EPA-600/2-77-221
November 1977
Environmental Protection Technology Series
            POULTRY  EXCRETA DEHYDRATION AND
                                UTILIZATION: System
                   Development and Demonstration

                                      Environmental Research Laboratory
                                     Office of Research and Development
                                     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                            Athens, Georgia 30601

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                 RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES

Research reports of the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate-
gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en-
vironmental technology. Elimination  of traditional grouping  was  consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
The nine series are:

      1.   Environmental Health Effects Research
      2.   Environmental Protection Technology
      3.   Ecological Research
      4.   Environmental Monitoring
      5.   Socioeconomic Environmental Studies
      6.   Scientific and Technical  Assessment Reports (STAR)
      7.   Interagency Energy-Environment Research and  Development
      8.   "Special" Reports
      9.   Miscellaneous Reports

This report has been assigned to the ENVIRONMENTAL  PROTECTION TECH-
 NOLOGY series. This series describes research performed to develop and dem-
 onstrate instrumentation, equipment, and methodology to repair or prevent en-
 vironmental degradation from point and non-point sources  of pollution. This work
 provides the new or improved technology required for the control and treatment
 of pollution sources to meet environmental quality standards.
This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa-
tion Service, Springfield, Virginia  22161.

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                                             EPA-600/2-77-221
                                             November  1977
POULTRY EXCRETA DEHYDRATION AND UTILIZATION:
    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION
                     by

                H. C. Zindel
                T. S. Chang
                C. J. Flegal
                D. Polin
                C. C. Sheppard
                B. A. Stout
                J. E. Dixon
                M. L. Esmay
                J. B. Gerrish
         Michigan State University
       East Lansing, Michigan 48824
           Contract No.  S802182-01-2
               Project Officer

                Lee A. Mulkey
Technical Development and Application Branch
      Environmental Research Laboratory
            Athens, Georgia 30605
      ENVIRONMENTAL  RESEARCH  LABORATORY
      OFFICE  OF  RESEARCH AND  DEVELOPMENT
     U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
             ATHENS,  GEORGIA  30605

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                                 DISCLAIMER
     This report has been reviewed by the Athens Environmental Research Lab-
oratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication.
Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views
and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of
trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation
for use.
                                     ii

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                                 FOREWORD

      Environmental protection efforts are increasingly directed towards pre-
venting adverse health and ecological effects associated with specific com-
pounds of natural or human origin.  As part of this Laboratory's research on
the occurrence, movement, transformation, impact, and control of environmen-
tal contaminants, the Technology Development and Applications Branch develops
management or engineering tools for assessing and controlling adverse environ-
mental effects of non-irrigated agriculture and of silviculture.

      As poultry farming evolves into large-scale production units, commercial
poultrymen are faced with increasing problems of excreta disposal under en-
vironmentally acceptable conditions.  The project described here transforms
poultry waste into a product with high nutritive value for livestock and
poultry and, at the same time, provides improved odor abatement and pollution
control.
                                      David W. Duttweiler
                                      Director
                                      Environmental Research Laboratory
                                      Athens, Georgia
                                     m

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                                  ABSTRACT
     A manure handling and drying system involving caged layers with daily
manure collection, air drying, and dehydration in a flash-type dryer has
been studied.  Objectives of the study were to:  (1) develop a complete
manure handling system to maximize pollution control; (2) determine optimum
operating conditions; (3) minimize energy required of the system; (4) deter-
mine certain microbial and nutritional qualities of the dried product; (5)
be adaptable to commercial poultry operations; and (6) determine the eco-
nomics of the system.

     The system was developed in a commercial-type poultry building with
four rows of wire, triple-deck cages.  The droppings from the upper two cage
rows were hand scraped daily to the pit below the bottom cage row.  A cable-
blade scraper removed these droppings to a conveyor belt in a drying tunnel.
The droppings remained on the belt approximately 24 hours.  At the end of
the 24-hour period, the droppings were conveyed into a flash-type dryer.

     The microbial content of the dried anaphage was as low or lower than
that found in commercial feeds.  The anaphage can be fed to chickens up to
12.5% of the ration, but it has a very low metabolizable energy content.
Up to 75% of the excreta moisture can be removed by use of the ventilation
air.  Little odor could be detected coming from the system.  The cost of
drying fresh (75% to 80% moisture) caged layer excreta may be high; how-
ever, by utilizing optimum in-house drying techniques, this cost can be
reduced by 80%, thus making dehydration a viable pollution control alterna-
tive for the commercial poultry production industry.

     This report was submitted in fulfillment of Contract No. S802182-01-2
by Michigan State University under the sponsorship of the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency.  This report covers the period March 1, 1973,
to February 28, 1975, and work was completed as of Fall  1975.
                                    IV

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                                  CONTENTS
Foreword	iii
Abstract	   iv
Figures	vii
Tables	   ix
List of Abbreviations  	  xii
Acknowledgments  	 viii
   1.  Introduction  	    1
   2.  Conclusions	   14
   3.  Recommendations	   16
   4.  In-house and machine dehydration of poultry excreta 	   17
   5.  Modifications of the in-house drying system 	   38
   6.  Economics of anaphage production  	   56
   7.  Utilization of poultry anaphage 	 .  .   68
   8.  Psychometrics of system   	   79
   9.  Engineering criteria for poultry excreta dehydration systems. .  .   94
References	   98
Bibliography 	  103
Appendices
   A.  Dried poultry waste as a protein source for feedlot cattle. ...  104
   B.  Performance and blood analyses of growing turkeys fed
         dehydrated poultry anaphage 	  108
   C.  Fertility and hatchability in Single Comb White Leghorns
         fed varying levels of poultry anaphage  	  122

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Contents, continued

    D.  The feasibility of using waste materials as
          supplemental fish feed	    132

    E.  Biological availability of protein from poultry anaphage ...    I42

    F.  Acceptability and digestibility of poultry and dairy
          wastes  by  sheep	    155

    G.  Feeding dehydrated poultry waste to dairy cows 	    158

Glossary    	
                                      VI

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                                  FIGURES
Number                                                                   Page
  1     Floor plan and section view of the modified poultry house.
          A heat exchanger consisting of five parallel  runs of
          10-inch stovepipe carries exhaust gases from the
          afterburner over the drying belt toward the fans.  The
          heat exchanger is not shown in this figure ...........   3
  2     End view showing hanging cages and dropping boards between
          the second and bottom row	   5
  3     A close-up view of dropping boards between tiers  of cages   ....   5
  4     An employee scraping dropping boards .... 	  .....   6
  5     Close-up view of excreta scrapper at the edge of  cross conveyor     6
  6     Inspecting the excreta being moved in cross conveyor .......   7
  7     Checking the corner section of the cross conveyor  ........   7
  8     The manure being elevated at end of cross conveyor .  . 	   9
  9     Observing excreta dropping into front-end loader  of tractor
          parked at emergency door	   9
 10     Checking dryness of excreta on belt.  Slotted air vents
          along dryer belt are in full "open" position	10
 11     Horizontal afterburner positioned above and left  of dehydrator
          and to right of conveyor belt.  Heat from burner is  forced
          along drying chamber 	 ............  10
 12     Moisture content percentage (wet-basis) change  in excreta
          during the dry phases	  26
 13     Proportion of excreta water removed in the four drying phases  of
          the experimental  house .  .  	  .....  27
 14     Dryer performance on a monthly basis 	  32
 15     An experimental  in-house system for handling and  drying of
          poultry manure	  39
                                     Vll

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Figures, continued
Number                                                                   Page
  16     Researcher checking the original stirring device 	  40
  17     The scrubbing tower under construction 	  42
  18     Liquid distribution system at the top of the scrubbing tower . .  43
  19     Pattern of liquid distribution at scrubbing tower base 	  44
  20     Scrubbing tower contained six of these trays 	  45
  21     The inlet into the horizontal afterburner was partially
           clogged with particulates when it was disconnected	48
  22     Some particulate emissions (debris) in the drying tunnel  ....  52
  23     Poultry house exhaust air particulate reduction by the
           scrubbing tower during winter operation  	  54
  24     Electrical energy consumption  	  86
  25     Ventilation air flow pattern for maximizing excreta drying ...  96
  26     View of fan air distribution for maximizing excreta drying ...  97
                                    vi n

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                                   TABLES

Number                                                                  Page
  1     Composition of experimental  diets 	  .  	  11
  2     Mortality of layers in the in-house excreta drying system ....  13
  3     Mortality rate for the entire experiment	13
  4     Moisture of excreta by decks during July-November, 1973 (%}...  20
  5     Moisture of excreta by locations, July-November,  1973 (%)....  20
  6     Dehydration of excreta in the in-house drying  system, July-
          November, 1973 (%)	21
  7     The effect of in-house drying system on the moisture of excreta,
          December, 1973-February, 1975 (%) 	  21
  8     The effect of in-house drying on excreta moisture, December,
          1973-February, 1975	22
  9     The stirring effect on excreta moisture on the conveyor belt  (%).  22
 10     The effect of anaphage on the excreta moisture of laying hens
          on a monthly basis (%)	23
 11     The effect of anaphage on the excreta moisture  	  23
 12     Anaphage moisture 	  24
 13     Drying effect of the in-house system  	  24
 14     The psychrometries of the ventilation air and  its water
          removing ability  	  29
 15     The loss of excreta water by moving from dropping pits to belt  .  31
 16     Excreta production of birds 	  34
 17     Particulate emissions from building no. 7	37
                                     IX

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Tables, continued
Number                                                                   Page
 18     Air flow readings (n=36) in duct of recirculating fans (hot
          wire anemomenter readings in cubic meters)  	 46
 19     Percent moisture content (m.c.) of excreta on the belt 24 hours
          (January & February, 1975)  	 50
 20     The moisture content of poultry manure on the belt after
          24 hours with no recirculation fans and stirring vs.
          non-stirring  	 51
 21     Effect of the addition of a scrubber tower on particulate
          emissions, January 25, 1975 (afterburner was by-passed) .... 53
 22     Ammonia concentration in ppm of air sampled (average of two
          samples)	53
 23     Liquid phase analyses of the scrubber tower 	 55
 24     Fixed costs of project additions to the 5,000 bird layer house  . 57
 25     Costs for daily drying fresh manure at 75% moisture 	 59
 26     Costs for drying manure after 24 hours on the belt, October
          through May, manure at 67% moisture ,	60
 27     Estimated average costs for daily drying of manure after 24
          hours on belt on a year-round basis, manure at 60% moisture . . 61
 28     Estimated costs for daily drying January and February with
          recirculating fans, manure at 55% moisture  	 63
 29     Estimated cost for daily drying, 12 months operation with
          recirculating fans, manure at 40% moisture  	 64
 30     Estimated costs for daily drying, 12 months operation with
          recommended changes, manure at 40% moisture 	 65
 31     A comparison of daily costs (some estimated) to produce anaphage
          from 75% moisture manure and alternative methods in the same
          system	67
 32     Chemical  components of anaphage 	 72
 33     Chemical  components of anaphage in dried weight basis 	 72
 34     Aerobic and anerobic microbial count of anaphage relative to
          moisture content  	 73

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Tables, continued
Number                                                                  Page
 35     The effect of dehydration temperature on aerobic and anaerobic
          microbial counts  	 73
 36     The effect of temperature and moisture on microbial counts of
          anaphage	74
 37     Microorganisms recovered from anaphage samples  	 74
 38     Proximate analyses of anaphage and diets from house no. 7
          project of EPA experiment (supplied by E. Linden, Biochemistry
          Department)	75
 39     Metabolizable energy values of diets and anaphage fed to white
          leghorn hens in the EPA project	76
 40     Test diets and house no. 7 diets (EPA project) used in M.E.
          experiments	77
 41     Laying house environment using ventilating air to dry manure:
          temperature at the designated locations (top figures degrees
          celcius; bottom figures degrees fahrenheit) 	 83
 42     Laying house environment using ventilating air to dry manure:
          relative humidity at the designated location (average daily,
          percent)	84
 43     Electrical energy utilized by fans and ventilation air exchange
          per fan	87
                                    XI

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                        LIST  OF ABBREVIATIONS
cm      --  centimeter'                km       --   kilometer
DPW     --  dried poultry waste        Ib.      --   pound
F         Fahrenheit                m        --   meter
ft.     --  feet                      yg          micrograms
g, gm   --  gram                      min.        minute
hp      --  horsepower                ml       --   millimeter
in.     --  inch                      P        --   phosphorus
kg        kilogram                  sec.     --   second
                                 xn

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                               ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Project Officer,
Mr. Lee Mulkey, is acknowledged with sincere thanks.

     The construction of cages and drag floor-cleaning equipment by Kitson
Poultry Equipment Company, Morley, Michigan and the formulation and delivery
of rations EPA #1 and #2 for the caged birds by the Hamilton Farm Bureau,
Hamilton, Michigan are gratefully acknowledged.

     We also wish to acknowledge the engineering, planning and fabrication of
the fans into the experimental house by Aerovent Fan & Equipment, Inc.,
Lansing, Michigan and the advice and counsel of the Consumers Power Company
of Jackson, Michigan.

     Thanks are also due to Dr. L. R. Champion, Professor in the Department
of Poultry Science, for supervising and editing all papers included in this
report.
                                    xm

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                                  SECTION 1

                 INTRODUCTION:  PROJECT NEEDS AND OBJECTIVES
GENERAL BACKGROUND

     The disposal of poultry waste has become a major, practical and serious
problem facing the commercial poultryman today.  This problem has been brought
into sharp focus recently due to the increased concentration of poultry in
small areas under single management, the decline in public acceptance of the
use of animal excreta as a fertilizer (land spreading), and legislation to
limit or prevent environmental contamination, including dust, odors9 water pol-
lution, rodents and flies.

     Historically, the only practical and feasible method of disposal for
poultry excreta has been field spreading on available land.  Alternative meth-
ods of excreta disposal, in the main, have been based on handling and treating
the waste in liquid form.  Poultry excreta, to be handled as a liquids must
then be diluted, which causes an increased volume that can be a significant
disadvantage upon subsequent handling.  Poultry excreta, a semi-solid,, con-
 tains  80% moisture.  Therefore, it would seem logical to develop a poultry
waste management system for pollution control that would take advantage of
the excreta as it comes from the bird.

SCOPE AND PURPOSE

     To better manage our resources, a large percentage of the poultry excreta
available should be utilized in recycling systems, thus markedly reducing the
burden on land spreading and water to hold and treat these wastes.  Not only
would recycling improve the environment and conserve scarce resources, it
could also effectively increase the production efficiency in the animal
industries.

     The overall goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate the handl-
ing, dehydration, and utilization of poultry excreta.  The management of
poultry excreta in a closed ecological system was envisioned; the excreta from
poultry would be transformed into a product that had high nutritive value for
livestock and/or poultry.  Thus, the concept was to develop a waste reclama-
tion system that incorporated odor abatement and pollution control with a
maximizing of energy conservation.  Even in this closed system,, flexibility
was needed for emergency or contingency situations.  This system included a
high temperature dryer to transform the excreta to a stable product for use
either as a feed ingredient or fertilizer.  In addition, the system had the
possibility of field spreading in the conventional method.

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      The  specific objectives of this project were:
 1.   To  develop and demonstrate a complete pollution free poultry excreta hand-
 ling system.
 2.   To  determine the optimum dehydration conditions for the pollution free
 multiphase  drying system.
 3.   To  minimize energy consumption and odor produced.
 4.   To  evaluate the dehydrated end-product for nutritive value.
 5.   To  determine the economicsof the complete excreta handling and dehydra-
 tion system.

      This report will summarize the results obtained in the investigation
 carried out to develop and demonstrate the objectives as outlined above.

 FACILITIES  FOR INVESTIGATIONS

      The  facilities utilized to conduct these investigations consisted of the
 Poultry Science Research and Teaching Center, the Animal Waste Management
 Laboratory  and laboratory facilities within the Poultry Science and Agricul-
 tural Engineering Departments at Michigan State University, East Lansing,
 Michigan.

      The  Poultry Science Research and Teaching Center, located on Jolly Road,
 East Lansing, Michigan, was the site of the demonstration phase of this
 project.  The building utilized was cross ventilated, had a concrete floor
 and  was a clear-span cage laying facility that consisted of 385.4 square
 meters  of floor space.  The building also contained appropriate monitoring
 equipment,  bird housing facilities, an excreta dehydrator and afterburner, a
 PVC  belt  (for excreta drying) and a high rate filter chamber.

      The  laboratory facilities used included appropriate equipment to conduct
 nutritional, biological, bacteriological, physical, chemical and computer
 simulation  studies.

 HOUSE DESIGN AND OPERATION

 Materials and Methods

     The  testing period considered in this project included data collected
 from July,  1973, to February, 1975.

 House

      One of the existing buildings in the Poultry Science Research and
Teaching Center (PSR&TC)  on the M.S.U. campus was converted into a demonstra-
 tion unit for this project.  A clear-span, pole and truss building was remod-
eled from an exisiting poultry house to accommodate this project.  Figure 1
illustrates  the floor plan and sectional  view of this modified house.  The
original house was 12.19  m (40 ft.) wide and 45.72 m (150 ft.) long, with a
3.66 m x 12.19 m (12 ft.  x 40 ft.) feed and viewing room.  Only 36.43 m
 (90 ft.) of the existing  building was utilized for this experiment.   The
remaining 15.20 m (50 ft.) was used for a storage and work area for the
project but was not taken into account in any of the calculated data.

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Figure 1.   Floor plan and  section view of the  modified poultry house.  A
            heat exchanger  consisting of five parallel runs of  10-inch (25 cm)
            stovepipe carries  exhaust gases  from the afterburner over the
            drying belt toward the fans.  The heat exchanger  is not shown in
            this figure.

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The ceiling and sidewalls contained 15.24 cm and 10.16 cm of fiberglas
insulation, respectively.  The inside ceiling and sidewalls were 0.952 cm
 exterior plywood.  The roof and outside walls were .61 mm aluminum.
      Four  rows of triple-deck, stacked wire cages 21.95 m (72 ft.) long  (Fig-
 ures  2 & 3), were used to house the birds.  One-half of the cages were 30.48
 cm  x  40.64 cm  (12 in. x 16 in.) and the other half were 40.64 cm x 30.48 cm (16
 in. x 12 in.), thus providing a variable number of lineal inches of watering
 and feeding space per bird.  One-half of each type cage contained 4 birds per
 cage  the other half contained 3 birds per cage.  The top 2 rows were separated
 by  a  dropping board which had to be scraped daily to the pit below the bottom
 cage  row (Figures 4 & 5).  A commercial-type, cable-blade scraper (Figure 6)
 removed all droppings daily to a cross-conveyor (dairy barn gutter cleaner)
 to  the far end of the house.  The cross-conveyor elevated the excreta (Figures
 7 & 8) to  the end of a continuous synthetic (PVC) 76.2 cm (30 in.) wide belt
 in  the drying tunnel.

 Watering Device

      The original waterer was a commercial v-type continuous plastic trough,
 which sagged and thus allowed water to spill into the manure pits and on the
 floor.  A  correction was attempted by the installation of a v-type, galva-
 nized trough placed underneath the plastic waterer.

      However, even with all the corrections attempted, the system was not
 satisfactory and was replaced after 6 1/2 months of operation.  The new system
 was a 21.95 m (72 ft.) continuous 10.16 cm ordinary house eaves trough fabri-
 cated at the site.  The 6 standing water troughs (for ad_ libitum watering) for
 each  row of cages were connected at one end, allowing the overflow water to
 be  funneled into the floor drain.  Water spillage was minimized by the instal-
 lation of  the eaves trough waterer.

 Cross-Conveyor

      The conveyor at the east end of the cage house connected the 4 drag-type
manure scrapers and conveyed the excreta (Figures 6-9) to the belt in the
 drying tunnel.  The Clay barn-type cleaner was recessed in the concrete floor,
with  an elevator at the end, which lifted the manure from floor level to a
 level of 2 m (6 ft.).  This allowed the manure load to be dropped onto the
belt, or onto the front-end loader (Figure 9) of the farm tractor.  This
escape hatch (door) allowed removal of excreta from the cross-conveyor when-
ever  desired.

Drying Tunnel

     A drying tunnel was constructed on the side of the building opposite the
air inlet slot (Figure 1).  The drying tunnel was 1.87 m (74 in.) wide and
2.43 m (8 ft.) high and ran the entire length of the test building.  At one
end (Figures 1 & 11), 4 fans were installed while the dryer (OPCCO Model  200)
was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel, adjacent to the viewing and

                                      4

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                                                      IIII
Figure 2.  End view showing hanging cages and dropping boards
           between the second and bottom row.
Figure 3.   A close-up view of dropping boards between tiers of cages,

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        Figure 4.  An employee scraping dropping boards.
Figure 5.  Close-up view of excreta scrapper at the edge of cross
           conveyor.

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Figure 6.  Inspecting the excreta being moved in cross conveyor.
Figure 7.   Checking the corner section of the cross conveyor,

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feed room.  Air movement from the cage  house was directed onto the excreta
by  a series of adjustable baffles on the outlet slot.  This warm air movement
was to assist in the drying of the fresh excreta.

Conveyor  Belt

     The  continuous PVC conveyor belt was suspended in the drying tunnel from
the poultry house trusses.  The conveyor was a sliding-tray type, driven at
about 3 meters per minute.  The excreta was fed into the dryer from the con-
veyor belt  (Figures 8 & 9).

Ventilation Fans

    Four, 283.2 cm,  fans, which operated thermostatically, were located at
the one end of the drying tunnel (Figures 1 & 9); one fan was to start oper-
ating at  15C (59F) and the other 3 fans to start operating at each 2.8C
(5F) increase in temperature.  In addition, adjacent to the 4 large fans,
one 6.96  cm (24 in.), (141.6-283.2 cm ) fan was located near the loading
section of  the conveyor.  This fan was set to run continuously at a minimum
output.   A  5.08 cm (2 in.) continuous slot on the side of the building (oppo-
site the  fans) was used for winter (October-April) ventilation and a 15.2 cm
(6  in.) continuous slot for summer (May-September) ventilation.

Dehydrator

     The  dehydrator used in this experiment was of the same type described by
Surbrook  (1969) and was manufactured by the Organic Pollution Control  Corpo-
ration (OPCCO) of Grand Haven, Michigan.  A horizontal-type, oil-fired after-
burner (Figure 10) was attached to the dryer and the heat was allowed to be
discharged into the drying tunnel.  The dryer heat was also exhausted into
the tunnel.  A heat exchanger that consisted of a plenum chamber and 5
parallel  25 cm (10 in.) diameter stove pipes was used to dissipate the heat
and for heat reutilization from both the afterburner and the dryer.  The final
product,  Poultry Anaphage (PA or Dried Poultry Waste, DPW) was bagged at the
dryer.

     Appropriate monitoring equipment was installed to measure electrical
inputs, fuel consumption, air movement, relative humidity and dryer output.

Cage Layer Ration

     Thetypical  cage rations (Table 1) and water were provided ad libitum.
The calculated analysis of the ration was 16.0% protein, 3.54% fat, 2.95%
fiber, 3.30% calcium and available phosphorus was 0.48%.  The calculated
metabolizable energy was 1310 Kcal/lb.

     The laying  flock was fed a standard cage layer ration for the first 6
1/2 months in the laying house.  After that time, one-half of the birds in
the trial  were fed Diet No. 1 and one-half of the birds were fed Diet No.  2
(Table 1).  The  diets were formulated to be isocaloric and each diet
contained the same level of calcium and phosphorus.
                                      8

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Figure 8.   The manure being elevated  at end  of cross  conveyor.
Figure 9.   Observing excreta dropping  into front-end loader of
           tractor parked at emergency door.

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Figure 10.  Checking dryness  of excreta  on  belt.   Slotted  air vents
            along dryer belt  are in  full  "open" position.
Figure 11.   Horizontal  afterburner positioned  above and left of
            dehydrator  and to right of conveyor belt.   Heat from
            burner is forced along drying chamber.
                               LO

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               TABLE 1.  COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIETS
  Ingredient
                                                 Percent of Diet
Diet 1
Diet 2
Corn, ground
Soybean meal , 49%
Alfalfa, 17%
Meat & bone meal , 50%
Limestone, ground
Dicalcium phosphate
Methionine, DL
Salt
Fat, A-V
Layer premix
Anaphage
Total
Calculated Analysis:
Crude protein,
Fat, %
Fiber, %
Calcium, %
Phosphorus, % (available)
Metabolizable energy, Cal./lb.
68.95
16.50
2.00
3.00
7.00
1.25
.05
.25
.50
.50

100.00

16.00
3.54
2.95
3.30
.48
1310
58.95
16.10
2.00
3.00
5.70
.025
.075
.25
3.40
.50
10.00
100.00




3.30
.48
1310
Egg Production

     A 14-hour light day was provided for the laying flock (Leghorn type)
for the first 6 months and then a 16-hour light day was provided for the
remainder of the production period.  Twenty-five-watt bulbs were installed
in the ceiling fixtures, 3.05 m (10 ft.) on center, down the center of each
of 5 rows between the cages.  After thirteen, 28-day laying periods of
production, the entire flock was force molted (see Flegal, 1975).  The
post-molt egg production cycle was then continued for 7 1/2 additional 28-
day periods.  Eggs were gathered once daily and credited to the appropriate
treatment group.  Both feed and water were supplied ad libitum.

All mortality was recorded and veterinary laboratory examinations were
obtained for all mortality during the trial.  Diseased tissues or suspected
                                    11

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diseased tissues were collected for microscopic diagnosis in the Michigan
State University (M.S.U.) Pathology Department, Microbiological Laboratory.

RESULTS

Mortality

     Five weeks after the pullets were housed, heavy mortality occurred due to
Leukosis infection.  Nine months later, avian hepatitis was diagnosed in addi-
tion to the continuous Leukosis infection.   Eleven months after the pullets
were housed, the layers were force-molted and again a heavy mortality occurred.

     A monthly mortality record is presented in Table 2.  Continuous high
mortality during the entire experiment was  evident.  The mortality rate for
the entire project was 26.1%.  Mhen the mortality during the 2-month molting
period was excluded, the mortality rate was 21.5% (Table 3).  The most fre-
quently diagnosed causes of mortality were: 1) lymphoid leukosis, 2) infec-
tious hepatitis, 3) peritonitis, 4) enteritis, and 5) salpingitis.

     Necropsy reports for many chickens that died simply listed "no diagnosis"
or "emaciation".

Egg Production

     Egg production followed a typical curve for the first 75 days after ini-
tial housing of the laying flock.  After that time, excessive mortality (due
to disease) occurred.  The excessive mortality limits the validity of subse-
quent egg production and feed efficiency data.  However, neither egg produc-
tion or mortality was influenced by dietary treatment before or after the
molting period.

     Of the birds that were fed 10% anaphage in their diet, 702 (49.2% of the
total mortality) died during the experimental period (exclusive of molt
period).  The mortality of the birds that were fed the control diet, zero
percent anaphage, amounted to 724 birds, 50.8% of the total mortality during
the experimental period.
                                     12

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            TABLE 2.  MORTALITY OF LAYERS IN THE IN-HOUSE EXCRETA
                      DRYING SYSTEM
Year
1973






1974











1975

Month
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January
February
March
Apri 1
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
January
February
No. Birds In
The House
4,947
4,917
4,817
4,682
4,596
4,506
5,076
5,315
5,228
5,094
5,018
4,940
4,878
5,306
5,162
5,198
5,131
5,066
5,000
4,954
4,904
No. Birds No. Birds
Added Died
30
100
135
86
90
650 80
350 111
87
134
76
78
62
586 158*
144*
99 63
67
65
66
46
50

*During the forced molting period


             TABLE 3.  MORTALITY RATE FOR THE ENTIRE EXPERIMENT


                                    Total No.        Number         Mortality
Experimental Period                Birds Housed    Birds Died       Rate  (%)


      1973-75                         6,632          1,728            26.1

Excluding Molting                     6,632          1,426            21.5
      Months
                                     13

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                                 SECTION 2

                                CONCLUSIONS

      Removal of  nearly 75% of the poultry excreta moisture during May-September
 was  possible by  using the ventilation air to dry the excreta under the cages
 and  on  the  belt.  About 50% of the poultry excreta moisture can be removed by
 the  same  system  during the colder months of the year.  By the use of a recircu-
 lating  air  system for additional air turbulence over the belt, at least 75% of
 the  excreta moisture can be removed during all seasons.  Normal seasonal venti-
 lation  rates were used in this house.

      Very little odor could be detected at any time as a result of operating
 this poultry excreta handling system.

      By directing all of the ventilation air and dryer exhaust fumes through
 a  vertical  water scrubber tower, approximately 75% of the particulate emissions
 were removed during the operation of the oil-fired dryer both with and without
 the  afterburner operating.  The scrubber tower can be operated at a small
 fraction  of the cost of operating the afterburner.

      The  microbial content of dried poultry anaphage was as low or lower than
 that found  in commercial feeds.  Attempts to isolate Salmonella organisms
 were negative.

      The  cost of drying fresh (high moisture) caged layer manure is high
 (about  1  cent for each pound of water removed).  However, by replacing the
 afterburner with the vertical scrubber and employing optimum in-house drying
 techniques, the cost of producing anaphage can be reduced by 80%; thus,
 making  dehydration economically feasible for the commercial poultry industry.

      For  successful drying of poultry excreta for pollution control and econ-
 omy,  the  spillage of drinking water must be eliminated.

      Random stirring of poultry excreta on the plastic belt in the drying tun-
 nel  under the experimental test conditions did not improve moisture removal.

     The Metabolizable Energy (ME) of poultry anaphage is equivalent to that
 of certain other feedstuffs such as wheat bran or alfalfa.

     Poultry anaphage can be successfully refed to laying hens in amounts not
 over 12.5% by weight, without any deleterious effects on egg production or
mortality.
                                     14

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     Public Health Aspects of Refeeding Animal Manures - As of July 1, 1976,
the U.S. Public Health Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Food and
Drug Administration, or any other federal agency has not given an official
sanction to dry, bag, sell and/or feed dried poultry waste and any animal
manure to livestock and/or poultry.  In fact, a reprinting of paragraph
500.40 of the Federal Register (page 813804, Vol. 40, No. 60) printed on 27
March 1975, reiterated the 1967 stand of the FDA which specifically states
that the FDA has not sanctioned and does not sanction the use of poultry litter
as a feed or as a component of feed for animals.  Six states, California,
Mississippi, Georgia, Colorado, Iowa and Oregon have authorized the use of,
and have specifications written for the drying and feeding of, animal  wastes.
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Report #41, dated February 19,
1975, prepared by a task force under Dr. P. F. Pratt of the University of
California, was submitted to the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry
(Senator Herman Talmadge, Chairman).  This Council for Agricultural Science and
Technology Committee pointed out that "Actions are needed that will promote
the beneficial use of increased efficiency of the use of sewage sludges and
animal manures.  As a society with limited resources, we need to stop thinking
in negative terms of waste disposal and instead should think in the positive
terms of appropriate use".

     The  USDA    released a bulletin in March 1974 entitled "Recycling
Poultry Waste as Feed  Will It Pay?"  (Agricultural Economic Report No.
254).

     In summary, this Agriculture Economic Report stated that the processing
and feeding of dried layer waste (DLW) is economically feasible for large
units of caged layers.  The highest net returns are attained by the larger
operations when DLW is fed at 12.5% of the ration.

     The impact of human health aspects of refeeding Dried Poultry Waste
was not a part of this EPA project.
                                      15

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                                  SECTION 3

                               RECOMMENDATIONS

     The principle of dehydrating poultry excreta is  recommended as a viable
manure handling system for pollution control  and the  production of a feedstuff
called anaphage.

     When anaphage is to be considered for use as a feed ingredient, it must
contain less than 10% moisture and less than  1  million  organisms per gram.

     Further research should be conducted to  produce  anaphage  utilizing solar
energy and making better use of ventilation air to control  pollution in a
poultry manure handling system.
                                     16

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                                   SECTION  4

      INTRODUCTION:   IN-HOUSE AND MACHINE DEHYDRATION OF  POULTRY EXCRETA


     The poultry house design and  excreta  handling system previously de-
scribed in this report were designed to maximize excreta dehydration by use
of the ventilation air.  In addition, a dehydrating machine was employed to
lower the excreta moisture so the  product  could be stored.  Therefore, water
evaporation could occur from the excreta in four phases:
1.  as deposited in  the house by ventilation air,
2.  as moved from the dropping pits and spread on the belt,
3.  on the belt by the ventilation air and waste dryer heat,
4.  as run through the heated air  dryer.
The purpose of the following experiments was to evaluate the effectiveness of
the entire system to remove moisture from  the poultry excreta.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

     During the first 5 months of  this project, 3 samples of excreta from
each deck, each side, and each row of cages were collected into tared petri
dishes for moisture  determinations.  This  collection was repeated weekly
until the following  changes were made in December, 1973; then the excreta
samples were collected only from the dropping boards (predetermined locations)
on the middle decks  and half-way down the  house.  A 4.72 cm square area of
excreta was pooled and mixed thoroughly before the sample was taken.  Sam-
ples were collected  directly from  the dropping boards in the same area and
same manner each time.  The handling system was thus operated on a daily
basis even though in took approximately 2  days to move the excreta from its
initial deposited location onto the belt,  through the dryer and out of the
house.  For experimental and measurement purposes, only Tuesdays and Thurs-
days were specified  as critical data-taking days.  After the samples had been
collected from the dropping boards, the excreta was moved to the pit at one
end of the house before being loaded on the PVC belt in the drying tunnel by
the cross-conveyor.  Again, 6 predetermined spots on the PVC belt were se-
lected for taking samples.  Pooled samples were collected in these same 6
spots each time.  The excreta on the belt was stirred in the areas of 4, 5
and 6 at 2-hour intervals during the following 24 hours.  Positions 1, 2 and
3 were not stirred (see Figure 1).

     Samples were taken from the same areas on the conveyor belt after 24
hours dehydration in the drying tunnel.  The 7th sample was taken at the end
of the PVC belt when the last portion of excreta reached the dryer.  This
was to determine whether or not the additional dehydration was taking place
while the excreta was moving slowly toward the dryer.  It was believed that
the heat from the dryer might enhance additional drying of excreta.

                                     17

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      Five anaphage samples were collected directly from the dryer in the
 tightly  sealed glass jars at 15 minute intervals.  These samples were used
 for  determination of anaphage moisture contents and for microbiological and
 chemical analyses.

      To  determine the moisture content of the excreta or anaphage, the
 A.O.A.C. method with the slight modification was used and briefly described
 as follows:

      Excreta  or anaphage was placed into each of 3 tared petri dishes.  The
 samples  were  weighed, placed into an 100 C oven and weighed again after 24
 hours to determine percent moisture.  The results of the 3 replicates were
 averaged to give the final moisture content.

      Methods  used for odor evaluation were primarily organoleptic for the
 reason that sophisticated methods (such as gas chromatography) eventually
 require  comparison with odor panel results.  Moreover, it was felt that in
 view of  the drastic improvements sought in poultry house odor control, a
 panel consisting of 3 of the authors of this report, would suffice.

      A few measurements were made in the building using a Scentometer in
 order to lend credibility to our otherwise subjective observations.  The
 Scentometer dilutes the sampled air with another stream of charcoal-filtered
 air.  Charcoal filtration generally removes odors from that second stream.
 Reported herein are cold weather measurements which are probably higher than
 warm weather  measurements.  This is because the ventilation rates are much
 lower in winter.

      In  hog buildings, hydrogen sulfide was found to be a good indicator of
 the  general odor level in a building (Avery, Merva and Gerrish, 1975).  Even
 when hydrogen sulfide (H^S) concentrations are less that the detection
 threshold of  0.7 parts per million (ppm), hLS concentration can still be
 estimated based on general odor level.  H2S does evolve from decomposing
 poultry  manure under certain conditions (Burnett and Dondero, 1969).  Con-
 sequently, determinations of ^S concentration give some indication of odor
 level.

      A similar test was run for ammonia (Nh^).  The measurement instrument
 for  both H2S  and NHs was a constant volume pump which pulled an air stream
 sample through a small disposable chromatographic column which had a color
 indicator in  it.  The unit was manufactured by Unico.  Sampling time was 3
 minutes.

      Particulates coming out of the poultry house were measured using high-
 volume samplers (Sargent Welch Scientific Company).  These samplers could
 pass  about 0.033 cubic meters per second.  It was found that in some cases
 as little as  five minutes' sampling time was sufficient to overload the fil-
 ter.    Early tests were made using comparable high-volume gas samplers which
were  loaned to us by the Air Pollution Division of the Michigan Department
 of Natural  Resources.   That agency also processed these results.  Since all
 of the air in the poultry house came to one point before exhausting to the
 outside, the obvious place to sample was in the vicinity of the exhaust fans.

                                     18

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In general, samples were taken just upstream of the fans and just down-
stream of the fans outside the building directly in front of the fan.
Since differences between these two readings were not astounding, the later
sampling program called for a single sampling point inside the tunnel just
upstream of the exhaust fans.  An early attempt to measure the particulate
load in the afterburner exhaust ended in a disaster for the air sampler.
Temperatures were simply too high for the air sampler unit.  The particulate
load collected by the high volume sampler is accurately weighed at standard
temperature and humidity conditions.  Tare weights on the filters are sub-
tracted from final weights to give the particulate load collected over a
certain time interval.  The air-flow rate through the high-volume sampler
is measured before and after sampling.  An average flow rate is computed from
these two  readings.  The particulate load can then be converted to micrograms
per cubic  njeter.  No attempts were made to classify the particulates ac-
cording to their size.  It was not uncommon to observe small feathers on the
fi1ters.

RESULTS

General

     Three excreta samples were taken from each deck of four rows once weekly
during  the first five months.  The results showed that the bottom and top
decks had  a similar excreta moisture, 73% as compared to that of middle
decks,  74% (Table 4).  When the excreta was removed from under cages to the
pit at  one end of the house, a slight reduction of excreta moisture  (72%)
was noticed.  The excreta moisture was 65% after 20 hours on the conveyor
belt in the drying tunnel.  The excreta moisture was also found to be slightly
different  in various locations of the house.  When excreta samples were taken
from the row near the air intake wall, the moisture content was the  lowest,
72%.  Excreta samples taken from the row near the exit air wall had  the
highest moisture content, 74% (Table 5).  From these results, it was evident
that the in-house drying system with the fans in the drying tunnel achieved
a moisture reduction of 15% from 80% (as voided) within 24 hours (Tables 4
& 6).  This 15% drop in moisture content of the excreta represents a little
more than  50% of the moisture present in freshly mixed manure.  The  effect of
excreta dehydration in the drying tunnel was further evaluated when  the dryer
was put into operation.  The heat generated from the dryer was channeled into
the drying tunnel.  The results of moisture determinations are presented in
Table 7 for the period of December, 1973, to February, 1975.  There was no
explanation for the moisture reduction between samples taken under the cages
and fresh  excreta samples on the conveyor belt (Table 8).  The time  lapse
between these two collections (under cages and on conveyor belt) was less
than one half hour; however, the percent moisture difference was 5%  (Table 8).
The actual excreta moisture reduction was 11% within 24 hours dehydration
in the drying tunnel.  A 4% additional dehydration was realized while the
excreta moved slowly toward the dryer (Tables 7 & 8).  The affect of stirring
can be noted in Table 9.  During the period of data collection there appeared
to be no additional moisture removal due to stirring.  It was interesting to
note that  the moisture of excreta from the recycled feed group was con-
sistently  lower than the excreta from the control feed group, 73% and 74%,
respectively (Tables 10 & 11).  This difference is not considered important

                                     19

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    TABLE 4.  MOISTURE OF EXCRETA BY DECKS DURING JULY-NOVEMBER, 1973 (%)
Bottom
Month Decks*
July
August
September
October
November
Average
76
75
71
70
71
73
Middle
Decks*
78
76
73
73
72
74
Top
Decks*
75
76
72
72
72
73
Pit
75
74
68

mm <
72
Conveyor
Belt**

--
61
64
69
65
    *Average of 48 determinations
   **0n conveyor belt after 24 hours
   --No samples were taken
     TABLE 5.  MOISTURE OF EXCRETA BY LOCATIONS, JULY-NOVEMBER, 1973 (%)
Month
July
August
September
October
November
Average
Near Air
Intake Wall
*
75
75
70
71
71
72
Second
Row
76
75
72
71
72
73
Third
Row
76
76
73
70
72
73
Fourth
Row
(near exit air)
76
77
74
73
72
74
Pit
75
74
68
--
 
72
Conveyor
Belt
**
_ _
--
61
64
69
65
 *Average of 36 determinations
**Excreta moisture after 24 hours on belt
--No samples were taken
                                     20

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       TABLE 6.  DEHYDRATION OF EXCRETA IN THE IN-HOUSE DRYING SYSTEM,
                 JULY-NOVEMBER, 1973 (%)
Month
July
August
September
October
November
Under Cages
*
76
76
72
71
72
Pit
75
74
68

~~
Conveyor Belt
*

61
64
69
       Average            73                72                  65
        *Average of 144 moisture determinations
       No samples were taken
 TABLE 7.  THE EFFECT OF IN-HOUSE DRYING SYSTEM ON THE MOISTURE  OF EXCRETA,
           DECEMBER, 1973-FEBRUARY, 1975
Month
12/73
1/74
2/74
3/74
4/74
5/74
6/74
7/74
8/74
9/74
10/74
11/74
12/74
1/75
2/75
Fresh Excreta
On Board
72
74
74
75
73
74
71
66
75
72
72
74
74
74
74
Fresh Excreta
On Belt
72
71
71
69
68
68
65
66
67
68
67
70
70
70
69
24 Hours
On Belt
..
--

65
63
61
50
56
62
62
65
69
69
61
62
7th*
Sample
__
--
--

58
59
43
50
60
60
65
69
67

 
 *Sample taken immediately before reaching the hopper of the dryer
--No samples were taken
                                     21

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        TABLE 8.   THE EFFECT OF IN-HOUSE DRYING ON EXCRETA MOISTURE,
                  DECEMBER,  1973-FEBRUARY,  1975


          Location             Moisture  Content            Percent
        In the House                  (%)                 Dehydration


     Under cages                       74

     Fresh Excreta on Belt            69

     24 Hours on  Belt                 63                     11
     Additional Drying*               59                     15


      *Drying when dryer was in operation.   Samples collected immediately
       before reaching the hopper of the dryer.
     --No samples were taken
 TABLE 9.  THE STIRRING EFFECT ON EXCRETA MOISTURE  ON  THE  CONVEYOR BELT (%)


        Month             Non-Stirred                      Stirred
                       Fresh     24 Hours                Fresh      24 Hours
3/74
4/74
5/74
6/74
7/74
8/74
9/74
10/74
11/74
12/74
1/75*
2/75*
68
66
67
65
65
67
68
67
70
70

69
65
63
62
54
57
62
62
64
69
70
__
60
70
68
68
66
67
67
69
67
70
69
70
69
67
63
59
46
55
61
61
65
69
68
61
63
 *See modifications  section
No samples  were taken
                                     22

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 TABLE 10.   THE EFFECT OF ANAPHAGE ON THE EXCRETA MOISTURE OF LAYING HENS
            ON A MONTHLY BASIS (%)


      Month     Recycled Feed     Control Feed     Average Moisture
3/74
4/74
5/74
6/74
7/74
8/74
9/74
10/74
11/74
12/74
1/75*
2/75*
74
72
73
71
72
73
72
72
74
74
73
74
76
73
74
71
74
76
72
72
74
74
74
73
75
73
74
71
73
75
72
72
74
74
74
74
*See modifications section
         TABLE 11.  THE EFFECT OF ANAPHAGE ON THE EXCRETA MOISTURE


                    Feed          Moisture Content (%)


                 Control Feed             74

                 Recycled Feed*           73
          *Feed containing 10% anaphage
                                    23

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          TABLE 12.   ANAPHAGE MOISTURE
Month
2/74
3/74
4/74
5/74
6/74
7/74
8/74
9/74
10/74
11/74
12/74
1/75
Average
Anaphage Moisture (%)
1.0
1.4
3.9
1.2
5.6
9.0
13.6*
5.3
5.1
3.5
13.3*
5.0
5.7
  *Mechanical problem in the dryer
 TABLE 13.  DRYING EFFECT OF THE IN-HOUSE SYSTEM


    Method of Dehydration          Drying Effect*


Time:                                   (%)

     24 Hours on Belt                    9

     Additional  Drying*                 13
*Drying while moving slowly toward the dryer when
 dryer was in operation
                        24

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because the difference may have been caused by physical location, i.e. the
recycled group was located near the air-intake wall.  The moisture of
anaphage from this in-house system was also determined and is presented in
Table 12.  The average moisture content of anaphage for a 12-month period
was 5.7%, ranging from 1 - 13.6%.  The dryer functioned differently during
the months of August and December, 1974, which resulted in a higher moisture
content in anaphage, 13.6% and 13.3% respectively.

     Anaphage samples taken during the month of  February, 1975, were excluded
in Table 12 because the temperature setting of the dryer was being evaluated
in relation to the microbiological analyses.

     The effect of in-house drying system is summarized in Table 13.  The
excreta moisture was reduced by 9% when left on  the conveyor belt for 24
hours.  An additional drying effect of about 4%  was realized when the dryer
was in operation.

Engineering Aspects

     The moisture removal capability of a ventilation system depends on the
initial temperature and humidity of the air as it enters the building, and
the temperature and humidity maintained in the building.  The condition of
the incoming ventilation air is thus dependent on climatic conditions.  The
average monthly Michigan (East Lansing) temperatures are shown on the Figures
12, 13 & 14.  The temperature of the experimental house was maintained at
approximately 13 to 16C (55 to 60F) and the  humidity at less than 75%
during the cold months.   During the warmer months the house environ-
mental temperature consistently ran a few degrees above outside temperatures.
The optimum summer ventilation system is one that keeps inside temperatures a
minimum margin above outside temperatures.  To prevent undesirable hot weath-
er in-house temperature increases, the sensible  heat from the birds must be
used for evaporating moisture.  The total bird heat is thus converted to la-
tent heat so it does not increase the house environmental temperature.  The
ventilation system of this experimental house attempted to maximize evapo-
ration during all seasons for 1) the maintenance of an optimum environment,
and 2) to reduce the moisture content of the excreta.

     The drying of excreta in the experimental house was summarized on a
monthly basis over a period of one year and the  results are shown by Figures
12, 13 & 14.  These summarized results were obtained from hundreds of excreta
moisture samples. Figure 12 shows graphically in percent moisture content
(wet basis) the amounts of excreta drying 1) on  the dropping boards and in
the pits, 2) through movement of excreta, 3) on  the belt in the drying tunnel,
and 4) by the oil-fired mechanical dryer.  The bottom curve indicates the
final moisture content of the dried poultry waste.  This moisture level
ranged from extremes of 2% to 25% wet basis (w.b,).  The top moisture con-
tent line of the graph is 80% and represents the moisture content (wet basis)
of freshly voided excreta as measured during this investigation.  The average
monthly climatic temperatures in central lower Michigan are also plotted on
this graph in order to show seasonal trends.

     Moisture percentage calculated on a wet basis misrepresent the true

                                     25

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             (1) IN-HOUSE DRYING
             s*,
             (2)MOVEME
                   (4) MECHANICAL DRYING
                                                                        0
                        J    J     A     S    0
                          MONTHS OF THE YEAR
Figure 12.  Moisture content percentage (wet-basis) change in excreta
            during the dry phases.

-------
ro
             o
             w
             I
o

EH
2i
W
             w
             cu
100



 90



 80



 70



 60



 50



 40



 30



 20



 10
                                     (1)  IN-HOUSE DRYING
                          (2) MOVEMENT DRYING
                                        (4)  MECHANICAL DRYING
                                                                                                100
                                                                                                 90
                                                                                                 80
                                                                                                 70
                                                                                                 60
                                                                                                 50
                                                                                                 40
                                                                                                 30
                                                                                                 20
                                                                                                 10
                                                                                       w


                                                                                       I
                                                                                       w
EC

II
S
EH

I

W
                                          J     J     A    S     0     N

                                           MONTHS OF THE YEAR (1974-75)


                 Figure 13.   Proportion of excreta water removed in the four drying phases  of
                             the experimental house.

-------
amount of water removal by various drying processes, so Figure 13 was pre-
pared.  This graph presents the proportion of the total water removal accom-
plished by each of the 4 drying processes or phases.  The proportion of the
excreta drying that took place in the house is shown by the top part of the
graph.  It should be noted that the in-house drying reduced the excreta
moisture to below 70% quite consistently throughout the year.  In other
words, about one-third of the excreta water removal was done by the ventila-
tion air as it normally moved through the cage-type poultry house.

     The somewhat surprising aspect of the in-house drying by ventilation
air was 1) its quantity and 2) that it was not significantly season depen-
dent.  The consistent in-house evaporation prevailed in spite of the fact
the winter ventilation rates were much less (down to one-tenth) than for the
summer months, and that the winter in-house air of from 13 to 16C (55 to
60F) could hold much less (approximately one-half) water vapor than the
warmer air (27C, 80F, or above) during hot weather.  Also, the in-house
ventilation air must absorb all of the water vapor dissipated directly from
the metabolic processes of the birds.  The respired water vapor can amount to
some 3 times the water evaporated from the excreta.  A ventilation air
psychrometric analysis of 3 typical months (Sept., Oct. and Nov., 1973) of
the experimental house operation can be seen in Table 14.

Movement Drying

     The movement of the excreta by conventional cleaning methods of scrapers
and flight-type cross conveyors proved to be a very effective way of reducing
the moisture content.  The movement moisture reduction during the pit
cleaning operation was documented by taking 8 excreta samples daily from lo-
cations below the cages.  Immediately after the in-house daily sampling
procedure, the dropping board and pit excreta was scraped into the cross
conveyor, moved to the belt and spread to a uniform depth.  Then, immediately
after the excreta was spread on the belt another set of moisture samples
were regularly taken.  There was consistently a 3 to 4% reduction in moisture
content (wet basis) that could only be accounted for as water loss during
movement.  The percentage (wet basis) reduction during movement is plotted
on Figure 12 and shown as a proportion of total water removal on Figure 13.

     The loss of water by scraping, cross conveying and spreading shows up
on Figure 13 as a very significant portion of the total water removal.
During the last 6 months (August, 1974, to February, 1975) of the experi-
mental project when the entire operation was somewhat more stable than for
the first 6 months, the movement water losses were consistently from 12 to
14% of the total excreta water removed.  To further document the movement
water losses, additional moisture samples were taken on 2 different days as
shown by Table 15.  Samples as indicated by line number (3) (Table 15) were
taken at the end of the pits where the scraper dumped the excreta into the
cross conveyor.  Likewise, the line number (4) (Table 15) samples were taken
at the point where the cross conveyor dumped the excreta onto the belt.  A
little variation of a percent or so is in evidence between these 2 differ-
ent sampling days which is within the sample accuracy of this investigation.
The data do show, however, that each of the movement operations accounts
for a portion of the water losses.  In general, one percentage point (wet

                                     28

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        TABLE  14.   THE  PSYCHROMETRICS  OF THE VENTILATION AIR AND ITS WATER REMOVING
                   ABILITY
Month
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.





Sept.
Oct.
Nov.






Sept.
Oct.
Nov.





Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
(1)
Avg.1
Temp.
C (F)
17 (62)
11 (52)
3 (37)
(7)
>
hi
Btu/lb.
(Kcal/kg)
26.2 (14.5)
21.4 (11.9)
20.3 (11.3)
(13)
H20
To Be
Removed
Ib./hour
(kg/hour)
90 (41)
85 (39)
80 (36)
(19)


cfm/hen
(H3/hour)
3.38 (1.60)
3.10 (1.47)
1.16 (0.55)
(2)
Avg.1
Hum.
%
69
70
76
(8)

Wi
Ib./lb.
(kg/kg)
.0092
.0070
.0065
(14)

H20
Removed
Ib. /hour/hen
(gm)
.0180 (8.2)
.0169 (7.7)
.0160 (7.3)
(20)
Sp. Vol.
At ti
ft.3/lb.
(M3/kg)
844 (13.5)
822 (13.15)
819 (13.1)
(3)
ho2
Btu/lb.
23.6
18.8
12.7
(9)
H20
Removed
Belt
Ib./day
(kg/day)
415 (189)
245 (111)
175 (80)
05)
3ird6
Heat
Production
Btu/hour
(Kcal/hour)
40 (10.1)
40 (10.1)
40 (10.1)
(21)
Heat For
Vent
Btu/hour/hen
(Kcal/hour)
39.0 (9.85)
36.5 (9.22)
40.6 (10.2)
(4)
W 3
lE./lb.
.0080
.0058
.0035
(10)
H205
Removed
In House
Ib./day
(kg/day)
470 (213)
565 (257)
470 (213)
(16)


Ah
Btu/lb.
(Kcal/kg)
2.6 (1.4)
2.6 (1.4)
7.6 (4.2)
(22)
Cond.
Heat Loss
Btu/hour/hen
(Kcal/hour)
0.67 (.15)
0.6 (.15)
3.3 (.83)
(5) 4
Avg.
House
Temp .
C (F)
19 (67)
14 (57)
13 (55)
01)
H06
Latent
Heat
Ib./day
(kg/day)
1680 (765)
1500 (682)
1440 (655)
07)


AW
Ib./lb.
(kg/kg]
.0012
.0012
.0030








(6) 4
Avg.
House
Hum.
%
65
70
70
(12)
In house
To be
Removed
Ib./day
(kg/day)
2150 (977)
2065 (940)
1910 (870)
08)
MAir
To Move
Water
Ib. /hour/hen
_(kg/hour)
15.00 (6.8)
14.10 (6.4)
5.33 (2.3)








IWeather Bureau data for East Lansing,  Michigan
2h is the enthalpy of the air in Btu/lb.  of dry air
3W is the absolute humidity of the air  in Ib.  of dry air
4Estimated average house temperatures
BVoided moisture content at 802 W.B.
6Handbook data from OTA                                  2
7Conduction heat loss of 580 Btu/F U = 0.1  Btu/hour -  Pt  -
                                            29

-------
basis) of moisture is lost by each movement operation (scraping, conveying
and spreading).

Belt  Drying

      The reduction of excreta moisture content while on the belt through-
out a 24-hour period in the drying tunnel is shown by the No. 3 phase, the
area  between the curves on Figures 12 & 13.  The belt drying phase under
conditions of this experiment was definitely season dependent.  Belt drying
accounted for up to 18% of the total excreta water removal during some of
the summer months.  During the latter winter months (October to January) of
the investigation, the belt drying accounted for only from 4 to 6% of the
total excreta water removed.  The seasonal difference causes the difference
in the drying potential of the exhaust air from the poultry house (Figures
12 &  13).

      Additional drying aids were investigated during the last month of the
investigation (February, 1975).  It was shown that the maximum drying capa-
bility of the house exhaust air had not been previously attained even during
cold  weather.  The excreta drying while on the belt for February, 1975 (see
Figure 12) was about 18% of the total excreta moisture removal.  This water
removal equals the maximum attained during any summer month of the investi-
gation.  The increased excreta drying on the belt was accomplished with
added air turbulence over the excreta.

Heated Air Mechanical Drying

      The fourth drying phase was that accomplished with an oil-fired dryer.
In order to improve the efficiency of this mechanical  dryer, its exhaust
gases, as well as those from the afterburner, were directed down the tunnel
for additional excreta drying.  Moisture samples indicated that the waste
dryer heat contributed to additional excreta drying of from 1 to 2 percentage
points (wet basis) during the 3 to 4 hours of daily dryer operation.

      The highly significant aspect of the experimental in-house manure han-
dling and drying system was that during the summer months only from 1/4 to
1/3 of the total original excreta water remained to be removed by an oil-
fired, heated air dryer.  Even during the winter months up to nearly half
of the excreta moisture was removed by the in-house drying systems prior to
its introduction to the machine dryer.  With the added turbulent air drying
aid introduced in February, 1975, the remaining excreta water throughout
the winter months could be reduced to the summer level of 1/3 of the total.
No doubt, with the turbulent air drying aid during the summer months, the
remaining excreta moisture for machine drying could be further reduced to
well  within 1/4 of the total.

Heated Air Dryer Performance

     Machine heated-air drying of poultry excreta has not yet been developed
into  a very efficient process.  When an afterburner is used, along with the
oil-fired air heater for minimizing air pollution, as in this investigation,
an equivalent fuel heat content of from 2208 to 2760 Kcal/kg (4 to 5,000

                                      30

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TABLE 15.  THE LOSS OF EXCRETA WATER BY MOVING FROM DROPPING PITS TO BELT

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Site
On the dropping boards
% Difference
In the dropping pits
% Difference
As scraped from pits
% Difference
As conveyed onto belt
% Difference
After spread on belt
Overall percentage change
% M.C. w.b.
January 20
73.7
0.9
72.8
1.3
71.5
0.4
71.1
0.4
70.7
3.0

February 8
73.0
0.0
73.0
0.7
72.3
1.9
70.4
1.4
69.0
4.0
                                    31

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CO
PO
                180
                                                                   WATER REMOVAL
                                                                     PER HOUR
DRY MATTER
OUTPUT PER HOUR
                                                      AS     0
                                              MONTHS OF THE YEAR
                                 Figure 14.  Dryer performance on a monthly basis.

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BTU) was required to remove each pound of excreta water.  Approximately
1,000 BTUs of heat are required at 100% efficiency to evaporate 552 Kcal/kg
(1 Ib.) of water; thus, a machine drying efficiency of from 20 to 25%
was accomplished.  Elimination of the afterburner, if acceptable from a
pollution control standpoint, could double the fuel utilization efficiency.
This was shown to be the case during February, 1975.  See the bottom line of
Table 17 in which the afterburner was not functioning and the fuel heat-
equivalent was 1290 Kcal/kg (2,300 BTUs per pound) of excreta water removed.

     The performance characteristics of the heated air dryer are shown by
Figure 14.  The critical criterion of a dryer is the amount of water it will
remove per hour.  A reliable mechanical dryer should perform quite inde-
pendently of the season of the year and the moisture content of the input
excreta.  This statement is made in view of the fact that some additional
dryer heat losses could be expected during cold weather and that the last
few percentage points of moisture are the most difficult to remove.  For the
last 9 months of operation, as shown by Figure 14, the machine dryer water
removal rate was quite consistently about 59 kg (130 Ibs.) per hour for
all exc'ept one month (September).  This seasonal independent period extends
from summer months through the coldest winter months.  About 1/10 of a
pound of H20 per day per bird must be removed (Table 16).  Therefore, the
dryer capacity would be about 10,000 birds per 8 hour day at 67% excreta
moisture and about 20,000 birds per 8 hour day at 50% excreta moisture.  The
much better water removal performance of the dryer during the first three
months of the investigation (see Figure 14) cannot be explained by other than
possibly the better performance of the new (just fabricated) dryer for a
brief period and/or by the unrealiability of the measurement data (may have
been due to inadequate sample numbers) during the early months of the inves-
tigation.  If the water removal capability of a dryer is constant throughout
all months of the year, then the dry matter output must vary seasonally with
the moisture content of the incoming excreta.  As shown in Figure 13, the
moisture content (wet basis) of the excreta going into the dryer was down to
the 55% range during the summer months and as high as 68% during the winter
months.  For comparison purposes, a 50% moisture content (wet basis) sample
contains only 1/2 as much water as a 67% sample.  Much more dry matter per
unit time was thus produced by the machine dryer during the summer months.
This is shown to be the case quite consistently during the last 9 months of
stable operation of the experimental house (see Figure 14).

Fuel Cost For Machine Drying

     The fuel cost of the machine removal of excreta water was about 2.2
-------
 the  excreta  to  5% was 97.6 gm/day/hen  (0.2147 Ib./day/hen).


                    TABLE  16.   EXCRETA  PRODUCTION OF BIRDS
Observation
Excreta dry matter
Excreta wt. @ 5% m.c. w.b.
Excreta wt. @ 80% m.c. w.b.
Total water to be removed in
reducing excreta m.c. from
G/day/hen
(Ib. /day/ hen)
24.7
(.0543)
26.1
(.0573)
123.0
(.272)
97.6
(.2147)
kg/day for 5,000
(Ib./day for 5,000
123.5
(271.5)
130.0
(286.5)
618.0
(1360.0)
488.0
(1073.5)
hens
hens)




      80%  to  5%

    Total  water  to  be  removed in       49.0                   244.0
      reducing excreta m.c. from       (.1077)                (538.5)
      67%  to  %5

    Total  water  to  be  removed in       23.4                   117.5
      reducing excreta m.c. from       (.0517)                (258.5)
      50%  to  5%

 Particulate  Emissions

      The  results of repeated observations of the odor level in the building
 are that  at  no  time were the odors from Building 7 even approaching an intol-
 erable level.   Odors were at their strongest (but not necessarily most offen-
 sive) during drying.  The quality of  such odors can best be described as a
 mixture of unburned kerosene and burnt beefsteak.  The afterburner was inef-
 fective in controlling odor.

      Odors in the  feed room, where anaphage was stored in barrels, could be
 detected  at a dilution of 7:1.  Odors in the dryer room itself could be
 detected  in the charcoal-filtered air stream.  This means that the charcoal
 filtration was  insufficient to remove the fuel  oil odor from the air; hence,
 no dilution is  reported.  In the center of the building, a 30-fold dilution
was the odor threshold level.  At the southeast corner of the building, a
 200-fold dilution was the odor threshold; the position in that corner of the
building was just above the manure cross-conveyor.  A measurement made in the
tunnel also came through with the charcoal-filtered air, making a dilution
number impossible to report.  That measurement was made with the dryer and
afterburner in operation.  The afterburner temperature was 540C.

     Measurements of hydrogen sulfide in the poultry house were less than

                                      34

-------
0.5 ppm even at points in the building where odors were at their strongest.
Sampling points selected in the building were those positions where it was
felt that "manure odor" was the strongest.  Even so, at 3 locations, viz.
just above the manure hopper of the dryer, in the gutter which conveys manure
across the building, and at one point mid-building at the air slot, no
hydrogen sulfide concentration could be detected which was above the minimum
sensitivity of our instrument.  Hydrogen sulfide concentration was in all
cases less than 0.5 ppm.  The ammonia concentration was consistently less
than 1 ppm.

     Particulate data are presented in Table 17.  These data indicate that
the afterburner was partially effective at best.  It is interesting to note
the high emission rate when the dryer/afterburner was off.  This is to be
compared with a background  (fresh outside air, presumably inlet air) of
75 yg/rn3, a conservative (high) value for Lansing received from the Air Pol-
lution Agency mentioned above.  In considering the table, bear in mind that
the air pollution primary standard for particulate emissions is 75 yg/m3.

     The especially high pariculates measured in May are probably caused by
too high a dryer temperature and smokey operation.  Dryer temperature set-
tings of 175C or less resulted in clean operation, i.e., internal firing of
anaphage deposits in the dryer did not occur.  On the other hand, the product
was dried to perhaps 15% moisture content.  At 15% the microbiologist re-
ported bacterial counts in  dried material .that were higher than counts for
drier material.  Also, the  afterburner temperature was low.  As a result of
high temperature dryer operation, the afterburner became laden with soot.
The soot was re-entrained by the airstream even when the afterburner was cold
The afterburner seldom got  sufficient fuel for the dryer load; when attempts
were made to increase fuel  flow, the device starved for air.  Hence, the
smokey sooty operation and  the odor of unburned fuel.

     The 20 August data show that the afterburner temperature had been in-
creased, but smoke episodes would still occur which would swamp the after-
burner.  The smoke was caused by the dryer.  Air samples taken at the end of
the tunnel on 10 and 12 January, 1975, show the effect of soot accumulation
in the afterburner.  (Before soot removal 26,500 yg/m3; after soot removal
about 5,400 yg/m3.)  When the afterburner was operating at 540C, however,
the particulate load was not significantly different from the dryer-only
situation.  Large particulates accumulated in the tunnel when the afterburner
was bypassed.  This suggests that the afterburner was acting as a settling
chamber in those cases where reduction of particulates was observed.  In the
other (more usual) cases where particulates at the end of the tunnel were
not reduced, we theorize that the afterburner trapped large particulates and
converted them into smaller particulates since settling in the tunnel was
not so obvious.

     It is important to recognize the importance of particulate emissions
when neither dryer nor afterburner was operating.  These "background" emis-
sions are going on 24 hours a day.  Four hours' drying emissions are small
compared with the steady rate of output from the caged layer operation itself.
It is interesting to note that an increased ventilation rate tends to in-
crease the air-borne particulate concentration pointing towards the mechanism

                                     35

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of particle re-entrainment.  Participates, presumed to be feed and feather
particles, were not analyzed.

     To scale this dehydration system up to production scale operation, the
estimated participate emission levels should probably be based on an "average
ventilation rate" of 11  m3/sec.  The corresponding "normal" emission
level would be on the order of 5000 ug/m3 for a total load of 198 g/hour
during dryer operation.   With the dryer off for a portion of the day, emis-
sions during those times would be based on about 4000 ug/m  for a total of
154 g/hour emitted.  Odors in a scaled-up unit should be no worse inside the
buildings than they were in our 5000 bird unit.  Manure residence times would
be the same in large scale.  Whether odor (and particulate) emissions would
be more offensive from a 500.000 bird operation is debatable; odor quality
should be the same and concentrations should be about the same.  Efficient
ventilation could hardly bring the entire exhaust stream to a point dis-
charge.
                                    36

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             TABLE 17.  PARTICULATE EMISSIONS FROM BUILDING NO. 7
  Date       Outside        Conditions
              temp.      Afterburner/Dryer
                                    Ventil.
                                 rate (m^/sec.)
                                        Participate
                                       concentration
                                          (yg/m3)
  15 May
  (rainy, humid)
  20 Aug.    29C
  20 Nov.


  10 Jan.


  12 Jan.



  25 Jan.
5C
Afterburner ON 370C
Dryer ON

Afterburner OFF
Dryer ON

Afterburner OFF
Dryer OFF
(i.e., air from house only)

Afterburner ON  425C
Dryer ON

Afterburner OFF
Dryer ON

Afterburner OFF
Dryer OFF

Afterburner ON
Dryer ON

Afterburner ON 540C,
      soot removed
Dryer ON

Afterburner BYPASSED
Dryer ON

Afterburner BYPASSED
Dryer OFF
10        24300/31400**


10        42100/33400**


           8720/11200**



           2340/6940**e


                7910


                3230


               26500+


           5200/5600



      5990/5310/7100e


      4080/3870/3850e
**replicates     3
e 5, 10, and 15 m /sec., respectively
+ smoke episode
                                     37

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                                   SECTION 5

           INTRODUCTION:  MODIFICATIONS OF THE IN-HOUSE DRYING SYSTEM

     After approximately 18 consecutive months of operation, the in-house
 poultry excreta drying system (previously described in this report) was modi-
 fied.  It  was evident that optimal drying was not being accomplished utilizing
 the  original house design.  It was also apparent that the cost of the after-
 burner operation was excessive and the emission control attributable to the
 afterburner was not satisfactory.  The modifications, therefore, were made to:
 1) improve in-house excreta drying capability, 2) decrease or eliminate the
 pollution  emissions from the poultry house, and 3) eliminate the need for the
 afterburner on the oil-fired dehydrator (see Figure 15).

 MATERIAL AND METHODS

 Stirring Device Modification

     The original stirring device (Figure 16) did not produce the desired
 effect of  reducing the moisture content of the stirred manure and did not
 operate as expected.  This device consisted of 3 rows of 1 cm diameter steel
 rods mounted on a wheeled harrow.  There were 4 spikes spaced approximately
 15 cm apart in each row.  The spikes in each row were staggered to plow a
 different  furrow then the row of spikes in front of it.  In January, 1975, a
 new  stirring device was installed.  It was made of 10-gauge, galvanized
 rolling discs, 25 cm in diameter.  There were 6 discs, 10.6 cm apart, on an
 axle that  was set on an angle approximately 60 to the length of the belt.
 The  purpose of the disc stirring device was to turn, move and cut the excreta
 on the belt in order to expose more surface area to the air for drying.  The
 data on stirring, in both cases, were only gathered from one-half (that
 nearest the exhaust fans) of the belt.

     Each  day when data were taken the manure was placed on the belt before
 12:00 noon.  The excreta was then stirred 2 times in the afternoon, at approx-
 imately 1:30 and 3:30 p.m.  It was stirred again 2 times in the evening at
 approximately 7:00 and 9:00 p.m.  The following morning the excreta was again
 stirred at 7:00 a.m.  A complete round trip was made by the stirring device
 each time  the excreta was stirred.  Samples of manure for moisture determina-
 tion were  taken twice.  The manure was first sampled when loaded on the belt
 (between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.) and again from the same manure the following
morning at approximately 9:30 a.m.
                                     38

-------
co
EXHAUST
FANS
                                       BELT
               DRYING TUNNEL
DRYER
                    ^4
                    CROSS
                    CONVEYOR
                                                              >
                                           5000 LAYERS
                                           IN CAGES
SLOT INLET-
                        4	
                                                                                        f

                                             	^- AIR
                                                         MANURE
                    X = Recirculating fan locations
                    Figure 15.   An experimental in-house system for handling and drying of poultry
                                manure.

-------
Figure 16.   Researcher checking the original  stirring device.
                             40

-------
Recirculating Air Modification

     Six, 35 cm, 6-bladed fans with 1/4 hp.   motors were installed in the wall
between the birds and the drying tunnel  (just below the ceiling; see floor
plan, Figure 15).  They were pl.aced approximately 4 m apart, with the first
fan being placed about 4 m from the end  of the cage row.  Each fan was placed
in a duct that was extended approximately 5 m to the middle of the aisle in
the center of the house.  The air ducts  were 17.5 x 60 cm.  The fans were
hooded on the tunnel side of the wall with the hood extending down to within
approximately 60 cm of the belt.  The purpose of the hoods was to direct the
air onto the manure.  The cross section  of the hood measured 42.5 cm x 42.5
cm.  The volume of air produced by each  fan was 21.9 cm/min. (Table 18).

Particulate Emission Modification

     A tower, 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 7.2 m (Figure 17) was constructed and designed
to receive all the exhaust air from a 5000-bird caged layer house.  The ex-
haust air consisted of ventilation air as well as the exhaust of a small, oil
fired dryer and afterburner that was used to dry poultry manure to anaphage.

     At the base of the tower a tank was installed that was approximately
2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.8 m.  The purpose of this tank was to hold the waste water
from the drinking troughs and to serve as a sump for the scrubber.  Original-
ly, tap water was added when necessary to maintain an adequate water level.

     There was a space 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 2.4 m, immediately above the tank into
which the exhaust air from the laying house was introduced.  The upper 3.6 m
(also 2.4 m x 2.4 m) contained about 418 m2 of surface area.  This surface
area consisted of quart plastic bottles with part of the neck removed (to
avoid some constriction).  The bottoms of the bottles were also removed to
allow air passage through the bottle.

     The quart plastic bottles were placed in a honeycomb arrangement on trays
(Figure 20) approximately 1 x 2 m.  The bottles were stacked 3 tiers high
(approximately 65 cm) in each tray.  Two trays were placed on each level; one
pair of trays at 2.4 m above the top of  the tank; the second set of trays was
placed approximately 1.25 m above the first; and the third set, approximately
1.25 m above the second set of trays.  Between each tier of trays there was
an open space of approximately 0.6 m to  permit some air turbulence to develop.

     The water from the tank was pumped  to the top of the tower (Figures 18 &
19).  It was then dispersed over the 418 m2 of surface area to trap (or col-
lect) paniculate matter in the exhaust stream.  Measurements were made on the
particulates entering and leaving the filtration tower.

     The original watering system consisted of a v-trough continuous flow
waterer.  However, due to excessive water spillage from the v-trough system,
a new system was installed 6 months after the original system was put into
operation.  The new waterer consisted of a 10 cm wide aluminum, seamless
trough.  This was a standing water system with a 2.5 cm high overflow pipe at
the end of each trough.  Installation of this new system minimized water
                                     41

-------
Figure 17.   The scrubbing tower under construction.

-------

Figure 18.   Liquid distribution system at the top of the scrubbing
            tower.

-------

Figure 19.   Pattern of liquid  distribution  at  scrubbing  tower  base,
                                 M

-------
Figure 20.  Scrubbing tower contained six of these trays
                            45

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                TABLE  18.  AIR  FLOW READINGS  (n=36) IN DUCT OF RECIRCULATING FANS
                              (HOT WIRE ANEMOMENTER READINGS IN CUBIC METERS)

25
26
26

.9 25
.8 25
8 25

.9 24
.9 25
,3 26

,7 23
9 23
8 22

.0 20
,0 20
,3 20

4 19
7 19
1 17

,5 18
2 17
7 16

9 18
,7 17
5 17

3 18
7 19
4 19

9 19
8 19
5 18

2 18
5 18
3 19

9 16
6 17
2 17

8
7
4
on

O
                                           60.0 cm
    Area = 1050 cm2
    Average rate air flow = 209 m/min
    Volume =  .1050 x 19.3 = 21.9 m3/min

-------
spillage onto the floor and manure.

     When the tower was built, the waste water  line was intercepted.  When
the watering troughs were cleaned, the discharged water was pumped into the
tank on an almost daily basis to maintain  the water level in the tank.

     Emission measurements were made by using high volume air samplers.  Sam-
ples were taken at 2 locations.  The first sample was taken just ahead of the
ventilation fans that forced the air up the tower.  The second sample was
taken in the air stream at the top of the  tower.  The samples were taken
both with the dryer off and with the dryer on.

     The exhaust air at the top of the tower contained droplets of water.
These droplets contained dissolved material and were measured as a part of
the particulate emissions.  The volume of  air flowing through the tower was
varied, depending on the number of 283 nr  per minute fans that were operating.

     In mid-January, 1975, the afterburner (Figure 21) was detached from the
dryer.  This was done by turning the elbow going from the dryer to the hori-
zontal afterburner, one-quarter of a turn.  This allowed the dryer to dis-
charge its emissions directly into the drying tunnel.

Odor Modification

     Odors are one of the major problems of large commercial egg production
farms.  Several attempts were made to measure odors in the house and at the
top of the tower.  One method that was used was personal observation by 3
researchers.

     Another method of odor detection used was described by Jacobs (1960).
This method consisted of bubbling a measured amount of air through a dilute
sulfuric acid solution for ammonia detection.  Air samples were taken at 3
sites; one, at the center of the laying house, approximately three-tenths of
a meter above the floor level; the second  site was located in the air stream
as it entered the ventilation fans; the third site was located at the top of
the tower to test the air as it left the scrubber.

Water Quality Measurements

     Several measurements were made on the liquid medium used in the scrubber
tower.  The tests included chemical oxygen demand, total solids, volatile
solids, electrical conductivity, total nitgrogen, ammonia and pH.  Initially,
the tank at the base of the tower was filled with tap water.  Due to evapo-
ration and droplet emissions, liquid was added to maintain a depth of 72.5
cm.  Most of the additional water added was the discharge from the bird
watering system.  This water contained feed, feathers, fecal material, etc.
(Table 23).  Samples of the liquid in the  tank and of the discharge water
from trough cleaning, were taken periodically.
                                     47

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Figure 21.   The inlet into the horizontal  afterburner was  partially
            clogged with particulates  when it was  disconnected.


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RESULTS

Moisture Content of Stirred vs. Non-Stirred Manure

     Moisture content of the stirred and non-stirred manure was very similar
when the first stirring device was used.  An average moisture content of the
manure samples of 16 observations in the cool months of March, October and
November of 1974 was 67.4% for the stirred and 65.6% for the non-stirred
manure.  The new stirring device produced tracks, valleys and ridges through
all the manure on the belt as the belt was being loaded as well as when the
manure was stirred.  However, the new stirring device did not result in addi-
tional drying of the manure (Table 19) when compared with moisture of the
manure from the non-stirred area.

     The average moisture content of the manure samples on the half of the
belt farthest from the exhaust fans (not stirred) was 57.4% after 24 hours
on the belt.  The manure on the half of the belt nearest the exhaust fans
(the stirred portion) contained 61.7% moisture content after 24 hours on the
belt.

Effect of Recirculating Air

     Table 19 presents the results of the use of recirculation fans to help
dry the manure on the belt.  The odd-numbered sample locations refer to
manure samples taken between fan outlets.  The even-numbered sample locations
refer to manure samples taken under the fan outlets.  The average moisture
content of the manure between fan outlets on the half of the manure not
stirred was 61.5% and the half of the manure which was stirred contained
65.0% moisture.  The average moisture content of the manure not stirred
under the fan outlets was 53.1% and of the manure stirred was 57.5%.

     Data from 3 days (Feburary 19, 1974 and February 11, 12, 1975) are
presented in Table 20.  These data show the limited amount of manure drying
that takes place on the belt in 24 hours when the recirculation fans were
not used.  The 65 to 68.5% moisture content of the manure was reduced under
the recirculation fans to 53 to 58%.  The 10 to 16% moisture reduction means
that up to 50% of the water in the 67% moisture content manure (typically
present in manure on the belt in the winter) has been removed by the air from
the recirculation fans.

Particulate Emissions

     Presented in Table 21 are the data of airborne participates for inlet
and outlet concentration for 1 fan (5m3/sec.), 2 fans (W/sec.), and 3 fans
(15m3/sec.) with the dryer operating and with the dryer not operating.  In all
cases, the tower reduced the particulate load by 67 to 75%.  The increased
emissions during dryer operation were reduced to almost the same level as
when the dryer was not operating.  A large amount of particulate matter
(Figure 22) exhausted by the dryer was not measured but was evident as debris
in the drying tunnel.  This debris dropped out of the air stream before
reaching the ventilation fans (the first sampling site).
                                     49

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       TABLE 19.  PERCENT MOISTURE CONTENT (m.c.) OF EXCRETA ON THE
                  BELT 24 HOURS (JANUARY & FEBRUARY, 1975)
   Item
                                    NON-STIRRED
Sample
Location
No.
Readings
Avg. %
Moisture

1 234 5 6

5 555 5 5

61.1 53.1 64.8 54.8 59.6 51.3
                                    STIRRED
Sample
Locations
No.
Readings
Avg. %
Moisture

7 8 9 10 11 12

15 15 15 15 15 4

66.1 54.2 65.6 b9.5 63.4 60.2
Average, locations 1-6 = 57.5% m.c. (non-stirred)
Average, locations 7-12 = 61.5% m.c.  (stirred)
Average between fans 1, 3 and 5 = 61.8% m.c.
Average between fans 7, 9 and 11 = 65.0% m.c.
Average under fans 2, 4 and 6 = 53.1% m.c.
Average under fans 8, 10 and 12 = 58.0% m.c.
                                   50

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     TABLE  20.   THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF POULTRY MANURE ON THE BELT AFTER
                24 HOURS WITH NO RECIRCULATION FANS AND STIRRING vs.
                NON-STIRRING
Date
2/11/75
2/12/75
2/19/75
Treatment
Non-stirred
Non-stirred
Non-stirred
Moisture
Content
65.0%
68.5%
68.0%
Treatment
Stirred
Non-stirred
Non-stirred
Moisture
Content
67.0%
67.1%
68.0%
Odor

     When the dryer was operating the odor of fuel oil could be detected at 2
sampling sites (at the ventilation fans and at top of tower).  The odor of
drying manure was also detectable at both sites when the dryer was operating.
When the dryer was operating, the odors at the top of the tower were markedly
less than at the inlet site.  None of these odors were really objectionable to
the odor panel (Gerrish, Sheppard and Flegal).  During drying, there were some
episodes of heavy smoke emissions.  These were only partially clarified by the
scrubber unit.

     The results of the ammonia determination indicated that there was less
than 1 ppm at all sites tested (Table 22).

Water Quality Measurements

     As can be seen in Table 23, the chemical oxygen demand was 3900 mg/1 at
the start of operation of the scrubber unit.  This dropped to 2300 mg/1 after
20 days and then steadily increased to 8500 mg/1 at 80 days.  The same general
pattern was observed in the electrical conductivity.  Volatile solids in the
liquid medium of the scrubber unit decreased from 3500 mg/1 at 20 days to 2000
mg/1 at 80 days.  Total solids also dropped from 4700 mg/1 at 20 days to 3500
mg/1 at 80 days.  The reduction of total solids correlates with droplet
emissions from the top of the tower.  Total nitrogen and NHj were variable
during the time that measurements were taken.  A general indication of the
material balance in the scrubber unit is shown in Figure 23.

     When the project was ended, a sludge blanket was  found  at the bottom of
the liquid tank.  The accumulated solids would account for the decrease in
volatile solids observed toward the end of the operation.  This sludge accu-
mulation would eventually have necessitated a clean-out of the tank and a
fresh start with new liquid.
                                      51

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Figure 22.   Some participate emissions (debris) in the drying tunnel
                                '  :

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TABLE 21.   EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF A SCRUBBER TOWER ON
           PARTICULATE EMISSIONS, JANUARY 25, 1975
           (AFTERBURNER WAS BY-PASSED)
Flow Parti
Dryer m3/sec.
Off 5
10
15
On 5
10
15
TABLE 22. AMMONIA
(AVERAGE
Position
House center
Before fans
Top tower
Inlet Outlet
culate Concentration Participate Concentration
(ug/m3) (u/m3)
4080 1350
3870 1810
3850 1320
5990 1400
5310 1440
7100 (smoke episode) 2780
CONCENTRATION IN PPM OF AIR SAMPLED
OF TWO SAMPLES)
Ammonia
ppm
.59
.54
.72
                           53

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                               EXHAUST AIR

           5 m3/sec.  at 1300 yg/m3 dry particulates = 24 g/hour


                                      A
MAKEUP WATER

450 liters/day
at 5400 mg/1
Total  solids =
100 g/hour
                                INLET AIR

           5 m3/ sec.  at 4000 ug/m3 dry particulates  = 72 g/hour

           Figure 23.   Poultry house exhaust air particulate reduction
                       by the scrubbing tower during  winter operation.
                                  54

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           TABLE 23.  LIQUID PHASE ANALYSES OF THE SCRUBBER TOWER
                                                                   Typical
                                                                   Make-up
   Item               Start-up     20 Days     60 Days    80 Days   Water


Chemical  oxygen demand  3900        2300        4400       8500     9000
    (mg/1)

Total  solids (mg/1)     4000        4700        4500       3500     5400

Volatile  solids (mg/1)  2400        3500        3200       2000     3800

NHJ (mg/1)               150          75         220        170       75

Total  nitrogen (as N)    580         280         500        560      270
    (mg/1)

Electrical conductivity 2600        2300        2600       3500     2000
    (micromoho/cm)
                                      55

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                                  SECTION 6

              INTRODUCTION:  ECONOMICS OF ANAPHAGE PRODUCTION


     The art or science of drying poultry manure to produce anaphage is a
relatively new concept.  The idea of drying manure, as a large scale com-
mercial poultry farm enterprise, has really just been developed in the last 5
to 10 years.  Traditionally, poultry manure has been allowed to accumulate
under the cages until it could be spread on the fields.

     Flegal et al_. (1972) showed that there is a direct relationship be-
tween the length of storage time of the manure and loss in crude protein
value in the resulting anaphage.  This resulted in the objective carried
out in this projectthat manure should be dried as soon as possible after
it was produced.

Fixed Costs of Project Additions

     The total fixed costs of this system are presented in Table 24.  The
only costs that are listed are those that were in addition to the normal
manure handling and ventilating system.  The total cost of $21,259.00 repre-
sented an addition to the total house and equipment cost of approximately
$4-00 per bird.  The dryer and afterburner had an original cost of $12,000.00.
This cost was arbitrarily divided into $9,500.00 for the dryer and $2,500.00
for the afterburner.

     The depreciation calculations developed in the economics of drying were
made for a "life" of 10 years for all items in Table 24.  The pumps, fans
and dryer probably have an expected life of 5 to 7 years.  The rest of the
additions have an expected life of 15 to 20 years; thus, a 10 year average
was used.  The interest and upkeep were both calculated at 10%.

     In each drying method presented, calculations of the fixed costs were
presented on the basis of one day's cost.  This tended to bias the costs
somewhat as the longest drying day was calculated at 7.5 hours and the
shortest drying day at 1.5 hours.

Drying 75% Moisture Manure

     Manure with 75% moisture content is expected in most poultry operations.
The costs of drying this manure are presented in Table 25.

     The total fixed costs were $16,600.00.  This consisted of the equipment
necessary to deliver the manure from the gutter cleaner through the dryer,
including the afterburner.  The fixed cost was $5.50 per day.  It took 7"T/2

                                      56

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  TABLE 24.   FIXED COSTS OF PROJECT ADDITIONS TO THE 5,000 BIRD LAYER HOUSE
     Addition                                                 Fixed Costs
Drying tunnel (2 m x 37 m) x $29.20 m2                         $ 2,160.00*
Drying belt and accessories                                      2,500.00*
Dryer                                                            9,500.00**
Afterburner                                                      2,500.00**
Sump pump and pit                                                  750.00***
Tower and pump                                                   2,269.00***
Recirculating fans and ducts                                     1,580.00***
                                                               $21,259.00
  *If the number of birds  is  expanded  to  10,000  birds,  these amounts
   will have to be doubled.
 **These amounts would not change  until 25,000 to  30,000 birds are
   housed in the system  (for  an  8  hour drying day).
***We estimate that this equipment would  handle  2  to  3  times as many
   birds.
                                      57

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hours to produce the 160 kgs of anaphage.

     The total costs of production were $44.47, or 27.8$ per kg of anaphage.
Labor was the highest input cost.  Seven and one-half hours @ $3.50 equaled
$26.25.  The cost of oil was the next highest cost.  The dryer used about
44% of the oil, 56.8 liters ($5.11).  The afterburner used 71.0 liters
($6.39).  The cost of 27.8$ per kg resulted in a cost of $278.00 per 1,000
kgs ($248.00 per short ton).  This cost was high for the producton of
anaphage, regardless of its ultimate use.

Drying 67% Moisture Manure

     In order to lower the cost of drying the manure, it was stored on the
belt, between the gutter cleaner and dryer, for 24 hours.  The ventilation
air was drawn over the manure and then discharged from the drying tunnel.
This method of handling the ventilation air reduced the moisture content of
the manure to 67% during the winter months.

     The total cost of drying this manure to produce anaphage was $34.07 for
daily output of 160 kgs, Table 26.  The cost to produce anaphage was 21.3$
per kg.  The largest single cost was labor for the operation of the dryer.
The $19.25 labor cost was 57% of the total cost of anaphage production.

     The length of time necessary to dry manure during the winter months was
5.5 hours per day.  This was 2.0 hours less than the 7.5 hours needed to dry
the 75% moisture manure.  The 2.0 hours saved also represented a savings of
34.2 liters of oil and $3.38 in energy cost.  The energy cost savings was
represented by $3.07 oil savings and 0.32$ saved in electricity for operating
the dryer.

     The cost of 21.3$ per kg or $213.00 per 1,000 kgs ($190.00 per short
ton) was considered excessive when compared to alternative methods.

Drying 60% Moisture Manure

     It was estimated from the results of this trial that if the manure had
been put on the belt daily and allowed to be dried by the ventilation air for
24 hours, that the average moisture content of the excreta for the entire
year would have been 60%.  It was also estimated that it would take 3.5
hours/day to dry the product.

     The total cost of producing the anaphage based upon these assumptions
was $23.69 for the 160 kgs, Table 27.  The cost of producing one kg was
14.8$.   The largest single cost was for labor for the operation of the dryer.
The $12.25 labor cost was 51% of the total cost of anaphage production.

     The 3.5 hours needed to dry 60% moisture manure represented a savings
of 4 hours from the 7.5 hours needed to dry the 75% moisture manure.  The
4.0 hours saved represented a savings of 68.2 liters of oil or $6.73 in total
energy  savings.  The $6.73 energy savings were made up of $6.10 oil and 0.63$
in electricity for operating the dryer.
                                     58

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   TABLE 25.   COSTS FOR DAILY DRYING FRESH MANURE AT 75% MOISTURE
     Item                                                    Amount
Fixed Costs:
Drying tunnel                                            $ 2,160.00
Belt and accessories                                       2,500.00
Dryer                                                      9,500.00
Afterburner                                                2,500.00
Total fixed  costs                                        $16,600.00
Drying Day-  160 kgs anaphage:  Operating costs for 7.5 hours
Fuel oil for dryer - 56.8  liters @ $.09                      $ 5.11
Fuel oil for afterburner -  71.0 liters @ $.09                  6.39
Electricity  for belt motor                                     .02
Electricity  for dryer                                          1-20
Labor -  7.5  hours  @ $3.50                                     26.25
Fixed costs  ($16,660.00 @  10 years depr./day)                  4.56
Interest                                                       -4?
Upkeep                                                       	'.^L
                                                             $44.47
    .47  T  160  kgs  DPW =  27.8* per kg  or 12.4*  per  Ib.
 to  dry  75% moisture  manure
                                  59

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TABLE 26.  COSTS FOR DRYING MANURE AFTER 24 HOURS ON THE BELT,
           OCTOBER THROUGH MAY, MANURE AT 67% MOISTURE
     Item                                            Amount
Fixed Costs:
Drying tunnel                                      $ 2,160.00
Belt and accessories                                 2,500.00
Dryer                                                9,500.00
Afterburner                                          2.500.00
Total fixed cost                                   $16,660.00

Drying Day - 160 kgs anaphage:   Operating costs for 5.5 hours
Fuel oil for dryer - 41.6 liters @ $.09                $ 3.74
Fuel oil for afterburner - 52.0 liters @ $.09            4.68
Electricity belt motor                                    .02
Electricity for dryer                                     .88
Labor - 5.5 hours @ $3.50                               19.25
Fixed costs ($16,660.00 @ 10 years depr./day)            4.56
Interest                                                  .47
Upkeep                                                    .47
                                                       $34.07
$34.07 v 160 kgs DPW = 21.3* per kg or 9.5* per Ib.
to dry 67% moisture manure
                              60

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   TABLE 27.   ESTIMATED AVERAGE COSTS FOR DAILY DRYING OF MANURE AFTER 24
              HOURS ON BELT ON A YEAR-ROUND BASIS, MANURE AT 60% MOISTURE*


        Item                                                     Amount

  Fuel  oil  for dryer - 26.5 liters @ $.09                         $ 2.38

  Fuel  oil  for afterburner - 33.1 liters @ $.09                     2.98

  Electricity

    1.   Belt motor                                                   .02

    2.   Dryer operation                                              .56

  Labor - 3.5 hours @ $3.50                                        12.25

  Fixed costs ($16,660.00 @ 10 years depr./day)                     4.56

  Interest                                                           .47

  Upkeep                                                             .47

                                                                  $23.69

  $23.69 v 160 kgs = 14.8* per kg or 6.7* per Ib.
  to dry 60% moisture manure (estimated as information
  was not available for the complete year)


  *Costs are for a 3.5-hour drying day - 160 kgs anaphage.

     The total cost of $23.69 for 160 kgs was 14.8* per kg or $148.00 for
1,000 kgs ($134.00 per short ton).

Drying 55% Moisture Manure

     In late December, 1974, 6 fans were added to recirculate the ventilation
air in the layer house.  An exhaust air "washing" tower was also added.  The
changes required that the energy and depreciation costs of these items be
added to the cost of producing anaphage.  However, the need for the after-
burner was eliminated by the use of the tower; therefore, the afterburner,
energy and depreciation costs were eliminated.  A sump pump and pit were also
added to the system to pump waste water from the drinking system into the
tower tank.   The sump pump and pit (energy and depreciation) costs were also
added to the anaphage production cost.

     The fixed costs of this new (fans plus tower) method of drying were
$18,759.00  an  increase of $2,099.00 over the fixed cost for the previous
methods used.
                                     61

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     As a result of the data gathered, it was demonstrated that 55% moisture
manure could be produced by this revised method.  The estimated cost of
anaphage production was $17.25 for the 160 kgs of daily production, Table
28.  This resulted in a cost of 10.8* per kg.  The energy savings were
$8.68 which consisted of $9.77 (108.9 liters) savings in oil and $1.09 in-
creased electricity cost.

     The total cost of $17.25 for 160 kgs was 10.8* per kg or $108.00 for
1,000 kgs ($96.00 per short ton).

Drying 40% Moisture Manure

     It was estimated (50% moisture obtained through March; and 30% moisture
April through September) that 40% moisture manure would be produced utilizing
the technique described in Section 8 for 12 months of operation.  The dryer
operating time would be only 1.5 hours for the 160 kgs of anaphage produced.

     The total cost of producing the 160 kgs of anaphage was $14.66, Table
29.  The cost of producing one kg was 9.2
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   TABLE 28.   ESTIMATED COSTS FOR DAILY DRYING JANUARY AND FEBRUARY WITH
              RECIRCULATING FANS, MANURE AT 55% MOISTURE
        Item                                                    Amount
Fixed Costs:
Drying tunnel                                                 $ 2,160.00
Belt and accessories                                            2,500.00
Dryer                                                           9,500.00
Tower and pump                                                  2,269.00
Sump pump and pit                                                 750.00
Six  (6) recirculating fans and ducts                            1,580.00
Total fixed costs                                             $18,759.00
Drying Day - 160 kgs anaphage:   Operating costs for 2.5 hours
Fuel oil for dryer - 18.9  liters @  $.09                           $ 1.70
Electricity
   1.  Six (6) recirculating  fans                                   1-44
   2.  Belt motor                                                     -02
   3.  Sump pump                                                      -02
   4.  Tower  pump                                                     -43
   5.  Dryer  operation                                                -40
Labor - 2.5  hours @  $3.50                                           7-
Fixed costs  ($18,759.00  @  10 years  depr./day)                       5.20
Interest                                                             -52
                                                                     .52
 Upkeep
                                                                   $17.25
 $17.25 v  160  kgs  DPW =  10.8* per kg  or 4.8* per Ib.  to  dry  55%
 moisture  manure  (estimated  55% moisture manure  was not  available  for  the
 total batch of manure)
                                     63

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   TABLE 29.  ESTIMATED COSTS FOR DAILY DRYING, 12 MONTHS OPERATION WITH
              RECIRCULATING FANS, MANURE AT 40% MOISTURE
        Item                                                     Amount
 Fixed Costs:
 Drying tunnel                                                 $ 2,160.00
 Belt and accessories                                            2,500.00
 Dryer                                                           9,500.00
 Tower and  pump                                                  2,269.00
 Sump pump  and pit                                                 750.00
 Six (6) recirculating fans and ducts                            1,580.00
 Total Fixed costs                                             $18,759.00
 Drying Day - 160 kgs anaphage:  Operating costs for 1.5 hours
 Fuel oil for dryer - 11.3 liters @ $.09                           $ 1.02
 Electricity
   1.  Six  (6) recirculating fans                                    1.44
   2.  Belt motor                                                     .02
   3.  Sump pump                                                      .02
   4.  Tower pump                                                     .43
   5.  Dryer operation                                                .24
Labor - 1.5 hours @ $3.50                                            5.25
Fixed costs ($18,759.00 @ 10 years depr./day)                        5.20
Interest                                                              .52
Upkeep                                                                .52
                                                                   $14.66
$14.66 T 160  kgs   = 9.2< kg or 4.2$ per Ib. to dry 40% moisture
manure, estimated
                                     64

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   TABLE 30.   ESTIMATED COSTS FOR DAILY DRYING, 12 MONTHS OPERATION WITH
              RECOMMENDED CHANGES, MANURE AT 40% MOISTURE
        Item                                                     Amount
Fixed Costs:
Drying tunnel                                                   $ 2,160.00
Belt and accessories                                              2,500.00
Dryer                                                             9,500.00
Tower and pump                                                    2,269.00
Sump pump and pit                                                   750.00
Total fixed costs                                               $17,179.00

Drying Day - 160 kgs:  Estimated operating costs for 1.5 hours
Fuel oil for dryer - 11.3 liters @ $.09                             $ 1.02
Electricity
  1.  Belt motor                                                       .02
  2.  Sump pump                                                        -02
  3.  Tower pump                                                       -43
  4.  Dryer operation                                                  .24
Labor - 1.5 hours @ $3.50                                             5.25
Fixed costs  ($17,179.00 @ 10 years depr./day)                         4.71
Interest                                                               -47
Upkeep                                                              	--^L
                                                                    $12.63
$12.63 -r 160 = 7.9* per kg or 3.6* per Ib. to dry 40% moisture manure
                                     65

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full-time operator, additional savings could be made.

Comparison of Daily Costs

     A summary of the costs of alternative methods of producing anaphage
discussed in  this paper are presented in  Table 31.   It was interesting  to
note that the in-house drying techniques produced several positive results,
as follows:

1.  reduced the manure moisture from 75% to 40%,
2.  reduced the machine drying time from 7.5 to 1.5 hours,
3.  reduced the fuel oil used for^drying from 127.8 to 11.3 liters,
4.  reduced the energy cost for drying from $12.67 to $1.71,
5.  this produced a savings of up to $10.96 for each 160 kgs of anaphage,
6.  this amounted to up to 86.5% of the cost of drying 75% moisture manure,
7.  the total cost to produce anaphage declined from 27.8< per kg (12.6<
    per Ib.) to 7.9< per kg (3.6< per lb.).
                                     66

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01
            TABLE  31.   A COMPARISON  OF  DAILY  COSTS  (SOME  ESTIMATED) TO  PRODUCE ANAPHAGE  FROM  75%
                       MOISTURE  MANURE  AND  ALTERNATIVE METHODS  IN THE SAME SYSTEM
Item
Fresh manure dry
every day
Winter (Oct. -May)
24 hours on belt
Year- Round
24 hours on belt
Winter (Jan. -Feb.) tower
recir. fans, less
afterburner
12 mo. recir. fans and
tower, less afterburner
Proposed remodeled
Manure Oil Energy Energy Energy
Moisture Hours Used Cost Savings Savings
% To Dry Liters $ $ %
75 7.5 127.8 12.67

67 5.5 93.6 9.29 3.38 26.6

60 3.5 59.6 5.94 6.73 53.1

55 2.5 18.9 3.99 8.68 68.5


40 1.5 11.3 3.15 9.52 75.1

40 1.5 11.3 1.71 10.96 86.5
Total Cost
To Dry
27.8 12.6

21.3 9.6

14.8 6.7

10.8 4.9


9.2 4.2

7.9 3.6
        ventilation system

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                                  SECTION 7

               INTRODUCTION:  UTILIZATION OF POULTRY ANAPHAGE


     The complete system for handling and dehydrating poultry excreta that
has been previously described in this report has resulted in a by-product of
poultry production which must be either disposed of or utilized.  The product
is dry, granular, can be stored, has a bulk density of about 7.73 kg/ft.-3 and
has an odor similar to ground feed (Surbrook ejt aj_., 1970).

     Poultry anaphage has been used as an ingredient in animal feeds.  Research
results have indicated that the protein in anaphage is available to the chick,
quail and hen (Flegal and Zindel, 1969; Thomas, 1970; Flegal and Dorn, 1971;
Nesheim, 1972; Polin and Chee, 1975).  Chemical components in anaphage have
been reported to be stable (Chang et al., 1974) and may be affected by differ-
ent dehydrators (Chang ejt al_., 1975J.  The importance of a microbiological
analysis of anaphage has also been discussed (Chang ejt aJL, 1975a, 1975b).

     In order to determine the feasibility and practicability of recycling
poultry anaphage as a feed ingredient, the chemical composition and microbial
guidelines for anapahge production should be established.  These two param-
eters, coupled with feeding trials, must be measured and tested to determine
the efficacy of poultry anaphage recycling.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

     Chemical analysis for moisture, calcium, phosphorus, ash, crude fiber,
ether extract, Kjeldahl nitrogen and non-protein nitrogen were done according
to A.O.A.C. methods.  Triplicate analyses were performed for each anaphage
sample and the average of three values is reported.  Nineteen anaphage samples
were analyzed and the average of 19 values are presented in this report.

     For microbiological analysis, anaphagesamples were taken directly from
the dehydrator aseptically in sterilized glass jars and immediately placed in
a refrigerator at the Avian Microbiology Laboratory until microbiological
analyses were conducted.

     The microbiological analytical method described by Chang ejt al_. (1974a)
was followed with some modifications.  A portion of the sample was aseptically
transferred to a tared polyethylene bottle that contained sterile distilled
water to form an approximate 1:10 dilution.  The exact dilution was calcu-
lated from the weight of the water and sample used.  At the same time 20-25
grams of the anaphage were placed into each of 3 tared petri dish bottoms.
The samples were weighted, placed into a 100C oven and weighed again after
24 hours to determine percent moisture.  The results of the 3 replicates were

                                     68

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averaged to give the final moisture  content.

     The 1:10 dilution of anaphage was  placed  into  a  sterile blender jar and
emulsified at high speed for 2 minutes.   The resulting emulsion was used for
both bacterial population counts and  bacterial  identifications.  For the popu-
lation counts, 1 ml of the emulsion was  transferred into 9 ml of sterile
distilled water, and a serial ten-fold  dilution was carried out through 6
tubes.  The procedure was repeated in triplicate.

     The Drop-plate method (Miles and Misra, 1938)  was used for bacterial
population counts.  One drop from each  dilution was transferred to 2 poured
brain-heart infusion .plates, using a disposable Pasteur pipette.  Each drop
was calibrated at 1/35 ml.  Again, the  procedure was  performed in triplicate
and one complete set of each dilution series was incubated aerobically while
the other was incubated anaerobically.   After  24 hours incubation at 37C,
the plates were counted.  The first dilution drop that gave definite isolated
colonies (generally between 10 and 50 colonies) was counted.  The number of
colonies was multiplied by the original  dilution factor, the inverse of the
dilution counted, and 35, and the results of the 3  replicates were averaged to
give total aerobic and total anaerobic counts  in bacteria per gram sample.

     The emulsion used for the population counts was  also used for bacterial
identification.  One ml amounts of the anaphage emulsion were placed into 50
ml of each of the following media: 1) Brain-heart infusion broth (BHI) for
general enrichment of all aerobic bacteria, 2)  Selenite broth (SB) for enrich-
ment of Salmonella spp., 3) Ethylene  violet azide (EVA) broth for enrichment
of fecal Streptococcus spp., 4) EE broth for enrichment of coli-aerogenes
group, 5) Rogosa's SL broth (RSL) for enrichment of Lactobacillus spp.  After
24 hours of incubation at 37C (all cultures were incubated aerobically except
Rogosa's SL), the broth cultures were streaked  onto agar plates (BHI broth to
BHI agar; SB to Brilliant Green agar; EVA broth to  EBA agar; EE broth to EMB
agar; RSL broth to RSL agar).  After  24  hours  incubation at 37C (RSL agar
plates incubated anaerobically) the colonies from these plates were iden-
tified morphologically and biochemically.

     One ml of the emulsion was also  transferred to each of 3 SPS agar pour
plates to identify and enumerate sulfite-reducing clostridia.   These plates
were incubated anaerobically for 48 hours, and  if clostridial  growth was pre-
sent, the colonies were counted at this  time.

     The metabolizable energy of the  feed and anaphage samples were determined
by two feeding trials using White Leghorn adult females in their first year of
production.  The first trial started  February 12, the second February 22, 1974.
The hens were caged singly in wire cages of layer-type batteries kept in an
air conditioned room at 22 +C.  Four hens were assigned to each test diet
for 14 days in Experiment #1, and 7 days in Experiment #2.  Excreta samples
were collected during the last 4 days of each experiment.  Diets contained
0.2% chromic oxide for determining the M.E. of  samples by the indicator method
(Scott et al., 1969).  The formulae of the diets used in the E.P.A. project
#S-80218T-OT-2 (prepared by Dr. C. Flegal of the Department of Poultry Science)
and those used in the M.E. assays (formulated by Dr.  D. Pol in) are given in
Table 40.  The diets and air-dried excreta samples  were combusted in a Parr

                                      69

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adiabatic bomb calorimeter, moisture was determined on triplicate samples  of
2-3 grams dried overnight at 104C, and chromic oxide was analyzed  in  feed
and excreta by the method of Czarmocki, Sibbald and Evans (1960).

RESULTS

Chemical Analysis

     The results of chemical analyses of anaphage are presented in  Table 32.
For purposes of comparison, the results are presented on a dried weight basis
(Table 33).

     The crude protein  (an average of 19 anaphage samples) on a dried weight
basis was 35.64% with a range of 27.46-41.82% (Table 33).

     The corrected protein averaged 14.32% with a range of 12.04-21.45%.
"Corrected protein" was derived by subtracting the percent of non-protein
nitrogen from the percent of Kjeldahl nitrogen and then multiplying by 6.25.
The protein level of anaphage from this in-house drying system (crude and
corrected) was considered "good" since the protein level in the laying feed
was about 16%.  The calcium and phosphorus content averaged 8.51% and 2.23%,
respectively.  Ash, crude fiber and ether extract averaged 25.72%,  11.12% and
2.02%, respectively,  Calcium, phosphorus, ash, crude fiber and ether  extract
were comparable to the  results of previously reported anaphage analyses (Chang
et al_., 1975).

Microbiological Analysis

     The microbial count was directly related to the moisture content of the
sample (Table 34).  There were only 621 aerobic organisms in a gram of
anaphage sample when the moisture content was below 1%.  An average of 290,286
and 702,602 organisms per gram of anaphage were counted when the sample
moisture was 1-4% and 5-10%, respectively.  When the moisture of the sample
was up to 11-20% or higher than 20%, the microbial counts averaged  16 and
30 millions per gram sample, respectively.  Anaerobic count followed the same
pattern when compared to the moisture content of the sample (Table  35).

     An inverse relation of dehydration temperature and microbial  count was
apparent from the results (Table 36).  Lowering the dehydration temperature
resulted in a higher microbial count.  The average of aerobic microbial
count was decreased from 69,500,000   to 1,739,616 when the dehydration tem-
perature was increased from 177C to higher than 260C.  It must be noted
that the dehydration temperature in the drying chamber was higher than
recorded in the table.  The dehydration temperatures in Table 36 were merely
the setting indicators on this particular dryer.  The temperature varies in
different locations of the drying chamber and normally is higher than its
setting (Surbrook, 1971).  It can be noted that the aerobic and the
anaerobic counts were significantly reduced when the moisture of the sample
was reduced to less than 10% although the dehydration temperature remained at
the same setting (Table 36).  Furthermore, only 4 groups of bacteria
(Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and fecal Streptococcus) were
                                     70

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recovered when the dehydration  temperature  was  set  at  26QQC  or  higher
(Table 37).

Metabolizable Energy of Anaphage

     The anaphage that was prepared  from  excreta  collected during January,
1974, had its origin from a feed whose  formula  was  the same  as  the E.P.A.
#1 diet fed to one-half of the  hens  on  the  project  starting  in  February.  The
anaphage tested at 10 and 15% in test diets  had a determined M.E. value of
1432 Kcal/kg (Table 40).  The diet from which the anaphage originated had a
determined M.E. of 3008 Kcal/kg.  Thus, the  hens  were  53% efficient in ex-
tracting the M.E. energy from the diet.  The E.P.A. diet #1, which is essenti-
ally the same diet fed in January assayed at an M.E. value of 3051 Kcal/kg,
as compared to the nearly alike  value  of 3008  for  the diet  fed in January.
E.P.A. #2 diet, which contained 10%  anaphage for  recycling the waste, was
formulated to be isocaloric with E.P.A. #1.  The  data  in Table 39 reveals
that the M.E. value for these two diets were essentially the same, 3030 vs.
3031 Kcal/kg diet.

     The proximate analyses of  the diets  and anaphage  from the E.P.A. experi-
ment are presented in Table 38.  The values  for the crude protein content of
the diets, 16.3-16.6%, are comparable to  the calculated analysis of 16.0%.
The calcium levels by proximate analysis  were 3.69, 3.04 and 3.04% for diets
January, 1974, E.P.A. #1 and E.P.A.  #2, respectively;  the calculated analyses
were 3.30% for each diet.  The  adjustment made  for  the addition of the
anaphage was on target.  The phosphorus levels  given by the  proximate anal-
ysis are for total phosphorus.  The  diet  E.P.A. #1  contained 0.752% P as
compared to a very similar value of  0.754%  in the diet E.P.A. #2 with 10%
anaphage.  Again, the formulation correctly  reflected  the adjustment needed
for the addition of the anaphage which  contained  2.31% P, but whose content
was not known until 3 months later when the  proximate  analysis was completed
in a biochemical laboratory back-logged with samples to be done.  The point
is that estimates on the calcium and phosphorus percentage in the anaphage
are valid.  However, what is not known  is the biological availability of
the calcium and phosphorus from anaphage.

     An estimate of the total available energy  in anaphage was made based
upon the percentage of crude protein, ether  extract and nitrogen free
extract using the energy values of 4.1  Kcal/g,  9.0 Kcal/g   and 3.7 Kcal/g,
respectively.  The anaphage had an estimated energy of 1929  Kcal/g.  The
determined M.E. of the anaphage at 1432 Kcal/kg   revealed that about 74%
of its energy was available to  the laying hen.
                                     71

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          TABLE 32.   CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF ANAPHAGE*
Chemical
Components
Calcium
Phosphorus
Ash
Crude Fiber
Ether Extract
Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Crude Protein
Non-Protein Nitrogen
Corrected Protein
Moisture
No. of
Sample
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19

Percent
8.09
2.06
24.41
10.55
1.91
5.38
33.94
3.25
13.62
4.96


6.30
1.92
21.66
9.45
1.07
3.66
22.88
1.88
11.13
1.05
Range
(%)
- 10.04
- 2.48
- 28.25
- 12.76
- 2.43
- 6.61
- 41.31
- 4.14
- 21.19
- 16.67
* As received
TABLE 33.  CHEMICAL COMPONENTS  OF  ANAPHAGE  IN  DRIED WEIGHT  BASIS
Chemical
Components
Calcium
Phosphorus
Ash
Crude Fiber
Ether Extract
Kjeldahl Nitrogen
Crude Protein
Non-Protein Nitrogen
Corrected Protein
No. of
Samples
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19

Percent
8.51
2.23
25.72
11.12
2.02
5.81
35.64
3.41
14.32


6.68
2.07
22.57
9.84
1.14
4.39
27.46
2.24
12.04
Range
(o/\
\')
- 10.70
- 2.57
- 29.10
- 12.92
- 2.80
- 7.71
- 41.82
- 4.26
- 21.45
                               72

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TABLE 34.  AEROBIC AND  ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COUNT OF ANAPHAGE RELATIVE
           TO MOISTURE CONTENT
Microbes




Aerobic



Anaerobic

Moisture
(Ol\
\')
< 1
1-4
5-10
11-20
> 20
< 1
1-4
5-10
11-20
> 20
Samples
Analyzed
2
8
8
9
19
2
8
8
9
18
Average Microbial Count
Per Gram of Anaphage
621
290,286
702,602
16,167,511
30,246,316
1,030
128,857
667,116
5,579,183
15,616,666
   TABLE 35.  THE EFFECT OF DEHYDRATION TEMPERATURE ON AEROBIC AND
              ANAEROBIC MICROBIAL COUNTS
Microbes
Aerobic
Anaerobic
Dehydration
Temperature
350F 1770C
4000F 204C
45QOF 2320C
5000F 260C
>500F 260C
3500F 177C
4000F 204C
45QOF 232C
50QOF 260C
>500F 260C
Samples
Analyzed
2
8
8
7
21
2
8
7
7
21
Average Microbial Count
Per Gram of Anaphage
69,500,000
35,382,000
18,392,500
17,485,714
1,739,616
26,500,000
20,625,000
9,951,429
5,925,713
359,167
                                 73

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 TABLE  36.   THE  EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE  AND  MOISTURE  ON  MICROBIAL COUNTS
            OF ANAPHAGE
Dehydration Sample
Microbes Temperature Moisture
> 10%
500F 26QOC
< 10%
Aerobic
Over
5000F 260C > 10%
< 10%
> 10%
500F 260C
< 10%
Anaerobic
Over
10%
500F 260C
< 10%
Average Microbial Count
Per Gram of Anaphage
20,281,666

710,000


6,719,520
183,396
6,958,333

730,000


1,360,530

46,241
      TABLE 37.  MICROORGANISMS RECOVERED FROM ANAPHAGE SAMPLES
     Microorganisms Recovered
Note
     Aerobacter aerogenes
     Alkali genes faecales
     Bacillus spp.
     Clostridium spp.
     Corynebacterium spp.
     Enterobacter spp.
     Escherichia coli
     Lactobacillus spp.
     Proteus spp.
     Streptococcus spp. (fecal)
 **
 **
 *
 **
 **
 *0nly recovered in high moisture samples.
**0nly bacteria recovered when dehydration temperature was 500F (260C)
  or higher.
                                  74

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tn
              TABLE  38.   PROXIMATE ANALYSES  OF ANAPHAGE AND  DIETS  FROM  HOUSE NO.  7  PROJECT OF  EPA
                          EXPERIMENT  (SUPPLIED BY  E.  LINDEN,  BIOCHEMISTRY  DEPARTMENT)
Item
Water
Nitrogen-Kjeldahl
Crude protein (Nx6.2.5)
Non-protein nitrogen
Corrected protein
Ether extract
Crude fiber
Ash
Calcium
Phosphorus
Nitrogen-free extract
Diet Fed
Jan. 74
6.78
2.62
16.34
.54
13.00
4.17
3.44
9.21
3.69
0.813
66.84
EPA #1
Fed Feb. 74
6.55
2.66
16.63
.55
13.19
4.09
3.21
8.26
3.04
0.752
67.81
EPA #2a
Fed Feb. 74
6.55
3.10
19.38
.85
14.06
6.63
4.11
9.60
3.61
0.754
60.28
Anaphage
From Diet
Jan. 74
0.45
5.70
35.63
3.01
16.81
2.46
10.83
23.75
8.01
2.31
27.33
      aContains 10% anaphage originating  from  diet  fed Jan. 74

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             TABLE 39.  METABOLIZABLE ENERGY VALUE OF DIETS AND  ANAPHA6E  FED TO WHITE LEGHORN HENS
                        IN THE EPA PROJECT
   Sample Tested
Expt.  #la
                                                                                   Expt.
Mean
      Feed collected  Jan.  74 (same  as
      EPA #1  diet)

^     Anaphage from feed of Jan.  74
w       10% in test diet
        15% in test diet

      Feed -  EPA #1 collected Feb.  74

      Feed -  EPA #2 collected Feb.  74

        with  10% anaphage  of
        feed  given  Jan.  74
                                                             2959
                                                             1546

                                                             3054
                                                             3031
                      3056     3008 (69)
                      1483
                      1269

                      3049     3051  (3)
                      3029     3030 (1)
a4 hens per test diet

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     TABLE 40.  TEST DIETS AND HOUSE NO. 7 DIETS  (EPA PROJECT) USED  IN M.E.  EXPERIMENTS
Parts/1000
Ingredient
Corn - #2 yellow
Soybean meal, 49%
Alfalfa meal, 17%
Fat- k-V
Corn oil , stabl .
Methionine hydroxy analogue
Methionine, dl .
Meat and bone meal , 50%
Dicalcium phosphate
Limestone
Salt
Choline chloride
Layer pre-mix
Vitamin mix
Mineral mix
Anaphage
Clintose (glucose)
Chromic oxide
Sand
Total
Diet #1
399
235.5
54

49
1
--

22
74
2.5
1
--
5
5
__
150
2

1000
Diet #1 With
Anaphage
399
235.5
54

49
1
--
--
--
57
2.5
1

5
5
150

2
39
1000
EPA #la
689.5
165
20
5
--

.5
30
12.5
70
2.5
__
5




--
__
1000
EPA #2a
584.5
166
20
34
--
--
.75
30
.25
57
2.5

5

__
100



1000
aFormulated by C. Flegal,  Department of  Poultry Science

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     Public Health Aspects of Refeeding Animal Manures - as of July 1, 1975,
the U.S. Public Health Service, Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug
Administration, or any other federal agency has not given an official sanction
to dry, bag, sell and/or feed dried poultry waste and any animal manure to
livestock and/or poultry.  In fact, a reprinting of paragraph 500.40 of the
Federal Register (page 813804, Vol. 40, No. 60) printed on 27 March 1975, re-
iterated the 1967 stand of the FDA which specifically states that the FDA has
not sanctioned and does not sanction the use of poultry litter as a feed or
as a component of feed for animals.

     Two states, California and Mississippi, have authorized the use of, and
have specifications written for the drying and feeding of animal wastes.
CAST Report #41, dated February 19, 1975, prepared by a task force under Dr.
P. F. Pratt of the University of California, submitted to the Senate Committee
on Agriculture and Forestry (Senator Talmadge, Chairman).  This CAST Committee
pointed out that "Actions are needed that will promote the beneficial  use or
increased efficiency of the use of sewage sludges and animal  manures.   As a
society with limited resources, we need to stop thinking in negative terms of
waste disposal and instead should think in the positive terms of appropriate
use"
     The USDA has released a bulletin in March 1974 entitled "Recycling Poul-
try Waste as Feed ~ Will It Pay?"   (Agricultural  Economic Report No.  254).
In summary, this Agricultural Economic Report stated that the processing and
feeding of dried layer waste (DLW)  is economically feasible for large  units
of caged layers.  The highest net returns are attained by the larger opera-
tions when DLW is fed at 12.5% of the ration.

     The impact of public health aspects of refeeding Dried Poultry Waste was
not a part of this EPA project.
                                      78

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                                  SECTION 8

                   INTRODUCTION:  PSYCHROMETRICS  OF  SYSTEM


     The primary function of ventilation air  exchange  through a poultry house
is to provide fresh air  (oxygen)  for  the birds'  metabolic processes and to
remove waste gases of carbon dioxide,  ammonia and other gases.  The quantity
of ventilation air exchange needed  during cold weather is, however, depen-
dent on the amount of water vapor to be removed,  and during hot weather on
the amount of waste metabolic  heat  to  be removed; as the metabolic processes
require a comparatively  small  amount of air.

     Any housing  system that  maximizes excreta drying during all seasons
must not jeopardize the  health of the  birds because  of an unsatisfactory en-
vironment.  The ventilation air exchange must be  sufficient even during the
coldest climatic periods to at least remove the water  vapor produced by the
respiratory system of the birds.  Otherwise,  the  humidity in the building
will continue to rise to the point  where it will  be  detrimental to the
health of the birds.  During these  cold periods when the ventilation air ex-
change rate is minimal because of the  finite  amount  of heat from the birds,
the air has little, if any, capability to absorb  additional water from the
excreta.

     During hot weather, the ventilation air  exchange  must ideally remove all
of the metabolic heat from the birds with a minimum  of temperature increase.
In other words, if it is 32C  (90F) outside  it is not desirable that it be
a number of degrees warmer in  the building.   One  way of keeping the inside
temperature the smallest increment  of  a degree warmer  is to provide an infi-
nite quantity of outside air exchange.  The other and  more practical way is
that most or all of the  metabolic heat be removed in the form of latent heat
in the water vapor.  The process of evaporation increases the humidity level
of the in-house environmental  air some, but not the  temperature.  Thus,
enough summer ventilation air  exchange must be provided so as not to allow
an increase in the relative humidity above an  undesirable level.  The house
then becomes a large evaporative cooler.  The  evaporative process must have
a source of water and, ideally, this is the excreta  which must be dried.

     Fresh poultry excreta, like any other wet hydroscopic material, re-
leases moisture until it reaches an equivalent moisture level with the sur-
rounding air.  The objective of this phase of the demonstration project was
to maximize excreta drying in  the poultry house without detrimentally af-
fecting the environment  for the birds.  All excreta  water that can be re-
moved prior to reaching  the mechanical dryer,  the greater the saving of
fossil  fuel.
                                      79

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     In presenting ventilation design data, Longhouse et. al. (1960) relate
fecal moisture to feed and water intake.  Lampman et. al. ~~p967) used these
data to estimate moisture loads for poultry house ventilation systems.  Sev-
eral researchers have reported efforts to capitalize on the drying effect of
the ventilation air.  Bressler and Bergman (1971) used recirculating fans in
the manure pits under cages, then dried the manure pits under cages, then
dried the manure with a fuel-fired dryer.  Soble (1972) used several devices
under caged layers including fans, air jets and screens to enhance the drying.

     Oheimb and Longhouse (1974) made manure drying tests in a cage-type lay-
ing house test chamber in the effort to minimize odors.  Although these re-
ports included data about environmental temperatures and humidity, no specific
analyses of these factors were given.

     There are many reports giving data as to an optimum environment for lay-
ing hens:  Ota et_ al_. (1953); Longhouse et al_. (1960); Petersen et. al_. (1960);
Mueller  (1961); Ota and McNalley (1963);Tayne (1966); Lampman et. al_. (1967);
Esmay (1969); Wilson et. aJL (1972); Structures and Environment Handbook
(1973); ASAE Data (1974); and Juston (1974).  Some reports involve continously
constant temperatures and humidities while others give optimums with diurnal
variation.  Egg number, egg weight and bird weight are the usually optimized
factors.  A summary of the results from these reports can best be stated by
quoting  the recommendations of the Structures and Environment Handbook (1973).
These recommendations are:  ''Air temperature, 45F (7C) minimum, 95 F (29C)
maximum; fluctuation, 5F (3C) between 45 and 65F (7 and 18C) or +10F
(6C) between 65 and 85F (19 and 29C); and relative humidity 50 to 75%".
The literature does not present environmental recommendations for dust.
Koon t al_. (1963) states that dust production is a function of the environ-
ment.  They go on to say dust produced is "low in quantity at 50F (10C),
increases to a high-level plateau at 60 and 70F (16 and 21C), and de-
creases as temperatures approach 100F (38C)".  Longhouse et_ al_. (1960)
states that dust has two bad effects:  A vehicle for disease, and it may ir-
ritate the internal tissues.  Lampman e_t al_. (1967) suggest that dust be
controlled by maintaining a relative humidity greater than 50%.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

     Primary data for environmental evaluation were the dry and wet bulb en-
vironmental air temperatures.  The air temperatures were obtained mainly
with a mercury-type psychrometer placed in the ventilation air stream.

     A fan activated psychrometer was used in the low air velocity location
near the center of the house.  These data were collected by visual obser-
vation, hand-written on a data sheet and subsequently transferred to computer
cards.  Observations, for the most part, were made every 30 minutes for a
5-hour period twice each week on a regular basis.

     The primary data collection equipment involved fan actuated psychrom-
eters using thermister sensors.  Each psychrometer consisted of an electric
fan and mounting frame with water storage. The fan sucked air through a
short duct past the dry bulb and wet bulb thermister.  The duct was divided
into 2 half-cylinders; 1  for each sensor.  The wet bulb was kept wet with a

                                     80

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a standard cotton, wet-bulb, wick-type  sock.   The  distilled water  storage
capacity for each unit was  about  1/2  liter  and fed a  constant water
level wick-water supply.  The  fans  were connected  to  an  independent  power
supply and operated only  during data  collecting periods.   The electrical sig-
nal from each sensor was  fed to a switching and interpretating  unit  where the
signal was converted from an analog to  a digital  value.   This value  was
ultimately punched on paper tape.  The  data acquisition  unit has a capacity
for 60 temperatures (30 psychrometers), the time of day  and wind speeds.
Analysis of the data is done by reading the paper  tape  into a computer and
making appropriate calculations and printouts.

      Installation, calibration and  final  satisfactory operation of the
thermister psychrometers  and associated equipment  extended over a  longer
period than was expected.  As  a result  a multi-point  thermocouple  strip-
chart recorder was also used to collect environmental data.  (The  paper
tape  data system was not  discarded  because  wind speed data is needed for the
drying analysis.)  The thermocouples  were installed alongside the  thermisters
and thus, used the same fan and water supply  system.  The  results  from the
strip-chart recorder were visually  read and punched on computer cards for
analysis.  All data involved 1 pair (wet and  dry bulb) of  inlet readings, 1
pair  of outlet readings and 1  pair  of readings in  the center of the  house.

      A daily log of the operation was kept.   This  log provided data as to
time  of manure cleaning,  time  of  drying,  a  time record of  water spills, etc.
A  continuous record of outside and  incoming dry bulb  temperature was also
made  using a liquid/gas remote sensing  thermometer connected to a  circular re-
cording chart.  A similar record  of the central  in-house temperature was made
using a linear chart recorder.

      Other data collected were a  sampling of  dust  concentration and  air velo-
city.  The dust was collected  with  a  high volume sampler.  The sampling was
done  on May 16, 1973, only. Samples  were taken of the outgoing air  and of
the outside air.  Air velocities  were taken within the house on May  1, 1973.
A  hot-wire anemometer was used to measure the velocity of  air passing under
each  cage and over the manure.

      The data for analysis  involved calculated averages and ranges from the
collected raw data of dry bulb and  wet  bulb temperature.   Humidity calcu-
lations were made using computer  algorithms prepared  by Lerew (1972).  Dry
bulb  temperatures were the  only averages  made directly from input  data.  The
average was made for all  data  collected for a specific calendar day.  For
those days involving less than the  full  24-hour period, all averages and
range values were determined on the basis of  the data available.

      A humidity ratio was calculated  for  each dry  bulb and wet bulb  temper-
ature pair and from these values  the  averages and  ranges were determined
for the "day".  An average  daily  relative humidity was also calculated using
the average dry-bulb temperature  and  average  humidity ratio.

      The monthly summaries  presented  in Tables 41  and 42 were made from the
averages and ranges determined on the daily basis.
                                      81

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RESULTS

     As noted from Table 41, the average in-house temperatures were within
the recommendations referenced earlier of 7 to 29 C (45 and 85 F) except
when the inlet air temperature was greater that the recommended maximum.
This was the case for data collected in September, 1973.  For this month  it
is noted that the average inlet temperature was 32.5C  (90.4F), which ac-
counts for the high temperature of 34.3 C (93.7 F) in the center of the
house.

     As would be expected, the average in-house temperature is 1 to 7 C
(1 to 13 F) higher than the average inlet temperature.  This can be noted by
comparing the "avg" columns under "inlet" and "center" in Table 41.

     A comparison of the average temperatures in the "outlet" and "center"
columns of Table 41 will indicate a drop in temperature from the center to
outlet for data collected in 1973 but an increase in temperature for data
collected in 1974.  The drop in temperature might indicate evaporative
cooling.  This possibility is strengthened by the fact that there was con-
siderable water spillage from the bird waterers in 1973.  This problem was
corrected in January, 1974, with a new watering system.  Much of the water
spillage was in the alley; a normally dry surface with no spillage.

     Table 42 presents the relative humidity in the same locations and for
the same period as  the  temperatures.   It can be noted from this table that
the relative humidity did not always fall within the previously referenced
recommended range of 50 to 75%.  With the exception of data collected in
November, the in-house relative humidity was either within the recommended
range or greater than the recommended maximum.  Results of this type are  to
be expected where evaporation of moisture is enhanced by design.  (The 100%
figures for inlet air in February results from omitting water in the inlet
psychrometers during freezing weather.)

     The results from sampling the air for dust are 8,720 and 11,200 micro-
grams/m3 for the outside air and the outlet air, respectively.  At the
time these data were collected, the outside relative humidity was 89% and
the dry bulb temperature was 10C (51F).

     The average of 5 velocity measurements along the length of the cages
and just above the dropping hoard or floor are:  0.132, 0.127 and 0.838 m/sec.
(26, 25 and 165 ft./min.).  These figures indicate that of the air passing
under the cages in the row next to the inlet about 6% passes under the top
cages, about 6% passes under the middle cages and the rest or approximately
    passes along the floor.
In-House and Belt Drying Potential

     During the months of September, October and November, 1973, regular
samplings were made of the moisture content of excreta as deposited below
the cages in the house and on the belt after 24 hours of drying from venti-
lation air being exhausted through the tunnel.  The daily drying of the ex-
creta in the poultry house remained fairly constant from the 80% voided


                                      82

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TABLE 41.  LAYING HOUSE ENVIRONMENT USING VENTILATING AIR TO DRY MANURE:
           TEMPERATURE AT THE DESIGNATED LOCATIONS  (TOP FIGURES DEGREES
           CELCIUS; BOTTOM FIGURES DEGREES  FAHRENHEIT)
Inlet
Mo.
8

9

10

11

2

5

6

8

Yr.
73

73

73

73

74

74

74

74

Min.
18.
65-
31.
88.
7.
45.
1.
33.
-10.
14.
9.
49.
12.
53.
3.
37.
Max.
28.
82.
34-
93.
24.
75.
8.
47.
13.
55.
18.
65.
28.
82.
32.
90.
Avg.
22.2
71.9
32.5
90.4
14.2
57.6
5.1
41.2
3.1
37.5
10.9
51.6
17.8
64.1
23.2
73.7
Min.
21.
69.
33.
91.
11.
52.
10.
50.
6.
42.
12.
54.
14.
58.
16.
60.
Center
Max.
29.
84.
35.
95.
24.
75.
13.
56.
15.
59.
18.
65.
28.
82.
31.
87.

Avg.
24.3
75.7
34.3
93.7
17.4
63.2
11.6
52.9
10.2
50.3
13.0
55.4
19.2
66.5
24.5
76.1

Min.
19.
67.
30.
87.
11.
52.
5.
41.
10.
50.
17.
62.
17.
62.
13.
56.
Outlet
Max.
28.
83.
32.
90.
25.
77.
12.
53.
24.
75.
21.
71.
30.
85.
34.
93.

Avg.
22.9
73.2
31.6
88.8
16.7
62.0
8.8
47.9
16.3
61.3
17.8
64.1
21.9
71.3
24.8
76.7
                                    83

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  TABLE 42.  LAYING HOUSE ENVIRONMENT USING VENTILATING AIR TO DRY MANURE:
             RELATIVE HUMIDITY AT THE DESIGNATED LOCATION (AVERAGE DAILY,
             PERCENT)
                         Inlet
                                  Center
                                             Outlet
Mo.
Yr.
Min.   Max.
Min.
Max.
Min.
Max,
8
9
10
11
2
5
6
8
73
73
73
73
74
74
74
74
58.
45.
53.
87.
85.
83.
75.
62.
79.
75.
95.
88.
100.
92.
86.
92.
53.
43.
55.
41.
70.
74.
77.
89.
77.
50.
84.
57.
82.
81.
100.
98.
58.
50.
48.
56.
69.
72.
69.
70.
78.
55.
80.
70.
89.
92.
89.
91.
moisture content level to about 72% wet basis (all moisture content percent-
ages given in this paper are wet basis).  However, the drying of the excreta
on the belt decreased each month from September through November.  In Sep-
tember the moisture content dropped by 9% during 24 hours on the belt, in
October 7% and in November 3%.  This trend is accounted for by the pre-
vailing weather conditions of East Lansing, Michigan.  Columns 1 and 2 of
Table 14 give average monthly temperatures and humidities for September,
October and November.  The average in-house environmental conditions are
shown by columns 5 and 6.  The average number of pounds of water removed
daily from the excreta of 5,000 hens from in-house and on-the-belt by the
ventilation air is shown by columns 9 and 10 of Table 14.  Also, the venti-
lation air must remove all of the latent heat produced by the laying hens.
This is shown by column 11 of Table 14 to be an additional 654.5 to 763.6
kg per day for 5,000 hens.

     A gross psychrometric analysis for the 3 months of September, October
and November of 1973 is presented in Table 14.  It is interesting to note
that the required ventilation rate to remove the above indicated amount of
water from the house under the average climatic and environmental conditions
was slightly over .085 M3 per hen in September and October and down to nearly
.028 M3 in November (column 19).  The house heat necessary for maintaining
the ventilation and house condition was quite close to handbook data on heat
produced (see column 21 of Table 14).

Ventilation Fan Operation

     The demonstration poultry house was equipped with 5 ventilation ex-
haust fans.  Four were .915 M fans powered by 1 hp motors and with rated
capacities of 283.2 M3 each.  The fifth fan was an .457 M, 1/3 hp which
ran all  of the time.  Separate electrical watt-hour meters were used on the
                                    84

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small fan, the large fans numbered  1  and  2  and the  large  fans  numbered  3 and
4.

     The summarized electrical  energy utilization by ventilation  fans is
shown by Table 43 and Figure 24.  The graphical  presentation show that  the
operation of the large fans correlates directly with the  average  monthly
climatic temperatures in lower  central Michigan indicated by the  broken lines.
The longer broken line is an average  of weather bureau  data over  many years
while the shorter broken line represents  the  average monthly temperatures
during the actual months of the project.

     The total kilowatt hour per day  consumed by all  4  large fans  is the best
indication of total fan operation and thus, ventilation air exchange.

     It will be noted for April  and May that  the total  energy  consumed by the
4 fans conforms closely with a  temperature  variation in 1974 when  April was
warmer than usual and May somewhat  cooler.  The greater amount of fan
operation in August as compared to  July does  not seem to  be indicated by the
average month temperature data.

     Based upon manufacturers rated air delivery capabilities  of  the fans
and energy utilization, the average ventilation air exchange per  bird was
calculated and is shown by one  column of  Table 43.   These ventilation rates
are somewhat higher than what has been normally recommended in the past, and
also higher than thought possible in  poultry  houses with  only  the  bird meta-
bolic heat for environmental control.  The  plan of  operation for  this house
was, of course, to maximize excreta drying  by maximizing  air movement with-
out jeopardizing an optimum environment.  The higher ventilation  air exchange
rates are somewhat due to the higher  density  of birds in  the triple-deck
poultry house.  On the other hand,  the actual  ventilation air  exchange
through the house may be somewhat less than the rated outputs  of  the fans.

     Electrical energy consumption  data also  provides an  indication of oper-
ational costs.  For example, during August, the month of  maximum  fan oper-
ation, an average of about 120  kilowatt hours per day were consumed by all
5 fans.  If a kilowatt hour cost of 3tf is assumed,  the  fans would  cost $3.60
per day to operate.  The cost dropped down  to about $.60  per day  during the
coldest winter months of January and  February.
                                                        3
     The energy requirement for a rated output of 2.83  M   was  about 130 watts
per hour.  This can be reduced  on down to the electrical  energy required to
provide 28.3 M^ of air exchange of  about  2 watts.   Thus,  during the month of
August for a cost of $3.60 per  day  the fans delivered about 1,699,000 M-3 of
ventilation air exchange each day.

A Simulation for Drying Poultry Excreta with  Ventilation  Air

     A simulation is an iterative process in  which  a series of appropriate
calculations are made to determine  an estimate of some  unknown variable or
variables in the system.  The iterative process  usually implies a dynamic
simulation, i.e., the simulation  calculations  are repeated as  time (or
another independent variable) advances at a regular interval.  Although such

                                       85

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00

O1
               100
                                                                                                      w



                                                                                                      H


                                                                                                      $
                                                                                                      W
                                                                                                      PC
                                                                                                      u
                                                                                                      H


                                                                                                      1

                                                                                                      w
                                                                                                      o
                                                                                                      w
                                                                        0     N      D     J
                                   Figure 24.   Electrical energy consumption

-------
 TABLE 43.  ELECTRICAL  ENERGY UTILIZED BY FANS AND VENTILATION AIR EXCHANGE
            i uK  I MM
Month
Of Year
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
Jun.
Jul.
Aug.
Sep.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
74
75
KWH/Day
18' Fan
(.457M)
8.75
7.95
8.88
8.25
8.95
8.90
8.70
7.68
8.00
8.62
8.14
8.45
KWH/Day
Fans
1 & 2
1.2
13.9
35.1
43.1
50.8
54.8
62.2
48.1
42.0
31.9
12.0
9.8
KWH/Day
Fans
3 & 4
10.3
12.7
21.0
20.6
42.5
50.2
49.2
32.2
18.3
7.1
7.1
2.3
KWH/Day
Fans
(1, 2, 3 & 4)
11.5
26.6
56.1
63.7
93.3
105.0
111.4
80.3
60.3
19.1
19.1
12.1
M3
/Hen
.0364
.0644
.1148
.1288
.1820
.2044
.2156
.1596
.1260
.0504
.0504
.0364
calculations can be made  by  the  analyst with  a calculator, they are best made
with a computer.

     The dynamic simulation  discussed  here  involves the egg production system
of the demonstration project.  The  primary  measure of effectiveness of the
system is the amount of water  removed  from  the excreta by the ventilating
air.  The effect of moisture removal is also  expressed as the excreta mois-
ture content.

     In preparing the simulation certain parameters must be known or as-
sumed.  For the system discussed here  these are:  a) outside air psy-
chrometrics, b) moisture  content and quantity of excreted material, c) the
physical  parameters of the building (size,  insulation, lighting, etc.), d)
ventilation system limits and  operating conditions, e) surface area of wa-
terers, f) number of hens, and g) laying rate.

     The first operation  for starting  the simulation is to initialize or
numerically define the fixed parameters mentioned above.  This is followed

                                     87

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by determining the appropriate psychrometric values for the outside air at
regular time intervals for a 24-hour period.  (The selected time interval
might be one-half hour, for example.) Another initial factor that must be
determined is the coldest outside temperature at which the inside optimum
(or present temperature) can be maintained.  Next, determine the expected
daily amount of excreta to be produced.  At this point, start the iterative
process and determine the amount of excreta produced up to the time of the
specific iteration.  The next step is to specify whether it is "daytime"
(lights on) or "nighttime" (lights off) for the specific iteration so the
correct metabolic heat can be determined.

     The above operations are followed by 2 questions of logic involving
the outside dry bulb temperature.  Hith the first the outside dry bulb is
compared with the predetermined optimum inside temperature.  If the outside
temperature is higher, an inside higher temperature must be calculated.  If
the outside temperature is lower, the second question of logic determines
if the outside temperature is less than a predetermined outside minimum.
When the outside temperature is less than this minimum an inside lower tem-
perature must be calculated.  When the outside temperature falls between
these values the inside temperature is set at the optimum (predetermined)
value.  Each of these branches in the simulation requires a different cal-
culation sequence and will be discussed separately; first, the sequence
with the inside temperature at the optimum value.

     Maintaining the optimum or present inside temperature is done by
varying the ventilation rate and this rate must be determined for each
iteration.  Since the rate is determined by a trial and error convergence,
an initial guess ventilation rate is made.  The next step is to determine the
ventilation rate.

     When the outside temperature is higher than optimum (summer conditions)
the ventilation rate is at the maximum and the inside temperature must be
determined.  Again, a trial and error convergence technique is used.  This
requires an initial guess for the inside temperature and subsequent deter-
mination of the inside temperature.

     When the outside temperature is less than the coldest outside temper-
ature that will maintain the present inside temperature, the ventilation
rate is at the minimum value.  With this ventilation rate (winter conditions)
a trial and error convergence is used to find the inside temperature.

     With the appropriate inside temperature and ventilation rate the next
step is to determine the quantity of water evaporated from the manure and
waterers for the iteration interval.  These values are then added to like
quantities from previous iterations.  The moisture content of the excreta
at the end of the iteration is the next computational step.  The last regu-
lar step of the iteration is to file or store the results of the calcula-
tions.

     At the end of the iteration a check is made to see if the time is mid-
night.  If it is, weather data for the next day is read and additional
psychrometric data for the outside air is calculated for use in later iter-


                                      88

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ations.  If appropriate,  the  process  is  repeated for the next iteration
When the iterative process  is complete,  results  from the moisture content
and water removed calculations are tabulated on  a printout.

Subprogram Algorithms

     In the simulation  description above there are numerous  references to
"determine" and  "calculate".   Each one of these  references  implies  there is
some algorithm to find  if the desired quantity is contained  in  a subprogram.
Many of the subprograms (or subroutines) suitable for this  simulation have
been developed by others  and  will  be  noted by reference  only.   Other sub-
routines have been developed  specifically for this simulation  and will
be discussed here.

     Perhaps, the most  universally useful group  of subroutines  is the pack-
age developed by Bakker-Arkema and Lerew (1972).  This group of subroutines
calculates the psychrometric  properties  of air-vapor mixtures  for all values
and combinations ordinarily determined by a psychrometric chart.  Another
group of subroutines was  developed by Phillips (1970).  This group  cal-
culates the heat loss or  gain through the walls, ceiling and floor  of a
laying house.  It also  includes subroutines to determine the heat generated
by electric lights and  the metabolic  heat and respiration from  the  laying
hens.  Another useful routine is reported by Llewellyn (1965).  Its function
is the same as finding  and interpolating paired  data from a  table.

     Several specific algorithms are  needed for  this simulation.  For the
most part, the data and relationships are found  in the literature.  A dis-
cussion of each  subprogram which involves 1  or more algorithms  follows.  For
reasons of continuity,  the same 6 or  less character names used  in the sim-
ulation will be  used here for identification. The discussion will  be in
alphabetic order according to this name.  Equations, only, will be  presented.

AMC

     The purpose of this  routine is to determine a moisture  content.  The
definition of wet-basis moisture content is used, i.e.,  MC = (water weight)/
(material with water weight).

DRYHET

     The purpose of this  routine is to calculate the heat required  to evap-
orate the water  from manure and waterers.  In doing this, however,  it is
also necessary to know  the drying rate and the quantity  of-water evaporated.

     The latter  two quantities are calculated by other routines but are made
available to the main program through this subroutine.  The  unique  equation
of this routine  is:  Heat of  evaporation = (weight of water  evaporated) x
(latent heat).
DRYRAT
     The purpose of  this  subroutine  is  to  determine  the  drying  rate of the

                                      89

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manure.  The algorithm used hereis specific to poultry manure.  The  basic
equation for the drying rate was obtained from Perry e_t aj_.  (1963),
(p. 15-35).  Data for obtaining the specific constants for poultry manure
were obtained from Wells (1972).  The drying rate equation is

              dw/do = htA (t - t's) A or
                    = kgA  (ps - p)
        where:
              dw/do = drying rate LB HLO/hour
              h. = total 	  ..    .   .
               t     BTU/(hour) (ft.2)  (op)
heat transfer coeffient
  01
  2
              A = Area, ft.'

              t = dry bulb temperature, F

              t's = temperature of evaporationg surface, F

              X = latent heat of evaporation at t's, BTU/lb.

              hg = mass transfer coefficient
                     lb./(hour) (ft.2) (ATM)

              ps = vapor pressure of water at surface temperature, ATM

              p = partial pressure of water in air, ATM

     A reasonable assumption which will simplify calculations is that all
heat transfer is by convection and the drying surface is a flat plate.
Perry, ejt a]_. (1963) state that h-j- = hc, the convective heat transfer coeffi
cient, when heat is transferred by convection only.  Their equation for
convective heat transfer is
        where:
              hc = convective heat transfer coefficient
                     BTU/(hour)  (ft.2)
              G = mass velocity, lb./(hour) (ft. )

              D  = a characteristic dimension, ft.

              d, m, n = constants

     The value, G, can be represented by the weight rate of flow divided  by
the cross- sectional area.  For a flat plate, Dc, can be the length of. drying
solid over which the air-stream passes.  From the discussion and examples
used by Perry e_t al_. (1963) and by Wells (1972), it is apparent that m  =  1-n
and that these constants along with a are specific to a material and drying
conditions.  Using data supplied by Wells (1972), values for these constants
have been determined:  n = 0.4029 and a = 0.6344.  Perry et_ al_. (1973)  in
their discussion of drying note that drying of a material occurs in 2 modes:
the constant-rate mode and the falling-rate mode or period.  The falling-
rate period only occurs at the end of the drying process, i.e., when the
                                     90

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moisture content of the material  is  low.   The manure in  the laying  house  will
have a high moisture content  and  thus  drying will  be in  the constant-rate
period.

DRYSRF

     The purpose of this  subroutine  is to find the surface area  of  the wa-
terers, the drying manure and their  sum.   Determining the surface area of
the waterers is quite  straight-forward; the area equals  the width times the
total length.  The surface area of the manure is obtained by an  estimate.

     From personal observation a  poultry  manure dropping takes  the  general
shape of a hemisphere.  Some  random  measurements of these hemispheres indi-
cate a reasonable average diameter is  2 cms.  The specific gravity  of
poultry manure as given by Wells  (1972) is 1.005,  thus the weight  (pounds)
per dropping is 0.004616  and  the  surface  area (square feet) per  dropping  is
0.0067573.  With these constants  and a given weight of manure,  the  manure
surface area (square feet) can be calculated as 1.43639  times the manure
weight (pounds).

EVPHTR

     The purpose of this  subroutine  is to calculate the  water removed from
the waterers, the manure  and  the  sum of these quantities.  These calculations
are straight-forward when the drying rate is known, i.e., the water removed
(pounds per hour) is equal to the drying  rate (pounds per hour - square foot)
times  the surface area (square feet).   The drying  rate is determined in
another subroutine  (DRYRAT).

EXCRAT

     The purpose of this  subroutine  is to calculate the  daily manure pro-
duction.  Holtman et al_.  (1972) related excreta rate to  egg production with
a  factor of 0.4 pounds of excreta per egg-day.  The daily amount of manure
(pounds) is then the product  of this factor and the number of eggs  produced
on a given day.

TEMGES

     The purpose of this  subroutine  is to calculate the  heat flow imbalance
in a heat balance equation.   The  heat balance equation is an algebraic sum,
i.e., net imbalance =  heat from electric  lights; + sensible heat from laying
hens; + latent heat from  laying hens;  + heat transfer through the ceiling;
+  heat transfer through the walls; + heat transfer through the floor; + heat
transferred with the ventilating  air;  + heat transferred to evaporate mois-
ture.  All values have units  of BTU  per hour.

TEMPIN

     The purpose of this  subroutine  is to determine the  inside temperature
of the laying house.   The temperature  is  determined by a Newtonian  conver-
gence similar to that  used by Phillips (1970).  The convergence  is  based

                                      91

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on Newton's method (Smith et a]_., 1947) for finding roots of a function,  f(X).
An estimate of a root, x, is made.  By evaluating the function at x^,  the
equation for the tangent-line through x, can be written as

             y - f (x.,) = f1 (x.,) (x - x.,)

       when:

             y = 0

             x = x., - f  (x^/f1  (Xl)

      where:

             x = an estimate of  the root

             The process can be  repeated until an acceptable small error  is
             obtained.

     Mathematical differentiation cannot be done with a digital computer  but
an approximation is possible.  The convergence for this subroutine can be
found as follows:

     Let Q  = the solution to the function

     When T  = the estimated temperature inside the laying house for
                evaluation of f  (t).

     Now let Q  = the solution to the same function as above

     But with T  = TQ -  a

     And Q  = the solution to the same function as above.

     But with Tm = TQ -  a

     Where  a = some constant increment of temperature, usually 1.

     Differentiate the function  by difference, i.e.

                     Q1  = (Qp -  Qm)/za

     The new estimate of temperature is T-, = T .  It should be checked for
     an acceptable error to determine if the process should be repeated or
     the estimated value accepted as the root, i.e., the  inside temperature
     of the laying house.

TIMPIN

     The purpose of this subroutine is to determine the minimum outside
temperature for which it is possible to maintain the optimum or predeter-
mined inside temperature.  This  outside temperature is determined by a

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Newtonian convergence.  The method is  discussed elsewhere  (see  TEMPIN) and
need not be repeated here except to note that the same  function for  heat
balance is used but the independent variable is the outside  temperature with
all other variables including  the inside temperature remaining  constant.

VENRAT

     The purpose of this subroutine is to determine the ventilation  rate
through the laying house that  will maintain the optimum or preset  tempera-
ture.  This rate is determined by a Newtonian convergence.   The method is
discussed elsewhere (see TEMPIN) and need not be repeated  here  except to
note that the same function for the heat balance is used but the indepen-
dent variable is the ventilation rate  with all  other variables  including the
inside temperature remaining constant.

WETHER

     The purpose of this subroutine is to develop an estimate of the
weather conditions at  the time of each iteration.  The  basic data  for this
development is  the U.S. Weather Service records.  The appropriate  available
information is  the average dry-bulb temperature for a day, the  range of this
temperature and the dewpoint temperature for the day.

     These, of  course,  could be from historical data or estimates  for future
dates.

     Phillips (1970) gives equations which estimate the temperature  function
as  it varies with  time through a day.   His function is  as  follows:   for

             o
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                                 SECTION 9

        ENGINEERING CRITERIA FOR POULTRY EXCRETA DEHYDRATION SYSTEMS

SUMMARY

1.  Maximize daily air drying of droppings as deposited in the dropping pits
    and on dropping boards during all seasons.  (Clean pits daily).
    A.  Direct ventilation-air flow across the surface of the daily accumu-
        lated excreta.
        1)  Inlet ventilation air should be directed downward from the slot
            inlet to the dropping pit level and then across the pits to the
            exhaust fans during both summer and winter operation.
    B.  Provide 8 cfm (13.6 m3/hour)/bird ventilation air exchange capacity
        for summer operation and controls to reduce this to the 0.5 to 1 cfm
        (1 to 2 m3/hour)/hen range during cold weather.
2.  Maximize the cold weather ventilation air exchange in the following ways:
    A.  Insulate the house well to conserve bird heat for warming ventila-
        tion air.
        1)  Sidewalls  R=12.    [3.5 in. (8.75 cm) blanket insulation or equiv-
            alent]
        2)  Ceiling R = 20.  (Horizontal ceiling is recommended)
        3)  Foundations R = 8.  [2 in. (5 cm) polystyrene board outside of
            foundation wall or equivalent]
    B.  Increase density of birds in the house to an equivalent floor area
        of 0.3 to 0.4 ft.2/hen (0.03 to 0.037 m2/hen).
        1)  This means a triple-deck cage system or some equivalent floor
            area per hen.
3.  Water leakage into the dropping pits from the cage waterers must be
    eliminated as there is no way that additional amounts of water can be
    economically removed by dehydration.  The system can cope with normally
    produced excreta water, but not with overflowing and/or leaking cage
    waterers.
    A.  One way to assure this is provide a small trough under the individ-
        ual cage waterers to carry away overflow and leakage water.  A large
        trough system of watering will also serve the same purpose of
        eliminating leakage.
4.  Install a 30 inch (75 cm) wide belt in a 6 ft. (1.8 m) wide tunnel the
    full length of the poultry house.
    A.  The daily excreta production is moved onto the belt where it is
        subjected to another day of air drying from the exhaust ventila-
        tion fans (see Figures 25 and 26).
    B.  After this second day of drying (the first day is in the poultry
        house) the moisture content of the excreta should be reduced to the
        50% (wet basis)  level during both summer and winter seasons.  This
                                     94

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    means that three-fourths of the original excreta water has been
    removed.  Only one-fourth of  the water  is  then left for removal with
    a heated air dryer in reducing the moisture content to (approxi-
    mately) 10%.  The 50% w.b. excreta could also be moved directly to the
    land as fertilizer without fear of air  or  water pollution.
C.  The excreta drying belt in the tunnel should be 30 in. (75 cm) wide
    for a poultry house having 96 hens/ft.  (30 cm) of house length.
    [This would be a 4-row, triple-deck, cage  system with four hens per
    12 in. (30 cm) cage].  The excreta on the  belt with daily cleaning
    would be approximately 2 in.  (5 cm) deep.
D.  The excreta drying belt should be an endless polyvinyl belt powered
    to run in either direction.  A cross conveyor will load the belt
    from the pit scrapers at one end of the house.
E.  A means should be provided to intercept the excreta directly from
    the cross conveyor for direct removal in case the belt malfunctions.
    Also from the other end of the belt, in case it delivers directly
    into a dryer, an alternate means of unloading the belt must be
    provided in case the dryer malfunctions.
The 10,000 cfm (17,000 m3/hour) exhaust fans should be installed every
14 ft. (4.25 m) in the partition wall between  the house and the drying
tunnel.  Each one should be provided with a flared hood that will  dis-
tribute the exhausted air over a 7 ft. (2.1 m) length of belt.  (See
Figure 2).  Sometime during the daily belt drying period the belt should
be moved ahead 8 ft. (2.4 m) for better drying of the in-between-fan
sections of excreta on the belt.
A.  Provide for additional air turbulence of ventilation air over excreta
    on the belt during cold weather when ventilation air exchange may only
    be 1 cfm (2 m3/hour)/hen.  This means that one out of every 8 fans
    would be operating in order to provide the necessary ventilation air.
    1)  Some of the non-operating fans should  be adapted to just recir-
        culate air onto the belt excreta.  This may be done by placing
        a specially shaped housing over the inlet side of the fan that
        brings air from the drying tunnel through openings on either side
        of the fan.
    2)  Enough fans should be operated as air  recirculators to bring the
        excreta to 50% w.b. during cold weather.
The drying tunnel must be insulated according  to the same specifications
for the laying house.
A.  Ventilation air exhausted into the tunnel  is outletted through a
    gravity type continuous slot outlet that is a minimum of one foot
    (1/3 m) wide.
The heated air dryer should have the capacity  of drying the daily pro-
duction of excreta for the house from 50% to 10% w.b. in from 6 to 8
hours/day.  For a 400 foot (120 m) long building, housing 38,000 laying
hens, the daily water removal for the dryer would be about 2,000 Ib.
(900 kg) or from 260 Ib. (118 kg) to 330 Ib. (150 kg)/hour this is a
small dryer.  Possibly one or two houses might deliver to the same dryer
and the dryer capacity doubled or tripled accordingly.
                                  95

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                   CROSS SECTION VIEW - 40' X 400' HOUSE
 SPECIFICATIONS:

     4 hens/12" x 16" cage
     96 hens/ft of house length
     768 cfm/ft of house length
     A 10,000 cfm fan about every 14 ft
     0.354 ft2  floor area/hen
     400 ft house = 38,400 hens

 EXCRETA:

     .054 Ib/day/hen dry matter
     5.18 Ib/day/ft of house length
     .027 Ib/day/hen wet at 80% w.b.
     25.9 Ib/day/ft wet at 80% w.b.
     0.16 Ib/day/hen H20 out 80%  50%
     15.4 Ib/day/ft H20 out 80%  50%
     0.052 Ib/day/hen H20 out 50%  5%
     5.0 Ib/day/ft H20 out 50%  5%
     at 60 lb/ft3 at 80%, vol/ft = 0.433 ft3
     depth on 30" belt = 2"


Figure 25.   Ventilation air flow pattern for maximizing excreta drying.
                                     96

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                               approx.  8'
                            1  Excreta  on  Belt
                               Floor  Level
                       WALL  ELEVATION  IN  DRYING TUNNEL
           CROSS SECTION OF DRYING TUNNEL
Figure 26.  View of fan air distribution for maximizing excreta drying.
                                    97

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                                      103

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                                 APPENDICES

APPENDIX A.           DRIED POULTRY WASTE AS A PROTEIN
                         SOURCE FOR FEEDLOT CATTLE

                                     By

                  Herbert F. Bucholtz and Hugh E. Henderson
                       Department of Animal Husbandry
                         Cal Flegal and H. C. Zi ridel
                        Department of Poultry Science
                          Michigan State University

INTRODUCTION

     Haste disposal in animal agriculture has become not only a management
problem, but also an environmental pollution concern to people associated
with the animal industries.  The poultry industry tried to dry poultry waste
to abate the waste disposal problem.  Due to the high protein content of
fresh poultry waste (as high as 50% CP), research was conducted using dried
poultry waste (DPW) as a protein supplement for chickens and cattle.  However,
data on recycling DPW through cattle is limited.

OBJECTIVE

     The objective of this study was to determine the value of DPW as a
supplemental protein source for feedlot cattle.

PROCEDURE

     The Poultry Science Department, Michigan State University, provided DPW
from caged layers.  Fresh excreta containing 25% DM was dried to a product
of 90% DM.  The dryer consists of five internal, inclined surfaces that shake
in a horizontal action, causing the material to slide down the surfaces
during the drying process.  A hammer mill, used for mixing and pulverizing,
is located at the lower end of the top inclined surface.  A stainless steel
plate, with either .635 cm or .9525 cm holes, acts as a screen to limit
maximum particle size.  To complete the drying process, the material must
pass through the holes in the screening plate.  The machine operates at a
temperature ranging from 93.3C to 592.5C and has a fresh to dried poultry
excreta production rate of 1545 kg/hour.  The DPW in this experiment had a
particle size varying between .0397 cm to  .3175 cm, contained 17% crude
protein, and had a slight odor.

     Five rations balanced to 12% crude protein (Table 1-A) were compared.
DPW was combined with either soy or urea,  1/2 of the required supplemental
protein was derived from DPW and the other 1/2 derived from soy or urea.  All
rations were mixed in a horizontal mixer before feeding and all cattle were
full fed twice daily.

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     Yearling steers used  in  the  experiment averaged  approximately 690 1b
in weight and originated from the Beef Cattle  Forage  Research Station  Lake
City, Michigan and the Virginia Feeder Calf Sale.   The  trial began on May 7
1970 and steers were lotted  randomly according to  weight and origin.  All
steers were implanted with 36 mg  diethylstilbestrol and given an intramuscular
injection of 5,000,000 I.U.  of Vitamin A,  500,000  I.U.  Vitamin D0 and 500 I.U.
of Vitamin E.                                                   ^

     At the beginning and  end of  the experiments,  cattle were individually
weighed on two successive  days and the average of  the two days was used as
initial and final weight.  During the course of the experiment, all lots of
cattle were group weighed  every 28 days.

     At the end of the experiment and immediately  following the final weight,
all cattle were trucked  161  kms,  left to  stand over night and slaughtered
the next morning.

     After 48 hours  in the cooler, carcasses were  ribbed, graded and carcass
measurements taken.  Kidney,  heart and pelvic  fat  was estimated by the fed-
eral grader and fat  and  lean tracings were made of the  13th rib for accuracy
in determining cutability  grade,  fat thickness and rib  eye area.

RESULTS

     Complete results for  all treatment groups are shown in Table 2-A.  The
source of protein has a  large and highly  significant  effect on average daily
gain.  Average daily gain  for the soy supplemented group (1.52 kg) was
significantly greater than the group supplemented  with  DPW (1.25 kg), 1/2
DPW - 1/2 urea (1.38 kg)  (P<.01,  P<05, P<.05,  respectively).  However, this
was not significantly greater than the urea supplemented group (1.41 kg).  No
significant differences  in average daily  gain  occurred  between the groups
supplemented with urea,  1/2  DPW - 1/2 soy or 1/2 DPW  -  1/2 urea.

     Feed effeciency was  superior for the soy  supplemented group followed by
urea, 1/2 DPW - 1/2  urea,  1/2 DPW - 1/2 soy and DPW,  (3.16, 3.29, 3.32, 3.70,
4.74 kg of 35% DM per pound  of gain, respectively).

     The feed cost per cwt of gain was lowest  for  the soy supplemented group
followed by urea, 1/2 DPW  -  1/2 urea supplemented  group ($14.58) followed
closely by urea ($15.03)  and soy  ($15.31)  supplemented  groups.  The dried
poultry waste ($18.87) and the 1/2 DPW -  1/2 soy ($16.84) supplemented groups
had the highest cost per cwt of gain.

     Steers refused  to consume the DPW portion of  the ration.  This partially
explains the poor feed efficiency and performance  of  the DPW and 1/2 DPW 1/2
soy supplemented groups.   The steers sorted the shelled corn and corn silage
from the well mixed  ration leaving almost as much  dry poultry waste as had
been presented.  The carcass evaluation data showed no  significant difference
(P<.05) when the groups  were compared. Nor was there any significant dif-
ference between treatments for carcass quality traits.
                                     105

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             TABLE 1-A.  AH-BC-700:   COMPOSITION OF RATIONS FED
Ingredient
Corn silage
Rolled sh. corn
Soy
Urea
DPW
T.M. Salt
Dicalcium phosphate
Limestone
Sodium sulfate
Vit. A
(10,000 I.U./g)
Vit. D
(9,000 i.u./g)
Cost per ton**
Soybean
Meal
20.00
73.29
4.92


.500
.500
.550
.200
.033
.011
$44.00
Urea DPW
20.00 20.00
77.42 47.29

.786
31.97
.500 .500
.500
.550
.200 .200
.033 .033
.011 .011
$40.16 $36.20
1/2 DPW
1/2 Soy
20.00
64.94
3.26

10.54
.500
.250
.275
.200
.033
.011
$41.40
1/2 DPW
1/2 Urea
20.00
68.83

.563
9.34
.500
.250
.275
.200
.033
.011
$40.00
*Value expressed as a percent of ration dry matter
**Ration cost based on:   35% DM corn silage,  $8.50 T,  sh.  corn  $1.26  bu,
  soybean meal $100 T, urea $80 T,  DPW $30 T,  TM salt  $60  T,  dicalcium
  phosphate $80 T,  limestone $40 T, sodium sulfate $120  T,  vitamin  A  and
  D premix $10 cwt.
                                    106

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                TABLE 2-A.  AH-BC-700:  PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS COMPARED
                            (Hay 7, 1970 to Sept. 17, 1970)

134 Day Test
Lot number
No. yearling steers
Av. initial wt., kg
Av. final wt., kg
Av. daily gain, kg
Soybean
Meal
42
9
314
518
1.52Aa

Urea
36
9
309
481
1.41ABa

DPW
38
9
313
481
1.25Bb
1/2 DPW
1/2 Soy
37
9
315
491
1.31ABb
1/2 DPW
1/2 Urea
35
9
313
498
1.38ABb
Daily Feed, kg 85% DM:
Total                          10.60      10.19       13.04         10.65         10-06
Percent of body weight         2.55      2.50        3.28          2.64          2.48

Feed Efficiency
Feed per kg gain, kg           3.16      3.29        4.74          3.70          3.32
Feed cost/cwt gain I/         $15.31     $15.03      $18.87        $16.84        $14.58
Carcass Evaluation
Carcass grade 2/
Marbling score 3/
Fat thickness, in.
Rib eye area, sq in.
% K.H.P. fat 4/
% B.T.R. cuts 5/
Dressing percent
Carcass price/cwt $

12.12
14.89
.66
11.13
2.85
48.09
58.53
$46.79

13.23
19.00
.78
11.42
3.00
47.71
58.91
$46.79

11.24
13.56
.57
11.15
2.66
49.34
57.21
$46.13

12.56
17.45
.69
11.37
2.85
48.36
59.29
$45.57

12.45
17.00
.70
12.04
2.85
48.81
58.66
$45.57
V    Ration cost  based  on:   35%  DM  corn  silage,  $8.50 T, sh.corn $1.26 bu,
      soybean meal  $100  T,  urea $80  T,  TM salt  $60 T, dicalcium phosphate
      $80 T, DPW $30  T,  limestone $40 T,  sodium sulfate $120 T, vitamin A and
      D premix  $10 cut.
2/    Carcass grade code -  Good = 9, 10,  11; Choice = 12, 13, 14.
3/    Marbling  code -  Small  = 10, 11, 12;  Modest  = 13, 14, 15; Moderate = 16, 17,  18.
4/    Percent of carcass weight in kidney,  heart  and pelvic fat.
5_/    Percent of carcass weight in boneless, trimmed, retail cuts.

Significance:   A,B -  Values  having different superscript are significantly
                      different (P<.01).
                a,b -  Values  having different superscript are significantly
                      different (P<.05).
                                         107

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APPENDIX  B.      PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD ANALYSES OF GROWING
                  TURKEYS FED DEHYDRATED POULTRY ANAPHAGEl

                                     By

               G. 0. Fadika5 J. H. Wolford2, and C. J. Flegal
                         Poultry Science Department
                         Michigan State University

INTRODUCTION

     A major problem confronting the poultry industry is waste management.
During recent years, the development and growth of the industry has resulted
in the production of tremendous amounts of manure and disposal has become a
health and economics problem in many places.  Logically, a system of poultry
waste management emphasizing utilization would be of value to the poultry
producer.

     The inclusion of digestive waste in the diets of poultry as a specific
feed ingredient is a relatively new idea, although numerous reports have ap-
peared on the feeding of dehydrated poultry anaphage to growing chicks (24,
23, 1, 26 and 9) and laying hens (8, 10, 11, 25, 7 and 17).  However, a review
of the literature revealed a lack of data on feeding dehydrated poultry
anaphage to turkeys.  This investigation was undertaken to determine whether
DPW could be substituted for corn in a turkey growing ration.

PROCEDURE

     Commercial 9-week-old straight run Broad Breasted White turkeys were
weighed and randomly assigned to 3 x 5.4 m pens.  Two replicates of 19 birds
each were randomly assigned to four diets which contained 0, 5, 10 and 30%
dehydrated poultry anaphage (Table 1-B).  The dehydrated poultry anaphage
used was manure collected from caged laying chickens, dehydrated (22) and
mixed in a vertical mixer prior to incorporation into the diets.  Chemical
analysis of the dehydrated poultry anaphage is given in Table 2-B.
^Presented by senior author in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
 the Master of Science Degree
^Present address:  Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University
 of Maine, Orono, Maine 04473
                                     108

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     The word   anaphage',  which refers to a dehydrated poultry manure product
was coined by  Pol In  (8)  at Michigan State University.  It was derived f?om
the Greek words,  Ana  (again) and Phage (to eat).               aerivea rrom

     The diets  were designed to be isocaloric with the assumption  that the
iTietabolizable  energy  value of dehydrated poultry anaphage was  614  Kcal  per kg
(19).  Changes  were also  made in the levels of the dicalcium phosphate and
limestone in an attempt to keep the calcium-phosphorus level the same;  however
in the diet with  30%  dehydrated poultry anaphage, the level  increased because  '
of the amount  in  the  anaphage.

     Feed and  water were  supplied ad libitum.  Feed consumption was  recorded
for each treatment group  by replication and mortality was recorded as it
occurred. A 12-hour artificial  light day was provided throughout the entire
8-week (9-17 weeks of age) experimental period.

     At 17 weeks  of age,  16 birds (8 males and 8 females) were selected at
random from each  of the four treatments for blood samples.   From these
samples, plasma uric  acid  was determined by the  ultraviolet  technique (21),
phosphorus was  determined  by a  calometric method (14) and zinc was determined
by atomic absorption  spectroscopy on a Jarrell-Ash atomic absorption spectro-
photometer (Model 82-516,  Jarrell-Ash Co., Waltham, Mass.).

     Statistical  analyses  were  performed using methods of covariance and
analysis of variance  (15)  and Dunnett's Allowance (5).

RESULTS

     Livability was not affected by feeding poultry anaphage to growing
turkeys.  Two  birds receiving the 10% dietary level  of poultry anaphage died
during the eight-week experimental  period; however,  death was  attributed to
injury rather  than from dietary effect.   One bird in the  30% poultry anaphage
treatment group was eliminated  from analysis because the  bird  was obviously
abnormal (undetermined  health problem).   In terms of appearance, the  birds
that received  the poultry  anaphage  had the same  coloring,  activity and
vitality.

     Average body weight of male and female growing  turkeys was not  signif-
icantly (p!.05) affected by feeding poultry anaphage for  eight weeks  (Table
3-B), although  a  trend  for an average lowered body weight was  observed in
the birds fed 30% poultry  anaphage.

     Total weight gain  for the  9- to 17-week age period (Table 7-B) was not
significantly  (P>.05) affected  by feeding poultry anaphage to  growing turkeys,
although the treatment  significance level  was P=.061  (Table 4-B)   The
arithmetic average body weight  gain was  0.33 kg  less  for  the birds fed 30/0
poultry anaphage than for  the control  group.

     Feed efficiency  for the entire eight-week growing period  was inversely
related to the  amount of poultry anaphage incorporated into the diet
(Table 5-B).   In comparison to  the  control  group, 1.5, 3.8 and 8Ah  more
feed was required to  produce one kg body  weight  gain,  respectively,  for the


                                     109

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5, 10 and 30% poultry anaphage-fed turkeys.

     The results of the plasma uric acid analyses are presented  in Table  6-B.
Despite a trend for the plasma uric acid to increase as the level of dietary
anaphage increased, no significant (P^.05) effect was noted.  An average
value of 2.78 mg/100 ml plasma was observed in the control group, in
comparison to 3.38mg/100 ml plasma for the three anaphage-fed treatment
groups.  No significant (Pi.05) difference was noted between the males and
females.

     The results of the plasma phosphorus analyses are presented in Table 7-B.
A significant (Ps.Ol) treatment effect was observed with an average of 3.64
mg phosphorus per 100 ml plasma in the control group in comparison to 4.78,
4.72 and 6.02 mg/100 ml plasma, respectively, for the 5, 10 and 30% poultry
anaphage-fed treatment groups.  No significant (Pi.05) difference was noted
between the males and females.

     The results of the plasma zinc analyses are presented in Table 8-B.  A
significant (P<.01) treatment effect was observed and was due to a lower
plasma zinc level observed in the turkeys fed 5% poultry anaphage.  The 30%
poultry anaphage-fed birds had plasma zinc levels equal to the control-fed
birds.  A significant (P<.01) sex difference, with lower values being
observed in the females, was noted.

DISCUSSION

     Since the average body weight gain of growing turkeys (9 to 17 weeks of
age) was not significantly (P*.05) affected by including dehydrated poultry
anaphage in the diet, poultry anaphage could substitute for corn in the diet
of growing turkeys.

     A 30% substitution level is questionable, because a 0.33 kg per bird
average lower weight gain was observed in the birds fed 30% poultry anaphage,
in comparison to the control birds fed no poultry anaphage.  Furthermore, the
treatment significance level was P=.061, and was obviously due to the lower
body weight gain in 30% dehydrated poultry anaphage treatment group (Table 4-B),
Body weight gain data are in agreement with those of (4, 9, 2 and 17).

     Feed efficiency, as shown in Table 5-B, was inversely related to the
level of dehydrated poultry anaphage incorporated in the diet; that is, the
higher the level of anaphage, the poorer the feed efficiency.  This feed
efficiency result is in agreement with that obtained (9, 11 and 12),  with
chicks and laying hens; (2) with chicks; and (6 and 16) with laying hens.
However, it is in opposition to the data of Quisenberry and Bradley (20),
who obtained no adverse effect on feed conversion of laying hens when fed
poultry manure in diets calculated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to the
basal diet, which contained no manure.

     Perhaps the assumed metabolizable energy value was in error, since
Flegal  ejt aj_.  (13) reported that the nutrient quality of dehydrated poultry
manure was lower the longer the manure was stored prior to dehydration.
                                     110

-------
     A significant (Pi.05) effect  of  dietary  dehydrated  poultry anaphaqe was
not observed on plasma uric acid values  despite  a  reported value of 6 3% uric
acid in dehhdrated poultry anaphage  (3).   Thus,  the  growing turkey apparently
is able to maintain an equilibrium in this regard.

     Plasma phosphorus level was significantly  (Ps.Ol) increased by feeding
dietary poultry anaphage.  The most obvious increase was in the turkeys fed
the 30% dehydrated poultry anaphage level.  This apparently reflects the
phosphorus level of the diet because  the  0, 5 and  10% dehydrated poultry ana-
phage diets had nearly equal calculated  phosphorus values (0.84, 0.86 and
0.85%, respectively); whereas, the 30% dehydrated  poultry anaphage diet had
1.23% calculated phosphorus.

SUMMARY

     An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding dehydrated
poultry anaphage on the performance and  blood constituents of growing turkeys
from 9 to 17 weeks of age.

     The overall body weight gain  from 9  to 17 weeks of age was not signifi-
cantly (P>.05) altered by feeding  dietary dehydrated poultry anaphage.
However, a numerical decrease of 0.33 kg  per  bird, in comparison to the
control group, was observed in the birds  that received 30% dehydrated poultry
anaphage in their diet.

     Feed efficiency was inversely related to  the level of anaphage in the
diet, with conversion figures being 3.35,  3.40, 3.48 and 3.63 kg feed per kg
body weight gain for the 0, 5, 10  and 30% anaphage diet, respectively.
Mortality was not affected by feeding poultry anaphage.  No significant
(Ps.05) effect on plasma uric acid levels  was observed as a result of
feeding poultry anaphage.  Plasma  phosphorus  level was significantly (Ps.Ol)
increased by feeding 30% poultry anaphage.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  N  Appreciation is expressed to  Janes'  Bar Nothing Ranch of Austin, Texas,
for supplying the turkeys as hatching eggs.

REFERENCES

Bakos, A., M. Halaj and J. Medvecky (1964).  Possibility of using poultry
     droppings as a feed for chickens.  Sborn. Vys.  Skoly Polnohosp.  Nitre
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Biely, R., R. Soong and L. Seier (1972).   Dehydrated poultry waste in poultry
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Blair, R. and D. W. Knight (1973).  Recycling animal wastes.  Parti:  The
     problems of disposal and regulatory  aspects of  recycled manure.
     Feedstuffs 45(10): 32-34.
                                     Ill

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Cenni, B., G. Jannella and B. Colombani (1969).  Poultry litter for feeding
     table poultry.  Ann. Fac. Med. Vet. Pisa (Italian) 22: 276-293.

Dunnett, C. W. (1955).  A multiple comparison procedure for comparing several
     treatments with a control.  J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 50: 1096-1121.

Durham, R. M., G. W. Thomas, R. C. Albin, L. G. Howe, S. F. Curl and T. W. Box
     (1966).  Coprophagy and use of animal waste in livestock feeds.  Am. Soc.
     Agr. Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan, Publication No. 0366: 112-114.

Flegal, C. J. and D. A. Dorn (1971).  The effects of continually recycling
     dehydrated poultry wastes (DPW) on the performance of SCWL laying hens--A
     preliminary report.  Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Report 152: 45-48.

Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel (1969).  The utilization of dehydrated poultry
     waste by laying hens.  Poultry Sci. 48: 1807 (abst.).

Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel (1970a).  The utilization of poultry waste as
     a feedstuff for growing chicks.  Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Report 117:
     21-28.

Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel (1970b).  The result of feeding dried poultry
     waste to laying hens on egg production and feed conversion.  Mich. Agr.
     Expt. Sta. Res. Report 117: 29-30.

Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel (1970c).  The effect of feeding dehydrated
     poultry waste on production, feed efficiency, body weight, egg weight,
     shell thickness and Haugh score.  Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta.  Res.  Report 117:
     31-33.

Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel (1971).  Dehydrated poultry waste (DPW) as a
     feedstuff in poultry rations.  Proc.  Internet. Symp.  Livestock Waste
     ASAE Publication No. PROC-271, St. Joseph, Michigan 49085, pp. 305-307.

Flegal, C. J., C. C. Sheppard and D. A. Dorn (1972).  The  effects  of contin-
     uous recycling and storage on nutrient quality of dehydrated  poultry
     waste (DPW).  Proc. Cornell Agr. Waste Conf., Cornell University, Ithaca,
     New York, pp. 295-300.

Gomorri, G. (1942).  A modification of the colorimetric phosphorus determina-
     tion for use with the photoelectric colorimeter.  J.  Lab. Clin. Med.
     27: 955-965.

Michigan State University (1969).  Analysis of covariance  and analysis of
     variance with unequal frequencies permitted in the cells (L.  S. Routine).
     Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Stat. Series Description No. 18, East Lansing,
     Michigan 48824.

Nesheim, M. C. (1972).  Evaluation of dehydrated poultry manure as a poten-
     tial poultry feed ingredient.  Proc.  Cornell Agr. Waste Management Conf.
     (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York), pp. 301-309.
                                     112

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Pisone, U. and J. J. Begin  (1971).   Recycling  animal waste through poultry
     II.  Dried poultry manure,  Ky.  Agr.  Expt.  Sta. Res. Report 196:  34-35.

Pol in, D. (1972).  Contamination in  poultry meat and eggs.  Presented at the
     Michigan State University Highlights in Food Science Conference, East
     Lansing, Michigan 48824, April  3-5,  1972.

Polin, D., S. Varghese,  M. Neff, M.  Gomez, C.  J. Flegal and H. C. Zindel
     (1971).  The metabolizable  energy  value of dried poultry waste.  Mich.
     Agr. Expt. Sta. Report 152:  32-44.

Quisenberry, J. H. and J. W. Bradley (1968).   Nutrient recycling.  Second
     National Poultry Litter and Waste  Management Seminar, Texas A & M Univ.,
     College Sta., Texas, pp. 96-106.

Sigma, 1968.  The ultraviolet determination of uric acid in serum, urin or
     other fluids at 292 my.  Sigma  Technical  Bulletin No. 292-UV.  Sigma
     Chemical Company, St.  Louis, Missouri 63118.

Surbrook, T. C., J. S. Boyd and  H. C. Zindel (1970).  Drying animal waste.
     Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta.  Res.  Report  117: 16-20.

Warden, W. K. and P. J. Schaible (1961).   The  effect of feeding antibiotics to
     chicks in the presence of fresh, dried and antoclaved hen feces.  Poultry
     Sci. 40: 363-367.

Wehunt, K. E., H. L. Fuller and  H. M. Edwards,  Jr.  (1960).  The nutritional
     value of hydrolyzed poultry manure for broiler chicks.  Poultry Sci.
     39:  1057-1063.

York, L.  R., C. J. Flegal,  H. C.  Zindel and T.  H. Coleman (1970).  Effect  of
     diets containing dehydrated poultry  waste on quality changes in shell
     eggs during storage.   Poultry Sci. 49: 590-591.

Yoshida,  M. and H. Hoshii (1968).  Nutritional  value of poultry manure. Jap.
     Poultry Sci. (Nihon Kakin Gakkai Shi) 5:  96-101.
                                      113

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                       TABLE 1-B.  DIET COMPOSITION
Percentage of Diet
Poultry Anaphage
Ingredient
Corn, ground yellow
Soybean oil meal , 49%
Alfalfa leaf meal, 17%
Fish meal , 60%
Meat & bone meal , 50%
Animal fat
Salt, iodized
Dicalcium phosphate
Limestone
Vitamin-mineral premix * '
Poultry Anaphage
Control

60.0
27.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
0.4
1.5
0.5
0.6
 ---
5%

54.0
27.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
4.5
0.4
1.0
0.6
5.0
10%

48.2
27.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
6.0
0.4
0.3
0.6
10.0
30%

19.0
27.0
2.5
2.5
2.5
15.5
0.4
	
0.6
30.0
(1)
   Contained per kg premix:  1,320,000 U.S.P.  units  vitamin A;  3,666,667  I.C.
   units vitamin 03; 880 mg riboflavin; 1760 tug pantothenic acid;  7.3  g
   niacin; 90.9 g choline chloride; 256 mg folic acid;  2.2 mg  B]2; 1,100
   I.U. vitamin E; 294 mg menadione sodium bisulfite;  146 mg thiamine  mono-
   citrate; 1.533% Mn; 0.02% I; 0.161% Cu; 0.0051% Co;  1.0% Zn; 0.5% Fe.
Calculated Analysis

Protein, %
Metab. Energy, Kcal/kg
Calcium, %
Phosphorus, %
  21.7      21.7    21.7        21.2
3048      3069    3059        3081
   1.04      1.04    1.19        2.37
   0.84      0.86    0.85        1.23
                                   114

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       TABLE 2-B.   COMPOSITION OF THE DEHYDRATED POULTRY  ANAPHAGE
                   USED IN THE EXPERIMENTAL DIETS
    Component
Percentage
Calcium
Phosphorus
Crude fiber
Ether extract
Water
Crude protein
Non-protein nitrogen
Protein nitrogen
    6.3
    2.6
   15.6
    3.4
    6.7
   19.5
    1.5
    1.6
                                  115

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     TABLE 3-B.  EFFECT OF FEEDING DEHYDRATED POULTRY  ANAPHAGE  ON  THE
                 17-WEEK BODY WEIGHT OF GROWING TURKEYS
Average Body
Item
Treatment:
Control
5% anaphage
10% anaphage
30% anaphage
Source:
Treatment (T)
Sex (S)
Replication (R)
T x S
T x R
R x S
T x R x S
Error
Male

7.54  .
7.64  .
7.65  .
7.46  .
Sum of
Squares
1 . 1 408
107.4286
0.0368
0.6745
1.2579
0.6420
0.3887
58.1295


26 (21)
29 (20)
20 (20)
23 (17)
D.F.
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
133
Female

5.99  .11
5.96  .11
5.75  .14
5.68  .16
Mean
Square
0.3803
107.4286
0.0368
0.2248
0.4193
0.6420
0.1296
0.4371


(17)
(18)
(16)
(20)
F- Value
0.870
245.796
0.084
0.514
0.959
0.0961
0.2965

Weight (kg)
Sexes Combined

6.85  .23(38)
6.85  .25(38)
6.80  .28(36)
6.50  .25(37)
Significance
Level
.458
<.001
.772
.673
.414
.757
.828

 Standard error of mean
(149) Number of birds
                                  116

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  TABLE 4-B.  EFFECT OF FEEDING DEHYDRATED POULTRY ANAPHAGE ON THE
              9- to 17-WEEK BODY WEIGHT GAIN OF GROWING TURKEYS

Item
Treatment:
Control
5% anaphage
10% anaphage
30% anaphage

Source:
Treatment (T)
Sex (S)
Replication (R)
T x S
T x R
R x S
T x R x S
Error
Average
Male

4.20  .18
4.31  .21
4.29  .17
4.11  .12
Sum of
Squares
1.5232
39.4158
0.0240
0.8346
2.1444
0.0005
0.1213
9- to


(21)
(20)
(20)
(17)

D.F.
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
26.8102 133
17-Week Body
Female

3.37  .10
3.29  .08
3.07  .11
2.97  .09
Mean
Square
0.5077
39.4158
0.0240
0.2782
0.7148
0.0005
0.0404
0.2016
Weight Gain


(17) 3.82
(18) 3.82
(16) 3.75
(20) 3.49

F-Value
2.519
195.534
0.119
1.380
3.546
0.003
0.201

(kg)
Sexes Combined

 .14 (38)
 .16 (38)
 .18 (36)
 .15 (37)
Significance
Level
.061
<.001
.731
.252
.016
.959
.896

 Standard error of mean
(149) Number of birds
                                   117

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        TABLE 5-B.  EFFECT OF FEEDING DEHYDRATED POULTRY ANAPHAGE
                    ON THE FEED CONVERSION OF GROWING TURKEYS
                             Feed Conversion (kg feed/kg body wt. gain)
Treatment                      g_13 wks>        13_]7 Wks>       g_17
Control                        2.92            4.04            3.35
5% anaphage                    2.84            4.29            3.40
10% anaphage                   3.15            3.93            3.48
30% anaphage                   3.11            4.38            3.63
                                   118

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     TABLE 6-B.  EFFECT OF  FEEDING DEHYDRATED POULTRY ANAPHAGE TO
                 GROWING TURKEYS ON THE LEVEL OF PLASMA URIC ACID
Plasma Uric
Item
Treatment:
Control
5% anaphage
10% anaphage
30% anaphage
Source:
Treatment (T)
Sex (S)
Replication (R)
T x S
T x R
R x S
T x R x S
Error
Male

2.59 
3.09 
3.67 
3.19 
Sum of
Squares
6.9979
0.2823
4.7035
2.7726
18.7051
2.5400
6.7692
74.2969


.57
.39
.11
.52
D.F.
3
1
1
3
3
1
3
48
Acid Level (mg/100 ml)
Female

2.97  .62
2.87  .75
3.59  .71
3.88  .66
Mean
Square F- Value
2.3326 1.507
0.2823 0.1823
4.7035 3.039
0.9242 0.5971
6.2350 4.028
2.5400 1.6410
2.2564 1.4578
1.5479
(1)
Sexes Combined

2.78  .59
2.98  .57
3.63  .38
3.54  .59
Significance
Level
0.225
0.671
0.088
0.620
0.012
0.206
0.238

(1)
    8 males and 8 females per treatment
   Standard error of mean
                                   119

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  TABLE 7-B.   EFFECT OF FEEDING DEHYDRATED POULTRY ANAPHAGE TO GROWING
              TURKEYS ON THE LEVEL OF PLASMA PHOSPHORUS
(1)
Plasma Phosphorus Level (mg/100 ml)
Item
Treatment:
Control
5% anaphage
10% anaphage
30% anaphage
Source:
Treatment (T)
Sex (S)
Replication (R)
T x S
T x R
R x S
T x R x S
Error
Male

3.41  .20
4.88  .57
5.09  .64
6.53 1.16
Sum of
Squares D.F.
433.5893 3
0.0848 1
3.3994 1
2.9589 3
5.6377 3
0.0749 1
0.7661 3
29.6508 48
Female

3.86  .24
4.67  .38
4.35  .51
5.51  .79
Mean
Square F- Value
144.5298 233.981
0.0848 0.137
3.3994 5.503
0.9863 1.597
1.8792 3.042
0.0749 0.121
0.2554 0.413
0.6177
Sexes Combined

3.64  .22
4.78  .48
4.72  .58
6.02  .98
Significance
Level
<.001
.713
.023
.202
.038
.729
.744

(1)
    8 males and 8 females  per treatment
   Standard error of mean
                                   120

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 TABLE 8-B.  EFFECT  OF FEEDING DEHYDRATED POULTRY ANAHPAGE TO GROWING
             TURKEYS ON THE LEVEL OF  PLASMA




(D
Plasma Zinc Level (mg/100 ml)
Item
Treatment:
Control
5% anaphage
10% anaphage
30% anaphage

Source:
Treatment (T)
Sex (S)
Replication (R)
T x S
T x R
R x S
T x R x S
Error
Male

1.62  .11
1.57  .02
1.58  .03
1.62  .02
Sum of
Squares D.F.
0.0473 3
0.0272 1
0.0049 1
0.0069 3
0.0171 3
0.0016 1
0.0084 3
0.1201 48
Female

1.58 
1.52 
1.58 
1.59 
Mean
Square
0.0158
0.0272
0.0049
0.0023
0.0057
0.0016
0.0028
0.0025


.02
.00
.02
.03

F-Value
6.302
10.886
1.959
0.921
2.291
0.640
1.125

Sexes Combined

1.60  .06
1.55  .01
1.58  .02
1.61  .02
Significance
Level
.001
.002
.168
.438
.090
.428
.349

(1)
   8 males and 8 females per treatment
  Standard error of mean
                                  121

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APPENDIX  C.    FERTILITY AND HATCHABILITY IN SINGLE COMB WHITE
               LEGHORNS FED VARYING LEVELS OF POULTRY ANAPHAGE

                                     By

           C. J. Flegal, D. Dorn, M. X. Gomez, and H. C. Zindel
                        Poultry Science Department
                        Michigan State University

INTRODUCTION

     Due  to the lack of information concerning the influence of feeding
various levels of poultry anaphage to laying hens on fertility and hatch-
ability,  the following experiment was conducted.

PROCEDURE

     One  hundred and twenty ready-to-lay S.C.W.L. females and 24 S.C.W.L.
males, six months of age, were randomly selected for this experiment.  The
birds were placed in a stair-step colony cage system.  The females were
assigned, five birds each, into 24 colony .cages (56 cm x 61 cm) on the lowest
deck.  The males (one to each group of five females) were placed in cor-
responding cages on the upper deck.

     The  entire cage system was located in a window!ess house.  Room temper-
ature was maintained at 14.0 - 16.0C.  The birds were provided with 14
hours' artificial lighting (6 a.m. - 8 p.m.).

     The  24 groups of five females plus one male were randomly assigned four
experimental diets, with six replicate groups being fed each diet.  The
composition of the four experimental diets is outlined in Table 1-C.  The
basal diet was a typical corn/soya layer ration.  The other three diets had
three levels of poultry anaphage (formerly called dried poultry waste or
DPW) at levels of 6.25, 12.5, and 25.0%.

     The anaphage replaced an equivalent percentage of corn from the basal
diet.  The poultry anaphage used in the experimental diets was from a single
batch processed at the Michigan State University Poultry Research Center.

     The analysis of the poultry anaphage used in the experimental diets  is
presented in Table 2-C.  Feed and water were supplied ad libitum to both  males
and females throughout the entire experiment.

     In the first three weeks of the experiment, only egg production data
were recorded.  Beginning during the fourth week, the females in each pen
were artificially inseminated with semen collected from the respective males
assigned to each pen of females.
                                      122

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     The artificial  insemination  procedure used was  done according  to  the
method of Burrows  and  Quinn  (1).   Semen ejaculates,  from individual males
from the same treatment,  were pooled and then extended with  1.0  ml  of
physiological saline.   An average of 0.2 ml  of the extended  semen was  used
to inseminate each female.

     During  Phase  I (week 4  to week 11) of the experiment, all females were
inseminated  once each  week.   The  inseminations were  increased  to twice per
week (second and fifth day of each week) during Phase II (week 12 to week
15) of the experiment.

     Egg production was recorded  daily throughout the experimental  period.
All eggs produced  were marked and stored overnight on flats  in the  service
building.  Eggs  from each of the  hens were set in incubators within 24
hours of being  laid.

     The eggs were incubated in a Jamesway 252 forced draft  incubator.  The
incubators were  cleaned and  fumigated prior to use in this project.  The
average readings of the thermometers in the incubators were  37.7C  (dry
bulb) and 31.7C (wet bulb).  While in the incubator, the eggs were turned
once every two  hours.   After 18 days of incubation,  the daily  production of
eggs was set in  separate incubator trays.  The eggs  were mass  candled.  The
infertiles were  removed and  the fertiles were transferred to the hatcher.

After 21 days of incubation, the  number of chicks hatched, eggs  pipped,
chicks dead  in  shell,  and number of infertiles was recorded.

     Fertility was expressed as the percent total fertile eggs of the total
eggs set.  Hatchability was  expressed as the percent pipped  and  hatched
chicks of the total fertile  eggs  set.

RESULTS

Egg Production  (0-15)

     The birds  fed the diets containing the different levels of  poultry
anaphage had a  pooled average hen day egg production of 70.85%,  as  compared
to 69.56% obtained from the  pullets.fed the control  ration (Table 3-C).

     There was  statiscally no significant (P>.05) difference in  the per-
cent egg production from the birds fed any of the poultry anaphage  supple-
mented diets and the egg production of the birds fed the control diet.

Fertility and Hatchabilitv Trends (Table 4-C) - Phase I (week  4  to  11)

     The percent fertility during this period of the experiment  showed no
significant  (P*.05) differences between the fertility of eggs  from  pullets
fed the control  diet (78.8%) and  those fed the poultry anaphage  supple-
mented diets (  75.1%).

     The percent hatchability of  the fertile eggs incubated  during  this
period was high  (94.6%).   Again,  there was no significant (P>.05) dif-

                                     123

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ference between the control (hatchability 94.7%) and  the  poultry  anaphage-
supplemented treatments (hatchability 94.5%).

Phase II (week 12 to 15)

     With continued feeding of the experimental diets, the average  fertility
of the eggs from the birds fed the poultry anaphage supplemented  diets de-
clined by 1.7%, as compared to their average fertility during Phase  I.  The
fertility of these eggs, however, showeda significant (P^.Ol) decline from
that obtained from the birds fed the control ration.  Among the percent
fertility figures from the birds fed the diets containing poultry anaphage,
the highest percent fertility was recorded from the birds fed the diet supple-
mented with 25.0% anaphage.

    As in Phase I, the percent hatchability remained high (97.2%) and there
was no significant (PS.05) effect of the poultry anaphage supplemented diets
on hatchability.

Overall Fertility and Hatchability (week 4 to week 15)

     Fertility data (Table 5-C) for the entire period of the experiment re-
flected the decline in fertility observed during Phase II or the  last four
weeks of the experiment.  There was an overall decline of 7.3% in fertility
in the birds fed the poultry anaphage supplemented diets when compared to
those fed the basal diet.  Again, as was seen in the fertility figures in
Phase II, the highest percent fertility figures were obtained from the birds
fed the diet containing 25.0% poultry anaphage.

     The percent hatchability of the fertile eggs from the control pens was
97.3% (Table 6-C).  The mean percent hatchability of fertile eggs from the
birds fed the poultry anaphage diets was lower by 1.8% but the difference was
not significant (P>,05).

SUMMARY

     Levels of poultry anaphage, ranging 6.25 to 25.0% substituted for corn
in typical layer rations and fed to S.C.W.L. pullets for 15 weeks had no
effect on overall hen housed egg production.

     Percent fertility of eggs produced in the period of week 4 to week 11
by the birds fed the poultry anaphage supplemented diets showed no statis-
tical   (P^.05) difference from those fed the corn/soya diet.

     The poultry anaphage supplemented diets had no significant (P-.05)
effect on the percent hatchability of fertile eggs produced during week 4
to week 11 of the experiment.

     With continued feeding of the diets that contained poultry anaphage
from week 11 to week 15, the mean percent fertility declined by 1.7%, when
compared to the fertility data from the corresponding earlier period.
                                     124

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    The poultry anaphage  supplemented  diets  continued  to  show  no effect
on percent hatchability of  fertile eggs  when the  diets were  fed for the
continued period week  11  to week  15.

    The inconsistent trends in  fertility among the  birds  fed increasing
levels of supplemental poultry  anaphage  need to be  further investigated.
More valid data on  fertility  could be  obtained using a combined system of
natural mating and  artificial insemination.

COMMENTS

    The males used  in  this  experiment  were not selected on the basis of
their  suitability to an artificial method of semen  collection.  Some males,
especially those on the treatments fed the 12.5%  poultry  anaphage, never
produced semen, while  others  produced  only a very small quantity of the semen
used toward  the pooled volume.   To overcome  this  limitation  in future exper-
iments, it is suggested that  all  males be tested  for suitability for
artificial semen collection and also to  adopt a combination  system of natural
mating and artificial  insemination.  This method  should provide fertility
figures not  affected by limitations due  to insemination techniques.

    The diets containing  poultry anaphage were not adjusted  for equal cal-
cium and phosphorus content and M.E.  calorie:  percent protein ratio.

    It is proposed  to  extend  this investigation using  broiler-type breeders.

REFERENCES

Burrows, W.  H.  and  J.  P.  Quinn  (1937).  The  collection of spermatozoa from
    the domestic fowl  and turkey.  Poultry Sci. 16: 19-24.
                                     125

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        TABLE 1-C.   COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIETS
Experimental Diets
Ingredients

Corn
Soybean meal (49%)
Alfalfa meal (17%)
Meat & bone meal (50%)
Fish meal (60%)
Limestone
Di calcium phosphate
Salt
Fat
Vitamin mineral premix
Poultry anaphage

Calculated Analysis:
Crude protein (%)
Crude fat (%)
M.E. (Kcal/g)
Calcium/phosphorus
#1

68.05
16.20
2.50
3.50
1.50
6.00
1.00
0.25
0.50
0.50
__
100.00

17.00
3.68
2.90
4.30
#2
(Percent
61.80
16.20
2.50
3.50
1.50
6.00
1.00
0.25
0.50
0.50
6.25
100.00





#3
of Ration)
55.55
16.20
2.50
3.50
1.50
6.00
1.00
0.25
0.50
0.50
12.50
100.00





#4

43.05
16.20
2.50
3.50
1.50
6.00
1.00
0.25
0.50
0.50
25.00
100.00





ratio
                             126

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TABLE 2-C.  ANALYSIS OF  POULTRY ANAPHAGE USED  IN THE EXPERIMENTAL DIETS
   Constituent
Percent
 Kjeldahl  (total)  nitrogen
 Non-protein nitrogen
 Moisture
 Ether  extract
 Crude  fiber
 Ash
 Calcium
 Phosphorus
  4.25
  4.29
  9.56
  2.25
 12.30
 21.84
  6.89
  2.23
                                   127

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TABLE 3-C.  THE EFFECT OF POULTRY ANAPHAGE ON PERCENT EGG PRODUCTION
No. of Mean
Hens Per Hen Total Egg Percent
Treatment Treatment Days Production Production
Control
+ 6.25%
+12.50%
+25.00%

29 272 1419
Poultry 30 340 1428
Anaphage
Poultry 30 340 1509
Anaphage
Poultry 30 340 1399
Anaphage
Analysis of Variance of Percent Egg
Source df
Treatment 3
Reps 5
Control vs. treatment (1)
Poultry anaphage levels (2)
Error 15
69.56
70.00 ]
73.97 C 70.8
68. 58/
Production
Ms
95.1
66.8
0.3
142.7
39.1
      Total                          23
                                 128

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TABLE 4-C.  TRENDS  IN  FERTILITY  AND HATCHABILITY  WITH  (a)  CONTINUED FEEDING
            OF POULTRY ANAPHAGE  (b) INCREASED MEEKLY  INSEMINATION
Phase
I (Week 4 to 11) Phase II
(Week 12 to 15)
One Insemination Per Week Two Inseminations Per Week
Percent Percent Percent
Treatment Fertility Hatchability Fertility
Control 78.8
N.
+ 6.25% Poultry 79. 2 J
Anaphage
+12.50% Poultry 67.8
Anaphage
+25.00% Poultry 78. 5;
Anaphage
Overall Mean 76.1
94.7 90.0
92. 8\ 73. 9\
* 75.1 93.9 7 94.5 65. 9>
97. oj 80. 4j
94.6 77.5
Percent
Hatchability
99.1
96.7 ]
73.4 98.1 7 97.2
97. 0/
97.7
Analysis of Variance of Fertility and Hatchability Data
Source df
Treatment 3
Reps 5
Control vs. (1)
treatment
Poultry anaphage (2)
levels
Error 1_5
Total 23
Ferti 1 i ty Hatchabi 1 i ty Ferti
181.2 16.9 626
83.7 61.3 78
57.5 0.02 1240
243.0 25.4 320
71.8 14.2 74

lity Hatchability
.8* 7.6
.9 4.7
.9** 16.2
.0 3.1
.7 4.6

*P<.05
**P<.01
                                    129

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TABLE 5-C.   THE EFFECT OF POULTRY ANAPHAGE ON PERCENT FERTILITY

Production through 57 days
No. of
Hens Per Total Eggs Total Eggs Mean Percent
Treatment Treatment Set Fertile Fertility
Control
+ 6.25%
+12.50%
+25.00%

29 1190 1010 83.9
Poultry 30 1213 943 77.4)
Anaphage /
Poultry 30 1265 852 67. OS 74. 6
Anaphage
Poultry 30 1173 933 79.4
Anaphage ^
Analysis of V^-iance of Fertility Data
Source df Ms
Treatment 3 307.4*
Reps 5 44.3
Control vs. treatment (1) 387.8**
Poultry anaphage levels (2) 267.2**
Error ]_5_ 23.4
Total 23
*P<.05
**P<.01
                             130

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TABLE 6-C.  THE EFFECT OF POULTRY  ANAPHAGE  ON  PERCENT HATCHABILITY
Production Through 57 Days
Treatment
Control
+ 6.25% Poultry
Anaphage
+12.50% Poultry
Anaphage
+25.00% Poultry
No. of
Hens Per
Treatment
29
30
30
30
Total Eggs
Fertile
1005
943
852
933
Total Eggs
Hatched
981
881
815
909
Mean Percent
Hatchability
97.3
93. 7\
95.6^95.5
97. sy
              Analysis of Variance of Hatchability Data
          Source                   df
        Treatment                   3
        Reps                        5
        Control vs. treatment        (1)
        Poultry anaphage levels      (2)
        Error                      li
        Total                      23
 Ms_
18.05
15.06
14.12
20.10*
 5.31
                                  131

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APPENDIX  D.       THE FEASIBILITY OF USING WASTE MATERIALS
                          AS SUPPLEMENTAL FISH FEED

                                     by

                        Julin D. Lu and Miles R. Kevern
                     Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
                           Michigan State University
                         East Lansing, Michigan  48824

     In recent years public and professional awareness of environmental
pollution and the necessity for preservation of natural resources has
stimulated greater interest in recycling of waste materials (3).  Research
has been initiated on the possible use of wastes as a component of animal
feed.

     Green ejt al_. (7) for example, have considered using fish solubles as
a nitrogen supplement in mushroom compost and for peptone in microbiological
media.  Walker (10) investigated the use of crawfish waste as a supplemental
diet for channel catfish and those fish fed on raw and pelletized waste ex-
hibited a weight gain of 50% and 75%, respectively, of that of controls.
Some encouraging results have also been reported in using dried poultry
waste as a supplemental diet for chicks (5).  The economic advantages of
large, more efficient poultry operations have, in turn, itensified the
problem of manure disposal.  A partial solution to this problem is found in
Fowler's report (6) that channel catfish consuming feed consisting of 25%
dried poultry waste grew better than controls.

     Since the nutrient content of sewage sludge and dried poultry waste
showed high values in protein, crude fat and carbohydrate, a study was
carried out to investigate the feasibility of using such waste materials as
supplemental fish feed (Table 1-D).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

     The nutrient value of sewage sludge and dried poultry waste  (DPW) were
tested in two experiments using the growth rate of goldfish, Carassius
auratus in one and channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus finger!ings  in the
other.

     All groups of fish were placed in twenty-gallon tanks and were  fed once
daily.  Water exchange for each tank was 0.5 gpm.  Each tank was  aerated
with an airstone to keep dissolved oxygen above 5 ppm.  The pH value, deter-
mined once every two weeks, ranged from 7.4 to 8.2.  Ammonia concentration,
total alkalinity and total hardness were determined once  (on the  beginning
of the third month of the experiment) and found to be 0.09 ppm, 296  ppm and
260 ppm, respectively.
                                  '   132

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     A 30% sewage sludge  diet was  prepared by combining  three  parts sludae
and seven parts ground  salmon feed (Ewos F49).  The sewage  sludge, as filter-
cake, was obtained  from the  primary settling tank in the waste water treat-
ment plant of East  Lansing,  Michigan.   The solid sludge, composed of 62%
volatile materials  and  38% ash,  was sun dried and ground into  fine particles
The two mixes were  then granulated and pelletized to 2.5 x  4.0 mm.

     The DPW was obtained from the Department of Poultry Science of Michigan
State University.   The  DPW and salmon  feed were ground into fine particles
and mixed to form pellets in the same  manner as with the sewage sludge pel-
lets.  Three varying  mixes,  30%, 70% and 100% DPW diets  were made.

     In the goldfish  experiment 20 fish were placed in each of the three
tanks and were  fed  amounts equal to 3% of their body weight daily.  Fish
in one tank were given  salmon feed as  controls, while fish  in  the other two
tanks were given feed consisting of 30% sewage sludge diet  and 30% DPW diet.

     In the catfish study 18 fish  were placed in each of the 12 tanks.  The
tanks were separated  into three groups of four tanks each.   The three groups
differed in the level of  feed received, with fish in the first, second and
third group being 2%, 3%  and 4% of their body weight, respectively.  Within
each group, fish from different tanks  were fed with different  types of diets:
fish in the first,  second, third and fourth tanks were fed  0%  (control),
30%, 70% and 100% DPW diets, respectively.  The purpose  of  having three
different levels of feed  was to determine the level of feeding that would
produce the most efficient feed conversion.

     Because of unequal initial  weights, comparison of growth  among dif-
ferent groups was based on the average monthly percent weight  gains for fish
from each tank.  In the statistical analysis, adjustment for the unequal
number of fish  due  to accidental losses were made accordingly.  An analysis
of variance of  a randomized  block  design and Dunnett's t-test  (8) were used
to detect significant differences  in growth between the  experimental and
control fish.   Dunnett's  equation  is as follows:
           tD  =  (yc  -  yn.)  / (msE (l/rc t l/^.))2,  where

           t,,  =  Dunnett's  t-test

           y   =  mean percent growth of control

           y.  =  mean percent growth of experimental

           msE=  mean square error

           r   =  number of  replications of control
           c
           r.  =  number of  replications of experimental

     The total  caloric values  for different feeds were  calculated from the
percent composition of the feed and the corresponding energy  value   The
average values  for  protein,  fat and carbohydrate  used were  3.9, 8.0 and 1.6
                                     133

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              TABLE 1-D.  NUTRIENT ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT FEED (EXPRESSED AS  PERCENT)
                 Digestible                                                                 Non-              ,
                   Carbo-             Phos-        Crude    Ether        Kjeldahl    Crude   protein   Corrected
Type of Feed      hydrate   Calcium   phorus  Ash  Fiber   Extract  H?0     N       Protein     N        Protein


Control            27.70      1.94     1.44   9.60  2.47    4.51     6.46    7.87      49.19     1.92     37.19
  (salmon feed)

Sludge             22.46      2.35     2.35  29.16 10.80   11.61     6.16    3.17      19.81      .85     14.50

Dried poultry      41.75      5.30     2.11  18.13 10.43    1.56     7.69    3.27      20.44     1.21     12.88
  waste


Corrected protein = (6.25) x (%Kjeldahl  N - % non-protein N).

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                             TABLE 2-D.  THE CALORIC VALUE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FEED
CO
en
Type of Feed
Control
(salmon feed)
30% sludge mix
(30% sludge + 70% salmon feed)
30% dried poultry waste mix
(30% DPW + 70% salmon feed)
Corrected
Protein

145.0
118.5
116.6
Ether
Extract
Kcal/g
36.1
53.1
29.1
Digestible
Carbohydrate

44.3
41.8
51.1
Total
Kcal
225.4
213.4
196.7

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     TABLE 3-D.  PERCENT GROWTH (%) IN BODY WEIGHT PER MONTH AND INITIAL
                 AVERAGE WEIGHT (g) IN DIFFERENT DIET TREATMENTS OF GOLD-
                 FISH, Carassius auratus
Type of feed
Initial  Average

  weight (g)  	
Percent growth (%)
                                   1
                      Time (month)

                      2       3
Control

30% sludge mix

30% DPW mix
   5.90     49.7     55.2    43.1

   4.53     57.4     54.3    40.5

   6.28     56.7     64.6    61.2
                 29.2    9.6

                 25.9   10.3

                 26.6   19.1
                                     136

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TABLE 4-D.  PERCENT GROWTH (%) IN BODY WEIGHT PER MONTH ON DIFFERENT DIET TREATMENTS AND
            INITIAL AVERAGE WEIGHT (g) OF CHANNEL CATFISH, Ictalurus punctatus

Time
(month) '
1
2
3
4
5
Int Ave.
wt. (g)
Group 1
Control
38.4
56.3
51.7
44.0
25.3
4.25
(Feed = 2%
30% DPW
21.6
28.5
48.7
41.3
23.5
3.61
b.w.)
70% DPW
19.2
24.4
39.0
35.5
12.7
3.75
Group 2
Control
56.7
52.7
66.1
83.4
29.1
3.72
(Feed = 35
30% DPW
11.5
50.1
65.6
17.5
12.7
5.03
 b.w.
702
20.
26.
45.
26.
12.
3.
)
DPW
3
4
5
7
1
50
Group 3
Control
55.6
67.4
78.2
49.2
53.8
4.50
(Feed = 4%
30% DPW
42.0
45.7
58.0
28.3
19.9
3.49
b.w.
70%
12
21
35
56
11
3
)
DPW
.7
.5
.0
.0
.6
.38

-------
oo
,00
                  TABLE 5-D.   FEED CONVERSION (FEED GIVEN/GROWTH IN WEIGHT)  OF THREE TYPES  OF FEED IN THREE LEVELS

                              OF FEED (% b.w.)  IN CHANNEL CATFISH,  Ictalurus punctatus

Control (0% DPW)
Time
(months)
1
2
3
4
5
Percent body weight (%)
2
1.57
1.06
1.16
1.55
2.38
3
1.58
1.70
1.36
1.08
3.10
4
2.16
1.78
1.53
2.32
2.30
30% DPW
70% DPW
Percent body weight (%)
2
2.77
2.12
1.23
1.52
2.56
3
8.18
1.79
1.45
7.13
7.10
4
2.89
2.63
2.17
4.24
6.30
Percent body weight (%)
2
3.13
2.47
1.63
1,70
4.70
3
4.44
3.41
1.98
4.25
9.44
4
9.30
5.61
3.46
2.14
10.40

-------
Kcal/gm, respectively,  as  indicated in Table 2-D (9).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

     Goldfish  fed  30% DPW  or 30% sewage sludge diet showed growth  as  good or
better than controls  (Table 3-D).   This result was not expected  because of
the lower nutrient value and lower caloric value in the experimental  diets
After five months, fish in the control, 30% sewage sludge  diet and 30% DPW
diet groups yielded 417%,  475% and 627% increases in body  weight,  respec-
tively.  Assuming  that  the initial unequal weight caused no significant dif-
ferences in growth rate, the data  indicated no significant difference (p =
0.05) between  the  control  and the  30% sewage sludge group; however, there
was a significant  difference (p =  0.05) between the control  and  the 30% DPW
group.

     The average weight gain of control catfish in all  three groups was
greater than those in the  experimental groups (Table 4-D).  Fish fed on 100%
DPW diets in all three  groups showed a little or no growth,  and  thus, were
not included in the report.  Growth results of control  fish in all three
groups were significantly  higher than those fed with 30% and 70% DPW diets
(p = 0.05),  These results were contrary to those of the goldfish  where the
control group  had  the lowest growth value.  Feed conversion  results on
Table 5-D indicate that the 2% b.w. feeding level was  more efficient than the
3% b.w. and 4% b.w. feeding level  (for all three types  of  feed).   These re-
sults suggest  that when fish were  given a lower level  of feed, they tend
to use the feed more  efficiently.   No significant difference in  feed con-
version was observed  between feeding level of 3% b.w.  and  4% b.w.  in all
three types of feed (p  = 0.05).

     In evaluating the  diet study, it should be noted  that the relative
growth increase between the control and the experimental group is  more im-
portant than individual growth results.  Fowler (6) grew catfish finger-
lings using 25% DPW mix,  from 118  gms to 431  gms in five months, a 365%
weight gain, while in this study 30% DPW mix in all  three  levels of feeds,
2%, 3% and 4%  of body weight, effected weight gains of 405%, 367%  and 501%,
respectively,  in the  same  time period; gains which could be  due  to the fact
that smaller fingerlings are expected to grow faster than  larger ones.  The
control group  in all  three levels  of feeds, 2%, 3% and  4%  of body  weight,
gained 592%, 941%  and 1,065%, respectively; these weight gains are com-
parable to those outlined  by Deyoe et al_. (4) who reported that  in 4.5
months catfish grew from 14.7 gms  to 138.7 gms, a gain  of  943%.  In the
experimental diet  of  the goldfish, one possible explanation  for  the better
growth is that some species tend to do better at a lower nutrient  level.
Deyoe et al. (4) also reported that catfish fingerlings  receiving  25%
proteirTdTet grew  better than those on a 22% protein diet.   The  corrected
protein in control  (salmon feed),  30% DPW and 30% sludge was 37.2%,  29.9%
and 30.4%, respectively (calculated from data in Table  1-D).

     The relatively poor growth rate in catfish fed on  30% DPW may indicate
that the species'  needs were not met as well  as for goldfish or  the catfish
might be more  sensitive to unknown contaminants such as  heavy metals.  This
reasoning, coupled with the possibility that some fish  may grow  better


                                      139

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with a less rich feed, may explain the better growth rate in goldfish than
in catfish given the same feed.  The diminishing growth rate in goldfish  in
the last two months, might be attributed to the genotypic factor.  An exam-
ination of goldfish taken from the same pond as those used in the experi-
ment showed the strain to be small.

     In conclusion, the results from the experiment using goldfish appeared
encouraging and results from the catfish experiment slightly less promising.
It would seem premature to make any definitive conclusions from the pre-
sented data.  Nevertheless, the concept of converting waste substances into
usable materials is highly desirable.  The advantages are many including a
partial elimination of a waste disposal problem, a supply of usable materials
at little cost and good environmental practice.  Researchers pursuing the
study of recycling wastes as feed supplements must be aware of the physical
characteristics of the product such as offensive odors (2) and contaminants
that may have toxic effects such as heavy metals (1).  It is reasonable to
assume that with further refinements of waste processing techniques, the
potential will be great for high nutrient values in recycled wastes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The authors wish to thank Drs. C. J. Flegal, C. C. Sheppard and H. C.
Zindel of the Department of Poultry Science of Michigan State University
for their assistance and their provision of dried poultry waste.

REFERENCES

Brown, H. G., C. P. Hensley, G. L. McKinney, and J. L. Robinson.  1973.
     Efficiency of heavy metals removal in municipal sewage treatment
     plants.  Environmental Letters 5(2):  103-114.

Bucholtz, H. F.f H. E. Henderson, C. J. Flegal, and H. C. Zindel.  1971.
     Dried poultry waste as a protein source for feedlot cattle.  Michigan
     State University Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Rep. 152.

Caldwell, Lynton Keith.  1970.  Environment:  A challenge to modern society.
     The Natural History Press.  301 p.

Deyoe, C. W., 0. W. Tiemeier, and C. Suppes.  1968.  Effects of protein,
     amino acid levels, and feeding methods on growth of finger!ing
     channel catfish.  Prog. Fish-Cult. 30 (4):  187-195.

Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel.  1970.  The utilization of poultry waste as
     a feedstuff for growing chicks.  Michigan State University Agr. Exp.
     Sta. Res. Rep. 117.

Fowler, John C.  1973.  Poultry Pointers.  Southwestern Poultry Times, April
     14.
                                     140

-------
Green, John H., S. L. Paskell,  D.  Goldmintz,  and  L.  C. Schisler.  1973.  New
     methods under investigation  for the  utilization of fish solubles, a
     fishery by-product,  as  a means  of pollution  abatement.  Food Processing
     Waste Management,  March 26-28,  1973.   Cornell  University,  Ithaca,
     New York.

Kirk, R. E.  1968.   Experimental  design:   Procedures for  the behavior
     sciences.  Brooks/Cole  Publishing Co., Belmont, California.  577 p.

National Academy  of  Sciences.   1973.  Nutrient requirements of  trout, sal-
     mon,  and  catfish.   Number 11.

Walker,  William Howard.  1967.   Crawfish waste as a supplemental diet for
      channel catfish in Louisiana.  M.S.  Thesis,  Louisiana State University,
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
                                      141

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APPENDIX  E.       BIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY OF PROTEIN FROM
                              POULTRY ANAPHAGE

                                     By

                           D. Pol in and K. M. Chee
                         Poultry Science Department
                         Michigan State University

INTRODUCTION

     Poultry anaphage (dried poultry waste or DPW) varies considerably in
its nitrogen content (1).  A considerable proportion of the nitrogen is in
the form of uric acid, which makes practically no contribution of nitrogen to
carcass protein when anaphage is incorporated into a hen's ration.  However,
about 10-12% of the anaphage contains "true protein" (4, 9 and 5).  There is
indirect evidence that the protein in anaphage is available to the chick (5)
and hen (6).  The proportion of the nitrogen and thus crude protein (N x 6.25)
that is available from anaphage has not been established.

     In this study, Japanese quail, which grow extremely rapidly during their
first few weeks of age, were used as assay animals.  Net protein values (NPV)
and protein efficiency ratios (PER) were calculated for diets that contained
12.5 to 25.0% of isolated soybean protein (I.S.P.) supplemented with
methionine.  Anaphage was added to these diets over four levels and in a
protein-free diet.

PROCEDURE

     Day-old Japanese quail were reared in a battery-brooder for seven days
and fed a diet that contained a protein level of 15% (Table 1-E), with the
idea that protein for growth would be marginal.   On day seven, the quail were
individually weighed, then sorted by weight and transferred as groups of 15
of nearly equal body weight to a battery-brooder with 24 pens.  Twelve
treatments with two replications per treatment (Table 3-E) were assigned at
random, using a table of random numbers.

     The test diets outlined in Table 2-E and a practical diet (Table 1-E)
were then fed for seven days.  One set of diets was formulated to provide
protein only from isolated soy protein, supplemented with methionine.

     The other set of diets contained the same gradient amounts of isolated
soy protein (I.S.P.), plus the poultry anaphage as the other source of
protein.  All diets were isocaloric.
                                    142

-------
  _  The sodium, chloride,  calcium and phosphorus values in the  diets  con-
taining anaphage were  not adjusted.   The assumption was that in  the  short span
of seven days,  these elements  would  not have an adverse effect on  the  forma-
tion of carcass protein  or, if they  did, it would not influence  the  response
to be other than gradient.   The anaphage sample was a composite  of three
samples from different sources.

     On day 7 of the experiment, the quail  were weighed and killed with chloro-
form.  Eight of the quail  that weighed closest to the mean  weight  were
selected from each group.   They were pooled into two groups of 4.

     All of the gut contents were cleaned from the intestines, and the car-
casses with the intestines  were oven-dried  to constant weight  to determine
the percentage  dry matter.   The pooled samples were ground  to  a fine powder.
Percentage dry  matter  and nitrogen (Kjeldahl) was determined on the carcasses
and the diet.   Crude protein (C.P.)  was equal to N x 6.25.   Statistical
procedures were those  by Snedecor and Cochran (7) and Bliss (2).   Differences
among values were considered significant at F-ratios of probability  .05 or less.

RESULTS

     The protein-free  diet  without and with anaphage contained 0.54 and 7.16%
C.P., respectively (Table 4-E).  The difference of 6.6% C.P. represented the
contribution of C.P. from anaphage.   Practically the same difference was
found upon analyses of the  other pairs of diets, and the overall average of
6.58% agreed closely with the  value  based upon the analysis of the anaphage
for N and its contribution  at  30% of the diet (Table 4-E).

     Quail fed  the diets with  anaphage ate  consistently more feed  than those
fed comparable  levels  of I.S.P. without anaphage.   However, when the total
feed consumed was corrected for the  anaphage as 30% of the  dietary weight,
the actual amounts of  the basal mix  and thus I.S.P.  consumed by the quail
receiving anaphage were  less than those fed the diets  without anaphage (Table
5-E).  Despite  this, the final  body  weights and body weight gains  (Table 5-E)
were consistently greater than  their counterparts receiving the comparable
feed level of I.S.P.

     The diets were isocaloric; therefore,  the difference in feed  intake
could not be accounted for  as  an energy deficit.   Presumably the low protein
levels accounted for the lower  feed  intake  (Table 5-E),  with the small
contribution of C.P. from the  anaphage causing an improvement in feed intake.

     Nitrogen intake per bird was much higher in those quail fed the
anaphage.  Carcass N was higher in these quail  from four of the five test
groups (Table 6-E).  Thus,  anaphage  did contribute N for carcass N.  There
was a trend for the water:nitrogen ratios to increase slightly, yet signifi-
cantly (PiO.05). as the  level  of protein increased (Table 6-E)  The crude
protein accounted for  21.2% of  the quail's  body weight and  treatment with
graded levels of protein had no significant effect ".this  value.  Thus,
quail chicks contain more protein per unit  of body weight then young
chickens, which average  18% protein  in their carcasses (8).
                                     143

-------
The data inTables5-E and 6-E were used to calculate net protein values  (NPV),
according to the suggestions of (3 and 8).  The data were also used to calcu-
late protein retention efficiency (PRE) using the determined value of percent
carcass protein, whose mean was 21.2%.  The NPV and PRE values are given in
Table 7-E.

     The diets with I.S.P. supplemented with methionine to improve I.S.P.'s
amino acid profile yielded NPVs ranging between 46.4 and 50.7, with a mean of
48.9.  Quail fed anaphage plus the I.S.P. had much lower values for NPVs rang-
ing from 21.3 to 32.8 with a mean of 27.5.  The NPVs for the anaphage + I.S.P.
were based on the assumption that all N from the anaphage containing 3.50
g N/100 g (21.9% C.P.) was biologically available C.P., which it was not.  In
fact, nitrogen accounted for as "true protein" was about 10% of product
weight.  Thus, the NPVs for the diets that contained anaphage can be consid-
ered to be biased toward the low side.

     The PRE values were in agreement with the NPVs for each respective treat-
ment and were also assumed to be biased toward the low side of the diets with
anaphage.

     An attempt was made to assess a more meaningful contribution of the ana-
phage to the protein level of the diet.  The method outlined by Bliss (1951)
was used to do this.  A plot (fig.l-E)made between the level of I.S.P. in the
diet and the resultant body weight of quail on day 7 (14 days of age) of the
experiment, had less curvature to the lines than that produced on the basis of
an arithmetic relationship between the two criteria.

     A somewhat linear relationship existed over the range of 15.8 to 21.4%
I.S.P., as log values, vs. body weight and this portion of the curve was
assumed to be adequate for statistical treatment.  Such an analysis revealed
that the two lines have a similar slope, b = 52.53, but were at significantly
different elevations.  The two regression lines, based on pooled slopes, were
y = -43.9 + 52.53 X for I.S.P. alone, and y = 46.2 + 52.53 X for I.S.P.  +
anaphage where X = log percent of I.S.P. level in diet and y = body weight
in grams.

     The diets with anaphage plus I.S.P. produced a 10.7% greater body weight
than those diets that contained comparable levels of I.S.P. alone.

     Body weight gain, by itself, is not necessarily indicative that carcass
protein accounts for some of this gain.  Specifically, an increase in carcass
protein must be demonstrated with some N coming from anaphage.  Table 8-E
contains the data to indicate that anaphage contributed to protein deposition
in quail.

     First, we calculated the net amount of C.P. consumed by subtracting the
small quantity of C.P. intake obtained from the protein-free diet (Table 5-E).
On the average, the quail-fed diets that contained anaphage consumed 89.8% of
the amount of crude protein from I.S.P. + MHA than those quail fed the diets
without anaphage.  The percentage values increased progressively from 86.5 to
94.2% (Table 8-E).  Then we calculated the net amount of carcass protein,
                                    144

-------
as compared to the protein-free  diets  (carcass protein of test group less  car-
cass protein of groups fed  protein-free diet).  The groups fed anaphage  aver-
aged 102.4% of those not fed  the anaphage.   Thus, on an average of 10.2% less
protein from I.S.P., the quail given anaphage had 2.4% more carcass  protein,
a net difference of 12.6% effectiveness from anaphage.  Thus,  30%  anaphage in
the diet was equivalent to  about 12.6%  of I.S.P.  + MHA for deposition  of
carcass protein, a value similar to the 10.7% equivalent effect determined
from the body weight data in  Figurel-E. The average of these two values  (11.7%)
could be assumed to be the  best  representative value to use for calculating
the available C.P. from anaphage.

     The data in Table 8-E  are essentially  the same used to calculate  NPV,
except that the values  have  been expressed in terms of C.P. instead of  N.
Thus, one unit of carcass protein deposited  in quail  required  two units of
protein from I.S.P. + MHA in  the diet.

     The quail were about 50% efficient in  taking the  protein from I.S.P. +
MHA in the diet and depositing it as carcass protein,  over  the  range of the
assayed levels.  Accordingly, to produce an 11.7% increase  in carcass protein
from I.S.P. + MHA, there would be required  a 23.4% increase  in  protein level,
because the value of NPV is about 50%  (NPV=49.5).

     Within the assay range,  if  one assumed that  I.S.P.  + MHA were fed at a
15.8% level in the diet, then a  23.4%  increase in  protein level would bring
the level to 19.5% protein.   This value, which is  3.7  percentage units higher
than the 15.8% level, is what 30% anaphage  was supplying in carcass N to pro-
duce its equivalent value to  I.S.P. + MHA.   Therefore,  if 30% anaphage has
available protein equivalent  to  3.7% anaphage  assays to  be 3.7 = 12.3% avail-
able protein.                                               -30

     At the higher range of the  assay values,  the  equivalent value  was calcu-
lated to be [17.5 x .234 = 4.1;  4.1 + 17.5  = 21.6  (upper range of assay)] 4.1
percentage units or 13.7% available protein in anaphage.  Thus, the assay
indicated that between 12.3 to 13.7% of C.P. was  available from anaphage.

     Based on the "true protein"  value  determined  by precipitation  with tri-
chloroacetic acid or  amino acid  analysis,  essentially all of this  protein
would appear to be available  to  the bird.   The "true protein  value obtained
by chemical methods would appear to be  a good  assessment of the true  protein
in anaphage.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

     The authors express their appreciation  to Dawe's.Labr^e'' Jn.;'this
Hoffman-La Roche, Inc., Basic Chemicals,  for dietary ingredients used in  this
project.

REFERENCES

Bliss, C. I. (1951).  Statistical methods in vitamin research.   Vitamin
     Methods.  Edited P. Gyorgy,  Vol. II, p. 445.


                                    145

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REFERENCES

Benne, E. J. (1971).  A compilation of some samples of dried poultry waste
     analyzed by Dr. E. J. Benne, 1970-1971.  Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Research
     Report 152: 49.

Bliss, C. I. (1951).  Statistical methods in vitamin research.  Vitamin
     Methods.  Edited P. Gyorgy, Vol. II, p. 445.

De Muelenaere, H. J. H., G. V. Quick and J. P. H. Wessels (1960).  The
     applicability to chicks of the carcass analysis method for the deter-
     mination of net protein utilization.  South African J. Agr. Sci.  3: 91.

Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel (1970).  The utilization of poultry waste as a
     feedstuff for growing chicks.  Mich. Agr. Expt. Sta. Research Report 117:
     21.

Lee, D. J. W. and R. Blair (1972).  Effects on chick growth of adding  various
     nonprotein nitrogen source or dried poultry manure to diets containing
     crystalline essential amino acids.   Br. Poultry Sci. 13:  243.

Nesheim, M.  C. (1972).   Evaluation of dehydrated poultry manure as a poten-
     tial poultry feed  ingredient.  Proceedings 1972 Cornell  Agricultural
     Waste Management             Cornell University, p. 301.

Snedecor, G. w. and W.  G.  Cochran (1968).  Statistical  Methods, 6th Edition,
     The Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

Summers, J.  D. and H. Fisher (1961).  Net protein values for the growing
     chicken as determined by carcass analysis:  Exploration of the method.
     J. Nutrition 75: 435.

Young, R. J. (1972).  Evaluation of poultry waste as a  feed ingredient and
     recycling waste as a method of waste disposal.  Proceedings 27th  Texas
     Nutrition Conference, p. 1.
                                     146

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                       TABLE 1-E.  EXPERIMENTAL  DIETS
                                             Ingredients  as  %  of Diet

                              Diet Fed From                 Practical Diet
   Ingredient               Day-Old to Day 7           Quail  Starter MSU 71-

Corn, #2 grd yellow
Soybean meal , 49%
Dist. dried grain
w/sol , corn
Fish meal
Alfalfa meal
Wheat bran
Dicalcium phosphate
Choline chloride, 50%
1-Lysine
Salt, iodized
Mineral mix('^
Vitamin mix
Corn oil
MHA
K2HP04
Crude protein, %
M.E.-Kcal/kg
70.0
9.0
4.0
3.0
5.0
5.21
2.0
0.3
0.14
0.35
0.50
0.50


~ "" ~*
15.2
2.95
38.78
42.0
4.0
4.0
5.0

2.0
0.3

0.35
0.50
0.5
2.5
0.07
0.5
29.0
2.93
(1)Same vitamin and mineral levels as diets In Table 2-E  except that  carrier
   in mixes was distilled dried corn with soluble containing 4/, corn oil.
                                     147

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                                   TABLE 2-E.  EXPERIMENTAL DIETS, PURIFIED-TYPE
                                                                Ingredients as % of Diet
-pa
oo
No Anaphage
Protein Level
Cornstarch
Sugar
Corn oil
Isolated soy
protein
Glucose
Poultry anaphage
MHA
Cellulose
Sand, washed
Choline chloride
50%
Salt, iodized
Dicalcium phos-
phate
Limestone
K2HP04 m
Vitamin nrixL\
Mineral mix^ '
Crude protein^3'
M.E.-Kcal/kg
0
10
10
2.0
0

67.45
0
-~\

i!o *
, 0.5

0.35
2.5

0.7
0.5
0.5

, %0
12
10
10
2.25
13.9

53.17
0
0.13

\


15
10
10
2.
17.

49.
0
0.




v Common to






12.1
3332 3332






15.
3330
18
10
10
30 2.38
3 20.8

68 46.07
0
17 0.20




this set






1 18.1
3330
21
10
10
2.45
24.2

42.57
0
0.23




of diets






21.1
3330
24
10
10
2.
27.

38.
0
0.











24.
3330
0
10
10
52 11.5
7 0

97 32.95
30.0
26 0
0
o
0.5^

0.35
2.5

0.7
0.5
0.5
0.5/
1 0
12
10
10
11.75
13.9

18.67
30.0
0.13
0
0
I

15
10
10
11.80
17.3

15.18
30.0
0.17
0
0


\. Common to thi






12.1
3334 3331






15.1
3330
With Anaphage
18
10
10
11.
20.

11.
30.
0.
0
0


s set






18
3330
21
10
10
88 11.95
8 24.2

57 8.07
0 30.0
20 0.23
0
0


of diets






.1 21.1
3330
            mix, supplies per 100 parts: Vit. A-1500 I.U.; Vit. D3-1500 I.C.U.; Vit. E-1.0 I.U.; Menadione
       sodium bisulfite-0.27 mg; Thiamine mononitrate-0.6 mg; Riboflavin-1.0 mg; Niacin-10.0 mg; Pyridoxine-
       1.0 mg; Biotin-22 meg; Folacin-0.5 mg; Cyanocobalamin-1.1 meg; Starch as a carrier
     (2)Min. mix, supplies per 100 parts:  Manganese-5.5 mg; Magnesium-50.0 mg; Iron-8.0 mg;  Copper-0.4 mg;
      .Cobalt-5.0 meg; Zinc-8.0 mg; Selenium-0.01 mg and Starch as a carrier
     (3'Not including crude protein from anaphage

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                      TABLE 3-E.  EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE
Dietary Proteir
Level %
Treatment
None

Day 0-7 Day 7-14
15.0
No Anaphage
30% Anaphage
Practical
Diet
0^) 12 15 18 21 24 29
(2)
xv ' x x x x x x
x x x x x -
*  -
   Protein-free diet
     reps per treatment at 15 quail /rep
         TABLE 4-E.  CRUDE PROTEIN (C.P.) DETERMINED IN ASSAY DIETS
                     WITH PROTEIN SOURCE ONLY FROM ISOLATED SOYBEAN
                     PROTEIN (ISP),  WITH OR WITHOUT POULTRY ANAPHAGE
Targeted
I.S.P.
I.S.P. + m A
30% Anaphage^ ; -

0
12
15
18
21
24
Practical
Diet @ 29

.54%
12.5
15.8
18.6
21.4
25.0

28.7
Anaphage Contribution
7.16% 6.6%
19.2 6.7
22.2 6.4
25.0 6.4
28.2 6.8



Mean = 6.58% C.P.
CD By calculation:  Anaphage assayed 9 21.9%C.P. x 30% in diet- 6.57%  C.P
                                    149

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01
o
        TABLE 5-E.  INTAKE OF FEED AND CRUDE PROTEIN INTAKE FROM ISOLATED SOYBEAN PROTEIN (I.S.P.) AND
                    THE RESULTANT BODY WEIGHTS AND GAIN OF JAPANESE QUAIL FROM DAY 7 TO 14 DAYS OF AGE
                    DIETS WITH ANAPHAGE WERE SUPPLEMENTED AT 30 PERCENT OF DIET WEIGHT
Feed Intake x 7 Da.-q/Quall
C.P. From I.S.P.
in Diet-%
(Determined)
0.54 (Prot.-free)
12.5
15.8
18.6
21.4
25.0
28.7 (Practical
Diet)
No
Anaph
Total
4.6
19.8
23.2
28.9
29.3
29.4
43.1
+Anaph.
Total Feed-Anaph.
13.9
25.4
29.3
37.3
39.5


9.
17.
20.
26.
27.


7
8
5
1
7


C.P. Intake From Other Tha
Anaphaqe-q/Quail
No
Anaph.
0
2
3
5
6
7
12
.025
.48
.67
.38
.27
.35
.37
+Anaph.
0.053
2.15
3.24
4.85
5.91


n Final E
- Per Due
No
Anaph.
8.24
14.27
16.70
20.84
23.39
24.00
33.94
Jody Wt.
MlV"
+Anaph.
9.55
15.40
18.84
22.84
26.03


Body Wt.
Gain Per
Quail -q
AnSjJh.
-4.26
1.77
4.20
8.37
10.85
11.50
21.54
Anaph
-2.99
2.90
6.44
10.41
13.61


     (1)
Initial mean weight on day 7 - 12.5 g (Range, 185-190 g/groups  of 15)

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    TABLE 6-E.   N  INTAKE,  CARCASS  N,  CARCASS  WATER/N  RATIOS, AND  %  C.P.  OF  TOTAL BODY WEIGHT OF QUAIL
                FED DIETS  WITH  THE PROTEIN  SOURCE  FROM ISOLATED SOYBEAN  PROTEIN  WITH OR WITHOUT POULTRY
                ANAPHAGE,  OR A  MIXED  GROUP  OF PROTEIN IN A  PRACTICAL-TYPE DIET
C.P. in Diet N Intake per Bird-q
% No Anaph. +Anaph.
0.54
12.5
15.8
18.6
21.4
25.0
28.7

(Prot.-
free)




(Practi-
cal)
.0040) .1570)
.397 .779
.600 1.040
.860 1.490
1.003 1.780
1.177
1.979

Carcass N-g
No Anaph.
.302
.499
.599
.698
.803
.845
 

+Anaph .
.332
.494
.640
.721
.829

	

Carcass
No. Anaph.
19
20
20
20
21
21
23

.6
.4
.5
.9
.3
.3
.8

H20/N

+Anaph.
19.
20.
20.
23.
23.
__
 

5
5
4
8
7



%c
U
.P. of Total
Body Wt.
No Anaph.
22
21
22
20
21
22
19

.8
.9
.4
.9
.5
.1
.8

+Anaph .
21.8
20.1
21.2
19.8
19.9
--
__

(1)
   No.  reps  =  2  at 4 birds/rep; all others are 2 at 3 birds/rep.   Birds  selected  on  body  weights  closest
   to the mean weight.  Each rep analyzed in duplicate

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          TABLE 7-E.  THE NET PROTEIN VALUES AND PROTEIN RETENTION
                      EFFICIENCY FOR EACH OF THE TREATMENTS USING
                      QUAIL FED ISOLATED SOY PROTEIN WITH OR WITHOUT
                      ANAPHAGE
Crude Protein - %

  0.54 (Prot.-free)
 12.5
 15.8
 18.6
 21.4
 25.0
 28.7(Pract.)
Net Protein Value (NPV),>
No Anaphage +Anaphage ^ '
 50.7
 50.3
 46.4
 50.5
 46.7
 39.2
21.3
25.2
32.8
28.4
29.7
               Prot. Retention Eff.
              No Anaphage  +Anaphage
                                                                         (1)
53.1
50.5
49.3
51.8
47.4
41.3
27.4
29.4
34.9
31.0
32.1
                                    152

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01
CO
          TABLE 8-E.   CARCASS PROTEIN IN QUAIL RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING AS THE SOLE SOURCE  OF  PROTEIN,
                      SOY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTED WITH METHIONINE, OR WITH'ADDED POULTRY ANAPHAGE AT A LEVEL
                      OF 30% OF THE DIET, BY WEIGHT
C.P. in Diet From C
Ingredients Other
Than Anaphage - %
0.54 (Prot.-free)
12.5 (2)
15.8
18.6
21.4
25.0
28.7 (Practical)

.P. Intake From Ingredients Other Than Anaphage
Net Above Protein-Free Diet - g/Quail
No Anaphage
(2) '
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

^OW
2.45
3.64
5.35
6.24
7.32
12.34

+Anaphage %
) (2) + 0.02
(2) 2.12 86.5
(2) 3.21 88.2
(2) 4.82 90.1
(2) 5.88 94.2


Mean =89.8
Carcass Protein, Net Change From
Protein-Free Diet - g/Quail
No Anaphage
+Anaphage

(2) (2)1.89(3) (2) 0.19 
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(2)

1.23
1.86
2.51
3.13
3.39
3.39

(2) 1.19
(2) 2.11
(2) 2.62
(2) 3.29
--
--
Mean
96.8
113.4
104.4
105.1


= 102.'
     (1)
     (2)
     (3)
2 Reps/treatment at 15  quail/rep.
2 Reps/treatment at 4 quail/rep.
Value for quail  on protein-free diet.

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    36





    32





Dl

I   28
-
I
O
O
O
CO
    24
    20
    16
    12
                                      Procficol
                                        Diet
                      I.S.P. *
                     Anophoge
                 12.5
                                     Anlilog M z 1J07
                           15.8   18.6  21.4    25.0  28.7

1
1.0
1
1
1.1

1.2
I I
1
1.3
1
I
1.4
I
i
15 Log
                   SOY PROTEIN LEVEL IN DIET
     Figure 1-E.   The relationship between  the level of protein from
                  isolated soybean protein  (I.S.P.) alone or with ana-
                  phage at a level of  30  percent and the body weight
                  of Japanese quail.   Diets were isocaloric.  The
                  dose-response curves were considered linear over
                  the range of 15.8 to 21.4 percent protein in order
                  to calculate the log ratio potency (2) of the ana-
                  phage.
                                 154

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APPENDIX  F.   ACCEPTABILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF POULTRY AND
                           DAIRY WASTES BY SHEEP

                                      By

                                J- W. Thomas
                          Dairy Science Department
                          Michigan State University

INTRODUCTION

     Several  investigators have fed animal wastes (manure or feces) to
animals.   In  general,  they formed a very low proportion of the  diet.  No unde-
sirable effects  were reported.  Refeeding some of these wastes  to animals
forms one way of reducing animal waste problems.  One should not be too
critical of attempts to re-utilize the nutrients that have passed through an
animal.  They contain  bacteria and digestive enzymes that can be digested as
well as undigested food that can be further digested.  True, these wastes may
not equal  the original  feed in nutritive value but they contain nutrients
that can be used by most animals.

     An examination of the chemical composition of feeds and feces shows that
they are somewhat comarable.  The compostion of two feeds and two feces is
given in Table 1-F.

   TABLE 1-F.  COMPOSITION OF DRY MATTER OF 2 FEEDS COMPARED TO FECES FROM
                DAIRY COWS AND CAGED LAYERS
Item
Compared
Alfalfa
Dairy feces
Corn gluten feed
Poultry feces

Protein
16
12
28
25

Fiber
35
40
8
10

E.E.
2.5
4.4
2.8
2.0

Ash
8.8
15.0
9.0
30.0

N.F.E.
38
29
53
33

TON
55
--
79

     Note the similarity in protein and fiber content.   The  availability and
biological value  of protein from feces is not adequately known  but thought to
be equal to that  in most feeds.   A calculated total  digestible  nutrient (TON)
value would probably be  somewhat lower than the feed but this is not defi-
nitely  known. A close examination of feed and feces  from that same feed shows
an increase in fiber,  cellulose, cell  walls and lignin  in the feces.  Yet,
many rations need an increased level of fiber for optimum animal performance.
Animal wastes could furnish this fiber as well as  protein and non-protein-ni-

                                      155

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trogen (NPN) for animals.  The present trial was performed to test the accept-
ability of dried poultry and dairy waste and to determine its feeding value
or digestibility using sheep.

PROCEDURE

     Rations were formulated containing 31.9% dried poultry waste or 39.0%
dried dairy waste and compared to one containing 11.2% soybean meal (Table
2-F).  The remainder of the ration consistedof ground corn, ground corn cobs,
molasses, vitamins and minerals.  Each contained about 11% protein (dry basis)
of which about 45% came from the feces or soybean meal.

     Each ration was fed to four sheep for 14 to 21 days.  During the last 7
days feces and urine were collected and digestibility and nitrogen balance
calculated.  The ingredients in and composition of the rations used are
shown in the upper portion of Table 2-F.

RESULTS

     Each ration was readily eaten by all animals.  Intake of the mixed
ration was 2.3 Ib./cwt but was reduced to 2.0 Ib./cwt for determining digesti-
bility.  Sheep accustomed to the dairy or poultry feces diet would wait for
this diet when offered hay or the soybean meal diet.  These waste diets were
also readily consumed by dairy heifers when offered to them.

     The dry matter (DM) digestibility of the waste diets was less than that
of the soybean diet (58 and 62% vs. 64.6%).  These diets contained more ash,
more crude fiber and more lignocellulose than the soybean diet which should
reduce their DM digestibility.  The fiber and lignocellulose of the dairy
feces ration was only slightly digestible (18-23%) while that of the poultry
feces diet was highly digestible (43-50%).  A TDN value for these diets con-
taining 32 to 39% animal wastes was approximately 56%.  The high ash content
of poultry feces diet reduced the TDN value of this diet so that the TDN
content was the same as the dairy waste diet.  The actual DM digestibility of
these wastes was about 54% for dairy and 73% for poultry when calculated by
the different method.  This confirms the idea introduced at the beginning of
this article that there is a fair amount of digestible nutrients and feed
value in animal feces.

     The nitrogen in the dairy and poultry waste diets was only 48 and 58%
digestible compared to 64.0% for the soybean meal diet.  Nitrogen balance was
markedly positive for all rations being slightly less for the dairy waste
ration than for the other two,  (1.1 vs. 1.4 g/day).  The biological value or
protein stored as percent of absorbed was similar for all rations  (16-18%).
This shows that the nitrogen in dairy and poultry feces is of good quality
for growing sheep but somewhat less digestible than that of soybean meal.

SUMMARY

     Dried poultry and dairy wastes as about 1/3 the total mixed ration were
readily acceptable by sheep.  The complete ration was about 60% digestible
with a TDN value of about 56.  The digestibility of the poultry feces was


                                     156

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more than that of  the  dairy  feces.   Protein of these  wastes was less digest-
ible than that of  soybean  meal  but  had a biological value equal to that of
soybean meal for growing  sheep.

     TABLE  2-P.  INGREDIENTS,  COMPOSTION AND DIGESTIBILITY OF RATIONS
                 CONTAINING  FECES OR SOYBEAN MEAL AS  MAJOR PROTEIN
                 SOURCE THAT WERE FED TO SHEEP
Item
Ingredients
Dried feces
Soybean meal
Corn cob pellets
Corn
Molasses
Mineral -Vitamin
Corn starch
Composition
Crude protein
Crude fiber
Ash
Lignocellulose
Ration Digestibility
Dry matter (DM)
Protein
Crude fiber
Lignocellulose
TON
Calculated DM digestibility
of protein source
Nitrogen Metabolism
N balance (g/day)
B.V. (balance *
ahsnrhed x 100)

Dairy
(%)

39.0
2.9
19.5
34.1
2.0
2.4
0

11.1
14.6
7.8
19.1

58.1
48.5
20.7
23.0
56.0
54.0


1.1
18.0
Ration
Poultry
(%)

31.9
0
28.9
34.3
2.2
2.7
0

11.5
16.6
14.8
21.5

62.0
58.2
50.6
43.4
55.9
73.0


1.4
20.0

Soybean meal
00

0
11.2
35.6
34.1
2.0
2.4
14.6

11.5
12.0
5.6
15.8

64.6
64.0
OT 1
21 .3
9c
.5
63.4



1.4
16.0
                                     157

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APPENDIX  6.    FEEDING DEHYDRATED POULTRY WASTE TO DAIRY COWS

                                     By

                     J. W. Thomas, Professor, Nutrition
                          Dairy Science Department
                          Michigan State University

                                     and

                    H. C. Zindel, Professor and Chairman
                         Poultry Science Department
                          Michigan State University

INTRODUCTION

     Investigators have found that several classes of livestock could derive
energy and nitrogen from various animal manures (1, 2, 3 and 4).  The di-
gestive system of the ruminant can convert various non-protein-nitrogen
sources into amino acids that are useful to the animal.  Of the nitrogen
in poultry manure 25 to 75% may be in various non-protein-nitrogen forms.
This non-protein-nitrogen in poultry manure may slowly hydrolyze in the
rumen and form a very good source of N for ruminants.  Dehydrated cage layer
feces (DPW) were fed to milking dairy cows to determine if it could serve
as a nitrogen and energy source.

PROCEDURE

     Cows in early to mid-lactation producing 40 to 90 Ib. milk per day were
divided into four treatment groups after a 25-day preliminary or standard-
ization period.  During this and the subsequential 60-day experimental
period, all cows were fed corn silage (29-30% dry matter) ad libitum and
10 Ib. alfalfa haylage.  Grain mixture was fed at 1 Ib. per 3 Ib. milk.
During the 60-day experimental period, group 1 (negative control) received
a grain mix containing 8.4% crude protein; group 2 (positive control) re-
ceived a grain mixture containing 19.1% crude protein; group 3 received a
grain mixture containing 14% protein, plus corn silage ensiled with non-
protein-nitrogen sources; and, group 4 received a grain mixture containing
30% dehydrated caged layer feces (DPW) with a crude protein level of 19%.
Thus, the N source for group 4 could be compared to a usual N source of
soybean meal (group 2) and NPN source (group 3), as well as that of a
suboptimal level (group 1).  Feed refusals were determined and net intake
calculated.  Rations fed and amount consumed are shown in Table 1-G.

     Milk was weighed daily and fat test determined at approximately bi-
weekly intervals.  There were 7 cows in groups 1, 2 and 4, and 14 cows in

                                     158

-------
group 3.

RESULTS

     Consumption  of  the  grain mixture containing 30% dehydrated  poultry
waste (DPW) was as great as that of cows fed normal  grain  mixtures after
the cows became accustomed to the material  (Table 1-6).  Two  cows consistently
had larger refusals  than expected, but still consumed about 1  Ib. grain/ 3
Ib. milk.  When started  on the experimental  trial, the seven  cows on DPW
were fed a concentrate mix with only 15% DPW during  the  first week.

     After this the  30%  mixture was fed at all  times. A preliminary trial
indicated that unadjusted cows would not consume a concentrate mixture con-
taining 50% DPW.   The highest level that would  be consumed by cows gradually
adjusted to DPW is not known.

     On two separate days, milk samples from the 7 cows  fed DPW was scored
for flavor by Professor  J. Jensen of the Department  of Food Science and
Human Nutrition.   Milk from cows fed other rations was also scored.

     Average scores  for  cows fed rations 2,  3 and 4  were 37.5, 37.0 and 37.6,
respectively.  Flavor of milk from DPW fed  cows was  normal.

     Level of milk production during the 60-day experimental  period was about
the same for cows in groups 2, 3 and 4 (46.5 to 49.3 Ib./day).  Group 1 cows
fed the low protein  ration produced only 42.9 Ib./day.   The change in pro-
duction from preliminary period to experimental  period was  about equal
(-7.0 to 9.0 Ib./day) for groups 2, 3 and 4  and was  greater (-12.5) for
cows in group 1 as shown in Table 2-6.  The  persistency  was normal for cows
fed DPW and greater  than that for cows fed  the  low protein  ration.  Changes
in milk fat test  and body weight are also listed in  Table  2-6.  Values for
cows fed DPW were normal.

     Cows in group 4 consumed about 5.1  Ib.  of  DPW,  so,  about  22% of the
total N intake of these  cows came from DPW.   The results indicate that cows
in groups 2, 3 and 4 utilized their supplimental  N efficiently and similarly
when compared to  the responses of cows fed  insufficient  protein  (group 1).

     Dehydrated caged layer feces was successfully used  to  furnish a portion
of the dietary protein and energy in the diet of milking cows.  Thus,
products similar  to  that used here could replace 15  to 20%  of the dietary
protein of ruminants.

REFERENCES

Anthony, W. B. (1971).  Animal waste value  - nutrient recovery and utili-
     zation.  J.  Animal  Science 32:  799.

Flegal, C. J. and H.  C.  Zindel (1970).  Utilization  of poultry waste as a
     feedstuff for growing chicks.  Mich. State Univ. Agr.  Expt. Sta. Res.
     Rep. 117:  21.


                                      159

-------
Flegal, C. J. and H. C. Zindel (1970).  Result of feeding dried poultry
     waste to laying hens on egg production and feed conversion.  Mich.
     State University Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Rep. 117:  29.

Thomas, J. W. (1970).  Acceptability and digestibility of poultry and
     dairy wastes by sheep. Mich. State Univ.  Agr. Expt. Sta. Res. Rep.
     117:  42.
                                  160

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                                   GLOSSARY

Ad libitum:   Free  choice,  without restriction as to amount  or time.

A-V:  Animal-vegetable

Anaphage:  A  word  coined by Dr.  Don Polin of Michigan  State University's
     Poultry  Science  Department, taken from the Greek  words "ana" (again)
     and  "phage"  )to  eat), thus, "to eat again".

Bedding:   Inclusive term used to identify materials  used for livestock and
     dairy cattle, and  includes  straw, hay, shavings and sawdust.

C:  degrees  Celcius

Dehydrating:  The  removal  of all or most of the mositure from a substance,
     particularly  for the  purpose of preservation.

Dried poultry waste (DPW):   A term applied to  poultry excreta exposed to
     heat  (artificial or mechanical).

Droppings:  The excrement  of birds and animals.

Excreta:   Waste substances eliminated  from a fowl or livestock as discharged
     from  the bowels.

In situ:   In  a given  or  natural  position;  undisturbed.

Litter:  Term used to identify materials  used  as bedding on floors of broiler
     or layer houses  and includes shavings, sawdust, peat moss and/or hulls.

Manure:  Excreta of animals  (dung and  urine),  used to fertilize land.

Metabolizable energy  (M.E.):   Gross  energy intake minus energy loss  in
     excreta, thus, M.E. is  energy retained by the animal, and usually
     expressed in terms  of energy units  (kilocalorie) per unit of substance
     fed or lost, on  a dry weight basis.

Pit:  Area beneath laying  cages  used to  contain manures and excess water
     and may  be either a shallow or  deep  pit.

Pit cleaner:  Device  used  to clean out excreta from underneath cages.

Poultry anaphage (PA):   A  word describing a product derived from the pro-
     cess of  dehydration of  poultry  excreta  (not liter), exposed to at


                                     161

-------
     least 143F (61.6C) or higher temperature for at least 1  minute or
     longer, thus,  reducing the moisture content of the product to below
     15% and reducing the pathogen content to zero.

Stabl:   Stabilized  with an antioxidant.

Utilization:  The extent to which a ration, feed or nutrient is used.

Waterers:  Describes equipment used for  holding drinking water  for caged
     or floor birds.
                                  162

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                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (Please read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
  EPA-600/2-77-221
                                                           |3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION NO.
 Poultry Excreta  Dehydration and  Utilization:
 System Development and Demonstration
              |5. REPORT DATE

                November 1977 issuing date
              J6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
 H.cV'zTndel, T.S.  Chang, C.J.  Regal, D. Polin, C.C
 Sheppard, B.A.  Stout, J.E. Dixon,  M.L. Esmay, and
              |8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO.
                        AME AND ADORES
 Michigan State  University
 East Lansing, MI   48824
               10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.

               	1HB617
               11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.

                  S802182-01-2
 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS       "
 Environmental  Research Laboratory - Athens  GA
 Office of Research and Development
 U.S. Environmental  Protection  Aqencv
 Athens, 6A   30605                   J
               13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED

                  Final
               14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
                  EPA/600/01
 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
 16. ABSTRACT
       A manure  handling and drying  system involving caged layers with daily manure
  collection, air  drying, and dehydration in a flash-type dryer has been studied.
  Objectives of  the study were to:   (1)  develop a complete manure handling system
  to maximize pollution control;  (2)  determine optimum operating conditions; (3)
  minimize energy  required of the system; (4) determine certain microbial and
  nutritional qualities of the dried  product; (5) be adaptable to commercial poultry
  operations; and  (6)  determine the  economics of the system.

       The microbial  content of the  dried anaphage was as low or lower than that
  found in commercial  feeds.  The anaphage can be fed to chickens up to 12.5% of
  the ration, but  it has a very low  metabolizable energy content.  Up to 75% of
  the excreta moisture can be removed by use of the ventilation air.  Little odor
  could be detected coming from the  system.   The cost of drying fresh (75% to 80%
  moisture) caged  layer excreta may  be high; however, by utilizing optimum in-house
  drying techniques,  this cost can be reduced by 80%, thus making dehydration a viable
  pollution control  alternative for  the  commercial poultry production industry.
17.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
  Poultry
  Manure
  Pollution
  ControI
                                              b.lDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDEDTERMS
    Dried anaphage
    Odor  Pollution
                                                                           COSATl Field/Group
68A
68D
98C
98E
 8. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT


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