EPA 430/9 74 003
                   UNITED STATES
                 Washington, D.C. 20460




                    George A. Whetstone
                      Harry W. Parker
                       Dan M. Wells
              Texas  Tech University  79409
                           for  the

             Office  of Air and Water Programs

                    EPA 430/9-74-003

                     January   1974
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402- Price $4.70

                      EPA Review Notice
This report has been reviewed by the Environmental Protec-
tion Agency and approved for publication.  Approval does
not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views
and policies of the Environmental Protection Agency, nor
does mention of trade names or commercial products consti-
tute endorsement or recommendation for use.

Current and proposed practices in animal  waste utilization and/or
disposal were reviewed by means of a detailed search of the litera-
ture, by correspondence and by visits with active investigators
in the field.

Abstracts were prepared of 1162 publications dealing with animal
waste utilization and/or disposal, or closely related materials
having a direct carry-over potential.  These latter publications
pertained to some other aspect of manure  management or to thermo-
chemical processing of some other organic material.  In addition,
abstracts of 111 pertinent projects sponsored by the USDA were
included in a separate appendix.

Land spreading, with or without advantage being taken of the
fertilizer and soil-conditioning values,  is the ultimate destiny
of nearly all manure produced at present.  Attention was focused
in the report, however, on the less-used  but potentially more
rewarding processes of gas or oil recovery, refeeding to animals
after more or less processing, and using  as a culture medium for
fly larvae, worms, algae, fungi, yeast, etc., with ultimate dis-
posal of the catabolized manure as a soil conditioner, and
utilization of the organisms as feedstuffs.

This report was submitted in fulfillment  of Contract No. 68-01-0785
under the sponsorship of the Office of Air and Water Programs,
Environmental Protection Agency.


  Chapter                                                Page
      I.     Conclusions                                    1
     II.     Recommendations                                3
    III.     Introduction                                   5
     IV.     Microbiological Processes                     ^
      V.     Macrobiological Processes                     25
     VI.     Thermochemical Processes                      ^9
    VII.     Acknowledgements                              77
   VIII.     Abbreviations Used                            83
Appendi ces
     A.     Annotated Bibliography                       A-l
     B.     Description of Research Projects in the
            Disposal and/or Utilization of Animal
            Wastes                                       B-l
     C.     The United States Department of
            Agriculture's Current Research Information
            System (USDA CRIS)                           C-l
     D.     Indexes of Abstracts                         D-l


No.                                                   Page

 1        Continuous Retort Schematic                   65

No.                                                    Page

 1.       Production Rate and Composition of Manure     50
          from Major Domestic Animals

 2.       Elemental Analyses of Feedstocks for          52
          Thermochemical Processing

 3.       Products from Thermochemical Processing       54
          of Manure

 4.       Estimates of Available Organic Wastes, 1971   58

 5.       Products from Pyrolys-is of Manure             62

 6.       Economic Criteria for Evaluation of Process   69


The status of animal waste management is that of a maelstrom if
not that of an inferno.  Logic and delirium have both left their
imprint.  Fortunately, so also has the common sense which was
once believed to be implicit in a rural-based citizenry.

The premise that the produce of the soil should be returned in the
shortest feasible cycle to the soil has been often expressed and
more often implied.  And, unquestionably, land spreading of manure
is a nearly universal means of its utilization and/or disposal at
the present time.  There are, however, difficulties inherent in
the practice which may be expected to intensify and there are
opportunities of deriving values by other means of utilizing
manure which may lead to their adoptions under many circumstances.

Manure has fuel value comparable to that of lignite or oil  shale.
To date, only a few small installations using the methane produced
in anaerobic digestion have attracted investment in competition
with nower supplies based on fossil fuels.  The situation is
changing dramatically; for large concentrations of manure,  in
appropriate climatic settings, conversion to oil or gas may soon
be the most rewarding utilization.

Manure contains proteins, amino acids, and other nutrients  which
can be concentrated by various processes for direct refeeding to
animals or for feeding to insects, algae or bacteria which  may,
in turn, become a component of feed.  With continued research
and further population pressures such practices may be expected
to increase.

It can be anticipated that the shifting urban-rural interface will
continue to absorb land which would otherwise be available  for
manure spreading.  Moreover, the specialization of agri-business
with greater concentrations of animals and separation of meat-
producing and feed-producing functions may be expected to persist.
these trends, in turn, require negotiations for spreading areas
and involve longer hauls.

The intensified concern for controlling pollution has rendered
obsolete many a practice tolerated quite recently.  Odors and
the possibilities of contamination of streams and groundwater
are subject to regulations which will have profound effects on
the choice of manure management program.



For most operating conditions -- as distinguished from the total
question of site optimization which includes nearness to markets,
feed, and labor -- an ideal  climate is one with a high evaporation
potential and no sub-freezing temperatures.   Artificial  drying of
manure is expensive; the charges for it, routinely inserted in
balance sheets for thermochemical  processing drawn up in humid
settings, have contributed heavily to the adverse benefit-to-cost
ratios reported.

Precipitation and drainage patterns should be considered carefully
in planning for land disposal of manure, in that polluted runoff
should be prevented from reaching streams or groundwater.  Drainage
of the supernatant, after detention in a settling pond,  by gentle
slopes to playa lakes whose bottoms have become sealed over geologic
time would appear to be ideal, particularly if the runoff can be
pumped for irrigation.

The density and type of surrounding develonment are related to the
level of odor nuisance tolerable from a livestock or poultry
installation and thus can influence, to a marked degree, the choice
of manure utilization system.

To be viable a capital-intensive installation must be large.   This
principle is exemplified in the hundred-thousand head feedlots and
million-bird poultry operations of recent years.  It may limit the
applicability of thermochemical processing to areas which contain
concentrations of such installations.



To provide intelligent planning and guidance of manure disposal
practice in the years of change foreseen as being on the immediate
horizon it will be necessary to encourage research on a broad
spectrum of problems.  Those of highest priority are seen as being:

     1.  To conduct pilot-plant studies on a number of thermo-
chemical processes for extracting oil and/or gas from the manure of
beef cattle feedlots.  Such plants should be in a semi-arid setting
with a high evaporation-minus-precipitation value, near large
concentrations of cattle on feed, in an area having existing natural
gas and other petroleum developments, and having convenient sites
(preferably with internal drainage) for fail-safe natural drying of
manure.  In such areas one would find expertise in cattle and
petrochemical problems, a steady market for the oil or gas produced
which would absorb the fluctuations in pilot-plant operation
serenely, and a broadly-based regional self-interest in making a
success of the venture.

     2.  To intensify studies on the refeeding of derivatives of
manure and on the catabolism of manure by protein-rich larvae.
Much expertise, but little funding, for this exists in the Agricul-
tural Research Service of the USDA and on many campuses at present.

     3.  To provide for continued monitoring of developments in
the field of animal waste utilization and/or disposal  in order to
make available as promptly as possible indications of significant  .
trends.  This should include the coverage of periodicals (both
scholarly and trade) in many fields; the abstracting of reports of
governmental, research, and other organizations; and the inauguration
and maintenance of contacts with other workers in the field on a
world-wide basis.  To be most effective, such a program should be
established at a university which has a productive record in research
in many disciplines bearing directly on the problems of animal wastes,



From an airplane window Denver and Albuquerque appear to be por-
tions of a single city with a virtually continuous grid of streets
clearly visible.  Further development of the megalopolis is, of
course, limited to a few nodes at present.

Such "improvements," however, certainly put agriculture on notice
that there will be little tolerance of odors by the future occu-
pants or by the land developers who can allege in court that the
potential value of their holdings was reduced by such nuisance.
The implications for manure handling and utilization are many and

With very few exceptions the predominant utilization (or disposal)
of manure involves its spreading on land with some advantage being
taken of its fertilizer value and/or its soil conditioning value.
The early literature (of which only a few samples are abstracted in
Appendix A) dealt almost exclusively with analysis of fertilizer
values of manure and litter from various sources applied to specific
crops grown in specific soils under specific climatic conditions.

As the problems of intensified concentrations of animals on feed
and of encroaching suburbia became apparent, students of the prob-
lem investigated other possibilities.  On balance, however, and with
more or less reluctance, most of them concluded that land spreading
was the optimum destiny of manure.

BLACK [1967-1002]*, in seeking solutions pertinent to Ontario,
weighed the merits of composting, anaerobic digestion, aerobic
treatment, and lagooning.  He concluded that despite the diffi-
culties involved when livestock and crop producers are distinct,
and with the crop producer able to use commercial  fertilizers at
less cost than "free" manure, "... the application of manure  to
soils is well  justified and desired."
*Numbers in square brackets refer to abstracts in the appendices.
The first four digits are the year of publication.  A "1"  after
the hyphen indicates that the abstract appears in Appendix A;  a
"B" or a "C" indicates Appendices B or C.  Within each appendix
the arrangement is chronological, then in ascending order  of the
last block of three digits.

LOEHR [1968-1027, 1969-1045], in a we11-documented penetrating
survey of the state of the art of manure utilization, observed
that little study had been given to any aspects of the age-old
practice of land disposal other than crop response.   He accorded
detailed consideration to a number of alternatives to land
disposal -- anaerobic digestion, aerobic treatment,  anaerobic
lagoons, anaerobic-aerobic systems, incineration and drying, and
miscellaneous processes which, "because of technical or economic
difficulties, .  . . have not found wide application."

WADLEIGH [1968-1042], in a frequently cited study of the disposal
of the wastes from agriculture and forestry, observed that the
cost of transportation of manure frequently exceeds  its value as
fertilizer and advocated the study of the possibilities of utiliz-
ing manure as a culture medium for the propagation of organisms
antagonistic to known plant pests and diseases.  He  also recommen-
ded the combination of agricultural and industrial wastes as an
effective soil amendment.

JONES [1969-1039], sneaking at the first of the annual  conferences
on agricultural  waste management at Cornell University, discussed
the by-then usual list of alternatives and predicted that the
future would include greater urban sprawl  and more rural non-farm
residences.  "Man-made" land renovated by sludge disposal and con-
tracted manure handling services were considered to  be possibilities,

MOORE [1969-1061] classified the management of manure into four
distinct steps:   collection, storage, treatment, and utilization
or disposal.  This latter was primarily to the land.  MOORE and
8ROOKER [1970-1071], looking into the future, predicted that
improved rations can be expected to produce a richer manure which
may be refed or may become a source of nutrients, antibiotics, and
vitamins.   Lagoons may well be replaced by digesters with these
latter being warmed by burning the gas they generate.  They foresaw
the raising of livestock in complete confinement with no runoff,
and anticinated rural zoning separating town and feedshcd with
several  miles of cropland, partly irrigated with animal wastes.

DALE [1971-1064] surveyed a number of means of waste disposal and
concluded that,  at least until the size of operation increases,
return to the soil "appears to be the more feasible  way to handle
dairy cattle wastes." 'YECK and SCHLEUSENER [1971-1272], in a
oaper presented at the same symposium, observed that land recycling
was the current best nractice.  They then discussed  sixteen alter-
natives  which could well prove to be preferable when operations are
large, land is scarce, or neighbors are fastidious.

The Canada Committee on Agricultural Engineering issued a guide
[1972-1022] designed "to bring together the current  practices that
provide  reasonable approaches to handling animal wastes."  Land
recycling  was emphasized.


GOLUEKE  [1972-1053,  1054] evaluated  ponding and  its refinements,
digestion, composting,  land disposal,  refeeding, pyrolysis, and
assorted fermentations  under the  felicitous title, "Changing from
Dumping  to Recycling."  HODGETTS  [1972-1069], in surveying American
waste disposal practices for a British readership, observed that
"land spreading is still, of course, generally the cheanest, most
efficient and most popular means  of  disposing of animal manures,
but the  economic cost of doing this  may in some cases be so high
as to make the system unattractive."  He was particular.lv intrigued
by the research in the  catabolism of manure by fly larvae and the
subsequent feeding of the protein-rich larvae, pupae, or adult
flies to chickens.

SHUYLER  [1973-1030]  saw the high-priority research needs in the
animal feedlot program  as being "1)  the need to develop techniques
for reprocessing and converting animal wastes into a usable
product. . .  [and] 2) the urgent  need to make the current information
on animal waste management readily available for widespread use by
governmental  agencies,  the feeding industry, and researchers in the
field. . ."   The processes he considered to be currently promising
include  conversion to some type of fuel, feed or additive for animals,
or other by-product.  The present investigation, nearing its final
phase when SHUYLER's study appeared, reached the same conclusions

Animal wastes have usually been considered to some extent in gen-
eral surveys of solid waste disposal.  However, manure is more
uniform and tractable, and the nuisance created by it becomes of
direct personal concern to far fewer people.  Thus, its handling
problems tend to be glossed over in these general  studies.   There
is, however, much of transfer value in the discussion of methods
tried or proposed for the management of municipal  refuse, and a
perusal of the well-documented studies of GOLUEKE  and McGAUHEY
[1970-1029, 1030; 1971-1106; 1972-1106] and of the series of solid
waste bibliographies by CONNOLLY and STAINBACK [1971-1059;  1972-
1024 through 1027] can be rewarding.

MINER has prepared a brief discussion of the literature on animal
wastes for each previous year as a portion of the annual litera-
ture review of the Journal of the Water Pollution Control
Federation each year since 1963 (review of 1967).  In addition,
he prepared bibliographies for Iowa State University [1972-1111]
with JORDAN and for the EPA [1972-1110] with BUNDY and CHRISTENBURY,

McQUITTY and BARBER [1972-1107] prepared a monumental volume contain-
ing abstracts of 2352 articles on farm animal wastes.  Their cover-
age is wider than that of this report since they did not emphasize
the utilization and/or disposal, but
Some of their citations were used in
report, but the publication appeared
ing the bibliography in Appendix A.
makes this work extremely useful.
covered the entire field.
the writing of the body of this
too late to be used in extend-
Their very comprehensive index
JOHNSON and MOUNTNEY [1969-1037] published a bibliography on poultry
manure with 596 entries and MUEHLING [1969-1064] prepared an excellent
monograph on swine housing and waste management which included 155

A study of the management of animal wastes, as mentioned earlier,
would involve consideration of four operations:  collection, storage,
treatment, and utilization or disposal.  Any effort to optimize an
operation will., of course, require that attention be given to all
four components.  It was not the objective of this report, however,
to prepare a self-contained treatise on animal waste management.
On the contrary, the purpose here has been to provide a guide to
facilitate research into the utilization and/or disposal of manure.
Thus, in the interests of brevity, no organized discussion of the
collection or storage of manure has been prepared and methods of
treatment are considered in some detail only because they are often
so intimately associated with utilization or disposal that no
indisputable boundary could be established.  This lacuna is filled
to some extent by the abstracts.

As mentioned earlier in this chanter, the predominant method of
utilization and/or disposal of animal wastes is by land spreading.
The previous state-of-the-art reports cited treat the subject
comprehensively as do many specialized papers listed under "Land
Spreading" in the index to be abstracts.

The deficiencies in research referred to by LOEHR [1968-1027] are
being remedied.  In particular, studies of optimum and of maximum
non-damaging application rates of manure to land are reported in
many of the recent papers abstracted.  In view of the abundance of
readily-available treatments of the subject, no detailed discussion
of it will be offered here.


The other methods of utilization and/or disposal of manure have
been classified in this report as microbiological, macrobiological,
and thermochemical and discussed in chapters IV, V, and VI,
respectively.  The microbiological processes are frequently treatment
methods rather than means of ultimate disposition.

The economic  incentive  for  seeking alternatives to land, spreading
is to be found  in  long  hauls,  reouirements of storage between
periods when  spreading  is feasible, senarate ownership of feedlots
and croplands,  competition  from  artificial fertilizers, and risks
of saline  or  other damage to some crops  in some circumstances.  In
addition,  land  spreading and some of  the other methods of disposal,
as well, involve  potential  pollution  of  air, water, and/or soil.
References to a large number of  papers discussing various aspects
of environmental  quality may be  found under the headings:  Air
Pollution, Odor Control, Fly Control, Groundwater Pollution, Runoff,
Nitrates in Soil,  Salt, Pathogens, and Toxicity in the index to the
abstracts  [Appendix D].

                             DRYING OF MANURE

An all-pervasive  topic  in manure management is the moisture content
of the  manure.   It affects  both  the pollution potential and the
cost  of handling.

Water,  recycled or from some other source,  is often added to manure
to facilitate its handling  as  a  slurry  [see abstracts cited under
"Liquid Manure  Handling"  in the  index, Appendix D].  This practice
introduces a  secondary  problem in  that an  additional volume of
material will have become  polluted and should be  used, or otherwise
disposed of,  without risking contamination  of surface streams or

 Dewatering, a rather loosely defined  term  used  here to designate
mechanical means  of separating liquids  from solids, has  been
accomplished  by vacuum filtration  [CASSELL  et al,  1966-1013], by
 electro-osmosis [CROSS, 1966-1017;  NURNBERGER et  al, 1966-1056]
 by centrifugation [ROSS et  al, 1971-1219;  SENIOR,  1973-1029,  1043],
 and  by use of a screw press [MENEAR  and  SMITH,  1973-1023].   MENEAR
 and  SMITH, using manure from dairy cattle,  found  the crude  protein
 content of the liquid portion  (on a  dry  basis)  to be 49.6  percent.
 SENIOR'S process  is reported to recover  315 Ib  of protein  per net
 ton  of manure.   Of this, about 240 Ib are obtained from the liquid
 portion and the balance is available from the  fibers  retained by
 the  centrifuge.

The disposal of poultry manure is facilitated by drying in that
the drier manure is more convenient to handle, is less odiferous,
and occupies less volume.  RILEY [1968-1033] describes eight makes
of heat dryers for poultry manure available on the British market.

SURBROQK et al [1970-1092, 1971-1238] report the price per ton of
manure, dry basis, for a commercially-produced, on-the-farm dryer
for poultry, bovine, and swine wastes.  SHANNON and BROWN [1969-
1077] tabulate the losses in energy and in nitrogen content which
result from the drying of poultry manure by various procedures.
THY6ESON et al [1971-1249, 1250] reported on experiments in which
superheated steam was used to dry pelletized manure.

BRESSLER [1969-1012; 1970-1010; 1971-1035, 1036, 1149; 1972-C012]  -.
has perfected a two-stage drying operation in which the moisture
content of poultry wastes is reduced from 75 percent to 30 percent
by stirring in the poultry house and from 30 percent to nine percent
in a commercial dryer.  The final weight is one-third of the
original.  Costs are stated to be less than $4 per ton.

MAYES [1972-C067] states that the cost of dehydration is about
equal to the wholesale selling price of dehydrated manure.  Despite
the dust and odor associated with dehydration, he finds that it
may 6ften: be the preferred solution.  BER6DOLL[1972-1014] estimated
drying costs to be about six to eight dollars per ton of dried
product.  Total costs, including transportation to the dryer, would
be about $15 to $35.  PRICE [1972-1127] stated the cost range for
drying to be about $6 to $7 for European conditions, and valued
dried poultry waste at $18 per ton as poultry feed, and somewhat
higher as :feed for ruminants.

The drying of manure by evaporation occurs at a rate substantially
less than that from a free water surface.  In arid and semi-arid
climatest however, natural drying may permit the safe use of
simplified methods of manure management [WELLS et al, 1971-1258].
Moreover, the effects on costs are such that conclusions reached
using values for humid regions may be inapplicable elsewhere.
This line of thought will be pursued further in the discussion of
costs of thermochemical processes (Chapter VI).


                        MICROBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

The treatment of human sewage is accomplished by processes which
are predominantly microbiological.  What, then,'would be more
reasonable than to apply the same procedures, with appropriate
modifications, to animal wastes?  Pursuing this line of thought
we risk treading the path of the prophets of doom with their
astronomical figures for population equivalents in the calcula-
tion of livestock wastes and their exhortations that salvation
for mankind on earth lies in the soybean.

Fortunately, manure isn't sewage.  As has often been pointed out,
the oneisavery dilute suspension of solids in water while the
other is a slurry which may be diluted for convenience of handling
but only with acceptance of the penalty of having a larger polluted
mass to dispose of.  There are some valid parallels, however.
Manure in its undiluted state is somewhat similar to sewage sludge
and responds similarly to anaerobic treatment -- with, unfortunately,
risk of odor production.  Diluted and aerated, it can be stored
for more timely spreading.  The details are best developed in con-
junction with a review of the literature.
                           ANAEROBIC TREATMENT

The bacteria capable of decomposing organic substances anaerobically
are found universally in nature, particularly in decaying matter.
In the decomposition they produce methane and other gases and a
stabilized sludge with a fertilizer value nearly equal to that of
the original material.

Several papers in the Comntes Rendus de I'Academie d'Agriculture
[1946-1001, 1951-1001,  1952-TooTTattest to the activity in the
application of microbially-produced methane for on-premise power
production in France and Algeria in the post-war years.   Some 500
to 600 small plants existed in France and FERAUD observed that the
nation's manure contained a potential thirty trillion calories of
energy.  For comparison, the total  French energy production in
1938 was 230 trillion calories.

WINTERS [1957-1002] reported on the powering of a farm in South
Africa with methane.  He found pig manure to be twice as productive
as cattle manure.  FREY [1961-1006] described a power plant he
built in South Africa in 1958 in which the methane released from the


1600 Ib of dung produced daily by 700 pigs yielded sufficient
electricity to power the farm and three houses free of all  fuel
costs.  Cooling water pipes conveyed waste heat from the engine
through the digester.

HUTCHINSON [1962-1006] operated a coffee plantation in Kenya on
methane.  Ten years' land application of the residue, as his sole
fertilizer, doubled his coffee yield.

Other indications of interest [1961-1009, 1967-1018] appeared in
the 1960's but ALLRED [1966-1002] observed that methane utilization
had ceased,in northern Europe.

PFEFFER [1971-1206] studied the potential for energy reclamation
from solid wastes under an EPA grant during 1969-1972.  LAURA and
IDNANI [1971-1148] tested the efficacy of various additives to
manure to increase the methane production.  They found urine and
dried leaves to be effective.

COSTIGANE et al [1972-1029], in an intensive investigation into
the theory and feasibility of anaerobic digestion, concluded that
the most economical and efficient design for methane production and
waste stabilization "is not at present considered feasible for
animal waste treatment on a small farm due to the high initial
equipment cost."  They recommended, however, that further investi-
gation be pursued toward reducing the initial capital cost and they
proposed also that financial analyses be made for a farm community
and for cattle feedlots of various sizes.  Based on this study,
P. L. SILVESTON and J. M. SCHARER of the University of Waterloo
submitted a research proposal to Environment Canada in November
1972 for funding a prototype plant for a family farm of about
100 dairy cattle.

SAVERY and CRUZAN [1972-1135] conducted tests on an experimental
anaerobic digester for the production of methane gas from chicken
manure.  Their calculations indicated that a 60,000-chicken unit
would supnly enough methane to be self-sufficient in its total
electricity reauirement, but at a cost six times that of its
nresent supply.  They considered that improved technology and the
then-impending shortage of natural gas should reduce the adverse
cost-to-benefit ratio.

A somewhat similar, but economically more attractive, study by
HALLI6AN and SWEAZY [1972-1060] will be discussed in Chapter VI.

Anaerobic digesters, as we have seen, produce methane.  They also
produce an easily dewatered free-flowing liquid sludge with a.soupy


texture, inoffensive odor, and essentially undlmim'shed fertilizer
value.  TAIGANIDES et al [1963-1012], in an assessment of sludge
digestion, cited these advantages and also mentioned a reduction
(by 50 to 75 percent) in organic content of the waste, a stabili-
zation preparing the residue for ultimate disposal in a lagoon or
on land, and a lack of attractiveness for flies and rodents.  Their
list of disadvantages include a high capital cost, the necessities
of sludge disposal and of daily supervision, and the possibility
of explosions.  HART [1963-1007] considered digesters to be a
feasible and desirable means for treating chicken manure at a
reasonable cost.

GOLUEKE [1971-1106] observed that little volume reduction results
from anaerobic digestion.  GRAMMS et al [1971-1110] have proposed
ultimate disposal of the sludge by land spreading, composting, or
burning.  KLEIN [1972-1079], working on the problems of solid
waste disposal, recommended that anaerobic digestion be employed
only for the reduction of putrescible organic wastes -- including

DORNBUSH [1970-1018], reporting that properly designed anaerobic
lagoons will control odors and stabilize wastes, described the
mechanism of' the treatment as involving two stages.  In the first
stage the organic matter undergoes breakdown with little reduction
in BOD or COD; in the second, methane and COg are released and the
waste stabilizes.  The effluent, however, will require further
treatment.  Design criteria are empirical and highly temperature-

Unless loadings are kept low, or other precautions are taken, farm
lagoons will be anaerobic.  An anonymous study [1963-1014] cautioned
that aeration is futile since an acre of water surface would accomo-
date only 1200 chickens or 50 hogs while remaining aerobic.  The
combination of an anaerobic lagoon with the supernatant flowing to
an aerobic lagoon was considered to be excellent.

CURTIS [1966-1018] and WILLRICH [1966-1076], basing their recommen-
dations on studies in South Dakota and Iowa, proposed design criteria
for anaerobic lagoons.  LOEHR [1967-1012, 1968-1026] observed that
anaerobic lagoons are essentially septic tanks and proposed design
criteria for them.  The MIDWEST PLAN SERVICE [1969-1055] issued a
two-page guide for their design and operation.

PFEFFER [1970-1076] described the mechanism of their operation as
consisting of an acid fermentation followed by a methane fermen-
tation, and likened it to that of the bovine rumen.

PARSONS et al [1970-1075] proposed design specifications for a
poultry lagoon, suggesting that it would be prudent to construct
one only in a rural area tolerant of odors.  WHITE [1970-1106]
found that state regulations were usually vague on the subject
and that descriptions in the literature were often incomplete and
failed to employ a standard set of parameters.

FEE [1971-1087] and KOELLIKER et al [1972-1082] describe the
anaerobic lagoon in use at Iowa State University for an 800-head
hog finishing unit.  Water from the lagoon is recirculated for
flushing, and the excess is employed for irrigation.  In nine years
of operation no lagoon cleaning had been required.

HAZEN [1971-1125] found that an anaerobic lagoon with 3.5 to 5 Ib
of volatile solids per 1000 cu ft provided satisfactory preliminary
treatment for hog wastes.  SHINDALA and SCARBROUGH [1972-1141],
disposing of hog wastes in Mississippi, recommended that the lagoons
be regarded as being only the first step in treatment.  BARTH [1972-
1011, 1973-1002], based on laboratory investigations in South
Carolina, found them to be "dependable, low-cost, and successful."

SMITH [1972-C089], studying infiltration rates in anaerobic lagoons
treating swine wastes in Georgia, observed a decrease from two feet
per day in 1969 to a half foot per day at the end of 1971.

NANSON [1972-C078] is studying strains of bacteria capable of
growth using methane as their sole carbon and energy source.  He
is also seeking useful products obtainable from methane.
                            AEROBIC TREATMENT

Secondary treatment of sewage is aerobic.  Thus a wide variety of
aerobic processes came readily  perhans too readily -- to mind
when sanitary engineers first gave serious thought to the pollution
potential of manure.

PELLET and JONES [1946-1003] reported that, with the extension of
piped water to rural areas in Britain, consideration was given to
reducing the potential- pollution of cowshed washdowns by including
them in the inflow to sewage treatment plants.  KEEN [1969-1040]
observed that discharges of animal wastes to sewers had been quite
common in the United kingdom until an Act of Parliament in 1961
permitted cities to assess charges and refuse loads.  Discharge
to streams being forbidden, this imposed serious burdens on some
farmers.  The position taken by the responsible authorities [1969-
1091] was that waste disposal must be regarded as a production cost.

Spokesmen for the farmers' union  [1969-1090, '1971-1108] adv&cated
provision for the disposal, at least of  sunernatant,  to sewers.
They pointed out that land spreading in  a damp climate leads tp
runoff to streams and that reliance on it results  in  delays due
to mud and freezing.  Anaerobic stabilization was  rujjb cprt$idered
to be a viable alternative.  SIDWICK [T972-1I42] cfeiljdrkd;jt!ie slug
loads, often including straw, which reach Sewage:b^atififentrplants'
in Britain from cattle markets.

JAWORSKI and MICKEY  [1962-1007],  discussing America^  pradtice in
cage washing, reported that water for all but the  final rinse is
recycled.  When the  final rinse water, drawn from  potable mains,
drains to the recycling  tanks an  equivalent volume is released to
the sewer.  MacDONALD and DAVIS [1966-1045] observed  that fixed
zoos tend to use municipal sewers and they tabulated;  BOD measure-
ment for various animals at New Orleans.  Prfmates, ^h'ich'nave been
used for studies of  human diseases pose  critical prdhFf&ns/  'FRlTSCHI
and MacDONALD [1971-1096] renorted that  the BOD of w.astes from
primates was three to six times as high  as that frditii  ^fnans;'.  Heavy
chlorination is employed at sewage treatment plants;h4ftdling their

JOHNSON  [1965-1013,  1014, 1015] proposed modified  septic tanks
(anaerobic) for treatment of manure from dairy cattle and poultry.
Methane generated would  be burned to heat the digesters and flushing
water would be reused.   He described a pilot plant serving a 7000-
bird operation in Massachusetts.                      ;

WEBSTER and CLAYTON  [1966-1074] built bench gnd fii Tot-kale, models
of activated sludge  plants for treating  dairy wastes'. > 'BRfDlJSHAM and
CLAYTON  [1966-1010]  observed that trickling fi1tersimiy be used to
treat dairy manure.  Neither paper gave  cost data.    '     .*  '

SMITH [1972-C088] is investigating the performance characteristics
of inclined-plane trickling filters for  the treatment Of swine
wastes.  CROPSEY and WESWIG [1972-C020]  are investig^tijig^the use
of Douglas fir bark  as a trickling filter ,mediurn fof (p6u'H|"y, wastes.
LOEHR and ZWERMAN [1972-C061] have investigated the!amicability
of sanitary engineering  fundamentals to  the design ,Of fe'robic
biological"treatment systems for  animal  waste's.

Ducks pose serious pollution  problems because of the relatively
large volumes of water  employed  in  raising  them and the potency
of their wastes.  HOVENDEN  [1970-1038],  discussing this: latter point,
chose for title, "Coliformally Speaking,  Ducks StirtL'!.. GATES [1963-
1005] described procedures  instituted on  Long Island where  duck
farms were polluting  shellfish and  recreational areas.; The use  of


water per duck was cut to ten gpd from a previous 25 to 75,
sedimentation ponds were installed, and chlorination was begun.
Sludge disposal from the sediment traps is difficult to schedule
and supervise.

DAVIS et al [1966-1020] reported the adoption of two sediment basins,
used alternately, below a duck farm in Virginia.  This solution
reduced coliforms by 90 to 95 percent and permitted the resumption
of oyster harvesting downstream.

LOEHR and SCHULTE [1970-1053; 1971-1222, C060] proposed a five-day
retention in an aerated lagoon of the slug flows of duck manure
washed into the water by precipitation.  An additional settling pond
and final chlorination were also called for.  Cost reduction was
seen as being attainable only through reducing the water usage.

JONES, DAY, and DALE [1972-1075] have prepared a comprehensive,
readable, and well-documented up-to-date study on aerobic treatment
of livestock wastes.  In it they reviewed the theory of aerobic
treatment, discussed oxidation ditches at some length, and set out
design criteria for oxidation ponds and for mechanically-aerated
lagoons.  They recommend that ultimate disposal be by irrigation.

The use of indoor lagoons under poultry has been the subject of a
number of papers.  Al-TIMIMI et al [1964-1001, 1965-1001] reported
that neither heat, air, nor any combination of them was effective
in reducing the solids content in such lagoons.  They recommended
a volume of 3.5 cu ft per bird as being adequate with biennial
cleaning.  HOWES [1968-1023] reported a fifty percent reduction
in bulk in a pit inoculated with aerobic bacteria.  He had dis-
turbed the surface cake weekly in winter and twice weekly in summer.
The resulting sludge was an odorless fertilizer usable in urban
gardens.  CASES et"al [1969-1016] and BARR et al [1970-1128]
reported that an indoor poultry lagoon at Louisiana State University
was proving to be effective.  The lagoon effluent flowed, by means
of an open ditch, fifteen hundred feet to a fish-inhabited bayou.
Both fish and hens were doing well.  VICKERS and 6ENETELLI [1969-
1082], praising oxidation tanks for the odorless fly-free effluent
they can produce with a minimum of maintenance and operation,
advocated separating the liquids and solids and then applying them
to the land.'  C.  H."THOMAS [1972-C097] reported that in four years
operation an aerated lagoon under poultry in Louisiana had accumu-
lated seven Ib of solids per hen per year with no odor problems

DALE [1968-1012]  observed that aeration can almost eliminate odor
from dairy cattle wastes, but mentioned that degradation is slow.


BERRY [1966-1008] recommended that aerobic lagoons in cold climates
be agitated, supplied with oxygen, diluted, and heated.  NYE et al
[1971-1189] stated that oxygen must be supplied to accomplish the
aerobic decomposition of dairy cattle manure.  The reduction in COD
was better at high temperatures.  PRATT [1972-C081] found that a
lagoon in Fargo would remain aerobic except in winter.  BARTH and
POUQWSKI [1971-1020] suggested that only the surface layer of
lagoons be aerated over the winter.  Such a practice reduces
operating costs, improves nutrient recovery, and allows the reuse
of the supernatant for flushing.

BLOODGOOD and ROBINSON [1969-1010] observed that aerobic storage
before land spreading minimizes odor problems.  OGILVIE and DALE
[1971-1190] noted that aeration for less than 24 hours may be
effective in rendering manure relatively odorless.  They suggested,
however, that an additional aerated lagoon be added in areas sub-
ject to freezing.

DALE et al [1969-1023, 1971-1063] floated a guyed aerator in the
center of a pond and irrigated cropland with the effluent at a
maximum solids content of two to three percent.  They reported
the system to be odorless, inexpensive, and universally applicable.
It saves nutrients, minimizes runoff, lowers potential pollution,
and requires little labor.  GILLILAND [1970-1028] cited cost data
for a similar installation.  TEN HAVE [1971-1247] observed that
surface aerators with vertical shafts have less trouble with bear-
ings than do oxidation ditch rotors and for this reason aerated
ponds are replacing oxidation ditches in current Dutch practice.

Oxidation ditches have been discussed so exhaustively in the
literature that it seemed pointless to add yet another analysis
of their behavior here.  Thus, with the exception of the subtopic
of refeeding of oxidation ditch residue to animals, which is treated
in Chapter V, the subject is being dismissed with the suggestion
that reference be made to the index to the abstracts and to JONES,
DAY, and DALE [1972-1075] for information on them.

Most bacteria are neither strict aerobes nor strict anaerobes;
thev are facultative.  Moreover, ponds tend to stratify with the
oxvqen content decreasing with depth.  Thus waste stabilization
is" often facultative in fact and occurs in ponds in which the
boundary between aerobic and anaerobic portions shifts with the

As was observed by JEFFREY et al [1965-1012], aerobic lagoons as a
sole treatment dejvice are economic only if the feeder happens to
possess a large pond.  (The Canada Animal Waste Management Guide
[1972-1012] cites the surface requirement as 19 acres for 1000 hogs,
mentions that 15 million [imperial] gallons of water would be
required for initial filling, and adds that "it is also doubtful
whether the relatively small volume of manure added would maintain
a satisfactory;liquid depth in:the lagoon.")  A series of ponds,
with the firstione being anaerobic, was pronosed as being a nromis-
ing alternative1,

For the handling of manure from beef cattle feedlots AGNEW and
LOEHR  [1966-1001; 1967-1014, 1026; 1969-1047] advocated the combi-
nation of an anaerobic lagoon located in the vicinity of the feedlot
followed by an aerobic lagoon for the treatment of the effluent.
If the liquid is to be released to streams it would be prudent to
add a  second aerobic lagoon for final polishing.  The cost of the
series of two Qf ;three lagoons may be moderate since the operator
often  possessed the excavating machinery reouired.  The digested
solids may be' Handled by pumping for land spreading at appropriate
times, and the effluent may often find application for irrigation
or other non-potable uses.

Successful applications of lagoons in series have been described
[1969-1008, 1013, 1021; 1971-1186] as was an interesting variation
[1971-1312,] consisting of an anaerobic lagoon with thirty-day
detention time for the treatment of hog wastes followed by an
oxidation ditch which produces an effluent claimed to be "cleaner
than most; industrial or municipal wastes."  The ditch effluent is
discharged to |he Fraser River, one of British Columbia's most
productive salmon streams.

BARRETT p97HOT;3] advocated a two-pond system in which "settled
PALMER [1964-1013], reporting on a seven-paper ASAE Symposium,
stated that "all the speakers agreed that lagoons, as a means of
ultimate manure disposal, had been overrated and under-built."
CLARK [1965-1006], in a report of his investigations of lagoons
for hog wastes in Illinois, observed that "never were the complaints
found to be unjustified.1" HART and TURNER [1965-1011] emphasized
the dangers of infiltration and the nuisance of odors.  OSTRANDER
[1965-1018] added the frustrations of freezing.

PONTIN_and BAXTER [1968-1032], concerned primarily with British
conditions, advocated pretreatment of manure prior to land-spreading
and discussed the relative merits of digesters, oxidation ditches,
and lagoons.  HART [1970-1032], reflecting the improvements which
resulted from the investigations of the 1960's, concluded that
"lagoons and oxidation ditches are not magic wands, but they can
be very reasonable manure processing-units."  This appears to be
a fair summary of their current status.

The principles and history of composting have been summarized in
two very readable papers by GQLUEKE [1972-1054, 1055].  While the
process can be either aerobic or anaerobic and in either the
mesophilic or thermophilic temoerature ranges, modern preference
tends to be aerobic to mitigate odor nuisances and to be thermo-
philic to enhance the probability of killing pathogens and weed
seeds.  Moreover, these choices of operating conditions speed the
composting process.  Aeration, moisture content, temperature,
carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and particle size are the principal  para-
meters governing the process.

HART and SCHLEUSENER [1963-1008], in summarizing an ASAE symposium,
observed that while manure is too moist for successful composting
and garbage is too dry, too low in nutrient, and too bulky,  a
proper mixture may prove to be ideal.  BELL [1971-1024] added the
caution that trash and salt should be avoided in combining municipal
and agricultural wastes for composting.  WILEY [1963-1013] proposed
the addition of sawdust to compost poultry wastes effectively.
GALLER and DAVEY [1971-1098, 1099] reported that such compost makes
a good soil conditioner.

HARTMAN [1963-1009] recommended composting of poultry manure as an
economical means of fly control.  He suggested semi-annual nit
cleaning leaving a six-inch layer of manure.  LIVSHUTZ [1964-1011]
gave cost data for the composting of poultry manure employing forced
aeration of windrows covered with plastic sheets to prevent top
drying by sun and wind and wetting by rain and snow.  EASTWOOD et al
[1967-1005] reported that twice-weekly turning of windrowed poultry
manure compost'eliminated flies.  Fully-composted manure is
unattractive to flies.


WELLS et al [1969-1086] found composting to be an effective method
of handling wastes from the beef cattle feedlots of the High Plains
of Texas.  While large numbers of fly larvae appeared during the
first week, they were killed by the heat generated in a weekly
turning program.  The material stabilized sufficiently rapidly to
be vermin-free in less than ten days.  GRUB [1971-1117] observed
that skilled management is required to obtain satisfactory results
in the composting of beef cattle feedlot wastes.

BELL and POS [1971-1026, 1027] reported indifferent success with
the composting of ooultry manure in Guelph, Ontario.  They were,
however, able to operate throughout the winter.

WILLSON and HUMMELL [1971-1265, 1972-1168] deduced a set of rules
for the optimum composting of dairy cattle manure.  SCHULZE [1972-
1194] developed methods for continuous composting and presented
cost data.

HOWES [1966-1037] observed that poultry litter can be renovated
by proper composting in place.  Such practice would be useful  after
floods or after diseased birds.  PATRICK [1967-1019] and SMITH
[1967-1021] advocated the comnosting of litter to destroy
microorganisms.  HANKS [1967-1006] questioned the effectiveness of
operational, as contrasted to laboratory, composting in the
elimination of pathogens and PETERSON [1971-1205] expressed concern
over the potential hazard of a residual pathogen content.

YEATMAN  [1970-1108] reported that the Pennsylvania mushroom crop
of 125 million Ib utilizes 400,000 tons of compost per year.  The
spent compost is still a good soil conditioner.  SINKEVICH [1973-
1031] added that the preferred compost is made from horse manure
from local racetracks or even, in winter, by shipment from
New Orleans to Pennsylvania.  An acceptable substitute can,
however, be made from chicken manure.

GOLUEKE [1972-1054] summarized the potential of assorted fermentations
as follows:

          "A variety of fermentations and biological hydro-
          lysis systems have been developed for breaking
          down cellulose to its constituent glucose units.
          The glucose is used as a substrate for the pro-
          duction of yeasts which can be incorporated into
          livestock feedstuffs.  These processes are largely
          in the research stage.  At present, the economics
          of the processes are highly unfavorable."

SINGH and ANTHONY [1968-1034] separated manure from concentrate-fed
steers into solubles and fiber.  The solubles, which on a dry basis
constituted 68.57 percent of the manure, were inoculated with yeast,
incubated, and dried.  The crude protein content of the resulting
yeast product was 40.9 percent  (dry basis).  The mineral content
was too high, however, to permit its effective use as a feed.  MOORE
and ANTHONY [1970-1070] by adjusting the nH of fermenting cattle
manure daily for three days with ammonia raised the crude protein
level from 16.99 to 43.26 percent and increased the amino acids by
over 20 percent.  ANTHONY et al [1973-1001], reporting on the
results of fermenting mixtures of cattle manure with forages or
hulls, observed that the mixture will have high nutritive value
only if it is maintained at a pH near 4.  Further investigations
are underway [1972-C003].

HELLER [1969-1054], in a 173-page study devoted primarily to the
conversion of municipal wastes, waste paper, and bagasse by
fermentation, placed the cost of the process "at best at the high
end of the current high protein supplement price range."  KEHR
[1970-1042] stated that a two-stage hydrolysis-fermentation process
holds promise.  Further study would be required to obtain cost

JACKSON et al [1970-1040] attempted to circumvent the toxicity of
uric acid for poultry by fermenting poultry manure before refeeding
it.  HAMILTON et al [1971-1118] experimented with fermentation as a
means of improving the quality of manure as a feed.

CALLIGHAN and DUNLAP [1971-1046] converted bagasse to bacterial
single-cell protein by fermentation and reported the preliminary
economic data to be encouraging.  THAYER [1971-1282, 1288] "has
shown that feedlot wastes can be used both as a cellulose and a
nitrogen source for conversion of it and other waste into a complete
cattle feed with a single cell protein base."  What cannot be
converted is used as roughage.  SWEETEN [1973-1042] observed that
fermented mixtures of fresh feedlot manure and roughage improve  the
rate of gain and feed efficiencies of beef cattle.

CREGAR et al [1973-1008] ensiled broiler litter based on pine
shavings to produce an effective pathogen-free cattle feed with
negligible drug carryover.  HARMON et al [1973-1012] tested
ensilages of various proportions of broiler litter with corn forage
at two different states of maturity.

WALDROUP [1973-1038] established that, with proper precautions,
yeast may constitute 20 percent of a chick's ration.  Algae,
however, is perhaps preferable.  LaSALLE and LAUNDER [1969-1042]
proposed to ferment chicken manure in a weak phosphoric acid solu-
tion maintained in catch troughs, to extract the proteins and carbo-
hydrates for feedstuffs, and to use the residue for fertilizer.
Thev estimated the gross profit of the operation to be $14.50 per ton,


[1972-C078], and RHODES [1972-C084] are investigating various
aspects of manure fermentation under USDA sponsorship.
                        GENERAL ELECTRIC'S STUDIES

In October 1971, Feedstuffs announced, crediting as its source of
information Pfizer Feeder Facts, that an unnamed concern from out-
side the field of agri-business was reported to be about to erect a
pilot plant ;in the Southwest in which thermophilic microorganisms
would convert cellulose and lignin to microbial protein which could
be used as animal feed.  In April 1972, Feedstuffs [1972-1202]
announced that the pilot plant would open in the summer of 1972
after years :of preliminary research.  The May issue of Feedlot
Management [1972-1196] carried a mock-up and a flow diagram of the
plant plus a column of explanation of the process.  In October,
Beef [1972-1184], CALF News [1972-1100], and the Water Resources
Newsletter [jl972-1224] announced the opening of a nilot plant in
Casa Grande, Arizona, in which the wastes from 100 head of cattle
would be digested by thermophilic bacteria to produce a cellular
mass, high ijn protein, which would be dried then used as a feed
supplement for cattle.  The results of FDA studies of the project
were expected by mid-1973.  MANTHEY, writing in Feedlot Management
for October [1972-1100] gave the most extensive account which has
come to the writers' attention.  After observing that "the recla-
mation system provides a bonus in that it turns out to be a protein
multiplier -;- it harvests 1-1/2 Ib of protein for every pound
that is fed Jinto it in the form of animal wastes," MANTHEY quotes
rather extensively from various officials of General  Electric
associated with the project.  The November Issue of Environment
News [1972-1 jl92] reported that 120 Ib of feed were being produced
daily from the 340 Ib (dry basis) of manure supplied.

Inquiries in: Phoenix in May, 1973, led to the information that the
pilot plant had been placed on a standby basis while further work
was being rushed at the laboratory.  The thermophilic bacteria,
it appears, had not adjusted satisfactorily to pilot-plant scale
operation.  A paper was presented orally on the process at a
meeting of the AIChE in June, 1973, but copies had not been made
available when this report was written several weeks later.


Several of the papers cited on the General Electric project also
mentioned a somewhat similar study being pursued by the Hamilton
Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation.  In the Hamilton
Standard process [1973-1045, 1048], manure is slurried, heated and
fed continuously to a fermentation tank in which anaerobic bacteria


operating in the thermophilic temperature range convert it to
methane, carbon dioxide, and a solid residue which can be dried and
used as an ingredient of feed.  Alternatively, the residue may be
coated with resin and pressed into board or used as a nutrient for
a fungus that produces a fiber-digesting enzyme which may be used to
improve the digestibility of poultry feed.  For an ooeration in-
volving 5000 to 7000 or more head of cattle, the methane produced
from the wastes would be sufficient to provide all the heat and
power required for operation.

TURK [1972-C099], in a progress report on an ARS-sponsored study
of the process stated that

          "cattle feedlot waste at 10% solids concentration
          can be digested in continuous anaerobic fermenta-
          tion at feed rates between 0.5 and 1.0 pounds of
          volatile solids per cubic foot digester per day
          with a residence time of 6.25 davs.  The optimum
          temperature is 49-51C.  A 40-60% reduction of
          solids occurs with 90-95% of carbon in the input
          accounted for in the gas + output solids.  No sig-
          nificant loss of nitrogen occurs in the gas.
          Methane production is 3-4 cubic feet per pound
          volatile solids introduced.  The gas is consistent-
          ly 50-52% methane; the remainder is CQ2-  Hydrogen
          is not produced. . .  Digestion and gas production
          have been consistent for 9 months of continuous

ANDREWS and KAMBHU  [1971-1012], after completing a theoretical
analysis of the steady-state operation of thermophilic anaerobic
digestion of organic wastes, suggested its application to the
disposition of sludge resulting from the treatment of sewage.
containing ground garbage.  Their 76-page report, with its' 55
references, contains much of interest for manure disposal.

CARLSON [1971-1051], in describing the Babson Biochemical Recycle
Process, reported that it separates cattle wastes into soueeze-
dried solids of a quality usable as bedding and roughage and a
liquid which may be "processed to any degree of purity desired by
ion-exchange and charcoal treatment, and also ultra-violet exposure
if potable water is desired."

Enzyme-facilitated microbial decomposition of cattle feedlot manure
was discussed by ELMUND et al [1971-1084].  A brief note in Poultry .
Digest [1973-1051] reported that a fiber-digesting enzyme produced
from a fungus grown on cattle feedlot waste had improved the feed
efficiency of chicks.  It is reasonable to anticipate that much more
will be heard of this development in the future.



                        MACROBIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
The quantity of manure which will be recycled in the foreseeable
future by being employed as a planned constituent of the feed of
animals, birds, fish, insects, or worms is probably quite small.
That which will be deliberately released to ponds to become nutrients
for water hyacinth, algae, yeast, or other vegetation will  doubt-
less be even less.  Use as fertilizer in which the manure,  decom-
posed by the microlife of the soil, is recycled as crops or weeds
may be expected to continue to be the major employment of manure.
In the longer run, however, particularly if the trend toward
concentrated production of animals -- and manure -- in a suburban
environment intensifies, the recycling of manure as a feed component,
its catabolism, and its botanical conversion hold much promise.
                           REFEEDING OF MANURE

One's initial reaction to the concepts of refeeding manure to
animals or of employing it as a medium for the deliberate production
of fly larvae is apt to be revulsion.  Visions
epidemics are readily conjured.  There are, in
dangers.  Precautions to be taken are referred
of pestilential
fact, certain
to throughout the

One may easily appreciate that some nutritional value may remain
in particles of feed which have been passed through a first
digestive tract unutilized and essentially unaltered.  There are,
moreover, other values.  A spate of papers in the 1940's reported
the existence of "an unidentified growth factor,"  riboflavin
(vitamin 82), and/or vitamin 812 in the feces of poultry and animals.
LAMOREUX and SCHUMACHER [1940-1002] established that more riboflavin
was present in poultry feces than in poultry feed, with the increase
occurring after defecation.  KENNARD et al [1948-1003] found the
riboflavin in freshly-voided chicken feces to be essentially that
of the feed, but observed a build-up at room temperature of 100
percent in 24 hours and 300 percent in a week.  Floor litter may
thus serve as a potent source of supplementary vitamins for chickens.

HAMMOND [1942-1002] observed that a cow's rumen content was higher
in vitamins than was her feed.  Still greater concentration of
vitamins occurred in the feces.  Cow manure was found to have a
beneficial effect when fed to riboflavin-deficient chicks and to
cause no harm when fed to others.  Later [1944-1002], in recommendina

the inclusion of cow manure in wartime poultry diets, he advised
supplementing the diet with vitamin A and riboflavin.

RUBIN and BIRD [1946-1004, 1947-1002] determined that the growth
factor present in cow manure is transmitted by hens in their eggs
in a quantity sufficient to permit their chicks to grow well on a
basal diet.  RUBIN et al [1946-1005] reported 25 percent greater
weight at six weeks for chicks with a five percent supplement of
cow manure or urine-free hen feces in their diet.  ELAM et al
[1954-1001] reported increased chick growth resulting from the
inclusion of a filtered suspension of autoclaved old poultry
litter in the ration.  Litter contributes far more to the growth
of chicks than can be accounted for by its protein content alone.

BIRD et al [1948-1001] reported that young turkeys have a critical
need for a growth factor found in cow manure, fish meal, or meat
meal.  BOHSTEDT et al [1943-1002] had observed earlier that cow
manure supplies B-complex vitamins to pigs.

BIRD et al [1946-1002] established that increased hatchability of
eggs resulted when a soybean meal diet was supplemented by cattle
manure.  GROSCHKE et al [1947-1001] observed that the addition of
cow manure to a corn-soybean oil diet for chickens increased hatch-
ability and removed its seasonal fluctuation, this latter being
credited [1948-1002] to coprophagy inasmuch as dietary factors are
more easily synthesized in hen feces in warm weather.  KENNARD et al
[1954-1003] determined that hatchability and chicken health were
both far better when chickens were raised on old litter than on new,
the difference again being credited to the benefits of coprophagy.

Vitamin content of manure has been shown to vary with its age and
treatment.  RUBIN and BIRD [1947-1003] observed that sun-dried or
oven-dried cow manures were essentially equivalent, but that
pasture-dried chips were inferior in poultry diets.

Later, studies with rats by BARNES et al [1959-1001, 1963-1002]
and DAFT et al [1963-1003] established that coprophagy was essential
to their development.  Nine micronutrients supplied to rats from
their own feces were listed.  Rabbits were reported by EDEN
[1940-1001] to consume from 54 to 82 percent of their total fecal
production.  SOUTHERN [1940-1003] suggested that this trait might
well  account for the ability of wild rabbits to subsist during
several  days of cold or danger without other nurishment.  DURHAM
et al  [1966-1025] reported on coprophagy in ruminants on all-
concentrate diets, observing that in extreme cases postmortem
examinations had found the reticulum and abomasum compacted with
heavy deposits of soil and feces.



In addition to the papers already cited, one by RILEY and HAMMOND
[1942-1003] observed that the development of testes and ovaries in
chicks was retarded when dried cow feces were included in the diet,
but that their development was unaffected when the chicks were fed
feces from mature bulls.  WHITSON et al [1946-1006] reported that
cow manure dried at 80C is preferable to that dried at 45C since
the latter impairs egg production while the former does not.
Hatchability was good on either ration component.  TURNER [1947-1004]
observed that the performance of cockerels fed manure from lactatinq
cows fell off when the manure exceeded 10 percent of the ration,
while pullets responded well to 2.5, 5, 10, or 20 percent.  PALAFOX
and ROSENBERG [1951-1002, 1952-1003] found that 5 or 10 percent of
either oven-dried (below 158F) or sun-dried cow manure, when
substituted for mash, satisfactorily supported egg production, egg
weight,  body weight, hatchability, and feed consumption.  At 15
percent, unresolved conflicting results are reported.

HAMMOND  [1944-1001] fed cow manure (fresh, and dried and 47C,
80C, and 120C) to poults as ten percent of their diet as a
substitute for alfalfa leaf meal on an essentially adequate ration.
Liyability, growth rate, and efficiency of feed utilization were
unimpaired.  He considered drying at the highest temperatures to
be preferable since bacteria are destroyed without impairing
nutritional values.  SLINGER et al [1949-1003] reported a supple-
ment of  five percent dried cow manure to be effective when fed to
turkeys  in a soybean-oil meal ration.

LIPSTEIN and BORNSTEIN [1971-1154] reported that dried cow manure
had no toxic effect when fed to chicks, but concluded that it was
a poor substitution even for inert pulverized rock.  It may be
significant that they reported a 36.4 percent ash content in their
dried manure.

The  "pork value" of cattle manure -- the nutritional value salvaged
on the old-time farm  by  the pigs which followed the cattle -- has
become a casualty  of  modern agri-business.  One is tempted to suggest
that when an elderly  environmentalist fondly recalls the pristine
succulence  of  grandma's  roast, the  ingredient he misses may well be
cattle feces.  In  fact,  however, taste tests are rarely accurate
in diagnosing  this component of a pig's bill of fare.

In the only menu abstracted [1972-1009], the piece of resistance was
a Delmonico steak  from a yearling steer fed an ensiled mixture con-
taining corn (48 percent), hay (12  percent), and waste (40 percent).
The menu, appropriately  entitled "A Phase of Research in Livestock


Feeding," was that of a banquet served at Auburn University, site
of Brady ANTHONY'S amazing string of successes in feeding cattle
manure to cattle.

The earliest of ANTHONY'S papers which has come to the compiler's
attention [ANTHONY and NIX, 1962-1001] describes a feeding trial
in which a mixture of forty percent washed cattle feces and sixty
percent basal feed, to which one Ib of yeast per 100 Ib of mixture
had been added, was fed to three cattle for 54 days.  Gains of
3.39 Ib/day on 6.43 Ib of feed (dry basis) per Ib of gain were
reported.  ANTHONY has subsequently modified the formula several
times, but the insistence on the use of fresh manure from a concrete
lot, with fermentation, and with controlled handling and storage
of the resulting mixture has been retained.  The exclusion of mud
and the preservation of freshness appear to be cornerstones of
successful refeeding.  Two notes in the Farm Journal [1963-1010
and 1015] and one in Compost Science [1964-1024] reported ANTHONY'S
findings, stressing the $8000 cost of a "washing machine" to handle
a 2000-steer operation.

Reporting on his experimentation of the next several years,
ANTHONY [1966-1005] observed that either washing or heat treatment
was desirable; an attempt to use fresh, unwashed manure separated
by screening had produced poor weight gains and been reflected in
lower carcass grades.  Later, trials with an ensiled mixture of
57 parts manure and 43 parts coastal bermuda grass blended with
ground shelled corn and a supplement had given excellent results.

When "waste!age" (a name assigned to the ensiled mixture of 57
percent manure from full-fed slaughter cattle and 43 percent ground
hay) was employed as 40 percent of the ration, gains were better
than those posted by a control group of cattle fed corn silage
[1968-1003, 1969-1002, 1972-1217].  In describing his experimental
program at the Cornell Conference on Animal Waste Management
[1969-1003], ANTHONY emphasized the sanitary disposal of organic
wastes and the improved feed efficiency obtained.

BANDEL and ANTHONY [1969-1005] reported that a ratio of wastelage
to*   whole corn of 2:3 is nearly optimum for slaughter cattle.
CIORDA and ANTHONY [1969-1020] observed that even with nematode
eggs present in the feces, no larvae were found in any sample of
wastelage examined.  ANTHONY [1970-1003] reported that "rations
containing wet cattle manure were readily consumed by fattening
steers and these rations supported gain essentially equal to com-
parable cattle fed feeds without manure.  Cooking or washing
manure before mixing it with concentrate for feeding did not improve
its feeding value.  Carcass data were similar for manure-fed and
other cattle."  MOORE and ANTHONY [1970-1070] reported an increase
in crude protein level of wastelage from 16.99 percent to 43.26
percent by adjusting the pH level with ammonia on three successive
days.   The ami no acids were increased by over 20 percent.


Three more waste!age tests were reported  [1971-1014] and a flow sheet
for the recycling of manure from concentrate-pius-wastelage-fed
confined cattle was presented indicating  that the disposition of the
feedlot manure would be complete if the surplus wastelage were used
as a complete ration for beef brood cows.  ANTHONY'S well-documented
summary of the state of the art of animal refeeding [1971-1013]
should be read in its entirety.  An extract from it will be quoted
in the summary of this chapter.

Currently ANTHONY is focusing his attention on lactic acid fermen-
tation in the ensiling process [1972-C003] and on the optimum
choice of material (silage, green chopped forage, cottonseed hulls,
peanut hulls, rice hulls, almond hulls, etc.) for blending with the
manure [1973-1001].  All hull mixtures were found to be less satis-
factory than mixtures made with silages or green chopped rye forage.
"To be acceptable products should be fermentable. . .  The mixtures
used must ferment rapidly to produce acids (preferably lactic) and
the pH must be about four.  Most important:  When fed, silages must
retain an acid pH; if the pH shifts rapidly toward neutrality when
placed in the feed trough, the product will have low nutritive

ANTHONY  [1967-1001]  reported that ewes on a diet consisting solely
of wastelage for  more  than  a year consumed less hay but remained
in better physical condition than those fed hay with no manure.
McLAREN  and BRITTON  [1968-1030] observed that when lambs were fed
a high-energy diet with  roughage consisting of ground corn cobs,
wheat  straw, or the  undigested fiber fraction of their feces at the
same level as the original  roughage, the percentage of roughage
digested was greater for the original corn cobs or wheat straw than
for the  refed fecal  fiber.

L. W.  SMITH et al [1969-1078, 1970-1086, 1971-1229, 1971-1230,
1971-1301] reported  successful experiments in the modification of
cell walls in cattle feces  to improve their digestibility for
subsequent refeeding to  sheep.  SMITH and GORDON [1971-1231] reported
feeding  iso-nitrogeneous rations with one part cornmeal and one,
two, or  three parts  manure  consisting of feces and peanut hull
bedding  to heifers.  There  were no  significant differences in growth
rate or  in feed-to-gain  ratios.

THOMAS et al [1970]  reported that heifers fed feces from dairy
cattle without bedding accepted a ten to fifty percent fecal diet
readily.  The dry matter digestibility was 20 percent.  CALF News
[1970-1117] quoted Gene  ERWIN as stating that "It is entirely
feasible that even a small  feeder will be able to process manure
on his lot for conversion  into a low-cost nutritious feed."


BUCHOLTZ et al [1971-1040] stated that feces must contain more than
25 percent crude protein to compete economically with other sources
of supplemental nitrogen.  In their feeding tests sheep had consumed
all rations readily while goats had refused to participate in any
fecal recycling.  McCLURE et al [1971-1167, 1329] reported decreasing
digestibilities in corn-based rations for cattle, rations for sheep
containing 45 percent cattle feces, and the feces from the sheep.

COOPER et al [1972-1028] reported that a ration of an ensiled
mixture of whole corn plant and feces from ewes on an all-roughage
diet was not highly acceptable to ewes.  Additional corn and soybean
meal produced a ration adequate for maintenance when the fecal
fraction was held below 25 percent.  JOHNSON [1972-1074, 1216]
found rations consisting of cotton seed hulls and up to 40 percent
dried feedlot manure palatable to sheep.  The digestible organic
matter content of the wastes from dirt lots was low.  KLOSTERMAN
and McCLURE [1972-C051] reported on a 60-day feeding test in which
the weight of steers had been sustained on a diet consisting solely
of ensiled feedlot manure.

TINNIMIT et al  [1972-1157] reported that sheep rations containing
20 to 80 percent dehydrated feces were well accepted.

SWEETEN [1973-1035, 1042] questioned the economy of the prompt
collection and of the exclusion of mud from cattle feedlot manure
which would be required for the preservation of its refeeding values.
These are, of course, high in the list of advantages claimed for
totally-enclosed confinement feeding.

In addition to the "classical" well-documented studies, such as
those of ANTHONY, there are an indeterminate number of other
investigations of means of salvaging the nutrient value of manure
in progress or in various stages of hibernation or death.  Some of
these have been referred to in the chapter on microbiological

Many investigators are understandably reluctant to talk until they
have obtained satisfactory results in feeding tests.  Questions of
possible patentable features in a process or the desire to derive
a legitimate financial reward for the time and money risked in
research and development also inspire a cloak of secrecy.

An interesting example of such a project, nearing the pupation stage,
is that developed by Feed Recycle, Inc., of Blythe, California, its
consulting engineer Frank SENIOR and his associate Dr. Ralph  RIPPERE.
A description of the process appeared in CALF News for January 1973
[1973-1043], and an evaluation of the economics is abstracted in
[1973-1029].  SENIOR, a consulting metallurgical engineer of Phoenix,
was retained by the corporation, the major stockholders of which
include the owners of Mortensen's Colorado River Feedyard, Blythe,


and those of the Desert Ginning Co. of Ripley, California, to
perfect a process for extracting the proteins, fats, and roughage
values of feedlot steer manure for refeeding.  The sand, salts, and
most of the moisture are removed in the process.

The pilot plant, visited on 10 May 1973, had evolved somewhat from
the status described in CALF News.  The molasses produced in the
earlier operation had not proved to be effective as a component
of the feed.  On the other hand, the "instant coffee" granules
resulting from the kiln-drying of the cake separated by centrifuging
had given most encouraging results in feedinq trials.  The 8000
Ib/hr input to the pilot plant had consisted"of 660 Ib protein,
160 Ib fat, 1980 Ib carbohydrates, 240 Ib K and NaCl, 440 Ib Si02,
520 Ib of other insolubles, and 4000 Ib of water.  In a second stage
5600 Ib of washwater and floe had been added.  The values recovered
per net ton of manure, based on 315 Ib of protein at 14 
up to 65 percent PAB without rejection.  BRIDGSON [1972-1020, 1179]
reported that cattle on a 37.25 percent PAB ration consumed more
feed and gained weight faster than control cattle.

VETTER et al [1972-1160, 1225] reported feeding beef oxidation ditch
residue, which they designated "processed animal waste nutrients"
(PAWN), in amounts as great as 6.8 kg/day per steer without observ-
able effects on carcass grade, yield, or health.

Despite the historic tradition previously mentioned, few tests of
the value of cattle feces in swine rations have been recorded.
SQUIBB and SALAZAR [1951-1003], reporting on the feeding of sun-
dried fresh cow manure subjected to a hammer mill, observed that
despite the fact that pigs ate the rations readily and consumed as
much feed as did pigs on Corozo palm nut meal, sesame oil meal,
bananas, or animal protein factor, the lots fed cow manure were
unthrifty and lacked uniformity.  PUTNAM [1971-1211] reported that
the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) had fed beef feedlot manure,
subject to various treatments, in amounts up to 85 percent of the
rations of swine successfully at Beltsville.

DIGGS et al [1965-1007] reported that in a 63-day trial with the
rations containing 0, 15, and 30 percent dried pig feces, pigs
gained 1.56, 1.71, and 1.53 Ib/day respectively.  Feed intakes were
3.63, 3.62, and 4.65 Ib/day.  No undesirable flavor was detectable.

ORR et al [1971-1193, 1194, 1317] reported that corn-soybean meal
rations with as much as 22 percent dried swine feces were accepted
by swine with 90 to 95 percent full appetite.  The flavor of the meat
was unaffected.  Dried swine feces containing 21.6 percent crude
protein were detrimental to daily gain and to feed-to-gain ratios
because of low ami no acid content.  MILLER [1972-C070] reported that
swine wastes were preferable to poultry wastes in swine finishing

DAY et al [1971-1066] reported that pigs on oxidation ditch
residue (ODR), substituted ad tlbJJiw for water in the ration,
showed greater weight gains and better feed efficiency.  HARMON
et al [1971-1120] observed that swine ODR, screened to remove hair
and bran then freeze-dried, contained 41.5 percent protein.  Rats
showed best weight gain and greatest feed efficiencies when their


ration contained zero to four percent ODR.  HOLMES et al [1971-1135]
found a crude protein content of 27.7 percent, dry basis, for the
suspended solids in swine ODR, and concluded that it could be sub-
stituted for 10 to 20 percent of the other proteins in rats'  diets.

HARMON [1972-C043] concluded that concentrations significantly
higher than the two percent dry matter typical of swine ODR will  be
required.  For an oxidation ditch in continuous operation for three
years, the dry matter tested 51 percent protein, 1.4 percent lysine,
2.0 percent threonine, 0.9 percent methionine, and 40 percent ash.
HARMON et al [1972-1062] reported that swine ODR had a 27.7 percent
protein content and that it could replace from a third to half of
the protein in casein or soybean meal for rats.

Poultry manure tends to be richer in nutrients than animal manure.
Moreover, layers are fed few antibiotics and thus the worrisome
problems of drug and hormone residues may be minimized by the
selection of caged layer manure as a feed component.

VERBEEK [1960-1005] observed that a ration containing 24 percent
fowl manure with mealie cobs provided a good sourde of nitrogen
for oxen.  Other nutrients and spilled feed in the wastes added
value.  The manure made a good addition to roughage for tiding
oxen over a winter.

Several authors have reported feeding tests in which poultry wastes
replaced soybean meal or other sources of protein with essentially
equivalent daily weight gains [1966-1064, 1968-1007, 1970-1096,
1972-1146, 1973-1009].  BUCHOLTZ et al [1971-1039, 1040], however,
reported lower feed efficiencies on dried poultry wastes (DPW) than
on soybean meal or urea, and observed that the manure should contain
more than 25 percent crude protein to compete economically with
other sources of supplemental nitrogen.  They mentioned that steers
sorted out and avoided the DPW, sheep consumed all servings readily,
and goats refused the ration.

LOWMAN and KNIGHT [1970-1054] estimated the cost of the protein from
DPW to be about one-third that from competing sources.  In other
economic studies, LOWMAN [1969-1049, 1092, 1094; 1970-1130] states
that Topi an, a sterile DPW with a crude protein content of 26.6
percent available on the British market, when fed as 25 to 50
percent of a ruminant ration saves 30 percent on feed costs.  BULL
and REID [1971-1041] observed that air-dried poultry manure was
particularly effective with corn silage since the combination
eliminates dust, masks odor, and saves $12 to $15 per ton.

THOMAS et al [1972-1155] reported that economic studies indicate
the desirability of using relatively large amounts of dried manure
from caged layers as nitrogen and energy sources for cows and lambs.
SMITH and FRIES [1973-1034] observed that, despite reduced milk  ,
output from cattle fed DPW, the economics of feeding it compare
favorably with those of conventional sources of crude protein.
FAIRBAIRN [1970-1135] stated that the protein value of DPW is about
that of cereals, but that the energy content is only about one-third
that of grain.  He concluded, however, that DPW is suitable and
economic as a feed component.

COUCH [1972-1030] observed that the low energy content of DPW makes
it unadvisable as a component of chick feeds above five percent.
The age of the manure at the time of drying and the method of drying
were recognized to affect the energy content critically.  Swine
were reported to show depressed feed conversion with as little as
five percent DPW.  Sheen can obtain up to fifty percent of their
total nitrogen from it without adverse effects.  The best use of
DPW is considered to be as cattle feed.  NATZ [1972-1117] also
observed that DPW has been recommended as a cattle feed.

PEREZ-ALEMAN et al [1971-1204] fed DPW as 10, 20, and 30 percent
of a swine ration with no adverse effect on the pigs' health or
carcass quality.  They reported that DPW contained 30 percent
crude protein and was rich in minerals.  ORR [1971-1193] reported
that DPW was of somewhat less value than dried swine feces in swine
rations because it is low in critical amino acids and high in

THOMAS and ZINDEL [1971-1248, 1972-C110] reported no adverse effect
on the quantity or quality of milk from dairy cows fed 30 percent

LOWMAN and KNIGHT [1970-1054] observed that, whereas barley contains
48 ppm Cu and DPW contains 73, the copper available to sheep fed
barley or DPW was 24.5 and 17.6 ppm respectively.  SMITH et al
[1973-1033] observed that "withdrawal of arsenic from feed resulted
in a rapid decrease in tissue arsenic concentration."

The benefits which poultry derive from the reingestion of their
feces in terms of growth, increased hatchability, and general
well-being have been discussed.  Additional studies in a similar
vein include those of PRYOR and CONNOR [1964-1015] who reported
that 30 percent of the original metabolizable energy present in c
high-energy chicken ration was available for reuse.  FLEGAL and
ZINDEL [1970-1022, 1023, 1024; 1971-1090], in studies directed
toward compensating for the low energy content of DPW, found


that the addition of stabilized fat improved performance of layers
on a diet which included 20 percent DPW.  The egg-laying efficiency
was unaffected to 20 percent DPW; the taste difference of the eggs
was undetectable to 30 percent; and the egg quality was unaffected
at 40 percent.  Feed efficiency declined with increasing propor-
tions of DPW in the ration.

BIELY et al [1972-1018, 1973-1050], reporting on feeding tests of
well-balanced isonitrogenous isocaloric rations containing 5 to 30
percent DPW, found no detrimental effects on the heaHh of the birds
Growth and feed efficiency decreased above 10 percent.  BER6DOLL
[1972-1014] suggested that the optimum refeeding level for laying
hens is in the range of 10 to 15 percent DPW, with the manure
replacing an equal amount of corn.

The feeding value of manure, it must be remembered, is subject to
rapid deterioration with improper storage or mishandling.  MILLER
[1971-1173] observed that poultry manure catabolized by fly larvae
had little value as chick feed.

HODGETTS [1971-1133] reported that a flock of British chickens
showed improved performance on a 10 percent DPW diet.  Savings
resulting from the refeeding were 44 cents per bird.  ZINDEL and
FLEGAL [1971-1275] evaluated DPW as a replacement for 25 percent
of the corn in a layer ration at $10 per ton.  For comparison,
they calculated the gross value of wet manure as a fertilizer to
be $2.39 per ton; the cost of spreading it would be $11.96.

LaSALLE and LAUNDER [1969-1042] reported on a proposal of the
Hupsi Corporation to catch chicken droppings in troughs of weak
phosphoric acid, then salvage the protein and other values for
refeeding.  By refrigerating the acid during the cycle, air
conditioning could be provided in the hen house.

A fascinating study, designed to provide a definitive answer to
some of the haunting questions of possible cumulative effects of
refeeding, is being conducted at Michigan State University.
ZINDEL [1972-1170, 1204] reported that after 35 cycles in which
DPW was refed as 12.5 or 25 percent of the hens' ration, no build-
up of heavy metals had occurred.  He concluded that these percen-
tages could be recycled with safety.  FLEGAL et al [1972-1045,
1190], reporting after 31 cycles, observed that the chickens on
12.5 DPW were outperforming those fed 0 or 25 percent.  FLEGAL
[1972-C032] also reported that performance on recycling was as
good with 10 or 20 percent DPW as with none.  Performance was
poorer at 30 percent, and egg production was off 40 percent at
40 percent DPW.  Interim reports by various investigators have
been abstracted [1971-1089; 1972-1159, 1208, C110; and 1973-1052].

LANGSTON [1971-1318] reported on a 36-hour process of heating to
kill pathogens followed by fermentation and refeeding of the
manure to the same chickens.   No ill  effects were observed.
CLIZER [1972-1006] has emphasized the establishment of proper
controls for attaining uniformity of product.   He and BARTON
[1972-C005] both stressed research to secure compliance with
FDA requirements.

Lest the reader gain the impression that poultry manure recycling
is a complete solution to ultimate disposal, he should heed  the
sobering comment of OUSTERHOUT and PRESSER [1971-1200] that
"recycling manure reduces the disposal problem by no more than
25 percent with no noticeable further reduction with further
recycling."  NESHEIM [1972-1118] added that while acceptability
of manure is good, chickens compensate for its low energy content
by eating more and, thus, producing more manure.

Poultry manure has been described through the use of many adjectives.
All of them have repulsive connotations of sliminess, stickiness,
and stench.  By comparison, poultry litter is relatively
unobjectionable.  The litter base of sawdust, wood shavings, crop
residues, or other organic dry matter soaks up considerable moisture
and, with competent management, may be refed without drying.
Heating for sterilization is often practiced, however.   Since
roughage is a major component of ruminants' diets, its  inclusion
earlier as a litter base may be advantageous.

NOLAND et al [1955-1001] reported that ewes fed ground  chicken
litter did as well as those fed soybean meal and better than those
fed ammoniated molasses as a source of nitrogen.  Steers fattening
on chicken litter did nearly as well as those on cottonseed meal
when the total  feed intake on litter exceeded that on cottonseed
meal by 15 percent.  CAMP [1956=1003, 1959-1003] included 40
percent litter based on peanut hulls or cane pulp in a  formula
proposed for cattle.  He quoted the protein content of  once-used
litter as 21 or 22 percent, and of litter after nine uses as 33
percent.  He advised potential users to avoid rockss nails, and

CARMQDY [1964-1005] recommended a formula based on 1500 Ib litter,
500 Ib energy feed, 10 Ib dicalcium phosphate, vitamins A and D,
and salt.  On free choice, cattle ate 25 to 28 Ib of litter mix
and 5 to 6 Ib of hay per day.  The litter mix was unpalatable when

LEW1NGTQN [1964-1010] proposed a mix of 1800 Ib litter, 200 Ib
corn hominy, minerals, vitamins, and hay for cattle.  For sheep he


advised a formula of 1600 Ib litter and 400 Ib of broken white
bean mix.  He cautioned that sterilization of the litter would
destroy its feed value.

DRAKE et al [1965-1008] reported that feed efficiency was higher
with 25 percent peanut hull litter than with 25 percent wood
shaving litter.  Both were preferable to a zero-litter control.
However, a 25 percent litter diet was preferable to one of 40
percent.  BHATTACHARYA and FONTENOT [1965-1003] determined that
the optimum litter fraction for ruminants was that for which
the nitrogen from poultry litter was about half of the total
nitrogen intake.  Several authors [1958-1003; 1966-1003, 1012;
1968-1020] have suggested the use of dried citrus pulp, beet pulp,
corncobs, etc., as being more nutritious than wood or hulls in

SOUTHWELL et al [1958-1003] advised the running of a chemical test
on each batch of litter before using it because of variability.
BRADLEY and RUSSELL [1965-1004], observing that litter was highly
variable, advised adding vitamin A, and suggested that molasses
might help palatability.  They advised against the use of dusty
litter, as had RAY [1959-1008].

BRUGMAN et al [1964-1004] reported that litter is high in protein
but is low in energy, vitamins A and D, and phosphorus.  BHATTACHARYA
and FONTENOT [1964-1003, 1966-1009] observed that litter compares
favorably with alfalfa hay in sheep rations, but that the percen-
tage utilization of absorbed nitrogen from an autoclaved peanut-hull
litter tended to decrease with increasing levels of the litter
nitrogen.  FONTENOT et al [1966-1029] reported that litter samples
contained 32 percent crude protein on a dry basis.  The average
digestion coefficient of the crude protein was 72.5 percent.
McANDREWS and KERR [1966-1048] observed that poultry litter supplies
protein from undigested poultry feed and from bacteria.

BRUGMAN et al [1969-1014] found no significant differences in feed
efficiency of sheep fed six different rations calculated to have a
crude protein content near 17 percent.  Costs ranged from 4.5 i to
7.1 < per kg.  DAVIS [1956-1001] had reported earlier that feeding
costs had been cut as much as 60 percent by feeding poultry litter
to cattle and hogs.  Drugs in the litter had been responsible for
some stillbirths.

The controversy over the merits (pathogen reduction) and demerits
(reduced nutritive value) of sterilization of poultry litter has
been mentioned.  Additional discussion may be found in several
papers [1967-1004; 1968-1002; 1970-1031; 1971-1094, 1095, 1123,
and 1171].  CASWELL et al [1973-1006] recently described several
methods of sterilization, none of which was found to have a signi-
ficant effect on apparent digestibility or nitrogen utilization.


CREA6ER et al [1973-1008] reported the elimination of pathogens
from broiler litter on pine shavings by ensiling.   No drug carry-
over of any consequence was found in their investigation.

OMOHUNDRO [1966-1057] reported that the USDA had advised against
the refeeding of litter because of variability in  nutritive value,
undetermined effect of drugs in the poultry feed,  and the possi-
bility of disease transmission.  KIRK [1967-1008,  1028] announced
that the FDA does not sanction the use of poultry  litter for
animal feed.  BRUGMAN et al [1968-1008, 1972-C014] reported the
finding of drug residues and arsenic in litter-fed lambs,  but of
failing to find either in the carcasses.   CARRIERE et al [1968-1010]
reported that mycobacteria may survive at least a  month in poultry
litter.  In heated litter, competitors may be killed and mycobacteria
may survive two months longer.  GRIEL et al [1969-1030] attributed
abortions which occurred in a herd of cattle which had grazed on
pastures heavily fertilized with dried poultry litter to estrogens
present in the chicken feed.  WEBB et al  [1973-1039], reporting on
tests through two lambing cycles of sheep fed 0, 25, and 50 percent
broiler litter, mentioned possible copper toxicity as the only
problem encountered.

Few references were found to the feeding of litter to poultry.
WEHUNT et al [1960-1006] recommended that hydrolyzed broiler litter
be added to chick diets suboptimal in protein.   CHALOUPKA et al
[1968-1011] observed that chickens raised on reused litter are  less
apt to be condemned for Marek's disease than are those raised on
fresh litter.  QUISENBERRY and BRADLEY [1969-1070] reported that
the performance of laying hens on isocaloric isonitrogenous diets
containing 10 and 20 percent of untreated litter and droppings  was
generally better than that of the controls.

GERRY [1972-C035] found that bird weight and percentage of egg
production decreased with increasing percentage of litter in the

Without second thought,  one jumps to the conclusion that meat and
eggs are primary products and that manure is a by-product of low or
negative value.  Such may not always be the case.   HANCOCK [1956-1002]
reported on the raising of' worms on a ration of peat moss, commercial
laying mash, corn meal, and a small amount of molasses to harvest
the compost produced by their excrement.  Broilers raised on the
compost reached 3-1/2 Ib weight in 8 weeks.  The other half of the
same flock, raised on regular commercial broiler feed, required
10 weeks to reach 3 Ib.



L. W. SMITH et al [1970-1086] have been investigating treatments of
fecal cell walls to enhance the digestibility of the cellulose and
hemicellulose residues present.  HAMILTON et al [1971-1118] believe
that fermentation may provide a means of improving the quality of
manure as a feed.  SAYLOR and LONG [1972-1136] tested ensilages of
corn field residue or oat straw with poultry manure or cow manure.
The poultry manure yielded higher protein values than the cow manure,
and both were higher than the control which contained no manure.
ANTHONY, as previously cited, has been feeding ensiled "wastelage"
for years with outstanding success.  WALKER and GRAHAM [1972-0103]
are investigating pressure cooking.

McQUITTY and BARBER [1972-1107] cite a Dutch patent [their entry
A-549] for a process of hydrolyzing animal wastes to polypeptides
with H3PO^ at pH values of one to three followed by partial evapo-
ration of the water.  After CaC03 has been added to bring the pH
to five to eight, a loose granular meal results.  They also cite
a 1970 South African patent [A-632] for treating waste with NHs
at proper temperature and pH, digesting it with mineral acid, then
treating the result with inorganic nutrients to obtain modified
polysaccharides.  These may be fed to animals permitting them to
receive in available nontoxic forms, dosages of inorganic nutrients
normally toxic.

HERRICK [1972-1068] has concluded that manure from beef cattle on
high grain rations is best for recycling.  While poultry litter
gave fair results, he did not recommend its use because of concern
over costs, pathogens, drugs, hormones, and antibiotics.  PRICE
[1972-1127] observed that DPW may be more valuable for ruminants
than for poultry since only ruminants can convert urea to uric
acid and thus utilize its nitrogen content.

FOERSTER [1966-1028] commented that the renderer has equipment to
convert wastes sufficiently to "circumvent the stigmas, reservations,
and variability inherent in a direct manure product."  KING [1970-
1043] observed that research on refeeding has been slowed by the
checks and restraints of regulatory agencies and the uncertainty
of consumer reaction.  HERRICK [1971-1130, 1131] maintains that costs
will usually exceed nutritive values, and that drugs, hormones, and
antibiotics leave unanswered questions.

TAYLOR [1971-1245, 1246, 1293] stated that the basis of the current
FDA ban on refeeding of litter is that the agency must be assured
of the safety to man and animals.  Specifically, it will require
information on the source of the raw material, a stepwise description


of the processing, and a description of the end product and its
intended use.  KIESNER [1972-1078] observed that arsenicals are
routinely fed to chickens but not to man or cattle.   Copper fed to
chickens has reportedly caused trouble in cattle.  60LUEKE  [1972-
1054] noted that the use of organic wastes in animal  feedstuffs
holds great promise provided pathogen transmission is explored,
toxic content is investigated, and FDA approval is secured.

ALAMPI [1971-1005] demanded approval of the reuse of manure.
KIESNER [1971-1144] urged research to satisfy the FDA, and  public
relations procedures to reassure the public.  KOTTMAN and GEYER
[1971-1146] predict that refeeding will be common long before the
year 2000.  ZINDEL [1971-1273, 1310, 1317] tabulated results of
feeding DPW to chickens, sheep, and cattle, then suggested  that the
FDA should be realistic.  He feels that state supervision would be
preferable.  GRAHAM [1972-1056] suggested that the current  emphasis
on ecology might be used to promote acceptance of refeeding.
VAN HOUWELING [1972-1191, 1210] suggested that current research at
Michigan State University and Virginia Polytechnic Institute could
lead to an easing of the FDA ban.

The refeeding of manure is prohibited in the United States and in
the nations within the European Economic Community.  It is permitted
in the United Kingdom and Canada.  BLAIR and KNIGHT [1973-1003]
described British practice in a recent article in Feedstuffs.   Only
dried poultry manure is used commercially at preserrtlThe authors
state that "the most important requirement is to reduce a wet,
sometimes semi-liquid material to, at the very most, 15% moisture.
This moisture level is sufficiently low for milling and manufacture
but the manure may not store for long periods.  If the moisture
content is reduced below 10%, the dry manure will store for at least
one year, and probably much longer."  Grinding is employed to remove
lumps which "do not dry out and could harbor bacteria.  Also poultry
manure contains a high number of feathers and other manures may
contain wood shavings. .  ."

With an all-round high standard of cleanliness and hygiene practiced
on the farm and at the dryer, coupled with regular microbiological
and chemical analyses, the authors contend that "in the present
state of knowledge dried  poultry manure that has been properly
processed appears to present no serious health dangers when fed to
ruminants. . .   The use of litter should be considered with care."

They conclude by observing that "in the U. K., dried poultry manure
has been used commercially as a feedstuff for several  years.  No
cases of failure due either to contamination with microorganisms or
feed additives  have been  reported."  However, "very few additives are
now fed to laying stock in the U. K."


                      UTILIZATION OF MANURE BY FISH

Though there are few places in the world that have trouble with the
problem,water can be too pure to support fish life.  The much more
frequently observed phenomenon is that it can be too contaminated
for their survival.

Between the extremes, a fairly wide band of nutrient concentrations
in water exists within which the degradative processes have an
oxygen demand moderate enough to leave adequate supplies of both
oxygen and nutrients for fish.  By controlling the rate of inflow
of nutrients -- and the nutrients may well be manure -- near optimum
conditions should prevail for fish culture.  Such a plan was
proposed at the 1964 winter meeting of the American Society of
Agricultural Engineers as reported'by HART et al [1965-1010].

Experimentation with catfish was conducted by DURHAM et al [1966-
1025] who stocked six ponds 100 ft long, 10 ft wide, and 4 ft deep
at three levels of stocking:  100 fish per pond (4300 per acre),
300 per pond (12,900 per acre), and 550 oer pond (23,650 per acre).
The fish in one group of ponds were fed a ration of cottonseed
cake  (41 percent protein) and milo.  The others received a 50-50
mixture of the cotton seed cake and feedlot manure.  Total daily
ration was approximately seven percent of body weight.

"Although efficiency of gain was greatest in the ponds stocked
with  the fewest fish, total gain was greatest in the heavily stocked
ponds. . .  Ponds stocked at the rate of 23,650 fish produced a
net gain of 3750 Ib per acre. . .  There was no significant difference
between the total gain by the two feeds."

YECK  and SCHLEUSNER [1971-1272], in an excellent survey of the many
means of recycling animal wastes, pointed out that the major constraint
on fish culture as a means of manure disposal is the tremendous area
which would be required to accomodate the relatively light manure
loadings permissible.

MULKEY [1972-1113], in discussing the pollution problem associated  
with  intensive fish farming, observed that the wastes from catfish
production (which include fecal material, metabolic waste products,
and uneaten feed) are a potent source of slug-flow contamination
when the ponds are cleaned out after the harvesting of each fish
crop.  It would appear that the deliberate introduction of manure
into  the operation should be approached most cautiously.

The progress reports on an investigation of the feasibility of
using livestock manure as a feed ration for bullheads and carp
being undertaken by CROSS [1972-C021] are hardly encouraging.   "At
the end of four weeks, two fish [of 14] had died and the  remaining
individuals had lost between zero to three grams weight instead of


gaining.  Test  was discontinued.  .  .  We hope to continue next
spring when fish are available."
                       THE FLY:  PEST OR PROTEIN?

A number of the papers abstracted for this report treated, at least
incidentally, the problems created by flies.  Whenever a process
rendered manure less  inviting to flies, this characteristic was
listed among its advantages.  ANDERSON [1966-1004], appeared at
first glance to dissent by observing that an advantage of a manure
pile is that it attracts flies from a large area to lay their eggs.
However, he went on to recommend removal and rapid drying at five-
to  seven-day intervals to destroy the eggs.

 Quite a number of papers  [1959-1002; 1961-1001, 1002, 1004, 1005;
 1963-1004; 1970-1063, 1064, 1065, 1066; 1972-C046, C087] treat the
 potential of including insecticides in an animal's feed to render
 the manure lethal to flies.  Others suggest the utilization of their
 many natural predators.   ANDERSON'S [1964-1002] list of some of
 these includes parasitic  wasps, earwigs, beetles, and mites which
 feed on fly eggs and/or larvae; spiders and birds which feed on
 larvae and/or adults; and fungi which kill many flies.  The larvae
 of the black garbage fly, OphytLO. te.uc.o-f>toma, attack and feed on
 other fly larvae whenever the latter are present.  "When contained
 with a superfluous number of prey they always killed many more per
 day than they could possibly eat.  The beneficial result of this
 behavior is that the superfluous prey larvae killed by Ophytia. are
 eaten by the remaining living prey species."  He observed [1965-1002]
 that insecticides and flames may be harder on the predators, which
 often tend to remain near exposed surfaces, than on the fly larvae
 which may burrow more deeply into the manure-  Manure removal may
 be detrimental.  "New accumulations of fresh wet droppings were
 considerably more conducive to housefly propagation than to renopu-
 lation by mites."

 HARTMAN [1970-1033, 1971-1124] emphasized that beetles and their
 larvae (mealworms) eat fly eggs and larvae.  The beetles keep the
 manure mass aerated, and  thus less odiferous, in seeking their prev.
 PRICE [1970-1079] and DANKO [1971-1296] also had words of praise
 for the efficacy of beetles.

AXTELL [1972-C004] developed an integrated program of fly control in
 the poultry-producing industry based on biological control, manure
management, and a minimum use of insecticides.  His publications in
J. Econ.  Entomol. 63: 400-405, 1734-1737, 1786-1787 (1970) came to
the writers' attention too late for inclusion in the bibliography.

ANDERSON [1972-C002] has issued progress reports on an investigation,
begun in 1964, of the integrated control of flies and the role'of
dung-inhabiting insects in natural recycling of dung.  Some predators
which "feed voraciously on house fly larvae under laboratory
conditions" have been discovered.

RODRIGUEZ and RIEHL [1959-1009, 1962-1009] reported that a cockerel
with access to the droppings under ten confined hens ate all the
fly larvae.  The cockerel was fed at dusk to assure a good appetite
during hunting hours.  They cautioned that the manure should be
kept as dry as possible and that spillage of feed should be avoided.
A 15-week old cockerel will consume about 200 grams of flies per
day.  This exceeds his free-choice consumption of grain or mash.
LaBRECQUE and SMITH [1960-1003] reported similar performance and
stressed, as had RODRIGUEZ and RIEHL, that the cockerels remained

GOJMERAC [1972-1213] reported that 250 cockerels, housed in a yard
at the University of Wisconsin to which the daily manure production
is brought, are "doing a good job of fly control."

ANDERSON  [1966-1004] observed that fly larvae degrade manure effec-
tively and could provide protein for chickens, animals, or humans.
CALVERT et al  [1969-1017, 1018] described laboratory preparation of
dried fly pupae which contained 63.1 percent protein and 15.5 percent
fat, both of good quality.  They established that the protein from
fly pupae is equivalent to that from soybean meal in chick diets.
The manure converted by the pupae was essentially odorless and had
a loose, crumbly texture.

MILLER [1969-1056, 1970-1136] established a breeder stock of disease-
free houseflies and developed a procedure for collecting their eggs
and distributing them at an optimum concentration on fresh manure.
He reported that either pupae or adult flies killed by heat would
provide a protein-rich feedstuff.  The manure would have become
stabilized with a reduction in moisture content of 50 to 75 percent.
He and SHAW [1969-1058] suggested an alternative method of harvesting
which involves spreading the manure, containing fully-developed
pupae, in a thin layer on a screen under an intense light.  In
avoiding the light, the pupae crawl through the screen.  Harry EBY,
at Beltsville, has modified the process and built a machine capable
of handling manure in ton lots.  Edwin KING, of Clemson, has added
a refinement consisting of a chute and funnel whereby the larvae
who escape the light wind up in deep freeze.

TEOTIA and MILLER [1970-1094, 1095] determined that the optimum
conditions for fly larvae are at a temperature of 25C and a relative


humidity of 38 percent.  They will  abandon the manure if the moisture
content reaches 80 percent and are subject to fungal  attack at a
temperature of 37C and a relative humidity of 70 percent.   MILLER
[1971-1172] concluded that the optimum pupal crop has a weight of
about two percent that of the fresh manure.  A 69-page report [1971-
1173], rich in tables and charts and well-documented, summarizes
MILLER'S findings through 1970.

Studies at Beltsville by CALVERT, EBY, MORGAN and MARTIN, in addition
to those already cited, [1970-1012, 1072; 1971-1049;  1972-C017;
1973-1024] have indicated that the excreta from 100,000. hens could
produce 500 to 1000 Ib of pupae per day.  Alternatively stated, fly
larvae can convert 100 Ib of manure from cattle or poultry into 2.5
to 3 Ib of good protein feed supplement (the larvae)  and 50 to 60
Ib of semi-dry practically odorless soil conditioner.  For efficient
operation, the humidity of the manure should be controlled and any
flies which hatch should be confined.

BEARD et al [1972-C007] are conducting similar experiments on house-
flies and various species of glowflies.

HODGETTS [1972-1069], in a survey of American practice written for
a British publication, devotes much attention to the  potentials of
fly culture.
                         BEETLES AND EARTHWORMS

ANDERSON'S observations on the appetites of certain beetles for fly
larvae have been cited.  He also noted [1966-1004, 1971-1009] that
some species of African dung beetles have established phenomenal
performance records for the disposal of elephant and other manure.
He has identified 50 species of flies and 35 of beetles in the cow-
pats in California pastures.  Of these, only the horn fly and face
fly are pests; the others speed the recycling of the manure.   Only
seven species of flies appear to have adapted to life in the fe^d-
lot where manure is churned underfoot.

FINCHER et al [1970-1020] praised the service rendered by beetles in
preserving the nitrogen values of manure by burying it promptly.
They reported that in Australia, where no native bovine or ovine
species existed, cattle dung remained on the ground for years having
an effect somewhat like that of a noxious weed "because cattle will
not graze on the rank growth around these dung pads."  SANCHEZ
[1973-1028] reported enthusiastically on the abilities of Afro-Asian
dung beetles, imported to Texas from strains acclimatized to
Australia, to control manure-breeding flies that affect cattle.
Being nocturnal, these beetles are less subject to elimination by
predators and are thus less apt to serve as intermediate hosts for
parasites of the predators.


FOSGATE and BABB [1972-1046] reported that a diet of raw dairy
cattle feces and water with sufficient lime added to maintain a
pH o,f 7.0, would produce a kg of earthworms for each two kg of dry
manure.  The earthworm castings constitute an excellent greenhouse
potting soil.  Earthworm meal, containing 58 percent protein and
2.8 percent fat, is very palatable to domestic cats.

Algae have posed an enticing salvage problem wherever the combination
of water rich in nutrients and adequate sunlight has occurred.
OSWALD [1962-1008] observed that algae production at Richmond,
California, can average 30 tons per acre per year, ranging from a
rate of five tons in December to 60 in July.  This, he~observed,
is two to ten times the peak yield of commercial crops.   For
protein production he quoted the following figures:  algae 12 tons/
acre-year; soybeans, the best vegetative crop, 1 ton/acre-year; and
farm animals 100 to 200 Ib/acre-year.

COMBS [1952-1002] reported that the substitution of chlorella, a
common species of algae, for an equal amount of soybean meal as
ten percent of the basal ration for chicks increased growth and feed
efficiency but led to beak deformities.  GRAU and KLEIN [1957-1001]
stated that the chick can tolerate diets containing up to 20 percent
aluminum-free algae meal.  In obtaining this, alum-floculation
harvesting procedures must be avoided.  ZANEVELD [1959-1010]
surveyed the marine algae of south and east Asia in a text keyed to
161 references.  The uses to which the algae were being put were
usually as human food.

Effective algal activity in waste purification, as WURTZ [1962-1071]
observed in a paper presented at a symposium on ALGAE AND MAN,
depends on having the correct species present in a polluting environ-
ment tolerable to them.

HART and GOLUEKE [1964-1013, 1965-1009], in an economic evaluation
of the production of algae in a manure lagoon, quoted the figures
of 1.3 $/lb of dried algae for concentration, 1 i for dewatering,
and 1.5 to 2 if for final drying.  They concluded that algae was an
uneconomical feed for livestock at the time.  DUGAN, GOLUEKE, and
OSWALD [1968-1014; 1971-1199; 1972-1035, 1122], continuing the
studies at Richmond, have operated an essentially closed-cycle
process in which the wastes from a hen house were fermented in an
anaerobic digestion tank with the effluent draining directly into
an algae pond.  Water from the pond was used in flushing the hen
house and the algae were fed to the chickens.  The pond was aerated
mechanically during the winter.  Algae production was 30 to 40 tons
(dry basis) per acre of pond surface.  Costs of about 2 t per dozen
eggs produced would be incurred in either an algal or mechanical


aeration operation.  The value of the nitrogen recovered from the
algae "could be as much as 3 $ per dozen eggs where sunlight is
adequate and land inexpensive."

HINTZ et al [1966-1035] reported that algae have high crude protein
and other food values but contain considerable ash and present some
palatability problems for swine, cattle, and sheep.  They suggested
pelletizing the algae with other feed to mask the flavor.  OSWALD
has observed that different species of algae have quite different
tastes -- and the aromas of jars of powdered dried algae in his
office would corroborate this emohatically.  Chickens, it seems,
have a poor sense of smell.

Several other investigations [1971-1215; 1972-1200, C049] into
various aspects of algal harvesting have been initiated or proposed

DYMOND [1949-1001], in an appendix to VAN VUREN's classical  text,
"Soil Fertility and Sewage," lauded the role of water hyacinth as
a trapper of salt and a purifier of water.  He quoted production
figures of 1100 tons per acre (66 tons of dry matter) and suggested
that the plants be harvested and composted.

BOYD [1969-1011] observed that water hyacinths, water lettuce, and
hydrilla have mean crude protein levels as high as those of  many
high quality forages.  They should be dehydrated before being fed,
and should be harvested at the proper stage since the composition
changes as the plants age.  Later [1970-1009], he added that water
hyacinth is an effective remover of nutrients and that the harvesting
cost may be offset by its feeding value.  Economics dictate  sun
drying before dehydration.  Mosquitoes constitute a problem  in that
the use of pesticides is restricted on feedstuffs.

MINER et al [1971-1119, 1180; 1972-1181] grew water hyacinths in
dilute effluent from an anaerobic swine lagoon in Iowa.  The
evapotranspiration was 3.2 to 3.7 times that from an open water
surface.   They produced 84 tons per acre (5 tons per acre, dry
basis), removing 500 pounds of nitrogen per acre in the process,
and obtained an effluent of good quality.  The plants had value as
cattle roughage and Iowa winters could be depended upon to prevent
undesired proliferation.

EBY [1966-1027] reported on experiments with the hydroponic  growing
of various grasses in greenhouses and in test plots.  To be  useful,
such plants should deplete the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
in the effluent in which they are grown.  They should also be
nutritious to livestock and be easily harvested.  He listed  the
advantages of hydroponic agriculture as being 1) an ability to
utilize manure with a minimum of handling, 2) a potentially greater


yield per acre than can be obtained with conventional agriculture,
and 3) a reduction in potential pollution.  LAW  [1969-1043] grew
tall fescue and perennial ryegrass in secondary  sewage effluent in
hydroponic culture tanks.  The nutrient removal  was slight.
HENTGES et al [1972-1067] reported that yearling steers remained
healthy on diets of coastal bermudagrass, water  hyacinth, or Florida
elodea (a plant which grows submerged).  They found aquatic plants
to be adequate in energy but low  in useful nitrogen.  STEPHENS
et al [1972-1151] reported that wide differences exist in the
nutritive value of coastal bermudagrass; water hyacinth, and

CULLEY [1972-CQ25], in an early progress report  on experiments with
duckweed in Louisiana and Arkansas, mentioned wide variations
observed in crude protein values.  "Spirodela oligorhiza was grown
on an animal waste lagoon, treated municipal sewage waters, and
untreated septic tankwater during the first three months of 1970.
Protein content was 42, 31, and 30 percent respectively on a dry-
weight basis.  Water content of the plant averaged 95%.  Improved
growth rates occurred in poultry  when this plant was substituted
for alfalfa in chicken feed."  Further reports on this continuing
project will bear watching.
                       ANEVALUATION OF  REFEEDING

When ANTHONY  [1971-1013] undertook  an evaluation of the practice and
justification  of  the  refeeding of processed manure to animals, he
began with  the following paragraph.

          "Organic  waste originating from  livestock in the United
          States  far  exceeds  in  quantity the combined organic
          waste output of  the human population  a frightening
          statistic in a pollution  conscious era.  In reality,
          however,  with the exception made for special areas,
          animal  waste is  currently a nuisance rather than a
          calamity.   By application of 20th century man's tools,
          his  ingenuity and his  willingness to act on fact rather
          than hearsay, he can convert this oozing mountain of
          animal  organic waste to one of his great resources.
          A conditioned observation, however, is that the moun-
          tain will continue  to  ooze and man's effort for con-
          tainment  will 'be feeble in response to superficial
          reporting and philosophical prejudices.  Another obser-
          vation  is that conventional sanitary engineering concepts
          developed for human waste disposal offer for animal
          waste a dead end street with calamitous consequence.
          Currently most funded  research in animal waste manage-
          ment is designed to use experimental procedures
          developed for human waste disposal."


That refeeding can be done safely has been well established.  Good
housekeeping would be required, but such practice has monetary as
well as public health rewards since the nutritive value of manure
deteriorates with age and careless handling.

British experience with the refeeding of dried poultry waste seems
to have been highly satisfactory.  ZINDEL, FLEGAL and their co-
workers at Michigan State have certainly explored the residual
build-up on recycling  and are satisfied [1971-1273] that relaxing
of present prohibitions would be justified.  ANTHONY'S experiments
with "waste!age" have demonstrated that cattle manure can be refed
with safety and, at least in moderate-sized installations where
brooder cows on pasture can utilize the excess production of steers
on concentrate feed, with complete disposal.

L. W. SMITH [1971-1228] surveyed the literature on refeeding in a
paper which was combined with four others devoted to particulair-
aspects of fecal residues from feed additives, hormones, antibiotics,
and larvicides in a publication of the Agricultural  Research Service,
ARS 44-224-  This collection of papers with its extensive list of
references should be consulted by any serious student of the subject.
Two other papers by SMITH [1972-1145, 1973-1032] explore the scien-
tific basis for refeeding rather fully.

In view of the wide range in nutritive values of manure, capital
investment in housing or pens to provide a desired degree of quality
control, costs of processing the manure, and  costs of disposal of
the excess, no attempt was made to provide an economic analysis of
refeeding.  For a particular situation, with  approoriate assumptions
of the costs of complying with modified FDA regulations, such an
analysis could be prepared.

The evaluation by SENIOR [1973-1029] for Feed Recycle, Inc., is a
good example of such a document.


                        THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

                          COMPOSITION OF MANURE

The composition of manure from various sources is summarized in
Table 1.  These data are adequate for a broad discussion of thermo-
chemical processing methods, but for design of specific manure
processing facilities manure production data for the particular
case considered should be sought.  The three major aspects of
manure composition to be considered are water content, types of
organic materials present, and elemental analysis.

The water content of manure as excreted is normally 75 to 90
percent.  Usually thermochemical processing of manure is done at
rather high temperatures; therefore, this water must be removed
from the manure prior to, or during processing.  As discussed in
Chapter III of this report, drying is a rather expensive process
with a very wide range of reported costs per ton of dry manure.
Drying costs will make many proposed thermochemical conversion
processes uneconomic.  A less expensive route for thermochemical
processing of manure is to produce animals in an arid climate
where natural drying can be utilized to reduce the moisture con-
tent of manure to 10 to 30 percent.  In some cases the need to
dry manure can be circumvented during thermochemical processing
by utilizing a sufficient pressure to keep the water in the liquid
phase.  As discussed later in this chapter, wet pyrolysis or oxi-
dation is a rather expensive process which usually does not yield
profitable products.

The types of organic compounds found in manure are not unusual as
is shown in Table 1.  Manure is largely cellulose and lignin.
These materials are also available from wood and various plant
wastes.  If cellulose or lignin are needed in a particular chemi-
cal process, they can frequently be obtained in a more uniform,
concentrated form from wood, agricultural plant wastes, or even
municipal solid waste than from manure.

The protein which is present in manure is a potentially valuable
material.  This topic' has been given thorough consideration in
chapters IV and V.  In the present chapter protein content of
manure is considered only with respect to its potential for
thermochemical conversion.  This conversion of protein during
thermochemical processing frequently is harmful in that the pro-
tein nitrogen is transformed into organic compounds which contami-
nate the desired products of thermochemical processing.

                                                                                                      TABLE  1

                                                 PRODUCTION  RATE  AND  COMPOSITION  OF  MANURE  FROM  MAJOR  DOMESTIC  ANIMALS
                                                  Beef Cattle
                                              (1000  Ib live weight)
                                                                             Dairy  Cattle
                                                                         (1000 Ib live weight)
                                                                              (5 Ib live weight)
                                                                                Swi ne
                                                                          (100 Ib live weight)
       Production Rate:

          Total  solids,  Ib/day/animal    3.62(1) 6.16(o) 7.2(eei
          BOOj,  Ib/day/animal

          COO, Ib/day/animal

                                    6.80(1)  10.24(u) 9.06(v)  11.2U)    0.59(bb) 0.66(a)  1.12(a)(u)

                                    1.32(1)  1.84(v)                   0.017(u)

                                    5.78(1)                           0,OS8(u)
                                                                     0.59{bb)  0.66(a) 1.12Ja)(u)
                                                                     0.20(bb)  0.34(u)

                                                                     0.52(bb)  1.25(u5
       Moisture Content:
          As defecated, wt. %

          As handled,  dry  lot, wt.
   ^as    of total solids)

   Volatile solids




   Nitrogen (N) *
70-80(m)  85.98(o)



35-44(q)  12.4(1) 17.2(cc)  24.9{dd)

0.3(cc) 0.5(dd) 0.4(m)
41.2(cc)  42.6(dd)

5.7(cc) 5.5(dd)

33.3(cc)  23.7(dd)
2.74(o) 3.0-4,0(m) 1.5-2.5(m)
   2.3(cc)  2.8(dd)
                                                                    87.5(j) 87(j)

                                                                            90(j)  87.9(aa) 80-90(aa)
                                                                               83.5(aaj (1)
15.0(d)  16.
   26. l(p)
                                                                            2.52(r)  3.5(d) 2.2(d) 1,9(d)
                                                                               1.95(d) 5.4(1) 2.2(aa)
Phosphorus (P)

Potassium (X)
Ligni n
Calciun (Ca)
! ron
Magnesium (Hg)
Sodium (Si
Chloride (C1-)
0.95(o) 1.0-2.0[P,Oj(ra)
1.5-3.0(m) 1.0-2.5(m) 2.55(o)

15-20(q) 13.87(z)
1.42(o) 0.6(m)
0.5(m) 0.59(o)

0.52[P205](r) 0

2.1(d) 20.0(d)
18.5(d) 25.5(d)
13.4(p) 23.5(p)
10.6(p) 12.4(p)
4.9(p) 2.3(p)



                                 71(a) 71.6(a) 72.01-74.01(g)  75(j)

                                 20(j) 23.5(c) 28.85(c)  ]7.5(h)
                                    24.97(i) 36.92(i)
77(a)  76(j)(u)

24(j)  35.93(w) 8.25(c)  19.65(c)
                                 5.6(a) 3.57-5.77(g) 2.29-3.24{h)
                                    2.27(i)  5.6(u)

                                 2.43-2.73(g)  0.99(c) 1.09(c)
                                    1.27-1.69{h) 1.07-1.91(1)
                                     4.0(u) 90.48(t) 91.98(t)
                                                                                                      2.50-2.85(g) 2.1(
                                                                                                      11.76(c) 7.85(c)
                                                                                                             21.38(c)  16.80(c)  15.66(w)
                                                                                                             11.95(c)  28.74(c)  10.19(w)
                                                                                                             9.97-11.58(g)  1.33(c) 5.56(c)


                                                                     79.7(bb)  77(a) 85(u)
                                    4.0(a)  4.5(a) 4.5(u)

                                    1.94-2.61(1)  2.7[P205](u)

                                    1.4(a)  4.3(a) 2.06-3.10(t)
 (a)  Laak,  1970-1047
 (b)  Garner, et al, 1973-1011
 (c)  Smith, et al, 1971-1228
 (d)  Smith, et al, 1971*
 (e)  Flegal, 1972*
 ff)  Kumar, et al, 1972-1087
 (g)  Robertson, et al,  1970-1081
 (h)  Anon,  Poultry Digest, 1970-1206
 (1)  Parker, et al, 1959-1007
 tj)  Sobel , 1966-1067
 (k)  Willrich, 1966-1076
 (1)  Witzel, et al, 1966-1078
 (n)  Hart,  1972*
 (n)  Hart,  et al, 1972*
 (o)  Mennaghan, et al, 1972-1108
 (P)  Lipstein, et al . 1<-71-115A
 (q)  Johnson., 1972-1074
 (r)  Nye,  et al,  1971-1189
 (s)  Albin, et al, 1971-1007
 (t)  O'Callagtian, et al, 1971*
 (u)  Taiganides,  et al, 1966-1071
 (v)  Okey,  et al, 1969-1066
 (w)  El-Sabban, et al,  1969-1026
 (x)  Edwards, et  al, 1969-1025
 (y)  Long,  et al, 1969-1048
 (z)  Anthony, 1969-1003
(aa)  Bloodgood, et ai,  1969-1010
(bb)  Schmid, et al, 1969-1075
(cc)  Schlesinger, et al,  1972-1138
(dd)  Herzoq, et al, 1973-1013
(ee)  Coleman, 1973*

     *Not abstracted

The elemental analysis of manure determines the relative amounts
of elements which are available in manure for manipulation by
thermochemical processing into desirable products.  Elemental
analyses for manure from beef cattle are given in Table 1.  Since
manure must compete with other raw materials for thermochemical
processing,'a typical feedlot manure is compared with coal, oil
shale, and municipal solid waste in Table 2'.  The moisture content
listed for manure in this table is 30 percent, a water content
frequently observed in manure when scraped from beef feedlots
in semi-arid climates.

Raw materials with high hydrogen and carbon contents are favored
for conversion to synthetic crude oil and natural  gas.  Since
hydrogen is more valuable than carbon, the hydrogen content is
more critical than the carbon content in consideration of materials
for thermochemical processing.

Oxygen in these raw materials has a negative value, since it
reduces the heating value of the raw material.  Oxygen removal by
thermochemical processing also results in loss of valuable hydro-
gen and carbon.  Sulfur and nitrogen in these raw materials usually
represent potential pollution problems, and cause contamination of
the synthetic crude oil and gas which might be produced from them.

In general, all these raw materials for thermochemical processing
are similar and the selection of one or the other of them will
depend on costs and large scale availability.

In summary, manure contains large amounts of water which generally
must be removed to permit thermochemical processing.  As a feed-
stock for thermochemical processing, manure must compete with
other potential raw materials such as coal, oil shale, municipal
solid waste, and plant residues from forestry or agricultural
operations.  The value of manure as a raw material for thermo-
chemical processing is unknown.  To determine its value much
more research is necessary as indicated throughout this chapter.

Diamonds could be made from manure, but only an infinitesimal
amount of manure would be disposed of in this manner and, moreover,
diamond production would be more expensive than if other carbon
sources were used.  In a similar manner it might be hoped that some
chemical whose value was very high could be produced by thermo-
chemical processing of manure.  This is only an idle wish since
manure contains largely ordinary substances found in nature such
as cellulose, lignin, protein, and ash.  The products which have
been nroduced from manure are common materials having a low value

                                                    TABLE 2
                                       ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF  FEEDSTOCKS
                                        FOR THERMOCHEMICAL PROCESSING***
N. Dakota,
101.0 (sic)
Oil Shale
Green River
Coal ,
P.gh. Seam
Coal ,
Wyomi ng ,
Monarch Seam
Solid Waste
Beef Cattle
        *Includes ash, metals, glass, and ceramics.

       **Includes 4.6 percent carbon as carbonate.

      ***From Feldman [1971-1088] except for beef cattle feedlot waste which is from Herzog et 'a! [1973-1013]

per pound but a large market.  Large potential markets offer the
opportunity for disposal of significant amounts of manure, if
economics are favorable.

Table 3 tabulates potential products from the thermochemical
processing of manure and lists pertinent references.  Three of
these products, methane, electricity, and ammonia, require no
further discussion since they are products with established markets
and prices.  These prices can be expected to increase, however,
since crude oil and natural gas are becoming more expensive.

Oil produced from manure via pyrolysis or reaction with carbon
monoxide will contain considerable amounts of nitrogen and oxygen
plus small amounts of sulfur.  An analysis made by APPLE [1972-1007]
of oil produced by reaction with carbon monoxide reports 4.2 percent
nitrogen, 7.3 percent oxygen, and 0.37 percent sulfur.  These large
amounts of nitrogen and oxygen cause the heating value of the oil
produced from manure to be about 15,200 BTU per pound.  That of
conventional fuel oil is 18,600 BTU per pound, some 18 percent
higher.  The presence of organic nitrogen in the oil may contribute
to oil instability during storage and to nitrogen oxide problems
during burning.  The rather low sulfur content is an advantage
of manure-derived oil.  Refining of oil produced from manure into
gasoline and petrochemical oroducts would be costly due to the pre-
sence of nitrogen and oxygen.

Oil produced from manure via pyrolysis or reaction with carbon
monoxide is certainly less valuable than ordinary crude oil for the
reasons discussed above.  HALLIGAN and SWEAZY [1972-1060] placed a
value of $2.00 per barrel  on it contrasted to the $5.00 value
assumed by FRIEDMAN et al [1972-1047].  Further investigations are
required to accurately estimate the market value of the oil.

Hydrogenation of manure could potentially produce liquid hydro-
carbons without significant amounts of nitrogen and oxygen, but
manure is more readily reacted with carbon monoxide than with
hydrogen as is discussed later in this chapter.

The char produced from pyrolysis of manure is characterized by a
high ash content, which thus results in a rather low heating value.
MASSIE and PARKER 1973-1020] have reported an ash content of 40
percent, and a heating value of 6,390 BTU per pound for char from
a continuous manure pyrolyzer.  The heating value for a typical
coal is double that, about 13,000 BTU per pound.  Another related
problem with utilizing manure char for fuel is that about eight
times as much ash must be disposed of per BTU used if manure char
were to be employed instead of a good grade of coal.  Since vola-
tile matter has been removed from manure char, it would be more
difficult to ignite in conventional boilers than would coal.

                                                 TABLE 3

              Selected References
Batch Pyrolysis
                                    Continuous Retort
                                    By-product from Ammonia
                                       Synthesis Gas Production
 White  and Taiganides  [1971-1260]  (small
     batch data on various manures)
 Garner and Smith  [1973-1011]  (beef manure)
 Schlesinger  et al  [1972-1137]  (detailed
     analysis of  char)

 Massie and Parker [1973-1020]  (experimental
     data for small retort)
 Parker et al [1973-1025]  (projected  process
     flow sheet and economics)

 Herzog et al [1973-1013]  (initial experi-
     mental  data)
                                    Reaction with Carbon
                                       Monoxi de
                                    Reaction with Hydrogen
 Garner and  Smith  [1973-1011]  (analysis  of
      liquid products,  simulated  continuous
      pyrolysis  data)
 Massie and  Parker [1973-1020]  (oil yield
      from small continuous  retort)

 Friedmann et al  [1972-1047] (experimental
      data and projected economics)
 Fu  et al  [1972-1048]  (experimental data,
      process improvements)

 Friedman et al  [1972-1047]  (experimental

Methane (High BTU Gas,
     Substitute  Natural

                             Anaerobic Digestion
Feldmann [1971-1088] (mentions manure,
     economics, and experimental data
     for municipal solid waste)
Halligan and Sweazy [1972-1060] (pre-
     liminary calculations for manure)

No specific references for manure

See discussion in Chapter IV	
Low BTU Gas
Massie and Parker [1973-1020] (experi-
     mental data for small retort)
Electric Power
Boiler Fuel

Low BTU Gas via Pyrolysis
No specific references for manure

Parker et al [1973-1025] (projected flow
     sheet and economics)
Ferti1i zer
Ammonia via Synthesis Gas
   Produced by Partial

Ammonia By-product from

Potassium and Phosphorus
   in Ash after Combustion
Halligan and Sweazy [1972-1060] (concept
Herzog et al [1973-1013] (experimental data)

Parker et al [1973-1025] (recovery shown
     on flow sheet)

Davis et al  [1972-1032] (laboratory data
     and suggestion for use)
Misc. Products
     Ceramic Tile
Prepared from Manure Char
   or Ash after Pyrolysis
McKenzie's process [1972-1183, 1187, 1215]
     (brief news articles)

The low sulfur content reported for manure char, 0.3 percent, is
an advantage of manure char over many coals, [SCHLESINGER et al,
1972-1138].  The same reference reports a nitrogen content of 1.1
percent for manure char which is not greatly different from that
of coal.

For the reasons listed above, the value of manure char as a fuel
will be considerably less than that of coal.  Manure char may have
potential as an activated carbon, but no results have been published.
Pyrolyzed sewage sludge has been reported to have modest capabilities
as an activated carbon [BEECKMANS and NG, 1971].*

Low BTLJ gas is a broad term for combustible gas mixtures whose
composition is such that they could not be economically upgraded
for substitute natural gas (SNG).  The usual application for low
BTU gases is power generation and industrial fuels since gas
distribution facilities are designed for high BTU gas.  PARKER et al
[1973-1025] planned to directly utilize low BTU gas from their
manure retort for power generation.

Low BTU gases contain large amounts of nitrogen which result from
the use of air to energize a oyrolysis or a gasification reaction
via partial oxidation.  This nitrogen contamination can be avoided
by using pure oxygen instead of air as the source of oxygen.  The
economics of producing high BTU gas with pure oxygen as a reactant,
or low BTU gas with air as a source of oxygen has not yet been
resolved for coal or manure processing.

Production of fertilizer from manure as a means of manure disposal
appears to involve a contradiction since current manure management
problems are the results of manure being uneconomical as a fertilizer.
If, however, the fertilizer values in manure could be concentrated
as a by-product from thermochemical processing of manure, economical
fertilizer products might result.  This is proposed by PARKER et al
[1973-1025] where sales of ammonium sulfate from the manure pyrolysis
plant were calculated to produce 28 percent of the total income.
Complete conversion of manure to ammonia can be achieved by making
synthetic ammonia from synthesis gas manufactured from manure as
proposed by HALLIGAN and SWEAZY [1972-1060].

After combustion of manure some potassium and phosphorus fertilizer
values remain in the ash.  This material has been recommended as a
fertilizer and soil conditioner by E. G. DAVIS et al [1972-1032].
The manure ash being considered for fertilizer may also contain
materials, such as common salt, which are harmful to plant growth.
*Not abstracted


The preponderance of manure production is from cattle (88.4 percent)
with hogs, poultry, and sheep contributing 5.9, 4.9, and 0.8 percent
respectively according to L. A. ANDERSON [1972].  Of the total
manure produced, ANDERSON calculates that only 13 percent is pro-
duced in sufficiently localized amounts, such as feedlots having
1000 head or more, to be collected for thermochemical processing.
This may be an optimistic assumption as to the quantity of manure
which can be collected for thermochemical processing since many
papers on thermochemical processing assume manure availability from
0.2 to 2 million feedlot cattle per processing plant as noted by
HALLIGAN and SWEAZY [1972-1060], FRIEDMAN et al [1972-1047], and
PARKER et al [1973-1025].

Table 4, taken from ANDERSON [1972], tabulates the amounts of manure
and other solid wastes potentially available for thermochemical
processing.  These data show that the quantity of manure available
for thermochemical processing is only one third that of municipal
solid waste.  ANDERSON also stated that conversion of manure to
oil would have supplied less than one percent of the nation's crude
oil usage in 1971.  This information may be summarized by stating
that manure is not the solution to the energy crisis, but that
the energy crisis may contribute toward the solution of manure
disposal problems.

Both coal and oil shale are concentrated in large quantities, thus
plants producing 50,000 barrels or more of oil per day could be
constructed.  This size of plant could operate on a scale which
could compete with conventional oil refineries whose size ranges
up to 600,000 barrels per day.

Manure will not be available on such a large scale in a central
location.  For example, if one barrel of oil  were produced per
ton of dry manure processed, a 50,000 barrel per day capacity plant
would require manure from 14 million cattle.

These size factors are important in determining the investment
required per ton of manure processed.  Engineering experience has
shown that, in general, a chemical plant processing 5000 tons of
manure per day would require approximately 2.5 times the investment
per ton of manure processed that a plant processing 50,000 tons  per
day of manure would require, if this large amount were available
at one place.

Sufficient manure is available in central locations to build  1000-
tons-per-day ammonia plants based on synthesis gas from manure as
observed by HERZOG et al  [1973-1013].  This is a typical size for
modern ammonia plants.

                                                  TABLE 4
                               ESTIMATES OF AVAILABLE ORGANIC WASTES, 1971*
                                                                    Total Organic
     Manure  	 Million tons/year .  .      200
     Urban refuse	do	      129
     Logging and wood manufacturing
       residues	do	       55
     Agriculture crops and food
       wastes	do	      390
     Industrial wastes	do	       44
     Municipal sewage solids 	  do 	       12
     Miscellaneous organic wastes  	  do 	       50
          Total  . ,	do	      880
Net oil potential	 .  . .Million barrels .  .    1,098
Net gas for fuel  potential	Trillion cubic feet .        8.8
                                                                                 for Processing

        *ANDERSON [1972]

Another advantage that oil shale and coal have over manure as a
raw material for thermochemical processing is the amount of research
which has been directed toward their utilization in the past.
Several demonstration-size oil shale plants have been built in the
past 20 years, whereas manure has been thermochemically treated
only in bench scale units or small pilot plants.  Similarly the
Office of Coal Research has supported a large amount of coal pro-
cessing research in reeent years.

Manure processing research can be made more rapid and efficient
by utilizing information available from oil shale and coal studies,
but still research and engineering problems unique to manure must
be defined and solved.  Throughout this discussion of thermochemical
processing of manure, references will be made to oil shale and coal
as a means of utilizing existing information.

Two publications have  reported small scale experimental studies on
the combustion of manure  in rotary kilns and fluidized beds [DAVIS,
1972-1032] and in a model  laboratory incinerator [SOBEL and
LUDINGTON, 1966-1068],  These small scale experiments are not par-
ticularly helpful in extrapolating to commercial scale units.  LOEHR
[1968-1027] has estimated  the cost of manure incineration to be
about that for incineration of municipal solid wastes, an invest-
ment of $3000 per ton  of  daily capacity and operating costs of $5.00
per ton in 1968.  It is presumed that this estimate assumes manure
of about 30 percent water  content, which is about that found in
municipal solid waste.

Use of manure as a boiler  fuel would permit recovery of energy in
manure as electrical power.  A 110-megawatt electrical power station
could be fueled by the manure from 600,000 beef feedlot animals,
assuming 7.2 pounds of dry matter having a heating value of 6,000
BTU per pound per animal,  and a thermal efficiency of 35 percent.
Larger plants could be built by employing both coal and manure for
fuel.  Being equipped  to  burn varying ratios  of manure and coal
would give the plant considerable flexibility.  Since manure is a
low-sulfur fuel, it would  be possible to burn relatively high sulfur
coal and still meet standards for sulfur dioxide emission.

Combined firing of coal and municipal solid waste is now being
tested in St. Louis with  considerable success as cited by HORNER
and SHIFRIN, INC. [1972].  Only about ten percent of the energy
is being supplied by refuse and 90 percent by coal.

There has been no information published regarding combined firing
of coal and manure under  boilers.  Initially two major technical

questions can be raised.  Firstly, would organic nitrogen in the
manure create nitrogen oxide concentrations significantly beyond
those expected from combustion of coal alone?  Secondly, would the
ash from manure create problems in boilers and fly ash recovery
systems beyond those of having to process more ash per unit of
electricity generated?  These questions should first be answered
for conventional firing of pulverized coal.  If the answers were
not favorable, fluidized beds should be considered as should the
use of char from pyrolyzed coal and manure mixtures.  This latter
option would also permit the production of oil from manure and coal.

As an example of the kind of problems to be encountered, consider
the presence of salt in manure.  Sodium and potassium chlorides
greatly increase the corrosion of boiler tubes, particularly when
high steam temperatures are desired.  For a given chloride content,
coals with high ash are less corrosive than coals with low ash as
cited by WYATT and EVANS [1963].  Since manure is high in both
chlorides and ash, its corrosion potential is not obvious.  A
further complication is that the salt content of manure can vary
widely depending on the amount of salt fed the animals.  For a
ration with one percent salt, the sodium content of the manure was
0.86 percent.  If no salt were intentionally fed to the animals,
the sodium content was only 0.15 percent [KLETT et al, 1972-1080].
It should be noted that animals fed no salt gained just as effi-
ciently as animals fed varying amounts of salt up to the one percent

The preceding paragraph illustrates the interrelatedness of many
factors in considering the possibility of manure as a boiler fuel,
from the nutritionist who determines the rations for the feedlot
animals to the metallurgist who specifies alloys for the boiler
tubes and predicts the expected amount of corrosion.

A large electric power generation facility designed to burn combi-
nations of coal and manure would have political problems as well
as technical problems.  Several independently owned feedlots, a
utility company, and federal and state agencies responsible for
different aspects of the facility would have to enter into design
and operation of the facility in a spirit of cooperation.
Pyrolysis is simply a chemical decomposition of organic material
by means of heat.  Pyrolysis provides a direct means for converting
manure into four products:  char, oil, fuel gases, and water con-
taining dissolved organic compounds.  The potential utility of
these streams is discussed earlier in this chapter.

Several authors have reported yields for batch pyrolysis of manure.
WHITE and TAIGANIDES [1971-1260] pyrolyzed swine, beef, dairy, and
poultry manure.  The results for pyrolysis of each of these materials
were similar.  These authors did not report the composition of the
manures employed prior to pyrolysis, so it is not possible to relate
pyrolysis yields to the original manure composition.

GARNER and SMITH [1973-1011] have pyrolyzed steer manure under care-
fully controlled conditions.  Their emphasis was on composition of
the liquid products.  Many oxygenated and nitrogenous organic com-
pounds were identified, but none was present in sufficient concen-
tration for profitable separation.  These same authors reported
differential thermal analyses and differential gravimetric analyses
for manure.  They estimated the cost for disposal of manure by
pyrolysis to be rather high  $5.60 per ton.  It should be stressed
that their calculations were for manure containing 80 percent

Bureau of Mines personnel have pyrolyzed a wide variety of municipal,
industrial, and agricultural wastes, in facilities originally
employed for testing coal [SCHLESINGER et al, 1972-1137, 1138;
SANNER and WOLFSON, 1971; and SANNER, et al, 1970-1082].  One set of
their data is given in Table 5.

It should be stressed that yields for pyrolysis of manure are a
complex function of many variables.  These variables include manure
composition and particle size, heating rates, maximum temperature,
and pressure in the pyrolysis chamber.  For particular pyrolysis
schemes other factors may also influence the product yields; among
these are the purging of the reacting chamber with gases or the
allowing of liquid products to reflux back into the pyrolysis chamber.
For these reasons considerable judgement must be exercised in drawing
conclusions from published data for batch pyrolysis of manure.

Superficially, pyrolysis of manure or any other material is a simple
process:  heating in the absence of air at a sufficient temperature
for a sufficient time to decompose the organic material present,-
then cooling.  When one attempts to plan an economical commercial
pyrolysis plant with minimum pollution potential many major design
problems arise, some of which have not been solved.  It should be
noted that currently pyrolysis of solids is employed only for
preparation of activated charcoal and specialty fuels such as
charcoal and coke.  Commercial pyrolysis of coal or oil shale for
fuel is not currently economical in the United States.  The energy
crisis and pollution control may, however, make large scale pyrolysis
of coal, oil shale, or even manure practical in the near future.

                                 TABLE 5

 Moisture Content Feed %

 Ultimate Analysis Feed Wt %

 Yields  (Per  ton of wet feed)
     Gas [Std  (60 F) ft3]
     Oil [Bbl  (42 gal)]
     Water phase (gal)
     Char (Ib)

 Gas Composition Vol %
     Carbon  Dioxide
     Carbon  Monoxide
Char Wt %

Heating Values
     Feed BTU/lb (dry)
     Gas BTU/ft3
     Char BTU/lb (dry)

  *Not reported
 **Schlesinger  [1972-1138]
***Massie and Parker  [1973-1020]
 at 900C


The central problem in the design of a continuous manure pyrolysis
facility is the transport of heat to the manure and, if possible,
the recovery of the heat from the products.  On a laboratory scale,
this is readily accomplished by external heating of the retort
containing the manure, but to extrapolate this concept to a commer-
cial scale or even to a pilot plant scale becomes difficult.

To increase the rate of heat transfer to the manure contained in a
retort, an obvious solution is to stir the manure within the retort.
Injected gases may be used to mix the solids within the retort to
cause increased heat transfer rates from the heated wall, either as
a fluidized bed or while the solids are being entrained through the
retort by the gases.  This latter method has been attempted on
municipal solid wastes but solids feeding problems frustrated efforts
to obtain a significant amount of data on the pilot unit [McFARLAND
et al, 1972-1106].  An externally fired 30-inch diameter fluidized
bed reactor is shown for pyrolysis of noncontestable wastes in the
Hercules waste disposal system.  [WINER, 1971, as reported by BAILIE
and BURTON, 1972].

Another procedure for supplying energy for pyrolysis of organic
solids is to mix hot inert solids with those organic solids being
pyrolysed.  BAILIE and ISHIDA [1972] have considered this procedure
in which fluidized beds were employed both to heat the inert solids
and to mix the hot inert solids with the municipal solid waste to be
pyrolyzed.  The TOSCO oil shale retort mixes hot ceramic balls with
the organic material to be pyrolyzed.  These balls must then be
separated from the spent char, reheated in a separate furnace, and
then mixed with additional material being pyrolyzed.  This rather
complex retorting method has recently been tested with coal [CARLSON,
et al, 1973-1005] and presumably could be employed with manure.

Still another approach for the transport of heat to the solids being
pyrolyzed is to mix preheated gases into the solids either as a
fixed bed, a fluidized bed, or while entrained in the heated gas.
While this approach is mechanically simple, large volumes of gas
must be both circulated and heated resulting in a considerable
investment for compressors and either furnaces or heat exchangers.
The use of furnaces to heat the gas employed to retort oil shale in
a moving bed retort has been reported [CAMERON, 1964].

The cost of furnaces to preheat the gases used to pyrolyze organic
solids can be avoided by burning fuel or a portion of the solid
waste with air, then using the hot combustion gases to pyrolyze
manure or other organic materials.

The general concept of partial combustion to energize the pyrolysis
reaction can be applied to many types of retorts.  Monsanto has
employed a rotating kiln in the "Landgard" system for management

of municipal solid wastes [MALIN, 1971].  Workers at the University
of West Virginia have stressed the utilization of fluidized beds
both for pyrolysis and for incineration of municipal solid wastes
[BAILIE and ISHIDA, 1972; BAILIE and BURTON, 1972].  The only
continuous manure retort reported in detail has employed air injec-
tion to energize oyrolysis reactions in a moving bed [MASSIE and
PARKER, 1973-1020}.  Figure 1 illustrates this recently developed
retort.  Manure enters the top of this retort and char is discharged
from the bottom.  Counterflow circulation of gases serves to trans-
port heat upward in the retort to form manure drying and pyrolysis
zones in the upper section of the retort.  Two gas injection cycles
are employed.  Air is injected to generate heat at a combustion front
which moves downward in the retort when the lower portion of the
retort is cold.  The injected air is diluted with oxygen-free gas to
lower the temperatures at the combustion front, so that the ash in
the manure cannot fuse and form clinkers.  When th3 combustion front
nears the bottom of the retort where the associated high temperatures
might damage the grate, air injection is stopped and only oxygen-free
gas is injected.  The oxygen-free gas cools the lower portion of
the retort and continues the pyrolysis and drying of manure in the
upper portion of the retort.  When the lower half of the retort has
cooled, air injection is again resumed.

Feasibility of this retort has been demonstrated in a 6-inch pilot
model.  Table 5 reports the yield of products from this retort.
A major difference in the list of observed pyrolysis products from
the continuous retort and that reported for batch pyrolysis of
manure is the yield of liquid organics.  The continuous retort
yielded about one barrel of oil per ton of manure processed in con-
trast with the 0.3 barrel  per ton reported for the batch pyrolysis.
These data show that manure pyrolyzed in the continuous retort pro-
duces more oil per ton than is reported for average Colorado oil
shale (20-30 gallons per ton).  The increase in oil yield over that
of batch pyrolysis is due to the rapid.removal of pyrolysis products
from the retort by the circulated gases.  A similar high yield of
over 50 gallons per ton was reported when a helium purge was employed
in a simulated continuous manure pyrolyzer [GARNER and SMITH,

Conceptual process flow sheets have been prepared for a commercial
plant using the Texas Tech University retort and costs estimated
by PARKER et al [1973-1025].  For a plant processing 2,000 tons per
day of 30'percent moisture manure an investment of 14.7 million
dollars has been estimated.  When credit is taken for electric power
generated and ammonium sulfate produced by this plant, the annual
income exceeds the operating expenses, including maintenance, by
$846,000 if. the manure entering the plant be considered to have
zero value.  If no credit be taken for oil and char produced, the
cost per ton of manure processed is $3.71 for a 14 percent rate of





return on industrial economics and $0.70 for municipal economics as
described in Table 6.

The preceding pyrolysis methods, with energizing by partial combustion
of the solids being pyrolyzed, result in pyrolysis gases which are
diluted with nitrogen and combustion gases.  For a price, dilution
with nitrogen can be avoided by using oxygen instead of air to oxi-
dize the fuel as has been proposed for several coal pyrolysis and
gasification methods.  Cyclic operation of the pyrolysis processes
can also be utilized to produce pyrolysis gases not contaminated
with nitrogen or combustion gases.  An alternative approach is to
limit the nitrogen content of the mixed pyrolysis gases and combus-
tion gases so that the resulting gas mixture is suitable for con-
version to ammonia synthesis gas.  This approach was proposed by
HALLIGAN and SWEAZY [1972-1060] and is being tested in the laboratory
[HERZ06 et al, 1973-1013].  Their results have established that
manure pyrolysis can be energized by the air which supplies the
nitrogen required in ammonia synthesis gas.  This is a significant
conclusion, but considerable more research will be required to scale
up this process for converting manure to ammonia synthesis gas, and
to estimate its economics.

The preceding section illustrates that there are many ways to pyro-
lyze manure.  There are insufficient experimental data and process
economics to identify any one procedure as being the most desirable.
This determination can not be made final  until after commercial
pyrolysis plants have been built and operated.  It is appropriate
now to make some tentative judgements regarding desirable tyoes of
pyrolysis processes to facilitate future research.  One way to make
this appraisal is by analogy with other pyrolysis industries.

Oil shale retorting has been investigated since the early 1800's,
and there has been occasional production of shale oil prior to the
availability of crude oil or when there was an anticipated shortage
of crude oil.  Two of the most intensively researched modern oil
shale retorts, the Union Retort and the Bureau of Mines Gas Combustion
Retort [MATZICK et al, 1968], employ a moving bed type pyrolyzer with
combustion of a portion of the spent oil  shale supplying the energy
for the reaction.  This analogy would suggest that the retort shown
in Figure 1 or a similar retort would be a desirable manure pyrolyzer.
It should be noted that the retort does not have internal gas
distributors as employed in the gas combustion oil shale retort.
These internal gas distributors have been a major problem in gas
combustion retort scale-up studies by the Bureau of Mines and later
by a group of six major oil companies [RUARK et al, 1971].

Manure is more easily ground to the small particle sizes required in
a fluidized bed than is oil shale.  For this reason, fluidized bed
pyrolyzers energized by injected air or oxygen should also be given
active consideration in current research.  Whether the product
obtained from the fluidized bed pyrolyzer should be high-BTU gas for
conversion to substitute natural gas, low-BTU gas for use as indus-
trial and utility fuel, or a gas suitable for ammonia synthesis gas
will require detailed economic analysis.  There is considerable
attractiveness to the ammonia synthesis gas concept since this would
release natural gas, now used for making ammonia, for other purposes.

The limiting parameters in the design of commercial manure pyrolysis
plants may be mechanical factors such as particle agglomeration and
elutriation in fluidized beds, crushing of manure fragments in large
retorts, and gas-solids contacting efficiency in both types of
pyrolyzers.  These problems and perhaps other unanticipated problems
must be defined by additional research before profitable commercial
plants can be built.


Conversion of manure  to either  liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons is an
appealing way to  upgrade solid  wastes into desirable products.  The
need for hydrocarbon  fuels has  been emphasized by the present energy
crisis.  This conversion of manure into convenient fuels has been
accomplished in the laboratory.  Commercial large scale application
of these techniques is slowed by a combination of anticipated costs
and technological  problems.  Much of the technology developed for
conversion of coal and oil shale into convenient fuels can also be
applied to the conversion of manure.

A conclusion reached  by Bureau  of Mines personnel is that organic
materials having  a cellulosic structure such as manure were more
effectively processed into oil  by treatment with carbon monoxide and
water  than with hydrogen.  FRIEDMAN et al [1972-1047] have compared
the action of carbon  monoxide and hydrogen on manure and have
suggested a reaction  mechanism  which involves the formation of the
formate ion, which then reacts  with carbohydrate-like materials to
produce oil.  The formate ion can exist only in liquid water;
therefore, high pressures are required to prevent water vaporization
at the temperatures required for the reaction to proceed.  Typical
reaction conditions are 660F,  3,600 psia and a reaction time of one
hour.  Carbon monoxide consumption is 0.4 to 0.7 pounds per pound of
manure, and the oil yield is about two barrels per ton of manure.
To produce the carbon monoxide  needed by the process, and the energy
needed by the processing plant, another ton of manure might be

required, reducing the net yield of oil per ton of total manure pro-
cessed to about one barrel.  This is the same oil yield reported for
the continuous pyrolysis of manure.  Most experimental work to date
on this process has been in batch autoclaves, with only data for
sucrose and municipal solid waste having been reported for a small
continuous unit as cited by FRIEDMAN et al [1972-1047],  All processes
which treat solids at high pressures can be expected to have problems
with the feeding of the solids into the high pressure reactor on a
commercial scale.  In addition, this process may encounter difficul-
ties in separation of manure ash from the oil produced.

FRIEDMAN et al [1972-1047] estimate that a plant converting manure
from 200,000 beef feedlot animals into oil valued at $4.00 per barrel
would have to charge $5.00 per ton of manure processed to break even.
Their calculation did not consider income taxes and interest.  If a
ten percent discounted cash flow is required on the invested money
and 48 percent income taxes are paid, a charge of $18.80 must be paid
per ton of manure processed.  Other economic data for this calculation
are given in Table 6.

Steps have been taken to reduce these costs as noted by FU et al
[1972-1048].  One major step is utilization of a carbon monoxide and
hydrogen mixture instead of pure carbon monoxide for the reaction
gas.  Another proposed improvement is the reduction of the operating
pressure and heat requirements by using a low-vapor-pressure oil to
transport the manure into the reactor and supplying only enough water
to facilitate the reaction.  Even with these improvements it is
expected that disposal of manure via reaction with carbon monoxide
will be costly.

Natural gas is becoming scarce, therefore the production of methane
from manure may appear desirable.  There are three ways to accomplish
this conversion.  The method used in the past has been anaerobic
digestion of manure as discussed earlier in this report.  Although
possible, it does not appear economic or more applications of the
method would have been made since this is a well-known process.
Another route is gasification of manure or manure char.  There have
been no experimental results reported for high temperature gasifi-
cation of manure, but presumably the results from manure could be
similar to results from coal,,with appropriate allowance for manure's
high ash content and low heating value.  The third approach to
production of methane from manure is hydrogasification which is the
process of hydrogenation of organic materials at sufficiently high
temperatures and pressures to convert them to gases.  No catalyst is

FELDMANN [1971-1088] reported three hydrogasification experiments on
municipal solid wastes, then proceeded to adapt previous experimental
work and cost estimates for hydrogasification of coal and oil shale
to gasification of municipal solid wastes.  HALLIGAN and SWEAZY


                                TABLE 6
Size (Tons/Day)
Project Life (yr)
Depreciation Schedule

Interest Rate
  (year end discount)
Income tax
Fixed Capital
  Investment, FCI
Plant Overhead
Working Capital
Insurance and Local Taxes
20 yr straight
11 yr sum of
14% or
          4.1  of major
            equipment costs
          4% of FCI/yr
          5% of FCI
          20% labor
          25% (labor and
          50% of labor
          5% of FCI
          2% of FCI
*[Parker et al, 1973-1025]

[1972-1060] extended the maximum methane yield calculations of
FELDMANN to manure and they have estimated that 600,000 feedlot
cattle could produce sufficient manure to produce 17 million cubic
feet of methane per day.  Their calculation includes using manure
to manufacture the needed hydrogen and to energize the whole process,
It was intentionally based on 4000 BTU/pound, a very conservative
heat of combustion for manure.

Production of methane from manure will be greatly influenced by
competition from other sources of organic solids, as discussed
previously.  The choice of methods for methane production, gasifi-
cation versus hydrogasification, is also undecided.  The first
commercial coal-to-methane plants in the United States will be
gasification types.

This section considers the thermochemical processing of manure while
it is still in a water slurry, thereby avoiding the need for drying.
Superficially this is an attractive concept since artificial drying
is expensive, and natural drying is dependent on weather conditions
except in near-desert areas.

The natural substances occurring in manure can be decomposed by
hydrolysis (reaction with water).  With an acid catalyst, cellulose
is hydrolyzed to glucose.  Water, heat, and various chemicals will
disperse lignin found in manure, as is practiced., in making wood pulo
for use in paper production.  Proteins hydrolyze to ami no acids.
Another reaction is between oroteins and lignins to form humus.  There
appears to be no reasonable way to produce marketable products from
this group of possible reactions of manure in water.  If there were a
marketable product in the hydrolyzed manure mixture, its separation
and drying would probably make its cost prohibitive.

One possible exception to this generalization is cooking of manure
prior to refeeding, either for biological sterilization, improved
digestibility, or to facilitate further processing.  Cooking for
refeeding is discussed in Chapter V.  In spite of the limited
potential for thermochemical treatment of manure slurries, work
done in related fields, principally treatment of domestic sewage
sludges, will be discussed in this report for the sake of completeness,

Thermal treatment of manure slurries is limited to temperatures
below the boiling point of water unless elevated pressures are
employed.  With increased pressures, temperatures up to the critical
temperature of water, 705F, might be considered for thermal treat-
ment of manure, but an operating pressure of 3,200 psia would be
required.  Up to this limit the designer of facilities for thermal
treatment of manure slurries is free to choose any temperature he

desires then employ the pressure necessary to prevent water evapo-
ration (400F246 psia, 500F680 psia, 600F-~1,543 psia).

Elevated pressure cooking processes are utilized to condition sewage
sludges, that is to make it easier to separate solids from water by
gravity settling and filtration.  BROOKS [1970] has reported on
extensive laboratory heat treatment tests on various sewage sludges.
KRONEBERGER [1972-1086] has described commercial equipment for heat
treatment of sewage sludge.  In this process steam is injected into
a reactor containing the manure slurry to heat it.  A heat exchanger
is used to preheat the incoming manure and to simultaneously cool
the cooked manure leaving the reactor.

The cost to heat treat 600 gallons per hour of pig manure slurry to
380F, hold it for one hour, and cool it has been estimated by the
authors, to be $7.15 per 1000 gallons if a ten percent rate of dis-
counted cash flow is expected on the investment.  Other economic
data for this calculation are given in Table 6.  After heat treat-
ment, something must still be done with the resulting manure slurry.
Based on experience with sewage sludge, the solids will be sterile
and nonputrescible, but the water phase will have a high BOD.  In
some ways thermal treatment of manure could be considerd a substi-
tute for treatment in an anaerobic digester.

T. ALLEN with Envirotech Systems, a firm which produces these heat
treatment units commercially, states that testing has begun with one
of these units as one step in the experimental manufacture of a pro-
tein cake from manure.

In the heat treatment process discussed above, the usual source of
energy is in steam injected into the hot sludge holding tank.  The
need for fuel and for investment in a steam boiler can be avoided by
injecting air into the holding tank.  At high temperatures, above
300F, rapid liquid phase oxidation of the manure will take place
to release the heat needed for the process.  Laboratory tests on
various sewage sludges have been reported for this procedure by
HURWITS et al [1965], but use of wet oxidation to condition sewage
sludge has not been further reported.  Costs may not be greatly
different from the $7.15 per thousand gallons estimated for manure
slurries.  If serious consideration were to be given to thermal
treatment of manure slurries, both steam heating and air injection
should be evaluated.

To provide more complete disposal of manure slurries, sufficient air
could be injected into reactors to oxidize most of the organic
material present.  This is the Zimpro process for oxidizing most
organics in sewage sludges or other organic wastes.  A general review
of this process is given by TELETZKE [1964].  Because air require-
ments are proportional to organic solids content, air compression
costs would be expected to be rather high when this process is

applied to concentrated manure slurries.  LUDINGTON [1971] reported
a cost of $12.38 per ton of dry solids for processing poultry manure
by this method.  His information came from a 1967 paper, which was
not available for this report, prepared by the developers of the
process, the Zimpro Division of Sterling Drug.  Since the economic
assumptions behind the cost quoted above were not given, it should
be used with caution.


The basis on which conclusions are drawn regarding thermochemical
processing of manure should be cost or, more hopefully, profit per
ton of manure processed in an ecologically acceptable manner.  These
costs cannot be uniquely determined for the reasons listed below and
discussed in the following paragraphs:

     1.  Economic environment in which the manure processing plant
will function.

     2.  Value of products produced.

     3.  Uncertainties regarding processing plant investment and
operating costs.

The competitive position in which a thermochemical manure processing
plant would operate would depend to a considerable extent on the
interest rates and income tax structures faced by the owner(s).  If
the processing plant were owned by a governmental or public entity
which paid no income tax, and could issue low-interest bonds to
build the plant, costs would be much lower than for a private
corporation.  PARKER et al [1973-1025] have shown that in one case
the cost to process manure in these two economic environments
differs by a factor of  five--$0.71 versus $3.71 oer ton of manure
processed.  The desirability and legality of a county or a manure
disposal district owning and financing a manure processing plant
needs to be explored in a locally coordinated effort by the concerned
governmental agencies and the feedlot industry.

An associated problem regarding public and private economic environ-
ments is that processing costs quoted for different processes
cannot be compared unless they are based on the same economic
assumptions.  Table 6 gives two sets of economic assumptions
employed by PARKER et al [1973-1025].  These data have been used
several  times in this chapter to put various costs on a common

The market value of standard products made  from manure, such as
ammonia and electricity, can be readily  determined.  The value of
oil,or char manufactured from manure is  not obvious  since these
products are different from materials 'now being marketed.  As an
extreme example, if manure char were u,sable as an activated carbon,
and its availability did not depress market prices,  it might have
a value of over $100 per ton; whe;reas , if the char must be sold as
a rather high-ash boiler fuel its; val ue  could be under $3.00 per

Another problem in calculating manure processing costs is that the
various thermochemical processing methods discussed  have been
tested on a small scale only.  These small-scale results must be
used along with much engineering judgment to determine the size of
commercial scale equipment; and than more judgment must be exer-
cised in estimating investment and  operating costs for the plant.
These estimates are frequently bia.sed with  considerable optimism
by  personnel associated with the particular process.

The presently available knowledge is  too  limited  to unambiguously
rank thermochemical processing methods  for  manure.  That ranking
will occur automatically five to 25 years into  the future as second
generation manure processing pl/ants are built.  At this point it
will be helpful to tentatively  rank methods for manure processing
based on the author's judgment.,  even  though other individuals may
rank them in a different order .

First  choice is given to burning air-dried manure in utility boilers
as a portion of the fuel.  Coztl  would also  be burned so that a plant
of economic size could be bui'lt.  The incremental investment required
to handle manure instead of coal should be  small  relative to invest-
ment costs required for other1  thermochemical manure disposal methods.
An intensive effort to obtain  the data  necessary  to assess the feasi-
bility and economics of this method ought to be made immediately.
If negative answers are obta.ined in this  investigation, more stress
could then be placed on othe^r  methods for manure  disposal.

Production of ammonia, usir/g  synthesis  gas  derived from manure as
an intermediate step, is given second ranking.  These plants could
be built in economically competitive  sizes, and the ammonia marketed
near the point of production.   A significant research program,
supported by both EPA and  private industry, has been undertaken
to develop this process [HERZOG et al,  1973-1013].

Continuous pyrolysis of manure in retorts modeled after oil shale
retorts is given third rank.   The primary reason  for this lower  rank
is that sufficient imanure  is  not available  in one location to build


a retorting plant of sufficient size to compete with oil shale
retorting plants and coal  processing cilants which might be built
in the future.  If it were necess-ary to produce liquid hydrocarbons
from manure, this method is preferred over those which required
elevated pressures.

Other methods for thermochemical  processing of manure are given
lower probability of commercial success.  Wet oxidation and/or
pyrolysis is ranked low because marketable products are not produced.
Reaction with hydrogen or carbon  monoxide is ranked low because of
the anticipated high investments  required for these plants which
require feeding solids into a reactor at a high pressure, and the
costs of producing the reactive gaseis, hydrogen or carbon monoxide.


A number of papers cited in this  chap ter were not available in time
for abstracting on the rather tight schedule maintained in the
preparation of this report.  Those which were available are referenced
in the manner employed in earlier chapters; the others are cited by
author and date without a serial  number.  Full titles and source
references are listed below.          '
Energy Potential from Organic Wastes:   A review of the Quantities
     and Sources
Information Circular 8549, Bureau of Mimes, U. S. Department of
     the Interior (1972)

BAILIE, R. C. and BURTON, R.  S.
Fluid Bed Reactors in Solid Waste Treatment
AIChE Symposium Series 122,  68_, pp.  140-147 (1972)

Gasification of Solid Waste Materials  in Fluidized Beds
AIChE Symposium Series 122,  68, pp.  73-80 O972)

BEECKMANS, J. M. and NG, P.  C.
Pyrolyzed Sewage Sludge:  Its Production ami Possible Utility
Environmental Science and Technology,  5_, pp.  69-71 (1971)

Heat Treatment of Sewage-Sludge
Water Pollution Control, pp.  92-99 (1970)

The Cameron  and Jones Vertical Kiln  for Oil Shale Ftetorting
Quarterly of the Colorado School  of  Mines,  60_, pp. 131-143 (1964)

COLEMAN, Eugene A.
(Personal Communication) Texas Tech University (1973)

Farm Animal Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0001567, October 13, 1972

HART, Samuel A.
Manure Management
The Feedlot, pp. 162-166 (1972)

HART, Samuel A; MOORE, James A.; and HALE, W. F.
Pumping Manure Slurries
Proceeding National Symposium on Animal Waste Management, pp. 34-
     38, American Society of Agricultural Engineers (1966)

Energy Recovery from Waste
Report No. SW-36d.i, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (1972)

Wet Oxidation of Sewage Sludge
Water and Sewage Works, pp.  298-305 (1965)

Solids Destruction or Severe Treatment
Cornell University Conference on Agricultural Waste Management,
     pp. 102-106 (1971)

MALIN, H. M., Jr.
Pyrolysis of Refuse Gains Ground
Environmental Science and Technology, 5^ pp. 310-313 (1971)

     LANKFORD, J. D.; and GUTHRIE, B.
Development of Bureau of Mines Gas-Combustion Oil-Shale Retorting
Bulletin 635, Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of the Interior (1966)

Characterization of Waste Treatment Pronerties of Pig Manure
.Agricultural Engineering Research, 16, pp. 399-491 (1971)

Gas Combustion Retorting of  Oil Shale Under Anvil Points Lease
     Agreement:  Stage II
Report of Investigation 7540, Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of
     the Interior (1971)

Pyrolysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastes
Proceedings of Symposium on Technology for the Future to Control
     Industrial and Urban Wastes, pp. 39-42, University of Missouri-
     Rolla (1971)

Nutritive Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Waste
Maryland Nutrition Conference, University of Maryland, pp. 2-5 (1971)

Wet Air Oxidation
Chemical Engineering Progress, 60, pp. 33-38 (1964)

Solid Waste Disposal and Reclamation
American Chemical Society, Washington, D. C., Meeting, June, 1971

WYATT, L. M. and EVANS, G. J.
Operational and-Experimental Observations in the Fireside Corrosion
     of Superheater and Reheater Tubes
Proceedings International Conference on the Mechanism of Corrosion
     By Fuel Impurities, pp. 604-619, Butterworth and Company, Ltd.,
     London (1963)


A report of this magnitude is not assembled without the cooperation
of a large number of knowledgeable people who have contributed their
advice and time.

The authors are particularly grateful for the continuing consulta-
tion freely extended by their colleagues Robert M. SWEAZY and James E.
HALLIGAN from the preparation of the proposal through the final com-
pletion of the report.

The work of Russell R. GRAHAM, originally co-investigator in the
project, established much of the framework and provided realistic
schedules for the completion of a well-integrated team effort.

Craig B. FOWLER and Gary M. PETTIT, graduate students in Chemical
Engineering and Civil Engineering, respectively, contributed signifi-
cantly to the venture through their conscientious competent pursuit
of reference material.

Ernst W. KIESLING and George F. MEENAGHAN, Chairmen of the Civil
Engineering and Chemical Engineering Departments at Texas Tech,
eased the tasks of the investigators by considerate scheduling of
other duties and by provision of many services.

Mrs. Gloria LYERLA, Interlibrary Loan Librarian at Texas Tech, went
far beyond the line of duty in pursuit of material requested.  Many
of the more elusive items abstracted are there because of her tena-
cious good will.

Miss Sharon ASHLEY made a tremendous contribution to the project in
her typing of the very bulky manuscript, maintaining uniformity of
style despite a raw input which frequently departed from it.  Her
unfailing cheerfulness and competence were an inspiration at all times.

Arthur L. JENKE and Charles D. REESE, Project Officers for the Non-Point
Source Control Branch, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,
D. C., were most helpful in expediting the project.  Their contributions
are sincerely appreciated.

In addition to the "team" which worked with the project day by day, a
number of people supplied materials requested, discussed the problems,
and displayed research they had underway.  This assured a greater
breadth of understanding of the very diverse circumstances in which
wastes may be utilized or disposed.  Space does not oermit individual
detailing of their contributions, but the authors wish to record their
gratitude to the following:


Chief, Agricultural Wastes Section
Iowa Department of Environmental Duality
Des Moines,-Iowa   50319

Department of Biological Sciences
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby 2, British Columbia

Professor and Head, Environmental Systems Engineering
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina   29631

Professor of Animal Sciences
Auburn University
Auburn, Alabama   36830

Head, Poultry Science Department
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina   29631

EARTH, Clyde L
Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering.
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina   29631

BELL, R. Graham
Lecturer in Microbiology
University of Otago
Dunedin, New Zealand

Research Professor, Department of Poultry Science
University of British Columbia
Vancouver 8, British Columbia

Research Sanitary Engineer
EPA Solid Wastes Research
5555 Ridge Avenue
Cincinnati, Ohio   45213

BUNGER, Richard E.
Corral Industries
Phoenix, Arizona   85034

BUSCH, Arthur W.
Regional Administrator
Environmental Protection Agency
Dallas, Texas   75201

Bio-Waste Management Lab
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Beltsville, Maryland   20705

DELBEL, Elsio'
Pittsburgh Energy Research Center
U. S. Bureau of Mines
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania   15213

EBY, Harry J.
Bio-Waste Management Lab
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Beltsville, Maryland   20705

Pittsburgh Energy Research Center
U. S. Bureau of Mines
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania   15213

600DE,  Edwin R., Jr.
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Beltsville, Maryland   20705

GRUB, Walter
Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Texas Tech University
Lubbock, Texas   79409

Professor of Biology
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan

HOLJE,  Helmer
Director, Water Resources Center
Montana State University
Bozeman, Montana   59715

Head, Health of Animals Branch
Animal  Diseases Research Institute
Hull, Quebec

Associate Professor of Microbiology
University of British Columbia
Vancouver 8, British Columbia

KING, Edwin W.
Professor of Entomology
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina   29631

Research Specialist, SERL
University of California
Berkeley, California   94700

LOYACANO, Harold A., Jr.
Department of Entomology and Economic Zoology
Clemson University
Clemson, South Carolina   29631

McBRIDE, Barry C.
Assistant Professor of Microbiology
University of British Columbia
Vancouver 8, British Columbia

McCASKEY, Thomas E.
Assistant Professor of Animal and Dairy Science
Auburn University
Auburn, Alabama   36830

MILLER, Byron F.
Associate Professor of Animal Science
Colorado State University
Fort Collins, Colorado   80521

Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Montana State University
Bozeman, Montana   59715

Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
University of Illinois
Champagne, Illinois   61801

OSWALD, William J.
Professor of Public Health and Sanitary Engineering
University of California
Berkeley, California   94700

EPA Solid Wastes Research
5555 Ridge Avenue
Cincinnati, Ohio   45268

PRATT, George L.
Professor of Agricultural Engineering
North Dakota State University
Fargo, North Dakota   58103

Feed Recycle, Incorporated
Phoenix, Arizona   85007

Professor of Environmental Biology
University of Guelph
Guelph, Ontario

SANNER, William S.
Chemical Research Engineer
Pittsburgh Energy Research Center
U. S. Bureau of Mines
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania   15213

SENIOR, Frank C.
Consulting Engineer
Phoenix, Arizona   85007

Water Pollution Control Directorate
Environment Canada
Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3

SMITH, Lewis W.
Bio-Waste Management Lab
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Beltsville, Maryland   20705

Agriculture Canada
Lethbridge, Alberta TU 4B1

Research Supervisor, Fuel Chemistry
Pittsburgh Energy Research Center
U. S. Bureau of Mines
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania   15213

Southwest Great Plains Research Center, ARS
Bushland, Texas   79012

Director, Office of Research and Monitoring
EPA Region IX
San Francisco, California   94111

WALSH, Barry L.
Department of Microbiology
University of British Columbia
Vancouver 8, British Columbia

Professor of Land Resource Science
University of Guelph
Guelph, Ontario

Director, Water Resources Center
South Dakota State University
Brookings, South Dakota   57006

WIGGINS, Murray M.
A/Chief, Management Division,
Liaison & Co-ordination Directorate,
Planning and Finance Service
Environment Canada
Ottawa, Ontario K1A OH3

Pittsburgh Energy Research Center
U. S. Bureau of Mines
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania   15213

YECK, Robert G.
National Program Staff
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Beltsville, Maryland   20705

Feedlot Management
Minneapolis, Minnesota   55440

                            ABBREVIATIONS USED

In addition to standard abbreviations for units of length, weight,
etc., and to standard chemical symbols, the following abbreviations
have been used in the body of this report or in the appendices.

     AAAS   American Association for the Advancement of Science
     ACS    American Chemical Society
     AIChE  American Institute of Chemical Engineers
     APF    Animal Protein Factor
     ARS    Agricultural Research Service (of USDA)
     ASAE   American Society of Agricultural Engineers
     ASCE   American Society of Civil Engineers
     ASCS   Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
            (of USDA)
     BOD    Biochemical Oxygen Demand
     COD    Chemical Oxygen Demand
     CRIS   Current Research Information System
     CSAE   Canadian Society of Agricultural Engineers
     DPW    Dehydrated Poultry Wastes
     EPA    Environmental Protection Agency
     FDA    Food and Drug Administration
     FS     Fixed Solids
     FWPCA  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     FWQA   Federal Water'Quality Administration
     GE     General Electric
     HS     Hamilton Standard

I&EC   Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
ID     Internal Diameter
ISLW   International Symposium on Livestock Wastes
MT     Metric Tons (= 2204.6 Ibs)
ODR    Oxidation Ditch Residue
ORP    Oxidation Reduction Potential
OWRR   Office of Water Resources Research
SERL   Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory
TS     Total Solids
TTU    Texas Tech University
USBM   U. S. Bureau of Mines
USDA   U. S. Department of Agriculture
USDI   U. S. Department of the Interior
USPHS  U. S. Public Health Service
VS     Volatile Solids
WPCA   Water Pollution Control Administration
WPCF   Water Pollution Control Federation
WRC    Water Resources Center
WRSIC  Water Resources Scientific Information Center

                              APPENDIX A

                        ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Literature on manure seems to be piled as high in the library as
manure is on the guano-rich islands of the South Atlantic.  The
following abstracts represent a useful sampling of some of the best
of the literature but are not a "true" or "valid" sample in the
statistical sense for several reasons.

1.  The early literature, applicable to a period of dispersed grazing
animals in a pre-suburban rural setting, stressed the fertilizer
value of manure.  Its return to the land was considered to be an
obligation to Nature.  Such a solution is increasingly less appli-
cable in the modern context.  In consequence, many of the older
contributions were left unread and unreported in this bibliography.
References to them can be found in the papers abstracted here, in"
the Biological Abstracts, the Journal of Animal Science, Poultry
Science, the publications of the various Agricultural Experiment
Stations, and the popular farm press of the time.

2.  The quirks of lagoons have been analyzed to a far greater extent
than might be judged from a counting of these abstracts.  Good
papers giving sound design specifications for lagoons are apt to be
on the shelf of almost anyone reading this report.  Thus, under the
pressures of time and space, many references found to such papers
were not followed up -- and many an author is due an apology --
which is hereby sincerely extended.

3.  The more exotic solutions or proposals are included to an
extent well beyond their actual proportion in the literature and,
probably, beyond what they deserve when evaluated on abstract merit.
This was done deliberately.  It was the goal of this report to
present an evaluation of the state-of-the-art of manure management
not as a textbook or design manual of approved current practice,
but rather as a compendium of concepts which might aid some inno-
vator by bringing to his attention similar work which might serve
to bolster his solution.  As one means of accomplishing this, a
large number of news-note type papers, often anonymous or authored
by a staff member of the journal in which they appear, are included.
They frequently contain hints of developments well before formal
papers on them have been prepared by the investigators, have run
the gamut of review committees, and have served their time in the
queue awaiting space availability.

The abstracts are grouped by year of appearance and arranged
alphabetically by author within each year.  The numbering system
employed uses the year of appearance followed by a serial number

beginning with '1001'  for each year for papers abstracted in Appen-
dix A, and beginning with 'COOT'  for those in Appendix C.  In some
cases confusion may result in that abstracts or oral presentations
may be cited a year or two previous to formal publication.

Reference is given, where applicable, to abstracts appearing in the
Selected Water Resources Abstracts published by the Water Resources
Scientific Information Center.  This is done by employing the serial
number (consisting of W, a 2-digit designation for the year in which
the abstract was published,  and a serial number within that year)
assigned by that organization.

Five volumes of "Solid Waste Management:  Abstracts from the Literature"
prepared for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency by John A.
Connolly and Sandra E. Stainback have appeared.  These should be
consulted since they contain abstracts of many papers not included in
this volume.  Where duplication of citation does exist, reference is
made by the notation "C & S" followed by their assigned serial  number.

A very comprehensive annotated bibliography on all  aspects of animal
wastes was prepared by J. B. McQuitty and E. M. Barber of the University
of Alberta and published by  Environment Canada.  Again, many papers
which they abstracted are not included in this volume.  Reference to
their abstracts where duplicate citation exists is made by the
designation "McQ & B" followed by their assigned serial number.

A list of abbreviations used, an author index, and a subject index,
follow the abstracts.

AMES, J. W. and GAITHER, E. W.
Barnyard Manure
Ohio Ag. Ex. Sta. Bull. No. 246 (p. 725-753 cf series)

The constituents of manure had values quoted as follows:   phosphorus
Sheep and goat manure whnn added to red-sand soils is capable of im-
proving their physical properties and counteracting the degradation
to which they are subjec t.  Analyses are given of the manure, soil,
and mixture of manure and soil.
Coprophagy in the Rabb it       ,
Nature 145: 36-37

Rabbits produce two types of feces:  the familiar dry pellet type
during the day, and a  soft, mucus type "rarely observed because the
animal collects them  directly from the anus and swallows them again"
at night.  Experimental observations indicate that a rabbit may eat
from 54 to 82 percent  of its total fecal production.
 Is Riboflavin Synthesi zed  in the  Feces of Fowl?
 Poultry Sci. 19: 418-423

 More riboflavin has been found to be present in the feces of fowl
 than in their fe.ed.  Measurements reported in the paper indicate,
 however, that the  increase occurs after defecation.  "The rapid
 synthesis of riboflavin in feces  following defecation makes it
 important that  coprophagy  be prevented in experiments concerning
 a deficiency of that vitamin."
Coprophagy i n the Wild  Rabbit
Nature 145:  262

Southern reports observations on wild rabbits detected eating their
feces and  conjectures that  their ability to extract further nourish-
ment in this  manner accounts for their being able to "hole up" when
cold or danger may require  it for periods of several days.

1942-100 1
Precautions  in the Use  of Karroo-Manure
Farming  in South Africa 17: 305-309

"Karroo  manure, which consists of the droppings and absorbed urine of
sheep  and  cattle and contains very little litter and impurities other
than s  oil,  is being used fairly wide:ly in intensive farming areas


to-day because of its low price and the reduced railage rates on
manures and fertilizers, as well as the scarcity and increased cost
of fertilizers."  Karroo manure, while rich in nitrogen, potassium,
and phosphoric compounds, often has a rather high sodium content
and, thus, may have a deleterious effect on soil.  Its use on
non-sandy soil should be avoided, and on sandy soil should be minimal
Since its chemical content varies widely, karroo manure should be
analysed, batch by batch, before use.  Samples of soils on which it
is used should be checked periodically.
Cow Manure as a Source of Certain Vitamins for Growing Chickens
Poultry Sc1. 21: 554-559

It has been demonstrated that contents of cow rumens may be higher
in vitamins than was the feed.  The feces may concentrate this
several hundred times.  Four experiments in feeding chicks rations
which contained dried cow feces or extracts from them in alcohol or
water are reported.  It was concluded that "cow manure has a marked
beneficial effect on growth in chicks if it is added to a diet defi-
cient in riboflavin.  Cow manure has no deleterious effect on the
growth of chicks if it is added to a complete and balanced diet.
Cow manure contains a factor that stimulates comb growth in both
male and female chickens."
 RILEY, Gardner M. and HAMMOND, John C.
 An Androgenic Substance in Feces from Cattle as Demonstrated by Tests
     on the Chick.
 Endocrinology 31: 653-658

 In experiments on chick nutrition at Beltsville, it was observed
 that precocious  comb and wattle growth resulted when either dried
 cow feces or a 60-percent-alcohol extract of dried cow feces was
 included in the  chick diet.  Further experimentation, reported in
 this paper, indicated that the development of testes and ovaries
 was retarded when chicks were fed dried cow feces, but not when fed
 feces from mature bulls.
 BIRD, H. R. and MARVEL, J. A.
 Relation of Diet to Hatchability of Eggs Produced in Batteries and in
     Open-Front Houses
 Poultry Sci. 22: 403-410

While hatchability has been shown to vary with amount of sunlight and
source of protein in the diet "greater improvement was brought about
by feeding the feces of other birds kept in the battery and fed the
same diet, the dried feces being fed as 10 percent of the diet.  It
appears that ingestion of feces might help to explain the good hatch-
ability maintained by birds in open-front houses in spite of a low-
riboflavin diet. . ."
BOHSTEDT, 6.; GRUMMER, R. H.; and ROSS, 0- B.
Cattle Manure and Other Carriers of B-Complex Vitamins in Rations for
     Pigs   (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 2: 373

Free access to freshly collected cow manure permits pigs to avoid
deficiencies in B-complex vitamins which may result "if only the usual
5 per cent or less ground alfalfa hay is fed in the ration."

"A very interesting light is shed on the helpful supplementary effect
of cattle manure which is not due to any whole undigested corn it may

Cow Manure as an Ingredient of Turkey Diets
Poultry Sci. 23: 358-359

Fresh cow manure and cow manure dried at 47C, 80C, and 120C were fed
to poults as 10 percent of their diet as substitutes for alfalfa leaf
meal in a diet already adequate in vitamin A and nearly so in riboflavin,

Livability, growth rate, and efficiency of feed utilization were
unimpaired.  Drying at 80C to 120C is preferable since bacteria patho-
genic to turkeys are destroyed at these temperatures without impairing
nutritive values of the cow manure.
Dried Cow Manure and Dried Rumen Contents as a Partial Substitute for
     Alfalfa Leaf Meal
Poultry Sci. 23: 471-476

"It has become increasingly evident to the writer, that, because of
the shortages of high grade alfalfa leaf meal and fish meal, cow man-
ure or dried rumen contents may assume considerable practical impor-
tance in poultry feeding."  Experiments are reported, with data tabu-
lated, showing its importance in weight gains and efficiency.  Such
diets should be supplemented with vitamin A and riboflavin.


The l>se of Karoo Manure
Farming in South Africa 20: 87-88

Karoo manure tends to produce a brak [alkali] soil which expands
when irrigated and shrinks, forming cracks, when dry.  In a period
of fertilizer shortage, it may be better than no fertilizer.  If
used, it should be restricted to well-drained sandy soils and to
plants tolerant of alkali and salt.  It is safe for most vegetables,
but it should not be used on beans, peas, or trees.
Sur 1'utilisation du gaz de fumier en motoculture (On the Utilization
     of Manure Gas in Mechanized Agriculture)
Acad. Agr. France Comptes Rendus 32: 298-301

Production of methane from manure has been reported to be more success-
ful in Algeria than in Metropolitan France.  BALLU describes some poor
practices he has observed and indicates corrective procedures in
operation and design.  He lists successful French applications includ-
ing a 10 - 20 horsepower tractor which, he estimates, will  be amortized
in five years by savings in fuel costs.  Prototypes should be less
expensive than the pilot model.
BIRD, H. R.; RUBIN, Max; WHITSON, Donald; and HAYNES, S.  K.
Effectiveness of Dietary Supplements in Increasing Hatchability of
     Eggs and Viability of Progeny of Hens Fed a Diet Containing a
     High Level of Soybean Oil Meal
Poultry Sci. 25: 285-293

In tests at Beltsville, a soybean oil meal diet was found to be
corrective by the inclusion of five percent cow (or steer)  manure,
ten percent sardine meal, or ten percent dried skimmilk.   With these
supplements hatchability increased to 82, 78, and 79 percent,
PETTET, A. E. J. and JONES, E. E.
Waste Waters from Farm Premises
Inst. Sew. Purif. Jnl. and Proc. 45, II: 190-194

With the extension of piped water to rural regions in England, consid-
eration is being given to reducing the pollution potential from cowshed
washdowns by including the washings in the inflow to sewage treatment

plants.  Data obtained from studies at two agricultural  research sta-
tions in Berkshire are tabulated.   It was concluded that methods of
operation were more significant than number of cattle in estimating
polluting load.
RUBIN, Max and BIRD, H. R.
A Chick Growth Factor in Cow Manure.  I. Its Non-Identity with Chick
     Growth Factors Previously Described.  II.  The Preparation of
     Concentrates and the Properties of the Factor.
Jnl. Biol. Chem. 163: 387-400

Cow manure contains a factor shown by a series  of experiments des-
cribed in the paper to be something other than  the vitamins or other
factors previously reported.  It is the only such factor which has
improved the growth-promoting properties of the basal  diet.

The factor is soluble in water or ethyl alcohol and may be extracted
for supplementing rations.  Hens fed dried cow  manure  or fish-meal
transmitted enough of the substance to their chicks to permit them
to grow well on the basal diet.
RUBIN, Max; BIRD, H. R.; and ROTHCHILD, Irving
A Growth Promoting Factor for Chicks in the Feces of Hens
Poultry Sci. 25: 526-528

Cow manure and urine-free hen feces contain a growth factor, appar-
ently synthesized in the digestive system since it appears even when
lacking in the hen's diet, which is neither protein nor chemically-
characterized vitamins.  When corn was replaced by an equal weight
of manure, the following results were obtained for the average
weights of chickens at six weeks (grams):  control 359.5, 5 percent
cow manure 450.8, and 5 percent urine-free hen feces 451.8.
WHITSON, D.; TITUS, H. W.; and BIRD, H. R.
The Effect of Feeding Cow Manure on Egg Production and Hatchability
Poultry Sci. 25: 143-147

In feeding tests at Beltsville, the addition of 8 percent of cow
manure, dried for 24 to 48 hours at 45C, to an all-mash ration
seriously impaired egg production in a 48-week test.  When, however,
the cow manure was dried at 80C for 24 hours, an 8 percent inclu-
sion had no effect on egg production.  Hatchability was good in
both programs.  There was no effect on body weight or egg size.  It
was concluded that the higher temperature destroyed the androgenic

potency of the manure without diminishing the growth-Dromotion
GROSCHKE, A. C.; RUBIN, Max; and BIRD, H. R.
Seasonal Variation in Hatchability and Its Relation to the Unidenti-
     fied Dietary Factor in Cow Manure   (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 26:541

In a series of tests with hens on a corn-soy bean oil  meal diet
hatchability was seasonal.  Upon addition of the unidentified factor
of cow manure to the diet, hatchability increased and  lost its
seasonal character.
RUBIN, Max and BIRD, H. R.
A Chick Growth Factor in Cow Manure.  III. Its. Occurrence in Eggs.
Poultry Sci. 26: 309-310

The growth factor discussed in earlier papers is transmitted by hens
to eggs and, hence, to chicks.  Confirmatory tests are reported.

RUBIN, Max and BIRD, H, R.
A Chick Growth Factor in Cow Manure.  IV. Methods of Drying Manure.
Poultry Sci. 26: 439-441

Sun-dried cow manure and pasture-dried cow chips were compared with
oven-dried cow manure as ingredients in chick feed.   The sun-dried
manure was essentially equivalent and the pasture-dried chips were
somewhat inferior in that they stimulated less body and comb growth.
Dried Lactating Cow Manure in the Ration of Growing Chickens
Poultry Sci. 26: 143-149

Growth of cockerels was stimulated by substitution of cow feces
dried for 24 hours at 45C for alfalfa meal in a ration in amounts
up to ten percent of the ration.  Above ten percent, growth was
depressed.  Growth of pullets on all levels of cow manure tested
(2-1/2, 5, 10, and 20 percent) exceeded that of the controls.

Supplements for Soybean Meal in Turkey Diets
Poultry Sci. 27: 53-59

"Five percent of dried cow manure proved to be an effective supple-
ment in the 2 cases in which it was tried. . .  The young turkey has
a critical need for the unknown dietary factor which occurs in cow
manure, in fish meal and probably in smaller quantities in meat
GROSCHKE, A. C.; RUBIN, Max; and BIRD, H. R.
Seasonal Variation in Hatchability and Its Relation to an Unidenti-
     fied Dietary Factor
Poultry Sci. 27: 302-307

Tests with groups of laying hens on a corn-soybean meal diet showed
seasonal variation of hatchability when the hens were confined in
open-front houses.  The addition to the diet of the unidentified
dietary factor  of cow manure improved hatchability and eliminated
its seasonal variation.  "It is believed that the improved hatch-
ability of the  low hatching group was due to coprophagy, conditions
being more favorable for the synthesis of the essential dietary fac-
tor in the voided feces during the warmer than during the cooler
portions of the year."
Built-Up Floor Litter as a Source of Dietary Factors Essential for
     Hatchability of Chicken Eggs
Poultry Sci. 27: 477-481

The riboflavin content of chicken feces at the time of voiding is
essentially that of the chickens' feed.  The content will increase
by 100 percent in feces kept at room temperature for 24 hours and
by 300 percent in those kept a week.  Thus bacterial action is
indicated.   Built-up floor litter serves as a potent source of
supplementary dietary factors for chickens.
LILLIE, Robert J.; DENTON, Charles A.; and BIRD, H. R.
Relation of Vitamin 612 to the Growth Factor Present in Cow Manure
Jnl. Biol. Chem. 176: 1477-1478

Tests would indicate that vitamin 812 and the extract from cow man-
ure reported by RUBIN and BIRD [1946-1004] are closely related if
not identical.

The Composition and Use of Karoo Manure.  II. Value of Karoo Manure
     as a Source of Plantfood
Farming in South Africa 23: 317-323

Prices in South Africa of Karoo manure and other fertilizers are
tabulated for 1939, 1941, and 1946.  For crops and soils for which
it is suitable, crude Karoo manure may be the best buy in fertilizer.
On the basis of equal dry weights, Karoo manure is preferable to
either farm or municipal compost in fertilizer value.

"In the United States, sheep manure is no longer available for sale
in significant quantities and the price has risen to such an extent
that it is to-day by far the most expensive form in which nitrogen
and phosphate can be bought.  In Texas, the cost per Ib of N and
P205 in 1945 was 9.0 and 5.80 cents when bought as ammonium nitrate
and superphosphate respectively, but in the form of sheep manure
the cost per Ib was 68 cents for nitrogen and 36.5 cents for PzOs,
so that the price of the manure is prohibitive for ordinary farming
The Water-Hyacinth:  A Cinderella of the Plant World
Appx B of VAN VUREN:  Soil Fertility and Sewage
Faber and Faber, London,  p. 221-227 + pi

The subheading, "Its use in sewage effluents, as a trapper of salts
and a water purifier," indicates the importance attached to this
rapidly growing weed considered primarily to be a menace to
navigation.  The author cites its high efficiency in removing nutrients
and considers it to be especially suitable for effluent lakes.  An
acre will produce 1100 tons of plant per year, of which 66 tons is
dry matter.  Cropping is simple.  Use as a compost is suggested.
JEWITT, T. N. and BARLOW, H. W. B.
Animal Excreta in the Sudan Gezira
Empire Jnl. of Exptl. Agr. 17: 1-17

In the Sudan Gezira the rainfall varies from 100 mm to 500 mm.   The
soil is cracking clay low in nitrogen.  The paper reports studies
of the value of dung from sheep, goats, a dry cow, and a tillage bull
in supplying nitrogen.  Such value was found to be highly dependent
upon the feed.  Urine, rather than dung, is high in nitrogen.
"Animal manure finds a secondary use as fuel, and convenient accu-
mulations are frequently burnt.  The practice is readily understandable,

for fuel is in very short supply in the irrigated Gezira. .  .
Values of 6,050, 6,920, and 6,550 B.T.U. have been determined on
three samples of dung.  The existence of this alternative use of
dry dung and the system of uncontrolled grazing makes it unlikely
that any measure of dung collection for manure could be instituted.
Soybean Oil Meal and Sunflower Seed Oil  Meal in Rations for Broad-
     Breasted Bronze Turkeys
Poultry Sci. 28: 534-540

Supplements of 5 percent dried cow manure were found to be effective
when fed with soybean oil meal.
Soil Fertility and Sewage
Faber and Faber, London.  236 p. + pi

VAN VUREN, a South African who bases much of his philosophy on
observations on the veld, advocates salvage of the fertilizer value
of sewage and animal wastes (p. 149-165) by composting and spreading.

Karoo manure, the droppings of sheep and goats which had been con-
fined nightly in the same kraals (pens) for periods of up to a cen-
tury, is hauled by rail and sold for up to 50 shillings per ton.
Guano, collected from 17 islands in the Atlantic with a total area
of 400 acres, is sold only to bona fide farmers for use on specific
crops.  The 6000 to 9000 tons harvested per year sells for  10
per ton.  "South Africa could easily use ten times the available
quantity."  Bat guano, of an inferior quality, sells for up to  6
per ton.

Methods of preserving barnyard manure to maximize its fertilizing
value are discussed.

An appendix, "The Water-Hyacinth:  A Cinderella of the Plant World,"
by G. C. DYMOND is abstracted separately [1949-1001].

Le Gaz de Fumier [Manure Gas]
Acad.  Agr. France Comptes Rendus 37: 175-180

French energy production in 1938 was (in trillions of calories):
70 from coal, 63 from petroleum, 17 from wood, and 80 by hydroelectric


generation.  Manure production of 70 to 80 million tonnes could
have provided 30 trillion calories.  The means of separating methane
are described, costs are estimated, and uses suggested.  Some 500
to 600 small plants exist in France.

In a discussion A. DEMOLON observed that the fertilizer value remains
after the methane is extracted.  He called for an intense thermo-
chemical evaluation before launching a methane-oriented program.

Dried Cow Manure as a Supplement in a Layer and Breeder Ration
Poultry Sci. 30: 136-142

Tests were conducted in the feeding of cow manure which had been
dehydrated at a temperature below 158F in an electric oven as 0, 5,
10, and 15 percent of the total mash intake.  Similar tests were  run
with cow manure sun-dried in the open air.  At the 5 and 10 percent
levels both oven-dried and air-dried manure satisfactorily supported
egg production, egg weight, body weight, hatchability, and feed
consumption.  The 15 percent ration of air-dried cattle manure, when
supplemented with herring meal, supported all items except body weight
in the previous list.  The 15 percent ration of oven-dried manure,
without the herring meal supplement, depressed egg production after
twelve weeks but did not significantly affect body weight.  A list
of 22 references is included.
Value of Corozo Palm Nut and Sesame Oil Meals, Bananas, A.P.F.  and
     Cow Manure in Rations for Growing and Fattening Pigs
Jnl. Animal Sci. 10: 545-550

The pigs failed to benefit significantly from the cow manure supple-
ment to the rations.  "The lots fed the cow manure were unthrifty
and lacked uniformity.  . .  The pigs fed cow manure ate the rations
readily and consumed as much feed as did the other lots."  A.P.F. is
animal protein factor.
CHEVALIER, Gaston and LONCHAMBON, Raymonde
Sur les fumiers et purins derives du gas de fumier  (On the Manures
     and Liquid Manures Derived from Manure Gas)
Acad. Agr. France Comptes Rendus 38:199-203

A battery of eight digesters in Algeria with a total capacity of
300 cu m have furnished power and heat for a school for two years.

The digesters are supplied, in turn, with the manure from 15 cattle,
12 horses, and 25 hogs -- an annual  total of some 260 tonnes, 50 per-
cent dry matter.  The residue has a water content some 3 to 8 percent
greater than the manure.  Chemical  analyses are tabulated.  The residue
has a fertilizing value superior to that of manure.
Algae (Chlorella) as a Source of Nutrients for the Chick
Science 116: 453-454

"The inclusion of 10% Chlorella to the basal  diet in place of an
equal amount of soybean meal resulted in a very marked increase in
growth and improvement in feed efficiency.  This improvement is
attributed primarily to the high riboflavin and carotene content of
the Chlorella. .  ."  Chicks fed Chlorella developed beak deformities,
It is thought that methods of processing exist which will  avoid
this development.  No other ill effects were evident.  Costs must
be evaluated yet.
Further Studies on the Effect of Dried Cow Manure on the Domestic
Poultry Sci. 31: 673-678

In a series of tests designed to resolve the discrepancies between
the results reported by WHITSON et al [1946-1006] and PALAFOX and
ROSENBERG  [1951-1002] on the possible detrimental effects of in-
cluding more than eight percent oven-dried cow manure in the ration,
the authors failed to verify WHITSON'S results and fed fifteen per-
cent manure without significant effect on egg production.
ELAM, J. F.; JACOBS, R. L.; and COUCH, J. R.
Unidentified Factor Found in Autoclaved Litter  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 33: 1053-1054

Chicken growth increased when eight ml of a filtered suspension of
litter, unchanged for three months prior to collection, autoclaved
15 min at 15 psi and 121-125C was added to each pound of feed.  By
adding both fish solubles and litter solubles, growth was further
JACOBS, R. L.; ELAM, J. F.; FOWLER, Jean; and COUCH, J. R.
                                  A,-! 4

An Unidentified Chick-Growth Factor Found in Litter
Jnl. of Nutr. 54: 417-426

A chick-growth factor, present in litter, is reported which gave a
significant growth reponse when added to an all-vegetable protein
diet adequate with respect to all known vitamins.  "It is concluded
that the litter factor is not an antibiotic and differs from the
growth factor present in fish solubles."

The Role of Floor Litter Management in Nutrition and Disease Preven-
     tion of Chickens  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 33: 1063-1064

Chickens fed the same all-plant diet with added riboflavin had good
hatchability (85 percent) of fertile eggs when on old compost litter,
but only 51 percent when on fresh litter.  "The compost litter pro-
vided adequate vitamin B]2 for maximum hatchability of eggs."  Disease
losses during the first twelve weeks were 14 percent on fresh litter
and 7 percent on compost litter.  "Of 12 consecutive broods, each of
200 chicks, raised on the same compost litter in continuous use for
five years, the disease loss averaged 5.7 percent versus 10.8 percent
of corresponding broods started on fresh litter."
NOLAND, Paul R.; FORD, B. F.; and RAY, Maurice L.
The Use of Ground Chicken Litter as a Source of Nitrogen for Gestating-
     Lactating  Ewes and Fattening Steers
Jnl. Animal Sci. 14: 860-865

"Feeding trials were conducted with both gestating-lactating ewes
and fattening steers in which ground chicken litter was used to re-
place conventional protein concentrates.  In the ewe trial the group
fed ground chicken litter performed as well as those fed soybean meal.
Both of these feeds produced results superior to ammoniated molasses
when fed as a source of supplemental nitrogen.  Fattening steers fed
ground chicken  litter did not gain as rapidly as those fed cotton-
seed meal when  both groups were pair-fed for equal feed intake.  By
increasing the  total feed intake of the chicken-litter-fed steers
by 15 percent the rates of gain nearly equalled those fed cotton-
seed meal.  No  digestive disturbances or excessive feed refusals
were noted in either of the  two feeding trials."
DAVIS, "Dude"
Feeding Poultry Litter
Poultry Tribune 62: Aug.  p. 10


Poultry litter is reportedly being fed to beef cattle throughout
the South.  Hogs and dairy cattle also do well  on it.  Feeding costs
have been cut as much as 60 percent.   "No trouble has shown up --
except in breeding animals."  Drugs in the litter have been respon-
sible for some stillbirths.
HANCOCK, Randolph S.
His Broilers Thrive on Worm Compost
Farm Jnl.  Apr.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 15: 272

Worms raised on a ration of peat moss, commercial  laying mash, corn
meal, and a small amount of molasses produce a compost by adding
their excrement.  Broilers raised on the compost reached 3-1/2 Ib
weight in eight weeks.  The other half of the same flock, raised on
regular commercial broiler feed, required ten weeks to reach 3 Ib.
Vitamin B]2 antibiotics, and minerals are assumed to be the
ANON [Based on Arthur A.CAMP]
More About Cattle Eating Poultry Litter
Alabama Poultry Industries, May-Jun-July
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 15: 504

CAMP, superintendent of the Gonzales Ag. Expt.  Station in Texas,
states that "a mixture containing litter makes  a complete ration for
cattle.  It's not a distress feed but a year-round good feed."  It
is prepared by adding 40 percent litter based on peanut hulls or cane
pulp to 38 percent milo, 10 percent alfalfa leaf meal, 10 percent
molasses, and two percent mineral mix (bone meal and salt) in a concrete
mixer.  The non-litter portion of the ration costs $1.45 per 100 Ib.
GRAU, C. R. and KLEIN, N. W.
Sewage-Grown Algae as a Feedstuff for Chicks
Poultry Sci. 36: 1046-1051

Dried unicellular algae contains 40 percent or more protein and
significant amounts of carotenoids.  It may effectively supplement
cereal grains which are relatively low in protein.  "The chick can
tolerate diets containing up to 20% aluminum-free algae meal.  The
presence of significant amounts of aluminum in the meal resulting
from alum-flocculation harvesting procedures depresses chick growth."

The Production of Methane Gas from Farm Manure and Wastes
Power Farming and Better Farming Digest.  Sept.  p. 29-31, 33, 35

WINTERS, a South African farmer, discusses the design and construction
of his plant which successfully produces sufficient methane gas to
operate his farm.  Temperatures are critical in the functioning of
methane-producing bacteria.  At their optimum temperature, 86F,
they can compost cattle manure in 21 days.  Up to five months may be
required at lower temperatures with no significant activity occurring
below 60F.  Pig manure is twice as productive of methane as is
cattle manure.
Engineering Principles  in Handling Liquid Materials
Agr. Engrg. 39: 546-551

Use of liquid manure declined because of back-breaking labor and
inefficiencies  inherent  in separate handling of urine and feces.
Dilution of total waste  followed by pumping for irrigation, as done
in Germany, would be unacceptable here.  "Perhaps the crux in the
handling of liquid manure is the type of pump required to move the
manure from one area to  another."  

Questions  to be answered by an operator contemplating use of liquid
manure include  those on  economics, effect on milk and meat produc-
tion, optimum amount of  water, time requirements for handling stock,
freezing weather, labor, and structural design.
 KROONTJE, Wybe;  GISH, P. T.; and STIVERS, R. K.
 Nutrient Value of Poultry Manure Compared with that of Mineral
 Virginia Ag.  Ex. Sta. Bull. 498  12 p.

 To be as effective as commercial fertilizers poultry manure must
 be reinforced with additional  PpOe and
 SOUTHWELL, B.  L.;  HALE,  0.  M.;  and McCORMICK, W. C.
 Poultry House  Litter  as  a  Protein Supplement in Steer Fattening
 Georgia Ag. Ex.  Sta.  Mimeo Series NS55   6  p.

Three groups of steers were fed equi-protein rations containing 30
percent, 15 percent, and 0 percent poultry house litter biased on corn
cobs on which two batches of broilers had been raised.  The top four
to five inches of corn cobs, which contained virtually all the manure,
were run through a hammermill and mixed in the feed.  There was little
difference in average daily gain.  Costs per pound of gain were
21.4 < with 30 percent litter, and 20.1 i with 15 percent or 0 percent
litter.  Because of wide variability, a chemical test should be run
on each large batch of litter.  Peanut hulls or wood shavings would
be almost worthless as a litter to be fed.

Data, including costs, are tabulated.
 Coprophagy, Refection and the Influence of Antibiotics in the Rat
 Federation Proc. 18: 516

 A poorly-understood phenomenon is that after feeding certain chemicals,
 such  as dextrin, which inhibit growth in rats, the addition of peni-
 cillin will cause a marked increase in growth rate -- unless copro-
 phagy is prevented.  The antibiotic alone is ineffective in producing
 growth; it must be accompanied by ingestion of feces.
 BURNS, Edward C.; TOWER, B. A.; BONNER, F. L.; and AUSTIN, H. C.
 Feeding Polybor 3 for Fly Control under Caged Layers
 Jnl. Econ. Ent. 52: 446-448

 Polybor 3 was fed to caged layers five months at 0.05, 0.10, 0.20,
 0.30, and 0.50 percent of the ration.  Effective larval control of the
 house fly was obtained at the higher rates of feeding, but boron
 residues were found in both eggs and tissues at all levels.  Boron
 compounds are classed as poisonous and deleterious substances by the
 U. S. Food and Drug Administration.
CAMP, Arthur A.
Broiler House Litter a Feeding Trial Subject
The Feed Bag 35: Sept.  p. 68

Successful feeding of untreated litter at various rates to cattle
and swine is reported.  The litter tested was peanut hulls or cane.
The protein value increased with time in service.  It is about 21
to 22 percent for once-used litter and may reach 33 percent for litter

on which nine runs are produced.  Rocks, nails, and glass should be
avoided in litter to be used as feed.
A Critical Study of Energy Determination in Fresh and Dried Cow Feces
Jnl. Dairy Sci. 42: 1995-2001

"An accurate method of determining energy in fresh feces is described
in detail."  The difference in energy content as determined from
freeze-dried, oven-dried, and fresh feces being less than two percent,
approximations by substitution of a dried form are often acceptable.
Twenty-four references are cited.
Liquid Manure for Midwest Swine Production
ASAE Trans. 2(1): 9-10
Abst:  McQ & B B-001; W72-00979

Swine manure may be  collected in storage tanks, pumped into tank-
wagon spreaders, and distributed on crop land.  Preliminary calcula-
tions indicate that  the practice may be profitable on Illinois swine
farms.  The pens should be covered to exclude precipitation.  The
floors should be scraped first to hold use of water to a minimum.
Collection tanks should be covered and should have a minimum capacity
of one week's manure.  At least two gal per hog per day will accumulate.
Spray irrigation after piping to the field is an alternative used in
KLIPPLE, G. E. and RETZER, John L.
Response of Native Vegetation of the Central Great Plains to Appli-
     cations of Corral Manure and Commercial Fertilizer
Jnl. of Range Mgmt. 12: 239-243
Abst:  McQ & B B-393

Results of tests in Colorado, Saskatchewan, and North Dakota showed
that native vegetation in the Great Plains may be improved by appli-
cations of manure.  Commercial fertilizers proved to be less effective.
PARKER, M. B.; PERKINS, H. F.; and FULLER, Henry L.
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Content of Poultry Manure and Some
     Factors Influencing Its Composition

Poultry Sci. 38: 1154-1158
Abst:  McQ & B B-245

"Research to determine the value of broiler manure has not kept pace
with its production."  Conflicting analyses are cited.  Varying
management practices, housing constructions, and climate can be
expected to affect values found.  For broiler manure the authors
found:  moisture 24.9 percent, N 2.27 percent, P 1.07 percent, and
K 1.70 percent (total basis).  For hens the percentages were 36.92,
2.00, 1.91, and 1.88, respectively.
RAY, Maurice L.
Effects of Methods of Preparation of Chicken Litter on its Utilization
     by Beef Cattle  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 18: 1150

Steers fed ground litter which was dusty ate sparingly and lost an
average of 40  Ib on a 27-day test.  When the litter was pelleted,
intake and gains improved for the cattle fed oat straw litter, but
not for those  fed cane bagasse litter.  "Two Ib of black strap molasses
fed daily on top of the other feed did not improve intakes or gains."
 RODRIGUEZ, J. L., Jr. and RIEHL, L. A.
 Results with Cockerels for House Fly Control in Poultry Droppings
 Jnl. Econ. Entom. 52: 542-543

 Cockerels confined under caged hens in a ratio of one cockerel  to
 ten hens solved the fly problem by eating all  larvae.  The cockerels
 were fed at dusk and thus had a good appetite during hunting hours.
ZANEVELD, Jacques S.
The Utilization of Marine Algae in Tropical  South and East Asia
Economic Botany 13: 89-131

This paper, with its 161 references to which the text is keyed,
surveys the various genera of marine algae of tropical  south and east
Asia and cites uses, usually as human food,  to which they are put.
COOPER, J. B.; MAXWELL, T. L., Jr.; and OWENS, A. D.
A Study of the Passage of Weed Seeds Through the Digestive Tract of
     the Chicken
Poultry Sci.  39: 161-163

A literature search (six references given) indicated that most weed
seeds do not survive passage through a chicken.  A few, however, may
actually have their germination potential improved.  For 25 varieties
tested at Clemson, no seeds survived the passage.  "The viability of
the seeds was destroyed in the intestinal tract."

The Management of Livestock Manure
ASAE Trans. 3(2): 78-80
Abst:  McQ & B B-002

Manure will seldom show a profit.  It must, however, be disposed of
for considerations of animal health, wholesome food production,
efficient operation, land improvement, aesthetics, and fly breeding.
Materials-handling engineering is called for:  gather, process, and
dispose.  Moisture content should be reduced to reduce weight and
volume to be handled.

"Ultimate disposal of most manure will be onto farm land.   The
spreading of the manure onto the field may or may not be simple.
Poultry ranches and dairies within urban areas usually have no land."
LaBRECQUE, G. C. and SMITH, Carroll N.
Tests with Young Poultry for the Control of House Fly Larvae Under
     Caged Laying Hens
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 53: 696
Abst:  McQ & B B-560

Fly larvae develop immunity to larvicides.  In tests in Florida in
which one chick was given access to the droppings from ten caged
hens, he cleared the pit of larvae in a week.  In another test
full control was established in five days and maintained two months
(until winter).  Supplementary feed 'and water are provided for the
chicks.  No mortality resulted.
OLDS, Jerome
Processing Poultry Manure for Fertilizer Use
Compost Sci. 1: Summer  p. 24-27
Abst:  McQ & B A-015

Poultry manure, "the richest in plant food value of any of the farm
manures," is estimated to be worth an extra 1.5 tf/lb on the selling
price of broilers or an extra dozen eggs per year per layer.
Composting and pelleting operations are described.


Fowl Manure Is a
Farming in South
Valuable Cattle Feed
Africa 36: June  p. 21
Cattle, being able to convert non-protein nitrogen, can extract up
to 25 percent of the nitrogen present in fowl  manure as protein.
Other nutrients and spilled feed in the manure are also valuable
in cattle feed.  Oxen on a test at Potchefstroom College found a
ration containing 24 percent fowl  manure as a  supplement to mealie
cobs unpalatable at first, but soon acquired a liking for it.   Fowl
manure may also be used with roughage to tide  oxen over a winter.
"The addition of about one pound of fowl manure to the winter  rations
of oxen will do much to prevent loss of weight."
WEHUNT, K. E.; FULLER, H. L.; and EDWARDS, H.  M., Jr.
The Nutritional Value of Hydrolyzed Poultry Manure for Broiler
Poultry Sci. 39: 1057-1063
Abst:  McQ & B B-247

"Chicks can utilize a portion of the protein of hydrolyzed broiler
litter when added to diets that are sub-optimal in protein.  .  .
On the basis of crude protein, the manures were less efficient than
either soybean oil  meal or the casein-gelatin combination. .  .
Only about one-half of the crude protein of hen manure and slightly
more than one-third of that of broiler manure exists as true  protein."
The presence of unidentified growth factors in litter renders  it
"nearly equal to a combination of fish solubles and dried distiller's
solubles and superior to either alone in supplementing corn-soybean
oil meal type rations containing no other recognized source of
unidentified growth factors."
ANTHONY, Darrell W.; HOOVEN, Norman W.; and BODENSTEIN, Otelia
Toxicity to Face Fly and House Fly Larvae of Feces from Insecticide -
     Fed Cattle
Jnl. Econ.  Entom. 54: 406-408
Abst: McQ & B B-562

Results are reported of tests of dosages of various strengths of
several insecticides included in cattle rations to kill larvae of
face flies  and house flies in their feces.  Most treatments succeeded,
but possible secondary effects must be investigated.

BURNS, Edward C.; WILSON, B. H.; and TOWER, B. A.
Effect of Feeding BacMJLuA thusu,ng4.e.nt>4A to Caged Layers for Fly
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 54: 913-915

Flies develop resistance to insecticides.  Thus other methods of fly
control are of interest.  Tests on several commercially prepared
spore powders are reported in this paper.  The results varied
considerably and in some cases feed consumption and egg production
suffered.  "... there is a need for standardization and some
method of assaying formulations for toxicity."

Is Manure Worth the Hauling?
Farm Jnl. 85: Mar  p. 33, 61-62

A country-wide panel of experts, when polled, agreed that manure did
not have enough fertilizer value ($2.05 to $10.387ton on N, P, K
content) to compete economically with commercial fertilizer.  Costs
of land spreading for disposal can, however, be made less of a
burden by taking advantage of this value.
Toxicity of Several Organophosphates Administered in the Diet of
     Broilers to House Fly Larvae in the Feces
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 54: 1117-1121
Abst:  McQ & B B-564

Direct application of insecticides being expensive and time-consuming,
considerable development of larvicidal preparations to be fed to
chickens for excretion has been reported (17 references).  Tests with
14 of these at levels of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 ppm are tabulated
and discussed.  Unpalatability of the feed is probably responsible
for the weight losses and chicken mortalities which occurred in some
of the tests.
EDDY, Gaines W. and ROTH, A. R.
Toxicity to Fly Larvae of the Feces of Insecticide-Fed Cattle
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 54: 408-411
Abst:  McQ & B B-563

Studies on the toxicity to newly-hatched house fly larvae of the feces
of cattle fed 25 different compounds are reported.  Eleven of the 25

were lethal to the larvae at dosages tested.  Fly control by the
feeding of insecticides is considered to be "not only possible but
in the realm of practicability."
Manure Smell Furnishes Farmstead's Power Needs:  Gas Produced from
     Dung; Fertilizer Value Saved
Pig Farming Magazine [Great Britain]
Reprint:  National Hog Farmer v. 6, Mar.  p.  35-36 (1961)

The author describes a power plant he built in South Africa in 1958
in which an anaerobic digester produces sufficient methane gas from
the dung of 700 pigs, about 1600 Ib daily, to power the farm and three
houses free of all fuel costs.  The residue is a soupy black fluid
with a slight ammonia odor which constitutes  a fly-free, easily-
spread fertilizer.  "There is no better fertilizer than the natural
one, and here it is in full strength, neither leached nor bleached,
as it is in composting."

The digester is heated by running the cooling water piping from the
high-compression engine through the digester.  Methane is a clean,
safe fuel which could be compressed for use in tractors, trucks, or
cars.  The cost of the compressor is such, however, that this would
be uneconomical.  Frey's system would work in any climate.
WARDEN, W. K. and SCHAIBLE, Phillip J.
The Effect of Feeding Antibiotics to Chicks in the Presence of Fresh,
     Dried and Autoclaved Hen Feces
Poultry Sci. 40: 363-367

A factor which depresses the growth of chicks occurs in fresh hen
feces, but not in dried or autoclaved feces.  It may, therefore, be
a living organism or organisms rather than a toxic substance.
Antibiotics improved performance in all cases.
The Value of Virginiamycin and Certain Other Antibiotics in Chick
     and Poult Rations Contaminated with Raw or Heated Hen Feces  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 40: 1472

The antibiotics studied improved rate of growth and feed utilization
when the feed was uncontaminated with feces.  In general, the addi-
tion of fresh hen feces depressed growth.  "Heated (100C) fresh hen
feces improved the growth rate of chicks which received no antibiotics
and turkey poults which received Virginiamycin in the ration."


Manure as Power Source to Heat, Light and Ventilate Hog Houses
Agr. Engrg. 42: 662

An unnamed Iowa State University agricultural engineer is testing
the feasibility of employing the 4400 BTU/animal  produced as methane
ANTHONY, W. Brady and NIX, Ronald
Feeding Potential of Reclaimed Fecal Residue
Jnl. of Dairy Sci. 45: 1538-1539

"The objectives of this research were to (1) recover some of the
fecal feed and (2) develop an effective means of disposing of organic
residues voided by confined cattle."

Manure was collected daily from a concrete lot, diluted, stirred,
and allowed to settle.  Supernatant was poured off, water added,  the
mixture was stirred and allowed to settle for several cycles.  The
wet fecal residue (stored at 33F until needed) was mixed with
basal feed, 40 percent to 60 percent, and 1 Ib of dried yeast was
added for each 100 Ib of feed.  The mixture was stored twelve hours
before feeding.  Cattle enjoyed it and thrived on it.

Liquid Manure as a Grassland Fertilizer.  I. The Response to Liquid
     Manure and to Dry Fertilizer
Jnl. Agric. Sci. 58: 165-171
Abst:  McQ & B B-434

There was little difference in yield of herbage dry matter or in
crude protein between various water treatments accorded to manure.
Both wet and dry manure increases yield significantly.  By the end
of the third year the clover contents of the sward on liquid-manure,
dry-fertilizer, and control were 32, 18, and 15 percent respectively.
EBY, Harry J.
Manure Lagoons  .  .  . Design Criteria and Management
Agr. Engrg. 43: 698-701, 714, 715
Abst:  McQ & B  B-629

Manure lagoons  are  not a cure-all.  They are not applicable where
land is unavailable or too porous, where water is scarce, where


danger of pollution of streams or groundwater exists, or where land
is too expensive.

Loadings for municipal sewage lagoons are specified by state agencies.
These may be modified for animal  wastes.

The processes which cause a lagoon to operate are described and
design criteria are proposed.  Management problems result from
floating bedding, litter, and feathers; overloading; intermittent
loading; aquatic weeds; and sludge build-un.
     KABLER, P. W.
Type Distribution of Coliform Bacteria in the Feces of Warm-Blooded
WPCF Jnl. 34: 295-301
Abst:  McQ & B B-062

"The coliform bacteria have long been used as an indicator of human
fecal pollution in sanitary bacteriology."  Difficulties arise in
that there are other sources of coliform bacteria and that several
tests (in series) are required to isolate those from different
origins.  Testing procedures are described.
Agricultural Land Drainage and Stream Pollution
ASCE Proc. 88: SA 6, p. 61-74
Abst:  McQ & B B-089

Ultimate disposal of animal waste, despite differing intermediate
processes, is almost exclusively to land surfaces.   Little study has
been given to the amount of pollution carried to streams from this
source.  Animal populations tend, however, to build up closely
adjacent to, and often upstream of, metropolitan areas and thus may
make serious demands on the total oxygen content of streams.

A case study for the Potomac River Basin above Washington, D. C. is
reported on.
Methane Farming in Kenya
Mother Earth, July
Reprinted:  Compost Sci.
13:  Nov-Dec, p.  30-31 (1972)

A farmer in Kenya with fifty acres in coffee and with several hundred
head of cattle used the manure for producing methane and applied the
residue from the methane plant as the sole fertilizer for the coffee.
Yields more than doubled in ten years with the yield-curve rising
rapidly when last reported.

JAWORSKI, Norbert A. and HICKEY, John L. S.
Cage and Kennel Wastewater
WPCF Jnl. 34: 40-43

Measurements of BOD in washwater from a cage washing room in which
cages containing mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters and rabbits are
washed once a month are reported.  Bedding from the cages is incin-
erated once or twice weekly.  Water for all except the final rinse
is recycled.  Final rinse water is from potable mains.  When this
drains to the recycling tanks, an equivalent volume flows to the

Dog pens are washed once daily after removing gross fecal matter.
BOD is about three times that of domestic sewage.
OSWALD, William J.
The Coming Industry of Controlled Photosynthesis
Amer. Jnl. Pub. Health 52: 235-242

Organic wastes may be decomposed by aerobic bacteria whose oxygen
supply is provided by algae.  The algae may be harvested at short
intervals to feed animals which, in turn, provide more organic
waste.  Studies are under way on the effect of the included bacteria
on the health of the animals.

At Richmond, California, algae production can average about 30 tons
per acre per yr (5 in Dec, 60 in July).  This is 2 to 10 times the
peak yield of commercial crops.  The protein production of algae
is 12 tons per acre per year, of soybeans (the best vegetative source)
1 ton per acre per year, and of farm animals 100 to 200 Ib per acre
per year.

Control of Flies in Manure of Chickens and Rabbits by Cockerels in
     Southern California
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 55: 473-477
Abst:  McQ & B B-566

Field tests under a variety of conditions established the effective-
ness of controlling flies in manure under cages by permitting
cockerels to scratch for and eat the pupae and larvae.  Management
suggestions are given in the paper.  The manure should be kept as
dry as possible and feed spillage should be avoided.  The number of
larvae and/or pupae consumed per day increases from zero at one or
two days old to 100 on the third day and 8250 in the 20th week.  A.
15-week-old cockerel will consume about 200 grams of flies per day;
this is higher than the free-choice consumption of grain or mash.
All cockerels seemed healthy on the diet.
Farm Drainage - Control of Farm Effluents
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl.  2: 560-561

Legislation in the United Kingdom in 1961 had classified farmlands
as  industrial premises whether operated for profit or not and denied
them access to sewers.  The author recommends "Guile farming" as
practiced on the continent for some years.  This consists of pumping
diluted wastes, as a slurry, from a storage tank to the fields to
fertilize and irrigate.  Some concern is expressed at the loss of
runoff to streams.

"Quite clearly in the interests of good husbandry farm wastes should
be  returned to the land."
WURTZ, A. 6.
Some Problems Remaining in Algae Culturing
Symposium:  Algae and Man.  p. 120-137

Algal activity in the purification of wastes depends on having the
correct species present in a polluting environment tolerable to them.
Ideally, some preliminary decomposition of strong wastes should
occur and the modified wastes should then flow, after being supplied
with oxygen, to algae cultures for final purification.  Such is the
pattern of stream self-purification.

"There are many algae which are a nuisance in natural waters.  Others
are useless:  Though they produce some oxygen during their life, they
become dangerous after their death by the oxygen absorption they may
suddenly occasion, and the production of mud by their mass development,
Most, however, are useful, being at the beginning of life in the
waters, as food for every kind of animals living in the waters."

Engineer Tries Drying Poultry Manure with Electroosmosis
Agr. Engrg. 43: 558

An unnamed Michigan State University agricultural engineer is inves-
tigating the feasibility of drying poultry manure by electroosmosis.
If the idea proves practical, he has predicted a profit to poultrymen
of $28 per 100 birds on the sale of dry manure as pelleted commercial
Disposal of Farm Effluent
Effluent and Water Trtmt.
                      Jnl. 2: 512-513
Under an Act of Parliament in 1961,. the consent of a River Board is
required for a British farmer to continue discharge of farm wastes to
a water course.  "As farm manure cannot be marketed there is only one
thing to do with it and that is put it back on the land.   There are
four main methods of doing this:  land treatment, irrigation, trans-
port, and storage."  These are described briefly.  The fertilizer
value is estimated to be  6 per acre.
Agriculture and Compost
Compost Sci. 4 (1): 41, 42, 44, 46

"Agriculture uses green manures, stable manure and bedding straw,
as well as compost, exclusively for reasons of soil  improvement.  .
Therefore, in practice, composts are a means for soil  improvement
and not (for supplying) nutrient fertilizers."  Compost and manure
are done an injustice in being evaluated on the basis  of immediate
crop improvements.
active soil possesses great ability regarding self-purification."
BARNES, Richard H.; FIALA, Grace; and KWONG, Eva
Decreased Growth Rate Resulting from Prevention of Copronhagy
Federation Proc. 22: 125-128

Rats, when prevented from practicing coprophagy, develop a depression
in growth rate of 15 to 25 percent in four weeks.  "Growth stimulation
is observed only when fecal pellets are ingested directly on extrusion
from the anus."  Nine micronutrients are listed as being supplied in

significant quantities from the feces.   "The rat has a voracious
appetite for feces.   Even though a diet complete in all  known required
nutrients is fed, the rat will  recycle  approximately 35 - 50% of his
DAFT, F. S.; McDANIEL, E. G.; HERMAN, L.  G.;  ROMINE, N.  K.; and
     HEGNER, J. R.
Role of Coprophagy in Utilization of B Vitamins Synthesized by
     Intestinal Bacteria
Federation Proc. 22: 129-133

Coprophagy appears to be essential  to rats in the prevention of
pantothenic acid deficiency.  Acute deficiencies in pantothenic
acid lead to cessation of growth, loss of weight, and death.
Toxicity to House Flies and Horn Flies of Manure from Insecticide-
     Fed Cattle
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 56: 344-347
Abst:  McQ & B B-569

Results of a series of tests on the effectiveness of various insec-
ticides included in the ration of cattle are given.   In general,
house flies were more resistant than horn flies to the preparations
and dosages tested.
GATES, Charles D.
Treatment of Long Island Duck Farm Wastes
WPCF Jnl. 35: 1569-1579
Abst:  McQ & B B-066

Serious pollution of shell  fish and recreation areas of Long Island
was traceable to effluent from duck farms.  By "dry farming" (reducing
the quantity of water per duck to 10 gpd or less from the customary
25 to 75 gpd), use of lagoons for sedimentation, and chlorination of
the lagoon effluent substantial improvement resulted.  The removal
of the lagoon sludge poses  serious operational and inspection problems,
HART, Samuel A.
The Growing Problem of Poultry Waste Disposal
Agr.  Engrg. 44: 430

This summary of a Symposium on Poultry Industry Waste Management held
at the University of Nebraska, 13 - 15 May, 1963, pointed up many
unsolved problems.  Poultry manure cannot compete economically with
chemical fertilizer.  "While interest in lagoons was high, from work-
shop discussion it became apparent that knowledge on this disposal
technique was meager."

HART, Samuel A.
Digestion Tests of Livestock Wastes
WPCF Jnl. 35: 748-757
Abst:  McQ & B B-Q65; W71-05416

Sludge digestion as a means of stabilizing manure was studied at the
University of California.  In many ways, results are similar to those
obtained with domestic sewage sludge.  There are, however, differences.
There is little benefit from, or need for, digestion of dairy manure.
The digestion of chicken manure is feasible and desirable.  Costs are
reasonable.  The digester for a 10,000-hen operation could have a
diameter of 16 feet and height of 10 feet.
HART, Samuel A. and SCHLEUSENER, Paul E.
Rural Wastes and Agricultural Engineering
Agr. Engrg. 44: 142-143

Summarizing a symposium held at the 1962 ASAE winter meeting,  the
authors observed that manure is too moist for successful  composting
and that garbage is too dry, too low in nutrients, and too bulky
to compost.  "Mixing the two wastes gives an excellent compost which
is useful as a soil conditioner and amendment.  Certain economic
problems must be solved before such a solution can become a practical
HARTMAN, Roland C.
Composting Controls Flies (and Saves Money) at Poultry Ranch
Pacific Poultryman 69: Feb.  p. 18
Reprint:  Compost Sci. 4 (1): 26-28  (1963)

At a chicken ranch at San Marcos, California, manure, except for a
dry 6-in layer at the bottom, is removed semi-annually and piled
to complete composting.  This requires four to five weeks.  The chicken
ration is controlled to secure a dry manure and ventilation
is optimum.  The ranch has completed three years of successful,
profitable, composting.  The general applicability elsewhere would
require further testing.


New Way to Salvage Undigested Grain
Farm Jnl. 87: Apr.  p. 64

W. B. ANTHONY, of Auburn University, in a 54-day test using a feed
for steers 40 percent of which consisted of washed cattle feces and
60 percent of which was basal ration, produced gains of 3.39 Ib/day
using 6.43 Ib of feed (dry basis) per Ib of gain.   The "washing
machine" costs $8000 for a 2000-steer operation.   Research continues
to reduce the price.
The Effect of Farmyard Manure on the Moisture Characteristic of a
     Sandy Loam Soil
Jnl. of Soil Sci. 14: 73-81
Abst:  McQ & B B-133

The ease with which plants can extract water from a sandy loam soil
may be increased significantly by a long-term program of annual .
applications of manure to the soil.  In the experiments reported
the available water capacity of the top six inches was increased
70 percent over a six-year period.
TAIGANIDES, E. Paul; BAUMANN, E. Robert; and HAZEN, Thamon E.
Sludge Digestion of Farm Animal Wastes
Compost Sci. 4(2): 26-28
Abst:  McQ & B A-382

Controlled digestion of manure offers a safe and completely
mechanized system of liquid manure treatment and disposal  with the
following advantages:

     1.  The organic content of the waste is reduced by 50 to 70
     2.  The waste is well stabilized and ready for final  disposal
in a lagoon or by field spreading for fertilizer.
     3.  The digested waste is a thick, free-flowing liquid without
offensive odor.
     4.  Rodents and flies are not attracted to the end product.
     5.  The fertilizing constituents are preserved.
     6.  Combustible gases with commercial value result.

The disadvantages listed are:

     1.  The digester has a high capital cost.
     2.  A residue remains to be disposed of.
     3.  Daily supervision is required.
     4.  Care must be exercised to avoid explosions.

The only I). S. plant, built with war surplus equipment in Southern
California, is described.  Several plants are functioning in Germany.

WILEY, John S.
Utilization and Disposal of Poultry Manure
Purdue University, 18th Ann. Indust. Waste Conf.
Reprint:  USPHS Bull. 1969, 14 n.  (1970)

After discussing the fly problems associated with poultry production
in Orange County, California, the author considers the general  topic
of composting.  Poultry wastes are too wet, too fine-grained, and  of
improper carbon-to-nitrogen ratio for composting alone.  By adding the
proper amount of sawdust, however, the properties of the mixture are
excellent.  Composted manure may be stored without odor for land
spreading when convenient.
Just How Effective are Lagoons?
Compost Sci. 4(3): 25-29

Lagoons for municipal and industrial treatment depend upon algae
and aerobic bacteria.  They are shallow and have a large area.  They
are inapplicable for animal wastes because of the size required  (one
acre per 1200 chickens or 50 hogs), the need for makeup water  to
compensate for seepage and evaporation, and the impossibility  of
getting a uniform mixture of diluted waste.

Farm lagoons, indoor or outdoor, are anaerobic.  They should be
primed with sludge from a municipal plant.  Odor problems may
develop.  Aeration is of no help.  The overflow is highly polluting.

A sealed anaerobic lagoon is a digester.  It has a high capital cost,
requires maintenance and supervision, and involves some risks  of
explosions.  It can, however, produce methane gas utilizable for  fuel
or electricity and the residue is an odorless fertilizer.

An anaerobic lagoon with the supernatant flowing to an aerobic
lagoon is an excellent combination.

ANON  [Based on W. B. ANTHONY]
New Way to Salvage Undigested Grain
Farm. Jnl. 87: Apr.  p. 64

"Steers on a high-grain ration will pass up to 35% of the dry matter
they consume," ANTHONY is quoted as saying.  "You can recover about
60% of that  4. to 6 Ib per steer -- by washing down the floors and
catching the manure in a sump."  The "washing machine" for processing
the manure would cost about $8000 for a 2000-steer operation and pay
for itself in two months.  Study continues on developing cheaper
washers for smaller operations.
AL-TIMIMI, Ali A.; OWINGS, W. J.; and ADAMS, John L.
The Effects of Air and/or Heat on the Rate of Accumulation of Solids
     in Indoor Manure Digestion Tanks (Indoor Lagoons)
Poultry Scl. 43: 1051-1056
Abst:  McQ & B B-252

A concrete pit with 16-in water depth under slat floors had shown
an increase of 11.7 percent in dry matter after 16 mo.  In studies
to see if this rate could be reduced, special tanks were built, the
temperature was varied, and artificial aeration was provided in
controlled amounts.  The water surface was maintained constant.
Neither heat, air, nor any combination was effective in reducing the
percentage of dry matter.
The Behavior and Ecology of Various Flies Associated with Poultry
     Ranches in Northern California
Proc. 32nd Ann. Conf. Calif. Mosquito Control Assn.  p. 30-34

Flies on poultry ranches have many natural enemies.  Parasitic
wasps, earwigs, beetles, and mites feed on fly eggs and/or larvae.
Spiders and birds feed on adult flies and/or larvae.  Fungi kill
many flies.  The larvae of the black garbage fly, Opkyna. l&uco&toma,
attack and feed on other fly larvae whenever the latter are present.
"When contained with a superfluous number of prey they always killed
many more per day than they could possibly eat.  The beneficial
result of this behavior is that the superfluous prey larvae killed
by Opkyna. are eaten by the remaining living prey species.  House
fly larvae, for example, in preference to other food in their
developmental medium, are rapidly attracted to and devour members
of their own kind which have been killed and left by Ophyjia. larvae.
Insecticides should be used where only flies congregate rather than
where their predators might be wiped out.

Utilization of Poultry Litter Nitrogen by Sheep  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 23: 867-868

Litter based on peanut hulls was autoclaved at 240F and 15 psi  for
40 min.  Its crude protein content was 32.6 percent, dry basis.   When
tested as an equi-protein replacement for 25, 50-, and 100 percent of
the soybean meal in the ration of sheep, it was found that "percent
utilization of absorbed nitrogen tended to decrease with increasing
levels of litter nitrogen."

Nutritive Value of Poultry Litter
Jnl. Animal Sci. 23: 869  (Abst)
Abst:  McQ & B B-198

The authors report on experiments at the University of Maine in
which  laying house poultry litter was fed to four Hereford bulls.
"Poultry litter is high in protein, low in energy and vitamins  A
and D.  The metal needs to be removed from the litter by passing
it over magnets and through a hammer mill.  The litter should be
thoroughly mixed with a high-energy feed.  Phosphorus needs to  be
added  or the animals will chew wood."
CARMODY-, Robert
Chicken Litter Cow Feed
Farm Qtrly. 19: Fall  p. 52, 53, 93, 94

Maine beef raisers have been successful in feeding laying house
litter which has been on the floor 12 - 14 months (23 percent protein)
or broiler litter 10-weeks old  (21 percent protein) in a ration con-
sisting of 1500 Ib litter, 500  Ib energy feed (potato pulp, high-fat
hominy, or ground corn), 10 Ib  dicalcium phosphate, 130 g vitamin A,
and 10,000 units vitamin D.  Salt is provided free choice.  No known
diseases are transmitted from chickens to cattle.  The mixture is
unpalatable when wet, it must be thoroughly mixed, the energy con-
tent must be maintained, and the litter must be checked by magnet for
nails, staples, and other scrap iron then thoroughly ground in a
hammer mill.  On free choice, cows eat 25 to 28 Ib litter mix and
5 to 6 Ib hay per day at a feed cost of $17 per ton or less, including


Pollution Prevention in Relation to Agricultural Effluents
Chem. Ind. 9:354
Extract:  Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl.  4: 419-422

Under the Rivers (Prevention of Pollution) Act of 1961 the river
boards of the UK were authorized to require permits for the dis-
posal of agricultural effluent to streams.  Enforcement is being
achieved gradually with as little inconvenience to farmers as is
HART, Samuel A.
Manure Management in Poultry Waste Disposal
Agr. Engrg. 45: 430
Abst:  C & S 64-0364

This is a summary of the Second National Symposium on Poultry
Industry Wastes, held at the University of Nebraska 19-20 May,
1964, under the co-sponsorship of the ASAE and the Poultry Science

Manure management was the principal topic discussed.  . Anaerobic
lagoons appear promising.  Aerobic lagoons require too much land and
too much water for general applicability.

[CONNOLLY and STAINBACK:  Solid Wastes Management:  Abstracts from
the Literature - 1964 abstract 17 papers from this symposium in addi-
tion to abstracting the proceedings in toto.]
HART, Samuel A.
Thin Spreading of Slurried Manures
ASAE Trans. 7: 22-25, 28
Abst:  C & S 64-0367; McQ & B B-003; W71-05425

HART set out to determine how thick a layer of slurry (10 to 20 percent
solids) could be spread day after day, layer on layer, without
producing fly breeding or other sanitary problems.  A daily layer
1/8-inch thick seemed optimum for summer spreading at Davis, California,
Modifications for different climates and different uses are discussed.
On this basis, one acre of land would serve 230 cattle or 60,000 hens.
Lagoons will accomodate 10,000 to 20,000 hens per acre.  It is
possible, but not practical, to spread the slurry by fire hose and
nozzle from peripheral roads.  Odors were frequent and intense.
Twenty-one references are cited.

HART, Samuel A.
Sanitary Engineering in Agriculture
Compost Sci. 4(4): 11-15
Abst:  C & S 64-0366; McQ & B A-381

"Manure management is very seriously limited by costs."  The four
steps of management are collection, processing, storing, and utili-
zation or disposal.  HART discusses each in turn.  Lagoons may be
effective.  Return to the soil will remain the destiny of most manure.

Chicken Litter Good
Country Guide [Winnipeg] Nov.  p. 12-13

Success has been reported in Maine in raising cattle on a ration
of 1800 Ib poultry litter; 200 Ib of corn hominy, minerals and vita-
mins; and hay.  The 13-percent protein ration costs $17 per ton.  For
sheep a ration of 1600 Ib poultry litter and 400 Ib of broken white
bean waste (from a cannery) has been successful.  Poultry litter is
high in protein (14.38 percent to 32.66 percent in tests at the
University of Maine) and fiber but low in energy, vitamins, and avail-
able phosphorus.  "As most of the protein comes from bacteria,
sterilization of the litter would obviously destroy any value the litter
had as feed.  .  .  Drug residues are no problem, due to dilution and
dissipation.  No broilers are currently fed drugs which could be harm-
ful to cattle.  . .  According to spokesmen for Canada's Health of
Animals Division, the feeding of poultry litter to livestock would not
contravene any Canadian regulations."

Aerobic Digestion (Composting) of Poultry Manure
World's Poultry Science Jnl. 20: 212-215
Abst:  McQ & B B-315; W71-05427

Standard composting procedures can be improved by provision of forced
aeration and by covering the windrows with plastic sheets.  The
aeration system can consist of portable pipe with tees and properly-
sized holes.  It can distribute air uniformly, continuously or
intermittently as desired.

The sheets of plastic should have exhaust spaces left between them.
They prevent top drying by sun and wind, and wetting by rain and
snow.  They prevent fly breeding and odors; they appear neat and tidy.

Proper composting for poultry manure is described and cost estimates
are given.


Processing, Converting and Utilizing Solid Wastes
Compost Sci. 5: Summer  p. 8-14

The experiences of the Sanitary Engineering Research Laboratory of
the University of California in the Solid Waste field extend back
to its foundation in the early 1950's.

"Research on animal manures has been largely directed to processing
for the purpose of removing its nuisance and fly breeding potential,
rather than to its utilization. .  .if animal manures are to be
utilized it must be in commercial  agriculture. .  .   From the stand-
point of utilization alone, animal manures represent perhaps the
least fruitful area for research in the solid wastes field. .  ."
What's New in Manure Disposal
Agr. Engrg. 45: 134-135
Abst:  C & S 64-0379

Reporting on a seven-paper symposium at the 1963 Winter Meeting of
the ASAE, PALMER observed that trends were to dry manure to reduce
odor and fly problems or, preferably, to liquify it for ultimate
disposal on crop land or to lagoons.  "All the speakers agreed that
lagoons, as a means of ultimate manure disposal, had been overrated
and under-built."  Large requirements in water and land and problems
with the ultimate disposal of accumulated digested sludge were

S. A. HART had reported on algae production in lagoons followed by
harvesting and drying of the algae to be fed to livestock.  It was
not considered to be economic under present conditions.
Chicken Manure - Its Production, Composition,
Georgia Ag. Ex. Sta. Bull. N. S. 123.  24 p.
Use as a Fertilizer
Investigations at three experiment stations in Georgia indicated
that broiler and hen manures were valuable sources of readily avail-
able plant nutrients.  "The manures vary widely in composition as a
result of type of bird, kind of feed consumed, climatic conditions,
management of the poultry house, and system of handling the manure
upon removal  from the house."

Weed infestation increased following the application of chicken
manure to Coastal bermudagrass.  Otherwise, effects reported were
PRYOR, W. J. and CONNOR, J. K.
A Note on the Utilisation by Chickens of Enerqy from Faeces
Poultry Sci. 43: 833-834
Abst:  McQ & B B-251; W71-03583

Chicken manure can have high energy and nitrogen contents.  Measured
values are tabulated for various rations fed.  When a portion of the
ration in a controlled experiment was faeces from chickens on a high-
energy ration, 30 percent of the original metabolisable energy pre-
sent was recovered in the second cycle.
RAY, Maurice L. and CHILD, R. D.
He's Doing Well on Broiler House Litter
Feed Bag 40: July  p. 46-47

An experiment at the University of Arkansas of substituting litter
with a rice-hull base for rice-hull roughage is reported.  With a
grain-to-roughage ratio of 3:1, the steers on hulls gained 2.70 Ib/day,
while those on litter gained 2.65.  The carcass grade was better for
the steers on hulls.  Hay was added to the ration during the trial
to prevent bloat.  Animal fat added to counteract dust depressed
feed intake and gain on both rations.
RAY, Maurice L. and CHILD, R, D.
How Broiler House Litter Shapes up as Roughage for Steers
Feed Bag 40: Dec.  p. 24-25

Litter may be considered to be a high-nitrogen roughage.  In a feed-
ing test at the University of Arkansas, steers wintered on an 80
percent litter ration gained 0.63 Ib/day at a cost of 18.4 $, while
those on an 80 percent  rice hull ration gained 0.60 Ib/day at a cost
of 24.8 <.  Switching from animal fat to dried molasses part way
through the experiment  improved the performance of the steers on
litter and reduced that of those on rice hulls.
REEDER, Norman
Hog Manure Too Valuable to Waste
Nation's Agric. 39: May  p. 14-15
Abst:  C & S 64-0387


The fertilizer and soil-conditioner value of hog manure induced an
Indiana farmer to pump liquid manure from beneath a slotted-floor
confinement house and spread it by means of a 1000-gal capacity
honey wagon on corn!and or meadow.
RILEY, Charles
De-watering Poultry Manure
Agriculture 71: 527-529
Abst:  C & S 64-0388; McQ & B E-005

Normal industrial  processes have not proved to be very effective in
handling poultry muck.  The problems would appear to be high capital
costs of an effective dryer, difficulty of supplying the muck to
the machine from the birds at a constant rate, and improbability of
financial return.
Fish Meal and Manure:
Agric. Pakistan 13(2)
Reprint:  Compost Sci
Abst:  C & S 64-0814
   Their Preparations and Uses

   4(4): 30-31
Mixtures of commercial fertilizers and manure have proven to give
higher yields of crops than manure alone.  The author concludes that
the principal value of manure is in improving soil structure, aera-
tion, nutrient status, organic matter content, and biological
Properties and Pumping Characteristics of Hog Wastes
ASAE Trans. 7: 123-124, 127, 129
Abst:  C & S 64-0398; McQ & B B-004

By handling manure as a liquid complete mechanization can be achieved
with a reasonable investment.  To obtain data on the properties, a
series of tests was  run at Iowa State University.  A diaphragm pump
with a 6-inch auger proved satsifactory.
Waste Into Energy
Science News Letter
86: 282-283

High fuel savings to industry in using burnable wastes as fuels are
reported.  Several leading manufacturers of steam generating equip-
ment have devoted years of research and development to the design
of furnaces to handle waste fuels.
WILEY, John S.
A Report on Three Manure Composting Plants
Compost Sci. 5: Summer  p. 15-16
Abst:  C & S 64-0483; W71-05739

Composting at a Washington feedlot carrying 5500 steers and at two
million-bird chicken operations in California is described.

The steer manure, mixed with meat packing wastes and blood, is piled
in windrows and turned six times in six weeks.  The compost is bagged
and sold.  The chicken ranches each use rotary drums.  One blends the
manure with an equal amount of sawdust, hay, rice hulls, or cotton
gin trash to improve moisture content.  The other, unsuccessful  to
date, is attempting to operate on straight manure.
ANON   [Based on W. B. ANTHONY]
Feeding Potential of Reclaimed Fecal.Residue
Compost Sci. 4(4): 32
Abst:  C & S 64-0361

Confinement of animals, concentrated feeds, and specialization
whereby the cattle operator no longer has swine to rework the cattle
droppings, have resulted in waste of feed voided unused.  W. B. ANTHONY,
of Auburn University, is attempting to recover some of the fecal feed
and develop an effective means of disposing of organic residues voided
by confined cattle.
ANON  [Based on Virgil L. KROPP]
Dried Manure Plants Flourish
Compost Sci. 5: Spring  p. 31
Abst:  C & S 64-0425

The Stockyards Fertilizer Company, Inc., of Fort Worth, Texas, is
"dehydrating the manure and removing impurities to supply a specialty
market, mainly lawns, gardens and flower beds."  Shipments are to go
to 36 states.

"Breakthrough" in Poultry Manure
Compost Sci. 5: Summer  p. 30
Abst:  C & S 64-0351

A British firm is reported to have developed a process for producing
a dry sterile powder, useful as a natural organic fertilizer, from
poultry droppings.  Processing data are included.
Manure as Pullet Feed
Pennsylvania Farmer, 14 Mar.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 23: 269

Texas Tech experiments with substituting poultry manure for milo in
pullet feeds indicated that as the fraction of the ration consisting
of manure went from 10 percent, to 25 percent, to 40 percent, the
gain for birds was 1.17 Ib (control), 1.19 (on 10 percent), 1.24 (on
25 percent), and 1.27 (on 40 percent).  Feed used per Ib of gain on
these rations was 4.50, 4.77, 5.64, and 6.04 Ib, respectively.  New
trials will substitute manure for protein components, rather than
energy components, of the ration.
AL-TIMIMI, Ali A.; OWINGS, W. J.; and ADAMS, John L.
The Effects of Volume and Surface Area on the Rate of Accumulation
     of Solids in Indoor Manure Digestion Tanks
Poultry Sci. 44: 112-115
Abst:  Me Q & B B-259; W71-03582

A volume of 3.5 cu ft/bird was found to be adequate in an indoor
manure digestion tank under a hen house to permit of operation with
biennial cleaning.  Surface area is important in relation to
evaporation.  Overflow problems can arise if less than 128 sq in
per bird is provided.  No significant effects of volume on digestion
rates were observed.
A Preliminary Study of Integrated Fly Control on Northern California
     Poultry Ranches
Proc. 33rd Ann. Conf. Calif. Mosquito Control Assn.  p. 42-44

"... unlike fly larvae most of the natural enemies are associated
with the exposed surface of droppings.  The natural enemies are,

therefore, more at risk from insecticides, flames and other fly
control measures applied to the droppings than are the developing
fly maggots."  Manure removal can upset the natural control even
more seriously than can insecticides.  "New accumulations of fresh,
wet droppings were considerably more conducive to housefly propa-
gation than to repopulation by mites."

Utilization of Different Levels of Poultry Litter Nitrogen by Sheep
Jnl. Animal Sci. 24: 1174-1178
Abst:  McQ & B B-202

Rations designed to equalize crude protein, crude fiber, calcium,
and phosphorus with dried peanut hull litter replacing 0, 25, 50,
and 100 percent of the soybean protein nitrogen were fed to sheep.
"The data presented indicate that poultry litter nitrogen can be
utilized efficiently by ruminants, especially when the level of
litter nitrogen does not exceed 50 percent of the total  nitrogen
intake.  In important poultry producing areas, litter may represent
an economical source of nitrogen for ruminants.  Before using this
nitrogen source, however, feeders will have to consider the possi-
bility of drug and pesticide contamination."

BRADLEY, Melvin and RUSSELL, Walter
Poultry Litter as Cattle Feed:  Research Reviewed, Recommendations
Feedstuffs 37: 20 Feb.  p. 59-60

Research in Virginia, Texas, Georgia, and Arkansas is reviewed
briefly.  While no diseases or drug poisonings have been reported,
the potential danger exists.  Wire scraps or other metal should be
removed by magnets.  The legal status should be investigated at the
time and place of feeding.

Litter is highly variable; each batch should be subjected to chemical
analysis.  Keep the nitrates below one percent.  Feed only loose,
dry, non-dusty litter.  Rice hulls or other plant bases are better
than sawdust or shavings.  Avoid chemical residues, scrap metal, and
glass.  If potability is a problem, the addition of molasses may
help.  Add vitamin A.

Effects of Organic Manures on Soils and Crops
Proc. Nutrition Soc. 24: 29-38
Abst:  McQ & B B-664; W71-05740


The principal contribution of organic manures to crops is nitrogen.
"Organic material is not essential for the growth of green plants."
While decayed organic matter can improve soil texture, "an incom-
pletely decomposed farmyard manure or compost can in fact diminish
the supply of N to the crop because all its own N, and some soil N,
is used by the micro-organisms which rot the straw."
CLARK, Charles E.
Hog Waste Disposal by Lagooning
ASCE Proc. 91: SA 6: 27-41
Disc:  STOLTENBERG, David H.  92: SA 4: 78-80; McKINNEY, Ross E.
     92: SA 4: 80-81
Abst:  C & S 65-0231; McQ & B B-090; W71-03578

CLARK reports on visits to hog raising facilities in Illinois about
which complaints had been received.  "Never were the complaints found
to be unjustified."  Land spreading creates nuisances and is
uneconomical.  Digestion is subject to process failure caused by anti-
biotic effects of hog feed, temperature changes, or shock loads.  The
gas produced has a low production rate and a low BTU value.   Lagoons,
when properly designed and maintained, work.

McKINNEY points out size limitations for lagoons which restrict their
use to small or moderate operations.  For a 10,000-hog-per-year
project in Kansas, an aerobic activated sludge unit is being installed.

DIGGS, B. G.; BAKER, Bryan, Jr.; and JAMES, Frank
Value of Pig Feces in Swine Finishing Rations  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 24: 291
Abst:  McQ & B B-200

In a 63-day trial with swine rations containing 0, 15, and 30 percent
dried pig feces gains were 1.56, 1.71, and 1.53 Ib/day, respectively.
Feed intakes were 3.63, 3.62, and 4.65 Ib/day, respectively.  No,
undesirable flavor was detectable in the pork.
Effects of Level and Kind of Broiler Litter for Fattening Steers
Jnl. Animal Sci. 24: 879
Abst:  McQ & B B-201

Rations containing 25 percent peanut hull litter, 25 percent wood
shaving litter and a zero-litter control were fed to steers.  Feed
efficiency was highest for the peanut hull, and lowest for the control
ration.  Neither litter ration affected the meat taste adversely.
Performance on 25 percent litter in a second test was better than on
40 percent litter.
HART, S. A. and GOLUEKE, C. G.
Producing Algae in Lagoons
ASAE Trans. 8: 122-123  [Paper 63-922]
Abst:  McQ & B B-010

The production of algae for livestock feed is feasible only in a
completely aerobic lagoon.  The harvesting involves a series of three
difficult steps:  concentration, dewatering and final drying with
costs of 1.3, 1, and 1.5 to 2 tf/lb of dried algae.  Thus, the cost
is more than that of soybean meal.  Algae ponds are sensitive to
overloads.  The supernatant from a digester would be acceptable;
manure would not.  The process is not currently economically feasible
in the U. S., but could ultimately become so.
HART, S. A.; TAIGANIDES, E. P.; and EBY, H. J.
Waste Disposal .  .  . Pre-Eminent Challenge to Agricultural  Engineers
Agr. Engrg. 46: 220-221
Abst:  C & S 65-0233

This summary of a session at the 1964 Winter Meeting of the ASAE
cited European practice which is, almost without exception, to con-
serve manures by  applying them to croplands.  In developing uses
rather than disposals intensified research into coprophagy  (feeding
manure back to other animals), algae production, fish culture using
manure-fertilized water, and use as a fuel source with conservation
of phosphorus and potassium nutrients was urged.
HART, S. A. and TURNER, M. E.
Lagoons for Livestock Manure
WPCF Jnl. 37: 1578-1596
Abst:  McQ & B B-068; W7T-05429

This is a report of testing of eight pilot lagoons on the Davis
campus of the University of California over a two-year period.  Five
of the lagoons were used for chicken manure throughout.  The other
three were used for dairy cattle manure the first year and swine
manure the second.  Characteristics of the manure and test results
are tabulated and discussed.


"Manures are not sewage, and are really not very similar to sewage

The lagoons proved to be effective in stabilizing organic matter and
in reducing fly problems.  Biological sealing of the bottoms did not
occur to any appreciable extent.

"Infiltration may well control whether a lagoon can be used for manure
disposal. . .  If infiltration does not control the existence of
a lagoon, then odors will be the major factor which will control its
loading rate."  Lagoons should be designed on the basis of BOD per
unit volume translated into lagoon volume per animal.  Lagoons should
be deep and the influent should be discharged near the bottom to
encourage mixing with the digested sludge.  Lagoons must be cleaned
periodically to restore their volume.  Expect no miracles.
Treatment of Livestock Waste  A Laboratory Study
ASAE Trans. 8: 113-117, 126  [Paper 63-919]
Abst:  McQ & B B-008, 6-002; W71-05430

From laboratory studies of animal wastes the authors conclude that
aerobic lagoons alone are economical only if the feeder happens to
possess a large pond.  Anaerobic lagoons require occasional cleaning
and sludge disposal.  Series of anaerobic followed by aerobic lagoons
appear promising.
JOHNSON, Curtis A.
Disposal of Dairy Manure
ASAE Trans. 8: 110-112  [Paper 63-918]
Abst:  McQ & B B-007; W71-05424

Liquid manure handling offers the greatest promise.  An adaptation
of the principle of septic tanks with utilization of the methane gas
produced to heat the tanks and, thus, improve the operation is
suggested.  Low-power systems are adequate for manure handling with
continuous flow.  By reusing flushing water, volumes can be kept
minimal.  Construction details are discussed.
JOHNSON, Curtis A.
Liquid Handling of Poultry Manure
ASAE Trans. 8: 124-126  [Paper NA 64-501]
Abst:  McQ & B B-011; W71-06450

 A pilot plant for handling liquid poultry manure by means of a septic
 tank is described.  Modifications were under way to utilize the methane
 gas produced to heat the tank.  Virtues of the method include,ease of
 handling of the manure, simple disposal of effluent and sludge to
 land, low power requirement, and little odor produced.   The capital
 cost was about $1 per bird.

 JOHNSON, Curtis A.
 Liquid Handling Processes for Poultry Manure Utilization
 Compost Sci. 5: Aut-Wint.  p. 18-22
 Abst:  McQ & B A-416

 Waste disposal from a 7000-bird operation in Massachusetts  by means
 of a septic tank is described.  Modifications under way will  heat the
 tank with the methane gas it produces.  Cost data are given.   Other
 liquid handling processes are described and the author conjectures
 on piping slurry to a city treatment plant.

 Manure Smells Sweet at $194.50 a Ton
 Country Guide [Winnipeg] Sept.  p. 27

Mac CUDDY of Strathroy, Ontario, dries turkey litter in a two-stage
 process and packages it in 40-lb bags which sell  for $3.89.   The
 litter, which is kept as dry as possible at all times,  is pre-dried
 to 55-60 percent moisture in a covered shed with a paved floor,  then
 finally dried to eight percent in a secret process on which  a patent
 is pending.  CUDDY is considering the production of mushroom compost
 McKELL, C. M.; BROWN, V. W.; ADOLPH, R.  H.;  and BRANSON,  R.  L.
 Chicken Manure as Rangeland Fertilizer
 Calif. Agric. 19: June  p. 6-7
 Abst.  McQ & B E-106

 The market for chicken manure in San Diego County being  over-supplied,
 a three-year testing program on the possibilities of fertilizing  range-
 lands deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus was undertaken in 1962.
 Preliminary findings indicate that the manure may be spread  on  a  year-
 round basis and that the forage has. improved nutritional  value  and

Poultry Manure Disposal
ASAE Trans. 8: 105-106  [Paper 63-916]
Abst:  McQ & B B-005

This survey of American practice found no single best-solution to
poultry manure disposal.  In the South and Southwest, fly control
can create more problems than manure disposal.

Lagoons can be aerobic only if they have large areas -- 1000 to 1500
hens/acre of lagoon in the North and 2000 hens/acre in the South.
Anaerobic lagoons have odor problems.  Lagoons on porous soil may
cause groundwater pollution, and lagoons subject to freezing may be
ineffective.  They require competent management.  Liquid manure from
lagoons should be spread on land.

Composting is restricted by lack of markets for the product.
Dehydration is generally unsatisfactory due to odors and to difficulty
of producing a uniform marketable product.
 Manure Odors Can Land You in Court!
 Farm Jnl. 89: Aug.  p. 19, 36-37

 More people and more animals are the bases for more complaints.
 Court orders and costs of litigation have forced some farmers to shut
 down.  Advice offered to livestock operators who can see suburbia
 approaching is, in addition to maintaining good housekeeping, to seek
 zoning of land restricted to agriculture then watch eternally for
 the granting of exceptions and variances.  State licensing has proved
 effective in Kansas.
STERN, Eric W.; LOGIUDICE, Albert S.; and HEINEMANN, Heinz
Approach to Direct Gasification of Cellulosics
I & EC Process Design and Dvpt. 4: 171-173

The technical feasibility of direct conversion of cellulosics to
synthesis gas has been demonstrated using sawdust.  Agricultural
wastes should constitute a potential raw material source.
Agricultural Value of Dried Poultry Manure and Bedding
Compost Sci. 5: Aut-Winter  p. 29-30
Abst:  C & S 65-0235


A six-inch layer of litter based on sugar cane bagasse was dried and
applied in various amounts and with various additives to corn and
beans.  Chemical composition before and after drying and crop yields
are tabulated.
WITZEL, S. A.; McGOY, Elizabeth; and LEHNER, Richard
Chemical and Biological Reactions from Lagoons Used for Cattle
ASAE Trans. 8: 449-451  [Paper No. 64-417]
Abst:  McQ & B B-014; W71-05742

Studies were made of the conversion of the waste from six bulls in
a five-ft deep lagoon in Wisconsin.  Data are given for BOD, solids,
organic nitrogen (NH3 Nitrogen), pH, temperature, sludge build-up,
odor, and bacterial types and quantities.  "One can conclude that
this lagoon is operating satisfactorily and is in good balance."
WOLF, Dean C.
Developments in Hog-Manure Disposal
ASAE Trans. 8: 107-109  [Paper 63-917]
Abst:  McQ & B B-006, G-001

The big trend is to liquid manure handling.  Lagoons, while valuable,
are not unmixed blessings.  Odor, especially in spring, and potential
ground water pollution may result from their underdesign.  Lagoons
in series with periodic cleaning and field disposal are recommended.

The generation of electricity by utilizing the fuel value of gases
from manure decomposition "with a setup patterned after some in Asia
and Africa" is described.  Few flies, little odor, and little ultimate
disposal are among the advantages.

Distribution of liquid manure on crops by sprinkler irrigation de-
serves more consideration.  It is proving effective in England.
AGNEW, R. W. and LOEHR, R. C.
Cattle-Manure Treatment Techniques
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of  Farm Animal Wastes  p. 81-84
Abst:  C & S 66-0193; McQ & B C-055; W71-02016

For manure handling from beef feedlots the combination of an anaerobic
lagoon for the destruction and stabilization of organic matter followed
by an aerobic lagoon  for treatment of the effluent for ultimate dis-
posal has several advantages.  The cost may be moderate since the
operator often possesses the excavating machinery required.  Solids


handling is simplified since the anaerobic lagoon may be located near
the feedlot.  Solids disposal is facilitated since the digested solids
may be handled by pumping.  Equipment for spreading or spraying is
standard in the agricultural community.  The size of lagoon may be
moderate; volume, rather than area, being a design criterion deep
lagoons are preferable.  The effluent from the aerobic lagoon may
find application for non-potable uses.  The two-lagoon system facili-
tates runoff control.
Farm-Waste Management Trends in Northern Europe
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 133-136
Abst:  C & S 66-0194; McQ & B C-070; W71-02031

The most common method of manure handling in Northern Europe is land
spreading, usually by honey wagon, but occasionally by irrigation
pipe or ditch.  Soil conditioning value of manure is highly regarded.
Research emphasis is on reducing costs of handling and hauling man-
ure rather than on major treatment facilities.  Dehydration and use
of oxidation ditches are receiving some attention.  Methane production
has dropped out of use.
     and HARMS, R. H.
Nutrient Digestibility by Ruminants of Poultry Litter Containing
     Dried Citrus Pulp
Jnl. Agr. Food Chem. 14: 279-281
Abst:  McQ & B B-099

When dried citrus pulp was used as litter with broiler chicks then
fed to lambs, the nitrogen and ash were greater in the combined
droppings and citrus pulp than in the original pulp (percentage
basis).  The poultry litter diet had a higher apparent digestion
coefficient for crude protein.  "The results suggest that"dried
citrus pulp and perhaps certain other feeds can be used as poultry
litter and subsequently fed to ruminants."
Biological Interrelationships Between Feces and Flies
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 20-23
Abst:  C & S 66-0589; McQ & B C-035; W71-01996

Animal concentrations led to intensification of the production
of "filth flies" as contrasted with the beneficial "pasture flies"

which remove much of the energy and organic load from droppinqs.
Studies have shown that flies will be attracted from a wide area to
lay eggs in manure concentrations.  "Under proper manure removal
and management programs, therefore, such enterprises can function
as death traps for infinite numbers of potential flies in a community."
Removal at five- to seven-day intervals followed by rapid drying is
effective.  Fly larvae can degrade manure and provide protein for
chickens, animals, or even humans.  African dung beetles have
phenomenal performance records in disposing of elephant and other
Utilization of Animal Waste as a Feed for Ruminants
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 109-112
Abst:  C & S 66-0493; McQ & B C-060; W71-02023

The exploratory development of formulae for treating cattle wastes
and blending them with feed components is related.  Accompanied by
13 tabulations of pertinent data, ANTHONY describes successful pre-
liminary tests feeding 40 parts of washed fecal residue blended
with 60 parts of basal feed.  Later, residues retained on screens
were mixed with basal feed for experiments with a few head of cattle.
"The preliminary tests revealed that the excreta of feedlot cattle
contains valuable nutrients in reasonably large amounts and that
cattle will consume this product when it is combined with other feed
ingredients."  Commercially available screens having been found to be
inadequate for a larger-scale test, a mixture of 40 parts fresh
manure combined with 60 parts concentrate was prepared daily, held
in cans overnight, and fed the next day.  "Results of this test
revealed that combining fresh, unwashed manure with concentrate feed
was not a satisfactory practice in terms of animal gain and carcass
grade."  Either washing or heat treatment was found to be effective
in improving the feed.  Still later tests with an ensiled mixture
of 57 parts manure and 43 parts coastal bermudagrass hay (89 Ib)
blended with 52 Ib ground shelled corn and 1 Ib of Auburn - 65 (urea -
CSM mixture) led to excellent results.  "The coastal-manure haylage
had a pleasing, silage odor.  Animals readily consumed it.  Based
on the results of this study, combining offers the cattle feeder a
challenging opportunity to improve feed efficiency and at the same
time reduces the cost of removing manure from feeding pens."  A
list of 23 references is included.
BELL, D. D.; CURLEY, R. 6.; and LOOMIS, E. C.
Poultry Manure Removal Systems Used on California Poultry Ranches
     (Abst)  '
Poultry Sci. 45: 1069
Abst:  McQ & B B-264


Wet and dry systems with frequent or infrequent handling have been
effective for various sets of local circumstances.  A strong
educational effort is under way to improve manure management.
BENTLEY, Orville G.
Animal Waste Management at the Regional Level
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal  Wastes  p. 148-150

The role of state experiment stations and of regional groups of
experiment stations in providing interdisciplinary research on
manure management problems is discussed.
BERRY, Edward C.
Requirements for Microbial Reduction of Farm Animal Wastes
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 56-58
Abst:  C & S 66-0195; McQ & B C-048; W71-02009

A general introduction to microbiological  action on organic wastes
provides the bases for understanding the difficulties encountered
with lagoons in cold climates.  "If these manure lagoons are going
to be more than storage pits, it will be necessary to equip them for
agitating the material, supplying oxygen, providing sufficient water
for dilution to an acceptable level, and increasing the temperature
to a degree sufficient for microbial action."
Protein and Energy Value of Peanut Hull and Wood Shaving Poultry
Jnl. Animal Sci. 25: 367-371
Abst:  McQ & B B-203

Experiments, of which the procedures are described and chemical data
are tabulated, were conducted on the effects of substituting 25 and
50 percent peanut hull litter and wood shaving litter in a corn-hay
basal ration fed to sheep.  "Digestibility of energy (76.4 percent)
for the basal ration was greater than for the rations containing 25
or 50 percent litter.  Kind of litter had no significant effect'on
digestibility of ration energy. . .  The potential value of poultry
litter in ruminant rations appears quite promising.  The values of
22.7 percent digestible protein and 2440 kcal. of digestible energy
per kg. compare favorably with corresponding values (all analyses)
of 12 percent and 2479 kcal. per kg. for alfalfa hay."

Trickling Filters as a Dairy-Manure Stabilization Component
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 66-68
Abst:  C & S 66-0196; McQ & B C-051; W69-01156

As a means of producing an effluent of good enough quality for release
to streams or for recirculation as flushing water in a milking parlor
the authors investigated treatment of diluted dairy manure by trickling
filters.  The results of their research indicated that almost any
desired quality of effluent could be secured by appropriate selection
of the loading rate.  To produce an effluent BOD of 200 ppm from 346
to 391 cu ft of tanks per cow would be required.  No cost data are  
Deep Pit Cage Houses  in Maine  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 45:  1073
Abst:  McQ & B B-265

"There appears to be  no one manure handling system that is optimum
for all situations primarily because of the variation in 'value1
of poultry manure in  a given area.  The 'market demand1 if any, is
an important influence.  However,  in most cases storage of manure,
for varied lengths of time, enhances handling and disposal by pro-
viding flexibility."  Deep pits provide an effective means of
BROWN, Robert H.
Poultry Litter as
Feedstuffs 38: 12
Cattle Feed
Nov.  p.  6,
at Florida Event
"The big question was not whether litter would make a potential
feed but whether the country is ready for it."  A litter based on
beet or citrus pulp would cost more than the traditional sawdust,
shavings, bagasse, etc.,' but would provide a better feed ingredient.
Dewatering Chicken Manures  by Vacuum Filtration
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of  Farm Animal Wastes  p. 85-91
Abst-  C & S 66-0197; McQ & B C-056; W71-02017

Large poultry facilities in an urban setting cannot employ land
spreading as a method of manure disposal.   The ultimate disposal
techniques apparently available include burial, incineration, wet
oxidation, fluidized bed oxidation, conversion to soil  conditioner
or animal feed supplement, and barging to  sea.  For all these
procedures it is advantageous to have drier manure with its smaller
volume and reduced weight.  Vacuum filtration has been  employed
in the treatment of sewage sludges.  With  appropriate substitution
of chemicals, it is also effective for dewataring poultry manure.
Extensive laboratory testing is reported.   An economic  analysis has
not been completed.
Liquid Manure as a Grassland Fertilizer.   V. The Response to Mix-
     tures of Liquid Manure (Urine) and Dung
Jnl. Agric. Soc. Cambr. 67: 397-404
Abst:  McQ & B B-449

Slurry irrigation has been practiced in Switzerland, Austria, and
Germany for years (Guile System).  In a three-year test in the UK
marked reductions of yield occurred in the second and third years as
the percentage of clover present decreased.  The nitrogen efficiency
as a fertilizer was directly related to the proportion of N^-N
in the total nitrogen.  Because of this,  100 percent urine was several
times as effective in the production of dry matter as 100 percent
CHENEY, Lloyd T.
Farm Animal Waste Problem as Viewed by Civil Engineers
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 9
Abst:  C & S 66-0198; McQ & B C-029

Industrial-type concentrations lead to potential water pollution
often with slug flows during and after precipitation.  Municipal
treatment practices are not generally applicable to animal waste
Poultry Sci.
J. and ROUSE, R.
of Broiler House
 45: 1078
as Affected by Number of Broods
Studies at Auburn University on nutrients present in pine-shavings
litter after one to six broods had been raised on it indicated that

the greatest gain in N, P, and K occurred with the second brood.
Maximum concentration occurred after four broods.
CROSS, Otis E.
Removal of Moisture from Poultry Waste by Electro-Osmosis (Part 1)
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 91-93
Abst:  C & S 66-0199; McQ & B C-062; W71-02018

Laboratory experimentation in the removal of moisture from poultry
manure by electro-osmosis is reported.  A 57 percent decrease in
moisture content occurred in the most successful test.  For part 2
see [1966-1056].
CURTIS, David R.
Design Criteria for Anaerobic Lagoons for Swine Manure Disposal
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 75-80
Abst:  C & S 66-0200; McQ & B C-054; W71-02015

Data are presented and discussed for eleven hog waste lagoons in
South Dakota.  Tentative design criteria proposed on the basis of this
analysis are:  a) provide a liquid volume of 75 to 100 cu ft per hog,
b) provide a lagoon depth of at least five ft, c) provide adequate slope
in the collection system and discharge conduit to assure trouble-free
manure carriage, d) locate the discharge conduit above the center of
the liquid surface, e) use a V-trough for manure carriage, and
f) fence the lagoon adequately to assure safety.

Cattle-Manure Handling and Disposal Systems on the West Coast
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 45-47
Abst:  C & S 66-0201; McQ & B C-043; W71-02004

In stall housing of dairy cattle, very little bedding is mixed with
the manure but the sloppy material is difficult to handle and to keep
free of fly breeding.  If liquid manure is disposed of by sprinkler
irrigation, a follow-up application of water is important to a)  make
the pastures more palatable to the animals, b) get the fertilizer
into the root zone promptly, and c) flush the irrigation pipe.
"Lagoons appear to be satisfactory provided odors are not obnoxious
to the community, no seepage occurs to contaminate water supplies,
and the fertilizer value can be sacrificed."
DAVIS, R. V.; COOLEY, C. E.; and HADDER, A. W.


Treatment of Duck Wastes and Their Effects on Water Quality
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 98-105
Abst:  C & S 66-0202; McQ & B C-058; W71-02021

Studies leading to the abatement of pollution from two duck farms in
Virginia are discussed.  The solution adopted consisted of providing
alternatively-used earthen settling basins for removing solids
followed by retention basins with a four-day holding period.  Coliform
organisms were reduced by 90 to 95 percent, and oyster harvesting
downstream was resumed.
Health Aspects and Vector Control Associated with Animal Wastes
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 18-20
Abst:  McQ & B C-034; W71-01995

"Over 100 diseases of animals may be transmitted to man. . .   Some
of the most significant bacterial zoonoses are salmonellosis,
staphylococcal and streptococcal infections, tetanus, tuberculosis,
brucellosis, leptospirosis, and colibacillosis."  Routes of trans-
mission and means of combatting several of these diseases are
discussed.  Feeding of animal feces to other animals presents
significant hazards of spreading disease.
Biological Aspects of the Animal Waste Disposal Problem
AAAS Publn. 85, p. 395-399
Abst:  McQ & B D-004

Various efforts (some unsuccessful, others nonfeasible for practical
operations) to counteract the odor associated with poultry manure are
reported.   "Although no practical solution can be advanced, it would
appear that chemical treatment for odor abatement is feasible."
DONEEN, L. D.  (Editor)
Agricultural  Waste Waters  [Symposium]
Univ. of Cal., WRC Rnt. No. 10  368 p.

The interest of this symposium focused on irrigation return flows
with minimal  discussion of animal  wastes.  Two pertinent papers are
abstracted separately:  GOLUEKE and OSWALD [1966-1031] and HART

Liquid Manure as a Grassland Fertilizer.  IV. The Effect of Liquid
     Manure on the Mineral Content of Grass and Clover
Jnl. Agric. Sci. 67: 337-343
Abst:  McQ & B B-448

In fertilizer tests on grassland, applications of a) diluted cattle
urine containing 0.26 percent N and 0.44 percent K supplying 0, 100,
and 400 Ib N and 0, 174, and 697 Ib K/acre, b) fertilizer nitrogen
supplying 0 and 200 Ib N/acre, and c) potash fertilizer supplying 0
and 166 Ib K/acre, were evaluated.

Liquid manure and/or potash fertilizer increased the potassium and
decreased the sodium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus contents of
both grass and clover.  Nitrogen fertilizer has a slight effect in
the opposite direction.

Liquid manure increases the ratio K/(Ca + Mg), thus tending to cause
hypomagnesaemic tetany in grazing cattle.

     and BOX, T. W.
Coprophagy and Use of Animal Waste in Livestock Feeds
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 112-114
Abst:  C & S 66-0203; McQ & B C-061; W71-02024

Coprophagy has been observed in cattle fed limited quantities of an
all-concentrate ration.  In a testing program in which pullets and
laying hens were fed a ration of which 10, 25, or 40 percent was
manure from cattle fed on the all-concentrate ration slightly fewer
eggs resulted at 25 and 40 percent, and more at 10 percent than in
the control ration with no manure.  Digestibility of dry matter
decreased as the percentage of manure increased.  No differences
in fertility among incubated eggs were observed at the four rations.

Catfish responded well to all-concentrate cattle manure as long as
care was taken to prevent oxygen depletion in the ponds.
EBY, Harry J.
Two Billion Tons of -- What!
Compost Sci. 7: Autumn  p. 7-10
Abst:  W71-05745

"Eby's Law says that if you want to get a disagreeable job done, make
it profitable."  He proposed grass belts on contours, with the grass


growing in rich deposits of composted animal and municipal wastes, to
act as silt and debris traps and sources of hay.  The proposal is
based on the considerations that 1) soil with a high organic content
holds more water, 2) incorporation of organic matter in clay improves
its percolation rate, and 3) soil is a good bacterial filter.
EBY, Harry J.
Evaluating Adaptability of Pasture Grasses to Hydroponic Culture and
     Their Ability to Act as Chemical Filters
Proc. Symp. Mgnrt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 117-120
Abst:  C & S 66-0204; McQ & B C-065

Experiments with the hydroponic growing of various grasses in the
greenhouse and in test plots are described.  To be useful such plants
should deplete N, P. or K in the effluent in which they are grown.
They should be nutritious to livestock, and they should be easily
harvested.  Advantages of hydroponic agriculture include a) the
ability to utilize manure with a minimum of handling, b) a potentially
higher yield per acre for some crops than can be obtained by conven-
tional agriculture, and c) an improvement in sanitation of both the
farmer and his livestock.  Sewage plant effluent should be an excellent
hydroponic medium.
Role of the Renderer in the Use and Disposal of Animal Wastes
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 114-117
Abst:  McQ & B C-064; W71-02025

The renderer has equipment for converting manure, or some of its
components, sufficiently to "circumvent the stigmas, reservations,
and variability inherent in a direct manure product."
Value of Broiler Litter as Feed for Ruminants
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 105-108
Abst:  C & S 66-0515; McQ & B C-059; W71-02022

The litter samples analysed contained an average of 32 percent crude
protein, dry basis.  The average digestion coefficient of the crude
protein was 72.5 percent.  Chemical analyses of litters are tabulated.
When the litter was autoclaved at 116C under a pressure of 1.06 kg/sq cm
for forty minutes, air dried, and finely ground, it supplied substantial
protein and energy value for ruminants in feeding tests.  Performance
data are tabulated.  No unpleasant flavor was imparted to the meat.

Litters to be used for feeding should be checked for objectionable drug
and pesticide residues.  Other harmful organisms might also be present
in some circumstances.
Animal Wastes:  Disposal or Management
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 144-145
Abst:  McQ & B C-073

Animal waste disposal is a subfield of the much larger problem of
environmental contamination.  Utilization, not mere disposal, will
be required in an ultimate solution.  Composting for reclamation of
marginal lands and combustion on fluidized beds for production of
heat are among the more promising processes.

GOLUEKE, Clarence G. and OSWALD, W. J.
Treatment and Reclamation of Agricultural Waste Waters
Proc. Symp. on Agricultural Waste Waters.  Davis, Cal.  p. 286-292

For animal wastes, treatment by lagooning and facultative ponds is
described.  Reclamation of both water and nutrients (in the form of
algae) is advocated.  Some cost data are included, as are 19 references,
HART, Samuel A.
Agricultural Wastes and the Waste Water Problem
Proc. Symp. on Agricultural Waste Waters.  Davis, Cal.   p.  14-16

Manures should preferably be returned to the soil following the
pattern of Nature's recycling.  Lagoons on porous soil  may pollute
HART, Samuel A.
Future Research in Animal Wastes
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 150-151

For immediate application, research on odor control and optimum
manure disposal practices on croplands is required.  For the long-
range, the extraction of lignins and celluloses for building materials,
the uses as fuel, and the extraction of vitamins and other chemicals
deserve attention.  Combining and composting agricultural and muni-
cipal wastes may simplify the problems of both town and country.

 HART, S. A.; MOORE, J. A.; and HALE, W. F.
 Pumping Manure Slurries
 Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 34-38
 Abst:  C & S 66-0205; McQ & B C-039; W71-02000

 Results of testing three centrifugal, a positive displacement, and
 a diaphragm pump on manure slurries of various solids content are
 reported.  At low solids content, pipe friction losses were less than
 for water, but when the slurry became thick, frictional losses were
 much greater than for water.  Pumps should be selected on the basis
 of actual tests with the material to be pumped rather than by extra-
 polating tests with water.  Since manure pumps are designed to be
 non-clogging, efficiencies are low.  The authors recommend a slurry
 with solids content between 1 and 3 (or perhaps 4) percent for all
 manures.  This may simplify manure moving at the expense of manure
 HINTZ, H.  F.; HEITMAN, H., Jr.; WEIR, W. C.; TORELL, D. T.; and
     MEYER, J. H.
 Nutritive  Value of Algae Grown on Sewage
 Jnl. Animal Sci. 25: 675-681
 Abst:  McQ & B B-204

 Marine algae have been used for iodine, fertilizer, and feed for
 livestock.  The nutritive values of unicellular algae grown on
 sewage have been studied previously for rats and chicks.  This paper
 reports feeding tests for pigs, cattle, and sheep.  Algae have a high
 crude protein value, about equal to that of soybean or cottonseed
 meal, but with considerable ash.  The digestibility of the cell walls
 is low.  Algae must be pelleted with tasty components or animals will
 avoid them.  Algae appear, however, to have potential as a livestock
 feed, particularly for ruminants, "because of the high content of
 protein, plus significant amounts of carotene, phosphorus, calcium
 and trace minerals."
HOBBS, Charles S.
Farm Animal Waste Problem
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 9, 14
Abst:  McQ & B C-030

"The concentration of animals in large feedlots and the terrific
population explosion is creating major problems of odors, public
agitation, public health, etc."  Agriculture, becoming more and
more a minority group, must guard its public relations.

On-Site Composting of Poultry Manure
Prop. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 68-69
Abst:  McQ & B C-052; W71-02013

By means of an inoculum, "Litterlife," containing 46 strains of
aerobic bacteria and fungi together with other ingredients, used
poultry litter may be composted in place with the resulting composted
litter being dry, odorfree, and unattractive to flies.  The process
may be repeated several times by adding more inoculum and water and
then remixing mechanically.  Such treatment of litter permits the
maintenance of optimum humidity for poultry health without employing
damp litter with its potential for producing ammonia in quantities
toxic to poultry.  The process can restore litter which has been
flooded or on which diseased poultry have been confined.
IRGENS, R. L. and DAY, D. L.
Laboratory Studies of Aerobic Stabilization of Swine Waste
Jnl. Agric. Engr. Rsch. 11: 1-10
Abst:  McQ & B B-106

"Disposal of swine wastes is a problem involving economics, sani-
tation and aesthetics."  A laboratory investigation of the merits
of aerobic stabilization is reported.  Continuous operation proved
to be preferable.  The treatment made the swine waste virtually
odorless and stable.  An estimated 36 kwh per pig per year should
power an effective aerator rotor in an oxidation ditch.   Chi orination
of the diluted (6 cu ft from a 150-lb pig) waste improved odor and
reduced COD.
IRGENS, R. L. and DAY, D. L.
Aerobic Treatment of Swine Waste
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 58-60
Abst:  C & S 66-0207; McQ & B C-049; W71-02010

Aerobic treatment of swine wastes would have the advantages of being
odor-free and producing a high degree of stabilization.   The labora-
tory tests reported were not unqualified successes.  A field labora-
tory employing an oxidation ditch was completed in the spring of 1966,
Results were not available at the time of preparation of this paper.
JORDAN, Herbert C.

Poultry Manure Marketing
Proc.  Syrnp.  Mgmt.  of Farm Animal  Wastes  p.  132-133
Abst:   C & S 66-0209; McQ & B C-069; W71-02030

Replies to a 31-question survey on the marketing of poultry manure
are tabulated and discussed.   Value as a soil  conditioner should be
emphasized in advertising.
KESLER, Richard P.
Economic Evaluation of Liquid-Manure Disposal  from Confinement
     Finishing of Hogs
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 122-125
Abst:  C & S 66-0210; McQ & B C-067; W71-02028

An economic analysis of the choice of manure disposal  system should
consider a) the amount of manure that is  produced, b)  the fertility
content of the manure and its value as a  replacement for commercial
fertilizer, c) the disposal costs of each system, and  d) the avail-
ability of cropland on which to spread the manure.  Case studies are

LINN, Alan
Whipping the Manure Problem
Farm Qtrly. 21: Winter  p. 56-59, 115-116
Abst:  McQ & B F-023; W71-05422

The oxidation ditch is illustrated, explained, and extolled.  It
goes hand-in-hand with a slatted livestock building.  Proposed
dimensions and estimated costs are given  based on research at
Purdue University.  Three hundred successful installations for
municipal sewage in Europe are cited as proof of effectiveness.
Agriculture and the Prevention of River Pollution, as Experienced
     in the West of Scotland
Inst. Sew. Purif.-, Jnl.  and Proc. 65: 452-454
Abst:  W71-05421

With relatively small  installations (average dairy herd of 40 cows)
and availability of land, manure is prized for its fertilizer value.
"In 1957 the volume of urine discharged in Scotland was 219 mil gal.
the value of this urine  has been estimated at  1.267 million."
Precautions to prevent runoff to surface streams are becoming in-
creasingly necessary.

Properties of Chicken Manures Affecting Their Disposal
AAAS Publn. 85, p. 401-413
Abst:  McQ & B D-005

Land disposal is regarded as being the only acceptable destiny of
chicken manure.  Desirata in processing are 1) elimination of odor
nuisance, 2) reduction in mass to be hauled or pumped, and 3) reduc-
tion of BOD to reduce possibility of odor developing after spreading.
Neither aerobic nor anaerobic biological treatments are ideal.
Large quantities of polluted water in the first, and odors,
malfunctions, and costs in the second are discouraging.  Rapid
drying is mentioned, but not advocated.

MacDONALD, F. W. and DAVIS, H. R.
BOD of Captive Wild Animal Wastes
Wtr. and Sew. Wks. 113: 64-67

Road zoos and serpentariums tend to handle solid waste by composting
in piles or pits.  Odors are reduced by adding lime.  Fixed zoos
tend to rely on municipal treatment plants.  With zoos increasing
in number and size, an interest in waste analysis arises.   This is
even more important in regard to the wastes from primates and other
animals which have been used for research on human disease.  The
authors tabulate BOD measurements from the fecal matter of animals
in a New Orleans zoo.
MAW, A. J. G.
Poultry Science Viewpoint of Farm Animal Waste Problem
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 10
Abst:  McQ & B C-031

Few poultrymen have convenient land, adequate in area, on which to
employ poultry manure as fertilizer.  Hopefully, some means can be
found to convert the material to something useful.
MAY, D. M. and MARTIN, W. E.
Manures are Good Sources of Phosphorus
Calif. Agr. 20: July  p. 11-12
Abst:  McQ & B E-108

Alfalfa in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles County, did as well or
better on manure as on commercial superphosphate fertilizer.  Cost

analyses were not made.  A grass-alfalfa sequence is recommended
since grass tends to take up excess nitrates leaving the phosphorus
for the alfalfa.
McANDREWS, C. J. and KERR, H. A.
The Impact of Water Pollution on Agriculture
Background Paper A4-1-7, Nat!.  Conf. Pollution and Our Environment,
     Montreal  9 p.

"Manure disposal lagoons are an answer to a great quantity of live-
stock and poultry manure."  They must, however, be employed with

Poultry litter used as cattle feed supplies protein from the undi-
gested poultry feed and from bacteria which develop in the litter.

Composted poultry manure has a market.
MEHREN, George L.
Aesthetics, Economics -- Animal Waste
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes
Abst:  C & S 66-0212; McO & B C-026
p. 4-7
The present and projected future roles of the USDA in pollution
control (not absolute elimination) are discussed.  Animal waste
"does not appear generally to be among the most hazardous of the
pollutants that are generated as virtually inevitable concomitants
of fruitful and desirable agricultural activity."  Affirmative lines
are being explored in the expectation that manure may become an
economic asset with minimal  aesthetic offenses or hazards.
MINER, J. R.; FINAS L. R.; FUNK, J. W-; UPPER, R. I.; and LARSON, G. H.
Stormwater Runoff from Cattle Feedlots
Proc. Symp.  Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 23-27
Abst:  C & S 66-0215; McQ & B C-036; W71-01997-

Field tests  with simulated rainfall are described and the results
are analyzed.  Slug flows resulting from storms carry high concentrations
of nitrogen, solids, and bacteria.  Such flows should be modified by
dilution in  a detention pond to reduce potential fish kills and other
detrimental  downstream effects.  Good housekeeping in feedlots can
reduce the pollution potential substantially.

MINER, J. R.; UPPER, R. !.; FINA, L. R.; and FUNK, J. W.
Cattle Feedlot Runoff  Its Nature and  Variation
WPCF Jnl. 38: 1582-1591
Abst:  McQ & B B-069; W71-08206

Runoff from cattle feedlots, produced during and immediately after
rainfall, is particularly objectionable  in warm weather, in storms of
low rainfall intensity, and when the manure has been rendered soluble
by presoaking.  The runoff has high BOD  and carries high concentrations
of bacteria normally considered as indices of sanitary quality.
Concrete-surfaced lots produce more pollution than unsurfaced lots
under similar conditions.
Economics of Liquid-Manure Disposal from Confined Livestock
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 126-131
Abst:  C & S 66-0219; McQ & B C-068; W71-02029

Fertilizer economics are based primarily on N, P, and K values.   These
may decrease severely with storage or with spreading at an unfavorable
time of year-   It is seldom that fertilizer value will  equal  nandling
costs.  While manure has use as a feed, a source of combustible  gases,
a nutrient for  algae, a source of fibers which might be useful  in
oaper manufacture, fuel or a component of adobe building,  none  of
these uses would appear to hold much promise for making manure
economically attractive.

Farm Animal Waste Problem
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 8
Abst:  C & S 66-0220; McQ & B C-028

The ASAE organized its Rural Waste Disposal Committee X-12 shortly
after the 1958  annual meeting and has participated in several  symposia
Sloping Floors for Beef-Cattle Feedlots
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 41-43
Abst:  C & S 66-0221; McQ & B C-041; W71-02002

Slopes of up to 7 have no effect on weight gain or efficiency of
cattle, while a nearly flat floor, with its accumulation of manure,


may depress gains.  Slopes above 5 are nearly self-cleaning, parti-
cularly if
slots are provided at the lower end and some flushing is
MYERS, Earl A.
Engineering Problems in Year-Round Distribution of Waste Water
Proc. Symp. Mgtnt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 38-41
Abst:  McQ & B C-040; W71-02001
Some of the problems encountered
municipal sewage treatment plant
a year-round basis are described
in a similar disposal system for
                      by Penn State University in soreading
                      effluent by sprinkler irrigation on
                     .   Similar problems could be anticiDated
                      animal  wastes.   Clogging, freezing
and pressure variations are the major sources of trouble.
 Removal of Moisture from Poultry Waste by Electro-Osmosis (Part 2)
 Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 93-95
 Abst:  C & S 66-0223; McQ & B C-063; W71-02018

 Further testing of electro-osmotic drying, varying some parameters
 which CROSS [1966-1017] held constant, is reported.  "The maximum
 moisture-content reduction was 4.8 percent wb [wet basis] based on
 22 hr of operation at 20 v.  This was not sufficient to reach a
 pelletab'le level from the initial value of 80 percent wb.  The cost
 of the electric energy used was 12.7 $ per gal of liquid removed
 based on the rate of 2 $ per kw-hr."
USDA Advises Against Using
Poultry Digest*25: 156
                Litter as Livestock Feed
In an item credited as a USDA Release, the "USDA strongly recommends
that poultry litter not be used as livestock feed."  Variability of
nutritive value, effect of drugs, and possibility of disease trans-
mission are stressed.  Much research is needed.
Methods of Handling Poultry-Waste Materials
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 32-33
Abst:  C & S 66-0225; McO & B C-038; W71-01999

Problems of poultry waste handling are discussed under the headings
removal, storing, loading, spreading, and processing and disposal.
 Dehydration shows a great deal of promise for processing non-liquid
manures. . . Incineration may be practical in some situations."
Composting and lagooning are poorly adapted to northern climates.

New Threat to Farmers
Farm Journal 90: Nov.  p. 36, 95-96

Pollution charges are being raised over alleged runoffs leading to
fishkills and nitrate penetration to groundwater.  Feedlots should
be built well away from streams.  Lagoons should be provided.  Manure
should not be spread on frozen ground.
Chicken Manure on Orchard Grass -- Ladino Clover
Georgia Ag. Ex. Sta. Bull. N. S. 159  15 p.

"Manure, even at the lowest rate applied, was more effective than the
highest rate of fertilizer in forage production, apparently because
of the extra N being supplied by manure. . .  Fertilizer influenced
yields only at the first harvest; whereas manure was effective
throughout the growing season."

Either fertilizer or manure caused the clover to vanish within three
years of application.

Water Metabolism Studies May Assist with Waste Disposal
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 49-51
Abst:  C & S 66-0227; McQ & B C-045; W71-02006

Wet poultry droppings produce more odors, promote greater fly pro-
duction, and are more repulsive to handlers than are drier droppings.
Under conditions at Bryan, Texas, baffle boards decreased moisture
content of droppings nearly 50 percent and decreased fly hatch from
70.5 flies per 32 cu in of droppings to 2.5 flies.  Feeding of
bentonite or clay at 2.5 and 5 percent levels of the diet improved
body weight of the hens and increased egg size while reducing moisture
content about 2.5 and 5 percent.  Genetic selection of breeds with
drier feces appears to be a further possibility.

REED, Charles H.
Disposal of Poultry Manure by Plow-Furrow-Cover Method
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 52-53
Abst:  C & S 66-0228; McQ & B C-046; W71-02004

The plow-furrow-cover method of disposal of poultry manure has
operated successfully with a l-to-2 inch slurry deposit in a 6-to-8
inch deep furrow with covering occurring in the same or a subsequent
operation.  A 2-inch layer is equivalent to 225 tons per acre.
Mechanical improvements have been made, land utilization schedules
developed, and an experimental program to test maximum land handling
capacity established.

Poultry Manure Disposal -- Is There A Problem?
Agriculture 73: 110-112
Abst:  C & S 66-0229; McQ & B E-007; W71-03579

"In truth, there is only one problem with muck, it is just not fashion-
able any more.  It is far easier to say 'it's cheaper to use artificials'
than to attack the problem.  The fact is that among all  concerned,
whether on the farm or off, nobody is very interested."  Such was the
situation in the UK in 1966.

Troubles were largely related to the nearness of neighbors and their
objection to odor.  Trends were away from hydraulic handling to dry
storage awaiting effective land distribution.  Only a few producers
were employing drying and little increase in the practice was
RUSNAK, John J.; LONG, T. A.; and KING, T. B.
Hydrolyzed Poultry Waste as a Feed for Cattle  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 25: 909
Penn State Univ. Animal Sci. Mimeo 4-66
Abst:  McQ & B B-205

One group of steers was fed a corn and cob diet with 10 percent soy-
bean meal; another had 10 percent hydrolyzed poultry waste (HPW)
substituted for the soybean meal.  Daily gains were identical (0.98 kg)
The HPW was processed by autoclaving fecal matter, feathers, and waste

Aerobic Purification of Farm Waste
Inst. Sew. Purif., Jnl. and Proc. 65: 585-588
Abst:  W71-04920

Under Dutch conditions lagooning is not practical since the land is
too valuable and too porous.  Mechanical or chemical treatment is too
expensive.  Laboratory and prototype investigations of an oxidation
ditch of reinforced concrete followed by a final sedimentation tank
are described and costs for the disposal of undiluted pig waste are
given.  "The surplus sludge can be withdrawn a few times^a year and
used as an organic fertilizer without causing smell nuisance."

Biological Treatment of Animal Wastes
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 140-143
Abst:  C & S 66-0230; McQ & B C-072; W71-02033

Swine wastes in Holland are most economically handled by means of
oxidation ditches.  Data for an experimental ditch are presented and
discussed.  Conventional systems of aerobic treatment are unsatis-
factory and excessively expensive.

Physical Properties of Animal Manures Associated with Handling
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 27-32
Abst:  C & S 66-0233; McQ & B C-037; W71-01998

"This paper is concerned with various physical properties of chicken
and dairy cow manure that have a relationship to handling."  The
properties in question are a) basic physical composition (moisture,
total solids, volatile solids, and fixed solids), b) particle density
and bulk density, c) production, d) particle size and distribution,
e) dilution, f) settling rate, g) suspended and dissolved solids,
h) flowability, and i) freezing point.  Laboratory procedures for the
determination of these properties are described and discussed.
Variations due to different feeds, environments, and animal breeds
make the obtaining of a typical sample difficult.  Published values
are scattered widely.  The properties vary so widely that no single
method of manure handling is universally best.

Destruction of Chicken Manure by Incineration
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 95-98
Abst:  C & S 66-0232; McQ & B C-057; W71-02020

Calculations, based on average BTU values of chicken manure, of mass
and energy balances for the destruction of the organic content of the
manure are presented.  It may well be that incineration will prove to-
be the most economical method of disposal inasmuch as it utilizes its
own energy for destruction.  No formal cost analysis is offered.
"Future applications of incineration will depend on cost factors and
possible air pollution hazards,"
Problems of Cattle Feeding in Arizona as Related to Animal-Waste
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 120-122
Abst:  McQ & B C-066; W71-02027

Feedlots in the vicinities of Phoenix and Tempe have been subjected
to legal harassment because of odor nuisance.  Casa Grande has zoned
22 sections of land for feedlots.  Manure, a valuable conditioner
for Arizona soils, is produced in quantities much in excess of demand.
The Animal Waste Disposal Problem
AAAS Publn. 85, p. 385-394
Abst:  McQ & B D-003

Anaerobic lagoons, after design criteria have been perfected, may become
the best solution to swine and poultry waste disposal.  Odor, ground-
water hazards, space requirements, and functional upsets caused by
antibiotics in the influent are among their problems.

Ultimate disposal, to the land, will require better management to pre-
serve water and air quality and avoid nuisance suits filed by neighboring
Symposium Prologue
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 1-2

The three main objectives of the National Symposium on Animal Waste
Management were 1) to delineate the problem of managing animal wastes;
2) to evaluate current technology in the handling, treatment, utili-
zation, and disposal of farm wastes; and 3) to stimulate and give new
direction to future research in solid wastes management.

Properties of Farm Animal Excreta
ASAE Trans. 9: 374-376  [Paper 64-315]
Abst:  McQ & B B-016

Manure is not sewage and should not be measured by the same yardstick.
Physical characteristics depend strongly upon the ration fed and the
environment.  Old data usually include bedding material and are
oriented toward plant nutrient value.  Chemical and biological
characteristics of major interest are BOD, COD, and PE (population
equivalent).  This latter is defined in several contradictory manners
and should be evaluated with great caution.  Gas and odor information
is almost completely lacking.

Plant Response to Manure Nutrients and Processing of Organic Wastes
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 136-140
Abst:  C & S 66-0234; McQ & B C-071; W71-02032

The effect of manure on soil conditioning and crop yield depends on
a) the means of distribution of manure to the land, b) the ratio of
carbon to nitrogen, and c) the available nitrogen portion of the total
nitrogen.  "Depending on different arrangements of these three factors,
different effects on crop yield are to be observed, ranging from
depressing to very high.  According to this scale, only liquid manure
has a high or very high yield effect."  Experiments with guile manure
production and utilization are discussed.

Operating Characteristics of Two Aerobic-Anaerobic Dairy Manure
     Treatment Systems
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 61-65
Abst:  C & S 66-0235; McQ & B C-050; W69-00413

Bench and pilot-scale models of two systems for application of the
activated sludge process to dairy cattle wastes are described.  No
cost data are cited.
Disposal of Animal Wastes
AAAS Publn. 85, p. 415-428
Abst:  McQ & B D-006

Conversion of manure to marketable products by stockpiling with
anaerobic fermentation, dehydration, or composting have all had local
successes.  The market, however, is small and the costs high.
Incineration and landfill have not proven satisfactory.

Land disposal, with due regard for prevention of runoff and for over-
loading, provides fertilizer value and provides treatment for what
runoff does occur.
Primary Treatment of Swine Wastes by Lagooning
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 70-74
Abst:  C & S 66-0236; McQ & B C-053; W71-02014

Based on experimental hog lagoons at Iowa State University and a wide
acquaintance with other swine waste lagoons throughout the Midwest,
WILLRICH summarizes performance characteristics and gives the following
two recommended design criteria.  1) "For anaerobic lagoons which will
receive fairly uniform and frequent (once-a-week or less) loadings:
allow a minimum of 1 cu ft of lagoon water volume per pound of total
animal weight confined in a hog-finishing building, plus additional
lagoon volume for sludge storage.  2) For lagoons which will receive
non-uniform and intermittent loadings:  allow a minimum of 2 cu ft of
lagoon water volume per pound of total animal weight confined in a
hog-finishing building, plus additional lagoon volume for sludge
Animal Waste Management
Proc. Symp. Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 7-8
Abst:  C & S 66-0237; McQ & B C-027

No one solution to animal waste management is universally optimum.
Success will be obtained by creating "a valuable natural resource
fertilizers and soil amendments that can both benefit American
agriculture and effect permanent animal waste disposal."
WITZEL, S. A.; McCOY, E.; POLKOWSKI, L. B.; ATTOE, 0. J.; and
     NICHOLS, M. S.
Physical, Chemical and Bacteriological Properties of Farm Wastes
     (Bovine Animals)
Proc. Symp.  Mgmt. of Farm Animal Wastes  p. 10-14
Abst:  C & S 66-0238; McQ & B C-032; W71-01993

Animal wastes supply humus to the soil and optimize the utilization
of fertilizer values by plants.  Spreading on frozen land in winter
can, however, lead to washing of pollutants into surface waters.
Chemical analyses of cattle wastes are tabulated and laboratory
procedures for their determination are discussed.  Bacteriological
studies on aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria indicate that
lagoon flora are generally well balanced to carry out decomposition
of a highly-nitrogenous waste.  Land application of liquid manure is
Animal Waste Management Symposium
Agr. Engrg. 47: 338-340

Topics discussed at the National Symposium on Animal Waste Management,
Michigan State University, 5-7 May 1966 are reviewed briefly.

Reuse as feed after heating or washing with monitoring for dangerous
drug or pesticide residues appears to be successful.  Some authorities
"... report adequate results with up to 50 percent reprocessed waste
mixtures, with no significant incidence of animal refusal. .  .   Catfish
in stocked ponds thrive on it!"

Lagoon systems combining anaerobic and aerobic lagoons may solve
groundwater contamination, odor5 and sludge problems often found with
simple lagoons.

Interest seems to be declining in the use of manure as a low-grade
Antelope Valley  Feeders  ... A Double-Duty Feedlot
CALF News 4: July, p.  12-14

Forty miles north of  Los Angeles a feedlot utilizes its manure by
stockpiling it for a  period of time to eliminate viable weed seeds,
then runs it through  a processing plant which grinds and screens it.
It is then sold  in bulk or bags to turfgrass contractors, nurseries,
or other retail  outlets.
Problems with  Indoor  Lagoons
Pacif. Poultryman  June
Reprint:  Poultry  Digest 25: 468  (1966)


Problems listed are odors, stream pollution by the effluent, lack of
actual decomposition of manure, damage to the eyes of the birds, off-
flavor eggs, costly hauling of excess water for disposal, and produc-
tion of flies.
Hog Waste Treatment Lagoons
Pub. Wks. 97: Oct.  p. 80, 82
Abst:  C & S 66-0206

"Attempts to lagoon [hog] wastes have resulted in odor production,
polluted streams from overflows, and abandoned units resulting from
excessive solids accumulation."  Illinois recommends non-overflow
lagoons with no more than 250 hogs per acre of water surface for
6-ft depth or 300 hogs per acre with 7-ft depth (1000 cu ft per hog)
Manure-Containing Silage -- Production and Nutritive Value  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 26: 217
Abst:  McQ & B B-207

A silage of feedlot manure and ground coastal bermuda grass proved
palatable and nutritious as the sole diet for test ewes over a year.
"The silage-fed animals consumed less hay [0.97 kg vs. 1.57 kg], but
remained in better physical condition" than the control ewes fed hay
with no manure.  The ration was also tested on steers and beef heifers,
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
Ontario Water Resources Comm. Rsch. Publn. No. 28  36 p.
Abst:  McQ & B A-298

This very readable state-of-the-art survey is oriented toward finding
solutions pertinent to Ontario.  A 44-entry bibliography is included.

The family farm is being replaced by agribusiness, with an industry's
responsibility for the pollution problems which have resulted.  Despite
the difficulties involved when livestock and crop producers are distinct,
with the crop producer able to use commercial fertilizers at less cost
than "free" manure, ". . . the application of manure to soils is well
justified and desired."

"Generally, the farm animal waste disposal problem is one of collecting
and holding manure until it can be distributed on the land, this being


generally in the spring and fall depending upon the crops being grown.
The difficulties arising  in such a waste  disposal method involve the
size of  tank  required  to  store  the manure, the odours and gases
released, and  in some  cases,  the difficulty of mixing the contents
before disposal on  the land.  .  .  Basically,  treatment and disposal must
ensure four things:  that there is no  hazard  to the health of farm
animals  if disposal  is to farmland;  that  treatment facilities are
flexible in design  and operation to  allow for the various types and
quantities of wastes,  some being produced continually and others
infrequently;  that  the oerformance of  the treatment plant justifies
its capital and operating costs; that  ground  and surface water pollu-
tion are minimal."

Advantages and disadvantages of composting, anaerobic digestion
(too expensive and complicated  for farm use), lagooning,  and aerobic
treatment are discussed.   "... the methods of disposal  available to
the farmer may well control the location  and magnitude of his enterprise
in the future."
BRADY, Nyle C.   [Editor]
Agriculture and  the Quality of Our Environment
AAAS Publn. 85   XV + 460 p.
Review:  LUTZ, J. F.  Envir. Sci. and Tech. 2: 1046-1047  (1968)

In this symposium, held at the annual meeting of the AAAS in December,
1966, five papers were devoted,  at least in part, to the problems of
animal waste disposal.  Four of  these are abstracted separately:

DEIBEL, R. H.:   Biological Aspects of the Animal Waste Disposal  Problem.
p. 395-399  [1966-1022],

LUDINGTON, David C.:  Properties of Chicken Manures Affecting Their
Disposal,  p. 401-413  [1966-1044],

TAIGANIDES, E. Paul:  The Animal Waste Disposal Problem,  p. 385-394
[1966-1070], and

WILLRICH, TedL.:  Disposal of Animal Wastes,  p. 415-428  [1966-1075].

Kenneth C. WALKER, in "Agricultural Practices Influencing Air Quality"
(p. 105-111) mentioned manure odor as one of several types of air

No panaceas were proposed.
BRUGMAN!V H.;  DICKEY, H.  c.-,  PLUMMER, B.  E.; and POULTON, B. R.

Digestibility of Sterilized Poultry Litter (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 26: 915
Abst:  McQ & B B-208

Poultry litter sterilized at 135C for eleven hours had significantly
lower digestibility than untreated litter when fed to sheep.

EASTWOOD, Roy E.; KADA, Jimmy M.; SCHOENBURG, Robert B.; and BRYDON,
     Harold W.
Investigations on Fly Control by Composting Poultry Manures
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 60: 88-98
Abst:  McQ & B B-583; W71-07549

Windrow composting of poultry manure was investigated during several
months of the year.  It was unnecessary to grind the manure before
composting or to add bulking or drying materials.  A twice-weekly
turning schedule eliminated the fly problem.   Once composted, the
material is of no further interest to flies.
HANKS, Thrift G.
Solid Wastes/Disease Relationships:  A Literature Survey
USPHS Rpt. SW-lc.  179 p.

Diseases associated with animal fecal wastes are discussed on p. 77-86
with emphasis on those involving salmonellae.  Recommendations are
that intensified study be given the sanitary aspects of animal waste
disposal.  Effectiveness of operational, as contrasted to laboratory,
composting should be determined.  Education of children and farmers on
the hazards involved is necessary.
The Fertilizer Value of Broiler Litter
Ark. Agr. Ex. Sta. Report 158.  12 p.
Abst:  McQ & B E-119

Litter "is probably the most valuable by-product produced on the
poultry farm."  Its composition is discussed and its value is cited
as about $12 per ton on the basis of cost of equivalent N, P, and K.
This will vary some with source, condition, depth, and time in use.
Use of Poultry Litter as Animal Feed
Federal  Register 32 (171): 12714-12715


A section (3.59) added to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
provides that whereas "poultry litter can be expected to contain
drugs. . .  and "it is not feasible to estimate the nature and level
of the drugs. . . it is not possible to conclude that poultry litter
is safe as a feed or as a component of feed for animals. . .," and
whereas poultry litter may transmit disease organisms, "therefore,
the Food and Drug Administration has not sanctioned and does not
sanction the use of poultry litter as a feed or as a component of
feed for animals."
LACY, H. 0.
Manure Disposal In Cage Houses
Canadian Poultry Review.  Dec.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 27: 81-82  (1968)

Land spreading is considered to be the best means of disposal.   The
relative merits of dry shallow pits, wet shallow pits, liquid manure
pumping, and plow-furrow-cover procedures are presented.
Animal Waste Management and Utilization
Proc. Ontario Pollution Control Conf.  p. 197-203

The major problems associated with animal waste disposal  are excessive
nitrogen and odors.  Manure may be stored in pits until  opportunity
for spreading occurs or may be handled in anaerobic-aerobic or aerobic
lagoons.  Lagoons are a poor choice in Ontario.  Composting or dehy-
dration depend upon a non-existing market for their feasibility.   Algae
production with feeding of the harvested algae to livestock may have
future potential.  In summary,

     "1.  There is no economical way at present to treat fresh un-
diluted manure for disposal directly to streams.

      2.  Where adequate land is available, animal wastes can be used
on the land.

      3.  Land spreading must be the method of ultimate disposal  of
animal wastes.

      4.  Soil application is the answer for the future whether the
objective is utilization or disposal."
LEMAN, Allen D.


Poultry Litter as Protein for Ruminants
Feedstuffs 39: 8  Apr.  p. 62

LEMAN reports satisfactory feeding results in Illinois, Arkansas,
Virginia, and Minnesota.  Before using litter as a feed, one should
determine its continuous availability, get clearance from the local
health service, contract for dry litter and other ingredients, and
compare costs.  Begin with small amounts watching closely for diarrhea
and palatability problems.
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Effluent Quality from Anaerobic Lagoons Treating Feedlot Wastes
WPCF Jnl. 39: 384-391
Abst:  C & S 67-0345; McQ & B B-070; W71-05423

The functioning of anaerobic lagoons is analyzed.  Their performance
depends on temperature, dilution by washwater or runoff, evaporation,
seepage, and type and amount of loading.  The process is essentially
that of a septic or Imhoff tank.

Land disposal of the sediment is acceptable.  It should, however,
not be permitted to drain to streams without further treatment.
"Anaerobic lagoons are not the complete answer to avoiding the
pollution of natural waters by livestock and feedlot wastes.  When
used in combination with subsequent units to treat the effluent from
the lagoons, anaerobic lagoons may be a useful component process for
livestock and feedlot wastes that have a high solids content."
LOEHR, Raymond C.
The Impact of Animal Wastes on Water Resources Activities
Proc. 3rd Ann. Amer. Wtr. Res. Conf.  p. 314-324
Abst:  W69-02528

Pollution has been caused by animal wastes and animal production
operations.  Problems of proper handling of these wastes loom large
in the future.  A list of 28 references is included.
LOEHR, Raymond C. and AGNEW, Robert W.
Cattle Wastes -- Pollution and Potential Treatment
ASCE Proc. 93: SA 4: 55-72
Disc:  TAIGANIDES, E. Paul         94: SA 2: 435
       DAGUE, Richard R.           94: SA 2: 435-437
       BAFFA, John J.              94: SA 3: 558-559
       Closure                     94: SA 6: 1287-1291
Abst:  C & S 67-0344; McQ & B B-091; W71-04916


"While many possibilities for treatment and disposal of animal wastes
exist, few are feasible or realistic."  The authors advocate three
lagoons in cascade:  anaerobic, aerobic, and polishing.  The feedlot
should 'be diked to prevent inflow of surface runoff.  The lagoons
should have sufficient freeboard to hold storm runoff from the feedlot.
The advantages cited are:

     1.  the cost of excavation and bottom sealing is moderate,

     2.  solids handling is simplified by having the upper lagoon
adjacent to the feedlot,

     3.  sludge from the upper lagoon may be disposed of at the
operator's convenience and by pumping as a slurry for field spreading,-

     4.  lagoons may be sized for small area, as deep as possible (the
aerobic and polishing lagoons should have small inflows),

     5.  the effluent should meet most stream quality standards or
may be used for non-potable purposes, and

     6.  the runoff to streams is controlled, and occurs from the
polishing lagoon.

In the discussions TAIGANIDES suggested that odor control problems
"will limit the general application of the system proposed."  DAGUE
recommended the placing of a sedimentation basin ahead of the anaerobic
lagoon, separation of manure and runoff, land spreading of sludge, and
irrigation with the lagoon effluent.  BAFFA proposed pumping to or from
the lagoon to maintain optimum dilution.

McCARTY, P. L.  et al  [Task Group Report]
Sources of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Water Supplies
.Amer. Water Works Assn. Jnl. 59: 344-366

In this broad survey of the sources and quantities of nitrogen and
phosphorus which reach surface or ground waters in the United States,
farm animal wastes (p. 354) are cited in terms of population equivalents,
and the contributions of nitrates to groundwater in the vicinity of
feedlots is cited.  The estimated 100 million wild waterfowl (p. 355)
contribute 2 to 5 lb of nitrogen and 0.9 to 2 Ib of phosphorus each
per year.  It is considered, however, that "while^the activities of
waterfowl may have a bearing on localized eutrophication, their actual
net contribution of total nitrogen and phosphorus to waterways is
perhaps negligible."

MINER, J. Ronald; FINA, L. R.;  and PIATT, Cheryl
Salmoniita. -in&antii, in Cattle Feedlot Runoff
Appl. Microbiol. 15: 627-628
Abst:  C & S 67-0350; McQ & B B-349

SalmoneJULa. were identified in ten samples of runoff, loose dry litter,
and compacted litter collected on or downstream of two experimental
feedlots near Kansas State University.  Agricultural runoff may be a
source of kahnonnZJUin which would constitute a public health risk upon
recreational use of the water.
Storage of Poultry Manure to Improve Flexibility of Handling  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 46: 1302-1303
Abst:  McQ & B B-266

Spreading of manure should be timed to minimize neighbors' objections.
Covered tanks with provision for thorough agitation are recommended.
Addition of liquids may aid handling.
PATELxS Jawahar D.
Indian Utilizes Novel Manure Disposal System
Poultry Digest 26: 100-101

An anaerobic digester in a 20-ft-deep well 7 ft in diameter handles
the waste from 500 chickens.  It produces methane gas used for power
and domestic cooking.  The dried effluent is an excellent fertilizer
inasmuch as it contains well-balanced nutrients, provides valuable
humus, and has excellent storing qualities without deterioration.

For start-up a new digester requires "seeding" with the contents of
an operating digester or a period of time for its own bed to become
New Way to S-t-r-e-t-c-h Litter
Broiler Industry, May
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 26: 394-395

Litter built up by incremental additions works well for a while but
it may develop worms and breeds of resistant coccidia.  The author
recommends composting to destroy microorganisms.

The Effect of Farmyard Manure on Matric Suctions Prevailing in Sandy
     Loam Soil
Jnl. Soil Sci. 18: 318-328
Abst:  McQ & B B-134; W71-02034

To test the hypothesis that moisture conditions were likely to be more
favorable for plant growth in a manured than in an unmanured soil, the
authors measured reactions in both over a period of 24 weeks.  They
concluded that, although the differences were small, "the lower suctions
prevailing in the manured soil could be a factor contributing to the
higher yields of ryegrass obtained from the manured plots as compared
with those obtained from the unmanured plots."

SMITH, Wade M., Jr.
Which Litter System is Best?
Poultry Digest 26: 200-202

"In  the absence of a history of significant losses to specific viral
or bacterial diseases, and in the absence of worm infestation, I would
certainly give very serious thought to reusing old litter. . . It may
be that composting old litter for a few days will help to minimize the
potential problems with worm eggs, viruses and pathogenic bacteria."
 STEPPLER,  H.  A.  and  LLOYD,  L. E.
 Pollution:   Is Agriculture  Culprit or Victim?
 Agr.  Inst.  Rev.  22:  Jan-Feb p. 26-27

 The  authors advocate a  four-stage approach to the problem of agri-
 cultural pollution:   1)  recognize the problem, 2) conduct research to
 define  the problem,  3)  conduct  research to solve the problem, and
 4) enact legislation to  require acceptance of the solution.

 Nitrate and Other  Water  Pollutants Under Fields and Feedlots
 Environ. Sci. and  Tech.  1:  736-739
 Abst:   McQ & B B-108; W71-03575

 Core samples taken in the South Platte Valley of Colorado indicate that
 nitrate is being carried to the water table.  Average total  nitrate-
 nitrogen content to  a depth of  6.7 m for various types of land use was
 reported to be:  alfalfa, 70; native grassland, 81; cultivated dryland,
 233; irrigated fields not in alfalfa, 452; and feedlots 1282 kg/hectare.


"The findings that water under feedlots frequently contained ammonium
[or a compound releasing ammonium] and organic carbon, and had a very
offensive odor cause further concern about the effect of feedlots on
underground water supplies."
STRAUB, Charles
Feedlot Under Roof
Farm Qtrly. 22: Spring  p. 74, 75, 100, 102
Abst:  McQ & B F-024

In a report oriented toward feeding gains and labor saving rather than
manure handling, several confinement buildings in the Corn Belt are
described.  Manure from pits under a slatted floor may be removed a
few times a year.  However, this task can become unpleasant "when
the stinking stuff gets in a semi sol id form and refuses to cooperate
with the pump."

Farm-Waste Management in Europe and India
Agr. Engrg. 48: 710-713  [ASAE Paper 66-930]
Abst:  McQ & B B-633, G-021

European and Indian practices which might well receive study in the
United States are discussed under five headings:

     (1)  Spreading by Irrigation.  India mixes sewage and manure,
then pumps the mixture to fields for irrigation-fertilization.  Reuse
of municipal effluent is common.

     (2)  Oxidation Ditches.  Holland is successful with combined
sewage and dairy plant waste water.  More research is needed for
treatment of manures.

     (3)  Digestion of Waste With Gas Utilization.  Germany installed
many plants after World War II.  Most have been abandoned because of
maintenance problems.  India has about 2000 digesters and is planning
to add 9000 more in the next four years.

     (4)  Composting.  May merit study.

     (5)  Algae Production and Utilization.  Little effective precedent
in India.  Better management seems to hold promise.

Cattle Wastes .
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl. 7: 549
Research at the University of Kansas has indicated the effectiveness,
technically and economically, of a series of three lagoons for treatment
of cattle wastes.  The first lagoon is anaerobic.  Its small  quantity
of highly-potent effluent is treated in an aerobic lagoon.  The third
lagoon, also aerobic, polishes the effluent from the second.
Canadians Explain Advantages, Problems in Feeding Poultry Litter
Feedstuffs 39: 7 Jan.  p. 46

Poultry litter analyzed at the University of Alberta had ranges  in
water content from 9.4 to 18.7 percent, in protein of 13.0 to 29.6
percent, in crude fiber of 6.7 to 22.4 percent, in calcium of 1.05
to 2.33 percent, in phosphorus of 0.59 to 1.79 percent,  and in nitrate
of 0.08 to 0.97 percent.  Rather extensive use is made of litter in
cattle rations in Alberta.  "The enthusiasm for feeding  litter comes
from the decreased cost of the ration rather than from the increased
gains."  Problems encountered in the feeding of litter are heating
(with resultant loss in nutritional value) during storage, cost  of
litter and of mixing in small batches, dustiness, digestive disorders,
scrap metal in the litter, odor, and public aversion.
Poultry Litter Feed not FDA-Sanctioned
Feedstuffs 39: 9 Sept  p. 1, 71

The FDA has proclaimed poultry litter to be unacceptable for use  as
an animal feed because of its possible content of antibiotics fed the
chickens to stimulate growth and/or combat disease.   It is considered
to be impractical to determine or estimate the amounts present.   In
addition, chickens can transmit diseases to humans,  cattle, and other
Farm Wastes
Munic. Jnl. 75: 2889

Solutions proposed for the problems of manure disposal  in the UK
could well  "be  the provision of a subsidy for spreading slurry, or
the complete  removal of  subsidies on present fertilisers."  Much
marginal  land exists which is  "crying out for cheap fertilisers."


"If the Ministry of Agriculture could provide some incentive to the
farmer to utilise the wastes from livestock, his own and his neighbours,
as well as sewage works sludges, we are likely to find the problem

Breathing Manure Dust May Cause Illness
Missouri Egg and Poultry News  April
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 26: 336
Poultry specialists at the University of California recommend that a
filter respirator, capable of removing airborne bacteria, be worn when-
ever dry, dusty poultry manure is to be handled.  Fever and influenza-
like symptoms have occurred following operations of hammer mills grinding
such manure.
 ANON   [Based on William J. TOLEMAN]
 Manure Handling Labor Studies
 Pacific Poultryman, Oct.
 Reprint:  Poultry Digest 27: 39  (1968)

 The labor required to handle the manure output of 1000 hens per
 year is reported to be 104 hours for hand shoveling with transportation
 in a wheelbarrow to a manure spreader.  Mechanical systems listed have
 values ranging from 26 hours for daily scraping of cages to 4.5 hours
 for cleaning a deep "dry" pit by a tractor with a front-end loader
 driven into the nit.
Farm Wastes:  Research into Disposal
Surveyor 130: 9 Dec  p. 36

An inquiry in Parliament brought the responses that the Water Pollution
Research Laboratory of the Ministry of Technology had done some work
on animal wastes.  The Scots were reported to be studying oxidation
ditches and anaerobic digestion of poultry wastes.
Effect of Soil Temperature on the Availability of Phosnhorus in
     Animal Manures
Soil Science 105: 145-152
Abst:  McQ & B B-159; W71-06455

 This study evaluates common manures applied to the soil  in terms of
their ability to supply available P to plants. .  .   On an equal  dry-
weight basis, the overall effectiveness of manures  in supplying
available P depended on their respective total P contents: 'poultry >
sheep > steer = dairy."

Bacteriological Studies of Poultry Litter Fed to Livestock
Can. Vet. Jnl. 9: 127-131

"Experiments were undertaken to determine if pathogenic bacteria are
present in poultry  litter being fed to livestock in Canada, and  to
determine the survival time (viability) of these bacteria which  are
known to be the cause of animal diseases."

Findings indicate that one to two months storage may be sufficient
to destroy salmonella.  "In the future it may be shown that litter
could be seeded with beneficial bacteria during a holding period
to decompose  the litter material, thereby increasing the feeding value
and  at the same creating an unfavorable environment for the survival
of pathogenic bacteria."  Some species of bacteria  remained viable in
sterilized litter much longer than they would have  in unsterilized
due  to the elimination of competitors.
 ANTHONY, U.  Brady
 Waste!age   A New  Concept  in  Cattle Feeding  (Abst)
 Jnl. Animal  Sci. 27:  289
 Abst:   McQ & B B-209

 Fresh  manure from full-fed  slaughter cattle was blended with ground
 hay  in the ratio 57:43,  then stored in silos.  In two feeding trials
 cattle fed waste!age  (up  to 40 percent) outgained cattle fed corn
 silage.   "Wastelage should  not be  stored in a rusty structure."

 BAY, Ovid
 How  to Handle Feedlot Runoff
 Farm Journal 92: Feb   p.  62A-62B

 Water  pollution from  feedlots  can  be stopped by use of lagoons with
 dikes  enclosing feedlot  and lagoon to prevent inflow.  Evaporation
 or Dumoinq for"irrigation prevents lagoon overflow.  When the lagoon
 is dry solids may  be hauled to the field.  Examples are cited from
 Kansas'and Colorado.   Sale  of  manure with a charge of 25 */ton for
 loading and 3 (^/ton-mile  for delivery is cited.


1968-1005 "
Management and Feeding in the Beef
Agric. Gaz.  of New South Wales 79:
Cattle Feedlot
This brief guide to feedlot practice under Australian conditions
contains the following advice:  "The manure problem remains unresolved.
Manure should be scraped out of the yards at least at the end of each
batch of cattle.  The spreading of this manure on pastures, using a
manure'spreader, would be the best method of handling it.  There
appears to be no market for manure."

While it is emphasized that the lot should be well drained, no mention
is made of pollution caused by runoff.
1968-1006   ,
Reclamation of Valuable Compounds from Agricultural Refuse and Munici-
     pal Waste
Conf. "Solid Waste Research and Development, II."  Preprint No. E-3
     :2 -P. ,

The authors are studying the feasibility, in terms of reduced cost of
disposal :ffMiot of net profit, of salvaging valuable compounds from
chemical processing of waste -- as is done effectively in the petro-
chemical industry.  Incinerator effluents, fly ash in particular, seem
BRATZllR, J. W.. and LONG, T. A.
Digestion of Hydrolyzed and Cooked Poultry Waste by Ruminants
Jnl. Animal Sci. 27: 1509
Abst:  McQ & B B-214
Lambs fed diets in which nitrogen was supplied as soybean meal,
hydrolyzed poultry waste, and cooked poultry waste had digestion
coefficients for dry matter of 75.3, 72.1, and 76.1 percent respect-
ively;' for protein of 74.3, 65.5, and 69.4 percent; and energy 74.7,
73.B, and 76.3 percent.  "None of the differences due to treatment
were found to be significant."
1968-1008 '
     .arid TAKA, M. R. Y.
Drug Residue's in Lamb Carcasses Fed Poultry Litter  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 27: 1132
Abst:  McQ & B B-210

Lamb feeding tests at the University of Maine indicated that Ampro-Plus
and 3-Nitro impair the growth of smaller lambs but not of larger lambs.
With ampro and arsenic present in the litter, none was found in the
Natural Filters for Agricultural Wastes
Soil Conservation 34: 75-77
Abst:  W71-00940

Spray irrigation of diluted wastes over wide expanses of land permits
the natural system of nutrient breakdown for re-availability to crops
to operate.
CARRIERS, 0. A. 0.; ALEXANDER, D. C.; and McKAY, K.  A.
The Possibility of Producing Tuberculin Sensitivity by Feeding Poultry
Can. Vet. Jnl. 9: 178-185

Poultry litter may contain mycobacteria which, even when not pathogenic
for cattle, could induce false positive tuberculin sensitivity.   Such
bacteria can survive  in poultry litter for at least a month when com-
peting with the microflora of the litter.  Heating of the litter can
kill competitors and  extend the viability of mycobacteria for two
months longer.
 CHALOUPKA,  G. W.;  LLOYD,  R. W.; GORDY, J. F.; and GREENE, L.  M.
 Observations on  the  Effect of the Re-Use of Broiler Litter on the
      Incidence of  Marek's Disease  (Abst)
 Poultry Sci. 47: 1660
 Abst:  W71-04927

 Chickens  raised  on re-used litter are less likely to be condemned
 for Marek's disease  than  are chickens raised on fresh litter.
Disposal of  Dairy  Cattle Wastes by Aerobic Digestion
Conf. "Solid Waste Research and Development, II."  Preprint No.
     D-6.  2 p.
Abst:   C & S 68-0276

Aerobic digestion of dairy cattle waste is being studied in the
laboratory and in the field at Purdue.   "From the field studies, the
conclusion seems quite evident that odors can be almost eliminated
by the'use of aeration.  However, degradation appears to go slowly."
DAY, D. L.; JONES, D. D.; and CONVERSE, J. C.
Field Testing the Oxidation Ditch for Swine Waste
Conf. "Solid Waste Research and Development, II."  Preprint No.
     E-4.  3 p.
Abst:  C & S 68-0279

Pasveer ditches as treatment devices for animal  wastes are in an early
phase of research development.  As a stage following screening and prior
to some additional polishing of the effluent if it is to be discharged
to a stream, the ditch would appear to hold much promise.  Studies
continue at the University of Illinois.
DUGAN, Gordon L.; GOLUEKE, Clarence 6.; and OSWALD, William J.
Photosynthetic Reclamation of Agricultural  Solid and Liquid Wastes
Conf. "Solid Waste Research and Development, II."  Preprint No.
     E-l.  4 p.
Abst:  C & S 68-0280

The objective of a study underway at the Sanitary Engineering Research
Laboratory of the University of California is "to convert a large
fraction of the agricultural wastes now causing severe environmental
problems such as odor, unsightliness, and fly breeding into reclaim-
able material.  The project will involve a detailed study of the basic
characteristics of an integrated anaerobic fermentation and algal
growth system for agricultural solid and liquid wastes on a small
pilot plant scale.  To be studied are the reaction kinetics and over-
all performance of an anaerobic reactor or pond followed by an algal
growth reactor or pond.  Recirculation of algal-free effluents will
be employed for odor control in the anaerobic pond and for nutrient
transmission into the algal growth pond.  Area and volume requirements
per unit weight of waste and waste yields of algae per unit weight of
waste will be determined."

An early finding is that the treatment plant should be located near
the source of manure.  The fresher, the better.
EL-SABBAN, F. F.; LONG, T. A.; FREAR, D. E. H.; and GENTRY, R. F.
Composition of Broiler and Laying-House Litters  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 27: 1509-1510
Abst:  McQ & B B-215


Analyses of 60 samples of litter are reported.  Crude protein averaged
24.83 percent (dry basis).  "Broiler house litter (BHL) had significantly
higher values for crude protein, ether extract, and crude fiber than
laying house litter (LHL).  Total ash was higher in LHL than in BHL.
LHL had significantly higher content of Ca, P. K. Mg, Fe, Al, and Zn.
BHL had higher Na and Cu contents than did LHL.  The average arsenic
content in BHL was lower than in LHL, 11.0 ppm as compared to 29.0 ppm."
Many factors affect the values.

Manure Production by Broilers
Poultry Sci. 47: 339-340
Abst:  McQ & B B-268; W71-07541

Figures in the literature for the amount of poultry manure vary
considerably.  In some cases lighter fowl and longer feeding periods
than are customary in commercial practice are reported.  A test with
broilers raised to 53 days of age resulted in 867 kg dry excreta per
1000 males and 658 kg per 1000 females.  Total litter removed was 1707
kg and 1476 kg in the two cases.
Farm Waste  Disposal  in  Relation to Cattle
Water Pollut.  Control 67: 622-626   Disc.: 638-643
Abst:  C &  S 68-0283; McQ & B A-285; W70-06591

With increasing  size of herds manure handling is becoming a serious
problem.  Solutions  suggested include "organic irrigation" in which
all excreta is washed into a holding tank with at least ten days
capacity.   The slurry is pumped from the tank, usually once a week,
to a rain-gun  for  land  distribution.  This is effective provided:

     (1)  Adequate acreage is available within reach of the equipment,

     (2)  0.33 to  0.5 acres per cow are available,

     (3)  The  soil is reasonably free-draining so that the liquid
infiltrates rather than runs off,

     (4)  The  field  is  well isolated, and

     (5)  Care is  taken to avoid supersaturation and wind carriage
of spray and odor.

Spreading by a vacuum tank involves use of heavy equipment on the
land, and thus requires storage capacity to carry through wet weather
or frozen ground.

Silage effluent requires dilution and spreading to avoid "burning"
of vegetation.
GRUB, W.; ALBIN, R. C.; WELLS, Dan M.;  and OWENS, T.  R.
Feedlot Design and Management for Pollution Control
Texas Tech ICASALS Spl. Rpt.  No,  7  p.  35-42

Stabilization in a manure pack is limited by lack of moisture or low
temperature.  When remoistened, dry manure regains its pollutional

A feedlot should be designed in such a  way that no surface water flows
into the lot or from one pen to another within the lot.   Runoff should
be detained in a pond and not allowed to reach the natural drainage
courses.  Ideally, such a pond would provide aerobic decomposition.
Practically, in an arid area particularly, evaporation and seepage
may empty the pond before much treatment occurs.

Pond water, diluted from some other source,may be used for irrigation.
GRUB, W.; ALBIN, R. C.; WELLS, Dan M.;  and WHEATON, R.  Z.  -
A Report on the Engineering and Biological Aspects of Cattle Feedlot
     Runoff Pollution Control
Texas Tech iii + 23 p. processed

This is a report of an investigation of the effects of ration on
quantity and composition of wastes, of the pollutional  character of
runoff, and of the possible methods of control  to prevent pollution
of surface waters.  "It was concluded that the only practical way of
controlling pollution resulting from feedlot runoff is to provide
facilities for retaining the runoff that occurs.   If land is avail-
able, the accumulated runoff can be utilized as irrigation water,
or the land may be utilized simply as the final step in treatment
and disposal of the waste.  If no land  is available for final dis-
posal, retaining ponds must be sufficiently large to allow accumulated
liquid runoff to evaporate."
HARMS, Robert H. and AMMERMAN, C.  B.
Feeding Value of Poultry Litter Containing Citrus Pulp for Ruminants
Feedstuffs 40: 7 Sept  p. 21-22
Abst:  McQ & B F-098


The authors review the literature on the relative merits of various
litter materials, observing that increased demand and increased
difficulty of disposal would seem to indicate investigation of an
unconventional litter with further reuse value.  Tests indicated
"that poultry litter containing citrus pulp is an excellent feedstuff
for use in ruminant feeding."  While citrus pulp meal is toxic to
chicks when it exceeds about 30 percent of the diet, this is not,
considered to be an actual problem.  FDA restrictions would prevent
such use at present.
HART, Samuel A.
Agricultural Waste Management in the Future
Agr. Engrg. 49: 729, 752  [ASAE Paper 67-933]
Abst:  C & S 68-0287; McQ & B B-635, G-034

"The real limitation in manure management today is economics."  Odor
control remains to be solved.
Management and Utilization of Poultry Wastes
Feedstuffs 40: 14 Dec.  p. 22-23
Abst:% McQ & B F-099

Uses suggested in a series of diagrams include illicit alcohol, feed
to poultry or animals,  incinerate, sanitary landfill, land spreading
as a crop fertilizer, composting for animal feed or for fertilizer,
and algal recycling.  Not all are discussed in the text.  ".  .  .  waste
disposal can be  turned  into waste utilization with proper management."

The Digestion of Poultry Feces Under Cages  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 47: 1682
Abst:  McQ & B B-269; W71-04929

"After an initial buildup period, the feces and substrate was inoculated
with aerobic bacteria and aerobic conditions maintained by disturbing
the surface cake at weekly (winter) or twice weekly (summer)  intervals. .
Odors  and flies  have been largely eliminated. . .  The bulk of the fecal
pile was less than half the volume of the control plots due to stabili-
zation of nitrogen and  water losses.  Feathers were digested if they were
incorporated into the fecal pile and the resulting material was a homo-
geneous, odorless fertilizer which has been used in urban gardens.  .  ."
JONES,  Don  D.; JONES,  B. A., Jr.;  and DAY, Donald L

Aerobic Digestion of Cattle Waste
ASAE Trans. 11: 757-761  [ASAE Paper 67-931]
Abst:  McQ & B B-030, G-032; W71-03576

The governing equation for aerobic biological growth is

     organic matter  +  02  + NH3  =  sludge cells  +  C02  +  H20.

That for aerobic digestion is

     sludge cells  +  02  =  C02  +  H20  +  NHg.

A laboratory study of digestion of wastes from dairy and beef cattle
is described.  It was concluded that less emphasis should be placed
on COD, VS, and FS and that more should be placed on BOD as a measure
of pollutional strength.
Deep Manure Pit Kills Cage House Odors
Pennsyl. Farmer  10 Feb.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 27: 254-255

A deep  dry pit with adequate ventilation is expected to serve six
years between cleanings.  Flies present no problem "and rat poison
dropped into the pit provides control of these pests."  Drinking water
is made available to the hens only during limited periods each day.
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Anaerobic Lagoons:  Considerations in Design and Application
ASAE Trans. 11: 320-322, 330
Abst:  McQ & B B-026; W71-08220

An anaerobic lagoon may function as a primary sedimentation tank
with the solids left in the unit to degrade until removed periodically
usually when field spreading is convenient.

A deep tank with a small surface area is preferable.  A detention time
of three to five days may be sufficient.  The scum cover which usually
forms is beneficial.  Alkalinity, pH, temperature, and mixing are more
important than rate of loading.  A balance should be maintained bet-
ween acid forming and methane forming bacteria by adding alkalinity
as needed and cushioning abrupt changes.

Seepage should be prevented.  Disposal of effluent and solids is re-
quired, and noxious odors can occur when the balance is disturbed.

LOEHR, Raymond C.
Pollution Implications of Animal Wastes  A forward Oriented Review
USDI.  FWPCA Ada, Okla.  x +  175 p.
Reprinted as EPA Water Pollution Control Research Series 1304007/68
     June 1973
Abst:  C & S 68-0294  [Separate chapters C & S 68-0295 through -03011;
     McQ & B A-311                                          y

This excellent state-of-the-art survey of the pollutional implications
of animal wastes as evaluated in 1967 should be read in its entirety
by any serious student of the subject.  LOEHR summarized his recommen-
dations on p. vii - x, and stated his conclusions and recommendations
as part 9 (p. 151-161).  Supporting material, bolstered by 141 refer-
ences, appears in the first eight parts, each of which has its own
summary.  These parts are entitled

          1.  Reasons for the study             Page   1
          2.  Introduction                             3
          3.  Trends in  animal production              9
          4.  Manure production                       24
          5.  Pollution  hazards                       54
          6.  Waste treatment and disposal            69
          7.  Costs                                  110
          8.  Legal                                  145

Two pertinent quotations from the summary of Part 6 follow:  "The
entire problem of the ultimate disposal of solids remains untouched.
Land application of waste liquids and solids has been used for centuries
but few data have been accumulated on the optimum amounts of material
that can be placed on the land, on proper management techniques, on land
disposal of wastes with  different qualities, on subsequent pollution
that may occur, and on changes in soil conditions that may result.
Major emphasis to date has been on crop response which, while valuable,
provides little information on disposal techniques."

"At present, there is no profitable method of livestock manure utili-
zation and it is unlikely that one will be developed.  Animal waste
handling, treatment, and disposal will cost something.  This must be made
clear to those that produce the animals and the public that consumes
them.  The cost of satisfactory waste treatment will be related to the
desires of the public to minimize pollution from these sources, to the
willingness of the consumer to accept higher meat prices to pay for the
treatment, and to the ingenuity of those in all professional disciplines
in developing suitable treatment systems."

Disposal of Poultry Manure
Scottish Agric. 47: 91-93
Abst:  McQ & B E-058
                                 f\"~ y o

Methods discussed are:

1.   The Deep Pit System.  A depth of 6 ft, 6 in, with cleaning at
     annual intervals or longer is common.  Forced ventilation carries
     the animals' heat over the manure for drying.

2.   Fresh Manure from Laying Battery Cages.  Provide a chute to a
     honeywagon and spread frequently.  Trouble-prone.

3.   Hydraulic Disposal.  A vacuum tanker and/or pipeline may be used.
     Excess weight must be handled, odor problems arise, and land must
     be available.

4.   Poultry Lagoons.  Used in U. S. A. in temperate climates.  Doubtful
     value in Scotland.

5.  Oxidation Ditch ('Pasveer' System).  Little experience yet, but

6.   Anaerobic Digestion under Control.  Not perfected for general
     use yet.

7.   Drying.  Successful for large producers.  High capital costs.

8.  Disposal into Main Sewers.  Permission is required.  Slug flow
     must be avoided.
McGAUHEY, P. H.  (Chairman)
Solid Wastes Research and Development, II
Conference Preprints, Wayland Academy, Beaver Dam, Wise.  No page

This volume contains summaries of 59 papers classified under the
subheadings of

     A.  Storage, Collection and Transportation of Solid Wastes
     B.  Sanitary Landfill
     C.  Incineration
     D.  Composting
     E.  Agricultural and Industrial Solid Wastes
     F.  Management and Planning of Solid Waste Systems
     G.  Training
     H.  Special Solid Waste Research

Many papers oriented toward municipal solid waste practices may well
carry valuable considerations for animal waste disposal as well.  Six
particularly pertinent papers are abstracted separately in this
volume [1968-1006, 1012, 1013, 1014, 1037, and 1044],

Ruminant Digestibility of Re-Fed Hemicellulose Fractions  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 27: 1515

Lambs were fed a commercial high-energy diet with roughage consisting
of ground corn cobs or wheat straw.  The undigested fiber fraction
from the feces on the first trial was recovered and refed at the same
level as the original roughage.  Performance on the two roughages
differed significantly.  For the corn, of which 10.66 percent consisted
of acid resistant hemicellulose (ARM), 75.5 percent of the acid
hydrolyzable hemicellulose (AHH) and 83.3 percent of the ARH was
digested on the first feeding.  The figures were 0.5 percent of AHH
and 43:4 percent of ARH on refeeding. 'For the chopped wheat straw,
of which 3.45 percent consisted of acid resistant hemicellulose the
percentages digested on first feeding were 65.4 (AHH) and 40.9 (ARH).
Those on refeeding were 9.8 (AHH) and 35.1 (ARH).
MINER, J. Ronald
Agricultural  (Livestock) Wastes  [In WPCF 1967 Literature Review]
WPCF Jnl. 40: 1150-1158

Three major symposia on animal wastes have been held to date:  the
National Symposium on Poultry Industry Waste Management, the Second
National Symposium on Poultry Industry Waste Management and the
National Symposium on Animal Waste Management.  All three were spon-
sored by the  ASAE, the first two in cooperation with the Poultry
Science Association.

Papers are reviewed briefly under the following classification scheme.
Superscripts  key them to the 71 references listed.

     Pollution  Control and Abatement
     Waste Characteristics
          Pathogenic Organisms
     Treatment  Schemes  Laboratory Studies
          Oxidation Ditch
          Anaerobic Lagoons
          Land  Application
          Operating Experiences

Wastes from Pig Production Units
Water Pollut. Control 67: 632-638  Disc. 638-643
Abst:  C & S  68-0303; McQ & B A-284, A-510; W71-05428


Disposal  of untreated slurry on land produces  objectionable odors
and possible health hazards.  Composting first is desirable.

Treatment by lagoons, anaerobic digestion, biological  filtration, and
several versions of activated sludge methods is discussed.

"A digester in continuous operation for 1000 pigs could be expected
to produce 10,000 cu ft of methane per day, equivalent to 6.5 million
BTU.  Of this, 75 percent would be available for useful  power, the
remainder being used to maintain the temperature at 35C."

Biological filtration is expensive.  Tests on  a Pasveer oxidation ditch
are described in detail.  "However, precise design figures  have yet
to be obtained, and it is essential that interested parties should
lose no time in initiating research to that end."
RILEY, Charles T.
A Review of Poultry Waste Disposal  Possibilities
Water Pollut. Control 67: 627-631   Disc.  638-643
Abst:  C &S 68-0305; McQ & B A-283, A-512; W70-06590

Waste from laying hens "has higher NPK values than any other agri-
cultural waste but, because it is  sticky  and difficult to handle, it
is the least appreciated."  Properties are discussed.   Usual disposal
is to land.  Odors may create problems.

Eight different makes of heat dryers are  available on  the UK market.
Lack of marketing experience may be slowing adoption of drying.   Based
on cash return the most promising  markets are (1)  home gardens;
(2) mushroom composting, hop growing, and animal and fish feeding; and
(3) bulk sales to agriculture, horticulture or industry.

Traditional sewage disposal methods are unsuitable for poultry manure.

Animal feeding "might achieve a greater prominence in  the future, but
the quality of the litter and questions of disease control and trans-
mission within animals would be of great  importance."

SINGH, Y. K. and ANTHONY, W. Brady
Yeast Production in Manure Solubles  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 27: 1136
Abst:  McQ & B B-211

Manure from the pen floor of concentrate-fed cattle was separated into
solubles and fiber.  The solubles  were inoculated with yeast, incubated
and dried.   The crude protein of the final yeast product was 40.9 percent,
dry basis.   "The solubilized product was  11% sugar.  Rats fed the dried
solubles developed diarrhea which  was attributed to the high mineral

content of the product.  This study shows that yeast can be grown in
the soluble portion of manure and that about 68.57% of the manure dry
matter can be recovered as solubles."
SMITH, George R. and ABBOTT, F. DeWitt
Ponds Stop Pollution from Feedlots
Soil Conservation 34: 78-79
Abst:  W71-00925

An installation at Oakley, Kansas, of a feedlot with a detention
pond complying with Kansas regulations is described and illustrated.
With an annual precipitation of 18 inches, evaporation will usually
be sufficient to remove the effluent.  It can, however, also be used
for irrigation.
Animal Waste Disposal Methods -- Present and Future
Feedstuffs 40: 14 Sept  p. 37, 40

Animal wastes are neither fluid enough to be pumped, nor dry enough
for bulk transport.  Addition of water or bedding increases volume
to be handled.  Manure is non-competitive as a fertilizer, but has
value as a soil conditioner.  Present disposal methods, discussed
briefly, include anaerobic lagoons, anaerobic digestion with production
of methane gas, oxidation ditches, hydration, coprophagy, composting,
and field spreading.  In the next five to ten years improvements  can
be anticipated to reduce labor, nuisance, and unsanitary practices.
The total system should be optimized in selecting a disposal procedure.
Engineering Properties of Farm Wastes
Conf. "Solid Waste Research and Development, II."  Preprint E-5  2 p.
Abst:  C & S 68-0310  .

"The recent trends in animal production are changing the animal waste
Generation pattern from diffused.  . .to point-source, Transport from
solid to liquid handling, Processing from simple storage to rigorous
treatment, Utilization from crop fertilizer to soil conditioner, and
Disposal from a chore to a vexing problem."

"The wastes are not fluid enough to be pumpable by conventional pumps,
nor to decompose without putrefaction, nor are they dry enough to be
transportable as bulk materials, nor to be odor free."

Settling Basin Sorts Out the Sludge
Farm Journal 92: Oct  p. 54

With $200 worth of concrete a California dairyman built a settling
tank with three screens to replace an open ditch.  Liquid flows off
in a pipe for irrigation.  The sludge, which drains as it dries, is
removed every six weeks.
Irrigating with Animal Waste
Soil Conservation 34: 81-82
Abst:  W71-00941

An installation in eastern Oregon in which effluent from a second
lagoon on a hog farm is used to irrigate cropland by spray irrigation
is described and illustrated.  No further fertilizer is required.
VAN DAM, J. and PERRY, C. A.
Manure Management -- Costs and Product Forms
Calif. Agr. 22:  Dec.  p. 12-13
Abst:  McQ & B E-lll; W71-02037  '

Costs of manure handling are tabulated and discussed for a 14,000*-
head feedlot in Los Angeles County.  Mounding in the corral and
removing to a compost stockpile costs 25 
Wastes in Relation to Agriculture and  Forestry
USDA Misc. Pbln. 1065  112 p.
Abst:  C & S 68-0315; McQ & B E-085

This well written and well documented  (139 references) survey points
up the inadequacy of present knowledge to deal economically with animal
wastes.  More  research is needed.  With concentrations of animals,and
with economies of production of  fertilizers from atmospheric aitrogen,
manure has passed from a valuable commodity to a nuisance1 of wbich. the
cost of transportation exceeds the value as fertilizer.  Lagoons'
provide a questionable alternative means of disposal since 'tfte'y iare
often plagued  by overloading with attendant conversion from an aerobic
to an anaerobic condition, floating  litter, intermittent operation,
aquatic weeds, and sludge buildup.

Possibilities  meriting further study include that of rising livestock
and poultry wastes as a culture  medium for the propagation of"organisms
antagonistic to known plant pests and  diseases and th&t of c(ombin/ing-
agricultural and industrial wastes as  an effective soil
WARE, L. M.  and JOHNSON, W.  A.
Poultry Manure for  Vegetable Crops  --  Effects and Value
Alabama Ag.  Ex. Sta.  Bull. 386.   31  p.
Abst.,  McQ .& B E-121

When applied to tomatoes,  collards,  turnips, and lettuce. In: controlled
experiments  broiler manure gave  substantial increases in yields* Soil
acidity with manure but without  fertilizer  remained essentially Constant.
With fertilizer but without  manure  it  increased with time.ft The'effect
on earliness was  not  consistent.  Cracks and culls;did not iipcreas^
percentagewise, and there  was  little change in size o.f vegetable.-
Weather had  a marked  effect  on production.  Increased value of the
tomato crop  was cited as $448  per ton  of manure at optimum' rate of
application.                                              .,..'.-;
                                                     *      -    !'
"Certainly the potential value of the  manure produced by the-poultry,
industry of  Alabama is too high  to  allow this product to gp,'to w^ste-
or to constitute  a  disposal  problem, although the returns' may be,.far*.
less than those reported in  this  study."

1968-1044                                                      '
WITZEL, S. A.; POLKOWSKI,  L.  B.;  McCOY, E.; ATTOE, 0. J.; and -
     CRABTREE, Koby
Farm Animal  Waste Disposal Research  at the  University of Wisconsin '  -
Conf. "Solid Waste  Research  and  Development, II."  Preprint Np. E-2   4  p.
Abst:  C & S 68-0328

Anaerobic storage of manure is effective in preserving its fertilizing
value and reducing pollutional potential.  Liquid from piled manure should
be captured.  Manure should not be applied to frozen ground; the run-
off from snow melt carries much of the nitrogen and phosphorus into
streams.  Excessive applications of nitrates may affect groundwater.
 ANON   [Based on L. R. WEBBER]
 Animal Waste Utilization Group Formed in Canada
 Compost Sci. 9: Autumn  p. 17-18
 Abst:  C & S 68-0271

 A committee, chaired by Dr. WEBBER, has set a 7-point objective for
 study  and proposals for action in Canada.  The projects to be covered

     A.  Livestock density and land for disposal inventory,
     B.  Area of future development prognostication,
     C.  Economic study of manure handling practices,
     D.  Odor control processes,
     E.  Health problems -- human and animal,
     F.  Management practices with adequate land for spreading, and
     G.  Management practices with inadequate land.
Plow-Furrow-Cover Mode of Manure Removal Near
Egg Industry  v. 1, Nov.  p. 24

Charles H. REED, of Rutgers, has perfected a plow-furrow-cover method
of manure disposal which, in experiments, has permitted the disposal
of 170 to 225 tons of manure per acre without odor.  The liquid manure
is distributed from a tank into a 6 to 8 inch deep furrow and covered
in the same or a subsequent operation.
Midwesterner's Goal:  Make Manure Pay
Egg Industry  v. 1, Nov.  p. 26-27

An egg producer near Chicago with 80 tons of hen manure production per
day has, by using a 350,000-gal tank, been disposing of the manure
on a 20-acre plot.  Use as a fertilizer on corn and pea cropland on
rented property being held for ultimate suburban development is

ANON  [Based on Cecil H. WADLEIGH]
Waste Problems of Agriculture and Forestry
Envir. Sci. and Tech. 2:  498-503
Abst:  C & S 68-0316

This summary of USDA Misc. Pbln. 1065 [1968-1042] points up the
necessity for study on characteristics of manures; removal from
livestock quarters; storage; transport; feasibility of use on land;
and disposal by burning, lagooning, burying, or other methods.

Specific research goals cited are to:

     (1)  Identify and destroy odor-producing bacteria present,
     (2)  Treat manure to make it less attractive to flies and vermin,
     (3)  Develop better procedures for application to cropland,
          avoiding odors and water pollution in the process.

1968-1049        '
ANON  [Based on David C. LUDINGTON]
No Panacea for the Poultry Waste Problem
Poultry Digest 27: 459

LUDINGTON is quoted as favoring dry manure handling on the basis of
odor control.  Subsurface injection is advocated where land spreading
would cause air or water pollution.  "Touching on various other dis-
posal processes, such as incineration, dehydration and biological
treatment, LUDINGTON said there are no disposal  processes available today
that are economical enough to be justified except land application."
Cattle Feeders Avoid Pollution by Using Wastes in Irrigation
Soil Conservation 34: 84-86
Abst:  W71-00939

Operation of a feedlot at Upland, Nebraska, in which effluent is
detained in a pond then pumped for spray irrigation of corn is described
and illustrated.  Pond water is diluted by pumping groundwater into the
pond as necessary.

ALLEE, David J. and CLAVEL, Pierre
Who Should Regulate Poultry Conflict Problems?
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 407-414
Abst:  McQ & B C-139; W71-02747


Compromise as good neighbors is considered preferable to regulation.
In rural areas such an atmosphere is often created by informal
industrial committees cooperating with the county agent.  The agri-
cultural establishment, having the technical  expertise, is in a better
position to assure reasonable performance than is county or state
WASTELAGE -- Something New in Cattle Feeding
Highlights of Agric. Rsch. 16: Summer  1  p.

Performance of ewes, heifers, and steers  on  tests of 389, 332, and 126
days respectively are described briefly.   "At the end of the study, the
wastelage-fed ewes were more vigorous and appeared healthier than the
hay-fed ewes."  The wastelage-fed pen of  steers gained 2.57 Ib per day;
those on standard ration gained 2.42.  "Of utmost importance is that
manure fed to cows is fermented by rumen  microbes so that it is
changed into the usual products of digestion, just as conventional
feeds.  Not only do the rumen microbes change the products of manure,
but they prevent the growth of harmful bacteria in the rumen."
Cattle Manure:  Re-Use Through Wastelage Feeding
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agric. Waste Mgmt.   p.  105-113
Abst:  McQ & B C-107; W71-02715

"Organic waste from cattle reared in confinement can readily be
eliminated as a noxious pollutant and converted to a valuable feed
for animals through wastelage or modifications thereof.   The waste-
lage plan provides two primary advantages:  (a) sanitary disposal  of
organic waste and (b) improved efficiency in feed used for livestock
production. . ."

"Organic waste from ruminants has a chemical constitution similar to
the feed ingested and, in addition, is enriched by the presence of
an abundance of rumen microbial  matter.   Organic waste as it is voided
by ruminants is a fermentation product biologically safe for animals
and it has none of the characteristics of organic waste products
generally classified under the heading 'filth'."

A testing and development period of several  years at Auburn University
is described.   The excess of manure not recycled to steers may be fed
to ewes and beef cows.  If they are on pasture, they provide land
spreading services.  If not, a process of yeast production, still
under investigation, may provide the answer to complete disposal.

Solubilisation of Low Rank Coal with Carbon Monoxide and Water
Chemistry and Industry  1969:  1703

At 4500 psi and 380-400C, lignite underwent a 90-95 percent conversion,
Bituminous coal at the  same pressure and 375-425C underwent less than
75 percent conversion.  Conversion increases sharnly with pressure to
about 1000 psi, and  increases gradually thereafter.  Conversion in-
creases with water content to a 1:1 ratio.  The process is ranid.

BANDEL, Linda Sue and ANTHONY, W. Brady
Wastelage  Digestibility and Feeding Value  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 28: 152
Abst:  McQ & B B-218

A ratio of wastelage to whole corn of 2:3 is nearly optimum for
slaughter cattle.
BELL, R. 6.
Biological Treatment of Poultry Manure Collected from Caged Laying
Compost Sci. 10(3): 18-21

Manure was collected from tanks of water and from dry floors beneath
hen cages.  The liquid manure was subjected to primary treatment which
separated it into supernatant, fine sediment and coarse sediment.
Even after 13 days forced aeration, the liquid portion was unacceptable
for discharge to water courses,  The fine sediment concentrated the
odor.  After 30 days in an anaerobic digester, it was unacceptable for
surface spreading.  The coarse sediment, after 14 days incubation at
55PC, was good compost.  Moral:  The manure should not be diluted.

Manure as produced is too moist, too rich in nitrogen, and too fine-
grained for composting.  By adding ground corn cobs, one half pound
of cobs per pound of manure, a mixture resulted which behaved well
on two scales of laboratory testing.  A field test is under way.
Effects of Water Quality Standards on the Requirements for Treatment
     of Animal Wastes
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agric. Waste Mgmt.  p. 9-16
Abst:  McQ & B C-096; W71-02704

Costs are computed for the treatment required to permit direct runoff
of feedlot effluent to receiving waters.  They are such that control,
or preferably elimination, of runoff is far more economical.
BHAGAT, Surinder K. and PROCTOR, Donald E.
Treatment of Dairy Manure by Lagooning
WPCF Jnl. 41: 785-795
Abst:  McQ & B B-075; W70-09335

Lagoons provide a solution to waste disposal problems low in cost of
construction, operation, and maintenance.   Performance of a chain of
three lagoons on the campus of Washington  State University is described.
With a total area of about one acre the lagoons receive about 20 percent
of the manure from a dairy herd of 100-150 head housed on a concrete-
paved lot.  The balance of the manure is hauled to a storage area.
Effluent from the third lagoon, when such  occurs, is pumped to hay -
fields.  Its possible use as flushing water is suggested.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal in Ontario
16th Ontario Industrial' Wastes Conf.  Niagara Falls 15-18 June
Abst:  [Farm Animal  Wastes Are a Potential  Major Source of Pollution]
     Water and Wastes Engrg.  6: Sept.  p. 14
Abst:  [Farm Animal  Waste Disposal  in Ontario] Water and Poll. Control
     107: Oct.  p. 19

Large-scale livestock-producing farms are actually industries and
should be so regarded in pollution  abatement.  Proper management of
wastes, with land disposal to conserve the nutrient values, rather
than treatment is called for.  Odors can be controlled.
Aerobic Storage of Dairy Cattle Manure
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agric. Waste Mgmt.  p. 76-80
Abst:  McQ & B C-103; W71-02711

A series of laboratory tests at Purdue indicates that "aerobic storage
of manure from dairy cattle has promise of minimizing the odor problem
encountered in the spreading of unaerated material after storage."

BOYD, Claude E.
The Nutritive Value of Three Species of Water Weeds
Econ. Botany 23: 123-127


Tests on water hyacinth, water lettuce, and hydrilla indicated that
they have mean crude protein levels as high as those of many high qua!
ity forages.  Before being of use as a feed they require dehydration.
Composition changes as the plants age.

Solving the Poultry Manure Problem Economically Through Dehydration
Poultry Sci. 48: 1789-1790
Abst:  McQ & B B-276

Penn State University has perfected a two-stage drying process for
which the cost of electricity and fuel is less than $4 per ton.  The
first stage, stirring in the poultry house, reduces the moisture from
an original 75 percent to 30 percent,  The second stage, drying in a
commercial dryer at 300 Ib/hr, reduces the moisture to nine" percent.
The final weight is one-third the original.
Treatment of Agricultural
Effluent and Water Trtmt.
Jnl. 9:
439, 441-443, 445,  446
Land spreading involves smell and the possible presence of toxic
and/pr pathogenic matter.  It is unpleasant labor, subject to severe
climatic limitations and to mechanical breakdown.

Various extended aeration systems -- oxidation ditches, oxidation
tanks, lagoons in series, and lagoons with effluent being treated in
oxidation ditches -- operating in the Netherlands, the UK and the U. S.
are described.  Costs are considered to be reasonable and a good quality
effluent can be produced.

For poultry manure, drying is recommended.  "The end product could be
worth 6 to 11 per ton."  Smell is a major problem.  While scrubbing
can prevent smell, it may not be economical.
Poultry Litter, Barley, Sawdust, Urea in Sheep Rations  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 29: 153
Abst:  McQ & B B-2'21

In a feeding test in Maine in which six different sheep rations each
had a crude protein content of 17 percent  -, costs ranged from 4.5 < to
7.1 < per kg.  There was no significant difference in feed efficiency.


BURNETT, William E. and DONDERO, Norman C.
Microbiological and Chemical Changes in Poultry Manure Associated
     with Decomposition and Odor Generation
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 271-291
:Abst:  McQ &B C-l26; W71-02734

Abst.by authors:  "Changes in the microbial and chemical compo-
sitions of batch lots of 'dry' and 'liquid1 poultry manure during
decomposition were related to the production of offensive odors.
The decomposition of uric acid by both aerobic and anaerobic uricolytic
bacteria appeared to be related to the formation of significant
quantities of ammonia.  The number of sulfate-reducing bacteria,
including DuuJL^ov^b^Lo species, increased during the course of
decomposition of liquid poultry manure.  These organisms were impli-
cated as producers of some of the hydrogen sulfide in liquid poultry
waste.  There were apparent correlations between an increase in odor
intensity of liquid manure with increased storage time and the concen-
trations of volatile organic acids, ammonia, and sulfides."

The paper contains a comprehensive literature review with 53 references.
CABES, Leon J., Jr.; COLMER, Arthur R.; BARR, Harold T.; and TOWER
     Benjamin A.
The Bacterial Population of an Indoor Poultry Lagoon
Poultry Sci. 48: 54-63
Abst:  McQ & B B-272; W71-04921

Results of a series of investigations at Louisiana State University
are discussed, tabulated, and compared with values reported in the.
literature.  "... whatever the shortcomings of the present lagoon
scheme for the stabilization of poultry manure may be, it is a strong
step in the right direction."
CALVERT, C. C.; MARTIN, R. D.; and MORGAN, N. 0.
House Fly Pupae as Food for Poultry
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 62: 938-939

The laboratory preparation of dried fly pupae is described and the
chemical analysis is tabulated.  The dried pupae contained 63.1 percent
protein and 15.5 percent fat, both of good quality.  Preliminary tests
are encouraging.
CALVERT, C. C.; MARTIN, R. D.; and MORGAN, N. 0.

Dual Roles for House Flies In Poultry Manure Disposal  (Abst)
Poultry Scl. 48: 1793
Abst:  McQ & B B-277

"A study was conducted to determine the maximum number of house flv
pupae that will develop in poultry manure, the effect of this develop-
ment on the physical properties of the manure, and the nutritive value
of the fly pupae.

"Fresh hen feces will support the growth of 3 pupae per gram at a
temperature of 23 to 26C.  At this temperature the feces lose about
20% more moisture than feces without pupae.  Feces with pupae are
essentially odorless, loose, and crumbly in texture and have a moisture
content of about 46%.

"An experiment was conducted with dried, ground pupae (63.1% protein)
diluted with cellulose to contain 50% protein, to determine if this
material would support chick growth.  This protein source was equal
to soybean meal (50% protein) in supporting growth in the chick
through the first two weeks of life."
CASLER, George L.
Economic Evaluation of Liquid Manure Systems for Free Stall  Dairy
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 401-406
Abst:  McQ & B C-138; W71-02746

The economic factors influencing decisions to adopt liquid manure
handling for free-stall dairy barns in the northeastern U. S. are
1) the reduction in labor requirement, 2) the elimination of a dis-
agreeable daily chore, 3) the modification of labor distribution,
4) the combination of waste treatment of manure and milking parlor
waste, 5) the increased value of the manure, and 6) the reduction
in total costs.  Each item is discussed in some detail and typical
cost values are cited.
Viability of Parasitic Nematodes in Wastelage  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 28: 133-134
Abst:  McQ & B B-217

Even with nematode eggs present in the feces, no larvae were found in
any sample of wastelage examined.

CLAYTON, J. T. and FENG, T. H.
Aerobic Digestion of Diluted Animal Manure in Closed Systems  Temporary
     Expedient or Long Range Solution?
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 81-87
Abst:  McQ & B C-104; W71-02712

A simple anaerobic-aerobic system designed to recirculate flushing
water and to operate at least six months between cleanouts was designed,
built, and tested at the University of Massachusetts.  Performance
characteristics are reported.  Unanswered questions remain.
Agriculture as a Contributor to Pollution
AIC Review 24(3): 9-15
Abst:  McQ & B B-677

"Increasingly, atmospheric pollution is being traced to liquid manure
handling systems."  To reduce this, mechanical aeration, even in amounts
well below those found necessary for stabilization of the waste, has
been found effective.  Air pollution from liquid manure under confined
conditions has resulted in suffocation of humans and animals.

Water pollution from runoff is mentioned.

Means of utilizing nitrogen under Canadian conditions are discussed
in some detail.  Corn, potatoes, hay, and pasture have proved to be
effective in Ontario.  In Western Canada, grains, especially where
significant quantities of straw are left at harvest, should not receive
heavy applications of manure.

     J. A.
Disposal of Dairy Cattle Wastes by Aerated. Lagoons and Irrigation
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 150-159
Abst:  McQ & B C-112; W71-02720

A field trial of 88 days duration is described for a lagoon 50 ft
by 70 ft in area and 5.5 to 7 ft deep.  An aerator (2 hp first 44 days,
5 hp last 44) was floated in the center of the pond and held by guy
wires.   Adjacent cropland (grassland) was irrigated by spray irrigation
with a 2 to 3 percent maximum solids content with a half-inch appli-
cation every fourth day.

The authors conclude that the system is odorless, that it provides a
place to dispose of wastes at all times, that nutrients are saved and
returned to the land, that runoff into streams and ditches is minimized,
that pollutional characteristics of all wastes are greatly lowered,
that costs are not excessive, and that little labor is required.

EBY, Harry J. and WILLSON, 6. B.
Poultry House Dust, Odor, and Their Mechanical Removal
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 303-309
Abst:  McQ & B C-128; W71-02736

Removal of dust, and with it considerable odor, is mechanically feasible
by means of filters.  Filter cleaning, however, is impractical and one-
time use is too expensive.

Changes in Composition of Continuously Aerated Poultry Manure with
     Special Reference to Nitrogen
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 178-184
Abst:  McQ & B C-115; W71-02723

Aeration of stored waste up to the time of land spreading appears to
be the most promising method of odor control for liquid manure.  To
study the nitrogen transformations in continuously aerated liquid
manure and to determine the most efficient means of eliminating nitro-
gen where disposal on insufficient land is contemplated, or of conserv-
ing nitrogen where crop utilization is feasible, the authors conducted.
laboratory, oxidation ditch, and analytical studies reported in this

EL-SABBAN, F. F.; LONG, T. A.; GENTRY, R. F.; and FREAR, D. E. H.
The Influence of Various Factors on Poultry Litter Composition
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 340-346
Abst:  McQ & B C-132; W71-02740

"A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition of poultry
waste (litter and manure), relevant to its possible utilization as a
source of nutrients."  Wide variations, related to a number of factors,
were found.  Results are tabulated and discussed.
The Utilization of Dehydrated Poultry Waste by Layii
   	   ~  1  -inH /IIMIII-I   H  I
                                                  ing Hens  (Abst)


Poultry Sci. 48: 1807
Abst:  McQ & B B-278

Four groups of chickens were fed rations containing 10 percent,
20 percent, and 40 percent DPW and 40 percent DPW plus 4.5 percent
added animal fat.  The 10 percent ration produced the most eggs in
the 366-day period and the 40 percent-with-added-animal-fat ration
produced the least.  There were, however, no statistical differences
in number, weight, or shell thickness for the four groups.
 FOREE, Gerald R. and O'DELL, Richard A.
 Farm Waste Disposal Field Studies Utilizing a Modified Pasveer Oxidation
     Ditch, Settling Tank, Lagoon System
 Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 185-192
 Abst:  McQ & B C-116; W71-02724

 Measurements are described and results tabulated and plotted for a
 highly satisfactory facility handling the wastes from ten sows and
 their litters.
6ILLHAM, R. W. and WEBBER, L. R.
Nitrogen Contamination of Groundwater by Barnyard Leachates
WPCF Jnl. 41: 1752-1762
Abst:  McQ & B B-079; W70-00665

Nitrogen pollution below feedlots is cited in literature references.
The paper reports on an investigation in Ontario under a barnyard
housing about 65 head of cattle every winter.  Manure had accumulated
for over 50 years.  The water table is 8 ft below the surface and
bedrock is 16 ft below surface.

Concentrations of nitrate varied, with the effects of dilution and
flushing being evident.
Abortion in Cattle Associated with the Feeding of Poultry Litter
Cornell Vet. 59: 226-235
Abst:  McQ & B B-488

A large number of abortions which occurred in a herd of cattle that
had grazed on pasture heavily fertilized with dried poultry litter
was attributed to estrogens present in the chicken feed.

GRUB, W.; ALBIN, Robert C.; WELLS, Dan M.; and WHEATON, R. Z.
Engineering Analyses of Cattle Feedlots to Reduce Water Pollution
ASAE Trans. 12: 490-492, 495  [ASAE Paper 68-929]
Abst:  McQ & B B-036, G-044; W71-02685

The composition and quantity of wastes on a cattle feedlot are func-
tions of ration fed, of moisture content, and of animal size.
"Accumulated feedlot wastes may undergo practically no change  in the
feedlot other than dehydration, or they may be almost completely
stabilized by composting action on the feedlot floor."  Sprinkling
to promote composting would "undoubtedly result in increased problems
from fly infestation and odor production."

Quantity and quality of runoff is affected by amount and intensity of
precipitation, surfacing material of the feedlot, land slope,  depth
and moisture content of waste accumulation, topographic layout of
the feedlot, and composition of the ration.  Studies on a feedlot at
Lubbock, Texas, are reported and analyzed.
GRUB, W.; ALBIN, Robert C.; WELLS, Dan M.; and WHEATON, R.  Z.
The Effect of Feed, Design, and Management on the Control  of Pollution
     from Beef Cattle Feedlots
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 217-224
Abst:  McQ & B C-119; W71-02727

The composition and quantity of wastes on beef cattle feedlots vary
considerably with animal size, climatic variation, and ration  fed.
Cattle wastes, when moist, are readily degraded by microorganisms and
are relished by many insects, particularly flies.

The amount and quality of runoff is affected by the amount and inten-
sity of precipitation and by the antecedent moisture content.   Dry
manure is subject to prompt runoff with erosion; moist manure  tends to
hold further moisture.  More and stronger runoff occurs from paved
than unpaved lots.  Land slope and depth of manure accumulation ob-
viously affect runoff.  While deep layers tend to stabilize, the amount
of fresh manure remains relatively constant.  Dehydrated manure, when
wetted, regains its original potency.  The feedlot layout and  ration
fed also affect runoff.
HARMON, B. 6.; JENSEN, A. H.; and BAKER, D. H.
Nutritive Value of Oxidation-Ditch Residue  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 29: 136
Abst:  McQ & B B-220

Swine excreta suspended in water (ODR) was substituted for portions
of corn-soymeal ration for weanling rats.  "The digestible energy
decreased linearly as ODR was added to the diet."
HAZEN, T. E. and UPPER, R. I.
Workshop Session (in Animal Wastes as Water Pollutants)
WPC Rsch. Series, DAST-26, 13040 EYX, Chap. 21, p. 298-300

Intensive research is necessary to determine the appropriate limitations
on nitrogen in water supplies and the possibly detrimental effects of
high rates of application of wastes to land.
HINES, N. William
Legal Aspects
WPC Rsch. Series, DAST-26, 13040 EYX, Chap.  26, p.  365-376

Little legal attention has been directed to  non-point sources of pollu-
tion as yet.  Feedlots3 agriculture's major  point source, are being
regulated by states with increasing thoroughness.
JOHNSON, Thomas H. and MOUNTNEY, G. J.
Poultry Manure Production, Utilization  and Disposal
World's Poultry Sci.  Jnl.  25: 202-217
Abst:  McO & B B-316

The paper presents a review of the literature with 61 references
listed.  The disposal and utilization methods discussed are:
     fertilizer (supply far exceeds demand);
     incineration (self-sustaining if moisture content low enough;
the ashes have some value for phosphorus and potassium);
     dehydration (rather costly; dust and odor);
     feed supplements (FDA disapproves);
     gas production (high rate necessary for economic feasibility);
     composting (mix with drying agent);
     lagoons (conflicting recommendations);
     disposal as sewage (physically possible, financially prohibitive);
     spraying (slurry simplified handling); and
     furrow cover (effective).
JOHNSON, Thomas H. and MOUNTNEY, G. J.
Bibliography of Production, Utilization and Disposal of Poultry Manure
Ohio Agr. Rsch. and Dvpt. Center, Dept. of Poult, Sci., Dept. Series
     74, 51  p.

The bibliography cites 596 articles which have appeared in U.  S.  and
foreign publications.  The arrangement is alphabetically by author.
While many of the articles cited are abstracted in this volume, there
are a large number which are not.

JONES, Don D.; DAY, Donald L.; and CONVERSE, James C.
Field Tests of Oxidation Ditches in Confinement Swine Buildings
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 160-171
Abst:  McQ & B C-113; W71-02721

Design criteria for oxidation ditches have been under study at the
University of Illinois since 1966.  Problems encountered are foaming
(particularly shortly after startup), ammonia odors, and poor
treatment.  These may be minimized by maintaining an adequate velocity
in the ditch by submerging the rotor to about one-third the liquid
depth and using a detention time of 50 days.  The effluent is not
fit for discharge to surface water.
Theory and Future Outlook of Animal Waste Treatment in Canada and the
     United States
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 23-36
Abst:  McQ & B C-098; W71-02706

Anaerobic treatment involves more or less odor.  The socially accept-
able, but more difficult and expensive, procedures are aerobic.
Potential solutions discussed are:

     1)  integrated farming with land spreading;

     2)  anaerobic holding systems and anaerobic lagoons;

     3)  aerobic systems:

             a.  oxidation ponds,

             b.  aerated lagoons,

             c.  oxidation ditches,

             d.  air aspirators, and

             e.  activated sludge and bio-filters;

     4)  complete treatment (seldom economic);

     5)  aerobic digestion with methane gas production;

     6)  drying and/or incineration (air pollution); and

     7)  aerobic composting after mixing with dry refuse.

The future includes greater urban sprawl and more rural non-farm
residences.  It may include "man made" land renovated by sludge
disposition and contracted manure handling services.

Twenty-seven references are listed.
 KEEN, Montague
 Urgent Dilemma of Farm Effluents
 Munic. Jnl. 77: 722, 724
                                      had been rather common in the
Discharges of animal  wastes to sewers
UK until an Act of Parliament in 1961 permitted the receiving authority
to assess charges and to refuse loads which caused treatment plant
capacities to be exceeded.   Land disposal  is often not feasible and
discharge to streams  is forbidden.   "The Government has casually
legislated in 1961 in a fashion which would not merely control  but
prohibit the discharge of many farm wastes, but without having  any
clear idea of what farmers were expected to do to survive."   Resulting
political jockeying by the National  Farmers' Union is described.
KOLEGA, John J.; NELSON, Gordon L.; and GRAVES, Quintin B.
Analyses for Oxygen Transfer Coefficients in Rotor Aeration Systems
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 63-75
Abst:  McQ & B C-102; W71-02710

From theoretical considerations, dimensional analysis, and laboratory
testing, the authors derive an equation for the rate of oxygen transfer
per revolution, OTC/N, as a function of the Reynolds number, the
Froude number, the ratio of paddle immersion to rotor diameter, and the
ratio of liquid depth to rotor diameter.  It is
(7.42 x 10"7)
                              Re0'70 x Fr-'19 x
Pw-18   dl
~D     x T
1969-1042  '
LASALLE, Robert M., Jr. and LAUNDER, Mark
Manure Conservation
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 245-248
Abst:  McQ & B C-122; W71-02730

The authors, president and consulting engineer respectively for Hupsi
Corporation, describe a process of salvaging poultry manure for ferti-
lizer and feed on which the corporation has a patent pending.

"We propose that troughs of suitable material be placed under the
chickens and that a flow of weak phosphoric acid solution be maintained
in these troughs.  Droppings will be immediately stabilized, denatured
and deodorized upon falling into this solution."

"We intend to do further study of the possibility of extracting pro-
teins, carbohydrates and any other material of animal food value from
the phosphoric acid solution before preparing as fertilizer. .  .  These
materials are preserved in the acid state much as sauerkraut or ensilage."

"By refrigerating the solution flowing under the chickens, the chicken
house is completely and perfectly air-conditioned."

Gross profit is estimated to be $14.50 per ton of dried manure.

LAW, James P.
Nutrient Removal from Enriched Waste Effluent by the Hydroponic Culture
     of Cool Season Grasses
USDI FWQA-.WPC Rsch. Series 16080-10/69  33 p.
     (' '
In tests with tall fescue and perennial ryegrass grown in hydroponic
culture tanks supplied with secondary sewage effluent the percentage
removals of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium were four to eight
percent, two to five percent, and six to twenty-two percent,
respectively.  Much further research will be required if the method
is to approach feasibility.
The Economics  of  Poultry Manure  Disposal
Cornell  Univ.  Conf. on  Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 388-392
Abst:  McQ & B C-l36 ; W71-02744

The paper describes an  economic  analysis of the costs of land disposal
of poultry wastes  in  a  resort  region of the Catskills where some
relatively long hauls are  involved.  Fertilizer-equivalent values are
attributed to  the  manure with  penalties for the diseconomy of spreading
at the wrong season of  the year  for most effective fertilizer use.
Alternatives (stated  without discussion to be dehydration, incineration,
and biological  decomposition)  remain to be evaluated.

LOEHR, Raymond C.
Animal Wastes -- A National Problem
ASCE Proc. 95: SA 2: 189-221
Abst:  McQ & B B-092; W71-05420

This paper, with its 86 references, is an excellent summary of the
state of the art as of August 1967.  Emphasis in the past has been
upon return of wastes to the land.  With confinement feeding on small
areas, the value of the fertilizer is often substantially less than
the cost of collecting, conveying and spreading.  Moreover, caution is
required to avoid runoff from spread manure and possible infection to
man and livestock.

Methods of handling and disposal discussed include:

     a)  anaerobic digestion (affected by temperature; the effluent
requires further treatment);

     b)  aerobic treatment (extremely large surface areas and volumes
involved if this is the sole treatment used);

     c)  anaerobic lagoons (effective, but should not extend to the
area under slotted floors of confinement sheds);

     d)  anaerobic-aerobic systems (often satisfactory if ultimate
discharge does not reach streams);

     e)  land disposal (to avoid runoff, incorporate soon after spreading;
confinement feeding has altered the feasibility of this method);

     f)  incineration and drying (reduce total volume and minimize
pollution potential); and

     g)  miscellaneous processes ("Because of technical or economic
difficulties, these processes have not found wide application").

The latter include composting (for which a market is required), vacuum
filtration, lime and chlorine treatments (for odor control primarily),
conventional sewage treatment processes (for dilute wastes only),
and feeding of dried manure as a portion of the ration to the same or
other animals.  "At present, there appears to be no profitable method
of livestock manure utilization and it is unlikely that one will be
developed."  Research needs are indicated.

LOEHR, Raymond C.
The Challenge of Animal Waste Management
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 17-22
Abst:  McQ & B C-097; W71-02705

Land disposal of animal wastes has become "doubtful from a profit
standpoint."  Operators with too little land are faced with social  and
legal restrictions on disposal of low-value waste.  Better location
planning of facilities will be required to minimize runoff and odor.

Waste management must be integrated to minimize overall  animal  management.
"The problems we are discussing today have arisen because of rapid
progress in efficiency of animal production without enough anticipation
or understanding of the difficulties that would occur with waste treat-
ment and disposal."

Cost analyses are needed.  Research areas are listed.

LOEHR, Raymond C.
Treatment of Wastes from Beef Cattle Feedlots -- Field Results
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agric. Waste Mgmt.  p. 225-241
Abst:  McQ & B C-120; W71-02728

This paper reports the behavior of a field demonstration complex of an
anaerobic lagoon followed by an aerobic lagoon and a polishing (also
aerobic) lagoon for the treatment of beef cattle feedlot wastes and
runoff.  The ability of such a battery of lagoons was demonstrated.
For most effective use of such a system, it would be preferable to
handle solids semi-dry rather than treat them, the characteristics  of
the lagoons should be understood by the operators, feed should be as
continuous as feasible, and at least half the solids in the anaerobic
lagoon should be left as "seed" at any cleaning.  The final effluent
is not acceptable in a watercourse.
LONG, T. A.; BRATZLER, J. W.; and FREAR, D. E. H.
The Value of Hydrolyzed and Dried Poultry Waste as a Feed for Ruminant
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 98-104
Abst:  McQ & B C-106; W71-02714

Nitrogen was supplied as soybean oil meal, as hydrolyzed poultry waste
(pressure cooked with 30 Ibs of steam, 30 min), and as cooked poultry
waste (30 min at atmospheric pressure) in isonitrogenous, equicalorie
rations to lambs.  After processing, the poultry waste was dried and
large particles were removed.  Palatability was low.  Performance was
comparable on all diets.

When fed to beef, hydrolyzed poultry wastes gave the best tasting beef,
and dried poultry wastes the poorest in a four-ration comparison.
Results are tabulated.

The Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Protein in Toplan Dried
     Poultry Manure  (Abst)
Animal Production 11: 276

Apparent digestibilities of Toplan (dried poultry manure) as determined
by direct measurements in sheep feeding and by extrapolation from other
diets were, respectively:  for dry matter 56.6 percent and 56.6 percent,
for organic matter 66.6 percent and 67 percent, for energy 60.3 percent
and 60.9'percent, for nitrogen 77.1 percent and 78.7 percent, and for
copper 24.2 percent and 13.5 percent.  "Toplan" is a British trade name.

Manure Decomposition and Fate of Breakdown Products in Soil
WPC R$cH>,Snies, QAST-26, 13040 EYX, Chap. 17.  p. 241-255

The value of the nutrients in manure is slightly greater than $1 per
ton.  Some constituents, such as ammonia, are toxic in excessive
applications.  The value of manure as a soil  conditioner has probably
been overrateti. '   <

Manure will decompose in a feedlot with significant losses in nitrogen,
volatile sdlids, and carbon.  Under heavy applications and/or in wet  
soil .manure may become anaerobic.  Denitrification then occurs and the
manure, releases products detrimental to plant growth.

Economic Return from Various Land Disposal Systems for Dairy Cattle
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 393-400
Abst:  McQ & B C-l37; ;W71-02745

Tabulations present the costs of hauling and handling dairy manure under
conditions found in the northeastern U. S., yields of various crops
under various; manure application schedules, and calculated dollar return
for the manuring.  "Without a charge for hauling and spreading dairy
cattle manure crop yield returns ranged from $1.42 per ton to a deficit
of $.26."
Manure Transformations and Fate of Decomposition Products in Water
WPC Rsch. Series, DAST-26, 13040 EYX, Chap. 18.  p. 256-264

Manure in water leads to complex biochemical activity.  In all  circum-
stances, the end result is not a purified product, but is one which
may be spread for final land disposal without obnoxious odors.
Treatment systems evaluated include oxidation ponds, aerated lagoons,
oxidation ditches, and anaerobic lagoons.

MEEK, A. M.; MERRILL, W- G.; and PIERCE, R. A.
Problems and Practices in Some Systems of Manure Handling in Northern
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 254-259
Abst:  McQ & B C-124; W71-02732

Installations described include dairy barns in Scotland with slatted  ,
floors, drainage to a sump, and pumping to a honey wagon.  In England,
a barn with removable metal slats permitted manure removal by means of
a front-end loader.  A three-day odor problem accompanies cleaning.
Norwegians tend to use pit storage under the barn.  Danes prefer
continuous flow to outside storage.  Noxious gases are a concern in
Scandinavia, but little firm data seems to be available on them.
MELLER, Floyd H.
Conversion of Organic Solid Wastes into Yeast
USPHS Pbln. No. 1909.  173 p.

While this publication limits itself to conversion studies of municipal
wastes, waste paper, and bagasse, some of the findings have wider
application.  It is concluded that the hydrolysis-fermentation approach
has promise, though the calculated costs of producing Torula yeast from
hydrolyzed solid wastes place this source of protein "at best at the
high end of the current high protein supplement price range."

In an appendix the "City Farm Concept" is sketched.   It is contemplated
that animals would convert municipal wastes to meat with the manure
joining the sludge of the municipal plant for disposal.
Anaerobic Manure Lagoons
Agr. Engrs. Digest AED-1.
2 p.  [Revision of 1963 publication]
Mechanics of functioning, formulae for sizing, location of inlets and
outlets, and principles of management are discussed.   All  overflow
from an anaerobic lagoon should be captured and led to an  aerobic
lagoon.  Lagoons should be loaded frequently, with bedding being
excluded.  Sludge should be removed when it begins to interfere with
good- operation and be applied to the land.


Biological Digestion of Manure by Diptera
Feedstuffs 41: 20 Dec.  p. 32-33

A breeder stock of house flies may be developed from a disease-free
stock.  Fly eggs, deposited on manure available in the fly cages, may
be picked up daily and transferred to fresh manure.  After hatching,
the larvae feed on the manure reducing its moisture content by 60
percent and stabilizing it.  After pupation, two or three days are
available as harvest time.  The pupae provide an excellent source of
protein for chicks.

"Possibly the most practical method of harvesting may be to permit
the flies to emerge as adults under controlled conditions,  they could
then be killed by heat and utilized as a feedstuff."
Use of Poultry Manure for Correction of Zn and Fe Deficiencies in Plants
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 120-123
Abst:  McQ & B C-109; W71-02717

Deficiencies in zinc and iron are common in Colorado, especially where
top soil has been removed in leveling land for irrigation.  Tests
reported indicate that fresh poultry manure is effective in supplying
these deficiencies, whereas the ashed residues are of little help.
MILLER, B. F. and SHAW, J. H.
Digestion of Poultry Manure by Diptera  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 48: 1844-1845
Abst:  McQ & B B-281

Diptera which can develop from egg to pupa in five to six days at
37C can effectively stabilize poultry manure.  The larvae may be
harvested by spreading the manure thinly on a screen under an intense
light source.  In avoiding the light, the larvae will crawl through
the screen.  Pupae can be separated from manure by flotation.

In tests larvae removed 80 percent of the organic matter and reduced
the moisture from 75 percent to 50 percent.  About 25 to 30 g of larvae
were produced from each kg of fresh poultry manure.
MINER, J. Ronald

Agricultural (Livestock) Wastes  [In a Review of the Literature of
     1968 on Wastewater and Water Pollution Control]
WPCF Jnl. 41: 1169-1178
Abst:  McQ & B B-076

A short summary of the contents of 72 references, approximately a
paragraph devoted to each, is given.  Nine additional references are
listed.  Subheadings used in the classification of the articles are
Manure Handling Systems, Manure Gases and Odors, Waste Characteri-
zation, Cattle Feedlot Wastes, Application of Waste to Cropland, and
Wastes Treatment Studies.
MINER, j. Ronald and WILLRICH, T. L.
Livestock Operations and Field-Spread Manure as Sources of Pollutants
WPC Rsch. Series DAST-26, 13040 EYX, Chap. 16, p. 231-240

Potential pollution sources discussed include runoff from range and
pasture, from cropland following manure application, and from feedlots
and similar unroofed enclosures.  The first is usually negligible, the
second tends to be critical only when spreading occurs on frozen ground
or snow-covered surfaces, and the third required control because of
high-strength wastes with a slug effect due to their entering streams
only as storm runoff.  Diversion channels, settling basins, and
detention ponds are useful as means of control.  Evaporation or
irrigation may be effective for disposal of liquids.

Ground water may be polluted by percolation from feedlots, disposal
areas, or field-spread manure,  the capacity of the soil for absorbing
and transforming nutrients should not be exceeded.
MOORE, James A.
Animal Waste Management to Minimize Pollution
WPC Rsch. Series, DAST-26, 13040 EYX, Chap. 20.  p. 286-297

Management of manure consists of four steps:  collection, storage,
treatment, and utilization or disposal.  Collection may be by wet
methods, which have the advantage of easy mechanical handling by pumps,
or by dry, which have the advantage of minimizing the volume to be
handled.  Storage is used to preserve nutrient value and minimize
pollution until further handling is convenient or appropriate.
Treatment may be by dry systems (drying, dehydration, incineration, or
composting) or by wet systems.  These latter may involve primary
treatment (screening and sedimentation), secondary treatment (anaerobic,
aerobic, or both), and in the future may be extended to tertiary treat-
ment (nutrient removal).  Utilization and disposal is primarily to the
land.  A list of 35 references is included.


MOORE, J. A.; LARSON, R. E.; and ALLRED, E. R.
Study of the Use of the Oxidation Ditch to Stabilize Beef Animal Manures
     in Cold Climates
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 172-177
Abst:  McQ & B C-114; W71-02722

Tests of an oxidation ditch in Minnesota indicate that it "appears to be
a system which can meet the following objectives:  (a) control  and re-
duce the large volumes of wastes, (b) reduce the pollutional  burden of
these wastes and (c) maintain an acceptable nuisance level."   Digestion
is minimal at low temperatures and foaming is often severe.   Oxidation
ditch effluent should not be released to public waters.
MORRISON, Joseph L. and PETERSON, 0. H.
The Distribution of Arsenic from Reused Poultry Litter in Broiler
     Chickens, Soil, and Crops
Poultry Sci. 48: 1848

"Although measurable amounts of arsenic (15-30 p.p.m.) were found in
the litter, this had no effect on the arsenic content of birds raised
on this litter.  Similarly, the arsenic content of soil and crops was
unaffected by the use of poultry litter as fertilizer."
Swine Housing and Waste Management
Univ. of 111.  A. Eng. 873. ' 91 p.
Abst:  McQ & B E-116; W71-00924

Part II:  Swine Waste-Management Studies (p. 25-91) provides an excellent
state-of-the-art survey of current practice keyed to a list of 155
references.  Topics covered are:

Returning Swine Wastes to the Land (p. 31-36)
     Spreading as a solid (often objectionable)
     Spreading as a liquid -- honey wagon, spray irrigation, plow-
     Value of hog wastes for fertilizer

Treatment of Swine Wastes (p.  37-62)
     Anaerobic -- lagoons, digesters
     Aerobic -- naturally aerobic lagoons, mechanically aerobic
          lagoons, oxidation ditches

Other Methods of Waste Disposal (p. 63-64)
     Dehydration -- "little value. . .difficult and expensive"


     Incineration -- "does not seem applicable"
     Composting -- "could be used for wet solids. .  .by addition of.  .  -.
     Use of swine waste in feed -- nutritional value of oxidation ditch
          sludge appears promising.  Pigs fed ration of 15 percent pig
          fec.es outperformed those fed 0 percent or 30 percent.

Gases and Odors from Stored Swine Wastes (p. 65-78)

Legal Implications of Waste Handling (p. 79-80)

Recommendations for Future Hog Waste Management Research (p. 81-84)

References on Waste Management (p. 85-91).

Fact sheets, based on this study, were prepared as publications  A Eng
875-879.  They also carry the serial designation 69-4-A through  69-4-F
of the National Pork Producers Council.
Cattle Feedlot Water Quality Hydrology
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgrht.  p. 203-216
Abst:  McQ & B C-118; W71-02726

The paper derives procedures for predicting the quality and quantity
of runoff from existing feedlots by use of hydro!ogic data.
OKEY, Robert W.; RICKLES, Robert N.; and TAYLOR, Robert B.
Relative Economics of Animal Waste Disposal by Selected Wet and Dry
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 369-387
Abst:  McQ & B C-135; W71-02743

Several possible means of handling beef feedlot wastes in a non-polluting
manner were investigated and costs were computed per pound of meat pro-
duced for lots carrying 500, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 25,000 head.  It was
concluded that dry handling, taking advantage of the relatively low
volume of manure, would be more economical than wet handling after
dilution.  Costs ranged from one to ten cents per pound depending on
process chosen and size of lot.  Continued research is necessary.

Waste Disposal Management
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 242-244
Abst:  McQ & B C-121; W71-02729

Land spreading may well be the least-cost method of disposing of poultry
manure.  To minimize risk of pollution and nuisance the spreading must
be properly timed.  This requires storage.  Solid or liquid handling may
be preferable depending upon circumstances.  In any case, good house-
keeping and concern for neighbors must be paramount.

OWENS, T. R.; WELLS, Dan M.; GRUB, Walter; ALBIN, Robert C.; and
     COLEMAN, Eugene
Some Physical and Economic Aspects of Water Pollution Control for
     Cattle Feedlot Runoff
Water Pollution Control Fedn., Dallas.  20 p. proc.

With assumed costs appropriate to the High Plains of Texas, and using
historical precipitation and evaporation records for the area, calcu-
lations are made for the cost of handling runoff vs the risk of over-
flow of the system.  Mechanical (pumping to irrigation or playa lakes)
and evaporative (with provision of an adequate holding pond) systems
are compared.  Secondary considerations such as detrimental effect of
undiluted effluent on crops and possibility of groundwater pollution
are mentioned.

Modified environmental feeding on slotted floors with continuous, rather
than batch, manure disposal would have advantages in increased rate of
gain, reduced uncertainty, better animal health, reduced labor require-
ments, elimination of air pollution, and simplified waste treatment or
disposal.  The disadvantages would include tripling of capital costs,
forfeiture of natural climatic advantages where they exist, and increased
annual operating costs.

     BUCHANAN, M. L.
Treatment of Beef-Cattle Waste Water for Possible Reuse
ASAE Trans. 12: 471-473  [ASAE Paper 68-930]
Abst:  McQ.& B B-035, G-045; W71-00942

Tests conducted at North Dakota State University in which manure was
flushed to a settling tank, the effluent from the settling tank was
collected and treated in a secondary tank, and the effluent from the
secondary tank was pumped to a holding tank and then used as flushing
water are described.

Treatments in the secondary tank were 1) further settling only,
2) forced aeration, and 3) coagulation with filter alum.  Data are
tabulated.  While coagulation proved to be the best of the three
treatments, some unmeasured influences of temperature may have been
present.   The flushing water had color and odor under all three

Nutrient Recycling by Laying Hens
Feedstuffs 41: 1 Feb.  p. 19
Abst:  McQ & B F-100

Laying hens fed a control diet ("the best one, price considered, that
we were able to formulate"), and diets containing 10 and 20 percent of
natural mixtures of litter and droppings, adjusted to be isocaloric
(916 Kcal. of productive energy) and isonitrogenous (16.00 percent
protein), were compared in body weight, egg production (number and
weight), mortality, etc.  With one exception the performances on
nutrient recycled diets were superior to those on the control diet.
Calculated values of the recycled nutrients ranged from $19.90 to
$72.90 per ton.
Alliance for Action
WPC Rsch. Series, DAST-26, 13040 EYX, Chap. 28.  p. 390-396

Effective action for reduction of pollution due to.animal  wastes will
involve inventories, research, development, and demonstrations, but
regulation cannot await perfection.  Zoning for agriculture may provide
a partial answer.  Location of facilities and proper management of
drainage -- including the exclusion of inflow -- are necessary.
Wastes may be used to reclaim lands if economics continues to favor
artificial fertilizers.
RADEMACHER, John M. and RESNIK, Anthony V.
Feedlot Pollution Control -- A Profile for Action
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 193-202
Abst:  McQ & B C-117; W71-02725

The total problem of agriculture's contribution to environmental
degradation is sketched and the history of legislative steps to rectify
the situation is reviewed.  Re-education, research, and regulation are
seen as keys to a better future.
REED, Charles H.
Specifications for Equipment for Liquid Manure Disposal by the
     Plow-Furrow-Cover Method 
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 114-119
Abst:  McQ & B C-108

A plow-furrow-cover method of manure spreading eliminates odors and
flies.  Fertilizer values may be preserved;by spreading fresh manure.
Five prototype spreaders have been designed and/or tested at the
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station.   A fully reliable,
effective, economical spreader is not yet on the market.
Farm Wastes
Water Pollut. Control 68: 403-409
Abst:  McQ & B A-299; W70-06056
Disc:  409-413
Reporting primarily on practice in Holland, the author emphasized the
necessity of avoiding discharge of farm wastes to rivers because of the
high BOD present.  "The usual way to dispose of farm wastes has been
and still is to use them as an organic fertilizer on farm land."  Lack
of balance between production and demand for fertilizer has led to
experimentation with oxidation ditches.  Construction is described and
cost data given.
SCHMID, Lawrence A. and LIPPER, Ralph I.
Swine Wastes, Characterization and Anaerobic Digestion
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.   p. 50-57
Abst:  McQ & B C-100; W71-02708

The optimum conditions for anaerobic treatment of hog wastes have been
shown to require expensive facilities and close supervision.  Where
partial treatment will suffice, as in the liquification of the wastes
to permit reuse as flushing water and to ease handling prior to
ultimate land disposal, anaerobic treatment may be effective at moderate
SELTZER, William; MOUM, Stanley G.; and GOLDHAFT, Tevis M.
A Method for the Treatment of Animal Waste to Control Ammonia and
     Other Odors
Poultry Sci. 48: 1912-1918
Abst:  McQ & B B-282; W71-00332

"Flake paraformaldehyde as it disintegrates has the unique ability to
neutralize ammonia gas produced by animal wastes by a direct chemical
reaction.  Because flake paraformaldehyde liberates formaldehyde gas
slowly, it has an antimicrobial action that destroys a variety of
organisms capable of producing noxious gases, thus minimizing odors
that accompany decaying animal wastes for a prolonged period.  Tests
show that because of its action the treated animal wastes retain
nitrogen at a much higher rate than untreated wastes."


SHANNON, D. W-  F. and BROWN, W. 0-
Losses of Energy and Nitrogen on  Drying Poultry Excreta
Poultry Sci. 48: 41-43
Abst:  W71-04925

Losses of energy and nitrogen for various drying procedures were tested,
Results were:
     Freeze dry

     Vacuum dry at 40C

     Forced-air oven at  60 C


Energy loss





N loss





Influence of Chemical Treatments upon Digestibility of Ruminant
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 88-97
Abst:  McQ & B C-105; W71-02713

The composition of ruminant feces and barn wastes is largely depen-
dent upon the ration fed and the bedding system used.  "The first part
of this paper deals with the effect of several chemical treatments upon
feces from cattle fed solely orchard grass or alfalfa hay.  The effects
were measured as changes in CW [cell wall] digestibility ascertained
by i.n vLUw fermentation and by changes in the chemical composition of
the feces.  The second part deals with the effect of sodium peroxide
treatment on the m v-tvo digestibility of orchard grass feces from
cattle when fed to sheep."  Results are tabulated and discussed.
Measurement of the Odor Strength of Animal Manures
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 260-270
Abst:  McQ & B C-125; W71-02733

"Significant observations" based on laboratory studies were that odor
production increases with increasing manure volume, but not linearly;
that diluted manure has a higher odor strength than undiluted manure;
that mixed manure has a stronger smell than unmixed; that mixing

release? odors promptly; and that maximum odor production occurs
between two and seven days for batch samples.
Removal of Water from Animal  Manures
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr.  Waste Mgmt.  p.  347-362
Abst:  McQ & B C-133; W71-02741

The advantages of removing water from manure are a) a change in
handling characteristics,  b)  a reduction in  weight and volume, and
c) a reduction in offensive odor.  Water may be removed mechanically,
thermally, or by absorption in litter or bedding.  Mechanical  means
are ineffective and/or expensive.  Thermal removal by natural  evapo-
ration is, slow, the rate of water loss from  a manure surface being
less than that from a free water surface.  Time requirements vary
widely from sample to sample.
Status Report on Water Pollution Control Facilities for Farm Animal
     Wastes in the Province of Ontario
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p.  131-149
Abst:  McQ & B C-lll; W71-02719

The findings of a 1968 survey are presented.  In Ontario, land spreading
is universally practiced but difficulties are anticipated as confinement
feeding on small land holdings becomes more general.  Storage of up to
six months is required to avoid spreading on frozen ground or snow.
Treatment for release to water courses would be uneconomical.  All
lagoons in the province have produced more or less  odor.

"This status report estimates the pollution potential  of farm animal
wastes; outlines the present methods of handling liquid manure from
confinement operations; tabulates animal waste characteristics, loadings,
and population equivalents; gives field data and experiences on typical
water pollution control facilities; and concludes with guidelines on
the selection, design, and operation of farm waste  systems."
VICKERS, Albert F. and GENETELLI, Emil J.
Design Parameters for the Stabilization of Highly Organic Manure
     Slurries by Aeration
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 37-49
Abst:  McQ & B C-099; W71-02707

A series of experiments with an oxidation tank handling diluted
poultry manure indicate that such an installation would be practical
for a farmer in that it is reliable, requires a minimum of maintenance
and operation, and produces a nuisance-free effluent in that it has no
odor and does not attract flies.  The effluent is still too potent for
stream discharge.  Liquid and solids in the slurry are easily separable
and may be disposed of by land spreading.

WALKER, J. P. and POS, J.
Caged Layer Performance in Pens with Oxidation Ditches and Liquid
     Manure Storage Tanks
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 249-253
Abstj  McQ & B C-123; W71-02731

Hen performance was slightly better and the odor was less offensive
over an oxidation ditch than over a liquid manure tank.  Foaming and
mechanical failures occurred with the oxidation ditch.  Aerators
should be installed outside the pen area.  Dropping boards should be
omitted to avoid shock loading.
WARD, John C. and JEX, E. M.
Characteristics of Aqueous Solutions of Cattle Manure
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 310-326
Abst:  McQ & B C-129; W71-02737

Aqueous characteristics investigated were BOD, conductivity,  pH,
oxidation-reduction potential, coagulation and colloidal  properties,
dissolved solids, volatile solids, and foaming.  The information  ob-
tained is applicable to the design of aerated lagoons for the treat-
ment of cattle manure.
WEBBER, L. R. and LANE, T. H.
The Nitrogen Problem in the Land Disposal of Liquid Manure
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 124-130
Abst:  McQ & B C-110; W71-02718

Studies at Guelph, Ontario, were undertaken to provide guidelines  for
determining the optimum application of manure to fertilize crops and
the maximum safe application without polluting surface or ground water.
Crops vary in their use of nitrogen.  Corn, potatoes, hay, and pasture
grasses, particularly on coarse-textured soils, use large quantities
of nitrogen.  Enzymatic denitrification, a biological process accom-
plished by facultatively anaerobic bacteria, may be employed to dispose
of nitrogen provided proper nutrients and temperatures are available
for the bacteria.

WELLS, Dan M.; ALBIN, Robert C.; GRUB, Walter.; and WHEATON, R. Z.
Aerobic Decomposition of Solid Wastes from Cattle Feedlots
Cornell Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 58-62
Abst:  McQ & B C-101; W71-02709

Aerobic composting is an effective means of handling wastes from beef
feedlots in the semi-arid High Plains of Texas.  The fresh manure may
be placed in piles and turned weekly.  Fly larvae deposits may be
intense the first week.  They cannot survive the temperatures which
develop within a pile, and the weekly turning period provides adequate
fly control.

Experiments with a SB-gallon drum rotating at 3/4 RPM and stationary
except for two revolutions twice per day indicated "that stabilization
points at which insects are no longer -attracted to the mass, bacteria
of purification can no longer be actively supported, coliform bacteria
are no longer detected, and high internal temperatures can no longer
be maintained are reached at compost time periods of less than ten
WELLS, Dan M.; COLEMAN, Eugene A.; GRUB, Walter; ALBIN, Robert C.; and
     MEENAGHAN, George F.
Cattle Feedlot Pollution Study:  Interim Report Number 1  to Texas Water
     Quality Board
Texas Tech Water Res. Center Publn. WRC 69-7.   xi + 34 p.

Laboratory and field investigations on concrete and dirt feedlots led
to the following conclusions and recommendations:

     1.  Conventional aerobic treatment processes are not economically

     2,  Undiluted or untreated runoff from feedlots is not suitable
for direct application as irrigation on most field crops.

     3.  Anaerobic treatment processes would appear to offer the best
hope for treatment of feedlot runoff.

     4.  The potential pollution hazard to groundwater needs thorough

The findings are applicable to the conditions  of the High Plains of
West Texas.  They may require modifications to fit other climatic

WELLS, Dan M.; GRUB, Walter; ALBIN, Robert C.; MEENAGHAN'  George F.; and
     COLEMAN, Eugene                                      >     *
Characteristics of Wastes from High Plains Cattle Feedlots
Texas Section ASCE,  Lubbock, Texas.  11 Oct 69  22 p. proc.

Laboratory and field tests of the response of a number of varieties of
plants to irrigation with the runoff from concrete or dirt-surfaced
beef cattle feedlots are reported and discussed.  Runoff from the
concrete surfaces was more damaging than that from the dirt lots.  It
was.concluded that "runoff from feedlots operated in a conventional
manner does not appear to be suitable for direct application as
irrigation on most field crops.  It appears that such runoff should
be applied in limited amounts only to crops with a high salt tolerance
and that it should be diluted with fresh water to the maximum possible

Concern was expressed that groundwater might be polluted under unlined
ponds or agricultural land irrigated with feedlot runoff.
ANON   [Based on Herbert R. APPELL and Irving WENDER]
Novel  Process Could Aid in Waste Disposal
Chem.  and Engr. News 47: 17 Nov.  p. 43

The U. S. Bureau of Mines Coal Research Center at Pittsburgh, has
demonstrated on a  laboratory basis a process by means of which'a ton
of garbage could be converted to a barrel of heavy * 1ow-sulfur-oil,
water, carbon residue and ash.  Pressures of 1000 psi and steam  "
heating at 380C for 20 minutes are involved.  No qost estimates have
been made,.
ANON   [Based on  D. J. B. GOWAN]
Who is Helping the Farmer?                         -  .         ,
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl. 9: 25-29.  Comment p. 142, 309, 429

The Secretary of the National  Farmers' Union (NFU) of the UK reports
that the NFU has secured reduced charges in some cases far-farmers
discharging their wastes to municipal sewers.  He is bitter-oyer the
research orientation of the Water Pollution Research Laboratory%,the
three main Scottish colleges of agriculture, and similar groups whose
work he considered to be "either too  'rarified1 in relation1 to'the
economics of the problem or [which] bore no relation to the physical
limitations of farmers considering the worsening labour position'on
farms."                                                         l   -:

Two Ministries and the Water Pollution Research Laboratory Vefute the
accusation in appended statements.

ANON  [Based on Charles T. RILEY and Ken JONES]
Farm Wastes
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl.  9: 71-72

In rebuttal to Mr. GOWAN  [1969-1090], spokesmen for the Ministry of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Food point out the diversity of situations
arising in waste disposal and the necessity to foresee results of
proposed solutions.  "Waste disposal must be regarded as a production
ANON   [Based on Bryan PLATT]
British Cite Value of Poultry Manure in Pvuminant Feeds
Feedstuffs 41: 9 Aug.  p. 43

Problems overcome in preparing dried poultry manure as an acceptable
(25-50 percent of ration) feed for ruminants in England were the
assuring of a sterile product free of bacteriological contamination or
extraneous matter with no trace of burning or charring.  Unpleasant
smells during the processing were reduced and a market was developed
for the feathers which were removed, dried, and cleaned.  The product,
called "Toplan," sells for $28.80 per ton, thus saving 30 percent on
feed costs.  The contents are crude protein 26.6 percent, carbohydrates
38.7 percent, ash 15.24 percent, moisture 7.68 oercent, and oil,
phosphorus and calcium.
ANON   [Editorial]
Farm Wastes
Munic. Jnl. 77: 703

With intensive agriculture on small holdings far from adequate waste
disposal fields, nuisances are intensifying.  Subsidies on imported
fertilizer might better "be re-channelled to provide more chemical
engineering equipment."  Heated sludge digestion and the processing
of wastes into more easily handled forms, such as poultry pellets,
is called for.  Incineration may be required.
ANON  [Based on Charles T. RILEY]
Disposal of Farm Waste
Surveyor 133: 22 Mar.  p. 40

Disposal of animal wastes as a slurry used for irrigation is a
dubious practice in high-precipitation areas.  Biannual spreading of
dried fertilizer on land by contract labor is considered to be the
cheapest acceptable practice under British conditions.  Oxidation
ditches and high-rate biological filters show promise.

"Mr. RILEY mentioned a new variation of  'recirculation1 whereby a
bullock had half his protein supplied by poultry waste and appeared
to thrive on it."  Separation of  'clean' runoff from yards, roofs,
etc., from that from pens and milking parlors was recommended.

AHO, William A.
Maxi-Mixing Poultry Manure
Poultry Sci. 49: 1363
Abst:  McQ & B B-287

Some 1200 cu ft of poultry manure was placed in a pit 14 ft by 85 ft
by 1-foot deep (1190 cu ft) and covered by folding the loose soil back
into the basin.  The mixture is too soft to support the weight of a
person but will support farm machinery within a month.  Grasses did
better in the mixture than in a control.  No toxicity was detected  in
an 8-wk study.
ALBIN, Robert C.
Feedlot Waste-Management Systems
Proc. 1970 Beef Cattle Conf., Texas Tech.  p. 8-17

This is a good brief summary of the state-of-the-art in beef feedlot
waste disposal with citation of many original papers.  Practice in
Southwestern feedlots is generally to stockpile manure, often after
preliminary spreading for drying, until it is convenient to transport
the manure to the fields and turn it under.  Runoff is trapped and
either pumped to fields for  irrigation or to lagoons for evaporation.
When used for irrigation, feedlot runoff is diluted with well water.
Feeding Value of Cattle Manure for Cattle
Jnl. Animal Sci. 30: 274-277
Abst:  McQ & B B-222; W71-00329

Summary by author:  "Rations containing wet cattle manure were readily
consumed by fattening steers and these rations supported gains
essentially equal to comparable cattle fed feeds without manure.
Cooking or washing manure before mixing it with concentrate for feeding
did not improve its feeding value.  Carcass data were similar for
manure-fed and other cattle.  Wet manure collected daily per yearling
steer was about 13.5 kg (3.12 kg dry matter) and about 6.6 kg (1.52 kg
dry matter) was consumed daily."

APPELL, Herbert R.;  WENDER, Irving; and MILLER,  Ronald D.
Conversion of Urban  Refuse to Oil
USDI Bur. of Min.  Tech.  Prog. Rpt.  25.   5 p.

Conversions of cellulosic wastes to oil on a  laboratory scale at
380C and 5000 psig  without the addition of water unless the moisture
content is below 30  percent, and at 250C and 1500 psig with additional
water having been  supplied, are reported and  discussed.  More than two
barrels of low-sulfur oil per ton of dry,'ash-free waste resulted.
"Work on a larger  scale in a continuous unit  will be started soon; this
will enable us to  obtain cost estimates and to more thoroughly evaluate
the process."
BARTH, Clyde L.
Why Does It Smell so Bad?
ASAE Paper 70-416.  22 p.  [To appear in ASAE Trans.]
Abst:  McQ & B G-077

"It is the purpose of this paper to bring attention to procedures that
might be employed for specific odor determinations and, even more
important, to highlight phenomena important in analysis of odor
quality and intensity."

The anatomy of the olfactory mechanism is explained and theories on
its functioning are analyzed.  Means of conducting odor strength
determinations are described.  Characteristics of odor quality, of
which "there is no commonly accepted standard  no point of reference
from which to judge," are tabulated for five proposed  systems.   The
paper includes a list of 65 references.
The Influence of Aeration on the Composting of Poultry Manure -- Ground
     Corncob Mixtures
Jnl. Agr. Engrg. Rsch. 15: 11-16
Abst:  McQ & B B-107; W71-02683

Fresh poultry manure -- with a moisture content near 75 percent, a
carbon-to-nitrogen ratio near 10, and a structure consisting of many
fine particles -- must be mixed with drier, coarser material with a
higher carbon-to-nitrogen ratio to provide good raw material for
composting.  In the experiments reported, kiln-dried corncobs ground to
pass a quarter-inch screen were mixed with the poultry manure in the
ratio of two parts manure to one part corncobs.  Laboratory studies
indicated that optimum aeration rate for the production of a stable
sanitary compost was four litres of air per sq m per min for every 10 cm
depth of composting material up to a maximum depth of about 2.4 m.

Fatty Acid Content as a Measure of the Odour Potential of Stored
     Liquid Poultry Manure
Poultry Sci. 49: 1126-1129
Abst:  McQ & B B-286

Stored liquid manure is the source of agriculture's worst odor
nuisances.  In a series of experiments designed to secure criteria for
tolerable concentrations, it was found that the fatty acid content,
while not necessarily the cause of the odor, was an excellent indica-
tor of its potential.  Limits of 0.1 percent fatty acids content in
design, and 0.2 percent fatty acids content for initiation of pro-
secution under air pollution legislation are proposed.

Manure a By-Product -- Not a Waste
CALF News 8: Feb.  p. 6

The basic product value of manure is about $24 per ton.  Its fertili-
zer value is $4 to 5.  It has high nutritive value for refeeding.   It
has a value of $140/ton for producing yeast for poultry feed and is a
food for fly maggots with a content of 62 percent protein and 9 percent
BOYD, Claude .
Vascular Aquatic Plants for Mineral Nutrient Removal  from Polluted
Econ. Botany 24: 95-103

Aquatic plants, particularly water hyacinth, remove large quantities
of nutrients from water.  Their introduction to accomplish this may
be justified.  The cost of their harvesting would be offset to some
extent by their value as feedstuff.  Problems involved include
mosquito breeding -- with restrictions on the use of insecticides on
feedstuffs --  and the economic necessity of sun-drying before dehydrating.
The paper contains 31 references.

BRESSLER, Glenn 0.
Drying Poultry Manure Inside the Poultry House
Agr. Engrg. 51: 136
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 29: 232
Abst:  McQ & B B-638; W71-02043


By means of fans placed ten inches above manure and moving air at 250
to 750 fpm, moisture can be removed economically.  The dried manure,
when ground and bagged, "should have excellent sales potential."
Hauling costs are stated to be one-third those of conventional methods,
and one-fifth those of handling liquid manure.
Control of Odors from Animal Wastes
ASAE Trans. 13: 221-224, 231  [ASAE Paper 68-909]
Abst:  McQ & B B-044, G-041 ; W71 -02624
Animal waste odors due to ^S, NH3, and various organic compounds
carry over long distances and endure for long times.   The paper
discusses their elimination by chemical means.  Masking agents and
counteractants were found to be more effective than deodorants and
digestive deodorants.  Costs of 63  per 450 gal of liquid manure are
quoted on the basis of experimental studies.  The possibility of
damage to the soil by repeated application has not been investigated.
CALVERT, C. C.; MORGAN, N. 0.; and MARTIN, R.  D.
House Fly Larvae:  Biodegradation of Hen Excreta  to Useful  Products
Poultry Sci. 49: 588-589
Abst:  McQ & B B-284; W71-00334

Seeding hen excreta with 1.5 fly eggs per gram produced the largest
larvae; 4.5 eggs per gram gave the greatest loss  in moisture and
greatest nitrogen production but gave the lowest  pupation and lowest
total weight of pupae.  Three eggs per gram seems to be optimum.

Obnoxious odor is reduced by the fourth day.  The manure is odorless
and friable by the eighth day.
CATH, William S.
Agricultural Waste Funding
Proc. Conf. on Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment,  p. 99-106

Land use planning is seen as a basic necessity for any rational
approach to agricultural problems.  A quick survey, state by state, of
studies in progress or planned is given.  It is preferable to decrease
waste or utilize waste rather than to merely dispose of it.


Agricultural Waste Research Needs
Proc. Conf. on Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment,  p. 118-121
Reprint:  Compost Sci. 11: Nov-Dec.  p. 18-19  (1970)

Disposal should be a short-range objective.  Composting, now more an
art than a science, deserves study.  Further investigations of two-layer
lagoons with, perhaps, water from the top (aerobic) layer being used
for poultry shed flushing; of lagoon liner requirements as a function
of permeability; and of aeration capacity required for odor control  as
a function of climate are needed.  Would a plastic bubble over the
lagoon permit the capture of methane gas?

In the longer run, manure should be salvaged.  The value of U. S.
poultry manure, based on 8 /lb for N and 6 $ per Ib for P and K, is
$40,000,000 per year.  Trace elements which may be absent in chemical
fertilizer would increase the figure.  Work at Michigan State, Penn
State, and elsewhere on the pasteurization and processing of wastes
for livestock feed holds much promise.
CROSS, Otis E. and DURAN, Alvaro
Anaerobic Decomposition of Swine Excrement
ASAE Trans. 13: 320-322, 325
Abst:  McQ & B B-045; W71-06453

"This paper presents a laboratory analysis on the anaerobic digestion
of swine excrement as affected by temperature and loading rate."

Poultry Manure Handling by Indoor Septic Tanks (So-called "Indoor
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 117.  p. 8-9
Abst:  McQ & B E-193; W71-03557

Five years operation of indoor lagoons for a 300-chicken operation at
Michigan State from 1961-1966 is described.  Annual cleaning by a
septic tank service truck of shallow pits subjected to various aeration
processes was adequate.  "The use of tanks ended in 1966 because of
the move to a new poultry plant and recent emphasis has been on drying
and recycling of the product in the feeding of poultry."

DIAL, Clyde J.
Funding Agricultural Waste Projects
Proc. of Conf. on Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment,  p. 76-84

A brief summary of the history of Congressional action on the funding
of solid-waste research, and of the subject matter of funded research
projects is given.  The possibility of "disposal co-operatives" similar
to farm marketing cooperatives, but including also municipalities and
industries is worthy of careful study.
State-of-the-Art -- Anaerobic Lagoons
2nd Intl. Symp. for Waste Treatment Lagoons,  p. 382-387
A.bst:  McQ & B A-242

Properly designed anaerobic lagoons will  control odors and stabilize
wastes.  The effluent will require further treatment.   The mechanism
of treatment involves two stages; in the first stage the organic
matter undergoes breakdown with little reduction in BOD or COD;  in the
second, methane and C02 are released and the waste stabilizes.

Design criteria are empirical.  The functioning is similar to that of
a sludge digester.  A starting-up is facilitated by seeding with
methane-producing bacteria,  temperature must be above 15C, thus
regional connotations occur in design specifications.   Research is
needed to enhance the performance of this very effective process.
EL-SABBAN, F. F.; BRATZLER, J. W.; LONG, T. A.; FREAR, D. E.  H.; and
     GENTRY, R. F.
Value of Processed Poultry Waste as a Feed for Ruminants
Jnl. Animal Sci.  31: 107-111
Abst:  McQ & B B-226

Interest in the feeding of waste products arises from the possibility
of disposal of the waste in a beneficial and economical  manner, from
the avoidance of pollution, and from the resulting freedom to shift
crop land from feed production to food production.

Trials are described in which autoclaved, cooked, and dried poultry
wastes were fed to sheep and steers.
FINCHER, G. Truman; STEWART, T. Bonner; and DAVIS, Robert
Attraction of Coprophagous Beetles to Feces of Various Animals
Jnl. Parasitology 56: 378-383
Abst:  W71-00340

By studying traps baited with the dung of various animals in three
different ecological settings in Georgia, the authors found that swine


feces attracted the most species of coprophagous beetles.  While some
beetles serve as intermediate hosts of various helminths of domestic
and wild animals, their service in preserving the nitrogen value of
dung by prompt burial is valuable.  Because of inadequate numbers of
dung beetles in Australia, cattle dung remains on the ground surface
for years "and has an effect on the pasture somewhat like a noxious
weed because cattle will not graze on the rank growth around these
dung pads."  The paper lists 20 references.
FLEGAL, Cal J.; GOAN, H. C.; and ZINDEL, Howard C.
The Effect of Feeding Dehydrated Poultry Waste to Laying Hens on the
     Taste of the Resulting Eggs
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 117.  p. 34-38
Abst:  McQ & B E-198; W71-03563

After chickens had been on diets containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 percent
DPW, eggs were collected, hard boiled, and fed to taste panels.  In a
comparison of control vs 10 percent DPW eggs, 58 percent liked and
26 percent disliked the control while 64 percent liked and 24 percent
disliked the 10 percent DPW.  In comparing control with 20 percent DPW
eggs, 68.5 percent liked and 18.4 percent disliked the control while
52.6 percent liked and 10.6 percent disliked the 20 percent DPW.  In
comparing control with 30 percent DPW eggs, 66.7 liked and 16.7 percent
disliked the control while 72.7 percent liked and 16.7 percent disliked
the 30 percent DPW.  The results are not statistically significant.
FLEGAL, Cal 0. and ZINDEL, Howard C.
The Utilization of Poultry Waste as a Feedstuff for Growing Chicks
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 117.  p. 21-28
Abst:  McQ & B E-196; W71-03560

Dried manure from caged layers was fed to two groups of chicks as
0, 5, 10, and 20 percent of the ration.  A fifth ration contained
20 percent DPW and 4 percent stabilized fat.  Weight gains on the
fifth ration were better than on the other four.  Efficiency of feed
utilization was inversely related to percentage of DPW fed.  These
tests and others reported in the literature indicate that DPW is a
low-energy product.
FLEGAL, Cal J. and ZINDEL, Howard C.
The Result of Feeding Dried Poultry Waste to Laying Hens on Egg
     Production and Feed Conversion
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 117.  p. 29-30
Abst:  W71-03561

 Thirteen  possible diets  -- a  control,  control +  DPW  (10, 20, and 30
 percent),  control +  DPW  + calcium  and  phosphate  + methionine, and
 control + DPW +  calcium  and phosphate  + methionine + two percent fat  --
 were  fed  layers  on test  for 139  consecutive days.  Composition of  the
 rations and  kilograms  of feed per  dozen eggs  are tabulated.  These
 latter  ranged from 1.91  for control +  10  percent DPW to 2.55 for control
 +  30  percent + calcium and phosphate + methionine.
 FLEGAL,  Cal  J.  and  ZINDEL,  Howard  C.
 The  Effect  of Feeding  Dehydrated Poultry Waste on Production,  Feed
      Efficiency,  Body  Weight,  Egg  Weight, Shell Thickness and  Haugh
 Mich.  State Univ. Ag.  Ex. Sta.  Rsch.  Rpt. 117.  p.  31-33
 Abst:   McQ  & B E-197;  W71-03562

 On a 366-day trial  chickens were fed  0, 10, 20, and 40 percent DPW +
 one  percent stabilized fat  and 40  percent DPW + 5 percent stabilized
 fat  in protein-nitrogen equal  rations.  The ration, egg production,
 feed efficiency (pounds of  feed per dozen eggs), weight gain,  egg weight,
 shell  thickness and Haugh score are tabulated.  At  20 and 40 percent
 DPW, protein efficiency and weight gain dropped off.  Additional fat
 restored these values  partially.
 Beef Re-Visits  Feedlot  of  the  '70's
 Beef 6: Oct.  p.  6,  7,  10

 Iowa Beef Packers  at Denison,  Iowa, began  testing confined cattle
'feeding over  an oxidation  ditch  in November,  1969.   First year results
 were most promising.  Cattle in  confinement had better winter and sum-
 mer  gains than  control  cattle  in  an open pen.  The oxidation ditch was
 redesigned to be  continuous rather than to consist of two "racetracks"
 side-by-side.   Aerators were moved to  the  center to  avoid centrifugal
 interference with  uniform  action.  Water was  added to compensate for
 evaporation when  necessary.  Empirical adjustments were made to secure
 optimum functioning  of  the ditch.
 FONTENOT, J.  P.; TUCKER,  R.  E.; HARMON, B. W.;  LIBKE,  K.  6.;  and
     MOORE, W.  E. C.
 Effects of Feeding  Different Levels of Broiler  Litter  to  Sheep  (Abst)
 Jnl. Animal Sci. 30: 319
 Abst:  McQ &  B  B-223

Wood-shavings litter sterilized at 150C for four hours was fed to sheep
as 0, 25, 50, or 75 percent of diets calculated to be nutritionally
similar.  No gross toxological effects were observed.  There were
substantial feed refusals only when 75 percent litter was included in
tne ration.  'No adverse effects of feeding litter were evident from the
detailed necropsies and studies of the histological  sections."

Animal Waste Disposal
Compost Sci. 11: Nov-Dec.  p. 14-15
Abst:  McQ & B B-678

Costs exceed value, but, in considering all methods  of disposal,  land
spreading,-with credit for the fertilizer value, appears to be the
least costly.  Spreading as liquid manure on forests is suggested when
crop land is unavailable.

Simple System for Aerating Manure Lagoons
DeKalb Mgmt. News and Views  v. 5, Mo. 2
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 29: 330-331

To aerate a 100 by 200 ft lagoon 12 ft deep, a pipeline on floats was
installed.  A five hp pump supplies six nozzles spraying water into the
air over the pond for $2.20 per 24-hr day.   Settled  manure is  digested
a'naerobically; the aeration reduces odors.

GOLUEKE, Clarence G. and McGAUHEY, P. H.
Comprehensive Studies of Solid Waste Management.  First Annual  Report
USPHS Pbln. No. 2039  xx + 202 p.
Abst:  McQ & B D-037

During the first year (1966-67) of a comprehensive study of solid waste
management by the University of California under the sponsorship  of the
Bureau of Waste Management, USPHS, a bibliographic search was  conducted
and investigations were launched in socio-economic studies and in the
processes of incineration, pyrolysis, composting, treatment of wastes
as components of sewage, wet oxidation, and biological  fractionation.
Particular importance was attached to this latter method inasmuch as it
would provide a return to the natural equilibrium of recycling of wastes
through the activities of microorganisms.  Primary emphasis is placed
on the management of municipal solid wastes.  One hundred sixty-eight
references are listed.


GOLUEKE, Clarence 6. and McGAUHEY, P. H.
Comprehensive Studies of Solid Waste Management.   Second Annual Report.
USPHS Pbln. No. 2039.  xvii + 245 p.
Abst:  McQ & B D-037

During phase II (June 1967 to September 1968) of the intensive study
of solid waste disposal in the San Francisco Bay area emphasis continued
to be placed on the transportation and ultimate disposal of municipal
and industrial wastes.  Land spreading of animal  wastes, while not
unobjectionable, left them much less pressing a problem than municipal
and industrial wastes.

The economics and technology of five processes were treated extensively.
While animal wastes were considered only to the extent of observing
that chicken manure is an excellent source of the nitrogen required in
anaerobic digestion, the discussions are of transfer value in animal
waste studies.  The methods, with page citations for economics and
technology respectively are:  anaerobic digestion, 67-75 and 112-148;
composting, 63-66 and 149-153; wet oxidation, 79-82 and 154-170;
pyrolyzation-incineration, 82-83 and 171-175; and biofractionation,
75-79 and 176-185.  A list of 86 references is included.
HARMON, B. W.; FONTENOT, J. P. ; and WEBB, K. E., Jr.
Effect of Processing Methods of Broiler Litter on Nitrogen Utilization
     by Lambs  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci.  31: 243
Abst:  McQ & B B-229
Litter was (1) autoclaved under steam pressure of 1.06 kg/cm  for 40
min, (2) heated in forced-draft oven at 150C for four hours, and
(3) acidified with 30 ml 1.0 N H2S04 per 100 g of litter followed by
process (2).  Nitrogen retention was greater for animals fed a control
ration than for those fed any of the processed litter.  The methods of
processing litter all produced about the same results.
HART, Samuel A.
Animal Manure Lagoons, A Questionable Treatment System
2nd Intl. Symp. for Waste Trtmt. Lagoons,  p. 320-326
Abst:  McQ & B A-239; W71-07116

Manure lagoons are essentially sludge digesters rather than polishing
devices for effluent.

The anaerobic lagoon produces odor, may contribute to groundwater infil
tration, and may overflow releasing a high-BOD supernatant.  Floating


mats of feathers may become a breeding place for flies, but floating
covers of hay stems and grain hulls will not, and may reduce odors/
Anaerobic lagoons need cleaning to maintain their proper volume.
"Seed"should be left when cleaning.

Oxidation ditches and facultative lagoons are discussed and design
parameters are given and/or cited in the 27 references.

"Lagoons and oxidation ditches are not magic wands, but they can be very
reasonable manure processing units."
HARTMAN, Roland C.
John Prohoroff:  Biologies Pioneer
Egg Industry 3: June  p. 16-22
Reprint [As Biological  Fly Control
                 Works]   Poultry  Digest 29: 262-265
John PROHOROFF of San  Diego County, California, uses predators and
parasites of  flies to  keep his chicken sheds essentially fly-free.
Beetles and their larvae  (meal worms) eat fly eggs and larvae.  The
beetles live  in the composted sub-base of the droppings and keep the
mass aerated  seeking fly  larvae which, hatch from the eggs laid on v/et
manure.  Certain wasps are also effective.

Final disposal is by composting and sale for fertilizer.
     and JOHANNES,  R. F.
Effect of Method  of Manure Handling on Crop Yields, Nutrient Recovery and
     Runoff  Losses
ASAE Trans.  13: 726-731   [ASAE Paper 69-468]
Abst:  McQ & B B-043, G-061

While fresh  manure  has  the best fertilizer value, it may be necessary
to store manure while the ground  is frozen or in crops.  For best nitro-
gen retention, manure should be kept moist and incorporated in the soil
without being permitted to dry.   Anaerobic storage preserves fertilizer
value better than aerobic storage does.
HERR, Glenn H.
Under-Cage Manure
Farm Service  Bull,
Reprint:  Poultry
Abst:  W71-02696
Drying System Solves Odor Problem
Digest 29: 476-479

"The theory that manure in a deep pit is self-disintegrating and that
pits never need cleaning has proven false."  Several  wet-handling
methods -- lagoons, irrigation,, and honey wagons -- having proved to be
unsatisfactory, and sewage treatment, incineration, and burying being
deemed impractical and expensive, drying by stirring and forced
ventilation was adopted by a Pennsylvania egg producer.  Cost data are

HERR, Glenn H.
Identifying Agricultural Waste Problems:  Poultry
Penn. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 35-38

The speaker, associated with a laying hen complex of 360,000 hens
which air dries its waste for use as fertilizer, advocates more prac-
tical research in making wastes profitable.

HERR, Glenn H.
Agricultural Waste Research Needs
Proc. Conf. on Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment,  p.  109-117
Reprint:  Compost Sci. 11: Sept-Oct.  p. 8-11 (1970)
Abst:  W71-06452

Liquid handling is not considered to be a satisfactory  long-range
solution for poultry waste disposal.  Fan-drying of manure in the
poultry shed with cleanout about every five days produced a semi-solid
(28-35 percent moisture) product which was easy to handle, had little
or no odor, had no restrictions on weather or seasonal  disposal, had
no great labor problems, and has some as yet unestablished value.  The
cost is about 1/3 $ per dozen eggs.

"Dehydration is our future challenge."  The pasteurized and/or steri-
lized product of dehydration should have value for re-feeding.
Production and use of methane gas deserves further study.

Coliformally Speaking Ducks Stink!
CALF News 8: Dec.  p. 46

Research is quoted to the effect that the total coliforms discharged
per day (in millions) are:  humans 1950, cattle 5428, and ducks 11,088
per head.  Coliform counts as indicators of municipal and-or agricultural
pollution may overstate the contribution.

The Epizootic!ogy and Epidemiology of Foot and Mouth Disease
Advances in Vet. Sci. 14: 261-307

In this well-documented study of foot and mouth disease, the trans-
missibility of the virus by urine and feces is discussed.  The virus
may become detectable in the feces several days before clinical signs
are evident in the animal.  Pigs in particular may spread the disease
in this manner before an outbreak has been diagnosed.  Stacked manure,
when allowed to ferment naturally, becomes free of the virus after
about eight days.
Growth of Microorganisms in Fresh Chicken Manure under Aerobic and
     Anaerobic Conditions
Poultry Sci. 49:  1749-1750
Abst:  McQ & B B-292

Poultry manure, which can contain more than 13 percent uric acid, can
be fed to ruminants for utilization of the nitrogen content.  Uric acid
is toxic to poultry.  Attempts are being made to overcome this by fer-
mentation of the  manure.  Preliminary findings indicate that aerobic
bacteria, but not anaerobic, can survive in chicken manure.
KEETON, L. L.; GRUB, Walter; WELLS, Dan M.; MEENAGHAN, George F.;
     and ALBIN, Robert C.
Effects of Manure  Depth on Runoff from Southwestern Cattle Feedlots
ASAE Paper 70-910.  7 p.
Abst:  McQ & B G-091

On the feedlots of the High Plains of Texas manure is usually allowed
to accumulate in place with removal occurring once or twice per year.
In the dry climate dehydration occurs with resulting cessation of
decomposition.  Precipitation restores the manure to essentially its
original condition thus creating a high pollution potential.  The report
considers quality and quantity of runoff in comparing laboratory deter-
minations with field results.

"The quantity of runoff from a wet manure pack is independent of its
depth.  Runoff quantity from dry manure is partially dependent on manure
depth", feedlot slope, and rainfall intensity.  The quality of feedlot
runoff is primarily a function of the moisture content of the manure,
the rainfall intensity, and the feedlot slope."

KEHR, William Q.
Microbial Degradation of Urban and Agricultural Wastes
In:  C. L. SAN CLEMENTE (Edit.):  Environmental Quality:  Now or Never
     Mich. State Univ.  p. 184-191

This paper reports on the status of five studies in which the Bureau of
Solid Waste Management is cooperating.  Composting, while technically
successful, has been financially unrewarding.  A project for the conver-
sion of organic wastes to yeast in two stages, hydrolysis and fermenta-
tion, has much potential.  Further study of the processes will be neces-
sary before reliable cost analyses can be made.

KING, Thomas
Identifying Agricultural Waste Problems:  Livestock
Penn. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 39-40

Economically, mineral fertilizers are sold so cheaply that manure cannot
compete.  Land holdings are inadequate in size.  Water and air pollution
occur.  Under many circumstances lagooning is not a satisfactory means
of disposal.

"Properly treated, animal wastes have been demonstrated to be a bene-
ficial source of feed for animals, poultry, and even fish. .  .  Thus far,
however, most investigators have been reluctant to really delve into
this area of research mainly for two reasons:  (1) the checks and
restrictions placed on them by certain governmental regulatory agencies
responsible for public health and safety; and (2) lack of knowledge
regarding the effect of such practices on consumers' future eating habits."

KNAPP, Carol E.
Agriculture Poses Waste Problems
Environ. Sci. and Tech. 4: 1098-1100
Abst:  McQ & B B-lll

The magnitude of American manure production is emphasized.  Solutions
include drying, shreading, composting, subsod injection, and the plow-
furrow-cover procedure.
KNECHT, Robert W.
Municipal Viewpoint
Proc.  of Conf. on Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment  p. 48-50

More consideration should be given to  the joint disposal of municipal
and agricultural solid wastes.  The combined wastes make better compost
than either alone.
KOELLIKER, J.  K. and MINER, J.  Ronald
Use of Soil to Treat Anaerobic  Lagoon Effluent:  Renovation as a Function
     of Depth  and Application Rate
ASAE Trans. 13: 496-499   [ASAE  Paper 69-460]
Abst:  McQ & B B-047, G-059

The goal of land spreading is to obtain the maximum reduction of
pollution consistent with maintaining the ability of the soil to handle
the load.  Crops remove some of the nutrients.  Phosphorus is removed
near the surface by chemical action of clay layers. ' Denitrification
may be effective if the subsoil can be kept wet.

Cattle, Swine  and Chicken Manure Challenges Waste Disposal Methods
Water and Sewage Works 117: 134-138
Abst:  McQ & B A-230; W70-G6866

LAAK reviews the literature (30 references), tabulating statistics on
animal population, manure production, manure characteristics, and
pollution potential.  Methods of manure disposal are listed and cost
considerations are discussed.
LARSON,  Russell  E.
Searching  for Solutions
Penn. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 3-19

LARSON summarizes waste quantities in Pennsylvania by categories and
locations.  Problems arise from changes in agriculture (concentrations
of stock and processing) and in people (expanding suburbia and no per-
sonal experience with farming).

Approaches to solutions suggested are research in recycling wastes with
horticultural wastes becoming animal food and the air drying of poultry
manure to  provide fertilizer for lawns, strip-mined areas (800 Ib/acre
proposed)  and highway rights-of-way.

LAW, James P., Jr. and BERNARD, Harold
Impact of  Agricultural Pollutants on Water Users
ASAE Trans. 13:  474-478  [ASAE Paper 69-235]
Abst:  McQ & B B-046, 6-052; W71-02687


"Feedlot runoff is a source of high concentration of bacteria normally
considered as indices of sanitary quality.   Other pollutants arising
from animal wastes are the nutrient compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus
and mineral salts."  While moderate enrichment of receiving waters may
promote fish, larger amounts lead to algae  which, after death, have a
heavy oxygen demand.  Slug flows may produce fish kills.
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Drainage and Pollution from Beef Cattle Feedlots
ASCE Proc. 96: SA 6: 1295-1309
Abst:  McQ & B B-094; W71-10994

To minimize the pollution potential  of feedlots, minimize the runoff
from them by diversion of runoff from non-feed!ot areas,  by use of
retention ponds, and by spreading the liquid and solid wastes on
agricultural land.  Compact, fast draining feedlots are preferable.
A state-of-the-art survey on runoff quantity and quality is given.
The paper lists 26 references.

LOEHR, Raymond C.
Treatment and Disposal of Animal Wastes
Indust. Water Engrg. 7: Nov.  p. 14-18
Abst:  McQ & B F-088; W71-02688

LOEHR discusses the relative merits of nine systems of animal waste
disposal.  The first three, in each of which the manure is handled as
a semi-solid, are land disposal without storage or with storage in an
anaerobic tank, storage in an aerated tank, or a combination of anaero-
bic tank followed by aerobic tank.  Systems 4 and 5 are in-house:
oxidation ditches and deep pits.  System 6 involves separation of
wastes into liquid and solid components.  Systems 7, 8^ and 9 are
drying, composting, and incineration.  Runoff from open lots should  be
intercepted in retention ponds and kept out of streams by land spreading
and/or evaporation.
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Disposal  of Solid Agricultural  Wastes -- Concepts and Principles
Proc. Conf. on Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment  p. 126-134
Abst:  W71-07556

Composting is usually facilitated by blending manure with sawdust, corn
cobs, paper, and municipal  refuse.  Technically it is successful;
economically it is not.

Drying and dehydration produce an end product suitable as a soil
conditioner or for refeeding.  The market potential is unknown.

Refeeding holds much promise.  Some problems remain to be investi-
gated further.

Incineration and pyrolysis may provide solutions in some locations.

"Land disposal always will be a most important aspect of agricultural
solid waste disposal."

Solutions must have technical merit and must integrate into the  full
animal operation.  Disposal need not show a profit, but the overall
system, including disposal, must be optimized.

LOEHR, Raymond C. and SCHULTE, Dennis D.
Aerated Lagoon Treatment of Long Island Duck Wastes
2nd Intl. Symp. for Waste Trtmt. Lagoons  p. 249-258
Abst:  McQ & B A-238; W71-07108

Some seven million ducks per year (65 percent of U. S. total)  are
raised in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York.  Pollution of shell-
fish, fin fish, recreational areas, and invading suburbia was  resulting
from the 4-to 96-gpd per duck water usage plus the slug flows  of  manure
washed to surface water by precipitation.

Control is by diverting water for duck usage to controlled ponds, then
treating the pond effluent by five-day retention in an aeration  lagoon
followed by an additional settling pond and chlorination of the  final
effluent, "studies, scheduled to be completed in early 1971, were under-
way to find a satisfactory method of phosphorus removal.  Costs with
phosphorus removal were expected to be about twice those without.
Eleven references are included.
A Note on the Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Protein in Dried
     Poultry Excreta
Animal Production 12: 525-528
Abst:  McQ & B B-319

Dried poultry excreta provides nitrogen which is efficiently utilized
by sheep at a cost of about one-third, on a protein-equivalent basis,
that of fish meal.  The copper content of the poultry manure, while
almost twice that of barley (73 compared with 48 ppm), was less avail-
able to sheep than was that of barley (17.6 compared with 24.5 ppm).


"It is concluded that, as far as copper levels are concerned, dried
poultry excreta are safe for ruminants, and are a source of cheap
LUKE, George W.
Agricultural Waste Research Needs
Proc. Conf. Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment  p. 140-141
Abst:  W71-07558

Land disposal risks stream pollution and odors.

Manure from race tracks in New Jersey is trucked to mushroom farms.
MACLINN, Walter A.
Agricultural Waste Research Needs
Proc. Conf. Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment  p. 218-220

Disposal must not be the sole research aim.  Biological resources
should be conserved and returned to nature by techniques other than
land spreading.  The best methods of doing so remain to be determined.
With composting, drying and dehydration, and incineration the volume
is reduced prior to returning the wastes to the soil.  Faster processes
and/or odor reduction are needed.

Cost analyses of the processes, reuse values, and potential markets need
to be explored.  The author states without amplification that "re-feeding
of animal wastes is the least desirable reuse technique."
MCALLISTER, j. s. v.
Collection and Disposal of Farm Wastes
Water Poll. Control 69: 425-429
Abst:  McQ & B A-227; W71-04486

Practices in Northern Ireland are summarized.  "At present practically
all the slurry collected in the British Isles is disposal of by direct
application to the land after a relatively short, 1  to 13 weeks,
storage period."  The usual problems of odors, excessive nutrients in
areas over-loaded with manure, and potential health hazards are
discussed.  Earthworm kills by excessive applications of slurry have
been observed; in such cases, however, the reduction in earthworms
has proved to be temporary and a rapid increase to or beyond the
original  numbers occurs.

Separation of solid and liquid fractions with subsequent composting or
incineration of the solids and aerobic treatment of the liquids would
provide a possible improvement over current practice.  Alternative
methods are mentioned without elaboration.

McINTIRE, Clifford G.
Agricultural Waste Legislation
Proc. Co.nf. Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment  p. 153-159

Sound consideration, rather than hysteria, should govern in enacting
environmental law.  New laws should not be added "just for fanfare and
publicity."  Readily defined objectives and equity are needed.

MEENAGHAN, George F.; WELLS, Dan M.; ALBIN, Robert C.; and GRUB, Walter
Gas Production from Beef Cattle Wastes
ASAE Winter Meeting.  Paper 70-907.  15 p.
Abst:  McQ & B G-088

the experimental procedures employed and the results obtained in
laboratory testing of a two-stage isothermal anaerobic digestion of
cattle manure are described and discussed.  Such a system is concluded
to be "technically feasible and [useful] for obtaining nominal  treat-
ment of beef cattle wastes.  Even with optimal conditions per stage
such a system will not be sufficient for complete treatment."

Handling Liquid Manure
Agr. Engrs. 'Digest AED-8  4 p.  [Revision of 1966 publication]

Advantages of liquid manure handling include the preservation of nutri-
tive and organic value, some saving in labor, flexibility in scheduling
disposal time, odor reduction by keeping manure under a water cover,
and economy in that disposal equipment may be owned jointly by a group
of neighbors.  Facilities and equipment needed include a water-tight
storage container, pumps, agitators, available land, and honeywagons or
pipe and nozzles.  Storage requirements are listed and methods of
operation are described.

Handling Swine Manure
Agr. Engrs. Digest AED-11  4 p.  [Revision of 1969 publication]


Solid manure handling requires a minimum of equipment and conserves the
soil-building properties of the manure.  Runoff from manure piles must
be kept out of streams.   For liquid manure handling, see AED-8
Oxidation Ditch for Treating Hog Wastes
Agr. Engrs. Digest AED-14  4 p.

The advantages of oxidation ditches include odor reduction in buildings
and during transport and spreading.  The total  waste volume is reduced,
the manure is rendered unattractive to rodents  and insects, the winter
ventilation requirements are lowered, and the operation is simple.

Disadvantages include higher capital  and operation costs.   Down-time
can be catastrophic in that toxic gases can accumulate.  Major construc-
tion is required in adapting existing buildings for oxidation ditches.
Foaming can be a problem.

Design and operation are discussed.  Cost data  and a sample design are
included.  Final disposal must not be to a stream.  A lagoon and
irrigation are recommended.

Larvicides for Fly Control -- A Review
Bull. Entom. Soc. Amer.  16(3): 154-158
Reprinted as Fecal Residues from Larvicides --  Poultry and Cattle,
     USDA ARS 44-224, p. 33-41
Abst:  McQ & B A-205

The historical development and present (Feb. 1971) status  of larvi-
cides for control of fly species in domestic animal manures are
reviewed.  Addition of the larvicide as a feed  additive has the advan-
tages of relative simplicity of mixing a determinate amount into a
poultry ration or the concentrate portion of a  cattle ration, the
economy of avoiding manure spraying, and the potential for treating
droppings of cattle on range.  However, the compound must be palatable,
must have no detrimental effect on the animal to which it is fed, and
must leave no injurious residue in tissue, milk, or eggs.  "Few insec-
ticides have all the above characteristics."  Seek current information
before feeding any larvicide.

Feeding of Micro-Encapsulated Gardona for the Control of Fly Larvae
     in Cow Manure
Jnl. Dairy Sci. 53: 684

The feces from dairy cows fed an average of 64 ppm (air-dry ration
basis) of Gardona supported only six percent as many fly larvae as the
feces of control cows.  Less than O.OOT ppm of Gardona appeared in the
milk of cows fed up to 108 ppm of the insecticide.

MILLER, R. W.; GORDON, C. H.; BOWMAN, M. C.; BEROZA, Morton; and
     MORGAN, N. 0.
Gardona as a Feed Additive for Control of Fly Larvae in Cow Manure
Jnl. Econ. Entom. 63: 1420-1423
Abst:  McQ & B B-604

A series of experiments in feeding Gardona, an organophosphorus insec-
ticide, to dairy cattle is reported.  When fed at levels of 22, 37,
and 48 ppm of the air-dry ration, Gardona killed 94 percent or more of
the larvae of house flies seeded onto the feces.  Losses of about 99.7
percent of the Gardona fed occurred in the passage through the cow's
digestive tract.  Encapsulation may be a possibility for reducing the
MILLER,  R. W.;  GORDON,  C. H.; MORGAN, N. 0.; BOWMAN, M. C.; and
     BEROZA, Morton
Coumaphos as a  Feed Additive for the Control of House Fly Larvae in
     Cow Manure
Jnl. Econ. Entom.  63: 853-855
Abst:  McQ & B  B-598

The paper reviews  the use of insecticides as feed additives (14 references)
and reports on  the effectiveness of Coumaphos, an organophosphorus insec-
ticide,  when fed to lactating dairy cows.  Ratios of larvae killed
increased with  the concentration of Coumaphos fed, reaching 100 percent
at about 144 ppm.  Additional study and field testing are called for.

MINER, J. Ronald
Agricultural (Livestock) Wastes.   [In a Review of the 1969 Literature
     on  Wastewater and  Water Pollution Control]
WPCF Jnl. 42:  1171-1179
Abst:  McQ & B  B-083

The Cornell Conference  on Animal Waste Management (46 papers) and the
WPCA Conference on runoff from  cattle feedlots highlighted the year's


activities.  MUEHLING's paper on Swine Housing and Waste Management
[1969-1064] with more than 125 references and JOHNSON and MOUNTNEY's
Bibliography of Production, Utilization and Disposal of Poultry Manure
[1969-1037] with 596 references were cited as were other reports on
the state of the art of animal waste treatment.  Subheadings for the
classification of papers abstracted are:  Manure Handling Systems,
Manure Gases and Odors, Waste Characterization, Cattle Feedlot Wastes,
Application of Wastes to Croplands, and Waste Treatment Studies.
Sixty-five references are listed.
MINER, J. Ronald; BAUMANN, E. R.; WILLRICH, T. L.; and HAZEM, T. E.
Pollution Control -- Feedlot Operations
WPCF Jnl. 41: 391-398
Abst:  McQ & B B-082

"The obvious answer to shrinking profit margins is volume production."
This leads to mechanization which requires confinement.  "The population
equivalent figures, so common in the popular press, only distort the
actual picture."  "Among the problems associated with a more sophis-
ticated disposal scheme is manure collection.   The collection of manure
from an open feedlot has not proved amenable to traditional solid
handling techniques. . .  Odor control technology has not kept pace with
technology in confinement livestock production."
MINSHALL, Neal E.; WITZEL, Stanley A.; and NICHOLS, Merle S.
Stream Enrichment from Farm Operations
ASCE Proc. 96: SA 2: 513-524.  SA 5: 1291
Closure 97: SA 2: 230
Abst:  W71-02035

Based on research in Wisconsin, the authors favor land spreading of
wastes subject to specified precautions.  "Lagoons are currently not
considered generally acceptable for farm waste disposal."  Among the
conclusions stated were that nutrient losses in surface runoff from
plots having manure applied in summer and incorporated into the soil
were less than those from check plots which received no manure.
Manure should be spread only when the ground is not frozen and should
be incorporated into the soil as soon as possible.  Facilities for
winter storage of manure would be required.
MOORE, J. D. and ANTHONY, W. Brady
Enrichment of Cattle Manure for Feed by Anaerobic Fermentation  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 30: 324
Abst:  McQ & B B-224


In fermenting cattle manure anaerobically, the pH drops from 6.25 to
4.0 within 16.5 hours when the manure is incubated at 37C.  By adjust-
ing the pH with ammonia daily for three days, the crude protein level
may be raised from 16.99 percent to 43.26 percent and the ami no acids
may be increased by over 20 percent.

MOORE, James A. and BROOKER, Donald B.
The Future of Farm Animal Waste Management
Agr. Engrg. 51: 414, 417
Abst:  McQ & B B-641

Improved rations can be expected to produce a richer manure.  This may
be refed or the nutrient, antibiotic, and vitamin content may be
salvaged.  Livestock may well be raised in complete confinement with no
runoff.  Zoning with several miles of cropland, partly irrigated with
animal wastes, separating town and feedshed is to be anticipated.
"When land is at a premium, the Southwest may become the livestock
center of the United States."

Lagoons may well be replaced by digesters, with these latter being
warmed by burning the gas they generate.  "Work on today's problem
with today's technology."
MORGAN, N. 0.; CALVERT, C. C.; and MARTIN, R. D.
Biodegrading Poultry Excreta with House Fly Larvae:  The Concept and
USDA ARS 33-136  3 p.

The ability of house fly  larvae to biodegrade chicken manure into a
fertilizer or soil conditioner and a feed supplement is under study
at Beltsville.   "The house fly larvae were selected for testing because
they can develop in organic wastes.  Fly eggs placed on fresh waste
hatch within 24  hours, and the young larvae immediately begin feeding
and tunneling into the medium.  Then after 6-7 days the larvae migrate
to a drier site where they pupate."  Equipment adequate for the process
is described and illustrated diagramatically.  The excreta from 100,000
hens could produce between 500 and 1000 pounds of pupae daily.  Dried
pupae have been  shown by  CALVERT et al [1969-1017] to be a satisfactory
source of protein for growing chicks.
Gases and Odors from Stored Swine Wastes
Jnl. Animal Sci. 30: 526-531
Abst:  McQ & B B-225; W71-00326


The various gases which occur are listed and described.  In a well-
operated confinement unit no gas reaches harmful concentrations for pigs
or humans.  With breakdown of ventilation or with stirring of manure,
however., harmful or lethal buildups may occur.  "It may be possible to
apply the industrial methods of treating odors; namely, dilution,
absorption, adsorption, masking, counteraction and burning to the
control of odors from stored manure."
MURRAY, Clifton A.
Agricultural Waste Legislation
Proc. Conf. Agr. Waste in an Urban

A hog farm within a quarter mile of
to control odors.  By maintaining a
to eliminate any dead-water corners
Environment  p. 142-143

 town relies on an oxid'ation ditch
 velocity of two mph and designing
,  it has been effective.
 PARSONS, Robert A.; PRICE, Fred; and FAIRBANK, W. C.
 Poultry Manure Lagoon Design
 Univ. of Cal. Ag. Ext. Service, Spl.  Pbln. Stanislaus County Office
 Reprint:  Poultry Digest 29: 485-488
 Abst:  McQ & B E-258; W71-02700

 Specifications for designing poultry lagoons are given in detail.  They
 should be used "only in rural areas that are tolerant of varied but
 dilute odors of farm production."  Overloading is considered to be
 "about the only cause of lagoon malfunctions."  Maintenance hints and
 cost data are included.
Anaerobic Lagoons -- Theoretical Considerations
2nd Intl. Symp. for Waste Trtmt. Lagoons  p. 310-320

The biochemical transformations consist of two distinct steps:  acid
fermentation and methane fermentation.  The acid fermentation is an
essentially constant-BOD process.  Stabilization of the waste occurs
only with the release of methane.  Similarities to the operation of a
rumen are cited.  "The anaerobic lagoon system, has definite advantages
in terms of costs over many other wastewater treatment systems.
However, its application is not universal.  There are many wastewaters
that should not be treated by this system.  The toxicity problems
resulting from heavy metals, sulfides and ammonia are not easily
controlled in this system.  Also the odor associated with hydrogen
sulfide release may be unacceptable.  The effect of temperature on
methane fermentation must be considered."


PORTER, Gilbert H.
Agricultural Waste Research Goals and Needs
Penn. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 69-73

PORTER lists sixteen high-priority research topics in agricultural waste
management, including the study of recycling or other use for  poultry
manure, and calls for reorientation in outlook and funding toward obtain-
ing quality rather than quantity as a primary goal.

POS, Jack
Liquid Manure Aeration Systems
Canad. Poultry Review.  Mar.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 29: 223-224

Ultimate disposal of poultry manure being to the land, storage is
required.  Storage intensifies odor problems.  It is usually easier
to aerate -- mechanically (oxidation ditch), hydraulically, or
pneumatically -- than to dry manure.
Manure Mites in Integrated Fly Control
Poultry Letter  20 Nov.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 30: 68

In Southern California naturally occurring predators (such  as  beetles,
mites, and ants) and parasitic wasps are being used in  fly  control on
poultry manure.  "Manure mites do not get on birds and  people, but
remain in the manure at all times."  For mites to be effective avoid
water spillage and be judicious in use of pesticides.

(See other notes on p. 25 and 141 of the same volume).
RILEY, Charles T.
Current Trends in Farm Waste Disposal
Water Poll. Control 69: 174-179
Abst:  McQ & B A-305, A-542; W70-08333

Handling of farm wastes in the UK is usually by one of the following

     1.  Solid - Use bedding to absorb the liquid.  Store the wastes
in a pit (lined or unlined) six to nine months.  Spread on land


     2.  Semi Solid - Handle manure, without use of bedding or dilution
water, by use of a spreader.  Odors and muddy fields cause problems.

     3.  Liquid applied by tanker - Storage is required.

     4.  Organic irrigation - Liquid applied by spray nozzle.

There is a tendency to return to solid handling.  Temporary aeration of
slurries by use of blowers has promise of eliminating odors during
spreading.  Refeeding, wet oxidation, and incineration have long-range
The Effect of Application Rate of Chicken Manure on the Yield of Corn
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Rsch. Rpt. 117.  p. 10-15
Abst:  McQ & B E-194; W71-03558

The chemical content of chicken manure, on an "as-received" basis, and
plant nutrients in pounds for various quantities of manure are tabulated.
The use of high rates of chicken manure significantly reduces the pH of
the soil; significantly increases available P, available K, magnesium,
nitrate, and carbon; tends to increase calcium, zinc, and copper; and
has no effect on manganese.
SANNER, W. S.; ORTUQLIO, Charles E.;  WALTERS. J. 6.; and
Conversion of Municipal and Industrial Refuse into Useful
     by Pyrolysis
USDI Bur. of Mines Rpt. of Investigations 7428.   14 p.
This report describes the pilot pyrolysis plant of the Bureau of Mines
at Pittsburgh and tabulates the breakdown products of experiments on
municipal solid waste and two selections of industrial wastes.  "The
results of these experiments strongly suggest that the pilot plant should
be modified and expanded to provide for continuous operation so that
reliable data can be obtained for projecting costs of large-scale
pyrolysis plants.  The effect that drying the raw refuse before pyrolysis
would have on the yield and the quality of products should also be
SCALF, Mario R.;  DUFFER, W. R.; and KREIS, R. Douglas
Characteristics and Effects of Cattle Feedlot Runoff
Proc. 25th Purdue Ind. Waste Conf.  p. 855-864
Abst:  McQ & B C-335

Quality of runoff from a 12,000-head commercial cattle feedlot in a
pond and in a reservoir to which overflow from the pond could drain
through a two-mile grass-grown ditch are discussed and tabulated.
Extraneous drainage was diverted around the feedlot and comparisons
were possible with a second reservoir of approximately the same age,
size, and drainage basin area without feedlots on its watershed.

The concentration of organic matter, solids, and nutrients in the feed-
lot runoff was high, but variable.  The pond reduced sediment, BOD, and
COD by 80  to 90 percent.  The ditch had little additional effect.   Fish
kills in the reservoir were due primarily to low levels of dissolved
oxygen, though ammonia was a contributing factor.  Algal blooms supplied
oxygen during hours of high light intensity but created additional
oxygen demands at night and when the sky was overcast.
SEELEY, Margaret  S.
Federal Solid Waste  Disposal Assistance Available to Local Governments
Proc. Conf. Agr.  Waste  in  an Urban Environment,  p.  160-170

This paper contains  a listing of then-current federal solid waste dis-
posal assistance  available to local governments through HEW, interior,
Agriculture, HUD,  Commerce, and the Council on Environmental Quality.
Pending solid waste  legislation is reviewed and cases are cited, mostly
for municipal wastes, of recent activities.
 SHEPPARD,  C.  C.   [Editor]
 Poultry  Pollution:   Problems  and Solutions
 Mich.  State  Univ. Ag.  Ex.  Sta.  Rsch.  Rpt. 117.  55 p.

 This report  contains nine  papers abstracted separately [DAVIDSON and
 MACKSON, 1970-1016;  FLEGAL, GOAN and  ZINDEL, 1970-1021; FLEGAL and
 ZINDEL  1970-1022,  1023,  1024;  ROBERTSON and WOLFORD, 1970-1081;
 SURBROOK,  BOYD,  and ZINDEL, 1970-1092; THOMAS, 1970-1096; and YORK,
 FLEGAL,  ZINDEL and  COLEMAN, 1970-1110] plus an introduction by
 H.  C.  ZINDEL and C.  J.  FLEGAL (p.  4-7),  "Bacteriological Procedures"
 by  H.  C. ZINDEL  (p.  45-46), summaries of research on dried poultry
 waste  in progress  (p-  47-48), and  a compilation of all samples of
 poultry  waste analyzed by  Dr. E. J. BENNE (p. 49-55).

 The research in  progress  includes  the following projects:

 H.  BUCHOLTZ:  The  replacement of standard protein sources in beef
     cattle  rations  with  DPW,

 C.  J.  FLEGAL: Are  drugs  fed  poultry  present in DPW?,


C. J.'FLEGAL:  How does the length of storage time affect the nrotein
     content of DPW?

C, C. SHEPPARD:  Does the temperature of drying affect the nrotein
     content of DPW; and

C. C. SHEPPARD:  Drying chicken manure under laying cages on electric-
     ally heated panels.
In VWio Digestibility of Chemically-Treated Feces
Jnl.  Animal Sci. 31: 1205-1209
Abst:  McO & B B-233

Despite the effective capacity which ruminants have for digesting the
cellulose and hemicellulose of plant walls, some 40 and 60 percent of
this potential energy source escapes digestion and appears in the
feces.  Laboratory studies have demonstrated that some chemical
treatments are effective in enhancing the digestibility of these
residues.  "Sodium hydroxide is by far the most economical for treat-
ment of fecal cell walls even if the hydrolysed fraction of the cell
wall  is not recovered or utilized in fermentation.  Separation of
the soluble fecal dry matter from cell walls orior to treatment with
sodium hydroxide is not necessary to obtain significant responses."
Block Drying of Chicken Manure
Compost Sci. 9: May-June  p. 28-29

Chicken manure can be formed into blocks which will air dry and
store with a minimum odor.  Final weight can be 29 nercent of the
original, and the final volume half the original.  Viable organisms
are decreased substantially but not eliminated.  Nitrogen is lost
in drying and storage.
SORG, Thomas J.
Industrial and Agricultural Solid Wastes and Problems Involved in
     Their Disposal
Public Health News (New Jersey) Mar.  p. 67-69

"Animal manure is being composted, dried, and pelletized for soil
conditioners, animal  feed supplement, and fertilizer base."
Reprocessing will play a major role in solving waste disposal

STAHL, George R.
Identifying Agricultural Waste Problems:  Dairy
Penn. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 44-46

This is a general treatment of the problem of waste disposal in the
dairy industry.

STEEN, Chester A.
The Public Relations of Agricultural Waste Management
Proc. Conf. Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment  p. 174-182

A dairy having purchased a dehydrator for alfalfa hay used it for drying
manure rather than letting it stand idle much of the time.  Sale of the
dried manure has produced substantial income.

Composting should be perfected.  It holds real promise for both agri-
cultural and municipal waste.

Refeeding, after satisfying health authorities and gaining public
acceptance, will aid in both food production and pollution abatement.

Volatilization and Nitrification of Nitrogen from Urine Under Simulated
     Cattle Feedlot Conditions
Enyiron. Sci. and Tech. 4: 579-582
Abst:  McQ & B B-110

"When urine was added every 2 days to an initially wet soil  at the rate
of 5 ml per 21 cm2, less than 25 percent of the added N was  lost as
ammonia and 65 percent was converted to nitrate.  When urine was added
every 4 days to initially dry soil, essentially all  the water evaporated
between urine additions, and 90 percent of the added N was lost as
ammonia.  These findings suggest that the stocking rate and  other
management factors should be considered in pollution abatement."
SURBROOK, T. C.; BOYD, J. S.; and ZINDEL, Howard C.
Drying Animal Waste
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 117  p. 16-20
Abst:  McQ & B E-195; W71-03559

Tests of a commercially-produced on-the-farm dryer for manure are
reported.  The machine successfully processed dairy, beef, swine, and
poultry excreta including small amounts of straw and wood-chip litter.


Operating temperatures ranged from 200 to 1100F.  Some odor resulted.
Efficiencies and costs per ton for 40-hr and 80-hr per wk operation were

     Poultry                   71.8%  ,      $36.69 , and  $27.53

     Bovine with 2% straw      51.6          63.65         47.08

     Swine                     44.1          56.70         42.54
TELLER, Chester J.
Farms Are Not Out in the Country Any More
Compost Sci . 11: Jan-Feb.  p. 8-9

To retainl agricultural production engulfed by environment-conscio-us
suburbia, New Jersey is studying plow-furrow-cover disposal , composting,
and the possibility of using fungi to convert carbohydrate wastes into
protein supplements.
 TEQTIA, J. S. and MILLER, Byron F.
 Factors Influencing Catabolism of Poultry Manure with Moia
 Poultry S;ci. 49: 1443
 Abst:  McQ & B B-290

 Optimum conditions for fly larvae are 25C and 38 percent relative
 humidity.  "They will abandon manure if the moisture content reaches
 80 percent.  Fungal development occurs at 37C and 70 percent relative
 humidity.  Pupae develop well under caged layers; they will reduce
 fresh manure to a granulated product in a few hours.
TEOTIA, J. S. and MILLER, Byron F.
Nutritional Value of Fly Pupae and Digested Manure  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 49: 1443
Abst:  McQ & B B-291

It was determined that fly pupae have potential as a protein supplement
in chick starter and broiler diets.
Acceptability and Digestibility of Poultry and Dairy Wastes by Sheep
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 117.  p. 42-44
Abst:  McQ & B E-200; W71-03564


Equi-protein rations, 11 percent dry basis, of which about 45 percent
was from feces or soybean meal, were prepared from a base of ground corn,
ground corn cobs, molasses, vitamins and minerals.  To this 31.9 percent
dried poultry waste, 39.0 percent dried dairy waste, or 11.2 percent
soybean meal was added.  Sheep and dairy heifers accepted all rations
readily.  Total digestive nutrient value was 56 percent for dairy wastes,
55.9 percent for DPW, and 63.4 percent for soybean rations.  Other
data are tabulated.
THOMAS, J. W.; YU, Yu; and HOFFER, J. A.
Digestibility of Paper and Dehydrated Feces  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 31: 255-256

Heifers fed paper, feces from dairy cattle without bedding, dried
poultry wastes, and soybean rations accepted 10 to 50 percent feces
readily, but objected to paper even when soaked in molasses and water
and mixed with corn silage.  Dry matter digestibilities were paper
62 percent, cattle feces 29 percent, poultry waste 39 percent, and
soybean ration 64 percent.

1970-1098                    "<  ,
Beef Feedlot Operations in Ontario
WPCF Jnl. 42: 195-208
Abst:  McQ & B B-081; W70-07045

For conditions in Ontario where most feedlots contain 300 head or less
and" where rapid growth is not anticipated, land disposal is expected
to remain the preferred method of handling animal  wastes.  Mechanical
aeration is considered to be an effective means of controlling odor.
"Other methods of farm waste disposal have been suggested including:
(a) composting with or without municipal garbage;  (b) incineration;
(c) disposal in sanitary landfills; (d) liquid waste treatment systems;
and (e) reuse as animal feed. . .limited technology and present agri-
cultural economics rule out all of these methods for Ontario use in the
foreseeable future.  . ."
Animal Waste and Environmental Quality
Proc. Conf. Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment,  p. 196-203

Manure destined for land spreading must be stored  often for months
All methods of treatment are expensive and/or produce objectionable
odors.  Risk of water pollution is omnipresent.

The speaker, President of the American Veterinary Medical Association,
pleads for a sound program, good communications, and cooperation.

VANDERHOLM, Dale H. and BEER, Craig E.
Use of Soil to Treat Anaerobic Lagoon Effluent:  Design and Operation
     of a Field Disposal System
ASAE Trans. 13: 562-564  [ASAE Paper 69-459]
Abst:  McQ & B B-042, 6-058; W71-06806

Effluents from an anaerobic lagoon treating animal  wastes are high in
solids and nutrients.  Land irrigated with them should be well drained.
It would usually be well to dilute the effluents as well.  A portable
irrigation system has desirable cost and flexibility characteristics.
The land requirement varies with soil type and climate.
State of the Art -- Oxidation Ponds
2nd  Intl. Symp. for Waste Trtmt. Lagoons  p. 366-376

This well-documented survey is concerned primarily with sewage oxidation
ponds.  The basic biochemical reactions are discussed and the questions
of bacterial and viral survival and insect breeding^are emphasized.
WELLS, Dan M.; GRUB, Walter; ALBIN, Robert C.; MEENAGHAN, George F.;
     and COLEMAN, Eugene
Control of Water Pollution from Southwestern Cattle Feedlots
Proc. 5th Intl. Water Pollution Rsch. Conf.  Paper 11-38.  19 p.
Abst:  W71-05412

Groundwater from a shallow aquifer constitutes the principal water
supply for the High Plains of West Texas.  To protect the aquifer from
possible contamination from feedlot runoff, laboratory and field tests
were conducted to determine the characteristics of the liquid and solid
portions of the wastes and of the runoff resulting from precipitation
on feedlots.  Agronomic studies explored the feasibility  of  employing
the runoff for crop irrigation.

The study concluded that quality of runoff is not materially affected
by ration fed or by quantity of precipitation, that treatment of runoff
by conventional methods is not feasible, that direct application of
undiluted runoff to crops is detrimental, that storage in unlined
ponds risks groundwater pollution, and that liquid handling systems
for cattle feedlot wastes are thus not feasible.

WEST, Arthur H.
Agricultural Waste Legislation
Proc. Conf. Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment,  p. 221-222

Legislation directed toward land-use planning is highly desirable.
Reponse to hysteria must be cautious.

Treatment, Use, and Disposal of Wastes from Modern Agriculture
Water Poll. Control 69: 195-208
Abst:  McQ & B A-306, A-543; W70-08334

Recent experimental work in the UK has included odor control  during
storage and spreading of piggery slurry by minimal mechanical  aeration,
and the flushing of confinement sheds with supernatant liquid from  the
retaining tank.  Possible future methods include incineration.   For
this to be economical drying to a moisture content under 70 percent is
required.  The possibility of accomplishing this by filtration is
being investigated.  Laboratory results of wet oxidation investigations
are tabulated.  Disposal at sea by means of an eight-mile long outfall
or by barges is suggested.
WHITE, Colin
Broiler Litter on Welsh Coal Tips
Agriculture 77: 49-51
Abst:  McQ & B E-019

Coal tips and opencast mines are nearly sterile.   Some 2.25 million  tons
of poultry manure are produced in the UK per year, much of which has no
convenient disposal site despite its fertilizer value.  Litter is pre-
ferable to manure in that seeds germinate well in the former and poorly
in the latter.
WHITE, James E.
Current Design Criteria for Anaerobic Lagoons
2nd Intl. Symp. for Waste Trtmt. Lagoons,  p. 360-363
Abst:  McQ & B A-241

No published state requirements have appeared.  The BOD, suspended
solids, detention times, and expected percentage reductions are tabu-
lated for the nine states answering a questionnaire.  Descriptions in
the literature often give incomplete data and use a variety of parameters


Lagoon performance is affected by organic loading, temperature of
contents, depth, and amount of recirculation.   There is little advan-
tage to using anaerobic lagoons in series.   The effluent is not fit
for discharge to streams.
WIDNALL, William B.
Agricultural Waste Legislation
Proc. Conf. Agr. Waste in an Urban Environment,  p. 144-152

Laws presently on the books which are expected to aid in solving the
problems of agricultural  waste utilization or disposal  include those
governing water pollution and solid waste management.  In addition,
many statutes governing the activities of the USDA include such
Identifying Agricultural Waste Problems:  Mushroom
Penn. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 41-43

Pennsylvania alone uses 250,000-300,000 tons of solid waste per year
as a basic material for compost.  This consists of horse manure, mulch
hay and corncobs.  Some poultry litter is also added.  For a crop of
about 125 million pounds, the spent compost to be replaced weighs about
400,000 tons.  This compost can be processed to produce organic
fertilizer.  If spread on land in a 12-16 in. thick bed and tilled for
three years, it becomes excellent marketable top soil.
YECK, Robert 6.
Animal Waste Management Research
Midwestern Animal Waste Mgmt. Conf., Des Moines.  7 p. proc.

Included in this overview of current research on animal waste manage-
ment are a) a brief historical review of the changing problems, b) an
orientation on some of the systems of research classification in use,
c) an indication of the personnel involved in the research, and
d) a discussion of the current status of research.
YORK, L. R.; FLE6AL, Cal J.; ZINDEL, Howard C.; and COLEMAN, T. H.
Effects of Diets Containing Dehydrated Poultry Waste on Quality Changes
     in Shell Eggs During Storage
Poultry Sci. 49: 590-591
Reprint:  Mich.  State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 117: p. 39-41
Abst:  McQ & B B-285, E-199; W71-00930


 At the end of any given storage period, color and odor observations
revealed no differences among the eggs from birds on different dietary
treatments.  All were acceptable and  'normal'."  The diets in question
contained 0, 10, 20, and 30 percent DPW.

Second International Symposium for Waste Treatment Lagoons
Kansas City, Mo., 23-25 June.  404 p.

The majority of the papers presented were pertinent primarily to  the
treatment of municipal wastewaters.  Six bearing on the application of
lagoons to the management of animal wastes are abstracted separately.
These are:

     DORNBUSH, James N. - State of the Art  Anaerobic Lagoons.
p. 382-387  [1970-1018],

     HART, Samuel A. - Animal Manure Lagoons, A Questionable Treatment
System,  p. 320-326  [1970-1032],

     LOEHR, Raymond C. and SCHULTE, Dennis D. - Aerated Lagoon Treatment
of Long Island Duck Wastes,  p. 249-258  [1970-1053],

     PFEFFER, John T. - Anaerobic Lagoons -- Theoretical  Considerations.
p. 310-320  [1970-1076],

     VENNES, John W. - State of the Art  Oxidation Ponds,   p. 366-376
[1970-1101], and

     WHITE, James E. - Current Design Criteria for Anaerobic Lagoons.
p. 360-363  [1970-1106].

Agricultural Waste in an Urban Environment.  Atlantic City,  14-17 Sept.
Proc. 256 p.
Abst:  W71-07552

Increased human populations and increased per capita consumption  of
meat have led to confinement feeding operations.  Traditional land
disposal is hampered by lack of land, nearness of neighbors, and
necessity of preventing pollution of land, surface water, groundwater,
and air.

Pertinent papers are abstracted separately.

Pennsylvania Conference on Agricultural  Waste Management
Nov. 17-18, Harrisburg, Pa.

Animal waste papers abstracted separately are:

     HERR, Glenn - Identifying Agricultural  Waste Problems:  Poultry.
p. 35-38  [1970-1036],

     KING, Thomas - Identifying Agricultural  Waste Problems:  Livestock.
p. 39-40  [1970-1043],

     LARSON, Russell  E. - Searching for Solutions,  p.  3-19  [1970-1048],

     PORTER, Gilbert H. - Agricultural Waste Research Goals and Needs.
p. 69-73  [1970-1077],

     STAHL, George R. - Identifying Agricultural  Waste  Problems:  Dairy.
p. 44-46  [1970-1089], and

     YEATMAN, James - Identifying Agricultural Waste Problems:  Mushroom.
p. 41-43  [1970-1108].
To House 20,000 Head of Cattle
Agr. Engrg. 51 : 516-517
Abst:  McQ & B B-643

The world's largest covered cattle feeding lot has been opened at
South Charleston, Ohio.  Many innovations are described.  "A front-end
loading tractor picks up the manure for transfer to an anaerobic
digester.  The raw manure is sterilized there in a six-day process,
then sold as weed- and pathogen-free organic fertilizer."
ANON  [Based on J.  Ronald MINER]
ISU Engineer Warns Feeders Oxidation Ditch Isn't Magic
Beef 6: Oct.  p. 10

An oxidation ditch controls odors and keeps manure liquid.  It should
be used in conjunction with a lagoon from which water needed for makeup
can be returned to the ditch and excess water can be used to irrigate
cropland.  None of the effluent will be fit to release to streams.

ANON  [Based on Earl D. MOBLEY]
Liquid Manure Systems Have High Per Head Cost
Beef 6: Nov.  p. 41

Cost figures are quoted for an oxidation ditch ($39.91 yearly capital
cost and $9.29 yearly operating cost), slatted floor and scraper system
($22.45 capital, operating costs not presently available), and an open
lot system ($8.88 capital and $2.95 operating) in Iowa.  The lots are
described and pictured in BEEF 6: Oct.  p. 54-55.  Costs do not include
lagoons and irrigation systems.  They are also subject to scale effects.

ANON  [Based on Gene ERWIN]
Pollution May Be a Blessing to Cattle Feeders
CALF News 8: June  p. 14

Wastes from many industries are having their potential for conversion
to cattle feed studied intensively.  "It is entirely feasible that even
a small feeder will be able to process manure1 on his lot for conversion
into a low-cost nutritious feed."
Texas Legislature  Views  Feedlot Pollution
CALF News 8:  Oct.  p. 52-53

At a hearing  in Amarillo a committee of the Texas Legislature explored
possible feedlot legislation.  Kansas law was reported to require that
feedlots have land available for runoff disposal in an amount which is
a function of annual precipitation and contributing drainage area.
Solid waste disposal is  limited to 20-30 tons/acre-yr, with none per-
mitted on land used for  liquid disposal.
Some  Call  It  ...  Manure
CALF  News  8:  Nov.   p. 40-41

Feedlots of more than about 8000-head capacity often have a virtually
insolvable manure problem.  Land for spreading may not be available.
Piled,  it  constitutes a  health problem and threatens to pollute surface
and ground water.   Treatment  paralleling sewage treatment is impractical.
Use of  processed manure  for refeeding has been pioneered in the poultry
industry  it  deserves careful research for beef.  "Probably the most
oromisinq  avenue will be the  use of feedlot manure as a fuel to generate
the power  to  run the feedlot."  Odors can be eliminated in the processing


and, if no earth is scraped up with the manure, the ash residue "can be
used as a building material."  The industry should sponsor research to
perfect the techniques.
ANON  [Based on Richard G. REESE]
Imagine Your Feedlot Manure Can Power Your Mills and Bring Cash From
     Sale of Excess Power!
CALF News 8: Nov.  p. 42, 45

A 400-ton-a-day combustion power unit far solid waste incineration for
cities is now being developed.  A model  to handle 40 tons per day, ideal
for large feedlots, would generate 1000 KW, produce "waste" heat at 950F,
and produce a small amount of ash with value as a fertilizer or feed
ingredient for potassium and phosphates.  Cost at present would be a
quarter million dollars.

ANON , [Based on Del WILLIAMSON]
GE Also Working on Solid-Waste-to-Electricity Converter
CALF News 8: Nov.  p. 43

General Electric is working on a water-wall boiler and on a vortex-type
incinerator.  "GE is one of three companies we know of working on the
converting of waste into electrical power.  We understand there are
ANON  [Based on Jim CLAWSON]
The Economics of Feedlot Manure
CALF News 8: Nov.  p. 43-44

"The cost of converting manure to fertilizer frequently exceeds the
value of increased crop response."  Costs for mechanical loading and
delivery within 15 miles are stated to be $1.40 per cu yd without
stockpiling or $1.70 with.
ANON  [Based on Jay SMITH]
Nature's Own Manure Treatment System
CALF News 8: Nov.  p. 56

Studies of soil cores under' feedlots have shown high concentrations of
nitrates in upper layers.  "It also shows a great increase in bacteria
underneath feedlots, and these are most beneficial in the denitrification


ANON  [Based on Gedalyahu SHELEF]
Process Treats Waste Water, Produces Algae
Chem. and Engrg. News 48: 3 Aug.  p. 47

A pilot plant operated on the Advanced Photosynthetic Svstem (APS)
at Hebrew University, Jerusalem, treats waste water, renovates it for
recycling, and produces protein in the form of algae.  Filtration is
employed in the pilot plant, but lime flocculation, with recovery of
the lime, is the anticipated method for a prototype plant.   Removal
of 90 percent of the BOD and COD, 80 percent of the total  nitrogen, and
50 percent of the dissolved phosphorus is reported.

New Uses for Poultry Manure?
Compost Sci. 9: July-Aug.  p. 19  Disc: Nov-Dec.   p. 30

Dried poultry manure provides sustained soil improvement.   In Britain
it is being used as animal feed and for the reclamation of strip-mined

In the discussion E. L. STEPHENSON lists U. S. and Canadian studies on
refeeding with several references to publications of the University of
Arkansas and others.
The Disposal of  Intractable Industrial and Agricultural  Wastes
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl. 10: 72-73, 75, 77, 80-82, 147, 150,  151

In a list of 13  types of wastes, animal manure slurries  are considered
to have no normal feasible method of pre-treatment other than simple
ground disposal  of waste as collected.  Treatments, recoveries, or
disposals at disposal site include "pass through spray-drying plant to
give dry granular fertilizer, or thicken and incinerate."

Agriculture Is Industry
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl. 10: 570, 572

11  . . large units will find  access to suitable land increasingly
difficult for this direct means of disposal.  Full biological treat-
ment is too expensive and local authority charges (where indeed,
sewers existed)  would be prohibitive."


"On the face of it there seem to be limited solutions, including,
however, drying the material for economic transportation well away
from the area of production."
ANON  [Based on H. T. BARR et al]
Lagoons for Poultry Houses
Poultry Digest 29: 28

Five flocks of layers were raised at Louisiana State over a lagoon
without changing the water.  Feathers and floating manure were broken
up from time to time by a high velocity jet of water.  The lagoon
effluent was discharged into an open ditch 1500 ft from a fish-
populated bayou.  The fish were not harmed.  Hen performance was good.
ANON   [Credited to Australasian Poultry World]
Preserving Fertilizer Value of Manure
Pnnltru DinAct- ?Q- Rfi
r i tzod v inij i ci 1*1 i li-ci
Poultry Digest 29:  86
To preserve nitrogen in stored manure, dry it quickly or dress the
droppings once a week with supernhosnhate.  Avoid wetting of deep
litter by runoff, seepage or spillage of water.  Hot air ventilation
promotes drying.

ANON  [Credited to S.A.P.A. Poultry Bull., So. Afr., Nov. 1969]
Poultry Manure as Ruminant Feed Ingredient
Poultry Digest 29: 90

"... poultry manure is being processed, packaged and sold commercially
as a ruminant feed in England.  Its analysis is anproximately:  crude
protein equivalent, 26.6%; ash, 15.24%; carbohydrates, 38.7%, and
moisture, 7,68%."  Performance of animals on DPW "was in no way inferior
to that of the conventionally fed controls, and since the manure
containing rations were much less expensive, profitability was higher."
ANON  [Based on W.
     World.  Sept.
Six Ways to Handle
Poultry Digest 29:
                   R.  JENKINS.
                   Disposal  of
 Credited to Australasian Poultry

Six methods,
             each  with  advantages  and  disadvantages,  are:   spreading,
             incineration,  lagoons,  sanitary land filling,  and
             Feeding  broiler litter  to beef cattle is also  mentioned.

Algae Diet Darkens Yolks
Calif. Farmer
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 29: 134-135

Green algae is about fifty percent protein.  Used as a food supplement
for chickens, it produces a deep yellow color in the egg yolks, but
has no apparent effect on egg production, weight, or size.   It may be
used as ten percent of the ration.  Some natural algae are  toxic, but
controlled algae growths on a treatment pond are of interest in that
they would provide feed and aid in pollution control simultaneously.

ANON  [Credited to U. C. Dateline, Davis.  Feb. 1970]
Where to With Manure?
Poultry Digest 29: 179

As land spreading becomes less feasible, methods such as pyrolysis,
use of liquid manure to raise algae to be grazed by fish, and treatment
to alter manure to be less polluting and/or better fertilizer need
intensive research.
ANON   [Based on Herbert C. JORDAN]
Needs  for Marketable Poultry Manure
Poultry Digest 29: 181

To be  salable 1) poultry manure must be dried to below twenty percent
moisture content, 2) total microbe count must be reduced drastically,
3) only aerobic bacteria can be tolerated, 4) odor must be removed
then masked, 5) nitrogen must be fixed to prevent burning plants,
6) N,  P, and K should be retained in original amounts, 7) chemical  and
biological additives must be controlled, 8) the product must flow
through a lawn spreader, 9) the product must store well, and 10)  "Manure"
should not appear in the advertising.

ANON   [Based on C. B. FAIRBAIRN.  Credited to Poultry World, 9 Apr.]
Dried  Poultry Manure as Cattle Feed
Poultry Digest 29: 331

11  .   dried poultry waste has a protein value similar to cereals and
aii energy content about one-third that of grain.  However, trials. . .
have shown it to be suitable and economically viable for inclusion in
intensive beef rations."  Concern with .possible disease transmission


ANON  [Based on Byron F. MILLER.  Credited to Colo. State Univ. Rsch.
     Apr-June 1970]
Fly Pupae High Quality Protein Supplement
Poultry Digest 29: 385

Breeding colonies for pathogen-free houseflies were established.  Eggs
were collected and used to inoculate fresh poultry manure.  The eggs
hatch in five or six days and the larvae remove about 80 percent of
the organic content and reduce the moisture content of the manure.  The
larvae and pupae are collected and processed into a high quality protein
supplement.  The economics appear favorable.
Connecticut Requirements for Liquid Manure Disposal
Poultry Digest 29: 583

The Connecticut Public Health Department requires that liquified manure
be spread only on relatively level fields at a distance greater than
200 ft from any water course or water surface.  It may not be spread on
snow, frozen ground or saturated ground.  Several fields of pasture land
should be available to permit rotation.  Applications of liquid manure
should be limited to 5000 gal.
Animal Waste Treatment Research
Pub. Wks. 101: Feb.  p. 128

Cornell University is to inaugurate a new Animal Waste research labora-
tory in the Spring of 1970.  Pending projects are listed.
Coming:  Pollution Control for Your Lot?
Western Livestock Jnl.  48: Apr.  p. 56-58

Regulations are being considered by many states.  The characteristics
of a workable code are discussed.  Latitude should be left for adoption
of bette,r methods as they are developed.
ANON  [Based on George PRATT and R. L. WITZ]
Scientists Tackle Manure Disposal
Western Livestock Jnl. 48: Oct.  p. 95


Cattle production has been declining in North Dakota.  Confined beef
feeding appeared to be an answer but is only partially successful.
Oxidation ditches leave ultimate disposal problems.  Manure storage
within the buildings produces gases and humidity.  Dehydration for
fertilizer and/or refeeding is being considered.  The fuel  value of
manure is 6300 Btu/lb; lignite's is 6900, and wood has values ranging
from 8300 to 9200.
ADAMS, Richard L.
The Dry  Deep Pit System
Poultry  Tribune 77: Apr.  p. 26, 28

Odors, flies, and nutrients in water courses are the typical  pollution
problems associated with poultry.  All can be eliminated by use of a
deep  (8  to 10 ft) pit under the poultry house if it is kept dry.
Install  and maintain a proper watering system.  Mechanical  ventilation
will  be  required for high-density chicken populations.  The pit may
never require cleaning.
ADOLPH,  Robert H.
Drying Manure Under  Cages
Poultry  Digest 30: 389

Drying depends on  rate of air movement, amount of moisture in the air
and to be  removed, and air temperature.  To aid in drying, open chicken
houses in  warm weather,  increase the exposure of droppings, and retain
a dry pad  of manure  after cleanout.

ADOLPH,  Robert H.
A Program  of Manure  Management to Control Fly Breeding in a Semi-Arid
     Climate  (Abst)
Poultry  Sci. 50: 1544
Abst:  McQ & B B-299

Methods  of controlling fly breeding in chicken manure include providing
a dry pad  of manure  coned to catch fresh manure, avoiding cleanout
during fly breeding  season, avoiding water spillage on manure, and
maintaining adequate air movement.
ADRIANO, D.  C.;  PRATT,  P.  F.; and BISHOP, S. E.
Fate of  Inorganic  Forms  of N and Salt from Land-disposed Manure from


Proc. ISLW  p. 243-246
Abst:  McQ & B C-281

Continuous disposal of cattle wastes, without pretreatment, on irrigated
croplands and pastures of Southern California, has built up concentra-
tions of salt and N03~ in the soil.  The Chino-Corona Basin between
Riverside and Los Angeles carries 122,000 dairy cows in 40 sq mi.  The
manure load is about ten cows per acre whereas equilibrium can be main-
tained only below about three cows per acre.  A partial solution would
be to volatilize the ammonia before incorporating the manure into the
ALAMPI, Phillip
Introduction  [Keynote to Conference]
Proc. Natl.  Symp. on Animal  Waste Mgmt.  p. 3-5

For highly urbanized areas such as New Jersey, of which ALAMPI is
Secretary of Agriculture, reuse of manure as animal  and poultry feed
must be instituted.  Technology such as dehydration  and bacterial
fermentation exists.  The Food and Drug Administration should grant
approval and permit areas with high land, labor, and grain costs to
employ this procedure.
ALBIN, Robert C.
Handling and Disposal of Cattle Feedlot Waste
Jnl. Animal Sci. 32: 803-810
Abst:  McQ & B B-235

In this richly-documented review of the subject, methods currently in
use are described and evaluated.  For the future it can be anticipated
that concern for environmental pollution will intensify.  Research
needs are for further investigation of means to eliminate air, water,
and land pollution economically, subject to more stringent socio-legal
ALBIN, Robert C.; WINSTEAD, J.; ZINN, D.; WELLS, Dan M.; GRUB, Walter;
     COLEMAN, Eugene; and MEENAGHAN, George F.
Cattle Performance in Southwestern Feedlots  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 33: 206-207

Cattle fed an all-concentrate ration produced 1.05 kg waste per day,
while those fed a ration with 10-12 percent roughage produced 2.77 kg.
Efficiency was better on all-concentrate; daily gain was better with
the roughage.


Soil Conservation Service Standard and Specifications for Pollution
     Abatement Measures for Confined Livestock or Poultry Feeding
Soil Conservation Service -- Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.   28-29 July.
     10 p.

Soil Conservation Service design criteria involve the compliance with
Texas Water Quality Board regulations including the by-passing of inflow,
the trapping of outflow, and the ability to dewater the retention pond
without releasing water to streams or draws.  Site selection for feedlot,
detention ponds and spreading fields is of basic importance.  Standard
designs of hydraulic structures should be used subject to a  few modi-
fications which are discussed in some detail.

Lagoons are usually not appropriate with open feedlots.   Provision for
irrigation tailwater recovery may be necessary.

Succession and Ecology of Diptera in Cattle Droppings
EPA Pbln. 5r.2, p. 52-54

Cowpats in pastures in California have provided lodging places for at
least 50 species of flies and 35 species of beetles.  Of these, only
the horn fly and the face fly are pests; the others speed the recycling
of the feces.  In a feedlot only seven species of flies survive.  These
include the house fly and the stable fly.

ANDRE, Paul D.
$170 Per Head  But It Pays!
Beef 7: June  p. 24-25

Gypsy Hill Farms in Southern Illinois feeds cattle on open lots ($20
per head), in a three-wall confinement barn with sawdust and straw on
dirt ($35), and in a similar structure with slatted floors and an oxida-
tion ditch ($170 as installed, but $125 estimated if redone  with present
knowledge).  Summer performance is about the same for the three
installations.  The open lot and the dirt-floor barn have similar winter
performance, affected by mud.

Drainage from the oxidation ditch is to an anaerobic lagoon  26 ft deep,
100 ft in diameter.  Overflow is to a one-acre aerobic lagoon 34 inches

The owner plans to convert the dirt-floor barn by installing another
oxidation ditch.

ANDRE, Paul D.
"It is not feasible to return all the manure to the steer from which it
is collected, but a brood cow is an'excellent feed consuming unit to com-
bine with a steer in this program."  A flow sheet gives quantities
involved.  "Wastelage and corn combined in the ratio of 1:1.5 constitutes
a satisfactory ration for finishing slaughter animals. .  .   The surplus
wastelage can be used as the complete ration for beef brood cows."

APPELL, Herbert R.; FU, Y. C.; FRIEDMAN, Sam; YAVORSKY, P.  M.; and
     WENDER, Irving
Converting Organic Wastes to Oil
USDI Bur. of Mines Rpt. of Investigations 7560.   20 p.
Abst:  McQ & B E-133

"The Bureau of Mines is experimentally converting cellulose, the chief
constituent of organic solid waste, to a low-sulfur oil.   All types of
cellulosic wastes, including urban refuse, agricultural wastes, sewage
sludge, wood, lignih, and bovine manure have been converted to oil by
reaction with carbon monoxide and water at temperatures of 350 to 400C
and pressures near 4000 psig, and in the presence of various catalysts
and solvents.  Cellulose conversions of 90 percent and better (correspond-
ing to oil yields of 40 to 50 percent) have been obtained."

Experimental procedures are described and the effects of varying tem-
perature, pressure, and water content, and of using various solvents
and catalysts are discussed.  Continuous, rather than batch, operation
has been limited to solutions of sucrose to date.  Concurrently special
slurry feed pumps are being tested.

It is concluded that "a significant part of the energy demand of the
Nation can be obtained on a renewable basis by converting nearly every
kind of organic solid waste to a low-sulfur oil  by treatment under pres-
sure with carbon monoxide and water.  Methods for lowering carbon
monoxide consumption and for operating at lower pressures have been
found; these offer the- potential of low processing costs  for converting
cellulosic wastes to oil."
ARIAIL, J.  D.; HUMENIK,  F. J.; and KRIZ, 6. J.
BOD Analysis of Swine Waste as Affected by Feed Additives
Proc.  ISLW.  p. 180-182,  189
Abst:  McQ  & B C-262

BOD test results  are subject to interferences.  Feed antibiotics, metals,
and cold temperatures have been suspect.  In a series of tests on swine
manure at North Carolina  State, copper was found to be the principal
source of error.   For a  reliable BOD test, it is recommended that the
material tested be diluted to a copper combination below 0.01 mg per 1.


BADGER, Daniel D. and CROSS, George R.
Economic Implications of Environmental Quality Legislation for Confined
     Animal Feeding Operations
Proc. ISLW.  p. 204-206
Abst:  McQ & B C-270

Based essentially on Oklahoma law and hydrologic regimes, the authors
examine the current and anticipated requirements for waste disposal  from
confined operations and estimate costs.  "Preliminary data indicate
that no one system is superior to others.   Types of animal wastes, labor
availability, site location, capital  availability and availability of
land for disposal, affect the choice of pollution control practice
adopted."  Use of solid wastes on cropland, considering both costs and
returns, is feasible.
Farm Effluent -- Electrical Disposal Methods
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl.  11: 207-209

A two-pond system is advocated in which "settled liquor is drawn from
the deep section by a centrifugal pump and sprayed over the shallow
section to aerate it with inspirated air.   The overflow passes back over
a weir into the deeper section."  Effluent disposal  is to some convenient
point at least fifty yards from a watercourse.

Oxidation ditches are effective if properly maintained.  A sludge con-
taining barley husks and hair may block ditches used for pig manure.
"One use of this material could be as a replacement for horse manure
used by the mushroom industry, which is now in short supply."

Electrolytic floatation may aid in effluent treatment.
Identifying Odorous,Components of Stored Dairy Manure
ASAE Paper 71-568  27 p.
Abst:  McQ & B 6-106

Following a literature review (27 references) on odors and their control,
an account is given of laboratory methods used for their identification.
"Selective absorptions, steam distillation and paper chromotography were
the procedures used to identify four organic acids, ammonia, four amines
and the sulfur-containing odorants -- hydrogen sulfide, disulfides,
and mercaptans."

BARTH, Clyde L. and POLKOWSKI, Lawrence B.
Low-Volume, Surface-Layer Aeration - Conditioned Manure Storage
tiOG. ioLW.  p. 279282
Abst:  McQ & B C-291

Long-term storage of manure is required in much of the dairy area  of
North America.  Since waste should be returned to the soil  before  plant-
ing or after harvest, and not on snow, mud, or frozen ground,  six  months'
storage capacity is commonly used.  A manure storage lagoon is described
in which the surface liquid layer is aerated to reduce odor and prevent
scum formation.  "The advantage of aerating only a surface  layer is  to
reduce operation cost, improve nutrient recovery and allow  reuse of
supernatant in the waste handling system."

Subsurface Disposal of Liquid Manure
Proc, ISLW.  p. 258-260
Abst:  McQ & B C-285

Penn State has developed and tested machinery for opening and raising
the soil, depositing liquid manure in the void created, and restoring
the displaced soil without turning it over.  Field operations are
described.  The maximum amount of manure which can be safely spread  on
a continuing basis is that having a nitrogen content equal  to the
nitrogen utilizable by the crop.  Tests with fifteen tons/year of  dairy
cattle manure resulted in nitrogen build-up in the soil.
Handling Methods for Liquid Manure are Tested
Hoard's Dairyman 116: 273
Abst:  McQ & B F-081

Tests in Minnesota established that "1) manure stored in a large tank
(about 150,000 gallons usable capacity) can be agitated and removed
without difficulty under proper management," 2) manure deposited in one
end of the tank will distribute itself sufficiently by gravity,  3)  empty-
ing may be conducted in convenient stages, and 4) waste heat is  valuable
in preventing freezing.

Animal Wastes and America the Beautiful
Proc. ISLW.  p. 6-7
Abst:  MCQ & B C-214


Recycling of wastes into useful products is an ultimate aim.  Progress
toward it is cited.  Land management, with allocation of land for meat
and poultry production not subject to urban crowding, is highly desirable.
"The priorities in research, as I see them, are methods of returning
the wastes to the land, control of odors, and a systems approach to
waste management,"

Use of wastes for fertilizer; use of whey in animal feeds, foods and
nutritious drinks; use of poultry blood and feathers for animal feed;
and use of grease and other solid wastes from packing plants in animal-
feed are cited.  Further research is required.

Speeding Up a Natural Process Is One Way to Handle Wastes that Threaten
     to Overwhelm Us
AIC Review 26: Nov-Dec.  p. 12-13

For composting, a mixture of garbage and manure has better qualities
than either alone.  Care must be exercised, however, to exclude tin cans,
bottles, plastics, etc., and to limit salt content if the compost is to
be spread on land.  High-rate composting equipment is expensive, but
windrowing is effective and cheap.

Aeration of Liquid Poultry Manure:  A Stabilization Process or an Odour
     Control Measure?
Poultry Sci. 50: 155-158
Abst:  McQ & B B-294

Offensive odors of poultry manure are caused by the accumulation of
by-products of anaerobic decomposition.  It has been suggested that
0.1 percent fatty acid content is acceptable, but that 0.2 percent
should be a minimum level for prosecutions under air pollution regulations,
"Aeration as used in the experimental system must be considered as an
odour control measure and not as a stabilization process."

BELL, R. G. and POS, Jack
Design and Operation of a Pilot Plant for Composting Poultry Manure
ASAE Trans. 14: 1020-1023  [ASAE Paper 70-419]
Abst:  McQ & B B-059, G-080

Composting is most effective when the moisture content is near fifty
percent, the carbon-to'-m'trogen ratio is near thirty, and the texture
is coarse, thus permitting aeration.  Poultry manure, as removed from


a chicken house, often has a moisture content above 75 percent, a carbon-
to-nitrogen ratio of about ten, and it consists of fine particles.   To
be composted, it should be mixed with a dry carbonaceous substance.   A
composter was developed at Guelph and tested with indifferent success.
Windrowing would have produced better compost, but would have released
more ammonia.
BELL, R. G. and POS, Jack
Winter High Rate Composting of Broiler Manure
Canadian Agr. Engrg. 13: Dec.  p. 60-64  [CSAE Paper 71-205]
Abst:  McQ & B B-657, G-150

A high-rate composter consisting of a reinforced-concrete horizontal
silo with an air distribution system incorporated into the floor was
tested in Ontario  in January.  Freezing rain, sub-zero temperatures
which required removal of frozen compost from the walls with chisels
and crowbars and rodents which were "using the lower reaches .of the
composter as a 'centrally heated1 home" caused difficulties.  It was
Concluded, however, that 1) broiler manure can be composted outdoors
in a Canadian winter without auxiliary heat, 2) a forced aeration sys-
tem is essential for high-rate composting of broiler manure, 3) loading
should be daily (seven days per week), 4) the composter should be roofed
to avoid excessive wetting of the contents by rain, and 5) the addition
of a blending material, preferably ground garbage, to raise the carbon-
to-nitrogen ratio  well above its value of 14.3 for broiler manure would
be advantageous.

BERG, Norman  et al
Solving the Problem:  A Panel Discussion
Proc. Nat!. Symp.  on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 57-66

BERG introduced a  panel of five Kansans:  Lloyd ESSICK, A farmer-
rancher; Virgil D. BEOUGHER, District Conservationist; Bobby C. HEITSCHMID1
County Executive Director, ASCS; Virgil P. CARLSON, County Extension  Agent;
and L. Dean STROWIG, Area Engineer, Kansas Department of Animal Health.
ESSICK, recognizing the pollution potential of an existing feedlot, had
been assisted by the four other panel members in the design and financing
of a relocated lot.  Each discussed the input of his organization in  the
highly satisfactory venture.

BERGE, 0.  I.                      .   
Waste Handling:  What Are the Choices?
Hoard's Dairyman 116: 353, 383
Abst:  McQ & B F-082


The pros and cons of daily spreading, stockpiling for spreading when
field conditions are more favorable, and liquid storage are stated.
A tiny fraction of all  dairy cow manure is dried and sold.
BERGE, 0. I.
Waste Handling:  What Does It Cost?
Hoard's Dairyman 116: 420
Abst:  McQ & B F-083

Typical budgets are given and discussed for seven cases.   Returning
manure to the land for fertilization of feed crops is considered to
be the best practice.
BERNARD, Harold; DENIT, Jeffery; and ANDERSON, Donald
Effluent Discharge Guidelines and Animal  Waste Management Technology
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal  Waste Mgmt.   p.  69-83
Abst:  McQ & B C-338

Runoff from a feedlot is intermittent (caused by rain or snow melt)
and variable in quality.  Its characteristics are such, however,  that
it is inadmissible in a watercourse.  Lagoons are unlikely to be  a
lasting solution; their effluents are also unacceptable in streams.
Water quality standards will require "zero discharge", by which is
meant no direct runoff from feedlots or overflow from lagoons.  While
land spreading of manure and irrigation with effluent may introduce
some pollution, it is considered to be manageable in a stream.

Acceptable methods of handling animal wastes include land spreading,
use of oxidation ditches with land spreading of the effluent, barriered
landscape water renovation systems [ERICKSON, et al, 1972-1043],  compost-
ing, and "complete treatment."  Waste recycling holds much promise for
the future.
BERRY, Edward C.
Microbiological  Stabilization of Animal  Wastes
EPA Pbln. 5r.2  p. 27

The stabilization of measured quantities of animal excreta was observed
under varied oxygen supply, pH, temperature, and amounts of water.   Both
aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms are necessary to reduce the BOD of
animal wastes to acceptable levels.

Composting Poultry Manure in Deep-Pits
Feedstuffs 43: 3 July  p. 32

Deep pits in operation up to six years without odors, flies, or troubles
are reported.  The overriding consideration is that the manure must be
kept dry.  Sealing of the pit to protect groundwater and to exclude
rodents is desirable.  Labor and operating costs can be reduced signifi-
cantly by use of deep pits.  Building costs will be higher and serious
trouble may occur if the manure gets~wet.

BESLEY, Harry E.
Poultry Manure Disposal by Plow Furrow Cover
EPA Pbln. 5r.25 p. 27-29

The objectives of this research were "to develop equipment and techniques
for disposing of poultry manure in soil by the plow-furrow-cover (PFC)
method and to determine the amounts, frequency of application, and
length of time that poultry manure may. be so disposed of without un-
desirable effects."  Experimental procedures are described and a warning
is given of the high incidence of SalmonelZa. in poultry manure (30 per-
cent of the samples obtained for this study from commercial farms con-
tained the pathogens).
BRESSLER, Glenn 0.
Industry's Best Strategy for Waste Disposal
Poultry Tribune 77: Sept.  p. 58, 60

Deep pits only postpone an inevitable stench-producing clean-out.
Liquid handling has generally been unsatisfactory.  Dehydrating by a
two-stage operation -- 75 percent to 30 percent moisture by air drying
while agitating the manure in the hen house, and 30 percent to 10  percent
in a dryer later  -- is economical.

BRESSLER, Glenn 0. and BERGMAN, E. L.
Solving the Poultry Manure Problem Economically Through Dehydration
Proc. ISLW  p. 81-84
Abst:  McQ & B C-234

A two-stage automated drying system of which stage one involves high-
velocity air movement with mechanical stirring of manure in the pit,
and stage two consists of use of a commercial dryer to obtain a ten
percent moisture  content, is described.  Test results, with cost data,
are reported.

The resulting fine powder is free from odor and
deterioration.  It has proved most effective in
in coal-mine areas and highway embankments.
                                                can be stored without
                                                regenerating spoil  banks
                                              Between Bacterial Isolates
BROMEL, M.; LEE, Y.  N.; and BALDWIN, B.
Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Transfer
     in a Waste Lagoon
Proc. ISLW  p.  122-125
Abst:  McQ & B  C-246

Since the intestinal microflora of domestic animals include many
bacterial species that are similar to those in man's intestine,  incor-
porating such antibiotics as tetracycline into animal  feeds may  result
in permanent drug resistant populations  in man because of transferable
drug resistance between similar genera.   These resistant organisms may
then limit the  usefulness of antibiotics in combating  later infections
in man and his  domestic animals."

Such resistant  bacterial isolates were common in samples from solid
bovine wastes,  farm animal waste lagoons, and the Red  River of the North
which receives  treated and untreated wastes from municipalities, food-
processing industries, and feedlots.  "The same water  source is  used
for potable, irrigational and industrial purposes."
BROWN, Robert H.
Handling Waste Materials:  A Look at How a Hatchery Does It
Feedstuffs 43: 25 Sept.  p. 33-34

Drying, with use of the residue as a source of protein and calcium in
animal feeds, or modern incineration are acceptable methods of disposing
of hatchery wastes.  An incinerator in Winterville, Georgia, is described
and pictured.  Operated 24 hours per day in the 1600-1800F range with
temperatures controlled to compensate for fuel value of the wastes and
with an afterburner to eliminate smoke and odor, the unit eliminates
pollution.  The ash provides a mineral supplement in feeds.  Litter
spreading on farmland is under attack by ecologists.  Refeeding is
not presently acceptable under FDA rulings.
BUCHOLTZ, Herbert F.; HENDERSON, Hugh E.; FLE6AL, Cal J.; and ZINDEL,
     Howard C.
Dried Poultry Waste as a Protein Source for Feedlot Cattle
Mich. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 136  p. 66-71
Reprint:  Mich. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 152  p. 28-31
Abst:  McQ & B E-209

Cattle were fed rations containing 12 percent crude protein from sov
urea, DPW, and combinations.   Feed efficiency, ranked from best to "
worst, was soy, urea, 1/2 DPW-1/2 urea, 1/2 DPW-1/2 Sov, and DPW.
Costs per cwt of gain were

           1/2 DPW-1/2 urea                   $14.53



           1/2 DPW-1/2 soy                     16.84

           DPW                                 18.87

The steers avoided the DPW portion of the ration.

Dried Animal Waste as a Protein Supplement for Ruminants
Proc. ISLW  p. 308-310
Abst:  McQ & B C-300

Dried poultry waste was fed to feedlot cattle, growing sheep,  dairy
cows, and calves.  Sheep were  also fed dehydrated feces from beef
cattle, dairy cattle, and Digs.  For such delicacies to compete eco-
nomically with other sources of supplemental  nitrogen, it was  deter-
mined that they must contain more than 25 percent crude protein.

"The steers sorted the shelled corn and corn silage from the well-
mixed ration leaving almost as much dry noultry waste as had been
presented. . .  Sheep readily  consumed all rations. .  .  Goats have
refused to consume these rations."
BULL, L. S. and REID, J- T.
Nutritive Value of Chicken Manure for Cattle
Proc. ISLW  p. 297-300
Abst:  McO & B C-297

Most feeding tests reported to date have been on chicken litter.
This paper reports a series of three tests on air-dried chicken
manure (ADM).  "Palatability was not a serious diet problem as long
as the ADM contained less than 20 percent moisture."  Maximum intake
of ADM, based on acceptance, was 1.03 to 2.12 kg/day.  "All cows  will
consume enough ADM to meet their protein needs when ADM is the sole
source of supplemental N in an otherwise low-N diet."  ADM goes par-
ticularly well with corn silage since this eliminates a dust problem


and masks the odor.  Savings of $12 to 15 per ton over nutritionally-
equivalent supplements could be realized.
BURNETT, William E
Gases and Odors from Poultry Manure:  A Selected Bibliography
Poultry Sci. 50: 61-63
Abst:  McQ & B B-293

The bibliography contains three subheadings:  1) the microbiology and
chemistry of gas and odor production (seven entries), 2) identification
and determination of gases and odors (eleven entries), and 3) odor
control methods (seventeen entries).
Evaluation of Beef Feedlot Waste Management Alternatives
Proc. ISLW  p. 66-69, 72
Abst:  McQ & B C-230

For alternative means of handling solid wastes or slurries from open
feedlots or confinement buildings of several designs, costs per head
are discussed and represented on diagrams.  Optimum choices depend  upon
number of cattle fed, days of operation per year, climate, feedlot
drainage area, length of haul of waste for final disposal, etc.  The
authors conclude that "a manure-irrigation system for handling slurry
and flushed wastes costs about half as much as other waste handling
Evaluation of Beef Cattle Feedlot Waste Management Alternatives
EPA WPC Rsch. Ser. 13040 FXG  323 p.

Waste handling alternatives were discussed under the headings "open
feedlots" and "confinement buildings."  Solid handling and runoff-
carried or liquid flush methods applied to each.  Treatment and
ultimate disposal are each accorded a chapter.  The methods of ultimate
disposal discussed are land disposal, irrigation, evaporation, and
incineration.  Economic considerations govern the choice among the
non-polluting alternatives.  Incineration involves risk of air pollution.
Use of manure as a fuel is cited-as a "promising method,"
U.S.D.A. Technical and Financial Assistance Programs
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 139-141


5r nthPr nf *S   $
?DC /!    if  m?1nwaste mana9ement are mentioned.  In particular, the
ARS (Agricultural  Research  Service) is concerned with air and water
pollution by feedlots;  structures for containing, diverting, or dissi-
pating polluted water;  and  refeeding of manure after more or less

Construction of a  Chemical-Microbtal Pilot Plant for Production of
     Single-Cell Protein from Cellulosic Wastes
EPA Report SW-24c   viii + 126 p.

The cellulosic material involved in the pilot plant studv was bagasse.
This was converted  into bacterial single-cell protein by" fermentation.

Feed Additive Residues  in Poultry Manure
Poultry Digest 30:  396-398

This extract from ARS 44-224 considers the various additives common in
chicken feeding and attempts to evaluate their pollution potential.  In
most cases, information is  sketchy.  Antibiotics, arsenicals, and nitro-
furans pose the greatest hazard.

Fecal Residues from Feed Additives  Poultry
USDA ARS 44-224  p. 14-19

As a contribution toward the evaluation of the potential  hazard of
poultry feed additives, CALVERT considered the various types having
FDA approval, quoted pertinent references to them in the literature,
and ventured an opinion on  their prevalence and toxicity.   Pellet
binders, flavoring  agents,  and enzymes would appear to pose little
threat.  Antibiotics, arsenicals, and nitrofurans fed at low level as
growth adjuvants should be  carefully evaluated as possible pollutants;
more information is needed  than is presently available.  Antifungal
additives would appear  to be safe.  Medications for specific diseases
require analysis oh an  individual basis.
CALVERT, C. C.; MORGAN, N. 0.; and EBY, H. J.
Biodegraded Hen Manure and Adult Flies:  Their Nutritional  Value to the
     Growing Chick
Proc. ISLW  p. 319-320
Abst:  McQ & B C-303

Research has been conducted at Beltsville, Maryland, to determine if
large quantities of house fly larvae could be grown on chicken manure
to change its characteristics, if the larvae could be harvested
efficiently, and if larvae or later stages could be used as protein
sources for chicks.

Experiments are described and an analysis of the composition of dried
ground fly pupae is tabulated.  "House fly larvae can be used to
process or biodegrade caged laying hen manure.  The degradation
removes obnoxious odor, reduces moisture and volume of the manure.
The larvae, after pupation, or emergence as adult flies, can be used
as a protein supplement for the growing chick."
Improved Control of Animal Wastes
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 7-9

Land recycling is not always economically feasible.  Recycling, pyro-
lysis, and incineration may be applicable.  Financial assistance must
be forthcoming to aid the livestock-poultry industry in waste disposal
A Total Biochemical Recycle Process for Cattle Wastes
Proc.  ISLW  p. 89-91
Abst:  McQ & B C-236

The Babson Chemical Recycle Process is reported to accept cattle
wastes and to return undigested solids, squeeze-dried, of a quality
usable as bedding or roughage.  The liquid resulting may be "processed
to any degree of purity desired by ion-exchange and charcoal treatment,
and also by ultra-violet exposure if potable water is desired."
Resulting floe may be stored and used as a fertilizer.
CATH, William Stanwood
Summary of Existing State Laws
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 17-18
Abst:  McQ & B C-217

Eight states have specific feedlot statutes and/or regulations.  All
states have adopted water quality standards.  Construction of facilities
with zero runoff except under catastrophic rainfall conditions is
permitted without prior consent in 29 states.  Control is tightening.

CHANG, A. C.;  DALE, A.  C.;  and BELL, J  M
Nitrogen Transformation During Aerobic Digestion and Denitrification
     of Dairy  Cattle Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 272-274,  278
Abst:  McQ & B C-289

Loss of nitrogen  has been reported in analyses of the behavior of
oxidation ditches.  This paper reports on laboratory studies on the
phenomenon which  was found to  be caused partly by the volatilization
of ammonia and partly by the denitrification.

Economies of Recovery and Distribution of Animal  Wastes
Jnl. Animal Sci.  32: 816-820
Abst:  McQ & B B-237

Disposal of animal wastes is unlikely to show a profit.  Realistic
accounting procedures call for its being regarded as a cost associated
with confined  animal feeding.
The Fallacy of Deep Pits for Poultry Houses
Feedstuffs'43: 6 Feb.  p. 36
Abst:  McQ & B F-102

The major disadvantage of a deep pit is the deterioration in nutrient
quality of the manure.  Others are the additional cost of the building,
the possibility of water leakage leading to anaerobic conditions  in  the
pit, and the attraction of a deep pit for home-seeking rodents.   To
obtain good air flow patterns, separate ventilating systems may  be
required for birds and pit.

COLEMAN, Eugene A.
Crop Response to Waste Materials from Various Feedlot Collection
Soil Conservation Service -- Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.  28-29 July.
     6 p.

Findings to date on runoff from beef cattle feedlots indicate that the
concentration of solutes is highly variable.  Concrete-surfaced  lots
produce the stronger runoff; concentration increases with slope  on
dirt-surfaced lots.  Plant species vary in their tolerance of feedlot
effluent.  It is detrimental to plant germination but there is reason


to believe that greater knowledge will  convert this nuisance to a
COLEMAN, Eugene A.; GRUB, Walter; ALBIN, Robert C.;  MEENAGHAN, George F.
     and WELLS, Dan M.
Cattle Feedlot Pollution Study:  Interim Report Number 2 to Texas
     Water Quality Board
Texas Tech Water Resources Center Pbln.  WRC 71-2.   vii + 12 p.

The second interim report, devoted primarily to continued agronomic
studies, emphasized that land disposal ,of feedlot  runoff in semiarid
areas entails risks of severe salt damage.   The conclusions of the
first interim report [1969-1087] were reaffirmed and four additional
conclusions and recommendations were added:

     1.  With proper management and judicious timing, runoff from feed-
lots can be used to advantage for the irrigation of some field crops.

     2.  Cattle feedlot runoff should never be applied as a prep!ant
irrigation or as an irrigation treatment on seedling crops.

     3.  Feedlot runoff can have a beneficial effect on cotton and
bermuda grass.

     4.  Additional research on both runoff and solid waste disposal
is called for.
CONCANNON, Thomas J-, Jr. and GENETELLI, Emil J.
Groundwater Pollution Due to High Organic Manure Loadings
Proc. ISLW  p. 249-253
Abst:  McQ & B C-283

To evaluate two different methods of measuring possible groundwater
contamination resulting from high organic loadings, the authors tested
total organic carbon, nitrate, NH4+, $64, P04, Cl~, Na, Mg, Ca, and K
in soil  cylinders loaded with 0, 15, 30, and 45 tons of dry poultry
manure per acre.  Results are tabulated.  In general, little effect
was detected at depths of four feet.  "Planting and harvesting a crop
could decrease contaminant levels.  Water percolation to groundwater
from disposal areas of this type is subjected to substantial dilution."
CONNOLLY, John A. and STAINBACK, Sandra E.
Solid Waste Management:  Abstracts from the Literature -- 1964
EPA Pbln. SW-66  280 p.


Abstracts of 977 publications on solid wastes classified under 19
headings with indexes by author, corporate author, geographical  location
and subject are included.  The papers on Agricultural Wastes, numbered
64-0344 through 64-0402, appear on p. 76-94.  Nineteen of the abstracts
are based on the Second National Symposium on Poultry Industry Waste
Managment held at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 19-20 May, 1964.
A few of the agricultural papers are on crop residues or processing
plant wastes, but the great majority deal with manure.
Animal Waste Handling and Disposal
Jnl. Animal Sci. 32: 811-815
Abst:  McQ & B  B-236
in Confinement Production  of Swine
The ideal system of  swine raising would optimize hog production con-
sidering labor, costs, feed and manure management, etc.  Confinement
feeding may  be expected to continue.  Disposal systems will probably
continue to  have slotted floors over oxidation ditches or to provide
for periodic flushing to aerobic lagoons, with lagoon water being
recirculated for flushing and with excess water being disposed of by
irrigation.   Plow-furrow-cover disposal of sludge is regarded as the
best means of solids disposal.
CONRAD,  R.  Deane
Developing  New  State  Legislation/Model State Statute for AnimaT Waste
Proc.  Natl.  Symp.  on  Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 27-32

A  proposed  model  feedlot  act  of  undesignated origin is presented as
Appendix A.   Modifications  are suggested in the oaper.
 CONVERSE,  James  C.;  DAY,  Donald  L.;  PFEFFER, John T.; and JONES,
      Benjamin  A.,  Jr.                                    ...,.
 Aeration'with  ORP  Control  to  Suppress Odors Emitted from Liquid Swine
      Manure  Systems
 Proc.  ISLW  p. 267-271
 Abst:   McQ & B C-288

 The  swine  producer who  recycles  waste back to the land does not require
 complete degradation.   The purpose of the investigation reported in
 this  oaoer was to  determine the  cut-off  point at which odor would not
 constitute a problem.   [ORP is an abbreviation  for Oxidation Reduction

DALE, Alvin C.
Disposal of Dairy Cattle Wastes by Aerobic Digestion
EPA'Pbln. SW-5r.2, p, 19-21

A combination of aerated lagoons and irrigation appears to be an
excellent method of disposal for dairy cattle wastes.  It is essentially
odorless; it provides a place to dispose of wastes at all times; it
provides for the returning of a large part of the nutrients to the land;
with proper management, it minimizes runoff; it lowers pollutional
characteristics; and it has moderate costs of installation, operation,
and labor.
Status of Dairy Cattle Waste Treatment and Management Research
Proc. Nat!. Symp- on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 85-95
Abst:  McQ & B C-339

DALE summarizes dairy operations.  In general, small herds with adequate
land holding for spreading exist.  Sanitarians tend to approve return to
the soil and to view oxidation ditches and aerated lagoons with suspicion.
Anaerobic lagoons are even less reputable.

Composting and drying have some advocates, especially in warm, arid
settings.  Direct irrigation is used in some places.  Pyrolysis and
incineration have received little consideration though they have the
advantages of "volume reduction and production of dry and innocuous
residue."  Direct recycling "has been accomplished by ANTHONY with some
relative good results.  At least it did not appear to be detrimental
to the dairy cows."

Other methods listed without comment or reference are:

     "1.  Making into building blocks with glass
      2.  Squeezing into oil
      3.  Using hydroponically to produce plants
      4.  Synthesizing into proteinaceous materials and other products
      5.  Transported by beetles to soil
      6.  Placing in landfills
      7.  Feeding fish
      8.  Growing algae
      9.  Producing methane and other gases.

Each method has some merits but most of them do not offer an economically
sound method for treatment, handling and disposal.  Of course, as the
size of operation increases, some of these methods may become more
feasible.  However, until that time, the direct or indirect return of
wastes to the soil  to support plant growth appears to be the more
feasible way to handle dairy cattle wastes."


DAY, Donald L.
Livestock Waste Management and Sanitation
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 25-26

By employing an oxidation ditch beneath self-cleaning slotted floors
in a confinement livestock building with the supernatant flowing to an
aerobic lagoon to await irrigation use at convenient times,  the criteria
of low labor cost, low odor, prevention of stream pollution, simolicity
of operation, and economic feasibility are very nearly satisfied.
Chemical treatment of the liquid manure accomplished less at greater
DAY, Donald L.; JENSEN, A. H.; and BAKER, D. H.
Liquid Feeding of Oxidation Ditch Mixed Liquor to Swine  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 33: 1149

Liquor from an oxidation ditch containing three percent dry matter and
maintained at 3.5 ppm oxygen is pumped daily to a stainless steel  vat
to eliminate chance feeding of fresh excreta.  The liquor, substituted
for water in a swine ration, was available ad Libitum.   Weight gain and
feed efficiency were greater in the pigs on liquor than in those on
DAY, Donald L.; JONES, Don D.; CONVERSE, James C.; JENSEN, A.  H.;  and
     HANSEN, Edwin L.
Oxidation  Ditch Treatment of  Swine Wastes
Agr. Engrg. 52: 71-73  [ASAE  Paper 69-924]
Abst:  McQ & B B-647

Based on model and prototype  tests, design values are proposed for an
oxidation  ditch extending under a slotted-floor hog house.  Ditch
volumes of 12 cu  ft/hog with  a l-tOn2 ft depth of ditch and about
3:1 ditch  depth to rotor submergence is recommended.

By extending under the floor, the ditch is close to its source of  supply
and receives it at a nearly constant rate.  Odors can be controlled by
good housekeeping.

The effluent should not be discharged directly to a stream.

DENNISTOUN, Roll in M.                          ,.,.,        n  ui
The Minnesota Scene:  Livestock Feedlot, Waste Control, Progress-Problems
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 33-35


The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency promulgated regulations on
feedlot construction and/or operation in April, 1971.  The author
anticipates trouble in interpretation -  enforcement, availability of
funds to the feedlot operator to make the capital investments required,
education-communication, research, and duplication of agency juris-
diction with resulting confusion in the field.  "... unless corrective
measures are taken, implementation of these regulations will compound
the problems of our rural areas."

DEWAR, Jane E.
Intensive Housing of Dairy Herd Concentrates Wastes
AIC Review 26: Nov-Dec.  p. 14-17

In cold climates up to six months storage may be necessary for manure
to be spread on land.  Slotted floors over liquid manure trenches are
expensive but efficient.  Disposal by sprinkler irrigation is highly
desirable, but may involve some problems with clogging.  Studies on
trouble-free pumps are reported.
 DIESCH, Stanley L.
 Survival of Pathogens
 EPA Pbln. 5r.2, p. 35
  in Animal Manure Disposal
Pilot studies on beef cattle manure in an oxidation ditch "indicate
that a definite potential health hazard exists for man and animals."
Survival and Detection of Leptospires in Aerated Beef Cattle Manure
Proc. ISLW  p. 263-266
Abst:  McQ & B C-287

Pathogenic leptospires are capable of survival for up to 18 days in
oxidation ditches and 11 days in effluent and sludge.  Chlorination
or other treatment of contaminated effluent and sludge is needed before
it is discharged.
Fecal Residues from
USDA ARS 44-224  p.
and Antibiotics -- Beef Cattle
A review of the literature supports the conclusions that the "uptake of
synthetic estrogens from soil by roots of plants is insufficient to be


harmful to man or animals consuming them" and that "apparently plants
will not absorb from the soil measurable Quantities of the antibiotics
commonly fed to cattle."

Animal Waste Management and the Environment
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 11-14

State and Federal legislation and regulations relating to animal  wastes
are discussed briefly.  Many alternate solutions must~be developed to
meet the wide variety of conditions encountered.  Work on recycling and
reuse must be intensified.  Many pnesently-known techniques are too
expensive to be feasible.

DUFFER, William R.; KREIS, R. Douglas; and HARLIN, Curtis C.,-Jr.
Effects of Feedlot Runoff on Water Quality of Impoundments
EPA, WPC Rsch. Series 16080 GGP  54 p.

The results of feedlot runoff reaching a farm pond and a reservoir were
disastrous to the biological populations due to oxygen exhaustion and
excessive ammonia.  The authors present the results of measurements of
chemical compositions and populations of aquatic organisms following
several runoff events.  Their recommendations are

     "1.  Present volumes of rainfall runoff, draining to surface waters
from feedlots, should be significantly reduced.

      2.  Feedlot waste management practices which would reduce the
concentration of pollutants in rainfall runoff should be established.

      3.  In addition to considerations such as availability of feed,
animals, and markets, future establishment of feedlot operations should
require incorporation of geographical and topographical features which
are conducive to efficient control of wastes and runoff drainage.

      4.  Waste treatment methods should be developed and tested for
application to feedlot rainfall runoff which drains to surface waters."
What Cost to Stop Feedlot Pollution
Wallaces Farmer 96: 27 Feb.  p. 24

Costs for the earthwork" in providing runoff control for 15 feedlots in
Iowa are tabulated.  They range from $0.89 per head for a lot handling


1450 cattle to $7.00 per head for a 100-head lot.  An irrigation system
would add to these costs, but might also provide substantial benefits.
Guides for Feedlots on Pollution Control
Wallaces Farmer 96: 13 Mar.  p. 30

The Iowa feedlot control law requires registration of all lots of over
1000-head capacity and of other lots near streams, wells, and sinkholes.
Storage must be provided for three inches of surface runoff over the
watershed, a solids settling basin must be capable of holding one inch
of solids over the feedlot, and a means of disposal of the liquid from
the retention pond must be provided.
Management of Barnlot Runoff to Improve Downstream Water Quality
Proc. ISLW  p. 48-50
Abst:  McQ & B C-225

For a small barnyard in east-central Ohio from which drainage to a creek
occurred through a 500-m grassed channel, the concentration of nutrients
was less at the creek than at the barnyard due primarily to the dilution
effect of the additional contributing area.  Disposal by sprinkler
irrigation on pasture in the same drainage area after storage for several
days in a rubber-lined pit "produced no noticeable improvement in quality
at the waterway outlet during the following 8 months."

Oxidation Ditches:  Their Progress and Problems
Successful Farming 69: Aug.  p. 28-29

Oxidation ditches eliminate odors (when functioning properly) and reduce
volume of solids.  By irrigating from a lagoon it may be possible to
eliminate manure handling.  Costs -- capital, operating, and maintenance -
tend to be higher than those of other manure handling systems.  Users
quoted were generally satisfied.

(See also EFTINK:  "New Propeller System for Oxidation Ditches."
Dec.  p. 16).
Recycling Animal Wastes Gets a Closer Look
Prairie Farmer  v. 143, 3 July, p. 12


Research at the University of Maryland, Michigan State, Virginia
Polytechnic, Auburn, Worchester (England), and Beltsville, Maryland,
is reported.  At Beltsville, pupae and adult houseflies, raised on
manure, have been fed to poultry.  Uncertainties remain as to the
residues of drugs fed as additives.

El CHE, Carl
Drying Wastes May Be the Answer to Disposal
Prairie Farmer  v 143, 21 Aug., p. 50-51

Poultry manure is being dried at costs of from $10 to 30 per ton.
Sold in bulk, it brings $6 to 20 per ton.  In bags it sells for 2 to
29 i per pound.  Uses are for lawns and gardens, mushrooms, orchards,
and crops.

Ohio State University is studying pyrolysis to produce fuel.  When
raised to 800C in the absence of free oxygen, fuel values are
7200 Btu/lb for poultry, 6400 for beef cattle, 5500 for swine, and
5000 for dairy cattle.
Waste Water Irrigation Should Become Popular
Prairie  Farmer  v. 143, 4 Sept., p. 60

Spreading waste water from lagoons or storage pits is "about the only
practical way to handle waters that run off huge cattle feedlots.   And
it fits  numerous dairying and swine operations as well."  Research at
Washington State, Florida, Auburn University, Michigan State, and
Georgia, is reported.  Health problems may arise.
Waste Disposal Can Cause Crop Damage
Prairie Farmer  v. 143, 16 Oct., p. 16

Excess fertilizer can be detrimental even if plowed in upon application,
Caution is nec^ssary in the application of liquid manure, lagoon
effluent, etc.
Cows Rest on Manure Mattresses
Hoard's Dairyman 116: 1239
Abst:  McO & B F-087

Operation of a dairy in Washington is described in which the solids
are separated from liquid manure.  Some are sold at $1 per cu yd for
fertilizer which has suffered some nitrogen loss but has retained
its other nutrients.  The rest is used as stall bedding.  Three
feet deep when placed, it is compressed to a foot of thickness in use.
The liquid manure is used for irrigation.
ELMUND, G. Keith; MORRISON, S. M.; and GRANT, D. W.
Proc. ISLW  p. 174-175
Abst:  McQ & B C-260

"Studies have been conducted to evaluate the use of various hydrolytic
enzymes to hasten microbial decomposition of feedlot manure.  Methods
to evaluate and optimize conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis and bio-
assay techniques to measure increased rates of microbial activity have
been developed."

"... enzyme activity is affected by numerous physical and chemical
factors, i. e,, moisture, temperature, pH, substrate availability and
the presence of protein denaturing agents such as urea or metallic
poisons.  Effective and economical use of hydrolytic enzymes may require
the modification of manure handling and treatment techniques."

ESMAY, Merle L. and SHEPPARD, C. C.
Drying of Poultry Manure in a Cage-Layer House
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 152  p. 17-27
Abst:  McQ & B E-208

A hen produces about two-thirds of a pound of water per day, about half
in respiration.  Somewhat over 2000 Btu/lb are required to evaporate
water from chicken feces.  The cost would be about 1 i per pound of
water.  The process is less than fifty percent efficient with the waste
heat raising the temperature of the building.  Since odor problems are
greatest in summer, the utility of electrical heating as an air pollution
control measure is questionable.
EXON, J. James
Luncheon Address
Proc. Nat!.  Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.
p. 53-56
The speaker, Governor of Nebraska, observed that stream pollution in
Nebraska when millions of buffalo protected themselves from flies and
gnats by acquiring mud coats was worse than it has even been since.
Agriculture is entitled to protection from encroachment by suburbia,


to financial assistance in making the capital outlay required to prevent
pollution, and to a more secure and rewarding status.

FEE, Rodney, J.
Iowa State's Labor-Free, Low Odor Waste Handling System
Successful Farming 69: Dec.  p. 16

An 800-head swine finishing unit is equipped with gutters flushed
automatically to an anaerobic lagoon.  Supernatant from the lagoon is
pumped to a tank to become flushing water.  Excess water is pumped to
irrigation.  Capital costs are about $5 to $10 per hog capacity.

Pipeline Gas from Solid Wastes
AIChE, 69th Mtg., Paper 6d  18 p.

Among the potential advantages of converting municipal solid wastes
(MSW) into pipeline gas are that:  (1) the large metropolitan areas
generate the waste and require the gas, (2) garbage is in abundant
supply while gas is short, (3) MSW has the chemical composition to be
a good feed material for a pipeline gas plant and to have a negative
price, (4) the high value of pipeline gas justifies the capital ex-
penditures for plant, and (5) environmental gains would result from
converting solid waste to a much smaller volume of sterile residue
and a clean burning gas.

Garbage can be supplemented with manure to advantage.  "Conversion of
this manure [U. S. total production of 1.3 billion tons/yr (dry basis)]
to methane could supply the entire United States consumption of natural
gas (based on 1966 figures)!"

FLEGAL, Cal J. and DORN, D. A.
The Effects of Continually Recycling Dehydrated Poultry Wastes (DPW)
     on the Performance of SCWL Laying Hens -- A Preliminary Report
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 152  p. 45-48
Abst:  McQ & B E-211

The first 14 cycles of a project in which groups of chickens were fed
rations containing 0, 12.5, and 25 percent DPW with the feces being
collected every 12 days, dried, and refed to the same group of birds
is reported on.  Calcium and phosphorus tended to increase after
cycle 10.  The chickens on 25 percent DPW ate more to compensate for
reduced energy content.  The experiment will continue.

FLEGAL, Cal J. and ZINDEL, Howard C.
Dehydrated Poultry Waste (DPW) as a Feedstuff in Poultry Rations
Proc. ISLW  p. 305-307
Abst:  McQ & B C-299

With leghorn type laying hens, the body weight at four weeks and
egg-laying efficiency were not influenced when the ration consisted
of up to 20 percent DPW.  Egg quality was unaffected at 40 percent.
With broilers, the feed efficiency was related inversely to the level
of DPW in the diet.  A taste panel detected no difference in eggs
from chickens fed 0, 10, 20, and 30 percent DPW.
Think Disposal -- Not Control!
Beef 7: Apr.  p. 4-5

Dumas Cattle Feeders of Dumas, Texas, have developed a sound waste
handling system.  They divert inflow around the feedlot and drain the
feedlot to a lagoon in an abandoned quarry.  Water from the lagoon,
diluted by recaptured irrigation tailwater and whatever well water a
farmer wishes to add is used for irrigation.  When the lagoon is dry,
the solids are removed and sold for fertilizer.  By controlling the
cattle feed, the manure is free of weed seeds.
Recycling Used to Clean Barn
Beef 8: Nov.  p. 16-17

To decrease costs associated with confined feeding, Iowa Beef Processors
is testing the feasibility of using a barn floor of concrete with slats
forming parallel channels which drop 14 inches in 32 feet.  Effluent
pumped from an outside lagoon flushes the channels in returning to the
lagoon.  Apparently some aeration will be necessary to make the process
odor-free.  Hair in the effluent occasionally blocks channels.
Freezing-weather performance is yet to be tested.
FOGG, Charles E.
Livestock Waste Management and the Conservation Plan
Proc. ISLW  p. 34-35
Abst:  McQ & B C-221

Return of animal and poultry wastes to the land for recycling is
advocated.  This requires a careful evaluation of soil and plant cover


characteristics.  Runoff from feedlots or disposal  areas should not
be permitted to enter streams, but should be disposed of by spray
irrigation, after lagooning if necessary.  Storage of manure during
periods of excessive precipitation or freezing may be required.

Nitrogen is the most common limiting constituent of animal  and poultrv
wastes with respect to adverse effect on groundwater.

Utilization of Broiler Litter as Animal Feed
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 99-100

Broiler litter can be sterilized by heating in a forced-draft oven at
150C for four hours or longer.  This causes a loss in crude protein
of about 20 percent.  No gross toxicological effects were observed in
sheep whose diet consisted of up to 75 percent sterilized broiler
FONTENOT, Joseph P.; WEBB, K. E., Jr.; HARMON, B. W.; TUCKER,  R.  E.;
     and MOORE, W. E. C.
Studies of Processing, Nutritional Value and Palatability of Broiler
     Litter for Ruminants
Proc. ISLW  p. 301-304
Abst:  McQ & B C-298

Broiler litter has traditionally been used as a fertilizer,  but its
value for this purpose does not justify the cost of handling.
"Possibly, a more economical approach to disposal of broiler litter
would be to use this waste as animal feed."

"Experiments were conducted to:  (a) develop a processing method(s)
that will destroy pathogenic organisms in broiler litter; (b)  study
the effect of sterilizing methods on the nutritional value of litter;
(c) study the variation in chemical composition of litter; (d) determine
the palatability of rations containing different proportions of broiler
litter and (e) assess the magnitude of pesticide residues in broiler

"Broiler litter can be rendered free of pathogenic organisms by heat
treatment.  There is no serious pesticide residue problem from feeding
broiler litter.  Perhaps, the only major area of research which needs
to be pursued before poultry litter is considered safe as a feed for
cattle and sheep is the problem of medicinal drug residues."

Wastewater from Simian Primate Facilities
WPCF Jnl. 43: 883-889
Abst:  McQ & B B-086

Studies at the Delta Regional Primate Research Center in New Orleans
indicated that five-day BOD of waste from primates tended to be three
to six times that of human wastes.  Heavy chlorination is used on the
sewage treatment effluent to render it safe for discharge to streams.
Fecal Residues from Feed Additives -- Swine
USDA ARS 44-224  p. 19-27

The major items associated with swine production are antibiotics,
arsenicals, copper, m'trofurans, sulfonamides, and hormones.  Little
information is available on the potential buildup of antibiotics in
plants fertilized with swine manure.  Arsenicals are commonly used
but pose little hazard since they are not an accumulative poison
except in rats and the margin of safety is quite high.  Copper is an
effective growth stimulant at beneficial levels, but is toxic at higher
levels; present knowledge is inadequate.  There is a void in infor-
mation on the uptake of excreted m'trofurans by plants, and possible
entry into animals.   Hormones would appear to pose few threats.
CALLER, William S.
Animal Waste Composting with Carbonaceous Material
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.25 p. 6-7

The objectives of the research reported are "to develop a process for
composting a combination of chicken manure as a source of nitrogen and
sawdust initially as a source of carbon to produce a valuable soil
amendment."  Laboratory studies of combinations of manure and sawdust
with carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of 25:1 to 40:1 found them to be nutri-
tionally balanced for microbial growth.  The compost has proven to be
a valuable soil conditioner.  Swine manure may also be composted satis-
factorily with sawdust although the mixture required a week to become
thermophilic as opposed to one to two days for the poultry manure.

GALLER, William S. and DAVEY, Charles B.
High Rate Poultry Manure Composting with Sawdust
Proc.  ISLW  p. 159-162
Abst:   Compost Sci.  13: July-Aug.  p. 2  (1972); McQ & B C-256


The authors report on a methodical investigation in which C:N:P ratios
(preferably 30 to 50:1:0.2), periods of agitation, initial  pH, times
and^uantities fed to composter, etc., were varied.  Efficacy of appli-
cations of various amounts of the resulting mulch to various crons was
Beef Feedlots  A Pollution Problem?
Proc. Agr. and Pollution Seminar, Univ. of Ariz.   p.  18-29

"Pollution" from cattle feedlots can be classified as surface water,
groundwater, air, and aesthetic.  Utilization of manure, rather than
disposal, will be the key to the future.

GILBERTSON, Conrad B.; McCALLA, T. M.; ELLIS, J.  R.;  CROSS, Otis E.;
     and WOODS, W. R.
Runoff, Solid Wastes, and Nitrate Movement on Beef Feedlots
WPCF Jnl. 43: 483-493
Abs.t:  McQ & B B-084

The effects of feedlot slope and cattle density on quality and quantity
of runoff, infiltration of pollutants, and solids accumulation on feed-
lots were studied in some experimental pens near Mead, Nebraska.  Results
are tabulated and rainfall-runoff correlation is plotted.   Soil  content
of the solids was higher than normal since these were new lots built  on
fill.  Nitrate movement under the lots was negligible but some occurred
just outside the lots.  It is recommended that solids be intercepted
before runoff enters a detention pond.
GILBERTSON, Conrad B.; McCALLA, T. M.; ELLIS, J. R.; and WOODS, W.  R.
Methods of Removing Settleable Solids from Outdoor Beef Cattle Feedlot
ASAE Trans. 14: 899-905  [ASAE Paper 70-420]
Abst:  McQ & B B-057, 6-081

Velocities of runoff should be reduced to permit settling.  This was
accomplished by a batch method utilizing a detention reservoir to trap
all flow until settling had occurred; the supernatant was then pumped
out.  Alternatively, a chain of porous dams accomplished the same
objective with continuous flow.  With either system basins must be
cleaned out and the sludge disposed of.  This appears to be more easily
accomplished with the chain of porous dams.

GILBERTSON, Conrad B.; McCALLA, T. M.; ELLIS, J. R.; and WOODS, W. R.
Characteristics of Manure Accumulations Removed from Outdoor, Unpaved,
     Beef Cattle Feedlots
Proc. ISLW  p. 56-59
Abst:  McQ & B C-227

Quantities and chemical characteristics of accumulated manure on new, 
unpaved, feedlots near Mead, Nebraska, were measured and the results
were tabulated and summarized.  Manure was removed twice annually.
The characteristics were strongly influenced by weather immediately
preceding the cleaning operation.  The effects of slope were not
apparent.  "... the large variations in results prevented establish-
ment of basic trends."
GLERUM, J. C.; KLOMP, 6.; and POELMA, H. R.
The Separation of Solid and Liquid Parts of Pig Slurrv
Proc. ISLW  p. 345-347
Abst:  McQ & B C-310

In Dutch practice pig urine may be degraded biologically and discharged
to public water in a purified form.  Preliminary separation in the pen>
is practiced to keep the amount of sludge as small as possible.  By
using 0.1 kg/pig of bedding, dung is dry enough to be heaped until it
can be spread as fertilizer.  Devices for separating liquids from the
solids which remain in the slurry are described and evaluated.
Do Manure Stacks Add to Fly
Hoard's Dairyman 116: 556
Abst:  McO & B F-085
Control  Problems?
Observation on seventy Wisconsin farms indicate that fly breeding is
most apt to occur on moldy feed under drinking cups, not in manure piles.
In operations in which manure is stacked rather than hauled to the field
daily, more time is available for housekeeping and fewer flies were
GOLUEKE, Clarence 6.
Comprehensive Studies of Solid Waste Management.
EPA Pbln. SW-lOrg.  xvi + 201"p.
                      Third Annual  Report.
This report continues the analysis of the solid waste problem of the
San Francisco Bay area treated in [1970-1029] and [1970-1030].  A


series of experiments on the anaerobic digestion of TOO percent sludge;
100 percent steer manure; 50 percent steer manure, 50 percent grass;
50 percent steer manure, 50 percent chicken manure; 100 percent chicken
manure; and 50 percent steer manure, 50 percent sludge is reported on
p. 99-106.  "Although the animal manures were stabilized by digestion
and rendered inoffensive, there was virtually no reduction in volume of
the material.  Destruction of total solids was less than 15%. .  ."
Further attention is accorded the processes of anaerobic digestion
(Ch. IV), biological fractionation (Ch. V), incineration-pyrolysis-
combustion (Ch. VI), and wet oxidation (Ch. VII).

GOODRICH, Philip R. and MONKE, Edwin J.
Movement of Pollutant Phosphorus in Saturated Soils
Proc. ISLW  p. 325-328
Abst:  McQ & B C-305

A sandy soil may not adsorb the quantities of nutrients offered  and too
flat a field may be poorly drained and thus unable to accept much irri-
gation water.  In general, nhosphorus is adsorbed on organic particles,
iron, and clay.  The paper reports on a laboratory study of such
adsorption.  "... continuous flushing as with irrigation may cause the
phosphate to move more quickly to greater depths than with intermittent
GOWAN, Douglas
The Disposal of Agricultural Wastes
Effluent and Water Trtmt. Jnl. 11: 303-305, 307-308, 368-372, 670

Basic British law on disposal is reviewed and methods of disposal are
discussed in some detail.  Disposal to land, particularly in England's
damp climate, risks runoff to streams, muddy conditions limiting
spreading, and storage problems caused by mud and freezing.  Discharge
to public sewers, particularly of supernatant, may often be economical.
It provides for point-source supervised return to streams.  "The
implications of this are examined in relation to the assessment of
charges for treatment, and the economics which may be effected by pre-
treatment on the farm."

"Anaerobic treatment has rarely been found to be commercially effective
in respect of farm wastes. . .   Whilst the methane gas production is of
value, BOD/solids reduction is practically and economically difficult.
Full anaerobic degradation of farm wastes as a possibility, is still
only at the research and development stage."

GOWDY, Billy Ray
State of Oklahoma Activities in Animal Waste Management
Proc. Natl.  Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 37-39

The provisions of the "Feed Yards Act" of 1969 are described.  Disposal
of liquid and solid waste is supervised by the Oklahoma Board of
Agriculture.  Air pollution is under the jurisdiction of the Oklahoma
Department of Health.  Suggestions are made for possible improvements.

Anaerobic Digestion of Farm Animal Wastes (Dairy Bull, Swine, and
ASAE Trans.  14: 7-11, 13  [ASAE Paper 69-462]
Abst:  McQ & B B-050, G-060]

High-rate controlled temperature tests were run on the anaerobic
digestion of animal wastes to determine optimum loading rate, resulting
reduction in volatile matter and BOD, composition of the gases produced,
and the settleability and drainability of the resulting sludge.   The
analyses are tabulated.  Ultimate disposal envisaged was land spreading,
composting or burning.
Renovation and Reuse of Water for Dilution and Hydraulic Transport of
     Dairy Cattle Manure
Proc. ISLW  p. 341-344
Abst:  McQ & B C-309

An almost closed system for the transport of manure could result from
the employment of screens for removal of coarser material from dairy
cattle slurry, with some liquid being returned for flushing and the
excess being used for irrigation.  Very concentrated slurries have
poor settling characteristics and form scum mats and sludges when flow

Solids removed from the screen and allowed to drain did not develop an
offensive odor or attract flies.  A bar spacing of 0.020 in. removed
over 50 percent of the total solids present.

Screening might also be applicable to runoff from feedlots, duck
ranges, etc.
GROSS, Champ


Crude Oil from Manure
CALF News 9: Oct.  p. 3

Dr. G. Alex MILLS, Chief of the U. S. Bureau of Mines Energy Research
Center in Pittsburgh, has perfected a pilot project in which organic
waste and carbon monoxide are subjected to 1200 psi pressure at a
temperature of 720F.  "Voila!  You've got crude oil!"  Two tons of
manure yield a ton of oil with a BTU content of 14,000-16,000 per Ib,
and a ton of water.  The low-sulphur oil is excellent for power plants,
The nation's total annual manure supply would provide about one-half
the nation's annual oil requirements.

Need More Work on Manure Disposal Problems
Wallaces Farmer 96: 8 May  p. 49

Dr. Ned BAYLEY, keynoting the International Symposium on Livestock
Wastes, listed three priorities for research:  1) get more and better
methods of land disposal, 2) get better methods of odor control, and
3) employ systems design to optimize overall operation.

Tests Show Feed Value in Processed Manure
Wallaces Farmer 96: 22 May  p. 36

Four papers given at the International Symposium on Animal  Wastes
dealing with refeeding of animal wastes are summarized.  L. S. BULL
[1971-1041] discussed the feeding of chicken manure to dairy cattle,
L. W. SMITH [1971-1229] described tests of feeding dairy cattle wastes
to sheep, Brian HODGETTS [1971-1133] described British practice in
recycling poultry wastes, and Lloyd HOLMES [1971-1135] discussed the
value of swine manure processed in an oxidation ditch as a feed
As Application Deadline Nears Uncertainty Clouds Waste Permit Picture
Wallaces Farmer 96: 26 June  p. 40

A deadline of 1 July 71 for securing permits to discharge wastes was
being interpreted as applying to lots with 1000 animal units or more.
Smaller lots might be included later.  All operators were advised to
provide storage volume to handle a storm with a once in four or five
years frequency and to stay alert for further clarifications of policy.


Iowa's Feedlot Waste Disposal, Law
Wallaces Farmer 96: 14 Aug.  p. 17

Iowa registration is required if a feedlot contains over 1000 head,
if it drains to a stream whose watershed above the lot contains over
3200 acres, or if the lot is within two ft for each head of cattle of
such a stream.  Runoff or overflow must npt reach a tile drain, well,
sinkhole, etc.

A retention pond capable of holding a three-inch runoff and of being
drained to land disposal is usually required.  A lot should be pro-
tected from inflowing surface water.
GRUB, Walter
Reduction of Feedlot Waste by Stabilization
Soil Conservation Service -- Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.   28-29 July.
     4 p.

Composting of beef feedlot waste is a feasible process.  Composted
manure may be stored wet or dry without flies or noxious odors.
"Composting requires skilled management to obtain satisfactory
Growth Kinetics of Rumen Bacteria in Solutions of Poultry Excreta
Proc. ISLW  p. 129-131
Abst:  McQ & B C-248

"Only limited research has been completed on treating manure to
improve its quality as a feed.  Fermentation of manures may provide
one means of accomplishing this objective."  Results of a series of
tests on the manure of laying hens being fed a drug-free diet are
reported.  "The microbial population per unit volume was almost
five times higher in manure solutions than in the rumen fluid used
for inoculum. . .   The microbial population in the manure solutions
increased as much as 10,000 times during fermentation."
Test Swine Waste Disposal Systems
Wallaces Farmer 96: 24 July  p. 30

Iowa State has installed a gutter system in a hog house with a 100-gal
flush lasting 20 sec once an hour.  The swine coonerate.  Flushings
may be routed to an anaerobic lagoon, an oxidation ditch, or the
lagoon and ditch in turn.  The excess is spread on corn and/or
grassland.  Flushing water is recirculated.

Water hyacinths are being tested for removal of nutrients from effluents
followed by use as cattle roughage.  Iowa winters will keep them from
becoming a nuisance.
HARMON, B. 6.; DAY, Donald L.; HENSEN, A. H.; and BAKER, D. H.
Nutritive Value of Oxidation Ditch Mixed Liouor for Rats  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 33: 1149
Abst:  McQ & B B-243

Liquor from an oxidation ditch under a swine house with three percent
dry matter and 3.5 ppm oxygen was screened to remove hairs and bran
layers, then freeze dried.  The resulting material contained 41.5
percent protein.  When used as 0, 4, 8, and 12 percent of rats' diets,
weight gains and feed efficiencies were equal and best at 0 and 4
 HART,  Samuel A.
 Sanitary  Engineering Applied to Livestock Manures
 EPA  Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 29-30

 Solids digestion, manure  lagoons, algae ponds, composting, and drying
 were investigated to find the most feasible methods of handling manure
 at the farm  level.  For California conditions, variations of natural
 drying were  preferred.
 HARTMAN, Roland  C.
 Deep  Pit Housing:   Is  It  the Answer?
 Egg  Industry  4;  Apr.   p.  28-34

 Flexibility in cleanout scheduling and  increased efficiency are the
 major advantages of deep  pits.  Wet manure and rodent attraction are
 disadvantages.   Ventilation is  important  in humidity control.  If the
 manure is  to  be  dried  for refeeding, freshness is of basic concern.
 HARTMAN, Roland  C.   [Editorial]
 Recycling  First  Step
 Poultry  Digest 30:  56


Howard C. ZINDEL has dried poultry manure from 78 percent to 8 percent
moisture content for about $20 per dried ton.  Scale effect could be
expected to reduce this to $10 to $15 on larger volumes.  Glenn BRESSLER
quoted $7.60 per ton for a two-step drying 75 percent to 26 percent,
26 percent to 10 percent.  Heating in the range of 400 to 1200F in
drying should render manure safe for refeeding.

(Further note, p. 143).
HARTMAN, Roland C.
Biological Fly Control Spreads
Poultry Digest 30: 224-227

Flies become resistant to insecticides.  Biological control requires
six to eight months before appreciable results occur and continued
good management thereafter.  Complete removal of manure should be
avoided.  Excessive moisture and pesticides should be kept off the
HAZEN, Thamon E.
Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Animal Wastes
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 23-24

"An anaerobic lagoon loaded at a rate of 3.5 to 5 Ib of volatile solids
per 1000 cu ft provided satisfactory preliminary treatment to liquid
swine manure. . .  Gas, 60 percent methane, was produced at rates of
7.8 to 10.3 cu ft/lb of volatile solids."  When lagoon effluent is
applied to soil columns, periods of non-application must be observed
to permit recovery of soil permeability.  The duration of these periods
is a function of temperature.  Some oxidation ditch data were also
HEATH, Milton S., Jr.
Proposed Animal Waste Pollution Control Legislation in North Carolina
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 41-43

Following defeat of proposed legislation in a Committee of the House
in 1971, the Legislative Research Commission was directed to study the
need for such legislation and report to the 1973 General Assembly.  A
thorough scrutiny of the subject is anticipated.


Effect of Manure Handling Systems on Plant Nutrient Cycling
Proc. ISLW  p. 254-257
Abst:  McQ & B C-284

Greenhouse and field tests on corn yields resulting from the appli-
cation of fresh, fermented (stacked), aerobic liquid, and anaerobic
liquid cattle manure are tabulated and graphed.   Fermented and anaerobic
liquid manures gave the best results.  Time of application made a sig-
nificant difference in fertilizer value utilized and in quality and
quantity of runoff.  Late spring was preferable  to winter for spreading
in Wisconsin.  Risks of nitrates reaching groundwater are mentioned.

The Performance of an Experimental High-Rate Biological Filtration
     Tower when Treating a Piggery Slurry
Water Poll. Control 70: 683-692

"Biological waste treatment is one means of overcoming the management
problems associated with applying slurry to land, particularly if rela-
tively simple methods of sludge drying or dewatering can be developed.
The dry matter output of a treatment plant could then be stored (by
stacking  in the field or elsewhere) and spread  at the appropriate times
of year.  Moreover, the total quantities of material to be handled could
probably be greatly reduced."

Design requirements are listed and test results  described.  The effluents
would be suitable for use for wash down or for irrigation.
Agricultural Wastes in Arid Zones
In "Health Related Problems in Arid Lands," Southwestern and Rocky
     Mountain Division of AAAS  p. 37-43

Feedlots are a viable industry in arid lands.  The greatest threat they
pose to an arid environment is probably localized pollution of shallow
grouhdwater rather than runoff to surface streams.  "Treatment of
feed-lot wastes by lagooning or other methods is not normally required
in our region. .  .  Returning the manure to agricultural lands appears
to be the best solution to the problem, particularly if manure can be
thinly spread."
Recycling Animal Waste
A. I. Digest 19: Sept.  p. 10


Problems envisioned with recycling are 1) cost, 2) possible disease
spread, and 3) effect on the animals.  Costs will  usually exceed
nutritive value; they may be less than alternative disposal.  Poultry
manure is not recommended because of risk of salmonellosis.  Questions
of build-up of drugs, hormones, and antibiotics remain unanswered.
Animal Waste Reuse May Ease Disposal Problems
Wallaces Farmer 96: 11 Sept.  p. 131

Recycling of manure for fertilizer or by refeeding deserves intensive
studies in economics, in disease potential, and in "carry-over"
effects of additives.  Solutions having least net cost will vary
from place to place and in time.  Salmonellosis in poultry litter is
typical of problems which may arise.  The effects of drugs, hormones,
and antibiotics on the health of the second animal and the potential
of build-up in the meat have not been fully evaluated.
Effect of Rate of Poultry Manure Application on Selected Soil Chemical
Proc. ISLW  p. 247-248
Reprint:  Compost Sci. 13: May-June  p. 30-31  (1972)
Abst:  McQ & B C-282

Chemical analyses of soil following the incorporation of poultry litter
show that rather drastic changes occur.  These vary considerably from
one soil type to another.  Poultry litter is a valuable source of
potassium, but the supply may be so great as to inhibit germination
and growth.  Analyses of three soils under various loadings at desig-
nated time intervals are represented by charts.  In general, an
incubation period is needed before planting a crop.

The Effects of Including Dried Poultry Waste in the Feed of Laying Hens
Proc. ISLW  p. 311-313
Abst:  McQ & B C-301

In a British test the flock performed slightly better overall on a
ration consisting of ten percent DPW.  Flock health remained good.
Growth of mold on a damp sample of DPW indicated the importance of
using fresh material and keeping it dry.  Possible adverse consumer
reaction must be weighed.

"It was noticed that particles of DPW were selected in favor of
particles of mash."  Cost savings of about 44 $ per bird were achieved.

A Multi-Agency Cooperative Effort to Educate Poultrymen in Pollution
     and Flv Control  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 50: 1585-1586
Abst:  McQ & B B-300

Seven pollution-and-nuisance schools were held thoughout South Carolina.
Topics covered were 1) legal aspects of fly production, air and water
pollution and nuisance problems, 2) manure management and disposal,
3) chemical control procedures, and 4) pesticide problems.
HOLMES, L. W. J.: DAY, Donald L.; and PFEFFER, J. T.
Concentration of Proteinaceous Solids from Oxidation  Ditch Mixed-Liquor
Proc. ISLW  p. 351-354
Abst:  McQ & B C-312

The suspended solids in oxidation ditch mixed-liquor  have a crude protein
content of 27.7 percent (dry weight basis).  When substituted at ten to
twenty percent of the ration for other proteins in rats'  diet, no signi-
ficant reduction in gain occurred.

Recovery of the suspended solids by settling is unsatisfactory.  Addition
of floe might have undesirable effects on the animals'  health.
Centrifugation has proven to be effective.  Little time and nominal
costs are involved.
HOWES, James R.
Effects of Processing Poultry Manure on Disease Agents
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 31-33

Drying is effective in destroying pathogens in poultry wastes provided
a temperature of 200F is reached for a few minutes.  Composting of
litter with reuse of the composted litter is advisable.
Confinement Feeding -- Pros, Cons and Tips
Livestock Mgmt. 13: Jan.  p. 21-23, 50

Among the advantages of confined feeding are the elimination of
surface runoff, maintenance of fertilizer value of manure by protecting
it from sun and rain, and saving in labor in manure handling.   An
oxidation ditch under the barn helps eliminate odors, but may have
high operating costs and be subject to overloading and mechanical
failure.  Land spreading with incorporation of the manure into the soil
is effective.  Chemical control of odors may be perfected.
JONES, Don D.; DAY, Donald L.; and GARRIGUS, Upson S.
Oxidation Ditch in a Confinement Beef Building
ASAE Trans. 14: 825-827  [ASAE Paper 69-925]
Abst:  McQ & B B-054, G-067

Operation of an experimental oxidation ditch under a slotted-floor
confinement beef building for four months, March through June 1969,
at the University of Illinois, is described and analyses are tabulated.
The "satisfactory" operation was labor saving and odor free.  Costs
are about 1 < per Ib gain.
JONES, Elmer E., Jr.; WILLSON, George B.; and SCHWIESOW, William F.
Improving Water Utilization Efficiency in Automatic Hydraulic Waste
Proc. ISLW  p. 154-158

In an attempt to secure better matching of scour and transport capacity,
the authors reviewed the literature of sediment transport and studied
behavior of model and prototype gutters.  Animal behavior patterns are
important to the success of water-economizing flushing.  Hence, it was
recommended that funds be made available for short-term facility
evaluation and, perhaps, modification.

"Automatic hydraulic waste removal could reduce initial capital and
operating costs, provide a better livestock environment and cut waste
management costs.  With the current farm cost-price situation and
emphasis on pollution abatement, hydraulic waste removal should be
rapidly developed."
Farm Waste Disposal  An International View
Agriculture 78: 521-524
Abst:  McQ & B E-023

This is a report by an Englishman in a British journal on the International
Symposium on Livestock Wastes.  In hoping to report material of particular


value in the UK, he summarizes impressions, then devotes half his space
to a discussion of oxidation ditches.
The UK Reconciliation of Modern Intensive Livestock Farming With a
     Basically Urban Societv
Proc. ISLW  p. 92-94
Abst:  McQ & B C-237

If evenly spread, the manure production of the UK would be about four
tons/acre.  Loadings of 10-18 tons/acre are common.  Disposal, now and
in the future, can be expected to be to the land.

Large units are increasing and the labor force is declining.  Effective
laws exist to control pollution and establish agricultural zoning to
restrict urban encroachment.
JORDAN, Herbert C.
Marketing Converted Poultry Manure
Proc. ISLW  p. 197-198
Abst:  McQ & B C-268

Based on 23 answers to 95 questionnaires sent out over the U. S.
between 1961 and T969, bagged poultry manure had an overall cost of
0.8 to 2.5 
 Feedlot  Mgmt.  13:  Dec.   p.  34,  36,  38
 Abst:  McQ  &  B F-060

 Costs  of pollution prevention cannot be  borne  by  the livestock  industry
 without  substantial additional  aid  in  the opinion of many participants
 in  a three-day National  Symposium on Animal Waste Management held at
 Warrenton,  Virginia.   Papers are summarized briefly.  Preliminary recom-
 mendations  of the  Conference included  calls for removing the "missing
 links  in existing  technology" to qualify for FDA  approval of recycled
 feed products, and a  public relations  campaign to gain consumer accep-
 tance  of refeeding.   "The most  favorable economic use of livestock
 Wastes is recycling for  animal  feeds.  More research is needed."
 Land zoning and information programs were also emphasized in the
 nineteen recommendations.
 KOELLIKER,  0.  K.;  MINER,  J.  Ronald;  BEER,  C.  E.;  and HAZEN, T. E.
 Treatment of Livestock-Lagoon  Effluent  by  Soil  Filtration
 Proc.  ISLW   p.  329-333
 Abst:   McQ  & B C-306

 Results of  a three-year field  and  laboratory  investigation of the dis-
 posal  of anaerobic swine  lagoon  effluent by sprinkler  irrigation in  Iowa
 are reported.   With application  of 14,8 to 31.4 inches per season, COD
 reductions  were 79 to 93  percent,  phosphorus  reduction was 90 to 97  per-
 cent,  and nitrogen reduction was 48  to  67  percent.  Higher reduction
 percentages accompanied lower  rates  of  application.

 KOTTMAN, Roy M and GEYER, Richard  E.
 Future Prospects for Animal  Agriculture
 Proc.  ISLW   p.  9-18
 Abst:   McQ  & B C-215

 Projections for animal and poultry production in  the United States
 through the year 2000 indicate substantial increases.  "Long before
 the year 2000,  large quantities  of animal  wastes  will  be processed and
 recycled back through livestock."  In addition, recent research at
 the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center  has shown that
 cattle and  sheep do well  on  rations  consisting of one-fourth to one-half
 processed garbage.  Recycling  studies are  reported  to  be under way at
 Botkins, Ohio.
 LARSON,  Russell  E.  and  MOORE,  James  A.
 Beef  Wastes  and  the Oxidation  Ditch  Today  and  Tomorrow
 Proc.  ISLW   p. 217-219
(Abst:  McQ & B C-274


Oxidation ditches can be run on a batch, rather than continuous, basis
in regions with sub-zero weather.  In such circumstances they should be
entirely enclosed under the floor of a slatted-floor shed and, nerhaps,
supplied with supplemental heat.  Competent supervision is required.
Such operation accomplishes temporary odorless storage, but not
treatment.  Further study is required.
LAURA, R. D. and IDNANI. M. A.
Increased Production of Biogas from Cow Dung by Adding Other Agricultural
     Waste Materials
Jnl. Sci. Fd. Agrlc. 22: 164-167
Abst:  Compost Sci. 13: Nov-Dec.  p. 3  (1972); McQ & B B-372

Increased gas production resulted from the addition of casein, urine,
dried leaves, or sugar cane.  The sugar cane produced the gases richest
in methane.  The urine and dried leaves seemed to be the most practical
Two-Stage Drving for Manure Disposal Advocated by'Penn State Poultryman
Feedstuffs 43: 31 July  p. 7, 33

Glenn BRESSLER considers the deep pit to be the worst oossible "solution"
to poultry manure disposal.  When the day of cleanout finally arrives,
the sticky, odiferous mess will have lost its fertilizer value.  Liquid
handling pollutes large volumes of waters with resulting higher costs
for low-pollution disposal.  Two-stage drying, with the first stage
occurring in place and reducing the moisture content from 75 percent to
35 percent, is advocated.  Cost data are cited.
LAWSON, Larry G.
State of Virginia Activities in Animal Waste Management
Proc. Nat!.  Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 45-47

The Virginia State Water Control Law of 1946 was amended in 1970 to be
applicable to feedlots with point sources of discharge.  Standards for
disposal lagoons were drawn up but never adopted.  No direct discharge
from lagoons to waterways in permitted; evaporation and/or irrigation is
required for the effluent.  Cooperation with operators, state, and
federal agencies has been excellent.

Control of diffused discharge is needed to protect shellfish.

LEE, Hong Y. and OWENS, Thomas R.
Cost of Maintaining Specified Levels of Water Pollution Control for
     Confined Cattle Feeding Operations for the Southern High Plains
Proc. ISLW  p. 207-208, 216
Abst:  McQ & B C-271

On the Southern High Plains, runoff from feedlots can be spread on open
fields or diverted to playa lakes to be disposed of by evaporation.
Evaporation from ponded liquid manure tends to be much less than from
open water and risks of ground Water pollution occur.  Periods of
intense storms cause overflow.

Covered pens to exclude rainfall would increase the capital investment
in feedlots by a factor of three and would necessitate abandonment of
present lots.  Better efficiency and reduced cost of manure disposal,
however, should repay the added costs in about 45 months.

Disposal by dilution with fresh water and use for irrigation is advocated,

LEFKE, Louis W.; KEENE, Alvin G.; CHAPMAN, Richard A.; and JOHNSON, Henry
Summaries of Solid Waste Research and Training Grants - 1970
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2  vii + 134 p.

Nineteen of the projects listed are abstracted separately.   Several
others may have valuable carry-over information applicable to the
management of animal waste.  In each case the objectives, procedures,
and findings are stated.  A list of publications accompanies many of
the reports.

No Solid Answers Come Out of Nat'l  Animal Waste Symposium
Beef 8: Nov.  p.  38-39

The first "National Symposium on Animal Waste Management," held at
Warrenton, Virginia, highlighted the inconsistencies in current data.
No firm conclusions were reached on solutions to be adopted.  Many of
those under study appear to be inherently expensive.

Value of Dried Cattle Manure as a Feedstuff for Broiler Chicks
Israel  Jnl.  of Agr. Rsch. 21: 163-171

Dried cow manure fed to chickens in two series of experiments proved
to have zero metabolizable energy content.  While it had no toxic
effect of the birds, its acceptability was so low that it nroved
to be a poor substitution even for inert pulverized rock.
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Alternatives for the Treatment and Disposal of Animal Wastes
WPCF Jnl. 43: 668-678
Abst:  McQ & B B-087

Nine systems for handling animals wastes are presented schematically
and discussed briefly.  These are:

     1.  Water flushing  -  Holding tank  ->-  Land disnosal.

     2.  Water flushing  ->  Aerobic unit (oxidation pond, aerated
lagoon, or oxidation ditch)  ->  Land disposal.

     3.  Water flushing  -*  Anaerobic unit  ->  Aerobic unit  ->
Land disposal.

     4.  In-House oxidation units (with slatted floor and rotor)  -
Holding unit  -  Land disposal,

     5.  In-house holding unit  ->-  Land disposal.

     6.  Separation at the source.  Solids to land, liquids to

     7.  Drying.

     8.  Incineration.

     9.  Composting.
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Poultry Waste Management
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 107-110
Abst:  McQ & B C-341

Droppings caught in a wet pit decompose anaerobically.  When spread,
they have a noxious odor and may pollute runoff.  Aeration or drying
followed by land disposal is feasible; treatment for disposal to
water is unrealistic.  Drying is feasible if a market exists for the
product.  Some nitrogen removal  can be accomplished in an oxidation
ditch.  "... determine overall rather than piecemeal solutions."


LOEHR, Raymond C.
Animal Waste Management -- Problems and Potential  Solutions
Proc. Agr. and Pollution Seminar, Univ. of Ariz.   n.  1-17

After an introduction sketching the development of the problem of
animal wastes with its social and legal constraints,  LOEHR examined
treatment and disposal methods.  Liquid manure handling contaminates
more volume of material, but eases handling problems.   "The use of
aerobic systems is increasing to avoid the odor problems that can
occur with anaerobic holding tanks."  For solid waste  handling,
composting -- often of a combination of manure with sawdust, corncobs,
paner, or municipal refuse -- is technically feasible, but seldom
financially attractive.  Drying, dehydration, and  incineration
eliminate odors and flies and reduce the bulk to be disnosed of.
With inclusion of air pollution control devices, they  tend to be
expensive.  Land disposal with holding tanks and a plow-furrow-cover
or similar method of application will probably remain  the usual

Waste disposal should be treated as one element in optimizing live-
stock production.
LOEHR, Raymond C.; ANDERSON, Donald F.; and ANTHONISEN, Arthur C.
An Oxidation Ditch for the Handling and Treatment of Poultry Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 209-212
Abst:  McQ & B C-272

Oxidation ditches are used in livestock waste management to prevent
and control odor, save labor, and purify waste.  A further advantage
is the ease of incorporation in confinement housing.  Tests of an
oxidation ditch in a poultry house at Cornell, with the ditch stressed
to the maximum to determine limiting adequacy, showed it to be a
"reasonable alternative" method of handling poultry wastes.
Maintenance can be expected to be minimal but necessary.  The
effluent should receive land disposal with proper land and crop
management.  No applicable cost data were obtained.
LUDINGTON, David C.; SOBEL, Albert T.; and GORMEL, B.
Control of Odors Through Manure Management
ASAE Trans. 14: 771-774, 780  [ASAE Paper 69-936]
Abst:  McQ & B B-053

Masking, counteracting, or oxidizing manure odors after production has
not been very successful.   Laboratory and field tests aimed at their
inhibition are described.   Moisture content is closely related to odor


offensiveness.  Composting or aeration greatly reduces it.  Daily
scraping with removal of moisture or removal of manure is effective.
LUDINGTON, David C.; SOBEL, Albert T.; and HASHIMOTO. A. G.
Odors and Gases Liberated from Diluted and Undiluted Chicken Manure
ASAE Trans. 14: 855-859  [ASAE Paper 69-426]
Abst:  McQ & B B-056, G-054

Gases produced and their intensities are compared, with strength
being plotted as a function of time for many of them.
LUNIN, Jesse
Agricultural Pollution in Perspective
World Agric. 20: Oct.  p. 13-17

"As in so many fields ,of human activity and endeavor, man's choice
is mostly between two evils; all wisdom can often do no more than
choose the lesser one."

Animal waste management problems in America are summarized briefly.
Treatment by lagoons with disposal of the effluent by sprinkler
irrigation on land to utilize the potential of soil for removing
nutrients is advocated.

"... expensive control measures will increase production costs;
ultimately these costs will have to be absorbed by the consumer."
MADDEN, John M. and DORNBUSH, James N.
Measurement of Runoff and Runoff Carried Waste from Commercial
Proc. ISLW  p. 44-47
Abst:  McQ & B C-224

For conditions in southeastern South Dakota measurements of runoff
from six feedlots over a two-year period indicate that five percent
of the total waste produced is carried to streams in surface runoff
while 95 percent is removed in cleaning or decomposes in the feedlot.
By means of minimal detention facilities the portion carried by
runoff can be reduced to less than two percent.  Data are tabulated
in the paper.


Land Disposal of Cattle Feedlot Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 62-65
Abst:  McQ & B C-229

After concluding that there is no profitable method of using livestock
manure and, thus, that low cost methods of waste disposal  were needed,
the authors studied the orderly disposal of wastes onto agricultural
land by the establishment of test plots at a feedlot at Pratt, Kansas,
designed to accomodate 33,000 head on 220 acres.

The objectives stated were to characterize the stormwater runoff from
a feedlot, to characterize the manure generated, and to determine the
influence of runoff and manure loading rates on soil and water charac-
teristics and on yield of corn.  It was concluded, on the basis of the
first year's tests, that "the ratio of land needed for disposal of
feedlot wastes to feedlot area will be determined ultimately by the
permissible accumulation of nitrogen and salts in the soil profile."
Crop Production and Soil Analyses as Affected by Applications of Cattle
     Feedlot Waste
Proc. ISLW  p. 229-231, 234
Abst:  McQ & B C-277

Some tests in the Texas Panhandle demonstrated that when nitrogen in
excess of.crop needs is applied to land, nitrate will accumulate and
move downward in the soil profile.  Accumulation of nitrate in crops
used for silage could be a health hazard for livestock.  Excess nitrate
lowers the sugar content in beets.

"Pollution hazards of using animal wastes on cropland are eliminated
only when the crop uses most of the nitrogen."
The Role of Microorganisms in the Management of Animal Wastes on Beef
     Cattle Feedlots
Proc. ISLW  p. 132-134
Abst:  McQ & B C-249

"Laboratory studies at Lincoln and feedlot studies at Central City,
Nebraska, indicate mechanical removal of manure from the feedlot may
be necessary only after several years of accumulation.  The manure in
the feedlot can be mounded to provide a protected, drained area for
the animals, and the manure serves as a compost pile to aid in
decomposition.  This paper discusses some of the microbial decomposition
alternatives of animal waste from a feedlot-management standpoint."


"As long as the soil-organic matter interface is not disturbed, such
as by cleaning, N03-N will not move to the water table.  Prolonged
drought periods or absence of animals could also disrupt this so-called

Twenty-eight references are cited.
McCASKEY, T. A.; ROLLINS, 6. H.'; and LITTLE, J. A.
Water Quality of Runoff From Grassland Applied with Liquid, Semi-Liquid,
     and 'Dry' Dairy Waste
Proc. ISLW  p. 239-242
Abst:  McQ & B C-280

Test plots in Alabama with 3.3 percent slopes and good covers of bermuda
grass were  applied with liquid waste from a holding tank, liquid waste
spread by a tank wagon, and waste as voided applied by a conventional
manure spreader.  Precipitation during the study period (8 Dec '69 to
15 Dec '70) was 52.3 inches.

The liquid manure spread at rates up to 0.96 tons (dry basis) per acre
once each three weeks caused no problems.  Dry manure spread at a rate
of 3.2 tons per acre each three weeks resulted in a marked accumulation
of solids.  High rates of application are not recommended unless a
cropping system is used.
Digestibility of Feces from Cattle Fed Finishing Rations  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci.  33: 292
Abst:  McQ & B B-239

Mean digestibility of dried corn alone and of dried corn with corn
silage fed to cattle was 85 and 77 percent.  The corresponding crude
proteins were 80 and 74 percent respectively.  Sheep rations containing
45 percent cattle feces from the corn and corn-and-silage fed cattle
in various combinations had mean digestibilities of 52.4 to 60.9 oercent,
Mean digestibilities of the sheep feces showed a further decrease.
Management of Runoff Water in Relation to Feedlot Operations
Soil Conservation Service - Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.  28-29 July.
     13 p.

Accepted practice for cattle feedlots in Texas is to divert inflow
around the lot and to intercept and impound runoff from the lot.  The


impounded water may be used for irrigation.  Elimination of effluent
rather than treatment of it is the goal.  The author presents a
reservoir operation study, citing sources of data for Texas, for
such irrigation.  Feelot runoff is not a dependable source of irri-
gation water.
Cattle as an Economic Base for an Ecological Loop
Feedstuffs 43: 3 July  p. 18, 20

Among the conclusions stated are the following:  "1.  Utilizing only
organic wastes and marginal land, it may now be feasible to produce
an abundance of beef without using human foodstuffs  the nature
of the ruminant stomach, the genetic flexibility of cattle, and the
worldwide acceptance of beef make this possible.

"2.  Beef may be produced on a large scale, at less than 5 i per
pound, by locating dry-lot breeding facilities and feedlots in and
around cities  at urban fringes and in city dumps -- even the
manure becomes a valuable resource for refeeding, fertilizing, or
producing electricity  a major source of economies are (1) close
proximity for all production inputs to minimize transport costs;
(2) nearness to cheap feeds (garbage); and (3) the production of
beef close to urban markets using devalued land.

"3.  Sufficient organic waste exists in most countries to feed an
abundance of beef -- waste vegetation, industry wastes, paper,
manure, and even sewage, when properly fed and supplemented, can
feed beef."
MELVIN, Stewart W.
How to Comply with Iowa's Feedlot Runoff Control Regulations
Iowa State Univ. Coop. Ext. Serv. Pm-511  4 p.
Abst:  McQ & B E-236

Requirements of the law on feedlot control are quoted and answers to
questions of interpretation are given.  In particular, for an accept-
able runoff system:  1. Prevent inflow to the lot by locating near a
topographic ridge and/or constructing diversion channels or dykes.
South to east slopes are preferred since they are warmer and they dry
faster.  2.  Divert all roof drainage away from the feedlot surface.
3.  Surround the feedlot with dykes to control runoff and prevent
inflow.  4.  Provide a settling channel or terrace; remove the
deposited solids during dry periods in summer.  5.  Catch the liquid
runoff in a pond with sufficient volume to permit of disposal by


MESSER, James W.; LOVETT, Joseph; MURTHY, G.  K.; WEHBY, A.  J.;
     SCHAFER, Mary L.; and READ, R. B,, Jr.
An Assessment of Some Public Health Problems  Resulting from Feeding
     Poultry Litter to Animals. Microbiological  and Chemical Parameters
Poultry Sci. 50: 874-881
Abst:  McQ & B B-297

Summary by authors:  "The feeding of poultry  litter to cattle, sheep,
and swine has opened many questions of public health significance.
The present study was designed to examine (1) whether the heat
resistance of Salmonella and Arizona pathogens  in poultry litter was
similar to that expected for wet or dry heat, (2) whether heat treat-
ment of poultry litter would provide an effective barrier against
disease transmission, and (3) to determine levels of some medicinals,
pesticides, and ultraviolet-light-activated compounds in poultry litter.

"Results demonstrated that salmonella and Mxzona Sp. are not highly
resistant to heat in poultry litter of normal moisture content.   Thus
a heat process for their elimination may be feasible.  The fact that
salmonellae are more resistant to moist heat, however, than are
E. Coti eliminates the use of E. CoLL as an  indicator of the efficiency
of the heating process.

"With the exception of arsenic, the concentration of pesticides  and
medicinals present in the litters assayed in  this study were low.   It
is possible that levels higher than those reported here might be
present in poultry litter.  This possibility  and the unknown effect
of continuous exposure to low levels of pesticides and medicinals
suggest that the present ban on the interstate  shipment of poultry
litter for animal feed is warranted,"
MILLER, Byron F.
Biological Conversion of Animal  Wastes to Nutrients
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 73-74

Fly pupae convert "wet, pasty, odiferous" poultry manure into  an
inoffensive, granular product which retains most of  the  fertilizer
value of the manure.  The dried fly pupae contain sixty  percent
protein and furnish vitamins and minerals when used  in a chick diet,
An optimum crop of pupae has a weight of about two percent that of
the fresh manure.
MILLER, Byron F.
Biological Conversion of Animal Wastes to Nutrients


Final Rpt. Proj. EC-00262-02, Dept. of Avian Science, Colo. St. Univ.
     xi + 69 p.
Abst:  Compost Sci. 13: Mar-Apr. '72  p. 2

Fly eggs were placed in fresh poultry manure at a number of different
concentrations, different temperatures, and different humidities in a
series of experiments at Colorado State University.   Optimum produc-
tion of pupae occurred with three g of fly eggs in 4000 g of manure at
27C and 41 percent relative humidity.  At two g eggs per 4000 g manure.
the larvae were significantly heavier.

Three feeding trials in which dried pupae and/or catabolized poultry
manure residue were used as protein components to replace soybean
meal and/or milo in chick starter diets are reported in detail.  The
dried pupae gave results which did not differ significantly from
those of the soybean meal.  The digested poultry manure was signifi-
cantly less desirable than the controls.
MILLER, William D.
Subsurface Distribution of Nitrates Below Commercial  Cattle Feedlots,
     Texas High Plains
Water Res. Bull. 7: 941-950

Core sampling under 80 commercial cattle feedlots ranging in age from
new to 35 years established that "infiltration of feedlot liquid waste
to the water table below feedyards is insignificant in most localities
in the Texas High Plains. . .   Certainly, no regional  subsurface pollu
tion problem exists today nor is one foreseen from cattle feedlot
runoff in the Texas High Plains."
MILLER, William D.
Infiltration Rates and Groundwater Quality Beneath Cattle Feedlots,
     Texas High Plains
EPA Water Poll. Control Rsch. Series 16060 EGS.  viii + 55 p.

A test drilling program under and near a number of cattle feedlots on
the Texas High Plains established that while concentrations of
ammoniacal, organic and nitrite nitrogens in feedlot runoff exceed
those in the groundwater of the Ogallala aauifer, the nitrate nitro-
gen in the runoff may often be less concentrated.  Infiltration
varies with soil  texture; the bottoms of piaya lakes may present an
effective barrier against contamination of groundwater.  Permeability
is often so low that feedlot effluent reaching the water table is
returned by wells close to the feedlot.  "No regional degradation of
the Ogallala groundwater is expected in the foreseeable future, only
degradation in specific localized areas."


MILLER, William D.
Effect of Cattle Feedlot Wastes Upon Ground Water
Soil Conservation Service - Texas Tech Workshop.
     5 p.
-- A Commentarv
Lubbock.   28-29 July.
Many potential pollutants are present in feedlots wastes.  By having
proper regard for surface topography, soil permeability, bedrock
characteristics, and depth to groundwater in locating feedlots, their
actual effect can be minimized.
MINER, J. Ronald
Livestock Wastes  [In a Review of the 1970 Literature on Wastewater and
     Water Pollution Control.]
WPCF Jnl. 43: 991-998
Abst:  McQ & B B-085

In general, a sentence or two was devoted to each of the 60 references
listed.  Subheadings within the narrative were;  waste characteristics,
waste treatment studies, manure-handling systems, manure gases and
odors, application of wastes to cropland, and cattle feedlot wastes.
MINER, J. Ronald
A Recirculating Waste System for Swine Units
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 30-31

A system performing well under test consists of a swine confinement
building from which manure and water flow by gravity to an anaerobic
lagoon, and an oxidation ditch to which lagoon effluent is pumped.
Effluent from the oxidation ditch is pumped to the confinement build-
ing for use in flushing.  Future modifications and irrigation prac-
tices are discussed.
MINER, J. Ronald
Farm Animal-Waste Management
Iowa Ag. Ex. Sta. Spl.  Rpt. 67.  May.  44 p.
Abst:  McQ & B E-088

This state-of-the-art review provides a background in the biology,
biochemistry, and chemistry of animal wastes then considers aerobic
treatment in oxidation  ditches, oxidation ponds, and aerobic lagoons.
Anaerobic lagoons, heated anaerobic digesters, and combined anaerobic-
aerobic systems are next considered.  Utilization of farm animal wastes
for fertilizer is discussed.  Refeeding, composting, incineration,

dehydration, and use of hydroponics  none widely employed at
present -- are introduced and predictions for the near, foreseeable,
and distant future are ventured.
MINER, J. Ronald; WOOTEN, J. W.; and DODD, J. D.
Water Hyacinths to Further Treat Anaerobic Lagoon Effluent
Proc. ISLW  p. 170-173
Abst:  McQ & B C-259

Water hyacinths were successfully grown in Iowa in the summer in
dilute effluent from an anaerobic lagoon treating swine manure.
Evapotranspiration was 3.2 to 3.7 times that from a free water surface.
A production of 84 tons/acre (5 tons/acre dried weight) removed 500 lb/
acre of nitrogen, 82 percent of influent phosphorus, and 88 percent of
influent COD.  The effluent was suitable for discharge to many streams
and could be used on porous ground without difficulty from nitrogen
build-up.in groundwater.

"The economic feasibility and attractiveness of this system demands
that uses for the harvested plants be devised.   Limited use has been
made of the plants as livestock roughage, although data are insuffi-
cient to establish this as an economical practice."
MOODY, Wendell B.
Seepage Loss from Holding Ponds
Soil Conservation Service - Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.  28-29 July.
     34 p.

Detailed calculations are given for a typical analysis of seepage
losses from a proposed pond.  Such losses may be estimated following
an investigation of soil and bedrock characteristics and laboratory
testing of the soils.  Construction and protection of relatively
impervious blankets are discussed.
Economics of Waste Disposal from Confined Livestock
Proc. ISLW  p. 195-196, 198
Abst:  McQ & B C-267

"The costs of waste disposal, while significant, are not driving
farmers out of livestock production."  Values of fertilizer, based on
the constituents N, P, and K, declined from 7.0, 8.0, and 4.2 
for cow manure to $2.18-$2.73 per ton for poultry cage layers in 1971.
The costs of storing manure and of operating oxidation ditches are
analyzed.  Dehydration is estimated to cost $l-$3 per ton.  Conventional
municipal treatment would cost $100 to 200 in capital costs and $4-$7
per year for operating costs per head.

"Values of manure as a feed far exceed its value in any other use and
make it about as valuable as some of the better roughages."

Feedlot Manure Management in a Desert Climate
Proc. ISLW  p. 60, 61, 65
Abst:  McQ & B C-228

Feedlots in desert conditions are less subject to runoff with result-
ing stream pollution.  "The aim is no outflow, no seepage to ground-
water, and minimum sludge to dispose of, besides avoiding nuisance to
nearby dwellers."

For the conditions at the Imperial Valley Field Station (2-3 in. annual
rainfall, over 100 in. potential evaporation) the authors concluded that
about "60 percent of the organic matter (volatile solids) and 45 per-
cent of the nitrogen was removed by an anaerobic-aerobic manure treat-
ment system at a loading rate of 0.023 Ib organic matter per day per
cu ft.  A liquid surface of about 200 sq ft was sufficient to evapo-
rate the water in the waste from four beef animals.  Investigations of
manure movement, other aeration systems, and sludge handling are
necessary for further development of a satisfactory manure management
system for a desert climate."  Eight references are listed.
Swine Waste Management
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 111-119
Abst:  McQ & B C-342

It is not feasible to treat swine wastes for release to streams.
Spreading is resorted to more for disposal  than for fertilizer value.
Systems of waste handling currently employed are:

     1.  Wastes from hogs on pasture (may be serious source of

     2.  Handling solids (some bedding is required and dilution must
be minimized),

     3.  Slotted floors -- store and haul (should be incorporated in
soil  upon spreading to reduce odors and runoff),


     4.  Waste lagoons,

     5.  Combination of hauling and lagoon,

     6.  Oxidation ditch, and

     7.  Hydraulic manure removal.

Dehydration, incineration, and composting appear to hold little
promise for swine manure.  Refeeding may prove to be worthwhile.

NGODDY, Patrick 0.; HARPER, Jerome P.; COLLINS, Robert K.; WELLS,
     Grant D.; and HEIDAR, Farouk A.
Closed System Waste Management for Livestock
EPA Water Poll. Control Rsch Ser. 13040 DKP  110 p.
Abst:  McO & B E-087

If the wastewater from livestock be separated by means of a vibrating
screen the liquid portion responds much better to a biological
treatment.  The solid portion consists of odorless, stable material
which can be stored for long periods without an odor-nuisance or risk
of pollution.  Programs for design and operations of waste handling
facilities involving screens are developed.
Multistage Lagoon Systems for Treatment of Dairy Farm Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 77-80
Abst:  McO & B C-233

Most lagoons reported upon have a low input volume and long retention
period.  Few are in warm climates with sandy soil and a high water
table.  Since the wastewater from a typical Florida dairy has a solids
content of less than 0.4 percent and a BOD of 500-1000 ppm, lagoons
have been discouraged.  The paper reports on the first eight months
of a trial with an anaerobic lagoon followed by two aerobic lagoons
and ultimate disposal for pasture irrigation.  Results have shown
seasonal trends but appear promising.  Data are tabulated.
A Computer Model for Storage and Land Disposal of Animal Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 30-33
Abst:  McQ & B C-220

A "dynamic programming model for optimizing oneration of a land disposal
system-eonsidering land availability, storage capacity, value of
plant nutrients in the waste, costs of labor, capital and operation
costs, etc. is described.
Meteorological Control of Malodors from Land Spreading of Livestock
Proc. ISLW  p. 107-109, 116
Abst:  McQ & B C-242

Odors are less detectable if less manure is spread and if wind
velocities are high.  It would be prudent to study weather forecasts
before spreading in proximity to population concentrations.

Mathematical equations with incompletely defined parameters and
computer programs have been developed to aid in estimating possible
odor nuisances.
 NYE, John C.; DALE, Alvin C.; and BLOODGOOD, Don E.
 Effect of Temperature on Aerobic Decomposition of Dairy Cattle Manure
 ASAE Trans. 14: 545-548  [ASAE Paper 69-926]
 Abst:  McQ & B B-051, G-068

 Laboratory studies on semi-continuous and batch feedings of manure
 to aerobic chambers are described.  In all cases, oxygen must be
 supplied, in addition to any natural aeration which may occur, to
 maintain aerobic conditions.  With 74 days' storage above 65F, a
 70 percent reduction in COD resulted.  With the same period below
48F, the reduction was 45 percent.
 OGILVIE, John R. and DALE, Alvin C.
 Short Term Aeration of Dairy Cattle Manure for Irrigation
 Proc. ISLW  p. 283-285, 287
 Abst:  McQ & B C-292

 Aeration for less than 24 hours may be effective in rendering manure
 relatively odorless.  Field and laboratory studies are reported in
 which success was obtained with diluted dairy cattle manure.  An
 additional aerated lagoon is recommended for areas subject to winter

 "The oxidation d?tch, a continuous flow method of treatment, detains
 the animal manure for very long times with the object of degrading


much of the solids.  We suggest that these solids could be just as
easily degraded on or in the soil without the input of electrical
The Economics of Swine Waste Disposal
Proc. ISLW  p. 199-203
Abst:  McQ & B C-269

Seven procedures are considered for swine waste disposal:  ground
disposal, lagoon storage (anaerobic treatment), total oxidative
treatment, organic solids separation and treatment of the liquid
stream, various of the preceding with nitrogen and/or phosphate
removal, and various of the preceding with dissolved solids removal.
The chemical methodologies are discussed and costs are tabulated
for systems of 500, 2000, and 5000 swine.

Treatment may be a negative item in cost accounting and still  effect
an overall saving.  Twenty-six references are listed.
 Agricultural Solid Waste Study
 Oregon State Board of Health  90 p.

 Present methods of animal manure management include land disposal,
 anaerobic lagoons, and oxidation ditches.  The advantages and
 disadvantages of each are presented briefly,  [p. 17-22].

 Alternative methods, considered to be financially or otherwise
 unsuited for conditions in Oregon, are incineration, dehydration,
 plow-furrow-cover, and use of manure treatment plants,  [p. 28-29].

 Methods involving recycling and reuse are composting (very limited
 usage in Oregon), separation of liquids and solids by dilution
 followed by filtering (costly, odorous, source of mosquito breeding),
 aerobic algae ponds (experimental to date, but very encouraging),
 refeeding manure (profitable but with potential  for disease
 transmission), and digestion by diptera (problems with harvesting
 pupae and/or adult flies),  [p. 32-37].

 Environmental effects of animal wastes are explored.  Flies, mosquitoes,
 rodents, and air and water pollution must be prevented.
ORR, D. E.


Recycling Dried Waste to Finishing Pigs
Mich. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 148  p."63-68

Performance of several groups of pigs on corn-soybean meal rations
with various percentages of the ration replaced by dried swine feces
(DSF) or dried poultry wastes (DPW) is discussed and tabulated.
Among the conclusions stated are that pigs will consume corn-soy
rations containing up to 22 percent of DSF at 90 ,to 95 percent of
full appetite, that rate and efficiency of gain are depressed if
DSF replaces all or most of the soybean meal, that incorporation of
DSF in the ration does not affect the flavor of the meat, and that
DPW is of somewhat less value in swine rations because it is lowin
critical ami no acids and high in calcium.
ORR, D. E.; MILLER, E. R.; KU, P. K.; BERGEN, W. G.; and ULLREY, D. E.
Recycling of Dried Waste in Swine  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 33: 1152
Abst:  McQ & B B-244

In tests in which dried swine feces (DSF), which contain 21.6 percent
crude protein, were substituted for various constituents of the
ration, daily gain and feed-to-gain ratios were poor.  ". . . availabil-
ity of several amino acids may have limited performance on DSF."  No
detectable taste difference appeared in the roast loins.
Poultry Waste Handling Systems
Poultry Digest 30: 529-532

The relative merits of deep pit, aerobic laqoon, oxidation ditch.
soil injection, and dehydration are discussed.  Each has its place.
To prevent odor, keep manure dry or keen it aerobic.  Design criteria
for aerobic lagoons and for oxidation ditches are given.

Dehydration involves capital outlay and some odor.  The final product
has a limited market as a soil conditioner.  "At the present time it
is not legal to sell this as feedstuff. .  .  The feed value is much
greater if fed to ruminants which  can utilize the uric acid to better
advantage."  The optimum ration appears to be about ten percent DPW.

Soil Injection for Manure Disposal
Cornell Poultry Pointers  Dec.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 31: 79  (1972)


Injection reduces or eliminates odors.  It reduces loss of nutrients
by runoff or by evaporation, thus simultaneously reducing water or
air pollution.  Equipment should be carefully selected.  Under ideal
conditions the process can be faster than spreading.

(See also a note:  "Equipment for Soil Injection of Manure," based
on OSTRANDER, in Poultry Digest 31: 548).

Oxidation Ditches Under Cages Eliminate Manure Odors and Flies
Poultry Tribune 77: Mar.  p. 72, 74

Oxidation ditches, while not foolproof, "can eliminate practically
all the objections that have been raised about the liquid system of
manure handling.  1.  Odors in houses -- eliminated; 2..  Odors from
fans  eliminated; 3.  Odors at spreading time -- eliminated;
4.  Volume of material to handle  no increase and perhaps decreased."
Spread oxidation ditch residue should be covered promptly.  The
ditches must be competently designed.
OSTRANDER, Charles E. and LOEHR, Raymond C.
Handling Poultry Wastes with an Oxidation Ditch  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 50: 1613
Abst:  McO & B B-301

An oxidation ditch under 250 layers onerated effectively on a nine-
month run before being stopped, at nine percent solids content, for
cleaning.  Some foaming and odor occurred during the first month.
OSWALD, William J.
Photosynthetic Reclamation of Agricultural Solid and Liquid Wastes
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 85-86

In a pilot plant at Richmond, California, the wastes from a hen house
were fermented in an anaerobic digestion tank with the effluent feeding
directly into an algae pond.  Water from the pond was used for flushing
in the hen house, and the algae were fed to the hens.  The pond was
aerated during the winter.  Algae production was 30 to 40 tons (dry wt)
per acre of pond.  "The net waste-handling cost would be one cent or
less per dozen eggs."
Increased Feces Production from Hens Being Fed Poultry Manure  (Abst)


Poultry Sci. 50: 1614
Abst:  McQ & B B-302

A control group of chickens fed a standard ration, a second group fed
the standard ration plus their feces of the previous day, and a third
group fed the standard ration plus the feces of the control group and
of the third group were investigated.  "Egg production was normal for
group 2 for 8 days and for group 3 for 3 days, after which it fell

"This and other related studies indicate recycling manure reduces the
disposal problem by no more than 25% with no noticeable further
reduction with repeated recycling."
Growth Response of Plants Under Sprinkler Irrigation With Dairy Waste
Proc. ISLW' p. 334-337
Abst:  McQ & B C-307

Response at different times of year to various rates of application of
washwater with a solids concentration of 0.25 percent (20,000 gal from
150 cows) to crops in Florida is reported.

Concentration of nutrients (N, P, K, and soluble salts) in the soil
water at a depth of 60 cm increased as the rate of irrigation appli-
cation increased.  Utilization by a crop may best be evaluated by
reference to yield response curves.

"Oats grown with dairy manure measure up to those grown with inorganic
fertilizer in chemical composition, palatability and digestibility."
Feeders and Feedlots
Western Livestock Jnl. 49: June  p. 65

Legally, confusion reigns in the feedlot industry.  Court decisions on
nuisance charges apnear unrelated to compliance with state pollution
Waste Disposal:  Will It Price You Out of Business?
Big Farmer 43: Sept.  2 p.

Net costs of animal waste disposal for the Southern High Plains are
stated to be $15.17 per head marketed despite nutrient values of $3.61
per ton.  Methods of disposal cited are dehydration to produce
marketable fertilizer, drying and recycling of poultry wastes,
composting, and irrigation with liquid wastes.
A Note on Dried Poultry Manure in the Diet of the Growing Pig
Anim. Prod. 13: 361-364
Abst:  McQ & B B-320

Trials in Aberdeen, Scotland, with 10, 20, and 30 percent sterilized
dried poultry wastes in the diets of growing pigs had no adverse
effect on the pigs health or carcass quality.  "For every 10%
addition of manure, growth was reduced by 0.02 kg/day, feed conversion
efficiency by 0.25 units and killing-out percentage by 0.96.  The
dried manure contained about 30% crude protein and was a rich source
of minerals."
Parasitological Examination of Compost
EPA Office of Research and Monitoring, Solid Waste Research Open-File
     Report  15 p.

The literature on health hazards in composted sewage sludge and
municipal solid wastes is reviewed.  Viable parasites have been found
in marketed compost.  Means of recovering animal parasites and ova in
the laboratory are discussed.  "... compost. . . from animal excreta
has the potential hazard of a residual pathogen content."
Reclamation of Energy from Organic Refuse
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 88-89

A laboratory investigation is being undertaken "to determine the
operating parameters for the biologic conversion of organic solid
waste to methane by use of anaerobic digesters."
PITTMAN, Dwight L.
Guidelines for Handling Liquid Waste from Feedlots
Soil Conservation Service - Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.  28-29 July.
     4 p.


Present (July, 1971), and a proposed modified, procedure for securing
a "Waste Control Order for Cattle Feeding Operation" from the Texas
Water Quality Board is described.  Means of protecting surface and
groundwater to include the runoff from maximum probable 24-hr rain
in 25 years must be provided.  Means of disposal of solid wastes
must be acceptable.  Pond seepage should be restricted to 0.1
ac-ft/ac-yr, and equipment should be available to dewater the pond
within fourteen days without runoff occurring from the disposal area.
     and ZINDEL, Howard C.
The Metabolizable Energy Value of Dried Poultry Waste
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 152  p. 32-44
Abst:  McQ & B E-210

Dried poultry waste has a low energy content and thus cannot be
substituted pound-for-pound for corn.  Its contribution of calcium
is greater than that of corn, and both feeds supply about the same
amount of protein.  Neither interferes with utilization of fat in
the ration.  Results of feeding tests and feed compositions are
POS, Jack; BELL, R. G.; and ROBINSON, J. B.
Aerobic Treatment of Liquid and Solid Poultry Manure
Proc. ISLW  p. 220-224
Abst:  McQ & B C-275

Aeration can effect odor control with quantities of air well below
those required for stabilization.  Both odor control and stabili-
zation may be accomplished by composting.

A series of studies at Guelph, Ontario, on the effects of aeration on
liquid and on solid chicken manure, in pilot and field tests, is
reported.  Under Canadian winter conditions mechanical devices are
inadequate to produce aeration.  The use of pneumatic devices might
be effective.  Composting could be practical year round.
PRATT, Parker F.
Water Pollution from Disposal of Dairy Manure on Land in Relation to
     Soil Management and Site Characteristics
Univ. of Cal. Water Resources Center Ann. Rpt.  Rpt. No. 23, p. 127-129

WRC Project 267, funded 1969-72, is a continuing investigation of
possible groundwater contamination by nitrates in the Chi no-Corona


basin in which only 12,500 acres are available for the disposal  of
manure from 125,000 dairy cows.   Total  nitrogen in Ib/acre reported
are:  corral 1938, pasture 670,  and cropland 727.   Concentrations in
ppm at 10- to 19-ft depths (below root  zone) are corral  92, pasture
74, and cropland 66.  The full  impact has not yet reached the
Feedlot "Waste" for Feed
CALF News 9: May  p. 14-15

The Agricultural Research Service at Beltsville,  Maryland,  has fed
beef feedlot manure, subjected to various treatments, to sheep in
amounts up to 85 percent of the ration with no apparent ill  effects,
Investigations continue.
REDDELL, Donald L.; JOHNSON, W- H.; LYERLY, P.  J.; and HOBGOOD, Price
Disposal of Beef Manure by Deep Plowing
Proc. ISLW  p. 235-238
Abst:  McQ & B C-279

Manure was disposed of by deep plowing at rates of 0, 300, 600, and
900 tons per acre, wet weight, on experimental  plots.  With a moisture
content of about 50 percent the corresponding manure depths were about
0, 3, 6, and 9 inches.  The equipment is described and costs are
tabulated.  "The water quality program shows no serious pollution
problem for surface water runoff.  Although inhibited, crop growth on
all manure treatments has been achieved."
Water Amendment Act, 1971  (Act No. 36, 1971)
Government Gazette, Vol. 71, No. 3106

Section 3 of this act, designated to become section 23A of the Water
Act, 1956 (South Africa's basic comprehensive water law), empowers
the Minister of Water Affairs to prevent the pollution of water through
farming operations.  The Minister may require that "such steps as the
Minister may deem necessary for the prevention of such pollution" be
taken.  In case of lack of compliance, the Minister may cause the steps
to be taken and may recover the costs from the owner.


Registration is Required as Gov't Moves to Control Water Pollution From
     Large Feedlots
Beef 7: July  p. 20

Registration is now required for feedlots of over 1000-head capacity
under most circumstances.  The turn of the smaller lots is cominq.
ROBBINS, Jackie W. D.; GEORGE, Robert M.; McNABB, Coy G.; and GARNER,
     George B.
Helping Farmers Produce -- Not Pollute
Agr. Enarg. 52: 258-259
Abst:  McQ & B B-648

The University of Missouri - Columbia has "initiated pilot studies to
harvest algae from animal wastewaters using organic filter material
and to dispose of liquified animal wastes by subirrigation. . .  Studies
will be developed to modify the wastes produced by animals by control-
ling their environments and rations, particularly the temperature of
the environments and the salt content of the rations."
ROBBINS, Jackie W. D.; HOWELLS, David H.; and KRIZ, George J.
Role of Animal Wastes in Agricultural Land Runoff
EPA Water Poll. Control Rsch. Series 13020 DGX  x + 114 p.
Abst:  McQ & B E-086

"The natural pollution load on streams draining agricultural basins
free of farm animals can be appreciable during periods of rainfall and
runoff and should be taken into consideration in water quality
management."  Land spreading is an effective means of preventing
pollution; it should be combined with good soil and water conservation
practices.  Anaerobic lagoons are unsatisfactory as a sole means of
treatment in areas where rainfall exceeds evaporation.

Criteria tentatively recommended for land disposal practices include:
a) apply wastes uniformly; b) govern rate, time, and frequency of
application for maximum nutrient utilization by plants; c) select
disposal areas with low erosion potentials; d) do not apply waste on
grassed waterways or other drainage paths; and e) plow waste under on
barren fields.
ROBBINS, Jackie W. D.; KRIZ, George J.; and HOWELLS, David H,
Quality of Effluent from Farm Animal Production Sites
Proc. ISLW  p. 166-169, 173
Abst:  McQ & B C-258


"This report summarizes the findings of a two-year study undertaken
to investigate the importance of animal wastes in agricultural land
runoff" from twelve typical agricultural sites in North Carolina.

The natural pollution from land free of animal wastes can be
appreciable.  The soil provides natural treatment for animal wastes;
thus, land spreading can be effective in pollution abatement,
especially if precautions with respect to drainage are observed.
Anaerobic lagoons were unsatisfactory as a sole treatment in that
"the lagoons functioned mainly as traps, i. e., settling and retention
basins, and provided only a limited amount of treatment beyond that
experienced through sedimentation."  Effluents from the lagoons were

In general, the state of the art was found to be primitive.
 Microbiological Aspects of Aerobically Treated Swine Wastes
 Proc.  ISLW  p. 225-228
 Abst:  McQ & B C-276

 The authors describe laboratory and field facilities and the experi-
 mental program on swine waste treatment at the School of Agriculture,
 Aberdeen, Scotland.  Pig feces have some non-biodegradable components.
 Copper in the mineral supplements in pigs' diets may prove detrimental
 to biological treatment.

 "Experience has shown that it is possible to produce a biologically
 stable effluent, occasionally with a satisfactory BOD, and a clean,
 odorless residual solid.  Further work in needed to show how the
 process of purification can be improved and more clearly understood."
ROSS, I. J,; BEGIN, J. J.; and MIDDEN, T. M.
Dewatering Poultry Manure bv Centrifugation
Proc. ISLW  p. 348-350
Abst:  McQ & B C-311

Poultry manure as excreted contains about 25 percent solids.  Various
methods of sludge concentration may be used.  In particular, centri-
fugation with a force of 10,000 G (G being the force of gravity at
sea level) will remove all wash water and recover over 95 percent of
the initial solids.  The quantity of water remaining to be removed
by drying is thus reduced significantly.

The Long-term Effects of Fertilizers, Farmyard Manure and Leys at
     Mwanhala, Western Tanzania
East Afr. Agr. and Forestry Jnl. 37: 8-14

In an eight-year testing program the response of maize to farmyard
manure was small or negative the first year, but it increased each
year.  Production was limited by rainfall rather than by fertility.
Groundnuts were much less responsive than maize.
Systems for the Dehydration of Livestock Wastes:  A Technical and
     Economical Review
Proc. ISLW  p. 27-29
Abst:  McQ & B C-219

Reporting on three years of operation of a plant in Germany, the
author concludes that the returns from the sale of dried manure may
exceed the cost of dehydration.  The end product is a powdery,
humus-like material used by florists, vineyardists, and home
gardeners.  Prices are too high for most crop applications.

The essential components of the drying plant are a rotary kiln, a
ventilator, and a cyclone.  Through careful reuse of waste heat and
recycling of flue gas precipitates the efficiency can be improved
significantly.  A properly designed and operated plant releases no
offensive odors.
SCHULTE, Dennis D. and LOEHR, Raymond C.
Analysis of Duck Farm Waste Treatment Systems
Proc. ISLW  p. 73-76, 80
Abst:  McQ & B C-232

Some seven million ducks per year are raised on 35 farms on eastern
Long Island.  Most of their 6-to-7 week life is spent on water which
is then treated in aerated lagoons, chlorinated, and released to be
used for recreation and for shellfish habitat.  The phosphorus
content being excessive, a study was made to find a procedure which
would minimize total treatment costs while meeting New York effluent
quality standards.  Operating costs, particularly chemicals and sludge
disposal, were found to be the most significant expenditures.
"Reduction of water usage by duck farms may be the most direct method
of reducing costs."

State Regulations Pertaining to Livestock Feedlot Design and Management
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 19-25
Abst:  McQ & B E-074

This survey, based on USDA Publication ARS 42-189, gives a brief
state-by-state survey of the status of legislation and/or regulations..
An appendix lists changes reported by 14 September '71.
 SCOTT, Milton L.
 Poultry Waste as a Feed
 Egg  Industry 4: June  p. 61-62

 The  major organic substances in poultry manure are listed under the
 headings "Derived from undigested food" and "Derived from metabolism."
 Only about fifteen percent of feed is undigested and a second use by
 chickens is unlikely to salvage much.  Vitamins B and K are produced,
 but  are available from other sources at little cost.  Uric acid
 contains nitrogen, but it is in a form which poultry cannot use.
 Poultry waste is considered to be poor poultry feed.  Ruminants can
 utilize the uric acid, however, and thus may profit from poultry
 wastes as a feed ingredient.
 SEWELL, John  I.
 Agitation  in  Liquid Manure Tanks
 Proc.  ISLW p. 135-137
 Abst:  McQ &  B C-250

 "Liquid manure is a suspension of solids in water.  To maintain the
 suspension and allow the manure to be augered, pumped, or vacuumed
 as a fluid; agitation is necessary.  Insufficient information about
 optimal agitation conditions and procedures is available on which to
 base designs  for liquid manure holding tanks.  This report describes
 work done  under University of Tennessee Agricultural Experiment
 Station Project H-277,  'Farm Waste Disposal'."

 Theoretical studies by dimensional analysis, model studies and field
 investigations were pursued.  Few problems were encountered.  For
 best results  exclude waste hay, silage, twine, wood chips, and rocks;
 add water to  the tank immediately after emptying; and consider the
 use of baffles.
SHEPPARD, C. C.; FLEGAL, Cal J.; DORN, D.; and DALE, J. L,


The Relationship of Drying Temperature to Total Crude Protein in
     Dried Poultry Waste
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 152  p. 12-16
Abst:  McQ & B E-207

Statistical procedures applied to measurements of total protein
percentage (Y) as a function of temperature of drying in F (X)
yielded the equation

          Y  =  31.7  +  [-0.00937 (X - 509)].
Feedlot Cattle on Concrete
Western Livestock Jnl. 49: Sept.  p. 73, 75, 76

Morales Feed Yard near Devine, Texas, has laid nearly 20 acres of
four-inch thick concrete.  Manure is recycled through underground
sewer lines to sprinkler systems irrigating 500 acres of Coastal
Bermuda.  The 30-inch main is 10,000 ft long.  Fifty tons per acre
per year are spread.  Pens are cleaned every two weeks.
Feeding Value of Animal Wastes
USDA ARS 44-224  p. 5-13

This paper, an excellent survey of the literature pertaining to
refeeding, parallels the presentation in Chapter 5 of this report.
Nutritive Evaluations of Untreated and Chemically Treated Dairy
     Cattle Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 314-318
Abst:  McQ & B C-302

"The objectives of these studies were (a) to determine the in vivo
nutritive value of dairy cattle waste with and without sawdust
bedding, (b) to determine the effects of several chemicals on these
materials, and (c) to determine the effects of physical preparations
and conventional feed additions on acceptability and utilization of

Procedures in feeding tests on sheep are described and results are
tabulated.  No detrimental effects appeared.  "Achievement of greater
treatment effects and higher levels of ad lib consumption of the
treated wastes remain for further research effort."


Nutritive Evaluation of Dairy Cattle Waste
Maryland Nutrition Conf. Proc.  6 p.

Fecal fiber is being enhanced chemically to enhance digestibility.
Sodium hydroxide is suitable for the purpose because of low cost
and effective degradative action on cell walls.  Sodium chlorite is
a specific delignifying chemical.  Data are tabulated.  "The chemical
treatment of feces by the addition of 3% NaOH resulted in a two fold
increase in DM [dry matter] and cellulose digestibility, a four fold
increase in CW [cell wall] digestibility, and a ten fold increase in
hemicellulose digestibility."  Sheep responded well to pelletized
feeds containing as high as 93 percent barn wastes.
 SMITH, L. W. and GORDON, C. H.
 Dairy Cattle Manure -- Cornmeal Rations for Growing Heifers  (Abst)
 Jnl. Animal Sci. 33: 300
 Abst:  McQ & B B-240

 I so-nitrogenous rations with one part cornmeal and one, two, or three
 parts manure consisting of feces and peanut hull bedding were fed to
 heifers on a 90-day trial.  After 60 days alfalfa was added to all
 diets for two weeks to control bloating.  There were no significant
 differences in growth rates or in feed-to-gain ratios.

 SMITH, R. J.; HAZEN, T. E.; and MINER, J. Ronald
 Manure Management in a 700-Head Swine-Finishing Building; Two
     Approaches Using Renovated Waste Water
 Proc. ISLW  p. 149-153
 Abst:  McQ & B C-254

 A series of tests marred by mechanical failures indicate the feasi-
 bility of reusing the supernatant from an anaerobic lagoon, either
 directly or after further treatment in an oxidation ditch, for flush-
 ing a swine building.  "The quality of flush water seemed far less
 important than the quantity."  For safe disposal of the overflow, it
 was used for irrigation of adjacent cropland.
STALEY, L. M.; BULLEY, N. R.; and WINDT, T. A.
Pumping Characteristics, Biological and Chemical Properties of Dairy
     Manure Slurries
Proc. ISLW  n. 142-145
Abst:  McO & B C-252

For a high winter-rainfall area in British Columbia with a high
water table it was desired to dispose of manure from a 150-head
dairy herd on 120 acres without resorting to wheel transport from
November through February.  Aboveground slurry storage and pumping
through an irrigation pipeline proved to be feasible.

A helical-type positive displacement pump is recommended.  The total
solids should be kept under eight percent, but unnecessary dilution
should be avoided.  Employ a pressure relief valve and protect
against clogging by excluding straw, long hay, grass, and wood chips.
Identification of Odors from Cattle Feedlots
Mestern Livestock Jnl. 49: June  p. 66-67

The University of California at Riverside studied feedlot odors
during 1967, 1968, and 1969.  Little research has been done on the
problem which involves measurements of a few parts per billion.
Low-molecular amines, particularly trimethyl amine, are the major
source, but there are others.
Identification of Odors in Feedlot Operations
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2  p. 24

Gas chromatography was employed to identify the odors associated
with feedlots.  Trimethyl amine was found to be present in concentra-
tions well above its threshold level as were ethylamine or methyl-
ami ne, propylamine, and butyl amine.  Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide,
while present, were below their threshold levels.
STEPHENS, G. R.; HILL, D. E.; AHO, W. A.; and HALE, W. S.
Utilizing Liquid Poultry Manure Safely in Pine Plantations  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 50: 1634
Abst:  McO & B B-303

After applying 0, 17, and 100 tons of wet poultry manure per acre
to 35-year-old white pines and monitoring the surface soil and
groundwater, it was concluded that 17 tons (400 Ib N) was a safe
application but that 100 tons was excessive.
Aerobic Storage of Poultry Manure

Proc. ISLW  p. 261, 262, 266
Abst:  McQ & B C-286

An oxidation ditch installed under a poultry shed in Northern
Ireland provided a satisfactory atmosphere in the shed and presented
no major problems.  The ditch extended outside the shed With a
cleanout access and the rotor in the outer portion.  Foaming occurred
when feathers and floating sludge formed a solid layer.  It was
necessary to break up and remove the crust several times per year.
Rotor bearings require replacement from time to time.
     and FLEGAL, Cal J.
Drying Poultry Waste
Proc. ISLW  p. 192-194
Abst:  McQ & B C-266

Manure dryers have been too expensive and complicated for use on the
farm.  A dryer developed at Michigan State University is described
and  its performance is analyzed.  It reduces odor and produces a
stable dry product, samples of which have been stored two years with-
out  deterioration.  Protein and nitrogen losses of up to 25 percent
occur in the process.  Costs, capital and operating, were calculated
to be:  poultry manure $7.80/ton, cattle manure $11.31/ton, and swine
manure $11.96/ton.  "... manure can be dried successfully on the
 SWANSON, Morris P. and GILBERTSON, Conrad B.
 Feedlot Waste Management:  Some Solutions to the Problem
 ASAE Paper 71-522  6 p.
 Abst:  McQ & B G-105

 Measurement of feedlot waste is complicated by variation in moisture
 content, mixing with soil, inclusion of bedding and spilled feed,
 and on-site decomposition.  "Settling basins or debris trans are
 used to retain solids transported by runoff on a feedlot."

 Runoff measurement, particularly for quality determination, is
 complicated by viscous flow and negligible settling in cold weather,
 by the existence of both bedloads and suspended loads, and by inter-
 ference with sediment content by many standard measuring devices.
 Parshall flumes and time-sequenced, rotating dipper, proportional
 samplers are satisfactory.
     ELLIS, J. R.

Transport of Pollutants from Sloping Cattle Feedlots as Affected by
     Rainfall Intensity, Duration, and Recurrence
Proc. ISLW  p. 51-55
Abst:  McQ &'B C-226

Artificial rainstorms were produced on an old, established unpaved
feedlot in eastern Nebraska with slopes of 12.5-13 percent.  Natural
rainfall was measured (quantity and intensity) on another feedlot
with a six percent slope.  Tabulations of runoff, solids loss,
conductivity, COD, P, Organic N, NH^N and N03-N are given.  The
solids removed by high-intensity simulated rain were predominantly
soil.  Among the seven conclusions stated was:  "Feedlot runoff
may contain 75 times the P content, up to 30 times the NH/pN content,
and up to 4 times the NOg-N content of runoff from fallow land."

Engineering Properties of Farm Wastes
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 21-22

The compounds in manure contributing to the odor nuisance were
identified, and levels of noxious gas produced in animal confinement
units were determined.  Parameters governing the maximum quantity of
manure which can be spread on land in a given period were determined
to be the storage capacity, quantity of waste generated, and land
area available.  Products of combustion and biological treatment were
identified and measured.
Impact of Farm Animal Production and Processing on the Total Environment
Proc. ISLW  p. 95-98
Abst:  McQ & B C-238

Manure is the largest single source of solid wastes in the U. S.  If
spread uniformly on the cropland, each acre would receive three tons
of wet manure containing 48 Ib of nitrogen, 15 Ib of phosphate, and
16 Ib of potassium per year.  This would satisfy fertilizer needs.
"Therefore, the best use of manures is application on land for crop
TAIGANIDES, E. Paul and WHITE, Richard K.
Automated Handling, Treatment and Recycling of Waste Water From an
     Animal Confinement Production Unit
Proc. ISLW  p. 146-148
Abst:  McQ & B C-253


In a plant under test at Bptkins, Ohio, the manure from a confinement
unit for 500 pigs is flushed to the treatment unit where solids
are separated from the liquid by screening.  The solids are aero-
bically digested, deodorized, and stored for spreading on cropland.
The liquids discharge into an oxidation ditch.  Effluents from the
ditch are clarified and reused as gutter flush water.  Provision
to disinfect the recycled water can be incorporated in the system.
Design details are described.
TAIGANIDES, E. Paul; WHITE, Richard K.; and STROSHINE, Richard L.
Water and Soil Oxyqen Demand of Livestock Vfastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 176-179
Abst:  McQ & B C-261

The BOD test is of questionable value when applied to animal wastes
since manure is a solid waste with disposal to land rather than a
liquid with disposal to water.  It is, however, useful in discussing
liquid manure handling systems and sewage-treatment waste adaptations,
Testing procedures, appropriate units, and results are discussed.
"Oxygen demand per unit of waste appears to be the same in either
soil or water."
Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Livestock and Poultry Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 291-292
Abst:  McQ & B C-295

Manure has been processed for animal feed by drying or ensiling and
by digester-type processes using algae, chemicals, or fly larvae.
The Food and Drug Administration has no objection to the making of
tests, but before approval of the process for commercial production
is granted it must be convinced that the product to be fed has
nutritional value and that it has no harmful effects, immediate or
cumulative, on animals or man.  In particular, residues of antibiotics,
metal supplements, or other drugs must be proved safe.  Reports of
feeding experiments in the literature are summarized and fifteen
references are appended.  "At this time, FDA does not have enough
information to modify its present regulation."
Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Livestock and Poultry Wastes
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 129-13f
Abst:  McQ & B C-344
                                 A-2 50

"... the FDA has not sanctioned and does not sanction the use of
poultry litter as a feedstuff for animals."

"FDA does not have grant-in-aid funds available for research with
waste products."

Procedures for requesting FDA approval are outlined.  See [1971-1245],

Aerobic Biological Breakdown of Farm Waste
Proc. ISLW  p. 275-278
Abst:  McQ & B C-290

In the Netherlands slurries from poultry, veal, and swine are usually
diluted to about two to three percent TS.  While oxidation ditches
were once popular, "today, surface aerators with a vertical shaft
are much cheaper than rotors."  They also give less trouble with
bearings.  BOD of effluent is reduced by 95 to 99.5 percent.
THOMAS, J. W. and ZINDEL, Howard C.
Feeding Dehydrated Poultry Waste to Dairy Cows
Mich. State'Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Bull. 152  p. 8-11
Abst:  McQ & B E-206

Dried poultry waste was included as 30 percent of the diet of milk
cows without adverse effect on quantity or quality of milk in trials
at Michigan State.  Data are tabulated in the article.
Research on an Animal Waste Pollution Control System
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 34

The objectives of this study are "to investigate the possibility of
rendering animal wastes innocuous by steam drying and to determine
the nutritional value of the dried wastes in hopes that they can be
used as animal feed."  Equipment has been developed and tests on
physical properties of manure are being  conducted,
THYGESON, John R.; GROSSMANN, E. D.; and MacARTHUR, Joseph
Through-Circulation Drving of Manure in Superheated Steam
Proc. ISLW  p. 185-189"
Abst:  McQ & B C-264


"Drying systems applied to animal wastes in agriculture often have
the following disadvantages:  high capital investment, high operating
cost, major air pollution hazard, doubtful value of dried product
and significant operating and maintenance problems.  These deficien-
cies, however, should be weighed against the benefits of a large
weight reduction in the waste, and the production of a relatively
odorless and stable dry solid.  This paper describes a new drying
system which minimizes the disadvantages mentioned above.  It also
provides unique benefits that greatly enhance drying as an economic
manure treatment method."

The equipment and process are sketched schematically and described.
The manure is preformed into pellets and superheated steam is blown
through the interstices at high velocity.  The end products are a
dry, odorless solid and a clear liquid condensate suitable for irri-
gation or, after purification, for recycling to boiler feed water.
 TIETZ, Neil
 FDA Holds Firm on Feeding Litter, But Encourages Further Research
 Feedstuffs 43: 24 Apr.  p. 1, 40

 TIETZ reports on the session on Refeeding at the International
 Symposium on Livestock Wastes.  The following papers are abstracted:

     W. B. ANTHONY, "Manure as Feed"  [1971-1014],

     H. F. BUCHOLTZ, "Dried Poultrv Waste as a Protein Supplement for
 Feedlot Cattle and Sheep"  [1971-1040],

     Leonard S. BULL, "Nutritive Value of Chicken Manure for Cattle"

     C. C. CALVERT, "Biodegraded Hen Manure and Adult House Flies:
 Their Nutritional Value to the Growing Chick"  [1971-1049],

     C. J. FLEGAL, "Dehydrated Poultry Waste in Poultrv Rations"

     J. P. FONTENOT, "Broiler Litter for Ruminants"  [1971-1095],

     Brian HODGETTS,  "Dried Poultry Waste in the Feed of Laying
Hens"  [1971-1133],

     L. W. SMITH, "Untreated and Chemically Treated Dairy Cattle
Wastes"  [1971-1229], and

     Jack C.  TAYLOR, "Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Livestock and
Poultry Wastes"  [1971-1245].


A Land Recycling Liquid Manure System for a Large-Scale Confinement
     Operation in a Cold Climate
Proc. ISLW  p. 39-43
Abst:  McQ & B C-223

Manure recycling of the cattle and sheep portion of the Greenbelt
Farm facility of the Canada Department of Agriculture's Animal
Research Institute in the suburbs of Ottawa is described.  The ground
being frozen 2.5 months per year and the water table approaching
to within two to three feet of the ground surface, special precautions
in provision of storage and design of storage tanks were required.
Provision was made for one-to-two months storage of liquid manure
within the animal buildings, and for four-to-five month storage in
separate concrete tanks nearby.  Land disposal with an acceptable
maximum of 45 to 50 tons per acre by means of vacuum tank trucks
followed by a plow which covers the manure within seconds is described.
Possible modifications are under study.

"Recycling the waste for re-use minimizes the change in- the balance of
nature which in turn minimizes the potential for polluting the
TURNER, D. 0. and PROCTOR, D. E.
A Farm Scale Dairy Waste Disposal System
Proc. ISLW  p. 85-88
Abst:  McQ & B C-235

Experimentation at Monroe, Washington, (50-in. ann. pcpn., 70 percent
in winter) indicates that roofed confinement pens, an anaerobic
lagoon capable of six-month storage, and distribution to fields by
pipeline and "manure gun" with a rate of application of one acre-inch
with ten percent suspended solids just after harvest, and up to five
acre-inches prior to seeding silage corn is effective.  Nitrate
concentrations did not become excessive.
Animal Waste Reuse  Nutritive Value and Potential Problems from
     Feed Additives:  A Review
USDA ARS 44-224  56 p.

This report contains surveys of the literature on specific problems
followed by an extensive list of the literature cited (p. 42-56).
The individual papers, abstracted separately, are:

     CALVERT, C. C., Fecal Residues from Feed Additives -- Poultry

     DINIUS, D. A., Fecal Residues from Hormones and Antibiotics 
Beef Cattle  [1971-1072],

     FROBISH, L. T., Fecal Residues from Feed Additives  Swine

     MILLER, R. W., Fecal Residues from Larvicides -- Poultry and
Cattle  [1970-1063], and

     SMITH, L. W., Feeding Value of Animal Wastes  [1971-1228].
VIETS, Frank G., Jr.
Cattle Feedlot Pollution
Agric. Sci. Review  V. 9, No. 1  (1971)
Reprint:   Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 97-105  (1971)
Abst:  McQ & B C-340

"The solution to the problem is to return the solid waste to the land
in'sufficient amounts for near maximum production of crops without
waste of the animal feces resource."

"If runoff cannot be disposed of economically in humid areas, cattle
feeding will be forced westward to drier climates.  A long-range
balance between availability of feed grains and ease of runoff
disposal will likely be established."

Air pollution is considered to be the most serious problem associated
with feedlots.  Zoning may be a partial answer.
Pollution Laws Getting Tougher
Beef 7: Jan.  p. 26-28

Papers at the annual convention of the National Livestock Feeders
Association in Des Moines are summarized.  Cost of compliance with
antipollution legislation was the topic emphasized.
Factors Affecting Quality and Quantity of Feedlot Waste Collections
Soil Conservation Service - Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.  28-29 July.
     3 p.


The factors affecting runoff from beef cattle feedlots have been
found to be size of cattle, density of cattle, si one of feedlot,
type of surfacing material, type of ration fed, climatic factors,
and frequency of cleaning.  Of these, climate, ration and surfacing
material have predominant significance.
WELLS, Dan M.; ALBIN, Robert C.; GRUB, Walter; COLEMAN, Eugene A.;
     and MEENAGHAN, George F.
Characteristics of Wastes from Southwestern Cattle Feedlots
EPA WPC Rsch. Series13040 DEM  xi + 88 p.
Reprint (In part) Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf., p. 385-404

Laboratory and field testing of cattle feedlot runoff from concrete-
paved and dirt feedlots on different slopes, with and without cover,
with different cleaning programs, different stacking densities, and
with differences in the cattle feed ration are reported and analyzed.
A good survey of the literature (72 references cited) is included.
In addition, 13 other papers by the authors are listed.

Major conclusions, of which the applicability may in some cases be
restricted to feedlots in a similar climate, are:

     1.  The variations of conditions mentioned are of no real
significance from the standpoint of water quality control.

     2.  Treatment by conventional anaerobic or aerobic processes of
precipitation-induced feedlot runoff is, infeasible.

     3.  Concentration of pollutants from concrete-surfaced lots is
two to four times greater than that from dirt lots.

     4-  Quantity of waste is a direct function of the fraction of
roughage in the ration.

     5.  Treatment by aerobic composting is technically feasible.

     6.  Extreme caution must be exercised if runoff is used to
irrigate crops.  With proper timing, limited quantities may be
beneficially applied to most well-established crops.

     7.  Build up of Na+, Cl~, and other ions in the soil may result
from repeated applications of feedlot runoff.
WESLEY, R. L.; HALE, E. B.; and PORTER, H. C.
The Use of Oxidation Ponds for Poultry Processing Waste Disposal

Proc. ISLW  p.  286-287
Abst:  McO & B C-293

To renovate the waste-disposal  facilities of a poultry processor in
Virginia discharging 100,000 gal/day of effluent, 4000 ft of pipe
and 37 acres of land were acquired and two lagoons followed by three
small holding vats were installed.  Effluent from the third vat
flows 250 ft in a boulder-strewn channel for further aeration.  BOD
reduction of 97 percent is obtained.  TS reduction is 32 percent at
10C, 89 percent at 20C, and 96 percent at 30C.  Discharge is to
a stream.

Plans exist for making additions to the system which will permit
recycling on the property with no discharge to state waters.
WHITE, Richard K. and TAIGANIDES, E. Paul
Pyrolysis of Livestock Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 190-191, 194
Abst:  McO & B C-265

Investigations on the pyrolysis ("anaerobic incineration") of wastes
of vegetative origin -- wood, paper, rubber, etc.   indicate that
the process may have promise in waste disposal.   Laboratory tests
conducted by the authors on animal wastes  are described and the
results are tabulated.  The BTU equivalent per Ib of total solids
was found to be:  beef cattle 1900, poultry 1640,  swine 1400.
Further research is needed.
Methods of Recycling Animal Wastes
Poultry Digest 30: 434

Methods listed are:

     1.  Composting and seasonal spreading on land.
     2.  Slurrying, lagooning, and irrigation spraying.
     3.  Drying, grinding, selling for soil  amendment.
     4.  Drying, grinding, feeding as ration supplement.
     5.  Drying, fermenting, producing single cell  protein for
livestock feed.
     6a. Slurrying, lagooning, raising algae, feeding algae to stock.
     6b. Feeding algae to zooplankton, zooplankton to shrimp, shrimp
to dace or carp, dace to bass or trout.
     7.  Anaerobic digestion for methane gas.
     8.  Hydrogenation in a closed oxygen-free vessel for methane

     DAWSON, R. N.; and JACKSON, W. A.
Recycling Broiler House Litter on Tall Fescue Pastures at Disposal
     Rates and Evidence of Beef Cow Health Problems
Proc. ISLW  p. 321-324, 328
Abst:  McQ & B C-304

Fertilization of tall fescue pastures in northern Georgia has anpeared
to be profitable as it provided extensive grazing and limited erosion
on slopes.  After beef cattle began suffering from grass tetany
and/or nitrate toxicity a series of experiments was undertaken.  As a
result it is recommended that poultry litter disposal be limited to
nine MT per ha per year on tall fescue.
Best Future for Manure Is As Liquid
CALF News 9: Feb.  p. 52

WILLRETT, a cattle feeder at Malta, Illinois, reports success with
totally-enclosed slat-floored barns in which manure accumulates in
the basement at a rate of about one foot per month.  High-capacity
pumps fill a 2000-gal tank in 60 to 75 seconds.  The contents are
spread in a 20-ft swath before the ground freezes and again in the
WILLRICH, T. L. and MINER, J. Ronald
Litigation Experience  of Five Livestock and Poultry Producers
Proc. ISLW  p. 99-101
Abst:  McQ. & B C-239

Nuisance and trespass litigation can often be sustained under common
law.  Violation of zoning and anti-pollution regulations may be
actionable.  Five recent midwestern cases are reviewed.
WILLSON, George B.
Composting Dairy Cow Wastes
Proc. ISLW  p. 163-165
Abst:  Compost Sci.  13: July-Aug.  p. 2-3  (1972); McQ & B C-257

WILLSON reports a series of tests on aerobic composting to stabilize
dairy cow manure and deduces a set of rules for optimizing the
process.  Aerobic composting does not produce offensive odors.  It
is faster and produces more heat than anaerobic composting.


An Oxidation Wheel That Works
Farm Jnl. 95: Sept.  p. 14-15
Abst:  Compost Sci 13: Jan-Feb.  p. 28  (1972)

A Kansas hog raiser reports five years of operation of an oxidation
ditch for a 10,000 hog per year layout with no manure handling and
no odor complaints.  Costs of the "virtually" maintenance-free setup
are reported to be 89 $ per hog.  Wheel design and mounting with
adequate freeboard for the bearings account for the success.

WINDT, T. A.; BULLEY, N. R.; and STALEY, L. M.
Design,  Installation, and Biological Assessment of a Pasveer
     Oxidation Ditch on a Large British Columbia Swine Farm
Proc. ISLW  p. 213-216
Abst:  McQ & B C-273

A commercial prototype ditch subject to less-skilled maintenance and
greater departures from design criteria than the laboratory ditches
usually described, functions well.  It has given complete odor control
and the effluent from the ditch is easily handled by most pumps.
Operating costs are about 25 cents per finished hog.  Further research
is needed to avoid cyclic overloading and excess dilution from
drinking water spillage.
WITZEL, Stanley A.
A Study of Farm Wastes
EPA Pbln. SW-5r.2, p. 18-19

The quality, physical character, chemical and biological properties
of farm animal wastes, their economic value, and their possible
adverse effect on public health were studied.  Lagoons may provide
partial waste reduction.  The ultimate place of safe disposal for
farm animal waste is considered to be the soil.
YECK, Robert 6.
Generating Public Interest in Waste Management Programs
Agr. Engrg. 52: 623
Abst:  McQ & B B-649

"The chances of success for any waste management program will be
better when public support is attained."  Suggestions for enlisting
this support are given.


YECK, Robert G.
Proceedings Prologue to the 1971 International Symposium on Livestock
Proc. ISLW  p. 4-5

This Symposium, sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural
Engineers and held on the campus of the Ohio State University,
April 19-22, 1971, attracted an attendance of about 600.  Abstracts
of most of the 102 papers presented appear in this compendium.

YECK surveyed the background for the Symposium and summarized the
subject coverage.  He observed that the destination of wastes was
ultimate incorporation into cropland after processing.

A detailed table of contents appears on p. 2-3 of the Proceedings
which appeared as ASAE Publication Proc-271 under the title "Livestock
Waste Management and Pollution Abatement."
YECK, Robert G.
Agriculture's Role in Environmental Quality
Pur-o-sphere Convention, Kiamesha Lake, New York  10 p.

"The soil, if properly used, has tremendous capacities for degrading
wastes and being regenerated through a cropping system."  When,
however, as in portions of New York state, land spreading conflicts
with a predominant resort industry or a pressing suburbia other means
of waste disposal must be found.  "Processing of animal wastes by
heat treating or ensiling and then refeeding to the animals show
promise.  Biological separation of protein from the wastes with
insects and reclaiming nutrients through harvest of algae are exam-
ples of these alternatives."
YECK, Robert G. and SCHLEUSENER, Paul E.
Recycling of Animal Wastes
Proc. Natl. Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 121-127
Abst:  McQ & B C-343

Land recycling is current best practice.  It is, however, expensive
and is difficult to use where operations are large, land is scarce,
or neighbors are fastidious.  Sixteen refeeding processes, described
briefly are:

           Drying                             Lagooning
           Cooking                            Hydroponics
           Fumigation                         Insect
           Chemical                           Earthworm
           Washing                            Fish
           Pyrolysis                          Algae
           Ensiling - Fermentation            Yeast
           Composting                         Single Cell Protein

Ultimately, one or more of these may become more common than land
ZINDEL, Howard C.
Recycled Poultry Nutrients
Poultry Digest 30: 231-233

After a subhead, "Dehydrated poultry manure has proved its value as
a feedstuff in the laying ration, and tests show it can be recycled
many times," the author tabulates results of feeding various fractions
of the ration in DPW to chickens, sheep and cattle.  Goats refuse it.
"We are hopeful that a realistic recommendation will be forthcoming
soon from the Food and Drug Administration."
ZINDEL, Howard C.
Early Experiments at Michigan State University Involving the Use of
     Chicken Manure
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 152.  p. 2-3
Abst:  McQ & B E-204

The first work on refeeding of poultry manure at Michigan State was
performed in 1954.  Concern with antibiotics was of primary interest
in this and the somewhat later work by David LIBBY, P. J. SHAIBLE,
W. K. WARDEN, and J. D. YATES.  The efficacity of autoclaving and/or
oven drying in preparing chicken litter for refeeding was cited in
several of the early papers.
ZINDEL, Howard C. and FLEGAL, Cal J.
Economics of Dried Poultry Waste (DPW) as a Feed Ingredient or a
Mich. State Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Rsch. Rpt. 152.  p. 4-7
Abst:  McQ & B E-205

Based on assumptions stated in this paper, "the introduction of 25%
DPW into the feed replacing the corn results in a saving of $10/ton


or 2.0 $ per dozen eggs."  Wet manure is stated to have a fertilizer
value of $2.39 per ton and a cost of spreading of $11.96 per ton.
Dried manure, on the other hand, has a value of $50 per ton as an
organic fertilizer with a cost of drying and bagging of $26.74 per
President's Advisory Board Issues 10 Feedlot Pollution Observations
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: Dec.  p. 42, 43, 46, 47
Abst:  McQ & B F-061

Among observations of the Water Pollution Control Advisory Board which
have gone to EPA for review are:

     1.  Only eight states now have specific feedlot statutes.

     2.  Animal concentration, with attendant problems of waste
control and water pollution, is increasing.

     3.  In the 17 contiguous western states, cattle create more
pollution problems than sheep, swine, or poultry.

     4.  Potential pollution varies widely with precipitation,  land
slope, climate, and soil structure.

     5.  Pollution originating in animal feedlots may affect air and
water quality detrimentally in many ways.

     6.  Many feedlots do not meet present standards.

     7.  In low-rainfall areas relatively simple drainage and
storage provisions will prove to be adequate.

     8.  Opportunities may exist to use animal wastes for gas,  oil,
or animal feeds.

     9.  The objectives of the USDA Rural Environmental Assistance
program are sound.

     10. Regulations should be as consistent, constant and durable
as possible.
Committee on Feedlot Waste
Soil Conservation Service - Texas Tech Workshop.  Lubbock.  28-29 July

Eight papers, abstracted individually, discussed the law and pro-
cedures of the State of Texas for the protection of its waters, the
factors affecting feedlot waste, the quantity and quality of such
waste, the methods of disposing of it, and the design of feedlot
pollution abatement systems.
Livestock Waste:  Why Waste It?
Agric. Situation  Oct.  4 p.

Methods of utilization or disposal of manure currently used or under
investigation are described briefly.  These include land disposal,
lagoons, the Pasveer oxidation ditch, composting, dehydration, and
animal feeding.
 Why Waste Animal Wastes?
 Amer. Beef Producer, Nov.  p. 10-11

 Uses cited include "Ecolite," a building material "five times as
 light as concrete blocks," fireproof, easily handled, and economical.
 Made from feedlot manure and discarded glass, it can be used as an
 air or water filter.  A pilot manufacturing plant is to be established
 at Lovington, New Mexico.  The refeeding of cow manure, processed in
 an oxidation ditch, to steers has been successful in Iowa.
ANON  [Based on Walter WOODS]
Feedlots Can Be Too Clean, Nebraska Research Indicates
Beef 7: Feb.  p. 39

Studies at Central City, Nebraska, indicate that a thick manure pack
on a feedlot tends to absorb high-nitrogen wastes.  Microorganisms
present convert the nitrogen to gases dispersed into the atmosphere,
thus protecting groundwater.  The manure pack can be managed to
secure considerable decomposition and to restrict runoff from moderate
Waste Research Centers On Using Manure as Feed or Fertilizer
Beef 7: June  p. 8, 10

This summary report on the International Symposium on Livestock
Wastes cited a number of papers of especial interest to beef producers
and observed that the emphasis of the symposium was on management to
eliminate problems rather than elaborate machinery to handle them.
Reuse, rather than mere disposal, was stressed.  There is no single
best answer.  Variations in climate and other conditions call for
different solutions.
ANON  [Based on Donald W. THAYER]
Feed 'em Trash, Cut Pollution
Beef 7: July  p. 12

"Microbiological research at Texas Tech has shown that feedlot wastes
can be used both as a cellulose and a nitrogen source for conversion
of it and other waste into a complete cattle feed with a single cell
protein base."  At the present time yeast is the only microorganism
grown for food on a commercial scale, but others could be.
ANON  [Based on A. E. OLSON]
Engineer Says Feeders Can Handle Most Pollution Control Practices
Beef 7: July  p. 15

The basic requirement is to prevent runoff from the feeder's land.
Divert inflow around the lot.  Provide a debris basin or broad
terrace and drain it to a holding pond.  Use the holding pond for
irrigation.  For new feedlots:  avoid streams, put the lot at the
top of the slope, and promote county zoning to keep suburbanites
from encroaching.

ANON  [Based on H. L. SELF]
At Iowa Field Day -- Feeders Hear Woes of Confinement Start
Beef 7: July  p. 16-17

At Iowa State University's A!lee Experimental Farm an oxidation ditch
started up in winter produced vast quantities of ammojiia foam.  Later
this was replaced by protein foam w.hich froze.  Plumbing and motor
troubles added complications.
ANON  [Based on Robert C. ALBIN]
Texas Researcher is Attacking Waste Accumulation at Source
Beef 8: Sept.  p. 46

Experiments by Dr. Robert C. ALBIN of Texas Tech have established that
the percentage of roughage in a cattle ration can often be cut signifi-
cantly with no ill effects and with a marked reduction in manure
output.  Other findings reported are that crowding to less than 40 sq
ft per head results in lowered daily gains, less feed consumption and
reduced efficiency of feed utilization.  Slope of lot surface and
amount of shade had no significant effect.
ANON  [Based on Gerald FRANKL]
Oxidation Ditch is Cattle Feed Source
Beef 8: Oct.  p. 24  Disc. Nov.  p. 23

FRANKL is studying means of harvesting bacteria in an oxidation ditch
treating cattle manure to obtain a "biologically processed" protein
supplement for cattle feed.  The ditch effluent tested 46.8 percent
protein (dry basis).  It does not respond well to drying or other
processing and should be fed at point of origin.  Cattle tested have
done well on the supplement.  Cost figures have not been refined yet.

Ferdinand KVIDERA cautions on the public relations aspects "when some
Ralph Nader type of crusader finds out that cattle are being fed
ANON  [Based on Donald REDDELL]
Challenging Nature's Capacity for Manure Processing
CALF News 9: Feb.  p. 58

Manure was spread at rates of 900, 600, 300, and zero tons/acre and
plowed in by use of various machines in tests at Pecos and El Paso,
Texas.  Salt-tolerant high-nitrate-using crops were grown on the
plots which were irrigated to hasten decomposition of the manure.
"Objectives are (1) to provide a manure disposal bed that would
alleviate odor and insect problems, (2) to study the possible
pollution effects on the soil and water, and (3) to evaluate
different tillage techniques used in the land-fill operation."
Bacteria Convert Wastes Into $24-a-ton Feed
CALF News 9: July  p. 10, 50

Carefully selected bacteria can convert feedlot and other wastes into
a complete cattle feed with a single-cell protein base.  "What cannot
be converted is used by livestock as necessary roughage."  The mass of
cells can double in 20~60 minutes.  The process, being developed at


Texas Tech, requires large quantities of water.
however, be recycled.
The water may,
Feedback!  Iowa Beef Processors First Recycling Trial Shows Promise
CALF News 9: July  p. 22, 24

Gerald FRANKL, Vice President of Iowa Beef Processors and Dr. Richard
VETTER of Iowa State University are conducting what appears to be a
highly-successful refeeding project using 35 percent processed animal
by-product (PAB) at Denison, Iowa.  At the end of the first 75 days
of test the PAB-fed steers had an average daily gain of 4.19 Ib,
while the control steers had 4.02 Ib.  The cattle "love it and are
thriving on it."
ANON  [Based on Lynn SHUYLER]
EPA's New Feedlot Disposal Plan
CALF News 9: Aug.  p. 49, 62

The Robert S. Kerr Water Research Center in Ada, Oklahoma, is attempt-
ing to perfect a process wherein a colony of micro-organisms will
purify the effluent from a 12,000-head feedlot on 8 to 10 acres of
grassy slope.  Using a 2-to-6 percent slope, with terraces, on soil
too heavy to irrigate, the process removes better than 80 percent
of the phosphate and about 95 percent of the nitrogen.  A two-pond
system is used with effluent being pumped from the second pond after
two or three days retention.  Start-up requires about six weeks to
allow the colony to establish itself.  The water supply must be nearly
Final Results of PAB-fed Steers
CALF News 9: Sept.  p. 8

The steers reported on in [1971-1289] were slaughtered after 133 days
feeding.  They would have been ready at 110, but the extra time was
used in inch the ration up to 65 percent PAB seeking the point at
which they would back off the feed; they never did.  The carcasses
were graded choice.

FRANKL recommends confined feeding, but suggests a concrete slab
which can be flushed to gutters leading to an oxidation ditch as an
alternative means of salvaging manure for PAB production.

Feedlot Manure the Ecology Inspired Building Material
CALF News 9: Sept.  p. 12

Based on a secret process perfected by Prof. J. D. MACKENZIE of UCLA,
Richard and Charles KERSHAW plan to erect a plant in Lovington,
New Mexico, to convert treated cow dung (TCD) plus glass in a high-
temperature kiln into ecolite, a building product whose specific
properties can be varied by varying the TCD/glass ratio of the input.
 ANON   [Based on Jack TAYLOR and C. C. VAN HOUWELING]
 Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Livestock Wastes
 CALF News 9: Oct.  p. 44

 Information which the Food and Drug Administration would require if
 requested to approve various waste products as sources of animal
 feedstuffs include 1) the source of the raw materials, 2) a stepwise
 description of the processing, and 3) a description of the end
 product and its intended use.  Residues from drugs, pesticides, etc..
 are particularly suspect.
 ANON   [Based on Robert C. ALBIN]
 Control Manure by Feeding
 CALF News 9: Oct.  p. 56

 Robert C. ALBIN, Texas Tech, found in a series of studies that the
 amount of manure produced by cattle increased markedly with the per-
 centage of roughage fed.  Crowding to below 40 sq ft per head led to
 lower daily weight gains, lower feed consumption, and lower efficiency
 of feed utilization.  Slope of feedlot surface and amount of shade had
 no significant effects.
Process Converts Animal Wastes to Oil
Chem. and Engrg. News 49: 16 Aug.  p. 43
Abst:  McQ & B F-091

The U. S. Bureau of Mines Division of Coal has been studying the
conversion of cellulosic wastes to oil.  Manure responds to the
process better than most wastes.  The process consists of placing
the waste in a reaction vessel with carbon monoxide at an initial
pressure of 1200 psi, heating to 380C, and then holding for 20

minutes.  A ton of manure will produce three barrels of low-sulfur
oil.  The oil is difficult to refine to gasoline, but makes an excellent
fuel oil.  The process is considered to be economically viable.

ANON  [Based on Thomas DANKO]
Biological Fly Control Observed in New Hampshire
Egg Industry 4: Jan.  p. 20

At a farm in New Hampshire which had a serious fly problem in the
poultry house deep pit during its first year of operation, no problem
has existed since, thanks to the appetites of some small beetles.  No '
chemicals have been used.
A Pollution Solution with Built-in Profits
Egg Industry 4: June  p. 27-44, 48

The solution of the title is high-temperature drying to convert
poultry manure into a pathogen-free product suitable as an organic
fertilizer or feed ingredient.  "Proponents of the heat-drying
techniques are loudly proclaiming that liquid manure handling systems
and even the latest rage  deep pits -- are as outdated as scrubbing
boards for doing home laundry.  This school of thought -- which is
drawing converts as fast as an old-fashioned revival meeting  says
dfty^ing jj> tk& ority way-  And the drying must be done quickly with
extremely high temperatures that pasteurize the product, reduce
volume of original manure down to one-third and  with an afterburner
eliminate all odor and emissions."  The article is developed under the
subheadings:  "For ecology's sake, dry the wastes;" "Seeking an
organic fertilizer market;" "Toasted protein:  future of DPW is in
use as feed ingredient;" "Handle manure the dry way -- it might save
you money," and "Interest in drying methods is booming."
Pyrolysis of Refuse Gains Ground
Environ. Sci. and Tech. 5: 310-312

Pyrolysis of wastes as practiced by the U. S. Bureau of Mines, with
major emphasis on energy recovery, and of Enviro-Chem, with major
emphasis on solid waste disposal, is diagramed and discussed.
Enviro-Chem will probably sign a contract with New York City "in the
near future for a 1000-ton/day plant to be built on Staten Island."

ANON  [Based on George PRATT and R. L. WITZ]
.Some Problems to Hurdle
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: Feb.  p. 32

Under North Dakota conditions deep snow cover often prohibits manure
spreading.  Oxidation ditches will reduce solid volume forty percent.
Storage, however, is preferably outside the barn to eliminate
potentially harmful gases and humidity build-up under temperature
conditions not permitting forced ventilation.  Dehydration of manure
may be justified.  "And there's a possibility of using dried manure
as fuel."
 Innovative Operation  "Processes' Wastes
 Feedlot Mgmt. 13: Mar.  p. 22-23
 Abst:  McQ & B F-053

 Six photos, a diagram of the operation, and a financial breakdown
 of the $50,000 investment ($98.42 per head) on an oxidation ditch
 at Denison, Iowa, illustrate a means of eliminating manure spreading,
 handling, and storage.  Overflow goes to a lagoon outside the cold
 confinement barn.
 Processing of Wastes for Feed Shows Promise
 Feedlot Mgmt. 13: Apr.  p. 48, 50

 Scientists at Beltsville, Maryland, having observed that only forty
 to sixty percent of the energy in forage is utilized by a cow, fed
 sheep pelleted non-treated cattle wastes as seventy percent of their
 ration.  In other tests dried treated wastes were fed as 85 percent
 of the ration.  "Ill health was not observed in untreated or chemi-
 cally treated waste fed animals, but this aspect was not specifically
EDITORIAL  [Based on Robert C. ALBIN]
The New Science of Waste Management
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: May  p. 9, 46

Technical definitions of major terms used in the literature on
manure disposal and utilization are given.

ANON  [Based on Gary JOST]
Solution to a Runoff Problem
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: May  p. 12-15
Abst:  McQ & B F-055

Prompt drainage of a 12,000-head feedlot near Lamed, Kansas, to.
lagoons from which the water can be pumped for irrigation on operator-
owned land has solved pollution problems while avoiding accumulation
of mud and water in pens with their resulting animal  stress and the
risks involved in permitting cattle to drink from mudholes.  A
center-pivot sprinkler system disposes of the water.   The lines are
flushed with well water after each use for lagoon effluent to avoid
Spreading Systems Bury Odor of Liquid Manure
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: May  p. 20
Abst:  McQ & B F-056

The Canadian Department of Agriculture has developed systems for
delivering liquid manure to the land and injecting it directly or
plowing it under within seconds after spreading.  Odors are prevented
and fertilizer values otherwise destroyed by sun and air are
preserved.  Much attention is still required to reduce the costs
ANON  [Based on Richard K. WHITE]
Wastes May Provide Fuel for Heating
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: June  p. 31

Fifty to sixty percent of the gases produced by "anaerobic incin-
eration" have fuel value.  The heat content of manure is stated to
be:  poultry 7200 Btu/lb, beef cattle 6400, swine 5500, and dairy
cattle 5000.  Volume reduction and the production of dry innocuous
residue are other advantages of pyrolysis.
ANON  [Based on Keith S. MAYBERRY]
Plant Nutrient Score on Feedlot Manure
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: June  p. 40, ;44

It is suggested that feedlot operators obtain data on the value of
the N, P, K, and micronutrients of their manure to increase its
acceptability by local crop farmers.  Not all chemical value is


instantly available, and combinations of manure and commercial
fertilizers may be most effective.  Manure improves soil structure
and enhances microbial activity.  Salt accumulations may be
detrimental in some localities.  Use on sandy soils for the growing
of salt-tolerant crops may be worth investigating.
Liquid Waste Seeps From One Basin to Another
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: June  p. 56-57
Abst:  McQ & B F-058

A 1000-head feedlot at Nebraska City, Nebraska, uses a debris basin
separated by a rockfilled wall from a "blackwater basin."  From here
water is pumped to a grass-covered hillside draining to a terrace.
Water from the terrace is pumped to cropland.  Costs were $27 per
 Waste Systems, Regulations Rate High Priority in Feedlot Design
 Feedlot Mgmt. 13: Oct.  p. 52, 58-59

 This summary of a three-state conference (New Mexico, Oklahoma,
 Texas) at Amarillo to develop a manual on feedlot pollution control
 quotes J. C. WITHEROW, M. R. SCALF, and L. R. SHUYLER of Ada
 Oklahoma, on the gravity of the pollution problem, the need for
 well-considered design of facilities to handle the disposal ("A
 20,000-head capacity feedlot will require 1,667 acres to dispose
 of the solid manure produced annually"), and the relative merits
 of liquid vs. solid manure handling.  State regulations in the three
 states were described.
ANON  [Based on Russell ADAMS]
Plowing of Feedlot Manure Advised
Feedlot Mgmt. 13: Dec.  p. 20

Greenhouse tests in Minnesota with turkey manure applied at 20 tons/
acre-month indicated that plowing added less nitrate than discing
or slurry application -- and thus, involved less risk of groundwater
Method Shown for Recycling Waste; FDA Attitude Held Important
Feedstuffs 43: 3 Apr.  p. 4, 51


In a meeting at Winchester, Kentucky, a drying system capable of
converting forty tons per day of poultry manure to "fertilizer and
other useful organic products" was demonstrated.  Several papers
were presented.  Howard C. ZINDEL, reporting on multi-cycle refeeding
tests at Michigan State, observed that "present research has revealed
that dried poultry waste should not be considered as a feed additive,
but rather as a feed ingredient.  I am of the opinion that the
jurisdiction for this new feed ingredient should probably come under
the regulation of the states with broad guidelines from FDA."
John TUTTLE, Gary BILLIARD, Harvey HAMILTON, I. J. ROSS, and David
GRAHAM also spoke on various aspects of recycling.

Recycling Waste:  The Potential and the Problems
Feedstuffs 43: 7 Aug.  p. 2, 55
Abst:  McQ & B F-105

A number of opinions are quoted on the present justification of the
FDA ban on recycling of poultry wastes.  The work of James CARSON of
Purdue on using dried poultry waste as turkey litter and of Howard C.
ZINDEL of Michigan State on recycling of poultry wastes is described.
Animal Waste Disposal
Feedstuffs 43: 14 Aug.  p. 30

National Hog Center discharges effluent "cleaner than most industrial
or municipal wastes" into the Fraser River in British Columbia.
Treatment is by an anaerobic lagoon with a 30-day detention time and
a Pasveer ditch.
Cornmeal-Manure Ration
Feedstuffs 43: 14 Aug.  p. 51

Lewis W. SMITH and Chester H. GORDON of the USDA, Beltsville, Maryland,
have reported on tests of feeding heifers on cornmeal and manure in
ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 ad tibi&w for 90 days.  Average daily gains
for the three rations were 0.47, 0.41, and 0.40 Ib respectively.
Bloating was relieved by feeding 115 gm of long alfalfa per day.
The high cost of drying manure and its low digestibility make these
rations uneconomical at present.

Recycling Waste:  Research Shows What Can Be Done
Feedstuffs 43: 14 Aug.  p. 64-66

Papers presented at the International Symposium on Livestock Wastes
and elsewhere on refeeding of dried manure are summarized.  Other
means of recycling being investigated are:  composting and seasonal
spreading; slurrying, lagooning and irrigation spraying; drying,
comminuting, and fermenting to produce single-cell protein to be
fed; slurrying, lagooning, aerating, fermenting, and production of
algae as feed; anaerobic digestion to produce methane gas; and
hydrogenation to produce methane gas.
 ANON   [Based on Robert C. ALBIN]
 Texas  Tech Scientist Cites Rations' Effect on Waste Accumulation
 Feedstuffs 43: 25 Sept.  p. 4

 Tests  on feedlot steers resulted in daily manure production of
 2.2 Ib with zero roughage, 4.5 Ib with 10 percent roughage and 5 Ib
 with 12 percent roughage.  While zero percent is not presently
 practical, significant reductions in manure volume can be obtained
 by reducing roughage in many cases.  Slope and shade had little
 effect, but reduction of space below 40 sq ft per steer reduced
 ANON   [Credited to Pfizer Feeder Facts]
 New Waste Recycling System Said Nearinq Demonstration Stage
 Feedstuffs 43: 20 Oct.  p. 4

 An unnamed concern from outside the field of agri-business is
 reported to be about to erect a pilot plant in the Southwest in
 which thermophilic micro-organisms will convert cellulose and lignin
 to microbial protein which may be used for animal feed.  Basic
 research has been completed.
Feeding Wastes
Feedstuffs 43: 11 Dec.  p. 14

Tests at Michigan State University in the feeding of dried swine
feces (DSF) and dehydrated poultry waste (DPW) to swine are described.
It was concluded that finishing pigs will consume corn-soy rations
containing up to 22 percent of DSF at 90 to 95 percent full appetite,
that rate and efficiency of gain will be depressed by the incorporation


of DSF in corn-soy rations to replace all or most of the soybean
meal, that inclusion of DSF does not affect flavor or acceptability
of the meat, and that DPW is of somewhat less value than DSF in
swine rations.
ANON  [Based on Walter LANGSTON.  Credited to Ohio Farmer]
Fermented Poultry Manure Recycled
Poultry Digest 30: 190

LANGSTON, of Midwest Research Institute, "has worked with a 250,000-
layer operation in which manure is collected in a tank where it is
made into a slurry so it can be pumped.  It is heat treated to kill
disease organisms.  Then, bacterial fermentation is used to upgrade
the material so that it can be fed to the animal or bird, either as
a wet material or dried.  The entire process takes less than 36

No ill effects appeared with recycling through the same chickens
several times.

ANON  [Credited to Poultry World  15 Apr.]
Poultry Manure Dried with Microwaves
Poultry Digest 30: 391

A British firm is reported to have developed a microwave drier with
a one-ton per hour output.  Costs of $2.40 per ton for continuous
operation or $5 per ton on a forty-hour week are quoted for the
machine which is priced between $50,000 and $60,000.  "Dried manure
emerges in a wide continuous strip.  Since there is no odor, it would
make a suitable garden fertilizer, but it is believed that the main
outlet will be for ruminant feeds."
ANON   [Based on G. Alex MILLS]
Manure -- New Source of Crude Oil?
Poultry Digest 30: 493

The U. S. Bureau of Mines has produced low-sulfur crude oil from
manure with a ton of oil and a ton of water being obtained from two
tons of manure.  No problems are anticipated in scaling up to a full
commercial operation, but a minimum of two more years of work will
be necessary.
ANON  [Based on W. R. FOX.  Credited to Miss. Farm Rsch.  Aug.  '71]


Oxidation Pond Effluent Suitable for Irrigation
Poultry Digest 30: 506

Application of 23.8 inches of irrigation water in 17.5 months from
an oxidation pond in Mississippi did no harm.  The nutrients were
insufficient to maintain a high level of crop production.  Rainfall
during the period was 81.95 inches.
ANON   [Based on George R. STEPHENS and David . HILL.  Credited to
     Conn. Poultry Notes, Sept.  '71]
Forest Land for Manure Disposal
Poultry  Digest 30: 553

"Liquid  manure was applied with  a tractor-drawn tank spreader across
a  30-ft  swath in a white pine plantation."  It dried quickly and
was dispersed by rains within two months.  Flies were not attracted
and the  trees used the nitrogen  effectively.  Application rates must
be governed to avoid nitrogen build-up in groundwater.

Drying Manure Reduces "Biddy Odor" at Berry Best Egg Farm
Poultry  Tribune 77: Jan.  p. 60, 62

An oil-fired drier capable of converting 10,500 Ib of wet manure
(75 percent moisture) into 3200  Ib of dried product (10 percent
moisture)  in an 8-hour run at a  cost of $20/ton (dry basis) is
described.  "The dry product makes an excellent organic fertilizer
or it can  be used as recycled nutrients since it is high in protein,
ami no acids, phosphoric acid, and potash."
Use Manure  Solve Disposal Problems
Successful Farmer 69: Oct.  p. 44

Manure is valuable as a fertilizer (about $4 per ton) and as a soil
conditioner.  It may be particularly useful on grass since grass
has a high nitrogen requirement.
Ways to Handle Swine Wastes
Wallaces Farmer 96: 13 Feb.  p. 46

A recently issued bulletin of the National Pork Producers Council
described methods of handling swine wastes.  An oxidation ditch
under a slotted floor will minimize odors, reduce organic wastes
up to 50 percent, and produce an effluent suitable for application
to cropland at an operating cost of 0.6 to 1 < per hog per day.  An
aerated lagoon is similar to an oxidation ditch, but is outside the
building.  It is ineffective in freezing weather.  An anaerobic
lagoon, the most common facility at present, produces odors when
overloaded, especially in late spring and early summer; it is inactive
in cold weather.
ANON  [Based on 0. I. BERGE et al]
Costs of Manure Systems and Operations Compared
Wallaces Farmer 96: 13 Mar.  p. 72

Costs for a 50-cow dairy, which produces 685 tons of manure per year,
are quoted as follows:  for daily field spreading $3200 capital and
$2000 annual operating; for stacking $4400 capital and $1500 annual
operating; for liquid storage (assuming 150-day accumulation and
contract labor) $14,000 to $16,000 capital and $2500 annual operating.
Electrolytic Treatment of Farm Waste
Water and Waste Trtmt. 14: Oct.  p. 9-10

An automatic ten-step slurry purification unit developed by Halmarl
and obtainable on the British market is described.  A unit capable
of handling the manure from 100 dairy cows or 300 pigs will fit in
an octagonal timber building 16 ft in diameter and 10 ft tall.  The
unit handles slug flows without difficulty, is not subject to block-
age with inert material, can be erected in two days with simple
tools, has low power consumption, and has low operating and main-
tenance costs.

The effluent may be reused for flushing or may be discharged to
Farm Wastes:  A Symposium
Water Poll. Control 70: 108-110

The program and abstracts of 18 papers in a symposium held at the
University of Newcastle upon Tyne 7-8 Jan., 1970, are given.

ANON  [Based on Kenneth E. McCLURE]
Feeding Tests Confirm Digestibility of Manure
Western Livestock Jnl. 49: Nov.  p. 70

Sheep did well on a ration of 45 percent dried cattle manure,
5 percent molasses, 20 percent alfalfa meal, 1 percent trace-
mineralized salt, and 29 percent ground shelled corn.  Where the
cattle had been corn fed, their feces still contained 36 to 40
percent digestible dry matter.
Reports and Recommendations of Working Groups
Proc. Natl Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.  p. 179-185

Information programs should be coordinated and rendered more effective.
Education and training programs should be initiated and expanded.
Technical assistance should be broadened, accelerated, and more
adequately funded.  Financial assistance should be increased
significantly.  Research and development should be intensified in
odor control, land application, and recycling.  Legislation and
regulation should be improved.
 ADAMS, John B.
 Dairy Farmer Concerns of Laws and Regulations Affecting Animal Waste
 Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 97-100

 Dairy farmers may be caught between public health laws requiring
 removal of manure to assure milk sanitation and water pollution
 control laws forbidding spreading of manure on snow or frozen
 ground.  Unemotional practical solutions are required.
Application of Iowa's Water Pollution Control Law to Livestock
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 47-59

The Iowa Water Pollution Control Commission has authority over
agricultural, as well as other, pollution.  The paper reviews its
history.  The Commission cooperates with other state and federal
agencies in accomplishing its purpose.

Implications of the Permit Program in the Poultry and Animal Feeding
Proc. Cornell Agric. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 25-45

By executive order the Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, was directed
to regulate discharge of effluents from poultry and animal feeding
operations to navigable waters and their tributaries effective
30 July 71.  By a court order issued 23 Dec 71 ". .  . there can now
be no permits issued at all, and therefore no discharge tolerated."

A zero-discharge philosophy is needed.  Methods of accomplishing
this include closed-confinement operations with an oxidation ditch
and some means of polishing the effluent which will  have received
95 percent treatment in the ditch.  An oxidation ditch has low capital,
operating, and management requirements.  Land disposal requires the
determination of limits of assimilative capacity.  Bio-filters
handling spray irrigation hold promise.  Refeeding and pyrolysis merit
intense study.
Managing Animal Waste Disposal Svstems
Farm Qtrly. 27 (2): 56-58
Abst:  McQ & B F-031

The poor reputation lagoons have acquired in some areas is often the
result of poor design, poor location, or improper management.  They
can be effective in~Missouri, less so to the north, and more so to the

Management suggestions include keeping the water level nearly constant,
starting the lagoon at the beginning of warm weather, keeping the pH
above 6.7 by adding lime or lye, loading continuously or at least
daily, allowing two years for the lagoon to stabilize, and pumping
out annually.
How To Dispose of Manure and Stay Out of Court
Farm Qtrly. 27 (4): 52-56

All states and Canadian provinces now prohibit discharge to surface
or underground waters.  Consult the applicable law before starting
or enlarging an operation.  Note the distances to downwind neighbors,
Adequate spreading areas should be owned or held under long-term
lease.  Suggestions and cost estimates are given for beef, dairy,
and swine operations.


PEIA Conferees Hear About Dried Poultry Waste Progress
Feedstuffs 44: 4 Sept.  p. 2, 44

The Poultry and Egg Institute of America heard reports from Lynn
KLOPFENSTEIN on use of Dried Poultry Waste (DPW) as a soil condi-
tioner, from N. R. CLIZER on its use for refeeding, and from
C. C. SHEPPARD on its use for both purposes in England.

CLIZER emphasized the necessity to institute proper control to
produce a uniform product and the necessity of coordinating present
research to establish a firm basis for securing Food and Drug
Administration approval of refeeding.
APPELL, Herbert R. and MILLER, Ronald D.
Fuel from Agricultural Wastes
Bureau of Mines paper pres. at ACS Meeting, New York

The paper deals with the conversion of agricultural wastes to
industrial fuel oil.  Some basic theory behind the process and the
experimental procedure is given.  Various agricultural wastes such
as corn cobs, corn stalks, rice hulls, pine bark, and bovtne manure
are considered.  Tables for each are'provided showing conversion,
oil yields, CO consumption, and operating conditions.

The authors suggest that additional research is required in the
problem areas of reducing operating pressure, separating the oil
product from high-ash-content wastes, and decreasing the molecular
weight and viscosity of the product oil.
The Use of Animal Wastes as Fertiliser
Jnl. of Agric., So. Australia 75: 178-184

The amounts of manure produced and its composition are discussed.
Application rates should not exceed 300 Ib of nitrogen per acre
to avoid groundwater contamination and other detrimental effects.
Application of more than 100 Ib per acre is useless.  If manure is
used, for irrigation it should be diluted with water.  Odor and
runoff can create difficulties.
AUBURN UNIVERSITY Animal and Dairy Sciences Dept.
A Phase of Research in Livestock Feeding
Auburn Univ.  3 p.


After a feeding program of 152 days with yearling cattle fed an
ensiled mixture (pH 4.8) containing corn (48 percent), hay (12
percent), and waste (40 percent) on which they had average daily
gains of 2.62 Ib and received carcass grades of U. S. Choice, the
final test was accompanied by a menu listing appetizers, Delmonico
steaks, chef's salad, potato boats, rolls and butter, and lemon
ice box pie.
Using Air Intensity Limits in Air Quality Standards
ASAE Paper 72-441  16 p.
Abst:  McQ & B G-173

Progress with the provision of instrumentation for establishing a
quantitative scale of odor intensities is described.  Field tests
are often marred by adaptation and fatigue.  Fourteen^odor qualities
are listed as a tentative basic classification.  State odor regu-
lations are tabulated and attitudes on their desirability are
discussed.  Nineteen references are listed.
Laboratory Simulation of Swine Manure Lagoons
Progress Report on OWRR Project No. A-025-SC  17 p. proc.

Anaerobic lagoons have operated successfully in the Southeast for
up to ten years.  "Success is measured primarily on the basis of
convenience and not on the basis of water purification."

Laboratory investigations of the effects of varying loading rates
and detention times are reported and published data are tabulated.
Tentative conclusions include "the implication tliat lagoons for
solids reduction efficiency should receive loading at rates less
than 12 Ib V. S./1000 ft3/day and lagoons for solids storage
efficiency should be loaded in excess of 12. . .  Longer detention
times could be expected to reduce the rate of sludge accumulation
and to increase the solids reduction rates found thus far in this
Correlating Oil and Odorous Components in Stored Dairy Manure
ASAE Paper 72-950  17 p.

The odor intensity index (Oil) is defined as the number of dilutions
by one-half that are necessary to reduce the odor to a level that is


just detectable.  By means of odor panels, the authors sought corre-
lations of Oil with one or more of the components:  volatile
organic acids (VOA), ammonia (N^), and hydrogen sulfide (^S),
commonly present in liquid manure.  Six regression equations (in
the single variables, VOA with each of the others, and all  three
variables) were deduced.
Handling Mil king-Parlor Waste
Canadian Agr. Engrg. 14 (2): 56-58

Forced aeration of milking-parlor wastes, while producing a clari-
fied effluent much more acceptable than the raw wastes,, does not
produce an effluent acceptable for discharge to streams.   "Although
a septic tank system is quite capable of handling the volume of
waste from a milking parlor, it is unlikely that it can cope with
the high strength of, and wasted milk in, milking-parlor effluents."
A lagoon would have to be sized as an odor-controlling facility and
be pumped out periodically for land spreading.   "... where the
manure is already being handled as a liquid, the most satisfactory
alternative would appear to be combining the milking-parlor waste
with the manure. .  . the watery mil king-parlor waste would tend
to improve the handling characteristics of the manure."
Drying Poultry Manure and Refeeding the End Product
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p.  289-293

Power costs for a dryer vary with moisture content desired,  but
should be about $6 to 8 per ton of dried  product.   Total  costs
range from $15 to 35 with the largest component often being  the
transportation of the manure from point of deposit to dryer.   The
quality of the end product depends on feed, method of drying,  and
promptness of drying.  Daily drying is preferable, and recycling
of dried manure with wet incoming manure  should be avoided'.

The optimum refeed level for laying hens  is 10 to  15 percent dried
poultry waste (DPW).  It may replace an equal  amount of corn.
"Fair to excellent" gains have been obtained by feeding cattle 25
percent DPW.
"You Dry It and We'll Buy It"
Poultry Meat 23: Nov.  p. 18

An Indiana firm selling poultry manure dryers will contract to
purchase the manure dried.  It has'been unable to supply the demand
at $3 to $3.25 per 50-lb bag retail.  Temperatures of 180 to 200F
kill seeds and microorganisms.
BETHEA, Robert M.
Solutions for Feedlot Odor Control Problems  A Critical Review
Jnl. Air. Poll. Control Assn. 22; 765-771.  Disc. p. 771-773

Dr. BETHEA reports on a literature survey on the chemical makeup of
odors and possible techniques for their control.  Parallels are cited
in the rendering industry.  He cites 52 references.

"The following methods of control as applied to excreta are discussed
in detail with comparative cost and effectiveness data:  odor
prevention by modification of feed rations; odor reduction by recycle
manure feeding and by improved waste handling procedures; odor
control by chemical reaction, ozonation, gas washing and scrubbing;
and odor elimination by thermal and catalytic oxidation."

The discussers, Thamon E. HAZEN (p. 771-772), and John L. MILLS and
John A. DANIELSON  (p. 773), stress good housekeeping and the need
for realistic cost ranges.
BETHEA, Robert M. and NARAYAN, R. S.
Identification of Beef Cattle Feedlot Odors
ASAE Trans. 15: 1135-1137

Laboratory determinations of the qualitative nature of gases present
under various circumstances in the vicinity of a cattle feedlot are
reported as are the meagre results of a "frustrating" literature
BIELY, Jacob; SOONG, R.; SEIER, L.; and POPE, V!. H.
Dehydrated Poultry Waste in Poultry Rations
Poultry Sci. 51: 1502-1511
Abst:  W73-03992

Dehydrated poultry waste, with less than ten percent moisture content,
was fed at levels of five to thirty percent to chicks, broiler stock,
and laying hens in rations calculated to be approximately isonitro-
genous (total N) and isocaloric.  When the DPW was included in a
well-balanced ration, no detrimental effect was observed on the health
of the birds.  Growth and feed efficiency decreased when the DPW


content was increased beyond ten percent.  The economics of the
over-all operation will require much study.  "Even if the poultry
industry had to subsidize the production of D.P.W. to make it
competitive with other ingredients, it would be justified, since
it would allow the poultry men to stay in business with fairly
odor-free premises and at the same time contribute to the improve-
ment of the 'quality1 of the environment."
Weed Seeds Not Likely in Poultry Manure
The Farmer  17 Nov 72
Reprinted:  Poultry Digest 32: 30  (1973)

Lush weed growth on areas fertilized with poultry manure is due to
the manure value on seeds already present.  Tests indicated that
only velvet weed, of seven weeds tested, survived poultry digestion
with ability to germinate (1.9 percent of sample fed).
Iowa Beef Processors Researching Confinement Feedina, Recycling Waste
Feedstuffs 44: 14 Aug.  p. 35-36
Abst:  McQ & B F-107

Recycling of feedlot waste into processed animal  byproduct (PAB) is
receiving careful attention.  In two tests reported in Iowa cattle
with a 37.25 percent PAB ration consumed more feed and gained faster
than control cattle.  Many variables remain to be optimized.   The
PAB used originated in the bottom third of an oxidation ditch.
Evaluation of Beef Waste Management Alternatives
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 365-384

Design considerations for a feedlot should include 1) feedlot laws
and regulations, 2) climatic conditions, 3) location, 4) unique
local conditions, 5) design criteria for components in the system,
6) economic considerations, and 7) integration of the various
systems into a final plan.  The objectives of the research described
were to develop design criteria to minimize pollution, facilitate
handling of wastes, and minimize costs consistent with effective
waste disposal.

Variations of open feedlots and confinement buildings are discussed
as are methods of collecting, treating, and disposing (to the land)


of wastes.  A cost analysis for a 20,000-head feedlot is worked
out.  Many valuable practical points are raised in this excellent
Canada Animal Waste Management Guide
Canada Committee on Agr. Engrg.  Paged by sections.

The guide is designed "to bring together the current practices that
provide reasonable approaches to handling animal wastes.  Emphasis
is placed on the use of land as a recycling system."  Legislation
is summarized by province.  Manure management and its utilization
in crop production are discussed.  Methods of processing animal
wastes dealt with are anaerobic lagoon, anaerobic digester, oxidation
ditch, mechanically aerated lagoon, dehydration, incineration, and

Predrying Manure in the Poultry House
DeKalb Mgmt. News and Views.  Sept.
Reprint:  Poultry Digest 31: 592

Air moving in the pit under a poultry house 24 hrs per day is
effective in removing moisture, thus in reducing odor and fly
problems and labor in cleaning the smaller volume of more-easily
handled manure which remains.  When cleaning, several inches of
dry manure should be left to absorb moisture.  The savings obtained
may exceed the costs.
 CONNOLLY, John A. and STAINBACK, Sandra E.
 Solid Waste Management:  Abstracts from the Literature -- 1965
 EPA Pbln. SW-66.1  216 p.

 Following the format of the 1964 abstracts [1971-1059], this volume
 contains eight abstracts on agricultural wastes, numbered 65-0230
 through 65-0237, on pages 46-48.
 CONNOLLY, John A. and STAINBACK, Sandra E.
 Solid Waste Management:  Abstracts from the Literature -- 1966
 EPA Pbln. SW-66.2c  197 p.

 Following the format of the volumes for 1964 and 1965, this volume
 contains 46 abstracts on agricultural wastes, numbered 66-0193


through 66-0238, on pages 46-59.  All but ten of the papers abstracted
were presented at the National Symposium on Animal Waste Management
of the ASAE at East Lansing, Michigan, 5-7 May, 1966.
CONNOLLY, John A. and STAINBACK, Sandra E.
Solid Haste Management:  Abstracts from the Literature -- 1967
EPA Pbln. SW-66.3c  404 p.

Abstracts on agricultural wastes in this volume are numbered 67-0328
through 67-0357.  They occur on p. 80-90.
CONNOLLY, John A. and STAINBACK, Sandra E.
Solid Waste Management:  Abstracts from the Literature -- 1968
EPA Pbln. SW-66.4c  286 n.

Abstracts on agricultural wastes in this volume are numbered 68-0267
through 68-0329.  They occur on p. 53-65.
COOPER, George E.; HINDS, F, C.; and LEWIS, J. M.
The Nutritive Value of Sheep Feces  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 34: 358

Analyses of feces from lambs on all-concentrate diet, lambs on half
concentrate-half roughage diet, and ewes on all-roughage diet
showed increasing percentages of cellulose, lignin, and ash as the
roughage increased.  An ensiled mixture of whole corn plant and ewe
feces from an all-roughage diet was not highly acceptable to ewes.
Additional corn and soybean meal with 0, 6.25, 12.5, 18.75, and 25
percent feces resulted in consumption adequate for maintenance.
COSTIGANE, William D.; EDWARDS, Douglas H.; FRAIPONT, Delwyn R.;
     McCLEAN, Garry R.; PIMCHIN, James H.; and YOUNGER, Brian H.
Methane Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Animal Wastes
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario.  75 p. + 8 unnumbered

"The purpose of this report.is to investigate the nature and magnitude
of environmental pollution from farm animal wastes and to design an
anaerobic digestion system that stabilizes the waste, thereby reducing
its pollutional effect.  The destruction of pathogenic organisms and
the production of useable products such as a combustible gas and a
stable innocuous sludge are ancillary benefits achieved from the

process. .  .  The anaerobic digestion system described in this reoort
is not, at present, considered feasible for animal waste treatment
on a small  farm due to the high initial equipment cost."

Chapter headings in this well-planned comprehensive report are:
Introduction, Characteristics of animal wastes, Digester gas utili-
zation and safety, Sludge utilization and disposal, Microbiology
and kinetics of anaerobic digestion, Design of the anaerobic digestion
unit, Conclusions, and Recommendations.  Sixty references are included,

A 21-page proposal, bearing the same title and carrying the desig-
nation WRI Project 2034, has been submitted to the Environmental
Protection Service, Environment Canada for building and operating a
pilot plant and for conducting other studies.

Feeding Poultry Manure to Animals
Feedstuffs 44: 31 July  p. 24-25, 27
Abst:  McQ & B F-106

In a good review of recent research, COUCH indicates that broiler
chicks could tolerate five percent of dehydrated poultry waste (DPW).
Growth decreased significantly when the percentage was raised to
ten and twenty due to low energy content.  No effect on egg taste or
storage quality was detectable when laying hens were fed ten, twenty,
or thirty percent DPW.

DPW was recycled in the same poultry through 14 cycles of 12 days
each in some tests.  At 12-1/2 percent no adverse effects appeared,
but at 25 percent the effects of the low energy content were clearly
present.  The age of manure at the time of drying is critical, and
the method of drying is important.  Manure for feed should be dried

Swine showed depressed feed conversion with as little as five percent

Sheep can obtain up to fifty percent of their total nitrogen intake
from DPW without adverse effects.  Approximately forty nutritionists
agree unanimously that "the best place to use dehydrated poultry
waste was in beef cattle rations."
This Bunker Stores Manure
Hoard's Dairyman 117: 875, 884, 885

A bunker-type building with 11-foot walls made of 2-by-6 planking
stores manure in northern Wisconsin.  It was used two years before a
roof was added.  Two floor drains lead runoff to a detention pond
used as a source of irrigation water.  By adding manure only two or
three time per week during fly season, enough drying occurs to reduce
the fly problem.- The bunker has less odor than liquid manure, but
the solids when spread should be plowed or disced promptly.
DAVIS, E. G.; FELD, I. L.; and BROWN, J. H.
Combustion Disposal of Manure Wastes and Utilization of the Residue
USDI Bureau of Mines Tech.  Prog. Rpt. 46  9 p.

In laboratory-scale investigations at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, it was
determined that pre-dried manure would sustain combustion in a
fluid-bed reactor and that wet manure can be both dried and burned
in a rotary kiln.  Weight reductions of as much as 90 percent and
volume reductions of 85 percent can be obtained.  The residue is
suitable as a potassium and phosphorus fertilizer and as a lime
soil conditioner.  The nitrogen can be recovered as ammonia from
the exhaust gases.
 DIESCH, Stanley L.
 Survival of Pathogens in Animal Manure Disposal
 EPA Grants EP-00302-04 Annual Report  39 p. proc.

 "The oxidation ditch is probably not a public health hazard in terms
 of aerosol dissemination of leptospires.  However, if the liptosniral
 contaminated manure slurry is not disinfected in some manner environ-
 mental health problems would probably result."  There may be a public
 health hazard from aerosols in the spray disposal of wastes.
DOLL, Raymond J.
Economic Impact of Agricultural Pollution Control Problems
Cornell Agric. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 9-16

In 1967 Kansas adopted regulations requiring the control of all runoff
from animal feedlots, with a minimum retention of three inches of
surface runoff.  Since then cattle marketings from large lots in the
state have doubled.  Regulation is necessary, but it should be soundly
planned and flexible for maximum total effectiveness.
DUGAN, G. L.; GOLUEKE, Clarence G.; and OSWALD, William J.
Recycling System for Poultry Wastes
WPCF Jnl. 44: 432-440


This paper describes the pilot plant at the Richmond Field Station,
California, in which an integrated sanitation-waste material
recycling system which treats wastes, conserves water, and reclaims
directly the nutrients in the waste is being tested.  In an aerobic
phase algal activity or mechanical aeration could be used.  If algae
are grown a potential 30 to 40 tons (dry weight) of algae per acre of
pond per year can be obtained.  Algae can be'used as a portion of the
chicken feed with no noticeable effect of flavor or acceptability of
the eggs or on the weight, morbidity, or mortality of the birds.

Cost estimates for a prototype plant are in the range of 1-2  cents/
dozen eggs.

 Schematic diagrams and process data are included in the paper.
Nitrogen Losses through Denitrification and Other Changes in
     Continuously Aerated Poultry Manure
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 545-554

Oxidation ditches studied under winter (11C avg) and summer (18C
ayg) conditions lost about 70 to 80 percent of the input nitrogen
with little difference traceable to temperature effect.   Ditch
velocities were about 1 fps.
EARL, George A., Jr.
Controlling Odors From Manures
Poultry Digest  31: 397-398

Manure should be kept as dry as possible.  When spread, it should be
plowed or disced under.  If spread as a slurry, it should be
injected.  Avoid spreading on hot, muggy days and in late afternoons
or evenings upwind of neighbors.  Masking agents may help.  Practice
good housekeeping.
Changes in Composition of Continuously Aerated Poultry Manure with
     Special Reference to Nitrogen
Cornell Univ. Conf. on Agr. Waste Mgmt.  p. 178-184

Nitrogen beyond the capacity of a crop to utilize it may pollute
groundwater or surface water.  Thus, according to the circumstances,
it may be desired to conserve the nitrogen content of manure or to
reduce it drastically before spreading or irrigating.  Studies in the
laboratory and with an oxidation ditch in Guelph, Ontario, are

"From the limited data obtained in this study, the oxidation ditch
appears to be a useful device for controlling the ultimate nitrogen
content of the manure before land utilization.  By encouraging the
nitrification-denitrification sequence nitrogen can be removed and,
presumably, by inhibiting nitrification, nitrogen could be conserved.
Further studies are underway to determine the feasibility of nitri-
fication inhibition in the oxidation ditch."
10 Recommendations to Control Water Pollution
Prairie Farmer 144: 4 Mar.  p. 72-73

Application of animal wastes to land is the most practical  approach,
particularly for small operators, in the opinion of the federal
Water Pollution Control Advisory Board.  "But the board also wants
to consider such promising possibilities as converting animal wastes
into fuels, building materials, dry fertilizer, and tires,  and
recycling these wastes in animal feeds."

Problems are mentioned.
Waste Crisis Alters Hog Man's Disposal  System
Prairie Farmer 144: 19 Aug.  p. 16-17

The substitution of a manure holding pit for undersized pits under a
slotted floor hoghouse solved an overload problem traced to feeding
of high-moisture corn.
Wastes Are Valuable
Prairie Farmer 144: 18 Nov.  p. 16-17

Huntington Hatchery (Indiana) dehydrates poultry manure for sale as
a lawn conditioner.  While it has some odor, it has the advantage of
not hardening in the bags.  Experimental work by Dr. Howard C. ZINDEL
at Michigan State University indicates that the dried manure has value
as a component of poultry rations.   Commercial  use for this purpose
awaits anproval by the Food and Drug Administration.

A hundred birds produce a ton of dried manure per year.

ELAM, F. Lei and
Flushing System and Lagoon Eliminate Manure Problem
Hoard's Dairyman 117: 378

A homemade system near Turlock, California, provides for the flushing
of a 400-cow dairy barn to a lagoon.  A scum cover which formed on
the lagoon eliminates mosquitoes and odor.  From the laaoon 200 acres
of pasture and corn can be irrigated by gravity.  "Solids pass out
with the liquid."
Initial Observations of Several Medium Sized
     Renovation Systems for Animal Wastes
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 405-410
                                  and HANSEN,  C,  M.
                                 Barriered Landscape Water
A barriered landscape water renovation system is an "inexpensive
modification of the permeable soil" consisting of a moisture barrier
40 to 60 ft wide located 12 to 30 in. below the original  soil  surface,
recovered to original level, and, in addition, covered in part by a
4 to 6 ft high mound capped with limestone and/or slag.   The mound
remains aerobic, the refill becomes anaerobic, and the BLWRS provides
a long percolation path to remove phosphate, organic matter, and
nitrate from wastewaters spread at the top of the mound.

Several are undergoing test at Michigan State University.
Total Waste Management Systems. .  .
     Protect Feeders from Conflicts
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p. 16-18
Abst:  McQ & B F-063
                        Help Keep Cattle Healthy and
                        with Public
A company feeding 50,000 head of cattle at three locations in western
Kansas has developed "a total concept of pollution control, cattle
health and protection and efficient waste handling."  Keys are the
containment of all runoff on land under company ownership, prevention
of flooding by interconnecting lagoons and by providing for pumping
to evaporating areas from the lowermost lagoon.

Manure is stockpiled then sold to farmers.
J.; SHEPPARD, C. C.; and DORN, D.  A.

The Effects of Continuous Recycling and Storage on Nutrient Quality
     of Dehydrated Poultry Waste  (DPW)
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 295-300

Trials whose purposes were to determine the effect of storage on
the nutrient quality and to determine the cumulative effects of an
extended period of cycles of drying and refeeding on performance are
reported.  A tabulation of crude  protein shows 30.3 percent nresent
after seven days and 18.3 percent after 98 days.  In the recycling
experiments, performance after 31 cycles was better for the birds
fed 12.5 percent DPW, than for those fed none or 25 nercent.
 FOSGATE, 0. T. and BABB, M. R.
 Biodegradation of Animal Waste by Lumbtiic.uA
 Jnl.  Dairy Sci.  55: 870-872

 Earthworms on  a  diet of raw dairy cattle feces and water with suffi-
 cient lime added to maintain a pH of 7,0 produced 1 kg of worms
 for  each 2 kg  of dry fecal matter.  The earthworm castings, a loose
 friable humus  tyoe of soil containing three percent nitrogen, pro-
 vide an excellent greenhouse potting soil weighing half as much as
 the  usual potting soil and providing more flowers on more strongly
 rooted plants.   The earthworm meal, containing 58 percent protein
 and  2.8 percent  fat, is very palatable to domestic cats.
     Paul M.
 Continuous Processing of Urban Refuse to Oil Using Carbon Monoxide
 Bureau of Mines paper ores, at 3rd Mineral Waste Utilization
     Symposium, Chicago, Mar. 14-16

 The conversion of urban refuse to oil is discussed and results are
 tabulated showing operating conditions, oil yield and properties.
 Preliminary experimental runs were made with an aqueous sucrose
 solution.  Tabulations present the effect of temperature, pressure,
 and residence time on the process.  Preliminary cost estimates are
 given for conversion of urban refuse and cattle manure to oil.
FU, Y. C.; METLIN, S. J.; ILLIG, E. G.; and WENDER, Irving
Conversion of Bovine Manure to Oil
Bureau of Mines paper ores, at ACS Meeting, New York, Aug.

The authors focus their attention strictly on conversion of bovine
manure to oil, excluding all other organic waste sources.  The

                               '  A-290

experimental procedure is outlined; results are discussed and shown
in tabular form.

A temperature range of 300 to 400C was used.  This resulted in
pressures of 2400 to 5300 psi.  The effect of using synthesis gas
(H2:CO = 0.9:1) or Ho in place of CO was investigated, as were
catalyst addition and vehicle.  Reasonably good oil yields were
obtained with the synthesis gas in place of CO.  Low operating
pressure and a reduced energy requirement for heating were achieved
through the use of a high-boiling vehicle and by reducing the
waterrmanure ratio to about 0.25:1.  Quantitative results are
tabulated showing percent conversion, percent oil yield, and CO
consumption as functions of temperature for each reactant gas
or H2-CO).  For example, with synthesis gas (^-CO), conversion was
99 percent, oil yield was 34 percent, and CO consumption was 0.41 g
CO/g manure.
     and MCELROY, A. D.
Pyrolysis as a ftethod of Disposal of Cattle
Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 101-123
Feedlot Wastes
Following a general background on pyrolysis, particularly of wood,
the authors describe the procedures and discuss the results of tests
on three batches of steer manure from steers on different rations
and in different housing conditions.  Costs would vary with the
products sought, these being functions of temperature and pressure.

"The estimated cost/ton of pyrolysing manure (80% moisture) in a
feedlot of 40,000 head capacity is $5.60. . .  Details of the estimate
are presented. . .  Particular worthy of note is the fact that fuel
oil costs ($2.26/ton) are more than the value of recoverable tars
and oils ($1.29/ton)."

The economics of pyrolysis would improve if cattle were fed more
roughage (more and drier manure).  "Also, as oil and other fossil
sources of carbon become scarce, manure pyrolysate may become
competitive with crgde petroleum and coal tar."

"The pyrolysis process has its own environmental liabilities."
Operational Problems of Pork Production Related to Environmental
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Cqnf.  p. 263-265

Hauling to croplands  is the most popular method of swine waste
disposal.  Oxidation  ditches have a low odor, but a high cost.
Operating costs run 80 i to $1.00 per animal marketed.  Effluent
and sludge must be disposed of.  In northern climates lagoons are
non-functional in winter.
 An Analysis of Beef Cattle Feedlot Designs for Pollution Control
 USDA ARS 42-201  8 p.

 The relative merits and costs of unpaved, paved, and housed feedlots
 are analyzed.  "High labor requirements for manure management and
 apparent cattle discomfort may limit development of outdoor paved
 lots.  .  .  There is little difference between the overall materials
 cost of paved and unpaved feedlots."  Use of an oxidation ditch
 increases  the initial costs of a housed feedlot by about 17 to 20
 percent.   Costs of electricity for operation are estimated at $17.50
 per head capacity.

     and WOODS, W. R.
 Beef Cattle Feedlot Runoff, Solids Transport and Settling Characteristics
 ASAE Trans. 15: 1132-1134

 "Design of a runoff control facility for beef cattle feedlots should
 be determined by climatic, physical and topographic conditions of the
 feedlot and by water pollution potential, regulations and the type of
 farming."  Experiments with batch and continuous runoff systems are
 described  and equations for the design of solids removal systems are
 proposed.  The use of barriers in open channels is recommended.
 GOLUEKE, Clarence G.
 Changing from Dumping to Recycling.  Part II:  Organic Wastes
 Compost Sci. 13: Mar-Apr,  p*. 20-23

 Recycling can occur by 1) conversion to soil, 2) conversion to a feed-
 stuff directly or indirectly, and 3) conversion to useful chemicals
 by fermentation or by pyrolysis.

 Ponding, anaerobic and facultative, and its refinements -- the oxida-
 tion ditch, the high-rate pond, the trickling filter, and the acti-
 vated sludge process are discussed and evaluated.

Anaerobic digestion "is a rather expensive process to use for treating
manures.  Beef manure is not readily digested. . .  Manures with a high


nitrogen content such as hog manure containing urine also do not digest
well. .  ."
GOLUEKE, Clarence G.
Changing from Dumping to Recycling.  Part III:  Composting and
     Miscellaneous Processes
Compost Sci. 13: May-June  p. 5-7

"Composting is the biological decomposition of organic matter under
controlled conditions."  Consideration must be given to aeration,
moisture content, temperature, carbon-nitrogen ratio, and particle
size.  Manure can be composted in 8 to 14 days without undue difficulty,
A mixture of manure and sawdust or straw makes an excellent compost.

Land disposal may be employed directly if the assimilatory capacity
is not exceeded, or may by employed for the sludges produced by the
other methods.

Use of organic wastes in animal feedstuffs holds great promise
provided that the possibility of bacterial and viral transmission is
thoroughly explored, that the concentration of toxic materials is
investigated, and that Food and Drug Administration approval is

Pyrolysis "is as yet in the research stage."

Assorted fermentations are under investigation.  "At present, the
economics of the processes are highly unfavorable."
GOLUEKE, Clarence G.
Composting Perspectives  Progress Since 1950
Compost Sci. 13: July-Aug.  p. 6-8

GOLUEKE reviews the history of composting from early work by HOWARD,
VAN VUREN [1949-1004], and others through the "rediscovery" period
of the mid-1960's when promoters of machinery and additives built up
to disillusionment, to the present where questions remain, but little
research on them is in progress.  Composting works no miracles, but
is often a viable alternative in solid wastes treatment.
GRAHAM, David B.
Public Relations Aspects of Agricultural Waste Management
Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 17-23

GRAHAM, a farmer, advocates intensified study of refeeding.  "My
personal feeling is that the publicity on ecology in America has
provided agriculture with the proper climate for acceptance of animal
wastes as a feed ingredient."  However, premature blundering by
irresponsible feeders could lead to an adverse public attitude.
 GRIMM, Alfred
 Dairy Manure Waste Handling Systems
 Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 125-144

 In a traditional dairy area in Los Angeles County subject to strong
 urbanization, an analysis was made of costs and environmental
 effectiveness of a number of possible manure management practices.
 The methods considered and the costs per cow-year obtained on the
 basis of the assumptions made are as follows:

     Dirt corral dairies:
          Direct disposal to sanitary landfill               $32.90
          Dewater solids and dispose                          33.83
          Dewater solids and compost in aerated pile          27.88
          Dewater solids and compost in turned windrow        22.00
                (Two composting machines)                      39.63

     Paved corral dairies
          Liquid flush - direct disposal                     $21.06
          Liquid flush - collect solids and dispose           22.46
          Liquid flush - collect solids and compost           37.51
          Scraped corral - dewater and dispose                33.83
          Scraped corral - oxidation ditch                    44.00

     Centralized regional dairy waste handling system
          Dairymen's fertilizer coop (present practice)      $18.59
          Aerated compost windrow                             24.77
          Turned compost windrow                              28.92
                (Three competing machines)                     30.92
          Heat  drying process                                 49.02
          Activated sludge process                            64.64
          Incineration                                        78.90
          Pyrolysis                                           57.42
          Wet oxidation                                       48.12

The method of rating pollution potential by a statistical analysis
of the evaluations by a panel of experts is discussed.

The numerical values apply only to the particular hypothesis; the
methodology has wide application.

Livestock Waste Control Systems
Wallaces Farmer 97: 22 Jan.  p. 15

Effective anaerobic lagoons on a 1400-hog farm and at a 700-head
cattle feedlot in Iowa are described.
Step-by-Step Plan for Livestock Waste Control
Wallaces Farmer 97: 26 Feb.  p. 16-17

The route to be followed by an Iowa farmer in securing technical
information, a permit, and financial assistance from six agencies,
state and federal, is spelled out.
HALLIGAN, James E. and SWEAZY, Robert M.
Thermochemical Evaluation of Animal Waste Conversion processes
Paper, 72nd Mat!. Htg.  AIChE  21-24 May

On a dry basis cattle manure has a heat content of 4000 to 7500 Btu/lb.
That of coal is 12,500.

Thermochemical calculations for conversion of manure to methane gas,
oil, and synthesis gas are detailed.  On the basis of a manure output
of seven pounds of manure (dry) per day from 600,000 cattle, all
product streams would have values which total about $9000 per day.
The cattle population (600,000) chosen is that within fifteen miles of
a point near Hereford, Texas.

Methane gas production would require oxygen costing $4276 per day on
the basis of the authors' price assumptions.  "As gas prices increase,
this process may become feasible at some locations."  A considerable
amount of further development would be required to make oil production
which requires 380C temperatures and 6000 psig pressures -- economic-
ally feasible.  "The production of synthesis gas suitable for feed to
an ammonia plant appears to have the most promise at this time due to
the simplicity of the process and the value of the product."
The Interaction of Man and Aquatic Ecosystems
Symp. Sask. Crop Pdctn. in Relation to Pollution.  Saskatoon.
     20 p. proc.

In a broad survey of the causes and proposed cures  for rapid eutrophi-
cation of lakes in the Saskatchewan River Basin,  HAMMER observes
that "no particular problem exists with livestock on  the range.   If,
however, they are confined more and more in feedlots  in the name  of
efficiency and profitability, localized problems  exist."  He observes
that regulations on new feedlots are adequate to  control runoff and
suggests that existing lots be modified if necessary.

He objects to winter spreading of manure on frozen  fields followed by
washing into streams in the spring thaw.
HARMON, B. G.; DAY, Donald L; JENSEN, A.  H.;  and  BAKER,  D.  H.
Nutritive Value of Aerobically Sustained  Swine Excrement
Jnl. Animal Sci.  34: 403-407

"The aim of the current study was to measure  the  nutritive  value  of
solid residue collected from aerobically-maintained swine excrement
present in an oxidation ditch."  It was found to  have nutritive value
and its taste did not constitute a deterrent  to utilization.   The
residue contained 27.7 percent protein and could  replace 1/3  to 1/2
the protein of casein or soybean meal and support similar weight
gains in laboratory rats.
HARMON, B. W.; FONTENOT, J. P.; and WEBB, K.  E.,  Jr.
Preference Studies with Rations Containing Broiler Litter and Molasses
Jnl. Animal Sci. 34: 359-360

In three 20-day trials "cafeteria" style yearling steers  were offered
0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 percent molasses with 25 percent litter;
the same range in molasses with 50 percent litter; and 5, 10, and 20
percent molasses with 25 or 50 percent litter.  In all trials 10
percent molasses was the preferred choice.  In trial  three, 97 percent
of the feeding was from a ration with 25 percent  litter.
HARMON, B. W.; FONTENOT, J. P.; and WEBB, K. E., Jr.
Digestibility and Palatability of Ensiled Broiler Litter and Corn
Jnl. Animal Sci.  35: 265

Non-processed broiler litter, mixed with chopped corn in eight
proportions was ensiled (two stages) and fed to sheep.  "Apparent
digestibility of crude protein was higher for the silages containing
litter than for the control silage at both stages of maturity."

HARTMAN, Roland C.
Go After Fertilizer Market
Poultry Digest 31: 66

The poultry industry is warned to intensify its campaign for the
fertilizer market.  Municipal sewage sludge purveyors are reported
to being invading the field.  Minnesota Science is quoted:  "Among
potential dangers in using sewage as fertilizer are harmful bacteria,
viruses and nitrates. . .  Sewage may also contain heavy metals such
as zinc, cadmium, and lead.  . .  Poultry manure, correctly processed,
should not oose any danger from bacteria, viruses, or heavy metals."

HEGG, Richard 0.  and LARSON, Russell E.
Solids Balance on a Beef Cattle Oxidation Ditch
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  o. 555-562

In a test run at  the University of Minnesota from 9 July through
24 August, 1971,  an oxidation ditch supplied by 36 beef animals on
a high-concentrate ration reduced the total solids by 39 percent
and the total volatile solids by 44 nercent.
Processed Aquatic Plants in Cattle Diets
Jnl. Animal Sci. 34: 360

Yearling steers remained healthy on a diet of coastal bermudagrass,
water hyacinth, or Florida elodea (a plant which grows submerged).
Bermudagrass was preferred to elodea, but bermudagrass and water
hyacinth were about equally acceptable.  The aauatic plants provide
sufficient energy but are low in useful nitrogen.
Animal Waste Reuse
A. I. Digest 20: June  p. 16

A feedlot operator should have sufficient land available for land
spreading of his wastes.  They should not be spread on frozen ground
and should be plowed in as spread.  The law requires this in Sweden
and may here ultimately.

Tests with recycling have indicated that manure from cattle with high
grain rations was most effective.  Poultry litter gave fair results
but it is not recommended.  Much nutritional value remains in manure.

Questions of cost, possible disease spreading, and effects of drugs,
hormones, and antibiotics require more research.

In a few years' time "it may be your answer."
Animal Wastes in the U.S.A.
Agriculture 79: 98-103

This survey of American practice by an Englishman observes that "land
spreading is still, of course, generally the cheapest, most efficient
and most popular means of disposing of animal  manures, but the economic
cost of doing this may in some cases be so high as to make the system

Aerobic treatment of liquid wastes has advantages; its problems are
foaming, sedimentation and high running costs.  Aerobic treatment of
solids by the  'Bressler' system (fan aeration in pits beneath cages)
involves high capital costs.  Composting is ineffective on poultry
manure alone and, thus, involves blending with some other waste source.

Anaerobic lagoons work admirably in the climate of Southern California
with lagoon water being recirculated for flushing.

Nutrient recycling and manure degrading with fly larvae are discussed.
Fly larvae hold great promise in that "the activities of the young lar-
vae aerate and successfully deodorize the manure in 2-3 days and remove
50 percent of its moisture.  The larvae are allowed to pupate and when
dried and ground the pupae may be used as a protein source for the
growing chick.  The remaining manure may be further dried or pelleted
and can be used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer, or even as a
feed for catfish.  The manure from 100,000 hens is expected to pro-
duce between 500 and 1000 Ib of pupae meal daily."

Evaluation of Swine Waste Treatment Alternatives
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 341-352
Abst:  McQ & B E-303

As a step toward establishing allowable rates of land aoplication,
the authors experimented with a single anaerobic lagoon with effluent
used for irrigation and with two anaerobic lagoons in series.  It
would appear that land application may often be limited by the content
of nitrogen, sodium, or copper.  Copper build-up from swine manure can
render forage toxic to sheep.

JAEGER, 6. B.; WHELDEN, H. C., Jr.; MUIR, F. V.; and KITTRIDGE, C. W.
Manure Management in Deep Pit Houses  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 51: 1831

Manure must be maintained in a semi-solid state free of objectionable
odors.  Control of excess moisture requires good cage management.
Experiments were conducted on the interception of manure on intermediate
drying surfaces.
JOHNSON, Hugh S. and RIDLEN, S. F.
Gases and Odors From Poultry Manure
Poultry Digest 31: 295-296

Manure gases can affect the health and performance of a flock and can
cause bird deaths in some situations.  Carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydro-
gen sulphide, and methane are common in poultry operations.  Lethal
levels may occur when manure is stirred.  Daily cleaning or dilution
by forced ventilation are the most feasible means of control.
Implications of State Environmental Legislation on Livestock  Waste
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 71-81

The legislative provisions and administrative structure for the regu-
lation of livestock production to control resulting water pollution
are tabulated for 27 states.  Costs to the producer for compliance
will vary with circumstances.  In all cases, margin of profit is
threatened.  Producers, consumers, and taxpayers will  share the added
costs in proportions not yet determinate.
Digestibility of Feedlot Wastes from Typical Southern High Plains
     Feedlots  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 35: 268

Sheep were fed rations of 75 percent cotton seed hulls, 25 percent
dried feedlot wastes and 60 percent cotton seed hulls, 40 percent
dried feedlot wastes.  The wastes had a high ash content "presumably
of soil origin."  "Palatability was not decreased by inclusion of 40%
feedlot waste, although digestible organic matter intake was decreased."

JONES, Don D.; DAY, Donald L.; and DALE, A. C.
Aerobic Treatment of Livestock Wastes
EPA Pbln. SW-16rg.  55 p.

This booklet reviews the theory of aerobic treatment, discusses
oxidation ditches at some length, and gives criteria for aerobic
lagoons -- oxidation ponds, and mechanically aerated lagoons.  "Some
form of aerobic treatment of livestock wastes appears certain to be
used in the future in animal production enterprises.  Odor control
alone may be sufficient to make it a feasible operation."  An
oxidation ditch, in addition to providing a nearly odorless operation,
has the ability to handle shock loads, requires little attention or
maintenance, fits well under a slotted floor, and is reasonably

The effluent may best be used for irrigation.
 JONES, P.M. and PATNI, N. K.
 A Study of Foaming Problems in an Oxidation Ditch Treating Swine
 Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 503-515

 Foam control methods presently used are the spraying with water jets
 to break the foam mechanically or the dilution with appropriate
 liquids to raise the surface tension.  Such methods may require water
 which is unavailable, produce excess contaminated effluent, and
 require labor.  A continuous overflow to carry foam out of the ditch
 requires weir adjustment and supervision.  The effects of various
 parameters on foam formation are discussed.

 The practical solution adopted was the installation of an electronic
 foam sensor to cut off the rotor motor under predetermined amounts of
 foam build-up.
KAPPE, David S.
Development of a System and a Method for the Treatment of Runoff from
     Cattle Holding Areas
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 353-363

At a 285-head dairy farm in Maryland wastes from a concrete-paved
holding area designed to accomodate 140 cows awaiting milking, in
four-hour periods twice per day, are being combined with wastes from
the milking parlor and from a dairy processing plant (bottle washing,
etc.) for treatment in an extended-aeration modification of an acti-
vated sludge plant.  Tests will be undertaken with tanks in parallel
and in series, with modifications of pH, with a nartially anaerobic


tank followed by an aerobic tank, etc., to determine peformance and
costs under actual operating conditions.  The facility was undergoing
operational shakedown when the paper was written.

FDA Awaiting More Evidence Before Okaying Litter as Feed
Feedstuffs 44: 20 Mar.  p. 2, 88

Jack C. TAYLOR, addressing the annual Maryland Nutritional Conference,
observed that the Food and Drug Administration would need the following
information before approving the use of poultry litter as feed:
1) source of raw materials; 2) a stepwise description of the processing,
manufacturing methods, and analytical controls; and 3) a description of
the end product and its intended use.

Health and safety of animals and man must be assured.  Arsenical s are
routinely fed to chickens and swine, but not to cattle.  The effect
on cattle and man must be determined.  Copper has caused trouble in
Methane from Anaerobic Digestion
Compost Sci. 13 (4): 31

A summary and statement of conclusions from KLEIN's studies on
anaerobic digestion of "as received" refuse includes the statement that
"It is recommended that anaerobic digestion be applied only to putres-
cible organic wastes such as garbage, garden  debris, soiled paper,
animal manures and agricultural residues."
Sodium Levels in Beef Cattle Finishing Rations as Related to Perfor-
     mance and Concentration in Feedlot Solid-Waste
Texas Tech University, Reports - 1972 - Killgore Beef Cattle Ctr.,
     p. 11-16

One-hundred-eight steers were divided equally into six treatments
with three replications of  six steers each and fed rations containing
1.0 percent, 0.5 percent, 0.25 percent, 0.125 percent, 0.0625 percent
and 0 percent salt (NaCl).  Animal performance was measured by 28-day
weights, feed consumption,  feed conversion by pens, and carcass
traits.  Sodium (Na) concentration and build-up in the solid waste was
measured periodically by sampling the feedlot with a coring device.
Sodium concentration in the rations was not significantly related to
average daily gain, feed intake, or carcass traits.  There was a


significantly poorer feed conversion at the 1.0 percent level, but
the effect was attributed to animal variations.  Data suggested that
Na content of feedstuffs in finishing rations provide sufficient
levels to meet requirements without supplemental sodium.  Sodium
concentration in the solid waste was linearly related to Na intake.
Levels of Na accumulation in the solid waste appeared to be suffi-
ciently low so as not to be harmful in run-off or to croplands if
applied at 10-15 tons per acre every 3-4 years.
KNAPP, George L.  (Editor)
Soil Nitrogen Cycle:  A Bibliography
WRSIC Pbln. 72-208  306 p.

This is a subcollection of 200 abstracts from Selected Water Resources
Abstracts, volumes 1 through 4.  An 86-page comprehensive index and a
17-page significant descriptor index enhance the usefulness of the
 KOELLIKER* J. K.; MINER, J. Ronald; HAZEN, T. E.; PERSON, H. L.; and
     SMITH, R. J.
 Automated Hydraulic Waste-Handling System for a 700-Head Swine
     Facility Using Recirculated Water
 Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 249-261

 Seven years of cumulative research at Iowa State University have led
 to the construction of a 700-head swine facility flushed hourly to
 an anaerobic lagoon, using lagoon effluent for the flushing.  Excess
 effluent is used to irrigate three acres of cropland by sprinklers.
 Investment of $10 to 15 per hog capacity was required.  The nine-year-
 old anaerobic lagoon has never required cleaning.
KREHER, Henry J.
Operational Problems of Poultry Production Related to Environmental
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 311-316

KREHER describes the harassment to which a commercial poultryman in
New York State may be subjected by suburbanites to whom manure
spreading constitutes a nuisance.
KREIS, R. Douglas; SCALF, Marion R.; and McNABB, James F.
Characteristics of Rainfall Runoff from a Beef Cattle Feedlot
EPA Report EPA-R2-72-061  Corvallis, Oregon  vii + 43 p.


Quantity and quality relations for rainfall and runoff from a 12,000-
head cattle feedlot at McKinney, Texas, were studied.  Normal
precipitation is 37 in/yr and class A pan evaporation is 70 to 80 in/yr.
Procedures and findings are discussed and tabulated.

Among conclusions reached were that detention in holding ponds reduced
dissolved solids concentrations by 90 percent and organic pollution
concentrations by 70 percent, accounted for in part by sedimentation
and in part by dilution by rainfall on the pond surface.  Bacterial
counts were higher a day after runoff than they were during the
runoff.  The quality was unfit for discharge to streams.

It was recommended that open, uncovered cattle feedlots be provided
with storage and diversion facilities to prevent runoff to water
courses.  Surface water should not be permitted to enter feedlots.
A series of ponds is desirable.  Effluent from the final pond should
be treated, perhaps by being spread on land by sprinklers.
KREIS, R. Douglas and SHUYLER, Lynn R.
Beef Cattle Feedlot Site Selection for Environmental Protection
EPA, Environ. Protect. Tech. Series, R2-72-129  39 p.

This is a well organized and clearly presented guide setting forth
the basic considerations of site selection.  A well chosen example
of a site development without and with proper concern for pollution
control adds to the value of the presentation.  Points covered include
regulations with a listing of the responsible agencies in each state.
Spatial requirements for pens, runoff diversion and collection
structures, ultimate disposal areas, and buffer zones are discussed
and tentative formulae are proposed.  Topographic features desired
are 1) a minimum of land contributing runoff to the feedlot, 2) a
slope between two and six percent which will assure drainage without
risking erosion, 3) space with suitable slope and deep soils for
construction of runoff collection and storage facilities, 4) an area
for manure storage which will not contribute to surface or groundwaters,
5) a dry access route with gentle gradients, and 6) a runoff disposal
site with mild gradients well away from natural drainage areas.
Microclimates, soil and geologic structures, and social considerations
are other points discussed.

A bibliography with 55 references is included.
Porteous Conditioning of Sludges for Improved Dewatering
AIChE Symposium Series 122, 68: 176-185

This paper outlines the various parts of the BSP Heat Treatment
System (Porteous Process) used in conditioning lean sludges so that
they can be easily dewatered.  A broad, rather than an in-depth,
coverage of the topic is given

The main operations of the process include sludge thickening, pressure
pumping to 250 psig for introduction to a reactor, direct steam
heating and agitation for 20 to 60 minutes, followed by depressuri-
zation and dewatering.  The process breaks down the gel structure of
the fine sludge particles so that bound water can be released.  A
general flowsheet is shown and discussed.  Capacities for the units
range from 200 to 9000 GPH.  Operating costs and installed equipment
costs are shown for capacities of 2000, 4000, 6000, and 9000 GPH.
Types of sludge applicable to the process are discussed.  Applications
of the process to industry are outlined and variations of equipment
are described.  An important consideration is that heat from the
process can be recovered by boilers to provide steam for the process.
Flow Properties of Animal Waste Slurries
ASAE Trans. 15: 718-722  [ASAE Paper 70-911]
Abst:  McQ & B G-092

This is a report on the physical characteristics of flow of slurries
of.diluted manure and sawdust in pipelines.  The literature is
reviewed and 27 references are cited.
LARSON, R. E.; HAZEN, T. E.; and MINER, J. Ronald
Storage of Manure Solids by Forming Soil-Manure Pellets
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 201-210

In employing hydraulic transport of manure it is advantageous to
remove coarse sediments by screening.  Storage is often necessary
while awaiting spreading.  To inhibit odor} moisture content and/or
pH may require adjustment.  Mixing with soil and lime and pelleting
can accomplish this and produce a material easily handled.  Experiments
for optimizing the mix of manure, soil, lime, and water are discussed.

LEVI, Donald R.
A Review of Public and Private Livestock Waste Regulations
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 61-69

Public regulation is generally by some state agency with water pollu-
tion and air pollution usually being under different agencies.  In
general, tolerance levels are established and a permit system is imposed.


Private regulation is by means of civil lawsuits alleging nuisance and
seeking injunction and/or damages.  Technicalities are defined and
distinguished  in the paper.  Means suggested for reducing the likeli-
hood of suits are rural zoning, prudent site selection, prior
operation, caution in entering contracts, good housekeeping, and
compliance with licensing laws.

LIN, Shundar
Nonpoint Rural Sources of Water Pollution
Illinois State Water Survey Circ. 111.  36 p.
Abst:  UCOWR Newsletter 33: 13-14  (July 1973)

"Animal wastes in confined areas are the most significant stream
pollution sources in rural areas of the state. . .  Within current
technology the most practical means for controlling, handling and
disposing of animal waste in a manner that will minimize stream
pollution involve 1) using a feed ration that will lessen the quantity
of waste and improve its treatability, 2) preventtng uncontrolled
feedlot runoff, 3) providing adequate waste storage facilities, and
4) maintaining a controlled program of waste disposal on the land
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Agricultural Runoff -- Characteristics and Control
ASCE Proc. 98: SA 909-925

Soil conservation practices are valuable in controlling pollution in
that runoff contains organic matter and chemicals as well as silt.
Manure is not a serious pollutant until it reaches surface or ground
water.   Confined housing, in reducing quantity of diluted manure,
reduces  pollution hazard.  The quality of feedlot runoff is sensitive
to the intensity of precipitation, the initial moisture of the manure,
and the  type of surface, but is not particularly sensitive to the
quantity of manure on the lot.

Typical  constituent analyses of feedlot runoff and empirical rainfall-
runoff relations are cited.

A rational program of pollution control for feedlots consists of using
dikes and levees to prevent inflow to the lots and to impound outflow
from the lots.  Roofs should have gutters, and the roof runoff should
be led outside the dikes.  Settling basins ahead of combinations of
lagoons, oxidation ponds and aerated systems are useful.  Evaporation
ponds should be used where applicable.  Land spreading of solids and
irrigation with liquids is advocated.  Incorporation of manure into the
soil after spreading and recovery of tailwater are advisable.  Avoid


spreading on snow or frozen ground,
salt buildup.
                         and avoid nitrogen leaching or
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Removal of Phosphorus from Liquid Animal Manure Wastes
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 411-427

Phosphorus removal from effluents is desirable to control  algal growth.
In general, it would seem to be preferable to utilize the phosphorus-
removing properties of soil by spreading animal waste effluents on
land rather than to attempt chemical removal.  In a few cases,'such as
in disposal of duck wastes on Long Island, treatment may be resorted
to.  Laboratory studies indicate that the addition of lime or alum
may be effective with lime usually being the least costly.

Reduction in Moisture and Daily Removal of Wastes from Caged Laying Hens
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 173-185

To eliminate ammonia and flies in a window!ess poultry house, it is
necessary to remove manure daily.  The author describes a dryer-conveyor
being tested at West Virginia to accomplish this.  More complete auto-
mation is desired before the operation can be regarded as satisfactory.
Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater Beneath
Water Res. Bull. 8: 999-1005
Abst:  McQ & B G-117
                                    and ELLIS, J. R.
                                   a Beef Cattle Feedlot
Nitrate measurements have been
in the immediate vicinity of a
                    taken since 1967 at a number of points
	  ,	j ,  beef cattle feedlot at Central City,
The lot is on level ground with moderately permeable soil
           "	            40
constituting an unconfined aquifer in which the water table is 5. to
feet deep.  Dye tests have indicated that monitoring wells are
receiving effluent from under the feedlot.

"Groundwater nitrate levels were generally lower down-gradient from
the feedlot than they were up-gradient. .  .  Except for two samples
obtained during the 1970 pumping trial, nitrate-nitrogen was well
below the U. S. Public Health Service limit of ten parts per million."

Pilot Plant Comparison of Liquid and Dry Waste Management Systems for
     Poultry Manure
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 569-580

Odor control for poultry manure can be accomplished by removing
moisture or aerating.  Tests run at Cornell on four systems produced
the ratings indicated on an odor scale in which ten is very offensive:
undercage oxidation ditch 1.1, diffused aeration (forced addition of
air to tank containing manure covered with water) 1.1, undercage
drying by forced air 3.7, and undercage drying by use of fins 4.4.
Costs per dozen eggs for the four methods are given as 2-4, 2.7-3.4,
0.6, and 0.007 cents respectively.

A Livestockman's Guide to Pollution Laws
Successful Farming 70: Oct.  p. 42, 43, 50

Laws are outlined for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South
Dakota, and Wisconsin.  Addresses of agencies charged with supervision
of agricultural pollution in the 12 states are included.
Waste is Health Concern
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p. 74b

Management procedures recommended to help reduce feedlot pollution
problems are:

     1.  Keep number of animals per pen reasonably small.
     2.  Keep manure from accumulating.
     3.  Keep pens slightly moist to hold down dust.
     4.  Have a good insect control program.
     5.  Construct runoff basins and collecting pits.
MacMILLAN, Keith; SCOTT, T. W.; and BATEMAN, T. W.
A Study of Corn Response and Soil Nitrogen Transformations Upon
     Application of Different Rates and Sources of Chicken Manure
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 481-494

Greenhouse tests were conducted to determine the maximum rates at
which two New York soils would respond well to applications of
oxidation ditch residue from chicken manure.  The pH was the most
critical parameter.  The nitrogen fraction was degraded rapidly by


microorganisms at all rates of loading.  Water pollution by excess
nitrates is the limiting detrimental effect of heavy application rates,
Waste Systems of Beef Cubicle Units
Farm Bldgs. Digest 7 (1): 5-10

A survey of 17 farms in the UK pointed up the importance of keeping
uncovered yard area to a minimum to avoid dilution of manure from
rainfall.  For effective scraping minimize the area involved, avoid
dilution, preserve straight lines, and avoid obstacles such as
columns.  For slurry storage take advantage of natural slopes, use
slopes above two percent in drains, and avoid straw and fodder
inclusion.  Irrigation or lagoonirig are recommended.
Manure is Food for Protein
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: Oct.  p. 18-22

The process developed by General Electric and being tested at Casa
Grande,  Arizona, feeds manure to a strain of thermophilic bacteria
which convert 1 Ib of manure into 1.5 Ib of protein.  The bacteria
will be harvested and dried to an odorless, tasteless powder which
will be used as a high-protein feed supplement for cattle and other

Cattle manure was a natural first choice for a test material because
of its ready availability, and the consideration that the pollution
control aspect would help secure acceptance of the concept.

The test facility will operate on manure from 64 head of cattle and
four horses.  "No problems are anticipated from the appetite
standpoint. . .  The organisms are plant life, the manure is their
source of energy, and it is the organisms that are harvested for

Cost studies and design criteria for a full-scale plant will be
Contribution of Animal Waste to Nitrate Nitrogen in the Soil
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 435-440
                                 A-3 08

The authors report the measurement of the build-up of nitrate
nitrogen at various depths in the soil resulting from the application,
at various rates, of cow manure slurry four inches under a sod cover.
The results are highly sensitive to weather, especially to tempera-
ture and moisture.  The maximum acceptable long-term rate of appli-
cation appears to be "in the range of 500 to 600 Ib of N per acre."

MARTIN, John H., Jr.; DECKER, Martin, Jr.; and DAS, K. C.
Windrow Composting of Swine Wastes
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 159-172

Composting of swine manure was studied with the objectives of control-
ling odors, finding a rapid procedure, obtaining large volume
reduction, securing a useful end product, and avoiding attracting
flies and rodents.

Odors occurred on startup.  Increased frequency of turning reduced
the duration of odor production.  Adulteration of the manure with
compost or straw reduced both odor and time to stabilization.  The
volume reduction and the quality of the end product were independent
of the amount of mixing.  Composting is considered to be a satis-
factory solution to swine waste disposal in New Jersey.

Continuous flow would be preferable to batching, since it would
eliminate startup.  Daily mixing would be desirable.
MASSIE, John Richard, Jr.
Continuous Refuse Retort -- A Feasibility Investigation
Thesis.  MS in ChE, Texas Tech University  54 p.

Most pyrolysis tests reported have been made on municipal refuse,
oil  shale, or coal.  Operation has usually been by batch processes.
Midwest Research Institute and WHITE and TAIGANIDES [1971-1260] have
reported on tests pyrolysing livestock wastes.  "Midwest Research
Institute does not believe manure pyrolysis to be economically
feasible but they based this on an 80 percent moisture content and
a 65 percent thermal efficiency.  If the moisture content were
reduced by normal evaporation and the thermal efficiency increased,
pyrolysis could be economically feasible."

MASSIE reports on four tests in a six-inch diameter pilot retort
and concludes that "a retort ten feet in diameter could process
129 tons per day of cattle manure containing 29.1 percent moisture."

Further studies on the Texas Tech University retort are in progress.

Think of Manure as a Resource, Not a Waste
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p. 10, 11, 68
Abst:  McQ & B F-062

Nutrients are tabulated for various manures and their use on land to
produce crops is mentioned.  Other uses of increasing interest are
the possible production of petroleum and as portions of the feed
ration.  The U. S. Bureau of Mines is investigating processes for
recovering up to three barrels of petroleum per ton of manure.  If
all manure were utilized this would provide one-half the U. S. needs
for petroleum.  Refeeding could use up to sixty percent of the wastes,

Control of water and air pollution can be attained at moderate cost
by good design, maintenance, and operation of collecting facilities.
Mounding of solids for composting, easy drainage, and provision of
windbreaks for cattle protection are recommended.
Chemical Studies of Solids, Runoff, Soil Profile and Groundwater from
     Beef Cattle Feedlots at Mead, Nebraska
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 211-223

"In 1968, studies were initiated at the University of Nebraska Field
Laboratory at Mead to determine the effects of cattle density and
slope on possible pollution to surface water, soil profile, and
groundwater from beef cattle feedlots.  Two systems [continuous-flow
and batch] were constructed for removing settleable solids from
runoff.  This paper summarizes the chemical aspects of different
beef feedlot management systems at Mead in the 4-year study."
     McGAUHEY, P. H.; and GOLUEKE, Clarence G.
Comprehensive Studies of Solid Wastes Manaqement.  Final Report.
Univ. of Calif. Berkeley SERL Rpt. No. 72-3  166 p.

The emphasis of the final report, is, as was that of the three annual
reports [1970-1029], [1970-1030], and [1971-1106], on garbage dis-
posal with only incidental  reference to manure.  A chanter on
pyrolysis-combustion (p. 107-138) and one on anaerobic digestion
(p. 139-151) contain much of value in applications of the same pro-
cesses to animal waste management.  In addition to the annual reports,
fifteen special reports were issued during the six-year duration of
the investigation.

Annotated Bibliography of Farm Animal Wastes
Environment Canada Tech. Appraisal Rpt. EPS 3-WP-71-1  viii + 522 +
     unnumbered index (about 400 p.)

This monumental volume contains 2352 abstracts of material which
appeared (with very few exceptions) between 1960 and 1971.  The
classification adopted and the number of abstracts in each class is
as follows:

     A.  Abstracting journals and bibliographies                   641
     B.  Scientific and technical journals                         678
     C.  Conference proceedings                                    351
     D.  Books and monographs                                       58
     E.  Government, research centre, and university publications  318
     F.  Semi-technical publications                               110
     G.  Unpublished scientific and technical papers               196

MEENAGHAN, George F.; WELLS, Dan M.; and COLEMAN, Eugene A.
A Systems Approach to Cattle Feedlot Pollution Control
Paper, 72nd Natl. Mtg., AIChE  29 p.

Very simple and relatively low-cost solutions are available for the
problem of water pollution caused by cattle feedlots.  "Vastly more
complex and difficult problems to solve are the air pollution and
solid waste disposal problems resulting from conventional feedlot

"Farmers do not generally consider  it to be economically feasible
to use manure as fertilizer.  Hence, about the only option open to
most feedlot operators for disposal of solid waste is to provide a
large tract of land on which the waste can be stored more or less
indefinitely. . .  Veritable mountains of manure exist.  . . these
mountains are frequently ignited by spontaneous combustion, thereby
providing an additional significant source of air pollution."

A nearly ideal feedlot., that of the Green Valley Cattle  Company at
San Marcos, Texas, is described.  It has slotted floors  over pits
cleaned daily, is completely roofed, and provides for irrigation
by means of a 2000-gal capacity honeywagon equipped with chisels
which dispose of the manure below surface thus avoiding  the other-
wise inevitable odor and fly problems.
MINER, J. Ronald
Agricultural Wastes  [In 1971 Water Pollution Control Literature Review]
WPCF Jnl. 44: 1072-1080


The International Symposium on Livestock Wastes with over 100-
research papers highlighted 1971.  For 64 references cited, a sentence
or two summarizes the contents.  An additional sixteen references
are listed but not cited.  Subject headings in the review are as
follows:  waste characteristics, cattle feedlots, application to
cropland, gas and odor production, animal waste treatment techniques,
and reuse of animal manures.
MINER, J. Ronald; BUNDY, Dwaine; andCHRISTENBURY, Gerald
Biblioqraphy of Livestock Waste Management
EPA Environ". Protect. Tech. Series R2-72-101   xiii + 137 n.

This publication contains a listing of 241 journal papers, 425 papers
published in conference proceedings, 114 university or government
publications, 71 magazine articles, 26 books  or book chapters, 15
unpublished papers, and 53 academic theses (945 total  listings).  An
author index and a key word index are included.
MINER, J. Ronald and JORDAN, J. R.
Bibliography of Livestock Waste Management
Midwest Plan Service, Iowa State Univ.  MWPS-17  130 p.
Abst:  McQ & B D-030

This publication contains 45 pages of bibliography with about 20
listings per page of technical journal papers, conference proceedings
papers, university or government publications, magazine articles,
books or chapters from books, unpublished papers, and theses.  An
author index and a key word index add to the usefulness of the
MUIR, F. V. and WHELDEN, H. C., Jr.
Mobilizing for Coordinated Animal Waste Management  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 51: 1842

Representatives from all agricultural agencies in Maine as well as
other groups with an interest in animal wastes have held public
hearings and drawn up tentative Maine Standards for Manure Sludge
Disposal on land.  Coordination throughout New England is being
MULKEY, Lee A, ~
Animal Wastes in the Southeastern United
     the Poultry and Catfish Industries

States -- Water Quality and

Statement Presented at the President's WPC Advisory Board Meeting at
     Lafayette, Indiana  Jan.  25 p. proc.

Litter of sawdust, peanut hulls, wood shavings, etc., is used to the
extent of some 1.3 billion cu ft/yr in the U. S.  It is normally
replaced two or three times per year at which time it is spread on
grassland, without being plowed in, on which cattle graze.  The
application rate-is usually controlled by allowable nitrogen loading
Turkeys are raised on open range after their first few weeks.
Drainage and retention facilities similar to those required for cattle
feedlots are recommended.

Water in which catfish are raised commercially should be recycled,
solids should be removed, ammonia should be converted to nitrates,
and reaeration should be provided.  Ultimate disposal should be by
MULLIGAN, Thomas J. and HESLER, J. C.
Treatment and Disposal of Swine Waste
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 517-536

Quantities and characteristics of swine wastes are discussed.  The
governing chemical relations for oxidation ditches, anaerobic lagoons,
aerobic lagoons, and oxidation ponds are derived and laboratory data
are presented.  Disposal of liquid wastes may be by spray irrigation
on cropland or, if the climate permits, from evaporation ponds.
Sludge should be spread in thin.layers and plowed under.
Effects of Solid Beef  Feedlot Wastes on Soil Conditions and Plant
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 449-464

An investigation, of which the results "are far from conclusive,"
indicates that large applications of solid wastes from confined beef
cattle can depress yields of irrigated corn silage.  The detrimental
effects may, however,  apparently be reversed by continued cropping
and adequate infiltration.  "The studies at this location [Pratt,
Kansas] are being continued."
NATH, K. R.; DARFLER, J. M.; and BAKER, R. C.
Effect of Waste Management and Egg Processing on the Flavor of Cooked
     Eggs   (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 51: 1843-1844


Methods of waste management studied included the oxidation ditch,
forced air drying in the pit, under-cage drying of droppings on
slats, diffused aeration ditch, and anaerobic deep water pit.  Odors
from the oxidation ditch were least and from the anaerobic pit were
strongest.  No taste difference was detected.

NATZ, Daryl
Progress Reported in Handling Animal Wastes, Recycling in Feed
Feedstuffs 44: 14 Feb.  p. 2, 53

The author reviews the Cornell University 1972 Conference with
emphasis on the papers dealing with refeeding.  BERGDOLL's [1972-1014]
recommendation of feeding dried poultry waste from layers (which are
fed few antibiotics or other drugs) to beef cattle is cited in
Evaluation of Dehydrated Poultry Manure as a Potential  Poultry Feed
Proc, Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 301-309

"The metabolizable energy content of the poultry waste is perhaps
the best single overall measure of its potential value as feed
ingredient."  Laboratory experiments for its determination are
described.  While acceptability is good, chickens compensate for the
reduced energy content by eating more and producing more manure.
NIELSEN, Darwin B. and OLSON, P. Parry
Costs of Controlling Feedlot Surface Runoff
Utah Farmer-Stockman 92: 5 Oct.  p. 10-11

Of the 31 feedlots in Utah capable of handling 1000 head or more,
26 were assessed, in a study of runoff potential.  It appears that an
expense of 18 < per head fed would be involved in correcting runoff
conditions.  Of the lots, 12 had no runoff problem, 6 needed minor
improvements, 5 needed major improvements, and 3 would find it more
economical to relocate.
Nitrates in Soil and Ground Water Beneath Irrigated and Fertilized
Soil Science 114: 300-311


An area of 334 sq mi in Fresno County, California, was studied inten-
sively for nitrates beneath irrigated and fertilized crops.  The
fertilizers used included steer and chicken manure.  "No harmful
effects, from the health standpoint, will be encountered even if
present fertilizer practices are continued. . .   Continued uncontrolled
'suburban1 expansion with its septic tank systems and a shift'in
agricultural production from crops (grapes, etc.) with low N require-
ment to truck and orchard crops with higher nitrogen requirements may
be a cause for concern."
Soil Injection of Poultry Manure to Control Odors and Prevent Runoff
Poultry Sci. 51: 1847

Most soil injection equipment has no rate-of-flow control.  In such
cases, speed of travel must be closely regulated.  A minimum of 60
horsepower is advised.

OSWALD, William J.
Regenerating Poultry Manure
44th Ann. Rural Electric Conf., Davis, Cal.  6 p. proc.

OSWALD reports on experiments with "closed system" regeneration of
poultry manure by flushing the droppings through a grinding and
separation system and  thence through a settling tank.  The supernatant
flowed to an algae pond where oxygenation occurred through photo-
synthesis and/or aeration.  The algae oroduced in photosynthesis
were harvested by means of a continuous centrifuge and used as a
component in the chickens' diet.

"It is estimated that  the cost of operating a system involving photo-
synthesis could be as  much a two cents per dozen eggs.  The value of
recovered nitrogen was not included in this cost estimate, but could
be as much as three cents per dozen eggs where sunlight is adequate
and land inexpensive.  The cost of aeration without photosynthesis is
also estimated to be about two cents per dozen eggs."
 PARK,  William R.  and  ELLINGTON,  Gary
 New  Waste  Management  System for  Confined Swine  Operations
 Feedstuffs 44:  21  Aug.   p.  36-37

 A 1000-hog operation  in  Missouri has been successful  in  disoosing  of
 wastes into a concrete tank 20 ft by 40  ft in  plan  and 13  ft  deep


provided with a properly designed mechanical aerator.  Overflow
goes to a settling-evaporation tank.  The resulting humus is spread
on land.  Costs are about $1 per hog handled.
PARSONS, Robert A.
Manure Holding Pond Odor Control
Poultry Digest 31: 386  Credited to Engineer's Notebook, 30 Mar 72

Sprinklers or floating aerators are recommended for odor control  on
overloaded ponds.  "For 10,000 hens, an aerator that puts 60 to 90
pounds of oxygen daily into the pond is suggested."
PERSON, H. L. and MINER, J. Ronald
An Evaluation of Three Hydraulic Manure Transport Treatment Systems,
     Including a Rotating Biological Contactor, Lagoons, and Surface
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 271-288

Three systems of treatment, all with recirculation of effluent for
gutter flushing, were installed in eight swine buildings at Iowa
State University.  Performance and effectiveness are discussed.
PRATT, Theodore B.
Dairy Waste Goes Full Cycle in Research
Sunshine State Agr. Rsch. Rpt. 17: July-Aug.   p.  10-11

Studies on the feasibility of spraying dairy wastes over the land,
including uptake of the nutrients by soil  and water, yield of
different crops, and movement of nutrients and salts in the soil  are
in their third year at Hague, Florida.
Dried Poultry Waste As Feed
Poultry Digest 31: 248-249

In European practice poultry manure is dried at lower temperatures
and the exhaust gases are often run through an afterburner.  Both
practices reduce odors.

Drying costs of $6 to $37 per ton have been reported.  Protein con-
tents range from three to 30 percent with low protein content
accompanying high-temperature drying and drying of old manure.


The value of DPW in the poultry ration is about $18 per ton.  It may
be more valuable for ruminants than for poultry since ruminants can
convert urea as uric acid to body proteins.  Poultry can not.

Finally a Creative, Profitable Solution to Age Old Waste Problem
Big Farmer 44: Mar.  2 p.

Land disposal of/hog, cattle, and urban sludge in the right proportions
has^eliminated odors in the operation of a project at Richmond,
Illinois.  Corn yields are reported to have increased from 40 bu
to over 100 in three years.

Aerobic Treatment of Swine Waste by Aerator-Agitators  ("Fuchs")
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 537-543

In an experimental plant in Kiel, .Germany, undiluted liquid pig manure
is treated in a battery of three tanks in series.  Each tank has a
motor-driven impeller providing aeration.  Decomposition would require
lengthy, and uneconomic, aeration.  Some odor and considerable foam
occurs.  The fertilizer qualities of the effluent are somewhat better
than those of raw liquid manure.
ROBBINS, Jackie W. D.; HOWELLS, David H.; and KRIZ, George J.  '
Stream Pollution from Animal Production Units
WPCF Jnl. 44: 1536-1544

Analyses of quality of runoff from hog lagoons, of streams into which
animal manure had been dumped directly, of streams draining watersheds
on which land spreading had occurred, and of a stream draining agri-
cultural land free of livestock are reported.  All sites were  in
North Carolina.

It was concluded that anaerobic lagoons were unsatisfactory as a sole
treatment for swine wastes where precipitation exceeds evaporation.
The lagoons functioned mainly as traps with a limited amount of treat-
ment beyond sedimentation.  Direct dumping into streams causes
excessive pollution.  Land spreading, observing reasonable precautions,
is effective.  Natural pollution from agricultural land is often high
even in the absence of livestock.  The state of the art is indeed
primitive.  Meaningful tests are required.  At present total organic
carbon would appear to be the most meaningful single parameter for
quality of animal waste runoff.


Manure-Handling Capacity of Soils from a Microbiological  Point of View
CSAE Paper No. 72-210  18 p.
Abst:  McQ & B G-160

The criterion for handling capacity of a soil  may be taken to be "the
ability of the soil  microflora to assimilate waste without permitting
excessive leakage of nutrients and other undesirable components from
the system."  This ability is affected by temperature, moisture
content, degree of aeration, pH, and initial microbial population.
The components of most concern are carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen,
and pathogenic organisms.  Of these, nitrogen is usually the most
critical.  Due to the complexities of microbial  conversions of
nitrogen in mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification
generalizations are frequently erroneous and many contradictory
results have been reported in the literature.
ROGERS, Charles J.; COLEMAN, Emile; SPINO, Donald F.; PURCELL,
     Thomas C.; and SCARPINO, Pasquale V.
Production of Fungal Protein from Cellulose and Waste Cellulosics
Environ. Sci. and Tech. 6: 715-719

"Fungal protein, comoarable to cereal grain in chemical  composition,
containing all of the essential  ami no acids, was produced by fermen-
tation of waste cellulosic substrates."  Of the various  processes
tested to increase the susceptability of cellulose to biodegradation,
only photochemical treatment proved to be significant.  The processes
studied are discussed and 23 references are cited.
Critical Waste Problems Ahead
Livestock Breeder Jnl. 15: July  p. 270, 272, 274

Soil disposal is the most widely used and perhaps the best method of
animal waste disposal.  Fertilizer values are obtained.  A variety of
microbial digestion systems exist.  Drying to obtain a "snecialized
organic fertilizer" may be accomplished by several means.  Deep well
disposal has been reported in the popular press without details.
Research is being conducted in many forms of recycling.
Grass Response to Applications of Beef-Cattle Feedlot Runoff
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 465-480

Testing at nine field plots near Mead, Nebraska, and in greenhouses
indicates that the chemical quality of cattle feedlot runoff can vary
from year to year.  That of 1970 could be applied at depths of two
inches or more per week to grass vegetation; that of 1969 was toxic.
Tolerances vary with crops irrigated, with climatic and edaphic
conditions, and with number of applications during the growing season.

SAVERY, C. William and CRUZAN, Daniel C.
Methane Recovery from Chicken Manure Digestion
WPCF Jnl. 44: 2349-2354

Tests on an experimental anaerobic digester for the production of
methane gas from chicken manure are reported.  Calculations indicate
that a 60,000-chicken unit would supply enough methane to be self-
sufficient in its total electricity requirement, but at a cost six
times that of its present supply.  Improved technology and the
impending shortage of natural gas should reduce the adverse cost/
benefit ratio.   "The incentive for development of methane production
as a poultry by-product will most certainly be great when poultry
emissions, odor, and wastewater are subjected to controls.  It is
recommended that preliminary designs of poultry production facilities
incorporating alternative types of pollution controls and total
energy systems fueled by anaerobic digestion of chicken manure be
SAYLOR, W. W. and LONG, T. A.
Nutritive Value of  Ensiled Animal Wastes  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 35: 288

Tests are reported  in which cornfield residue, oat straw, and poultry
manure or cow manure were ensiled on a 40:60 fresh manure basis.
NaOH, KOH, or NH4OH was added at a level of four percent.  Crude
protein was significantly higher for the poultry manure than for the
cow manure.  Both had significantly higher crude protein than
control rations without manure.
Pyrolysis of Waste Materials from Urban and Rural Sources
Proc. 3rd Mineral Waste Utilization Symposium  p. 423-428

This paper describes the process of pyrolysis on municipal, industrial
and agricultural wastes, showing equipment involved, expected yields,
and the economics of each.

"Municipal, industrial, and agricultural  wastes can be converted to
gas, liquid, and solid fuels by pyrolysis.   These fuels can be
burned cleanly in contrast to the complex combustion of the raw
refuse.  The process is thermally self-sufficient, usually from the
gas produced.  Energy in the feed is almost all recovered in the
product, depending on the feed composition.  For municipal refuse,
typical recoveries are about 85%; they are even higher for more
selective feed stocks such as scrap tires or plastics.  Moisture in
the feed can affect the product distribution by reaction with the
hydrocarbons formed and by participation in the water gas shift

"Typical waste materials that are available in large quantities and
have been pyrolyzed include scrap tires, municipal refuse, wood
waste, battery cases, sludge, and manure.  Properly designed units
should vent no offensive products to the environment.  Residue sent
to landfill would be sterile and, in most cases, would be only a
small fraction of the original volume.  Preliminary estimates indi-
cate that the cost will be considerably less than for disposal by
other means.

"Although there are still many unansv/ered questions, the data reported
here give an indication of the anticipated processing conditions and
the products recovered.  Some of the questions concern the yields that
would be obtained in a continuous plant operating at equilibrium
conditions, the control of moisture in the pyrolysis zone, and the
preferred design of the pyrolysis unit."
Energy from the Pyrolysis of Agricultural Wastes
Bureau of Mines paper pres. at ACS Meeting, New York  Aug. 29.

The technique of pyrolysis as applied to bovine manure, crop wastes,
and wood wastes is discussed.  Pyrolysis is the heating of a material
to a high temperature in the absence of air.  Results for each case
are tabulated showing operating temperature, feed and product analyses,
and yields.  The effect of moisture in the feed on the product compo-
sition is considered.
Treatment of Swine Wastes
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  n. 267-270

SCHUSTER reports on modification of an existing facility to comply
with the toughest proposed federal legislation and to remain in
business in a location with a rapidly increasing population.


A tank 20 ft x 40 ft x 13 ft (three feet freeboard) with oxygenating
equipment to "turn over" the tank every 4.7 minutes was installed.
A preliminary cost tabulation indicates that about $1.00 per hog
will be added with no compensating income.

SCOTT, Milton L.
Second Thoughts about Recycling Poultry Wastes
Egg Industry 5: May  p. 52, 54

Dried poultry waste has a low energy content.  When used in a poultry
ration its value is primarily for phosphorus.  Viewed as a manure
disposal method it may be uneconomical since only a decreasing per-
centage of the total manure produced can be refed to the same flock.

An editor's note with the article invites comparison with results
reported from Michigan State [1972-1190],
Evaluation of Anaerobic Lagoon Treating Swine Wastes
ASAE Trans. 15: 1150-1152

Studies at a swine-producing facility in Mississippi which utilized
slotted floors over a pit, from which the overflow moved by gravity
to a single-cell anaerobic lagoon, established that the pollution-
potential of the waste was reduced significantly but by no means
eliminated.  Odor problems arose.  It is recommended that an anaerobic
lagoon be regarded as only a first step in a waste treatment system.
Cattle Market Wastes
Water Poll. Control 71: 533-538  Disc. 538-539

Loads from cattle markets, including the results of washing down the
trucks, often find their way to municipal treatment plants in the UK.
The variations in loads attendant upon the short periods of operations
of the markets and the intractability of much of the manure and straw
to sewage-plant biological treatment are detrimental to good operation,

Bedding straw should be removed thoroughly before hosing down; high-
pressure low-volume jets should be employed; fine screens protected
by grates should be employed.  The paper lists 34 references.

Discussers suggested lagoons at the market with supernatant flowing
to the treatment plant, and oxidation ditches.

SINGH, Ram Bux
The Bio-Gas Plant:  Generating Methane from Organic Wastes
Compost Sci. 13: Jan-Feb.  p. 20-25
Abst:  W73-04157

Methane gas is very similar to natural gas in its composition.   A
well-designed plant will have a life expectancy of about 25 years.
South African, French, and Indian installations are described.

Design considerations are treated at length.
SINGH, Ram Bux
Building a Bio-Gas Plant
Compost'Sci. 13: Mar-Apr,  p. 12-16
Instructions are given for building five methane producing plants of
differing capacities and complexities.

Recycling Animal Wastes as a Protein Source
Proc. Symp. Alternate Sources of Protein for Animal  Production
     Blackburg, Va.  1 Aug 72  Publication pending.

This review, of which the typed manuscript is 48 pages long with the last
14 constituting a list of references, discusses the use of animal
waste as a protein source for various classes of farm animals relative
to the diversity of nitrogen compounds in animal waste and examines
some animal recycling systems for efficient utilization.  "Under the
large confinement systems (caged layer operations and beef-feed!ots),
collection is a minor oroblem and an incentive exists for considering
animal waste as a protein source."  Analyses of manure and litter
for various classes of nitrogen content are reported and the effec-
tiveness of these for ruminants and non-ruminants is discussed.

The literature on the feeding of caged poultry manure, beef feedlot
manure, poultry litter, swine manure, and dairy cattle manure is
reviewed in a manner similar to that in chapter V of this report.
Poultry litter is the preferred source of manure-based protein,  and
ruminants are able to make the most effective utilization of a manure
component in their diet. "Methods of handling and processing animal
waste for feeding can result in adverse effects on its chemical
composition and thus possibly on nutritive value."


Dehydrated Poultry Waste in Rations for Sheep  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 35: 275

Feeding tests in which twelve wethers particiDated indicate that the
use of dried poultry waste as a source of crude protein produced
average daily gains at least 90 percent as great as those from
soybean oil meal.

Undercage Drying of Laying Hen Manure
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 187-200

Rapid drying of chicken manure eliminates the opportunity for volatile
compounds, responsible for much of the odor, to develop.  Drying
also reduces the weight and volume of manure to be handled.

Laboratory and field tests of systems of fins and/or screens and of
forced-air drying systems are described and the results are tabulated.
Environmental Quality of the Oldman River in the Lethbridge-Taber
Water Users' Conference, Lethbridge, Alta.  13-14 Oct.  15 p. proc.
Accepted for publication in Jnl. of Environ. Quality

Sampling of soil near Alberta feedlots and of the Oldman River and
some of its tributaries indicates that reports of pollution from
feedlots may be exaggerated.  Immediately adjacent to the lots high
concentrations of nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorus, and potas-
sium are encountered but these drop off rapidly in soil and ground-
water within 400 feet.  "There was no measurable evidence of nitrate
pollution of the nearby surface waters."  A pollution potential is,
however, present.
Rules and Regulations:   Confined  Feeding Operations
Water Quality Commission Release  CP-B24136  4 p.

The required facilities  under  normal conditions include "terraces
or retention basins capable of containing four inches of surface
runoff from the feedlot  area,  waste storage areas, and all other
waste contributing areas."  Settling basins shall be employed and
the wastes trapped therein "shall  be disposed of as soon as prac-
ticable to insure adequate retention capacity for future needs."

Storage periods of 120 to 180 days may be required.  "Other methods
of water pollution control shall be permitted where the department
determines that effective results will be obtained. .  .   If waste
treatment facilities consist only of lagoon type structures there
shall be a minimum of two such structures for series operation."
Project Rescue -- Energy from Solid Wastes
USBM Pittsburgh Energy Research Center

The author discusses conversion of various types of solid wastes
(including manure) to fuel oil, to fuel gas (by pyrolysis), and to
pipeline gas (essentially methane).  The conditions for each reac-
tion are given along with product yields and compositions.  A
sketch of equipment is included and also a graph showing potential
fuel oil supply available from organic wastes.
Digestion Trials with Steers Fed Aouatic Plant Diets
Jnl. Animal Sci. 34: 363

The mean apparent absorption percentages for oxalates, tannins, and
nitrates and the mean net retention of minerals from diets of which
33 percent consisted of coastal Bermudagrass, hydrilla, or water
hyacinth are listed.  Wide differences occurred among the three
Animal Waste Management in Texas
Memo AENG 6, Agric. Ext. Serv. Texas A & M  10 p.  mimeo.

Beef feedlots account for 65 percent of the animal manure (dry weight
basis) in Texas.  Of the total tonnage, 70 percent is from lots which
do not contribute to surface runoff under storms of less than once-
in-25-years frequency.  Other lots are being upgraded toward this
goal.  Land disposal provides fertilizer and soil conditioning
benefits.  No salt build-up occurs with application rates below
300-900 tons/acre.  "To summarize, land disposal of solid beef
feedlot wastes at rates consistent with sound agronomic practice
gives benefit-cost ratios of about 2:1 or 3:1."  Other methods cited
are conversion to a protein source by thermonhilic bacteria (GE -
Casa Grande, Arizona), conversion to building materials by mixing
with glass and heating at atmospheric pressure to 300-400C (Montford
Greeley, Colorado), conversion to fuel oil at 300-400C and 3000-4000


psi, refeeding as a fermented mixture of manure and hay, and pyrolysis
with ammonia recovery.

Turkey feedlots contribute to water pollution.  It is usual in Texas
to move the pens rather than the manure, utilizing the fertilizer
value of the manure where it falls.

Caged layers produce a high-nitrogen waste.  Dehydration and refeeding
appear promising.  SWEETEN urges a cautious approach to this solution.

Broiler manure has value as a fertilizer and in cattle feed rations.

For dairy cattle and swine, liquid manure handling is usual.  Odor
problems arise.  Lagooning provides little economic return.  Slurry
irrigation by pipeline and spray nozzle or by storage pit and honey
wagon is recommended.
New Waste Treatment System is Used for Hogs
Amer.  Farmer 47:  Feb.  p. 6-7

Ohio State University  is testing an installation which flushes animal
buildings thus avoiding build-up of noxious gases and automating
manure removal.   Solids are removed by screens, digested aerobically,
and stored for convenient spreading.  Liquids are treated in an
oxidation ditch and reused for flushing.  Provision for chlorination
is included in case of disease outbreaks.  Initial cost was $40,000.
Further work should reduce this to one-half or one-third that amount.
TAIGANIDES, E.  Paul   and WHITE, Richard K.
Automated Handling and Treatment of Swine Wastes
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 331-339

A 500-pig unit  at Botkins, Ohio, was opened on 22 Apr 71 in which
recycled water  is employed for flushing.  Solids are removed by
screening, digested  aerobically, stored, and pumped to cropland.
Liquids are treated  in an oxidation ditch.

Performance for the  first 36 weeks is reviewed.
THOMAS, J. W.; YU, Yu; TINNIMITT,  P.;  and  ZINDEL, Howard C.
Dehydrated Poultry Waste  as  a  Feed for Milking  Cows and Growii
Jnl. of Dairy Sci. 55: 1261-1265

In feeding tests at Michigan State University milk cows were fed 23
percent of their total protein and 11  percent of their total dry
matter in dehydrated poultry feces.   Sheep were fed 61  and 90 percent
of their total protein and 25 and 50 percent of their total  ration
from the same source.  "When the dehydrated feces cost $20/908 Kg,
then feed cost per unit gain was similar to that of control  lambs.
Results indicate the feasibility of using relatively large amounts of
dehydrated caged layer feces as a nitrogen and energy source for
and lambs."
THORNBERRY, Fredrick D.; GROOMS, Randall D.; and YOUNGBLOOD, Samuel  R.
Broiler Litter as a Winter Cattle Feed in East Texas  (Abst)
Proc. Assn. Southern Agr. Workers 69: 221

Litter may be more valuable as a winter feed ingredient than as a
fertilizer.  Heifers gained 1.21 Ib/day at a feed cost of 14.5 i/lb
with a diet based on 1460 Ib of broiler litter (pine shavings),
440 Ib of ground milo, 125 Ib of molasses, 1 Ib of vitamin A supple-
ment, free choice salt and bone meal, and 130 bales of grass hay.
They "were in excellent physical condition when turned on spring
TINNIMIT, Parnich; YU, Yu; McGUFFEY, Kenneth; and THOMAS,  J.  W.
Dried Animal Waste as a Protein Supplement for Sheep
Jnl. Animal Sci.  35: 431-435
Abst:  W73-04449

Dehydrated feces fed to sheep at 20 to 80 percent of the ration
received excellent acceptance.  Goats refused it.  The feces  fur-
nished 40 to 90 percent of the nitrogen in the ration.  The nitrogen
retention on the feces ration was 18 to 72 percent.  On a  soybean
ration it was 16 to 65 oercent.
Farm Waste Disposal  (Revised)
U. K. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.  Short Term
     Leaflet 67  24 p.

This is a brief, very practical  guide for British farmers to aid
them in selection of an effective method of waste disposal.  Legal
regulations, health hazards, and standards of personal and animal
safety are discussed.  Surface aerators are highly regarded since
they "have the advantage that they can be farmer installed, they can
be above ground situations contained completely in tanks or butyl

lined lagoons.  They are relatively easy to maintain.  .  ."  Even in
the generally moist British climate evaporation is an  important
design consideration.  Land disposal and conventional  sewage treat-
ment are the only means suggested.  "In practice few farmers are
able to discharge their drainage into public sewers and  the indi-
cations are that this facility is unlikely to be offered more widely
in the future."

The Effects of Continuous Recycling Dried Poultry Waste  in Laying
     Hen Diets on Trace Minerals Found in Various Tissues  (Abst)
Poultry Sci. 51: 1882

After 23 cycles with 0, 12.5, and 25 percent replacement of corn
by DPW (weight basis), investigations indicated'that accumulations
of arsenic, mercury, copper, and zinc in the tissues,  feces and eggs
were "not appreciably altered."
Feeding Value of Processed Animal Waste Nutrients  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 35:  1093

Processed animal waste nutrients  (PAWN) from an oxidation ditch were
fed to steers in three tests up to a maximum amount of 6.8 Kg/
steer-day.  No observable effects appeared in carcass grade, yield,
or health-related  factors.   A tasting panel was well impressed with
the flavor of the  meat.
 VOGEL, John
 EPA  Proposes  Livestock  Waste  Rules
 Prairie  Farmer   v.  144.   18 Nov.  p.  9-10

 Hearings are  announced  for several  places  in  Illinois on a proposed
 permit system for new or  modified livestock facilities handling
 more than  100 animal units.   An animal  unit is defined as 1000 Ib
 of live  animal on the premises for  one  year.  Existing facilities
 must meet  the following requirements:

     (1)   A curb, diversion dike, or  wall  must be  provided to prevent
 outside  surface  water from flowing  through.

     (2)   Storage structures  capable  for  storing six months' manure
 must be  provided.

     (3)  Retention basins or storage ponds with 120 days'  capacity
must be provided.

     (4)  Manure may not be applied within 200 ft of any stream nor
on frozen land with slopes in excess of five percent.

Costs of complying are discussed.
Heavy Manure Applications:  Benefit or Waste?
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 441-447

For conditions similar to those tested in Massachusetts there  is
little economic advantage to exceeding manure application rates of
twenty tons per acre.  However, applications of up to 600 tons per acre
of cattle manure "should not adversely affect crop growth or yield."
WEISS, Alvin H.
Conversion of Solid Waste to Liquid Fuel
Textile Research Journal, 1972, p. 526-532

"A background in the chemistry of cellulose pyrolysis and hydro-
genation is provided, and the cellulose liquefaction literature and
state of the art is reviewed.  A concept of an ultimate process in
which cellulosic solid waste is used both to produce process hydro-
gen by the water-gas shift reaction and to provide the raw material
for conversion to oil is developed.  The theoretical yield of
hydrocarbon oil from cellulose is 35.7 wt%, or 2.47 bbl/ton at
0.810 sp gr.  An economic process will probably use a reaction medium
of cellulosics slurried in oil and will require a catalyst that
permits operations at pressures below 1000 psig.  The heating value
of refuse is approximately 5000 BTU/lb, on an as-is basis and
9000 BTU/lb on a moisture and ash-free (MAF) basis.  At present,
pyrolysis processes are capable of producing a tar (containing
20 wt % Og) with a heating value of 12,000 BTU/lb and an equal yield
of char.  Hydrogenation processes have the potential of producing
practically 02-free oil approaching 18,000 BTU/lb, without the char
Feedlot Particulate Matter Measurement  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci.  35: 195

 Particulate matter levels are 25 to 30 times greater in peak
participate matter hours in comparison to minimum particulate
matter hours."  Samples should be collected on a 24-hr basis.
WESTING, T. W.; ELAM, C. J.; ALGEO, J. W.; and
Control of Feedlot Particulate Matter  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 35: 196
Control of particulate matter in feedlots can be by watering (2.25
to 3.5 Iit/m2-day), by greater animal density, or by chemicals.
"Optimum method of control was dependent primarily on feedlot
WHITE, Richard K. and EDWARDS, W. M.
Beef Barnlot Runoff and Stream Water Quality
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 225-235

The majority of  beef cattle raised in Ohio are in barnlots where,
by definition, 20 to 100 head have free access to lot or barn.
Under these circumstances 1/4 to 1/3 of the total manure deposit
is on the lot.   The paper reports monitoring of runoff from such a
barnlot where 60 cattle had access to 0.42 acres.
The Economics of Farm Waste  Disposal
(Typewritten report) U. of Surrey
Abst:  Agriculture  79: 232

This  is a literature survey  of the available papers through about
1970.  Land disposal and sewage works type treatment are discussed.
Cost  data are given for British conditions.  No separate bibliography
is included.
 WILLSON, G.  B.  and  HUMMEL,  J. W.
 Aeration Rates  for  Rapid  Composting of  Dairy Manure
 Proc.  Cornell Agric. Waste  Mgmt.  Conf.  p. 145-158

 Aeration supplies oxygen  for  the  microorganisms, it removes excess
 heat which they generate, and it  removes moisture.  A series of
 laboratory studies  on  benchtop  and in half-ton bins is described.

Manure Deodorants. . .   How Well Do They Work?
Farm Jnl. 96: June  p.  22, 38

No deodorant is recommended as being effective and economical.  In
general, odor problems should be solved before'they arise.  In
emergencies, however, some products may prove to be worth what
they cost.
ZIMDEL, Howard C.
DPW Recycling Facts Updated
Poultry Digest 31: 125-126

Studies at Michigan State. University, including recycling 35 times
with rations containing 12.5 percent and 25 percent DPW, have indi-
cated that the practice is safe.  No build-up of heavy metals has
occurred.  Operation costs will vary between $12 and $16 per dried
ton without afterburners.  With them, costs will about double.
Properly processed and properly stored DPW "has a place in the list
of ingredients for all animal rations."

Anonymous notes on page 127 tabulate layer performance on DPW and
present the Food and Drug Administration position on recycling animal
Surface Runoff Nutrient Losses from Various Land Disposal Systems
     for Dairy Manure
Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Mgmt. Conf.  p. 495-502

In test plots subjected to simulated rainfall, heavy mineral ferti-
lization increased the runoff by fifty percent and increased the
losses of soil, organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus,
A six-ton application of dairy cattle manure cut these losses in
New Aerobic Process Turns Waste to Nutrients
Ag. Chem. 27: Dec-Jan,  p. 24-27

Operation of an Ohio feedlot which digests 400 tons of cattle manure
per day by means of a patented process is described.  The manure,
gathered from housed cattle, is packaged in bags for sale as an
organic fertilizer.


Pyrolysis and Salvage Get Demonstration Tests
Amer. City 87: Nov.  p. 44

Baltimore and San Diego County are to construct prototype plants to
utilize pyrolysis.  Baltimore will produce fuel gas then raise steam
to be sold to a local utility.  San Diego County will produce fuel
oil from the wastes of Escondido and San Marcos.  The fuel oil will
be sold to local electric utilities.  Salvage of ferrous metal and
crushed glass will be a by-product of the operation.
Make a Profit on Manure
Amer. Farmer 47: Jan.  p. 30

A feedlot in Fayetteville, North Carolina, which normally handles
8000 cattle buys extra manure from dairies which have concrete lots
to meet its demand for dehydrated, bagged, sterilized manure.  In
processing, the manure is mixed with pine bark to absorb moisture.
A seasonal market and odors are drawbacks.
ANON  [Based on Myron
Pollution Researchers
Beef 8: Jan.  p. 34
Finding Many
Answers, Expert Reports
To maintain pond volume, provision should be made for settling solids
before they reach the pond.  Adequate feedlot drainage is the best
odor preventive.  Ponds should be emptied slowly, and irrigation
should be by gravity with tailwater returning to the pond.  Sprinkler
irrigation tends to release odors to the air.  A six-inch manure pack
on lots is acceptable.
ANON   [Based on Bob GEORGE]
The Price Tag to Stop  Feedlot  Run-Off
Beef 8: Apr.  p. 6-7

For diversion terraces,  settling  basin, lagoon, and irrigation
equipment adequate to  meet conditions nine years in ten in Central
Missouri, GEORGE tabulated costs.  His minimum and maximum (gated-
pipe system and big gun  system for irrigating) were:  For 200 head
$1819  and 3339, for 400  head $2358 and 3878,  for 800 head $3296 and
7571,  and for 1200 head  $4314  and 8710.

ANON  [Based on Conrad SILBfRTSON]
Engineer Sounds Warning on Use of Lagoon Waste on Field Crops
Beef 8: Apr.  p. 15

Before irrigating with liquid from a lagoon, try it on a test plot.
For reasons not completely understood, water from the same pond
has been known to kill crops and to stimulate growth to three times
that resulting from the same quantity of clear water.
Feedlot Pollution Control is Not an Expensive Item:  Linder
Beef 8: Apr.  p. 25

In this summary of the meeting of the National  Livestock Feeders
Association in Omaha, Bob LINDER described the drainage and storage
facilities at an 1100-head Nebraska feedlot which cost the feedlot
$293 and the ASCS $907.  "Take care of your pollution problems and
you eliminate many of your animal comfort problems -- and wind UD
with better gains."

Oxidation ditches were recommended for both hog and cattle operations,
For cattle on confined feeding over an oxidation ditch in Iowa
winters, Gerald FRANKL reported gains of 2.64 Ib/day inside, 1.9
Ib/day outside; feed consumptions of 8.9 Ib per Ib gain inside,
14.3 outside; and cost of gains $21.07 inside, $33.65 outside.  The
wheels should be well designed, and the installation should be as
uncomplicated as possible.

J. Ronald MINER stressed that maintenance and good housekeeping are
required with any disposal method and that the effluent was not fit
to be discharged to a stream.
ANON  [Based on Gerald FRANKL]
Iowa Beef Tests Show Profit for Feeding Ditch Effluent
Beef 8: Aug.  p. 20-21

Use of Processed Animal Byproduct (PAB) cut feed cost per hundred
pounds of gain by $1.22.  "Cattle on the by-product material gained
faster, ate more feed and had more efficient conversions than those
on the standard control ration.  The two rations were balanced to
be nutritionally identical."  Comparisons of 13 factors are tabulated,
ANON  [Based on Harry MANGES]


Kansan Applies Feedlot Runoff to Corn Fields
Beef 9: Sept.  p. 6

The safe upper limit of effluent from feedlots or of manure spread
as fertilizer is still not known.  Any application should take into
account local quality, which may be highly variable.  At Pratt,
Kansas, four to eight inches of feedlot runoff appears to be optimum,
but long-range effects must be watched closely.  Fifty tons per  acre
of dry manure plus proper irrigation appears to be satisfactory.
Sixty to ninety tons may be used every third year with none in the
intervening years.  Watch for groundwater pollution.

ANON  [Based on R. L. VETTER]
Southern "Weed" May Improve Midwest Lagoons
Beef 9: Sept.  p. 15

Studies at Iowa State University indicate that water hyacinths may
remove 500 Ib of nitrogen per acre and 18 percent of the phosphorus
present.  Five tons of dry matter per acre result from the 84 tons of
plant material.  Cattle will consume large amounts of fresh hyacinths,
but processing costs are high.

ANON  [Based on Sam EVANS]
Heavy Manure Application Helps Yields
Beef 9: Sept.  p. 23

First year response to a heavy manure loading in Minnesota was good,
but the long-term effects may be detrimental.  Corn wilted in
mid-summer of the second year on a heavily treated plot due to high
salt concentration.
ANON   [Based on James H. SLONEKER]
USDA Researcher Uses Manure to Make Feed and Wall board
Beef 9: Oct.  p.  5

By means of a two-stage  process described at a Symposium of the
American Chemical Society  in New York, 43 percent of animal waste
can be converted  into a  feed comparable with soybean meal.  Another
fifty  percent is  a fibrous material which can be treated with resin
and pressed into  a low-grade wall board or, alternatively, may be used
as a nutrient for fungus which, in turn, nroduce high-protein
enzymes which make good  chicken feed.  A profit of $20 per ton is

Waste Conversion Plant Opened In Arizona
Beef 9: Oct.  p. 35

In a pilot plant at Casa Grande, Arizona, General  Electric is treat-
ing the wastes from 100 cattle by means of thermophilic bacteria.
Results of FDA tests are expected by mid-1973.
New Odor Control Product
CALF News 10: July  p. 22

A product which has been subjected to limited testing is alleged to
control odors and possibly reduce manure volumes.   In lagoons it is
claimed that it will take solids to the bottom and produce oxygen.
It will also crack bottoms of lagoons, thus promoting seepage.   "It
was found that it would react with any dead organic matter, but it
will not react with living matter.  It has a pH of one,  but you can
wash you hands in it."  Used on an 18-inch manure  pack in a pen it
reduced it to four inches.  "There was no damage to the  cattle."
The product is manufactured by RAD Limited, Inc.,  of Yale, Oklahoma.
Feedlot Loses Odor Suit
CALF News 10: July  p. 45

Producers, Inc., of McKinney, Texas, has been held liable for damages
of $135 per acre to a neighbor's land due to odors from a feedlot.
The Texas Supreme Court upheld the verdict of a district court in the
case.  No one lived on the land which was used only for farming and
grazing.  "The appeals court said the question was whether the value
of the land was reduced for any purpose for which it might be sold."
Monfort Looks at Treated Manure for Tile and Plastic
CALF News 10: Aug.  p. 4

Monfort, operator of feedyards producing a half million tons of manure
per year, is planning intensive study of Dr. John McKENZIE's pro-
cesses for pyrolysis of manure and glass above 300C to produce tile,
and, with introduction of varying amounts of air, to produce building
bricks or insulation.  Natural gas, crude oil, and water high in
nitrogen are produced as by-products in about equal amounts (12-1/2


percent by weight of original partially-dried manure).  Being a
one-step process using low cost ingredients and producing a tile
superior quality, hopes are high.
GE Opens Recycling Plant
CALF News 10: Oct.  p. 34, 80-81

GE opened a test facility at Casa Grande, Arizona, on 31 August to
treat the wastes from 100 head of cattle by means of thermophilic
bacteria to produce a pasteurized high-protein livestock feed
supplement.  Cattle manure consists largely of plant fiber consti-
tuents digested only slowly by usual strains of bacteria.  Results
are expected by mid-1973.
ANON  [Based on John M. SWEETEN]
Manure Promoted for Cropland
CALF News 10: Dec.  p. 18

Manure acts as a fertilizer; buffers alkaline soils; and improves
porosity, granulation, water infiltration rate, and moisture
retention.  Residual effects may result in a profit even where
handling costs exceed one-year value.

Salt accumulation should be checked.  Maximum application rates
recommended are 10-15 tons/acre depending on precipitation and irri-
gation practices.

Brief notes on the same page report increased hay yields on manure-
fertilized land in California and warn of nitrate pollution in
Fresh Wastes Have More Nutrients
Egg Industry 5: May  p. 54, 55

Tests by Cal J. FLEGAL, C. C. SHEPPARD, and D. A. DORN of Michigan
State indicate that the longer the time lapse before drying poultry
manure, the less the nutritive value of the manure.  After 31
recyclings, DPW analyses were quite similar.  Phosphorus rose from
2.4 to 2.8 percent and calcium fell from 10 to 7 percent for birds
fed a 25 percent DPW diet.  "Hen-housed production on the 12.5%
diet was 62.4%, compared to 59.2% for the 25% diet and 59.6% for
the controls."

FDA Needs Data on Feeding Manure
Egg Industry 5: Aug.   p. 18

Current tests at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and at Michigan
State University could induce the Food and Drug Administration to
notify state feed control officials of an easing of the 1967
policy statement.  "It is not likely that there would be blanket
approval, for it would depend on the species involved, the type of
litter or waste, and  processing methods."
Technique Developed to Recycle Manure Into Cattle Feed
Environment News 2: Nov.   p. 14

General Electric is producing 120 Ib of feed daily from 340 Ib of
dry manure, the output of about 100 cattle, at Casa Grande, Arizona.
Shreaded diluted manure moves through three fermentation tanks where
it is consumed by thermophilic bacteria to oroduce a protein-rich
end product which is odorless and tasteless.

Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft has a similar process,
using bacteria already present in the manure, under laboratory
What Are You
Farm Technol,
Doing About Your
 28 (3): 14, 16
1.57 Billion Ton Animal  Waste Problem?
Land spreading, with or without other processes, is the ultimate
destination envisaged for solid and/or liquid manure.  The trend
is toward increased regulation of feedlots and other sources of
Composting:  One Solution
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p.
Abst:  McQ & B F-065
             to Feedlot Waste Disposal
             32, 33, 36, 43
A method of continuous composting developed by Prof. K. L. SCHULZE
of Michigan State University is described.  "The end product, either
in a ground or pelleted form, can be used as a feed supplement for

ruminants, as an organic soil conditioner or as the basis for
fertilizer.  The cost is estimated to be $4 to $12 per ton.  The
"soil conditioner sells from $15 per ton in bulk to $42 per ton
in bags."
ANON  [Based on Jack  C. TAYLOR]
The Door's Still Open to Refeeding Cattle Waste
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p. 60
Abst:  McQ & B F-067

The Food and Drug Administration's policy statement of five years ago
disapproving of the use of poultry litter for feed because of
possible transmission of drugs, antibiotics and disease organisms
still stands.  "We must show FDA that cattle wastes can be processed
for refeeding without harm to the animals or to the consumers who
eat the meat and with nutritional benefit for the cattle."
This Plant Will Convert Waste into Protein
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p. 70-71
Abst:  McQ & B F-068

The process used by General Electric at Casa Grande, Arizona, to
produce high-protein feed supplement from cattle manure is diagrammed
and explained.
Sagebrush for Odor Control:   In the Feed or the Manure?
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p.  74
Abst:  McQ & B  F-069

Studies at Colorado State  University indicate that chopped sagebrush
in amounts of one or two Ib/day has no effect on the cattle, but
reduces manure  odor.  Salt in quantities of zero to four oz/day has
no effect on gains.
Many Uses for Composted Manure
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: May  p.  74a
Abst:  McQ & B F-070

"Mechanized composting has arrived in the cattle feeding business
as a means of reducing feedlot waste disposal problems."  A machine
built by General Motors is described and pictured.  "There is a
potential in the use of composted manure for recycling as feed for
cattle and for bulk use on agricultural lands."
ANON  [Based on Warren B. COE and Michael TURK]
Waste Conversion Unit Developed
Feedlot Mgmt. 14: Dec.  p. 26

"The Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation has
developed a process that converts manure into a livestock feed pro-
duct and at the same time produces sufficient methane gas to supply
the heat and electricity to run the process."  The process, still in
the laboratory testing stage, operates in the absence of oxygen using
bacteria present in the waste to accomplish fermentation.

Warm Water Study
Feedlot Mgmt. 14; Dec.  p. 61

Oregon State University is studying the possibility of routing warmed
water from power plants through greenhouses raising cattle feed,
breaking down animal wastes which could then feed algae, yeast or
other single-celled proteins.  These,in turn, would become cattle

The water, then cool, would be reused.
ANON  [Credited to Challenge, publ.  by Gen. Elect. Space Division]
Arizona Feeds Helping in Beef Waste Reclamation
Feedstuffs 44: 6 Mar.  p. 5

Arizona Feeds of Tucson is cooperating with General Electric in a
project for the production of 120 Ib per day of protein for cattle
feed.  The source is cattle manure.
General Electric to Recycle Beef Manure into Protein Feed at New
     Arizona Plant
Feedstuffs 44: 10 Apr.  p. 4.

A pilot plant at Casa Grande, Arizona, scheduled to begin production
in the summer of 1972 will process the wastes from 100 cattle by
providing for digestion of the waste by thermophilic bacteria
followed by harvesting of the bacteria for protein.  Years of research
have gone into the process wherein 400-500 Ib manure (dry weight)
will produce 120-150 Ib protein.  Other cellulose wastes would be
amenable to the same process.
ANON  [Based on J. V. MANNERING]
Swine Manure Land Application Rates
Hog Farm Mgmt. 9: Feb.  p. 32-33

Land application of swine manure is recommended as a means of pro-
tecting surface and ground water from nitrogen and phosphorus
excesses, of removing bacteria and pathogens through the "living
filter" operation, of improving soil structure, and of least-cost

Nitrogen should not be returned to the land in excess of crop use.
The amount of manure per acre to contain this amount of nitrogen
depends on the animal ration, the ammonia conversion and denitrifi-
cation before application, the crop type, and the climate.  Typical
values for swine wastes on various crops in Indiana are tabulated.

Salt buildup should also be considered.
ANON  [Credited to UCF Market Bull. 19 Nov 71]
Is Dried Poultry Waste Good Feedstuff?
Poultry Digest 31: 33

Cornell investigators compared DPW to sawdust nutritionally,
observing that chickens remove 85 percent of the nutrients from feed.
Michigan State Universty reported on a feeding trial in which 12.5
percent of the corn was replaced by manure.  After 31 passes the
ration was "giving equal, if not better performance,"

ANON  [Credited to Clemson Univ. Poultry Letter, Oct. '71]
Should Superphosphate Be Used on Manure?
Poultry Digest 31: 42

Superphosphate has been used on manure accumulations below cages as
a water absorbent for some years.  After a four- to six-inch layer
accumulates, natural drying renders the superphosphate relatively
ineffective.  Since superphosphate is frequently used as fertilizer,
however, it  becomes a question of the economics of  adding it before
or after field spreading.


ANON  [Based on Donald D. BELL]
Why Poultry Manure Varies as Fertilizer
Poultry Digest 31: 90-91

Many farmers distrust poultry manure as a fertilizer because of
uncertainty as to its content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
With "as is" samples in Riverside County, California, values ranged
as follows:  nitrogen:  0.5 percent - 6.0 percent by weight,
phosphorus:  0.5 percent - 3.0 percent, potassium:  0.4 percent -
2.0 percent, and water:  7.8 percent - 69.5 percent.  Major causes
of the variation are moisture content, feed of poultry, and age of
manure at time of drying or of delivery.
ANON  [Based on Glenn 0. BRESSLER]
Other Fertilizer Uses for Dried Manure
Poultry Digest 31: 136

Dried poultry manure in excess of market demands has proved useful
in Pennsylvania on highway embankments, highly-acid strip mine
lands, and other wastelands.
ANON  [Based on Cal J. FLEGAL, C. C. SHEPPARD, and D. A. DORN]
Manure Storage Time Affects Value of DPW
Poultry Digest 31: 205

The protein percentage (dry basis) of dried poultry waste decreases
from 30.3 for seven-day storage to 18.3 for 98-day storage of the
manure before drying.  Intermediate values are tabulated.

After 31 recyclings of DPW with collection and drying at intervals
averaging 12 days, the crude protein at the end of the first cycle
was 29.7 percent.  For a ration percentage of 12.5 percent, the
crude protein after the 31st cycle was 27.9 percent.  Phosphorus
content was 2.4 percent after the first, 2.8 percent after the 31st.
Egg production was 62.4 percent on the 12.5 percent refeed, 59.6
percent on the control diet (zero refeed), and 59.2 percent on 25
percent refeed.
Molasses from Manure?
Poultry Digest 31:  208

"The Sulphur Institute reports that sulphur dioxide, an air pollu-
tant from power and industrial plants, can be cooked with sludge,
protecting the organic amino acids in the sludge from degradation,
and enhancing the protein values."  If sludge, why not poultry
manure which has lost most of its nitrogen?
Data Needed on Safety of Recycling Waste
Poultry Digest 31: 294

The Food and Drug Administration is watching research results on
the content of pathogens and residues harmful to animals and food
in recycled litter.  Until convinced of its safety, approval will
continue to be withheld.  Approval, if it comes, will be on a orocess-
by-process basis  as the safety of each process is established.
ANON  [Based on Henry NUTTING]
How Nutting Pre-Dries Manure in Deep-Pit House
Poultry Digest 31: 385-386

Cones of manure build up on .1 x 4's some five inches apart suspended
between cage and pit.  The manure is air dried by an exhaust fan
and pushed off into the pit semiannually.  A four-year accumulation
in the pit has a moisture content of 20 to 30 percent and a depth
of 40 inches.  It has little odor and attracts few flies.
ANON  [Based on J. R. COUCH]
Processed Poultry Manure as a Feedstuff
Poultry Digest 31: 537

Poultry feces uncontaminated with litter may be fed to laying hens
without detrimental effects on the health of the hens or on the
taste of the eggs.  DPW has a low energy content and is useful pri-
marily for its phosphorus and amino acid content.  It should not
be fed to broilers and turkeys.  Hens on DPW eat more (to get more
energy) and produce more manure.
ANON  [Based on Walter GOJMERAC.  Credited to Wise. Agriculturist,
     12 Aug 72]
Chickens Control Flies from Manure Stack
Poultry Digest 31: 546

"Chickens which eat fly maggots in dairy manure stacks at the
University of Wisconsin's Electric Research Farm are doing a good
job of fly control. .  ."  Two hundred fifty cockerels are housed
in a yard to which the daily manure production is brought.
ANON  [Based on Darrell TURNER]
Recycling of Wastes
Poultry Meat 23: March  p. 8

The best way of disposing of excess nitrogen from poultry wastes is
to recycle it through crops.  Studies are under way on means of
allowing nitrogen to return to the air or to be trapped on soil
filters.  In some circumstances soil filters have removed forty
times the amount removable by crops.
ANON  [Based on James H. SLONEKER]
Feedlot Waste Usable
Poultry Meat 23: Oct.  p. 16

A two-step fractionation process for feedlot waste developed by the
Agricultural Research Service, USDA obtains a fibrous residue,
fifty percent of the waste, which can be pressed into board or
used as a nutrient for fungus that produces a fiber-digesting
enzyme.  Chicken feed treated with the enzyme has improved
digestibility.  The fungus itself is almost half protein.
ANON  [Based on Ronald JOHNSON]
Feeding Feedlot Waste
Prog. Farmer 87: Oct.  p. 38

At Oklahoma State University 25 percent and 40 percent of the ration
for sheep consisted of dry feedlot waste.  "The wastes had extremely
high ash contents, probably from dust and soil scraped up when the
feed pens were cleaned."  The tests are preliminary.
ANON  [Based on W. Brady ANTHONY]
Feed of the Future?
Prog. Farmer 87: Dec.  p. 30

"Waste!age" -- a product obtained by blending 48 percent corn,
12 percent hay, and 40 percent cattle manure (by weight) has proven
to be a highly successful feed for cattle and sheep in tests at
Auburn University over a number of years.


ANON  [Based on James HALLIGAN and Robert M. SWEAZY]
More Manure Disposal
Prog. Farmer 87: Dec.  p. 30

HALLIGAN and SWEAZY of Texas Tech are working on a project to
obtain synthesis gas from feedlot manure.  The gas would be used
as a fuel or for conversion to ammonia to provide soil nitrogen.
Use of ammonia increased from 150,000 tons in 1961 to 370,000
tons in 1971.
Disposing of Our Wastes  Soil Can Filter, Crops Recycle Nutrients
Sunshine State Agr. Rsch. Rpt. 17: July-Aug.  p. 8, 9, 12

Projects under investigation at the University of Florida include
multistage lagoon treatment of the wastes from a 600-cow dairy
followed by seepage irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, and compost
disposal in phosphate-mined areas.
Planning Feedlot Waste Disposal
Wallaces Farmer 97: 22 Jan.  p. 86

A farmer planning retaining and detention structures for pollution
control may get technical assistance from the Soil Conservation
Service (SCS) and financial assistance from the Rural Environmental
Assistance Program (REAP).
ANON  [Based on R. D. POWELL]
Manure Decreases Need for Fertilizer
Wallaces Farmer 97: 25 Mar.  p. 6

Manure should be incorporated into the soil promptly to protect its
fertilizer value from runoff and volatilization.  The soil tilth
values are difficult to evaluate, but are significant.
Test Ways to Reduce Feedlot Pollution
Wallaces Farmer  v. 97  8 Apr.  p. 50

On steep slopes, terraces and/or a series of basins can retain liquid
wastes for pumping to cropland.  Solid wastes may be allowed to
settle and be removed for spreading when the basin is dry.
Removing the Smell from Manure
Water and Waste Trtmt. 15: Mar.
      p.  A3
"Removing smells created by processing poultry manure has saved the
world's largest operator in this field from closure."  A British
concern producing agricultural feed by drying the manure quickly
at high temperature to preserve its protein value has added "after-
burners" which heat the exhaust gases to 600C before releasing them
to a 75-ft stack.  "The system has proved 100% effective."
Research and Technology
Water Resources Newsletter
     Resources Bull.   vol.
p. 1   (Included in Hater
General Electric, in an installation at Casa Grande, Arizona, is
using one-cell microbes to digest cattle manure.  The resulting
biomass, after being dried and powdered, is a tasteless, odorless,
nutritious feed for chickens or cattle.

Hamilton Standard converts manure into livestock feed using bacteria
already present.  Enough methane is generated in the process to
supply the heat and electricity needed for the operation.
Feeding Animal Wastes to Cattle Effective
Western Livestock Jnl.  51: Dec.  p. 75

R. L. VETTER. reports success with the feeding of PAWN (Processed
Animal Waste Nutrients) as 37.25 percent of the ration.   Liquid
manure with five percent solids is obtained from an oxidation ditch
30 inches deep.  Palatibility is no problem.  Cattle should be
eased onto PAWN gradually.
Environmental Protection Research Catalog
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington  2 v.
                              2342 p.

Volume 1 of this catalog contains descriptions of 5488 research'
projects classified under six major and a number of minor subject
headings.  Those pertaining to animal waste are in group 2 (water
quality) and group 3 (solid waste management).  Volume 2 contains
indices by subject, investigator, performing organization, and
sponsoring agency.

The 142 projects which appear to bear directly on the disposal and/or
utilization of animal wastes are listed by investigator and title
in Appendix B of this report.
ANON  [President's Water Pollution Control Advisory Board]
The Relationship Between Animal Waste and Water Quality
EPA  16 p + appendices

The Board held meetings in Colorado 26-29 Oct 71 and in Illinois and
Indiana 24-28 Jan 72 to hear testimony on the animal waste pollution
problem.  Field trips were combined with both meetings.  The paper
summarizes the hearings.  As a consequence of the meetings, the
Board presented ten recommendations to EPA.  That on uses of animal
wastes is:

     "The Board believes that recycling animal wastes back onto the
land is the best practical approach in most situations, particularly
for smaller operators, through the use of catchment basins, lagooning
systems, and/or solid waste handling techniques.  There are also
other possible uses which  should be given full consideration.
Testimony presented to the Board indicates that promising possibi-
lities exist in converting animal wastes into fuels such as oil or
gas, building materials, dry fertilizer, tires, etc., and in recycling
back into animal feeds.   [It is recommended] that the Environmental
Protection Agency give high priority to funding for research and
development projects which may develop practicable and safe alternate
uses for animal wastes."
Agricultural  Runoff:  A Bibliography
WRSIC Pbln. 72-204   248 p.

This is a sub-collection of  158 abstracts from Selected Water
Resources Abstracts, volume  1 through 4.  A 76-page comprehensive
index and a 13-page  significant descriptor index enhance the use-
fulness of the volume.

Ensiling Characteristics of Mixtures of Various Feedstuffs and
     Animal Wastes  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 36: 208

Various products were tested for blending with manure from concentrate-
fed cattle in various proportions for the preparation of a cattle
ration.  These included silages, green chopped forage, cottonseed
hulls, peanut hulls, rice hulls, and almond hulls.  Data on initial
and final pH, concentrations in silage of dry matter, crude protein,
ash, and lactic acids are listed.  "Except for excess moisture
ensiling characteristics were generally good.  All hull mixtures
were less satisfactory in chemical  and physical properties than
mixtures made with silages or green chopped rye forage."

In the oral presentation of the paper it was emphasized that the
mixtures used must ferment rapidly to produce acids, preferably
lactic, at a pH of about four, and that if the pH shifts rapidly
toward neutrality in the feed trough, the product will have low
nutritive value.
EARTH, C. L.; LYNN, H. P.; and NORTHERN, W. L.
Progress Report:  Aerobic and Anaerobic Lagooning of Dairy and
     Milking Wastes
To appear as South Carolina Agr. Exp. Sta. Tech. Contrib. No.  1060

"Manure management in swine production has been simplified by the
wide adoption and acceptance of the no-discharge anaerobic lagoon. .  .
They are dependable, low cost and successful."  To evaluate the
feasibility of the use of the no-discharge anaerobic lagoon for the
treatment of all dairy production wastes in a warm climate, a series
of laboratory testing, described in the paper, was undertaken.
Highest percentage reductions of volatile solids for the dairy wastes
were 51 percent at 24.3C and 15 percent at 11.5C.
BLAIR, Robert and KNIGHT, David W.
Recycling Animal Wastes.  I.  The Problems of Disposal  and Regulatory
     Aspects of Recycled Manures
Feedstuffs'45: 5 Mar.  p. 32, 34

"Since the dry-matter digestibility of manure is about 60% in the
ruminant but only about 10-20% in the non-ruminant, it is reasonable
to suggest that feeding manure to ruminant farm animals would make
a very significant contribution to the manure disposal  problem."
In preparing manure for inclusion in rations reduce the moisture


content to less than 15 percent.  If storage is contemplated, the
moisture should be less than 10 percent,  the manure should be
ground to reduce feathers and wood chips.  Drug and feed additives
should be evaluated and hygiene is important.  Refeeding is permitted
in England, but not in the Common Market Countries or the U.  S.
"Banning the use of manures as feedingstuffs on the grounds that they
may contain certain feed additives may be considered over-cautious
when these additives were allowed in feedingstuffs."

Missouri Compares Costs of Two Waste Disposal Systems
Feedstuffs 45: 5 Mar.  p. 16

In a paper presented by Myron BENNET, University of Missouri, at a
Missouri Cattle Feeding Seminar, the cost for waste disposal  ner
100 Ib of beef produced was stated to be 41 $ for an open lot system
and 61 < for a confinement system.  Capital costs of a pit in the
confinement system and labor costs for additional hauling as  con-
trasted with lagoons pumped for irrigation annually led to the
CARLSON, Franklin B.; YARDUMIAN, Louis H.; and ATWOOD, Mark T.
The TOSCOAL Process for Low Temperature Pyrolysis of Coal
Pres. at 165th Natl. Meeting of ACS, Dallas, Texas, April 9-13, 1973

"TOSCO is investigating the application of its oil shale retorting
technology to coal  processing in its 25-ton per day retorting pilot
plant.  Coal char with a high heating value, plus tar and gas,  have
been produced from  high moisture content, low heating value sub-
bituminous coal.  The process, named "TOSCOAL," uses hot ceramic
balls as a heat source.  The process is described and the yields
and properties of the products are presented."
CASWELL, L. F.; FONTENOT, J. P.; and WEBB, K. E., Jr.
Pasteurization of Broiler Litter and Utilization by Sheep  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 36: 196

Processes found to provide effective pasteurization were dry heat
for 20 min at a depth of 0.63 cm, autoclaving for 10 min under a
steam pressure of 1.05 kg/cm2, dry heat followed by addition of 1 to
4 g of paraformaldehyde per 100 g of litter at depths of 0.63 cm
and 2.54 cm, and ethylene oxide fumigation for 30 minutes or longer.
"Method of processing litter had no significant effect on apparent
digestibility and nitrogen utilization."


CLARK, R. N. and STEWART, B.  A.
Amounts, Composition, and Management of Feedlot Runoff
USDA Southwestern Great Plains Research Center Tech.  Rpt.  No.  12
Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt.,  Bushland,  Texas,   p.  32-42

Results of rainfall-runoff measurements on a feedlot  at Bushland,
Texas, are reported.   For the storms monitored, runoff occurred
with a half-inch or more of precipitation and  was  a linear function
of the precipitation.  "After a  lot becomes wet, severe tromninq
creates many deep hoof depressions that can retain significant
amounts of rainfall.   Also, under a heavy stocking rate, the manure
pack is thick and has a very high water-holding capacity."

"The use of playas for impounding feedlot runoff insures that  runoff
will not enter streams, rivers,  or lakes. . .   Very little percolation
occurs through a playa. . .  The potential of  the  feedlot to pollute
the water table appears very slight when a playa is used as the
catchment area."

Feedlot runoff, properly diluted with other runoff or well water,
may be used for irrigation.
CREGER, C. R.; GARDNER, F. A.; and FARR, F.  M.
Broiler Litter Silage for Fattening Beef Animals
Feedstuffs 45: 15 Jan.  p. 25

Broiler litter on pine shavings was ensiled  at  35-38 percent moisture
content in an airtight silo for six weeks then  fed with a 12 percent
protein mix ad libitum to heifers for 120 days.   The calves  gained
2.54 Ib per head per day.  No drug carryover of any consequence
occurred.  Pathogens were eliminated by the  heat of ensilage.   A
taste panel expressed some preference for steaks from control
cattle but found the litter-fed beef highly  acceptable.
Use of Dried Broiler Feces in Steer Rations  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 36: 218-219

In feeding tests in which 0, 50, and 100 percent of the supplemental
protein (0, 5.8, and 13 percent of ration) came from dried broiler
feces and the balance from soybean oil  meal, daily gains were 1.20,
1.18, and 1.11  kg respectively; feed-to-gain ratios were 7.28, 7.53,
and 7.90; dressing percentages were 59.6, 59.6, and 59.5; and carcass
grades were 11.3, 11.3, and 11.2.

California Waste Ponds Are Passing the Test
Hoard's Dairyman 118: 10 Mar.  p. 311, 362

Ponds in California's Central Valley have been found to be highly
satisfactory for holding dairy wastes in that they have little odor,
do not contaminate groundwater, and can be pumned for irrigation.
For this latter purpose, blending with other waste is advised.  Ponds
should be large enough to hold all summer inflow.  They should never
be pumped dry since anaerobic bacteria are required to keep them
GARNER, William and SMITH, Ivan C.
The Disposal of Cattle Feedlot Wastes by Pyrolysis
Environ. Protection Tech. Series EPA-R2-73-096  vii + 99 p.

Even after having postulated that "the criterion for optimization
was the (fcec [italics supplied] of liquid organic compounds which
were produced as water-soluble and water-insoluble oils and tars"
rather than the value, of the resultant products -- liquid, gas,
and/or solid -- the report concluded that "economic pyrolysis might
be feasible if the fresh manure were allowed to dry in an arid
climate."  This, however, would allegedly defeat "the whole premise
of rapid manure disposal."  Moreover, manure pyrolysates, like
"coal tar, soot, and the fumes of broiling meat" are gratuitously
suspected of being carcinogenic.

Laboratory procedures and a computer program for determining an
optimal experimental design system are described.  Appendix D, by
Raymond C. LOEHR, presents a correlation of the composition of
feedlot waste with the animal feed ration.  Increased roughage
would yield more and drier manure.
HARMON, B. W.; FONTENOT, J. P.; and WEBB, K. E., Jr.
Fermentation of Ensiled Broiler Litter and Corn Forage  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 36: 218

Analyses are tabulated for ensilages made with various proportions
of broiler litter and with corn forage at two different states of
HERZOG, K. L.; PARKER, Harry W.; and HALLIGAN, James F.
Synthesis Gas from Manure
AIChE 75th Nat!. Mtg. Paper 32c.


"With ammonia synthesis gas the objective,  bench-scale  studies  of
the partial combustion of cattle manure have been made.   Results  for
continuous partial  oxidation of -40 +60 sieve manure particles  at
feed rates up to 0.47 Ib/hr in a 1.6-inch I.D.  fluidized bed reactor
are presented.  The effect of increased reaction temperature,
which was studied from 1285 to 1432F, was  to more than  double
ultimate ^2 yields  from 8.5 to 18.5 SCF/lb  dry, ash-free manure.
These ultimate yields of hydrogen, which include projected conversions
of the experimental yields of hydrocarbon gases, show that, given
manure from 600,000 feedlot cattle, ammonia production  of up to
920 tons/day can be achieved."
Sensible Use of Chicken Litter and Fertilizer on Pastures   (Abst)
Jnl. of Dairy Sci.  56: 316

"Commercial fertilizers and chicken litter can supplement  each other
in a sound fertility program."
INGRAM, S. H.; ALBIN, Robert C.; JONES, C.  D.; LENNON,  A.  Max;
     TRIBBLE, Leland F.; PORTER, Lucy B.; and GASKINS,  Charles T.
Swine Fecal Odor as Affected by Feed Additives  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 36: 207

Olfactory panels and quantitative determinations of organic amines
and sulphides were employed in the evaluation of effects of addi-
tives on odors.  "These data indicate that certain feed additives
reduce the volatile matter of swine feces,  but that changes
observed were above the olfactory threshold of detection."
Projects of the Agricultural and Marine Pollution Control  Section
EPA Pbln. P.2-73-171  201 + v p.

This document includes a compilation of the information sheets of
the 160 projects initiated from the fiscal year 1968 through fiscal
year 1972.  The section on animal feedlots (D. 49-80) devotes one
page to each of thirty projects.  Title, author, performing
organization, cost data, project officer, and a description of each
project are included.

The completion reports of many of these projects are abstracted in
this bibliography and/or cited in Appendix B.

Flushing:  Near Labor Free Waste Handling
Hog Farm Mgmt. 10: Mar.  p. 51, 54, 55

Ed MILLER, of Michigan State, has reported successful operation of
a pivoted 200-gal water tank which remains upright until nearly
full then dumps its contents into a flume under a slatted floor in
seconds.  Two or more flushes per day are adequate.  The water flows
to a holding pit or lagoon.  Ultimate disposal is by irrigation.
Recycling the water may introduce an odor problem.

KLETT, R. Hoi 1 is
Effect of Ration on Manure Salt Content
Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt., Bushland, Texas,  p. 26-31

Feeding tests have established that cattle on salt-free rations
performed as well as those supplemented with 0.5 percent salt.
The resulting manure posed less of a hazard when used as fertilizer.
LOEHR, Raymond C.; PRAKASAM, T. B. S.; SRINATH, E. 6.; and JOO, Y. D.
Development and Demonstration of Nutrient Removal from Animal Wastes
EPA Pbln. R2-73-095  340 + xvii p.

"Laboratory and pilot plant studies evaluated processes applicable
to the removal of nitrogen, phosphorus, and color from animal
wastewaters.  Three processes were evaluated:  a) chemical precipi-
tation of phosphorus, b)ammonia removal by aeration and c) nitrification
followed by denitrification."
MASSIE, J. R., Jr. and PARKER, Harry W.
Continuous Solid Waste Retort -- Feasibility Study
AIChE, 74th Nat!. Mtg Paper 43a  31 p. oroc.

Continuous pyrolysis of cattle manure containing 30 percent moisture
was demonstrated in a six-inch-diameter retort at a flow rate of
136 lb/hr-ft2.  By alternating injections of a gas containing oxygen
and then free of oxygen, the heated portion of the retort was limited
to the central portion well away from any mechanical parts.  Operation
is described.  Further research holds high promise of demonstrating
the feasibility of salvaging valuable products from manure while
simultaneously removing all potential for pollution.

MATHERS, A. C.; STEWART, B.  A.; THOMAS,  J.  D.;  and BLAIR,  B.  J.
Effects of Cattle Feedlot Manure on Crop Yields and Soil  Conditions
USDA Southwestern Great Plains Research  Center  Tech.  Rpt.  No.  11
Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt., Bushland, Texas,   p.  1-13

Tentative conclusions on the use of manure  as fertilizer  on the  High
Plains of Texas are that about ten tons  per acre would appear to be
optimum.  Of the nutrients present in manure, only nitrogen is
particularly valuable in High Plains soils.  Excessive nitrogen  leads
to accumulations of ammonia in the soil  and nitrate accumulation in
forage plants.  "When manure is applied  to  the  soil surface,  water
management determines how much manure can be applied without
decreasing yields."

"The soluble-salt content of manure is high and must be considered
carefully when manure is used on cropland.  . .   Even moderate appli-
cations of manure may cause a high concentration of salts  in  the
seeding zone."
The $85,000 Investment That's Paying Off
Beef 9: Jan.  p. 50

Fink's 480-head feedlot near Ainsworth, Nebraska, with roof, indoor
plumbing, natural air conditioning and computerized bookkeeping is
paying off in more choice cattle, bigger crop yields from manure
spreading, faster gains, and'happier neighbors.   A four-raceway
oxidation ditch under the slotted floor provides irrigation and
fertilizer on 66 acres of corn with intermediate storage of overflow
in a pit.  A tailwater recovery system protects  against runoff of
irrigation effluent.
MENEAR, J. R. and SMITH, L. W.
Dairy Cattle Manure Liquid:  Solid Separation with a Screw Press
Jnl.  Animal Sci.  (In Press)

Dewatering processes are reviewed and performance of an experimental
screw press of 15 cm diameter and 81 cm length in separation of dairy
cattle manure into liquid and solid portions is described.  The
resulting solid is more convenient to handle and requires less
energy for dehydration, if such be desired, than does the unseparated
manure.  The liquid portion is more suitable for treatment in oxida-
tion ditch or lagoon, or for hydraulic transport than is the original

MORGAN, Neal 0. and EBY, Harry J.
Animal Wastes Aeration Improves Bioreduction by Fly Larvae  (Abst)
Agr. Engrg. 54: Feb.  p. 26  [ASAE Paper 72-453]  Abst:  McQ & B G-182

Fly larvae can convert 100 Ib of manure from poultry or cattle into
2.5 to 3' Ib of good protein feed supplement (the larvae) and 50 to
60 Ib of semi-dry, practically odorless soil conditioner.  The manure
must be stocked in climate-controlled chambers to avoid excessive
moisture, which leads to anaerobic conditions and to possible death
of the larvae, and to confine any flies which may hatch.

PARKER, Harry W.; ALBUS, Clarence J., Jr.; and SMITH, Gary L.
Costs for Large Scale Continuous Pyrolysis of Solid Wastes
AIChE, 74th Nat!. Mtg. Paper 43b   25 p. proc.

Conceptual process designs which utilize the recently developed
Texas Tech University retort to pyrolyze 2000 tons per day of either
municipal solid waste or cattle feedlot waste are reported.  The
major product of these processes is the production of 30 megawatts
of electricity.

A governmental entity which could finance the required 15 million
dollar investment with six percent bonds over a 20-year period
would have to charge users $1.40 per ton of municipal refuse pro-
cessed or $0.50 per ton of feedlot waste pyrolyzed.
Crop Yields from Land Receiving Large Manure Applications
Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt., Bushland,-Texas,  p. 14-25

Manure was plowed into test plots at El  Paso, Pecos, and Tulia,
Texas, leaving several inches of manure-free soil above the manure.
Seeds could thus germinate and the plant roots could grow into the
manure to utilize the nutrients.  Results are tabulated and discussed,
"This work indicates that crops can be grown on land receiving up
to 900 tons per acre of manure1.  Diminished yields may result the
first year, but the yields will increase the second and third
years after the manure'application."
ROBINSON, J. B.; POS, Jack; EDWARDS, J. B.; and DUNN, G. 6.
The Properties of Aerated, Stored, Liquid Poultry Manure with Snecial
     Reference to the Nitrogen Component
Fourth European Poultry Conf., London  p. 513-522


Removal of nitrogen from poultry manure undergoing treatment in an
overloaded oxidation ditch may be regulated to a considerable extent
by the management of the ditch.  "When maximum nitrogen retention is
the objective, this may be most economically achieved using a
variable speed mechanical aerator which can be adjusted as the load
increases but operated at the speed necessary just to ensure minimum
Dung Beetles:  Biological Weapon Against Horn Flies
The Cattleman, Mar.  p. 76-77

A species of Afro-Asian dung beetle, Ontkovkagtu gazela, introduced
to South Texas from Australia, shows promise of helping control
manure-breeding flies that affect cattle.  Under optimum conditions,
a cow dropping can be broken down in 24 hours through the cooperative
efforts of about 50 conjugal pairs of beetles.  Onth.opka.guA appears
to be able to survive winter weather and droughts.  The beetle
operates by working beneath the manure, breaking it down and burying
it in underground tunnels.  Being a night flier, it is less subject
to such predators as cattle egrets, meadowlarks, toads, and wild
turkeys.  It is also less apt to become an intermediate host of
parasites than are day crawling insects.
SENIOR, Frank C.
Evaluation of Economics Feed Recycle, Inc.  Unit at Colorado River
     Yard Showing Cash Flow, Costs and Break-Even Chart, and
     Derivation of Rational Toll
Frank C. Senior, Consulting Engineer, Phoenix  9 p. proc.

For the process developed by SENIOR for the Feed Recycle, Inc.,
project at Blythe, California [1973-1043, and this report, p. 28],
costs for a 100 ton/day plant were calculated to be $33.04 per ton
treated if operated at 25 tons/day, $19.22 if operated at 50, and
$13.04 if operated at capacity/  Values recovered per net ton of
manure (based on 315 Ib protein at 14 
at $35 per ton, they can add $20 per animal or more than double
their profit potential, remove pollution and allow a pretax ROI
[recovery of investment] of about 10 months to one year for the
Feed Recycle unit at 85% rating."
National Animal Feedlot Wastes Research Program
EPA Pbln. R2-73-157  33 + vii p.

The high-priority research needs in the animal feedlot program are
seen as being:

"(1)  The need to develop techniques for reprocessing and converting
animal wastes into a usable product.  Currently promising processes
include conversion to some type of fuel, feed or feed additive for
animals, or other by-product.

"(2)  The urgent need to make the current information on animal waste
management readily available for widespread use by governmental
agencies, the feeding industry, and researchers in the field.  . ."

The medium-priority needs consist of the control of ancillary
pollutants and nuisances and the optimization of land spreading

The 23  research projects which  the program has sponsored are
 Engineering for a  Mushroom Farm
 AIChE Paper No. 32a-   Detroit,  6 June  8 p.  proc-

 Mushroom compost is based on horse manure.   For the farm  described
 (near Pittsburgh)  the manure is supplied by  local  racetracks  and  (in
 winter)  by  shipment from New Orleans.  A substitute compost can be
 made from chicken  manure.  The  compost is used but once.
 SMITH,  L. W.
 Nutritive Evaluations of Animal  Manures
 AVI  Pbln. Co., Westport, Conn.  [Pub!.  pending]  41  p.  proc.

 In general, monogastric manure has a higher feed nutrient content
 than ruminant manure.  The nutrients in the manures from either

monogastrics or ruminants are more effectively utilized by ruminants
than by monogastrics.  "Closed-continuous animal  manure recycle
sysiems do not appear feasible without intermediary processing of
manure."  The paper, destined to become a chapter of a book, surveys
the literature on refeeding and includes 92 references.
Dehydrated Poultry Manure as a Crude Protein Supplement for Sheep
Proc. Md. Nutrit. Conf.  p. 35-44

Studies are reported in which digestibilities, intakes, and body-
weight gains are compared for wethers fed complete-pelleted diets
supplemented with soybean oil meal (SBOM) or dehydrated broiler
manure (DPM).  Since poultry feed generally includes arsenicals,
determinations were made of the amount of arsenic excreted by the
sheep, and of the distribution and depletion rates of arsenic
retained in various tissues after prolonged high-level  arsenic
feeding.  Results, which are tabulated and plotted, include findings
that "nitrogen from broiler manure supplemented diets was not sig-
nificantly less digestible than SBOM nitrogen and was retained  in
the sheep equally well."  While arsenic was detected in all tissues
tested, "withdrawal of arsenic from feed results in a rapid decrease
in tissue arsenic concentration."
SMITH, L. W. and FRIES, G. F.
Dehydrated Poultry Manure as a Crude Protein Supplement for Lactating
     Cows  (Abst)
Amer. Dairy Sci.  Assn., 68th Ann. Mtg., Pullman, Wash.  24-27 June.

A ration containing 32 percent dehydrated poultry manure (DPM) and a
conventional control ration, both formulated to contain 17 percent
crude protein were fed to lactating Hoi steins.  Cows on the DPM
consumed less corn silage and less concentrate dry matter, gained
less weight, and produced less milk.  "In spite of reduced milk
output, the economics of DPM feeding compare favorably to conven-
tional CP."  [Crude protein].
Future Developments in Feedlot Waste Management
Symp. on Animal Waste Mgmt., Bushland, Texas,  p. 43-50

In summarizing a symposium in which the major emphasis was on ferti-
lizer values of beef feedlot manure, SWEETEN observed that state
legislation in Texas provided for abatement of water pollution, and


he discussed national legislation and anticipated EPA guidelines.
Other recycling methods cited were the GE thermophilic bacteria
studies, the Montford project for producing building materials
from anaerobically-digested manure and waste glass, and various
thermochemical processes.  He advised caution in adopting any
method other than "our present environmentally acceptable
alternative -- land disposal."  In regard to refeeding he wondered
"if we can generally afford to collect manure as frequently as
would be needed to preserve the feed value and whether cattle feeders
can afford to utilize a feedstuff which, on a large scale, exhibits
such wide variability in protein and ash content."

Animal Waste Management -- Can We Learn from Europe?
Amer. Farmer 48: Feb.  p. 19-20

Some European countries require an applicant for a permit to show
adequate land for disposal.  Screening, chemical treatment to settle
solids, final filtration, and some treatments adequate to permit
discharge of effluents to streams exist.  Europe has been confronted
with agriculture in an ecology-conscious urban environment.
Making the Most of Manure
Amer. Farmer 48: Feb.  p. 30-31

A Florida entrepreneur produces and sells 9000 tons per year of
composted cow manure and potting soil produced in a virtually
odor-free plant on the outskirts of Tampa.
Converting Hydrocarbons to Protein Sources for Poultry Feeding
Feedstuffs 45: 5 Mar.  p. 34, 35

The subhead, '^apid development and acceptance of single cell pro-
teins may ease pressure on protein supplies and reduce industrial
pollution," summarizes the paper.  With proper precautions, yeast
may constitute as high as 20 percent of the diet for young chicks.
However, levels above 15 percent may result in sticky droppings
and encrusted litter.  On the whole, algae products have a low
protein quality and poor taste acceptance.  Since chicks have
notoriously poor taste selection, they may be fed algae as a
secondary protein source.

WEBB, K. E., Jr.; PHILLIPS, W. A.; LIBKE, K.  G.; HARMON, B.  W.;
     and FONTENOT, J. P.
Different Levels of Broiler Litter in Ewe Rations  (Abst)
Jnl. Animal Sci. 36: 218

Possible copper toxicity was the only problem encountered in a test
in which ewes were fed a ration containing 0, 25, or 50 percent
broiler litter pasteurized at 150C for four hours.   The tests
extended through two lambing cycles.  The first detrimental  effects
appeared after 16 months.
ANON  [Based on Bob BLISS]
Feeders Scolded for Failing to Learn Their "Manure Economics"
Beef 9: Mar.  p. 43, 66

In a USDA-sponsored symposium at Bushland, Texas, Bob BLISS stated
that the disposal of liquid wastes and feedlot runoff in the High
Plains was relatively simple.  It can be caught in playa lakes and
then pumped to the fields.  Care should be exercised to capture tail'
water for repumping.  Solid wastes should be returned to the land.
Research to determine optimum supplemental fertilizer programs, and
salesmanship to encourage use by farmers were called for.   A barter
system in which the feedlot trades manure free of debris and with a
moisture content under 40 percent for ensilage, grain, or hay was
ANON  [Based on Myron BENNETT and Robert GEORGE]
How Much for Waste Disposal?
Beef 9: Mar.  p. 44-45

Cost data are tabulated for a confinement building with slatted floors
over a deep pit which is cleaned twice annually and for an open
feedlot with lagoons.  Both are located in Missouri.  Manure from the
pit is spread by honey wagon.  Effluent from the lagoons is pumped
for irrigation and the solids are removed and spread while the lagoons
are dry.  Costs are 60 $ to $1.40 per 100 Ib gain for the confinement
building and 40 i to $1.40 per 100 Ib gain for the open feedlot.

ANON  [Based on John M. SWEETEN]
"The Smell of Money" Problem Must Be Dealt with Meaningfully
Beef 9: Mar.  p. 66-67

Increased vigilance on air and water pollution will be required to
prevent imposition of stricter regulation.  Refeeding is possible.
Beef manure contains from five to 25 percent crude protein and can be
fed to cattle unprocessed or in a fermented state.  Greater rates of
gain and feed conversion efficiencies have been obtained by feeding
fermented mixtures of fresh feedlot manure and roughage.  "From a
practical standpoint, however," SWEETEN is quoted as saying, "I
wonder if we can generally afford to collect manure as frequently
as would be needed to preserve the feed value and whether cattle
feeders can afford to utilize a feedstuff which, on a large scale,
exhibits such wide variability in protein and ash content."

Feed Recycling Showing Promise
CALF News v. 11, Jan.  p. 28, 29, 52

The operation of the Feed Recycling Company of Blythe, California,
in which manure is separated into fibrous material and a liquid con-
taining protein, is described.  "Each ton of manure from a convene
tional feedlot brings 400 pounds of protein. .  .  The fibers also
have economic value as a feedback for the cattle, or for the manu-
facture of char or as a fuel."  A unit capable of processing 100
tons of raw manure per day would"have a capital cost of about
$180,000 and an operating cost of not more than five dollars per ton.
The resulting protein and fats should return $600,000 per year.
ANON  [Based on James E. HALLIGAN and Robert M. SWEAZY]
Another Possible Process for Manure
CALF News v. 11, Jan.  p. 38

Texas Tech professors James E. HALLIGAN and Robert M. SWEAZY are
investigating the economic feasibility of obtaining synthesis gas
from cattle manure, then using the synthesis gas to produce anhydrous
ammonia for fertilizer.  At present, methane gas is used for this
process.  While it is possible to produce methane gas from manure,
several steps in the process can be eliminated by substituting
synthesis gas.

The manure from 600,000 feedlot cattle would be sufficient to produce
1000 tons of ammonia per day.
Fuel & Feed from Manure
CALF News 11: Feb.  p. 6, 68, 69


Hamilton-Standard's studies for the ARS on anaerobic digestion of
manure are described.  "... waste from 5,000 to 7,000 head of
cattle would yield enough methane gas to provide heat and electric
power to operate the process.  The protein feed [produced in the
process] would cost less than its estimated value."

"In the ARS contract studies, manure is slurried, heated and fed
continuously to a fermentation tank.  A mixture of microorganisms
converts it to methane, carbon dioxide, and solid residue, which is
dried as a feed ingredient."  The residue may also be coated with
resin and pressed into board or used as a nutrient for a fungus that
produces a fiber-digesting enzyme which may be used to improve the
digestibility of poultry feed.
ANON  [Based on J. P. MARTIN]
Dangers of Manure Fertilization
CALF News 11: Feb.  p. 46

Continuing soil analyses should be run to detect excessive amounts of
sodium chloride, salt, potassium, and phosphorus.  Requirements vary
with climate and soil.
Animal Waste Management Symposium
CALF News 11: Mar.  p. 18, 22

In papers at the Animal Waste Management Symposium at Bush!and, Texas,
Bob BllSS and A. L. BLACK each stressed the value of feedlot manure
as a fertilizer.  John SWEETEN cited a benefit-to-cost ratio of
3:1 for land disposal and suggested that other recycling methods
were unlikely to attain such a value.
Another Recycling Venture
CALF News 11: Apr.  p. 15-16

The Hamilton-Standard process employs anaerobic fermentation in the
thermophilic temperature range to convert manure from beef cattle on
a high-concentrate ration to methane and "biomass."  The process is
stable and reliable under variations in input quality, heat, etc.
Advantages of the system include abilities to a) utilize very thick
waste concentrations, b) operate with high process loading rates and
small fermenter volumes, c) have low power requirements, and d)
generate its own fuel energy.  The process is able to double the


crude protein contents of the manure and increase the amino acids
by a factor of four.  The dried biomass can replace soybean meal
and cottonseed meal in the ration.  Economic break-even appears to
be in the vicinity of 5000 to 7000 head.  Capital costs are 2/3,
and operating costs 1/2 those of aerobic processes.
ANON  [Based on Robert GEORGE]
Costs Noted for Solid and Liquid Waste System
Feedlot Mgmt. 15: Jan.  p. 58

Cost figures for operations feeding 200, 400, 800, and 1200 head to
comply with pollution laws in Missouri were calculated.  For a
lagoon and diversion terrace they ranged from $1139 (200 head) to
$3034 (1200 head).  For 200 head irrigation costs with gated pipe
were $680, with handcarry pipe $1155, and with big gun $2200.
ANON  [Based on Jacob BIELY.  Credited to B. C. Animal and Poultry
     Sci. Seminar, May  '72]
Chemical Evaluation of  Dried Poultry Waste
Poultry Digest 32: 36

Of the total nitrogen in DPW about one-third is in uric acid,
one-third appears as protein, and the other third is in peptides,
urea, ammonia, nitrate, etc.

"The high content of ash limits the amount of DPW which can be used
in chick and growing rations.

"The fat content is relatively low and compares to that present in
cereal grains."
Enzyme from Feedlot Waste Used for Chicks
Poultry Digest 32: 77

A fiber-digesting enzyme produced from a fungus grown on cattle
feedlot waste improved the feed efficiency of chicks in USDA feed-
ing tests in Illinois.  ". .  . they ate less feed, produced less
manure, but gained as much weight as chicks on two kinds of control
ANON  [Based on James H. SLONEKER]

Manure Recycling Practical Process Seen
Poultry Meat 24: Feb.  p. 8

USDA research has shown that -- contrary to earlier belief --
indigestible cellulose and hemicellulose does not build up in manure
which is dried and re-fed as 25 percent of a chicken ration through
23 complete cycles.
Eau de Manure
To The Point 2:
21 Apr.  p.  57
A Swiss chemist, Heinrich SPILLER, has announced the creation of a
scintillating new perfume which "will send males literally climbing
up the walls with passionate desire."  Its basic ingredient is cow
manure.  Of all the manure SPILLER had tried cow manure was by far
the best.  "Truckloads are brought to his laboratory every morning."

                              APPENDIX B

Pertinent orojects listed in the Environmental Protection Research
Catalog [1972-1226] are listed in this anpendix by serial number
for reference in this report, researcher, researcher's affiliation,
title, EP Research Catalog Number and page.

Nine projects (three of which duplicate listings in EP Research
Catalog) listed in Active Research Projects Report, Fiscal  Year 1972,
National Environmental Research Center are also included.  They show
the same information except that the Catalog Number is that of the
NERC catalog.

ADAMS, W. E., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Soil Fertility Maintenance with Fertilizers, Crop Residues, and
     Animal Wastes.
Project 3.0368          Page 1-515

ANDREWS, J. F., Clemson University
Thermophilic Aerobic Process for Waste Treatment.
Project 3.0308          Page 1-504

APPLEMAN, R. D., University of Nebraska
Dairy Herd Management.
Project 3.0210          Page 1-485

BARR, H. T., Louisiana State University
Lagoons for Disposal of Barn Yard Wastes.
Project 3.0152          Page 1-474

BARTLETT, H. D., Pennsylvania State University
Feed and Waste Handling in the Dairy Operation.
Project 3.0295          Page 1-501

BARTLETT, H. D., Pennsylvania State University
Subsurface Disposal of Animal Manure.
Project 3.0296          Page 1-502

BARTLETT, H. D., Pennsylvania State University

Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Crop Production.
Project 3.0294          Page 1-501

BEER, C. E., Iowa State University
Using Soil Filtration to Reduce Pollution Potential  of  Lagoon  Effluent
     Entering Ground Water System.
Project 2.1017          Page 1-299

BESLEY, H. E., Rutgers the State University
Poultry Manure Disposal by Plow Furrow Cover.
Project 3.0217          Page 1-486

BESLEY, H. E., Rutgers the State University
Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Wastes from Swine.
Project 3.0216          Page 1-486

BLACKSTONE, J. H., Auburn University
Economics of Grade A Dairying.
Project 3.0057          Page 1-458

BOND, T. E., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Evaluation of Meat Animal Housing Systems in Relation to  Pollution.
Project 3.0209          Page 1-485

BOND, T. E., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Livestock Environmental Facilities.
Project 3.0069          Page 1-460

BQYD, J. S., Michigan State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0181          Page 1-479

BRESSLER, G. 0., Pennsylvania State University
Agricultural Wastes - Poultry Manure Disposal  and Use.
Project 3.0297          Page 1-502

BRESSLER, G. 0., Pennsylvania State University
Conversion of Poultry Manure to Useful Products.
Project 3,0399          Page 1-520

BRODIE, H. L., University of Maryland
Pollution Loads in Percolate Water from Surface Spread  Swine Wastes,
Project 2.1288          Page 1-343

BRUGMAN, H. H., University of Maine
Feeding Broiler Litter to Dairy Replacement Heifers.
Project 3.0376          Page 1-517

BRYANT, M. P., University of Illinois
Biological Methane Formation.
Project 3.0131          Page 1-470

BURNETT, W. E.f  State University of New York

Poultry Waste Disposal and Associated Odor Control.
Project 3.0232          Page 1-489

BUTCHBAKER, A. F., Oklahoma State University
Cattle Feedlot Pen Design.
Project 3.0273          Page 1-497

BUTCHBAKER, A. F., Oklahoma State University
Evaluation of Beef Feedlot Waste Management Alternatives,
Project 3.0272          Page 1-497

CALVERT, C. C., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Biodegradation of Poultry Manure.
Project 3.0377          Page 1-517

CLAYTON, J. T., University of Massachusetts
Closed Systems for Animal Sewage Treatment.
Project 3.0168          Page 1-478

COLLINS, N. E., University of Delaware
Spray System  for Daily Removal of Liquid Cow Manure.
Project 3.0099          Page 1-465

CONVERSE, J., University  of Wisconsin
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control.
Project 3.0348          Page 1-511

COTTIER, G. J., Auburn University
Broiler Management.
Project 3.0358          Page 1-513

CROSS, 0. E., University of Nebraska
Animal Waste Utilization for Pollution Abatement.
Project 2.1053          Page 1-305

CROSS. 0. E., University of Nebraska
Utilization of Livestock Waste to Abate Pollution.
Project 3.0008          Page 1-450

DALE, A. C., Purdue University
Control of Flies and Other Insects Associated with  Swine Production
     Without Insecticide.
Project 3.0140          Page 1-472

DALE, A. C., Purdue University
Livestock Waste Treatment and Disposal.
Project 3.0141          Page 1-472

DAVEY, C. B., University of North Carolina
Animal Waste Composting with Carbonaceous Material.
Project 3.0252          Page 1-493

DAVIS, S. A., University of California

Soil and Water Management Systems for Disposal of Dairy and Poultry
Project 3.0076          Page 1-461

DAY. D. L., University of Illinois
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control.
Project 3.0132          Page 1-470
DIESCH, S. L., University of Minnesota
Survival of Pathogens in Animal Manure Disposal.
EP 00302                Page 614

DONDERO, N. C., State University of New York
Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0233          Page 1-489

DORNBUSH, J. N., South Dakota State University
Pollution Potential of Runoff from Livestock Feeding Operations.
Project 2.0361          Page 1-194

DU6AN, P. R., Ohio State University
Concentration of Chemicals by Floe Forming Organisms.
Project 2.0933          Page 1-287

DUNLAP, C. R., Louisiana State University
Single Cell Proteins from Cellulosic Wastes.
EP 00328                Page 688

ENGLAND, D. C., Oregon State University
Management Practices Affecting Swine Production.
Project 3.0280          Page 1-498

ESMAY, M. L., Michigan State University
Closed System Waste Management for Livestock.
Project 3.0182          Page 1-479

EVANS, J. 0., U. S. Department of the Interior
Ultimate Disposal of Sludges by Surface Spreading.
Project 3.0259          Page 1-494

FLEGAL, C. J., Michigan State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0184          Page 1-480

FREED, V. H., Oregon State University
Chemical Transformation of Solid Wastes.
Project 3.0281          Page 1-499

FREED, V. H., Oregon State University
Chemical Transformation of Solid Wastes.
Project 3.0282          Page 1-499

GALLER, W. S., North Carolina State University

Animal Waste Composting with Carbonaceous Material.
EP 00270                Page 623

GILBERTSON, C. B., University of Nebraska
Waste Management, Control, and Disposal in Midwest Beef Feedlots.
Project 3.0212          Page 1-485

GOLUEKE, C. G., University of California
Comprehensive Studies of Solid Wastes Management.
Project 3.0066          Page 1-460

GROSSMANN, E. D., Drexel University
Research on an Animal-Waste Pollution Control System.
Project 3.0289          Page 1-500
EP 00390                Page 612

HAENLEIN, G. F., University of Delaware
Dairy Cattle Management in Urban Proximity.
Project 3.0364          Page 1-514

HARTUNG, T. E., University of Nebraska
Decomposition and Dispersion of Excreta from Laying Hens and Turkeys,
Project 3.0009          Page 1-451

HASHIMOTO, A. G., State University of New York
Handling and Disposal of Poultry Wastes.
Project 3.0234          Page 1-490

                                ,   B-9

HAZEN, T. E., Iowa State University
Farm Animal  Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0143          Page 1-472

HERMANSON,  R. E., Auburn University
Swine Waste Treatment and Disposal.
Project 3.0058          Page 1-458

HILEMAN, L.  H., University of Arkansas
Evaluation of the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Content of
     Poultry Manure.
Project 3.0002          Page 1-449

HINESLY, T.  D., University of Illinois
Agricultural Benefits and Environmental Changes from Use of Organic
     Waste on Field Crops.
Project 3.0006          Page 1-450

HOLTMAN, J.  B., Michigan State University
Systems Applications in Agriculture.
Project 3.0185          Page 1-480

HOWELLS, D.  H., University of North Carolina
Role of Animal Wastes in Agricultural Land Runoff.
Project 2.0293          Page 1-182

HUMENIK, F.  J., University of North Carolina

Exploratory Study of Limitations of BOD for Animal  Waste Evaluation.
Project 2.0712          Page 1-252

HUMENIK, F. J., University of North Carolina
Treatment and Utilization of Wastes.
Project 3.0393          Page 1-520

HUMMEL, J. W., University of Maryland
Animal Waste Composting Equipment for the Northeast.
Project 3.0164          Page 1-477

INSKO, W, M., University of Kentucky
Production Efficiency in Cage Equipped Laying Houses  as Influenced  by
     Labor Practices.
Project 3.0150          Page 1-474

JERIS, J. S., Manhattan College
The Biochemistry of Anaerobic Digestion.
Project 3.0228          Page 1-489

JOHNSON, W. K., University of Minnesota
Nitrification and Denitrification of Waste Water.
Project 2.1312          Page 1-346

Jordan, W. K., State University of New York
A New Practical Approach to Dairy Wastes.
Project 3.0392          Page 1-520


KETTER, F. D.,  University of Pennsylvania
Pipe Transport of Solid Waste.
Project 3.0291           Page 1-501

KLINGE, A. F.,  University of Maine
Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land
Project 3.0156          Page 1-475

KOLEGA, J. J.,  University of Connecticut
Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land
Project 3.0097          Page 1-465

LARSON. G. H.,  Kansas State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0147          Page 1-473

LARSON, G. Hv Kansas State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0148          Page 1-474

LARSON, R. E.,  University of Minnesota
Evaluation of Waste Handling Systems for Housed Large Animals in the
     North Central Region.
Project 3.0196           Page 1-482

LINDSAY, W. L., Colorado State University
Waste Composts as Chelating Agents in Plant Nutrition.
EP 00273                Page 628

UPPER, R. I., Kansas State University
Biological Treatment of Beef Animal Wastes to Reduce Water Pollution.
Project 2.1278          Page 1-341

LOEHR, R. C., State University of New York
Tertiary Treatment of Animal Waste Waters.
Project 2.1346          Page 1-351

LONGHOUSE, A. D., West Virginia University
Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land  Application.
Project 3.0342          Page 1-510

LUCKMAN, W. H., University of Illinois
Livestock Waste Management.
Project 3.0134          Page 1-471

LUDINGTON, D. C., State University of New York
Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land  Application,
Project 3.0237          Page 1-490

LUDINGTON, D. C., State University of New York

Poultry Waste Handling System Design.
Project 3.0236          Page 1-490

LUDINGTON, D. C., State University of New York
Systems for Alleviating Odors from Poultry Wastes.
Project 3.0235          Page 1-490

MANGES, H. L., Kansas State University
Demonstration and Development of Facilities for the Treatment and
     Ultimate Disposal of Cattle Feedlot Wastes.
Project 3.0149          Page 1-474

MAYES, H. F., University of Missouri
Improve Methods, Equipment & Facilities for Handling Waste Material
     from Livestock Markets & Feedlot.
Project 3.0203          Page 1-484

McCALLA, T. M., University of Nebraska
Management of Cattle Feedlots and Animal Wastes for Control of Soil,
     Water and Air Pollution.
Project 3.0213          Page 1-486

McCALLA, T. M., University of Nebraska
Soil and Water Management Systems for Prevention of Soil and Water
Project 2.0240          Page 1-173

McCALLA, T. M., University of Nebraska

Soil Productivity as Affected by Microbial  Activity in Crop Residues
     and Animal Wastes.
Project 3.0389          Page 1-519

McCALLA, T. M., University of Nebraska
Water and Soil Pollution from Beef Cattle Feedlots in Nebraska.
Project 2.0242          Page 1-173

McCASKEY, T. A., Auburn University
Water Pollution by Dairy Farm Wastes as Related to Method of Waste
Project 3.0059          Page 1-458

McCASKEY, T. A., Auburn University
Water Pollution by Dairy Farm Wastes as Related to Method of Waste
Project 3.0060          Page 1-459

McKINNEY, R. E., University of Kansas
Cattle Feedlot Waste Water Treatment.
Project 2.1274          Page 1-340

MERRITT, E., Meat Producers Incorporated
Soil Treatment of Cattle Feedlot Runoff.
Project 3.0322          Page 1-507

MIDDAUGH, P. R., South Dakota State University

Bacteriological Water Quality Analyses of Methods for Detecting Fecal
Project 2.0796          Page 1-266
MIDDAUGH, P. R., South Dakota State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal and Pollution Control.
Project 3.0312          Page 1-505

MILLER, E. C., University of Minnesota
Animal Waste Management Study.
Project 3.0191          Page 1-481

MILNE, C. M., Montana State University
Feed and Waste Removal Structures for Livestock.
Project 3.0208          Page 1-484

MINER, J. R., Iowa State University
Abstract Service on Animal Waste Technical  Literature.
Project 3.0007          Page 1-450

MINER, J. R., Iowa State University
Demonstration of a Recirculating Swine Waste Treatment System Using
     a Rotating Biological Contractor.
Project 3.0144          Page 1-473
A Recirculating Waste System for Swine Units.
EP 00283                Page 611

MINER, J. R., Iowa State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0145          Page 1-473

MOORE, C. R., Union Stockyards Company
Waste Treatment Facilities Demonstration.
Project 3.0258          Page 1-494

MOORE, J. A., University of Minnesota
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0197          Page 1-482

MORRISON, S. M., Colorado State University
Cattle Feedlot Waste and Air and Water Pollution,
Project 3.0092          Page 1-464

OLDHAM, W. K., University of British Columbia
Anaerobic Treatment of Animal Wastes.
Project 3.0085          Page 1-463

OLDHAM, W. K., University of British Columbia
Anaerobic Treatment of Animal Wastes.
Project 3.0086          Page 1-463

OSTRANDER, C. E,, State University of New York


Poultry Waste Management and Odor Control.
Project 3.0239          Page 1-491

OVERMAN, A. R., University of Florida
Land Disposal of Dairy Farm Waste.
Project 2.0994          Page 1-296

PARKER, J. E., Oregon State University
Environment and Management of Laying Hens.
Project 3.0285          Page 1-500

PARKER, M. B., Georgia Agricultural Experiment Station
Evaluation of Poultry Manure as a Fertilizer.
Project 3.0004          Page 1-449

PEARSON, R. W., Auburn University
The Role of Soil in Farm Waste Management.
Project 3.0001          Page 1-449

PFEFFER, J. T., University of Illinois
Reclamation of Energy from Organic Refuse.
Project 2.1261          Page 1-339
EP 00364                Page 684

POMROY, J. H., University of Minnesota
Materials Handling Systems for North Central Farms.
Project 3.0198          Page 1-482


PRATT, G. -I., North Dakota State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0256          Page 1-494

PRATT, G. L., North Dakota State University
Livestock Waste Disposal System Involving Reuse of Water.
Project 3.0257          Page 1-494

PRATT, P. F., University of California
Nitrate Pollution from Disposal of Dairy Waste.
Project 3.0077          Page 1-462

REDDELL, D. L., Texas A & M University System
Water Quality Hydrology of Lands Receiving Farm Animal  Wastes,
Project 2.0379          Page 1-197

REED, C. H., Rutgers the State University
Handling and Disposal of Poultry Manure.
Project 3.0221          Page 1-487

ROBERTS, J., Washington State University
Lagoons for Dairy Farms.
Project 3.0338          Page 1-509

SCALF, M. R., U. S. Department of the Interior

Pollution Implications of Animal Waste.
Project 3.0011          Page 1-451

SCHWARTZ, C. H., U. S. Department of the Interior
Vortex Incineration of Combustible Wastes.
Project 3.0292          Page 1-501

SCHWIESOW, W. F., University of Maryland
Disposal of Waste from Swine Feeding Floors to Minimize or Eliminate
     Stream Pollution.
Project 2.1291          Page 1-343

SCHWIESOW, W. F., University of Maryland
Disposal of Wastes from Swine Feeding Floors to Minimize Stream
Project 2.1037          Page 1-303

SCHWIESOW, W. F., University of Maryland
Disposal of Wastes from Swine Feeding Floors to Minimize Stream
Project 3.0166          Page 1-477

SEWELL, J. I., University of Tennessee
Farm Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0316          Page 1-506

SEWELL, J. I., University of Tennessee

The Effects on Runoff, Groundwater, and Land of Irrigating with
     Cattle Manure Slurries.
Project 2.1418          Page 1-362

SMITH, L. W., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Chemical and Physical Treatments of Cattle Excreta for Reducing
     Environmental Pollution.
Project 3.0161          Page 1-476

SMITH, R. C., University of Delaware
Economic and Engineering Aspects of Water in Delaware's Agri-Business
Project 2.1213          Page 1-331

ciMITH, R. D., Combustion Power Company, Inc.
Subscale Experiments on the Model-400 Combustion Power Unit (CPU-400).
PH 86-68-198            Page 691

SMITH, R. E., University of Georgia
Aerobic Disposal of Animal Wastes with Continuous Water Reuse.
Project 3.0111          Page 1-467

SMITH, R. E., University of Georgia
Design and Operation Criteria for an Anaerobic Lagoon for Swine Waste.
Project 3.0113          Page 1-467

SMITH, R. E., University of Georgia

Performance of the Inclined-Plane Trickling Filter for Aerobic
     Disposal of Animal Waste.
Project 3.0112          Page 1-467

SOBELS A. T., State University of New York
Poultry Manure Disposal and Associated Odor Control.
Project 3.0241          Page 1-491

SOBEL, A. T., State University of New York
Poultry Manure Properties, Handling and Disposal.
Project 3.0240          Page 1-491

STECKEL, J, ., Rutgers the State University
Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land Application,
Project 3.0223          Page 1-488

STEPHENSON, M. E., Michigan State University
Thermophilic Metabolism in Solid Substrates.
Project 3.0188          Page 1-481

STEWART, B. A., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Disposal of Animal Wastes by Agricultural Practices in the Southern
Project 3.0320          Page 1-507

STUTZENBERGER, F. J., Weber State College

Solid Waste Cellulose Degradation by Thermactinomyces.
EP 00420                Page 625

TAIGANIDES, E. P., Ohio State University
Automated System for Water Pollution Control from an Animal  Production
Project 2.1378          Page 1-356

TAIGANIDES, E. P., Ohio State University
Farm Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0266          Page 1-496

ULICH, W., Texas Tech University
Stabilization of Organic Wastes from Cattle Feedlots in Semi-Arid
     Climates by Composting Techniques.
Project 3.0012          Page 1-451

VANREST, D. J., University of Puerto Rico
Design of Facilities for Animal Waste Disposal.
Project 3.0306          Page 1-504

VIETS, F. G., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Management of Animal Wastes and Feedlots to Avoid Soil  and Water
Project 3.0093          Page 1-464

WALKER, H. G., U. S. Department of Agriculture

Development of Processes for Improved Feeds from Agricultural  Wastes,
Project 3.0361          Page 1-514

WELLS, D. M., Texas Tech University
Characteristics of Waste from Southwestern Cattle Feedlots.
Project 3.0321          Page 1-507

WILCOX, W., Illinois Packing Company
A Method of Manure Disposal for a Beef Packing Operation.
Project 3.0121          Page 1-469

WILKINSON, S. R., U. S. Department of Agriculture
Poultry Manure Management on Farmlands in the Southeast.
Project 3.0005          Page 1-450

WILLIAMS, R. B., University of Maine
Litterless High-Density Broiler Production System.
Project 3.0158          Page 1-476

WILLSON, G. B., University of Maryland
Farm Animal Wastes Management.
Project 3.0167          Page 1-477

WITZEL, S. A., University of Wisconsin
Winter Storage of Dairy Wastes in Northern Climates.
Project 3.0352          Page 1-512

WOLFSON, D. E.,'U. S. Department of the Interior
Carbonization of Municipal and Industrial  Waste.
Project 3.0039          Page 1-455.

WOLFSON, D. E., U. S. Department of the Interior
Pyrolysis of Solid Wastes.
Project 3.0293          Page 1-501

YOUNG, H. G., South Dakota State University
Analysis of Complete Livestock Production Systems,
Project 3.0313          Page 1-505

                              APPENDIX C



It should come as no surprize that the USDA and, in particular, its
subdivision the Agricultural Research Service (ARS), has been in the
forefront of research on the problems of the utilization and disposal
of animal wastes.  Through the kind cooperation of Robert 6.  YECK,
National Program Staff, Agricultural Research Service, the compiler
of this bibliography secured the pertinent CRIS reports of the USDA
as of 13 Oct 1972.  These are abstracted in this appendix.

A CRIS report is a summary of research, normally consisting of one to
four typed pages, listing for each project the investigators, title,
location, performing organization, agency identification, starting
and terminal dates, and a serial number designation referred to as
the accession number.  Each report states the objectives of the
investigation and the approach proposed.  Progress reports, usually
for annual periods with the latest placed first, follow.  Publications
which have resulted during each period are listed in the progress
reports.  It should be emphasized that the progress reports may be
tentative in nature and must not be interpreted as definitive findings.

Several of the projects abstracted have been initiated too recently
for a progress report to have been issued.  They are, however,
included as indicating valuable sources of information.

ADAMS, R. S., Jr.; FARNHAM, R. S.; and MARTIN, W. P.
Soil as a Biological Incinerator for Animal Manures and Solid Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057044  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To "examine the feasibility of utilizing a small area
of soil as a solid waste disposal area."  Drainage waters will  be
collected and analysed, and the lysimeter soil will be examined for
accumulation and/or migration of clay, nitrates, phosphates, and
organic matter.
Integrated Control of Flies and the Role of Dung-Inhabitating Insects
     in Natural Recycling of Dung
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0011709  4 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the role of insects in the natural  degra-
dation and recycling of animal wastes and to determine the best
management system to utilize the insect-degradable dung.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Cattle droppings in four pasture settings were
collected and the insects in them were studied.  Natural  enemies of
flies were given particular attention.  It was observed that "the
use of wood shavings to promote more rapid drying of droppings and
hence reduce fly breeding, does not accomplish the latter."
ANTHONY, W. Brady; MORA, E. C.; and McCASKEY, T. A.
Livestock Waste as Animal Feed
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0059951  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Alabama

OBJECTIVES:  Determine chemical factors of manure-feed mixtures
necessary for preservation in acceptable state for livestock consump-
tion, and determine the feeding values of the manure-containing feeds.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Lactic acid fermentation and survival of pathogens
are under study.  In ration testing, a mixture of 54 percent ground
corn, 6 percent ground hay, 40 percent manure plus vitamin A and
minerals produced 3.47 Ib daily gain on 6.07 Ib dry matter per Ib gain,

A mixture of 48 percent ground corn, 12 percent ground hay, 40 percent
manure plus vitamin A and minerals produced 3.70~lb per day on 5.97 15
dry matter per Ib gain.  A reference ration of 90 percent ground corn,
7 percent hay, and 3 percent supplement yielded 3.76 Ib per day on
4.82 Ib dry matter per Ib gain.
Integrated Control of the House Fly
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0014209  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
North Carolina

OBJECTIVES:  To design an integrated program for the control of house
fly breeding in poultry houses.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Optimum fly control may be obtained by promoting
a stable manure ecosystem, with more than one .predator species, and
using limited amounts of insecticides.
Poultry Waste Utilization
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0061700  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research/Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine various methods of preparing poultry wastes
for recycling through poultry in compliance with FDA and other
regulatory agency requirements.  Nutritive values and costs will be
determi ned.
BEADICEK, D. F.; FOSS, J. E.; and CLARK, N. A.
Forest Buffer Strips in Controlling Animal Waste Runoff into Streams
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0061653  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effectiveness of several forest covers
as buffer strips to minimize animal waste pollution.  Runoff from
spread dairy cattle manure will be analyzed.

Biological Disposal of Waste
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060049  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To convert poultry manure and other wastes to soil
amendments or fertilizers through biological processing.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Factors governing degradability of poultry manure
by flies are being evaluated."  The conversion of flies fed on
poultry manure to chicken food as insect protein is under study.
Water Quality from Forested Watersheds in Southern Illinois
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0062011  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
111i noi s

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the "filtering" effects of forest land on
runoff from a cattle feedlot.
Evaluation of Meat Animal Housing Systems in Relation to Pollution
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0021180  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Livestock Engineering and Farm Structures
Branch, Agr. Engrg., ARS, USDA

OBJECTIVES:  To abate pollution through improved design of meat
animal housing systems.

PROGRESS REPORT:  A 3600-head beef feedlot was designed and occupied
at Clay Center, Nebraska.  Runoff is being caught and guided by a
series of ditches.  Twenty-one new buildings are being designed for
beef cattle, swine, and sheep to further test waste control features.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0027009  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To study drying of manure and performance of lagoons.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Cost data for some dryers have been determined.
Drying manure at 1000F resulted in some loss of fertilizer value
but produced a granular material which is easy to handle.  Lagoon
effluent has been utilized for irrigation without crop damage.

Effect of Animal Manure on Soil Properties, Nitrogen Transformations,
     Forage Yields and Quality
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022136  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effects of applying manure at various
rates up to 120 tons (dry basis) per acre on soil properties,
nitrogen transformations, and forage production.
BRESSLER, 6. 0. and BERGMAN, E. L.
Conversion of Poultry Manure to Useful Products
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0055304  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To perfect drying process for poultry manure and to
determine optimum fertilizer application to strip mines and spoil

PROGRESS REPORT:  Two-stage drying has proved to be successful.
Dehydrated poultry manure is a stable product which may be stored
for extended periods without heating or odor.  It has been effective
as a fertilizer for establishing growth in strip mines and on spoil
 Industrial Manufacturing Methods of Poultry Droppings on Large Farms
 USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022836  1 p.

 SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  University of Zagreb, Yugoslavia

OBJECTIVES:  To develop equipment to pelletize poultry manure.  The
pelletized manure will be analyzed for nutrient content to reflect
its use for recycling to the land or for refeeding.
Feeding Broiler Litter to Dairy Replacement Heifers
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0008603  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  "To determine cost and feasibility of feeding broiler
litter to replacement dairy heifers."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Early phases of the program involved feeding
broiler litter to sheep.  Feeding efficiency was better on a twenty
percent litter ration than on the control.  Despite the presence of
arsenic in the litter none was found in the carcass of slaughtered
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060004  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To make economic, biological, and physical  analyses of
waste management systems in the areas of collection, transport,
treatment, and conditioning of wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:  A survey of feedlots in 18 states  indicates that
only one-fourth the costs are associated with waste  handling; the
other three-fourths are in the pen or building facilities.   Study
of beef manure treatment by means of an oxidation ditch continues.
An anaerobic lagoon has been added to the system.
Cattle Feedlot Pen Design
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0004540  4 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effectiveness of an oxidation ditch
under a slotted floor beef cattle confinement shed.


PROGRESS REPORT:  Oxidation ditch studies have been conducted to
determine parameters for outside installations in the Southwest.
"Alternative beef waste management systems were examined to determine
minimum cost systems."  Dynamic mathematical models have been
Biodegradation of Poultry Manure
USDA CRTS Accession No. 0021132  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Poultry Research Branch, Animal Science
Res. Div., ARS

OBJECTIVES:  To study odor control, volume reduction, and useful
products resulting from the catabolism of poultry manure by copro-
phagous insects (such as the house fly) and unicellular organisms.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Poultry manure seeded with house fly eggs loses
about 46 percent of its water content.  It becomes odorless, loose,
and crumbly.  The pupae yield, about three to four percent of the
fresh manure, has a protein content of 63 percent with a good ami no
acid profile.  Emerging flies have a protein content of 75 percent.
The catabolized manure did not support chick growth.
CHANG, A. C. and PRATT, P.  F.
On-site Stabilization of  Dairy and Beef Cattle Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060042  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  Investigate  the feasibility on on-site decomposition
of animal wastes and simulate a management system mathematically.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Manure  accumulates in the vicinity of feed bunks
and watering troughs.  Downward movement of nitrates, chlorides,
and organic carbon was slow.
 Utilization and  Disposal of Waste  Products and Pollutants in Soil
 USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060374  1  p.

 SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:   Cooperative  State  Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effects of animal, human, and industrial
wastes and their decomposition products as fertilizers.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Soil samples subjected to various loadings of
organic wastes followed by corrective treatments of lime or gynsum
are being analyzed.  It appears "that salt contents of livestock
rations should be held to minimum values to optimize the value of
manure for disoosal in soil."
Douglas Fir Bark as a Filter Media for the Disposal of Animal Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0031900  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effectiveness of Douglas fir bark as
a trickling filter medium for treatment of poultry manure.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Samples of water polluted with one, two, and four
percent by weight of poultry manure were filtered through Douglas
fir particles of various sizes with various bark-to-waste loading
values.  Larger size bark and heavier hydraulic and biologic loads
gave higher rates of water cleaning.
CROSS, Otis E.
Allowable Pollutional Loads for Fish and Utilizing Animal Waste for
     Fish Production
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057299  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the feasibility of utilizing livestock
manure as a feed ration for bullheads and carp.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Initial trials with 14 bullheads were discontinued
after two fish died and the others failed to gain weight.  A more
intense lighting system has been installed in anticipation of
resuming testing.
CROSS, Otis E.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057934  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the pollutional aspects of land spreading
and incorporation of manure at various rates and depths with three
different plant populations.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "In experiments on loading manure on soil, no
nitrates have been detected moving downward through the soil after
plowing or after irrigation for two cropping seasons.  Nitrate
pick-up in irrigation tail-water is negligible."
Management and Control of Beef Feedlot Waste
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0031826  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate beef feedlot waste management practices.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Rainfall-runoff correlations have been studied
and tentative equations proposed.  A "porous dam" may provide an
effective means of causing settlement of solids.  "Winter thaw
runoff concentrations were about 10 times the rainfall-runoff
concentrations."  Quality of runoff is also being studied.
 CROSS, Otis  E.; MAZURAK, A. P.; and CHESNIN, L.
 Utilization  of Livestock Waste to Abate Pollution
 USDA  CRIS Accession  No. 0055494  2 p.

 SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:   Cooperative State Research Service,

 OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the economic feasibility of manure appli-
 cations on surface  irrigated lands.

 PROGRESS REPORT:  During the first year under test, the transport
 of  potassium restricted the runoff to reuse for irrigation only.
 No  damage to potable groundwater occurred.  Depth of plowing had
 no  significant effect on yield.
 CULLEY,  D.  D., Jr.
 Utilization  of Aquatic  Plants  for Waste Treatment and Animal Feeds
 USDA  CRIS Accession  No.  0059059  1  p.


OBJECTIVES:  "To determine the feasibility of utilizing aquatic
plants for treatment of agricultural and  domestic waste by removing
nitrogen compounds, phosphates, and various inorganic salts.   To
determine if plants grown on waste waters have sufficient nutritive
value and can be produced in large enough quantities to warrant use
as a feed supplement for poultry, swine,  cattle, catfish, etc."

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Spirodela oligorhiza [a duckweed] was grown on
an animal waste lagoon, treated municipal sewage waters, and untreated
septic tank water during the first three  months of 1970.  Protein
content was 42, 31, and 30 percent respectively on a dry-weight
basis.  Water content of the plant averaged 95 percent.  Improved
growth rates occurred in poultry when this plant was substituted
for alfalfa in chicken feed. . .  Calculations revealed that about
1000 Ibs of N, P, and K were removed from the lagoon per acre per
year.  "The ami no acid content was well balanced."
Animal Waste Management With Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057430  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To relate odor control  and decomposition of dairy
cattle wastes to temperature, time,  size of particles, and micro-
organisms present; and to investigate performance of deep aerated
lagoons with irrigation systems in returning dairy cattle and swine
wastes to the land.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Irrigation from an aerated lagoon was an effective
means of disposal of dairy cattle wastes.  Studies of nitrogen
removal by aeration indicate that one-half the  total nitrogen in
dairy cattle manure may be lost in the form of  ammonia, and one-
third may be converted to nitrates and nitrites.   The harvesting
of microbial protein from cow manure may yield  a  product deficient
in only one essential  amino acid, methionine, which may be refed
as 18 percent of the diet and as one-half of the  supplemental
DAVIS, H. R. and SPRA6UE, D. C.
Environmental  Conditions for Layers in Cages and Management of
     Manure in a Deep Pit
USDA CRIS Accession No.  0059733  1  p.


OBJECTIVES:  To study the storage and treatment of poultry manure
under various fan usages in a pit.

PROGRESS REPORT:  In addition to standard ventilation on the first
floor of a poultry house, six fans circulated air over the droppings.
"The 800,000 Ibs of water removal from the droppings by drying
equalled the combined dry matter and water removal at cleaning time.
There was a significant reduction in odors as the material was spread
on the land."
DAY, Donald L.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0001888  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To obtain design data for oxidation ditches and to
evaluate the feeding potential of oxidation ditch mixed liquor.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Design criteria have been established for oxidation
ditches and several prototypes have been constructed and placed in
operation.  "It appears that aeration systems can be designed to
give various degrees of odor control."

Swine oxidation ditch mixed liquor (ODML) samples were passed
through a series of sieves.  It was found that the ODML passing the
200 mesh screen contained 83 percent (dry basis) crude protein,
undoubtedly largely bacterial cells.  This fraction contained 3.8
percent lysine.  By utilizing the protein-rich fraction for refeed-
ing in the building where it is produced, processing costs are
minimal and the need for additional waste disposal facilities is
 DOBSON, J. W., Jr.
 Evaluation of Poultry Manure as a  Fertilizer
 USDA CRIS Accession No. 0003479  3 p.


 OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate poultry manure as a fertilizer for corn,
 forage, and horticultural crops and to determine the fertilizer
 nutrients needed to balance poultry manure.

PROGRESS REPORT:  In North Georgia poultry manure has proved to be an
excellent fertilizer for corn, cool season grasses, and bermudagrass.
On fescuegrass pastures it has caused grass tetany and related prob-
lems which have led to the losses of large numbers of cattle.  Possible
amendments to correct for this are under investigation.
Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0024458  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
New York

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the relation of animal  wastes to receiving
waters and air.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Chemical and biological analyses of the effluent
from a cattle feedlot and of the air from a poultry unit with an
interior oxidation unit are being made on samples gathered over
several seasonal cycles.
Poultry Manure Management by Solids Separation, Effluent Treatment,
     and Recycling
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0059914  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
Rhode Island

OBJECTIVES:  To develop and evaluate a poultry manure management
system which will reduce flushing water, renew effluent by soil
and sod filtration, and use the sludge produced.

PROGRESS REPORT:  The test facility has been completed.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0001567  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  A) Study poultry performance on recycling of manure,
and B) study electro-osmosis applications to manure drying.


PROGRESS REPORT:  Dehydrated poultry waste in the diet of laying
hens reduced egg shell thickness when fed as 10, 20, or 40 percent
of the ration.  It lowered egg production at 40 percent.  Performance
on recycling was as good with 10 or 20 percent DPW refed as with
no DPW.  Performance was poorer at 30 percent.  Tests on hen excreta
yielded 1.73 percent protein N, 2.14 percent non-protein N, 7.78
percent Ca, and 2.56 percent P.
Animal Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No.

New Jersey
0060382  1 p.

  Cooperative State Research Service,
OBJECTIVES:  To "develop an aerobic fermentation process in which
the organic matter in manure is metabolized and assimilated as the
nutrient media for the growth of microorganisms."
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057926  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To optimize anaerobic-aerobic treatment of diluted
screened wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:   "Swine wastes and beef cattle wastes respond well
to screening; the  solids can be efficiently dried, the liquid
fraction exhibits  enhanced biodegradation.  Thus the screen appears
to be a feasible proposition both for new installations and as an
'add on1 to an already heavily loaded or overloaded lagoon."
Studies are being  conducted to optimize the retention time of the
anaerobic phase of the sequential anaerobic-aerobic lagoons.
 Biological Studies with Chickens
 USDA CRIS Accession No. 0008606  4 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the nutritional value of various feed
components and the effect of management practices on poultry

PROGRESS REPORT:  A portion of the program consisted of substituting
litter protein for 0, 25, and 50 percent of the soy protein in the
ration for layers.  "Treatments had little effect on feed consumption
or egg weight but as the 'litter'  was increased in the ration, bird
weight loss increased and percentage egg production decreased."
Fertilizers and Organic Wastes Applied to Soils in Relation to
     Environmental Quality
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060417  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effect of land application of poultry
manure on plant growth and on quality of runoff.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Coliform bacteria were not found in any soil
samples.  Pond water receiving runoff from areas  of high application
of poultry litter is high in coliform bacteria except in periods of
low rainfall.
Waste Management, Control, and Disposal in Midwest Beef Feedlots
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0019796  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Livestock Engineering and Farm Structures
Branch, Agricultural Engineering, ARS, USDA

OBJECTIVES:  To develop beef feedlot criteria for design for eco-
nomical waste management and disposal with effective pollution
control.  Emphasis is on systems of waste disposal that can be
adapted to existing feedlots to prevent water contamination by the

PROGRESS REPORT:  Measurements of rainfall, snowmen, and runoff
were made and correlations of various parameters of runoff quality
with precipitation, animal density, lot slope, etc., were studied.
Tentative results are reported.  "Winter thaw concentrations were
about 10 times the rainfall-runoff concentrations."

Pierced Steel Plank as a Surface for Beef Cattle Feedlots
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0021846  1 p.
South Dakota
Agricultural Improvement Corp., Mitchell,
OBJECTIVES:  "To investigate the feasibility of using peirced steel
planking as a feedlot surface for alleviation of water pollution.1

PROGRESS REPORT:  Eight test feedlots  two untreated, two with
pierced steel planking on soil, two with a gravel sub-base, and two
with gravel sub-base plus collecting pipes  are being built.  The
pens with gravel sub-base will have the soil beneath the gravel
sealed to prevent infiltration.  All lots will drain to lagoons.
Land Disposal of Cattle Feedlot Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060522  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Idaho

OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the fertility status of soil upon addition
of cattle waste.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "The primary focus will be placed on rates of
decomposition of feedlot solid waste in soil as observed by trans-
formations of carbon and nitrogen and as noted by related changes
in soil nutrient status."  Instrumentation has been developed.
Effect of Wintering and Pasturing Cattle
     on Water Quality and Bank Erosion
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060280  1 p.
               Along Rivers and Streams

OBJECTIVES:  To "evaluate the effect of wintering and pasturing
cattle along rivers and streams on water quality and bank erosion."

PROGRESS REPORT:  During the first year of the proposed five-year
study a lake was lowered by being diverted into the stream on which
measurements were taken.  "Due to stream flooding, no differences
were observed in nutrient concentrations of the various samples."

Land Disposal of Animal Waste
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060752  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Ohio

OBJECTIVES:  To "determine the maximum rates of beef cattle manure
than can be applied to various soil types of Ohio without soil and
water pollution."
Cattle Feedlot Waste and Air and Water Pollution
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0010459  4 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine means of feedlot design and operation for
minimization of environmental contamination.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Samples of groundwater at feedlots were analyzed
for nitrate, ammonia and phosphate.  The hydrology of feedlot run-
off and the factors controlling, it are being studied.
Nutritional Value of Oxidation Ditch Residue (Swine Excreta) for
     Swine and Rats
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0056993  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To measure the nutrient composition of oxidation ditch
residue and evaluate procedures for enhancing its value.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Concentrations significantly higher than the two
percent dry matter typical of ODR will be required.  For an oxidation
ditch in continuous operation three years the dry matter tested
51 percent protein, 1.4 percent lysine, 2.0 percent threonine,
0.9 percent methionine, and 40 percent ash.  Mineral buildup may
limit the period of continuous operation.
Handling and Disposal of Poultry Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0019900  2 p.


SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Livestock Engineering and Farm Structures
Branch, Agr. Engrg., ARSS USDA

OBJECTIVES:  To develop equipment and procedures to reduce the
pollution hazards from poultry wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Aeration lowers the odor and nitrogen levels in
chicken manure slurries."  A two-stage process involving conversion
to ammonia followed by ammonia stripping is particularly effective.
A formula has been developed for determining the concentration of
ammonia nitrogen as a function of time and other parameters.
The Role of Soil in Disposal of Cattle Manure in Warm, Temperate
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057357  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To "determine whether cattle manure can be disposed of
on the land at high rates without long-term damage to soil produc-
tivity or water pollution."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Plots treated with 20 tons (dry matter) of manure
per acre had runoff with higher COD than the test plots.  Otherwise,
the quality was essentially the same.  "The treated plots produced
slightly more millet and rye than did the checks."
 Metabolism and  Deposition of  Insecticides in Fowl
 USDA CRIS Accession No. 0003197  3 p.


 OBJECTIVES:  To  Determine the effects on poultry, eggs, and several
 species of fly  larvae of including various larvicides in poultry

 PROGRESS REPORT:   Results varied from no effect to death for various
 insecticides fed quail, leghorn cockerels, and laying hens.  Several
 publications resulted from  the study; these should be consulted for

Effect of Animal and Other Organic Wastes on Soil Properties and
     Pollution Abatement
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0003202  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To continue chemical analyses of poultry and animal
manures, to study the ability of soil types to accept various
wastes, and to investigate new methods of land disposal.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Compost made from broiler manure-litter applied
at rates of six and twelve tons/acre was effective in reclaiming
soil polluted with oil field brines.  Application of broiler litter
to corn or fescue in excess of four tons/acre increased the nitrate
content to toxic levels and decreased the magnesium to deficiency
levels for livestock consumption.
Litter Management in a Heated Concrete Floor Broiler House
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0055121   2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine litter requirements and possible further
utilization of used litter from heated concrete floor broiler

PROGRESS REPORT:  Chicks did well with no  litter.  "Waste was dried
from 30% moisture to 10% moisture in 48 hrs."
Treatment and Utilization of Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0056182  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Coooerative State Research Service,
North Carolina

OBJECTIVES:  To investigate biological methods for removal and
conservation of nutrients from wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Loading rates permissible for irrigating with swine
or dairy animal wastes which have received various treatment are
being determined.   The fate of additive copper fed to swine is being
investigated.  "Work continues to document the unsuitability of the
BOD test for animal waste evaluation."


Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0030759  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Maine

OBJECTIVES:  To "develop and evaluate disposal and utilization
systems for land application of treated and untreated dairy and
poultry manure that will minimize the pollution of water, soil, and
PROGRESS REPORT:  Dried poultry manure (12 percent moisture) was
applied to test plots at 0, 7, and 28 tons per acre.  Wet manure
was applied at 75 tons per acre (65 percent moisture).  Runoff
characteristics under simulated rainfall are reported.
Utilization of Waste Materials as Feed for Ruminants
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0058888  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Ohio

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the chemical composition, palatability,
digestibility, and feeding value of feedlot manure and other wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Ensiled feedlot manure, fed as the sole ration to
steers for 60 days, was adequate for maintaining weight.  The addi-
tion of hydrolyzed animal-vegetable fat (at an eight percent of dry
matter level) tended to depress intake and digestibility of fer-
mented manure.
Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0030283  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To "develop and evaluate disposal and utilization sys-
tems for land application of treated and untreated dairy and poultry
manure that will minimize pollution of water, soil, and air."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Applications at the rate of 60 and 120 tons/acre
(dry basis) have been made to four field lysitneters over four years.
Corn yield was depressed for poultry manure at 120 tons/acre;
chloride and nitrate levels were excessive above a shallow layer of
hardpan.  Unaccountably, nitrogen was lacking for crop growth in the
manured lysimeters at times.
Effects of Processing Poultry Manure on Disease Agents
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0032670  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To investigate disease agents in dried and composted

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Reusing litter for a second brood of broilers had
no effect on performance in these studies. .  .  Composted garbage
was equal to pine shavings as an absorbent litter."  The addition
of fungicides and of some bacteria to the litter enhanced performance
of broilers.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0002287  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  "Improvement in management systems with regard to
handling, treatment and disposition of wastes."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Runoff from feedlots in  a period of higher than
normal natural rainfall, with the manure in the lots trampled into
a slurry, contained concentrations of suspended solids almost double
the previously recorded figures.  "Field plots irrigated with feedlot
runoff showed no apparent decrease in water intake rate and corn
yields were the same for plots irrigated with runoff and others
irrigated with well water and fertilized according to standard
LARSON, Russell E.
Evaluation of Waste Handling Systems for Housed Large Animals in the
     North Central Region
USDA CRIS Accession No.  0020503  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  ARS Livestock Eng. and Farm Struct. Res.

OBJECTIVES:  To "develop technology for efficient handling, storing,
utilization and disposal of cattle wastes oroduced in confinement
production systems."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Performance of oxidation ditches subjected to
various loadings under summer and winter conditions has been
Effect of Poultry Manure on Crop Response, Soil Properties and Water
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060838  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effects on soil and water of large
applications of poultry wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT: "Yield of corn dropped from 55 bu. per acre to
14 bu. per acre as the rate of manure application increased from
75 to 100 tons."  Pathogenic fungi did not increase in soil treated
with poultry litter.
UPPER, Ralph I.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057539  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To investigate biological treatments to render cattle
or swine manure more amenable to utilization or disposal, with
emphasis on land disposal, evaporation, drying, and/or incineration,

PROGRESS REPORT:  Nitrate concentrations in soil columns were
measured.  Studies are under way "to achieve an all liquid disposal
system without the addition of water" on a covered cattle feedlot
with a concrete floor sloping to a grated trench which, in turn,
leads to a two-cell underground water-tight storage pit in which
continuous mechanical stirring is maintained.

UPPER, Ralph I. and MANGES, Harry L.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0029482  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To "test and demonstrate a system for the orderly
disposal of stormwater runoff and solid wastes from beef animal
commercial feedlots and to characterize the wastes generated."

PROGRESS REPORT:  "When population density of cattle in test
feedlots was doubled (400 head per acre vs. 200), the pollution
potential of simulated stormwater runoff was increased by 25%. .
In a period of higher than normal natural rainfall, suspended
solids in runoff when feedlot surfaces had been tramped into a
slurry ran almost double the highest previously recorded values."
Corn yields increased for manure loadings up to 20 tons/acre,
remained constant for 20 to 160 tons/acre, and declined signi-
ficantly at 320 tons/acre.  "The pollution load of runoff from
snowmelt was 3 to 4 times that from rainfall."
LOEHR, Raymond C.
Aeration Systems for Treatment of Animal Manures
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0061279  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To "develop, refine and demonstrate the use of aeration
systems for poultry wastes in pilot plant experiments."  The oxida-
tion ditch and rotating biological contactor will be investigated.
LOEHR, Raymond C. and SCHULTE, D. D.
Analytical Models for Animal Waste Management
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0031844  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To "develop mathematical models capable of correlating
the interrelationships of animal  production to obtain adequate waste

PROGRESS REPORT:  Dynamic programming was employed to optimize the
treatment of duck farm wastewater economically.

LOEHR, Raymond C. and ZWERMAN, P. J.
Design Parameters for Animal Waste Treatment Systems
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0061606  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To "demonstrate applicability of sanitary engineering
fundamentals for design of aerobic biological treatment systems for
animal waste. . ."

Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manure by Land
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0031061  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
West Virginia

OBJECTIVES:  To develoo and evaluate disposal and utilization systems
for land application of poultry manure.

PROGRESS REPORT:  A scraper was developed for daily collection of
manure from a layer house.  Methods of drying are being studied.
Systems for Alleviating Odors from Poultry Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0019901  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the methods of poultry manure disposal
having the most promise for incorporation into poultry production
enterprises, particularly where odors are a major problem.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "The removal of moisture is the most effective way
of controlling the release of odors from chicken manure.  . .
Aeration is effective but appears to be more difficult to accomolish.1
Mechanical devices are being tested.  An air velocity through the
undercage drying system of 500 fpm appeared to be ootimum.
Drying and Storage of Poultry Manure
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022861  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate, on a field scale, two systems of drying
poultry manure under caged laying hens.  Guidelines for proper
manure management will  be developed.
LUND, Z. F. and PEARSON, R. W.
The Role of Soil in Farm Waste Management
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0021375  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effects of high application rates for

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Soil treated with cattle manure at rates ranging
from 40 to 120 tons dry matter per acre annually produced higher
yields of millet and rye forage than where adequate mineral ferti-
lization was used at Auburn, Alabama. .  .  Nitrate levels of the
forage exceeded safe values for ruminants when manure was applied
at rates above 40 tons dry matter per acre."  The intake of heavy
metals (Mn, Fe, and Zn) increased as manure application increased.
MANGES, Harry L.
Demonstration and Development of Facilities for Treatment and
     Ultimate Disposal of Cattle Feedlot Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0056833  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine characteristics of manure, determine the
most economical loadings of manure and effluent on soil  (considering
pollution), and investigate health hazards involved.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Salt buildups in the soil limited the feasible
rates of disposal of manure and effluent.  Storage reduced COD by
up to 65 percent by settling of solids, but had little effect on
total nitrogen and phosphorus.
Improve Methods, Equipment and Facilities for Handling Waste
     Material  from Livestock Markets and Feedlots
USDA CRIS Accession No.  0021021   2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Transportation/Facilities Div., ARS

OBJECTIVES:  To "develop improved methods, equipment, devices and
facilities for handling the waste materials from livestock markets
and commercial feedlots."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Land spreading is often impractical.  Stockpiling
results in drainage, seepage, and stormwater runoff with major
resultant pollution.  Some markets are drying manure for fertilizer.
"Cost of dehydration is about equal to the wholesale selling price.
Even though there is no profit in such an operation, it may still
be the least expensive method of disposal.  Dust and odor are prob-
lems yet to be solved in operating dehydrators."

McCALLA, T. M.; ELLIS, J. R.; and ELLIOTT, L. F.
Water and Soil Pollution from Beef Cattle Feedlots in Nebraska
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0031827  4 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  "To determine amounts and characteristics of pollutants
being deposited on, in runoff from, in soil profile, and in ground
water of beef cattle feedlots. . ."

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Soil core samples from an extensive coring study
generally show low N03-N beneath level, stocked feedlots."  Vigorous
metabolic activity by anaerobic bacteria occurs below feedlot
surfaces.  "It is reasonable to assume, when the feedlot is wet,
nitrate will be reduced in the profile before it reaches the water
table."  The pollution potential of a feedlot is affected by surface
conditions and stocking rate.
Management of Cattle Feedlots and Animal Wastes for Control of Soil
     Water and Air Pollution
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0020810  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To develop modified feedlot designs to minimize soil,
water, and air pollution.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Costs for cleaning and maintaining broad-basin
terraces in new feedlot designs increase with ground slope from
less than 25 cents per head per year on four- to eight-percent

slopes to about a dollar on 15-percent slopes.   "The profile below
a flat feedlot remained anaerobic.   The site poses no nitrate hazard
to ground water."
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0059357  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperating  State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To develop animal  waste management systems for the
treatment, conditioning, utilization and/or disposal of wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Utilization of feces from swine reared in confine-
ment on self-cleaning floors as 22 percent of a cereal  ration for
swine gave a 1 Ib per day gain, but with poor efficiency.   Loin
roasts had good flavor acceptability.   Dried swine feces proved to
be superior to dried poultry wastes for use' in  a swine finishing
Feed and Waste Removal Structures for Livestock
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0003342  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To pump liquid manure and spread it in the field,
making an economic study of the entire system.

PROGRESS REPORT:  For a slatted floor beef cattle feedlot to function
satisfactorily in a cold climate sufficient storage volume should be
provided for a six-month supply of manure and bedding used should be
of a type which may be included in a pumpable slurry.  Commercially
available equipment is adequate for pit cleaning.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0056877  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To optimize feedlot location for feed supply, waste
disposal, transportation and similar factors.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Wintering operations in which livestock are pas-
tured in creek bottoms apparently cause no serious pollution problem.
"Due to Montana's combination of desirable weather conditions, large
land area and low population, the cattle industry can be encouraged
to expand considerably, without becoming a pollution source, pro-
vided that feedlots are located properly and managed carefully."

MINER, J. Ronald and HAZEN, T. E.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
US DA CRIS Accession No. 003052,4  4 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To investigate possible improvements in the efficiency
of anaerobic digestion of manure.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Data have been accumulated and analyzed for
various operations and modifications of the 800-head swine finishing
facility at Iowa State University and for various application rates
of effluent from its anaerobic lagoon for irrigation.
MINER, J. Ronald; HAZEN, T. E.; and HAMMOND, E. 6.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057712  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Iowa

OBJECTIVES:  To study odors and their quantitative measurement.   To
evaluate the efficacy of water hyacinths for nutrient removal from
diluted manure.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Work is proceeding on odor collection and analysis,
Water hyacinths, grown in a four-pool system, reduced nitrogen,
phosphorus and organic matter concentrations sufficiently to permit
discharge into surface waters.
MOORE, James A.; GOODRICH, P. R.; and DIESOU S. L.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0001695  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effectiveness of an oxidation ditch for
treatment and partial digestion of beef cattle wastes under Minnesota
climatic conditions.


PROGRESS REPORT:  A batch oxidation ditch, of which the slurry
reached a total solids concentration of 11.3 percent before becoming
too viscous for adequate reaeration and circulation, operated
through a Minnesota winter without major foaming problems.  "The
ditch was completely covered and exhaust heat from the housing kept
the liquid above freezing."

"Solid material waste is being taken from the ditch and refed to
the animals."
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057695  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To study the effects of feed, additives, and bedding on
runoff evaporation and solids disposal; to study enzyme activities
in manure degradation; and to collect and analyze volatile pollu-
tants above feedlots.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Definitive studies have been completed on the salt
content of manure and on the relation of runoff salinity to feed
salt.  Enzyme activity is under intensive study.
Limited Aeration of Animal Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0059659  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Idaho

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the optimum volume and distribution of air
which would prevent odor production in liquid manure storage pits
while preserving, in as far as possible, the fertilizer value of the
Microbial Oxidation of Methane
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0062111  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To develop fermentation systems for the production of
useful products from waste methane.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Strains of organisms capable of growth on methane
as the sole carbon and energy source are being isolated and studied.

Reactions of Polyvalent Metals in Soil-Manure Systems
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0021305  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To relate heavy applications of manure to changes in
polyvalent metals important in soil-plant relations.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Cattle manure over a wide range of application to
a high-Mn soil did not result in increased water-soluble, easily-
reducible to exchangeable Mn. . .  There would be no danger of
inducing Mn toxicity in crops by heavy manure applications."
NYE, J. C.
Biodegradation of Organic Waste
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0062092  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To study effects of such factors as temperature, time,
composition, particle size, metals, salts, feed additives, and
pesticides on the rate of biodegradation of animal  waste.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057630  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
North Dakota

OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate manure treatments in terms of water and air
pollution control, labor requirements, and adaptability to cold

PROGRESS REPORT:  A cattle waste lagoon in Fargo "gave evidence,
upon bacteriological, algal, and B.O.D. analyses, of a stable

aerobic ecosystem during spring, summer, and fall seasons.  During
the winter months, when there was no algal growth, the lagoon
reverted to a fermentative, anaerobic system and was less efficient
as a mechanism for waste disposal."

Bacterial isolates showed marked resistance to antibiotics employed
as animal feed.  Moreover, this resistance was transferable to
bacterial species sensitive to these antibiotics.

Samples of manure are being dried at 100, 200, 300 and 400F.
Fertility values and feed values of the dried manure are being
PRATT, George L.
Feedyard Runoff
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060203  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
North Dakota

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the runoff rate from feedlots during
spring thaws and summer rainstorms.  To determine the pollution
potential of feedlot runoff and to develop design criteria.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Instrumented runoff collection systems have been
installed in a 75-head dairy barn feedlot and in a paved feedyard
for beef cattle.
Water Quality Hydrology of Feedlot Waste Disposal Systems in Texas
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0058738  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service, Texas

OBJECTIVES:  To determine hydro!ogic effects of large animal
populations and to investigate the mechanisms of land disposal of

PROGRESS REPORT:  With manure applications of 0, 300, 600, and 900
tons/acre corn yields and forage sorghum yields were greatest at 300.
Nitrate content increased with rate of application of manure.
Microbial Protein from Liquid Fraction of Feedlot Waste
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022087  1 p.


SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Northern Utilization Research Division,

OBJECTIVES:  To "develop a fermentative process to convert liquid
feedlot waste into microbial protein suitable as a feed supplement."

PROGRESS REPORT:  The liquid portion of feedlot waste contains
microbially resistant material.  The indigenous flora reduce COD
and N by 70 to 80 percent in two or three days.  Fungi and strepto-
mycetes introduced experimentally reduced COD and N by only 50 to
60 percent "but the mycelium formed is readily recovered as a
potential feed material."  Added carbohydrates augment the reductions
of COD and N.
ROSS, I. J.; BEGIN, J. J.; and JOHNSON, T. H.
Utilization of Manures as Sources of Nutrients for Animals
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0030515  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effect of heat treatments, micro-
biological fermentation, and drying on the nutritional and feeding
properties of animal manures.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Feeding tests accompanied by an extensive battery
of laboratory determinations are being undertaken to establish
toxicity levels and growth response.
Effects of High Application Rates of Manure to Soil on Crop Production
     and Water Quality
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060453  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
New York

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the maximum permissible rate of aoplication
of poultry manure to soils without affecting water quality or chemical
composition of soil adversely.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Greenhouse and field studies have been initiated.

Control of Common Housefly
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0011512  3 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative  State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To develop a housefly control  program in all  areas of
agriculture .based on minimal  use of insecticides.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Gardona capsules fed in a complete layer ration
at the rate of 400 ppm were 95 percent effective for a four-week
test period; at 200 ppm they were 75 percent effective.
Performance of the Inclined-Plane Trickling Filter for Aerobic
     Disposal of Animal Waste
USDA CRIS Accession Mo. 0056368  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To develop a mathematical  relation between slope, BOD,
and contact time for a trickling filter treating animal wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:  By means of laboratory testing an equation has
been developed for contact time for swine wastes.  "It was concluded
that the inclined-plane trickling filter can be beneficially used
as a component in a waste handling system."
Design and Operation Criteria for an Anaerobic Lagoon for Swine
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0056373  1  p.


OBJECTIVES:  To design and construct an anaerobic lagoon, and obtain
operating data on startup procedure, seepage losses, odor production,
solids reduction, and BOD reduction.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Permeability of the lagoon has decreased from
2 ft/day in 1969 to 0.5 ft/day at the end of 1971.  An aerobic
reactor for a second lagoon is giving trouble.

Principles Applicable to the Handling and Land Application of Dairy
     Cow and Chicken Manure
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0006323  4 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,
New York

OBJECTIVES:  To develop feasible methods of handling manure at
moisture contents not greater than those of the freshly produced

PROGRESS REPORT:  Air drying at velocities above 800 fpm cuts the
time to approximately one-third.  "There does not appear to be a
correlation between humidity and drying time."  Sealing of the sur-
face appears to inhibit moisture flow to the surface.
Disposal and Utilization of Dairy and Poultry Manures by Land
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0030591  4 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperating State Research Service,
New Jersey

OBJECTIVES:  To "study the application of liquid poultry manure by
plow-furrow-cover and sub-sod injection methods."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Results of chemical measurements following various
applications and subject to reported precipitation are given.  "The
upper limit of poultry manure disposal in soil appears to be less
than 34 metric tons (dry basis)/ha because of nutrient contamination
in the soil water."
Utilizing Liquid Poultry Wastes in Forests
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0058999  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine a loading rate of poultry waste in forests
which will endanger neither the vegetation nor groundwater and will
not lead to fly breeding or aesthetic deterioration.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Poultry manure spread at 17 tons/acre was dispersed
by summer rains within two months.   A 100-ton/acre application (five
20-ton applications at two-week intervals) dried to a persistent
crust that supported abundant weeds.  "Viable fly eggs placed on
fresh manure survived poorly."
Disposal of Animal Wastes by Agricultural Practices in the Southern
USDA CRIS Accession No- 0020803  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the maximum quantity of manure that can be
applied without impairing crop production and to measure pollutants
moving through soil loaded at high rates.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Plots have been loaded with 0, 10, 30, 60, 120, and
240 tons of manure per acre.  Irrigation applied prior to seeding
diluted salts and ammonium concentrations to levels that did not
affect yields except at loadings of 120 and 240 tons/acre.  Nitrate
accumulated in the soil at loadings of 30 tons/acre and higher.
Pollution hazards exist unless the crop utilizes most of the applied
nitrogen.  Playa lakes may be a real asset to the feeding industry
due to their impermeable beds.  Further research on this subject
is required.
Factors Influencing Animal Waste Management Systems
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0061964  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate environmental influences of waste management
systems on animal productivity, to investigate effects of diet and
system of waste management on composition and quantity of animal
wastes, and to study effects of land application rates.
Determining Manure Loading Limits on Soil
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022245  1 p.



OBJECTIVES:  To "determine the effects of high loading rates of
manure on soil physical properties."

TAIGANIDES, E. Paul and WHITE, Richard K.
Farm Animal Waste Disposal
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0030168  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  "Processes to be considered for investigation are field
spreading of liquid manure, decomposition at low temperatures,
incineration, aeration, algae production, coprophagy, sterilization
drying at high temperature, etc."

PROGRESS REPORT:  Results of analyses of runoff quality, soil
characteristics as affected by spreading practices, odor measurements,
and characteristics of wastes are reported.  The Botkins Automated
Waste Treatment Plant has been completed and is operating satisfac-
torily at peak efficiency.  Pyrolysis has been investigated.
Lagoons for Disposal of Barn Yard Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0001265  4 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the feasibility of disposing of animal
waste, by means of lagoons in the climatic conditions found in

PROGRESS REPORT:  Lagoons have performed well on both poultry and
swine wastes.  In a four-year period 5224 hens had been housed over
an aerated lagoon; they had left 36,558 Ib (dry basis) of manure,
or 7 Ib/hen-year, without odor problems resulting.  Two swine lagoons,
based on 35 and 45 sq ft of surface per 100 Ib of hog, operated
continuously for four and five years with little sludge accumulation,
no cleaning, and no odors.  Other data are reported.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060201  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,


OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the potential of animal wastes as a source
of protein and energy when fed to ruminants.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Sheep readily consumed rations containing 20 to 80
percent dehydrated caged layer feces.  Rations containing ruminant
feces were less digestible than rations containing poultry or swine
feces.  Sheep make reasonable weight gains on 25 percent DPW.
Milking cows can be fed 30 percent DPW without affecting the flavor
of the milk.  They will refuse grain rations containing 50 percent
Production of Power Fuel by Anaerobic Digestion of Feedlot Waste
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022215  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To study generation of fuel gas by anaerobic digestion
of feedlot waste to determine if continuous process is feasible.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Cattle feedlot waste at 10% solids concentration
can be digested in continuous anaerobic fermentation at feed rates
between 0.5 and 1.0 pounds of volatile solids per cubic foot digester
per day with a residence time of 6.25 days.  The optimum temperature
is 49-51C. . .  No significant loss of nitrogen occurs in the gas.
Methane production is 3-4 cubic feet per pound volatile solids
introduced. . .  Digestion and gas production have been consistent
for 9 months of continuous ooeration."
Specific Composition of Representative Feedlot Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022211  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the biologically important compounds
present in manure from cattle and hog feedlots and determine the
causes of their variations.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Ratios of COD/BOD of from 2.5:1 to 9:1 reflect the
high concentration of organic matter refractory to microbial
oxidation.  Few, if any, Salmonellae have been found in the samples

VIETS, F. 6., Jr. and HAISE, H. R.
Management of Animal Wastes and Feedlots to Avoid Soil and Water
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0020809  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate feedlot runoff.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Two commercial feedlots were instrumented and
lysimeter tests were conducted to determine quantity and quality of
runoff and percolation.  In the case of a level site "percolate
represented only 3.4 percent of the total waste delivered to the lot."
On a sloping lot is would be much less.  "Water-soluble organics
in feedlot manures do not penetrate far below the surface."

VIETS, F. G., Jr. and OLSEN, S. R.
Soil Fertility Maintenance with Fertilizers, Crop Residues, and
     Animal Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0020858  3 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the fertilizer value of manure.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Feedlot manure in a greenhouse experiment was an
excellent source of P and S for plant growth, but a poor source of
N, Fe, and Zn."
WALKER, H. G., Jr. and GRAHAM, R. P.
Development of Processes for Improved Feeds from Agricultural Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0021338  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Western Utilization Research Division, ARS

OBJECTIVES:  Convert lignified agricultural residues into useful
animal feeds.

PROGRESS REPORT:  A 12 cu ft pressure reactor capable of handling 30
to 60 Ib samples at steam pressures up to 400 psig is being used to
modify digestibilities of various wastes preparatory to feeding tests,
Early work was on grass and cereal straws.  Tests on animal wastes
are contemplated.

Management of Animal Manure on Cropland
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0022295  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To "determine the effects of high rates of animal
manure on soil properties, crop yield, and crop quality."
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057679  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To develop management systems to control odors and dust
from feedlots.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Tests on 44 plots covered with pulverized manure
and agitated to simulate cattle traffic indicate that chemical
treatments (calcium nitrate and glycerol) are ineffective.  For a
given amount of water, application once per day is more effective
than small applications throughout the day.
Evaluation of Systems for Disposal of Livestock Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0060278  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To determine the degree of treatment obtained and
costs involved in various feeding and waste handling systems at

PROGRESS REPORT:  Construction and instrumentation of two feedlots
for comparative studies was nearing completion in 1971.
Poultry Manure Management on Farmlands in the Southeast
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0020806  3 p.



OBJECTIVES:  To determine the effects of applications of up to 200
tons per acre per year of poultry manure to' small plots.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Results are summarized for a series of tests.
Coastal bermudagrass will tolerate three to four times as much
broiler litter as will tall fescue.  "Top yields of Coastal bermuda-
grass were obtained with four 20-ton per acre applications of litter."
The problem of fat necrosis in cattle herds in not associated with
the effects of poultry litter per se, but rather with the high
nutrient content often involved.
Management of an Oxidation Ditch for a Swine Confinement Feeding
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0055122  2 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To establish criteria for the design of oxidation ditch
systems for new or existing swine finishing facilities.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Analyses of solids and liquids in the ditch have
been made during and after use for hogs.  Mechanical modifications
to eliminate spots with zero or low velocities, to reduce belt
slippage, and to reduce bearing wear and corrosion have improved
ditch efficiency.
Pollution Potential of Run-off from Areas Affected by Domestic
     Animal Wastes
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0062033  1 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To determine the kinetics of bacterial contamination
of streams enriched by runoff from grazing areas.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Dissolved nutrients, dissolved oxygen, COD,
bacterial loading, total coliforms, temperatures and other water
characteristics will be measured.and correlated with animal stocking
densities and weather data.

ZINDEL, Howard C.
Animal Waste Management with Pollution Control
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0057925  2 p.

SPONSORING ORGANIZATION:  Cooperative State Research Service,

OBJECTIVES:  To study the treatment and conditioning of wastes for
utilization or disposal with attention being directed to economic,
biological, and physical analysis.

PROGRESS REPORT:  "Excreta from laying hens was dehydrated and re-fed
to the same laying hens at either 12-1/2 or 25 percent of the ration
in the place of corn.  After 23 consecutive recycling periods, there
was no difference in egg production or mortality of those birds fed
the dried poultry excreta when these parameters were compared with
birds fed a control ration."  Earlier tests had established that
"the addition of 3% fish meal or 8% DPW gave equal growth responses
which were 27% greater than the controls."
ZINDEL, Howard C.
Evaluation of the Nutritive Value of Wastes for Poultry
USDA CRIS Accession No. 0059078  1 p.


OBJECTIVES:  To assess the value of, and drug transfer from,
dehydrated poultry wastes.

PROGRESS REPORT:  Seven different samples of dried poultry waste
are being evaluated.  Feeding trials and chemical analyses have
been completed.

                               APPENDIX D

                          INDEXES OF ABSTRACTS
The 1162 abstracts of Appendix A and the 111 of Appendix C are
indexed first by author and then, in a separate alphabetical list,
by subject.  The author index includes all authors of multiple-
author papers, discussers, and all individuals cited in the

                          INDEX OF ABSTRACTS

ABBOTT,  F.  DeWitt


ADAMS, John B.

ADAMS, John L.
     1964-1001;  1965-1001

ADAMS, Richard L.

ADAMS, Russell S.,  Jr.
     1971-1309;  1972-C001


ADOLPH, Robert H.
     1965-1017;  1971-1002,



AGNEW, Robert W.
     1966-1001;  1967-1014

AHO, William A.
     1970-1001;  1971-1236

ALAMPI, Phillip

ALBIN, Robert C.
     1966-1025;  1968-1018,
     1019;  1969-1031,  1032,
     1068,  1086,  1087,  1088;
     1970-1002,  1041,  1059,
     1102;  1971-1006,  1007,
     1057, 1258, 1285,  1294
     1302, 1315; 1973-1015

ALBUS, Clarence J.,  Jr.

     1968-1002, 1010


     1972-1164, 1165

ALLEE, David  J.

     1966-1002; 1969-1062;

     1964-1001; 1965-1001


     1966-1003; 1968-1020

     1971-1031 , 1158; 1972-

     1972-1004, 1005

     1964-1002; 1965-1002;
     1966-1004; 1971-1009;


ANDRE, Paul D.
     1971-1010, 1011




ANTHONY, Darrell W.

     1962-1001; 1963-1010,
     1015; 1964-1024; 1966-
     1005; 1967-1001; 1968-
     1003, 1034; 1969-1002,
     1003, 1005, 1020; 1970-
     1003; 1070; 1971-1013,
     1014, 1251; 1972-1217,
     C003; 1973-1001

APPELL, Herbert R.
     1969-1004, 1089; 1970-
     1004; 1971-1015; 1972-







ATTOE, 0.  J.
     1966-1078; 1968-1044;



BADGER, Daniel D.
     1971-1017;  1972-C015

BAFFA, John J.

BAKER, Bryan Jr.


     1969-1033;  1971-1066,
     1120;  1972-1062






BANDEL, Linda Sue




BARNES, Richard H.
     1959-1001; 1963-1002

BARR, Harold T.
     1969-1016; 1970-1128



BARTH, Clyde L.
     1970-1005; 1971-1019,
     1020; 1972-1010,  1011,
     1012; 1973-1002

     1971-1021; 1972-1087,




BAUMANN, E.  Robert
     1963-1012; 1964-1021;

     1968-1032; 1971-1218

BAY, Ovid

     1971-1023, 1113




 BEER, Craig E.
      1970-1100; 1971-1145

      1971-1118, 1219; 1972-

 BELL, Donald  D.
      1966-1006; 1972-1206

 BELL, J.  M.

 BELL, R.  G.
      1969-1006; 1970-1006,
      1007; 1971-1024, 1025,
      1026, 1027, 1209; 1972-



 BENNET, Myron
      1973-1004, 1041

 BENTLEY,  Orville G.


 BEOUGHER, Virgil D.

 BERG, Norman

      1972-1014, 1117

 BERGE, 0. I.
      1971-1029, 1030, 1326


     1971-1036; 1972-C012

     1969-1007; 1970-1049;

BEROZA, Morton
     1970-1065, 1066

BERRY, Edward C.
     1966-1008; 1971-1032


BERRY, Joe 6.
     1971-1033; 1972-1015

BESLEY, Harry E.

BETHEA, Robert M.
     1972-1016, 1017


BHAGAT, Surinder K.

     1964-1003; 1965-1003;
     1966-1009, 1029

BIELY, Jacob
     1972-1018; 1973-1050


     1943-1001; 1946-1002,
     1004, 1005, 1006; 1947-
     1001, 1002, 1003; 1948-
     1001, 1002, 1004


BLACK, J.  Roy

     1967-1002;  1969-1009;

BLACKMAN,  W.  C., Jr.



BLAIR, Robert

     1973-1040,  1047

     1969-1010;  1971-1189




     1966-1054;  1971-1183;






     1970-1065, 1066

BOX, T. W.

BOYD, Claude E.
     1969-1011; 1970-1009

     1970-1085, 1092;  1971-
     1238; 1972-C010




BRADY, Nyle C.



     1968-1007; 1969-1048;

BRESSLER, Glenn 0.
     1969-1012; 1970-1010;
     1971-1035, 1036,  1123,
     1149; 1972-1207,  C012


     1972-1020;  1973-1004





BROOKER, Donald  B.



BROWN, Robert H.
     1966-1012;  1971-1038


BROWN, W. 0.

     1964-1004;  1967-1004;
     1968-1008;  1969-1014;

BRYDON, Harold W.


BUCHOLTZ, Herbert F.
     1970-1085; 1971-1039,
     1040, 1251

BULL, Leonard S.
     1971-1041, 1114, 1251


     1971-1233, 1267

BUNDY, Dwaine


BURNETT, William E.
     1969-1015; 1970-1011;

BURNS, Edward C.
     1959-1002; 1961-1002

     1971-1043, 1044; 1972-
     1021, C015, C016

BUTLER,  R. 6.


CABES, Leon J., Jr.


     1969-1017, 1018; 1970-
     1012, 1072; 1971-1047,
     1048, 1049, 1251, 1254;
     1972-1146, C017; 1973-
CAMP, Arthur A.
     1956-1003;  1959-1003



CARLSON, Franklin  B.


CARLSON, Virgil  P.


     1968-1002,  1010


CASLER, George L.


     1962-1002;  1966-1014


CATH, William Stanwood
     1970-1013;  1971-1052


     1948-1003;  1954-1003

     1969-1023;  1971-1053;

CHAPMAN, Richard A.


CHENEY, Lloyd T.

     1972-C019,  C024



     1964-1016,  1017




CLARK, Charles E.




CLAVEL, Pierre

CLAWSON, W.  James

     1970-1014; 1971-1055;

     1966-1010, 1074;  1969-
     1021; 1971-1111


COE, Warren B.


COLEMAN, Eugene A.
     1969-1068, 1087,  1088;
     1970-1102; 1971-1007,
     1056, 1057, 1258; 1972-

     1970-1085, 1110

COLLINS, Robert K.

COLMER, Arthur R.



     1964-1007; 1971-1059;
     1972-1024, 1025,  1026,