasures
for:  containing spills before they reach
surface waters; for containing con-
taminated water after a spill; and for
decontaminating polluted water areas
to return the water to a restored
condition of quality. Specifically,
some of the proposed countermeasures
under consideration include:

a  Development of devices to contain
   spilled hazardous materials on land
   by use of rapidly formed in place
   plastic dams or foamed dikes.

b  Development of foamed plastic
   devices for stopping leaks of
   hazardous materials from ruptured
   containers both on land and under-

c  Development of methods to poly-
   merize and remove spilled hazardous
   materials on land and to prevent
   percolation of the materials into the

d  Development of rapidly deployable
   physical barriers which extend
   from above the  surface of the water
   to the bottom of the waterway for the
   purpose of containing spilled
   hazardous materials in watercourses.

e  Development of decontamination
   system using floatable  mass transfer
   media (e.g. ,ion  exchange resins and
   carbon sorption media modified to
   result in specific gravities less than
   1) for: subsurface introduction into
   waterways; treatment of contaminants;
   and collection of spent  media at the
   water's surface.
         Development of a continuous flow
         through thin film aerator to which
         chemicals can be added to neutralize,
         oxidize,  precipitate or adsorb
         spilled hazardous materials from
         watercourses, and to develop a
         static sealed centrifuge to remove
         gases, precipitates, carbon slurries,
         and other solids from the effluent of
         the aerator device.

         Development of a modular trans-
         portable treatment system incor-
         porating various unit processes
         such  as neutralization,  flocculation,
         precipitation, filtration and carbon
         adsorption, for the purpose of on-
         site removal and treatment of spilled
         hazardous materials in waterways.

1  Spill Prevention Techniques for Hazardous
      Polluting Substances.  Arthur D.  Little,
      Inc.  Report No. OHM 7102001,
      prepared under Contract 14-12-927
      for the Environmental Protection
      Agency.  February 1971.

2  Control of Spillage of Hazardous Polluting
      Substances.  Battelle  Memorial
      Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratories,
      Report No.  15090 FOZ,  prepared under
      Control 14-12-866  for the Environmental
      Protection Agency.  November 1970

3  Public  Law 91-224, 91st Congress, H.R.
      4148.  Water Quality Improvement
      Act.   April 3,  1970.
This outline was prepared by I. Wilder,
Acting Chief, Hazardous Materials Research
Section, Edison Water Quality Laboratory,
OWP,  EPA, Edison, NJ 08817.


 Of major concern in the control of hazardous
 material spills is the protection of emergency
 response personnel from dangers of the spilled
 chemicals which are often extremely toxic
 and corrosive.  The purpose of this  outline
 is to provide general information on types of
 protective devices necessary to insure the
 safety of individuals during spill clean-up
 operations.  Because of the multiplicity of
 chemicals that personnel may be exposed to
 during spill situations, details of specific
 safety equipment for specific hazardous
 substances are not possible at this time.
 Information contained herein are therefore
 only directed towards the reduction of the
 hazard potential of dangerous materials in

 The accidental release of chemicals to the
 environment may be inherently hazardous in
 different degrees.  Improper protection can
 lead to severe personal injury.  Injuries
 resulting from hazardous material spills are
 caused chiefly by chemicals or their fumes
 coming in contact with the body (skin and eyes)
 or through inhalation.

 A  Contact with Skin and Eyes

    Contact of hazardous materials with the
    skin is of primary importance because it
    is the most probable type of exposure dur-
    ing spills.  Many materials in direct con-
   tact with the skin will dissolve the fats  and
   oils in the skin tissue.  The most common
   result of excessive contact  on the skin is
   localized itching, dryness,, irritation or
   burn.  But an appreciable number of
   materials are absorbed through the skin
   with sufficient rapidity to produce systemic
   poisoning.  These materials may enter the
   body through the  skin either as a result of
   direct accidental contamination or indirectly
   when  the material has been spilled on the
   clothing.  Some quite potent chemicals
   such as dimethyl sulfate can cause burns
   of disabling extent if but a few drops touch
   the clothing.

   Contact of chemicals with the eyes is of
   particular  concern because these organs
   are extremely sensitive.  Very few sub-
    stances are innocuous in contact with the
    eyes; most are painful and irritating and
    a considerable number are capable of
    causing burns and loss of vision.

 B Inhalation

    When hazardous vapors or gases are in-
    haled, they may pass into the general
    circulation system and may be distributed
    to the heart and central nervous system
    with extreme rapidity.  Some vapors or
    gases act so violently in the upper respi-
    ratory system and lungs that they may
    cause unconsciousness or even death if
    the individual is not promptly removed to
    an uncontaminated atmosphere and given
    proper medical attention.  Other vapors
    or gases may first cause mild symptoms
    such as headache, dizziness and fatigue,
    then nausea,  intestinal, visual or mental
    disturbances and finally injuries to the
    blood, liver, kidneys or other organs.

 Personnel who may be called upon to work in
 atmospheres contaminated with hazardous
 substances should have special safety equip-
 ment and protective clothing readily avail-
 able for emergency use.  As a matter of good
 operational policy, it is important that all
 prospective users of these devices know
 where they are stored,  how they are used
 and what are their  limitations.  It is also
 essential that all personal protective equip-
 ment be inspected and cleaned at regular
 intervals and always before use by another
 'person.   A general description of some of
 the basic personal protective devices are
 given below.

 A Respiratory Protection

    Self contained air or oxygen respirators
    are much safer than the air-purifying
    type, since the wearer carries either  a
    supply of  air or an oxygen generating
    canister,  and this type does not depend on
    purification of the contaminated air  for
    breathing purposes.   In emergency situ-
    ations, where the concentration of con-
    taminants may be high or is unknown,  only
    self contained respirators should be used.
    The supplied air or oxygen (hose type)
    respirator will not usually be applicable
  SA.HM. 2.5. 71

Personal Safety During Hazardous Material Spill Operations
   to hazardous material spill situations,
   since compressors or other air supplying
   devices may not be readily available and
   accessible during these emergency con-
   ditions.  Also,  the hose type respirators
   limit the wearer's freedom of movement,
   whereas the self contained units allow
   complete freedom.  The pressure  demand
   compressed air or oxygen respirator is
   considered the most fool-proof device
   since it provides positive breathing safety
   in the most dangerous atmospheres.
   Where  longer exposure time is required,
   the self-generating oxygen respirator is
   a good  alternative.

   The U.  S. Bureau of Mines has a testing
   section where respiratory devices  are
   inspected and tested.  The Bureau  tests
   commercial respiratory protective devices
   and issues approvals to those which meet
   its standards.   Maximum safety demands
   that only U. S. Bureau of Mines approved
   respiratory equipment be used.

   Personal respiratory protection should be
   used as a primary protective device  when
   it is necessary  to enter a highly contam-
   inated area for  short periods of time.
   Respiratory protective equipment is
   basically of two general types:

   1 Self contained or supplied air or
     oxygen respirators

   2 Air-purifying respirators

   There are several classifications within
   these two types:

   1 Self Contained or Supplied Air or
     Oxygen Respirators

     a  Self Contained

        These respirators provide the
        wearer with respirable air from a
        source of supply independent of the
        atmosphere where the wearer is
        located.   They are entirely self
        contained and can be used in  any
        atmosphere.  The principal types
        of self contained respirators are:

        1) Demand Compressed Air or

           In this  device,  compressed  air
           or oxygen,  contained in a  cylinder
           worn by the  user, is supplied
           through pressure reducing valves
           to a close fitting full face, rubber
      face piece only when the wearer
      inhales.  There is no recirculation
      and the exhaled breath is directed
      to the atmosphere.  These units
      are usually rated for 30 minutes
      duration and are equipped with
      alarm systems which warn the
      user  when to leave the hazardous
      atmosphere because  of diminishing
      air supply.

   2) Pressure Demand Compressed
      Air or Oxygen

      This  respirator is a  modification
      of the Demand Compressed Air
      or  Oxygen Respirator.   It is
      designed to provide  an extra mar-
      gin of safety for  personnel who
      must enter atmospheres imme-
      diately hostile to life.  This unit
      also provides air or  oxygen on
      demand,  but in addition,  it main-
      tains within the face  piece a slight
      positive pressure above that of
      the outside atmosphere.  This
      positive pressure prevents inward
      leaks of dangerous gases, thus
      assuring breathing safety in the
      most toxic environments.

   3) Self-Generating Oxygen

      In this respirator, the exhaled
      breath is directed to a chemical
      canister which simultaneously
      releases oxygen by the action of
      the moisture in the breath on the
      chemicals and absorbs carbon
      dioxide from the breath.  The
      breath containing the released
      oxygen enters  a breathing bag
      (which is connected by tubing to
      the face piece) for inhalation,  and
      the exhaled breath repeats the
      cycle.  The canister for this
      respirator, under ordinary usage,
      can supply sufficient oxygen for
      one hour. Although  this respi-
      rator is lighter than the pressure
      demand type,  it  is quite bulky,
      and once the seal on the canister
      is broken, the respirator must
      be used or the canister  discarded.

b  Supplied

   These respirators supply air to the
   wearer through a hose from an un-
   contaminated remote source and are

                              Personal Safety During Hazardous Material Spill Operations
      therefore independent of the atmos-
      phere surrounding the wearer.  Ex-
      treme care, however, must be ex-
      ercised with these respirators in
      obtaining a safe air  supply.  It is
      important that blowers or. other air
      sources be in an area which is free
      from air contaminants.  These
      respirators provide relatively un-
      limited time of use.

2  Air-Purifying Respirators

   This type of respirator offers limited
   protection,  since it depends solely on
   gas-absorbing material or mechanical
   filtration media to remove specific
   contaminants from the  air.  Since this
   device utilizes the air  surrounding the
   wearer, it is not suitable in an oxygen
   deficient atmosphere and must not be
   used in environments containing con-
   taminants iii concentrations  higher than
   those for which it was  designed.  For
   example, air-purifying respirators do
   not offer protection when oxygen levels
   fall below 16% by volume or when con-
   centrations of a toxic gas or vapor in
   the breathing atmosphere are greater
   than 2% by volume (20, 000 parts per
   million). Similar to the  self-contained
   respirators,  these units  have limited
   duration periods (about one hour).  The
   following are typical air-purifying

   a  Chemical Respirators

      In this device, inspired air is  drawn
      over suitable chemicals in a car-
      tridge where gaseous  contaminants
      are removed.  This respirator is
      usually designed for a particular
      contaminant only, but may also be
      designed for combinations of con-

   b  Mechanical Filters

      These are similar to the  chemical
      respirators except that the purifying
      chemicals in the cartridge are re-
      placed by filters. Filter respirators
      are designed to remove either a
      specific  single particulate contaminant
      or several different contaminants.

   c  Combination Respirators

      These are combined respirators, in
      one unit,  for simultaneous protection
         against gases, vapors and partic-
         ulates.  They consist of chemical
         cartridges with mechanical filters
         in series,  so that inspired air passes
         first through the filter and then over
         the chemical.

B  Eye Protection

   Eye protection is of major importance
   during spill emergency situations because
   of the ever present danger of injurious
   vapors or chemical splash. Personnel
   exposed to these situations should always
   wear  suitable safety eye wear.  There
   are numerous styles and types of safety
   glasses available.  The following lists
   some of the representative types:

   1  Plastic-rimmed safety spectacles with
      hardened glass or plastic  lenses,
      available with or without side shields.

   2  Plastic chemical splash goggles which
      fit the  contours of the face and fit
      comfortably over all personal and
      safety  spectacles.  Some types of
      goggles also protect the nose and fore-

   3  Plastic face shields, which cover the
      entire  face, can also be worn over
      personal and safety spectacles.

 C Body Protection

   Various specially treated protective
   garments including coats, suits, over-
   alls,  aprons,  rain wear and similar
   clothing should be made available to
   personnel to safeguard the body against
   exposure  to hazardous materials during
   spill  emergencies.  These garments
   should be made of solvent-proof plastics,
   synthetic  rubbers or other suitable pro-
  . tective material resistant to corrosive

 D Foot  Protection

   Rubber safety boots with metal reinforced
   toe guards are recommended for protection
   from heavy objects and other foot hazards.
   Boots should be equipped with anti-skid
   outsoles to permit the wearer to have a
   reasonably secure footing even on oil
   covered surfaces.

 Personal Safety During Hazardous Material Spill Operations
 E  Hand and Head Protection

    Many minor injuries to personnel may be
    prevented by the proper utilization of
    effective hand protection.  Heavy butyl
    rubber or neoprene molded gloves should
    be made available to individuals  involved
    in spill operations.  These gloves are
    furnished in different sizes up to elbow
    length and are suitable for handling a wide
    variety of acids and other corrosives.

    Personnel should also be provided with
    light weight plastic safety helmets (hard
    hats) to guard against head injuries.

 F  Miscellaneous Protection

    Emergency response personnel should
    also be equipped with:  battery-type lan-
    terns for providing emergency illumination;
    an explosimeter to determine the explosive
    characteristics of an atmosphere; a port-
    able oxygen indicator to quickly determine
    the oxygen content of a contaminated area;
    and portable first aid appliances.
   3  Keep victim quiet, warm, lying down
      and obtain medical assistance.

C  Eye Exposure

   1  Continuously wash eyes with clean
      water for at least 15 minutes.

   2  Obtain medical assistance, preferably
      an ophthalmologist with experience in
      handling chemical burns of the eye.

Extreme care should be exercised by personnel
involved in hazardous material spills.  The
hazardous chemical should not be allowed to
come in contact with the unprotected skin or
eyes, and inhalation of vapors should be
avoided. If necessary to enter a spill area,
including goggles,  boots, helmet,  coveralls,
gloves,  etc. and WEAR SELF CONTAINED

 It must be recognized that, despite the most
 comprehensive precautionary practices during
 spill emergency operations, accidents will
 occur and,  consequently, injuries to personnel
 must be anticipated.  For this purpose, the
 following general first aid measures are
 suggested.  For more detailed instructions,
 a recognized  source, such as the "Textbook
 on First Aid" of the American Red Cross,
 should be consulted.

 A  Toxic Vapor Inhalation

    1  Remove exposed victim to fresh air at
    .  once.  (Rescuers should be properly

    2  If breathing has stopped,  give artificial

    3  Keep victim quiet, warm,  lying down
      and obtain medical assistance.

 B  Skin Exposure

    1  Immediately remove all contaminated
      clothing from  victim.  (Those assisting
      victim should wear suitable protective

    2  Thoroughly flush skin with clean water
      to remove all traces of hazardous chem-

1  Banme, C. W. ,  "Fire Protection for
      Chemicals", National Fire Protection
      Association, Boston,  1961.

2  "Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous
      Materials", National Fire Protection
      Association, Boston,  1967-1968.

3  "Hazardous Chemicals Data", National
      Fire Code No. 49, National Fire Pro-
      tection Association, Boston,  1965.

4  Manufacturing Chemists' Association,  Inc.,
      "Guide for Safety in the Chemical Lab-
      oratory", D.  Van Nostrand Company, Inc. ,
      New York,  1962.

5  Manufacturing Chemists' Association,  Inc. ,
      "Laboratory Waste  Disposal Manual",

6  Plunkett, E. R. ,  "Handbook of Industrial
      Toxicology",  Chemical Publishing
      Company,  Inc.,  New York,  1966.

7  Sax,  N. I., "Dangerous Properties of
      Industrial Materials", Rheinhold Book
      Corporation,  New York,  1968.

8  Scheflan, L. , Jacobs,  M. , "The Handbook
      of Solvents",  D.  Van Nostrand Company,
      Inc., New York, 1953
This outline prepared by I. Wilder, Acting
Chief, Hazardous Materials Research Section,
EPA, OWP, Edison Water Quality Laboratory,
Edison, NJ   08817

                 OIL SPILL PROBLEM

                                                   Outline Number

Oil Pollution - Report to the President                     5

Oil Pollution - Magnitude of the Problem                   6

Oil Refinery and Terminal Operation                       7

Complex Wastes Associated with Petroleum                8

Platform Operations - Offshore Oil Production             9

Biological Effects of Oil Pollution                         10

On May 26,  1967,  the President of the United
States directed the Secretary of the Interior
and the  Secretary  of Transportation to examine
how the resources of the Nation could best be
mobilized against  the pollution of water by
spills of oil and other hazardous substances.
Referring to the TORRY CANYON and Cape
Cod incidents  earlier this year, the President
considered it "imperative that  we  take prompt
action to prevent similar catastrophes in the
future and to insure  that the Nation is fully
equipped to  minimize the threat from such
accidents to health,  safety, and our natural
resources. " He asked for a thorough assess-
ment  of existing technical and legal resources,
and for  recommendations toward an effective
national and international program.

This report responds to the President's
directive.  It deals primarily with water
pollution by oil, but  where appropriate  is
addressed to other hazardous substances as
well.  It reflects a conviction that the problem
of oil pollution must be faced and solved as
part of the current general effort to improve
the  quality of life in  the United States.  Just
as the Nation cannot afford to accept the
slow poisoning of  its air, or the fouling of its
cities and countryside,  it cannot abandon to
pollution the treasure of its waters and

Oil  in its many forms — oil in vast quantities --
is one of the necessities of modern industrial
society.  Under control, serving its  intended
purpose, oil is efficient, versatile, productive.
Out of control, it  can be one of the most
devastating  substances  in the environment.
Spilled into  water, it spreads havoc for  miles

The destructive characteristics of oil out of
control--and the inadequacy of current
measures for  dealing with it--have never
been better  illustrated than when the TORREY
CANYON, with 119,  000 tons of crude oil in
her tanks, ran aground and broke up off the
southern coast of England last  March.  The
desperate efforts  of  the British and French
to cope  with the tragedy captured the attention
and sympathy of people all over the world.

Oil  spills, large and small,  as well as  the
careless or accidental release of other
hazardous materials into the environment,
have long been of  concern to pollution control
authorities  in this country.   Once an area has
been contaminated by oil, the whole character
of the environment is changed.  Afloat, even
a relatively small quantity of oil goes where
the water goes.  By its nature,  oil on water
is a seeker.  Once it has encountered something
solid to cling to--whether it be a beach, a rock,
a piling, the feathers of a duck or gull, or a
bather's hair--it does not readily let go.

Cleaning up an oil-contaminated area is
time-consuming, difficult, costly.  To the
costs of the cleanup must be added the costs
of the oil invasion itself--the destruction of
fish and other wildlife, damage to property,
contamination of public water supplies and
any number of other material and esthetic
losses.   Depending on the quantities and kinds
of oil involved,  these losses may extend for
months  or years — sometimes for decades—
with correspondingly heavy costs of restoring
the area to its prior condition.

The risks of contamination by oil and other
hazardous substances are as numerous and
varied as the uses made of the many materials
involved and the means of transporting them.
These risks involve terminals,  waterside
chemical and other industrial plants,  loading
docks,  refineries,  tankers,  freighters,  barges,
pipelines, tank  cars, trucks, filling  stations—
everywhere that oil is used,  stored,  or moved.
All are  subject  to mechanical failures com-
pounded by human carelessness and mistakes.
There are countless opportunities for oil to
get out  of control.

This country is  not fully prepared to deal
effectively with spills of oil or other hazardous
materials—large or small—and much less with
a TORREY CANYON type disaster.   Because  <
sizable  spills  are not uncommon, and major
spills are an ever-present danger, effective
steps must be taken to reduce this Nation's

All preventive measures cost money, and the
actions  recommended in this report will be no
exception.  The cost of preventive measures
which might be  incorporated in  ships or
industrial establishments or operating equip-
ment must be  weighed against the costs,  both
tangible and intangible, that arise from
disastrous spills.  Such cost evaluations may
be expected to guide the development of ships
and industrial facilities,  with effects on their
future size and  operating characteristics.  On
the whole, economics and good  sense commend
an effort to prevent pollution rather than accept
the costs of its  occurring.  For this  reason,
*This is the introduction from A Report .on Pollution of the Nation's Waters by Oil and Other
Hazardous Substances to the President by the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of
Transportation, 2/68.

 Oil Pollution,  Report to the President*
 the recommendations in this report stress
 preventive action.

 In spite of preventive efforts there will still
 be spills, either due to human carelessness
 or to calamities beyond human control.  For
 those reasons,  this report also addresses it-
 self to  improved cleanup measures.  Present
 cleanup procedures leave much to be desired
 and are often too expensive, too tardy,  too
 ineffective, and too destructive of the marine
 and land environment. There is room for a
 great deal of improvement in present techni-
 ques, and there is a need for the development
 of better ones.

 The oil pollution problem has significant
 international aspects.  First,  accidental
 or deliberate spills which threaten American
 coasts  may occur outside the United States
 territorial waters.  Despite this fact,  the
 United  States must be able to act quickly
 against a threat that develops in international
 waters  so that we may take whatever immediate
 Ereventive or remedial steps are necessary.
 econdly, vessels which discharge oil may be
outside the registry of an affected coastal
nation and thus not be within the direct and
simple application of the nation's laws.  For
this reason,  attention has been given for
some years to international cooperation in
control of oil pollution.  As an example,  the
Subcommittee on Oil Pollution of the Inter-
governmental Maritime Consultative Organiza-
tion (IMCO) has done continuing work in this
field.  Through this Subcommittee,  IMCO is
presently examining a series of proposals
(parallel at many points with the conclusions
of this report) which might be adopted
internationally to minimize the  threat of
future spills.  Further efforts to reduce oil
pollution should include seeking expanded use
of international regulation because any other
solution would be incomplete.  For these
reasons, this report stresses the need for
rapid international action, as well as urgent
steps to be taken domestically.


A  Broad Picture

   Petroleum in its many forms has been on
   the move in the United States since 1859
   when the first commercially successful oil
   well was developed in Pennsylvania.
   First transported by wagon and log raft,
   oil is now en route from the oil field to
   refinery to consumer by pipe, water, rail
   and highway.  During 1970 more than 4. 5
   billion barrels of petroleum moved as
   crude oil from the production field through
   the refineries and then as refined products
   to the consumer.  Ocean tankers,  barges,
   pipelines, railroad tank cars and tank and
   trucks are the vital elements of the com-
   plex and diversified transportation system
   required to move this volume of oil.

   Estimated amounts of oil lost     as well
   as the sources of this form of pollution are
   shown in Table 1.  It is interesting to note
   that the  loss of waste or used oil from
   vehicles (crankcase oil) may be the largest
   single source  of oil pollution, larger, in
   fact, than the total volume from all sources
   lost directly to the oceans.

B  Spill Frequency

   Obtaining of one barrel of petroleum from
   the oil field to the consumer may require
   10 to  15 transfers between as many as six
   different transport modes.  Each mode is
   subject to accidents, and at the transfer
   points spill frequency is extremely high.
   Approximately one barrel of product is
   lost for  each one million transported.
   About 7, 500 oil spills are now occurring
   annually with an estimated total loss of
   500, 000 barrels (2).Most of the spilled
   oil is  discharged to water.  In addition
   to spills,  the potential for discharges from
   normal vessel operation is in excess of
   700, 000 barrels of oil annually.
   The number of spills and quantities lost
   vary with the type of transport system.
   About 217, 000 miles of petroleum pipe-
   lines crisscross the United States
   transporting 45 percent of the Nation's
   annual consumption of petroleum.
   Pipeline failures accounted for only
   three percent of the product lost in 1969.

   A United States fleet of 387 tankers and
   2, 900 barges presently operates in the
   Nation's waterways. In worldwide oil
   traffic. United States vessels make up
   only five percent of tanker traffic United
   States and foreign flag tankers were
   responsible for approximately 80-90
   percent of the oil spilled in 1969.

   Tank trucks and railroad tank cars
   together account for less than one percent
   of total product lost. '2'. Tank trucks
   are the last leg of the transportation
   system, delivering refined products to
   the retail consumer. Approximately
   158, 000 tank trucks are on the road.
   In areas not served by pipelines or
   navigable waterways, over  81, 000 rail-
   road tank cars take over the transport
   of crude and refined petroleum products.

C  Why Spills Occur

   Blumer    reported that human error
   accounted for 88 percent of the total
   number of spill incidents.  The means
   of rectifying this situation is by better
  • training and education,  improved
   engineering, and when all else fails
   enforcement by a responsible State or
   Federal agency.

Oil Pollution - Magnitude of the Problem
                                         TABLE 1

                       AND POTENTIAL LOSSES TO WATERS, 1969

                                          Metric Tons Per Year         % of Total

      1.  Tankers
           (normal operations)
         Using Control Measures              30, 000
         Not Using Control Measures         500, OOP	
           (20%)                                      530,000             10.7

      2.  Other Ships
           (bilges,  etc.)                               500,000             10.1

      3.  Offshore Production
           (normal operations)                         100,000              2.0

      4.  Accidental Spills
           ships                                      100,000              2.0
           nonships                                    100, 000              2.0

      5.  Refineries and
           petrochemical                              300,000              6.0

                   SUBTOTAL                                   1, 630, 000

      6.  Potential losses to water from
           industrial and automotive
           (not fuel):
         Highway vehicle spent oils                   1,800,000             36.6
         Industrial plus all other vehicles              1, 500, OOP             30. 6

                   SUBTOTAL                                   3,300,000

                   TOTAL                                      4, 930, OOP
NOTE: Oil from pleasure craft and natural seeps not included.

                                                   Oil Pollution - Magnitude of the Problem
    Another important factor in the cause of
    spills by vessels is the stopping ability of
    the tankers under crash stop conditions --
    vessel in full reverse. It has been reported
    thar ' 'the most important factor in
    connection with collision and stranding--
    the two most  dreaded casualties—is the
    'crash stop1 ability.  Unfortunately, the
    ability of tankers to come to a "crash stop1
    has  decreased as their size has increased.
    For the  400, 000 tonner, the straight-line
    stopping distance for a 'crash stop1 would
    be four to five miles and would take
    approximately 30 minutes.  During this
    period of backing full, the ship's master
    is unable to steer her or regulate the speed.
    If the engines are not put 'full astern1 but
    on 'stop1 it takes up to one hour for the
    "Universe Ireland" to come to a stop.
           5 minute!
     I ton.    1/g mile
  	21 minutes
  200,000 tonn       2.5 miles
                        30 minute*
                         4.5 miles
   1,000,000 lon»
               FIGURE 1

 Dillingham Corporation   under contract to
 API, conducted a statistical study to develop
 an understanding of the basic characteristics
 of major oil spills--defined as a spill of
 2, 000 barrels  (84, 000 gallons) or  more of a
 heavy (or persistent) oil which will not
 naturally evaporate or disperse rapidly in
 the environment--and thus define the nature
 and scope of the problem.

 Based on an analysis of 38 past spills, which
 occurred during the period 1956 to 1969,  they
 reported that:

 A  Source

    75% were associated with vessels,
    principally  tankers.
B  Composition

   90% involved crude or residual oils.

C  Volume

   70% of the spills were greater than
   5, 000 barrels with a median spill volume
   of 25, 000 barrels.

D  Distance Offshore

   80% occurred within 10 miles of shore
   and the oil would reach shore within one

E  Duration

   75% of the spill incidents lasted more than
   five days with a median duration of 17 days.

F  Extent

   80% contaminated less than 20 miles  of
   coastline with a median extent of four
   miles of coast.

G  Coastline

   85% occurred off shoreline  considered to
   be recreational.

H  Distance from Port

   75% occurred within 25 miles of the nearest

Item (D) above  is probably one of the most
significant factors revealed by this study.
As shown in Figure 2, fifty percent of the
offshore spills  occurred less than one mile
from shore.  Since oil appears to drift at
approximately  3% of the wind velocity, and
with an assumed average wind of 15 knots,
the oil slick would drift at approximately
0.5 knots.  Thus,  with 50% of the spills  less
than one mile offshore, an onshore wind
could move  oil  onto shore in two hours.  The
question that now arises is "how does one
mobilize shoreline protection equipment
during this short length of time?"

 Oil Pollution - Magnitude of the Problem

 For reference purposes, major spill incidents
 along with significant characteristics, are shown
 in Table 2(3*5)

 1  Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
       1970.  Special Study Group.

 2  Wyer, R.H., et  al.  Problems Resulting
       from Transportation of Petroleum
       Products. Presented WPCF National
       Meeting.  October 1970.

 3  Oliver, E.F., Capt., USN Ret.  U.S.
       Naval Institute Proceedings.  September
   Blumer, Max.
Personal Communication.
5  Dillingham Corp.   1970.  A Review of
     Problem - Major Oil Spills.

6  Hess, Richard.  Office of Oil and
     Hazardous Materials, EPA,
     Washington,  D. C., Personal

7  Gilmore, G.A., et al (1970).  Systems
     Study of Oil Spill Cleanup Procedures.
     Dillingham Environmental Col, La
     Joila,  California.

This outline was prepared by  Richard T.
Dewling, Director, R & D, Edison Water
Quality Laboratory, Office of Water Programs,
EPA, Edison,  NJ  08817.

2 60%

£ 50%
o 40%-

o 30%-

       D is fa nee from Shore and Response Time
       Available for Shoreline Protection
            Data from 25 Incidents
         Less Than One Mile
                           2 Hours
                                              Response Time

                                    (Assuming a 15 knot onshore wind and oil drift a! 3%
                                                 of wind velocity)

                                                    I Day
                                        H	1—f-
H	1	H-
 20   30 40 50
10 Days

Oil Pollution - Magnitude of the Problem
                                          TABLE 2
                                  MAJOR OIL SPILL INCIDENTS

ALGOL, tanker
ANDRON, tanker
ARROW, tanker
BENEDICT E, tanker
Bridgeport, Conn., terminal
Chester Creek, pipeline
Dutch Coast Spill
ES SO ESSEN, tanker
FLORIDA, barge
HESS HUSTLER, tank barge
Humboldt Bay, refinery
KEO, tanker
Louisiana, Chevron platform
Louisiana, Shell platform

MARTITA, tanker
Moron, refinery
New. Castle, power station
,R. C. STONER, tanker
Refinery Loading Site
ROBERT L. POLLING, tank barge
Santa Barbara, platform
Schuylkill River, Berks Assoc.
Sewaren, N. J., storage tank
Ship Shoal, drill rig
Staten Island, N.Y., 2 Esso barges
YIAMPICO, tanker
TIM, tank barge
Waikiki Beach
Waterford !5each •
WITWATER, tanker

• Date
12- -68

03- -57

Cause of spill
• Unknown

Grounding '
Hose failure
Hull failure

Hose failure
Natural faults
Lagoon failure
Tank failure
Storm shifting
Collision ..
Hull failure
Hull failure

#6 F. 0.
#2 F. 0.'
"2 F. 0.

#2 F. 0.
. Residual
#6 F. 0.
#4 F. 0.

Bunker C
#2 F. 0.
. 30,000
Unknown as
of this date
Waste Crankcase 70,000
#6 F. 0.
#6 F. 0.
Bunker C
#6 F. 0.



 A petroleum refinery is an organized and
 coordinated arrangement of manufacturing
 processes designed to provide both physical
 and chemical change of crude petroleum into
 salable products with the qualities required.

 Refineries can be classified as simple,
 complex, or fully integrated.
 A A simple  refinery will include crude oil
    distillation, catalytic reforming and
    treating.  Its products will be limited to
    LP gas, motor fuels,  kerosene, gas oil,
    diesel fuel and fuel oil.
 B A more complex refinery will make a
    greater variety of products and require
    the following additional processes:
    vacuum distillation, catalytic cracking,
    polymerization, alkylation and asphalt

 C The fully  integrated refinery makes a full
    range of products.  Additional products
    will include lubricating oils,  greases,  and
    waxes. Additional equipment will include
    solvent extraction, dewaxing and treating.

    A typical  refinery flow plan for a fully
    integrated refinery is presented as Figure 1.


 There are over 8, 000 different types of crude
 oils in the USA alone and these vary from high
 to low sulfur content and from asphaltic to
 paraffinic and from heavy to light in specific

 A The asphalt base crudes cpntain very little
    paraffin wax and a residue primarily
    asphaltic.  These crudes are particularly
    suitable for making high quality gasoline
    and asphalt.
 B Paraffin base crudes contain little asphaltic
    material,  are good sources of paraffin wax,
    quality motor oils,  and high grade kerosene.

 C Mixed base crudes contain both wax and
    asphalt.  Virtually all products can be

 A Atmospheric Distillation

    Today's crude distillation occurs in
    towers  containing a series of horizontal
    trays where liquid condenses, collects
    and is withdrawn.  Since  distillation is the
    most frequently used unit operation in
    refining, a drawing of. a typical distillation
    column is presented as Figure 2.

    The  lighter,  more volatile portions of the
    crude are withdrawn at the upper part of
    the tower and the heavier parts down lower
    in the tower.  It  is in this manner that the
    crude oil is first broken into its parts.
    Improved separation between products
    can be accomplished by installing more
    fractionating trays.

 B Vacuum Distillation

    Normally,  it is desired to cut deeper into
    the crude oil than would be possible under
    atmospheric pressure and reasonable
    temperatures. Therefore,  vacuum dis-
    tillation is performed on  the residual from
    the atmospheric  distillation.  This process
    is essentially the same as atmospheric
    distillation except it is fractionation
    performed under a vacuum.

 C Catalytic Cracking

    The  rising needs for producing more
    gasoline per volume of crude oil led to the
    development of catalytic cracking.  Here,
    a gas oil, not valuable for any other use,
    is fed to the catalytic cracking unit where
    -it is cracked in the presence of a catalyst
    to gasolines and heating oils.

 D Alkylation

    Further needs for high octane gasolines
    led to the development of another process
    called alkylation where several com-
    ponents of the refinery gas streams are
    combined over a catalyst to make a high
    octane component.
 IN.PPW.ol.9.5. 71

Oil Refinery and Terminal Operation
E  Polymerization

   Here, again, this process was developed
   to utilize several components from a
   normal refinery gas stream and combine
   them into high octane number gasoline

F  Platforming

   This major process development consisted
   of the use  of a platinum based catalyst to
   upgrade the octane number of naphtha
   distilled from crude oil to very high levels
   for use in  aviation and  high quality motor

G  Hydrotreating

   This process utilizes the excess hydrogen
   produced in the platforming process to
   remove sulfur compounds in many refinery
   products,  motor fuel,  lube oil and fuel oil.

H  Hydrocracking

   The use of hydrogen was  extended to the
   hydrocracking process which converts
   petroleum residues by  catalytic hydro-
   genation to refined heavy fuel oils or to
   high quality catalytic charge stocks.

I  Coking

   In this process heavy low grade oils are
   converted  into lighter products and coke
   which is sold or burned.

J  Treating Process

   Many contaminants are present in crude
   oils in varying concentrations and include
   organic compounds containing sulfur,
   nitrogen and oxygen, dissolved metals and
   inorganic salts.  These contaminants are
   removed at some intermediate stage or
   just prior  to sending the finished product
   to storage.  Numerous  treating chemicals
   are used and most fall into one or more of
   these  classifications:

   1 Acid

   2 Alkali

   3 Solvent

   4 Oxidizing agent

   5 Absorption  agent

 A  API Separator

    This equipment removes surfaced oil by
    skimming and pumping the skimmed oil
    to rerunning.

 B  Equalization Basin

    Secondary oil recovery is possible here
    because of the large holding time.

 C  Flocculator-Clarifier

    Coagulants are used to break emulsions
    and oil is removed by skimming.

 D  Biological Treatment

    The activated sludge uses dispersed air
    for mixing and oxygen supply. The water
    can also be  treated in trickling filters
    which are packed with high rate plastic

 E  Holding Basins

    These basins are utilized to permit
    checking the quality of the effluent.   If
    not satisfactory, it can be recycled.

 F  Ozonator

    Here the phenols are reduced by oxidation
    and the water is partially sterilized.

 G  Activated Carbon and Rapid Sand Filtration

    Here additional reduction of phenols is
    accomplished by mixing the activated
    carbon with the waste streams and removing
    it in sand filters.

 A  Tankers

    1  Tankers are loaded or unloaded through
       flexible hose  connected to shore pipe-
       lines or by means of loading booms
       made of conventional pipe connected by
       swivel  joints.

    2  Tankers are divided into two groups:

       a  Dirty or black oil ships which trans-
          port crude oilo,  fuel  oils and diesel

                                                        Oil Refinery and Terminal Operation
      b Clean or white oil ships which carry
        highly refined products.

B  Barge

   Another form of transport is the barge
   usually used on long wide navigable rivers.
   Barges usually carry products rather than
   crude oil.

C  Procedure for Handling Receipts

   1  A discussion between the vessel people
      and terminal people should be held as
      soon as the vessel is properly hooked
      up.  Sequence of discharging lines  to
      be used, volume of each product and
      permissible pressure must be clearly

   2  Communications

      Appropriate signals and means for
      transmitting them must be established.
      Telephone or walkie-talkies or hand
      radios can be utilized.

      The vessel deck officer must be notified
      whenever a change in receiving tankage
      is to made so he can prepare for a
      pressure surge.

   3  Identification of Lines

      All  lines and manifolds should be clearly
      marked so that  the pipelines carrying
      each product are identified.

   4  Manning

      It is prudent operation to maintain one
      man on the terminal side of the facil-
      ities at all times and one man  on the
      ship at all times so that in the event of
      an emergency the proper steps can be
   .   taken by each immediately.

   5  Vessel Check

      Prior to starting the ship's pumps or
      notifying the dock crew to begin trans-
      fer  operations,  the  senior deck officer
      must assure himself that the entire
      cargo system is lined up properly.
  6  Terminal Check

     The terminal superintendent or his
     representative  should be certain that
     all valves controlling flow to and from
     tanks involved in the discharge or
     loading are in their proper setting and
     that valves not  involved in the transfer
     or loading are closed.

  7  Use of Log

     The use  of a log reading the amount
     that the tank has received and comparing
     this volume with the amount that the
     tanker has discharged every two hours
     will quickly inform the terminal personnel
     that all material is finding its way into
     proper tankage or not.

  8  Topping Off and/ or Switching Tanks

     Terminal manpower should  always  be
     assigned when the level of oil in a tank
     reaches a high  point in that  tank.

  9  Tankage  Assignment

     Before the cargo arrives, it is impor-
     tant that  the terminal people in charge
     of the receipt check the volume of space
     available to receive each product and
     conclude whether adequate space  is
     available.  This information should be
     entered on the log as the stop-gauge
     for the transfer for each specific
This outline was prepared by R. R. Keppler,
R&D Specialist,  Office of Water Programs, Boston
Regional Office, Boston, MA   02203

                                                                                      CRACKING UNIT
                                                                                      dmui • UTUTIK aaama






  Row Material for
   MaWocfivc of:

                                                                                                                                      FINISHED LUBRICATING OILS


                                                                                                                                      GAS OIL



                                                                     Fig.  1  Simplified Flow Diagram  of Refinery

                                   Oil Refinery and Terminal Operation
                      X   \  \  REFLUX LINE
                BUBBLE CAPS     -
             /    ,  .  ,  A
                         '_ -p r rvmr

                         III    BOTTOM DRA»OFF
Fig. 2 - Bubble  Cap-type Fractionating Tower


 Water is used in petroleum refining processes
 mainly as a cooling medium,  to rinse impurities
 out of the oil, and to manufacture steam.  In
 these uses the water is contaminated with a
 complex variety of materials.  The nature and
 sources of these materials are discussed

 Crude oils are mixtures of many substances
 from which various oil products, such as
 petroleum gas,  gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel,
 fuel oil, lubricating oil,  wax, and asphalt are
 manufactured.  These substances are mainly
 compounds of hydrogen and carbon, and are
 therefore called hydrocarbons.  The various
 oil products may be described in a general
 way by their boiling range as shown in the
 following table (Table I).

Fuel gases
Kerosene and
jet fuel
Furnace and
diesel fuel
Residue (asphalt)


Range °F
-259 to - 128



 Crude petroleum contains small amounts of
 impurities.  Among these are:

    Trace  elements (copper,  nickel, iron,
    vanadium, etc.)

 As you will see later, some of these same
 impurities contribute significantly to the
 contamination of water used in the oil refining
 Crude oil, as it is brought up from underground,
 is mixed with briny water and sediment.  Part
 of this is removed in the oil fields, but a
 small amount remains emulsified in the oil
 and must be removed  at the  refinery.

 Petroleum is the product of  decomposition
 of animal and vegetable  matter,  and contains
 elements present in the  original living
 organisms.  Among these are sulfur,  nitrogen,
 and oxygen.  Smaller  amounts of such elements
 as  copper,  nickel, iron, vanadium, etc., are
 also present.

 No crude oil can provide a full range of
 finished products in the proportions and
 having the properties that the customers
 require.  The function  of a refinery is to
 make the required products - both directly
 from the crude or by converting the original
 material into saleable material.  This is
 done by the following general steps:  separation,
 alteration,  purification, and blending.

 A  Distillation

    The first step inrefining is to separate,
    or distill,  crude oil into parts or fractions.
    Each fraction has its own typical boiling
    range, as  was seen  in a foregoing table.
    Light fractions, such as gasoline and
    solvents, boil at low temperatures - while
    the heavier fractions, such as fuel oils,
    have higher boiling ranges.

    Simple distillation can only produce those
    products which were in the original crude.
    In other words, a particular crude will
    yield only so much gasoline and so much
    jet fuel.  So as the demand for gasoline
    increased,  refineries brought into use a
    process called "cracking".

 B  Cracking

    In cracking, the heavy, high-boiling parts
    of the crude oil are  broken down by high
    temperature into lighter fractions boiling
    in the range of gasoline,  jet fuel,  and diesel
    fuel.   In the earlier cracking processes -
    thermal cracking and coking - high
    temperature alone was used to accomplish
     cracking.  Later catalysts were also used
  IN. PPW. ol.7.8. 70

Complex Wastes Associated With Petroleum Refineries
   to improve the yield and quality of the
   gasoline produces.  The latest cracking
   process -  hydrocracking - uses not  only
   high temperature and catalysts, but also
   high pressure and an atmosphere  of hydrogen.

C  Alkylation

   Cracking the heavier parts of crude oil to
   produce lighter fractions is something like
   breaking larger rocks into smaller ones.
   In the fracturing process some small
   particles are formed.  Joining these smaller
   molecules together to form material in the
   gasoline range is done by cracking-in-
   reverse processes called alkylation or

D  Catalytic Reforming

   Gasoline fractions distilled directly from
   crude oil would cause "knock" in your
   modern high-compression automobile
   engine.  In the catalytic reforming process
   the  chemical structure  of the gasoline is
   rearranged to improve  its anti-knock rating.

E  Treating

   From the primary refining operations
   described in the sections above a  wide
   range of product streams are obtained.  In
   most cases the properties of these streams,
   either as final products or as feedstocks
   for  futher processing (for example reforming)
   are adversely affected by certain  impurities.
   These  must be removed or converted to
   less harmful compounds by further refining
   processes called treating".  The undesirable
   constituents are mainly sulfur,  nitrogen,
   and oxygen compounds from the original
   crude oil and unstable materials formed by
   cracking which would later form gummy

   The most modern of the treating processes
   is hydrodesulfurization. In this process  the
   sulfur compounds are converted to hydrogen
   sulfide, the nitrogen compounds to ammonia,
   and the oxygen compounds to water.  The
   hydrogen sulfide can be converted to
   saleable sulfur by partial combustion with

   Older treating processes extract the
   undesirable compounds using a variety of
   caustic solutions or sulfuric acid. In most
   of these processes the  solution is
   continuously regenerated and the undesirable
   extracts are incinerated or recovered for
   sale as by-products.

In a typical refiner,  the large-volume sources
of waste water can be grouped in three
categories,  as follows:
              Table II

       Refinery Waste Water Sources
           Flow,       % of       Source of
           GPM       Total       Contam-
           100-6,000   40-80
leaks,  treating
Chemicals and
                         < 10      Treatment and
                          20      Direct contact
                                  with oil and
                                  treating chem-
Water       5-300
Softener &
Boiler Blowdown

Refinery  ^ 20-1,200
  Crude oil desalting, overhead oily waste from
  units such as distillation, cracking, alkylation,
  treating, etc.

Although the largest percentage of the water
discharged from a refinery was used for cooling,
purposes, the actual amount varies widely
from one refinery to another.   This  depends
on whether the cooling system  is once -through
or recirculating and to some degree the extent
of use of air coolers.

Cooling water is normally called non-oily.
This is  relative,  however, since the cooling
water can become oily through leaks in heat
exchangers.  These leaks and treatment
chemicals used in the cooling systems are the
main sources  of contamination in cooling water.

Pollution in a  waste stream from water
softening and boiler blowdown is relatively
minor.  Although relatively small volumes of
water are involved, the dissolved solids
content  may be high.  Chemicals used to treat
the boiler water are the main pollutants.

The greatest sources of pollutants in a refinery
are the  so-called process water or oily water
streams.  This contamination occurs when the
water is used  in direct contact with the

                                      Complex Wastes Associated With Petroleum Refineries
hydrocarbon process streams.  Often this
water was used as steam to strip material
from process streams,  such as sulfides or

The following table lists the pollutants and
approximate concentrations which may be found
in refinery waste water streams.
                  Table IE

Undesirable Components of Refinery Waste Water

Pollutant                   Concentration,  ppm

Floating and dissolved oil     l-> 1, 000
Suspended solids
Dissolved solids             0-5,000
Phenol and other
dissolved organics           0-1, 000
Cyanide                     0-20
Chromate                   0-60
Organic nitrogen            0-50
Phosphate                   0-60
Sulfides and mercaptans     0-100
Caustics and acids           2-11 pH
Color and turbidity
Visible oil on the surface of waste water is
the most common and troublesome pollutant
in refinery waste water.   Concentrations can
range from 1 ppm to well over 1, 000 during
accidental spills.

Crude  oil entering a refinery usually contains
suspended solids and as much as 1% brine
emulsified in the oil. These impurities are
washed out of the crude using water in a device
called  a desalter.  Water drained from the
desalter will thus contain suspended dirt and
as much as 5, 000 ppm of dissolved salts.  A
relatively high content of dissolved solids can
also be expected in the blowdown from cooling
towers, boilers, and water softeners.
Phenol and cyanide are very important to
water quality criteria. Only very low
concentrations are tolerable in drinking water.
Cyanides are not generally considered as a
major problem to refineries because they are
not often found at significant levels.  Phenols,
on the other hand, occur in some crudes and
are formed during cracking, and are a very
common pollution problem in the petroleum
industry.  Some process waters contain phenol
concentrations as high as 1, 000 ppm.

Chromium and phosphate compounds are
commonly used as corrosion inhibitors in
cooling water systems.  Phosphates are  also
sometimes used to treat boiler water.

Ammonia and other nitrogen-containing
compounds are commonly found in the process
waters of cracking units and hydrogenation
units, as the result of decomposition of nitrogen
compounds in the original crude oil.

Mercaptans and  sulfides are commonly present
in waste water streams within a refinery.
Special facilities and vigilance  are required
to keep them out  of the final effluent.  These
materials of course  are odiferous and  can be
detected in very small concentrations.

Caustics and acids are occasionally .used for
treatment of refinery streams, as previously
mentioned.  Where these spent treating chemicals
are drained into the  effluent water, the presence
of phenols, organic acids, mercaptans, and
sulfides can be expected.  Inadvertent  spills
of acid or caustic can cause correspondingly
high or low pH in the effluent water.  Caustic
or acid extracts also tend to cause a brownish
coloration of the  effluent.
This outline was prepared by R. E. Van Ingen,
Coordinator of Design and Development of
New Processes - Shell Oil Company,
New York, NY  10020

                                                              MODERN REFINERY
                                                          SIMPLIFIED FLOW DIAGRAM
                                                                             Solvents and Aromatics

Or Coking




lk "Cutter" Stock v 1 Residual Fu
"^ \ 'and Asphalt
^ 1
Coke -v


A  More than 100 companies are now active
   in offshore petroleum, operating off the
   coasts of 75 countries.  The value of the
   work in progress is about $3 billion and
   at the end of 1970, the total investment in
   the offshore oil industry has amounted to
   about $20 billion.

   Daily offshore U. S. production is in the
   range of 1. 30 million barrels of oil,
   representing 14. 5% of the domestic total.
   Proved reserves of offshore oil stand at
   85 billion barrels, or about 20% of the
   estimated world inventory of 425 billion

   In 1969 approximately 1, 160 wells were
   drilled in the offshore U.S.  areas.  At
   the present time there are 2, 564 offshore
   platforms,  structures and facilities in the
   Gulf of Mexico, off the California coast
   and in the waters of Alaska.  Of this
   number, 764 are in navigable (3 miles
   from shore) waters.   Even though water
   is not discharged from all these platforms,
   structures  and facilities,  they do con-
   stitute a potential source of pollution due
   to blowouts and other accidents.

B  Current practice in the offshore oil
   industry is to group platforms, structures
   and facilities,  located in particular fields,
   for economy in operation.  Thus, for
   example, one main platform may serve
   as the supporting facility for ten or more
   structures.  This main platform then
   provides living quarters,  office space,
   treatment facilities and control centers
   for the other structures in the group. At
   an average bare-bones cost of $8 million,
   real estate on these main platforms runs
   about $40 per square foot with an average
   surface area of 200, 000 square feet.  These
   surface areas and cost figures play an
   important role in the selection of water
   treatment equipment.

 A  The original carboniferous deposits
    accumulating within, or at the edge of,
    ancient seas constituted the beginning
    of petroleum formations.  It therefore
    follows that some part of those ancient
    seas will be produced with the oil and
    gas today.  This water,  which accumu-
    lates during the production processing
    of oil and gas,  is frequently great in
    volume sometimes exceeding 20, 000
    barrels per day for one field.  This
    water may constitute from less than 10%
    to greater than 50% of the total fluids
    produced from a single well.

    Depending on several variables,  an
    offshore operator may decide to:

    1   Pump the entire oil/water mixture
       to shore for treatment.

    2   Pump the oil/water mixture to shore
       for treatment following a free-water
       knockout process.

    3   Treat the oil/water mixture on the
       platform and sell the oil to a pipeline
       company at the platform.

    This last choice  requires that the oil
    contain a maximum of 2% water and
    generally no more than 1% water.

    The variables upon which the above
    decisions are based include:

    1   Distance to shore - 20 to 30 miles is
       generally the  maximum.

    2   The presence and types of solids and
       emulsions concerned.

    3   The relative  specific gravity of the oil
       and water.

Platform Operations - Offshore Oil Production
   4  The chemical characteristics of the
      oil - the paraffin content plays an
      important role.

   5  Economics of treating on shore vs.
      on the platform.

   6  The percent of water produced with
      the oil.

   Treatment equipment must take into
   account the fact that the above variables
   change with time.  This requires that
   adequate safety factors be included in
   design calculations.

   There are two basic types of equipment
   associated with oil/water separation on
   offshore production facilities:

   1  Operation equipment

   2  Conditioning equipment

   Operation Equipment - That equipment
   used in the process of separating well
   gas from fluids and processing fluids to
   remove WATER from the OIL.  Depending
   upon the throughput volume in operation
   equipment,  and also upon the presence and
   types of solids and emulsions concerned,
   the character of the various emulsifying
   agents and the relative specific gravity of
   oil and water, the oil contamination in the
   separated water will frequently be  from
   200 ppm to 3, 000 ppm or more.  As the
   water content in the product oil decreases,
   the oil content in the  effluent water
   increases.  Therefore, the 2% maximum
   (and  1%  desired) water content required
   by the pipeline company  has a direct
   bearing  on the amount of oil that must be
   removed from the discharge,  or bleed,

   Process units that may be  classified  as
   Operation Equipment include the  following:

   1   Emulsion treaters

   2  Heater treaters

   3  Free-water knockouts
4  Phase separators (gas,  water and oil)

Prices for this equipment range from
$3, 000 for a 12, 600 gallon free-water
knockout separator (4 hour detention time)
to $52, 000 for a heater treater handling
10, 000 barrels per day.

The free-water knockout and phase
separators are essentially sedimentation
tanks wherein the gas,  oil and water
separate by gravity under pressure.
Valves, located at the phase interfaces,
draw  off the particular components.  The
emulsion and heater treaters make use
of emulsion breakers (either chemical
or heat) to more  effectively remove the
water phase.

Conditioning Equipment - That equipment
used  downstream from the operational
equipment to treat bleed water prior to
disposal overboard.  This equipment
removes OIL from  the WATER.  Depending
upon the same variables which effect the
operation equipment,  the effluent from
the conditioning equipment will contain
from  20 ppm to 200 ppm oil.  Close
observation is required in order to
maintain an effluent in the 20 ppm to
50 ppm oil range.  This is not always

Units which may  be classified as
conditioning equipment include:

1  Gravity separators

2  Oil skimmers

3  Clarifiers

4  Gas flotation cells

5  Coalescers

This conditioning equipment can be
installed at a cost of $2 to $3 per barrel
or $20, 000 to $30, 000 for a system
designed to process 10, 000 barrels per
day.  This cost is based on the assumption
that the equipment would be customized
and designed to achieve an effluent of
50 ppm oil.   This system would occupy

                                          Platform Operations - Offshore Oil Production
about 300-400 sq ft and would require
3-4 months for delivery.  The price
would double if the equipment were
installed after construction of the plat-
form was completed.

Chemical treatment may be used to
provide more consistent results in the
50 ppm oil range.  This, however,
generates a large amount of sludge which
is a  disposal problem in itself.  Operating
data indicate 30 to 500 Ib/day ferric
chloride would be needed to obtain 50 ppm
oil.  This would generate 4 cubic feet  of
sludge for each pound of chemical used.

Gravity separators, oil skimmers and
clarifiers rely on the gravity separation
of oil from water.  Oil is normally skimmed
off the top of these units and water is
drawn from the bottom by way of an out-
side siphon called a "Gun Barrel".  These
units are normally used upstream from
other oil removal equipment to eliminate
the bulk of free oil and sedimentation.

Gas  flotation units saturate "clean" water
with gas in a pressure tower.  This water
is then mixed with the  water/oil mixture in
a flotation chamber in which the gas bubbles
expand and carry the oil particles to the
surface where they are skimmed off.
"Clean"  water is then drawn off and dis-
charged with a portion being recirculated
to the gasification pressure tower.  These
units are capable of removing 90 percent
of the oil from influents ranging as high
as 1000 ppm oil.

In coalescer units the water/oil mixture
enters a settling section where heavier
solids fall out and free oil rises to the
surface.  The flow then travels through a
graded filter bed or excelsior section
where oil wetted particles are filtered out
and finely dispersed oil particles are
coalesced to particle size sufficient to
rise out of the water.  After filtering,  the
water passes to a final settling and surge

New proprietary equipment is being
developed by several companies which,
it is hoped,  will reduce the amount of  oil
    in the bleed water, and at the same time
    reduce the equipment space requirements.
    To date, this equipment has not been in
    service offshore but based on existing
    data, it is felt that effluent concentrations
    of 10 ppm to 25 ppm oil are achievable.
    The  space requirements for these units
    range from 50 to 80 square feet, with
    cost estimates from $20, 000 to $30, 000
    installed offshore.

 By 1980 exploratory drilling and possibly
 production will be extended to coastal shores
 and slopes of about 120 countries.  The
 estimated value during that year will be
 about $ 14 billion and the cumulative value
 of offshore operations will be more than
 $50 billion.

 The offshore oil industry is expanding at a
 rapid pace and as the industry grows so does
 its associated pollution problems.  Present
 conditioning equipment is capable of producing
 effluent bleed water with oil concentrations
 in the  10 to 200 ppm range.  If operated
 properly, this equipment can discharge
 effluents which do not  produce oil films,
 sheens or discolorations in the receiving
 water.   The equipment costs about $2 to $3
 per barrel per day to install and requires
 300-400 square  feet of valuable  platform

 The more efficient equipment which is
 currently under development will produce
 bleed waters with oil concentrations in a
 consistent 10 to 25 ppm range.  These new
 units are needed so that the offshore industry
 can continue  to grow without placing additional
 loads on an already overburdened environ-


 1  Van Cleve, H.   Office of Oil and Hazardous
       Materials, EPA, Washington, D. C.
       Personal Communication.

Platform Operations- Offshore Oil Production
2  Ellis, M.M. and Fisher, P.W.
      Clarifying Oil Field and Refinery             This outline was prepared by J.S. Dorrler,
      Waste Waters by Gas Flotation,              Acting Chief,  Oil Research and Development
      Evangeline Section Regional Meeting,         Section,  Edison Water Quality  Laboratory,
      Society of Petroleum Engineers, AIME,       Office of Water Programs,  Edison, NJ 08817.
      Lafayette, LA.   November 9-10,  1970.


 The suffering and mortality caused to birds
 by oil pollution,  the coating of public and
 private property with layers of oil, is ex-
 tremely conspicuous and attracts great
 public attention and sympathy.  We hear con-
 flicting statements from competent and re-
 spected  scientists regarding the biological
 effects of these incidents.  Why this diver-
 gence of  opinion?  Primarily, because data
 upon which to base a sound opinion is either
 incomplete, superficial or both.

 It is difficult to evaluate the effects of oil
 since it is not a single substance but a
 complicated and variable mixture of liter-
 ally thousands of  chemical compounds.  This
 fact is  clearly demonstrated in Table I which
 shows that the toxicity of crude oils alone can
 cause mortality in the organism tested from
 as high as 89% to a low of 1%.  These con-
 stituents of oil share  many common proper-
 ties;  however, they also differ considerably
 in many properties which influence their
 effects on the environment.  Among these are:

 A  Toxicity

    Many low boiling aromatic  hydrocarbons
    are  lethal poisons  to almost any organism
    while some higher boiling paraffin hydro-
    carbons  are essentially nontoxic to most
    forms of life.

 B  Solubility

    Benzene derivatives may be soluble in
    water at concentrations  around 100 ppm;
    naphthalenes at 3C ppm, -virile higher mo-
    lecular weight hydrocarbons maybe
    essentially insoluble in water.  Solubility,
    of course, will significantly influence the
    toxicity of a component of oil.

 C  Biodegradability

    This varies widely according to  such
    molecular features as hydrocarbon chain
    length and degree of branching.  The rate
    of degradation, of  course,  will influence
    the persistence of  environmental effects.
 D Factors such as volatility,  density, and
    surface- activity which will determine
    whether oil components or an oil mixture
    will tend to evaporate,  sink, or easily
    disperse into the water column.  Dean
    (1968) reports that two thirds of Nigerian
    and two fifths of Venezuelean crude oil
    will evaporate after a few days.

 E Carcinogenicity

    Some components of crude, refined, and
    waste oils are known to have cancer-
    inducing properties. '6'


 A General ^

    Oil pollution, whether it be due to  the spill
    or discharge of a  crude oil or a refined
    product, may damage the marine environ-
    ment many different ways,  among  which

    1  Direct kill of organisms through coating
       and asphyxiation.

    2  Direct kill through contact poisoning
       of organisms.

    3  Direct kill through exposure to  the
       water-soluble toxic components of oil
       at some distance in space and time from
       the accident.

    4  Destruction of  the food sources  of
       higher species.

    5  Destruction of  the generally more
       sensitive juvenile forms of organisms.

    6  Incorporation  of sublethal amounts of
       oil and  oil products into organisms
       resulting in reduced resistance  to in-
       fection  and other stresses (the principal
       cause of death  in birds surviving the
       immediate exposure to oil).

    7  Destruction of  food values through'the
       incorporation  of oil and oil products,
       into fisheries  resources.

    8  Incorporation  of carcinogens ini^ the
       marine food chain and human food
  WP.OI. 4. 5. 71

Biological Effects of Oil Pollution
   9  Low level effects that may interrupt
      any of the numerous events necessary
      for  the propagation of marine species
      and for the survival of those  species
      which stand higher in the marine food

   Because of their low density,  relative to
   sea water,  crude oil and distillates should
   float; however, both the experiences of
   the "Torrey Canyon"  and of the  "West
   Falmouth"  oil spill have shown oil  on the
   sea floor.  Oil in inshore and offshore
   sediments is not readily biodegraded; it
   can move with the sediments and can
   contaminate unpolluted areas  long after
   an accident.
C  Shellfish
B  Waterfowl
   Marine birds, especially diving birds,
   appear to be the most vulnerable of the
   living resources to the effects of oil
   spillage.  Harm to the birds from con-
   tact with oil is reported to be the result
   of a breaking down of the natural insu-
   lating oils and waxes shielding the birds
   from water and loss of body heat, as well
   as due to plumage damage  and ingestion
   of oil or an oil dispersant mixture.  In
   addition, birds  may be harmed indirectly
   through  contamination of nesting grounds
   or through interruption of their food chain
   by destruction of marine life on which the
   birds feed.

   The possible effects of the spillage on the
   bird population  will vary with the season.
   For example, young birds  during the late
   nesting season and flightless adults during
   the moulting season may be particularly
   vulnerable along the shore. Conversely,
   various  groups  of migratory birds may
   avoid exposure because of  their absence
   at the time of the spill.  Nonmigratory
   birds will be the hardest hit with the pos-
   sibility of eliminating an entire colony.

   Bird kills in the thousands may result from
   a specific spill  incident.  Efforts to cleanse
   or rehabilitate contaminated birds have
   generally been unsuccessful with less than
   20 percent of the treated birds  surviving.
   Estimates of the ability of  bird groups to
   repopulate differ greatly; however, there
   is a general concensus that the numbers
   of many marine bird types are vastly
   reduced from 30 years ago.
   Shellfish including mollusks such as clams,
   oysters and scallops along with crabs,
   lobsters,  and shrimp appear to be the
   segment of marine life most directly
   affected by oil spillage in the coastal zone.
   Most of these types will survive contam-
   ination by heavy oil alone however the
   flavor of the flesh will be tainted.   Lighter
   petroleum fractions such  as diesel or
   gasoline appear to be more fatal,  and
   some species such as clams may exper-
   ience significant mortalities.  Fortunately,
   in most spill incidents,  the effects on
   shellfish appear to be fairly temporary,
   and even in  those situations where high
   mortalities were observed at the time of
   the  incident, recovery appears to have
   taken place within a period of six months
   to two years.
D  Fish
   Finfish generally appear to be unaffected
   by the presence of spilled oil as their
   mobility permits them to avoid areas with-
   high oil or chemical concentrations.  Dan-
   ger to fish is probably limited to possible
   harm to eggs, larvae, or juveniles which
   seasonally may be found concentrated in
   the upper  water layers or in shallow areas
E  Marine Mammals
   Relatively few observations of any direct
   effect of oil spills on larger marine, mam.-
   mals such as whales, seals,  and sea lions
   have been made.  These animals appear
   to be able to sense and avoid oil on the
   surface of the water, and various accounts
   of oil-covered animals do not appear to be
   substantiated.  Possible effects to young
   or disabled mammals are viewed as being
   comparable to  normally occurring mor-
   talities, and spilled  oil is generally
   considered to result in minimal harm to
   marine mammals.

F  Marshes

   "Cowell reports that the short-term effect
   of oil on a marsh is  that the oil adheres
   firmly to the plants  and hardly any is
   washed off by the tide, except where there
   are puddles of oil.  Leaves may remain
   green under the oil film for a few days,
   but  eventually they become yellow and die.
   Plants  recover by producing new shoots,

TABLE I - Chemical and  physical properties of crude oils  1-10 with figures of relative toxicity  at  different

          temperatures.  (]_   4")

Specific Gravity at 16°C/16°C
Sulphur Content %wt.
Asphaltenes Content %wt.
Pour Point °C
| Wax content %wt.
Viscosity at 21°C cSt
Viscosity at 38°C cSt
Total distillate to 149°C %wt.
Total distillate to -232°C %wt.
Total distillate to 343°C %wt.
Total distillate to 371°C %wt.
S.G. at 16°C/16°C of C5 -149°C Cut
S.G. at 16°C/16°C of C5 -371°C Residue
Aromatic content of C5 -149°C Cut %wt .
% Mortality in L. littoral is* at 3°C
% Mortality in L. littoral is at 16°C
1 % Mortality in J.. littoral is at 26°C
*Intertidal Gastropods

2 3
0.843 0.794
0.20 O.I
O.05 NIL
9 13.5
3.0 1.65
20.1 36.2
37.2 53.2
67.5 75.6
72.5 79.8
0.749 0.731
0.924 0.889
10 i 17
47 24
74 83
47 60


r 5





5.8 .


                                                                                                                             h— '



Biological Effects of Oil Pollution
   a few of which can usually be seen within
   3 weeks of pollution, unless large quan-
   tities of oil have soaked into the plant
   bases and soil.   Seedlings and annuals
   rarely recover.

   In the long term,  recovery from oil spill-
   ages has been observed many times (e. g. ,
   Buck and Harrison, 1967; Ranwell,  1968;
   Stebbings, 1968; Cowell & Baker, 1969).
   The cases described cover different  salt
   marsh communities, different types,  vol-
   umes and degrees of weathering of oil, and
   pollution at different times of year.  Veg-
   etative recovery from experimental
   spraying at different times of year has
   been observed (Baker, 1970).  The evidence
   indicates that marshes recover well from
   a single oil spillage, or from successive
   oil spillages provided these are separated
   by long time intervals. "

G  Food Chain

   The effects of oil spillage on the marine
   food  chain or food web (which consists of
   plants, bacteria and small marine organisms)
   is not well understood because of the wide
   fluctuations and cycles that occur naturally
   and  are totally independent of the effects of
   oil.   Lower marine plants appear to be
   fairly tolerant to contamination by oil and
   where destruction has taken place, have
   repopulated rapidly although in proportions
   varying from original numbers.  Some
   forms of algae and diatoms, appear to be
   stimulated in growth by a certain amount
   of oil.  Various bacterial organisms  will
   also feed on available oil and multiply,
   thus, providing energy to the protozoan
   level of the food chain.

1  Dillingham Corp. , 1970, "A Review of
      the Problem - Characteristics of Major
      Oil Spills".

2  Blumer,  M., 1970, Personal Correspond-

3  Murphy,  T. , 1970, "Environmental
      Effects of Oil Pollution", Presented
      at ASCE, July 13,  1970, Boston, Ma.

4  Ottway, S. , 1970, "Comparative Toxicity
      of Crude Oils", Field Studies Council,
      Oil Pollution Research Unit, Orielton,
      U.  K.

5  Cowell, E. , et al. , "The Biological
      Effects of Oil Pollution and Oil  Cleaning
      Materials in Littoral Communities,
      Including Salt Marshes",  FAO Conference,
      Rome, 1970.

6  Blumer,  M.  Oil Contamination in the
      Living Resources of the Sea. FAO,
      December 1970.
This outline was prepared by R. T.  Dewling,
Director, Research & Development,  Office of
Water Programs,     Edison Water Quality
Laboratory, Edison,  NJ  08817.

                     OIL  CHARACTERISTICS
                                                    Outline Number
Chemical and Physical Characteristics of
   Petroleum                                               12

Fate and Behavior of Spilled Oil                             13

Oil Sampling                                               14

Analysis of Oil Samples                                     15

Microbiology of Petroleum                                  16

A Introduction

   Crude oil varies in color from black
   through various shades of brown and green
   to a light yellow.  It may be heavy and
   viscous such as Bachaquero crude oil
   from  Venezuela or light and volatile such
   as South Louisiana crude oil.   The main
   physical properties used to characterize
   an oil are its specific gravity, API
   (American Petroleum Institute) gravity,
   viscosity pour point,  flash point,  cloud
   point  and ash content.

B Physical Properties

   1  Specific gravity is the ratio of the
      density of an oil to the density of water
      when both are measured at a given
                    s =
      Where s is the specific gravity, do is
      the density (mass per unit volume) of
      the oil, and dw is the density of water
      (1.000 g/mlat 3.980C).

   2  API gravity is defined by  the following
                      141  s
         API gravity =     "     - 131. 5
                                  Kinematic viscosity is the ratio
                                  of the absolute viscosity to the
                                  specific gravity of the oil at the
                                  temperature at which the viscosity
                                  is measured.
4  Pour point is the lowest temperature
   at which the oil will flow,

5  Flash point of an oil is the temperature
   at which it gives off sufficient flammable
   vapor to ignite.  This should not be
   confused with the fire point of an oil
   which is the temperature at which its
   vapors will continue to burn.  The
   fire point  of an oil ranges from IQOto
   700 higher than its flash point.

6  Cloud point is the temperature at which
   the paraffins of an oil, which are usually
   in solution begin to crystallize causing
   the oil to become cloudy.

7  Ash content  is the  amount of non-
   combustible material in an oil.

8  Other properties:  Many other properties
   are also noted for  specific types of
   petroleum products.  For example,
   octane number is determined for
   gasoline, and viscosity index, an
   empirical number  indicating the effect
   of a change in the temperature on the
   viscosity.,  is determined for lubricating
      where s      is the specific gravity of
      the oil at     6OOF.
      Viscosity is defined as a fluid's
      resistance to flow.

      a  Absolute viscosity is the force required
         to move a plane  surface area of one
         square centimeter over another plane
         surface at the rate of one centimeter
         per second when the two surfaces are
         separated by a layer of liquid one
         centimeter in thickness.
                         II  CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF

                         A  Introduction

                            Another method of classifying a petroleum
                            product is according to the types of chem-
                            ical compounds  which it contains. For
                            convenience, a group of definitions is

                         B  Definition of Terms

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Petroleum
   1  Hydrocarbon is a chemical compound
     which contains only the elements carbon
     and hydrogen.

   2  Saturated hydrocarbons are hydro-
     carbons which have only single bonds.

   3  A single bond is formed when two
     valence electrons are shared by two
                 H  H
                 • •  • •
                 • •  • •
                 H  H

                H  H
            H    H
            • •     • •
        H • Ci •  • C • H
             H   H
           H— C-C—H
             H   H
Figure 2.  Carbon-Carbon Double Bond
5  A triple bond is formed when six
   valence electrons are shared by two
        rl • d •  • '• C • H
  Figure 1. Carbon-Carbon Single Bond
  4  A double bond is formed when four
     valence electrons are shared by two
Figure 3.  Carbon-Carbon Triple Bond

6  An unsaturated hydrocarbon is one
   which contains one or more double or
   triple bonds. The term unsaturated
   refers to the fact  that hydrogen atoms
   are deficient and can be added under
   the proper chemical and physical con-
   ditions .  Thus,  ethylene and acetylene
   shown in 4 and 5 above, respectively,
   are unsaturated hydrocarbons.

                                        Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Petroleum
     An aromatic hydrocarbon is one which
     contains at least one 6-membered ring
     of carbon atoms and alternate single
     and double bonds.  Benzene and
     napthalene are therefore aromatic.
           H   H    H
   Figure 4.  Aromatic Compounds,
   Top - benzene
   Bottom - napthalene
C  Chemical Composition of Crude Oils

   1  Background

     Crude oils vary greatly in composition
     but consist mainly of hydrocarbons and
     compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen,
     sulfur and trace amounts of metals in
     addition to carbon and hydrogen.

   2  Hydrocarbons are the main class of
     compounds present  in most crude oils.
     The range, however, is a wide one.
     Many mid-continent and Gulf of Mexico
     crude oils contain 90-95% hydrocarbons
     while crude oils of Mexico and California
     have only 50% hydrocarbons.  The
     hydrocarbon compounds in crude oil
     consist  mainly of paraffins,  napthenes,
     and aromatic s.

     a  Paraffins are saturated hydrocarbons
        such as propane. A wide range of
        paraffins can be  found in crude oils.
        The light ends, the volatile com-
        ponents are mainly low molecular
        weight paraffins  containing 12 or
        less  carbons.

        1) Straight-chain paraffins are those
           in which the carbon atoms are
           arranged linearly.
                                                   Figure 5.
                                                              H   H    H
           Straight-Chain Paraffin,
2) Branched-chain paraffins are those
   which have  a linear arrangement of
   carbon atoms with other carbon atoms
   attached to  the carbons of the main
PigureG. Branched- Chain Paraffin,
2, 2,  dimethylbutane
      Napthenes are cyclo-paraffins.
      That is, the two ends of an open
      chain are joined together, forming
      a cyclic structure.


Figure 7.  A Napthene,  Cyclobutane

      The cyclo-paraffins of crude oils
      consist almost entirely of
      cyclopentane and cyclohexane rings
      with or without straight or branched-
      chain paraffin groups attached to the

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Petroleum
c  Aromatics in crude oils are found to
   a lesser degree than paraffins or cyclo-
   paraffins.  They are usually found in
   the higher boiling fractions  since they
   are for the most part of rather high
   molecular weight.

d  Other hydrocarbons consist  of com-
   binations of the above three  classes.
   For example,  in the high boiling
   fractions napthene rings may be fused
   to aromatics with side paraffin
   chains attached.
        c        c-c-c
              c        c
   •Figure 8.  An Alkyl Hydrindene
   3  Oxygen- containing compounds in crudes
      are almost exclusively acid in nature.
      Fatty acids, napthenic acids, and phenols
      have been found in very small amounts
      in most crudes, but napthenic acids
      compose as high as 3% in some Russian
      (Baku) and Rumanian crudes.  California
      crudes have as high as . 5% napthenic
      acids in contrast to the trace amounts
      found in other USA crudes.  Fatty acids
      are paraffins with a terminal- -COOH


   Figure 9a.  A Fatty Acid, n- dodecanoic acid

   4  Napthenic acids are cyclo-paraffins with
      a -COOH group attached.
                                                            «          I
                                                         2    \.    S       2


                                                   Figure 9b.  A Napthenic Acid,
                                                   Cyclohexanoic Acid

                                                   5  Phenols are aromatic compounds with
                                                     an OH group attached to the ring.
Figure 10, Phenol
6  Sulfur-containing compounds

   a Crude oils vary in sulfur content
     from 0.1% in non-asphaltic
     Pennsylvania crudes to as high as
     5% in some heavy, asphaltic crudes
     of California and Mexico.  The
     identity of the sulfur compounds in
     the high boiling fractions are not
     known but those in the low boiling
     fractions have been identified as
     mercaptans (thiols) and sulfides.
     These can be either cyclic, or non-
     cyclic or a combination.

     1) Mercaptans are paraffins,
        napthene,  and aromatics with
        -S-H groups attached.

                                     Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Petroleum
                              4  Trace metal compounds are a very
                                 important small component of crude
                                 oils.  Vanadium, nickel, and iron
                                 compounds are among the most
                                 prominent.  These metals are usually
                                 present as organometallic chelates.

                            D Classes of Crude Oils are based on the
                              relative compositions with respect to
                              paraffinic, napthenic, aromatic, and
                              asphaltic content.   The main types are
                              shown in. Table 1.
Figure 11. Mercaptans
Top, n-butylmercaptan,
Bottom cyclopentylmercaptan
      2) Sulfides are compounds where an
        S atom replaces a non-terminal
        carbon atom.
             TABLE 1

Crude Oil - Classification By Contents



   Paraffinic - Napthenic

   Paraffinic - Napthenic - Aromatic

   Napthenic - Aromatic

   Napthenic - Aromatic - Asphaltic

   Aromatic - Asphaltic _  _
Figure 12.  Sulfides,  Thiophene
   Nitrogen-containing compounds are
   found in only very small proportions
   and consist mainly of quinoline and
   pyridine derivatives.
Figure 13. Pyridine
                            E Characteristics of Refined Petroleum

                              1  Boiling ranges: Petroleum products
                                 are usually classified according to
                                 their boiling ranges.  The most common
                                 petroleum products,  their boiling
                                 ranges, and approximate molecular
                                 weight ranges are listed in Table 2.
Figure 14.  Quinoline

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Petroleum
                                         TABLE 2

     PRODUCT                         BP RANGE                   CARBON ATOMS
Light Gasoline
#1 Fuel Oil
Gas OH
Lube Oils Residuum
#2 Fuel Oil
-450 to
-.50 to
1500 to
1510 to
2100 to
2160 to

2250 to

0 _
4 -
9 -
9 -
12 -
15 -
> 15 -
12 -
     #4 Fuel Oil  Heavy straight run or distillate
     #5 Fuel Oil  Heavy straight run or cracked residual
     #6 Fuel Oil  Heavier residuum
                                               This outline was prepared by J.P. Lafornara,
                                               Research Chemist, Edison Water Quality
                                               Laboratory, Office of Water Programs, EPA,
                                               Edison, NJ 08817.

                           FATE AND BEHAVIOR OF SPILLED OIL

 The tar-asphalt residue of the "weathering"
 of oil is a product of a complicated multi-
 process phenomenon.  The main processes
 in roughly the order of occurrence after a
 spill are spreading,  evaporation, dissolution
 and emulsification,  auto-oxidation, micro-
 biological degradation, sinking and resurfacing
 after which the process repeats itself. While
 these processes are occurring, the slick may
 also be moving.

 A Spreading

   This process, the first to occur, thins the
   slick out to a few millimeters or less and
   is dependent on several parameters--among
   them,  viscosity of the oil, surface tension
   of the  oil and water,  and  time.

 B Evaporation

   Evaporation is the process by which the
   low molecular weight compounds of
   relatively low boiling point are volatilized
   into the atmosphere.  The rate of this
   process is also governed by many parameters-
   among them are  viscosity of the  oil,
   type of oil,  and weather conditions, such
   as wind and sea state.  The major loss due
   to evaporation occurs during the first few

 C Dissolution

   Dissolution is the process by which the low
   molecular weight compounds and polar
   compounds are lost by the oil to the large
   volume of water  under and around it.  The
   rate of this process is also governed by
   many parameters including the type of oil,
   viscosity of the oil,  the amount of oxidation
   the oil has undergone before,  during and
   after the spill and the weather conditions
   such as wind, and sea state.  Although
   this process starts immediately,  it is a
   long term one and continues throughout
   the duration of the total weathering process
   since the oxidation and microbiological
   degradation processes  constantly produce
   polar compounds which are finally dissolved
   in the water.

D  Emulsification

   Emulsification is the process by which one
   liquid is dispersed into another immiscible
   liquid in droplets of optically measurable
   size.  In the case of oil,  the emulsion can
   be either an oil-in-water emulsion or a
   water-in-oil emulsion.

E  Auto- Oxidation

   Auto-oxidation is the light catalyzed
   reaction by which hydrocarbons react
   with atmospheric oxygen to form ketones,
   aldehydes, alcohols and carboxylic acids
   which are all polar compounds and, there-
   fore, can  either dissolve in the water or
   act as emulsifying agents or detergents.

F  Microbiological Degradation

   Microbiological degradation is a multi-
   faceted process.  Certain bacteria,
   actinomycetes, filamentous fungi, and
   yeasts  utilize hydrocarbons and chemically
   oxidized hydrocarbons  as food sources.

   .1 Aerobic microbial oxidation

     Most of the microorganisms which
     oxidize hydrocarbons require oxygen
     in either the free or dissolved form.
     When the oxidation of the oil occurs at
     the air-water interface there is usually
     sufficient oxygen to  allow the maximum
     biological degradation to occur. How-
     ever,  areas of activity beneath the
     surface in the water column or in
     bottom muds are severely limited by
     the supply of oxygen.

Fate and Behavior of Spilled Oil
   2  Anaerobic microbial oxidation

      A few organisms are known which
      oxidize hydrocarbons when little or
      no dissolved or free oxygen is present.
      These utilize nitrate or sulfate as their
      oxygen source .  "Psuedomonas
      aeruginosa",  for example,  utilizes
      n-octane or n-hexadecane while reducing
      nitrate to nitrite.  Many sulfate-reducing
      bacteria are known.
   Evaporation, dissolution and oxidation of
   lighter hydrocarbons may cause the oil to
   increase its density.  When this happens
   to a sufficient degree the oil will sink to
   the bottom where anaerobic microbial
   oxidation will be the main process of

H Resurfacing

   If the density of the oil mass is reduced to
   a sufficient degree by anaerobic oxidation,
   the oil will float again and the processes
   above will again occur until the oil has
   either completely disappeared or has
   reached some land mass.

1  Fay, James A.  The Spread of Oil Slicks
      on a Calm Sea,  Fluid Mechanics
      Laboratory Publication No. 69-G,
      Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
      Cambridge,  Massachusetts.  1969.

2  Blokker, P. C.   Spreading and Evaporation
      of Petroleum Products on Water,  1964
      International Harbor Conference,
      Antwerp, Belgium.

3  Smith,  J. E.   The Torrey Canyon,
      Pollution and Marine Life,  Cambridge,
      University Press.   1968.

4  Scott,  G.   Atmospheric Oxidation and
      Antioxidants, Elsevier,  New York.  1965.

5  Davis,  J. B.  Petroleum Microbiology.
      Elsevier, New York.  1967.

6  Holcomb,  R.W.   Oil in the  Ecosystem,
      Science,  166,204-206.   1969.

In the absence of current or debris, an oil
slick will move in the direction of the wind
at a rate about 3-4 percent of the wind velocity.
In the absence of wind or debris,  an oil slick
will move in the same direction with the same
speed as the water current.   The actual move-
ment will be due to some combination of wind
and current.
This outline was prepared by Dr. J.  Lafornara,
Research Chemist,  Edison Water Quality
Laboratory, OWP,  EPA, Edison, New Jersey

                                      OIL SAMPLING

A  A complete oil sampling program is under-
   taken for the primary purpose of presenting
   legal evidence in a court of law.  To pro-
   tect the interests of all parties concerned
   three basic sampling requirements should
   be observed:

   1  The sample must represent that oil
      which was spilled.

   2  The sample must not be physically or
      chemically altered by the  collection

   3  Transfer of the sample must be
      accomplished using a well defined
      chain of custody system.

B  The two basic types of oil sample
   analysis are:

   1  Qualitative - to determine the presence
      or absence of oil and to compare the
      sample to a suspected source.

   2  Quantitative -  to determine the amount
      of oil present at the  spill  site.

   Collection for qualitative analysis greatly
   exceeds collection for other  purposes.
   For this reason,  alternate methods are
   under study which will detect the presence
   of oil without the requirement for physical
   sampling.  These methods will use photo-
   graphic and electronic sensors and include:

   1  Earthbound instrumentation

   2  Airborne instrumentation

   Earthbound instrumentation would be
   deployed in areas of high probability of
   spills such as in harbors and near terminals
   and refineries.  Airborne instrumentation, on
   the other hand, would allow occasional
   spot  checks of other areas and effective
   monitoring of cleanup operations.
    Ideally,  such instrumentation should be
    capable of detection, identification and
    of providing aerial and thickness measure-
    ments .

    Methods for tagging oils are also under
    study.  These methods are grouped into
    two categories:

    1  Active tagging

    2  Passive tagging

    Active tagging requires that an inexpensives
    coded material be added to oil.  This
    material must be chemically and physically
    stable in both oil and oil slicks.  It must
    be readily identifiable by available
    analytical techniques and it must have
    no adverse effect on the oil's subsequent

    Passive tagging assumes that oils are so
    chemically diverse that their contents
    constitute a stable chemical fingerprint
    that can be unequivocally disclosed by
    laboratory procedures.

    Sampling for quantitative analysis is
    extremely difficult due to variations  in
    slick thickness over the spill area.   For
    this reason experienced,  visual obser-
    vation will generally provide more
    reliable information on the quantity of
    oil spilled.  Table I is  a guide for
    estimating the amount of oil on the
    water's surface.

 A  The ideal sampling program is one in
    which collections are made BEFORE and
    AFTER the spill incident.  The very
    nature of an oil spill, however, generally
    precludes "BEFORE" sampling.

 B  The types of samples to be collected
    depend on the following parameters:
    1   Location of the spill
IN. SG. 17.5.71

Oil Sampling
      a Offshore
      b Harbor areas
      c Inland waters
   2  Uses of the area involved:
      a Drinking water source
      b Shellfish growing area
      c Wildlife refuge
      d Finfish spawning area
      e Recreation
      f  Commercial fishing
   3  Facilities available for analysis:
      a Qualitative analysis
      b Quantitative analysis
      c No analysis
   4  Source  of spill
      a Offshore platform
     b Refinery
      c  Terminal operation
      d Storm  drain
     e  Ship  - in port
             - offshore
                                                                   TABLE I
Appearance of Slick
Barely discernible
Silvery sheen
Faint colors
Bright bands of color
Dull brown
Dark brown
 Amount of Oil
25 gal/sq.mi.
50 gal/sq.mi.
100 gal/sq.mi.
200 gal/sq.mi.
600 gal/sq.mi.
1,300 gal/sq.mi.
C  Qualitative analysis is performed to
   determine the presence  (or absence) of
   a particular type of oil.   This analysis
   may be performed on samples of:
   1 Water
   2 Fish and shellfish
   3 Mud
   In addition to direct chemical procedures,
   two additional types of qualitative analysis
   may also be performed to detect the
   presence of oil in water, fish and shell-
   fish samples:
   1 Taste tests
   2 Odor tests
   It is emphasized that once a spill has
   occurred,  qualitative analysis is useless
   without a source sample for comparison.
   That is, a representative OIL sample
   must be collected  from the source,  such as:
   1 The ship - each compartment,  bilge
     and ballast

                                                                              Oil Sampling
    2  Offshore platform

    3  Terminal - each tank

    4  Refinery - various process sources

    5  Storm sewer - suspected sources

    It may also be desirable to collect benthic,
    phytoplankton and zooplankton samples.
    However,  this should only be done if
    BEFORE and AFTER samples can be
    obtained and only if a qualified staff or
    marine biologists are available for col-
    lection, preservation and analysis.


 A Many precautions must be observed when
    handling oil samples for analysis since the
    character of the sample may be affected
    by a number of common conditions

    1  Composition of the container--glass
       bottles should always be used since
       plastic containers, with the exception
       of teflon, have been  found under certain
       conditions to absorb organic materials
       from the sample.  In some cases,  the
       reverse is also true in that compounds
       have been dissolved  from the plastic
       containers into the sample itself.
       This problem also applies to the bottle
       cap liners; therefore,  the portion of
       the cap that  comes in contact with the
       sample  should be made of glass, teflon,
       or lined with aluminum foil.

    2  Cleanliness  of the container--previously
       unused glass bottles are preferred.
       If this is impossible, bottles should be
       either acid cleaned or  washed with a
       strong detergent and thoroughly rinsed
       and dried.

    3  Time lapse between  sampling and
       analysis--since the chemical charac-
       teristics of most oils,  especially the
       lighter fuel oils, change with time,  the
       time lapse between sampling and analysis
       should be kept to a minimum.  If analysis
      cannot be completed within 24 hours,
      samples can be preserved, depending
      upon the volatility of the oil, by
      removal of air and exclusion of light.
      With heavier type oils, such as No. 4
      and residual oils, carbon dioxide may
      be used to displace the air.  If dry
      ice is available, (approximately
      0. 5 cu. in.) it may be added to the
      sample.   As soon as the effervescing
      has stopped, the jar should be sealed,
      When carbon dioxide or another inert
      gas is not available, or in those
      instances where volatile components
      are present (No. 2 or  lighter), the
      sample can be preserved by carefully
      filling the bottle to the top with water
      to displace the air.  All samples
      should be kept under refrigeration
      until analyses are completed.

   4  Collection of adequate volume of
      sample--it is desirable to obtain as
      much of a sample of the oil as possible.
      It is suggested that 2 0 mis be con-
      sidered as the minimum volume of oil
      needed to perform a series of
      "identification analyses" on light oils—
      No. 2 and below.  For heavier oils a
      minimum volume of 50 mis is required.

B  Oil Sampling Techniques

   Sampling of oil presents many difficulties
   not immediately obvious.  An oil slick
   may vary in thickness from several inches
   down to a monomolecular layer measured
   in microns  (10"  cm. )„  The quantity of
   sample required is therefore important
   since  such will determine the area of
   sweep. For example, 5, 000 gallons of
   oil, if assumed to be evenly distributed
   over one square mile of water,  will
   equate to an oil thickness of 0. 0071 mm.
   If 200  ml of sample is found necessary,
   then all the oil must be recovered from
   28 square meters of open water.  If
   sampling recovery is 50 percent rather
   than 100 percent,  the sweep area must
   be doubled.  Table II below describes
   theoretical  thickness and area,  assuming
   an even distribution of oil for various
   magnitude oil spills.

Oil Sampling
                                         TABLE II

       Spill Area
      Gal/Sq. Mile

       1, 000, 000
         100, 000
          10, 000
  Spill Area
ml/Sq. Meter

Area (Sq. Meters)
 Req'd to Obtain
  200 ml/sample

Thickness (mm)

0.00143 = 1.43ji
0.000143 = 0.143n
C  The ideal oil sampling device should
   contain the following characteristics:

   1  Be simple to operate

   2  Function under diverse conditions

   3  Have a few moving parts and not
      require electrical power

   4  Be inexpensive

   5  Collect oil rapidly

   6  Not require chemical treatment of

D  Current Sampling Procedures

   1  Manual Separation

      Manual separation is the oldest oil
      sampling procedure.  The method
      involves collection of oil-water mixture
      in a container  followed by manual
      separation of the oil and water phases.
      Collection and separation is continued
      until about 1 pint of oil has been
      collected.  The procedure is quan-
      titatively inaccurate because of the
      crude nature of both the collection and
      separation steps.

      a   Collection devices have included:

         1) Simple pail

         2) Pail fitted with a bottom tap
                                3) Sliding plexiglass cylinder whose
                                   fall is controlled by a trigger

                                4) Dustpan with a stopcock fitted
                                   to the handle

                              b Separation procedure devices have

                                1) Manual decantation

                                2) Separatory funnel

                                3) Glass filter funnel fitted with a
                                   two-way stopcock

                           2  Adsorbent materials

                              Many materials strongly adsorb oil
                              and other hydrocarbons. Such materials
                              include teflon shavings, straw,
                              polypropylene fiber,  rope, glass fiber,
                              paper,  and polyurethane foam.

                              Qualitative sampling requires contact
                              of the  sorbent with the oil followed by
                              chemical (desorption) or physical
                              (wringing or compression) recovery
                              of the  sorbed hydrocarbon.  Quantitative
                              sampling requires contact of the sorbent
                              with a known area of liquid surface;
                              this application has been impeded by
                              variable and uncertain adsorption

                              a French scientists have  studied two
                                applications of textured filter paper.

                                                                            Oil Sampling
          1) Free floating disks

          2) Lined cylindrical containers

       At film densities of 650 to 2200 mg/sqm
       (2.6 ml/sqm at a density of 0. 85) both
       methods sample quantitatively to + 25%
       with a single sample.

       b  Polyurethane foam

          Adsorption by polyurethane foam
          appears to be a promising procedure.
          In practice a 1/4" X  1' sheet is
          simply dragged across the surface
          until apparent saturation is reached.
          The sheet is then passed through a
          wringer to recover the adsorbed oil.

          When tested with South Louisiana
          crude  oil this procedure recovered
          a sample containing less than 0.1
          percent water.  Infrared spectro-
          graphic analysis revealed no
          chemical differences between the
          original oil and the sample recovered.
 A Procedures for documentation of evidence
    and samples are specified by the National
    Oil and Hazardous Materials Pollution
    Contingency Plan and its regional deriv-
    atives.  Collectively these plans guide the
    coordinated reaction of Federal, State,
    and local government and private agencies
    to uncontrolled discharges of hazardous
    materials. Documentation procedures
    include collection of samples from both
    the water  course and suspected sources
    and preparation of a pollution incident
    report (Form FWPCA-209).  These
    procedures have been established to
    document the actual facts of an incident
    and to protect the interests of all parties.

 B After having been collected as outlined
    above each sample should be properly
    labeled using the chain of custody record,
    Form FWPCA-208 (See Figure 1). The
    record should contain the following
                                                1  Sample collection data

                                                   This includes name and address of the
                                                   agency submitting the sample number,
                                                   data and time at which the sample was
                                                   taken.  A clear description of the source
                                                   of the sample and the Jig^atures of the
   sample collector and one or more
   witnesses.  FAILURE TO OBTAIN
   INDEFENSIBLE.  Witnesses should
   understand that by their signature they
   are certifying all information contained
   on the custody record,  e.g., the date
   and time the sample was taken and
   description of its source.

2  Shipment certification

   This information includes date and
   time the sample was submitted for
   shipment,  the name of individual
   from whom it was received, the date
   and time it was dispatched, and the
   method of shipment,  and the name and
   address of the consignee.  All shipment
   information should be certified by an
   authorized representative of the common
   carrier or a postal official.

3  Certification of sample receipt

   The individual receiving the sample
   should certify by signature the date
   and time of receipt, the name of the
   individual from whom the sample wao
   received and the proposed disposition.
   If the sample is to be shipped to more
   than one laboratory,  duplicate custody
   records bearing the same sample
   number should be completed.

In accordance with procedures identified
in the Regional Contingency Plan the on-
scene commander  should prepare four
copies of the  pollution incident report,
Form FWPCA-209 (See Figure 2), Copies
of the report  and additional documents
and attachments should be distributed as

1  The original and one copy to the
   Chairman  of the Appropriate Regional
   Operations Team.

 Oil Sampling
    2  One copy to the Joint Operations Team.

    3  One copy to the Headquarters of the
      agency supplying the on-scene

    Three areas of the pollution incident report
    are especially crucial:  Section III
    Pollution Data,  Section IV Pollution
    Sample, and the first endorsement.  As
    much data,  facts, observation and
    information as possible should be
    included. All statements from persons
    directly concerned with the incident
    should be signed and witnessed. Although
    the on-scene commander  may include
    other statements and comments, such
    information may not be entered as
Documentation of samples and evidence is
required to adequately protect the interest
of all parties to an incident.   The conditions
of collection,  shipment and receipt of
samples should be documented with utmost
care to preclude later questions of validity.

1  Oil Sampling Techniques.  Edison Water
      Quality Laboratory, Edison, NJ.
      December 1969.

2  Oil Tagging System Study.  Melpar.
      May 1970.

3  Proceedings, Joint Conference on
      Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
      API/FWPCA.  December  1969.
 A full scale oil sampling program is designed
 to collect samples, the analysis of which will
 be presented as legal evidence in a court of
 law.  Qualitative and/or quantitative analysis
 will be performed on these samples which
 may include water, mud, fish and shellfish.
 What exactly is sampled depends on several
 parameters from the location of the spill to
 the analysis equipment available.

 Sampling itself is more of an art than a
 science.  Most methods are based upon
 manual collection in a container or adsorp-
 tion and subsequent recovery.  There is
 presently no recognized standard procedure.
This outline was prepared by J.S. Dorrler,
Acting Chief, Oil Research and Development
Section, Edison Water Quality Laboratory,
OWP, EPA, Edison, NJ 08817.

                                ANALYSIS OF OIL SAMPLES

A  Oils and oil-water samples are analyzed to
   identify the type of spilled petroleum
   product or to establish similarity between
   samples collected from the environment
   and from suspected sources.  Common
   origin is probable if samples agree in their
 .  key characteristics.

B  Analysis is complicated by effects of
   environmental influences and lack of
   procedure adapted to oil-water mixtures.
   Petroleum analysis is based upon pro-
   cedures developed with petroleum products.

C  Analysis of environmental samples involves
   preliminary cleanup followed by standard
   analytical procedures.  The complete
   analytical sequence shown in Figure 1
   involves three levels of activity.

   1  Preliminary cleanup intended to
      separate the oil from the water and
      produce  an organic phase amenable to

   2  Identification of spilled material as a
      specific type of petroleum product; e.g.,
      gasoline, jet fuel, crude oil, etc.
      Identification is accomplished by analysis
      according to standard procedure and
      comparison of results with prescribed
      characteristics of typical petroleum
      products.  Characteristics of a few
      such petroleum products are specified
      in Table 1.

   3  Further  analysis  more clearly defines
      the relationship between the environ-
      mental sample and reference samples
      collected from suspected sources.
      Results of the analyses are used to
      evaluate similarity.
 D  Both the apparent and suspected nature
    of the  sample will influence the actual
    laboratory procedure.  The analyst
    himself will normally select the pro-
    cedures necessary to accomplish
    identification or comparison.  The
    required level of analysis (e.g.,
    identification or identification/comparison)
    depends on the nature of the  problem.

 Sample cleanup is commonly accomplished
 by one of three basic methods:

 A  Simple Phase Separation is generally
    applicable to distillate fuel oils (Fuel oil
    nos.  1,2, and 4,  kerosene,  gasoline, etc.),
    and consists of withdrawing the heavier
    aqueous  phase from the lighter organic
    phase in a separatory funnel.   The organic
    phase is then dried by passage through
    anhydrous CaCl_.  The dissolved
    petroleum products may be "salted out"
    of the aqueous phase  by the addition of
    Na SO to the water.

 B  Drying with Centrifugation

    When the petroleum product is emulsified
    with water (as is the  case with some crude
    oils and  residual fuel oils),  it is some-
    times possible to break the emulsion by
    removal of  the water from the  matrix with
    anhydrous calcium chloride, and then
   . centrifuging the sample in a chemical
    centrifuge to isolate the  oil phase as the

1 1











                                                  * TEMPERATURE PROGRAMING 40-3OO*C

                                                   3X SE-10 ON 60/10 CHROMOPORT,

                                                   6* » &" COLUMN; SULFUR FLAME PHOTOMETRIC

                                                   AND HYDROOIN FLAME IONIZATION DETECTION.
             FIGURE 1

                                                               Analysis of Oil Samples
                                  TABLE  1

               (API UNITS)    VISCOSITY
(I.B.P.  - E.P.)
High Gravity
Low Gravity
Jet Fuel
Fuel oil #1
Fuel oil #2
Fuel oil #4
Crude Oil
Fuel Oil #6
45 -
30 -
58 -
40 -
40 -
9 -
13.5 -
-2 -

1.4 - 2.2
<4.3 370°
5.8 - 26.4 420°
- 206° F
- 410° F
- 408° F
- 500° F
- 575° F
- 675° F
- 683° F
2.3 - 10.5 40° - >850° F
> 100 > 700° F
Sulfur 0.02%

Contains lead,
Narrow API
Gravity range
Sulfur exceeds

Wide dist.

 Analysis of Oil Samples
    Phase Separation with Solvent Addition is
    accomplished by adding a solvent, such as
    chloroform to the oil-water mixture.  It is
    sometimes possible to obtain a clean
    phase separation by solvent addition and
    to proceed as in A^ to separate the organic
    phase from the aqueous.  The organic
    phase, after drying with calcium chloride,
    is heated to evaporate the solvent.

 A- When cleanup has been completed,  the
    separated and dried organic phase, is
    subjected to analysis.   Identification is
    normally accomplished by comparison
    of sample characteristics to those of
    typical petroleum products.  Character-
    istics of a few typical products are specified
    in Table 1.

 B The analyses indicated in Figure 1  should
    be considered alternatives which the
    analyst  may select to accomplish identi-
    fication. Only a few analyses may  be
    required in some cases, whereas in other
    cases the complete analytical scheme may
    be necessary.  It is the responsibility of
    the analyst to select the combination which
    will accomplish the most certain
    identification in the time available.

 C Analytical Parameters

    1  Solubility in organic solvents -  Used to
       differentiate greases and asphalts from
       other petroleum products,  and to
       distinguish between crude oils and
       residual fuel oils from different
       locations.   Table 2 gives solubility
       characteristics for several typical
       petroleum products.

    2  Specific gravity or API gravity - The
       gravity or density is a  distinguishing
       characteristic of oils.  However, since
       the loss of volatiles, which occurs in
       the early stages  of environmental
       exposure with volatile distillate fuels
       and crude  oils results in an increase
       of this parameter, it is of limited value.
                  TABLE 2

Light Naphtha
Heavy Naphtha
Jet Fuel
Cutting Oil
Motor Oil
Paraffin Wax
White Petroleum
Residual Fuel Oil
VS = very soluble
S = soluble
PS = partly soluble
I = insoluble




     Infrared spectroscopy - Indicates the
     relative content of aromatic or carbon-
     ring-type compounds.  May also indicate
     presence of additives such as silicones.
     Generally employed to characterize
     materials less volatile than #2 fuel oil,
     such as #4 and residual fuels.

     Average molecular weight - Used to
     identify low and high boiling products.
     Not commonly employed with other
     than pure hydrocarbons.

     Distillation range  - Defined as the
     temperature  difference between high

                                                                 Analysis of Oil Samples
   and low boiling compounds in an oil
   observed during distillation. Actual
   procedures are specified by ASTM
   D 86-56, ASTMD 850, and ASTM  D 216.
   Reported as the actual temperatures at
   which distillation begins and ends:
   (l)I.B.P.,  initial boiling point, and;
   (2)E.P.,  ending boiling point.   The
   boiling range relates to volatility.
   Although potentially valuable, IBP is
   useless if the oil has been subjected to
   weathering before collection due to
   volatilization of lower boiling components.
   Typical distillation ranges are presented
   in Table 1.

6  Viscosity  - -A measure of the resistance
   to flow. May be expressed as (a)
   Saybolt  second units (SSU), the time
   required for a standard volume of oil
   to pass through a standard orifice, as
   specified by ASTM D 445-53T and ASTM
   D 446-53;  (b) kinematic viscosity at
   1000F or  2120F in centistokes (ASTM D
   445-65) or in Saybolt Furol units at
   1220F.  ASTM 2161-63T gives the
   relationships between the  different
   viscosity units.

7  Distillation - As a loss of volatile
   components (if present) occurs on
   environmental exposure resulting in
   an increase of the remaining com-
   ponents, these may be put on the same
   basis (normalized) by distilling all
   samples to a similar degree.  This is
   accomplished in our laboratory by
   distillation in a simple distillation
   apparatus  to obtain  a distillate boiling
   point of 275Oc at 40 mm Hg pressure.
   The distillate is analyzed by gas
   chromatography and the residue  for
   vanadium, nickel,  sulfur, and nitrogen
   content and infrared analysis.  Column
   chromatography may be incorporated
   in the analysis.

8  Vanadium  is analyzed according to
   ASTM D 1548-63.

9  Nickel is analyzed either in the final
   solution from the vanadium procedure
   by atomic  absorption (AAS) or by
   dissolving 5g oil in  100 ml of xylene for
   determination by AAS.
   10  Sulfur is analyzed by the procedure
       described in ASTM D 1552-64, using
       the Leco induction furnace,  or by
       ASTM D 129-64,  utilizing an oxygen
       combustion bomb.  In domestic fuel
       oils (1967), sulfur values ranged from
       0. 001 to 0.45% for # 1 fuel oil; 0. 02 to
       1.6% for #2 fuel; 0.2 to 3% for #4 fuel
       oil; and 0.4 to 4.25% for #6 fuel oils.

   11  Nitrogen is determined by the
       Kjeldahl method.

 Oil analysis involves three levels of
 laboratory activity: sample preparation
 and cleanup; basic  identification; and final
 comparison.  Identification as a petroleum
 product is accomplished by comparison of
 sample characteristics to prescribed
 properties of typical products.  Further
 analysis may be performed to more firmly
 establish the similarity between environ-
 mental samples and reference samples
 collected from potential sources.  At all
 stages of analysis the judgement of the
 analyst is crucial.   Typical analyses include
 observation of solubility in organic solvents,
 infrared spectres copy,  API Gravity,
 distillation range,  gas chromatography,
 specific metal determinations, viscosity
 measurement,  and sulfur determination.


 1  Kawahara,  Fred K.,  PhD., F.A.I.C.
       Laboratory Guide for the Identification
       of Petroleum Products, U. S. Department
       of the Interior, Federal Water  PoUution
       Control Administration,  Division of
       Water Quality Research, Analytical
       Quality Control Laboratory, 1014
       Broadway,  Cincinnati,  OH 45202.

 2  Kahn,  L.,  Unpublished Data.
 This outline was prepared by L.  Kahn,
 Chief Chemist,  Laboratory Branch, Edison
 Water Quality Laboratory,  Office of Water
 Programs,    Edison,  NJ.  08817.

                            MICROBIOLOGY OF PETROLEUM

While the uses and collection of petroleum
products was known to ancient peoples the
implications of microbial interactions with
these agents has only been explored for about
a century.  Concentration of efforts in the
areas of Public Health and characteristics
of individual microorganisms themselves
preceded the study of many areas of value
including the study of petroleum.  Since the
1940's,  however,  increased needs,  especially
in the United States,  has provided an  impetus
to this important field.  The relative  mag-
nitude of this increase in interest can be
seen from Table 1:

At the present time the number of technologists
directly concerned with petroleum micro-
biology in the world, while difficult to
accurately enumerate, is at least fifty times
greater than 20 years ago.
                                         TABLE 1


                                         Percent Published       Percent Published
       Period	Total Papers	In United States	In Europe
BA.IN.ol.1.5.71                                                                     16'1

 Microbiology of Petroleum

 A Since the 1930's an immense amount of
   basic research has taken place regarding
   the environment and origin of source
   sediments of petroleum.  Much of this
   research has been under the sponsorship
   of the American Petroleum Institute from
   privately subscribed funds.  An abridge-
   ment,  for brevity,  of the more significant
   findings of this outstanding work,  designated
   as a portion of APIs' "Project 43", is as
   follows (with this author's comments):

 1.  Biochemically diverse bacteria have
    been found in both ancient and recent
    marine  sediments.

 2.  Bacteria in abundance have been isolated
    from oil well fluids from depths of
    several thousand feet.

 3.  Bacteria are most abundant in ocean
    bottom sediments and their numbers
    decrease as sediment is sampled in

 4.  Laboratory studies have indicated that
    certain  organic compounds are modified
    in the direction of petroleum-like com-

 5.  Certain bacteria are capable  of causing
    the release of oil from oil-bearing
    sedimentary rocks.
Indicates diverse groups present and
naturally occurring.'  These studies
were bacteriological in nature and it
must be emphasized that microorganisms
other than bacteria are capable of
existence and interactions with petroleum.
These effects are still controversial as
to their importance in nature.
This microbial capability has generated
much interest in the areas  of oil
prospecting and revitalizing depleted

                                                               Microbiology of Petroleum
   At present there is a myriad of theories
   regarding the origin of petroleum and its
   formation is probably of a complex nature
   involving the interactions of many  agencies.
   It is generally agreed, however, that the
   following are true regarding the trans-
   formation of organic matter into crude oil:

   1  The formation temperatures were low
      and probably less than 15QOC.

   2  The formation pressures were relatively

   3  Formed crude oil is a localized

   4  The marine  environment is the  primary,
      if not the exclusive, forming site.

   Since numerous findings have established
   that petroleum  products can provide a
   substrate  for microbial activity with
   subsequent degradation of the original
   material,  much controversy has resulted
   concerning the  relative stability of
   petroleum stocks in the earth.  Some
   possible explanations have been advanced
   as follows:

   1  Lack or aerobic conditions due  to
      reducing conditions deep within the
      earths' mantle.

   2  Preferential breakdown of other com-
  •.'   pounds within the petroleum mass.
      Presence of bacteriostatic substances
      (such as metallic ions, hydrogen
      sulfide,  respiratory products, etc. )
      in the  sediments, brines, and/or
   4  Interactions of these factors.
The broad term microorganism is a general
one which is meant to include all of the very
minute living forms such as protozoa, bacteria,
algae,  yeasts,  molds,  etc.  Recent compilations
of the microorganisms capable of growing at
 the expense of hydrocarbons now total over
 100 bacteria,  yeasts, actinomycetes and
 fungi.  Continuing studies of this nature have
 brought about the realization that the util-
 ization of hydrocarbons is not limited to a
 few organisms and that,  possibly, they can
 serve as routine substrates in taxonomic

 Numerous genera  of bacteria, actinomyces,
 and fungi,  which are commonly found in soils,
 are capable of utilizing the wide range of
 hydrocarbons ranging from the paraffin,
 kerosene,  gasoline,  and lubricating and
 mineral oils to tars, asphalts, and natural
 and synthetic rubbers.

 Primary emphasis has been, until recently,
 in the areas of investigations relating to the
 "problem organisms" and their detrimental
 effects upon the industry.  Recent concern
 regarding treatment practices have ushered
 in a wide  spectrum of microbiological

 A Substrate Specificity

    The utilization of a hydrocarbon or
    hydrocarbons by a specific microorganism
    does not imply that this substrate is either
    the sole source of energy that this orga-
    nism is adapted to or one that is
    preferentially attacked for metabolism.
    In fact, as a rule of thumb,  it can be
    stated that most hydrocarbon utilizing
    microorganisms will oxidize other energy
    sources in preference to the hydrocarbon,
    •and, in fact, many will show an attenuation
    for the original hydrocarbon upon prolonged
    exposure to these other sources
    (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, etc.) of
    energy.  Small amounts of these  other
    energy sources, however, usually speed
    up the ability of the microorganism to
    oxidize the available hydrocarbon.

    As a rule,  aliphatic or paraffinic com-
    pounds are oxidized more readily than
    corresponding aromatic or naphthenic
    compounds.  Long-chain hydrocarbons

Microbiology of Petroleum
   are more susceptible to oxidation than
   those of shorter chain length.  Branched
   chain, or iso- compounds, are oxidized
   more readily than the normal or  straight
   chained homologs.

B  Physical and Chemical Factors

   Among a host of factors which control the
   rate of petroleum oxidation four can be
   singled out as particularly important:

   1  Surface area

      The magnitude of exposed surface area
      to a large degree determines the rate
      of oxidation of the petroleum pool.
      Since petroleum is relatively insoluble
      in water its availability in large surface
      area exposures is minimal.

   2  Moisture

      This universal transport medium is
      vital in biological processes and its
      relative scarcity in most petroleum
      pools severely curtails the decom-
      position processes.  In such situations
      as where water-petroleum interfaces
      are available,  such as wastewater
      discharges, the situation is more
      conducive to oxidative processes and
      the bulk of microorganism growth and
      interactions  occur at this interface.

   3  Oxygen

      This element is vital for the rapid
      oxidation of petroleum. In its absence
      the decomposition of petroleum can
      occur,  under anaerobic conditions,  at
      a much reduced rate.

   4  Minerals

      The principal requirements here are
      for available nitrogen,  phosphate,
      sulfate, and other trace minerals.
      Some of these minerals may be lacking
      in the environment and the  decomposition
      processes may be remarkably slow.

 Since microorganisms do not fit an unchanging
 pattern with respect to biochemical inter-
 actions, and, to avoid a "cataloging" of
 numerous genera of microorganisms, the
 following is presented to offer information
 on a wide range of interest of scientific
 investigation.  Each of these individual
 study areas must be considered as an
 abstracting of a published paper,  which
 should be consulted for a complete treat-
 ment,  which is utilized, for purposes of this
 outline,  to  offer an insight to some studies
 on the wide spectrum  of hydrocarbon products.
 A  Survival of Bacteria in Cutting Oils

    The presence of bacteria in  cutting oils
    is undesirable since they can:
    (1) interfere with desired qualities;
    (2) form objectional odors; (3) contribute
    to dermatitis and infections; (4) contribute
    to corrosion; and (5) in certain oils form
    objectional discolorations and de-
    emulsification tendencies.

    In this study thirty different species  of
    bacteria were tested for their  survival
    times in nine different cutting oils.
    Gram negative bacteria were capable of
    surviving for considerable periods of time
    while the Gram positive bacteria were
    soon killed.  Medium straight  and emul-
    sion type cutting oils permitted survival
    of the bacteria for  longer periods of time
    than the heavy straight type  cutting oils.

 B  Microbiological Sludge in Jet Aircraft
    Fuel 3

   ' This study was undertaken by the author
    due to equipment malfunction and diffi-
    culties in line aircraft of the U.S.  Air
    Force.  Initial experiments were designed
    to follow-up on the guide  lines previously
    established at the author's laboratory
    (Bakamauskas 4, 1948):  (1)  establish the
    presence of microorganisms in the sludge;
    (2) isolate the bacteria in pure culture;
    (3) establish whether or not the bacteria

                                                                Microbiology of Petroleum
   could cause sludge; (4) determine whether
   or not approved corrosion and gum
   inhibitors,  normally added to the fuel,
   were bacteriostatic agents; and (5)
   investigate selected water soluble, fuel
   insoluble, chemical compounds as
   bacteriostatic sludge inhibitors	Many
   bacteria were isolated in pure culture
   from seven types of media.  Further
   studies were conducted with the cultures
   characterized by  rapid growth.  Some of
   these produced very stable emulsions of
   the fuel and water; others produced gumlike
   residues  in the water phase; and some
   produced objectionable water-soluble

   Experiments involving the use of fuel-
   soluble inhibitors disclosed that these
   were, for the most part, unsatisfactory
   since at the usual prescribed concen-
   trations they would either prove to be
   temporary in effect or totally lacking in
   bacteriostatic action to the isolated
   cultures.  Some success was achieved
   with  different control agents and con-
   tinued research is in progress in this

C  Microbial Degradation of Normal Paraffin
   Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil °

   Fifty active oil degrading cultures were
   isolated in enriched seawater containing
   crude oil.  Oil degradation was measured
   with gas chromatography, wet combustion,
   and by measurement of surface tension.
   Normal paraffin hydrocarbons through C-26
   were degraded by two different groups of
   microorganisms--those growing in the oil
   phase only and those growing in the aqueous
   phase. Microbial degradation of 35 to 55
   percent of oxidizable crude oil occurred
   within 60 hours.

D  Reclamation of Soil Contaminated With

   It is the general opinion that soil is never
   permanently sterilized by oil and that
   partial reclamation occurred naturally
   within about three years.  The practice
   of aeration,  fertilization,  and manuring
   were definitely beneficial.  These opinions
   were verified by growth chamber techniques
   using a variety of crops.  The amount of
   oil that plants  could tolerate was found to
   be species dependent suggesting another
   possible way to reclaim contaminated
   •soil (previous  literature indicates that
   small amounts of oil were innocuous and
   a conservative estimate of 1 kg oil/sq
   mile of surface area being the point where
   plant damage begins.)

   Use was made of the bacteria Cellulomonas
   sp. to seed soil and hasten decomposition
   of oil.  This method was effective at high
   levels of oil contamination using the
   criteria of CO_ evolution and seed germi-
   nation.  Seeding with microorganisms
   supplied with nutrients significantly
   increased the  rate of soil reclamation
   over the use of fertilizer alone.

1  Beerstecher, E.  Petroleum Microbiology.
      Elsevier, Amsterdam.   1954.

2  Bennett,  E.O. and Wheeler,  H.O.
      Survival of Bacteria in Cutting Oil.
      Appl.  Microbiol.  2:368-371.   1954.

3  Prince, A.E.   Microbiological Sludge in
      Jet Aircraft  Fuel. Devi, in Ind.
      Microbiol.  2:197-203.   1961.

4  Bakamauskas, S.  Bacterial Activity in
      JP-4 Fuel WADC  58-32.  March 1958.

5  Miget,  R.J., Oppenheimer, C.H.,
      Kator, H.I.,  and  LaRock, P. A.
      Microbial Degradation of Normal
      Paraffin Hydrocarbons in Crude  Oil.
      Proc.-Joint  Conf. of Prevention and
      Control of Oil Spills.   API and FWPCA
      December 15-17,  1969.

6  Schwendinger, R.B.   Reclamation  of Soil
      Contaminated with Oil.  Jour,  of the
      Inst. of Petrol. 54:182-197.  1968.
This outline was prepared by Rocco
Russomanno, Microbiologist,  National
Training Center,  OWP, EPA, Cincinnati, OH


                                                              Outline Number

Oil Tanker Operations                                              17

Treatment of Oil Spills - Dispersants                                18

Proposed EPA Tests on Oil Dispersant Toxicity                       19
and Effectiveness

Treatment of Oil Spills -

    Sinking Agents                                                  20

    Burning Agents                                                 21

    Gelling Agents                                                  22

    Sorbents                                                       23

Control of Oil Spills - Booms                                        24

Treatment of Oil Spills, Oil Skimming Devices                        25

Cleanup of Oil-Polluted Beaches                                     26

Waste Treatment Methods for Refineries                             27

                                OIL TANKER OPERATIONS

 Today's world tank ship fleet amounts to
 about 4000 ships with a total dead weight
 tonnage of 170 million long tons.  Only about
 400 ships are American registered.

 These tankers range in tonnage from 2000
 tons to 312, 000 tons  and Japan, the world's
 largest shipbuilder,  is building a 470, 000
 ton tanker.

 Supertankers are a recent phenomena.  The
 first 100, 000 ton tanker went into operation
 in late  1959.  Today  there are over 200
 tankers of 100, 000 tons  or greater in  size
 and about 240 under construction.  Only
 22  percent of these tankers are owned by
 oil companies.  Another 18 percent are owned
 by  the governments of the world and the
 remainder are privately owned.  These
 privately owned tankers are contracted for
 by  the oil companies.

 There are two basic  trades; the crude oil
 trade and the oil products trade.  The
 supertankers are used almost exclusively
 in the crude oil trade.  Shifting of ships from
 one trade to another  are infrequent, however,
 when they occur the tanks must be thoroughly
 cleaned especially for transfer from the crude
 to the products trade.

 A  Bilge Oil:  Is that oil which collects in the
    ship's bottom through seepage or leakage.

 B  Slop Oil:  Is that oil/water emulsion which
    is normally collected in an aft center tank
    as the residue of tank cleaning operations.

 C  Overflows:  An overflow of oil usually
    occurs during the loading or discharge
    of cargo and the transfer of cargo from
    one tank to another.  This is usually
    caused by carelessness or inattention.
 D Ballast Water:  This is normally sea
    water taken into empty cargo tanks to
    give the vessel stability.  The "empty"
    cargo tanks usually have a residue of
    oil in them.

 E Collision or Groundings:  Whenever a
    loaded tanker vessel is involved in a
    collision the result is usually a major
    discharge of oil into the surrounding
    waters.  Groundings are the most
    common types of accidents but they do
    not usually result in major oil spills.

 A Surface Area:  The inner surface of a
    cargo tank,  if inspected closely,  would
    be found to be rough,  uneven and pock-
    marked with thousands of minute pore
    openings.   The total surface area of the
    interior of the cargo tanks  of a T-2
    tanker is approximately eight and one
    half acres.

 B Clingage:  When a beer glass is filled and
    emptied a certain amount of the liquid
    adheres to the side of the container. This
    is the liquid required to "wet" the surface
    of the container.  It will vary in amount
    as a function of its viscosity, temperature,
    volatility and the roughness and con-
    figuration of the container.

    In the same way, a certain quantity of  oil
    under fixed conditions is required to wet
    the surface of the tanks of a tanker. Under
    average conditions based on long experience,
    it has been found that this quantity varies
    from  0.20% to 0.40% of the  cargo.  A
    median figure might be 0.30%.  This
    means that if 250, 000 barrels of  average
    oil cargo were loaded into a tanker and
    the tanker immediately pumped out, only
    99. 7% of the oil would be recovered in the
    shore tanks and 0. 30% or 750 barrels would
    remain in the  ship.  The oil remaining in
    the ship would be found to be adhering  to

 Oil Tanker Operations
    the tank surfaces with a very small
    portion laying in shallow puddles at the
    suction "bell mouths" in the tank and
    cargo piping.

  C Butterworth System:  An operation of
    great significance in connection with the
    waste oil resulting from tanker operation
    is the system used for cleaning or washing
    down the tanks.  Until the early 193O's,
    the cleaning of tankers was accomplished
    by long periods  of steaming followed by
    hand washing with streams from fire hoses.
    There was then  developed a system for
    machine washing of the tanks consisting
    of opposed revolving nozzles connected
    to a hose lowered to various  levels in the
    tank to be washed.  These nozzles revolve
    around both a vertical and horizontal axis
    by the action of  a water turbin  driven by
    the washing water at a pressure of about
    160 pounds per square inch and a temp-
    erature of  170 to 180°F.  This is known
    as the Butterworth System.

 A Background:  Shell introduced the 'load-on-
    top' system in 1962.  Other major oil
    companies soon followed, and today,
    encouraged by the oil industry, about 75
    percent of the world's crude oil tankers
    practice the technique.  Refineries of the
    major oil companies accepted 'load-on-
    top1 residue after an experimental period
    in which they proved to themselves that
    the residue can be processed through the
    refinery unit—if  it is less than 1 percent
    of the total crude cargo,  and if the water
    content  of the residue is  less than 0.15
    percent of the total cargo.   The main
    problem facing the refinery operator is
    the removal of salt from the small amount
    of sea water discharged with the residue.
    The problem of the tanker operator, then,
    is to remove as much water as possible
    from beneath the  oil--without discharging
    the oily waste  itself.
 B  Principles of System:  What are the
    principles of the Load-On-Top  system?
    This is best described by Kluss  :
    In the 'load-on-top' system, tanks are
  washed in this way during the ballast
  passage.  The tank washing residues are
  accumulated in one tank.  Most of the
  clean water in this tank is then carefully
  drawn off the bottom of the tank and dis -
  charged overboard,  discharge being halted
  whenever oil traces appear in the water
  stream.  The tank is allowed to settle,
  the oil wastes in the tank separate and
  float to the surface, and additional water
  is repeatedly withdrawn carefully from
  the bottom and discharged as before from
  beneath the floating layer of oil. Heat
  may be applied to  hasten the separation
  of oil and water.  Some companies
  occasionally add a demulsifier as well.
  When all possible  water has  been with-
  drawn,  the next cargo is loaded on top
  of the remaining residues in this tank.
  Usually, this one  compartment is
  segregated from the remainder of the
  cargo during discharge.  Then the
  segregated material can be  directed,
  as the specific situation dictates, to the
  fuels processing side of the refinery,  to
  the refinery slop system for ultimate
  recovery, or mixed with the rest of the
  cargo being discharged.

C Pitching Ship: In  a rolling pitching
  vessel, this  is no small task.  It is
  estimated that the oil content of the
  water discharged  into the vessel's
  wake from the 'load-on-top' tank is  in
  the region of 200 ppm,  slowly increasing
  to 400 ppm and finally rising momentarily
  to 5000 ppm  at the shut-off point. A
  tanker  decanting this residue will not
  pollute the sea.  Even the momentary
  maximum of 5000 ppm is only half of
  . one percent.  The turbulence in the
  moving ship's wake would immediately
  dilute any oil to a tiny fraction of its
  original concentration.  If a vessel
  experiences  rough weather  on its way
  to the loading port and the water in the
   'load-on-top' is therefore not reduced
  to an acceptable level,  fresh crude oil
  can still be loaded on top.  But at the
  discharge terminal the mixture at the
  bottom of the tank must then be retained
  on board  to be put through another
   'load-on-top1 cycle.

                                                                    Oil Tanker Operations
D  PPM of Oil Discharged - "Eyeball
   Method":  'load-on-top' is a questionable
   first step in the prevention of pollution
   of the sea by oil.  There are  many
   questions left unanswered.  Members of
   the oil shipping industry admit that, at
   present, the best method of measuring
   the PPM of oil in an oily water  discharge
   is by the  "eyeball" method.  This means
   that a member of the ship's crew must
   constantly watch the overboard  discharge
   until black oil is seen with the naked eye.
   The crew member then signals  to the
   pump man who in turn starts closing the
   discharge line.  This may take  from
   fifteen to thirty seconds. In the mean-
   time,  a significant amount of oil is lost
   overboard.   In the 'load-on-top' papsr,
   the author admits that at times,  the
   discharge of oil waste into the sea reaches
   a height of 5, 000 PPM.

E  Emulsions:  The basic problem of the
   'load-on-top' system is the question,
   "how much oil is contained in the water
   being decanted into the sea?"
   Emulsions take either one of two forms--
   an oil in water emulsion or a water in oil
   emulsion.  The latter,  of which the famous
   "chocolate mousse" is formed, is  much
   more difficult to break than the former.
   The oil industry as a whole, has spent
   literally millions of dollars trying to
   separate oil from their wastewater dis-
   charge.  This is still a major problem
   in the industry today. If the sophisticated
   oil/water separators of the major
   refineries cannot successfully remove
   all of the oil from an effluent discharge,
   how can we believe that a simple type
   gravity separator on board a rolling ship
   can effectively accomplish this?

 A  Gross Tonnage:  One hundred cubic feet of
    permanently enclosed space is equal to
    one gross ton-it  has nothing whatever to
    do with weight.   This is usually the
    registered tonnage although it may vary
    somewhat according to the classifying
    authority or nationality.

 B  Net Tonnage: This is the earning capacity
    of a ship.  The gross tonnage after
    deduction of certain spaces, such as
    engine and  boiler rooms, crew accommo-
    dation, stores,  equipment, etc. Port and
    harbor dues are  paid on Net Tonnage.

 C  Displacement Tonnage: This is the actual
    weight in tons, varying according to
    whether a vessel is in a light or loaded
    condition.  Warships are always spoken
    of by this form of measurement.

 D  Deadweight Tonnage:  The actual weight
    in tons of cargo, stores, etc.  required to
    bring the vessel down to her load line,
    from the light condition.  Cargo dead-
    weight is, as the name implies,  the actual
    weight in tons of the cargo  when loaded, as
    distinct from stores,  ballast,  etc.

 E  Innage:  That space occupied in a product

 F  Outage:  Space left in a product container
    to allow  for expansion during temperature
    changes  it may undergo during shipment
    and use.

 G  Ullage:  That amount which a tank or
    vessel lacks of being  full.

 Oil Tanker Operations

 The tankers in the world fleet are growing
 bigger each year while the ports serving
 these supertankers are still in the World
 War T-2 class.  The industry,  therefore,
 advocates the Single Point Mooring System.

 A Conventional Mooring System:   The
    conventional mooring system uses fixed
    mooring buoys plus the fore and aft
    anchors of the vessel to be moored.  The
    connecting hose to the underwater pipeline
    is connected to a small floating buoy,
    which is retrieved when the ship is in a
    fixed position.  The known objections to
    this  system are:  (1) the vessel cannot
    remain in this position in rough weather,
    and (2) when the weather turns bad, it
    takes too long for the ship to un-moor
    and lift anchors.

 B "T"-Jetty Mooring System:  Some of these
    jetties are as long as 6, 000 feet.  The
    "T"  head at the end of the jetty can be
    constructed to berth as many as eight
    tankers simultaneously. One of the
    advantages of this type of installation
    is that four pipelines can service six to
    eight berths simultaneously.  The dis-
    advantages of this type of installation are:

    1  Extremely expensive to construct.

    2  Ships must stop off-loading during
       bad weather,  and slip moorings.

    3  Approach speed to the installation for
       large tankers  can only be at 1/10 knots.
       The problem here is that tankers
       personnel cannot sense true speed
       during approach and if the vessel strikes
       the installation at speeds over 3/10 of
       a  knot, a large amount of damage can
       be expected.  A new experimental
       radar system is being tried to overcome
       this objection.

 C Sea Island Mooring System:  This system
    has the same advantages and disadvantages
    as the "T"-Jetty Mooring System. In the
    Sea Island System the oil can either be
    pumped ashore through underwater pipe-
    lines or the oil can be stored on the island
     to be later trans-shipped to shore
     installations by smaller tankers and

  D  Single Point Mooring System:  While the
     Single Point Mooring is relatively new
     in the oil industry (1959),  this system is
     gaining a widespread acceptance through-
     out the industry as a reasonable cost
     expense and an effective method to off-
     load or on-load a tanker.  The Single
     Point Mooring System can handle tankers
     in much rougher weather than any of the
     aforementioned systems.  One of the
     great advantages  of this type of system
     is that the wind,  high seas and tide forces
     straining against  the ship is only 1/6 of
     the forces received at other mooring
     systems.  This is due to the fact that the
     ship "weathervanes" around the Single
     Point Mooring System buoy, bow forward.
     At the present time, the industry con-
     siders  the Single  Point Mooring System
     as the next best thing to a harbor mooring.
     Shell Oil Company and IMODCO of
     California are the only two producers of
     SPM Systems at the present time.
     However,  Standard Oil Company (N. J.)
     is in the process  of patenting and con-
     structing an SPM System utilizing a single
     anchor mooring which they believe will
     be superior to the present system.  This
     SPM System, considered a third generation
     type, will have an underwater swivel
     joint.   This buoy  will have a rigid type
     conduit from the sea floor to a swivel
     connection approximately 70 feet below
     the water  surface.  When there are
     sufficient numbers of SPM buoys through-
     out the world,  tankers  will convert to bow
     loading manifolds.  The cost of conversion
   - to this  type of loading will be approximately
     $70, 000 per tanker.

  Because of world concern regarding oil
  pollution of the sea,  governments of the
  world under United Nations sponsorship
  are meeting to discuss ways of improving
  tanker operations to reduce or  eliminate
  oil pollution.

                                                                    Oil Tanker Operations
Four of these proposed improvements are:

A  Limitation on tank size - this involves
   limiting tank sizes on all tankers to
   30, 000 cubic meters.  It is now in the
   process of adoption.

B  Compulsory installation of radar and
   bridge-to-bridge telephone - both are
   designed to reduce the occurrence of
   collisions and to improve navigation.
   Radar installation is now under discussion
   by various U.S.  agencies.  Congress has
   for approval regulations requiring installa-
   tion of bridge-to-bridge telephones on all
   ships operating in navigable waters of the
   United States.

C  Establishment of compulsory sealanes -
   discussions are now being held at the
   international level on adoption of sealanes.
   In some restricted waterways (Dover Straits)
   sealanes have been established.
D  No deballasting at sea - proposed by the
   United States at various international
   conferences.  Earliest adoption cannot
   be before 1975 and will likely be later.
   This would be the most preferred solution
   since deballasting,  even with utilizing
   Load On Top,  is considered the greatest
   single source  of pollution.


1  Kluss, W.M.  Prevention of Sea Pollution
     in Normal Tanker  Operations.  Institute
     of Petroleum Summer Meeting, Brighton
     paper No. 6. Mobile Shipping Co. Ltd.

2  Moss,  J. E.   Character and Control of
     Sea Pollution by Oil.  American
     Petroleum  Institute,  Division of
     Transportation,  Washington, D. C.  1963.

This outline was  prepared by  H. J. Lamp'l,
Oil Spills Coordinator, Office .of Water Programs,
EPA, Edison Water Quality Laboratory,
Edison, NJ 08817.

                               TREATMENT OF OIL SPILLS


As far back as the early 1930's water
emulsifiable degreasers were used. These
degreasers were developed to answer the
need for effective methods of cleaning oily
and greasy surfaces.  They possessed the
properties of dissolving or dispersing in the
grease or oil, and making the resultant
mixture  dispersible in water so that it could
be flushed away with water.

The early products were composed mostly of
soaps and solvents.  The demands of the
petroleum shipping industry required products
that could be used effectively aboard ship with
seawater.  This led to the use of materials
other than soaps as  emulsifying agents because
soap breaks down in seawater.  Sulfonated
petroleum oils and later more sophisticated
synthetic detergents made their appearance
in these  products.

These emulsifying degreasers were widely
used aboard ship for engine room maintenance,
as well as for the clean-out of petroleum
cargo tanks prior to welding repairs and prior
to upgrading of cargo.

Because of their effectiveness in clean-out
of oil residues it was natural that they should
be tried for treating oil spills.  In some cases
they were incorporated in oil slops prior to
dumping overboard to minimize slick formation.

There are presently over 200 commercially
available products which are claimed useful
for dispersing oil from the surface of the
water.  These products have been referred to
as "soaps", "detergents", "degreasers",
"complexing agents", "emulsifiers", and
finally "dispersants".   This latter term
describes best what this type of product is
intended to accomplish--the dispersion of
oil from the surface into and throughout the
body of water--and therefore is the preferred

 The primary components of dispersants are
 surfactants, solvents and stabilizers.

 A  Surfactants or Surface Acting Agents (SAA)

    This is the  major active component in

    By their affinity for both oil and water,
    surfactants alter the interaction between
    oil and water so that the oil tends to
    spread and  can be more easily dispersed
    into small globules--or into what  we
    commonly call an emulsion.

    These agents are  often defined according
    to their behavior in  aqueous solutions.
    These solutions will usually wet surfaces
    readily, remove dirt, penetrate porous
    materials,  disperse solid particles,
    emulsify oil and grease and produce foam
    when shaken. These properties are
    interrelated; that  is, no surface active
    agent possesses only one of them  to the
    exclusion of the rest.

    SAA can be divided into two broad classes
    depending on the character  of their
    colloidal solutions in water.  The first
    class,  ionic, form ions in solution, and
    like the soaps are typical colloidal
    electrolytes. The second class, the non-
    ionic,  do not ionize,  but owe their
    solubility to the combined effect of a
   -number of weak solubilizing groups such
    as ether linkages  or hydroxy groups in the
    molecule.  A more detailed discussion of
    SAS is  covered in reference (1).

    Commonly used SAA in oil  spill dispersants
    include soaps, sulfonated organics, phos-
    phated  esters, carboxylic acid esters of
    polyhydroxy compounds, ethoxylated alkyl
    phenols and alcohols (APE,  LAE), block
    polymers and alkanolamides.

Treatment of Oil Spills
B Solvents

   Since many of the surface active agents
   applicable to oil spill dispersant com-
   pounding are viscous or solid materials,
   some form of solvent is often necessary
   in order to reduce viscosity for ease of
   handling.  In addition, the solvent may
   act to dilute the compound for economic
   reasons, to depress the freezing point for
   low temperature usage,  to enable more
   rapid solubility in oil, and to achieve
   optimum concentration of surface active
   agent for performance reasons.  The
   presence of a suitable solvent also serves
   to thin the oil to be dispersed,  reducing
   viscosity and making it more easily
   emulsifiable.   The solvent usually com-
   prises the bulk of the dispersant product.

   The three general classes of solvents used
   in oil spill dispersants are petroleum
   hydrocarbons,  alcohols or other hydroxy
   compounds, and water.

   1  Petroleum hydrocarbons

      Petroleum fractions with boiling points
      above 30QOF are usually used, and these
      may produce finished dispersants with
      flash points as low as llOop.  The
      proportion of aromaticity is of concern,
      since this effects solubility and emul-
      sification properties as well  as  toxicity.
      Wardley Smith,  Warren Springs Lab,
      UK,  in describing the Torrey Canyon
      incident, reported that the  aromatic
      solvents used were 10 times  as  toxic
      to marine life as were the surface
      active agents.  Some typical  fractions
      of applicable petroleum solvents include
      mineral spirits, kerosene, #2 fuel oil,
      and heavy aromatic napthas which con-
      tain significant quantities of higher
      alkylated benzenes.

   2  Alcoholic or hydroxy group of solvents

      Includes alcohols,  glycols and glycol
      ethers.  These solvents also lower the
      viscosity as well as the freezing points
      of finished dispersants.  In addition,
      they furnish a co-solvent effect, often
      needed to mutually dissolve the various
       ingredients in a dispersant for stability
       of the compound in storage.  This group
       of solvents may be used in conjunction
       with petroleum hydrocarbons as well
       as with aqueous solvent systems.
       Some of the more  frequently encountered
       chemicals in this group include ethyl
       alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethylene
       glycol,  propylene  glycol, ethylene
       glycol mono methyl ether, ethylene
       glycol mono butyl  ether, and diethylene
       glycol mono methyl ether.  The more
       volatile members  of the group are  quite

    3  Water

       Least toxic,  least hazardous and most
       economical of the  solvents.  It lacks
       solubility or miscibility with oils.
       Where water is used as the solvent,
       special problems exist in the choice
       of surface active agents and other
       additives  in order to provide the
       necessary miscibility with oils.
       Glycols and alcohols are used to aid
       in miscibility as well as freezing point
       depression when water is used.

  C Additives - Stabilizers

    Third major component in dispersants,
    they may be  used to adjust pH,  inhibit
    corrosion, increase hard water stability,
    fix the emulsion once it is formed, and
    adjust color  and appearance.

 A General

    Dispersants theoretically serve to increase
    the surface area of an oil slick and disperse
    oil globules throughout the larger volume
    of water thereby aiding in accelerated
    degradation of oils by microbiological
    means.  The chemical dispersants do not
    themselves destroy oil.  They vary con-
    siderably in toxicity, effectiveness and
    ability to stabilize the oil after extended
    periods of time.  Technology for proper
    application of dispersants over large oil
    slicks with necessary mixing is currently

                                                                     Treatment of Oil Spills
   lacking.  Use appears far more critical
   in harbor and estuary areas and in
   proximity to shore.  Particular care must
   be exercised where water supply might be
   affected.  The desirability of employing
   dispersants in the open sea remains
   unresolved although their use here (the
   ocean) is potentially more promising
   pending additional field data.  After wide-
   spread dispersant use during major
   incidents, reports led to the conclusion
   that dispersants or the dispersant-oil
   mixture caused more damage  to aquatic
   life than the oil alone.  For beaches, they
   actually compounded the problem by adding
   to the amount of pollutants present,  by
   causing the oil to penetrate more deeply
   into the sand, and by disturbing the sand's
   compactness, so as to increase beach
   erosion through tidal and wave action.

B  Toxicity

   Current information indicates that
   dispersants vary considerably in toxicity.
   The combination of oil and dispersant may
   increase the toxicity of either the oil, the
   dispersant  chemical or both.  The
   possibility of this "synergistic" action
   must be carefully examined before whole-
   sale application of such a product is
   permitted.   Dispersing of the  oil,  which
   has toxic components, may also compound
   the damage.

   The toxicity of 40 dispersants, as reported
   by the Fisheries Laboratory,  Burnham on
   Crouch, UK, is shown in Table  I.  It is
   important to point out that the dispersants
   used during the Torrey Canyon incident
   were mostly solvent based and highly toxic,
   killing marine organisms at concentrations
   of 10 mg/1.   Chemicals available today are
   much less toxic.
C  Application
   A common method of dispersant application
   is by the water eductor method.  A con-
   trolled amount of dispersant is educted into
   a water stream such as a fire hose.  This
   water jet is an effective vehicle or carrier
   for the dispersant and provides good
   coverage in treating the slick.
This application procedure however,
while compatible with a water base system,
may be incompatible with a petroleum
base system.   This is because a dispersion
of the petroleum solvent-in-water  is formed
as soon as the surfactant system is educted
into the water stream. As illustrated in
Figure  1 this accounts for the milky white
appearance of the water after such
applications.  In this state, as graphically
shown in Figure  1, it is difficult for the
surfactant to transfer from its termo-
dynamically stable location at the
petroleum solvent-water interface  to the
oil spill-sea water interface.  Therefore,
for a petroleum base system, neat
application of the chemical directly onto
the oil slick is a more effective application

The prompt application of mixing energy
after the dispersant (solvent or water
base) has been applied is particularly
important.  In essence,  small oil droplets
must be produced while the immediate
water environment is surfactant-rich.
                      Water Stream

                         -./   Water Compatable

                        p  * ""  X Surfactant
                         P o **
                            Oil Compatable Surfactant
                            'Tled-Up' In Solvent-
                           Jn-Water Emulsion


Solvent \ \~-~yjy " ef&\
Droplets "^V^ ^ \
\ ' \
	 *T 	 ^ — *~" 	 : ~~
              FIGURE 1

                                                              TABLE I(3)

                                              Static  Bioassays - TL50 48 Hours @ 15°C (ppm)
Solvent emulsifiers

Gamlen OSR
Po lye lens
Six ' ' . •
BP 1002
'Gamlen D
Gamlen CW
Atlas 1901
Slickgone 1
Slickgone 2
Shamash R1885
Crow Solvent M
DS 4545
DS 4545 in Pink Paraffin
DS 4545 in IPA
DS 4545 in IBA
Aquae lene

Pink Shrimp
5. '8
• 32
. 8.6
. . 14.6


Brown Shrimp
. 5.8
44 ..

~- 1000
. 330-1000
Cardium Agonus
edule cataphractus

Cackle Bull Head


Flat Fish Asterias Carcinus
Pleuronectes rubens maenas
or platessa(P) Star Shore
or f lesus(F) Fish Crab
> 300 (15)
10-33 (L) 10-25

> 150

edu lis

15- 50

•^ 100


         *Tests  lasted 5 days,  not  48 hours.

TABLE I (Continued)
Solvent emulsifiers

Esso Solvent FG155
Banner DG01
Banner DG02
Banner DG03
Banner DG04
Basol AD6
Cuprinol 106
Penetone X
Polycomplex A
Craine OSR
Corexit 7664
Houghto solve
Raynap Sol B
BP 1100
Corexit 8&66
New Dispersol OS
(Dispersol SD)
New BP 1100 A
New BP 1100 B
Finasol ESK
Finasol SC
Hoe SC 1708
Snowdrift SC 98
Neptune Marine Cleaner
Finasol OSR
BP 1100 A
Pandalus Crangon Cardium Agonus Flat Fish Asterias Carcinus Ostrea
montagui crangon edule cataphractus Pleuronectes rubens maenas edulis
Armed or platessa(P) Star Shore
Pink Shrimp Brown Shrimp Cockle Bull Head or flesus(F) Fish Crab Oysters

100-200 33-100 33-100 (L)
7500-10000 3300-10000 1000-3300 (L)
330-1000 33-100
> 3300 1000-3300 1000-3300
148 156 148
> 3300

3300-10000 100-330
> 3300
> 3300
1000-3300 1000-3300



Treatment of Oil Spills
D Cost-Effectiveness

   1  Cost

      The cost of dispersants ranges from
      $2.00 - $5.00 per gallon.  Using
      manufacturers' recommended doses,
      which are usually 1 gallon of dispersant
      to 10 gallons of oil, the cost of chemicals
      for dispersing a relatively small 500
      barrel spill would be about $10, 000.

      Based on EPA's actual field experience,
      which has indicated that frequently the
      necessary dosage is 1 to 1 or 1 to 2,  the
      cost might run as high as $100, 000 for
      this same size spill.  Of course, the
      amount of chemical required is  going
      to depend heavily on the type and age
      of oil to be treated, type of dispersant
      used,  and the temperature of the water.

   2  Effectiveness

      Equally as important as toxicity, is the
      effectiveness of a dispersant.

      Evaluation of the effectiveness of dis-
      persants during accidental spill incidents
      is difficult.  Lack of adequate methods
      for measuring the amount of oil on water
      and the rate of natural dispersion make
      precise evaluation impossible.  Their
      effectiveness during the Torrey Canyon
      is still being debated.  Subsequent
      incidents which are claimed to have
      demonstrated their  effectiveness have
      been at  remote locations and without
      impartial,  qualified observers.
      Application methods of dispersants and
      subsequent agitation, which are  critical
      for effective performance, have not
      always been optimal.

      As an initial step in trying to solve this
      problem EPA  developed a standard test
      for measuring emulsion efficiency    .
      At the present time, four private labs
      are "testing the test" to determine  its
      applicability using a variety of oils and
      dispersants.  Figure 2, which shows the
      results  of testing done at the Edison
      Water Quality Laboratory adequately
      demonstrates the degree of variability
      which will occurr when using different
      dispersants on the same type of oil and
      when using the same dispersant on
      different types of oil.

E  EPA Policy

   The present policy regarding the use of
   dispersants is  shown on the following pages.
                  TABLE 2.

          Surfactant     Surfactant
   Product Ionic Nature1 Basic Composition2 Solvent3
A Nonionic

B Nonionic

C Nonionic

D Nonionic
E Anionic

Ethylene oxide
condensate of

Ethylene oxide
condensate of
alcohol ester
of fatty acid
Alkyl aryf

Aromatic, ali-
phatic hydro-
carbon, boiling
point range
similar to that
of number 2
fuel oil
Water, glycol

Water, short-
chained alcohol

Aromatic, ali-
phatic hydro-
carbon, boiling
point range
similar to that
of number 2
fuel oil
  1. According to Weatherburn test.1**
  2. By infrared spectral analysis of dried (105°C) residue; test was
    not definitive, but results consistent with stated, presumed com-
  3. By distillation and infrared spectral analysis.

                                                        Treatment of Oil Spills
*i run. on     SOUTH LOUISIANA

 Treatment of Oil Spills
                                       ANNEX X (5)

2001 General

2001.1 This schedule shall apply to the navigable waters of the United States and adjoining
shorelines, and the  waters of the contiguous zone as defined in Article 24 of the Convention
on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone.

2001. 2 This schedule applies to the regulation of any chemical as hereinafter defined that is
applied to an oil spill.

2001.3 This schedule advocates development and utilization of mechanical arid other  control
methods that will result in removal of oil from the environment with subsequent proper disposal.

2001.4 Relationship of the Federal Water Quality Administration (FWQA) with other  Federal
agencies and State agencies in implementing this schedule: in those States with more stringent
laws,  regulations or written policies for regulation of chemical use, such State laws, regulations
or written policies shall govern.  This schedule will apply in those States that have not adopted
such laws, regulations or written policies.

2002 Definitions   Substances applied to an oil spill are defined as follows:

2002.1 Collecting agents - include chemicals or other agents that can gell, sorb,  congeal,
herd,  entrap, fix, or make the oil mass more rigid or viscous in order to facilitate surface
removal of oil.

2002.2 Sinking agents - are  those chemical or other agents that can physically sink oil below
the water surface.

2002.3 Dispersing agents  - are those chemical agents or compounds which emulsify, disperse
or solubilize oil into the water column or act to further the surface spreading of oil slicks in
order to facilitate dispersal of the oil into the water column.

2003  Collecting Agents  Collecting agents are considered to be generally acceptable providing
that these materials do not in themselves or in combination with the oil increase the pollution

2004 Sinking Agents   Sinking  agents may be used only in marine waters exceeding 100 meters
in depth where currents are not predominantly onshore,  and only if other control methods are
judged by FWQA to be inadequate or not feasible.

2005 Authorities Controlling  Use of Dispersants

2005. 1 Regional response team activated: dispersants may be used in any place,  at any time,
and in  quantities designated by the On-Scene Commander,  when their use will

         2005.1 - 1  in the judgment of the On-Scene Commander,  prevent or
         substantially reduce hazard to human life or limb or substantial hazard
        of fire to property;

        2005. 1 - 2  in the judgment of FWQA, in consultation with appropriate
        State agencies,  prevent or reduce substantial hazard to a major segment
        of the population(s) of vulnerable species of waterfowl; and


                                                                       Treatment of Oil Spills
         2005. 1 - 3  in the judgment of FWQA,  in consultation with appropriate
         State agencies, result in the least overall environmental damage, or
         interference with the  designated uses.

2005.2  Regional response team not activated:  provisions of Section 2005.1-1  shall apply.
The use of dispersants in any other situation shall be subject to this schedule except in
States where State laws, regulations,  or written policies that govern the prohibition, use,
quantity,  or type of  dispersant are in effect.  In such States, the  State laws, regulations
or written policies shall be followed during the cleanup operation.

2006 Interim Restrictions on Use of Dispersants for Pollution  Control Purposes  Except as
noted in 2005. 1,  dispersants shall not be used.

2006.1  on any distillate fuel oil;

2006. 2  on any spill of oil less than 200 barrels in quantity;

2006.3  on any shoreline;

2006.4  in any waters  less than 100 feet deep;

2006. 5  in any waters  containing major populations,  or breeding or passage areas for species
of fish or marine life which may be damaged or rendered commercially less marketable by
exposure to dispersant or dispersed oil;

2006. 6  in any waters  where winds and/or currents are of such velocity and direction that
dispersed oil mixtures would likely, in the judgment of FWQA,  be carried to shore areas
within 24 hours; or

2006. 7  in any waters  where such use  may affect surface water supplies.

2007 Dispersant Use Dispersants may be  used in accordance with this schedule if other control
methods are  judged to be inadequate or infeasible, and if:

2007.1  information has been provided to FWQA,  in sufficient time prior to its use for review
by FWQA, on its toxicity,  effectiveness and oxygen demand determined by the  standard pro-
cedures published by FWQA.  (Prior to publication by FWQA of standard procedures,  no
dispersant shall be applied, except as noted in Section 2005.1-1 in quantities exceeding 5 ppm
in the upper 3 feet of the water column during any 24-hour period.  This amount is equivalent
to 5 gallons per acre per 24 hours.);

2007. 2  applied during any 24-hour period in quantities not exceeding the 96 hour TL,-0 of the
most sensitive species tested as  calculated in the top foot of the water column.  The maximum
volume  of chemical permitted, in gallons per acre per 24 hours,  shall be calculated by
multiplying the 96 hour TL   value of the most  sensitive  species tested,  in ppm,  by 0.33;
except that in no case,  except as noted in Section 2005. 1-1,  will the daily application rate of
chemical exceed 540 gallons per  acre or one-fifth of the total volume spilled, whichever
quantity is smaller.

2007. 3  Dispersant containers  are labeled with the following information:

         2007.3  -  1  name, brand or trademark, if any, under which the  chemical
         is sold;

Treatment of Oil Spills
         2007.3 - 2 name and address of the manufacturer,  importer or vendor;

         2007.3 - 3 flash point;

         2007.3 - 4 freezing or pour point;

         2007.3 - 5 viscosity;

         2007.3 - 6 recommend application procedure(s),  concentration(s),  and
         conditions for use as regards water salinity, water temperature, and
         types and ages of oils; and

         2007. 3 - 7 date of production and shelf life.

2007.4  Information to be supplied to  FWQA on the:

         2007.4 - 1 chemical name and percentage of each component;

         2007.4 - 2 concentrations of potentially hazardous trace materials;
         including,  but not necessarily being limited to lead, chromium, zinc,
         arsenic, mercury,  nickel, copper or chlorinated hydrocarbons;

         2007.4 - 3 description of analytical methods used in determining
         chemical characteristics outlined in 2007.4-1, 2 above;

         2007.4 - 4 methods for analyzing the chemical in fresh and salt
         water are provided to FWQA, or reasons why such analytical methods
         cannot be provided;

         2007.4 - 5 for purposes  of research and development, FWQA may
         authorize use of dispersants  in specified amounts and locations under
         controlled conditions irrespective of the provisions of this schedule.

1  Poliakoff, Melvin, A.  Oil Dispersing
      Chemicals, 1969.  Edison Water Quality
      Laboratory, FWPCA,  Edison,  NJ 08817.

2  Canevari, G.P.   General Dispersant
      Theory.  Proceedings, Joint Conference
      on Prevention & Control of Oil Spills,
      API-FWPCA, 1969.

3  Portmann,  J.E.   The Toxicity of  120
      Substances to Marine Organisms.
      Fisheries Laboratory, Burnham on
      Crouch, Essex, United Kingdom.
      September 1970.
4  Murphy,  T.,  McCarthy,  L.  Evaluation of
      the Effectiveness of Oil Spill Dispersants.
      Proceedings, Joint Conference on
      Prevention & Control of Oil Spills,
      API-FWPCA, 1969.

5  Federal Register,  Volume 35,  Number 106,
      June  2, 1970.
This outline was prepared by Richard T.
Dewling, Director,  R & D, Edison Water
Quality Laboratory,  OWP, EPA,  Edison,
NJ  08817.

                              TOXICITY AND EFFECTIVENESS

Damage to the environment from oil spill
cleanup operations by the indiscriminate use
of chemical dispersants has led to the
establishment of policies  regarding the use
of these materials.  These are set forth in
the June 1970 National Oil and Hazardous
Materials Pollution Contingency Plan which
was developed pursuant to the provisions of
the Water Quality  Improvement Act of 1970.
Among other constraints, it is the policy of
this plan that oil dispersing chemicals, prior
to their use, be tested for relative toxicity
and effectiveness in accordance with
standardized procedures to be established
by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Data on the relative toxicity and effectiveness
of these dispersing chemicals will provide
the basis for the selection of those chemicals
most  effective and least toxic to aquatic life,
or for prohibiting  their use.
 In the faU of 1969, the EPA's National Marine
 Water Quality Laboratory at West Kingston,
 Rhode Island, provided preliminary methods
 for determining the relative toxicity of
 dispersants, while EPA's Edison Water
 Quality Laboratory at Edison,  New Jersey
 completed work on tentative procedures for
 evaluating dispersant effectiveness.  Shortly
 thereafter,  a joint government/industrial
 task force panel reviewed the proposed tests
 developed by these laboratories and recom-
 mended that an independent evaluation of the
 tests be  conducted prior to  official
 promulgation.  Accordingly, an intensive
 program, sponsored by EPA, is currently
 underway by four  commerical laboratories
 to evaluate the reproducibility of the proposed
 tests and to recommend modifications,
 improvements and refinements in the testing
 procedures. This program is scheduled to
 be completed by June 1971.

 A  General Description

    These tests involve numerous bioassays
    on four aquatic organisms using the
    dispersant under investigation and
    mixtures of the dispersant with various
    oils.  The test procedures require
    determinations of 96  hour (for fish) and
    48 hour (for organisms other than fish)
    50% survival values (TL  J for both the
    raw dispersing chemicaland dilutions
    of the dispersant mixed in a  1:10 ratio
    with each of two crude oils and two fuel
    oils.  All test operations are carried out
    at 20° C for marine species  and 25°  C for
    fresh water species.

 B  Standardized Test Conditions

    The bioassay methods stipulated in the
    tests are based on "Standard Methods
    for the Examination of Water and
    Wastewaters", 12th Edition, but they
    are  modified to meet the  special problems
    arising in the use of fish  and of test
    organisms other than fish in the bioassay
    of dispersants and mixtures  of dispersants
    with different petroleum products. These
    modifications include special bioassay
    methods for organisms other than fish
    and  the standardization of certain aspects
    of the bioassays outlined  in "Standard
    Methods" such as test species,  mixing
    and  agitation, dilution water, aeration,
    dissolved oxygen concentrations,  temper-
    atures, pH and salinity.

    The complete testing procedures are
    described in reference (4).
 BI. BIO. met. 21. 5. 71

Proposed EPA Tests on Oil Dispersant Toxicity and Effectiveness
C  Test Organisms

   The four species designated for these
   tests are:

   1  For marine water determinations

      a Mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)
        Salt Water Fish

      b Oyster Larvae (Crassostrea
        virginica) - Soft Shell Invertebrate

      c Brine Shrimp (Artemia) -  Hard
        Shell Invertebrate

   2  For fresh water  determinations

      a Fathead Minnow (Pimephales
        promelas) - Fresh Water Fish

   These four species  were selected because
   they are widely distributed and,  with the
   exception of the oyster larvae, can be
   secured in many parts of the  country.
   The three test animals used in the marine
   water determinations represent a wide
   range of animal classes including: a free
   swimming fish; a mollusc (oyster) which
   is a bottom dwelling organism which is
   stationary at least part of its life; and an
   arthropod (shrimp)  which represents the
      largest class of animal species.  The
      animals selected for these tests also
      provide a wide range of indicators for
      relative toxicity.  The fresh and marine
      water fish are somewhat  tolerant animals,
      while the brine shrimp and oyster larvae
      are sensitive species highly susceptible to
      environmental insults.

   D  Test Oils

      The oils used in these tests were selected
      on the basis of their availability and their
      composition, so as to reflect the varied
      range of oils likely to be  encountered during
      spills. The selected oils are:

      1  A refined product (No. 2 fuel oil) per
         ASTM Specification D-396-67.

      2  A heavy residual fuel  oil (No. 6 fuel oil)
         per ASTM Specification D-396-67.

      3  A heavy,  high asphaltic Venezuelan
         crude oil (Bachaquero) with the
         characteristics shown below.

      4  A light,  low residual crude (South
         Louisiana) with the characteristics
         shown below.
        Viscosity, Universal
        Pour Point, o p
        % Weight Sulfur
        % Weight Asphaltenes
        Neutralization Number
        % Volume Distilled at:

               4000 F

South Louisiana


                           Proposed EPA Tests on Oil Dispersant Toxicity and Effectiveness
 E Discussion

    The prime purpose of the EPA Dispersant
    Toxicity Tests is to provide data which
    will indicate relative, short term (acute)
    toxicity of dispersants and oil dispersant
    mixtures.  These tests do not indicate the
    long term toxicity of these chemicals  to
    aquatic organisms,  safe levels for the
    aquatic biota or for humans, nor do they
    constitute an endorsement of any material
    by the EPA.

 A General Description

    These tests essentially incorporate the
    basic apparatus of the Navy Tank Test
    of Specification MIL-S-22864,  Solvent -
    Emulsifier, Oil Slick with substantial
    procedural and equipment modifications
    to more closely simulate environmental
    conditions.  The tests utilize a 24-inch
    diameter X 28-inch high cylindrical tank
    containing 16-inches of standardized
    synthetic sea water with a system for
    recirculating the tank contents from the
    bottom of the tank to just below the surface
    of the water.  This simulates the sub-
    surface mixing of natural waters.  In the
    test,  100 ml of oil is poured into a 7. 5
    inch diameter stainless steel ring which
    is positioned at the water's surface.
    The ring is used to contain the oil and
    facilitate contact between the oil and the
    dispersing chemical.  The dispersant to
    be investigated is applied (in varying
    quantities) in a fine stream to the oil and
    a predetermined "contact time" is allowed
    for the chemical to contact the oil.  The
    oil/dispersant  mixture is then agitated by
    hosing with a pressurized stream of
    synthetic sea water under standard con-
    ditions until the water level in the tank
    reaches 18-inches.  At the termination
    of hosing, the tank contents are allowed
    to recirculate throughout the sampling
    period.  For determination of  "initial
    dispersion" the samples are withdrawn
    5 minutes after termination of hosing,
    which is the shortest time required for
the contents of the tank to stabilize; for
determination of dispersant "stability",
samples are withdrawn at stipulated
intervals for periods of up to 6 hours
after termination of hosing.  Oil is
extracted from the samples with an
organic solvent and the quantity of oil
is spectrophotometrically determined.
Results of tests are expressed as percent
of the original 100 ml of oil dispersed--
that is, recovered from the underlying

In these tests, varying quantities of the
dispersant under investigation are mixed
with a  constant quantity of oil (100 ml) in
order to establish the minimum quantity
of dispersant required for an "initial
dispersion" of 25%,  50% and 75% of the
total oil sample.

"Stability" determinations are made with
that quantity of dispersant which causes
a 50% "initial dispersion" of the  oil.
The "stability" tests measure the relative
persistence of the dispersion for periods
of up to 6 hours of mild agitation and
basically follow the time course  in the
decay of the "initial dispersion".  It has
been found that the time between addition
of dispersing chemical and agitation
(contact time) may have a profound
influence on dispersant effectiveness, i.e.
longer contact time improves the effective-
ness of some dispersants and reduces that
of others.  For this reason,  the  contact
time in this test is adjusted, to some
extent,  to the properties of the dispersing
chemical used.  This adjustment is made
by determining initial dispersion values
of the chemical at widely differing contact
times (zero and 10 minutes) and by per-
forming all subsequent tests at that
contact time giving greater dispersion.

Since eduction is frequently suggested by
manufacturers as a method for applying
dispersants,  these tests include  deter-
minations of dispersant effectiveness when
educted into the agitation hose stream as
compared to effectiveness when applied
undiluted to the oil followed by agitation.

 Proposed EPA Tests on Oil Dispersant'. Toxicity.and Effectiveness
    More details of the Proposed EPA
    Dispersant Effectiveness Tests are given
    in reference (5).

  B Test Oils

    The oils used in these tests are the same
    as those designated for the EPA Dispersant
    Toxicity Tests.

  C Discussion

    The EPA Dispersant Effectiveness Tests,
   • which measure both initial dispersion and
    stability of dispersion and simulate typical
    environmental conditions, have been found
    by the  Edison Water Quality  Laboratory
    to produce results which correspond
    favorably with field performance. The
    tests show promise of providing meaningful
    measures of the effectiveness of  chemicals
    in dispersing oil from the surface of water.

 Test procedures have been proposed by the
 Environmental Protection Agency for deter-
 mining the relative toxicity and effectiveness
 of oil dispersing chemicals.  The dispersant
 toxicity tests include bioassay  determinations
 on four aquatic organisms using the dispersant
 under investigation and mixtures of the
 dispersant with two crude oils  and two fuel
 oils.  The dispersant effectiveness tests are
 basically modifications and refinements of
 the Navy specification for solvent emulsifiers.
 These  tests measure the relative efficiency
 of the dispersant in varying concentrations
 with the designated oils.

 It is expected that upon completion of the
 current evaluations of these proposed tests
 by the  four commercial laboratories,
 meaningful standard procedures will be
 finalized which will be reproducible from
 day to  day and from laboratory to laboratory.
 These tests should provide the  necessary
 tools for the selection of relatively non-toxic,
 effective dispersing chemicals  for oil cleanup

 1  National Oil and Hazardous Materials
      Pollution Contingency Plan.  June 1970.

 2  Public Law 91-224,  91st Congress,
      H. R.  4148,  Water Quality Improvement
      Act.  April 3,  1970.   •    .

 3  Standard Methods, for the Examination
      of Water and Wastewaters,  12th . .
      Edition.   American Public  Health .
      Association.  New York.   1969.

 4  Tarzwell,  C.M.-   Standard-Methods for
      Determination of Relative Toxicity of
      Oil Dispersants and Mixtures of
      Dispersants and Various Oils to Aquatic
      Organisms,  Proceedings - Joint
      (API/FWPCA) Conference on. Prevention
      and Control of Oil Spills.  December
      1969..    .    •          ...'-.

 5  Murphy,  T.A., McCarthy,  L. T.
      Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Oil-
      Dispersing Chemicals, Proceedings -
      Joint (API/FWPCA) Conference on
      Prevention and Control of Oil Spills.
      December 1969.

 6  MIL-S-22864 A (Ships), Military
      Specification, Solvent-Emulsifier,
      Oil-Slick.  February 24,  1969.
This outline was prepared by Ira Wilder,
Chemical Engineer,  R & D, Edison Water
Quality Laboratory,  Office of Water Programs,
EPA, Edison, --NJ,. .


 Sinking agents are oil-attracting and water
 repelling sorbent materials designed to sink
 oil slicks out of sight rather than agglomer-
 ating oil on the water surface.  The use of
 oil sinkants would seem advantageous in
 deeper waters outside heavy fishing zones,
 such as off the continental shelf and where
 adverse  effects upon biological bottom life
 may be held  at a minimum.'°' Existing
 EPA  policy on sinking agents restricts their
 use to waters exceeding 100  meters in depth.

 Oily  discharges into inland rivers and coastal
 waters do not remain floating forever since
 much of  the oil will be naturally absorbed
 onto clay, silt and other particulate matter
 normally suspended in the water, thus causing
 eventual sinking of the oil.  Sinking by
 natural means, for example,  is believed to be
 one of the primary causes for the disappearance
 of oil slicks  in the New York Harbor complex.

 Various types of natural materials and com-
 mercial products are presently available
 which are claimed to be effective in sinking
 oil slicks. *lj ' Typical agents include sand,
 brick dust,  fly ash, china clay, volcanic ash,
 coal dust, cement, stucco, slaked lime, spent
 tannery lime, carbonized-siliconized-waxed
 sands,  crushed stone, vermiculite, kaolin,
 fuller's earth,  and calcium carbonate, including
 the "Oyma" type chalk used during the TORREY

 Sinking agents  are believed most  efficiently
 employed on thick, heavy and weathered oil
 slicks in contrast to relatively light and fresh
 oils.   These agents are granular  or fine
 particulate  solids with a specific  gravity
 generally between 2. 4 and 3. 0.   These agents
 must be evenly distributed over the surface of a
 a slick and  suppled with proper mixing,
 agitation and time interaction.  The particle-
 coated and agglomerated mass eventually
 becomes heavier  than water and sinks to the

 The major problem in sinking oils is that the
bonding of the agent with the oil must be
nearly permanent.  Experiments in both the
laboratory and field show that many agents
will release entrapped and  sunken  oils back
to the water environment.  Increasing the
application rate two or three times over
prescribed amounts has served to  minimize
this release.

Studies conducted by various investigators
(4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12) indicated that:
 Sulfurized oils may show greater sinking
 abilities than desulfurized oils because of
 higher potentials for hydrogen bonding.

 When sands are used for sinking it may
 be expected that the oily mass will be
 stable under water when the sands are
 closely packed and the interstices are
 filled with oil giving an oil content around
 40 per cent  and a bulk density about 1. 7.
 However,  when the  sands  are  loosely
 packed,  the mass will become internally
 mobile, so that oil drops will separate  and
 escape"to the water until equilibrium is

 With carbonized sand, it was indicated
 that up to three pounds of sand would be
 required to  sink one pound of oil.  Large-
 scale applications of amine-coated sands
 envision spraying the  sand in  a slurry
 form from  a large vessel or hopper dredge.

 In ports and harbors it has been mentioned
 that turbulence or agitation of the water
 body caused by storms or passing vessels
 may tend to release oily masses previously
 sunk. For siliconized sand, it has also
 been suggested that one per cent bone
• flour or an inexpensive fertilizer may be
 added to promote bacterial growths and
Tated decomposition of the sunken
'  •  ' Table 1 summarizes the tyc
    application rates and relative costs of
    various sinking agents.

 The most prominent large-scale application
 of sinking agents was that undertaken by the
 French to sink large masses of TORREY
 CANYON oils in the Bay of Biscay.  Some
 3, 000 tons of calcium carbonate (blackboard
   IN. PPW.ol. 15.5. 71

 Treatment of Oil Spills - Sinking Agents
 chalk from the Champagne area of France)
 coated with about one per cent sodium
 stearate,  was used to treat and sink about
 20, 000 tons of floating oils,  although this
 amount was never precisely defined.   The
 powdery chalk was sprayed or sprinkled
 over the  thick, highly viscous and weathered
 oil patches and thereafter the water surface
 was mixed by vessels criss-crossing the
 area.  The oil-chalk mixture reportedly
 sank in about 60-70 fathoms of water.   The
 area of sinking was known to partially cover
 scamp fishing grounds and thus there was
 fear of bottom inundation and oil resurfacing.
 Numerous observations, since this incident,
 however,  have reported no  adverse effects
 upon fisheries and bottom life, and there
 have been no sightings of resurfacing oils
 upon the water or adjoining shorelines.
 Nevertheless, it was concluded that lack of
 knowledge on the precise fate of the oil shows
 need for further trials before this method may
 be recommended in other situations. "*' *  '

Opinion still remains divided on the use of
oil sinkants as to their  efficiency,  cost,
application, and possible adverse effects.
With sinking agents,  the same problems are
encountered in the application and distribu-
tion as was indicated in the lecture on floating
sorbents.   However,  with sinking agents,
operational logistics become increasingly
more difficult because of the much larger
amounts of material required for treatment.

Although damaging effects have been ascribed
to toxicity and smothering of bottom life by
sunken oils,  the sinking approach serves to
localize oil pollution, to prevent its spread
over the water surface,  and theoretically
submerge and anchor the oil near the source
of pollution.  Considering that the bottom of
harbors and bays near many industrial ports
are grossly polluted and nonproductive,
emergency sinking of oils in these areas may
not increase damage to fisheries.  Dilution by
flowing waters in certain areas may also be
sufficient  to adequately minimize toxicity to
nearby shellfish grounds.  The other impor-
tant point  of view is that sinking agents, even
if used in  harbor areas  because of fire  or
explosion  danger,  can at best be of temporary
benefit. The resurfacing oils, although less
objectionable due to weathering,  may require
pick up.  Furthermore, sinking may greatly
extend the period over which aquatic fauna and
flora are affected.  U,^,8, 1^)
Dutch Shell Laboratories, Holland,  ""'  was
one of the first groups to really evaluate
sinking  agents on a field scale basis.  Their
studies,  still underway,  involve using sand
treated  with an amine.  One very important
finding from their investigations was that
there was a correlation between clay content
and performance as measured by the per-
centage of oil sunk.  The lower  the clay
content  the more efficient the sinking agent.
The Warren Spring Laboratory, United
Kingdom, ^'impressed by the results of
these studies, conducted similar field
investigations during 1969.  Conclusions
reached by the Warren Spring Laboratory
were as follows:

A  The sinking was not as effective as first-
   hoped and it would appear that the thick-
   ness of the oil film is an important factor.
   Nevertheless, between 50 and 70 per cent
   of the oil put on the sea was sunk.

B  The  skin divers reported that the oil  sank
   to the bottom in small particles which
   were only slightly more dense than the
   sea.   Consequently,  the tidal current along
   the sea bed was sufficient to  carry the oil
   over the ripples of sand on the bottom.

C  Trawling was carried out and although no
   actual lumps of oil were collected,  suffi-
   cient oil was rubbed onto the netting of the
   trawl to foul both the  catch and the fisher-
   men  when they were pulling it back into
   the vessel.

D  The  oil which remained afloat was par-
   ticularly difficult to dispose of using
   either more sand slurry or the normal
   solvent emulsifier mixture agitated by
   water hoses.   Further investigations on
   this particular phenomenon are being
   carried out both in England and in Holland.

In the United States,  the Army Corps of
Engineers, under contract to  U. S.  Coast
Guard,  is evaluating various types of sinking
agents--treated and untreated--as well as
investigating the possibility of using their
hopper  dredges, normally used for dredging
harbors,  to handle and apply the sinking
agents.   Results of these studies should be
available in 1971.

                                                                         Treatment of Oil Spills  -  Sinking  Agents

 Type Material
            Application Ratios
(Weight Sinking Agent: Weight Oil Treated)     Comments
Silica, untreated
Carbonized sand

Sands, amine-coated

Sands. 0.5% silicone coated
Fly ash, untreated
Fly ash. 0.5% silicone coated
              	              Released oil easily after sinking
              1:1 to 3:1                Higher proportion of sinking agent considered most
                                      appropriate: $27/ton carbonized sand (1948): specific
                                      gravity particles = 2.7
              3:2 to 2:1                Large-scale application costs estimated $5 - $10 per
                                      ton of oil treated
              	              More effective on heavier oils
              	              Released oil easily after sinking
           2:1 ratio or higher           Permanent oil sinking reported; more effective on
                                      lighter oils.
Spent tannery lime                            	
Kaolin clay                                   	
Bentonite, montmorillinite
   clay, treated and untreated                  	
Calcium carbonate                             	
Fuller's earth                                 1:1 to 9:1
Calcium carbonate - Champagne
   chalk treated with 1% sodium stearate         Approx. 1:1
                                      Good oil retention properties after sinking
                                      Released oil easily after sinking
                                      Released oil easily after sinking
                                      1:1 to 3:1 for sulfurized oil; 3:1 to 9:1 fordesulfurized oil.

                                      Used off the coast of France during the Torrey Canyon;
                                      $60 - $80/ton sinking agent. Specific gravity particles - 2.7.
Synthetic silicate

Synthetic plus filler material
              4:3 or higher
                                      High efficiency in absorbing fuel and crude oils; some
                                      difficulty in sinking the mass.
                                      Estimated $120/ton sinking agent.
A8ibliography (2.3,4,9, 10,12.13. 14)

 Treatment of Oil Spills - Sinking Agents

 1  Internal files and laboratory data of the
       Oil and Hazardous Material Section,
       R&D,  WQO, EPA, Edison Water
       Quality Laboratory, Edison, NJ.
       (Unpublished materials)

 2  "Study of Equipment and Methods for
       Removing Oil From Harbor Waters, "
       Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific
       Northwest Laboratories, Report No.
       CR-70-001,  prepared under Contract
       N62399-69-C-0028 for the Department
       of the Navy.

 3  Manufacturers' product bulletins  and
       brochures,  and follow-up communica-

 4  "Oil Pollution  at Sea, Studies in Con-
       nection with the TORREY CANYON
       Episode, " Atomic Energy Research
       Establishment,  Chemistry Division,
       Harwell,  Berks, Great Britain, Sep-
       tember 1967.

 5  Struzeski, E.  and Dewling, R. ,  "Chemical
       Treatment of Oil Spills, " Proceedings,
       Joint Conference on Prevention and
       Control of Oil Spills, API and  FWPCA.

 6  Smith, J. W. ,  United Kingdom Ministry
       of Technology, "Work on Oil Pollution",
       Proceedings, Joint Conference on
       Prevention  and Control of Oil Spills,
       API and FWPCA,  1969.

 7  "TORREY CANYON Pollution and Marine
       Life, "  A Report by the Plymouth
       Laboratory of the Marine Biological
       Association of the United Kingdom,
       Cambridge University Press, Great
       Britain,  1968.

 8  "Chemical Treatment of Oil Slicks, " U. S.
       Department of the Interior, FWPCA,
       Water Quality Laboratory, Edison, NJ,
       March 1969.

 9  Hartung,  R.  and Klinger, G. W. ,
       "Sedimentation of Floating Oils, "
       Papers of the Michigan Academy of
       Science, Arts, and Letters,  Vol. LIII,
       1968 (1967 Meeting)

10  Correspondence and internal reports
       received from Department of the Army,
       U. S. Corps of Engineers,  Vicksburg,
       Miss.,  and Washington,  DC.
11  Meijs,  L.  J.  et al,  "New Methods for
       Combating Oil Slicks,  Proceedings,
       Joint Conference on Prevention and
       Control of Oil Spills, API and FWPCA,
Chipman, W. A.  and Galtsoff, P.  S. ,
    Effects of Oil Mixed with Carbonized
   Sand on Aquatic Animals, " Special
   Scientific Report: Fisheries No.  1,
   U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish
   and Wildlife Service, Washington,  DC,
   August 1949.

"The TORREY  CANYON, " Presented to
   Parliament by the Secretary of State
   for  the Home Department by Command
   of Her Majesty, April 1967.  Her
   Majesty's Stationery Office, London,

"The TORREY  CANYON", Cabinet Office,
   Report of the Committee of Scientists
   on the Scientific and Technicological
   Aspects of the Torrey Canyon  Disaster,
   Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London,
   England.   1967.

"French Explode an Oil Slick Myth, "
   article appearing in the MANCHESTER
   GUARDIAN, Manchester,  England,
   July 25, 1968.

Bone, Q.  and Holme, N. , "Lessons from
   p. 492-493, Septembers,   1968.

Bone, Q.  and Holme, N. ,  "Oil Pollution --
   Another Point of View, " NEW  SCIENTIST,
   37,  p. 365,  February 15,  1968.
 This outline was prepared by R. T. Dewling,
 Director, Research & Development, Office of
 Water Programs,     Edison Water Quality
 Laboratory, Edison, NJ   08817.


 Burning of oil on water or land by special
 methods and materials seems to offer an
 attractive and perhaps inexpensive means of
 eliminating large amounts, providing of course,
 the many significant hazards are also recog-
 nized.  Freshly spilled oils and crudes con-
 taining volatile components are  relatively
 ignitible.  If a thick  layer of  oil on water is
 present,  the oil will sustain burning until the
 volatiles and a portion of the heavier frac-
 tions are combusted. Conversely, with fresh
 oil spills within a harbor or confined area,  a
 significant fire danger exists when the level
 of hydrocarbon vapors is within the range of
 flammability,  (e. g. gasoline, aviation fuels,
 or  light crude oils).  (1,2)

 Wood,  debris or other material caught with-
 in  an oil slick can serve as a wick to start
 or  sustain an oil fire.  The cooling of a  layer
 of oil by the water body beneath will greatly
 deter burning.  However, the wick will with-
 draw the oil and insulate the burning oils from
 the cooling action of the water,  and at the same
 time provide a renewal and vaporization
 surface for combustion.


 A  General

    Experience by certain investigators has
    indicated that floating oils on the sea with
    thicknesses less than 3 millimeters (0. 12
    inches) will not burn.  It is also reported
    that layers of kerosene, gas  oil, lubri-
    cating oil and fuel oil on water  will not
    burn at all without a wick.  In one instance,
    attempts were made to ignite fresh Iranian
    crude oil five minutes after  a spill without
    success.  Once an oil spillage has spread,
    the material quickly loses its volatile
    components and ignition is extremely
    difficult.  Weathered oils  are consequently
    reported to present almost no fire hazard.

 B  EPA Lab Experiments

    In experiments carried out at the Edison
    Laboratory,  a heavy fuel oil  and a light-
    weight crude  oil were placed atop a layer
    of water contained in metal tanks with 24-
    square-feet of exposed surface area.
    Attempts were made to combust the oils
   using different burning agents.  It was
   concluded from these experiments that
   the light crude, freshly applied in a
   floating thickness of 2. 5  millimeters (0. 1
   inches), required external support with
   burning agents and an ignition source to
   burn near completion.

   When the No. 6 fuel was used for testing,
   one of the agents used would not sustain
   burning at a thickness of 1/2 to 2/3 inches.
   Another agent generously applied over the
   surface ot the No. 6 fuel caused sporadic
   burning and the minimum required oil
   thickness to sustain burning was 1/3 to
   1/2 inches.  It is important to note that
   a thickness of 1/3 to 1/2 inches  is equiv-
   alent to an oil slick of 7 million  gallons/sq.
   mile.  It was evident after this burning
   that appreciable oil was still remaining.
   A third agent used performed well with
   the No. 6 fuel at a thickness of I/10 to 1/4
   inches.  The manufacturer producing this
   material,  however,  suggests that in order
   to have complete burning of all the oil,  the
   oil layer must be completely covered with
   the material with no broken patches.  Re-
   quired amounts of this material  (very low
   bulk density) may be as high as one pound
   for each 12-15 square-feet of oil slick.

C  EPA Field Tests

   Field scale oil slick burning experiments,
   with and without special agents have been
   undertaken in 1970 by both the U. S.  Navy
   and the Edison Water Quality Laboratory.
   Preliminary data from these experiments
   indicate the following:

   1 Burning of free floating or uncontained
      oil slicks is  extremely difficult unless
      the thickness of oil is 2mm or greater.

   2 Adequate automated seeding methods
     for both the powder and nodule-type
     burning agents are lacking.  Spreading
      of the burning agent on the oil slick had
     to be accomplished by hand.  This con-
      clusion was also reached by the Navy,
     which  conducted burning experiments
     in May 1970.

   3  Contained South Louisiana crude oil
     was successfully burned -  80% to 90%
     reduction-without the  application of
 IN.PPW.ol. 16.5. 71.

Treatment of Oil Spills - Burning Agents
      burning agents and/or "priming" fuels.
      Bunker C could not be ignited under
      these same conditions.

   4  Bunker C was successfully burned -
      80% to  90% reduction - When the slick
      was seeded with burning agents and an
      appropriate priming fuel.  It was
      discovered that South  Louisiana crude
      oil performed better as a priming agent
      than did gasoline or lighter fluid.

   5  Use of  magnesium type flares and
      gasoline torches to ignite the burning-
      agent-treated slick proved unsuccessful.
      Success was achieved, however, using
      a blow  torch once we learned how to
      manipulate the torch in such a manner
      that the torch gas pressure did not push
      aside the oil and seed material so as to
      expose the water surface.

D  U. K. Experience

   Burning agents were considered when the
   TORREY CANYON was in the final stages
   of destruction off the  British coast in
   March of 1967. As a last resort, the
   British Government attempted simultaneous
   and complete burning of the  15, 000-20, 000
   tons of oil remaining  in the badly broken
   tanker by  aerial bombing, incendiaries,
   and catalyst-oxidizing devices. The major
   objective was to penetrate and lay open
   the decks by "explosive surgery, " exposing
   the oil in the  storage  compartments to
   large  amounts of oxygen  required for
   burning.   High-explosive, 1, 000 pound
   bombs filled with aluminum particles,
   thousands of gallons of aviation fuel,  na-
   palm  bombs,  rockets, and sodium  chlo-
   rate devices served to produce a massive
   fire, if not a  sustained fire.  The British
   concluded that no appreciable amounts of
   oil escaped burning,  but  if any did,  it was
   lost to the open sea.   (5,  6)

E  Use Considerations

   Controlling the burning oil mass and
   ensuing air pollution problems  would
   appear to preclude intentional burning
   except where the oil mass is distant from
   the coastline,  offshore facilities,  vessels,
   etc.  The  safety and welfare of all parties
   however remote from the burning site are
   of utmost importance. The possible loss
   of additional oil, and  the  loss of a drilling
   platform or vessel at  the source of  the
   spill must be recognized. Because of po-
   tential merits in controlled burning,
    further research is desired on new
    methods,  techniques and procedures both
    in the laboratory and in the field,  together
    with additional guidelines for burning.

 J. Wardly Smith,  Ministry of the Environ-
 ment,  United Kingdom, has conducted a
 series of research experiments involving
 the burning of oil on beaches.  The conclu-
 sions reached by these studies were:

 A The type of heavy oil normally contam-
    inating beaches  and the foreshore is very
    difficult to burn by ordinary means and
    combustion ceases when the source of
    heat is removed.

 B The addition  of solid oxidants aids the
    combustion of part of the  deposit, but a
    sticky, tarry residue is left with medium
    heat and a residue of dry, black carbon
    with prolonged intense heat.  About 30
    per cent by weight of oxidant has to be
    employed to  achieve this and when the
    deposit occurs on sand, shingle or pebbles
    the amount of heat necessary  to raise the
    whole to ignition temperature is so great
    that,  in practice,  the cost of removal
    would probably be excessive.

 C The application  of an oil-absorbent,  com-
    bustible material,  such as sawdust im-
    pregnated with an oxidant, resulted in a
    much steadier burning rate  and an increased
    removal of the deposit.  The additive, how-
    ever,  burns  away before the higher-boiling,
    tarry fractions begin to burn.

 D Although some improvement was obtained
    by adding materials which function as a
    wick,  the same  limitation regarding the
    amount of heat to be supplied  still prevailed.

 E A major disadvantage of burning as a
    method for the removal of oil deposits on
    beaches, especially when dealing with the
    large semi-solid lumps, is  that,  when
    heat is applied,  the oil becomes mobile
    and penetrates deeper into the beach, thus
    increasing the contaminated area if it
    becomes exposed  at a later  date.

 F On  the basis  of these small-scale exper-
    iments it was considered  that, for all
    practical purposes, burning beach oil
    deposits would be less efficient and more
    costly than mechanical or manual removal,
    and that further investigation  would be

                                                    Treatment of Oil Spills - Burning Agents

 Commercial burning aigents are available
 for promoting combustion of an oil slick.
 However, in most cases it is apparent these
 agents are designed for a relatively thick oil
 layer which is sufficiently contained.  These
 agents are intended to serve one or more
 functions such as providing increased surface
 area exposed to burning; addition of catalysts,
 oxidizers and low-boiling volatile components;
 absorbence and entrapment of the oil; or
 creating a wicking mechanism via surface
 diffusion and capillary  action by the material

 To the best of our knowledge, burning agents
 are available from only four sources:

 A  Eduard Michels GmbH, 43 Essen,  Post-
    fach 1189, Ruttenscheider Str 1. :
    "Kontax",  the commercial name for this
    agent, ignites spontaneously when it comes
    in contact with water.   In 1969, the Dutch
    conducted field experiments  which included
   burning of oil on beaches,  and in open
   waters.  Results of  this investigation
   indicated that the quantity of "agent" re-
   quired was dependent upon wind, condition
    of sea and continuity and thickness of oil.

    Dutch engineers  also reported that a
   method should be developed to jettison,
    hurl or catapult the  "agent" from a vessel
    in such a way that there is not the slightest
    risk of having the "agent" come in contact
    with rainwater or spray.  Dropping from
    an airplane is worth considering provided
    special packaging requirements are met.

 B  Pittsburgh Corning,  One Gateway Center,
    Pittsburgh, Pa. :  Known as "Seabeads",
    these cellulated glass nodules are avail-
    able in sizes from 1/8" to 1/4" in diameter.
    By capillary action,  the nodules become
    coated with oil.   Depending upon the type
    and age of the spilled oil, combustion is
    accomplished by using  an incendiary  device
    alone, or in combination with a "primer
   fluid" such as gasoline. After burning,
    SeaBeads still remain,  therefore,  they
   must be collected or left to break up by
    abrasion. During the "Arrow" incident in
    1970, this burning agent was used, with
    varying degrees  of success,  on small
    patches of spilled oil.

 C  Guardian Chemical Corporation, Long
    Island City, NY   11101:  Pyraxon, a powder
    material, is a catalyst containing small
    amounts of oxidizing materials.  Pyraxon
    liquid is used as the priming agent or
   starter fluid, with the powder being
   sprayed,  blown or dropped onto the oil,
   in and around the flame.

D  Cabot Corporation,  125 High Street,
   Boston,  Ma. :  Cab-O-Sil ST-2-0 promotes
   combustion by acting as a wicking agent.
   Produced from fumed silica, this powdery-
   like material,  is  surface treated to render
   it hydrophobic. It may be applied directly
   to the slick or by spraying in a stream of
   water.  Combustion is best accomplished
   by using  an incendiary device in conjunc-
   tion with a "primer fluid".   Reportedly,
   this product was used successfully for
   handling  a 2, 000 gallon spill  at Heard
   Pond, Wayland,  Ma.

1  "Study of Equipment and Methods for
         Removing Oil from Harbor Waters, "
         Battelle Memorial Institute,  Pacific
         Northwest Laboratories, Report No.
         CR-70-001,  prepared under  Contract
         N62399-69-C-0028 for the Department
         of the Navy.

2  "Chemical Treatment of Oil Slicks, " U. S.
         Department of the Interior, FWPCA,
         Water Quality  Laboratory, Edison,
         NJ. , March  1969.

3  Manufacturers' product bulletins and
         brochures,  and follow-up commu-

4  Internal files and laboratory data of the
         Oil and Hazardous Material Section,
         R&D, EPA,  Edison Water Quality
         Laboratory,  Edison,  NJ (Unpub-
         lished materials)

5  "The  TORREY CANYON, "  Presented to
         Parliament by the Secretary of State
         for the Home Department by Command
         of Her Majesty,  April 1967,  Her
         Majesty's Stationery  Office,  London

Treatment of Oil Spills - Burning Agents
6  "The TORREY CANYON", Cabinet Office,
        Report of the Committee of Scientists
        on the Scientific and Technological      ™s outline was prepared by R. T  Dewling.
        AO~«,,*.C.  «f <-h~ rr~~~~,r ,-„.,„.,,.,             Director, Research & Development, Edison
           Pter  Her MaSfy^s Stationery       Water Qualit^ ^oratory.  Office  of Water
              ^London  England, 196?    "       Programs,   Edison,  NJ  08817


 Gelling agents are applied over the surface
 or periphery of a floating oil slick and are
 intended to absorb,  congeal, entrap, fix,  or
 make the oil mass more rigid or viscous so
 as to facilitate subsequent physical or
 mechanical pick up.  The gelling concept is
 also undergoing extensive  study for  stabi-
 lizing petroleum cargoes aboard a stranded
 or heavily-damaged tanker at sea subject  to
 mass spillage.

 Possible gel agents include molten wax or
 soap solutions,  lanolin,  liquid solutions of
 natural fatty acids,  soaps of the alkaline
 metals, treated colloidal silicas, the amine-
 isocyanates, and the polymer systems.  One
 manufacturer indicates a cost of $3 per
 gallon of gel agent,  a use ratio of about 1:1,
 and  the ability to mix the recovered gel mass
 with fuel oils serving as replacement bunker
 fuel.  This gel agent is applied  to the surface
 of the  vrater by a high-pressure spray system
 to provide sufficient agitation and mixing of
 the gel-oil mass.

 Preliminary research on the gelling of tan-
 ker  cargoes tends to show that a 3-10 per
 cent gel agent will be required at a mater-
 ials cost of 13-40 cents per gallon of tan-
 ker  crude oil gelled.  However,  total opera-
 tional  costs,  and the ability to salvage and
 reuse  the gelled cargoes,  are not fully known
 at this time.

 The gelling approach for treating oils on
 water, although promising,  must provide
 greater  attention to application and distri-
 bution, lower materials and operational costs,
 and  suitable means of picking up the amorphous
 oily masses.  Bunker C, heavy crude oils,
 and  some gel agents by themselves may clog
 intakes, pumps and suction lines.  The major
 difficulty is the ability to harvest the congealed
 mixtures isnce gelled oils cannot be easily
 collected by mechanical or manual means.
 Necessary improvements  are needed in the
 gelling approach in line with a total opera-
 tional  cleanup system.   (1, 2, 3, 4)

1  Internal files and laboratory data of the
      Oil and Hazardous Material Section,
      R&D,  EPA,  Edison Water Quality
      Laboratory, Edison, NJ.
      (Unpublished materials)

2  "Study of Equipment and Methods for Re-
      moving Oil From Harbor Waters, "
      Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific
      Northwest Laboratories, Report No.
      CR-70-001,  prepared under Contract
      N62399-69-C-0028 for  the Department
      of the Navy.

3  Manufacturers' product bulletins and
      brochures, and follow-up communication.

4  "Chemical Treatment of Oil Slicks, " U. S.
      Department of the Interior,  FWPCA,
      Water Quality Laboratory, Edison, NJ.
      March 1969.

5  U. S.  Patent #3, 198,731,  Method of
      Treating Oil on the Surface of Water.

6  Northeast Region,  R&D Programs,
      Federal Water Pollution Control Ad-
      ministration.  Status Report on Use
      of Chemical and Other Materials to
      Treat Oil on Water.
 This outline was prepared by R. T.  Dewling,
 Director, Research & Development, Office of
 Water Programs,    Edison Water Quality
 Laboratory, Edison,  NJ  08817
  IN. PPW.ol. 17.5. 71

                                TREATMENT OF OIL SPILLS


A Sorbents are oil spill scavengers or
   cleanup agents which adsorb and/or
   absorb oil.  Based on origin, sorbents
   may be divided into three general classes:

   1  Natural products

   2  Modified or chemically-treated natural

   3  Synthetic or man-made products

B Sorbents may be further classified as to
   their physical characteristics:

   1  Powdery products

   2  Granular products

   3  Fibrous materials

   4  Pre-formed foam slabs or sheets


Types of floating sorbent materials presently
available are:

A Natural Origin: Types derived from
   vegetative sources comprise straw, hay,
   seaweed, kelp, ground bark, sawdust,
   reclaimed fibers from  paper processing,
   and peat moss. Types derived from
   mineral sources may include the various
   clays, including montmorillinite, kaolin,
   fuller's earth, diatamaceous earth, etc.;
   vermicultite and the other micas, many
   forms of silicates, perlite, pumice, and
   asbestos.  Sorbents of  animal origin
   include chrome shavings from leather
   processing, wool wastes, feathers, and
   textile wastes.

B Modified Natural Products:  These
   materials comprise most of the  sorbent
    types mentioned above but are chemically-
    treated to produce a more desirable
    result.  Some of the modified types are
    expanded perlite, charcoal, stearate-
    coated talc, asbestos treated with
    surfactant, and sawdust and vermiculite
    coated with silicones.

    Synthetic Products:  These sorbents
    include a vast array broadly categorized
    as plastics and rubber, but more
    specifically as the ethylenes, styrenes,
    resins, polymers and co-polymers.

 Desirable Sorbent Characteristics

 A Oleophilic - has greater attraction for
    oil than water.

 B Hydrophobic - repels or rejects water.

 C Adsorbtive - oil will adhere to the  surface
    of the material.

 D Absorbtive - oil is assimilated into the

 E High oil capacity - the ratio of oil picked
    up to material applied (Ib/lb) should be
    at least 5:1 but preferably 10:1 or greater.

 F Retentive - leaking of oil from material
    should be minimal after harvesting.

 G Low costs - on a non-reusable product.
    High initial costs are acceptable for
    reusable products.

 H Products  should float under all conditions.

 Presently, none of the existing products have
 all of these desirable qualities.
   IN.PPW.ol. 11.5.71

 Treatment of Oil Spills

 A Advantages

    1  Aids in removing oil from water surface
       and alleviates or precludes undesirable
       after effects.

    2  Minimizes and decreases spread of oil.

    3  Generally, inexpensive and available
       in large quantities.

    4  Non-toxic.

    5  May increase both performance of
       booms and skimming techniques.

    6  Minimizes shore pollution when

 B Disadvantages

    1  No effective workable system at present.

    2  High labor costs associated with
       acquisition, transportation,  stock-
       piling, deployment, distribution on
       and working into an oil slick, retrieval
       and ultimate  disposal.

    3  Manual retrieval only practical under
       calm conditions.

    4  Some products interfere  with other
       forms of physical removal by clogging
       skimming and suction devices.

    5  Pollutional problems oil disposal.

    6  Some sorbent products ultimately sink.

       a  As their true density is greater than
          water, certain mineral products
          sink when air entrained in capillaries
          is replaced by oil and/or water or
          when products are wetted by water.

       b  Some natural vegetative products
          such as straw, sawdust or waste
          pulp fibers become waterlogged upon
          prolonged exposure  in water and
          may  sink.

  Sorbents may be used for many reasons.

  A To agglomerate oil from a massive spill
    to minimize  spread and potential damage.
    The above could be applicable to spills
    on large open bodies of water where other
    control procedures are ineffective and in
    other areas where presently available
    control procedures would be effective but
    are not readily available.

  B To "polish" a slick remaining after other
    control procedures such as booming and
    skimming have removed most of the oil.

  C To sorb free oil from contaminated
    surfaces to facilitate cleanup procedures.

  D To deploy sorbents onto open waters  and
    clean beaches in anticipation of the
    arrival of an uncontrolled slick.

  E Used in conjunction with either fixed  or
    towed booms.

 To define sorbent effectiveness certain basic
 questions relating to the environmental use
 of sorbents under actual spill conditions must
 be considered.

 A Why were sorbents used?

 B What procedures will be used to harvest
    the oil-sorbent mass?

 In each of the situations listed in Section V,
 the effectiveness must be evaluated differ-
 ently because criteria for evaluating
 effectiveness must be related to the original
 objective  for each different use.

 For  instance, the cost/application ratio
 (i.e. product costs/unit of oil sorbed) may
 be of primary importance in selecting a
 product for agglomerating a massive  spill
 but would be of a lesser degree of importance
 for "polishing" action or for alleviating or
 minimizing potential damage.

                                                                      Treatment of Oil Spills

   A  The accumulation of oil by sorbent
      products is a complex phenomenon
      dependent  upon several physical
      processes.  For example, when straw
      is used the different processes most
      probably occur as follows:

      1 Adsorbtion of oil to the straw surface.

      2 Absorbtion of oil into the interstitial
        fibers and filtration into the hollow

      3 When saturation  is reached additional
        oil is picked up by oil to oil cohesion.

   B  Products have different adsorbtive and
      absorbtive capacities.  For example, for
      free flowing oils:

      1 A highly pulverized mineral product
        manifests primarily adsorbtion.  The
        pickup  capacity is related to the surface
        area  available.

      2 A polymeric foam product manifests
        primarily absorbtion because of its
        high  internal porosity.

      3 The extraneous oil pickup of all products
        is related to the  viscosity of the oil to
        be  sorbed.  The  higher the viscosity,
        the greater the oil to oil cohesion and

   On unconfined oil slicks

   A  Products should be uniformly applied to the
      slick. Most unconfined oil slicks thin out
      very readily.  Therefore, in order not to
      waste product,  a thin uniform layer is

   B  The effectiveness of most products is
      increased by ultimately mixing  the product
      into the oil slick.   This can be accomplished:

      1  By churning up the mass by running
        boats through at high speed after broad-
        casting of products.
       By towing netting stretched between
       boats through the mass at slow speed.

       By existing environmental  energy such
       as wind,  wave and current action.

       If the above is not feasible, a time
       period of at least 3-6 hours should
       be allowed for the oil and product to
       mix.  Most spills occur in tidal areas,
       and as such,  the change of tide produce
       a minimum mixing energy.  Additionally,
       the weight  of most sorbent products
       will be sufficient to work the product
       into the oil if sufficient time  is allowed.

       A harvesting procedure utilizing
       netting or booms which encircles a
       given area and concentrates the oil/
       sorbent mass by decreasing the area
       is also effective.

 A Presently, there are no standard tests for
    evaluating the effectiveness of sorbents.
    However, small scale laboratory testing
    of many products have been completed
    which at least give a measure of the
    relative oil capacity of many available

 B Table I summarizes the results of bench
    scale testing of the oil sorbing capacity
    of selected products.  The data was
    summarized from Edison Water Quality
    Laboratory tests,  the oil pollution
    literature and manufacturers' brochures.

 C Table I reflects product costs varying
    from $20 to $20, 000 per ton which breaks
    down to costs of approximately $0. 02 to
    $1. 00 per gallon of oil sorbed.  These
    costs are product costs only,  based on
    the reported oil capacity of the products.
    They do not reflect the equipment and
    labor costs associated with their use in
    the environment.

 D Compared with other oil spill cleanup
    techniques such as booming,  skimming,
    dispersing and  sinking, cleanup with
    sorbents is reportedly the most costly

 Treatment of Oil Spills
    procedure.  The costs vary from $0. 50
    to $5. 00 per gallon of oil picked up,
    depending on the size of the spill and the
    equipment utilized.  In the  absence of an
    effective  system for  utilizing sorbents
    under actual spill conditions, the high
    cost are a reflection primarily of the
    labor costs of the multi-step process.
 E.A. Milz    of Shell Pipeline Corporation,
 Houston, Texas, reported the performance
 of 15 floating sorbents tested on a relatively
 large scale.

 A  Summary of test data is presented in
    Table II.

 B  Conclusions from tests.

    1  Tests showed that pound for pound
      polyurethane and urea formaldehyde
      foams are the best oil sorbents. On
      a weight basis these materials removed
      about 10 times more oil than other
      sorbents tested.

    2  For long contact times the quantity of
      oil sorbed is primarily a function of  oil
      viscosity and density.

    3  In most cases sorbents lose oil after
      pickup by drainage and evaporation.
      About 80% of oil initially absorbed will
      be retained after draining for 24 hours.

      a  One exception to the above is Kraton
         rubber which dissolves oil into the
         body of the material and completely
         retains it.  To facilitate sorbtion,
         samples were granulated to a particle
         size  of 4 mm.  Kraton rubber may
         also be foamed which should improve

    4  Power mulching machines can effectively
      spread up to nine tons of straw or hay
      per hour with immediate mixing with
      oil.  In  contrast, when hay was simply
      dumped overboard, it  remained in large
      dry clumps for over half an hour even
      in 4-5 foot waves.
     5  Power mulchers are satisfactory for
       shredding and spreading polyurethane

     6  When sorbents are used with booms the
       same problems are encountered as by
       containment of oil alone by booms.
       Wave action will cause spill-over and
       currents above  1 fps will cause under-

     7  Nets are more effective than booms for
       containing relatively small quantities
       of stringy material such as hay,  bark
       and shredded foam. With 1-inch mesh
       nets,  velocities of 2-3 fps are possible
       for small quantities of material without
       product loss.   For large  quantities of
       material, velocities of 1-2 fps are
       possible without failure (Figure 1).

     8  All collection or harvesting processes
       for oiled sorbents on open water involve
       screening processes.  Therefore, the
       selection of mesh size for harvesting
       devices is critical and is  related to the
       sorbent particle size.

 A Because of the inherent limitations or
    regulatory restrictions for such techniques
    as booming,  skimming,  sinking, dispersing,
    burning or gelling, the advantages of
    sorbent systems for cleaning up oil spills
    show great promise.

 B Reusable high-oil capacity sorbent products
    used in conjunction with self-contained
    mechanized systems will be developed
    'which will have  the following desirable

    1  Recovery of oil which  decreases prob-
       lem of disposal.  The  recovered oil can
       be taken to a separator and incorporated
       into refinery feeds  rather than buried.

    2  Products will be reusable.  Certain
       poly-foam products have an initially
       high-cost which decreases geometrically
       for each subsequent re-use. Such
       products may be used  dozens of times

                                                                   Treatment of Oil Spills
   and potentially hundreds of times by
   reinforcement of product with plastic

3  On open waters under inclement con-
   ditions there is no expediency for
   harvesting.  The products may be
   beached and subsequently the oil and
   product recovered on the beach or
   gathered later under calm conditions
   from the water surface.

Costs will decrease as manual labor is
replaced by mechanical equipment
incorporated into continuous self-
contained systems.

Presently the EPA, U. S. Coast Guard
and the API are evaluating proposed
sorbent systems submitted for research
                                                 2  Milz, E.A.   Oil Spill Control Equipment
                                                      and Techniques.  Presented to the
                                                      21st Annual Pipe  Line Conference,
                                                      Dallas, Texas.    April 14,  1970.

                                                 3  Study of Equipment and Methods for
                                                      Removing Oil from Harbor Waters.
                                                      Prepared by Battelle Memorial
                                                      Institute, Richland, Washington for
                                                      U. S. Navy, Civil Engineering Lab-
                                                      oratory,  Port Hueneme, California.
                                                      August 1969.

                                                 4  Combating Pollution Created by Oil Spills.
                                                      Prepared by A. D. Little, Inc. for
                                                      Department of Transportation, U.S.
                                                      Coast Guard.  June 1969.

1  Struzeski,  E. J. and Dewling, R.T.
      Chemical Treatment of Oil Spills.
      Published in Proceedings Joint
      Conference (API/FWPCA) on
      Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
      New York.  December 1969.
                                              This outline was prepared by L. T. McCarthy,
                                              Jr., Chemist,  Oil Pollution Research
                                              Section,  OWP, EPA, Edison Water Quality
                                              Laboratory,  Edison,  NJ  08817.

                                                                 TABLE I
                                                            COSTS OF SORBENTS
                          (Product  costs  per  1,000 gallon spill.  Does not include labor and equipment costs)
              Type Material

              Ground pine bark,  undried
              Ground pine bark,  dried
              Ground pine bark
              Sawdust,  dried
              Industrial sawdust
              Reclaimed paper fibers,  dried,
                 surface treated
              Fibrous,  sawdust and other
              Porous peat moss

              Ground corncobs
              Chrome leather shavings

              Asbestos, treated
              Fibrous,  perlite,  and other
              Perlite,  treated
              Talcs, treated
              Vermiculite, dried
              Fuller's  earth

              Polyester plastic  shavings
              Nylon-polypropylene rayon
              Resin type
              Polyurethane foam^  '
              Polyurethane foam   '
              Polyurethane foam'--''
  Pick Up Ratio
Weight Oil Pick Up
Weight Absorbent





  Unit  Cost
 Absorbent  $
(Ton Absorbent)






$ Cost of Absorbent for
Cleanup of 1,000 Gals.
	Oil Spill6	





             *Numbers refer to different types.



Sorbent Material
Kraton 1101
Kraton 1107
Urea Formaldehyde
2" x 24" x 60"
Polyurethane" '
Hny <*>
Conditions: Sorbent applied to
Used Thickness
(Ibs.) (in.)
25 1/4
25 1/4
1.6 1/4
20 1/4
20 1/4
5 1/4
24 1/4
49 1/4
1. Fine ground polyurethane (ca1. 1/4" diameter).
the polyurethane. There was no trace of oil
oil slick confined to 20
Test Oil
Quantity Viscosity
(Ibs.) (cs.)
700 4
700 4
700 4
556 6
660 6
300 6
300 ' 6
700 6
' x 20' area,
For this test there was insufficient
left after removing the polyurethane.
2. Polyurethane in 9-feet long by 2-feet diameter bag. The bag picked up
102 pounds o£ oil.
3. Scraps of polyurethane of 1 and 2-inch thickness in various shapes and
4. Performance of straw and bagasse are similar to hay.

no mixing
Oil Oil to
' Removed Sorbent
(Ibs.) Ratio
23 1.1
ca. 30 1.2
41 26
560 28
100 ' 5
230 46
120 5
210 4
oil present to saturate
over 500 pounds of water and only
sizes up to 1-foot by 4-f eet .

reatment of Oil £

Treatment of Oil Spills
                                    MAT OF SORBENT FORMS
                                    UPSTREAM FROM  SCREEN
                                            O.S TO I FPS,
                                   FIRST FAILURE MODE-
                                   MAT COLLAPSES AGAINST SCREEN
                                  FINAL  FAILURE MODE-
                                  SORBENT SWEPT  UNDER SCREEN
                              Fig. 1  -  Sorbent Barrier Failure Modes  in Current

                                  CONTROL OF OIL SPILLS


In spite of everyone's best efforts at prevention
oil has been, and will continue to be spilled
on the water.  What do you do about it once
it's there?  From other information presented
in this training manual you know that,  if
ignored, it won't go away. It may move away
from the area where it was deposited, but if
left in or  on the water, something will be
adversely affected by it.  If you are the party
responsible for the loss,  it is a violation of
federal law, Section 11 (b) (3), of the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act, as amended
(84 Stat. 92 33 USC  1161) not to report the oil
loss, and after you report it, it will be to your
advantage to do something about it.  If you are
a pollution control official or have delegated
responsibilities in this area, you also will
want to do something about it.  But what?

The first  priority in your control program is
to attempt to limit the spread of the oil mass.
Experience has shown that if left to its own
devices, oil spreads into  thinner and thinner
films and breaks apart into smaller patches
covering larger areas.  The  greater the area
covered the more difficult and costly the clean-
up program becomes.  As the oil mass spreads,
resources such as municipal, industrial, and
agricultural water supply sources; waterfowl,
fish and general aquatic flora and fauna;
recreational interests, both  public and private,
as beaches, shorefront properties and homes,
marinas,  pleasure boats and tourist centers;
and shellfish harvesting,  to name a few, may
be affected.  To contain an oil spill within a
limited area,  oil retention barriers commonly
called "oil booms" have been developed.  A
satisfactory boom design  has to overcome the
many forces acting upon it.

Forces are exerted by the oil being contained,
and the water  in which it is immersed.  The
boom may be used to encircle an oil slick to
prevent its spread, to encircle an oil slick and
then compact it so as to decrease the area of
coverage  and increase film thickness to make
 recovery easier,  or to keep the oil away from
 sensitive areas.  It is an essential tool in any
 oil pollution control program and generally
 will be the first piece of equipment placed on
 scene and the last removed.  Considering its
 importance, an understanding of the way the
 barrier functions, and the limitations of
 different designs, is essential.

 In order to understand the forces acting on a
 boom being used to contain oil in the water
 environment, it is first necessary to under-
 stand those forces acting on the oil itself.
 When oil is spilled on water, it generally
 tends to spread outward on the water surface
 forming a  thin continuous layer or, depending
 on conditions,  it may tend to accumulate as
 a slick having  some particular thickness.
 How it  will spread depends on the surface
 tension of  the water, the surface tension of
 the oil, and the interfacial tension between
 the oil  and water.  The tendency to spread
 is the result of two physical forces:  the
 force of gravity and the surface tension of
 the water on which the oil has been spilled.
 The horizontal motion of the oil slick is
 caused by  outward pressure forces in the oil
 which are  a direct result of the gravitational
 force.  Of the  forces acting,  gravity and
 surface tension will tend to increase the
 spread of an oil film while inertia  and viscous
 forces  tend to  retard it.  The spreading      •
 tendency will be increased by waves, wind, and
 tidal currents.  In general the spread resulting
 from these random motions will be smaller
 than those caused by tension and gravity forces.
 It must also be recognized that the character
 of oil when spilled on water does change with
 time, but generally the properties which are
 important  to spreading, namely, density,
 viscosity and the surface and interfacial
 tensions, change slowly and,  therefore, can
 generally be predicted.
 IN. PPW. ol.lS.5.71

Control of Oil Spills
The equations which follow define only what
the diameter of an oil slick would be if it
remained as an integral mass after loss.
The oil mass may be transported to different
locations by wind, tide or current conditions,
while still spreading.  If the situation is such,
however, that the slick is broken apart into
many smaller components, these equations
may only be applied to each integral com-
ponent as there is no acceptable  way of
accurately predicting the total area which
might be covered by individual oil masses
other than actual field observations.

For the situation in which a quantity of oil is
spilled into the aquatic environment within a
short time frame (not a slow continuous
discharge), the following series  of equations
may be used to predict the diameter of the
oil slick (1 in feet) after a specified time
(t  in seconds).

The symbols used in the following equations
may be defined as follows:

   1 -  diameter of the oil slick in ft.
   t -  time in minutes from entry of oil into
       the  aquatic environment for which size
       is required

   v -  volume of oil spilled in gallons
   g -  gravitational constant

                32 ft/sec2
   v -  kinematic viscosity of water

          10.7X10"6 ft2/sec

   a -  net surface tension of oil (typical
       order of magnitude)

          20. 6 X 10"4 Ibs/ft (30 dynes/cm)

   P -  difference in mass density between
       water and oil (typical order  of magnitude

                 3.12 Ibs/ft3)
 Situation 1

 The time period within 1 hour after the
 spill occurs when gravity and inertia
 forces are important:
 1 =
(Ag) (v) (0.13) (0(60)   1/4
 Substituting typical values for constants -

 1  =  11.1 f(v)(t2)]  1/4
 Situation 2

 The time period from 1 hour to 2 hours
 after a minor spill, from 1 hour to 24
 hours after amoderate spill,  and from
 1 hour to 48 hours after a major spill
 when gravity and viscous forces dominate:
1 =
 (Ag)(v2) (0.13)2 (t
Substituting typical values for constants -
1 = 6.53[ v2  t 3/2 ]

Situation 3

The final phase when surface tension is
balanced by viscous forces:

1 =
Substituting typical values for constants

1 = 9.66 [ t3]  1/4

Figure  1 illustrates the application of these
3 equations to the special case of a 10, 000
ton oil spill.  The 3 situations are clearly
illustrated.   It must be remembered that
values calculated are only general
approximations as they are based on order
of magnitude estimates.

                                                                  Control of Oil Spills
 The thickness in inches (h) of the spill
 may be computed at any time by the
       I2 (12)
   h =•
                                  Situation 2
                                                  1 =
                                       Agv   (0.13)  x
                  2   3/2~
                                                      L_   v
                                                            1/2     7/2
                                                  Substituting typical values for constants
                                                  1=  3.1
                                                  Situation 3
 Situation 3 describes a growth pattern
 which is independent of the volume v of
 the oil spill.  This is possible as the
 thickness of the slick is no longer of
 importance in considering the major
 forces involved.

 When the oil is being discharged from a
 stationary source at a fairly constant
 rate, a modification of the above  equations
 is required to estimate slick width
 (I in ft.) at a specific distance (x in ft.)
 from the  source.  These equations may
 be used to model discharge patterns from
 sunken or grounded tankers and offshore
 oil wells.

 Additional symbols employed are:

 1 -  width of slick in feet

 v -  volume flow rate in gal/sec

 x -  horizontal distance from  stationary
     source in feet

 M -  current in ft/sec
Substituting typical values for constants -

1=   0.449 -
                                             -M  -I
                                  It should be noted that in the final phases
                                  of the spill, the spreading is independent
                                  of the volume flow rate.

                                  The force causing the oil to spread may
                                  be calculated from the following equation
                                  (see Figure 2):
                               F  = a    -  ( o  ) (CoS9  ) +(a   )
                                o     w       o      o     ow 	  ow'
                                  F  - force causing the oil to spread in
The situation description for the following
is the same as for bulk discharge.
                                  a  - surface tension of the water,
                                       (typical order of magnitude
                                       1 dyne/cm)
Situation 1
Substituting typical values for constants -

I-   i.6irvxV/3
                                  a  - surface tension of the oil (typical
                                       order of magnitude 30 dyne/cm)

                                  a  - interfacial tension in dyne/cm
                                  9Q - contact angle of oil with water at
                                       water surface in degrees
                                 9    - contact angle of oil/water interface
                                       with water surface in degrees

                           t (SEC)
          FUNCTION OF TIME t  FOR  A  10,000 TON  SPILL,
                                 WATER  SURFACE TENSION, a,
              INTERFACE  SURFACE  TENSION,  a,
           ON  WATER.

                                                                     Control of Oil Spills
Although theoretically this force should be
considered in boom design, when compared
with the other forces acting to cause boom
failure in the water environment, it becomes
insignificant as will be seen in Section III.

Another characteristic to be considered is
that a globule or droplet of oil will have a
predictable  "rate of rise" as it emerges
from an underwater position and rises to
the water surface.  During the "rise" it is
subject to lateral displacement by ocean
currents.  Large globules of oil (greater
than 1 inch in diameter)  rise at the rate
of approximately 1 foot per second.
Smaller droplets rise at about 1.5  feet
per  second.  In placing a containment
boom to capture oil either emanating from
a submerged source, or falling from a
substantial height, the "rate of rise"
phenomena has to be  considered.

For example:

A tanker has ruptured a  line on deck and
residual fuel oil is running out of the
scuppers to the water 20 feet below.  The
oil is penetrating into the water to  a depth
of 15 feet.  It will take 15  seconds  to rise
up to the water surface.   There is  an ebb
tide and the current immediately off of the
anchorage is 1 knot.  The oil will return
to the surface approximately 30 feet down
current of the point of entry.  A contain-
ment boom placed closer than 30 feet to
the vessel would lose much of the oil being

An appreciation of the above concepts is
important in understanding why a boom is
necessary and how it may be used.   It can
provide a basis for the spill control officer
to develop his own rules of thumb for pre-
dicting the physical size of the slick he is
going to have to contend  with.  Coupled
with the rule of thumb that a slick will
move generally in the prevailing wind
direction and at 3% of the wind velocity
and taking into account the effect of tide,
current and sea state, where applicable,
he can begin formulating the plans  for his
first line of defense.

  This section will be primarily concerned with
  defining the reasons why a boom fails.  This
  does not mean physical failure of the boom
  itself, which is a function of the structural
  strength of the materials out of which it is
  fabricated, but rather failure of the boom to
  contain oil while remaining physically intact.
  A boom is supposed to be capable of retaining
  oil slicks; concentrating oil slicks so  as to
  increase thickness; acting as a device to move
  oil across the  surface of the water from point
  to point; and serving as a diversionary or
  protection barrier  to keep oil out.   In almost
  all cases there is a regrettable tendency to
  overrate these capabilities rather than
  underrate them. With present technology,
  the most  satisfactory way of dealing with an
  oil spill is to contain the oil and then physically
  remove it as rapidly as possible.  The fre-
  quent failure of the containment system
  greatly complicates the physical removal

  When a barrier is placed in the path of an oil
  slick,  the spread effect is interfered with and
  a pool of  oil,  generally much deeper than that
  which would result from an undisturbed slick,
  is formed.

  The boom's performance is affected by wind,
  waves,  and currents. It must be capable  of
  conforming to the wave profile so as to main-
  tain its freeboard and have sufficient structural
  strength to withstand the stresses set up by
  wave and wind action. Sufficient vertical
  stability is required to overcome the roll
  effect forces set up by the water current on
  the fin and wind on the sail to keep the boom
  from being flattened out on the water surface.
  Freeboard (sail) must be adequate to prevent
  oil from being carried over the top of the
  boom by wind action and choppy wave  motions.

  Although wind and wave action are important
  in boom design, water currents are the  usual
  reason for boom failure.  Wind is often  the
  controlling factor in moving a slick about  on
  the surface of the water,  and wave motion
  often contributes to breaking up an integral
  slick into many smaller patches.  The

 Control of Oil Spills
 relative current,  the resultant of that
 generated by the water current in the area,
 be it tidal or river, and the motion of the
 boom itself, however, will often be the
 controlling factor in boom failure.  Boom
 failure is defined as a loss of its capability
 to retain the oil slick.

 The following presents a theory, backed by
 experimental and field results concerning
 the effects of water currents on oil contain-
 ment by booms.  This information should
 assist the pollution control officer in selecting
 the proper depth of skirt and length of boom
 required in those cases where mechanical
 barriers appear feasible.  The thought should
 be kept in mind that a mechanical barrier
 does not have to remain stationary.  The
 relative velocity profile can be changed by
 allowing the barrier to drift with the oil mass.
 The failure mechanism can also be modified
 by instituting skimming action as soon as
 possible after the slick is boomed.  Quite
 often, however, the amount of skimming
 capability available will not be adequate to
 prevent failure without additional action.
 The failure characteristics can also be
 modified by the use of ad/absorbents which
 will change the thickness profile of the oil
 in the boom area.  An understanding of the
 failure mechanism provided by the following
 information is intended to provide a basis
 for deciding how the boom may best be
 implemented (fixed containment, drift con-
 tainment, diversionary use, etc.), and how
 and when other materials (skimmers, ad/
 absorbents) might be implemented.

 Experimental work has shown that an oil
 slick being contained by a mechanical barrier
 will exhibit  a shape like that shown in Figure 3.
 Initial failure will occur when oil droplets
break away  from the lee side of the head wave.
After a critical velocity (u  ) is exceeded, oil
 droplets will be entrained in the flowing water
 stream.  Unless the droplets have sufficient
time to rise through the water and rejoin the
 slick in Regions I or II, they will be swept under
the barrier.

Region I is the critical area for defining the
limits for oil breakaway.  The type of con-
figuration which the oil mass assumes in this
region is similar to a gravity wave.  The
 thickness of the oil may be found from the
       h ='

 h - oil film thickness in feet

 u - water current in ft/sec
 g.- acceleration due to gravity 32 ft/sec^
 •w   _ 	1	
 p       specific gravity of oil
 Figure 4 gives the oil thickness for a wide
 range of currents and oil types.  The depth
 of the head wave will be equal to 2.4 h.

 To determine the current (u ) at which
 droplet formation will start,0 it is necessary
 to predict droplet size.  The maximum size
 possible will be the control.
             a £r
Jl~A~p J
d     - max. drop size in feet
a  -  oil-water interfacial tension,  30 dynes/cm

gc-  32.2 ft/sec2

g. -  acceleration due to gravity 32 ft/sec

Ap - waterqdensity minus oil density in

The maximum d which can be achieved with
any type of oil is 0.75 inches.

                                                                      Control of Oil Spills
   u   =  critical velocity of which oil droplets
         will be torn off
         density of water, 62.41bs/ft
For critical conditions (max. droplet size)
u  will equal 0.62 ft/sec.  Below this velocity
n8 droplets will be released from the head
wave.  Exceeding this velocity does not
necessarily mean that oil will be lost under
the barrier. It may be redeposited on  the
slick in Regions II or III.  There will be
circulation and drag phenomena working in
Region II as well as the generation of waves
at the oil-water interface.  These will  affect
the location of  the point of reattachment.   In
Region in which runs from the boom to a
point = to approximately 5 times the boom
skirt depth, any oil droplet entering will be
swept under the boom.

The oil droplet, once released from the head
wave,  will be affected by the buoyant force,
drag force, gravity force, and to a lesser
extent,  by a negative lift force.  These will
determine  the acceleration of the droplet and
the final velocity or terminal rise velocity
(Vt) achieved.   Typical values for this  for
No. 2 oil (specific gravity =  0. 8) through No. 6
oil (specific gravity = 0.99) are presented in
Table 2.  If the length of the slick in Regions
I and II is longer than
the droplet will reenter the oil layer.  If the
slick is shorter than this,  the droplet will be
carried under the barrier to emerge on the
other side.  The  slick length in Regions I and
II is going to depend on how the barrier is
deployed and the  environmental conditions
existing when it is deployed.  In many cases
the maximum possible 1 will be obvious.   In
others the use of Figure 4 coupled with an
understanding of the principles discussed in
Section II will be of assistance.

Figures 5 and 6 provide a graphical means
of predicting droplet failure for No. 2 and
No. 6 oil respectively.  The region below
the solid horizontal line is completely safe
from droplet failure.  In the region above
the sloping lines,  droplet failure is certain.
Between the sloping lines and the horizontal
line, failure is uncertain.  It is in  this area
that environmental factors, other than those
allowed for, may cause problems.  The
dashed lines on the graph represent failure
by "draining. " This loss phenomenon occurs
when flow conditions exist where oil can
plunge under or drain  past the boom with the
water.  Until recently this was felt to be the
primary reason for boom failure.  This loss
can be controlled by changing skirt depth as
the loss is essentially independent  of the
amount of oil spilled.  Graphical information
for determining the appropriate skirt depth
is presented in Figure 7.

The volume of oil per  unit breadth  of boom
may be calculated based on actual field
conditions, either existing or predicted.
This is the best approach.  If this is not
possible,  the use of the concepts developed
or referred to previously have been used to
develop Figures 8 and 9. These are for an
oil with a specific gravity approximately
midway between No. 2 and No. 6.  Figure 8
provides information which may be fit into
the boom configuration associated with your
particular circumstance.  Figure 9 provides
data for an idealized situation.  Additional
information may be obtained by consulting
the references noted in the  Bibliography,
particularly No. 9 by Dr. Moye Wicks.

Air barriers are beginning to find some
application as protection devices at fixed
installations located in fairly quiescent waters.
Generally the  barrier  is made from a pipe,
1 inch I. D. or less, with a  series of orifices
drilled through the pipe wall 1/16 inch in
diameter or less.   Air is supplied  by either
an air compressor or  blower.


                     I                 10
                       WATER CURRENT, FT/SEC

                                              FIGURE   4

                                                             SUMMARY TABLE 1

                                                       COMMERCIAL FLOATING BOOMS
                                                  Stage of Development
                             Cost $/Ft.
           1.  Abribat  Boom
           2.  Aqua  Fence
           3.   Boom Kit
               Bristol  Aircraft  Company Boom
           5.   British  Petroleum  Company Boom
           6.   California  Oil  Company Boom
           7.   Elo-Boom
           8.   English  China  Clay  Company Boom
                                                      Under Patent
Under Development
                                                      In Production
  In Production
  Under Patent
  In Production
                                                      In Production
  In Production
Unknown        Address Unknown

Unknown        Versatech Corporation
               Nesconset, Long Island
               New York

Unknown        Roberts Plastics Ltd.

Unknown        Bristol Aircraft Company

Unknown        British Petroleum Company
               Finsburg Circus
               London, E. C. 2, England

 $2.45         California Oil Company
               Perth Amboy, New Jersey 07501

 $2.20         Helly J. Hansen A/S
               Moss, Norway

Unknown        English China Clay Company

                                       Stage of Development
                             Cost  $/Ft.
 9.  Flexy Oil Boom
10.  Flo-Fence
11.  Galvaing Floating Booms
12.  Gates Boom Hose
13.  Headrick Boom
  .  Jaton Boom
15.  Johns-Manville Spillguard
16.  Kain Filtration Booms
In Production
                                          In Production
In Production
                                          In Production
                                        Under Development
                                          In Production
In Production
                                          In Production
                           Expected Price
Smith-Anderson Company, Ltd.
3181 St. James Street West
Montreal, Quebec

Logan Diving & Salvage Co.
530 Goodwin Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32204

Gamlen Naintre & Cie
92 Clichy, 2,
Rue Huntiziger, France

Gates Rubber Company
6285 East Randolph Street
Los Angeles, California 90022

Headrick Industries, Inc.
4900 Crown Avenue
La Canada, California 91011

Centri Spray Corporation
39001 Schoolcraft Road
Livonia, Michigan 48150

Johns-Manville Company
22 East 40th Street
New York, New York 10016

Bennett International Service
302 A-5645 Topanga Canyon
Woodland Hills, California 91364

            17.  Marsan Inflatable Oil
            18.  MP Boom
            19.  Muehleisen Boom
            20.  Oscarseal - Hover Platforms
            21.  Oscarseal - Steel  Boom
            22.  Red Eel
            23. •  Retainer Seawall
                                                   Stage  of Development
In Production
                                                       In  Production
                                                       In  Production
                                                       Patent  Pending
                                                       Patent  Pending
                                                       In  Production
                                                       Patent  Pending
                         Cost $/Ft.
$5.95 -$6.95
                                                                             Submitted Upon
                       Submitted Upon
                         $40 - $50
                     $20.00 light duty
                     $58.60 heavy duty
Marsan Corporation
Box 83, Route 1
Elgin, Illinois 60120

Metropolitan Petroleum
  Company, Inc.
25 Caven Point Road
Jersey City, New Jersey  07305

Muehleisen Manufacturing  Co.
1100 North Johnson Avenue
El Cajon, California 92020

The Rath Company
P.O. Box 226
La Jolla, California 92037

Morrison-Knudsen Company, Inc.
Box 7808
Boise, Idaho 83707

Trelleborg Rubber Company,  Inc.
P.O. Box 178
225 Main Street
New Rochelle, New York 10802

Environmental Pollution  Systems
209 Profit Drive
Victoria, Texas 77901

                                       Stage of Development
                            Cost  $/Ft.
2U.  Sea Curtain
25.  Sea Fence
26.  Sealdboom
27.  Sea Skirt
28.  6-12 Boom
29.  Slickbar Oil Boom
30.  SOS Booms.
                                          .In Production
                                           In Production
                                           In Production: .
                                          . In. Production.
•,.'•. In Production.
                       $ 2  -$ k  light duty
                       $10  -$15  heavy duty
                           ,$ 9.75
$3.85-$' 6.80, 4"
$5.25-$12.25,.. 6"

Kepner Plastics Fabricators, Inc.
4221 Spencer Street
Torrance, California 90503

Aluminum Company of America
4-63  48th Avenue
Long Island City, N.Y.11101

Uniroyal, Inc.
10 Eagle Street
Providence, Rhode Island 02901

Core Laboratories, Inc.
Box 10185
Dallas, Texas 75201

Worthington Corporation*
Pioneer Products Division
P.O. Box 211
Livingston, New Jersey 07039

Neirad Industries
Saugatuck Station
Westport, Connecticut 06880

Surface Separator Systems
103 Mellor Avenue
Baltimore, Maryland 21228

         31.  Transatlantic Plastics Boom
         32.  T-T Boom
         33.  Warne Booms
           .   Water Pollution Controls
Stage of Development
                                                    In Production
                                                    In Production
    Patent Pending
  Cost $/Ft.




Transatlantic Plastics Ltd.

East Coast Service, Inc.
34-3 Washington Street
Braintree, Massachusetts  02184

Surface Separator Systems
103 Mellor Avenue
Baltimore, Maryland 21228

Water Pollution Controls,  Inc.
2035 Lemoine Avenue
Fort Lee, New Jersey 07024

                                                              Ul O^ ^1 OD>O ^*
           BOOM(S)  SKIRT DEPTH
            0.01                    O.I
               VOLUME  OF OIL  PER   UNIT

                                                        BREADTH,  BBL /
                                                        GR. =0.8. a = 40



                    IE  OF
OIL WITH  SR GR. ^0.990c^4O DYNE!





                                   9iHi«iBlH;£V1S2BBHMMBMinMlllllllllli5V •••••••• Hill Ifflll Hill Mil
                                   ^-I^•»-.«••••• ™.t»I—;-T:— —"""««'_•_• — •«mmmmmmmmmfgrn^B«*_»• ^• •• • •'•••• •'••*•••>«• >
  3    456789 B.O        2     3    456789 10


                                                         FIGURE  7

                                                                           DASHED LINE SHOWS THE
                                                                           CONDITIONS  CORRESPONDING
                                                                           TO 5  BBL/FT OF WIDTH
                                                                         3   4  567891
                3   4  567891
                 2    3   4567891        2
                           DISTANCE,  FT
Oil film thickness versus distance for various water current speeds for oil with sp. gr. = 0.90, n = 81 cp.
                                                                                                      3  4567891

200            25O

. Cumulative oil film volume per unit width it various distances and water velocities for oil with sp. gr. = 0.90. ji= 81 cp.

Control of Oil Spills
As as example of capacities required, a
600 cfm compressor is capable of supplying
adequate air to 100 feet of 1 inch diameter
pipe having 1/16 inch diameter orifices
positioned 40 feet below the water surface.

As the air bubbles exit from the pipe and rise
to the water surface, they impart momentum
to the water.  This causes vertical water flow
which becomes horizontal at the water surface.
The surface current generated retains the oil.
Figure  10  illustrates the  circulation pattern
developed.  In calm waters the maximum
surface current (v     ) created is related to
the volume flow rate of air per unit length of
- maximum generated surface
  current ft/sec

- a constant
         -  acceleration due to gravity
            32 ft/sec
- volume flow rate/unit length of
The surface current reaches a maximum at
a distance from the center line of the barrier
varying between d and d/2 where d is the
distance between the undisturbed water surface
and the location of the manifold (see Figure 10).
It then decreases approximately proportional
j _    -^    _.i_.  _  __  	  ji__ i_	•_	_t__i  i • _. j	..
 where x  = the horizontal distance
from the manifold.  The effective depth of the
surface current (b) is  2.  at x = 1 and increases
linearly for a larger x.

Water  currents will cause a distortion in the
plume  (see Figure 11). This distortion creates
a flow  pattern which will allow some  of the oil
to disperse through the bubble screen.  The
greater the current, the more severe will be
the problem.  As with a mechanical barrier,
oil drops are lost from the bottom of the  slick;
in this case,  because of the turbulent pattern
                                        The information presented is intended to
                                        provide the oil pollution control officer with
                                        a basis for making recommendations and with
                                        the hope that it will provide him with an under-
                                        standing of the phenomena with which he is
                                        dealing.  It is expected that his experiences
                                        in the field will modify these concepts so that
                                        they best serve the needs of his environ-
                                        mental area.

  The information having now been presented
  concerning the factors which should influence
  boom design and the mechanisms by which
  they are most likely to fail, what types of
  barriers are commercially available?  What
  capabilities should the boom have in addition
  to that most important one of oil retention?

  One of the more important is transportability.
  Cleanup equipment,  in general, should be
  designed for easy transportation from some
  centralized storage point to the site of a
  pollution incident.  A modular system designed
  for air transport would be best.  Once the
  equipment is on site, ease of deployment is
  essential.  Regrettably, spills are not in the
  habit of occurring in ideal weather conditions.
  The equipment should be designed to provide
  maximum  compatibility with the type of
  watercraft that are likely to be used in its
  deployment.  In particular, weight handling,
  towing, and equipment assembly requirements,
  should be selected with the capabilities of
  available vessels in mind.  The barrier
  system design should also be as compatible
  as possible with the other cleanup equipment
  available.  Such a simple thing as non-
  compatible connecting hitches can destroy a
  well laid-out spill control program.  Last of
  the major points but by no means least,  the
  containment system should be mutually
  supporting to the recovery system.  Containing
  an oil spill without matching provisions for
  optimum physical removal is winning  less than
  half the battle.  Wherever possible, components
  within the barrier system should be readily
  adaptable for use with the oil removal system.
  Oil retained and not removed will end up
  being oil lost to the environment.

                \ o ° L_.  BUBBLE
                \  io-»+~Z^
                                      —Xd— SURFACE

                                      V^    CURRENT
/ S'SS / S S / / /


                              FIGURE   II

                                                                     Control of Oil Spills
  The types of equipment available may be
  broadly categorized into three mechanical-
  type designs and pneumatic barriers.  The
  mechanical barriers are:

  1  "Curtain booms" which consist of a surface
     float acting as a barrier above the surface
     and a subsurface curtain suspended from
     it.  The curtain is flexible along the
     vertical axis.  It may or may not be
     stabilized by weights to provide greater
     resistance to distortion by subsurface
     currents and have  a chain or welded wire
     rope to transfer stress along the barrier.

2 &3 Light and heavy "fence booms" have a
     vertical fence or panel extending both
     above and below the surface of the water
     to provide freeboard to counteract wave
     carryover and draft below the water
     surface. The flotation assembly is
     generally bonded to the fence material.
     The lower edge of  the panel is frequently
     stabilized and strengthened by a cable  or
     chain. The  distinction between light and
     heavy is generally one of size of components
     and weight.

  The general characteristics of these designs
  are shown in Figure 12.

  There are over 50 different commercially-
  available booms that would fit into these
  three categories available at the present
  time.  A partial listing is presented in Table  1.
  More detailed information for one example
  of each type follows.  For additional infor-
  mation, it is suggested that you consult
  Bibliography reference No. 6.

  Curtain Boom - Slickbar

  The Slickbar boom manufactured by Slickbar,
  Inc., Westport, Connecticut, is probably the
  most popular and most commonly encountered
  of the curtain booms presently  available.
  All of their present designs consist of a
  cylindrical-closed cell, foamed-plastic float
  with a flexible plastic curtain extending
  approximately half-way into the float.  The
  curtain is secured to the float by a series of
  stainless steel  straps which are riveted to
  the fin  at appropriate  intervals depending on
  float size.   Lead ballast is riveted to the
bottom of the flexible curtain.  The amount
and spacing depends upon the environmental
conditions expected at the use site.  A
1/4 inch stainless steel cable runs the length
of each boom section immediately below the
plastic float and inside of the stainless steel
strapping (see Figure 13).

The booms are available in 4- and 6-inch
float diameters with curtain (fin) depths
available from 6 to 24 inches.  Standard
sections are available in 4- and 9-foot float
lengths with 6 inches of plastic fin extending
beyond each end terminating with stainless
steel connector plates. This extends the
effective length of each boom to 5 and 10 feet
respectively.  The sections are connected to
provide a continuous barrier.

Prices for the 6-inch diameter float boom in
10-foot lengths complete with ballast weights,
ranging from 0. 9 to 3.6 pounds per linear
foot and having fin depths available from 6
to 24 inches, range from  $6.40 to $9. 85 per
linear foot.  These booms are intended for
use in relatively quiescent waters of the type
found in lakes and protected in harbor areas.
A larger and heavier boom with a 12-inch
float and 24-inch skirt is presently under
development by Slickbar for use in estuarine
areas where rougher waters are  encountered.
This will cost approximately $12.25 per
linear foot.

Light Fence Boom - "T-T" Boom

The "T-T" boom was developed in Norway :
and is presentlybeing manufactured in the
United States and marketed by Coastal
Services, Inc., a Division of Ocean World.
This boom is becoming increasingly popular
for use in calm and moderate water conditions.
It consists of a vertical section,  either 15 or
36 inches deep made of 300 pound per inch
tensile strength PVC plastic-coated nylon
fabric.  Aluminum rods are sewn into the
nylon fabric running vertically from top  to
bottom at either 2- or 3-foot 4-inch spacing.
Lead weights are permanently fixed to the
fabric at appropriate intervals on the lower
edge of the boom generally beside the vertical
aluminum rods.   Increased ballast may be
provided by means of a chain or wire rope
threaded through eyelets on the bottom of the

 Control of Oil Spills
 curtain.  Plastic floats, either rigid-sealed
 polystyrene type or a closed cell foamed
 plastic, are attached to the barrier by means
 of a sash chain with a toggle bar (cotter pin
 type arrangement).  These are generally
 spaced to fall along the vertical aluminum
 rods,  and are positioned such that two-thirds
 the height of the barrier is below the water
 and one-third above.  The boom is manu-
 factured in standard lengths of 50 meters
 (164 feet) which weigh approximately 220
 pounds per standard length. One hundred
 foot standard lengths are also available.
 A -terylene  rope running through brass rings
 fixed on both top and bottom edges of the
 curtain which made it possible to contract the
 boom in an accordion-like fashion to reduce
 the encircled area of an oil spill, is being
 discontinued due to fouling problems in use.
 Boom sections are connected by means of a
 2-foot overlap of nylon with appropriate hook
 and tie lines (see Figure 14).

 One of the advantages of the barrier is its
 lightweight and  removable, easily attachable
 floats.  Fifty meters of barrier may be stored
 in a 3 by 4  foot  area and launched by one  man
 pulling and attaching floats in a short period
 of time.  When  the "T-T"  boom is towed in
 the water to a site  for use or towed in a sweeping
 action to compact an oil slick,  the ends of the
 boom may be equipped with aluminum paravanes
 for greatest stability and ease in handling.
 A pair of paravanes weighs approximately
 220 pounds.

 The prices  for the  3-foot barrier, having
 vertical stiffeners  spaced  2 feet on centers
 with the polystyrene  floats, are $9.50 per
 foot.  A pair of aluminum  paravanes are
 $724 per pair and special magnet clamps
 designed to attach the boom to vessels  and
 sheet pilings are $376 per pair.

 Heavy Fence Boom - "Headrick Boom"

 This boom is manufactured by  Headrick
 Industries,  Inc., LaCanada, California.
 It is made up from  a series of  air inflatable
 cylinders in varying configurations designed
 for different sea conditions.  The boom
 cylinders are constructed from high-strength
 PVC impregnated into a high-strength nylon
 fabric.  A series of air-filled flotation
 cylinders are positioned above a water-filled
 submersible cylinder.  The water-filled
 cylinder provides ballast and stability to the
 total boom assembly.  The tubes, as few as
 two or as many as four,  are interconnected
 continuously by a PVC-coated nylon fabric
 membrane.  A steel cable is permanently
 enclosed in a loop of the fabric attached to
 and suspended below the water-filled ballast
 tube (see Figure  15).

 The  air tubes are segmented every 50 feet
 and the water tube every 20 feet so as to
 provide boom integrity when damaged.  The
 boom is kept stored in a deflated unfilled
 condition.  When needed,  it is either unrolled
 or unfolded and each chamber separately
 filled with air and water from a surface
 vessel.  The inflatable tubes are reported
 to retain their air supply for several weeks.
 If the application situation requires that the
 boom remain in the water for long periods
 of time without surveillance, the air tubes
 may be filled with polyethylene beads,
 expanded styrofoam or similar materials.
 Once inserted, however, it is not practical
 to remove these materials.  They also detract
 one of the barriers more desirable charac-
 teristics, its flexibility.

 A boom made up  of 3 ten-inch diameter air
 tubes and a 10-inch water tube, weighs
 approximately 1.8 pounds per foot deflated.
 Booms will be available in 10,  13, 16 and
 22 inch tube sizes.  The 22 inch tube unit
 will weigh 3. 6 pounds per foot.  The standard
 length is 1, 000 feet which is  composed of four
 250-foot sections complete with the necessary
 coupling hardware.  These cost $25, 000 to
 $35, 000 per standard length.

 In addition to the  above,  some special multi-
purpose mechanical booms are presently
available.  Some  are designed to provide
ab/adsorbing capability,  others integral
 skimming capability along with their oil-
retaining function.  A partial listing of these
is presented in Table 2.

           Freeboard 3"- 6"
   Float.  Foamed
   Plastic or  Air
                                          Flexible  Curtain.
                                          Canvas or  Plastic
    Curtain  Ballast  Weights.
    Coble  or  Cham
      Freeboard  8" — 12"
    Buoyancy  Material
    Fomed or  Molded  Plastic
            Panel  Ballast
            Chain  or  Cable
Vertical  panel  may
be  plastic, reinforced
fabric  or  metal.
                                                     Buoyancy  Float.
                                                     Plastic, Drums  or
                                                     Inflated  Chamber.
                                            Tension  Cables

                                            Panel may  be  rigid
                                            or  flexible.  Wood,  plastic,
                                            fabric  or  metal.
                  TYPICAL   BOOM   DESIGNS
                                                            FIGURE   12

Control of Oil Spills
                         13 per Float
            9 feet long
                                     BRONZE SLEEVE
                             STAINLESS-STEEL CLIP
              NUTS and BOLTS
                                                                   BRONZE SHACKLI
                                                             STAINLESS-STEEL TANC
                                       Quantity as Required
                                     FIGURE 13

                                 SLICKBAR BOOM

                                          ALUMINUM BAR
                                                                                 FOAM-PLASTIC FLOAT
                                                                                                  PLASTIC SKIRT
                                                                        LEAD BALLAST
                                                               T-T BOOM
             Figure  1^.
            T-T BOOM


                 :                     -

                   Figure 1 5

              HEADRICK BOOM

                                                              Control of Oil Spills
           TABLE 2  - Calculated  Terminal Velocities
        Interfaclal Tension -10 Dynes/Cm
1 .0000
Oil Specific Gravity

.01 1664
. 1 1 6273
0.04391 1
0. 141099

. 132S67
.22151 1

.2181 10

.00071 1
.0071 17
. 190420
. 195046
0. 142903
0. 161475
0. 159074
     b.   Interfacial Tension - 20 Dynes/Cm
 In.    .8
 Oil Specific Gravity
.9        .95       .97
1 .0000
.021 630
.41 1404
0.05441 6
0.! 74993
. 199049
0. 124954
.01 7639
.00431 6
0.00081 7
0.01 6351
0. 182599
         Interfacial Tension = 30 Dvnes/Cm
1 .0000
Oil Specific Gravity

0.00261 1
0.01 6978
0. 1 68641

. 1 9 30 1 1
.3701 1 1

. 120358

.1 63156
0 . 0 1 5 69 7
0. 144561
0. 196671
     d.  Interfaclal Tension - 40 Dynes/Cm
1 .0000
Oil Specific Gravity
Q . 463371
0.01 6500

.00191 1
. 123937
. 188509

.001 1 76
.01 1 765
. 1 1 7 1 60

.001 645
.03291 6
. 1 60068

• 122147
1. 033313
0.. 038 132
0. 1 43226
0. 190127

 Control of Oil Spills
 In many cases,  a commercial boom is not
 available when an oil pollution incident occurs
 and maximum use of available materials must
 be made to provide at least temporary con-
 tainment or diversion capability until better
 equipment can be brought to the site.  A
 partial listing of homemade barrier types is
 presented in Table 3.  One of the more famous
 of these is the Navy boom  shown in Figure 16.

 The use of air curtains for oil slick contain-
 ment was discussed in Section 3 and an
 example of one type presented.  Submersible
 Systems,  Inc.,  Palm  Beach,  Florida,
 manufactures an air barrier system.  In
 general it is designed for the environmental
 conditions existing at the use location.  One
 unit placed in operation consisted of 20-foot
 lengths of 1-inch inside diameter aluminum
 pipe with 1/16 inch diameter holes spaced
 every 6 inches along its length. The sections
 were connected with a semi-flexible com-
 pression-type coupling.  Air was supplied by
 a 600 cfm compressor operating at 45 psi.
 The cost  for this type of barrier will vary
 with the site location.

 The following is a narrative presentation
 illustrating one possible use of oil booms
 for the control of an oil spill.  It does not
 specifically represent any singular pollution
 incident but rather reflects techniques which
 met with at least some degree of success in
 actual incidents.

 A vessel with a cargo of crude oil struck a
 submerged object in the navigation channel
 approximately 4 miles from shore.  The
 forward center and starboard tanks were
 holed and approximately 1, 000 barrels of a
 fairly heavy crude oil lost before leakage was
 controlled. At present the sea is  calm and
 the current immediately off of the channel
 where the  oil was lost is approximately 2 knots.
 The  wind is blowing steadily from the south
 at about 9  knots and will move the oil slick
 northerly toward a beach area.  Making use
 of information previously presented, it is
 determined that oil will begin reaching the
 beach area in about 12 hours.  Considering
 the time involved, it is likely that at least
part of the slick will reach the shoreface
area and that some procedures will have to
be implemented for its protection.  You want
to get equipment out to the site of the slick
as soon as possible to remove as much as
possible before it does reach the beach area.
(See Figure A)

You have two skimmers available one of
400 gpm and one of 200 gpm capacity.  Work
boats,  fishing boats, various types of
absorbers, and 1, 500 feet of light fence
boom,  and 1, 000 feet of pnuematic barrier.
Making use of the information previously
presented in Sections 2 and 3, you determine
that your best defense barrier will not be
capable of holding the oil offshore in a fixed
position while you pump it off the water.
You have also determined, based on the
relative wind velocity, current situation,
and the  type of spread to be expected from
this particular grade of oil, that without
some type of containment,  you will have a
thin film of oil coming ashore within 12 to
14 hours.

 The following is one approach that might be
 followed.  Put  your larger skimmer on a
 work boat along with 900 feet of the fence
 type barrier and proceed out to the site of
 the slick.  Set  up your equipment as shown
 in Figure B.  The skimmer should be
 positioned so as to work in the pool of oil
 collected by the barrier.   Note that one end
 of the boom is  held close alongside the work
 boat and skimmer with a  small boat out at
 the other end.  The oil will collect along the
 wind side of the boom and then be diverted
 along the boom to the skimmer.   The
 skimmer should be operated at  capacity
 with the oil-water mix being discharged to    I
 some type of storage facility for oil-water
 separation.  Note that -

 1  There must be an oil tight connection
    between the skimming unit and the  boom
    at a and the boom and the work boat at b.

 2  The position of the upwind end of the boom
    and the work boat itself must be changed
    quickly as the wind shifts. The flow of the
    slick must continue into the area between
    the boom and the pump boat.

         3/4" PLYWOOD
                              55 GAL. DRUMS
                                                  NAVY" BOOM
                                                                                BALLAST FILLED PLASTIC SKIRT
                Figure 16
             NAVY  BOOM

                                                              SUMMARY TABLE2
                                                            MULTIPURPOSE BOOMS
                                                  Stage  of Development
                                  Cost $/Ft.
              1.   ICI Oil Absorbing Boom
              2.   Roscoff Heavy and Light-
                  weight Booms
              3.  Sea Serpent
                  Skimmer Boom
       In Production            $6.75 - 7.45
Used at Torrey Canyon Spill        Unknown
     Under Development             Unknown
      Patent Pending               Unknown
ICI Fibres Ltd.
Yorkshire, England

Marine Biological
North Brittany, France

Johns-Manville Co.
22-East UOth Street
New York, New York 10016

E. P. Hall
Washington, D.C. 20242

                                                                     Control of Oil Spills
                                   SUMMARY TABLE 3

                                  IMPROVISED BOOMS
                          Type of Boom

                    1.  Cork-Filled Boom

                    2.  Cork-Float Boom

                    3.  Fire Hose Boom
                    4.  Puerto Rican Boom

                    5.  Rubber Bladder Boom

                    6.  Rubber Tire Boom

                    7.  Steel Pipe Boom

                    8.  U.S. Navy Boom

                    9.  Wooden Float Boom
                   10.  Wooden Timber Boom

                   11.  Wooden V-Boom
  Location Where It Was Used

  Norfolk, Virginia

  Port Hueneme, California

  Quiescent Waters
  Ocean Eagle Oil Spill

  Helford River, Great Britain

  Torrey Canyon Oil Spill

  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania

  Long Beach,  California
  Chevron Spill,  1970

  Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
  Quiescent Waters

  Peros Gyiroc, France
3  The angle between the wind direction and
   the boom should not be greater than 20
   degrees. With more angle the boom will
   tend to develop a belly in its shape and oil
   will be lost under the boom.

4  The work boat and the boat holding the
   leading edge of your boom are drifting
   at  a speed which you have previously
   determined will not allow oil to be lost
   under the barrier. This  s£eed will, of
   course,  be adjusted based on on-site

No comments will be made about the type of
skimmer, oil-water separation system or
storage system.  These are obviously a very
important concern and will control the speed
at which the recovery system will move with
the slick to prevent loss.  Information con-
cerning these is presented in other parts of
the training manual.
You now have two other problems to contend

1  It is obvious from your calculations that
   it will not be possible to remove all of the
   oil from the water surface before it gets
   into the beach area.

2  The slick is not remaining as one integral
   mass and portions of it are breaking away
   and being left behind in the bay.

Next, consider handling those portions of the
slick being left behind in the bay. Two  small
fishing boats and a contractor's work boat
having flat deck space in the bow, have been
contracted for and the remaining fence boom
and the small skimmer mounted on them.
These can be arranged as  shown in Figure C.
The bow string tension line attached to No.  2
boat reduces the sharp bend that would other-
wise exist in the boom and eliminates

 Control of Oil Spills
turbulence and oil loss at the point where the
boom would ordinarily bend when it joins the
work barge as with No. 1 boat.  With the boom
system so deployed, this work group begins
chasing those slicks left behind and using the
small skimmer, pumps them to  appropriate
storage.  The operating speed of this group
is controlled by the structural strength of the
boom in question which has been considerably
increased with the bow string arrangement,
and the thickness of oil being recovered at
any one time. Remember that the wind should
be used to your advantage whenever possible
to assist in diverting the oil down the funnel.
Note that  radio communication among the
three boats is essential for proper functioning
of this system.

It is now necessary to consider setting up
some type of protection at the beach area.
As all that is left is the air barrier,  this
will have  to be implemented.  The air barrier
should be placed on the bottom at a distance
from shore that will provide it with a minimum
of 10 feet of water at low tide.  The air supply
can come from a diesel powered air  com-
pressor mounted on a barge or convenient
headland if available.  Taking a  look at the
area, the most difficult area to clean is going
to be  the rocky section on the northwest side
of the beach.  The air barrier should be set
up so as to divert the oil from the rocky section
toward the beach area.  A physical absorber
should be placed along the tidal zone of the
beach area to absorb as much of the  oil as
possible to prevent penetration into the beach
sand.  A float with some type of anchoring
system has been established a short  distance
from the end of the air barrier so that the
work barge and skimmer, when they arrive
at this point, will have somewhere to attach
their fence boom. Initially, the oil that has
gotten  away from the two skimmers working
in the bay will be diverted toward the beach.
When the main skimming apparatus arrives
on scene,  the oil will be diverted along the
air barrier to the fixed mechanical barrier
to the skimmer.  (See Figure D)

This is a simplified discussion of boom
placement which does not attempt to take
into account all of the variables which might
be encountered.   It is cited as an example
of some of the procedures which could be
implemented making use of the information
presented in Sections I through IV.  It must
be emphasized, that getting the boom out
and corralling the mess is only the beginning.
The very difficult task of removing the
material from the environment and its ultimate
disposal has  to be as well considered and
planned out as your boom purchasing and
implementation program.  There would have
been nothing more useless, for example, than
taking  all of the barrier that you had available
in the incident cited above and drawing it
across the beach area and then sitting back
and watching the oil pile up along its face to
finally run under and/or over it to contaminate
the beach area.  The best designed equipment,
if not properly used, will not do the job.

                                   BEACH  AREA
                                         OIL  SLICK
                                             FIGURE   A

                                        /This angle should not
                                       /i exceed 20° :
                                        — BOAT
          A  # I BOAT
Turbulence  and
loss of oil at this
sharp bend without
bowstring  arrangement.
                                             Bowstring tension
                                             line  reduces sharp
                                             bend in  boom.
                  WORK  BOAT

                                 ••* -I*--.'
              ANCHORO   /
                                  REMNANTS OF  OIL SLICK
                                                 FIGURE   D

Control of Oil Spills

1  Cross, R.H. and Hoult,  D.P.  Collection
      of Oil Slicks.   ASCE National Meeting
      on  Transportation Engineering, Boston,
      Mass.  July 1970.

2  Fay, J. A.  The Spread of Oil Slicks on a
      Calm Sea.   Clearinghouse for Federal
      Scientific and Technical Information,
      No. AD 696876.   August 1969.

3  Hoult,  D.P.   Containment of Oil SpiUs
      by Physical and Air Barriers.
      Massachusetts  Institute of Technology.
      Boston 1969.

4  Lehr,  W.E. and Schorer, J.O.  Design
      Requirements for  Booms.  Joint
      FWPCA-API Conference Proceedings.
      New York.   December 1969.
   Milz,  E.A.  An Evaluation-Oil SpiU
     Control Equipment & Techniques.
     21st Annual Pipeline Conference.
     DaUas.  April 1970.
            Scott, A. L.,  et al.   Removal of Oil from
               Harbor Waters.  Clearinghouse for
               Federal Scientific and Technical
               Information, No. AD 834973.
               February 1968.

            Testing and Evaluation of Oil Spill
               Recovery Equipment.  Water Pollution
               Control Research Series, Grant No.
               150-80-DOZ,  Federal Water Quality.

            Wicks, M.  Fluid Dynamics of Floating
               Oil Containment by Mechanical Barriers
               in the  Presence of Water Currents.
               Joint FWPCA-API Conference
               Proceedings.   New York.  December
6  Oil Spill Containment Systems.  Northeast
     Region R & D Programs, Federal
     Water Quality Administration.  1970.
         This outline was prepared by Thomas W.
         Devine, Sanitary Engineer, New England
         Basins Office, Region I, Environmental
         Protection Agency.                .-;•  . .

                               TREATMENT OF OIL SPILLS

                                   Oil Skimming Devices

A  Once an oil spill has occurred,  the most
   positive approach to protect the environ-
   ment is to physically remove the oil from
   the water.  This may be accomplished, to
   a more or less degree, by the use of
 •  mechanical pickup devices commonly
   called "skimmers".  The numerous types
   of skimmers presently under development
   do not permit a presentation on each
   particular unit.  If the  reader desires
   information  on particular devices, the
   Edison Water Quality Laboratory's May
   1970 publication titled, "Oil Skimming
   Devices", is recommended.

B  The ideal oil skimmer  should be designed

   1 Easy handling

   2 Easy operation

   3 Low maintenance

   4 Ability to withstand  rough handling

   5 Versatility  to operate in various wave
     and current situations,

   6 Ability to skim oil at a high oil to water

   The present day skimmers  are  generally
   designed to emphasize  one or more of the
   above characteristics.  Before  purchasing
   a skimmer for use in a particular area,
   the buyer should know what he requires
   and which characteristics best suit his

   The reports and studies which are ref-
   erenced at the end of this outline evaluate
   oil skimming devices.  Using this information
   we will now  direct our  effort towards
   selecting pieces of equipment which will
   meet particular needs.

 A  Mechanical devices which physically
    remove oil from the water's surface
    contain three basic components:

    1  The pickup head

    2  The pump system

    3  The oil/water separator

    These components may be  constructed as
    one unit,  separate units or any com-
    bination of the three.  A brief discussion
    of each follows.

 B  The pickup head - Figure 1 shows the
    three most popular types of pickup heads
    in use today:

    1  Weir type

    2  Floating suction type

    3  Adsorbent surface type

    The weir  type removes oil from the
    water's surface by allowing the oil to
    overflow a weir into a collecting device
    and holding the water back against the
    weir.  The efficiency of weir pickup heads
    is highly dependent on calm water con-
    ditions and an adequate thickness of oil;
    however,  viscosity of the oil is not too
   - important.  Even so, a certain amount
    of water is drawn over the weir making
    it necessary to provide a means for
    separating the oil and water.  Therefore,
    this type of pickup head would be used in
    areas  where the water conditions are
    generally calm and the oil  slick thickness
    can be maintained at greater than  1/4 inch.
    Th-e type of oil is not a major consideration.

    The floating suction type operates on the
    same principal as the household vacuum
    cleaner.  The unit is generally small in

 Treatment of Oil Spills
   size and is connected to the oil/water
   separation section by either a suction or
   a pressure hose.  The floating head may
   limit the amount of water either by a
   system of weirs or by the design of the
   intake openings. Water surface conditions
   and oil viscosity greatly affect the
   efficiency of these devices.  The floating
   suction heads are well suited for working
   in tight areas such as around piers and
   ships.  Debris and sorbents tend to clog
   these units quite readily and therefore
   must be considered.

   The adsorbent surface type operate on
   the principle that a hydrophobic and
   oleophilic  surface will be preferentially
   wetted by oil and not water.  As the
   adsorbent  surface is drawn through the
   slick oil will cling to it. This oil is then
   removed either by rollers, wringers or
   wiper blades.  The surfaces  are constructed
   of aluminum or various  oleophilic foams
   or fibers.

   The problem of additional oil/water
   separation is eliminated with these devices.
   They have been tested successfully in wave
   heights up to 2 feet.  Debris interferes
   with their efficiency and in some cases may
   cause severe damage.  These units would
   be best suited for open harbor use.  The
   type of oil to be collected determines the
   type of adsorbent surface required.  For
   example,  heavy oils tend to clog foams and
   fibers and light oils are  not picked up
   efficiently on aluminum  surfaces.

   We have pointed out several parameters which
   will effect the selection of a particular
   pickup head:

   1  Type of oil

   2  Sea state - waves and currents

   3  Debris - sorbents

   4  Physical restrictions - piers,  etc.

   5  Equipment available to separate oil/
     water mixtures
 The Pump System - Pumps and other
 accessories used with skimmers need
 to have the following features incorporated
 in their designs:

 1  Dependability - carburetors, magnetos,
    points  and plugs need to be protected
    against ocean air and salt spray.

 2  Portability - easy to transport.
    Equipment must have good balance
    and good handles for manual lifting,
    and sling attachments for  mechanical

 3  Quick and positive coupling and
    uncoupling of hoses and other
    connections  is essential.

 4  Low maintenance costs and easy
    cleaning and storage arrangements.

 5  Ability to work in gangs to handle
    increased volumes.

 6  Protection from clogging due to debris
    or sorbents.

 The selection of the type of pump is very
 important. A .centrifugal purnp can handle
 large volumes of flow which may be
 required to remove very thin slicks.
 However,  this type of pump imparts
 tremendous mixing energy and produces
 an oil/water emulsion which may not
 separate satisfactorily in the settling
 chamber.  On the other hand, positive
 displacement pumps, such as diaphragm
 or piston pumps,  while they cannot handle
 as large a flow, do not mix or emulsify
 the oil/water mixture.  The efficiency of
• the settling chamber is thus increased.
 Positive displacement pumps also are
 very easy to repair, unclog and maintain
 and do not require priming.

 Here, the choice of a pump depends on the
 volume of water flow required,  the size
 of the oil/water separator available and
 the expected amount of maintenance
 assistance available;  Based on past
 experience, the chief cause for an
 unsuccessful oil skimming operation has
 been due to failure in the pumping system.

  Treatment of Oil Spills
 D The Oil/Water Separator - is essentially
    a settling chamber where  collected oil
    separates by gravity from collected water.
    A system of weirs and baffles may be
    employed to facilitate separation.  The
    water may either be pumped out or forced
    out by gravity.  The oil is normally pumped
    out when the tank has reached its oil
    storage capacity.  The separator may be
    nothing more than a tank truck or it may
    be specially designed to meet particular

    Normally,  the weir type and the floating
    suction head type pickup units require an
    oil/water separator.  Likewise, if a
    centrifugal pump is used,  a separator is
    usually required.

 A The basic oil skimmer is composed of
    three units:

    1  Pickup head

    2  Pump system

    3  Oil/water separator

    There are three basic pickup heads in use

    1  Weir type

    2  Floating suction head type

    3  Adsorbent surface type

    The pump system usually employs either
    of two types of pumps:

    1  Centrifugal pump

    2  Positive displacement pump

    An oil/water separator is required to
    separate the large amounts of water
    usually picked up  with the oil slick.

 B Tests and experiences have indicated that
    present  day skimmers do not operate
    efficiently in wave heights greater than 1.5
   to 2.0 feet or in currents greater than
   1. 0 to 1.5 feet per second.

   Prior to purchasing an oil skimmer, the
   buyer should determine physical restrictions,
   such as piers, shallow water, marshes,
   etc.,  estimate the quantities and types of
   oil to be handled, investigate the local
   weather conditions and become familiar
   with the body of water in which the pro-
   posed skimmer is to be used.  Using this
   information the proper oil skimmer can
   then be  selected.

1  Milz, E.A.  An Evaluation of Oil Spill
      Control Equipment and Techniques,
      April 14, 1970, Shell Pipe Line
      Corporation, P.O. Box 2648,
      Houston,  Texas  77001.

2  Proceedings of the Joint Conference on
      Prevention and Control of Oil Spills,
      December 1969,  American Petroleum
      Institute, 1271 Avenue of the Americas,
      New York,  N.Y.  10020.

3  Oil Skimming Devices, Edison Water
      Quality Laboratory, May 1970,
      Planning and Resources Office, Office
      of Research and Development,  EPA,
      Washington, D. C.  20242.
This outline was prepared by J. S.  Dorrler,
Acting Chief, Oil Pollution R & D, Edison
V/ater Quality Laboratory,  Office of Water
Programs,   Edison, NJ  08817.

                           CLEANUP OF OIL-POLLUTED BEACHES

 National and international publicity given to
 Torrey Canyon and Santa Barbara incidents
 have led to a public outcry to stop the oil
 pollution of our national shorelines.

 The question is often asked,  "How do you
 clean an oil polluted beach? " The answer
 to this question is relative.   What is the
 composition of the beach?  Is it fine grain
 sand; is it coarse sand; is it  pebble or
 shingle beach? What type of oil pollution
 has fouled the beach?  Was it a #2 oil,
 #6 or a crude oil?  How deep is the oil
 penetration?  What is the temperature and
 the season?  Where  is the beach located?
 Does it have access  roads?   Can it be
 reached or traversed by wheeled vehicles
 or can it only accomodate tracked vehicles?
 Before  we can even begin to answer a question
 on beach cleanup, we must know as many
 background facts as  possible.

 A It has often been said that nature is the
    best cleaning agent in the world.  This is
    especially true of rocky shores and stone
    beaches.  But if anyone reports that
    nature removed oil from a sand beach -
    dig a little deeper  - literally.  What
    nature cannot  remove,  it covers up.
    Wind blown sand and the seasonal move-
    ment of beaches have a tendency to cover
    man's mistakes.

 B The most elementary method of beach
    cleanup is with the  use of rakes, shovels
    and manpower.  If the penetration  of oil
    into the sand is less than two inches and
    the oil is not too fluid,  the oil can  be raked
    into windrows of approximately one foot
    and picked up  with shovels to be placed
    into a front loader or dump truck.   If the
    oil is not sufficiently weathered to be
    viscous,  it can be made more workable
    through the application of a cold water
    spray from a garden hose or a fire hose.

    If the pollution damage to the beach is
    much more extensive, then mechanical
    equipment must be used.  Through
    research, it has been determined that
    a Motorized Elevating Scraper used in
    tandem with a motorized scraper,  are
    the best mechanical equipment to be used
    in beach restoration.  The combined
    uses of these vehicles provide the  most
    rapid means of beach restoration and in
    addition their  use results in the removal
    of the least amount of excess beach
    material. Before allowing mechanical
    equipment on the beach,  the operators
    of these vehicles  must be cautioned on
    the amount of  beach sand to be removed.

 A It is much easier to clean up a beach if
    the oil is stopped at or near the water
    line.  An effective method of protecting
    a high-use beach from the onslaught of
    oil pollution is to throw up a sand berm
    approximately three feet high.  This can
    be accomplished with the use of earth
    moving equipment or, if necessary, by
    hand labor.  The artificial berm should
    be placed along the high water mark, to
    protect the dry sand above the intertidal
   • zone.  If the surf is strong or very active,
    or if there is an abnormally high tide,
    the artificial berm will be destroyed.
    Sufficient to say that the artificial berm
    will only prove effective in a mild surf
    and calm weather.

 B Should sufficient time exist between the
    notification of an oil spill and its reaching
    the shore face,  one method of alleviating
    the damage to the beach is the extensive
    use of straw, either alone, or used in
    conjunction with the commercial "sorbents.'
  IN. PPW. ol.lQ.5.71

 Cleanup of Oil-Polluted Beaches
    Straw,  which has a natural absorptive
    capacity for oil, will adsorb between four
    and ten times its own weight in oil.  To
    be most effective, the straw should be
    laid along the low-water mark and as the
    tide and oil move up the beach, the straw
    should be worked into the oil, either
    through natural wave action or mechanical

    If the oil is still washing ashore a series
    of deep pits can be gouged out of the sand
    at the water's edge to allow the oil to
    build up sufficient thickness to permit
    removal by vacuum tank truck.

 A  We firmly believe that the use of dispersants,
    emulsifiers and other chemicals is entirely
    unjustified in the cleanup of oil polluted
    beaches.  In both the Torrey Canyon and
    Ocean Eagle incidents,  it was noted that
    the use of chemicals on sand caused the
    sand to become "quick", making it difficult
    to walk on and  leaving a  disagreeable odor
    in the treated sand.  (However,  other
    reports cite this same "quicksand" with
    oil alone.  As the literature on this
    subject is very vague, further research
    by the government and private industry
    seems indicated.)

 B  In oil penetration tests conducted at
    Sandy Hook, N. J.,  it was concluded that
    various types of persistent oil alone
    penetrated no more than two inches into
    the sand while  oil mixed with chemicals
    (dispersants, emulsifiers, etc.) caused
    penetration of the mixture into the sand
    at least three times  the depth  of the
    untreated oil.

 C Application of chemicals to an oil soaked
   beach and subsequent hosing down of the
    mixture with sea water,  the sand appeared
    cleansed of oil. However, further
   investigation revealed that this observation
   was  deceptive,  as the oil and chemical
   mixture was found between four  and twelve
   inches,  in irregular bands, below the
    surface of the sand.

  Many attempts have been made to burn oil
  on the shore face.  Through an extensive
  literature search and personal observation
  it is concluded that the burning of oil
  "in situ" on a  contaminated beach is not
  very practicable.  It has been tried with
  commercial burning agents, flame throwers,
  "oxygen tiles" and various mixtures of
  kerosene and gasoline, but all have met
  with no success.  Small, "fresh" pools of
  neat crudes or light oil can be burned
  successfully if their lighter ends have not
  evaporated, but this is a patchy operation
  at best and is  not recommended for cleanup
  of massive spills.

  A  Sometimes a "high-use" beach becomes
     stained with a light oil such as a #2 fuel.
     This becomes a problem because of instant
     and deep penetration.  The only really
     effective method of cleansing this type of
     pollution is to expose as much of the con-
     taminated beach sand to the sunlight and
     wind as  possible. This can be done
     effectively by the use of a harrowing
     plow or  beach cleaning machines, which
     are used to remove trash from beaches.

     Number two fuel, in  contrast to #6 or
     Bunker "C" fuel oil,  contains a relative
     high amount of light ends.  If these light
     ends are exposed to evaporation through
     wind and weather, they will dissipate
     rather rapidly.

  B  To accelerate, the evaporation and
     dissipation of #2 fuel from the beaches,
     a mat of straw should be laid on the
     beach, at least one inch thick.  A disk-
     harrow should then be used to work the
     straw down into the sand column so the
     straw can absorb as much of the oil as
     possible. A beach cleaning machine
     should then be used to retrieve the oil
     soaked straw.  The beach should then be
     harrowed or mechanically raked to hasten
     the dissipation of the remaining oil trapped
     in the sub-surface of the sand.
  This outline was prepared by H. J.  Lamp'l,
  Oil Spills Coordinator,  Office of Water Programs,
  Edison Water Quality Laboratory, Edison,  NJ.


 A  Requests for information to evaluate water
    requirements, wastewater treatments and
    possible surface or ground water pollution
    by oil refineries requires extensive study.
    It is always necessary first to have know-
    ledge of size of refinery, type of crude oil,
    classification of refinery (topping plant,
    topping and cracking plant, topping,
    catalytic cracking, plus lubricating proc-
    essing or a combination of all processes)
    and the products to be produced. Each
    refinery is built to satisfy a certain market
    for its products.  A corporate management
    often develops certain processes that are
    common only  to that organization.  There-
    fore, it is only possible to supply
    generalized information until definite plans,
    elevations and location relative  to other
    industries and developments are available.

 B  For those who require an understanding of
    the problems  of crude oil or petroleum
    processing, Bland and Davidson is an
    excellent text.  It furnishes both general
    and technical  information relating to the
    processing of crude oil into useful products.
    This book has a limited section  on sources
    of crude oil and preliminary "crude assays. "
    It has extensive sections on processing,
    equipment,  chemicals and catalysts,
    maintenance and construction.  There is
    also a section on offsite facilities that
    includes tankage,  blending areas,  cooling
    systems, refinery sewer systems,  waste
    treating facilities and utility plants.
 C  The 1968 Refining Process Handbook
    describes many of the latest refining
 A Beychok  reviews the subject of aqueous
   wastes.  Following a chapter on "Pollutants
   and Effluent Quality Regulations, " he
   describes in "Refinery and Petrochemical
   Plant Effluents, " three means of
   segregating the waste streams of oil
   processing plants, then reviews the
   various process waste streams.  In a
   chapter on "Treatment Methods" he
   details inplant treatment prior to the use
   of API separators with final "Secondary
   Treatment. "  He also has  chapters on
   "Miscellaneous Effluents, "  "Cost Data, "
   an "Appendix,  including a  Glossary,
   description of IOD, BOD and COD Tests, "
   and an excellent reference list into the
   year 1966.  This is the latest and most
   complete text on petroleum and petro-
   chemical plant wastewater.

B  Much has been done by the American
   Petroleum Institute,  Refining Division,
   toward handling of waste streams. **
   A copy of the manual should be available
   to all involved in the study of refining
   waste  streams.

   The 196.7 Domestic Refinery Effluent
   Profile  was developed to  indicate just
   what the sources of waste  are and what
   the various refineries are doing.  This
   report divides the various types of
   refineries into:

   1  Topping plants

   2  Topping and cracking plants

   3  Topping,  cracking and petrochemical

   4  Topping,  catalytic cracking and
      lubricating oil processes

   5  Plants, including all processes

   The types of wastewater treatments are
   also described in general terms by code

C  Another series of reprints on waste
   treatment is "Waste Treatment and Flare
   Stack Design Handbook. " 6 This series of
 IN.PPW.ol.6.3. 70

Waste Treatment Methods for Refineries
   reprints covers the fundamentals of sewer
   design through wastewater treatment plans
   and the water laws that influence the
   petroleum industry.
D Chemical Engineering presents a
   "Complete Guide to Pollution Control
   (Deskbook Issue)" which includes a number
   of articles for the control of pollution.

E The National Petroleum Refiners
   Association  published reprints of papers
   presented at their various meetings.
   A series of these are attached. ^

F Dr. A. J. Freedman  points out that a
   normal refinery operation requires 18.3
   barrels of water per barrel of crude
   processed.  Since, as mentioned earlier,
   no two refineries are alike,  information
   presented here cannot be expected to fit
   all waste treatment operations.  Dr.
   Freedman1 s sources and classification
   of refinery wastewater are  outlined in his
   Tables I and II of this paper.

G Stevens and  Evans    state on page 1,
   "Both the process design and operations
   groups have generally defined a waste
   stream as one from which economic gain
   cannot be achieved in the allowable payout
   period for capital amortization. " On page 2
   there is a complete list of parameters that
   should be closely observed.   This same
   paper states "The techniques available to
   the designer of waste control flow sheets
   in the refinery are literally all those
   available to  the designer  of the process
   flow sheet and,  in addition, have the
   powerful tool of biological treatment--
   a not very common concept in the lexicon
   of process flow sheet designers. "

   1 Many other ideas and suggestions for
     wastewater quality control can be found
     in the various NPRA reports.

   2 Other references are from the Oil and
     Gas Journal.
H Mr. Hickey   has an excellent short
   article which includes a suggested
   wastewater survey,  water use and possible
   contaminates along with pollution concen-
   trations and  determinations.  Two articles
by Ewing  '    review the refinery's use
of activated sludge and lagoons in waste-
water treatment.

To become knowledgeable of the works
of others, the staff of American Oil
Company *0a describes the treatment  .„
of oil wastes,  and Quigley and Hoffman
describe the flotation of oily wastes.

While the title speaks only of the Petro-
chemical Industry, S.K. Mencher I1
reviews both the refining and petrochemical
industry.  This is an extensive report
listing process units, source of pollutants,
pollutants and possible terminal remedy.
Mr.  Mencher outlines a schematic dia-
gram of terminal waste disposal facility
for refinery petrochemical complex.
This includes  1) oily water or process
water, 2) sanitary sewers 3) demineralizer
waste and 4) oil free waters.  It is stated
that  "The bulk of water and in hydrocarbon
processing industries, is used for cooling
purposes and does not ordinarily become
contaminated.  However,  during process
operations,  waste streams are released
from equipment to the sewers at many
points because of leaks, water purging
and line breakage. "

Mr.  Mencher indicates that "polluted
water streams are often disgorged in the
following processing operations:

1  Crude oil desalting

2  Steam distillation

3  Steam stripping

4  Water washing of products following
   chemical treatment

5  Barometric condensing of steam driven
   prime movers

6  Catalyst regeneration

7  Partial pressure reduction with dilution

8  Boiler and cooling tower blowdowris

                                                     Waste Treatment Methods for Refineries
    9  Drainage of contaminated areas--
       rain water runoff

   10  Treatment of water--i. e.,  nitrate
       addition for caustic embrittlement

   11  Transferring and storing oils

   12  Vessel cleaning operations"

    The ultimate disposal of any waste stream
    leaving process  units must be treated by
    either of three methods, or a  combination:

    1  Physical - separating, skimming,
       burial, i.e.,  gravity separators

    2  Chemical - neutralization,  oxidation,
       reduction,  i.e., chemical flocculation,
       air flotation

    3  Biological - bacterial oxidation,
       anaerobic processes, i.e., biological

 A As in the case of any steel mill, paper
    mill,  thermal electric power plant, or
    hydrocarbon processing facility that uses
    and releases large volumes of water, the
    source of water should be known and a
    study made of the direction of flow of any
    discharge.  John Piety 12 describes such
    a study in Predicting the Course of an
    Effluent Discharge for the  south coast of
    Long  Island,  New York.  This survey
    traced the underwater effluent from a
    sewage treatment plant and included the
    effect of winds,  tides,  and coastal currents.
    Ross*3 is able to predict pollutant dis-
    persion by the mathematics of diffusion.
    The equations are derived  from "equation
    of change" describing mass transport or
    from  macroscopic balances.  His  solutions
    yield  relations desired for correlating

 B Any time petroleum—either crude or
    refined products--are shipped there are
    possible hazards. In the case of tankers
    and particularly those carrying 2.5
    million barrels, the damage that could
    be done in case of an accident is untold.
    It is necessary,  therefore,  to maintain
    systems that prevent spillage  and if there
    are, have safeguards such as  extensive
    oil booms and enclosures to prevent
    release of oil to the water course.  All
    dockage should be protected.  All tankers
    necessarily have a certain amount of
    ballast water and tank cleaning emulsions
    to dispose of. API Manual on Disposal
    of Refinery Wastes, Volume 1, Waste -
    water Containing Oil,  Chapter 5,
    "Disposal of Ballast Water and Tank-
    cleaning Emulsion from Tankers and
    Barges, "  and Brummage,  et al., "a*
    review some of the many problems and
    possible solutions.  Where both the crude
    oil is shipped in as well as products trans-
    shipped by water,  the hazards are great.

 In any proposed refinery, it must be
 emphasized that certain information be
 available to Federal Water  Pollution Control
 Administration and/or other agencies having
 the safeguard of water as their responsibility.
 This includes the name of the company
 responsible for the refinery, the source of
 crude  oil,  the methods  of receiving and
 possible trans-shipment of  products, the
 docks  and protective harbor, type of oper-
 ation,  whether a topping plant or a more
 complete refinery, the  names of designing
 engineering firm,  storage,  kind and how
 much.  These, plus water needs and
 wastewater disposal are requirements.

 1  American Petroleum Institute.  1967
       Domestic Refinery Effluent Profile.
       Crossely, S-D Surveys, Inc.
       September  1968.

 2  Bland, A.F. and Davidson,  R. L.
       Petroleum  Processing Handbook.
       McGraw Hill,  New York.   1967.

   Waste Treatment Methods for Refineries
 3  Hydrocarbon Processing.  The 1968
       Refining Processes Handbook.
       September 1968.

 4  Beychok, M.R.  Aqueous Wastes from
       Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants.
       J. Wiley & Son,  New York.   1967.

 5  Manual on Disposal of Refinery Wastes,
       Volumes I, II, III, IV, and V.
       Also Section Biological Factors of
       Pollution as Affecting Receiving Waters,
       American Petroleum Institute, Division
       of Refining,  1271 Ave. of the Americas,
       New York.

 6  Hydrocarbon Processing.  Waste Treat-
       ment and Flare Stack Design Handbook.
       GulfPubl.  Co.,  Houston,  Texas.  1968.
    Chemical Engineering.
       to Pollution Control.
       October 14, 1968.
Complete Guide
 Deskbook Issue.
8a  Freedman,  A. J.,  et al.   The Chemistry
       of Refinery and Petrochemical Waste -
       water.   GL-67-40.

8b  Gossom,  W. J.  Minimized Waste
       Abatement Costs Requires Sound Data.

8c  Stevens, J.I. and Evans,  R.R.  The Need
       for the Process Approach in Pollution
       Abatement.   GC-66-9.

8d  Gossom,  W. J.   Some Considerations in
       Sound Design for Waste Control.

8e  Johnson,  E.E.,  et al.   Waste Disposal
       Cost Allocation.  MC-68-49.

8f  Stevens, J.I. and  Evans,  R.R.  Advanced
       Waste  Disposal Techniques Presently
       Available to the Petroleum Refining
       and Petrochemical Industry.  GL-66-44.

8g  River, C. H., et al.  Treatment of
       Wastewaters.   Shell Chemical,
       Houston Plant.   MC-68-50.
                     8h  Norwood, B. E.   Applications of
                           Biological Trickling Filter for Treat-
                           ment of Effluent Water at Shell Oil
                           Company's Houston Refinery.
                           NPCEC 68-24.

                     9a  Hickey, J.J.  Here's What Refineries
                           Need for Pollution Measurement.
                           Oil and Gas Journal.  August  12,  1968.

                     9b  Ewing, R. C.  Refinery Waste Products
                           Pose Pollution Problem.  Oil and
                           Gas Journal.   December 9,  1968.
                     9c Ewing,  R.C.
                           October 12,
                   Lagoons Help Abate
                   Oil and Gas Journal.
                   1968.  92, 96.
lOa  American Oil Company.   Treating Oily
       Wastes.   Industrial Water Engineer.
       July 1968. 22-24.

lOb  Quigley, R.E. and Huffman,  E.L.
       Flotation of Oily Wastes.   A Refinery's
       Approach to Wastewater Treatment.
       Industrial Water Engineer.  June 1967.

 11  Mencher, S. K.   Minimizing Waste in
       Petrochemical Industry.  Chemical
       Engineering Progress.  October 1967.

 12  Piety, John.  Predicting the Course of
       an Effluent Discharge.  Ocean Industry.
       August 1968.    56-61.

 13 .Ross,  L.W.  In Air and Water - Predicts
       Pollutants Dispersion.  Hydrocarbon
       Processing,  47:8,  144-150.  1968.

14a  Brummage,  K. G., Maybourn, R.,
       Sawyer,  M. F.  Keeping Oil out  of the
       Sea.   Ocean  Industry.  November 1967.

14b  Brummage,  K. G., Maybourn, R.,
       Sawyer,  M. F.  How LOT Affects
       Refinery Costs.  Hydrocarbon
       Processing,  46:7  116-120.  1967.
  Phis outline was prepared by  L.W. Muir,
  former Chemist. National Field Investiga-
  tions Center,  EPA,  Cincinnati, OH 45213.

                 LEGAL RESPONSE

                                            Outline Number

Legislation Affecting Oil                          29

National and Regional Contingency Plans            30

Functions,  Responsibilities and Role               32
of the On-Scene-Commander

                               LEGISLATION AFFECTING OIL

 On April 3, 1970, the President of the
 United States signed into law the "Water
 Quality Improvement Act of 1970. "  This
 is the latest law enacted to fight oil pollution.
 It is one of many laws passed to combat oil
 spills since the first oil well was drilled in
 the United States in Titusville,  Pennsylvania
 on August 27,  1859.

 A "Refuse Act"

   U.S. Code, Title 33, Section 407 Law
   enacted by Congress in March 1899.
   Superseded prior act of September 19,
   1890.   This act not only forbids discharge
   of refuse into the navigable waters
   (or tributaries of navigable waters,  it
   also forbids the placing of refuse on the
   banks of a navigable water or tributaries
   thereof) where such refuse shall be liable
   to be washed into the navigable water.
   The penalty under this section is covered
   by Section 411 and provides for a fine not
   exceeding $2, 500 nor less than $500, or
   by imprisonment (in the case of a natural
   person) for not less than thirty days nor
   more than one year, or by both such fine
   and imprisonment,  in the discretion of the
   court, one-half of such fine to be paid to
   the person or persons giving information
   which shall lead to conviction.  (A Federal
   Court of Appeals held in 1936 that oil was
   refuse matter within the meaning of this
   section (La Merced, 84F.2d444).  The
   U.S.  Supreme Court held in 1966 that
   gasoline was refuse matter within the
   meaning of this section (U. S. v Standard
   Oil Co., 384 U.S. 224).  The U.S.
   Supreme Court has also held in 1960 that
   injunctive as well as criminal relief is
   available under this section (U.S.  v
   Republic Steel Corp. 362  U.S. 482).
B  U.S. Code Title 33, Section 441 Law
   enacted by Congress on June 29, 1888.
   Superseded prior act of August 5, 1886.
   This act is known as "The Supervisor
   of New York Harbor Act", but it also
   applies to the harbors of Baltimore,
   Maryland and Norfolk,  Virginia.  This
   act provides, upon conviction (for
   discharging any matter  of any  kind into
   the harbors that a person shall be
   punished by fine or imprisonment,  or
   both, )such fine to be not less than $250
   nor more than $2, 500,  and the  imprison-
   ment to be not less than thirty days nor
   more than one year, either or both  united,
   as the judge before whom conviction is
   obtained shall decide,  one half of said fine
   to be paid to the person or persons  giving
   information which shall lead to conviction
   of this misdemeanor. [A Federal District
   Court in 1928 said that waste fuel oil
   discharges are prohibited by this section
   (The Albania,  30 F.2d 727)].

C  Congress enacted the "Oil Pollution Act of
   1924" which provided for fines  up to
   $2, 500 for  discharges of oil from vessels
   into coastal navigable waters.   This Act
   was repealed by the Water Quality
   Improvement Act of 1970.

D  Outer Continental Shelf  Lands  Act of 1953
   U.S. Code Title 43, (sections  1331-1343).
   This act authorizes the  Secretary of the
   Interior to issue on a competitive basis
   leases for oil and gas,  sulphur and  other
  • minerals in submerged  lands or the
   Outer Continental Shelf.  Subject to the
   supervisory authority of the Secretary and
   the Director of the Geological  Survey,
   drilling and production operations including
   pollution prevention are controlled through
   the issuance of regulations and orders.

E  U. S. Code  Title 33, Section 1001 enacted
   by  Congress in 1961 and amended in 1966.
   The Oil Pollution Act of 1961 implemented
 WP. POL. oh. 3. 5. 71

  Legislation Affecting Oil
    the provisions of the International Con-
    vention for the Prevention of the Pollution
    of the Sea by Oil,  1954.  To prevent
    discharge or escape of oil or oily mixture
    by sea-going vessels,  (NOTE:  Oily mix-
    ture is  defined as a mixture with an oil
    content of 100 ppm or  more).   Vessels
    required to maintain Oil Record Book.
    Prohibited zone: All seas within 50 miles
    from nearest land (baseline from which
    territorial sea is established) and other
    areas as defined in the convention.
    Amendments to this law were adopted by
    International Convention in 1969 but have
    not yet been ratified by U.S.

    "Clean Waters Restoration Act of 1966.
    This act amended the Oil Pollution Act
    of 1924. This was not a strong law
    because to obtain a conviction for a
    discharge of oil from a vessel you had
    to prove "willful spilling" ,  or gross
    negligence. This act was repealed by
    the Water Quality Improvement  Act of
OF 1970.  PUBLIC LAW 91-224
 A Section II Control of Pollution by Oil

    1  Quantities of oil which may be

       Title 18, Part 610 of theCode of
       Federal Regulations .gives this
       definition of oil which may not be
       discharged:  Include discharge which:

       a  Violate applicable water quality
          standards,  or

       b  Cause a film  or sheen upon or dis-
          coloration of  the water or adjoining
          shorelines or causes a sludge or
          emulsion to be deposited beneath
          the surface of the water or upon
          adjoining shorelines.

    2  Notification (Penalty)

       Title 33,  Part 153 of the Code of Federal
       Regulations states:  Subsection ll(b) (4)
   of the Act requires that any person in
   charge of a vessel or of an onshore or
   offshore  facility,  as soon as he has
   knowledge of any  discharge  of oil in
   harmful quantities from such vessel
   or facility into or upon the waters
   designated by the Act or the adjoining
   shorelines,  shall immediately notify
   the appropriate agency of the United
   States Government of such discharge.
   The "appropriate agency" is listed as

   a  The Commanding Officer or officer
      in charge of any Coast Guard unit
      in the vicinity  of the discharge;

   b  The Commander of the Coast Guard
      District in which the discharge occurs.

   c  The Federal official designated in
      the Regional Oil and Hazardous
      Materials Pollution Contingency
      Plan as the On-Scene Commander
      (OSC) for spill response purposes.

   If the above officials cannot  for some
   reason be notified, then notification
   should be given to:

   a  The Commandant,  U.S. Coast Guard

   b  Regional Director, EPA Water
      Quality Office, for the  region in
      which the discharge occurs

   The penalty for failure to  notify one of
   the foregoing immediately is up to
   $10, 000 or imprisonment  for up to one

3  Knowingly discharging oil

   Section 11 (b) (5) of the Act provides
   $10, 000 fine for knowingly discharging
   oil into the navigable waters.  This is
   a civil penalty and shall be assessed
   by the Secretary of the department in
   which the Coast Guard is operating.
   Each violation is a separate offense.

                                                                Legislation Affecting Oil
4  Areas affected

   The discharge of oil into or upon the
   navigable waters of the United States,
   adjoining shorelines,  or  into or upon
   the waters of the contiguous zone in
   harmful quantities, as determined by
   the President, is prohibited, except
   (A) in the case of such discharges into
   the waters of the contiguous zone,
   where permitted under Article  IV of
   the International Convention for the
   Prevention of the Pollution of the Sea
   by Oil, 1954, as amended and (B) where
   permitted in quantities and at times
   and locations or under such circumstances
   or conditions as the President may, by
   regulation,  determine not to be harmful.
   Title 33,  Part 153  of the Code of
   Federal Regulations provides that dis-
   charges of oil from properly functioning
   vessel engines are not deemed  to be

5  Removal of oil from water and  shoreline

   Whenever any oil is discharged, into
   or upon the navigable waters of the
   United States, adjoining shorelines, or
   into or upon the  waters of the contiguous
   zone,  the President is authorized to act
   to remove or arrange for the removal
   of such oil at any time, unless  he deter-
   mines such removal will be done properly
   by the owner or  operator of the vessel,
   onshore facility, or offshore facility from
   which the discharge occurs.

6  National contingency plan

   a Section 11 (c) (2) of the Act calls for
     the preparation of a National Con-
     tingency Plan.  The National Oil and
     Hazardous Materials Pollution
     Contingency Plan has been estab-
     lished and is  operative.  This Plan
     provides for efficient,  coordinated,
     and effective  action to minimize
     damage from oil discharges
     including containment, disposal
     and removal of  oil.
b  As part of the Plan,  Section 11 (c)
   (2) (C) of the Act, requires
   "establishment or designation of
   a strike force consisting of per-
   sonnel who shall be trained, prepared,
   and available to provide necessary
   services to carry out the Plan,
   including the establishment at major
   ports,  to be determined by the
   President,  of emergency task forces
   of trained personnel,  adequate oil
   pollution control equipment and
   material and a detailed oil pollution
   prevention and removal plan. "

c  Dispersants and other chemicals

   As required in section 11 (c) (2) (G)
   of the Act,  the Plan provides that
   dispersants shall not be used:

   1) On any distillate fuel

   2) On any spill of oil less than 200
      barrels in quantity

   3) On any shoreline

   4) In any waters less than 100 feet

   5) In any waters containing major
      populations, or breeding or
      passage areas for species of fish
      or  marine life which may be
      damaged or rendered  commercially
      less marketable  by exposure to
      dispersant or dispersed oil.

   6) In any waters where winds and/or
      currents are of such velocity and
      directions that dispersed oil
      mixtures would likely, in the
      judgment of EPA, be carried to
      shore areas within 24 hours.

   7) In any waters where such use may
      affect surface water supplies.

 Legislation Affecting Oil
      d  Sinking agents

         Sinking agents may be used only in
         marine waters exceeding 100 meters
         in depth where currents are not
         predominately on-shore, and only
         if other  control methods are judged
         by EPA  to be inadequate or not feasible.

   7  Removal or destruction of vessel

      When as a result of a marine disaster,
      there is a discharge,  or an imminent
      discharge,  or large quantities of oil
      from a vessel causing a substantial
      threat of danger, the United States may
      (a) coordinate and direct all public and
      private  efforts directed at the removal
      or elimination of such threat; and
      (b) summarily remove,  and,  if necessary,
      destroy such vessel by whatever means
      are available without regard to any
      provisions  of law governing the employ-
      ment of personnel or the expenditure of
      appropriated funds.

   8  Threat from facilities

      When there is an imminent and sub-
      stantial threat to the public health or
      welfare from an actual or threatened
      discharge of oil from an onshore or
      offshore facility,  judicial relief can be
      sought to abate the threat.

   9  Cost of cleanup

      a  Vessel

         An owner or operator of a vessel
         from which oil is spilled,  shall be
         liable to the United States Government
         in an amount not to exceed $100 per
         gross ton of such vessel of
         $14, 000, 000,  whichever is lesser,
         except where  it can be proven that
        the discharge was caused solely by
         (A) an act of God (B)  an  act of war
         (C) negligence on the part of the
         U.S.  Government or  (D) an act or
         omission of a third party without
         regard to whether such act or
         omission was or was not negligent.
        Where the United States  can show
   that such discharge was the result
   of negligence or willful misconduct
   within the privity and knowledge of
   the owner, such owner or operator
   shall be liable to the United States
   Government for the full amount of
   such cost.  Such cost shall con-
   stitute a maritime lien on such
   vessel which may be recovered by
   an action in rem in the district
   court of the United States for any
   district within which any vessel
   may be found.

b  Offshore  facility

   The owner or operator of offshore
   facility from which oil is spilled,
   shall be liable to the United States
   Government for the actual cost
   incurred for the removal of such
   oil by the United States Government
   in an amount not to exceed $8, 000, 000,
   except where it can be proven that
   the discharge was caused solely by
   (A) an act of God (B) an act of war
   (C) negligence on the part of the
   U.S. Government or (D) an act or
   omission of a third party without
   regard to whether such act or
   omission was or was not negligent.
   Where the United States can show
   that such discharge was the result
   of willful negligence  or willful
   misconduct within the privity and
   knowledge of the owner, such owner
   or operator shall be  liable to the
   United States Government for the
   full amount of such cost.  The
   United States Government may
   bring an action against the  owner
   or operator of such a facility in
   any court of competent jurisdiction
   to recover such cost.

c  Onshore facility

   The owner or operator from which
   oil is spilled shall be liable to the
   United States Government for the
   actual cost incurred for the removal
   of such oil by the United States
   Government in an amount not to
   exceed $8, 000, 000, except where

                                                                 Legislation Affecting Oil
       it can be proven that the discharge
       was caused by (A) an act of God
       (B) an act of war (C) negligence
       on the part  of the U. S.  Government,
       or (D) an act or omission of a third
       party without regard to whether such
       act or omission was or was not
       negligent.   Where the United States
       can  show that such discharge was
       the result of willful negligence or
       willful misconduct within the privity
       and  knowledge of the owner, such
       owner or operator shall be liable to
       the United States Government for
       the full amount of such cost.  The
       United States may bring an action
       against the  owner or operator of
       such facility in any court of competent
       jurisdiction to recover such cost.

10  Regulations

    Consistent  with the National Con-
    tingency Plan,  regulations are to be
    issued  establishing (A) methods and
    procedures for removal of discharged
    oil (B)  criteria for local and regional
    contingency plans (C) procedures,
    methods and requirements for equip-
    ment to prevent discharges of oil,  and
    (D) procedures for inspection of vessels
    carrying oil.   An administrative civil
    penalty of up to $5000 can be assessed
    for violation of these regulations.

11  Revolving fund

    There is authorized to be appropriated
    a revolving fund to be established by
    the Treasury not to exceed $35, 000, 000
    to carry out the provision of cleanup as
    stated by the Act.  Any other funds
    received by the United States  under
    this Act shall also be deposited in said
    fund for such purposes. All sums
    appropriated to,  or deposited in, said
    fund shall remain available until

12  Evidence of financial responsibility

    This section provides that any vessel
    over three hundred gross tons, including
    any barge of equivalent size,  using any
      port or place in the United States for
      any purpose shall establish and main-
      tain under regulations to be prescribed
      from time to time by the President,
      evidence of financial responsibility of
      $100 per gross ton, or $14, 000, 000
      whichever is the lesser, to meet the
      liability to the United States which
      such vessel could be subjected under
      this law. In cases where an owner or
      operator owns, operates, or charters
      more than one such vessel, financial
      responsibility need only be  established
      to meet the maximum liability to which
      the largest of such vessels  could be
      subjected.  Financial responsibility
      may be established by any one of,  or
      a combination of, the following  methods
      acceptable to the President: (A) evidence
      of insurance; (B) surety bond; (C) qual-
      ification as a self-insurer;  or (D) other
      evidence of financial responsibility.
      Any bond filed shall be issued by a
      bonding company authorized to do
      business in the United States.

  13  This section provides that nothing  in
      the section shall be construed as
      preempting any State or political sub-
      division thereof from imposing  any
      requirement or liability with respect
      to the discharge  of oil into any waters
      within such State.

B  Executive Order  11548

   This Executive Order, dated July 20,  1970,
   assigned the various responsibilities  and
   authorities for implementing the oil
   pollution provisions of Section 11 to EPA,
   Department of Transportation  (Coast
   Guard), Federal Maritime Commission,
   and Council on Environmental Quality.
   The Coast Guard is responsible for
   cleanup and enforcement in coastal and
   contiguous zone waters, high seas,
   Great Lakes waters.  EPA is responsible
   for inland waters.

This outline was prepared by J. William
Geise, Jr., Program Advisor (Legal),
Division of Oil & Hazardous Materials,
Washington,  D. C. and Howard Lamp'l,
Contingency Plans Officer, Edison Water
Quality Laboratory,  EPA, Edison, NJ 08817.


 The Federal Water Pollution Control Act,  as
 ammended (P.L. 91-224, 84 Stat. 93, 1970)
 directed the preparation of a National
 Contingency Plan for Oil and Hazardous
 Materials.  This plan, published in the
 Federal Register on June 2,  1970, super-
 seded the National Multiagency Oil and
 Hazardous Materials Contingency Plan which
 was approved in September,  1968.

 The Plan provides for a pattern of coordinated
 and integrated response to major pollution
 incidents by departments  and agencies of the
 Federal government.  It establishes a national
 response team and provides  guidelines for the
 establishment of regional contingency plans
 and response teams.  The plan promotes the
 coordination and direction of Federal, State
 and local response systems and encourages
 the development of local government  and
 private capabilities to handle pollution spills.

 The objectives of the plan are to develop
 effective systems for discovering and
 reporting the existence of a pollution spill,
 promptly instituting measures to restrict
 the further spread of the pollutant, to assure
 that the public health,  welfare and national
 resources are provided adequate protection,
 application of techniques to cleanup and
 dispose of the collected pollutants, and
 institution of action to recover cleanup and
 effective enforcement of existing Federal

  The plan is effective for all United States
  navigable waters including inland rivers,
  the Great Lakes, coastal territorial waters,
  and the contiguous zone and high seas
  beyond this zone where there exists a threat
  to United States waters,  shoreface or shelf

 Each of the primary Federal agencies has
 responsibilities established by statute,
 Executive Order or Presidential Directive,
 which may bear on the Federal response to
 a pollution spill.  This plan intends to
 promote the expeditious  and harmonious
 discharge of these responsibilities through
 the recognition of authority for action by
 those agencies having the most appropriate
 capability to act in each  specific situation.

 The primary Federal Agencies are the
 Environmental Protection Agency,  the
 Departments of Transportation, Defense,
 Interior, and Health, Education and Welfare,
 and the Office of Emergency Preparedness.

  The plan provides for a National Inter-Agency
  Committee (NIC) which is the principal
  instrumentality for plans and policies of the
  Federal response to pollution emergencies.

  At the Washington level, the plan establishes
  a National Response Team (NRT) consisting
  of representatives from the primary agencies.
  This team acts as an emergency response
  WP. POL. oh. 1.5. 71

   National and Regional Contingency Plans
   team to be activated in the event of a
   pollution spill involving oil or hazardous
   material which:  (a)  exceeds the response
   capability of the region in which it occurs,
   (b) transects regional boundaries,  or
   (c) involves national security or major
   hazard to substantial numbers of persons
   or nationally significant amounts of property.
   A National Response Center (NRC) in
   Washington, D. C. is the headquarters site
   for activities relative to pollution spills.

   There are established throughout the United
   States, Regional Response Teams (RRT) that
   perform functions within the regions similar
   to that performed by the National Response
   Team on the national level. Regional Response
   Centers (RRC), similar to the NRC,  are
   located in each of the pre-designated regions.

   The plan further provides that in each region,
   there will be established On-Scene-Commanders
   (OSC).  The On-Scene-Commander is the
   single executive agent pre-designated by
   regional plan to coordinate and direct such
   pollution control activities in each area of the
   region.  The first responsible Federal
   representative to arrive on-scene auto-
   matically becomes the on-scene commander
   until he is officially relieved by the pre-
   designated on-scene commander.

   The U.S. Coast Guard is to provide for On-
   Scene-Commanders in areas where they have
   assigned responsibility, which includes the
   high seas, coastal and contiguous zone waters,
   coastal and Great Lakes ports and harbors.
   The Environmental Protection Agency will
   furnish or provide for On-Scene-Commanders
   in other areas.

   The actions taken to respond to a spill or
   pollution incident can be separated into five
   relatively distinct classes or phases.  For
   descriptive purposes,  these are:

      Phase I.  Discovery and Notification
    Phase II.  Containment and Counter-

    Phase HI.  Cleanup and Disposal

    Phase IV.  Restoration

    Phase V.  Recovery of Damages and

 It must be recognized that elements of any
 one phase may take place concurrently with
 one or more other phases.


 Separate  regional plans are to be developed
 by the Environmental Protection Agency
 and the United  States Coast Guard for the
 respective areas of responsibility within
 each region. All regional plans are to be
 oriented in accordance with the ten (10)
 standard  Federal administration regions.

 All regional contingency plans will contain,
 as a minimum the following items:

 A A definition of the area covered including
    the points of change in jurisdiction between
    Environmental Protection Agency and
    U. S.  Coast  Guard.

 B A notification  and reporting system
    beginning with the initial discovery of
    a spill.

 C Names, addresses and phone numbers of
    all pertinent Federal,  State, local and
    industry personnel involved in the reporting

 D A listing of predesignated On-Scene-
    Commanders and Regional Response

 E Listing of resources and equipment
    available in the regional area with names,
    addresses and phone numbers.

 F Categorization of water areas by use to
    establish predetermined cleanup priorities.

 This outline was  prepared by  A.W. Bromberg,
 Chief,  Operations Branch, OWP, EPA,
 Edison Water Quality Laboratory,  Edison, NJ.

                              OF THE ON-SCENE-COMMANDER

 A  You may be designated as the On-Scene^
    Commander during the next major oil
    spill that takes place in your area of
    responsibility.  Are your prepared?


 A  What are the qualifications of a good
    On-Scene-Commander?  He should be a
    well trained individual, whose  background
    includes oil pollution research, experience
    with a number of actual spills of different
    types of oil,  a knowledge of the shipping
    •industry and a good background in law and
    existing oil pollution legislation.

 B  Basically, the On-Scene-Commander,is
    a decision making "machine",
    least twelve hours per day over a long
    period of time.  To make these decisions
    in an intelligent manner, he must have the
    basic background to support his decisions.
    If a wrong decision is made, the results
    could range from embarrassment to the
    Federal Government, to injury or death
    to substantial numbers of persons.

 C  A good On-Scene-Commander  must have
    many attributes.  First of all, he must
    have good managerial ability.  From
    utter chaos, he must organize a small
    army of men and equipment to remove
    the oil from the water and shoreface.
    He must be a statistician for he has to
    provide and direct great amounts of money,
    equipment services and manpower. He
    must have a sense of humor, because no
    matter how well the cleanup is going,
    some elements of the public are going to
    cry for instant and dramatic cleanup.
    And finally,  he must have the ability to
    walk a tenuous tightrope,  to try to please
    as many of the public, who have been
    injured by the spill, as possible. For
    instance:  the sunbathers and swimmers
    want the beaches and surf cleaned at once;
    the bird lovers want the birds  protected
    at all cost; the vessel owner wants his
    vessel cleaned of all traces of oil pollution;
    shore-front property owners want their
    homes protected and cleaned; the
    commercial and sports fishermen would
    rather have the oil come ashore than have
    it do any damage to marine life; and  finally,
    the oil and shipping industry want the
    channels kept open at all cost.

 A Staff

    Every On-Scene-Commander should be
    backed up with a fully trained staff.  This
    staff should include, but is not  limited to:
    a public information officer,  to handle the
    countless calls and inquiries from the
    news media; a stenographer, to keep a
    running account of all business transacted
    during any given day; a contracting officer,
    to handle the myriad details for the hiring
    of and negotiations with various contractors,
    purchase request and the recording and
    handling of petty cash funds.  He should
    also have on his staff,  technicians to
    supervise and "straw-boss" the various
    contractors and to do general field work
    during the life of the spill.  These
    technicians  should be well versed in oil
    pollution work.  Finally, the On-Scene-
    Commander should have available to him
    legal council for consultation when the
    need arises; fully trained chemist,
    biologist and engineers who have a good
    background in oil pollution work.

 B Quarters and Equipment

    The On-Scene-Commander and his staff
    should have a suitable  headquarters in
    which to work.   Ideally,  a Coast Guard
    Station would provide a suitable head-
    quarters if it were near the scene of the
    spill.   If not, then other quarters must
    be found.  These quarters could be a
    suite of motel or hotel rooms; a house
    trailer; a mobile laboratory, as found
  WP. POL. oh. 2. 5. 71

Functions. Responsibilities and Role of the On-Scene-Commander
   in the EPA,  Water Quality Offices,  or a
   private beach house.

   The operations headquarters should be
   equipped with the following items:  wall
   charts, maps,  at least eight telephones,
   desks, chairs, writing equipment,
   typewriters  and if possible, a teletype-
   writer.  One of the most important items
   of equipment in the headquarters, is the
   Commander's  Log.  The Commander's
   Log, a permanent bound book,  should be
   maintained from the inception of the  spill
   until the case is closed out.  In it,  there
   should be recorded, chronologically,  a
   reference to all telephone calls received,
   meetings held, orders issued,  events
   taking place, personnel changes, visitors
   received, overflights made,  etc.  This
   Log can be an  invaluable record of the
   spill to be later used in court or congres-
   sional hearing.

C  Communications

   Whenever the On-Scene-Commander and
   his staff are housed, the first order of
   business upon  arrival is to order phones.
   At least eight phones should be installed.
   One of the eight telephone numbers should
   not be given  out for general use, but should
   be reserved  and made known to only a few
   selected individuals who may have to
   communicate with the On-Scene-Commander
   on urgent matters.

   It is imperative that the On-Scene-Commander
   have communications with the contractors
   in the field and with his observers.  Small,
   portable hand-held radios with sufficient
   range would  be the ideal answer.  If radio
   communications  are not available,  there
   is another system which can be found in
   most large cities.  This system is called
   "People Beepers".  It is a small, belt-
   clip-on radio receiver with a range of
   approximately  twenty-five miles.  To get
   a contractor or observer in the field,  the
   On-Scene-Commander dials a specified
   number and asks the operator to have
   No.  A-16 call headquarters.  The
   operator in turn activates a "beeper" on
   the radio receiver No. A-16 and transmits
   the message.  The holder of receiver
    No. A-16 in turn calls the On-Scene-
    Commander by telephone and
    communications are established.  This
    system can be rented for a nominal fee.

    Communications between air observers
    and headquarters is a necessity and
    observation and work vessels should
    also be able to contact the field head-

 A Federal

    1  Environmental Protection Agency

    2  U. S. Coast Guard

    3  U.S. Army  Corps of Engineers

    4  U. S. Health, Education and Welfare

    5  Office of Emergency Preparedness

    These are the basic  Federal Agencies
    concerned with a major oil spill.
    However,  many other Federal Agencies
    may be called on to furnish help during
    the life of the emergency; they may include,
    but are not limited to,  the following:

       a U. S. Air Force

       b U.S. Navy

       c U.S. Army

       d General Accounting Office

       e General Services Administration

 B States

    Individual states are encouraged to make
    commitments to the  cleanup of major oil
    spills.   If the state decides that it wants
    to take complete charge of the spill, it is
    the policy of the Federal government to
    agree and then  monitor the situation.
    The problem here lies in the fact that
    very few states have the funds committed
    by legislation to become involved in a
    major oil  spill  cleanup.

                           Functions. Responsibilities and Role of the On-Scene-Commander
 C Interstate Agencies

   Interstate agencies too, are encouraged
   to make commitments to the  cleanup of
   major oil spills.  Interstate agencies can
   also take complete  charge of a major oil
   spill, but again, the funding limitations
   applies to these agencies  as well as to the
   individual states.

 D Local Government

   Local governments will rarely have the
   funds to combat a major oil spill.
   However, they can be an invaluable
   source of manpower and equipment.

 E Academic Communities

   The academic communities throughout the
   country can usually be counted on to
   furnish information and advice on the
   local environment,  during a major spill.
   Quite often, you will find that these
   institutes have previously made extensive
   biological studies of local areas and this
   can be of invaluable help in comparison
   with post spill biological surveys.

 A All cost of cleanup should be borne by the
   polluter. In most cases, the major oil
   and shipping companies will shoulder this
   responsibility without question.  If the
   company agrees to finance the  cost of
   cleanup, they will probably want to take
   charge of the operations.  This is
   agreeable to the  Federal Government--
   however, the On-Scene-Commander and
   his staff should monitor the complete
   cleanup operation.  Should progress of
   the cleanup be not to  the satisfaction of
   the On-Scene-Commander,  he  has the
   authority to make the company stop its
   operations and have the Federal government
   proceed with the cleanup.  All  cost borne
   by the Federal government will be
   reimbursed by the polluter.

 B The individual state government can
   assume command of a spill cleanup, if
   they so desire.  But again,  the  Federal
    government's On-Scene-Commander must
    monitor all phases of the cleanup.  The
    states in turn can recover expended funds
    either through the individual state courts
    or the monies can be recovered through
    the Federal courts.

    The Federal government has established
    a thirty-five million dollar revolving
    fund for the cleanup  of oil and other
    hazardous  materials.  This fund is
    administered by the  U. S.  Coast Guard.
    All monies expended by the  Federal
    government in the cleanup process,
    will be recovered from the polluter,
    either voluntarily or through the Federal
    court system.

 A Prior to the Torrey Canyon incident, it
    was very difficult to find a contractor
    who had the knowledge of oil spill cleanup
    or the desire to cleanup massive spills
    of oil.  However, since that date, a new
    industry has evolved - the  so- called
    "third party contractor" for the cleanup
    of oil spills.

 B As mentioned previously, the On-Scene-
    Commander should have on his staff a
    responsible contracting officer. The
    contracting officer  should handle all the
    details of the contract,  payment and the
    keeping of complete records pertaining
    to all monies expended during the life of
    the spill.  The  On-Scene-Commander
    and the contracting officer should keep
    in mind that all paper work involved in
    cleanup cost will probably  end up as
    evidence in a federal court.

 C Prior to a major spill,  a good On-Scene-
    Commander should have knowledge of all
    "third party" contractors in his area of
    responsibility.   The On-Scene-Commander
    should know the people he is going to be
    working with during an emergency.   He
    should know the amount of  equipment the
    contractor has  on hand, the type of equip-
    ment,  the conditions of the equipment.
    He should know if the contractor has

  Functions.  Responsibilities and Role of the On-Scene-Commander
     trained personnel or does he recruit from
     the streets.  All this knowledge is important
     to the On-Scene- Commander, for he has
     to rely heavily on his working contractors.

  D  Finally, the On-Scene-Commander should
     have available to him trained personnel to
     monitor the work of the various contractors
     in the field.  This is necessary to insure
     that the  Federal government receives full
     value for every dollar spent on the cleanup.

  A  The National Contigency Plan requires that
     the On-Scene-Commander submit two
     situation reports daily.  On at 0800 hours
     and one at 2000 hours.  These reports are
     normally submitted by teletype.  If any
     event of dramatic importance occurs at
     other times of the day,  the National
     Response Team should  be notified by
     teletype at once.
B  When the emergency is over, and the
   Regional Response Team is disbanded,
   the On-Scene-Commander should prepare
   his "End of Operations" report.  This
   report should contain as much information
   as possible about the entire life of the
   spill incident.   The Commander's Log
   will prove invaluable to the On-Scene-
   Commander's preparation of his report.
   Once completed, the report should be
   forwarded to the National Response Team
   through the Regional Response Team.
This outline was prepared by H. J. Lamp'l,
Contigency Plans Officer,  Edison Water
Quality Laboratory, Office of Water Programs ,
EPA, Edison,  NJ  08817.