VOLUME 3
    Municipal Construction Division
  Office of Water Program Operations
      Washington, D.C.  20460


     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 set
in motion a comprehensive program to clean up the Nation's waters.
Recognizing that many local governments could not afford to build
needed treatment facilities without financial assistance, Congress
dramatically increased Federal aid to help local governments meet
the requirements of the Act.  The 1972 Amendments made available
$18 billion in Federal grants to local governments for wastewater
treatment works.  The program is administered by the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency in cooperation with the water pollution
control agencies of the various States.

     This Construction Inspection Guide is beinq issued to aid the
engineers and technicans who inspect.the actual construction of a
wastewater treatment facility.  It should serve as a guide in examin-
ing the detailed construction of- the structural, mechanical, and
electrical features of a modern facility.  It cannot, however, replace
plans, specifications, experience, and most importantly, engineering
judgement.  Whenever a difference exists between the guide and contract
documents, or Federal, State and Local requirements, the contract docu-
ments or governmental requirements take precedent.

     Comments, recommendations, or suggestions for modification or
insertion of additional material are solicited.  They should be sent
to: Director, Municipal Construction.01 vision, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, 401 "M" Street S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460.

     The Environmental Protection Agency extends acknowledgement to the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, who originally published this guide, and
the Naval Facilities Engineering Command, who provided the negatives,
for their joint permission to reprint this guide with minor editorial
                              DeputyAssistant Administrator
                                for'Water Program Operations

                 INSTRUCTIONS FOR
     This guide is available, free of charge, for
personnel who inspect the day-to-day construction of
municipal wastewater treatment facilities funded in
part, by grants from the U.S. Environmental  Protection

     To order the "Construction Inspection Guide"
write to:

          General Services Administration  (8-FFS)
          Centralized Mailing List Services
          Building 41, Denver Federal Center
          Denver, Colorado  80225

     Please include the following information:

     1.  Title of publication—Construction Inspection

     2.  Publication Number—MCD-23

     3.  Name and location of project where this guide
         will be used.

     4.  USEPA Grant Identification Number for this

               Vol ume  I
    Construction Inspection Guide
          Table of Contents
100   General Information
101   Layout & Quantity Surveys
102   Clearing and Grubbing
103   Earthwork
104   Underground Pipe Systems
105   Paving
106   Grassing, Planting and Erosion Control
201   Concrete for Structures

                Volume 2
      Construction Inspection Guide
            Table of Contents
202   Structural Steel
203   Welding
204   Masonry
205   Carpentry
206   Precast & Cast-in-Place
      Roof Decking
207   Roofing
208   Sheet Metal
209   Furring (Metal), Lathing & Plaster
210   Resilient-Type Floors
211   Dampproofing & Waterproofing

212   Corrugated Roofing & Siding
213   Metal Doors, Door Frames & Windows
214   Cabinets, Casework & Wardrobes
215   Calking, Glass & Glazing
216   Terrazzo: Ceramic & Quarry Tile
217   Movable Accordion & Toilet Partitions
218   Hardware
219   Painting
301   Plumbing & Sprinkle Systems

                Volume 3
      Construction Inspection Guide
            Table of Contents
302   Heating
303   Ventilating, Air Supply & Distribution Sys
304   Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
305   Interior Electrical
306   Exterior Electrical
307   Cathodic Protection
308   Installation of Equipment
401   Pile Construction
402.   Levee Construction & Earth Embankment
404   Drilling for Subsurface Investigations

                CHAPTER 302

Para.              Title             Page

302-01  GENERAL                      302-1

.302-02  MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT      302-1

        a.  General                  302-1
        b.  Boilers, Furnaces,
            and Accessory Equipment  302-3
        c.  Fuel Burning Equipment   302-5
        d.  Draft Fans               302-6
        e.  Oil Storage Tank         302-7
        f.  Circulating, Condensate
            and Vacuum Return        302-7
        g.  Miscellaneous Fittings
            and Equipment            302-7

302-03  INSPECTION                   302-8

        a.  Planning         ,        302-8
        b.  Piping                   302-9
        c.  Pipe Insulation          302-12
        d.  Hot-Water Systems        302-12
        e.  High-Temperature Hot
            Water                    302-13
        £.  Steam Systems            302-14
        g.  Hot Air Heating          302-14

Para.              Title             Page

        h.  Heating and
            Ventilating Units        302-15
        i.  Unit Heaters             302-15
        j.  Controls                 302-16
        k.  Boilers and Boiler
            Plants                   302-16
        1.  Smoke Connections        302-29
        m.  Fuel Storage and
            Conveying                302-30
        n.  Painting                 302-32
        o.  Testing                  302-33
        p.  Operating Instructions
            and Guaranties           302-33

                CHAPTER 302

302-01.  GENERAL

  a.  This chapter covers material, equip-
ment, and good workmanship practices for
the installation of heating systems.

  b.  The inspector should strive to ob-
tain systems in accordance with the contract
requirements that are safe, adequate, and
neat, and which function properly with a
minimum of routine maintenance.

  c.  In combination heating-cooling systems
designed for year-round automatic air condi-
tioning, coordinate material of this sec-
tion with Section 303, VENTILATING, AIR

  a.  General

    (1)  Make sure that each piece of mate-
rial and each item of equipment has been
approved well in advance of its need.  When
the material and equipment arrive on the job,
inspect them very carefully, comparing them
with the approved shop drawing and samples.


Check and record nameplate data on all

     (2)  Determine that there is adequate
space in the room for proper functioning
and maintenance of all the equipment.

     (3)  Reject all damaged materials
and equipment and have them removed from
the site.

     (4)  Check the electrical features of
equipment and coordinate with the mechanical

     (5)  Determine that provisions have been
made for access panels.

     (6)  Check the required controls and
valves for compliance with contract require-
ments .

     (7)  Check specification provisions for
necessary spare parts and tools for all of
the equipment.

    (8)  See that operations and maintenance
instructions are with equipment and are
posted on the wall upon completion of in-

    (9)  Require proper storage and protec-


tlon of all materials and equipment.

    (10)  Check the noise level of all

    (11)  Verify requirements for the
installation of flexible pipe connections
and vibration eleminators for equipment.

    (12)  Check the installation of all
equipment for compliance with manufacturer's

  b.  Boilers, Furnaces, and Accessory

    (1)  Examine pressure boilers for
conformance with the ASME Code.

    (2)  Check for all necessary connections
on the boiler.

    (3)  Check cast iron boilers, it field
assembled, for tightness of joints.

      (a)  All joints should be sealed.

      (b)  Reject cracked sections.

     (4)   Inspect refractory furnaces built
up on the job for materials and workmanship.

      (a)  Require expansion joints to be
provided.  Piping on both sides of expansion
joints should be properly guided.

      (b)  Insure packing to prevent gas or
air  leakage.

      (c)  Reject all cracked, chipped or
otherwise damaged brick and tile.

      (d)  Check plastic refractories for
placement, thorough ramming, and consistency,

      (e)  Require refractories to be kept

      (f)  Inspect for use of refractory
mortar in construction of combustion chamber,

      (g)  Check for air circulation under
the combustion chamber floors.

     (5)  Inspect the application of insula-
tion after all joints are tightly sealed.
Check material, thickness, and finish.

     (6)   Observe accessory equipment opera-
tion as feedwater controllers, dampers,
pressure and draft gages, flow and pressure


recorders, soot blowers, water columns and
boiler blowdown.  Check the pressurestat

    (7)  Check requirement for expansion
joint in floor around boiler.

  c.  Fuel Burning Equipment

    (1)  Coal, Hand-Fired.  Verify installa-
tion of grates and operation of dumping

    (2)  Coal, Stoker-Fired.  Confirm
capacity and operation of feeder, grates,
and ash removal.

    (3)  Oil burners.  Check:

      (a)  Size of burner tips.

      (b)  Location of electrodes to insure
spark in oil spray cone.

      (c)  Position of gas or oil pilot.

      (d)  Clearances for removal of burner
from furnace.

      (e)  Burner adjustments.

      (f)  CO2 in flue gas.


     (4)  Inspect gas burners for cleanliness,
adjustment, position of pilot flame, and
sensing element.  Check regulator and con-
trol s.

       (a)  Check blow-out of gas line before
connecting to burner or regulator.

       (b)  Is regulator installed in vertical

       (c)  Are gas vents piped to the outdoors?

  d.   Draft Fans

     (1)  Check fans and drivers for anchorage,
alignment, and rotation.

     (2)  Check accessibility of lubrication

     (3)  Inspect dampers for operation in
compliance with contract requirements.

     (4)  Inspect bearings for smoothness and

     (5)  Check vibration and vibration absorbing

     (6)  Inspect insulation application to
induced draft fan.

     (7)  Examine safety control Interlocks
and  air-flow switches.

  e.  Oil Storage Tank

     (1)  Check for Underwriter's approval.

     (2)  Check tank capacity and calibration.

     (3)  See that tanks have the required
openings and the means for proper anchorage.

     (4)  Check for tank heaters, when

     (5)  Examine paint coating and examine
holiday testing.

  f.  Circulating, Condensate and Vacuum
Return Pumps

    Inspect for capacity and for method
of mounting.

  g.  Miscellaneous Fittings and Equipment

    Inspect drips, traps, valves, coils,
elements, convectors, radiators, etc., as
they are brought on the job, to make sure
that they are of the correct capacity and
that they have been approved.



  a.  Planning

    (1)  Check the availability of codes,
reference data and manufacturer's .recommenda-

    (2)  Check with contractor for his de-
tail layouts of equipment and piping which
are normally made to coordinate work of the
various trades.

    (3)  Compare nameplate data, piping
markings, etc., with requirements.

    (4)  Provide the proper spacing of
equipment to make sure that there is ade-
quate room for piping, ductwork, accessi-
bility for maintenance and that walls be-
hind ductwork can be finished without duct

    (5)  Notice how the heating system fits
into the total job.

    (6)  Be sure that sleeves of the correct
size and material are properly located in
floors and walls before they are built.

    (7)  In spite of all attempts to insure
that sleeves, inserts, boxes, and so on, are


all in place before concrete is poured,
oversights occur, and it becomes necessary
to cut concrete.  Any such operation should
be approved by the supervisor before it is
begun.  A cut in concrete wall should be
made from both sides of the wall to avoid
spalling of the far surface.

  b.  Piping

    (1)  Compare piping workmanship with
the check list of paragraph 301-02.

    (2)   Check storage and handling agains
paragraph 301-Olc.

    (3)  Inspect for the required type and
size of pipe.

    (4)  Examine the cutting of construction
to install piping.

    (5)  Require provisions for expansion
and contraction, and proper anchorage of

    (6)  Check the installation of mechan-
ical expansion joints.  Do not remove
spacers until expansion joints are ready
to be installed.

    (7)  Know that the pitch of the hori-
zontal runs are correct.


     (8)  Check the position of branch con-

     (9)  Be sure that required valves are
installed in the correct positions.

    (10)  Check the method and procedure of
jointing pipes.

       (a)  On threaded joints, check for
the use of tapered threads.  See that graph-
ite and oil, or an equivalent, are applied
to the threads.

       (b)  On welded joints, check for
compliance with approved welding procedures;
inspect for defective welds; check type of
material of the welding rod; make sure
welders have been qualified and are stamping
their welds.

    (11)  See that piping is properly a-
ligned and that there is no strain on joints
or on adjacent equipment.

    (12)  See that proper grade and align-
ment are maintained and that proper fittings
are provided to eliminate air pockets and

    (13)  Check for air valves at all high
points and at the ends of mains.  Check for

drips and traps at low points.  Examine the
lines to make sure that condensate cannot
accumulate in the lines.

     (14)  Inspect for required floor, wall,
and  ceiling plates.  Check for type, size,
material, and finish.

     (15)  Watch for the use and proper in-
stallation of eccentric fittings.

     (16)  See that interconnecting piping
between boilers conforms to shop drawings
and ASME Code.  Watch for adequate valves
and other special fittings.  The means
should be provided to valve-off each boiler
from the steam header.

     (17)  Be sure that lift fittings are
provided where the gravity flow of vacuum
returns is interrupted by a change to a
higher elevation.

     (18)  Clean all supply and return lines
before putting them into operation.  Check
whether contractor has cleaned all traps
and strainers after pipe cleaning and be-
fore system operation.

     (19)  Check safety valve discharge pipe
for number of ells (restriction).

    (20)  Check bent pipe for kinks, wrinkles
or other malformations.

  c.  Pipe Insulation

    (1)  Know locations of pipes required
to be insulated.

    (2)  See that insulation, cotton jackets
and bands have been approved.

    (3)  Check width and type of material
and the spacing of bands.

    (4)  Be sure that all fittings except
unions and flanges are insulated.

    (5)  Be sure that cotton protected
sheeting is of the proper weight and that
it is neatly applied.

    (6)  Check for continuity of insulation
through walls and floors.

    (7)  Check that proper thickness of
insulation is being applied.

    (8)  In chilled-water and hot-water
combination piping check for vapor seal
requirement on boiler piping.

  d.  Hot Water Systems


    (1)  Note the installation of balancing
valves or orifices in the return connection
of each radiator or heating device.

    (2)  See that contractor balances system
as required by plans or specifications.

    (3)  Insure that threaded openings are
provided on converters.  See that safety
devices and temperature controls are fur-
nished and are in working order.  Check test
pipe coil for tightness and clearance for
its removal.  Note drain pipe to outside
atmosphere or floor drain from blow-off
safety valves.

    (4)  Check for automatic and manual

    (5)  Examine expansion tanks for size,
conformance to code, protective paint
coating, insulation, water level gage,
drain and air charging valves.
  e.  High Temperature Hot Water

    (1)  Check pumps for:

      (a)  Leveling, alignment, and stability
on foundation.

      (b)  Lubrication.


       (c)  Seals for leaks.

       (d)  Packing adjustment and type.

       (e)  Pressure retention.

       (f)  Correct rotation.

    (2)  Insure that radiant heating coils
are accurately placed, firmly secured, and
absolutely tight under a hydrostatic test
pressure of one and one-half times the
operating pressure prior to encasement in

  f.  Steam Systems

    (1)  Know details of the type of system
required.  Make sure it is a two-pipe system.

    (2)  Check the operation of supply
valves to radiator and convector.

    (3)  Check radiator run-out for pitch.

  g.  Hot Air Heating

    (1)  See that flue gas does not contami-
nate the heated air.

 %   (2)  Be sure that return air has free
pasage to heater unit.


     (3)  Note damper setting balance  of  the
flow of air.

     (4)  Check that flexible connections have
been installed between furnace and duct  sys-

  h.  Heating and Ventilating Units

     (1)  Require that all component parts
opera te sa tis fac to rily.

     (2)  Note access doors for tightness
and clearance.

     (3)  'Determine that noise level is
within acceptable limits.

     (4)  Check flexible pipe connections
and/or vibration eliminators.

    (5)  Check rotation.

  i.  Unit Heaters


    (1)  Air distribution.

    (2)  Noise level.

    (3)  Controls.


    (4)  Clearances.

    (5)  Rotation.

  j.  Controls

    Be sure that the controls are provided,
as specified,  that they are properly hooked up,
and that they  will perform the required operation,

  k.  Boilers and Boiler Plants

    (1)  General Requirements:

      (a)  Before rolling in, check the
cleaning of ends of tubes and the surfaces
of tube holes in drums and headers.  Check
to assure that new boilers exposed to weather
are covered to prevent corrosion.

      (b)  See that tube-rolling is done by
experienced workmen and that all precautions
are taken to prevent either under or over
rolling.  At this stage of erection request
technical assistance.

      (c)  Insure that the boiler inspector
is notified when it is time for the hydro-
static test.  Secure Certificate of In-
spection.  Do not permit the installation
of any baffles or the setting of refractories
until after the boiler has passed inspection.


      (d)  Affirm that baffles of steel,
refractory tile, or monolithic construction
are installed gastight but with provision
for expansion, and that they will resist
dislodgment by "puffs."

      (f)  Insure that boiling-out opera-
tions for the removal of grease, oil, and
other foreign matter are performed before
boiler is placed "on-the-line."

      (g)  Insure that space is provided
for tube removal and cleaning and for
general maintenance of all equipment.

      (h)  Check to assure that during
periods of operation by contractor chemical
treatment and blowdown are provided to
prevent scale deposits and corrosion.

    (2)  Settings

      (a)  Be sure that all settings are
constructed with provision for expansion
and contraction of both the refractories
and the pressure parts.  See that expansion
joints are sealed to prevent passage of air
or gases but are flexible enough to main-
tain their seal under movement of the
structure.  Check the entire setting for

       (b)  Check solid refractory walls for
plumb, level courses and dipped joints.
Check  grades of refractories used.  Chipped,
cracked, wet or broken refractory materials
should be rejected.

       (c)  Insure that refractory tile and
setting casings are constructed to prevent
the excape of gases or the infiltration of
air, and that they are installed in accord-
ance with the recommendations of the manu-
facturer .

       (d)  Insist that all openings through
setting walls are accurately located and of
proper size.  Check temperature of boiler
setting surface against room temperature.

       (e)  Verify that pipe sleeves for
draft gage are clean and flush with interior
face of wall.

       (f)  Inspect uptake damper for correct
location, bearing material, and freedom of
operation when hot.

    (3)  Fuel Burning Equipment

       (a)  Correlate coal stokers with
stationary grates for accurate placement
and support of the grate bars.  See that


shaking and dumping mechanism will work
freely under operating temperatures.

      (b)  Evaluate traveling and moving
grates for alignment of running parts and
guides, tightness of seals, and provision
for expansion and contraction.

      (c)  Note lubrication and protection
of motors, gears, and bearings.

      (d)  Examine all moving parts for
operation under temperatures encountered
and for loads specified.

      (e)  Insure that grate design and
coal sizing are suitable for each other.

      (f)  See that stoker feeding mechanism
is adjusted to distribute  the  coat  evenly
over the grates.

      (g)  Verify that pulverizers are
constructed and installed as nearly dust-
tight as possible.  Be sure the equipment
is firmly secured to foundation.  Check
units for proper balance and quiet opera-
tion at normal operating speeds.

      (h)  See if pulverizers are adjusted
for proper coal fineness.  Notice whether
heat is applied to the coal in  the pulver-


izer, or that temperatures are obtained
prior to entrance of coal to assure sat-
isfactory dryness of coal.

      (i)  Insure that burners are adjusted
for efficient operation, minimum excess air,
stable ignition at low rating, and no im-
pingement on furnace walls.  Use a boiler
test kit when required.

      (j)  Evaluate the coal feeder for
accurate and even operation.

      (k)  Examine the installation of
access and inspection doors.

      (1)  View magnetic separators for
location ahead of pulverizers.

      (m)  All safety precautions are to be
observed in the installation of gas burners
and piping.  Arrangement of gas valves should
be in accordance with ASA Standard Z 21.33.

      (n)  Burners should be arranged to
permit ready inspection and servicing.

      (o)  Note location of pilot flame.
Provision should be made to facilitate
manual lighting of pilot flame.  Hand torch
and receptacle should be provided for each


      (p)  See that mixing dampers or valves
are adjusted to proportion air and fuel for
the most efficient combustion with minimum
excess air and stable operation of low
rating, with no impingement on furnace

      (q)  Compare all dimensions of the
combustion chamber during construction for
agreement with manufacturer's approved shop
drawings.  Check all materials of construc-
tion for compliance with specifications and
approved shop drawing.  Take physical samples
of all tile, insulating plastic, firebrick,
etc., for future reference.

      (r)  Check type and capacity of
heaters for grade of oil.

      (s)  Check relief of excess pressure
in pumps.

      (t)  Test oil piping for leaks.

    (4)  Draft Fans and Duct Work

      (a)  See that induced draft fans are
provided with cleanout doors.

      (b)  Note the operation of dampers
at high flue gas temperatures.

    (5)  Blow Down System

      (a)  Insist that work conforms to
applicable codes.

      (b)  Observe location of vent and
discharge lines.

      (c)  Require that piping provides for
expansion and contraction.

    (6)  Combustion Controls

      (a)  Inspect equipment for type,
capacity, installation, and operation.

      (b)  Be sure that operating devices
are firmly secured to floor, foundations, or
other supports and that they operate freely.
They should have sufficient power to easily
perform their duties.

      (c)  Note the location and stability
of sleeves in setting walls, ducts or
breechings for draft piping, thermometers
and gages.

      (d)  Pipe, tubing, and wiring should
run neatly and parallel to the lines of
building or structure.  They should be
firmly secured and have proper pitch.  See


that draft piping is provided with means
for removing accumulations of ash and soot.

      (e)  Verify the operation of safety

      (f)  See that flame-sensing device is
installed in position to sense both pilot
and main flame.

      (g)  Determine that instrument panels
are firmly anchored and set plumb.  Be sure
that wiring, tubing, and piping are neatly
arranged in rear of panel.  See that name-
plates, indicating the function of each in-
strument, are mounted on the face of the

      (h)  Secure a written statement from
manufacturer's representative to the effect
that all equipment of the control system is
properly installed and in perfect operating
condition before acceptance.

    (7)  Economizers and Air Heaters

      Check for tightness of tubes or plates
and for evidence of erosion or corrosion
whether integral with the boiler or separate
units.  Observe performance.

    (8)  Fly Ash Collectors



      (a)  Inspection and cleanout doors
for location and adequacy.

      (b)  Dampers for free operation under
all temperature conditions.

      (c)  Discharge grates for leakage of
either ash or air.

    (9)  Boiler specialties

      (a)  Notice all trimmings such as
water column, steam gage, safety valves,
blowoff valves, nonreturn valves, stop and
check feed valves and vent valves for type
and size.  Inspect for installation and

      (b)  See that safety valve discharge
piping does not impose a strain on valve.

    (10)  Soot Blowers

      (a)  Determine operating pressure
of steam operated units.

      (b)  Note materials of elements and

      (c)  See that-wall boxes are accurately


and firmly set and that the operating heads
are securely fastened.  Insure that each
element operates freely and that it may be
removed without disturbing tubes or setting.

      (d)  Check clearance for the removal
of soot blowers.

      (e)  Insure that drainage is provided
to prevent moisture from being blown into
the furnace.

    (11)  Check for correct location and
installation of test holes in breechings
and stacks to allow for periodic measurement
of flyash and other particulate matter for
air pollution control.

      (a)  Inspect breechings for gage
(thickness) of metal, supports, and

      (b)  Examine cleanout doors for
tightness, location, and size.

      (c)  Check expansion joints for
tightness and location.

      (d)  Note calked joint at opening
around breeching entering masonry chimneys.

      (e)  Check guys, bracing or other

      (f)  Reject damaged or unsuitable
brick and radial block.  See that all


courses are brought up together and bonded.

      (g)  In reinforcement operation
inspect materials and accuracy of placement.
Observe especially the lapping of bars.

      (h)  Evaluate the material and the
setting of embedded items for securing
ladders, platforms, cables, lights, doors,
or other equipment.

      (i)  Check openings and locations of
test holes in breeching.  Check cleanout door
for size and location.

      (j)  Check closing and latching of
cleanout doors.

      (k)  See that firebrick lining covers
the chimney area and that weep holes are
provided at bottom.

      (1)  Check continuous-pour type
concrete chimneys for a smooth, jointless
exterior finish.

      (m)  Determine if ladders are sturdy,
securely anchored, and provided with safety
cages where required.

      (n)  Verify that metal vent cap, when
required, is firmly secured and coated for
prevention of corrosion.


      (o)  Identify requirement for obstruc-
tion lights and lightning protection.  Check
access to them for servicing.

      (p)  Insure that chimney is plumb,
concentric, and has uniform taper from
top to bottom.

    (12)  Boiler Feedwater


      (a)  Type of water treatment for

        ^.  Water available.

        2.  Pressures and temperatures to
be obtained in boiler.

        3_.  Materials and installation.

      (b)  Scales, proportioning devices,
and mixing valves for accuracy and opera-

      (c)  Installation of tanks and piping
for types of material and supports, workman-
ship, and conformance with contract require-
ments .

      (d)  Pressure tanks for conformance
with the applicable codes and ASME stamp.


      (e)  Control apparatus for the in-
stallation and operation of all components.
Check should be done by the manufacturer's
service engineer.  Refer to job specifica-
tions for necessary tests and reports re-
quired, and determine from service engineer
the sequence of testing.

      (f)  Open heaters for the installation
of pans, trays, plates, sprays, and other
internal parts, as well as for the setting
of the control for water level in storage
compartment.  Be sure that heater vent
operates and that the heater reduces the
oxygen content in the water to the specified
amounts before acceptance.  Checking should
be done by manufacturer's service engineer.

      (g)  Closed heaters for compliance
with code governing unfired pressure vessels.
Assure that clearance is provided for the
removal of tubes.  Evaluate performance.

      (h)  Thermometers and gages for
accuracy and operation.

    (13)  Turbines

      (a)  Inspect equipment for the pressures
and temperatures to be applied.  Compare with
approved shop drawings.


       (b)  Examine all drains, drips,
leakoffs, relief valves, and other required
safety devices for operation.

       (c)  Insure that turbines are firmly
secured to foundation, are accurately aligned
with driven equipment, and operate without

       (d)  See that piping is installed to
impose no strain on turbine connections.

       (e)  Verify that provision is made for
expansion when aligning couplings.

       (f)  Be certain that field-assembled
turbines are installed by the manufacturer's
erectors only.

      (g)  Reduction gears must mesh perfect-
ly and operate smoothly and without noise or
vibration.  Check dowelling after turbines
and gears are in perfect alignment.
      (h)  Evaluate the operation of gov-
ernors .

      (i)  Check capacity and steam consump-
tion under various load conditions.

  1.  Smoke Connections

    (1)  Examine the size and construction
of stacks and flues.

    (2)  Check the clearance space between
stacks, flues, and adjacent building mate-

    (3)  Inspect the method of supporting
and anchoring all smoke connections.

    (4)  See that cleanout is provided
which will allow cleaning of the entire
smoke connection without dismantling.

  m.  Fuel Storage and Conveying

    (1)  Inspect overhead bunkers for
capacity in confofinance with specifica-
tions.  See that all gates are installed
dust-tight and that they operate freely.
Note the sealing of spaces around top of
bunkers and elevators.

    (2)  Be sure that silos are erected
plumb and concentric.

    (3)  See that courses in tile, brick
or block silos are carried up evenly, that
horizontal joints are level, and that re-
inforcement is welded and thoroughly em-

    (4)  Tight joints and reinforcement
bands for concrete stave silos must be
pulled up tightly.

    (5)  Check continuous-pour type concrete
silo for a smooth, jointless exterior finish

    (6)  Determine whether pneumatic
conveyors are installed with air and dust-
tight joints.

    (7)  Examine materials and installation
of mechancical coal conveyors.

    (8)  Insure that screw flights do not
ride on bottom of trough.

    (9)  See that bucket, chain, and belt
conveyor guides and bearings are carefully

    (10)  Evaluate skip hoists for capacity
and proper installation, with particular
attention to operation of the top and bottom
limit stops.

    (11)  Make sure that housings for all
conveyors and elevators are installed with
dust-tight joints.

    (12)  Access doors and connections with
chutes and discharge gates should be tightly


    (13)  Observe that chutes are installed
with sufficient slope to insure free, gravity
flow of coal.

    (14)  Check weighing lorries for capac-
ity, accuracy of weight, and ease of opera-

    (15)  Verify that vibrating feeders are
accurately positioned and adjusted for
specified flow of coal.

    (16)  Be sure that coal crushers are
securely anchored to foundation or supports
and that grids are adjusted to  pro-
per coal size.  Ascertain the direction of

    (17)  Check coal scales for accuracy of
weight and for operation of component parts.

    (18)  Track and Truck Hoppers - Insure
provision for removing water from pits.
Inspect hopper grids for size opening and

    (19)  Note flow of coal of entire con-
veying system, from unloading hoppers to

  n.  Painting

    (1)  See that equipment contains the
correct finish.  Watch for abrasions.

    (2)  Watch for miscellaneous ferrous
metal items that are not primed.

    (3)  Require finish painting as speci-

    (4)  Identify all pipe runs as speci-

  o.  Testing

    Witness that all required tests of
heating equipment are accurately recorded.
See that tests are performed by manufac-
turer's representatives where required.
Check tests and verify that tests meet all
requirements before acceptance.  Report un-
satisfactory test results to the supervisor

  p.  Operating Instructions and Guaranties

    (1)  See that equipment guaranties and
instructions for the operation of equipment
are furnished.

    (2)  Notify supervisor of the readiness
of the construction for test and subsequent
operation for instructing personnel.







Fans and Air Handling
Power Roof Ventila-
Gravity Ventilators

Diff users, Registers
and Grilles
Cleaning and Adjusting





                CHAPTER 303
303-01.  GENERAL

  Since the ventilating system is largely
dependent upon associated equipment, the
inspector must closely coordinate this
chapter with chapters 302 and 304.  The
same importance of a thorough knowledge of
job plans and specifications applies.

303-02.  EQUIPMENT

  a.  General

    (1)  It is the inspector's responsi-
bility to determine that all equipment is
approved well in advance of its actual
need on the job.

    (2)  Check all equipment delivered to
the site for conformance with approved shop
drawings.  Make sure the necessary rating
and test certificates have been furnished.

    (3)  Closely examine material for any
damages.  Minor abrasions or rust spots
must be cleaned and repainted to match
original paint in appearance and in
quality.  Reject other damages.


     (4)  Be certai. cl at approved vibration-
isolators and flexible connections will be
furnished as specified.

     (5)  Examine the mounting of each
piece of equipment for secure installation.

     (6)  Check equipment for excess noise
and vibration.

     (7)  Do not use dissimilar materials,
especially screws, fasteners and flashings
with different equipment bases and housing

  b.  Fans and Air Handling Units

     (1)  Check rotation of fan before
permanent power connection is made.

     (2)  Check method of drive.  If belt
driven, check means provided to adjust the

     (3)  Check the type of motor enclosure.

     (4)  See that specified seals, sleeves
and bearings are provided, and when
lubricating type bearings are allowed
provide accessibility for lubricating
without dismantling fan or disconnecting


    (5)  Provide a fire-safety switch  on
return air ducts of circulation  systems.

    (6)  Check for pulley and belt align-

    (7)  See that adequate guards are
provided for rotating equipment and belts

  c.  Power Roof Ventilators
    (1)  Provide service accessibility.

    (2)  Flashing at curbs must be water-

    (3)  Discharged air is not to be
directed toward air intakes.

  d.  Gravity Ventilators

    (1)  Examine installation for rigidity
and weathertightness.
    (?.)  Make sure units are oiled and
properly adjusted.

    (3)  Check the actual freedom of
rotation of the blades.

  e.  Dampers

    (1)  Backdraft dampers should be
installed for each exhaust fan.

    (2)  Check the actual operation of the
dampers.  See that dampers do not rattle
and that felt strips are provided for
backdraft dampers.

    (3)  Assure that a separate frame is
provided in openings on which the dampers
will be mounted.

  f.  Filters

    (1)  Make sure the proper type of
filter is furnished and installed.

    (2)  Check thickness and method of
mounting and supporting.

    (3)  Provide proper amount of adhesive
and washing tank for viscous medium type

    (4)  Inspect sealing strips.

    (5)  Provide accessibility for removal
and replacement of filters.

    (6)  Assure that air stream is
distributed uniformly over all filters


    (7)  Observe electrostatic-type
filters for operation of warning lights
and door interlocks.  Check ionizers for
loose wires, sparking, and free access.

    (8)  Inspect automatic sprays for
complete washing and spray coverage.

    (9)  On traveling screen type filters
note the operation of screen and oil

    (10)  On renewable roll media type
filters inspect:

      (a)  Tracking of roll.

      (b)  Media runout switch.

      (c)  Timer setting.

      (d)  Static pressure control.

      (e)  Tension on media.

    (11)  See that clean filters are
installed upon completion of final tests.

    (12)  Check specifications regarding
requirements for spare filters.  This
requirement is sometimes expressed as a


percentage of the total of each kind
required.  Check on the transfer of the
spares to the operating agency.

  g.  Screens

    (1)  Provide bird or insect screens
if required.

    (2)  Check fabric material and
installation of dissimilar materials.

    (3)  Check mesh size.

303-03.  DUCTWORK

  a-  Fabrication (See SMACNA Duct Manual)

    (1)  Inspect for type, thickness and
shape of sheet material.

    (2)  Check workmanship and observe
lock seams and breaks in ductwork for

    (3)  Inspect all joint connections
for correct type.

    (4)  Make sure that the joints are
neatly finished and that the duct is
smooth on the inside.  Any laps should
be made in the direction of the flow of


    (5)  Provide adequate bracing and
reinforcement of the larger ducts.

    (6)  Compare the radius of curved
duct with the specification requirements.

    (7)  Slope ratio of transitions
should be checked.

    (8)  Provide air turns and deflectors
to eliminate abrupt turns of air with
appreciable turbulence.

    (9)  Check the need for and construc-
tion of splitter dampers.  Make sure the
operating mechanism is accessible; and
if exposed in a finished room, the
mechanism is to be chromium plated.

    (10)  Make sure that fire dampers are
provided in ducts as required in accord
with NFPA 90A or 91.
    (11)  Check duct for the required
test holes and covers.

    (12)  Check the fabrication of
flexible connections.

  b.   Erection


    (1)  Examine all fabricated ducts,
rejecting any which are not smooth or
any which are damaged.

    (2)  Examine duct hangers for
material, thickness, and spacing.

    (3)  Check specification require-
ments for the need for stlffeners for
wide ducts.

    (4)  Provide approved flexible
connections between ducts and for fan

    (5)  Check rigidity and tightness of
such field installed items as dampers
and deflectors.

    (6)  Provide access doors at all fire
dampers, automatic dampers, coils,
filters, heaters, thermostats, or at
any item that requires servicing.  Doors
are to be airtight, securely fastened
and accessible, and able to be fully

    (7)  Inspect goose necks and rain
hoods for method of fastening, flashing
and bracing.  Goose necks are to be
turned away from the prevailing wind.

    (8)  Provide proper size sleeves where
insulated duct passes through wall openings

    (9)  When obstructions cannot be
avoided, the duct area should never be
decreased more than 10 percent, and then
a streamlined collar should be used.
Larger obstructions require an increase
in the duct size in order to maintain as
nearly uniform velocity as possible.

  c.  Insulation

    (1)  Distinguish between areas
requiring flexible type insulation and
those requiring rigid or semi-rigid type

    (2)  Check the type and thickness
of insulation and requirements for vapor

    (3)  Check the method of fastening
insulation to exterior or interior of

      (a)  If metal stick clips are used,
check the type and spacing.

      (b)  If wire is used see that
corners of insulation are protected
from possible damage.


    (4)  Make a careful check for breaks
in insulation and vapor barriers.

    (5)  See that materials are fire-
re tardant or noncombustible as required
by the specifications.

    (6)  When equipment casings are
required to be insulated, check for
proper application.  See that application
is firm.

    (7)  Where insulation is subject to
mechanical damage, check for protection

    (8)  Check for continuity of
insultaion through walls and floor, if

  d.  Diffusers, Registers, and Grilles

    (1)  See that the contractor furnishes
a schedule showing all air inlets and

    (2)  Inspect diffusers and registers
for accessible volume control operator.

    (3)  Examine specification and
installation for integral anti-smudge
rings for diffusers.


    (4)  Check for loose or bent vanes.

    (5)  Inspect each item for fit, and
see that sponge-rubber gaskets are provided
when required.

    (6)  Inspect for the proper operation
of registers, dampers, and grille directional-
controls .


  a.  Cleaning and Adjusting

    (1)  All ducts, plenums and casings
must be thoroughly cleaned of debris and
blown free of small particles and dust
before supply outlets are installed.

    (2)  Clean equipment of oil, dust,
dirt, and paint spots.

    (3)  Replace sectional throwaway
filters after ductwork is blown out and

    (4)  Lubricate all bearings.

    (5)  Check tension on all belts and
the adjustment of fan pulleys.

    (6)  Check all fan and belt guards
are in place.


  b.  Testing

    (1)  Before insulating duct test duct
for air tightness.

    (2)  Contractor must provide necessary
equipment for air-flow measurements and
coefficients for registers and diffusers.

    (3)  Review contractor's method for
recording test data, including comparison
to the design air-flows.

    (4)  Test each outlet for the amount
of air quantities required.

    (5)  Final air-flows must be recorded
after all adjustments are made.

    (6)  If actual air flows result in
objectional velocities or distribution,
notify your supervisor.

    (7)  Check all dampers for proper


304-01 GENERAL
304-02 PIPING
Refrigerant Piping
Water Piping




Reciprocating Com-
Centrifugal Com-
Water Chillers
Evaporative Coolers
Unit Coolers
Refrigeration Spec-
Package-Type Air



. 304-11



                Chapter 304
Para.              Title             Page

        1.  Humidifiers and
            dehumidifiers            304-16
        m.  Absorption Refrige-
            ration Machine           304-17
        n.  Cooling Towers and
            Ponds                    304-17
        o.  Pumps                    304-19
        p.  Insulation               304-20

304-04  CONTROLS                     304-21

304-05  TESTING                      304-23

        a.  Submittals               304-23
        b.  Procedures               304-23
        c.  Types                    304-24

304-06  PAINTING                     304-24

        AND GUARANTIES               304-25

                CHAPTER 304

304-01.  GENERAL

  This chapter covers Refrigeration and
Air Conditioning for both the central
and unitary type systems.
  Since there is generally a duplication
in the requirements for piping and duct-
work for this subject and for plumbing
and air handling, and since those areas
have been covered in previous chapters,
it will be necessary for the inspector
to be very familiar with the piping area
of chapter 302 and the ductwork section
of chapter 303.
  When the work appears to be beyond the
scope of the inspector, technical assistance
should be requested promptly.

304-02.  PIPING

  a.  Refrigerant Piping

    (1)  Determine where copper or black
steel will be used, and the type required.

    (2)  Make sure the piping and fittings
have been approved.

    (3)  Check the method of installing


  b.  Water Piping

    (1)  Check the type of piping required
for chilled water and condenser water systems

    (2)  Determine weight and class of

    (3)  Make sure the specified and
approved piping, fittings and jointing
materials are being used.

  c.  Installation

    (1)  Utilize paragraphs 301-02 and
301-04 as a check list for fabricating
and installing piping.  Watch specifi-
cally for workmanship, supports, and

    (2)  Be especially careful to:

      (a)  Make sure the specified solder
is used.  Check soldering of joints.

      (b)  See that internal valve parts
are removed from valves, and that valves
are wet wrapped before soldering.

      (c)  See that joints are thoroughly
cleaned before soldering.


      (d)  Check on the removal of excess
flux and acid after joints are made.

    (3)  Make sure the proper type flexible
connections are installed in the required

    (4)  See that unions or flanges are
installed at all equipment, at control
valves, and at other points that will
facilitate maintenance.

    (5)  Check carefully for the proper
slope of all lines.  Assure slope of
refrigerant lines to provide movement
of oil through the system.

    (6)  Check installation for improper
configuration of piping.  Make sure the
installation conforms with the approved
drawing.  If there is any question about
the requirement for the arrangement of
piping and if there is no approved drawing,
obtain the drawing before allowing the con-
tractor to proceed.

    (7)  Make sure air vents are installed
at high points in water lines and that
drains are installed at low points.

    (8)  Do not allow gate valves to be
installed where globe valves are required.


    (9)  Be sure the balancing cocks are
installed to permit proper balancing.

    (10)  Do not install swing check valves
in vertical lines with a downward flow of

    (11)  Check for the installation of
such required items as pressure gages,
thermal elements, thermometer wells, etc.

    (12)  Provide adequate number and type
of hangers.  Hangers on uninsulated copper
pipe must be electrolytically coated or
made of solid compatible non ferrous metals,

    (13)  Check for the proper installation
of oil traps and double risers in refrig-
erant lines.

    (14)  Check valves for pressure setting
and discharge locations.

    (15)  Be sure that refrigerant system
is evacuated prior to charging and accom-
plished according to job specifications.

    (16)  Make sure the system is charged
with the required type and amount of

    (17)  See that the system is completely
checked for leaks.  Dry nitrogen must be


used for pressure tests.

    (18)  Double check to see that there
are no unnecessary oil traps.

    (19)  Vacuum should be broken by charging
the system with dry refrigerant for which the
system is designed.

   d.  Insulation

    (1)  Determine whether the material
on the job has been approved for the par-
ticular piping being installed.  Make
sure insulations, vapor barriers, adhesives
and sealers are noncombustible or fire
retardant as specified.

    (2)  Note that heated water piping is
insulated differently from chilled
water piping and from combination chilled
and heated water piping.

    (3)  Check thickness of insulation and
of vapor barrier.

    (4)  Determine that insulation jackets
which are exposed to view are paintable.

    (5)  Examine the requirements for
the insulation of flanges, fittings, and
valves, and assure compliance with the

     (6)  Check the lap and the sealing
at joints.

     (7)  Be very careful to see that there
are no breaks in the vapor barrier.   Watch
for later damages during construction.

     (8)  Check specification requirements
for extending through sleeves in walls,
floors, and ceilings; chilled water lines
inside cabinets of fan coil units should be
covered as required to prevent condensate
dripping on floor.

     (9)  Make sure that pipe hangers are
installed over insulation.  Metal shields are
to be provided between hanger ring and insula-
tion.  High density insulation insert shall
be installed with a length equal to length
of metal shield.

    (10)  Check for the neat termination and
seal of insulation at the end of insulation.

    (11)  Know the special requirements for
insulation and jacketing of piping exposed
to weather.

    (12)  Check the installation, the width,
and the spacing of the bands used on pipe jack-
304-03.   EQUIPMENT

  a.  General

    (1)  All equipment should be checked to
see that it is approved before it is needed
on the job-  When equipment arrives on the
job, it should be checked against shop
drawing.  During installation, the contractorfs
work should be checked against the contract
plans and specifications, the approved shop
drawing, and the manufacturer's recommenda-

    (2)  Be sure that no damaged equipment
is installed.

    (3)  See that equipment is stored in
a manner that will insure that the equip-
ment be like new when installed.

    (4)  Be sure that all refrigeration
equipment is installed strictly in accord
with the safety code for mechanical refri-

    (5)  Check on space requirements for
equipment.  Obtain an equipment room layout
drawing and make sure that adequate clearances
are provided for maintenance and operation.

    (6)  Determine the need for access panels.
A common error is the failure to provide the
means for pulling condenser and chiller tubes.


     (7)  Make sure that all  rotating parts,
such as belts, chains, sheaves, shaft coupl-
ings, etc. are covered to protect personnel.

     (8)  Check the type of motors on equip-
ments, the type of motor starter, heaters in
the motor starters, and voltage of motor.

     (9)  Make sure all equipment is lubri-
cated according to manufacturer's recommen-
dations.  This includes motor bearings.

  b.   Condensers

     (1)  See that air flow is not obstructed
and that wind deflectors are installed, if
required, in air cooled condensers.

     (2)  Inspect water cooled condensers
for leaks and proper flow.

     (3)  Check evaporative condensers

       (a)  Spray coverage

       (b)  Float valve operation without

       (c)  Water level

       (d)  Fan rotation and speed


      (e)  Pump suction strainer

      (f)  Liquid discharge line carried
full size to first elbow, with a 12-inch
to 18-inch drop to receiver

      (g)  Mesh size of inlet screens

      (h)  Pan, casing, eliminators, fan
corrosion protection, and complete drainage.

      (i)  Provision for and adjustment
of constant bleeding.

    (4)  For all season air cooled condensers
manufacturers recommended installation should
be adhered to.  Check project plans, speci-
fications, and manufacturers recommended in-
stallation to see if condenser flooding of air
volume control is required.

  c«  Reciprocating Compressors

  Check for:

    (1)  Oil, suction, and discharge

    (2)  Shaft alignment on direct-driven

    (3)  Operation of high pressurestat,


low pressurestat, and oil pressure failure
     (4)  Proper level and viscosity of oil
     (5)  Installation of required gages.
     (6)  Amount, correct type, and dryness
of refrigerant charge.
     (7)  Pressure holding ability upon
     (8)  Isolator deflection and com-
pressor vibration.
     (9)  Suction strainer screen mesh,
and removal of startup felts.
    (10)  Unloader action.
    (11)  Compressor speed.
    (12)  Belt tension and alignment.
    (13)  Motor amperage under maximum
    (14)  Refrigerant flood back and oil
    (15)  Cylinder head overheating.

    (16)  Rotation.

    (17)  Automatic oil heater in crank case,
Heater should work during shutdown.

    (18)  Loops in refrigerant piping as
loops will permit oil to be trapped.

    (19)  Damage of equipment compressor -
should not be run during vacuum tests.

  d.  Centrifugal Compressors

  Check for:

    (1)  Alignment of compressor, drive
and gear box.

    (2)  Suction damper or inlet vane

    (3)  Safety control circuit operation.

    (4)  Purge compressor operation.

    (5)  Float valve operation, if furnished,

    (6)  Oil pump and cooler operation.

    (7)  Noise and vibration.

    (8)  Required gages.


  e.  Receivers

  Check for:

    (1)  Location, if installed on the
outside of the building.  Do not place in
direct rays of sun.

    (2)  Relief valves of adequate size.

    (3)  ASME Stamp

    (4)  Drain, purge valve, liquid level
indication, and shut-off valves.

  f•  Water Chillers

    (1)  Examine water drains, vents, and
correct pass arrangement in direct ex-
pansion type chillers.

    (2)  Inspect for freeze protection
safety devices.

    (3)  Check strength of liquid bleed-off
at bottom of flooded chillers.  Check
adjustment of level control.

    (4)  Check tubes and shell in brine
chiller for type of material.

  8«  Evaporative Coolers


    Inspect for adequate spray coverage,
non sagging media, water carry-through,
correct water level in sump, and lack of
float valve "chatter".

  h.  Unit Coolers


    (1)  For corrosion-protected pan and

    (2)  Water defrost units for spray
coverage with no carryover.

    (3)  Electric defrost units, for
cycle timing in accordance with the job

    (4)  Hot gas defrost, for suction
pressures and refrigerant charge in
accordance with manufacturer's recommen-
dations .

    (5)  Drainage during defrost cycle.

    (6)  Cycle timing.

    (7)  That drain lines are properly
trapped on the warm end.

  i.  Refrigeration Specialties



    (1)  Superheat setting of expansion
valves and for bulb and equalizer position
in accordance with the manufacturer's

    (2)  Solenoid valve for vertical stem,
correct direction of refrigerant flow, ana
manual opener disengaged.

    (3)  Unobstructed view of sight glass.

    (4)  Operation of evaporator pressure
regulator under light load.

    (5)  Operation upon start-up of hold-
back valve.

    (6)  Float valves or switches mounted
level and at a height which will insure
correct liquid level in the evaporator.

    (7)  Airtightness before opening of
refrigerant drier canisters.

    (8)  Drier; if it is the replaceable
type, piping will be arranged to facilitate
replacement - 3 valve bypass.

    (9)  Piping connections of liquid-
suction heat exchanger.


    (10)  That direct expansion coils
are installed as recommended by manufacturer.

    (11)  That pans of fan-coil units are
protected against corrosion.

    (12)  That drain pans are installed
under all units, or as needed, to collect

  j.  Package-Type Air Conditioners

  Check the following:

    (1)  High-pressure cutout setting.

    (2)  Compressor hold-down bolts (for
shipping) removed.

    (3)  Drip pan should be watertight
and connected to open drain.

    (4)  Water regulator valve operation,
if used.

    (5)  Installation of air filters and

    (6)  Operation of thermostat.

    (7)  Suction and discharge pressures
of refrigeration compressors.


  k.  Washers

    (1)  Check the following features of
the spray-type air washers:

      (a)  All nozzles discharging water

      (b)  No water should carry over from

      (c)  Eliminators must not rattle, and
they must be removable for maintenance.

      (d)  Float valve should not "chatter"
on opening or closing.

    (2)  Check the following features of
the capillary-type washers:

      (a)  Media should not sag in frames.

      (b)  Wetting of all media.

      (c)  Water level is  to be at correct

  1.  Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers

    (1)  Examine the humidifiers for
supported coil and corrosion-protected


   (2)  Check refrigeration type de-
humidifiers for frosting of cooling coil
and for water carry-over.

   (3)  Check absorption type dehumidi-
fiers for the following:

     (a)  Solution level and temperature

     (b)  No solution should carry over
from eliminators.

     (c)  Regenerator duct must be drained
of specified material, and correctly sealed.

     (d)  Damper operation, cycle timing,
evidence of ''dusting" of the desiccant,
and regeneration temperatures.

  m.  Absorption Refrigeration Machine

  Check the following:

   (1)  Cleanliness of all parts during

   (2)  Proper materials.

   (3)  Access for removing tubes from
absorber-evaporator and generator-condenser.

   (4)  Control operation, especially high
and low-limit temperature cutouts or con-
denser water pump interlock.

   (5)  Operation of  purge system.

   (6)  Unit to be fully charged with
water and a nontoxic absorber after instal-

   (7)  Services of a factory represen-
tative for charging, testing, starting the
plant, and providing instruction.

  n.  Cooling Towers and Ponds

   (1)  Check mechanical-draft cooling
towers for unobstructed air intake, fan
rotation and speed, belt tension, stacked
fill, and weather protection of motor. (Do
not allow open fan motors when totally en-
closed motors are specified.)  See that
water-flow through outlet does not form a
vortex which draws air in with the water
and check operation of water temperature
control and drainage devices.

   (2)  Observe spray ponds for evenness
of sprays and for water drift.

   (3)  Insure provision for an adjust-
ment of constant bleed.

   (4)  See that mist eliminators are
installed when specified.

   (5)  Insure the installation of over-
flow and drain piping.

   (6)  See that the water is at adequate
level after operation, and that spray-pump

    (7)  Check belt alignment and tension.

  o.  Pumps

    (1)  Assure that manufacturer's name-
plates, equipment, serial numbers, or code
stamps are not covered or hidden from view
after installation.

    (2)  Check for anchorage of pump
in compliance with contract.

    (3)  Check alignment of pump with
motor and piping.

    (4)  Make sure that all gages and meters
are provided.

    (5)  See that eccentric reducers, in
lieu of concentric reducers, are used in
suction piping, and that the flat side is
turned up.

    (6)  Check for adequate support of
piping around pump.

    (7)  Be sure check valve is installed
in discharge piping.

    (8)  Check pump packing.  Make sure
adequate packing is installed to allow
gland take-up.


    (9)  Check for excess vibration and
flexible piping connections if required.

    (10)  Make sure that the pump motor
is weatherproof when specified, and
that it is connected to rotate correctly.

    (11)  Recheck oil sumps after operation,
if applicable.

  p.  Insulation

    (1)  Types; Check for:

      (a)  Proper insulation of chilled
water pumps.

      (b)  Insulated converters and
expansion tanks.

      (c)  Insulated condensate drain
pans of air units.

      (d)  Protective finish over such
items as pumps, converters  tanks, fans, etc

    (2)  See that all insulating materials
have been approved and that they are of the
specified thickness.

    (3)  Oieck the method of attaching
insulation to equipment.


    (4)  Make sure that specified rein-
forcing is provided in plaster finish.

    (5)  See that plaster beads are
installed at the specified corners.

    (6)  See that plaster has smooth,
pleasing finish.

    (7)  Check on the application of
vapor barriers to see that they effect-
ively seal out all moisture.

304-04.  CONTROLS

  a.  Review all control installations
with approved control shop drawings, to
assure that they are being installed in
strict conformance with the drawings.

  b.  See that dampers are mounted
rigidly on rigid supports, and that the
correct bearings are provided on the blade

  c.  Note damper motors while fan is on,
and check linkage between damper and motor,

  d.  Examine valve operations for tight

  e.  Examine electrical equipment for


  f.  Check on the installation of all
required alarm bells.

  g.  See that freeze-stats are installed
as specified.

  h.  Provide proper electrical current and
voltage in the control system.  Carefully
check the operation of solenoid valve.

  i.  Locate air compressors to permit
tank drain operation and check for cycle
time with all controls operating.

  j.  Verify clean elements in humidistats
when the system is started.

  k.  Evaluate pneumatic systems for
air-tightness, restrictions caused by
flattening of the tubing, and cleanliness
of the system.

  1.  Inspect electronic systems for
grounded shielded cable, and location of
amplifiers with respect to magnetic
fields, such as large transformers.

  m.  View graphic panels for damaged
plastic, dirt between plastic and back
plate, lacing of control wires and access
for service to all controls.

  n.  Verify control instructions, including


sequence of operations, and control drawing
furnished by the contractor when conducting
final acceptance test.  Check each function
of the controls.

304-05.  TESTING

  a.  Submittals

    Be sure the contractor obtains approval
of test procedures and other pertinent
information prior to testing.

  b.  Procedures

    (1)  Make a record of all tests,
including such information as who attended,
methods and procedures of test, results,
and conclusions.  Check specifications to
determine that contractor is recording
sufficient data to comply with requirements.

    (2)  Before tests are scheduled, see
that contractor has proper tools, equipment,
and instruments, and gages should be certi-
fied and pretested.

    (3)  See that equipment is thoroughly
checked and prepared for tests.

    (4)  Make sure strainers and filters
are clean immediately prior to test.


   c.   Types

     (1)   Check the testing of  refrigerant
 piping.   See that specified pressure is
 put on the lines.  Make  sure all  joints  are
 checked,  and that leaks  are detected,
 repaired, and retested until found satis-
 factory.   Isolate all items which may be
 injured by high pressure.

     (2)   See that hydrostatic  test is
 performed on all  water piping.  Care-
 fully  check to see if there is  a  loss
 in pressure during the test.

     (3)   See that a performance test
 on the system is  run for the duration
 specified.   Make  sure needed corrections
 and adjustments are made as determined dur-
 ing test.   See that the  contractor records
 all data  required for the  performance test.

     (4)   After sucessful tests, install
 a  new  oil charge  in compressor.   Change
 oil filters  and socks, and provide new
 cartridge in refrigerant drier. (Oil charge
 is not required for factory sealed units.)
 304-06.   PAINTING

   a.   See that equipment is  furnished
with the  correct  finish.   Watch for


  b.  Watch for miscellaneous ferrous
metal Items that are not primed.

  c.  Require touching up, priming, and
finish painting as specified.

  d.  Apply asphaltic varnish on all
hangers and other items not to be

  e.  Require piping identification
and coding as specified.


  a.  See that equipment guaranties,
schematic flow diagrams, and instructions
for the operation of equipment are furnished
and posted.

  b.  Arrange for future operating per-
sonnel to be instructed on the operation
of equipment.  Make a record of instruc-
tion periods, including any complications,
Instructing personnel, and personnel

      CHAPTER 305


a.  Drawings and Speci-
b.  Visual Inspection
c.  Grounds to Metallic
    Water-Piping System
d.  Bolted Connections
e.  Exothermic Welding
f.  Metallic Inclosures
g.  Incoming Service
h.  Grounding Connection
i.  Ground Rods
j.  System Neutral and
    Equipment Grounds
k.  System Neutral
1.  Multiple Connections
m.  Grounding Resistance
n.  Electrical Continuity










Chapter 305


a. Rigid Metal Conduit
and Electrical Me-
tallic Tubing (EMT)
b. Cable Systems
c. Bus way Systems
d. Continuous Rigid
Cable Supports or
Cable Trays
e . Wireways
£. Auxiliary Gutters
g. Under floor Duct
h. Movable Partitions
i . Conductors





                Chapter 305
Para.              Title            Page

305-12   CABINETS                   305-34

305-13   FUSES                      305-35

         DUITS                      305-36

305-15   AERIAL SERVICE             305-36

305-16   MOTORS                     305-37

305-17   MOTOR CONTROL              305-40

305-18   MOTOR DISCONNECT MEANS     305-42


305-20   ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS     305-44

305-21   ELECTRIC HEATERS           305-45
305-22   EQUIPMENT CONNECTIONS      305-46

305-23   TRANSFORMER STATIONS       305-46

         a.  Dry Type Transformers  305-46
         b.  Transformer Taps       305-46
         c.  Liquid-filled Trans-
             formers                305-47
         d.  Nameplate Data         305-47


                Chapter 305
Para.              Title            Page

         e.  Accessories            305-47
         f.  Bushings               305-48
         g.  Insulating Liquid      305-48
         h.  Grounding              305-48
         i.  Ventilation            305-48

305-24   SWITCHGEAR                 305-48

305-25   ENGINE GENERATOR SETS      305-51

305-26   ELEVATOR INSTALLATIONS     305-52

305-27   MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS      305-53

305-28   TESTS                      305-54

                    CHAPTER 305

305-01.   GENERAL

     This guide has been prepared to assist
the general inspector in obtaining the
quality of interior electrical installa-
tion required by the job specifications.
It is recognized that specialized techni-
cal aspects of this subject will require
the services of an electrical engineer or
inspector.  When the work appears to be
beyond the scope of the general inspector,
technical assistance should be requested


     a.   It is the intent that the electrical
installation shall conform to the applica-
ble rules of the National Electrical Code
(NEC)*,  except where expressly modified by
     *National Electrical Code (NFPA #70).
Text references are to the 1975 edition.
Copies can be obtained from the National
Fire Protection Association at 60 Battery-
march Street, Boston, Massachusetts  02110.

the plans or specifications.  This
requirement can be found in the general
section of the project specification for
edition will be listed in APPLICABLE
PUBLICATIONS.  A copy of the applicable
NEC should be readily available to the
general inspector, and he should be
prepared to use it as a reference and an
authority.  However, the NEC is a minimum
standard intended to assure a safe instal-
ation.  NEC paragraph references in the
text of this guide are to assist the
inspector in using the Code and to lend
authority to his demands for features
not spelled out in the project specifi-
cation.  Project specification references
should be verified in the applicable
project specification.

     b.  Watch job conditions at all times to
assure that the electrical work is done at
the proper time in relation to other parts
of the building construction.  (NEC 300-18)

  c.  Determine the existence, extent,
and classification of hazardous locations
in the project.  If such locations exist,
the installation therein should be
strictly in accord with appropriate
sections of the NEC.  Do not approve any
doubtful material or workmanship (NEC 500 •
503).  Do not fail to seek advice if

  d.  Inspect materials and equipment
when delivered to the job for compliance
with contract documents and approved shop
drawings.  If materials are in accord
with approved shop drawings but appear to
be contrary to specifications, inform your

  e.  Examine both contractor and
government-furnished equipment for damage
in shipment.  Promptly report defective
equipment to your supervisor and accept
or reject such equipment, as directed.

  f.  Shop inspection may have been'
required for some equipment and material.
Copies of reports of such shop inspections
should be on hand before acceptance of
material or equipment.

  g.  Storage of electrical equipment
should be in dry locations, free of dirt,


dust, and corrosive fumes, with
protection from physical damage.
Storage of switchgear, and engine
generator units, will usually require indoor
storage.  Temporary heaters may be
specified to keep equipment free from
effects of condensation.  Equipment
installed during construction phases
should be protected from dirt and
moisture.  A requirement for this
protection may be found in "special
conditions" of the contract.

     h.  Require the contractor to furnish
all layout drawings required by the
specifications.  Electrical contract
drawings should be reviewed and
compared with architectural, structural,
and mechanical drawings for possible
interferences.  Examples of this are:

          (1)  Are the wall switches located
with proper respect to door swing?

          (2)  Does location of wall outlets
conflict with installation of baseboard
heating units?

          (3)  Is there interferences with
other building construction, such as
pipes, ducts, overhead doors, sliding

doors, accessibility, etc.?  Especially
check equipment room layout.

          (4)  Is relocation of ceiling lighting
outlets required, especially in utility
and boiler rooms, to avoid interference
with mechanical equipment?

          (5)  Will transformers, bus duct or
switchgear be subjected to moisture from
overhead utility piping?

          (6)  Have suspended ceilings been
lowered, making lighting fixture clear-
ance from floor inadequate?

     i.  Temporary electric service will
generally be required during the con-
struction period for lighting, power,
and sometimes heat.  The contractor
should make early arrangements for such
service to prevent construction delays;
and temporary installations will be
located so as not to interfere with
operation of existing facilities or
permanent construction.

          (1)  Temporary open wiring should be
guarded or isolated by elevation.   Types
NM or NMC (Romex) are suitable for tempo-
rary wiring when guarded or isolated by
elevation.  (NEC 320, 336).

          (2)  Portable and extension cords shall
be an Underwriter's approved type for the
usage.  Hard service cords Type S, SO, or
ST are recommended for this service.  Types
NM or NMC are not approved as portable
cables.  (NEC 400).

     j.  Use by the contractor of equipment
and facilities permanently incorporated
in the structure should be carefully
watched to see that circuits and equipment
are not overloaded and that all work is
left in essentially a new condition.  All
lamps used for temporary lighting shall be
removed when construction is completed,
and new lamps shall be installed.  (Project
specification:  Lamps).

     k.  A list of required equipment should
be prepared prior to start of work.  This
will insure timely approval and will alert
the inspector if the contractor has not
procured all equipment.

      1.  Check shop drawings for all equip-
ment having electrical connections to be
sure that rough-in conduits and circuits
are correctly sized and located.

     m.  Manufacturers' representatives are
sometimes required to assist field and
contractor personnel in the installation,
assembly, testing and/or initial operation
of electrical equipment.  Be sure advance
arrangements for such services are made
by Resident engineer or contractor so that
the representative is on hand when needed.
Maintain complete record of all adjust-
ments and tests made during installation
and start-up, and of an peculiarities of
the equipment which may be of use to those
responsible for its operation and main-
tenance.  Turn copy of record over to your
supervisor for delivery to the owner.
Retain a copy of all records for job file.

306-03.  GROUNDING  (NEC 250 and Project
Specifications:  Grounding)

     a.  Drawings and Specifications should
be examined carefully to determine the
nature and extent of the grounding system
and the requirements for separate ground-
ing of equipment and structures.

  b.  Visual Inspection should be made of
all ground-system conductors, connections
and electrodes as the work progresses.

  c.  Grounds to Metallic Wa^er-Piping
System should be made on the street side of
the meter.  Where this is impracticable,
full size jumper connections should be made
around any piping system element which can
be removed.  (NEC 250,112(a)).

     (1)  Make sure that when the water pip-
ing system is used for a ground, the water
pipe is a metallic pipe and that no insula-
ting fitting has been interposed in the
pipe between the ground wire connection and
earth.  (NEC) 250-81).

     (2)  Where metallic water main is not
available, driven ground electrodes will
be provided in conformance with specifi-
cations.  (NEC) 250-83, and Project
Specifications:  Ground Rods).

  d.  Bolted Connections should be exam-
ined to make sure that they are tight and
that contact surfaces are cleaned and dry.
Contact surfaces will be metal-to-metal.
Painted surfaces should be cleaned to
bare metal.

  e.  Exothermic Welding Connections will be
made in strict accordance with the manu-
facturer's instructions and will employ the
proper type and size of mold for the type
and size of connection made.

  f.  Metallic Inclosures for ground wires
shall be electrically continuous from the
point of attachment to cabinets or equip-
ment to the grounding electrode and shall
be securely fastened to the ground clamp
or fitting.  (NEC 250-92(a)).

  g.  Incoming Service Conduit must be
grounded by lugs, pressure connectors or
clamps.  Locknuts and bushings are not
acceptable for grounding service conduit.
(NEC 250-32, -71(a) and -72).

  h.  Ground Clamps for connection to
water pipe should be compatible with the
pipe (NEC 250-116).
  i.  Ground Rods

    (1)  Check size, length, and material
of ground rods or electrodes against contract
drawings and specifications. (NEC 250-83,
Project specification:  Grounding).

          (2)  If suitable water pipe is not
available, and if ground rods cannot be
driven to a minimum depth of 8 feet,
other means of establishing a ground must
be utilized.  (NEC 250-83 through 86).

     j.  Grounding Conductor
should be joined to grounding electrodes as
shown on drawings (NEC 250-112).  Some
special electronic facilities may require
additional isolated grounding electrodes.

     k.  System Neutral (Grounded Circuit
Conductor) should be grounded (connected
to the grounding conductor) on supply
side of the service disconnecting means
(main service switch(es)).  This con-
nection should be made within the service
entrace equipment enclosure.  (NEC 250-23,
-52.  Project Specifications:  Grounding).

     1-  Multiple Connections

          The connecting of more than one
grounding conductor to an electrode by a
single clamp is prohibited, unless the
clamp or fitting is of a type specifically
designed and approved by the Underwriters'
Laboratory for such use.  (NEC 250-115).

     m.  Grounding Resistance should not ex-
ceed specification limits and should be
verified by instrument measurement.  (Job
Specification or NEC 250-84).

     n.  Electrical Continuity should be veri
fied throughout system, usually by visual

305-04.  MIRING METHODS (NEC 300)

     a.  Riqid Metal Conduit and Electrical
Metallic Tubing (EMT)

          Check to determine requirements
and limitations on use of rigid conduit
or EMT (and special finishing or coating
material.  (Steel with zinc coating or
galvanizing is standard) other materials
may be allowed or required.)  (NEC 346,
347, and 348).

          (1)  The project specifications
generally require the service entrance*
raceway to be rigid metal conduit.

          (2)  Check size of installed conduit
against plans and specifications and de-
termine adequacy for number and size of

conductors to be installed.  Refer to
tables in NEC.  (NEC 346-5,6 and Project

     (3)   Check minimum size of conduit
permitted by specifications for both
electrical system and communication
system.  (NEC 346-5).

     (4)   Check to be sure that all required
conduits are in place before on-grade slabs
are placed.

       (a)   Generally, for slab-on-grade
construction conduit must be placed under
the slab and must be rigid type.  (Check
plans and specification.)

       (b)   Check project specifications
for requirement that for stub-ups, coup-
lings be installed at finished floor level
for free standing equipment.  (Project
specification:  Conduits).

       (c)   Exposed conduit should be in-
stalled so that bent portion of stub-up
will not extend above floor level.

       (d)  Be sure that all buried conduit
has been surface treated as required by
specifications.  (Project specification:
Conduit and Tubing Systems).

     (5)  Inspect for damage and deforma-
tion of conduit systems.  (NCE 346-10 and
Project Specifications:  Changes in Direc-
tion) .

     (6)  Is conduit system to be installed
concealed or exposed?  Check project spec-
ification and plans.

     (7)  Check for the use of the proper
type of conduit fittings, i.e., concrete-
tight, rain-tight, cast fittings; expan-
sion joints.  (NEC 348-8).

     (8)  Check for installation of sleeves
for future work in foundation walls and
floors during correct stage of construc-
     (9)  Check maximum number of bends in
any single conduit run.  Do not exceed:

       (a)  Electrical System - 4 (90°)
bends.  (NEC 346-11, 347-14, 348-10).

       (b)  Communication System - Check
project specifications for requirements.

     (10)   Make sure that all the conduit
required for circuits involving equipment
furnished by other sections of the speci-
fications and approved shop drawings, as
well as the electrical sections, is in-
stalled prior to placing of concrete,
closing in walls, ceilings, etc.

     (11)   Check for bushings on ends of
conduit.  Bushings are not usually re-
quired on EMT fittings, because EMT
connectors should have smooth internal
surfaces.  (NEC 346-8).

       (a)   Check for use of insulating
bushings.  (NEC 373-6(c)).

       (b)   Check for use of double lock-
nuts when insulating bushings are used.
(NEC 373-6(c)).

       (c)   See that locknuts, bushings,
couplings, and connectors are made up tight
to insure ground continuity.

     (12)   See that field cuts of conduits
and EMT are made square , ends reamed or
filed, and cleaned of oil and filings.
(NEC 346-7, 348-11: Project Specifications),

     (13)   Use of running threads is not per-
mitted at couplings.  (NEC 346-9).

     (14)   Correlate location of conduit
terminations against approved shop drawings,
equipment and building plans.

     (15)   Tubing and conduit should be
securely fastened in place at intervals
required.  Means of support provided
should be in accord with specifications
and NEC requirements.  (Project specifi-
cations, NEC 348-12, 346-12).  Note:
Project specifications may require more
frequent support than NEC.

     (16)   Exposed conduit runs are to be
installed parallel or perpendicular to
walls and structural members.  Vertical
conduit runs should be plumb.

     (17)   Conduit runs in wet areas are to
be spaced off the surfaces of the struc-
ture at least 1/4".  (NEC 300-6).

     (18)   Minimum radius of bends of'con-
duit should be in accordance with table
in the NEC.  (NEC 346-10, 348-9).  This
table is based on utilizing conductors

with 600-volt insulation.  For cables
with higher voltage ratings, and special
cables such as telephone cable, consult
manufacturer's recommendations for mini-
mum radius of bend.

     (19)   Check for supporting of vertical
raceways at each floor level of multi-
story buildings.  (Project Specifications).

     (20)   Install galvanized pull-wires in
empty conduits when required by design or

     (21)   Verify the use of corrosion-re-
sistant materials in areas where corrosive
influences exist.  (NEC 300-6; Project

     (22)   Require means for prevention of
entrance of foreign matter in conduits
during construction.  (Project specifica-

     (23)   Use approved flexible conduit,
standard or liquid tight, for connections
to motors installed on slide rails, res-
ilient mounts, those subject to vibration,
and eleswhere as specified.  NEC 350,351;
Project Specifications).  Minimum size is
1/2" except as allowed in NEC 350-3, and
a bonding jumper may be required.

     (24)  In areas classified as hazardous,
be sure that installation is strictly in
accord with Project Specifications and ap-
plicable NEC articles 500 through 517.
All questions should be referred to qual-
ified personnel.  For Class 1, Division 1
areas, the following items should be care-
fully verified:

     (a)  Only threaded rigid metallic
conduit, or MI cable with approved connec-
tors can be used, (NEC 501-4(a)) and
threaded joints must be made up wrench-
tight, (NEC 500-1), unless a bonding
jumper is installed.

       (b)  At least five full threads must
be engaged at each threaded joint.  (NEC
501-4(a)).  All field made threads must be
tapered (NEC 500-1).

       (c)  All fittings, fixtures, boxes.
and inclosures must be specifically approved
for the hazard classification involved.  An
Underwriter's approval seal is generally
affixed to the equipment.  If not, secure
other firm verification of approval.

       (d)  Explosion proof fittings, boxes
and inclosures have screw or ground joints
at openings.  Be sure that surface of
ground joint is clean, unscratched and

smooth, so that the mating surfaces make
intimate contact throughout their area.
Covers must be tight and gaskets are not
to be used.

      (e)  Be sure that all required seals
are installed in the correct location and
that they are of the correct type.  (NEC
501-5 and 502-5).

      (f)  Check the mounting method of
equipment to be sure that no holes have
been drilled into the interior chamber
of an explosion proof inclosure.

      (g)  Be sure that all flexible con-
duits bear the Underwriter's seal of
approval for the hazard involved.

      (h)  See that proper type sealing
compound has been installed in all sealing
fittings.  Follow manufacturer's recom-
mendations.  (NEC 501-5(c)2).

    (25)  Where rigid non-metallic conduit
is installed under the specification it
should be installed in accordance with NEC
347 and all special requirements of the
Project Specifications.

    (26)  Provide conductor support in long
vertical conduit runs.  (NEC 300-19).


  b.  Cable Systems

    (1)  Mineral insulated metal sheathed
cable, Type MI, will be installed in
accordance with Article 330 of the NEC
and Project Specification requirements.

    (2)  Aluminum sheathed cable type ALS
will be installed in accord with Article
331 of the NEC and Project Specification

    (3)  Metal clad cable Types MC and AC
(commonly called "BX") should be installed
in accord with Project Specification re-
quirements and Article 334 of the NEC.
See that insulating bushings or equivalent
protection are provided between the con-
ductors and the armor at terminations.

    (4)  Non-metallic sheathed cables,
Type NMC and NM, commonly called "Romex",
should be installed in accord with Project
Specification and Article 336 of the NEC.

       (a)  Type NM cable must not be used
when non-metallic sheathed cable is in-
stalled in the cells of masonry block walls
which are exposed or which are subject to
excessive moisture or dampness.  This in-
cludes exterior masonry walls.  In dry,


non-corrosive locations, type NM may be
used.  NMC is applicable in wet locations.
(NEC 336-3).

          (b)  See that nails will not be
driven into cable.  Protecting plates may
be required.  (NEC 300-4).

          (c)  See that ground wire is pro-
perly fastened at terminating points and
outlet boxes.  Attach to each box of fit-
ting by securely fastening the wire to the
intended screw or with an approved ground-
ing device.  (NEC 250-114).

          (d)  See that cable is secured as
required by the National Electrical Code,
within 12" of every outlet box or fitting
and otherwise at intervals not exceeding
4 1/2 feet.  (NEC 336-5).

     (5)  When authorized by the Project
Specification, service entrance cable,
Types SE, and USE should be installed in
accord with NEC 338.

c.  Busway Systems (NEC 364; Project

     (1)  Support busways at specified inter-
vals.  (NEC 364-3; Project Specifications).

    (2)  Install swaybraces when needed to
limit lateral movement of busway.  (Project

    (3)  Busway position, vertical or hori-
zontal, will determine whether plugs are
installed on the sides or on top and bottom.
If plans do not indicate desired position,
determination of appropriate location should
be made.

    (4)  Install busway runs in straight
alignment, parallel to floors and walls,
with sufficient space either above and
below, or on both sides, to permit in-
stallation, operation and servicing of
bus plugs.

    (5)  Check to be sure that types of
duct furnished are in accord with speci-
fication.  Check conductor metal, inclo-
sure type, duct type, wall flanges, and
fire stops.

    (6)  Ground duct housing.  (NEC 250-33).

    (7)  Vertical riser sections up to 6
feet above the floor must be unventilated
type.  (NEC 364-4).

    (8)  Check plug-in features and tap
off devices against specification.


     (9)  Check on trolley busways, trol-
leys, brushes, contact rollers, and flexi-
ble cables for no binding and good contact.

    (10)  Component sections are to be
legibly marked with voltage and current
ratings and.manufacturer's name. (NEC 364-14)

    (11)  .Installation and furnishing of
busways usually require that the contrac-
tor verify field dimensions.  Be sure that
timely ordering of busway is not delayed.

  d.   Continuous Rigid Cable Supports, or
Cable Trays are installed to support cab!es.
Only certain specified cables may be
installed and loading of support is limited.
Continuous rigid cable supports should be
installed in accordance with th'e Project
Specification and NEC 318.

  e.   Wireways or Enclosed Troughs are in-
stalled to house and protect wire and cable.
In general, wires of the building wire type,
such as TW, may be installed in approved
wireways.  The installation should be made
in accord with Project Specification and
NEC 362.  Particular attention should be
paid to NEC 362-5, which limits the number
of conductors approved for wireway instal-

  f.   Auxiliary Gutters

         The gutters commonly used for
interconnecting large panels and switches
fall under this article.  Installation
should comply with NEC 374.

  g.   Underfloor Duct Systems (NEC 354,

    (1)  Install underfloor raceways of
steel construction parallel with floor
construction, and in straight alignment.

    (2)  Check to see that sufficient
setting depth is available for junction
boxes.  These are the deepest elements of
underfloor raceway systems.

    (3)  Check for tight joints between
underfloor raceway sections and at junction
boxes to keep water out of raceway systems.
(NEC  354-13,  356-9).

    (4)  Inserts of both the preset and
after-set type will be mechanically se-
cured to the underfloor raceway and set
flush with the floor.   (NEC 354-14, 356-10),

    (5)  Splices and taps in underfloor
raceway systems will not be made in out-
lets at inserts, but only at junction

boxes and in header access units of cellu-
lar floor raceways.  (NEC 354-6; and 356-6).
(Tentative Interim Ampt. #127 to NEC).

     (6)  Provide markers at ends of under-
floor raceway runs.  The National Electri-
cal Code stipulates minimum requirements,
but the plans and specifications may re-
quire more.  (NEC 354-9, 356-8).

     (7)  Install end caps at ends of all
underfloor raceway systems.  (NEC 354-10).

     (8)  Check tap-off locations to cabi-
nets, panel boards, and receptacles against

     (9)  Verify from shop drawings relative
positions of services in compartments, to be
uniform throughout system.

    (10)  Check cross-sectional dimensions
for adequate size.  (NEC 354-5, 356-5;
Project Specifications).

    (11)  Be sure that grounding continuity
maintained at all connections in the
system.  (NEC 250-75).

  h.   Movable Partitions, kitchen vent hoods
and similar enclosures, unless specifically

approved as raceways, cannot be used as
enclosures for general wiring conductors.
Instead raceways (such as conduit) must
be installed; or else cable (such as type
MI) appropriate for the application must be

     i.  Conductors (NEC 310).

          (1)  Check type of insulation and
jacket, conductor material, conductor
size and stranding in each raceway.
(Project Specifications).

          (2)  Observe pulling of wires and
cables to detect damage to sheaths, jack-
ets and insulation.  This damage is
usually caused when runs are "paid out"
in a debris-laden area and then stepped
on, or by raceways having sharp edges or
contamination.  Pull ing-eyes or cable-
gripping devices will be required for
large cables.

          (3)  Install all conductors of a cir-
cuit, including neutral, in same raceway
in conformance with NEC limitations.
(NEC 300-20).

          (4)  Connections and joints will be
clean and tight, with approved pressure-

type connectors, and made in junction and
outlet boxes, not in raceways.  (NEC 110-
14, 300-15).

          (5)  Connectors, lugs and clamps used
to connect copper and aluminum conductors
must be suitable for use with the conduc-
tor material to prevent galvanic corrosion.
(NEC 110-14).

          (6)  Use only white identified conduc-
tors for the grounded circuit conductor.
Neutral (white) conductor of the wiring
system will be insulated throughout.  (NEC
200-7).  Conductors having white
identified coverings should only be used
as the grounded circuit conductor except
as allowed in exceptions 1 thru 4 in NEC

          (7)  When a grounding conductor for
equipment is run with circuit conductors
it shall be bare, or green covered.  (NEC
250-57(b)).  Project specifications may
require covered wire.

          (8)  Enforce color coding of conduc-
tors of branch circuits.  Note that all
circuit conductors of a color must be
connected to the same feeder.  (NEC 210-5;
Project Specifications).

          (9)  When branch circuit conductors
extend thru fluorescent light fixtures
mounted end-on-end come within 3" of
ballast, it is necessary to use 90°C
wire such as RHH or THHN.

          (10)  Check that branch circuit wir
is not undersized.  Specification may re-
quire increased wire size when runs from
panel board to center of load equal or
exceed 100 feet for 120 volt circuits or
230 feet for 277 volt circuits.

          (11)  See that correct fixture wirir
installation is made (NEC 410-22 to 32).

305-05  OUTLETS

     A.  Check for requirements of cast boxes
in exposed work, exterior work, wet loca-
tions, and hazardous locations.  (Project

     b.  Require hub-type cast boxes when
specified.  (Project Specification.)
     c.  Check size of junction and pull
boxes.  (NEC 370-6, 18, 20).

     d.  Do not permit overcrowding of boxes
with excessive number of conductors.
(NEC 370-6).

     e.  Check identification requirements
of power and control conductors at termi-
nals and in pull boxes and junction boxes.
Feeders should be tagged to indicate elec-
trical characteristics, circuit number,
and panel designation.  (Project Specifi-

     f.  Check for rigid support of boxes.
(NEC 370-13).

     g.  Fit concealed boxes into walls and
ceilings.  On non-combustible construction
the front edge of box should be within 1/4
inch of finished surface, and on combust-
ible construction flush with finished
surface.  (NEC 370-10).
     h.  On any masonry or dry wall,work re-
quired for installation of outlet, pull,
or junction boxes is to be done by skilled
workmen.  The masonry section of the
specifications requires the cutting of
block for fitting installed items.  Elec-
trician should not be permitted to chop


away masonry or dry wall work.  Coordina-
tion is necessary between the electrical
trade and masons and carpenters to effect
a suitable installation.  (Project Speci-

  i.  Check for air space between box and
wall or supporting surfaces in wet loca-
tions where surface-type units are used.
(NEC 300-5).

  j.  Are outlets exposed to the weather,
a weather-proof type?  (NEC 370-5; Project

  k.  Pull and junction boxes shall have
free access.  (NEC 370-19).


     See that device plates are of speci-
fied material and finish and that all sur-
faces are in contact with wall.  (Project
Specifications).  On surface mounted boxes,
the plates should be compatible with the
box and without overhanging corners.


  a.  Check all receptacles to be sure
that specified voltage, ampere, color,


slots, etc., are furnished.  Also be sure
that plug is furnished if specified.

     b.  Be sure that grounding continuity
is maintained between grounded metal box
and receptacle and that bonding jumper is
installed when required.  (NEC 250-74).


     a.  Check wall switches for proper am-
pere rating, voltage rating, and type.
Usually "A-C only" is required.  AC only
switches are marked "AC" or "AC only" on
yoke, never "AC/DC".   They can be used
for alternating current only.  (Project
Specification and NEC 380-14).

     b.  Wall switches will be in hot leg of
circuit, not in neutral, and should be
installed with the "on" position "up".
(NEC 380).

     c.  Check for requirements of.installing
pilot lights on switches.  (Project Speci-


  a.  Check to be sure that proper type
of enclosures are furnished (such as drip-
proof, totally enclosed, etc.)-  (Project

  b.  Standard NEMA designations are used
to describe various enclosures.  The
designations are as follows:

    NEMA-1 - General Purpose
        II - Drip Tight
       III - Weather Resistant
        IV - Water Tight
         V - Dust Tight
        VI - Submersible
 VII (A,B, - Hazardous Locations,
  C, or D) -  Class I, Air Break
VIII (A,B, - Hazardous Locations,
  C, or D) -  Class I, Oil Immersed
  IX (E,F, - Hazardous Locations,
     or G)    Class II
         X - Bureau of Mines, Explosion
        XI - Acid and Fume Resistant
              Oil Immersed
       XII - Industrial Use

"Weatherproof" is defined in the NEC as
"so constructed or protected that expo-


sure to the weather will not interfere
with successful operation." (NEC 100).

     c.  Check whether fusible-type or cir-
cuit-breaker type of service switch is
required.  (Project Specifications).

     d.  Check that the service-switch
enclosure is bonded to the grounding
system.  (NEC 230-63).

     e.  Check voltage rating and ampere
rating of switch.  Also circuit breaker
trip and fuse sizes and interrupting
capacities.  (Project Specifications
and Plans).


          Load center type panel boards
are sometimes authorized for less critical
applications compared to regular panel
boards.  The following may not be
required in load center type panel boards:

          (1)  Galvanized cabinets
          (2)  Four-inch minimum width gutters
          (3)  Locking type doors

Compliance with Project Specifications, and
NEC 384-13 through 19 is required.


     a.  Inspect plug-in panel board devices,
if authorized, to determine tightness of

     b.  Check loads on panels to be sure of
approximate balance among the phases.  This
is best done by use of clamp-on type am-
meters on feeders while panel is carrying
its normal load.

     c.  Be sure panel board typed directory
is properly filled out so that areas and
devices served can be quickly identified.
(Project Specifications).

     d.  Circuit-breakers, switches, and
fuses in panel boards should be inspected
to determine that they have correct num-
ber of poles, proper voltage, current-
rating, and proper interrupting capacity.
Refer to contract drawings and project

     e.  Check panel boards for inclusion of
blanked-off spaces for future circuit-


breaker installation.  Space to be ade-
quately sized for the rating of future
circuit-breaker.  Also see that spare
breakers required are in place in addi-
tion to blanked-off spaces.

305-12.  CABINETS (NEC 373; Project

  a.  Check on size of gutter space.  A
minimum of 4 inches is required for panel-
boards.  Load centers should be in accord-
ance with NEC 373-6(a).

  b.  Telephone cabinets are to be checked
for inclusion of backboard painted with
insulation varnish.

  c.  Compare size of telephone cabinets
against contract drawings.

  d.  Mounting is to be rigid and inde-
pendent of the support by conduits.  In
damp locations, there should be 1/4 inch
minimum air space at back of panel.  (NEC

  e.  Connections to conduits are to be
tight, assuring electrical continuity.
(NEC 250-71 through 75).

  f.  Look for special features of con-
struction and installation for areas other
than normal, such as hazardous, wet, etc.
(NEC 110-11).

  g.  Examine for galvanized metal construc-

  h.  Check mounting height of panelboard
cabinets.  Distance from center of top
switch or circuit-breaker to floor should
not exceed 6 feet, 6 inches.  (Project

305-13.  FUSES (NEC 240-6).

  Inspect for the following:

  a.  Specified voltage rating

  b.  Specified amperage and interrupting

  c.  Non-renewable cartridge types for
ever 30 AMP. capacity.  (Project Specifi-
cations) .

  d.  Is dual element time-delay fuse or
current limiting fuse required?  (Project


230-30 and 31).

     a.  Check detail requirements of plans
and specifications.  (Project Specifica-

     b.  Check requirement for painting or
coating of conduits.  (Project Specifica-

     c.  Check method and location of termina-
tion of conduit ends and grounding.  (NEC

     d.  Seal building ends of raceways en-
tering from UG distribution system.


     a.  Locate the splice between service drop
(NEC 100) and service entrance (NEC 100)
conductor at a level lower than the service
entrance fitting (head), and bend conductors
to form a "drip loop" at the entrance
fitting.  These precautions will prevent
entrance of water into the service equip-
ment.  (NEC 230-52).

     b.  Support aerial service-drops on
buildings, providing required clearances

from ground, building openings, and from
roof where service crosses roofs.  (NEC 230-

  c*  Service-drop cable type is to be in
accordance with specification requirements.
(NEC 230-22; Project Specifications).

  d.  If connections are aluminum to cop-
per, insure that the type of connectors
specified (usually tinned bronze) are
utilized and that anti-oxidant compound
is properly applied, if specified.

305-16.   MOTORS

  a.  Check motors for conformance with
NEMA classification standards.  NEMA
classification is according to mechanical
protection and methods of cooling and is
in two categories namely open machine and
totally enclosed machine.  Installation
should be made in accordance with project

  b.  Check motors to see that proper
terminal connections are made for the
operating voltage.  A connection table
should be securely attached to the motor
by the manufacturer if several alternate
connections are possible.

  c.  Be sure motor revolves in direction
correct for driven device.  Usually an
arrow is placed on fans and pumps to show
correct directions of rotation.

  d. .Check reversing types of motors and
multi-speed motors to insure that direction
of rotation and speed of motor corresponds
to setting of control.

  e.  Make ground connections of motor
enclosure through conduit system or by
separate grounding conductor.  (NEC 430-
141, 142).

  f.  Check motor against specifications
and approvals for class of insulation,
starting torque characteristics, class,
and design.

  g.  Check motors for proper voltage
i.e., when 416 V, three-phase is speci-
fied, do not permit substitution of 440 V,
three-phase, and vice versa.  When.208V,
three-phase is specified, do not permit
substitution of 230 V, three-phase and
vice versa.  Proposed substitutions should
be referred to an electrical specialist.

  h.  Note conditions of windings; to be
free from moisture and dust.  See that

appropriate provisions are made to pro-
tect equipment prior to turn-over of

  i.  Motors should be operated under con-
nected load to determine following oper-
ating characteristics:

      (1)  Voltage and current to detect
possible overloaded conditions.

      (2)  Speed of motor.

      (3)  Direction of rotation.

      (4)  Overheating.

      (5)  Vibration.

      (6)  Abnormal sounds or odors.

If connected load is not possible, refer
to Resident Engineer.  This normally can
be done in conjunction with test of driven

  j.  Connect motors subject to vibration,
and motors on adjustable slide basis, with
flexible conduit.  Liquid-tight or explo-
sion-proof flexible conduit may be required
by  installation  conditions.  Bonding jumpers
may be  required  (Project  Specifications;  NEC
350, 352,  501-4(a)).


  k.  Motors installed in hazardous loca-
tions are to bear an Underwriters Labora-
tory nameplate, indicating the classifi-
cation of areas in which the motor is
approved for use.

  1.  Check lubrication requirements of
motor prior to motor operation.  (Manu-
facturers Instructions).


  a.  Check with the contractor to assure
that all motor controllers required by all
sections of the specifications have been
ordered.  Quite often, controllers are not
ordered due to disputes between subcon-
tractors.  The inspectors should insure
that the prime contractor has made neces-
sary arrangements to insure timely pro-
curing of motor controllers.

  b.  Check motor controllers for:

      (1)  Horsepower, voltage and current
rating at least equal to the rating of the
motor which it controls.

      (2)  Automatic control devices such
as thermostats, float or pressure switches
directly used as motor controllers, should
be adequately rated.


     (3)  Magnetic-coil voltage rating must be
the same as the control-circuit voltage (may b
different from the motor voltage).

     (4)  Selection of proper motor over-
load heaters; based on the nameplate full-
load current of the motor, ambient temper-
ature of controller location, temperature-
rise limit of motor.  Refer to instruction
sheet pasted on inside cover of motor con-
troller.  Determine if automatic or manual
reset is required for overload protection.
(NEC 430-34).  (Project Specifications).

     (5)  Requirements for furnishing re-
duced voltage starters.  (Project Specifi-

     (6)  Excessive humming or noise under
operating conditions.

     (7)  Requirements for furnishing pilot
circuit devices such as "Hand - Off - Auto-
matic" selector switches, pilot lights.
(Project Specifications).
     (8)  Make sure that three-phase motors
are provided with three-element overload re-
lays, if required by Project Specifications
or NEC Table 430-37.


      (9)  Be sure control inclosure is as
specified in Project Specifications and is
suitable for conditions of installation.

      (10)  Spare interlocks, if specified.

      (11)  Shipping blocking has been re-
moved .

      (12)  Control and safety devices should
be wired into the "hot leg", not the neutral
leg if control circuit is grounded.


  a.  Disconnecting means that open all un-
grounded conductors will be provided for
motor driven equipment installations.  By
locking provisions or by being "in sight"
the disconnect(s) will provide protection
for persons working on control, motor, and
driven equipment (NEC 430-101 thru  113,

  b.  Ratings of switches are to be checked
against contract specifications.


  Lighting fixtures should be examined for:

     a.   Chipped porcelain cracked glass and
plastics, bent louvers, over-all  finish,
detachable sockets on RLM dome fixtures
(when specified) and "push type"  sockets
on open  fluorescent fixtures (when spec-

     b.   Required lamp wattage and color

     c.   Ballasts for fluorescent and mer-
cury-vapor lamps suitable for circuit
voltage  and of high power-factor  type;
overload protection for ballasts, if
specified ballast should be suitable
for low  temperature operation.

     d.   Plumb installation and horizontal
and vertical alignment.

     e.   End-caps, canopies, louvers, side
panel guards, globes in place and tight,
glass side panels, if specified.   Acrylic
plastic  lens when specified.

     f.   Aiming of floodlights and all other
adjustable fixtures.

     g.   Lamps that are to be installed for
the project shall be new, and installed
just prior to completion.  (Project Spec-

     h.  Storage battery powered emergency
lighting sets should be checked for
requirements of Underwriters listing and
other features.  They should be perman-
ently installed strictly in accordance
with project specifications. (NEC 700).

     i.  Emergency lighting circuits should
be installed in accordance with project
specifications and NEC article 700.  Cir-
cuit wiring should be kept independent
of all other wiring (NEC 700-17).

     j.  End to end mounted fluorescent fixtures
must have Underwriters approval for mounting
end to end.


     a.  Check for the required number of heat-
ing elements.

     b.  Check to determine that each heating
element is controlled by a seperate ther-

     c.  Check for manual-reset type hi-
limit cutout.  Hi-limit cutout to open all

electrical connections to all heating ele-

     d.  Voltage rating of heaters must be in
accordance with specification requirements.
240 volt units, if operated on 208 V, will
only deliver approximately 75% design heat-
ing capacity.


     a.  Check voltage rating of equipment

     b.  Check wattage rating of heater.
(Project Specification or Design).

     c.  Check to see whether a high-limit
switch is required.  (Project Specifi-

     d.  Check physical requirements of
heater.  Embedded elements are usually

     e.  Heaters for hazardous areas are
to bear a tag indicating Underwriters
Laboratories approval.

     f.  A functional test is required on
electric heaters.


  g.   Check thermostats for range of
operation, differential, locking facili-
ties, thermometer, and lock-shield require-
ments.  (Project Specifications).


  a.  Refer to applicable paragraphs of
this chapter.

  b.  Check plans and specifications for
any special features.

  c.  If Government-furnished equipment is
involved, insure the timely availability
of all connection drawings.


  a.   Pry Type Transformers

          Check enlosures for indoor or
outdoor service.  Install so that air
circulation will not be restricted around
the transformers.  Close-to-ceilings in-
stallations should be avoided.  (NEC 450-

  b.   Transformer Taps

          Connect to produce specified
voltage under normal load.


     c.  Liquid-fined Transformers

          Check to see that they are filled
to proper level.  Level mark is indicated
on transformer.

     d.  Namepiate Data

          Check against specification re-
quirements and approved shop drawings.
(NEC 450-10).

     e.  Accessories

          Check liquid-filled transformers
for compliance with specifications or
with specified standards.   Such include:
Connections for sampling,  draining and
filtering of insulating liquid; level
gage; thermometer; pressure and vacuum
gages; external tap changer; provisions
for jacking, rolling and lifting; pro-
visions for pole, platform or slab
mounting; provision for grounding of
case and windings; alarm devices actuated
by abnormal liquid level,  temperature or«
pressure; and automatic control devices
for operation of forced air or other oil
cooling equipment which will permit op-
eration of transformers at higher-than-
normal ratings.

     f.  Bushings

          Check to see that bushings are
free of moisture, dust, chips and cracks.

     g.  Insulating Liquid

          Check against requirements.  Non-
flammable fluid insulated power transform-
ers are generally required indoors.

     h.  Grounding

          Check grounding connections of
metal housing, neutrals of primary and
secondary winding to the grounding sys-
tem.  (NEC 450-9).

     i.  Ventilation

          See that ventilation is adequate,
(NEC 450-45).

305-24  SWITCHGEAR  (NEC 384)

     Switchboard and Free-Standing Panel
Installations - Check for:

     a.  Level floor location for gear and
any roll-out equipment.

  b.  Anchor bolts and floor plates in
proper location.  Consult approved shop
drawings and contract drawings.

  c.  Conduit entrances and wiring trenches
in proper location.

  d.  Bus duct connection provisions suit-
able for duct attachment.

  e.  Ground bus connections brought to
proper location.  Consult approved shop

  f.  Plumb and level installation of gear.

  g.  Installation in accordance with manu-
facturer f s instructions.

  h.  Blocking removed from instruments and

  i.  Adjustments made where required, taps
and plugs at proper settings.  Consult
manufacturer's installation instructions.

  j.  Fuses in place and of proper type -
voltage,  current, interrupting capacity
- current limiting.

  k.  Indicating lamps with proper color
caps in place.


  1.  Furnishing of spare fuses and lamps
and any operating handles or cranks.

  m.  Manufacturer's instruction books,
wiring diagrams, etc., delivered to re-
sponsible individual accepting instal-
lation.  Make a list and have it signed
and filed.

  n.  Nameplates with approved nomen-
clature .

  o.  Terminals marked in accordance
with approved shop drawings and specifi-
cations .

  p.  All wiring connections made up

  q.  If switchgear is to be installed
in any hazardous locations, check the
specifications and drawings for the re-
quired special construction features.

  r.  Check for sufficient clearance
between back of switchboard and wall.
Minimum of 18 inches required if equip-
ment or wiring is accessible only from
back.  Additional clearance may be re-
quired .

  s.  Check to be sure switchboard frame
is grounded.

  t.  Check to be sure conduit stub-ups
have coupling installed at floor level if
required by Project Specifications.

  u.  Check to be sure that proper phase
relationship and identification of con-
nections including instrumentation has
been accomplished.


  a.  See paragraph 308 f. for installation
of sets.

  b.  Inspect for overall compliance with
the specifications as to type and rating
of components - kva, kw, horsepower, rpm,
voltage - and in particular as to the
      (1)  Engine will be suitable for oper-
ation on the fuel specified.

      (2)  Voltage ratings of starter, bat-
tery, and battery charger will be the same.
Voltage regulator may need to be reset if  ,
nickel  cadmium batteries are furnished.

      (3)  Check spare parts provided with
unit to see that the supply is complete
and that they fit the unit furnished.

      (4)  Installation should be in accord
with NFPA 30, 31, 37, as required by
Project Specifications.  Check for proper
calibration of gage stick.

      (5)  That ventilation is adequate.

      (6)  See that operation and mainten-
ance manuals are posted in engine room.

      (7)  Check operation of transfer

      (8)  Check governor operation.

      (9)  Check cranking cycle for reset.

      (10)  Check to determine that emer-
gency shut-down prevents recycling.

      (11)  Required field tests have been
satisfactorily completed.


  a.  See paragraph 308 g. for installation

  b.  Check voltage rating of hoisting

  c.  Provide safety interlocks as spec-
ified and check operation.

800, 810).

  Include several types of audible and
visual paging systems, nurses call, cen-
tral dictation, intercommunication systems
of the loudspeaker and telephone type,
fire alarm systems, clock systems and
supervisory systems, and often those which
combine more than one function in a single
system.  Products of different manufacturers
of like systems may differ greatly.  Manu-
facturer's installation instructions will
be rigidly adhered to.  The following will
apply to all systems generally:

  a.  Master sets and main or central
station equipment and switchboards of
miscellaneous systems will be so placed
as to be easily accessible for operation
and maintenance in locations having ade-
quate ventilation.

  b.  Component parts of miscellaneous
systems will be products of one manufac-
turer .


  c.  Wiring between system components
may be of special character.  Inspect for
requirement for use of shielded cables,
twisted pairs, and isolation of any system
from another.

  d.  Check installation of miscellaneous
systems equipment to see that proper sizes
of fuses have.been used, that leads are
connected to proper terminals and that
the equipment is designed to operate on the
available supply voltage.

305-28.  TESTS

  a.  All Testing

      (1)  When testing of any electrical
equipment or systems is required, advise
the electrical inspector or engineer and
obtain his assistance.  The following
paragraphs cover a wide range of testing
and it will be your responsibility to
obtain assistance when such testing is
beyond your capabilities or knowledge.

      (2)  Unless otherwise specified,
testing should be performed by the con-
tractor when the inspector is present.
All arrangements for tests should be made
by the contractor.  For tests of major

equipment and high voltage cables, the
contractor should also notify the manu-
facturers so they may witness the tests.

      (3)  The Using Agency should be noti-
fied when any unusual testing is to be
performed so that they may be present to
witness the test.  Using Agency coopera-
tion should be obtained well in advance
for any tests which may affect their fa-
cilities or operations.

  b.  Precautions should be taken to in-
sure that test voltages are applied only to
equipment or circuits under test, and
that all instrument and control circuits
are disconnected during the test.

  c.  Electrical tests should not be
conducted under ambient conditions un-
suitable for testing, such as excessively
high humidity conditions.
  d.  Records of tests should be complete,
including ambient temperatures and weather
conditions, circuit designation and ex-
tent of wiring systems tested, name and
serial number of the machine tested,  and
signatures of those witnessing the tests.

  e.  Description of Tests

      (1)  De-energized operational testing
will determine that moving parts do not
bind, rotating parts work freely and are
not obstructed by foreign materials, that
they are lubricated as required, and that
such limits or stops as may be necessary
to restrict the motion of moving parts are
in place and  functioning.

      (2)  Operational testing will show
that the equipment performs all functions
for which it  is designed in accordance
with the design and manufacturer's speci-
fications .

      (3)  Continuity testing will determine
that circuits are continuous throughout
the circuit.

      (4)  High potential testing will de-
termine that  the insulation has sufficient
dielectric strength  to withstand the surges
to which it might be subjected and to insure
freedom from  pinholes and any other poss-
ible damage.

      (5)  Megger tests will determine that
the wiring system and equipment is free
from short circuits and grounds, and will
measure the insulation resistances of the
circuit and/or equipment under test.

  f.  Megger tests of insulation resist-
ance should be made when specified and ap-
proved if satisfactory.

  g.  Method of Testing

     (1)  High-potential field tests
should be made in strict compliance with
the applicable standards listed in the
specifications and the recommendations of
the manufacturer of the equipment.

       (a)  Tests should not be repeated
unless the necessity for repetition has
been determined by your supervisor.

       (b)  Make certain that all safety
precautions relative to grounding of
the test equipment have been checked.

     (2)  Insulation resistance and high-
potential tests of wiring systems should
be made between one conductor and ground
with all other conductors and sheath or
conduit connected to the same ground.
Tests should be made on each conductor in •
this manner.  Windings of rotating equip-
ment and transformers should be connected
together and tested to ground.

     (3)  Leakage-current readings should
be taken during all DC high potential tests


A continual increase in leakage current
during the test should be reported to
your supervisor as a probable indication
of faulty insulation.

      (4)  Rotating equipment operational
tests should include an inspection for
alignment with driven machine, proper lu-
brication, freedom from excessive vibra-
tion in operation, proper direction of
rotation, voltage and current drain
check against motor nameplate ratings,
check of R.P.M. and excessive heating.

      (5)  Switch and manual motor starter
operational tests should include an exami-
nation for proper operation, alignment of
contacts and contact pressure.

      (6)  Motor-starter operational tests
should include manually operating the arma-
ture or plunger and contact-bar to deter-
mine that movement is free, contacts are
in alignment, contact pressure is adequate
and that auxiliary contacts function prop-
erly.  The starter should be energized
from all control points and the operation
of all control-circuit interlocks should
be checked.

      (7)  Reduced voltage starters should
be checked for correct sequence and timing


of application of incremental and full

     (8)  Variable and adjustable speed
motor controls should be checked to see
that operating speeds correspond to the
position of the speed control device.

     (9)  Circuit-breaker operational
tests for large air circuit-breakers should
include, where applicable, three open-
close-open cycles in both operating and
test positions under manual operation
and through control-circuits from each
control point.  Check breaker mechanisms
for alignment; freedom of motion and ade-
quate pressure of contacts; tripping
devices; inspection to insure that breaker
cannot be moved from operating position
while closed.  Indicating lights, targets,
annunciators and alarms should be observed
for operation in connection with asso-
ciated circuit-breakers, control switches
and other operating devices to insure that
the signal indication corresponds to the%
switch position of the indicating device.

    (10)  Protective relays should be
checked to see that time and current
settings have been made as specified.

       (11)  Operational tests of relays
should include:  Checking of operation at
specified current or voltage and time
values.  Checking of peak-current of
instantaneous elements; checking of dif-
ferential elements for operation only
under condition of proper direction of
power flow.

       (12)  Rod electrodes should be
tested for resistance to ground.  If
resistance is greater than the specified
resistance, or maximum of 25 ohms, addi-
tional rods or longer rods should be
installed.  Consult specifications (Pro-
ject Specifications:  NEC 250-83).

  (13)  Miscellaneous systems, for
intercommunication, paging, clock-control
fire alarms, etc., shall be given opera-
tional tests at all operating points to
demonstrate that they will perform all
specified functions.  In particular, it
shall be demonstrated that sounding devices
are audible under normal ambient sound-
level conditions in areas for which coverage
is specified, that false signals cannot be
transmitted over fire alarm systems speci-
fied to be of the noninterfering type,
that reserve-power attachments for clock
system will operate for the specified
length of time, and that all special fea-


Cures and accessories specified for each
system have been incorporated therein.

      (14)  Engine-generator tests include,
but may not be limited to, the following:

        (a)  If diesel engine driven, ref-
erence is usually made to Diesel Engine
Manufacturers Association publication
entitled, "Standard Practices for Station-
ary Diesel Engines".  This publication
details test requirements.

        (b)  Demonstrate starting of all
units from all manual control points and
from automatic control as specified.

        (c)  Demonstrate voltage and fre-
quency regulation are held within speci-
fied limits under all load conditions.

        (d)  Establish load requirements
for testing of units.  Either connected
load or created load such as obtained
with salt water rheostat or other satis-
factory method.  Determine who will fur-
nish load banks, if required.

        (e)  Engine-generator tests should
incorporate full load tests.  Specifica-
tions will at times require 110% load
testing for a limited time.


      (f)  Satisfactory operation of transfer
switch installation in accordance with speci-
fication requirements should be demonstrated*

      (g)  Operational check of all safe-
ty controls should be made.  This will
include operation of safety stop switches,
operation of high water temp, low oil
pressure, over-speed, and any other safety
circuit required by the specifications.

      (h)  Demonstrate full load continu-
ous operation without overheating of the

                CHAPTER 306
306-01  GENERAL
        a.  Poles                    306-1
        b.  Crossarms                306-3
        c.  Hardware                 306-3
        d.  Insulators               306-4
        e.  Conductors (Aerial)      306-5
        f.  Guying                   306-6
        g.  Transformers             306-8
        h.  Primary and Secondary
            Fuse Cutouts             306-10
        i.  Lightning Arrestors      306-11
        j.  Pole Top Switches        306-11
        k.  Grounding                306-12
        1.  Street Lighting          306-13
        m.  Underground Risers       306-14

        a.  Duct System              306-15
        b.  Manholes, Handholes
            and Underground Vaults   306-17
        c.  Primary Cables           306-18
        d.  Direct Burial Cable      306-20
        e.  Potheads                 306-21

                Chapter 306
Para.              Title             Page

        f.  Transformers in
            Fenced Inclosures        306-22

                CHAPTER 306

306-01.  GENERAL

  This chapter covers exterior electrical
distribution systems, aerial and underground,
and transformer stations.

  Preliminary inspection of materials prior
to installation for conformance with speci-
fications, plans, approved shop drawings,
and lists of approved materials is essential.
Components for distribution systems should be
inspected before they are installed and


  a.   Poles

    (1)   Check class, length, condition,
and treatment of poles against design
requirements.  (A current edition of ASA
Standard 05.1, "Wood Poles," should be
available to the inspector.)  Be sure that
certificate of compliance with applicable
AWPA preservation specification has been

    (2)   Be sure that contractor's provisions
for storage and handling of poles are in
accordance with specification requirements.


    (3)  Usually, specifications require
poles to be full treated rather than butt
treated.  The preservation specification
should be checked for verification.

    (4)  Poles should be turned, chamferred,
trimmed, roofed, gained, and bored prior to
pressure treatment.  When field boring or
gaining is necessary, additional preservative
should be applied to bared surfaces.

    (5)  Examine type of handling tools.

    (6)  Be sure that gains have been made
for all cross-arms.

    (7)  A site check of the pole line route
and pole locations should be made to be sure
that pole lengths furnished will be suitable
to carry all intended circuits (including
communications) and still maintain required
vertical and horizontal clearances from the
ground and other obstructions.  (A current
edition of The National Bureau of Standards
Handbook H30, National Electrical Safety Code,
should be available to the inspector.)

    (8)  Be sure that the depths of pole
holes are equal to minimum specification
requirements, and that the width of each
hole is adequate for backfilling and tamping
in 6-inch lifts when required by the


specifications.   Surplus earth should be
piled around the pole and tightly tamped
to assist in drainage away from the pole
and to compensate for shrinkage of the

    (9)  If design requires numbering of
poles, see that this is done correctly.

    (10)  See that the grading of pole tops
is even.

    (11)  When it is necessary to shorten a
pole, see that the cut is made at the top
and that it is treated with hot preservative

  b.  Crossarms
    (1)  Check material and preservative

    (2)  Examine fastening.

      (a)  Inspect installation, bolting,
setting angle, number, type and length of
crossarm and secureness obtained.

      (b)  Check vertical spacing of
multiple crossarms.

      (c)  Check pin hole spacing.

  c.  Hardware


    (1)  Be sure that all ferrous hardware
(braces, bolts, clamps, pins, nuts, washers,
screws, etc.) is standard pole line galva-
nized hardware.

    (2)  Be sure that all hardware is of the
specified size and strength.

    (3)  Be sure crossarm pins are of the
specified strength and height.

    (4)  Bolts should not protrude more
than approximately 2 inches or less than
1/8 inch beyond the nut.

  d.  Insulators

    (1)  Check furnished insulators against
specification requirements.

    (2)  Inspect for damage.

      (a)  Reject chipped or cracked

      (b)  See that color coding is
provided on street lighting and neutral
conductors if required by specification.

    (3)  Check types and spacing of pins.

    (4)  Determine location of guy insulators


  e.  Conductors (Aerial)

    (1)  Compare furnished supports with
plans and specifications:

      (a)  Stranded or solid

      (b)  Copper, aluminum, or combinations
of copper and steel or aluminum and steel

      (c)  Bare, weatherproof covered, or
insulated conductors

      (d)  Size

    (2)  Check during installation:

      (a)  Tree trimming

      (b)  Sag of lines

      (c)  Handling (Watch for methods which
will produce twists, kinks, abrasions, or

      (d)  Method of dead ending

      (e)  Connectors and treatment of
conductors at connectors or splices

      (f)  Armor rod and/or armor  tapes on
aluminum conductors at supports.


      (g)  Tie wires and methods of secur-
ing conductors to insulators

      (h)  Installations requiring racks
and utilization of same

      (i)  Horizontal and vertical clear-
ance between conductors (Handbook H30, H81)

      (j)  Installation and location of
drip loops

      (k)  Connectors on service drops -
If dissimilar metals are connected be sure
that approved connector is used.

      (1)  Dead ending with approved
clamps with strength not less than that
of the conductor

      (m)  Areas requiring special

      (n)  Requirements for neutrals

  f.  Guying

    (1)  Compare the type of guy with its
intended use.

    (2)  Check type and size of anchors
against ground conditions.


    (3)  Check material to be used.

      (a)  Check for protective thimbles
and thimble eye bolts.

      (b)  Examine three-bolt clamps at
guy terminals.

    (4)  Check during installation:

      (a)  Anchor distance from poles
(Anchor and guy strength is based on 1 to
1 slope.  If the distance between pole and
anchor rods has to be decreased, strengths
must be increased).

      (b)  Location of guy insulator if

      (c)  Point of attachment on pole

      (d)  Installation of rock anchors

      (e)  Location of expansion anchors
and log anchor rods

      (f)  Need for additional guys

      (g)  Installation of guy protectors

      (h)  Gaining of poles for push braces


      (i)  Identification of primary phases
stamped on all transition poles and at all
substations entering and leaving

      (j)  Length of anchor rods

      (k)  Grounding and bonding of guys
when specified

  g.  Transformers

    (1)  Check method of mounting:

      (a)  Determine capacity of transform-
er or banks of transformers.

      (b)  See if method of mounting is
similar to adjacent connected system, and
notify supervisor of deviation.

    (2)  Check materials:

      (a)  Conformance with NEMA. Standards

      (b)  Primary and secondary voltage
rating, kva capacity, and taps

      (c)  NEMA Standards for accessories
of different capacity transformers, such
as thermometers, liquid level indicators,
liquid sampling devices, external tap


      (d)  Transformer hangers for rigid
mounting on the crossarms

      (e)  Transformer bushings for rigid
mounting with no evidence of cracks or

      (f)  Transformer tanks for pin hole

      (g)  Impulse test certification if
required by specification

    (3)  Check during installation:

      (a)  Correct tap setting

      (b)  Even distribution of weight
of transformer banks

      (c)  Mounting, crossarms, braces,
wiring on pole mounting of H frame

      (d)  Primary and secondary

      (e)  Grounding of transformer tanks

      (f)  Rating of protective fuses

      (g)  Accessibility of fused cutouts
on pole


               (h)  Type of electrical connections

               (i)  Fused cutouts and lightning
arrestors installed on the primary side
of each transformer supplied from an
exterior distribution system.

     h.  Primary and Secondary Fuse Cutouts

          (1)  See that approved type is used.
Is it indicating or dropout; enclosed or

          (2)  Check current and voltage rating
and short circuit interrupting capacity
against design requirements.

          (3)  Be sure fuse links are of the
capacity and delay specified and that
they do not exceed the capacity of
connected conductors.  (Capacity tables
for bare and insulated wire may be found
in NFPA Handbook 70, National Electrical
Code, Tables 310-13 through 19).

          (4)  Check connection points of line
conductors and load conductors.

          (5)  Examine type of bracket.  Be
sure bracket is secure, clear of
adjoining structure, and convenient
for operation.

  i.    Lighting Arrestors
     (1.)  Location
     (2)  Voltage rating and type against
specification requirements
     (3)  Mounting bracket
     (4)  Grounding connections
     (5)  Ground resistance prior to
energizing the line
  j.    Pole Top Switches
     (1)  Check switches.  Make sure that
correct current and voltage rated ones are
     (2)  Assure that contact surfaces
will  operate under ice conditions.
     (3)  Watch arcing horns for contact %
during operation.
     (4)  See that operating rods are
provided with an insulator in the rod
if specified.
     (5)  Make sure operating handle is
equipped with lock and keys.  If inter-

locking keying is specified be sure it is
furnished.  Check out interlocking.

    (6)  Examine location of operating
handle for convenience and safety.

  k.  Grounding

    (1)  Check type of ground conductors
against design.

    (2)  Inspect exothermic welded ground
connections for size rod, connector and
powder charge against manufacturer's

    (3)  Examine mechanical grounding

    (4)  Check connectors to aluminum
conductors.  Connectors must be approved
for aluminum.

    (5)  See that grounding conductors are
protected from mechanical injury.

    (6)  Determine and record ground
resistance; also determine need for
additional ground rods.

    (7)  Record driven depth of ground rods

    (8)  Insure that all noncurrent


carrying metal parts on pole are grounded
when specified.

    (9)  Check for separate grounding
conductors and rods for lightning arrestor
and equipment when required by specifica-
tions .

  1.  Street Lighting

    (1)  Examine all street lighting

      (a)  Check lighting bracket.

      (b)  In inspecting fixtures watch for

        1..  Light diffusing pattern

        _2.  Open or enclosed type

        3_.  Gaskets to protect the globe
        ^.  Film cutouts on series systems

        _5.  Free access for maintenance

        £.  Insulating transformers

      (c)  Inspect regulator for kw rating,
input voltage, and output current.


       (d)  Verify protector and control
equipment voltage rating.
     (2)  Check during installation:
       (a)  Height of fixture
       (b)  Lightning arresters and fused
cutouts installed on each phase of the
supply to the protector
       (c)  That all ferrous surfaces are
hot dip galvanized
       (d)  That each fixture is secured
with required number of through bolts of
correct size
       (e)  All metallic poles or standards
  m.   Underground Risers
     (1)  Examine conduit clamps for size
and number.
     (2)  Check duct seal at the conduit
     (3)  Look for approved insulated
bushings at the conduit termination.
     (4)  Check cable terminations.


    (5)  Inspect during installation:

      (a)  Lag screws used on the conduit

      (b)  Cable supports to eliminate
weight on the cable terminations

      (c)  Metallic conduit below grade
has approved protective finish as required

      (d)  Stress cones on shielded cable

      (e)  Safe climbing space


  a.  Duct System

    (1)  Check:

      (a)  Materials

      (b)  Method of encasement

      (c)  Painting

      (d)  Duct supports and spacers for
size to maintain duct spacing

    (2)  Check during installation:

      (a)  End bells and bushings at duct


     (b)  Ground bushings at all conduit

     (c)  Strength of concrete and
presence of reinforcing steel where
required under roads, paved area, etc.

     (d)  Compacted subgrade

     (e)  That spacers and spacing between
ducts are covered with the minimum thickness
of concrete on all sides of ductbank

     (f)  Spacing between electric and
signal ducts

     (g)  Alignment and grade of conduits,
especially during encasement with concrete

     (h)  Staggering of conduit joints

     (i)  Adapters for joining dissimilar
types of duct (See that they are not field

     (j)  Changes in direction made with
factory fabricated devices

     (k)  Ducts secured in the forms

     (1)  Ducts pitched to drain

      (m)  Duct plugs used during
construction and on all spare ducts

      (n)  Cleaning of ducts

      (o)  Seal duct entrances into manholes

      (p)  Cover over ducts

      (q)  Pull wires in place

      (r)  Minimum curve radius of duct
line in accordance with specification

      (s)  Installation of marker if
required by specifications

  b.  Manholes, Handholes and Underground

    (1)  Determine strength of concrete.

    (2)  Check quantity and size of
reinforcing steel.

    (3)  Check strength of cover and frame,
marking of cover, and machine finished
joint between frame and cover.

    (4)  Be sure that approved cable racks,
pulling irons, steps, ground rod, etc., are
provided in the specified quantity.


    (5)  Check during installation:

      (a)  Sequence of concrete placement
(Construction joints are undesirable
between the base and walls.)

      (b)  Seal around duct entrances  (and
plug unused ducts)

      (c)  Pull irons are located opposite
duct entrances

      (d)  Waterproofing

      (e)  Sump or drain

      (f)  Quantity and location of cable
racks, hooks, and insulators

      (g)  Ground rod and ground cable

      (h)  Grounding of cable racks and
lead cable sheaths

  c.  Primary Cables

    (1)  Inspect splicing kits and methods

    (2)  Check qualification of cable


     (3)  Check cables for insulation,
shielding, stranding, jacket or sheath
and voltage rating.
     (4)  Examine potheads and pothead
     (5)  Check during installation:
       (a)  Type of pulling compounds
(Grease or oil base compounds will
deteriorate rubber coverings.)
       (b)  Setup of reels  (Do not Kink).
       (c)  Cable sealed for pulling
       (d)  Abrasion to sheaths on  manhole
       (e)  Even tension used in cable
       (f)  Cable routing in manhole
       (g)  Splicing or terminating of  cable
       (h)  Conductor identification  tags
       (i)  Stress cones at splices and


      (j)  Ground shielding at splices
and potheads

      (k)  Abrasion or damage to cable by
dragging on ground

      (1)  Fireproofing cables in manhole
when specified

      (m)  Required tests

  d.  Direct Burial Cable

    (1)  Check protective covering or
armor.  Check manufacturer's designation
for use.  Compare material with approval

    (2)  Check during installation:

      (a)  Type of bedding and covering
(should be smooth and free of stones and
sharp objects)

      (b)  Use of untreated plank over
cable when specified

      (c)  Method of laying

      (d)  Weaving of cable in trench

      (e)  Radius of bends


      (f)  Splices (minimization)

      (g)  Use of approved splicing kits

      (h)  Installation of concrete cable
markers with letter and arrow

      (i)  Conduits with bushings under
traffic crossings

      (j)  Spacing between cables

      (k)  Compaction over cables

  e.  Potheads

    (1)  Check size for the conductors or

    (2)  Check stuffing box or wiping

    (3)  Verify that compound is approved
and installed as required.

    (4)  Make sure that installation is by
a qualified splicer.

    (5)  Check stress cones.

    (6)  Test compound for correct pouring


  f.    Transformers in Fenced Enclosures

     (1)  See that ferrous materials are
protected with galvanized finish or are

     (2)  Insure transformers, potheads,
fused cutouts and lightning arresters
conform with the electrical characteris-
tics specified and/or approved.

     (3)  Check installation of primary
and secondary cabling for stress cones,
waterproof connections, and insulators.

     (4)  Check during installation:

        (a)  Swing of gates

        (b)  Drainage of transformer pad

        (c)  Elevation of transformer off-

        (d)  Grounding of all noncurrent
carrying metal within the enclosure

        (e)  Grounding of the fence and gate

        (g)  Bonding of a-11 metal conduits


terminating in the transformer enclosure
to the grounding system.

      (h)  Proper warning signs affixed
to enclosure fence

      (i)  Welds on fence structure are
protected in accordance with specifications

                CHAPTER 307

Para.              Title             Page

307-01  GENERAL                      307-1

307-02  SHOP DRAWINGS                307-2

307-03  ANODES                       307-2

307-04  CONDUCTORS                   307-3

307-05  CONDUCTOR CONNECTIONS        307-3

307-06  INSULATING JOINTS            307-3

307-07  BONDING                      307-3

307-08  TEST POINTS                  307-4

        TURES                        307-4
        STRUCTURES                   307-4

307-11  AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT          307-4


        a.  Impressed Current
            System                   307-5

                Chapter 307
Para.              Title             Page

        b.  Sacrificial Type Anode
            System (using Metallic
            Anodes without external
            power supply)            307-5

        c.  Starting and Adjusting   307-5

        d.  Recording                307-5

                CHAPTER 307

307-01.  GENERAL

  a.  Cathodic protection is provided to
preserve underground or underwater metallic
structures including submerged interior sur-
faces of water storage tanks from corrosion.
Corrosion takes place at points where elec-
tric current leaves the metal and travels
through ground or electrolyte to another
metal or to a different place on the same
pipe or structure.  Corrosion is arrested
when an electromotive force is impressed
on an underground or underwater metallic
structure in such a way as to make the
entire structure cathodic with respect to
the adjacent soil or water.

  b,  Cathodic protection can be provided
as described above or in the following man-
ner:  Sacrificial galvanic anodes are used
having a difference of potential with
respect to the structure to be protected.
The anodes are made of a material, such as
magnesium or zinc, which is anodic with
respect to the protected structure.  The
galvanic-anode system is designed to deliver
relatively small currents from a large
number of anodes.



  a.  The following items, if required in
the work, must be approved prior to

      Anodes         Electrical boxes
      Conductors     Splicing materials
      Rectifiers     'Anode hangers for tanks
      Conduit        Transformers

  b.  Check material brought to the job
site against the approved shop drawings.

307-03.  ANODES

  a.  Be sure the anodes are not broken
while being installed.  (Some anodes, such
as duriron, are very brittle.)

  b.  Do not vary the spacing of the anodes
more than 5% either way.

  c.  The location of the anode bed should
not be changed without consulting your

  d.  Be sure anodes are installed in
accordance with design and specification.



   The insulation on the conductors must not
be damaged during construction on impressed
current systems.  If it is damaged, the con-
ductor may soon be destroyed by electrolytic


   Assure that joints are mechanically and
electrically secure and that they are water-

   Determine if insulating joints in pipe
structures are required*  Install in
accordance with construction drawings.  The
insulating joints are used to accomplish
the following:  (1)  Isolate dissimilar met-
tals; (2) Sectionalize pipe lines with dissi-
milar coatings;(3) Sectionalize one cathodic
protection system from another.

307-07.  BONDING

   a.  See that pipe joints are bonded (if
called for in the contract) before the
pipe line is backfilled.

   b.  Be sure that bonds to other piping
systems or structures are installed.  If
they are the resister type, see that they
are adjusted.

307-08.  TEST POINTS

  Test points must be located exactly as
shown on contract drawings.


  a.  Foreign pipes and structures may
require cathodic protection.

  b.  If you should discover, in the
vicinity of the cathodic protection
system, underground metal pipes or tanks
that were unkown to the designer, bring
them to your supervisor's attention.


  a.  Backfill of pipes and tanks must not
contain rock or materials which would
damage the coating on the structure or

  b.  Check to see that only specified
types of backfill are used.  Cinder back-
fill should never be used.


  Check the installation of the rectifiers,
transformers, conduit and other electrical
equipment using applicable parts of Chapter
306 of this Guide.



  a.  Impressed Current System

    Inform your supervisor when the
installation is complete.

  b.  Sacrificial type anode system (Using
Metallic Anodes without External Power

    Inform your supervisor when the
system is complete, prior to bonding the
anodes to the structure.

  c.  Starting and Adjusting

    Do not start the system to make
adjustments.  Your supervisor will obtain
the services of one qualified in cathodic
protection systems to perform these

  d.  Recording

    Obtain a copy of the readings taken
by the cathodic protection expert, includ-
ing the potential measurements of the pipe
before and after protection is applied,
rectifier current and voltage readings
for each set of potential measurements
after the system is connected.  These


readings should be kept in the job
records and turned over to the Using
Agency when the work has been completed

                      CHAPTER 308

Para.                     Title

308-01          GENERAL

                a.  Scope
                b.  Scheduling and De-
                    livery                     308-1
                c.  Approval of Equipment      308-2
                d.  Layout                     308-2

                EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION         308-2

                a.  Foundations                308-2
                b.  Grouting                   308-3
                c.  Alignments                 308-4
                d.  Flexible Couplings         308-4
                e.  Vibration Isolators        308-5
                f.  Marking of Equipment       308-5
                g.  Electrical Work            308-5
                h.  Welding                    308-5
                i.  Lubrication                308-5
                j.  Operation and Testing      308-6

                EQUIPMENT                      308-6

308-04          SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT             308-13

                Chapter 308

Para.               Title               Page

308-04  a.  Pumps (Excluding
            Water Pumps)                308-13
        b.  Sewage Treatment            308-21
        c.  Water Distribution          308-30
        d.  Generating Units            308-34
        e.  Elevators                   308-38
        f.  Cranes and Hoists           308-41
        g.  Incinerators                308-42

                    CHAPTER 308

308-01  GENERAL

     a.  Scope

          This chapter covers the installation
of the most common types of the various
electrical and mechanical equipment in-
stalled on construction projects.  There are
equipment types which are not covered in
this chapter, but the check list items
included herein will assist the inspector
in recognizing equipment deficiencies
regardless of type.

     b.  Scheduling and Delivery

          (1)  Determine that shop drawings and
data on each piece of equipment will be
submitted in time to obtain approval, and
avoid delaying the contract.

          (2)  Make sure that delivery of equip-
ment is scheduled so that the equipment
may be hauled from the point of delivery
and set in place; and that if premature
shipment is made, adequate storage
facilities are provided.


     (3)  Coordinate between the shipment
of equipment and  the progress of construc-
tion to avoid delaying or  tearing out
construction to get equipment into the
building.  Also determine  that access to
the  building and  to the location where the
equipment will be installed will be avail-
able when equipment is delivered.

     (4)  Check other construction for
elimination of possible conflicts, i.e.,
floors drains, underground utilities, etc.

  c.  Approval of Equipment

     As soon as equipment arrives on the
job, check it against each detail and re-
quirement on the  approved shop drawing.
Anything that is  not understood should be
reviewed with the supervisor.

  d.  Layout

    Determine at  an early stage of construc-
tion that the equipment will fit into the
available space.  If there is any question,
obtain a layout drawing from the contractor


  a.   Foundations


    (1)  Correlate location with approved
shop drawings.

    (2)  Determine width and length.

    (3)  Note the isolation of foundation

    (4)  Verify equipment clearances.

    (5)  Anchor Bolts

       (a)  Check layout and details of

       (b)  Check anchor-bolt location
with template and install pipe-sleeves to
provide means of lateral adjustment and
threaded extension beyond concrete.

       (c)  Plug or cap sleeves prior to
placing concrete for foundations.

       (d)  Note for protection of anchor
bolts.  Grease if necessary.

    (6)  Inspect surface finishes, true
plane surfaces, or step construction as

  b•  Grouting;  Check:

    (1)  The use of non-shrinking grout.


    (2)  The filling of all voids.

    (3)  The use of steel shims.

    (4)  Grouting after equipment is
aligned and bolts pulled down snug.

    (5)  If leveling screws have been
released after grout has set and before
tightening anchor bolts.

  c«  Alignment; Check:

    (1)  Alignment at time of installation.

    (2)  Permissible tolerances.

    (3)  Alignment before and after operation.

    (4)  Dowelling of equipment subject to

    (5)  External connections to equipment
to see that they are self supporting.

  d.  Flexible Couplings; Check:

    (1)  Installation.

    (2)  Alignment.

    (3)  Clearances.


    (4)  For application of necessary oil
or grease.

  e.  Vibration Isolators; Check:

    (1)  The use of flexible connections.

    (2)  Manufacturer's data for details of
installation and permissible loading.

  f.  Marking of Equipment

    Verify that manufacturer's nameplates,
equipment serial numbers, or code stamps
are not covered or hidden from view by
paint or insulation.

  g.  Electrical Work

    (Refer to Chapter 305)

  h.  Welding

    (Refer to Chapter 203)

  i.  Lubrication

    (1)  Prior to operation, assure that
tanks are filled and manufacturer's lubrica-
tion instructions are followed.

    (2)  Check the type of lubricant.


    (3)  Recheck oil sumps after operation.

  j.  Operation and Testing

    (1)  See that all required tests are
performed as specified.

    (2)  Assure that the contractor performs
the tests under the supervision of the manu-
facturer's representative, if required.

    (3)  Make sure all test results are
recorded and that a copy is obtained.


  a.  Look for physical damages caused by
handling or shipping.

  b.  Verify compliance with approved shop

  c.  Inspect materials of construction.

  d.  Verify capacities and ratings.

  e.  Assure the presence of guarding
devices for all moving parts.

  f.  Determine that electrical grounding
is provided for specified equipment, and
test to assure the same.


     g.   See that operation, maintenance,
and installation instructions are furnished.
     h.   Determine lubrication requirements
and check same.
     a.   Pumps (Excluding Water Pumps)
          (1)  General
               (a)  Determine that certified test
curves are furnished for each type of pump.
               (b)  See that operation, mainte-
nance and installation instructions are
               (c)  Note type of bearings.

      (d) Check type of seal,
      (e) Determine lubrication requirements.
      (f) Determine water cooling requirements.
      (g) Verify adjustment of stuffing-box
glands and leakage of seals.
      (h) Observe the direction of rotation.
      (i) Examine guard device over couplings.
      (j) Note electric motor drivers under
operation.                                /
    (2) Positive Displacement Pump
          Check by-pass or leak-off protection,
in the event of a closed discharge.
    (3) Centrifugal Pump; Check:
      (a) Type of casing and material.
      (b) Inherent self-priming features.

      (c) Vent facilities on top of casings

    (4)  Deep Well Turbine Type Pump

      (a) Obtain and record the impeller clearance
settings as made by the pump manufacturer's
service engineer.

      (b) Check pumps for nonreversing ratchet
or restrietor.

      (c) Verify overhead clearance and openings
in slab above for removal of pumps.

      (d) Insure minimum submergence setting.

      (e) See that vents are installed at the
high point of all pumps.

      (f) Note bowl serial numbers to assure
correct assembly when field assembled.

      (g) Inspect bowl alignment.

      (h) Examine the check-valves installed
between gate-valve and pump.

      (i) Determine that pump setting is level
and plumb.

     b.  Sewage Treatment Plants

          (1)  Sewage Bar Screens and Shredder

               (a)  See that bars are parallel to
one another, equally spaced, and in the
same plane of travel as the rakes.

               (b)  Observe the adjustment of teeth
on rakes for proper mating with bar screen
along entire travel.  Reject rakes with
damaged teeth.

      (c) Determine that manufacturer's represent-
ative adjusts tension of sprocket chains.

      (d) Notice rake wiper for efficient cleaning
of rakes.

      (e) Examine shock abosrber for elimination
of excessive wiper shock and for smooth operation.

      (f) See that complete assembly is set in
concrete so that no water is by-passed between
concrete and equipment.

      (g) Require contractor to furnish competent
engineer to instruct government representative in
operation and maintenance.

      (h) Witness operational tests for equipment
performance required by specification.

      (i) Obtain special tools, if required

    (2)  Grit Chamber; Check:

      (a) Elevation and level of proportional

      (b) Rake travel to see that it is parallel
with floor'of chamber.

      (c) Rake clearance for agreement with
approved shop drawings.

      (d) Sprocket chain tension and adjusting

      (e) Conduct operational tests as required.

    (3)  Settling Chambers (Sedimentation Tanks)

      (a) Rectangular and Circular

        K  Assure that all embedded items are
installed and are properly located.

        2.  Examine elevations of concrete baffles
and scum troughs.

        3..  Observe and record all recommendations
and settings made by manufacturer's representative
supervising installation of equipment.

        4_.  Evaluate adjustable weirs for eleva-
tion, level and range of travel.

        JK  Note adjusting mechanism of chain
drive for easy operation and for sufficient range
to procure proper tension in chain.
        (L  Inspect scum pipes for level and
        _7.  Require lubrication with recommended
lubricants prior to initial start-up.
        £L  View sprocket-shell bearings for
cleanliness, freedom from binding, and smoothness
of bearing surface.
        £.  Check sprocket teeth for defects and
for meshing accurately with chain.
       10.  See that shafting is level, plumb,
and free from rotation.
       11.  Check chain for damaged links.
     (b) Rectangular
        1_.  Examine skimming run support for
        2.  See that angle track is level and
aligned with forward sprocket.

      (c) Circular

        K  Observe whether top of tank is level.

        2.  Inspect skimmer arm, blade, and recep-
tacle for rigid support and assembly.  Verify
blade clearance.

    (4) Dosing Chambers

      (a) Cheek weirs for proper elevation and

      (b) Check all siphon placement dimensions
and position.

      (c) Observe adjustment and operation of
weir plates or stop planks.
                                            . ••••*
      (d) Verify location of trap open-vent pipe
so that sewage does not discharge directly into
      (e) Observe setting of bell with respect
to top of main trap pipe.

      (f) Assure that invert of vent and overflow
pipe is above the maximum discharge level of the

       (g) During preliminary testing of tank,
check maximum and minimum discharge levels and
the level at which the siphon stops operating
(minimum drawdown level).

      (h) Conduct operating tests as required.

      (i) Contractor must furnish competent
engineer, or superintendent, as necessary to
provide proper installation and adjustments,
to conduct tests, and to instruct government
representatives in proper operation.

    (5)  Trickling Filter; Check:

      (a) Filter media for size.

      (b) That media material is protected from
contaminants if stockpiled prior to placement in

      (c) For rejection of filter media that has
been contaminated with nonremovable material such
as oils, grease, soil, etc.

      (d) Placing of filter material.

      (e) Against contamination after finished
placement of filter media.

      (f) Underdrains, for uniform bearing over
the entire bottom of each block.  See

that cross joints are staggered in adjacent rows.
      (g) Air duct for blockages.
      (h) That blocks in drainage channel are not
moved by placement of filter media.
    (6)  Distributors
      (a) Fixed Nozzle
        1-  Check stability and calking in joint
of piping laid within filter.
        2.  Note spray nozzles for effective and
uniform distribution of sewage over entire filter
        3..  Assure furnishing of spare nozzles.
        £.  Perform operating tests as required.
      (b) Rotary
        X-  Assure uniform distribution of sewage
over entire filter bed.
        2.  Examine distributor arm flushing
valve for tightness and freedom of operation.

        _3.  Replace nozzles that do not show
uniform flow characteristics.

        4^  Assure that distributor arms are
level guyed.

        J5.  Inspect seal for operation and for

        (>.  Witness operation of arms at minimum
heads for starting and for operation.  Complete
cycle through all heads to maximum.

        7_.  See that motion of arms is parallel
to surface of media.

    (7)  Sludge Digester

      (a) Observe all embedded items for proper

      (b) Evaluate all cover seals for gas

      (c) Note overall inside diameter of tank of
floating cover digesters for roundness and

      (d) Examine cover rollers for clean bear-
ings, ease of greasing operation, and alignment
of rollers and guides.

      (e) Inspect heating system piping for tight-
ness, materials, and secure fastening.

      (f) Assure that elevation of all cover
rests are the same on floating cover digesters.

      (g) Check sludge draw-off piping for loca-
tion and rigid support.

      (h) See that all heating system lines, gas
lines, feed pipes, and supernatant lines are
flushed prior to operation.

      (i) Assure that all debris is cleaned from
interior of structure.

      (j) Check center post installation for
plumbness and rigidity.

      (k) Examine sludge mixer and scum breaker
for operating ease and settings.

      (1) Witness and record tests and adjust-
ments made by manufacturer's representatives.

      (m) Refer to Chapter 203 for Welding.

      (n) See that all manholes and openings
through cover are gas-tight.

         (o)   Note all sensing locations for
thermometers and controls.

         (p)   Verify that speed of mixer is
set by manufacturer's representative or

         (q)   Watch setting of gas pressure
regulating valve.

         (r)   Check the use of flexible hose
with double unions, in cold water connection
to heating system.

         (s)   Obtain any special tools required.

         (t)   Perform operating tests as

         (u)   Require contractor to furnish
competent engineer for instructional

     c.  Water Distribution

         (1)   Pumps

               (a)  Be familiar with all pumps
manufacturer's recommendations, with
Hydraulic Institute's standards, and see
that installation is in accord with same.

      (b) Determine that adequate foundation is

      (c) Verify the use of a direct drive pump
when such is specified.

      (d) See that pump can be dismantled without
disturbing pipe connections or the alignment of

      (e) Assure that bronze parts are where

      (f) Check freedom of movement of impeller
and shaft.

      (g) Assure that water-seal is provided with
proper type and size of packing.

      (h) Inspect for necessary air cocks, drain
plugs, gages, and relief valves.

      (i) Determine whether gasoline engine is
required and check out same.  (Use check list
for Generator Units, included in this chapter.)

      (j) Check controls to see that they func-
tion as specified.

               (k)  See that all gears, couplings,
projecting set screws, keys, and other
rotating or reciprocating parts are fully
enclosed or properly guarded.

               (1)  Make sure that instruction book,
tools, and pump characteristic curves have
been obtained from contractor.

               (m)  Examine Hydraulic Institute's
standards and NFPA Standard No. 20 or
American Standard B 58.1.  See that tests
are made in accordance with their require-

          (2)  Water Tanks and Stand Pipes

               (a)  Check foundation construction
against plans, specifications, and shop
drawings, and be sure to compare approved
shop drawings for foundation with fabricated
column base plates.

               (b)  Closely compare steel erection
with approved shop drawings.

               (c)  Check the erection of steel,
using Chapter 202 and Chapter 203 as reference.
               (d)  Examine the layout of valve

chamber to see that there is adequate room
for later maintenance of all parts.

               (e)  Make sure all required checks,
gates, altitude valves, and pressure gages
are installed.

               (f)  Affirm that the results of the
hydrostatic test are^satisfactory.

               (g)  Check the installation of such
items as cathodic lightning protection.

               (h)  Determine whether there is a
complete shop coat coverage and that the
tank receives the specified finish paint.

     d.   Generating Units

          (1)  See that contractor has verified
all dimensions.

          (2)  See 301-02, b, c,
and d for checking piping and fittings,
and 305-25 for electrical features.

          (3)  Determine that skilled workmen
are being employed.

          (4)  Assure easy access to all parts
of the engine.

          (5)  Examine fuel handling and storage

               (a)  Observe tank installation.
               (b)  Check manhole construction;
observe for watertight cover, and for the
height of manhole cover.
          (6)  Assure necessary access doors in
          (7)  Check the water level.
          (8)  Check for excessive vibration.
          (9)  Observe adjustment of V belt
dri ves.
          (10)  When operating the engine, check
for excessive smoke, overheating, etc.
          (11)  Check day tank installation.
               (a)  Watch mounting and method of
               (b)  Determine that high level cutoff
switch is properly installed.
          (12)  Make sure approved tanks are
installed as specified.
               (a)  See that tanks are kept clean
during installation.

         (b)   Check cleaning operation and
its results.

         (c)   Examine priming and painting

         (d)   Holiday test the tanks as
necessary to assure a complete prime and
paint job.

         (e)   Check voltage of holiday

         (f)   Continually watch for abrasions,

         (g)   Carefully watch backfill
operation,  checking compaction and watching
for any possible damage to tank or piping.

  '      (h)   See that all bare places on
exterior of tank are repaired with hot

         (i)   Check cleaning of interior

     (13) Check the installation, anchorage,
and support of all piping.  This includes
the exhaust piping and muffler.

     (14) Make sure that all pipes, valves,
fittings, pumps, etc., for the fuel and

lubricant systems are shipped to the job
with ends closed.  Check when installed
to assure cleanliness, and continue to
guard against the entrance of dirt and
foreign matter into the equipment.

     (15) Examine the acid cleaning, the
neutralization, and the drying of the
interior of the fuel piping systems.

     (16) Note the requirement for expansion
joints; Check:

          (a)  Type furnished.

          (b)  Method of installation.
          (c)  Misalignments.

          (d)  Follow manufacturer's instruc-
tions to determine range of movement for
installing expansion joints.

     (17) Mufflers; Check:

          (a)  Type

          (b)  Method of mounting.

          (c)  Treatment for rust resistance,

       (d)  Noise level.
       (e)  Drain hole.
     (18)  Be alert for the requirements
concerning auxiliary equipment such as
silencers, special controls, trickle
chargers, filters, instrument boards,
static exciters, voltage regulators,
auxiliary compartments, and special tools.
     (19)  See that the required tests are
made.  Check:
       (a)  Safety circuit.
       (b)  Governor.
       (c)  FlyWheel.
       (d)  Accessibility of brush rigging.
       (e)  Performance.
       (f)  Controls and interlocks.
  e.   Elevators
     (1)  See paragraph 305-26 for
electrical features.
     (2)  See that equipment manufacturer's
name plate is in a conspicous location.

    (3)  See that the contractor has checked
equipment dimensions against the space available.

    (4)  Compare the features of the delivered
equipment with the approved shop drawings.

    (5)  Check for accessories that can be
provided with elevators, and which are often
specified; such as fan, telephone provisions,
light fixtures, convenience outlets, wrenches,
direction-light jewels, etc.

    (6)  Verify that ferrous metal meets salt-
spray fog test.

    (7)  Make sure that protection guards are
provided for moving parts.

    (8)  Check contract installation requirements
against the manufacturer's recommendations.  Call
your supervisor's attention to any differences.

    (9)  Check anchor bolts and conduits for
proper location.

   (10)  Check elevator mechanics' and welders'

    (11)  Carefully check all installations for
stability, specified connections, anchorage, etc.

    (12)  Determine the type of lubrication
required, and examine equipment for same.

    (13)  See that spare parts data is provided
for each item of equipment.

    (14) Operate the elevator to determine

    (15) Check out all safety features.

    (16) Installation of hoisting machinery may
require that construction of certain floor and/or
wall areas be deferred until installation is

    (17)  Guard open shaftways until doors are

    (18)  Guide rail installation will be rigidly
supported and plumb.

    (19) Inspect hoisting cables after installa-
tion for possible damage during the construction

    (20)  Inspect spare parts and operation

gear for completeness and application to
the installation.
     (21)  Assure that required tests are
performed and that all data is recorded.
     (22)  Check to see that rigid tests
have been accomplished to proved conformance
with all specified safety standards.
  f.   Cranes and Hoists
     (1)  Compare the capacity of equipment
with requirements.
     (2)  Check track for:
       (a)  Size of members.
       (b)  Method of supporting and
       (c)  Stability and minimum sway.
       (d)  Being level and parallel.
       (e)  End-of-track stops or bumpers.
       (f)  The way wheels ride on track.
     (3)  Confirm that clearances are
provided for required operation.


     (4)  Check ease of operation of

     (5)  Determine if all the various
specified speeds can be obtained.

     (6)  Check if all safety devices such
as limit switches, brakes, etc., have been
furnished, connected and function as

     (7)  See that specified tests are
performed and recorded.

     (8)  Check weldiig and connecting of

  g.   Incinerators

     (1)  Make sure that the construction
is in exact accordance with approved shop
drawings.  Check dimensions very carefully

     (2)  Check construction and thickness
of firebrick in furnace and flue connec-
tions.  Watch for:
       (a)  Width of joints.

       (b)  Wall thickness.

       (c)  Handle of arches and circular


      (d) Size of baffle.
      (e) Brick laid on edge in hearths  and
      (f) Installation of expansion joints.
      (g) Bracing.
    (3)  Check casting and bonding of refractory
casting when same is used.
    (4) See that insulating brick is installed
in specified location.
    (5) See Chapter 204 for installation of
exterior wall brick.
    (6) Assure that there is at least a  2"  sepa-
ration between exterior walls and fire brick
lining of chimney.
    (7) Check chimney for-
      (a) Cleanout door and frame.
      (b) Concrete protective cap.
      (c) Spark screen.
    (8) Assure the installation of a


safety rail around charging throats and
     (9)  Check for the installation of
such items as:
       (a)  Dampers.
       (b)  Auxiliary burners.
       (c)  Test pipes.
       (d)  Instruments.
     (10)  Determine if other equipment
such as can-washing of forced-draft is
specified and check same.
     (11)  Require that all necessary
operating tools have been furnished.
     (12)  See that the unit is dried out
in accordance with requirements.
     (13)  Assure that operating tests are
conducted and that results have been
                    308- 33

                     CHAPTER 401
                  PILE CONSTRUCTION

Para.                   Title                 Page

401-01     GENERAL                            401-1

401-02     GENERAL REQUIREMENTS               401-1

401-03     TESTS AND RECORDS                  401-9

           a.  Tests                          401-9
           b.  Records                        401-9

401-04     INSPECTION                         401-10

           a.  Steel Pile - H Piles,
                Pipe Piles, Sheet
                Piling                        401-10
           b.  Timber Pile (Round)            401-12
           c.  Timber Pile (Sheet)            401-15
           d.  Concrete Sheet Piling          401-15
           e.  Precast Concrete Piling        401-16
           f.  Cast-In-Place Concrete
                 Piles                        401-18

401-05     INSTALLATION                       401-19

           a.  General                        401-19
           b.  Concrete Pile                  401-20
           c.  Driving for Resistance         401-20
           d.  Overdriving                    401-21
           e.  Tolerances                     401-22

                 CHAPTER 401
401-01.  GENERAL

  Information contained in this chapter
applies in general to pile driving on any
project; specific information pertaining
to a particular project should be obtained
from your supervisor and from the plans
and specifications.  If a conflict exists
between this chapter and the contract
plans and specifications, the contract
will govern.


  a.  Check use of pile, i.e., point
bearing or friction.

  b.  Check whether piles are to be driven
to refusal, a specified bearing or depth.

  c.  Check workmanship, materialsr and
line and grade of completed work.

  d.  Maintain all required records.

  e.  Reject unsatisfactory materials.

  f.  Check testing of materials.


    (1)  At source of supply

    (2)  On site

  g.  Checks Prior to Driving

    (1)  Check pile lengths required and
bearing capacity of piles.

    (2)  Check borings to determine the
driving resistances to be expected and
types of material to be encountered.

    (3)  Check piles as delivered to site
and mark piles which are not acceptable.

    (4)  Check piles for length and have
lengths indicated on piles near top.

    (5)  Check piles made up for specific
locations; have the pile location number
painted on the pile.

    (6)  Check out pile driving equipment
for size and condition.  Check boiler in-
spection certificate and other safety re-
quirements where steam or compressed air
is used.  Continue checking daily.

    (7)  Obtain and study the brochure
printed by the pile hammer manufacturer


pertaining to its use in order to become familiar
with its capabilities and limitations.

     (8)  Check types of special piles and
obtain the brochures or pamphlets put out
by the manufacturers of these piles to be-
come familiar with the methods of handling,
inspecting and driving.

     (9)  Check for pile numbering plan.
Enter in your report the order in which
they are driven.

    (10)  Check that heads are flat and
smooth and are normal to the longitudinal

  h.   Checks During Driving

     (1)  Check and record care in handling
piles, overdriving, hitting obstructions,
driving out of plumb, retardation of
stroke and sequence of driving.

     (2)  Check and record strata into which
piles are driven and depths.  Check against
profile of borings.

     (3)  Check that records include type
of pile, length used, type and size of
hammer, manufacturer, strokes per minute,

blows per foot, number of blows per
inch of penetration, elevations of pile
butt and tip after driving.

    (4)  Check that approval is obtained
for relocation of piles or driving addi-
tional piles.

    (5)  Check the behavior of the pile
during driving.

     (a)  Check hardness of driving at
various depths against the strata shown on
the boring log.

     (b)  Check for deviations which in-
dicate broken piles, obstructions or
driving irregularities.

    (6)  Check steel driving shoes used on
wood or concrete piles.  Check damage to
pile tip by pulling an occasional pile.

    (7)  Check that piles are driven con-
tinuously.  If driving is suspended, note
the tip grade at the time of the shutdown
and the duration of the delay.

    (8)  Check uplift on piles.

     (a)  Check when piles are driven in

groups or clusters for heaving of earth
around the piles.

      (b)  Check grades on piles after
they are driven and later rechecked.

      (c)  Check with your supervisor if
heaving occurs.

    (9)  Check that use of small tips is
avoided.  Check damage to tips on wood
piles by pulling an occasional pile.

    (10)  Check for preparation of pile
schedule and lengths.

      (a)  Drive several piles adjacent to
boring locations.

      (b)  Note blows per foot for «ach

      (c)  Compare (b) with boring data.
    (11)  Check that piles are set verti-
cally, or, if batter piles, on the axis
which they are to follow.  Check that the
hammer is centered over the pile.

    (12)  Check use of templates or timber
bracing for guiding piles when driving
without leads.


      (a)  Check deviation from proper lo-
cation.  Cut off and abandon and drive new

      (b)  Pull and redrive.

    (13)  Check jetting is used only with
approval of supervisor.

      (a)  Check depth jetting permitted.

      (b)  Check for walking out of plumb
and loosening of piles previously driven.

      (c)  Check piles are redriven after
jetting in area is completed.

      (d)  Check possibility of damage to
existing structures if jetting permitted.

    (14)  Check lagging is used only with
prior approval.

    (15)  Check piles are not driven within
100 feet of concrete less than 7 days old.

    (16)  Check ownership and payment of
pile cut-offs.  Check if cut-off lengths
are excessive.

    (17)  Check your records indicate pay


    (18)  Check deviations from pile
schedule; notify your supervisor.

    (19)  Check pile driving is not
started until approval is secured as to
the type and weight of the hammer to be

  i.  Site Conditions, Inspection of

    (1)  Check for unfavorable conditions
such as rock, ledge, boulders  not indi-
cated on drawings, excessive soft spots,
crusts, old foundations disclosed during
construction, and report to your supervi-

    (2)  Check site conditions,including
lines, grades, foundation preparation, all
available boring information, right-of-
way, roadways, streams or other waterways,
terrain, and all driving conditions.

    (3)  Check equipment proposed for use
by the contractor will produce the fin-
ished work of required standards within
the scheduled time.

      (a)  Check size of hammer.

      (b)  Check type of driving hammer


bases, anvils and caps against type of

     (c)  Check followers are used only
with the approval of your supervisor.

     (d)  Check condition of hammer for
wear, improper adjustment, poor lubrica-
tion, long hose lengths, leaks and drops
in steam pressure.

     (e)  Check double-acting and
differential-acting hammers are run at
manufacturer's rated speeds.

  j.  Pile Driving Procedure

     (1)  Check with supervisor procedure
to be followed.

     (2)  Check formula to be used as a
guide in determining bearing capacity.

     (3)  Check minimum bearing value to be
obtained if not stated.

     (4)  Check with supervisor for blows
per inch (or fraction of an inch penetra-
tion) for the last ten blows to be
obtained when driving to refusal.

  a.  Tests
    (1)  Check test piles to be driven and
method of loading.

    (2)  Check time required between
driving and testing.

    (3)  Check test pile operation and log
all data.

  b.  Records - Check daily job records of
pile driving operations are complete and
contain the following information:

    (1)  Site

     (a)  Depth of water (if any).  (Con-
dition of bottom if pile driver is in

     (b)  Elevation of water surface,
tidal and stream flow or current observa-

     (c)  Elevation of ground surface.

     (d)  Ground-water elevation.

     'e)  Character of surface soil.


       (f)  Effect of pile driving on eleva-
tion of soil surface.

       (g)  Weather - Temperature, precipi-
tation, high winds.

       (h)  Ground surface - Depth of
frost (if any), wet, muddy, or dry.

     (2)  Location of Pile

       (a)  Identification by reference
number on plan approved for field use.

       (b)  Actual location as driven and
length of pile driven.

     (3)  Driving Record

       (a)  Pile Data - type and length used

       (b)  Hammer Data - type and size and
manufacturer of hammer used.

       (c)  Driving Data - blows per inch
penetration, and elevation of butt and tip
after driving.


   a.  Steel Pile - H Piles, Pipe Piles.
Sheet Piling

     (1)  Check upon delivery grade and
type of steel and mill certificates.


     (2)  Check diameter, weight and type.

     (3)  Check surface condition, condi-
tion of interlocks, condition of pile
point and pile head reinforcing or shaping.

     (4)  Check bends or flange injuries in
shipment or handling.

     (5)  Check for defective rivets or
welds, and fit at splices.

     (6)  Check certification of welders.

     (7)  Check number of splices per pile.

     (8)  Check storage and handling

     (9)  Check interlock dimensions for
interchanges and placing of piles for lo-
cation, spacing, direction and threading
of interlock of sheet piles.

     (10)  Check driving operations do not
rupture interlock.

     (11)  Check on enclosed sheet pile
structures for accuracy of initial pile
location and plumbness.

     (12)  Check last closure pile is driven
free without jamming or causing damage of

     (13)  Check splices are staggered, and
allowable splices per pile.


    (14)  Check cutoff elevations and
allowable tolerances.

    (15)  Check handling and pulling holes
are provided.

    (16)  Check expansion and contraction
allowances on walers.

    (17)  Check caps are not placed before
sway bracing, welding, etc. is completed.

    (18)  Check concrete is not dumped in
pipe piles through water.

    (19)  Check sheet piling is left
slightly higher than cutoff elevation.

    (20)  Check every tenth sheet pile is
pinned to prevent walking and to maintain

    (21)  Check that steel pile tops frayed
or battered during driving are cut off.

  b.  Timber Pile (Round)

    (1)  Check type of timber as delivered.

    (2)  Check dimensions and straightness
of the pile.

    (3)  Check for decay, knots, splits,
shakes, crooks and bends.

    (4)  Check preparation of points and
heads for driving.

    (5)  Check method and amount of treat-
ment required.

    (6)  Check removal of bark.

    (7)  Check treated timber piling is
not handled with cant dogs, spike poles, or

    (8)  Check all cuts and breaks are

    (9)  Check use of collars or bands.

    (10)  Check the head of a timber pile
is recut, if broomed.

    (11)  Check that driving of piles
beyond the point of refusal is not per-

    (12)  Check cutoffs for all struc-
tures .

    (13)  Check bolt holes.

      (a)  Check holes bored for drift
bolts are I/16-inch smaller in diameter
than the drift bolt.

      (b)  Check holes in treated piles
and timbers are filled with hot creosote
and where not used tightly closed by a
treated plug.

      (c)  Check that holes are not bored
or spikes driven in treated piles to sup-
port scaffolding.

    (14)  Check treated piles are cut off
only during favorable weather.

    (15)  Check cutting of treated spread-
ers, walers and piles is not done to per-
mit fitting, unless approved.

    (16)  Check ends of bolts and tie rods
extending more than 3 inches beyond the
nut are cut off to that length.  Ends of
all bolts shall be bent or battered after
the nut is tight.

    (17)  Check bolts and tie rods have at
least 3 inches of threads remaining under
the nut after tightening the nut.

    (18)  Check walers for overlap, each

on each, and that proper number of piling
is included in the overlap.

    (19)  Check washers for make, weight,
shape and size.

  c.  Timber Pile (Sheet)

    (1)  Check on-site fabrication (Wake-
field) for surfacing, grade and size of
lumber; size and length of nails, spikes
or bolts; proper dimensioning of fabrica-
ted work (tongue-and-groove dimensions);
required nailing or fastening procedures.

    (2)  Check used Wakefield piling for
tongue-and-groove dimensions, suitability
of piling and proper lengths.

    (3)  Check painting of piles.

    (4)  Check nailing of driven piles is
such as to prevent springing.

    (5)  Check liners and caps installa-

  d.  Concrete Sheet Piling

    (1)  Check tongue-and-groove inter-
locks are not chipped, cracked or broken.

    (2)  Check units are of uniform shape,
true, and straight.  Warped, bent or broken
piles shall be rejected.

    (3)  Check interlocks are fully
grouted, where watertightness is required.

  e.  Precast Concrete Piling

    (1)  Check quality of the concrete.

       (a)  Record concrete mix used.

       (b)  Check for conformance with
approved mix.

    (2)  Check reinforcement is free from
rust and scale and placed properly.

    (3)  Check casting yard operations for
the following:

       (a)  Casting floor will be firm.

       (b)  Width of pallet boards.

       (c)  All cut ends of reinforcing
tie wire are turned away from form sur-

       (d)  All inside surfaces of forms
are smooth and clean.


     (e)  Chamfer strip (if required) is
in place and firmly attached to form.

     (f)  Bracings and blocking between
and around each piling firm.

     (g)  Check pile forms are level and
straight with no openings.

     (h)  Check placing is continuous
from start to completion, beginning at the
head and working toward point.

     (i)  Check top surface is screeded
and brushed to a uniform, even texture
similar to that produced by the forms.

     (j)  Check upon completion of place-
ment, each pile is stamped or marked on
head and point to indicate date and length

     (k)  Check as soon as practical that
the lifting and stack points are painted
on each pile.
     (1)  Check curing.

     (m)  Check handling of pile is not
permitted until the required strength has
been attained.

     (n)  Check lifting cables are pro-


vided with some device to equalize the
pull at all lifting points.

  f.  Cast-In-Place Concrete Piles

    (1)  Check quality of the concrete.

      (a)  Record concrete mix used.

      (b)  Check for conformance with ap-
proved mix.

    (2)  Check reinforcement for cleanli-
ness and placement.

    (3)  Check the prepared pile hole, be-
fore placing reinforcement, to check full
dimensions and to see that no swelling or
movement of the soil occurs before pouring

    (4)  Check identification of casings
as delivered with those  inspected and
accepted at the manufacturer's plant.

    (5)  Check the driven casing for rup-
tures and plumbness before placing rein-
forcement or concrete, when the casing is
to be left in the ground.

    (6)  Check that prepared pile hole is
free of water before placing concrete.


    (7)  Check the elapsed time after
placing concrete before placing the load
on the pile.


  a.  General

    (1)  Check layout location for piles.

    (2)  Check template for sturdiness and

    (3)  Check pile hammer data before
driving commences.

    (4)  Check boiler certificate is ob-
tained from contractor if steam is used.

    (5)  Check handling of piles.  Insist
that pickup points be used.

    (6)  Check length and size of each
pile for required location.
    (7)  Check penetration of pile
immediately after setting and record in
Daily Driving Log.

    (8)  Check alignment laterally, longi-
tudinally and vertically; also batter
lines (if battered piles are required).


    (9)  Check cushion condition beneath
during actual driving operation.

    (10)  Check continuous driving until
required depth or penetration is attained.

  b.  Concrete Pile

    (1)  Check that precast concrete piles
are protected by means of driving heads.

    (2)  Check cast-in-place unit shells
are thoroughly cleaned out with air or
water jets and all water removed before
concrete is placed.

    (3)  Check reinforcing steel is rigid-
ly assembled, lowered into the shell, and
adequately secured in proper position
until concrete is placed.  Loose bars
shall not be permitted.

    (4)  Check provisions and method of
cutting and splicing.

  c.  Driving for Resistance

    (1)  Check that the ram is operating at
full stroke, rated speed, and under full
recommended pressure.

    (2)  Check any evidence of slowing
down of hammer.


     (3)  Check cushioning materials for
conformance with those anticipated in the
designer's resistance formulas.

     (4)  Check carefully the readings
taken immediately after resumption of

     (5)  Check Inside piles are driven
first, when piles are to be driven in

  d.  Overdriving

     (1)  Check against overdriving when
specific depths of penetration are un-
attainable due to some unforeseen con-
dition underground.

     (2)  Check sound and character of vi-
bration of the pile during driving for
evidence of overdriving.

     (3)  Check bouncing of hammer or
dissipation of the energy of "the blow in
bending or kinking of the pile as indica-
tions of overdriving.

     (4)  Check with supervisors the
advisability of pulling an occasional
pile to check for damage from over-


  e.  Tolerances

    (1)  Check permissible tolerances are

    (2)  Check guides and templates are
used to secure proper alignment until
penetration is sufficient to determine its

    (3)  Check springing of piles during
driving to bring them into proper align-

    (4)  Check tolerance in aligning and
plumbing foundation piles which are to be

    (5)  Check accuracy of line and plumb-
ness for trestles, docks, small column
footings and wall footings.

    (6)  Check piling is not trimmed or
cut to facilitate the framing of sway or
longitudinal bracing.

                CHAPTER 402
Para.              Title             Page

402-01  GENERAL                      402-1

402-02  GENERAL PROVISIONS           402-1

        a.  Lines and Grades         402-1
        b.  Conduct of the Work      402-2
        c.  Records                  402-3

402-03  CLEARING AND GRUBBING        402-3

402-04  STRIPPING                    402-3

        a.  Area Limits              402-3
        b.  Use of Topsoii           402-3
        c.  Stripping                402-3
        d.  Drainage Provisions      402-4

402-05  FILL MATERIALS     *          402-4

        a.  General                  402-4

402-06  EXCAVATION                   402-4

        a.  General                  402-4





b . Specific
c. Excavation Where
Blasting is Employed
a. Bond
b . Fill
c. Loosen Foundation
d . Cleanup
e. Rock Foundation Prep-
a. Rolled Fill
b. Hydraulic Fill for
a . General
b. Impervious Sections
c. Random Sections
d. Pervious Sections
f . Rock Fill Sections

Para.             Title                 Page

            a.  General                 402-12
            b.  Soil Types as Related
                 to Compaction          402-12
            c.  Methods of Compaction   402-13
            d.  Types of Compacting
                 Equipment              402-13
            e.  Moisture Density Rela-
                 tionship               402-16

402-11      HYDRAULIC FILL FOR LEVEES   402-17

            a.  Hydraulic Placement     402-17
            b.  Outlets                 402-17
            c.  Damage                  402-17
            d.  Rehandling of Hy-
                 draulic                402-17

402-12      DRESSING                    402-18

            a.  Overbuilding of Embank-
                 ment                   402-18
            b.  Final Grade  .           402-18
            c.  Roughness of Surface    402-18

402-13      STONE PROTECTION            402-18

            a.  Material                402-18
            b.  Placement               402-18
            c.  Gravel Surfacing        402-19

Para.             Title               Page

         LEVEES                       402-19

         a.  Homogeneous Material     402-19
         b.  Nonhomogeneous Mate-
              rial                    402-19

         LEVEES                       402-20

         a.  Tolerances               402-20
         b.  Shrinkage Allowance      402-20

         OF LEVEES                    402-20

         a.  Installation             402-20
         b.  Records and Mainte-
              nance                   402-20

          CHAPTER 402

402-01.   GENERAL

     This chapter covers all operations in
connection with preparing the embankment,
blanket foundations and placement and
compaction of all permanent fills and
backfills.  If a conflict should exist be-
tween this guide and the contract speci-
fications, the contract will govern.  All
conflicts will be reported to your super-


  a.   Lines and Grades

     (1)  Check extent of survey work to be
performed by the contractor and by the engineer,

     (2)  Check whether or not the engineer's
survey obligations have been met.

     (3)  Check, prior to start of work,
location of vertical and horizontal control
markers established by the engineer.

     (4)  Check that work area limits are


plainly marked prior to start of construc-
tion operations.

    (5)  Check work area limits against
real estate property limits to determine
ownership status.

    (6)  Check actual conditions of the
site of the proposed work for agreement
with the drawings.

    (7)  Check contractor's layout for
accuracy, control and agreement with lines
and grades on contract drawings.

    (8)  Check that original cross sec-
tions are taken before start of construc-

  b.  Conduct of  the Work

    (1)  Check protection of material,
work and existing structures.

    (2)  Check that haul roads are ap-
proved prior to use and maintained during

    (3)  Check rate of excavation from
approved borrow sources or areas of re-
quired excavation.

      (a)  Is stockpiling required?

      (b)  Do not permit unauthorized
wasting or borrowing.

  c.  Records
    (1)  Check with your supervisor prior
to the start of work as to type of reports
required, frequency, and data to be in-
cluded .

    (2)  Check on reasons for reports and
end use.


  Refer to Chapter 102.

402-04.  STRIPPING

  a.  Area Limits - Check,

  b.  Use of Topsoil
    (1)  Check stockpiling or borrowing.

    (2)  Check placement in work.

    (3)  Check wasting.

  c«  Stripping - Check depths.


  d.  Drainage Provisions - Check after


  a.  General

    (1)  Check sources.

    (2)  Check material in place for

    (3)  Check that unsuitable materials
are not placed.

    (4)  Check various types of fills and
the locations of each.


  a.  General

    (1)  Check use of suitable materials.

    (2)  Check disposal of materials to be

    (3)  Check location of work limits.

    (4)  Check controls, horizontal and

    (5)  Check grades on "cut" stakes.

  b.  Specific

    (1)  Check line and grade of founda-
tion excavation.

    (2)  Check excavated section of
channels and ditches.

    (3)  Check removal of unsuitable

    (4)  Check fill material from borrow.

    (5)  Check excavation areas for drain-

    (6)  Check use of interceptor ditches
to control runoff.

    (7)  Check finished slopes as excava-
tion progresses.

    (8)  Check slope tolerances as the
work progresses.

  c.  Excavation Where Blasting is

    (1)  Check for blasting pattern.


    (2)  Check use of test blasts before
starting a full scale blasting program.

    (3)  Keep a record of quantity of
powder used per blast, the number of the
fuse delays used, blasting caps, and the
depth and spacing of the holes.

    (4)  Check finished slopes in the
blasting area for fractures due to over

    (5)  Check size of blasted rock.

    (6)  Check on need of changing blast-
ing pattern.


  a.  Bond - Check bonding of foundation
material and fill.

  b.  Fill - Fill depressions with material
which is to be placed immediately above the

  c.  Loosen Foundation - Check that the
area is scarified, plowed or harrowed.

  d-  Cleanup - Check foundation is com-
pacted after removal of roots or other

debris turned up in the process of loosen-

  e.  Rock Foundation Preparation

    (1)  Check that all loose material is

    (2)  Checks of area to be in contact
with impervious materials.

      (a)  Rock Surface - Thoroughly
cleaned by washing and brooming.

      (b)  Cracks, joints and crevices
cleaned out using air and/or air-water

      (c)  Cleaned joints and cracks com-
pletely filled with portland cement mortar.

      (d)  Depressions or cavities satis-
factorily filled with impervious material
and compacted.  Cavities that cannot be
satisfactorily filled with earth shall be
filled with lean concrete.

      (e)  No mortar or lean concrete ap-
plied or left on smooth rock surfaces.

402-08.  PLACEMENT

  a.  Rolled Fill

    (1)  General

      (a)  Check embankment foundation
prior to placement of fill.

      (b)  Check during placement that the
embankment is free from lenses, pockets,
streaks, and layers of material differing
substantially in texture or gradation from
surrounding material.

      (c)  Check that fill is not placed on
frozen material, snow or ice, and that frozen
earth is not placed in the embankment.

      (d)  Check grade of temporary construc-
tion slopes.

      (e)  Check types of material:

        JU  Keep at same level unless other-
wise specified.

        2.  Check mixing of materials.

      (f)  Check layer thickness and com-
paction of hand placed material.

      (g)  Check surface drainage of com-
pleted portions.


     (2)  Controlling Factors

        (a)  Check thickness of layers.

        (b)  Check material, being placed,
for gradation at specific location.

        (c)  Check moisture content speci-
fied "after compaction".

        (d)  Check rate of placement.

        (e)  Check removal of oversize

        (f)  Check need for scarifying or
wetting layers exclusive of the rock fill.

        (g)  Compaction by Rolling Equip-
ment - Check as follows:

          1,.  Type of roller.

          2.  Number of passes.

          _3.  Number of rows when tamping
rollers used in tandem.  Note limitation on
tandem rollers in true alignment.

          _4.  Overlap of each pass.

          JK  Method used when compaction by
roller impossible.


  b.  Hydraulic Fill for Dams

    (1)  General

      (a)  Check for segregation during

      (b)  Check gradation of materials.

      (c)  Check slopes of impervious cen-
tral core and pervious shells.

      (d)  Check rate of construction.

    (2)  Controlling Factors

      (a)  Check gradation of the material
being supplied for the sluicing or pumping.

      (b)  Check the gradation of material
in the core.

      (c)  Check material J- the shell.

      (d)  Check core width.

      (e)  Check core is free of sand

      (f)  Check location of discharge


      (g)  Check consolidation of core.

      (h)  Check depth of core pool.


  a.  General

    (1)  Check moisture content of materials
to be placed.

    (2)  Check moisture content limits.

  b'  Impervious Sections

    (1)  Check for dryness.

    (2)  Check method of wetting:

      (a)  In borrow pit.

      (b)  On fill - Check uniform

    (3)  Check for too wet material in fill.
Dry each layer.

    (4)  Check need for water meter.

    (5)  Check moisture content after


   c.  Random Sections - Check that same
control is used as for impervious material
or pervious material.

   d.  Pervious Sections

     (1)  Check that water is added after
material has been spread on the embankment.

     (2)  Check method of wetting.

     (3)  Check that fines are not washed
out when wetted.

   e.  Filter Drainage Layers - No moisture
control required.

   f.  Rock Fill Sections - No moisture con-
trol required.

40 2-10.  COMPACTION

   a.  General

     (1)  Check compaction requirements for
various soils prior to start of work.

     (2)  Check testing.

     (3)  Check that compaction is obtained
within moisture content limits.

   b.  Soil Types as Related to Compaction


     (1)  Check specific types - Cohesion-
less, Cohesive and In-Between.

     (2)  Check methods of compaction for
various types.

   c.  Methods of Compaction - Compaction
can be accomplished by the following

     (1)  Surface Rolling - Check that fills
are built up in thin layers.

     (2)  Vibration - Check use for founda-
tion work, utilizing thin layers and
cohesionless soils.

     (3)  Water

        (a)  Check this method carefully on
other than controlled hydraulic fill opera-

        (b)  Check use as a supplement to
surface rolling and vibration.

     (4)  Tamping

        (a)  Check for uniformity in results.

        (b)  Check for use in areas that
cannot be reached by other methods.

   d.  Types of Compacting Equipment


    (1)  Tamping Sheepsfoot Roller

      (a)  Check for weight per linear
foot of drum, weighted and empty.

      (b)  Check number of units.

      (c)  Check length and diameter of

      (d)  Check length of projection of
feet from drum.

      (e)  Check face area of feet.

      (f)  Check spacing and staggering of

      (g)  Check device for cleaning feet.

      (h)  Check rolling units on multiple-
type tamping rollers for use on uneven
ground surfaces and independent rotation.

      (i)  Check speed of rolling.

    (2)  Rubber-tired Roller

      (a)  Check load per wheel.

      (b)  Check number of wheels.

      (c)  Check tires for size and operat-
ing pressures.


    (d)  Check position of wheels.

    (e)  Check spacing of wheels.

    (f)  Check speed of rolling.

  (3)  Crawler-Type Tractor

    (a)  Check size and weight.

    (b)  Check for use on cohesionless

  (4)  Electrical Vibrators

    (a)  Check vibrations per minute.

    (b)  Check area of contact.

    (c)  Check thickness of layers.

  (5)  Air Tampers

    (a)  Check coverage by operator.

    (b)  Check for use in restricted

    (c)  Check for thin lifts.

  (6)  Gasoline Driven Tamper


      (a)  Check use in trenches.

      (b)  Check coverage by operator.

      (c)  Check for thin lifts.

    (7)  Grid Roller

      (a)  Check for use in highway work.

      (b)  Check contact pressures.

    (8)  Segmented Roller

      (a)  Check for use on subbase and

      (b)  Check size.

    (9)  Vibratory Roller

      (a)  Check weight and number of vibra-
tions .

      (b)  Check for use on cohesionless

      (c) Check speed of rolling.

  e.  Moisture Density Relationship

    (1)  Check relationship between
moisture content and dry density under a
given corapactive effort.


    (2)  Check results of laboratory data
and field compaction.

      (a)  Check by field test section.

      (b)  Check by regular fill opera-
tions at start of job.


  a.  Hydraulic Placement - Check method
against approved plan of operations.

  b.  Outlets

    (1)  Check that waste water is
conducted away from embankment.

    (2)  Check frequency of outlets.

    (3)  Check that no obstruction is be-
tween end of discharge pipe and outlet.
    (4)  Check for transverse retaining

    (5)  Check pollution of stream at waste
water outlet.

  c.  Damage - Check discharge of waste

  d.  Rehandling of Hydraulic Material


     (1)  Check method, non-compacted or

     (2)  Check dryness of material.

402-12.  DRESSING

   a.  Overbuilding of Embankment - Check
that sufficient material is placed to per-
mit settlement and dressing to grade.

   b.  Final Grade - Check full section ob-
tained, considering tolerances.

   c.  Roughness of Surface - Check that
surface is free of depressions and has
uniform grade.


   a.  Material - Check stone against ap-
proval for quality and size.

   b.  Placement

     (1)  Check base for compaction and

     (2)  Check depth.

     (3)  Check gradation after placement.


    (4)  Check surface grades.

  c.  Gravel Surfacing

    (1)  Check gradation, coverage and

    (2)  Check segregation.


  a*  Homogeneous Material - Check use in

  b.  Nonhomogeneous Material

    (1)  Check use of impervious material,

    (2)  Check use of most pervious in
landside berms.

    (3)  Check whether pervious or
impervious to be used in riverside  ^rms.

    (4)  Check gradation of riverside im-
pervious facing.


  a.  Tolerances - Check permissible amount
in final dressing.

    (1)  Check grade of crown and side slopes

    (2)  Check no abrupt changes or de-
pressions .

  b.  Shrinkage Allowance

    (1)  Check shrinkage allowance for
that portion constructed by the uncom-
pacted fill method.

    (2)  Check shrinkage allowance for the
portion constructed by the semi-compacted
fill method.

  a.  Installation - Check type, arrange-
ment and spacing of these devices.

  b.  Records and Maintenance

     (1)  Check recording readings are

    (2)  Require maintenance of devices
during construction.

    (3)  Check payment provisions in event
of failure.





a. Type of Investigation
b. Equipment
c. Reports
d. Markers
a. Location
a . Type
b. Handling
a. General
b. Drilling and Sampling

                CHAPTER 404

404-01.  GENERAL

  This chapter covers the investigation of
the distribution, type, and physical prop-
erties of subsurface materials.  These in-
vestigations pertain to foundations, borrow,
and ground water.

  Subsurface investigations are usually
accomplished by drilling, auger boring, or
excavating test pits, trenches, or shafts.


  a.  Type of Investigation - Check purpose,
depth, type of materials, ground water
conditions prior to start.

  b.  Equipment

    (1)  Check that equipment to be used
will serve intended purpose.

    (2)  Study usages of various types of

  c.  Reports

    (1)  Check with supervisor as to re-
ports required and data to be submitted.


    (2)  Understand reasons for report data,

  d.  Markers - Check for installation of
permanent exploration markers.


  a.  Location

    (1)  Check each exploration is located
accurately by tie-in to survey grids or es-
tablished base lines.

    (2)  Check elevations are established
from existing vertical control.

    (3)  Check permissible variation of

      (a)  Foundation Exploration - Minor

      (b)  Borrow Exploration - Reasonable

404-04.  SAMPLES

  a.  Type

    (1)  Representative disturbed

     (2)  Undisturbed

  b.   Handling

     (1)  Check sample to assure it is
representative of the material.   Do not
scalp over, undersize, or blend  materials
from layers or lenses.

     (2)  Check that undisturbed samples
are protected from jarring, vibration, and
exposure to heat or frost.

       (a)  Check method of packing.

       (b)  Check transportation.

     (3)  Check that each sample is

     (4)  Check need for moisture content

404-05.  OPERATION
  a.   General
     (1)  Check that written permission
has been obtained from landowner, where

     (2)  Check requirements for fencing,
covering, or closure of pits.
     (3)  Check backfilling and grading of
  b.  Drilling and Sampling
     (1)  Recheck purpose versus type of
        (a)  Check penetration resistance.
        (b)  Check soils classification.
        (c)  Check cleaning out of  casing
prior to undisturbed sampling.
        (d)  Check use of drilling  mud in
lieu of casing.
        (e)  Check water table.

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