Office of Water WH-S56 EPA. 800-8-93-004 March 1993 Teacher's Kit _ United States Environmental Protection Agency Printed on Recycled Paper ------- Earth Day Teacher Kit Table of Contents Investigating the Dynamic Hydrologic Cycle 1-17 Activities from Always a River 18-20 Sample Lesson Plan from Let's Reduce and Recycle 21 - 25 Learning Exercises from Turning the Tide on Trash 26 - 27 Wise Wetland Ways from Wetlands Poster 28 Science Demonstration Projects in Drinking Waters 29 - 42 Blue Thumb Information and Activities 43-56 Tweety's Global Patrol Activities 57 - 62 Educators Earth Day Sourcebooks, Grades K-6 and 7-12 63-69 Air Quality Activities for Grades 6-8 70 - 76 Nonpoint Source Pollution Prevention Activities 77 - 87 Sharing Science Survival Guides (Teachers/Scientists 88-103 ------- Dear Educator Environmental science education means many things: promoting stewardship, developing lasting values and commitments that recognize the importance of the environment both locally and globally, building a literate citizenry that know how to analyze issues, ask critical questions, apply science knowledge in decision-making, and also the means for America's youths to pursue careers essential to protecting and improving the environment. Environmental science education is further defined here to include all science disciplines as well as engineering and technology. Providing environmental science education can be accomplished nationally if inservice and preservice teachers (all disciplines) are trained to use and make use of integrated environmental science teaching materials. Many of the steps for this to happen are underway. A national science standard is soon to be developed, after which most States (hopefully) will make the corresponding adjustments to their State Curriculum Frameworks thereby adjusting what may be taught in the classroom. There is however a small problem. There may not be enough integrated materials to teach with, barring problems of dissemination. Responding to this concern, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - Office of Research and Development, has prepared this demonstration teaching tool kit that provides a foundation in a single issue area that should ' "break the ice" in teaching environmental science in an applied, integrated manner. This material (we think) is revolutionary in that it ties together different aspects of a broad topic, water, and links them to subjects other than science, such as math, geography, social studies, and english. Another unique aspect to this material is who it is geared for. Many of the activities can be used in classrooms from the first grade up to high school The activities are simple and engaging enough so that the younger children will understand and learn, yet "extras" are provided for many of the activities which make them more challenging for the older students. "Extras" include numerous questions and extension activities. Further, this material was originally created for EPA employee volunteers without teaching backgrounds for presentation to their local schools. The comfort level of our employee's in formal classroom setting was a concern to us, so the individual units or activities were designed to surround and help our employees feel comfortable to present related knowledge they possessed about environmental protection. They did that superbly. Imagine if they were real teachers! Most of the activities are not geared to consume an entire class period. Instead, they intended to be used to introduce or enhance a topic the students know or are currently learning about. It is our hope that you use this material in your classrooms, and provide us with both positive and negative feedback. It is only with your help that improvements can be made. Also, if there are topics or issues that you feel are not well represented or need more attention, please tell us, we would like to know. E.P.A OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INVESTIGATING THE DYNAMIC HYDROLOGIC CYCLE WITH ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS UsinR low /no cos», round al home, recyclable, reusable materials ACTIVITIES LIST NOTE: THE FOLLOWING ARE ALL DRAFT COPIES, feel tree to comment. GLACIERS AND THE TIME OF MELT DOWN: relates to global warming / cooling changes (solid)(predlction and graphing) 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. MAKING A CLOUD (gas) (making it rain) HOW WET IS OUR PLANET? (liquid) geography, percent and ranking of the earth's water HOW RIVERS ARE FORMED (surface water/gradient) SEDIMENT JAR / DIRTY WATER (surface water / wetlands) WATER FLOW PER SECOND/MINUTE/CENTIMETER, does water flow at different rates, and what determines those rates? Call 202-260-7671, ask for Ron Slotkln or Write: Ron Slotkin. H-8105 U.S. EPA Washington, D.C. 20460 7. SALT WEDGE ACTIVITY FOR ESTUARIES (river meets estuary) 8. GROUND-WATER MODEL (water table/pollution) 9. PORE SPACE / PERMEABILITY, how much space is there in the "solid" ground? 10. FILTER MEDIA, the water treatment process and obtaining clean water. 11. WATER TASTE TESTING INVESTIGATION (water quality) 12. MAKING A SCIENTIST (evaporation investigation) 13. ECOSYSTEM DEPENDENCY. A discussion on the parallels between our- dependency for shelter and the dependency of organisms on the ecosystem in which they live. 14. THE MASTER LIST (list of materials for all the activities) f Fnn/ Kil: Hyrfm/nyic Cyrlr U S. El'A Olfic* <>l KfMMrch .ind Drvrlupmvnl Urntnitflntnin TVarhmg Tml Kil: Hyrfrn/njir Cjr/r U.S. El'A Officv tif Rt*v.irch .ind Dvvrlopmmt ------- *************************************** GLRCIERS RND THE ****************** TIME OF MELT DOWN ********************* Credited to J.V. O'Comoc MATERIALS: * Rags / Paper Towels • Clock / Stop Watch * Standard Rectangular Ice Cubes * Recording Sheet for Data * Red or Blue food coloring •- World Map. SPECIAL NOTE This activity is not intended to replace a lecture or another activity, but instead to proceed while another lecture/activity is going on. GRADE LEVEL: Grades 3 -12. TIME: Introductory / filler. SUBJECTS: Math, Physical Sciences, Social Studies, Geography. OBJECTIVES: -Estimate and subtract time. -Relate to global climate change. (glacial-melt) -Make accurate predictions. v«Graphing trends. -Interpolation (how much has melted) -Understanding of uncertainty of predictions. -Illustrate absorption / capillary action. VOCABULARY: glacier; capillary action. DISCUSSION: Discuss with students if they have ever taken a guess or made a bet and it turned out to be Incorrect. Could they have known they were going to be incorrect? Ask them to list things that can easily be predicted, and those that cannot. Why are predictions uncertain? If what the scientists say is true about global wanning and the Green House Effect, will they be able to predict glacial melt? PROCEDURE: 1. Obtain ice cubes. Try to have one cube per child, or group of two. 2. Place a dot of food coloring on the paper towel. Put a standard ice cube over the dot of food coloring on the rag or piece of paper towel. Use a few sheets for absorption and capillary action. 3. Measure how long and wide the ice cube Is in inches and centimeters. . 4. Have the children write down their estimates of how long it will take for the ice cube to melt. 5. Make a chart using the estimates, and write down the start time. 6. Call attention to the ice every 10-15 mins., crossing off the incorrect predictions. If all the estimates get crossed off, have the students make a second prediction. "Refer to graph." QUESTIONS: Depending on the time remaining,in class and the level of the students you are working with, these questions may be appropriate for a follow-up to the activity. Q. What are temperatures at which water freezes and melts, in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Q. Taking your time estimate, convert it into seconds. Q. Taking the measurements from step 3, convert them into metric. Q. What outside influences would speed up or slow down the melting of the ice cube? Q. Explain why the dot of coloring moves? Q. Can you make a prediction for melt down if the temperature was 2-5 degrees warmer or colder in the room? Q. What climatic, geologic, atmospheric Influences would provide the environment for glaciers to grow? Q. Would it make any difference if a different shaped cube were used? Why or why not? (issue of surface area) , Q. Find articles in recent magazines and newspapers on the effects of climate change. Can you find any articles related to the effects of glacial melting? Q. Can you locate on a map where glaciers can be found? Can you name three glacial formations? "TEACHER NOTE You may want to share with the students that the following states presently iiave glaciers: Alaska. Washington, California, Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, Colorado, Idaho. Nevada and Utah. EXTENSION ACTIVITIES: . , \ 1. Hand out graph paper, or make a graph on the blackboard. Show how to plot time vs. size of 'theIce cube. Can more accurate estimates be made by using the predicting trend of the graph? Based on your background, controlled settings for this experiment may act as a term or homework activity. 2. On paper, design a controlled'Experiment to explain what happens to ice at various temperatures, correlating glacial melt, etc. With your approval of the paper on the controlled experiment the student would go ahead and do the experiment. 3. Place an Ice cube In a cup of sail water, and one in plain water. Mark where the water level Is after you place the cubes in their cups. Now, time how long it takes for the ice cubes to melt. Compare the meltdown times of both ice the ice cubes in the cups, and the ice cube on the paper towel. Is there a difference? Why? Compare the water level at the start of the exercise and after the cube is melted. Is there a difference? Why? Note to the class that the melting of icebergs, due to global warming, will not significantly raise the sea level, it is the melting of the land glaciers that will cause the problem. S Dtmanimtion TnrMn*. Tool Kit: HyJrnlmiie Cyclr U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development Dtmanilralwn Teaching Tool Kit: Hydnrfojic Cycle U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development ------- UNIT II-A ************************************** Making a Cloud Credited to: Ron Slotkin GRADE LEVEL: All TIME: 5-10 minutes. SUBJECTS: Science. RELATED TOPICS: -Physical states of water. -Weather. -Water Cycle. -Distillation. VOCABULARY: cloud; condensation. MATERIALS: * a hot pot * a clear plactic non-melt cup * a dome cover that fits the top of the cup, or three pencils and enough plastic to loosely wrap the top of the cup, or lop one third of clear plastic soda bottle • water. DISCUSSION: What are clouds made of? Where are they found? ("if time allows, see teacher note at the end of activity.) PROCEDURE: I. Pour boiling water into non-melt clear (plastic) cup. 2. Cover the cup with a plastic dome (such as those found on frosty drinks at fast food establishments) so when the steam rises off the water, the students can see the cloud. If you '''cannot find an already made cover, stick three pencils in the cup and loosely cover both the cup and the pencils with plastic wrap so that a clear "lent" is formed over the top of the cup. 3. If (he water is hot enough, after a few minutes it will start to "rain" Inside the cup, and individual water droplets will be visible on the inside of the cup cover. QUESTIONS: Q. What is the cloud made of? Q. What is the quality of the water in the cloud, as compared hi the water in the cup? Q. Where else can clouds be formed? Q. Is it mining inside the cup? How can this be? "TEACHER NOTE: EXTENSION ACTIVITY- This activity can easily be linked to English and art class activities. Have the students imagine themselves as clouds, and describe (write or paint) what they think a cloud is, and what it feels like to rise into the sky as water vapor. cool, condense, and form a cloud, and fall to earth as rain, etc. Song, sound, music can also be helpful. After that activity have them write down actual facts about clouds. Then have them discuss the differences between solids and gas; what an object appears to be, and what it really is. You may also want to show the Encyclopedia Britannica Film: "What Makes Clouds?" (No. 4240) E5BB.B How Wet Is Our Planet? ii Objective Students will compute the amount and distribution of water on the earth in oceans, riven, lakes, ground water, icecaps, and the atmos- phere, and make inferences about the importance of responsible use of water. Setting Classroom Duration One 40- to 60-minute period Subject Mathematics? Science * *i Skill! Computation, Description, Discussion, Estimation, Inference, Inter- ' prelation. Measuring, Observation, Psychomotor Development, Small Group Work. Synthesis Grade Level 4-7 (For younger students, this activity can be presented as a demonstration.) Vocabulary ground water surface water Background Information Materials Procedure Refer to Unit IL Sections A-l through A-3. • A globe, 12 inches in diameter. • Five gallons of water poured into a 5- or 10-gallon aquarium. • Writing .materials. • Calculators. • • Measuring cup. • One quart container for every three students. • One tablespoon for every three students. 1. Review with students, if necessary, that water exists in three forms (solid, liquid, and gas). Explain that water is found on Earth In all three states. Review also the concepts of ground water and surface water with students. 2. Divide the classroom into groups of three. Give each group a quart container and a tablespoon. Ottnonttntion Tricking Tool Kil: HyArvtv^ie Cycle U.S. EPA OINce »f Rne.irch and Development Drmonjlrolmn TrecMnj Torrf Kil: Cyr/r U.S. EPA Olfic» of Rr«e.mh .ind D»v»l,Tmml ------- UNI I II-A UNIT II-A Procedure (contlnuod) 3. Provide students with the following statistics concerning the amount of water found on Earth: Procedure Water Type Oceans Icecaps/glaciers Ground water Freshwater lakes Inland seas/salt takes Atmosphere Rivers Total Approximate Amount (In percent) 97.2 10 0.62 0.009 0.008 0.001 0.0001 99.8381 Show students the aquarium filled with 5 gallons of water. Tell them how much is there. Provide students with the following quantity. 5 gallons = 1,280 tablespoons. Have students assume that the 5 gallons represent all the water on Earth. Ask students to calculate the volume of water for each category listed above using the percentages given. This will re- quire the use of decimals. Remind students that for multiplica- tion, all the decimal places must be shifted two places to the left so that 97.2 percent becomes 0.972 prior to multiplication (0.972 x 1.280 tablespoons = 1,244.16 tablespoons). The following values result: Water Type Oceans Icecaps/gladers Ground water Freshwater lakes Inland seas/ salt lakes Atmosphere Rivers Total Approximate Amount (In tablespoons) 1,244.16 25.60 7.936 0.115 0.1024 0.0128 0.0012 app. 1,280 tablespoons Once the values are obtained, ask the students to calculate the amount of fresh water potentially available (in tablespoons) for human use. The following calculation must be performed: Approximate Amount Water Type On percent) Icecaps/gladers 2.0 Ground water 0.62 Freshwater lakes 0.009 Rivers o.OOOl Total 16291 Extension/ Evaluation (continued) Answer. 16291 x 1,280 tablespoons tablespoons). : 33.6 tablespoons (or about 34 7. Ask each group of students to take 34 tablespoons of water from the aquarium, put it in a container, and take the container of water back to their workplaces. 8. At their workplaces, ask the students to remove the amount of water represented by all freshwater lakes and rivers. (It is about 0.111 tablespoon, approximately one-tenth of a tablespoon.) Then ask students to extract the amount represented by just rivers (it is less than one-thousandth of a tablespoon). This amount is less than one drop. Discuss the relative proportions with the students. ,i 9. Discuss that there is a limited amount of freshwater on our planet and, that the amount of usable water available to humans is a very small percentage of the total water on the Earth. Dis- cuss how all spedes depend upon this minute percentage of water for their survival (see the Activity "Water, Water Everywhere"). Also make the point that most freshwater is locked up in icecaps/gladers and that not all ground water is readily available for human use). 10. Summarize the activity by using a globe to illustrate that if the Earth were this size (12 inches in diameter), less than one-half cup (8 tablespoons) of water would fill all the oceans, rivers, lakes, and icecaps. 11. Conclude by emphasizing the importance of keeping the Earth's waters clean and healthy and of using water wisely and responsibly. Ask what steps students can take to conserve water (see Unit III Section A-3). Convert the activity to the metric system. The table below shows metric approximations for the quantities used in this activity. 12 inches 5 gallons 10 gallons 1,280 tablespoons 34 tablespoons 1 tablespoon 111 tablespoons 0.0001 tablespoon l/2cup 3 decimeters 20 liters 40 liters 1000 centiliters or 20,000 miililiters 5176 centiliters 1.55 centiliters 0.182 centiliters 0.002 centiliters 8 tablespoons or 115 centiliters m Adapted with permission from: Western Regional Environmental -y Education Council, Aquatic Project Wild (Boulder, CO: WREEC, -* 01987). }•', £ Drm------- INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY TO HOW RIVERS ARE FORMED. Credited to: Ron Slotkin GRADE LEVEL: All TIME: 5-10 minutes. SUBJECTS: Science. RELATED TOPICS: -Slope / Gradient -Flow rate -Gravity -Erosion VOCABULARY: Slope, gradient, (low rate, gravity, erosion MATERIALS NEEDED; * 2 ft. of clear surgical tubing. * Rectangular pan to hold water. ' Food dye. * Water. DISCUSSION AND ACTIVITY: Due to gravity, water has the tendency to (low to lower ground, and accumulate at that spot. This is how lakes and ponds are formed. Lakes and ponds are essentially closed systems. However, if a gradient or slope is introduced at one end, a new low will be established and a river will start to flow from this lake or pond. The surgical tube, filled with colored water, (for easy visibility) represents such a closed system. Lifting one end of the rube will force the water to the opposite end, and vice-versa. This is an example of the effects of gravity. The effects on a river due to an increase in slope or gradient can also be demonstrated. If you were to position the tube over a pan, unplug one end of the tube and tilt the tube slightly so that the water barely flows out, and then tilt it further so that the water flows faster the students can see why an increase in slope pulls the water downhill faster, quickening the flow of the river. This is how rivers start. You may want to show the Encyclopedia Britannica Film: "Erosion: Leveling the Land" (No. 2194) before go into the activity on How Rivers Are Formed. UNIT I-A How Rivers Are Formed Materials Procedure Extension/ Evaluation Activity Objective Setting Duration Subject Skills Grade Level Vocabulary Background Information Students will create models of rivers, identify river features, and compare their models to actual rivers. Classroom or laboratory One 40- to 60-mlnute period Geography, Sdenee Recording Data, Media Construction, Psychomotor Development, Small Group Work, Decision-Making, Inference, Communication, Comparing Similarities and Differences 3-8 (Conduct as a demonstration for younger students.) tributaries meanders alluvium cutoff oxbow lake Refer to Unit I, Sections A-l through A-3. • Sand table/sand box. • Pitcher or other container of water. • Paper and pencil. Explain to students that they will be creating miniature rivers in this demonstration. Break older students into small groups to perform the activity, if space and materials permit. For younger students, perform the demonstration yourself. 1. Mound the sand or soil into a small hill. 2. Pour water slowly onto the sand or soil. 3. Have students draw a picture of what they see. 4. Have students identify the source of the river and its mouth, then label these features on their diagrams. 5. Ask students if they can identify other river features. If students are not already familiar with tributaries, meanders, oxbow lakes, cutoffs, and other features, allow time for them to research in geology textbooks or other reference materials. 6. Have students label their diagrams with any additional river features, then discuss what they have found. Have students experiment with different slopes in the sand boxes and different water flows to see the effect on the formation of their rivers. Encourage students to draw pictures of rivers formed on shallower and steeper slopes and with faster and slower flows. Compare these rivers and discuss the differences. If there is a river .area nearby where students can observe the forma- tion of oxbows, waterfalls, deltas, meanders, or other river features, arrange a field trip. S Dtmmtntnii Tttdiing Tod Kil: Hyrfmtoeit Cyr/f U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development' Drimnilnlinn TVertmj Tool Kit: Hyrfrnfngir Crr/r U.S. EPA Office o( Research and Development ------- ************************************** THE SEDIMENT JRR ************************************** to: J.V. O'Connor MATERIALS: ' Clean peanut butter or mayonnaise jar, preferably plastic, with tight fitting lid per group or student. ' Different types of "loads:" - grass and sticks: floating /surface. - fine sand or soil: suspended. -.salt: solution/dissolved. - sand and gravel: bed. ' Pint of clean water per jar. (give metric conversion too.) ' Flashlight ' Local map GRADE LEVEL All grade levels. TIME Introductory / filler. SUBJECTS: Physical Science. OBJECTIVES: •Learn the different types of river loads. -Discuss the concept of erosion and drainage. -Identify areas on a map where river loads have been deposited. -Understand (he importance of wetlands in relation to water purifying. VOCABULARY: deposition; erosion; sediments. SPECIAL NOTE It may be wise to demonstrate this activity to younger students instead of having each child or group of students handle and shake the jars. Also, depending on how involved you want the discussions to be. this activity can last a full period. DISCUSSION: On the blackboard or poster board write the following: Discuss the four types of river loads. Engage students with questions on their experiences with rivers. Has anyone looked at a river / stream / creek? What color was the water? Could you see the bottom? How about after a rainstorm? What is in the water that makes it look cloudy? For the concept of erosion and drainage, start with the "mud puddle." Why is there a mud puddle? Is there anything other than water in it? How did it get there? Is this why you can't see the bottom of a mud puddle? (For a visual explanation, adapt the How Rivers Are Formed activity by using not only sand and soil but also pebbles, sticks, grass, etc.) Would a river / stream / creek gel it's material after it rains in it the same way a mud puddle does? Different types of river loads: -floating/surface: grass and sticks. -suspended: fine sand or soil. •solution/dissolved: salt. -bed: sand and gravel. PROCEDURE 1. Gather small amounts of samples of each of the four different types of river toads. 2. Give one jar to each student, or group of students. 3. Have students in each group play (act out depending on age group) the roles of soil, grass..etc and contribute their load in a descriptive* and illustrated* manner. 4. Add water and tighten the cover so no water spills out. 5. Have a student(s) shake the jar for approximately one minute. 6. Set the jar down in a place where it will not be disturbed, and observe the following: -The different load layers. -The color of the water. -How long it takes the water to return to it's original clearness. 7. Hold a flash light up to the jar. Does the light penetrate the water? QUESTIONS: GRADES 8-12. Depending on the time remaining in class and the level of the students you are working with, these questions may be appropriate for a follow-up to the activity. Q. Where does sedimentation take place? Q. What are some materials that could classify as floating load? As suspended load? Dissolved livid? Bed livid? Q. Why does the water get cloudy after it is shaken? Q. Is the dissolved load always visible? Q. Which load settles the quickest? The slowest? Why? Q. How would material get to a river? Q. When a river is moving fast enough it has the energy hi curry material from the size of a twig to 1. • * ,the size of a tree. However, when the flow slnws down the river loses energy and drops it's load. Looking at a map, can you find were rivers may have slowed down and therefore deposited the material it was carrying? Q. What are some things that would cause a river to slow down? Q. Wetlands are important for a number of reasons, one being the filtering of water. What would happen to our surface water supply if there was no place for a river to filter the water it was carrying? Q. Can you locate on a map where probable wetland areas are located? Explain why you think they would be there. ** After the students have a good understanding of the loading process, the types of loads, where the material ends up, have the student imagine for * brief time, together, and discuss what it might be like to be a fish, or perhaps another denizen of the river that is receiving the loads the students jubl learned about. Exercises that rely on empathy help interest the depth of understanding among other things. Advanced students may wish to evaluate the relationship between the lime of the year, intensity, and eruskin as a longer term project. • ' Demonilrtlion Trtthinf Teat Kit: HvJrnliyic CVfr U-S. EPA Offict uf Rrwarch and Devdupmtnt Dtmanitntion TVwJimj Tool Kit: Hpfra/ngtc Cyclt U.S. EPA Offiot of Itocirdi and Dtvdupment ------- UNIT II-B UNIT II-B Activity Objective Setting Duration Subject Skills Grade Level Vocabulary Background Information Materials Procedure Dirty Water Students will compare the effects of various levels of nutrients on water and discuss the results of eutrophication on an aquatic environment. Classroom One 20-minlite class period; four 10-minule class periods (one per week for 4 weeks); and one final 20-minute class period Chemistry, Mathematics, Science Analysis, Application, Comparing Similarities and Differences, Dis- cussion. Generalization, Psychomotor Skills, Observation 4-10 algae erosion nutrients turbid Refer to Unit II, Section B-8 and Unit III, Section B-l. • Five clear containers, one quart or more (plastic soft drink bottles or canning jars are ideal). • Water with algae from freshwater aquarium, a pond, or purchased pond water from a biological supply company. • Soil from a yard or flower bed or garden, or potting soil. • Cloth to filter soil from water. '• Plant fertilizer. • Aged lap water. • Good light source, either indirect sunlight or strong artificial light. • Camera and roll of 12-exposure print film (35 mm is best). 1. Before class, mix 2 cups of soil with 1 quart of water and shake vigorously. Let the mixture sit until the dirt settles and (hen strain the water through cloth into another container. 2. In the classroom, add soil to water in one of the jars and shake. The water becomes turbid as soil particles become suspended. Discuss some causes of turbidity and how an increase in tur- bidity in a water body affects plants and animals thaUive there. Put the jar aside for fu rure observation. Procedure (continued) •f 3. Add tap water to one of the other jars and label it "control." Fill two of the three remaining jars with tap water and label one " 1 tsp fertilizer" and the other "2 tsp fertilizer." To the last jar, add water you prepared in Step 1 (explain that this water was prepared in the same manner as the shaken soil and water demonstration). Label this jar "soil." Add 1 teaspoon of fertilizer to the jar labeled "1 tsp fertilizer," and 2 teaspoons of fertilizer to the jar labeled "2 tsp fertilizer." Now add aquarium water with algae or. pond water with algae to each jar. Use equal amounts, up to one cup each. Set all three jars where there is good light. 4. For the next 4 weeks, take photographs of the jars side by side in good light from close up once each week. Write the date on a piece of paper that shows in the photograph and make sure the labels on the jars show. Keep the jars in the same place in each photograph. 5. After a month has passed, develop the photographs and arrange them in order. Discuss the changes that were recorded. The jars with the soil water and fertilizer should show a much more luxurious growth of algae than the plain tap water. Discuss why this has happened. Observe if there was a difference in the amount of algae growth with the two different dosages of fer- tilizer. Discuss what nutrients arc and where they come from (erosion. runoff, etc). Also discuss whether nutrients are "good" or "bad." (Nutrients are good initially because they help promote plant growth. Too many nutrients, however, can generate water scums and foul odors, and inhibit light penetration). Help students understand the term eutrophication. Extension/ ' Study the label of the plant fertilizer to discover what some plant Evaluation nutrients are. .The label will probably list compounds containing nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium. Many brands have a number of other chemicals as well. Adapted w,ith permission from: National Aquarium of Baltimore, Living in Water, 2nd ed. (Baltimore, MD: Department of Education, National Aquarium of Baltimore, 1989). r TntUng Ton* Kil; Hfrfrrfnjfic Cw/f U.S. EPA Office nl Rne.irch And D»vf lupmrw r>mniulr»fmn Tracking Tad Kil: HyjrfnWngic Cyrlr U.S. EPA Offiw «f Rnwrth and r>v»l.Tmwii ------- *»»»»»»*»*»**»»»»*»*>*»»*»***»*»»»»»**»»**»**»****» UIRTER FLOUI PER SECOND/MINUTE/CENTIMETERS ****»***»»*»»»***»»»*»****»*****»*»**************** Credited to: Nancy Hardlmann Materials: Flow meter. Meter stick. Water-proof stop watch, or watch with second hand. Oranges. Surveyor's measuring tape, or other like. Paper and pencils. Cord long enough to cross the width of the river. At least one stream or river. Graph paper. SPECIAL NOTE Grade Level: Grades H and up Time: Two class periods, or 2 hours Vocabulary: Meander: discharge; tributary Math Skills: Measuring of area and velocity; converting feet and meters; equation solving. Sequi Subjects Rivers; currents; aquatic life/organisms. Hydrology; geology; ecology; math. A class prior to this on the parts of the ^^^^^^^^^^ river may be helpful. It may also be wise to take a trip to the stream before class and find sections that are different, such as a straight section, a section the has several curves, a section that has obstructions in it (fallen tree or branches), a section near a waterfall, etc. This activity has the potential to be very wet. You may want to caution the students to wear clothes that can get dirty to class on the day of the activity. Also encourage those that have waders or hip boots to bring them in. You may also want to recruit parents to accompany you on this activity. It is easier to do this activity if you have a flow meter. However, if you do not have or cannot use one, an alternate activity can be used which involves oranges, which gives similar results. Due to it's shape, weight and color, an orange is quite useful in measuring surface flow rates. They are also bio-degradable, so incase they "escape," they won't pollute or harm the stream. DISCUSSION: Just how fast does a river flow? Does the rate of flow determine the type of flora and fauna that might inhabit this location? How do seasonal flow changes effect the habitat? What different kinds of flow environments exist? How can we measure them? What is the discharge of a particular stream? The equation for finding discharge is: Q = A v (Discharge = Area x velocity) MVsec = (depth (m) x width (m)| x (distance (m) / time (sec)) PROCEDURE Two sets of instructions are given. A » use with the flow meter; B = use with the oranges. A.1. Locate at least one river or'stream, preferably one with curves (or meanders) and connecting tributaries so the students can measure the different flow rates at different parts of- the curve (inside, outside, and in the middle) and compare the rates of before and after the tributary. A.2. Have the students break up into groups of four and have them decide who will fill. each of the following jobs. -speed recorder; -2 people to measure and record the depths of the section; -someone to work the flow meter. A.3. Set each of the groups up at a different part of the stream. A.4. Before they actually enter the water, or disturb it in any way, have the students write down what they see. Describe: color of the water; types of soils present; vegetation; any visible life; any visible current; characteristics of the stream itself (ie: depth, width, curves, types of banks,). Is there a sign indicating where the flood plain is? A.5. Have each group measure the depth of their particular sectlqn of the stream (with the meter stick) across the way, in the middle, and at the close bank. This will also be where. they will take their flow measurements. A.6. Have each group make a chart with the following information: PORTION OF WIDTH USED (FAR, MIDDLE CLOSE1 SECTION OF WIDTH USED (SURFACE BOTTOM MIDDLE1 gPEED A.7. Then have each group run the test. Make sure that each section of each portion of the width is tested three times so that an average speed can be found. Therefore, after the activity is completed, there should be eighteen separate entries into the chart. A.8. Return to the classroom to discuss the results. B.I. Locate at least one river or stream, preferably one with curves (or meanders) and connecting tributaries so the students can measure the different flow rates at different parts of the curve (inside, outside, and in the middle) and compare the rates of before and after the tributary. '' B.2. Have the students break up into groups of six and have them decide who will fill each of the following jobs. -time keeper; -time recorder -2 people to measure and mark the section; - someone to start the orange in the stream, and tell the timer to start the watch; - someone to retrieve the orange at the end, and tell the timer to stop the watch. B.3. Set each of the groups up at a different part of the stream. B.4. Before they actually enter the water, or disturb it in any way, have the students write down what they see. Describe: color of the water; types of soils present; vegetation; any visible life; any visible current; characteristics of the stream itself (ie: depth, width, curves, types of banks,); is there a sign indicating where the flood plain is. ', B.5. Have each group measure off 100 centimeters along the bank, and mark both the beginning and end with cord going across the stream. Have each group measure, at the beginning and the end, the depth ,of their particular section of the stream across the WHY, in the middle, and at the close bank. This will also be where they will start the orange. B.6. Have each group make a chart with the following information: LENGTH OF SECTION COVERED fin cpntimetgrO PORTION OF WIDTH USED (FAR, MinntF TIME UttJ Tsflftiinp Tnnl fit- Curl? I! 4 fVSro n» P»«e.irrh inH T»/»/-li''>tc fit- Cvelf U S. EPA Offlr» of Rnmirrh nnd Development ------- ACTIVITY B.7. Then have each group run the test. Make sure that each-portion of the width is tested three times so that an average speed can be found. Therefore, after the activity is completed, there should be nine separate entries into the chart. B.8. Return to the classroom to discuss the results. QUESTIONS: Q.Which areas had the faster currents? The slower? Why? Where there any clues in the physical make-up of your section of the stream? What was the overall flow rate of your section? Q. Using graph (taper, create a pictorial cross section of the stream where you worked. Combine all the group's cross sections to create a cross section nf (he portion of the stream sampled. Note if and where there were any curves, large debris in the water, or any other variables that would possibly change the flow rate. Q. Label different sections of the cross section and have the class estimate the flow rate, using all the available data. Q. Using the overall flow rate and the area of the section sampled, find the discharge for your section per second. Convert that to meters per hour, per week. What variables would effect the flow cale? (both natural and man made) Q.Calculate the overall flow, and discharge of the total area sampled by the class. What would happen if this rate suddenly decreased? Increased? (you may wish to consult an area map for real effects such as flooding; decrease in irrigation, which leads to crop failure) Q.Going back to your notes on the vegetation, were there any special adaptations for the plants living in the water? What were they, and what effect did they have on the plants life? Where there any special adaptations for the plants living near the water, but not in it? What were they, and what effect did they have on the plants? Q.Going back to your notes on the animal life, were there any special adaptations for the organisms living in the water? What were they, and what effect did they have on the r.nimals life? Q.lf the water were to change somehow, depth or speed, would it effect the plants and/or animals living there? In what way? I Salt Water Wedge Materials Needed: ••• PInslic Box ». Cool Water '••;.;. Cool Sally Water • v Food Coloring '•'';.' While Paper >•;. Wood Block • • P.iper Cup • -Small Stones Grade Level: Omiei4.it Time Required: 1/2. i iw» Dieclpdnee: octinoinpfcy Objective*: ' * To be able to wplita wfcy rretbwww win itty M it* turtec wtoto wU w. \tt will inTCl pp • fl«f «loa| Ow bo<|oa) Ml I w«4l|« bfMuK »f ifciuuy ji '< rcrtncct. •. To be ibto »ifcicrfbe (to wn« (tinttalwk* of M CMuiry. from uliy 'iocttn wrncr, to brackUa. K> frcih. • To be »ble |o WenUfjr etinwy vt4t In MMNtftwtlll where meeuinei**) Special Note: To mi» t teiwaier solution, add 35 trwnj of kosher all (nftlar tall lui oddlttrtl) 10 I liter of water Of approitaMcly I 2 ounce* II stani tablttpoont) of nil to I qutn of water. To make • taractbh mlilara, halve Itw MMMMM of |«I|. |Ui| Mx w>< water wilh ihe food coloring. Procedure: 1. (Optional but recommended) Rewf (ho *Ow lh« Wedge' porter and *A Raindrop Journey* brochure (both puMfcatloro we l*leo! In the reference section) before starling trill experiment 2. Place one end of the box on a small biock,' Place a piece of wtile paper under the box and fold the extra paper up along the back to broduce a while background. 3. Make several liny holes In the bottom of the cup. Weight the cup wftl) small stones and place at the lower end ot the box. 4. Pour cool, fresh water Into the box until II reaches close to the top of the cup. Allow the water to settle. S. Gently pour the cool, salty, tinted waist, Into the cup (do not orerrTfl). O. Describe what happens. O. Why? Drmpfufraffan Traehiny Tanf Kit: Hyrfrnfn^ic Cytte U.S. EPA Offin of Rrwnrch and Dtmnnflrtlinn TrttHinj fnof Ki'l: Hyrfrntngw Cyt/r U.S. EPA OfHn of Rnfarch and D»v»l«^mmt ------- UNfTIII-B R Ground-Water Model Students will demonstrate through building a model how aquifers are formed and ground water becomes polluted. Classroom One 11/2-hour period Science Observation. Analysis, Discussion, Experimenting, Media Construc- tion, Comparing Similarities and Differences 3-6 (if teacher performs demonstration); 7-12 (if students build model) ground water pollution aquifer Refer to Unit III Section B-5. For each modtl m Ground-Water Model handout. • One 20 ounce clear plastic tumbler. • 12 inches of clear plastic tubing. • A small piece of nylon fabric to cover the end of the tubing. • Masking tape. • Small pebbles. • Clean sand. • Filter paper (e.g., a section of a coffee filter). • Pump-type sprayer (e.g., from window cleaner). • A disposable syringe. • Red food coloring. • A clear glass container. UNITIII-B Procedure Objective § Setting ------- UNIT III-B PORE SPRCE/PERMEHBILITV Procedure Exttntlon/ Evaluation (continued) 12. Continue "pumping" water from the tumbler with the syringe. When the syringe fills with water, remove it from the tubing and pour the water into the clear glass container. Refasten the syringe to the tubing and continue "pumping* water. Ultimate- ly, the water in the clear glass container will have a reddish hue. Discuss with students how the "pollutant" applied at surface level has "contaminated" the "ground water" in the experiment. Discuss with students how ground-water contamination occurs in real-life situations and how it can be prevented. In addition, a film or nimstrip can be shown on ground water (consult Unit III, Section B, Resources). Ground-Water Model Tubing DM/Poning Sol rtock«/Gfav«.| /£«> Nylon Drirnimlrdiim Tnchinf TIN* Kit: Hyrfrpfnyic Cyclr U.S. EPA Office nl Rrtrnrth and Credited to: Ron Slotkin Grade Level: Time: Vocabulary: Math skills: Sequence Subjects Grades R and up 45 min. • 1 hour saturation; ground water permeability; capillary action porosity; infiltration; vulnerability. measuring of liquids and volumes of known shapes; use of scales. soil types /horizons; aquifers; gtoundwater; science of solids; math and measurements. geology; math: geography; hydn>logy; current events. MATERIALS: 4 tall, clear containers (such as tennis ball containers). Geologic material such as: pebbles, sand, soil and clay. Two 1 gallon jugs (milk containers), filled with water. Knife or scissors. 4 well marked measuring cups <") (") Optional: masking tape; permanent marker; ruler.. Detailed geologic map of your state. DISCUSSION: Have you ever been to the beach and seen what happens to the waves as they roll up the sand? What happens to the water that is left on your driveway after you wash a car? When it rains, just where does the water go when it seeps into the ground? Isn't the ground solid? So where is the water stored? How much water can the ground hold? Are there problems associated with different soil types and their rates of absorption or vulnerability to pollution? PROCEDURE 1. ('*) If you do not have measuring cups, they can be simply made by using masking tape, a ruler and a permanent marker. Cut four even pieces of masking tape. Line up the pieces of tape side by side, with a ruler, draw even lines across all four pieces of tape, about a 1/4 inch apart. Now tape a tape "ruler" vertically to each of the four cups. 2. Fill one of the containers with.water and note how much water will fit into an empty container. Empty the container, (remember to you can use this water later, so do not discard it!) 3. Fill the containers with equal amounts of the following material: Container #1= pebbles. Container *2» sand. Container #3= clay. Container f4= soil. 4. Line the containers up so the students have a clear view of them. 5. After BRIEFLY introducing the subjects and issues surrounding the different natures of , the various soils in the area (such as their relationship to the movement of water; their i ability to filter; and the location of groundwater (using one of the cross section diagrams in ! the National Geographic kit or other suitable), orient the students to your set up and ask questions surrounding their understanding of the subjects. 6. Have the students guess how much water each container will absorb, and have them explain why. (record the guesses for each container) 7. Start your demonstration. When the container is filled to the Then move onto container number 8. Begin by pouring water into container number one. top, record how much water went into the container. 2, and so on. , 9. When all four containers have been Tilled, go back and note if any of the materials absorbed all the water, and note. 10. During the pouring of the water, Into the containers, check the student's knowledge of water measurement such as cups, quarts, liters and gallons. If the students do 'not already know it, go over the formula for the volume of a cylinder (your container). ------- 11. After the water has stopped seeping in. or the material has become saturated, (this can be observed by looking for the material to have stopped bubbling, or the material to have uniformly turned a darker color) empty out the unsaturaled water (or water lying on top) into into the measuring cup. 11 Take the amount of water that was originally poured in, and subtract the amount of unsaturated water just removed. This final number is the total amount of water absorbed into the soil. 13. After all the water amounts have been recorded, determine the ratio of water to material in the container. These ratios are important because the number can than be projected over a much larger area such as how much water is under the student's house. 14. Next take a knife and cut a small hole on the bottom of the container. Drain the water into an empty measuring cup. After the container has finished draining, record the amount of water that drained out. 15. Subtract this number from the total amount of water absorbed into the soil. 16. Using a geologic map, local areas where sandy, clay, rocky and organic soil may be found. What are some physical differences between these areas? (vegetation, water, hills/flat, etc) 17. Look through local or other newspapers and magazines for articles associated with flooding. See if the students can give reasons why flooding may have occurred. Then look for articles concerning ground water pollution. If possible locate the source of the pollution on a map, or visit the area. Can the students determine the soil type? Would a different type of soil have effected the rate of pollution? How? QUESTIONS: Depending on the time remaining In class and the level of the students you are working with, these questions may be appropriate (or n follow-up to the activity. Q. Where there any differences in how much water each container held? Can you explain why? Q. Were there any differences between how much water was drained from each container, and how much that particular material could hold? Can you explain why? Relate the porosity of the material to the amount of water "left behind" in the material. Q.From this information, can you explain the effects these different soils would have on their respective environments? Q.Could there be different types of organisms or plants that may prefer a specific soil type because of the hydrology associated with it? Give examples. Q. Now answer the questions posed in the discussion: What happens to the waves as they roll up the sand, and why? What happens to the water that is left on your driveway after you wash a car. and why? Where is the water stored before it enters the water table? Why are the rates of the water seeping into the ground different? Are there problems associated with different soil types and their rates of absorption or vulnerability to pollution? TEACHER'S NOTE) So as not to add to the garbage problem, the containers can be made useable again by placing heavy duty tape over the small hole, therefore stopping it up. FILTER MEDIR UJflTER TRERTMENT RNO OBTRINING CLERN lilflTER ft********************* V* it************************** Credited to Ron Slotkin Grade Level: Time: Grades 8 and up Introductory or 45 min. - 1 hour Vocabulary: Sedimentation; Filtration; Separation; Aeration; Absorption; related terms for the type of water treatment in the area. Follow-on to "How Clean is Clean" and the "Sediment Jar": Prw -activity to any Water Treatment Plant field trip. MATERIALS: 8 clear 12 oz (or greater) plastic cups 2 pieces of window screen (cut to a dimension slightly larger than the cup's opening) Paper towels Piece of nylon 1 cup of sand (fine) 12 oz. of pond water (includes dirt) "the water from the Sediment Jar activity can be used. An ounce of chlorine bleach SPECIAL NOTE This activity can be linked to the drinking water taste test as it demonstrates the process of getting water ready for drinking.' However, we do not expect the students to drink the results. The water cleaned in this activity is only clean enough to wash their hands. If this activity is used with the sediment jar activity, the same water can be used in both. Advanced preparation is recommended and may include gathering and reading through information on water treatment technology, both current and older. Be aware of the source of water for the school you are presenting to and any potential problems related to it's source of supply.. Get a copy of the water supply's test result (physical, organic). These can be used as an illustration of post filtered and pre-filtered \ waters (raw). DISCUSSION: How well do filters work? What makes them work? Orient the students to the purpose of the activity: the biological needs for clean water and the various methods, both natural and man-made, used to obtain the water we drink. Quiz students (or a list of other things we do with clean water. Given the class duration, you may also want to have the students write down their estimates of their water usage for all of the above listed water use activities. List both the activities and the estimated use of water on the blackboard, along with the generic water use figures that can be obtained from several sources. Now. pose the question of how do we get all this clean water? Briefly discuss the local water source, the watershed, and the collection point— the water treatment facility. Optional Bnckcround Discussion: the relation between clean water and health. On a worldwide basis, enough precipitation falls annually to cover the Earth's land area to a depth of 83 centimeters. Yet, distribution and technology constrain economic growth and food production thereby causing. detrimental effects on the general health of the people from many nations. Using the newspapers, periodic articles can be found on droughts that _ f, ft «• ' 5 " Drmomtrtlutn TVorfcinf Too* Kit: Hydratayte Ctcle U.S. EPA Office ot ftomreh and Dvvelopmenf Dtmontlrtlivn Ttichinf Tool Kit: HyJn1«i(ic Cyclr U.S. EPA Office of Rrtrarch and Dwriupmcm ------- lead to the death of millions through famines (especially in Asia and Africa). Even where water is of sufficient quantity, it may be of insufficient quality. It has been estimated that 80% of all the world's sickness is caused by contaminated water and that approx. 25,000 people die of water-borne sicknesses each day. It is particularly hard for American students. who may use 60-100 gallons of clean water a day and never having seen .the results of cholera and other water borne sickness, to appreciate conditions in developing nations where it is hard to obtain the biological minimum of 2-5 liters of water a day. For whatever this is worth, it has been estimated that less than 10% of the world's population can obtain sufficient quantities of clean water. This should be enough to drive home a number of points concerning the wasting of water, the introduction to the various ways of keeping it clean, and why the technology we create and use is so important, among other things. PROCEDURE- 1. Pour about 10 or. of pond water into a cup. Have the students describe the appearance and smell of the water. 2. Pour the water back and forth between two cups, aerating it. This allows gases trapped in the water to escape, and adds oxygen to the water. 3. Let the water stand in cup number 2 for 20 minutes, letting any solids settle out. While sedimentation is taking place, cut off the bottom of cups number 3, 4, and 5. Put a screen piece on the bottom of cup number 3, nylon on the bottom of cup number 4, and a screen with a piece of paper towel on the bottom of cup number 5. ("See Teacher's Note) 4. Pour the top 2/3 of the water into cup number 3. The other 1 /3 of the water is the untreated water. Let the water from cup number 3 drain into cup number 4. The water from cup number 4 should drain into cup number 5. The water from cup number five should be drained Into cup number 6. 5. Draining the water from cups number 3, 4 and 5 filters the larger particles from the water. 6. Poke small holes in the bottom of cup number 7. Then fill it 1/2 way with fine sand. 7. Lastly, pour the water from cup number 6 into cup number 7, filtering out the last of the small particles. Let the water in cup 7 drain into cup 8. This is the longest step. If this were a real treatment plant, the water would then be sent out to the public. 8. Put one or two drops of chlorine bleach in the water in cup 8. Explain the purpose behind chlorination. 9. Examine the water in cup 8. Have the students describe the appearance and smell of the water. QUESTIONS. Q.What was the appearance of the water before and after treatment? •Q.How did sedimentation change the water's appearance? Q.Huw did the filtered water differ from the unfiltered water? HAND OUT THE SHEET ON HOW SURFACE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WORK. Q.Could there be other contaminants in the water? How do you think they are removed? Q. What other chemical is often added to the water supply before it is released to the public. How a Surface Water Treatment Plant Works Teacher's Note: "Instead of using cups, that after a while will need to be replaced, soup cans can be used. Simply cut out the top and bottom of the can and attach the screen, or whatever filtering material you are using, to one end with a rubber band: Also, the nylon, screen and paper towel can be replaced with other items (such as screens with different sized mesh, cloth, etc.), to observe their filtering capabilities. H? § y* * Drimmslrafinn Tetthinf Tvd Kil: Hyrfrci/nyic Cyr/f U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development Demonstration Tracking Toot Kil: HyJrnlnyie Cycle r U.S. EPA Of fie* of Research and Development ------- TASTE TESTING BOTTLED WATER Credited to: J.V. O'Connor u LEVEL; ALL A map of the world; 5 different types of bottled water (double the amount of one type); and each of the following per student bathroom paper cup (2oz). spittoon or bucket, circle sheet. Brown paper bags to hide the labels on the bottled water. MATERIALS: STEPS: B I. Bring to class five to ten different types of bottled water from various locations. (Five is enough) One type of bottled water should be repeated to act as a control. Some water should be carbonated, some not. If Tap water is used as one type, place it in a clean container. Q 2. Place each bottle of water in a brown paper lunch bag and label each bag: A. B. C etc.(verdcal scale on circle sheet) Tape bag closed. 3. Give each taste tester a bathroom size paper cup and a circle sheet 4. Have • spittoon or bucket to collect water not liked before next test Q S. Set up the horizontal test scale from I -5. or 1-3 Cower grades). 1 being the worst or Yuck end of the scale; S being the good or awesome end. Lower grades may also use red (bad), yellow, or green (good) colors in the circles. 6. Discuss how the test will work. Test the students knowledge to assure they understand the scale. Ask for • volunteer from each group of students to start pouring the bottled water. For E younger students, or when using large bottles of water, ask for teacher's assistance or plan to have • second volunteer in the class room. 7. Have the students use their circle sheet to summarize their choices. 8. To conduct the test, have the teacher use a circle sheet to tally the class selections when the p students are asked to raise their hands. Record the amount in the proper circle, (hint: draw ' scale on blackboard) 9. Repeat the hand count and recording process for each water taste test 10. Illustrate to the class the summary data from the teacher's circle sheet and see which water ~t scored best or had the highest rating. Which water had the lowest rating for the class? Did « anyone like the lowest rated water? Did anyone dislike the highest rated water? 11. Unveil the water from each bag. On the teacher's circle sheet, write where each water came from (it's source) and it's name. Place a star near the carbonated water. 12. Check your values for the repeated water. Hands up, how many had the same value or choice }-| for both waters? Use this difference as the true standard deviation, or illustration of error in (he method of testing, (do'not spend too much time on this) Variation on this last step may be to go directly to one of the options. Options: •Study the chemistry on the bottles for minerals, dissolved solids and amounts. What causes | (he difference in taste? -Study the different units that are reported on the label, eg: ppm, mg/1, etc. •Talk about the color of the bottles and the material of the containers. •Identify on a map where the bottled water sources are located. -Talk about the different water regimes that bottled water may come from: spring, ground, i surface, etc. ** Dtmamtntmn Tuthing Tnnf Kit: Hyrfmfnyir fytlt U.S. EPA Office of RtMarch and Devtlupmmt ------- THE U.S.E.P.R OFFICE OF RESEARCH RND DEUELOPMENT PRESENTS: R long term Extension flctlulty Dealing With The Topic Of Euaporation MttKING H SCIENTIST SERIES: EURPORRTION INUESTIGflTION MATERIALS: * 9 clear plastic cups, all the same size, with marked, graduated sides. (* 04 in procedure) * Water. • Plastic Wrap. * Salt. * Black paper or paint. * 9 notebook pads and pencils. *, Permanent marker. * Thermometer. * Masking Tape. * World Map. <—• ' DISCUSSION: Discuss with students what happens to puddles after a rain storm. What happens to the water left on the driveway after the lawn has been watered. Does it make a difference if the sun is out. or if it is a cloudy day? ('see teachers note at end.*) If puddles evaporate, why doesn't the ocean completely evaporate as well? Is the rate of evaporation of a body of ' water effected when an oil spill occurs on it? PROCEDURE Credited to: Ron Slotkin GRADE LEVEL: Grades 3 and up. TIME: Al least a few weeks, if not a full marking period. SUBJECTS: Math, Science. English. Geography. OBJECTIVES: (depending on grade, some or all of the following are applicable.) •Measure the different rates of evaporation. •Measure rime and temperature. •Become familiar with fractions and averaging. •Graphing and model making. •Evaluate the rale differences. •Speculate as to why there are differences. •Hypothesis and theorize the problems associated with "unnatural" rates of evaporation. •Record data, and keep a journal over a period of days. SEQUENCE: Glaciers and the Tim; of Meltdown; Discuss Weather: temperature, humidity, and cloudy versus sunny; Discuss the water cycle; This activity; "How Clean Is Clean". See objectives for other links within this activity. 1. Divide the class up into 9 equal groups. If the group consists of more than four children, repeat some of the cups as controls. Have each group assign functions to each of the members, ie: record keeper, temperature reader, weather observer, water level reader. The functions of each member can vary each day, or remain constant throughout the activity. 2. Hand out to each group a notebook, with a pencil attached. 3. Have the students create a chart on the second page, with the following information: DATE; TIME; WATER LEVEL; WEATHER OUTSIDE (sunny; windy; partly cloudy; cloudy; foggy; etc.) TEMPERATURE IN AND OUT OF THE CLASSROOM; OTHER OBSERVATIONS; INITIALS. 4. Take nine pieces of masking tape, all of equal size. Line them up on a desk, one next to the other. Using a ruler and permanent marker.-draw lines across all the pieces of tape, equidistant from each other. Start fche lines a 1/2 inch from the top. Place a piece of tape on the side of each of the cups. This will act as the graduations. 5. Line the 9 cups up on a window sill, or a place where they will not be disturbed. If spills • are possible, place in a pan on the window sill, (this may be a factor in the rate of evaporation) 6. Fill each of the cups to the top mark on the tape with one of the following, and on the top of the tape, label the cups A-H, as appropriate: a. plain water. (2 cups, one acting as a control) b. plain water, but seal the top with plastic wrap. c. plain-water with a teaspoon of salt. d. plain water with 3 teaspoons of salt. e. plain water with 6 teaspoons' of salt. f. plain water with either a black piece of paper wrapped around the outside of the cup, or black paint on outside, or a black party cup. 6b.The next two cups are side activities dealing with the problems related to oil spills and pollution. Evaporation is not an issue in cups g and h... G. plain water, with enough motor oil to cover the surface. Seal with plastic wrap. H. water with 6 teaspoons of salt, and enough motor oil to cover the surface. Seal it with plastic wrap. (** G and H are examples of what would happen in the event of an oil spill. They are sealed because large bodies of water, especially oceans, are essentially closed systems.) SALT BLACK OIl/WATEB OIL'SALT 7. Have the students make their first entry into their journal, as specified in number 3... 8. The groups should observe their cup at least three times a week, putting entries into their journal each time. Observations should be ma'de until the water is completely evaporated. I Demonstration Teething Tool Kit: Hydrdnyic Cycle U.S. EPA Office tif Research and Development Demontlralien Teaching Tool Kit: Hydmltyic Cycfr U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development ------- 9. For the ambitious...Have students refill their cup with the exact same material and continue the activity for x number of cycles, letting the group accumulate comparable data. 10. Graphing- plot: time vs. temperature. time vs. water level. temperature inside vs. temperature outside. 11. On a map, locate areas were evaporation would take place quickly, and those places where evaporation would take place slowly. Is there any place where evaporation does not take place? Why is this? QUESTIONS: Depending on the time remaining in class and the level of the students you are working with, these questions may be appropriate for a follow-up In the activity. Q. Which cup of water evaporated the quickest? The slowest? Why? Q. Where there any cups of water that did not evaporate? Why? Could you have changed something so that the water could have evaporated? 'Q. Order the cups from which liquid evaporated the quickest hi the one that evaporated the slowest. For those that have not yet evaporated, which do you think will finish first, second, etc. Are there any cups of water that won't ever evaporate? Q. Why was a control used? Q. Did your group vary the functions each n«mbei did? Do you think this made a difference in the collecting of the data? Q. Do you think the weather outside and the temperature inside and outside the mom made any difference? Q. What would happen if it were colder in the nxim? Hotter? What would happen if you put all the cups in the shade? Or exposed them to the light of a lamp for 24 hours straight? Q. What was different about the cups with the oil in them. Can you relate that to what happens when there is an oil spill on a real body of water? What might happen to the animals and plants that live in that water? Q. Why was it necessary to keep a journal? Could you have remembered all the information? Would it have made a difference if you checked the cup every day? Q. What were the average classroom and outside temperatures? Q. What should be done with the water that has not evaporated? Should it just be dumped? Q. What correlations, if any, were there between I.) the time it took for the water to evaporate and the temperature of the room? 2.) the time elapsed and the water level? 3.) the temperature outside the classroom and the temperature inside? 4.) the water level «ml the classroom temperature. Q. For those that repeated the activity, did you find any factors that significantly altered the evaporation rate of the water? Were there any factors that were not significant? Was your data relatively constant throughout the different cycles? TEACHER'S NOTE: 1. A possible side activity may be to have any interested students take, or find, pictures of the different types of weather. 2. Math teachers may want to make a wall chart showing the weekly evaporation rate of each of the cups. This chart can then be used to illustrate percentages, fractions, averages, and basic graphing techniques. ECOSYSTEM DEPENDENCY R facilitated discussion on the parallels between our dependency for shelter and the dependency of organisms on the ecosystem In which they Hue. Credited to: Ron Slotkln MATERIALS: Chalk board or large pad of paper and marker. Pictures of various ecosystems1' (such as rainforest, wetland,' desert, tundra) World map i SPECIAL NOTE Grade Ltvt 1: Grades 8 and up. Tlmt: Introduction or 45 min. to 1 hour. Sequence method of introduction to earth systems development; ecosystems; conservation; resource limitations. This activity can also be combined with social studies and discussions on the homeless, different cultures, and varying lifestyles. Current events; social studies; geography; ecology. Subjects Unlike other environmental education activities, this activity is strictly a discussion activity. The teacher is expected to facilitate dialogue among the students, leaving the majority of 'the discussion to be between the students. The following activity is not unlike activities you may already be familiar with. A primary list will be made. Nothing mentioned by the students should be excluded from this list, if possible. From that primary list, items will be deleted according to the student's opinions of their lack of importance. Eventually decisions will need to be made between several very important items. The last list created should be comprised of only a handful of items. From there you can lead the discussion in several directions, one way is explained below. PROCEDURE Start by asking the students to think about where they live. Do they have food and water? Shelter? Do you have a safe place to live and play? Who do they share their ecosystem or neighborhood with? Now, begin a list listing everything in your home (both concrete and abstract) that makes it a desirable place to live in. Write 'hese on the board. From the prior list create a list of the more important items. (The first list must decrease by 20%.) From this second list, create a third list of the very important items needed to live comfortably. (The second list must decrease by 50%.) Lastly, from the third list create a list of the most important items needed to live. (The third list should be decreased by 80%.) Now, how would you feel if these last few items were taken away from you? Could you find a way to survive? Now show various pictures, posters, or slide shows on a particular ecosystem. Ask the students who would call these ecosystems home. What qualities do these ecosystems have that make it a proper home for these organisms. Going back to the student's ecosystem, how is their home like that of the animals and plants just mentioned? Point out, or have them list areas on the planet where each of the particular ecosystems shown are found. f DtmnrHtntioH Teaching Tool Kit: Hydr»l<*(i( Cycle US. EPA Offic* uf Rewarch and Development Demomtration Teaching Tart Kit: Hyd'n/pyic Cyc/f U.S. EPA Office of Riuarth and Ovtlopmmt ------- THE MASTER LIST DISCUSSION: Think about how it feels to have lint everything. Now think about how it must be for plants and Animals who. unlike humans, do not have a very big choice in where they live. Many animals need special living conditions. The temperature, or water conditions found where they live might be essential to their survival. To find another place to live, that has the same conditions, is often not an option because it many rimes means migrating a distance too great for the animal to make. There is also the problem that an animal may be able to migrate to a better place, but their fond supply can't, or the ecosystem that they need to reproduce may be disappearing so they animal simply stops producing offspring, but it is still surviving. What would happen then? There is also very large, and important group of organisms that will never, be able to get up and move. What are they, and why can't they just leave? If we begin to think about plants, we remember that they cannot move. If their environment changes or is taken away, there is absolutely nothing they can do. To change their ecosystem is to eventually kill them off. and for them to die often means others who depend on plants for food will die also. Now let's go back to our lists. What are some ways we can prevent the loss of our possessions? Are there some things that you thought were important before, but don't seem so important now? And what about the ecosystems? What are some things that are leading to their destruction? What can we do, as citizens of the United States, and citizens of the world, to help prevent the destruction of the ecosystems in our town? State? Country? World? Unlike other living things, humans have the ability to survive in almost any environment. Also different from other living organisms, humans have the ability and resources to help others. Let's use that ability and make » difference. Remember, we all have to live together on this one planet we call home. EXAMPLE: Why my home is desirable? Warm Food Parents Pets Water Siblings bed pool toys T.V. shelter radio ice cream dry safe garden computer books caring refrigerator What is important? Shelter Parents water Food What Is more important? Food Parents What is most important? Food Now, you only have one thing left. How would you feel if you had no choice, and that one thing was taken away from you? What would you do? The following is a complete list of materials needed to be able to complete the activities in the Investiparinp the Dynamic Hvdrolopic Cycle teacher's tool kit, all of which should be able to fit into a milk crate. Many of the items can be cross-used in more than one activity, therefore some of the items • are followed by the numbers which indicate which activities they can be used in. I bleach (1 oz) -10 bottled water (5 types) • 11 calculators - 3 camera and film - 5 clay-9 5 containers (quart) - 3.8,11 4 containers (tall, dear) - 9 cord (several feet) - 6 > cover (dome shaped) that fits heat resistant cup -2 cup (heat resistant) - 2 15 cups (12 oz. clear, plastic) • 7,10,12 cups (2 oz), disposable -11 eye dropper • 3 tiller paper (coffee filter) • 8 flashlight. 5 flow meter-10 food coloring -1,4,7,8 graph paper - 6 grass, sticks • 5 hotpot -2 ice cubes • 1 map (area/state) • 10 masking tape • 8,9,12 measuring cup - 3,9 rneter stick (ruler) - 9.10.12 2 mifk jugs (1 gaS.) - 9 10 notepads and pencils • 1,3,4, 8,12 nylon piece of fabric • 5,8,10 oranges - 6 paper or paint (black) • 12 paper bags (small, brown) • 11 paper lowels or rags • all activities peanut butter jar with lid • 5 pebbles • 5, 7. 8.9 permanent marker • 9,12 plant fertilizer • S plastic wrap-2.12 pump-type sprayer - 8 saR-S.7.12 sand -4.5.8,9,10 scissors-9,12 screen (2 pieces) -10 shoe box (clear, plastic)- 4,7 5 soda bottles (clear, plastic) • S. 8 soil-5 stop watch or dock -1,8 surveyor's measuring tape - 6 syringe (disposable) - 8 tablespoon / 3 students - 3 thermometer-12 1 ft. tubing (dear, plastic) • 4,8 water -2.3.4.5,7.8,9.12 water (aged tap) - S water (pond or aquarium) • S, 10 white paper - 7 wood wstyrofoam block (1CT by 41 -7 world map-1. 3,11.12 "limn tueh «• man. pttbfot, tie. tttouU fw Jrepf In tip-tack bit/gift. "/tons sucn as wtttr should b» kept out of the box Dtmemlnltan Trertiiij fool Kit: Hydrnfarir Cyclt U.S. EPA Office of Research and Demonstration Teaching Tool Kit: Hyrdologic Cycle U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development ------- Exerpts from Always a River, Office of Research & Development - EPA Available from EPA CERI, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio Attention: Thelma Johnson 45268-1072 UNITI-B UNIT I-B oo ObfacOva Sattfng Duration Suta|act sun* Qrada Laval Vocabulary Background Information Materials Procedure Water Wings Students wiD learn to Identify water-related sounds and their sour- ces within an ecosystem. They wiD also explore their own thoughts and feelings about aquatic environments through visualization and creative writing. Outdoon of in a classroom One 20-mlnute listening session and one 40-minute period for art or creative writing Art, Language Arts, Music Listening, Visualization. Creative Writing K-6 ecosystem aquatic Refer to Unit I, Sections M through ft-3. rf Tape-record ings of water sounds or of an aquatic habitat such as a river, lake, stream, swamp, or marsh. (You can either make these tapes yourself or obtain them from bookstores, music stores, or stores that specialize in nature.) • Art materials, including water-based paints (i.e, acrylic, water color, or poster paints), brushes, paper, containers for water. • Writing materials. 1. Play the tape for the children. The first time, have them listen quietly and try to picture a setting for the sounds they hear. Have them concentrate on the quality of the sounds, but ask them not to write or draw anything while the tape is playing. 2. Now play the tape a second time. This time, have children in grades 2r6 write down the names of things they think are making the sounds they hear. For children in grades K-l, have them say the names of things they hear as they listen, while you write them on the board. Procaduia (continued) • 3. Ask children to name some of the things they wrote down (e.g., rain, bird songs, frogs croaking, a waterfall, a beaver's tail slap- ping). Ask children where and when they think the sounds might have been recorded (e.g., a marsh during a storm, a river early in the morning). Have'children justify their choices. 4. Ask children to dose their eyes and try to recreate the picture in their minds that was created by the sounds. What do they see? Tell them to imagine as much detail as possible, the colors, the plants and animals, the sky. If you feel it would be helpful you may play the recording again. 5. Now tell children they will be painting a picture of the scene they have hist been listening to. Provide the art materials and ask them to include all of the things that they heard and saw when they dosed their eyes. Alternatively, you may wish to have older children write short poems about what they heard. Some simple'poetic forms are described below. Haiku Originated by'the Japanese, haiku consists of three lines of five, seven, and five syllables each. The emphasis is syllabic, not .rhym- ing. Here is an example: The fish swam by me Nothing left in the shimmer My heart beat faster Clnqualn Cinquain is derived from the French and Spanish words for five. This form of poetry is also based on syllables—or may be based on numbers of words. The parts are 1) the title in two syllables (or two words); 2) a description of the title in four syllables (or words); 3) a description of the action in six syllables (or words); 4) a description of a feeling in eight syllables (or words); and 5) another word for the title in two syllables (or words). Here is an example: Osprey Fishing eagle Moves above dark water With graceful strength it finds its meal Seeker .5 33 ------- UNITI-B Procedure Extension/ Evaluation (continued) Clamant* Diamante is a poem shaped in the form of a diamond. It can be used to show thai words are related through shades of meaning from one extreme to an opposite extreme, following a pattern of parts of speech like this: noun adjective adjective participle participle participle noun noun noun noun participle participle participle adjective adjective noun For example: Stream Small clear Rippling, moving, growing Life, plants, animals, people Rushing, sustaining, cleansing Connected, universal Ocean You may wish to create a display of children's artwork and poetry on a bulletin board. Older students may enjoy going out into the field to tape record their own sounds. Take a field trip to a stream, pond, lake, river, or wetland where human-made sounds will be at a minimum. Divide students into groups and have them tape water-related sounds and write down what they have recorded. Later in the classroom, allow the different groups to play back their sounds so that the other groups can guess what they are. Adapted with permission from: Western Regional Environmental Education Council Aquatic Project Wild (Boulder, CO: WREEC O1987). Ob|ectfva Strung Duration Subject Skills Grado Lavd Vocabulary Background Information Materials Procedure 34 Designing a Habitat Students wiD learn about the components of a habitat that are essential for the survival of aquatic animals by designing artificial habitats for particular .spedes. Through'this activity they wifl recognize and ap- preciate the complex life requirements of aquatic wildlife. Classroom Two or more 45-minute periods Art Language Arts, Science Media Construction, Small Group Work, Public Speaking, Research. Interviewing, Writing 2-6 aquatic habitat Refer to Unit L Section B-l and B-2. • A set of 3iX 5 cards, each with the name of one of the following animals written on it: trout, river otter, largemouth bass, water strider. diving beetle, crayfish, leopard frog, moose, ruddy duck, great blue heron, and beaver (expand the choice as appropriate). • Art supplies,' including paints and brushes, paper mache, modeling clay, string, cardboard. • Gallon jars for aquatic environments. • Cardboard boxe* for semi-aquatic environments. a) Field guides and other reference materials. (See Resources for Unit L Sections B and C.) Explain to the class that to successfully house aquatic wildlife in zoos or aquaria, careful attention must be paid to the range of con- ditions each life form can tolerate. There are also certain physical re- quirements in terms of shape and dynamics of the display that must be compatible with each creature. For example, some fish require moving water or currents, while others prefer the still waters of lakes or ponds. Some animals prefer deep water, others shallow rocky bottoms, and still others marshes or swamps. z* «' s ------- UNITI-B UNIT 1-8 Procw-hira (continual) 1. Divide th« das* Into groups of two or four. Have each group draw one end from • container. 2. Ask each group to design an artificial habitat in which its animal could Uve. Inform them that teams will be expected to conduct library research or consult reference materials or resource people to determine the life requirements of their creature. In addition, they must investigate and establish the characteristics of the natural habitat of the animal. They must be concerned not only with the basic life-giving conditions for survival, but must also pay attention to the animal's comfort. Their 'aquaria* should be as similar to the animal's natural habitat as possible. 3. When the research is complete, each team of students should design and build a model of a zoo exhibit or aquarium habitat that would be suitable for its animal's survival and comfort Have eadi group establish a scale for their exhibit (for example, 1 inch • 5 feet for the large animals; actual size for the insects). 4. Once the models are complete, ask each team to report to the rest of the das*. Each report should Include a description of the basic biological needs of the animal, as well as a description of the characteristics of its natural habitat The students should point out how their models are designed to meet the needs of "he animal. S. Ask students to summarize the components of habitat that seem to be necessary for the survival of the aquatic animals they studied. (Food, shelter, and space in a suitable arrangement would be the minimum necessary components.) 6. OPTIONAL: You may wish to have students arrange their models In a plan for a zoo or aquarium, and invite other classes in to see their display. Extension/ v'sil an aquarium and arrange for a staff person to address the cotn- Evatuation portents of habitat and the bask requirements necessary to sustain the animals in healthy environments. Create a balanced freshwater aquarium for the classroom. (Refer to Appendix A, "Keeping Classroom Aquaria—A Simple Guide for the Teacher.*) Extension/ Evaluation (continued) Discuss the reasons for and against keeping aquatic wildlife in cap- tivity in zoos and aquaria. (Pros might include conservation, protec- tion of endangered species, and environmental education: cons would be difficulties of survival and reproduction in captivity, dis- rupting the habitat and food chain by removing them from their original home, and changing their natural behavior.) Adapted with permission from: Western Regional Environmental Education Council, Aquatic Project Wild (Boulder, CO: WREEC, O1987). f 36 37 ------- SAMPLE LESSON PLANS FOR GRADES K-6 and 7-12 EPA/530-SW-90-005, revised in 1990 from LET'S REDUCE AND RECYCLE: CURRICULUM FOR SOLID .WASTE" AWARENESS Available from USEPA, Office of Solid Waste, Publications, 401 M Street SW Washington, D.C. 20460 UNIT FOUR How Can We Produce Less Waste? Objective: To explore changes in lifestyle that have led to increased production of waste. Vocabulary: disposable product durable BDo you think people have always thrown away as many things as they do now? Why or why not? Discuss with children what kinds of changes in lifestyle have caused us to create more waste in our day-to-day lives. Some examples might include: Buying new clothing instead of mending socks and patching worn clothing. Eating prepared foods or "fast foods" rather than cooking food from scratch. Buying individual servings or amounts convenient for storage instead of buying foods in bulk quantities. Getting plastic or paper bags with each purchase instead of shopping with baskets or reusable bags brought from home. Replacing broken) items rather than repairing them. This would be a good opportunity to read the skit "Throwaway Three" at the back of the guide, focusing on the issue of waste production through the ages. You might also conduct this activity in conjunction with a social studies unit on how people lived at a certain period of time in history. Compare their use of resources and generation of garbage with our own. Have children work in groups to prepare skits showing the contrast between the two societies. What do you do when your pen runs out of ink? i • t Most children will say that they throw it away or get a new one. Explain that an item that is made to be used once or for a short period of time and then thrown away is called disposable. _ What are some examples of disposable products that you have used? (diapers, pens, • * razors, cameras, shopping bags, wrapping paper, fast food containers, plastic eating utensils, paper plates, paper napkins, paper towels) Why do you think people use these disposable products rather than more durable, or long-lasting, alternatives? Help children to understand that people often use disposable items because it is easier, and sometimes cheaper, to replace these items than to clean, refill, or repair nondisposable products. However, although it may be more convenient to throw out paper plates, paper cups, and plastic utensils than to wash dishes, these disposables create a tremendous amount of waste. 31 Objective: To introduce children to the concept of source reduction. Vocabulary: source reduction Review with children some of the problems associated with having too much garbage: i Air, land, and water pollution. No place to put all of the waste. Shortages of natural resources. High costs of burying or burning garbage. i t( Have children imagine that for I week they are not allowed to throw anything out in a garbage can at home or at school. 32 5 tS If r I 25 ------- 7-12 Unit Four How would you eat? (Bake your own quick breads and cookies, drink juice in the largest containers you could find, buy vegetables without any wrapping, buy huge boxes of cereal.) a How would you clean up a spill? (Use reusable rags and sponges instead of paper towels.) a What would you do if you tore your clothes? (Patch them or sew up the hole.) JjJ Can you think of any other habits you would have to change for that week? Explain to the class that eventually they would probably have to start throwing out some things — the empty juice container, the cereal box, the wrapper from a new bar of soap. However, putting into practice some of the ideas they just mentioned could drastically , reduce the amount of garbage they produce. Tell children that what they have just been talking about are methods of source reduction. Explain that source reduction is the concept of using up fewer materials so that less waste is r-_- produced. Define for children or call on volunteers to define the words source and reduce ^ lo give children a better understanding of the term. There are several components of source reduction: 1. Cutting down on the quantity and weight of waste, including cutting down on packaging of the products you use. 2. Making things last as long as possible, thereby extending the useful life of products. 3. Using things more than once for the same or for different purposes, such as taking a clean jug back to a farmstand lo be refilled with cider or using a specially designed jelly glass as a drinking glass. 4. Using products that are less toxic, meaning those that contain potentially harmful ingredients. These components will be discussed in more detail in the next few activities. Help children to understand that the less waste we produce, the fewer problems we will have disposing of it It. Objective: To explore options for reducing packaging. , Send students on a survey of their local supermarket looking for examples of the following three types of packaging: i 1. Natural packages (oranges, nuts) 2. Older and reusable packages (paper bags, paper wrapping, glass jars that become drinking glasses, returnable bottles) i 3. Modern packages (plastic, polystyrene, tin foil, individual wrappings) Ask students to list five examples from category 1. five from 2, and ten from 3. Compile their findings and make a combined list for the entire class. What purpose does the packaging serve for each of the items on the list? How dependent is the product on the package? How could each package be reused or recycled? ' What alternate packaging could be used that is more environmentally sound? For each item on the list, decide which packages create excessive waste and which minimize waste. Discuss some other packaged products students might find in a grocery store. Have students distinguish between products that must be packaged the way they are. and ones that could use less packaging. Initiate a discussion of what students could do to promote the use of less packaging when they shop. Elicit from them that they could buy only products that have no unnecessary packaging and contain no materials that could be harmful to the environment.' They could also bring some of their own containers (for b ilk cereals, nuts, etc.) from home or reuse shopping bags. Emphasize (o students that buyi -.g products in bulk quantities produces less waste. •$, S * g > 33 ------- 7-12 Unit Four 7-12 Unit Four Suggest 10 students that they write to product manufacturers or store managers to encourage them to make or to stock items that use less packaging. You might also want to choose one particular manufacturer, and write a letter as a class. Objective: To introduce students to the idea that certain types of waste can be reused. Vopabulary: junkyards antiques Have, students think about the different kinds of things people throw away. Where did the used items at scrap or Junkyards and antique stores come from? What might there be in one person's trash that might be a treasure to others? Relate any personal experiences with such discoveries. Has anyone in the class sold scrap metals, used appliances, or furniture for money? Emphasize that many things that we throw away have value and can be reused. To practice reuse in the classroom, hold a clothing drive or toy collection and donate what you collect to a local Goodwill or Salvation Army. Ask students to think of other ways in which waste could be used rather than disposed of. Briefly discuss with students the possibility of recycling certain materials such as bottles, plastic, soda cans, and newspapers. What can we do with yard wastes such as grass clippings and raked leaves? Elicit from students the idea that yard wastes can be composted to produce fertilizer that enriches and improves the consistency of poor soils. 60 Objective: To explore options for reducing the toxicity of products. Vocabulary: household hazardous waste green products Ask students to identify some household products that contain ingredients that may be • harmful to their health or to the environment. Household batteries contain lead and cadmium, which are both toxic elements. Other examples are turpentine, drain cleaner, chlorine bleach, flea repellent,'mothballs, bug spray, air fresheners, and chemical fertilizer. Discuss with students the problem of disposing of these household hazardous wastes. Help them to understand that these products should not be thrown away in the trash to be landfilled or combusted because the poisonous components could contaminate the environment. Instead, many communities hold special collection drives or have dropoff centers to coordinate the safe disposal of household hazardous wastes. If there is one in your community, take students to see how it is run. (fyote: Do not allow students 'to run such a collection themselves.) Emphasize to students that an Important way to reduce the problem of household hazardous waste disposal is to use less-toxic products. Explain that nontoxic substitutes exist for many of the products named above. Baking soda, lemon juice, and vinegar are a few common items that can be used instead of many toxic cleaners. Have students conduct the following experiment to demonstrate the use of a nontoxic substitute for silver polish. If possible, conduct this activity in a laboratory equipped with stations for pairs of students. Boil 2 to 3 inches of water in a shallow pan with 1 teaspoon salt. 1 teaspoon baking soda, and a sheet of aluminum foil. Submerge a piece of tarnished silverware in the solution and boil for 2 to 3 minutes. Use a cloth to wipe away tarnish. Repeat the procedure if tarnish remains. . 5 b Emphasize that all of the ingredients they have just used are safe and can be found in their own homes. For some grade levels, you may want to conduct this activity in conjunction with a chemistry unit on ion exchange. Have students research the use, of nontoxic substitutes as alternatives to toxic products. Local organizations such as chapters of the League of Women Voters and local conservation commissions may be able to provide you with information about toxic products and lists or | alternatives. !f ------- 7-12 Unit Four Tell students that the term green products is often used to refer to products that are "environmentally friendly" — don't harm or unnecessarily pollute the environment Here are some examples of toxic products and nontoxic substitutes: Turpentine — Use water with water-based paints instead Drain cleaner — Plunger; boiling water mixed with baking soda Flea repellent — Garlic, brewers yeast; herbs such as fennel and rosemary Mothballs — Cedar chips or herbal sachets Bug spray (ants and roaches) — Lines of chalk or charcoal dust, talcum powder, and cayenne peper; borax Air fresheners — Baking soda, fresh flowers, herbs Chemical fertilizer — Compost Remind students that they can also reduce the amount of toxic material they throw away by purchasing reusable products, such as rechargable rather than disposable batteries. Have students compile their findings into a bulletin board display or a fact sheet for distribution to the school or community. They might also create a promotional brochure or poster for a local household hazardous waste collection. UNIT THREE How Does Waste Affect Our Resources? Objective: To introduce students to the concept of natural resources. Vocabulary: natural resource List on the blackboard the different materials that compose refuse. Trace each of these back to its original source. (Paper to.wood to trees to soil to earth; glass to sand to rocks to earth; metal to rocks to earth; plastic to petroleum to fossil plants to earth; food to animals and plants to earth.) You may wish to refer to the illustration on p. 25. Investigate where different objects in your classroom come from. Introduce the term natural resource as anything that is supplied by nature that has plant. animal, or human utility. What are the natural resources in the list on the board? Why are natural resources important? [fw Are our resources in endless supply? i a What will happen if we continue to waste our natural resources by burning, littering. & or burying them? Can you think of anything .that does not use up natural resources? •9. 5 67- > 82 ------- Objective: To introduce the concept of renewable versus nonrenewable natural resources. Vocabulary: renewable nonrenewable aluminum petroleum bauxite Obtain a collection of items that would normally be included in the waste stream. The collection should include examples of products from natural resources that both can and cannot be renewed (or recreated). Reproduce the "Resource Tree" on p. 69 and distribute to the class. Using the diagram, have students identify the raw materials used to make each item and decide whether they are renewable or nonrenewable. In the discussion, point out that aluminum, tin, steel, and petroleum are all nonrenewable resources. Help students to understand that some materials are not renewable because they are the result of geological processes that take millions of yean to complete. Nonrenewable resources are in limited supply and once (hey are used up, they are gone forever. Paper and cardboard come from the renewable source of wood (trees), but wood is being used at a foster rate than it can be produced commercially. At the conclusion of the discussion, students should be able to place any piece of solid waste into the categories of renewable and nonrenewable resources. Aluminum cans, from bauxite (nonrenewable) Tin-plated steel cans, from Iron and tin (nonrenewable) Glass bottles, from sand, soda ash, and limestone (nonrenewable, but in plentiful supply)' Paper, from wood (renewable) Cardboard, from wood (renewable) Organic waste, such as plant clippings and food scraps (renewable) Plastic containers or bags, from petroleum (nonrenewable) COTTON T-SHIRT Fwurre AND VEGETABLES WOODEN DAIRY PRODUCTS PAPER PRODUCTS LEATHER GOODS WOOL SWEATER V FOSSIL FUELS ' PLANTS L_ ANIMALS3 I RENEWABLE «8 EARTH'S RESOURCES 68 ------- USEPA OFFICE OF WATER Publication EPA842-B-92-003 Turning the Tide on Trash - A Learning Guide on Marine Debris available from NCEP1 Box 42419, Cincinnati, OH 45242-2419 Unit Unit I Trash Trails Objective: To team about e*nan cftaractanstici ol marn* dobrit and how :heu chs'acteniici altaci whan uiauw debus « found n the CfWf UMII0H. Activity: Students perform ««nei»ntnla to manna wheOlW V rot trash can flow. How around, or wam away. Th* altecta ol trwta cha'acienstcs on the presence el name def 4 in (he ormonmani ar* Vocabulary: Materials: >• Enough copies of rhe Trash Train ^esullf" handout for «ach student iihocloss .- ••onai poem of plastic glass. •jober. mm A oaper. wood, and "oo trash > * Ducket (Had with water ?-Aiim > d large, shadow comnmer (such o> a j-ge drshoan) .•^ »* waterng can Subjects: language Ans.Sdenoa Learning SkUs: Anotvov C.'.assitvng. Collecting Data. Comparmg n' list on the dulkboifd and have the students fill in the "Does It Float.'' column on their handouts.) • What will happen to buoyant items when diey get into the ocean? What could some of the problems be with buojrant marine debris? • What will happen to items that don't float when they get into the, ocean? li there a tendency lor all of the articles of the same type (plastic, paper, metal, etc.) to float or sink? 3 Set up the fan n one end of a table. Place each trash item in front of the fan. one at a time, ro see if it is blown around. Ask the students these questions: • Which items are easily Mown around? (Make a list on the chalkboard and have the students Gil in the 'Can It Be Blown Around on Land?" column on their handouts.) • What blows trash around in the environment? • Is there a tendency for all of the articles of die lime type (plastic. paper, metal, etc.) to be blown around in a similar way? 4 Fill the large, shallow container with water and place it in front of the fan. One at a time, put each article of tiash io the container and turn on the fan. Ask the students: • Which items ate easily Mown around in the water? (Make a list on the chalkboard and have the students HI in the 'Can It Be Blown Around in die Water?" column on their Handouts.) • Is there a tendency for all of the snides of the same type (plastic, pa- pet, metal, etc) to be blown around in the same way? 5 Fill the sprinkling can with water. Take the sprinkling can and the trash pieces outdoors, and find a llightly doped, smooth am (a paved surface on a slight hill would work well). Place the trash pieces on the sloped area, and sprinkle water on them one at a time. (Note This pan of the experiment also can be conducted in the classroom by elevating one end of a board and placing the lower end In a sink. Place the trash pieces on the elevated end of the board, arid sprinkle water down die board.) Ask die students: , • Which items are easily moved by the sprinkled water? (When you get back inside make a list on the chalkboard and have the students fill in the "Can Sprinkled Watet Move It?" column on their handouts.) • What element in nature acts like the sprinkled water? • Is there a tendency for all of the articles of the same type (plame. pa- per, metal, etc) to be affected by the sprinkled water in the same way? 6 Discuss how the charaaetistka examined (whether an item floats, is blown around, or is carried by iprinkled water) affect whether an hem is likely to become marine debris. Also discuss how the natural environ- mental forces of running water, wind, land rain can cause trash to become marine debris. OftierDlredlons Try one of the following projects': I) compare the types and amounts of ttash found on rural versus urban beaches; 2) compare types and amounts of trash found in different locations on a beach: and. 3) compare types and amounts of trash found on a rocky beach compared to a sandy beach. Tor each project, speculate on why differences were observed. Another approach would be to compare the types and amounts of trash found on an ocean beach versus the shoreline of a lake, pond, river, or stream in older (o compare the impact of debris on marine and freshwater environments. 12 13 ------- Trash Traits Rc§uU ITEM i TtPI (PUSTW. PAPER. METAt, ETC.) : DOES IT riOATT •- | i CAN IT BE BLOWN AROUND ONLANDT CAN IT BE BLOWN AROUND IN THE WATER? CAN SPRINKLED WATER MOVE ITT ! All Tangled DP Unit II •f Distribute the rubbertnndi co students tnd hm them follow the pro- 1 cedure below. (Note: You may w»m to km one 01 two siudenu come up to thr front of the room 10 peffctm the exercise wiih rubberbands u a demonstration: then indude the entire diu in the discussion.) • Hold your hands up in from1 of your hoc. with the back of your hands towards rout hot. • Hold ihe rubberband in you* right hand and hook one end of it over the little finger ofyour left hand. « Hook the other end of die rubbotrand oirer the left-hand thumb. The rubberband should be taut and resting across the bottom knuck- les on ilie back of your left hand. • Plire your right hand on the bottom of your left elbow, and keep it there. . Try to free your hand of the rubberband without using your right hand, teedi. face, or other body para. 2 While students are struggling.'ok'me data to imagine that they are teagulls that ha»e gotten pieco of fishing line, abandoned net. or other dcbrij wrapped around their beaki or nedtt. Tell them the birds would be unable to eai until they had gotten ihenueHra free. Ask them the following questions: . How would you reel after straggling like dill all morning? • How would you feel after missing breakfast? . What would happen if you continued to mill meals and spent all of your strength fighting to get free} • What would happen if a predator waf dialing you? Encourage students to share theit rhoughn anrl fedingi about being rnianglcd. Remind ihem that their experience i» similar to ihat of a bitd or oilier marine animal that become* entanglrd in debrii. Objective To mam about dWe onungfemeni by e»per» encing what « might be like to be a marine anfnal traoped in debris. Students perform >n e*an*ntn n whch they wrao a rubberband around their lingers and W to disentangle ihemseivei. Ai a class, students dneuss the* thoughts and reactions and relate to real annuls. Vocabulary: abandoned net Materials: -A smatv to medwn-sired (thin) 'ubberiund tar each tturJent ••One copy 01 the "Animal Entangle- ment'handout Lsnguaoe Arts. Science Learning Skffls: AnaNto» trtx>"«ne 5 ------- 08** of Waa EPA 600-B-SO-004 TKJ-556 Aiarrh l«n Fron the poster Wetlands: Water,Wildlife, Plants and People ACTIVITY Wise Wetland Ways INTRODUCTION People use wetlands in many ways, directly and indirectly. In this activity, students pretend to be archaeologists of the future and work in groups to examine a collection of "artifacts." They then create a short story cr skit to explain how the "artifacts" relate to human uses of wetlands by the "ancient" people of the 20th century." OBJECTIVE After completing this activity, students will be able to: 1. Describe at least five ways people benefit from wetlands. 2. Discuss actions people can take to be sure that this diversity of use does not damage or destroy wetlands for future generations. MATERIALS Wetland "artifacts" (can be labeled with numbers) can of clam chowder - ~ '-" " " "binoculars commercial and sport fishing lure field guide to birds or wetland plants camera lens or film container book of nature poetry woven basket empty soft drink can blueberry muffin sport fishing or hunting license can of smoked salmon duck stamp paper and pencil for each group brochure from a hunting.or fishing-guide company that uses wetlands TEACHER PREPARATION Gather "artifacts." Label with numbers (optional). PROCEDURE 1. Explain to students that this is the year 2100. They are fortunate that today a local archaeologist has left some artifacts from a study of the nearby (name a local) wetland for students to examine. Some artifacts were actually found in the wetland, and others were gathered during research on how people used wetlands 100 years ago. (The principal or a willing teacher or parent might want to role play the archaeologist.) Explain that students must handle each artifact carefully to try to figure out how the artifact is related to human use of the wetlands and how it got to the place where the archaeologist found it. 2. Divide the class into groups of three to five (depending on the number of students and artifacts). Their assignment is to create a story or skit, using their artifacts, that explains how their artifacts relate to human uses of wetlands by "ancient" 20th-century people. Set a time limit of 10 minutes or so for the groups to develop their presentation. 3. Each group should present their story or skit about how the wetlands were used to the class. On the chalkboard, make a list of all the uses of wetlands that are mentioned. Ask the class if they can think of other uses of wetlands by people. Discuss the uses in terms of coexistence of people and wetlands: How can people use the wetlands in ways that ensure that the wetlands and the life within them will continue to thrive? Which uses need to be moderated so that the uses can continue indefinitely? Which uses would have to be stopped to avoid wetland destruction? Which uses would have to be altered to minimize their effect on the wetland and the wildlife that lives there? Is it possible for people and wetlands to coexist? INTERPRETIVE QUESTIONS 1. Which uses would still continue in the year 2100 if people had used the wetlands wisely? 2. Which artifacts would students find in the year 2200 (in another hundred years)? 3. Presuming that the students in the year 2100 are very conscientious about taking good care of wetlands, which artifacts would the students in the year 2200 likely not find? EXTENSIONS 1. Students can think about the kind of information they would want future generations to know about wetlands. What are some important aspects of wetlands that they would want to express, and how would they communicate these aspects to the people of the future? Ask students to identify items related to wetlands to include in a time capsule that will be opened 20 years from now. 2. Use items similar to those included in the time capsule to make a collage. 3. Visit a local wetland. Take along resource books for identification of the plants and animals that live in the wetland. 28 ------- EPA80Q-&.93404 March 1963 introduction This pamphlet includes a brief selection of science demon- stration projects related to drinking water for K-12 students. The projects are organized-according;'to the following grade categories: primary (K-4); middle/junior high (5-8); and secondary (9-12). The divisions between grade categories are arbitrary. The projects are essentially applicable to all grade levels. By simply varying the vocabulary and expand- ing or contracting the background and discussion sections, each project can be made relevant to a specific grade level. The general areas covered by the demonstration projects include the chemical/physical aspects of water, contamina- tion and treatment of drinking water, distribution and supply of drinking water, and water conservation. While theprojects presented are complete activities, teachers are encouraged to expand the projects to meet the needs and goals of their respective teaching situations. The demonstration projects included in this pamphlet are representative of many such projects developed by talented professionals in the science, engineering, and. education communities. The projects have been reprinted in whole or in part with the permission of the appropriate publishers. Reference and/or credit information is included with each activity. In addition, a list of organizations that have devel- oped or are developing projects related to drinking water are included at the back of this document EPA 570/9-90-007 United States Off ice of Water April 1990 Environmental Protection WH-550 Agency <&EPA Science Demonstration Pro'ects "n » IrilxitnA* lAf*%***M ------- primary WH-SS6 qfi The Never Ending Cycle of Water Background Water is very abundant on Earth It circulates continu- ously- between the air, the ground, and plants and animals. This constant circulation of water is known as the water cycle. Water is carried through air where it eventually condenses into small droplets which form clouds. From the clouds, water falls to the Earth in the form of rain .or snow (precipitation). This water is absorbed into the ground or runs over the surface of the ground into rivers and lakes. Plants and animals use the water to live. Water then evaporates from soil, the leaves of plants, the lungs and skin of animals, and from the surface of puddles, streams, and lakes to the air. Woodland plants (e.g., violets, ferns, or mosses—gathered in backyards or available from nurseries) Water Light source or a sunny window sill Tight-fitting jar lid (or plastic wrap secured by rubber band or masking tape) Procedure 1) Place a one-inch layer of gravel on the bottom of the clear glass jar. Cover this layer with one of sphagnum or peat moss, followed by a layer of soil (see illustration at right). - 2) Set woodland plant(s) into the soil mixture. 3) Water terrain lightly. 4) Cover glass jar tightly with lid (if available) or with plastic wrap secured by a rubber band or masking tape and place under or near a light source. 5) Observe the glass jar over several hours. Discussion DWhat collected on the sides of the glass jar? (con- densed moisture) 2) Where did the moisture on the sides of the glass jar come from? (evaporated water from plants) 3) What provided the en- ergy for the changes ob- served in the water's form? (the sun) Source: Scitna Actmtia for Outdrtn Objective To demonstrate that water moves in a continuous cycle. Materials Large, wide-mouihed clear glass jar Graver Sphagnum or peat moss* Soil* "(available from hardware stores or nurseries) Suggested Activities Prior to conducting this activity, the teacher may wish to more fully demonstrate the processes of precipita- tion, evaporation, and condensation. In addition, a discussion or demonstration of water in its three states (solid, liquid, gas) might also be useful. Samples of such experiments can be found in the source material noted below. 30 ------- OfficrefWa WH-SS6 March primary Sources Activity #1 Background information adapted with permission front Willard J. Jaoobson and Abby B. Bergman. Science Activities for Children. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Int. 1983). p. 47. Activity adapted with permission from: Water Woards. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources Au- thority. 1983). pp. 2-4. •Water We Can't Live Without It." National Wildlife Week Educators' Guide. (Washington, DONational Wildlife Federation, MarchlS-24, 1984). p. 7. -.jBsaafiifcWS--.. Sotucc: National VHUHft Wok Uueatan' Cuidi How People Get Their Water Background Nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface is water, yet less than one percent can be used for drinking water. Water moves in a continuous cycle between the air, the ground, and plants and animals (see previous activity). Most water does not naturally exist in a pure form or in a form that is safe for people to drink. Consequently, water must be cleaned prior to consumption. Water utilities provide such treatment before water is sent through pipes to homes in the community. The demand for water by people varies. The availabil- ity of water also varies in different areas of the country. Consequently, utilities store extra water in spaces known as reservoirs. Water is usually contained in reservoirs by a dam. Reservoirs help ensure that communities do not run out of water at any given time regardless of the communities' total water use. Objective To illustrate how a reservoir works. Materials Plastic box Spnty bottle Pebbles Soil . Sand Leaves Sounx: Woltr Wutnt$ Procedure 1) Construct a model of a reservoir using a clean, clear plastic box (see illustration). Line the bottom of the box with small pebbles and then layer sand, soil, and leaves on top (sloping the material downward toward the edges of the box). 2) Carefully spray water on the four corners of the model until the soil mixture is saturated and the water has seeped through to the open area—the reservoir. Discussion 1) What are the sources of water for a reservoir? (precipitation in the form of rain and snow) 2) How does water get into a reservoir? (It seeps over and through the soil above the reservoir.) 3) What contains or holds water in a real reservoir? (dams) 4) What kind of treatment does water receive in a reservoir? (natural filtration through leaves, grass, and soil; also some settling occurs in the reservoir) 31 ------- Office of W& WH-556 March primary Activity #2 Objective To build a model of a water delivery system from source to user. Materials Large piece of paper or cardboard Paper towel tubes Different sizes of pasta (linguini, spaghetti, manicotti) Clue Reservoir built in Activity til (optional) Procedure 1) Using the pasta and paper towel tubes, create a community pipe system (see illustration). Connect the "pipes" with glue and lay out on the large sheet of paper or cardboard. 2) Either use the reservoir constructed in the previous activity or draw one on the cardboard; also draw houses, schools, and other buildings that receive water from the delivery system. Discussion Students should consider how water gets from reser- voirs to distribution systems and to individual homes. (The circumference of pipes decreases as the distribu- tion system expands into the community. As water travels through a distribution system, it is continuously diverted down different pathways. These pathways lead to individual homes and businesses. The circum- ference of a pipe determines the quantity of water that can be contained in the pipe at any one time and deter- mines, in part, the rate at which the water will travel through the pipe. As the distribution system expands to homes and businesses, the volume of water needed per home or business represents only a portion of the total volume leaving the treatment plant. Consequently, smaller pipes are needed in these areas of the distribu- tion system, whereas larger pipes are needed near the treatment plant. Water treatment plants generally pump water from the reservoir to holding or water towers. The water flows by gravitational force from the water tower and throughout the distribution system.) Source Activities adapted with permission from: Water Wizards. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources Au- thority, 1983). pp. 10-14. Sounx: W**r Watrdt Conserving Water for The Future Background Water is very valuable to us. We all need approximately 2 liters of water each day. We can live several weeks without food, but can only live several days without water. Water makes up our body's blood (which is 83%- water), transports bodily wastes, and helps us digest our food. We get,most.of our body's daily requirement of water from food. But water is a limited resource/ which means that there is only so much water on Earth available for use. In order for water to be available when needed, it must be conserved. 32 ------- Office of Water EPA 800^9^004 March 1993 primary Objective To emphasize the need for water conservation. Materials One 12 ounce clear glass Water Question and answer sheet for each student Procedure 1) Explain to the students thatftiey are conducting an experiment that will test whatlt is like to not have a drink of water. Inform the students that they may not drink water the entire morning or afternoon preceding the conclusion of the activity. 2) Place the glass of water on a desk in the front of the classroom to visually remind students of water. 3) About one half-hour before lunch or the conclusion of the school day, provide students with the following questions to answer individually or as a group. Discussion 1) An average glass can hold 12 ounces of a liquid such as water. An average drip from a sink can waste 5 gallons of water per day or 240 ounces per day. How many glasses of water could be saved per day by fixing the leak? (Answer 20) 2) An average bathtub uses 36 gallons of water while the average short shower uses only 25 gallons — a difference of 11 gallons or 1408 ounces. Approxi- mately how many glasses of water could be saved if a person took a short shower instead of a bath? (Answer: 117.3) 3) Do you think that some glasses of water could be saved if people filled dishwashers or washing machines with partial rather than full loads? (No. Most dishwashers and washers use the same amount of water, no matter if there is a full or partial load; in some models the cycle can be changed.) 4) What other conservation measures can you think of that would save glasses of water? (Answers, will vary.) 5) How thirsty do you feel after not receiving water the entire morning or afternoon? (Answers will vary.) 6) How do you think you would feel if you could only have several ounces of water each day? (Very thirsty, sick, and eventually dead.) Suggested Activities Many other activities can teach students about water conservation, including "water audits" of personal, family, and even school-wide water use. A variation of the "Water Use Analysis" project presented later in this pamphlet may be appropriate to demonstrate how people use water differently. A discussion of how vari- ous cultures (e.g., desert versus city dwellers) value water as well as spend time and effort obtaining it might also be useful. Source Activity adapted with permission from: Water and Water Conservation Curriculum. Utilities Department), p. 197. (Aurora, CO Aurora 33 ------- middle Office of Wm W/-556 EPA 800-frSMi March t983 How Substances are Measured in Water Background We often find references to parts per million, parts per billion',, and even parts per trillion in our everyday reading and news reports. What do they mean? Most of us have difficulty imagining large numbers of objects. How many stars can you see in the clear night sky far away from the smog and lights of the city? What does it mean when we read that an insecticide has been found in our ground water at a concentration of 5: parts per billion? Developing an understanding of extremely large and extremely small numbers is very difficult. Objective To visualize the concept of extremely small numbers. Material 1 bottle of food coloring 1 medicine dropper 1 white egg carton (6 or 12 eggs) or sir small clear . plastic cups 2 other containers to hold food coloring and water Procedure 1) Prior to conducting the activity, ask students to .consider the following: a) What is the largest number of things you can clearly visualize in your mind? [Most of us can handle 5,10, perhaps even 20 if we use all of our fingers and toes.] b) CanyouvisualizeagroupoflOOpeople?[Many people think they can by describing a party or community meeting. If you try to visualize a group of 80 or 120 differently from the 100, it soon becomes apparent that our visualization is not that clear. The Rose Bowl full of people represents about 100,000. Trying to pick out just 1 individual in that crowd would be find- ing 1 in 100,000.] c) Food coloring from the store is usually a 10% solution. What does 10% mean? [It means 10 parts (by weight) of solid food coloring dye is dissolved in 100 parts (by weight) of solution. For example, 10 grams of dye dissolved in 90 grams of water make a total of 100 grams of 10% solution.] 2) Fxit some food coloring (5 or 6 drops from the bottle) into one small container and some tap water into the other. 3) Use the medicine dropper to place.one drop of 10 percent food coloring (as it comes from the store) into the first container. [Since 10% means 10 parts of food coloring per 100 parts of solution, it is the same as 1 part food coloring in 10 parts of solution.] 4) Use the medicine dropper to add 9 drops of water to the first container. Stir well. What is the concen- tration of the food coloring? [You have 1 drop of the original food coloring in 10 drops of the new solu- tion. Thus the concentration of the new solution is 1/10 of the original. The original was 1 part in 10, so the concentration of the food coloring is now I/ 10 of 1 part Jn 10. This is 1 part in 10 x 10, or 1 part of foodjcoloring in 100 parts of solution.] 5) Use the medicine dropper to transfer 1 drop of solution to the next container. Add 9 drops of water. Mix. You have again changed theconcentra- tion by a factor of one-tenth. What is 'the food coloring concentration in this container? [1 /10 of 1 part in 100 is 1 part in 10 x 100, or 1 part in 1000 parts of solution.] 6) Transfer one drop of the 1 part in 1000 parts of solution into the next container. Add 9 drops of water. Mix. What is the concentration? [1 part in 10,000 parts of solution.] 7) Continue to dilute 1 drop of each solution by add- ing water as before to obtain 1 part in 100,000 and then 1 part in 1,000,000. Your final solution is one part per million. Discussion 1) In which cavity do you first observe no visual evidence that food coloring is present? [This gener- ally occurs in the final container, which is 1 ppm of food coloring.] 2) Since you cannot see any color present, how do you know there is indeed food coloring present? 3) Can you think of an experiment that you could do to prove there is food coloring present in each cup? Doit. ------- OfficeafWaer ttarcfi1983 middle 4) Which is more concentrated, one part per million Materials or 200 parts per billion? [A billion is a thousand million. Therefore, 1 ppm is 1000 ppb. 1 ppm is more concentrated than 200 ppb.] Sources Activity adapted with permission from: Chemicals in Society Participant's Guide. (Berkeley, CA: Chemical Education for Public Understanding Program, University of Califor- nia at Berkeley, 1989). pp. 5-6. Conserving the Nation's Water Resources Background People require*an-arerage of 2 L of water per day to. sustain life. However, the average American uses about 100 times more water than this every day at home. An average family of four in the United States might use about 900 L of water per day for the purposes identified in the table below. Approximate daily water use by a family of four in the U.S. Use Liters per Day Drinking and cooking Dishwasher (3 loads per day) Toilet (16 flushes per day) Bathing (4 baths or showers per day) Laundering clothes Watering houseplants Rinsing garbage into disposal unit 30 57 363 303 130 4 13 Total dally use: 000L (A reminder: 1 gallon - 3.8 L; 26.3 gallons - 100 L The total daily water use of 900 L is equal to about 237 gallons.) Source Eortk TV Waltr Haul Objective To provide a real-life model of how much water a family typically uses on a daily basis; to allow participants to experience firsthand how much effort is required to transport water; and to illustrate that when people desire, they can sharply reduce their water usage. A schoolyard or large room with a water source Two 122 L (32 gallon) trash cans Empty milk jugs and/or buckets (as many as possible) 100 L of water A watch or clock with a second hand A meter stick (optional) The story begins: One cold January, the Smith family rent a house in the mountains for a ski vacation. The house, though old, has all the comforts of home — three bathrooms, a complete laundry room, dishwasher, and garbage dis- posal, plus a newly installed solar hot water heating system. Unfortunately, the weather gets so cold one night that a water main in town breaks, and the Smiths find out that the house will have no water service from the local utility for the entire week. What should they do — go back home or try to find another water supply? Mr-Smith learns from a neighbor that there is an unfro- zen spring 100 m from the house that could still be used for drinking water. Mrs. Smith, who is a mechanical engineer, discovers that if the municipal water line coming into the house were shut off, the water in the storage tank for the solar water heater could be routed directly into the plumbing system. The water system in the house will work as long as the storage tank is kept filled with water from the spring. Mr. and Mrs. Smith discuss the situation with their two children Alice (14) and Sam (12). The family decides to form a "family bucket brigade" from the spring to the house, fill the storage tank each day, and continue their vacation. The storage tank can hold about 900 L of water. Procedure 1) Place the two trash cans 100 m apart (measure with a meter stick or the distance is equal to approxi- mately 150 paces for an average size adult). 2) Place 100 L of water in one of the trash cans. This can will represent the spring. 3) Select four students to represent the Smith family; equip each person with as many buckets and milk jugs as he/she can carry; and have students trans- fer the 100 L of water from the spring to the house (the house being represented by the second trash can located 100 m away). 35 ------- Off**ofWater 'VH-SS6 middle 4) Have students record the time when the Smith family begins and finishes carrying the first 100 L of water. Students should then determine the total time that was required for the Smith family to transfer all of the water. 5) The Smiths may feel a little tired after transferring the 100 L of water. Thus far, they have only carried 11 percent of the water required to fill the tank. They still have 800 L to go. To save water (since this is role playing), have the Smiths bring the same 100 L back from the house to the spring rather than getting additional water out of the faucet being used. - 6) The Smiths should continue carrying the water back and forth until the 100 L of water has changed cans a total of nine times, and the Smiths have carried the equivalent of 900 L of water 100 m to the house. 7) Have students record the time when the Smiths finish moving the entire 900 L of water from the spring to the house. Ask students the total amount of time (probably will be about 30 minutes) that was required to move the 900 L of water. The story continues: After carrying all of the water, the Smiths are too tired to ski very much. They come home early, have spaghetti for lunch, wash the dishes, and launder their bucket brigade clothes (which got muddy at the spring). After eating dinner, washing more dishes and clothes, water- ing the houseplants, and taking long, hot showers, they go to bed. It is snowing too hard the next day to ski, so the Smiths stay in the house all day. When Mr. Smith tries to start the dishwasher after lunch, he discovers that the family is out of water! Sam and Alice groan and say that they . would rather be grounded until they are 21 than carry 900 L of water to the house every day. They point out that they haven't even been in the house a full 24 hours since previously carrying the water. Discussion Have students identify and defend water conservation measures. What steps could the Smiths have taken to conserve water and save their ski vacation? (Some conservation measures include washing clothes less frequently, running thedishwasher once per day, fixing any leaking plumbing fixtures, taking quick showers, not flushing toilets after every use, reducing the amount of water required for toilet flushing, etc.) Source Activity adapted with permission from: Jack E. Gartrell, Jr., Jane Crowder, and Jeffrey C Callister. Earth: The Water Plaruet. (Washington, DC: The National Science Teachers Association, 1989). pages 85-89. How Water Is Cleaned Background Water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be "cleaned" before it can be consumed by people. Water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the following proc- esses: 1) aeration; 2) coagulation; 3) sedimentation; 4) filtration; and 5) disinfection. Demonstration projects for the first four processes are included below. Objective To demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Materials SLof "swamp water" (or add 2 1/2 cups of dirt or mud to 5 L of water) One 2 L plastic soft drink bottle with its cap (or cork that fits tightly into the neck of the bottle) Two 2 L plastic soft drink bottles — one bottle with the top removed and one bottle with the bottom removed 36 ------- Office of Water WH-556 tFA 8OO-B-93-004 March 1993 middle Bufctr Source: tank TV Water Plants One-15 L (or larger) beaker or another soft drink bottle bottom 20 g of alum (potassium aluminum sulfate — approximately 2 tablespoons; availabk at a pharmacy) Fine sand (about 800 ml in volume) Coarse sand (about 800 ml in volume)^ Small pebbles (about 400 ml in volume) A large (500 ml or larger) beaker or jar A small (approximately 5 cm x 5 cm) piece of flexible nylon screen A tablespoon A rubber band A clock with a second hand or a stopwatch Procedure 1) Pour about 1.5 L of "swamp water" into a 2 L bottle. Have students describe the appearance and smell of the water. 2) Aeration is the addition of air to water. It allows gases trapped in the water to escape and adds oxygen to the water. Place the cap on the bottle and shake the water vigorously for 30 seconds. Con- tinue the aeration process by pouring the water into either one of the cut-off bottles, then pouring the water back and forth between the cut-off bottles 10 times. Ask students to describe any changes they observe. Pour the aerated water into a bottle with its top cut off. 3) Coagulation is the process by which dirt and other suspended solid particles are chemically "stuck to- gether" into floe so that they can be removed from water. With the tablespoon, add 20 g of alum crystals to the swamp water. Slowly stir the mixture for 5 minutes. 4) Sedimentation is the process that occurs when gravity pulls the particles of floe (clumps of alum and sediment) to the bottom of the cylinder. Allow the water to stand undisturbed in the cylinder. Ask 5) students to observe the water at 5 minute intervals for a total of 20 minutes and write their observa- tions with respect to changes in the water's appearance. Construct a filter from the bottle with its bottom cut off as follows (see illustration at left): a) Attach the nylon screen to the outside neck of the bottle with a rubber band. Turn the bottle upside down and pour a layer of pebbles into the bottle—the screen will prevent the pebbles ..from falling out of the neck of the bottle. b) Pour the course sand on top of the pebbles. c) Pour the fine sand on top of the course sand. d) Clean the filter by slowly and carefully pouring through 5 L (or more) of clean tap water. Try not to disturb the top layer of sand as you pour the water. 6) Filtration through a sand and pebble filter re- moves most of the impurities remaining in water after coagulation and sedimentation have taken place. After a large amount of sediment has settled on the bottom of the bottle of swamp water, care- fully — without disturbing the sediment — pour the top two-thirds of the swamp water through the filter. Collect the filtered water in the beaker. Pour the remaining (one-third bottle) of swamp water into the collection bucket. Compare the treated and the untreated water. Ask students whether treatment has changed the appearance and smell of the water. [Inform students that a water treatment plant would as a final step disinfect the water (e.g., would add a disinfectant such as chlorine gas) to kill any remaining disease-causing organisms prior to distributing the water to homes. Therefore, the demonstration water is not safe to drink.] Discussion 1) What was the appearance of the swamp water? (Answers will vary, depending on the water source used. Water from some sources may be smelly and /or muddy.) 2) Does aeration change the appearance or smell of water? Of the original water sample was smelly, the water should have less odor after aeration. Pouring the water back and forth allows some of the foul- smelling gases trapped to escape to the air of the room. Students may have observed small bubbles 37 ------- Office of Water WH-556 fcPA 800-B-93-004 March 1993 middle suspended in the water and attached to the sides of Suggested Activities the cylinder.) 3) How did the sedimentation process effect the water's appearance? Did the appearance of the water vary at each 5 minute interval? (The rate of sedimentation depends on the water being used and the size of alum crystals added. Large particles will settle almost as soon as stirring stops. Even if the water contains very fine clay particles, visible dumps of floe should form and begin to settle out by the end of the 20-minute observation period.) 4) How does .the treated water (following filtration) differ from the untreated swamp water? (After filtration, the treated swamp water should look much clearer than the untreated water. It probably will not be as clear as tap water, but the decrease in the amount of material suspended in the water should be quite obvious. The treated sample should have very little odor when compared to the starting supply of swamp water.) • A field trip to a local water treatment plant. • Have the State or a certified testing laboratory conduct analyses of the students' treated and untreated water for various contaminants. Source Activity adapted with permission from: Jack E. Gartrell, Jr, Jane Crowder, and Jeffrey C Callister. Earth: TV Water Planet (Washington, DC: The National Science Teachers Asso- ciation, 1989). pp. 97-101. How a water treatment system works, Source: TV Official Ciptain Hydro Water Cmsenatim WorHnok 38 ------- WH-556 racr tr7NWO-O-a3-W4 Marcri1993 Concentrations of Chemical Pollutants in Water Background Concentrations of chemical pollutants in water are fre- quently expressed in units of "parts per million" (ppm) or "parts per billion" (ppb). For example, chemical fertilizers contain nitrates, a chemical that can be dan- gerous to pregnant women even in quantities as small as 10 parts per million. Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common industrial solvent, is more dangerous than .nitrates and.when present in drinking water in quanti- fies as small as 5 parts per million carf cause a higher than normal incidence of cancer among people who drink the water regularly. Objective To demonstrate the concept of ppm and ppb as these units are used to explain chemical contaminant concen- trations in water; to explain how chemicals may be present in very small amounts in water such that they cannot often be detected by sight, taste, or smell; though, still possibly posing as a threat to human health. Materials Solid coffee stirrers or tooth picks Clean water for rinsing the dropper Medicine dropper Red food coloring (for "contamination") Set of 9 clear containers Clean water for diluting White paper Procedure 1) Line up the containers side-by-side and place a piece of white paper under each one. From left to right, number the containers 1 to 9. 2) Place 10 drops of food coloring into container #1 (food dye is already diluted 1:10). secondary 3) Place one drop of food coloring into container #2. 4) Add 9 drops of clean water to container #2 and stir the solution. Rinse the dropper. 5) Use the medicine dropper to transfer 1 drop of the solution from container #2 into container #3. Add 9 drops of clean water to container #3 and stir the solution. Rinse the dropper. 6) Transfer 1 drop of the solution from container #3 to container #4. Add 9 drops of clean water to con- tainer #4 and stir the solution. Rinse the dropper. 7) Continue the same process until all 9 containers contain successively more dilute solutions. 8) Complete the discussion questions below. Discussion 1) The food coloring in container # 1 is a food coloring solution which is one part colorant per 10 parts liq- uid. What is the concentration for each of the successive dilutions? (Have students use the table below; each dilution decreases by a factor of 10— 1/10,1/100,1/1000, etc.) 2) What is the concentration of the solution when the diluted solution first appeared colorless? (Usually occurs in container #6,1/1,000,000 or 1 ppm.) 3) Do you think there is any of the colored solution present in the diluted solution even though it is colorless? Explain. (Yes. The solution is still pres- ent but has been broken down into such small particles that it cannot be seen.) 4) What would remain in the containers if all the water were removed? (Residue from the food coloring.) Suggested Activities 1) Allow the water in the containers to evaporate and have students record their observations on what remains in the containers. 2) Discuss chemical contamination of drinking water. Use the list of maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) on the following page for some toxic or carcino- genic chemicals in drinking water (as regulated by Container No. Concentration 1 1/10 2 V 3 V 4 V 5 V 6 V 7 V 8 V 9 V Source: W*er Wisdom 39 ------- Office of Water WH-S56 tPA 800-B-93-004 March 1993 secondary the US. Environmental Protection Agency). These contaminated aquifers are quite costly. MCLs represent the maximum amount of a chemi- cal that can occur in drinking water without the Objective water being dangerous to human health. [Note: Some of the MCLs listed are subject to revision by EPA shortly.) Sub*tane« Concentration (ppb) Substance Concentration (ppb) Arsenic Barium Cadmium Mercury SO 1.000 10 2 Nitrate Selenium Endrin 2.4-0 (herbicide) 10.000 10 0.2 100 To illustrate how water flows through an aquifer, how ground water can become contaminated, and how diffi- cult it is to clean up contamination. Note: The above substances do not represent a complete list of regulated drinking water contaminants. - . 3) Explain the relationship between ppm and ppb and the conversion of these units to milligrams and micrograms per liter. For example: 1 ppm = 1000 ppb; 1 ppm = 1 mg/1; and 1 ppb = 1 ug/L 4) Relate the previous conversions to the drinking water regulations. [MCLs are established in milli- grams per liter (mg/1)]. Convert the numbers in the above chart from ppb to mg/L Source Activity adapted with permission from: Water Wisdom. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, 1989). Exercise #16. Contamination of an Aquifer Background Many communities obtain their drinking water from underground sources called aquifers. Water suppliers or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into aquifers for the groundwater contained therein. Unfor- tunately, the groundwater can become contaminated by harmful chemicals that percolate down through soil and rock into the aquifer—and eventually into the well. Groundwater contamination by chemicals is caused mainly by industrial runoff and/or improper manage- ment of chemicals, including improper disposal of household chemicals such as lawn care products and cleaners. Such contamination can pose a significant threat to human health. The measures that must be taken by utilities to either protect or clean up Materials 6"x8" disposable aluminum cake pans or plastic boxes 2 Ibs. non-water soluble plasticine modeling clay or floral clay 3-4 Ibs. white aquarium gravel Pea gravel Small drinking straw Food coloring 6 oz. paper cups (no larger) Water Procedure 1) Set up a model aquifer as shown in the diagram below. If a disposable aluminum baking pan is used, make a small hole in one end and insert a section of ia drinking straw to serve as the drain spout. Seal the hole around the straw with glue or clay. In addition, seal the clay layers of the model against the side of the container. 2) Place 10 drops of food coloring on the surface of the model near the highest end. This dye represents chemicals or others pollutants that have been spilled on the ground. 3) Slowly pour one 6-ounce cup of tap water on the aquarium gravel areas as shown in the diagram. Collect the water as it runs out of the straw. Repeat this process starting with 6 ounces of tap water and continue the flushing process until all the food coloring is washed out and the discharge water is Add food coloring and Dusk w3t*r her*. Pm <; 40 ------- UJpctoj Water secondary clear. (Collecting the water in white paper cups or in test tubes held up against a white background will enable students to detect faint coloration.) 4) Record the number of flushings required until an output with no visible color is reached (may re- quire up to ten flushes). [Note: 6 ounces of water in this model equals about 1 inch of rain.] Discussion Source Before the Activity 1) Where does the water go that falls on the surface of Background an aquifer? How about any chemicals or other pollutants that fall on the ground? (Some chemi- cals/pollutants are washed away by rain, some become attached-to rocks and soil, and some'end up in the groundwater.) Activity adapted with permission from: Water Wisdom. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, 1989). Exercise #11. Water Use Analysis 2) What things might influence the time needed to flush an aquifer clean? (Depth and volume of the water table, type of underlying rockand soil, nature and concentration of the pollutant.) After the Activity 1) After flushing, is the water in the model aquifer completely free of food coloring? (Probably not; trace amounts may remain.) 2) Estimate how much contamination remains in the model aquifer. (Refer to previous exercise.) 3) What keeps the chemical contamination in the demonstration from reaching the lower levels of the model aquifer? (The clay layer.) 4) What are some of the problems that might result from a major chemical spill near a watershed area? (Answers will vary.) 5) What steps could be taken to avoid damage to an aquifer? (Answers will vary.) Suggested Activities 1) Discuss the need for proper disposal of hazardous industrial wastes and harmful household chemi- cals, including used motor oil. 2) Simulate nitrate pollution due to fertilizer runoff. Pollute the aquifer with a small amount of soluble nitrate and perform a standard nitrate test after each successive flushing (be sure to wear safety glasses). Although household and other municipal water use accounts for only about 9 percent of total water use in .the United States, delivering adequate quantities of water of sufficient quality for this purpose is becoming increasingly expensive for individuals and communi- ties. It would, therefore, be useful for individuals and communities to employ conservation measures when using water. Objective To demonstrate the quantities of water that an average family uses on a daily basis. . 's • Procedure 1) Ask students to keep a diary of water use in their homes for three days. Students should make a chart similar to the one listed on the following page, adding any appropriate activities that are not listed. 2) Ask students to review the table of average water volumes required for typical activities and then answer the following questions using the data from their three-day water use diary. a) Estimate the total amount of water your family used in the three days. Give your answer in liters. b) On average, how much water did each family member use during the three days? Give your answer in liters per person per three days. c) On average, how much water was used per family member each day? Give your answer in liters per person per day. d) Compare the daily volume of water used per person in your household (Answer c) to the average daily water volume used per person in the United States (325 L per person per day). What reasons can you offer to explain any differences? ------- Office o] Water WH-556 BUU-B-U3-OU4 March 1993 secondary Discussion Source Ask students to identify ways in which their families Activity adapted with penniuion from f Average water volumes required for typical activities p Use |l Tub bath ^ Shower (per mjn) f^ Washing machine L, Low setting J"; High setting >-'- ' Dish washing >: By hand ' , By machine p Toilet flushing Volume of Water (in liters and gallons) 13QL (35 gal) 19 L (5 gal) 72 L (19 gal) 170L (45 gal) 40 L (10 gal) 1 46 L (12 gal) I 11 L (3 gal) f faprlMtd wth paatuloD limn Onotry n ik> Qmnaaiity. C \9U, Anrion Chtmicil Sadtty Data Table Number of persons in family Number of baths Number of showers Length of each in minutes Number of washing machine loads Low setting High setting Dish washing Number of times by hand Number of times by dishwasher Number of toilet flushes Other uses and number of each: Cooking Drinking Making juice and coffee Days 1 23 . JUprMtd wtth pcnnbtlon from i^nttry h At Ganrandfy. e 1588. Amtrian Chtntfci] SodMy '•.'•' ------- What are Blue Thumbs? i Blue Thumbs symbolize the need to take better care of our water sup- plies. A Blue Tluimb encourages the three basic actions we must take: conserve water, protect it from pollution, and pet involved in drinking wntcr issues in our local communities. Each commu- nity's emphasis on the three Blue Thumb basics will differ according to local conditions and issues. Why do we need Blue Thumbs? More than 300 billion gallons of water a day are used in die U.S. About 250 million people are using the same water resources (hat four million people did 200 years ago. And, pollutants are pouring into our water resources at a rate of about 500,000 tons a day. That's just industrial waste. Experts estimate that non-point pollution, that's agricultural and urban runoff as well as residential drips and drabs of pollution, threatens our water resources more than industry. Where can we use our Blue Thumbs to make an impact? Use your Blue Thumb by doing something every day that protects water sources, conserves our Finished water supplies, or affects decisions about drinking water in our communities. Use it at home, at work, at school, in any public place. We have the opportunity to make a water decision every time we reach out to turn on tlie tap to take a shower, walk by a dripping faucet at work, see a business run- ning its sprinklers on a rainy day, buy recycled paper prod- ucts, or read about a public meeting on a kxral land use. There are many opportunities each day to practice the Blue Thumb basics. National Drinking Water Week Headquarters American Water Works Association 6666 West Quincy Avenue Denver, Colorado 80235 303-794-7711 ------- I Americans have the safest drinking water supplies ' in the world — so safe that most of us never think about it. It takes a unique network of people dedicated to safe drinking water to ensure adequate supplies for all. As our population grows into the next century, we will use increasing amounts of this natural resource. And, the potential for contamination of our water sources continues to grow. There is much that individual citizens can do to pitch in and help... to use their 'Blue Thumbs' to con- serve, protect, and influence drinking water decisions. Tliis brochure describes actions which you can take to aflcct the quality and quantity of your community drinking water. begin by finding out where your \ drinking water comes from. If you ; receive public water, it is captured ' and then treated from cither surface water (lakes, rivers, streams, or reser- voirs) or groundwatcr (underground aquifers) or some combination of the two. Forty-eight million people in die U.S. receive their drinking water from private or household wells. Ijeam what activities could cont- aminate your water. Many activi- ties can affect your water quality, whether your water comes from a public supply or a private well. The most important of these arc: • Expanding or building new industrial, residential, or commercial arras. Routine road maintenance, such as repaying or deicing during winter months. • Pesticides or fertilizers, used in any commercial or residential areas. • Household waste dumped at landfills, or in • your backyard. • Underground storage tanks or drains with harmful substances, such as those at gasoline stations or on turns. I Learn how to use the right tools. Com- • munitics actually have'quite a bit of power over how land is used, how buildings arc built, and how health standards are met. There are several tools you can use to influ- ence these decisions. D Pay close attention to local ordinances regulating activi- ties that can affect water quality; and those Uui set lim- its on population density and regulate development. O Support standards that ensure structures (such as under- ground tanks) will not affect water quality. Support standards that ensure the best management practices are used for sqme activities, for example, pesticide applications or feedlot operations. D Get involved in volunteer water monitoring programs, clean-up activities, or household hazardous waste collection programs. D Call your local water supplier. If you arc concerned with water quality or changes in taste and odor, call and ask to speak with an individual involved in water quality or treatment operations. D Support wellhead protection programs if your source of drinking water is groundwatcr. There are also water- shed protection programs for surface waters such as lakes, rivers, or springs. D Test private wells. There are more than 13 million pri- vate wells in the United States. These wells are not regu- lated by the government and testing is up to the individual owner. Use a certified laboratory and if Uic test shows the presence of nitrate (over 10 pans per million), there's cause for concern. Talk with your local public health department or agricultural extension agent to find ways to change some of the practices which can affect your private well. •a «q Get involved in the long-term protection of your water supply. D Take note of new construction. Check the local newspaper for articles about new development of industry. D Attend local planning hearings or zoning appeals on development or industrial projects that could possibly affect your water. Ask questions about how your water source will be affected and protected. D Support plans to improve your community water system, sewage system, or waste disposal landfills. Ask local officials whether your town's budget does or should contain appro- priations for these projects. D Join any local citizen's advisory groups which serve planning or utility commissions or your local chapter of groups like the League of Women Voters. Source US Environmental Protection Agency ------- BLUE THUMB • 3 l^'/^,'*-'-^ , ,~- v >*.;*'• V •-^•IV ^ •^•.IJAA Office ofWater WH-556 tPAi March 1993 Here are 20 quick questions to find out if you know how to give drinking water a hand. Mark the following true or false and compare your a'nswers with those on the back of~ihis TRUE FUSE INUC r*u.3t ** D D 1 • Installing a low-flow toilet can save a family of four more than 45 gallons of water a day. D D 2. More than 75 percent of the water in the United States is located underground. D D \J. Reading the labels on common household products won't tell you what products are harmful to water. D D 4. Americans improperly dispose of more oil in a year than the Exxon Valdez spilled. D D I) • Even when a recipe calls for using warn' or hot water, you should draw cold water from the tap and heat it on the stove or in the microwave. D D 1 F 6. n s safe to drink water directly from remote streams. D D / . There are ways to landscape that use between 30 - 80 percent less water than traditional landscaping. D D O. If you have your own well, you can be sure your water is safe. D D /'. You can drink more than 4.000 eight- ounce glasses of tap water for the same cost as a six-pack of soda pop. D D T F D D T F D D D D T F D D T F 10. Common outdoor bug and weed killers can contaminate underground water or end .up in your local river or lake. _ 1 1 . The quality of U.S. drinking water is not regulated by the federal government for safety. D D T F D D T F D D T F DD T f D D T F D D . Two-thirds of the water you use at home you use in the bathroom. 1 J. Trash and debris around a lake won't affect water quality. 14. It's better for water if you dry out leftover household products such as furniture polish, car wax, or latex paint, before disposing of them. 15. More than 800,000 new water wells are drilled each year for domestic, commercial. and industrial use. 10. Letting the water run while you brush your teeth or shave is water wise. 1 /. New water sources are being discovered even- day. lo. An abandoned well can be left unsealed without jeopardizing the ground- water source. I;/. You can ignore a leaky faucet at work or at school... it's only worth saving water at home. 20. You can influence decisions your community makes on drinking water. m 45 ------- BUJE THUMB Office of Wm WH-556 EPA 800-B-a«X>4 1. 2. True. True. 3. False. 4. 5. True. True. 6. False. 7. True. 8. False. 9. True. 10. .True. 11. False. 12. True. 13. False. 14. True. That's 1,350 gallons a month! However, 50 percent of U.S. drinking water is from surface sources. Don't buy products that say "poisonous, toxic, corrosive," etc. Heat can dissolve lead from pipes and solder into your water. New houses with lead-free solder are not as likely to have lead problems. Giardiasis can be caused by animal wastes in remote untreated streams. It's called Xeriscape™. Contaminants can seep through the ground — have your well tested for contaminants by your local Health Department. In some cities, the number of glasses can go as high as 15,000. They can seep into the water under ground or rain can wash them into surface water. The U.S. government regulates quality and currently has standards for more than 80 contaminants. Showers and toilets are the major users. Even though some landfills have a protective lining, leakage can occur and contaminate groundwater. 15- True. Many are drilled to monitor water quality in aquifers and in areas around dump sites. 16. False. It wastes water. 17. False. We have identified or are using most water sources in the U.S. 18. False. All unused wells should be capped. Open wells can provide a route for contaminants to reach aquifers. 19. False. It's smart to save water no matter where you are. 20. True. Call your water utility company, speak up at public meetings, write a letter to your City Council — you can affect decisions! O American Water Works Association Permission is granted 10 (he media and the following organizations and their members to reprint the Blue Thumb Quiz in whole or in part. American Water Work.1; Association. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. American Ground Water Trust. U.S. Department of Agriculture Extension Sen-ice. The League of Women Voters. Water Education Foundation. National Geographic Society. Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. National Association of Water Companies. Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, and the American Library Association. National Drinking Water Week Headquarters. 6666 West Quincy Ave.. Denver. Colorado II 0 2 J 5 ------- Office'of Water WH-556 :EPA800-B-9«)04 TEACHER'S GUIDE STUDENT ACTIVITY SHEETS FOR DRINKING WATER PROJECTS How Clean f>: Cic-sn? United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water (WH-550) Washington DC 20460 EPA 810/F-92-003 July 1992 Introduction As recently as 20 yearsago, the standards for "clean based tin aesthetic factors such as taste, odor and color. Today, we know that there are many things which we can't taste, smell or see that can still be harmful to us. For this reason, standards for what is "safe" or "clean" have been set by the government. This activity is designed to allow students to experience how difficult it is to "clean" an aquifer once it has become polluted by simulating hazardous material accidents which contaminate their aquifers (sponges), Objective Students will investigate how pollutants contaminate ground water by using a simple model of an aquifer. General Procedures 1. Each group will need a large cellulose household sponge, 3 -16 oz. clear plastic cups, a paper or foam dinner plate and a tray or bucket to collect water squeezed from their sponges. Make several copies of the Student Activity Sheet on the reverse side of this sheet The class will also need the following three liquids to represent the pollutants in the different accident scenarios for each Group: Group 1 1 ounce of Liquid soap Group 2 1 ounce of Salad oil (If small graduated cylinders are available use 20 mL of oil) Group 3 1 ounce of Gelatin (dissolve a package in hot water just before class) Group 4 1 ounce of an equal mixture of soap, oil and gelatin 2. Before class pour each "pollutant" in a separate small paper cup. Locate each group's materials near its work station or let students collect materials and take them to their work stations. 3. Divide the class into four random groups, each with four or five students. If more groups are needed, make extras of groups 1 and 3, to minimize clean up problems. Pass out the Student Activity Sheets to each group and direct then to begin collecting the materials as described in Step 1 of the activity. Those not directly involved in squeezing sponges should be assigned duties such as predicting how many rinses it will take for the sponges will become clean, emptying the cups between squeezes, recording the number of squeezes, deciding when their group's sponge is clean, and whether it would be safe to drink the water that has been squeezed from the sponge. 4. After the students have finished the preparations in Step 1. read over the introduction on the Student Activity Sheet as a class. Be sure each group understands that the mixture in the small paper cup represents a "pollutant" released in the accident described for each group on their Activity Sheet 5. Each group should repeat Steps 3 - 6 on their Activity Sheet until they either decide that the sponge is clean^or estimate how long it would take to clean the sponge or judge whether the sponge can be cleaned at all. If they haven't cleaned the sponge within 10 minutes, it may be best to let them make an estimate. (NOTE: If possible, provide Group 2 with graduated cylinders. Have them pour each cup of rinse water into the cylinder and try to measure the volume of the oil layer in each rinse after the oil separates out) 6. After all groups have recorded the number of rinses (actual or estimated) needed to clean the sponge, have them clean up their work stations and return their materials. DiscJ.isaf.on Have each group report their results to the rest of the class. As they give their report, ask the following questions: 1. Could they get the water clean? 2. Describe how easy or difficult it was to remove the pollutant from the sponge. Once the sponge was contaminated with 1 ounces of a pollutant, how many more ounces of water were needed to clean the sponge? 3.1f Group 2 used graduated cylinders, ask them how much oil was recovered from the sponge. Will all of die oil ever come out of the sponge? 4. How could they tell it was clean? If they cannot see any pollutant, does that mean it's not mere? 5. What reasons can the class give as to why some pollutants might be easier to clean up than others? 6. For group 4, which pollutant in their mixture would clean up first, based on what the other groups found? 47 ------- Office of Water STUDENT ACTlWfy March I'll r s~** r kJc-an ;•• <^ica?v SHEET Introduction In comparison with rivers or streams, water in the ground moves very slowly and very calmly in rivers that are very wide - sometimes more than one hundred miles wide. These slow underground rivers are called aquifers. Many of us get our drinking water from aquifers. When a pollutant is spilled on the ground, it slowly seeps down and can get into an aquifer, making our water unsafe to drink. When our aquifer gets polluted, we need to get answers to many difficult questions like how toxic are the pollutants?, how fast are the pollutants moving in the aquifer?, and how difficult are they to remove from the aquifer? In this activity, the class is divided into at least 4 groups. Each group will experiment with a different kind of pollutant to find out how difficult it is to remove the pollutant from a sponge. Aquifers are not really spongy, but we can still use a sponge to give us some idea of what happens when an aquifer gets contaminated. Group 1 will use soap as its pollutant In this case, the ground is contaminated when a tanker truck gets into an accident on the highway and spills the pollutant on the side of the road. The soap is a lot like real pollutants which dissolve in water but are not hazardous or toxic. Group 2. will use salad as its pollutant Again, a truck accident has caused the spill as for Group 1 's pollutant The oil is a lot like gasoline which is hazardous and toxic, but does not mix well with water. Group 3 will use gelatin as its pollutant This time the pollutant has leaked into the ground from a large old and rusty underground tank where it has been stored for years. The gelatin is a lot like pesticides which dissolve in water and are toxic. Group 4 will have the worst troubles. An explosion has occurred at a major chemical plant, and all three types of pollutants - soap, oil and gelatin - have been spilled onto the ground. Objective You will investigate how pollutants contaminate an aquifer by using a sponge as a simple model of an aquifer. General Procedures 1. One student in each group should pre-moisten their sponge by soaking it in water, then squeezing it until it is just moist to touch. Other students in each group should be sure they have the following items at their woik station: One large cup of clean water Two empty large cups Tray or bucket for collecting rinse water One paper or plastic dinner plate Small cup containing a "pollutant" After these materials have been collected, wait for the teacher to read over the Introduction with the class. 2. Place the sponge on the plate and pour the liquid "pollutant" in the small cup onto the sponge, letting the sponge soak up as much pollutant as possible. 3. SLOWLY pour clean water onto sponge, letting it soak in until the sponge is full. Pour back into the cup any-excess water on the plate. You will need to know how many cupfuls of water are being used to rinse the sponge, so keep. track of all the water vou use. 4. Lift the sponge and squeeze it out completely, catching the water in an empty large cup. 5. Pour more water onto the sponge, letting it soak in. 6. Squeeze out the sponge again, this time using the other empty large cup to catch the water squeezed from the* sponge. 7. Compare the two cups of polluted water. Decide which cup seems to have the most polluted water, then empty this cup. Set aside the cup containing the water which looks fess polluted. 8. Repeat Steps 5,6 and 7 each time comparing the water in the two cups to decide whether the water is getting cleaner each time the polluted sponge is rinsed out Count the number of times the sponge is rinsed. 9. Estimate to the nearest 1/4 cup, how many cupfuls of water were used to rinse the sponge. Convert to ounces (One cupful equals 16 ounces). How much more rinsing • if any - must be done before the water squeezed from the sponge would be "safe" to drink? 10. After you have finished the experiment return materials to the proper place, then get ready to report your results to the class. Water Fresh water MOPE polluted 7 (discard) LESS polluted (save) ------- Office of Water WH-S56 ~EPA 800-B-9&O04 March 1993 Model of ground voter vulnerability There art many factors affecting the vulnerability of a water supply, but we will only look at the five factors described in Table 1. A value of 1 means it is harder for rain water (and pollutants) to reach the supply, while a value of 3 means it is easier. It may be easy to see that the greater the depth to water, the longer it will take rain water to reach the supply. But how does a steep slope make the area less vulnerable? Figure 1 shows how some of these factors affect the vulnerability of various aquifers. Table 2 Directions: Use Table 1 to find out how many points should be given for each of the five factors. For example. Table 1 tells you that if die depth to water is less than 15 ft you should give 3 points for this factor in Quadrant 1. Values from Table 1 may be averaged. Fill in the rest of the blanks for each factor, then add them up to find the vulnerability of each quadrant - Quadrant 1 Depth to water Yearly rainfall Aquifer type Soil type Lav of land 12ft 45" Sand/gravel Loam/sand _Hat VULNERABILITY SCORE Quadrant 2 Depth to water Yearly rainfall ; Aquifer type Soil type Lav of land 40ft 45" Limestone Limestone/bam Gentle slooc ' VULNERABILITY SCORE Quadrant 3 Depth to water Yearly rainfall Aquifer type Soil type Lav of land 60ft 38" Limestone Limestone/clay Roll in P hills VULNERABILITY SCORE Quadrant 4 Depth to water Yearly rainfall Aquifer type Soil type Lav of land 100ft 34" Sand/gravel Shale/day Steen hilk VULNERABILITY" SCORE How to use the model You can get a rough idea of the vulnerability of the underlying aquifer in each of Priceford's four quadrants by using these five factors to give each quadrant a "score" on how easy it would be for a pollutant to pass through the ground to contaminate the aquifer. Follow the instructions for filling out Table 2. Then use your results along with the map of ihe Priceford area to answer the questions at the bottom of the page. Give your reasons for each answer! Questions. 1. Discuss how Factors 2-5 described in Table 1 affect the vulnerability of water supplies at Points B. C and D in Figure 1. If three towns get their water supplies at Points B, C and D. which supply would be the most vulnerable? The least vulnerable? 2. Use Table 3 below to interpret the vulnerability scores you calculated in Table 2. Which town's water supply would be most likely to be contaminated if a larger tanker truck full of a toxic chemical spilled its contents during a traffic accident on the nearest road? 3. Compare the vulnerability values you calculated in the four towns in the above map to Points A, B, C and D in Figure 1. Which of these towns is most likely to be . located at which of these Points? 4. How would one town's pollutants affect the other town's supplies? If a wood preserving chemical is found in Small town's water, but not in Riverville's. where is the most likely area where the source of contamination might be found? . ' 5 -. 1 very low . .: y-JZm&i:-,.^ VuinerablHty. Score 7.5 " . . -4^0^/ ' :"t 12.5 1 '••'•'•#.£ I — 1 « i ' moderate Relative Vulnerability 15 1 very high ------- Office of Water WH-S56 March 19»3 STUDENT ACTIVITY SHEET Resource Management • Protecting your Drinking Water Introduction In almost any town, a large variety of chemicals and wastes are used or disposed of in day-to-day life. We are now learning that if things like gasoline, road salt. pesticides or sewage are not used or discarded wisely. they can contaminate a town's water supply. We are also learning that some sources of water are easier to contaminate than other sources. Whether or not your town's supply is vulnerable to contamination depends onrmany different factors. These factors may add together to protect the supply, or to leave it very vulnerable to contamination. To estimate the vulnerability of the ground water flowing under an area of land, a hydrogeologist measures several factors which affect how quickly rain water moves through the ground in that area. Pollutants will usually move in the same way as rain water. Once you know something about each of these factors. you will be able to decide what must be done to be sure your drinking water will always be safe. Objective In this activity, you will use a simple mathematical model of ground -water vulnerability to estimate the vulnerability of a small town's water supply. Table 1 Estimated value of five factors affecting groundwater vulnerability FACTOR VALUE 1. Yearly rainfall (total amount of rain that falls in one year) 2. Depth to water (vertical depth from surface to aquifer) 3. Aquifer type ; (TypeofsouVrock aquifer passes through) 4. Soil type^£'; (Main type of soil and rock above the aquifer) 5. Lay of the land The general slope of surface of the land) 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 1 A:'. 3 2 1 3 2 1 ~. if more than 40 in. «. if from 15 to 40 in. _ if less than 15 in. _. if less than 10 ft. ~ if from 10 to 75 ft — if greater than 75 ft _ if sand or gravel _ if limestone ,; ..if bedrock : ' • '; -.'if sand or gravel : •• M. if limestone • :. u. if loam or sflt '— if clay or shale -if flat ~ if gently rolling hflls _ if steep hUlsAnountains Bedrock Sand/ Gravel Shale Clay Limestone Loam Figure 1. Aquifers form where water-carrying layers of earth. like sand, cover layers of shale or clay which do not allow water to pass through. If the layer forming the aquifer is 'confined* above by shale or clay, the aquifer is less vulnerable to contamination. •••:.• SSConfining layers of shale ------- Office of Water Wli-556 EPA 800-8-33-004 March 1HB3 Station/student 2 • collect plastic soap bottles, tubing (1/2" I.D. and 1/2" O.D.). foam strips, and syringe or other aspirator. Force foam up about one inch into each of the large (1/2" I.D.) pieces of tubing for use in step 5. Station/student 3 • collect sand, gravel, felt sheet and straws. Soak felt sheet in water, wring out, then roll the sheet into a tight coil about 3/4" thick and 20" long. Use in step 6. Station/student 4 - First help Student 1 with assembly steps 1 to 4, then get food coloring, water supply, cups. Student 5 - Help with model assembly in steps 1 to 9. Once the model is assembled, and water is flowing through the sand, into the river valley and out of the collector tube, do the activities described on back. Investigations I. Which wells have the most water in them? Raise the water supply bottles as high as possible without pulling out the tubing • what happens to the water level in each of the wells and to the amount of water coming out of the collector tube? Next, lower the bottles and observe what happens. How does the height of the water supply relate to water flow rate? 2. Pour out half of the water from the supply bottles, mark the water level, then pour a 4 ounce cupful of water into each bottle. Every few minutes, as the water reaches the mark.ipour in another cupful of water. Also measure the total amount of water added during the time periods before the dye appears in water from the collector tube and after the dye is no longer visible in water from this tube. 3. At the same time, place four drops o;T food coloring on die sand at Point A shown in the assembly diagram for Steps / - 9. Ou the plexiglass, mark the point with a water soluble marker. Every two minutes, make a mark on the plexiglass at the front edge of the dye as it coves through ihe sand. Measure the distance between the marks and record the distance moved per unit time. 4. Ask your teacher to show you how to do a 10-tube series of 1:10 dilutions of food color in water. Number each tube 1 to 10. Use this series as a guide for estimating the concentration of dye in the water coming out of the collector tube. After the dye you added in Step 3 above begins to appear in the water from the collection tube, collect a sample in a test tube every two minutes. Compare the color of this sample with each tube in the dilution series and record the number of the tube which is nearest in color of your sample. This will be the concentration of your sample. 5. Graph your data, plotting time on the x-axis and dye movementjon the y-axis. Also plot time vs. concentration after dye appears in water coming out of the collector tube. What does your data tell you about how long it takes for ground water to get clean after being contaminated? Clean Up First, empty any water in the water supply bottles into the model and remove bottles and tubing. Then, place screen over a bucket and flush sand and gravel onto screen • use a screen with a mesh large enough to allow sand to sift through but small enough to catch the gravel. Rinse our foam strips and felt roll. Sun with strip of duct tape about 2* longer than panel Lay tape on table : (tkky side up. Place first panel on tape with 1/2" overuoxUsing ruler as '.: guide, lower edge of second,-:'. ;-r.;•..£ panel onto upe about 3/4" ....;;... ^, -...". ; from edge of Snt panel !•... .-;: Once pud* ue aliened. lay second panel flat and press. t good seal Use mother strip of upe on top surfaceo, to .Teouorce Che v joint. :••• Ccmrr the joined ptnrtt oo a Curd' • •• •_•.. snip of upe long enough.to coverthe base and two sides of the panels. Matea food seal . TDttfteboxandponrm'a'pea -": gravel layer sloping from about a quarter of the way up one side and down to the bottom on (he other. Ron felt sheet into a 3/4" thick rope ' long enough to completely cover the gravel Tap down with a ruler, '•'- tight agaum '. Cut two 10" strips of foam and stuff into *-^l/F- ID tubing.- lift me panels" f upright, place foam straps cetwHr:'"' panels, adhesive side out, and puD me endi of me tape up to cover ":. . Q Push • long straw between, felt and panel. down into ID (ravel leaving the upper end of straw near the top of dw box. • Q Pour in masomyund sad nuke •TiDeytb uncover the bole in the panel. Cover send wim layer of gravel aod pack slightly B help bold the vaDey's shape. Attach 1/2* ID tubing to bonk, mvm and fiD with water. IDPOQCD IOJOL IDBO Caioo IDA cm uvcx k battom of vaSey. men flow oat of toil tube. Have a CBW 'paper cups *> eoDect this flow. . . ' 51 ------- Building a Model Aquifer Office of Voter WH-5S6 EPA 800-8-93-004 March 1993 TEACHER/ STUDENT GUIDE 'Background - ~r. ~ Although nearly half of all Americans get their drinking water from wells, many people have never heard of ground water. Use of ground water supplies is increasing at twice the rate of surface supplies, and the trend is expected to continue. Until the late 1970's, it was widely believed that ground water was protected from contamination by the natural filtering effect of the many layers of soil, sand, gravel and rocks. We now know that pollutants can travel through all these layers. Incidents of serious contamination have been reported in every state in thenanoa Objective The student will use a model of an aquifer to describe how ground water flows through an aquifer, how ground water can become contaminated, and why it is so difficult to clean contaminated ground water. Teacher Suggestions This model can be a very flexible tool which will allow students to simply study groundwater flow, look at how well placement affects yield, or examine how ground water is vulnerable to contamination. Depending on resources, the teacher may lead groups of four or five students in building their own models is described below, or the teacher may build a single, larger (the longer the better) version for demonstration. If students are able to make their own models, then it would create less traffic and crowding if all materials for students 1 - 4 are placed at different stations around die room. Then it will be easier for each group to pick up what they need and take it back to their own work area. Begin by orienting the students to how the earth looks below the surface, demonstrating a working model and relating its pans to a diagram of the hydrogeologic cycle. Using unassembled materials, go over the basic assembly plan illustrated in Steps 1 - 9 on the back, briefly showing students how to put the model together. Then divide students into groups to build their own model. Student Activities • Model Assembly for a. group having four or five students, responsibilities may be divided among students as below. Station/student 1 • get two plexiglass panels (one with hole in it), duct tape, and ruler and begin assembling model as shown in steps 1 to 4 on back. Us* oT Materials (per model) 1 Two plexiglau pndf -10'x 20". . . In one pntel. drifl 13/8" bob located 5" from ..topBid' frOOmCCQfb, •. • 2 Duct T4»- 2-W wide roU 3 Uihrweichi Mi-lO-120" iheet raDed into tube 4 Scud • ilMMU 3 <{on 5 6 7 Two 6- pa. tnbinj - l/T fener dtnetor (ID.) & ODB6*pc.Mai-1/2"outer------- Office of Water "H'A 800-8-93-004 WH-5S6 March 1963 50 n n 40 •n Trucking I Pn. V. ^""^ Co. Heating Oil Co. D 30 RTVERVILLE School Gas Station 20 G© • ODD D 10 0 Contaminated well 9 Uncon tarn mated well 1. Start with a well with a known elevation. Using ruler and pencil, LIGHTLY draw a line from this well to the nearest wells having at least a 20-foot difference in elevation. 2. Cut a rubber band open and lay it out flat, without stretching it, along the edge of a ruler. With a pen, make at least five marks 1/2 inch apart beginning from the middle of the rubber band. Use the marked rubber band to help you divide each line into equal segments. Your teacher will show you how this is done. 3. Label each mark on the line between the known elevations with the estimated elevations. For example, if the elevations at each end of a line are 10 and 40 feet above sea level, you should make two marks on the line, dividing the line into three equal lengths. The first mark should be labeled 20, and the next one labeled 30. 4. Connect all marks having the same elevation with a smooth line. These are contour lines. 5. Every half inch or so along each contour line, draw a short arrow perpendicular from one line out towards the line having the next lowest elevation. Ground water flows in the direction of the arrows. 6. Find all the contaminated wells and draw a single loop that contains only these wells and none of the uncontaminated wells, if possible. The .area inside this loop shows how far the contamination has already spread through the ground water, and is called the contamination plume. 7. Use your map to answer questions on page 1. 53 ------- Office of Water Wli-556 EPA 800-B-93-004 March 1993 Tracking Pollution • A Hazardous Whodunnit STUDENT ACTIVITY SHEET Introduction , RiverviHe is a fictional" town with a real problem. Each week, more citizens are complaining that their drinking water tastes bad. In many small towns like this one, there is no central water supply. Every home and most businesses have a private well. The town's mayor tested the water from several wells and found that the ground water has been contaminated with some kind of fuel. The wells that have been contaminated are marked out on the map on back of this page. The mayor thinks the Heating Oil Company is responsible for this contamination and wants them to start investigating their fuel storage tanks which are buried underground and to check the tanks for leaks. The Heating Oil Co. says they just tested their tanks and knows they are safe. They think the Trucking Company is the source of pollution. The Trucking Co. says the source could just as likely be the Heating Oil Co. or the Gas Station, since all three places have underground tanks for storing the same kind of fuel So Riverville has a problem and no one is sure who is responsible. The mayor needs some way of proving who is causing the pollution and who should clean it up. You will be the "detective" who helps prove where the pollutant is coming from. Qeaning up ground water contamination is a very expensive job. You should be very sure of the place you choose to start cleaning up, otherwise the money will be wasted. It is up to you to solve the mystery. Objective You will make a topographic map, use it to predict ground water flow and investigate the most likely source of ground water contamination. General Procedures To decide which of the suspected businesses is the most likely source of contamination, the easiest thing you can do is find out the direction that ground water flows. Since ground water generally flows downhill, following the slope of the surface of the land, you can be fairly certain that the suspected source which is farthest "upstream" is the real source of contamination. This activity shows you how to estimate ground water flow by making a contour map. As in many very small towns, only a few people in Riverville know the exact elevation above sea level for their property. To make a contour map. it usually helps to know the elevations of as many places as possible. But this simple procedure can be used even though you only know a few elevations. The map on back shows the elevations for seven wells and gives directions for drawing in the contours of the land. After you have finished this procedure, answer the questions below. Questions 1. If the flow of ground water and the pollutants in it follow the contour of the land, what is the most likely source of the contamination, the Heating Oil Co., the Trucking Co. or the Gas Station? 2. The contamination plume will continue to spread slowly through the ground, much like smoke from a chimney drifting with the wind. Describe where on your map you think the plume will move with time. 3. Which of the uncontaminated wells do you expect to become contaminated in the near future? Do you think the school's water well will be contaminated? A. How do you explain the fact that one well within the plume was not contaminated? Give at least two possible reasons how this could happen. (Hint: see the Resource Management Activity) 5. Is it possible you are wrong in assuming that ground water flow follows the contour of the land? What else could you investigate to be sure? 6. Assuming that ground water flow does follow the contours of the land, is it possible that there are two sources of contamination? What would you expect to find if all three companies had leaking storage tanks and were actual sources of contamination? Extensions 1. Get a map of your own community and use it to chart out ground water direction. Locate the community's water supply and any potential sources of contamination. What kind of precautions should be taken to keep an eye on potential sources of contamination? ------- Office of Wa WH-556 EPA 800-8-3^004 March 1993 • Conumimted wefl ' 91ifnvmdmffi*;*^ well 8. Using a PEN, every half inch or so along each contour line, draw short arrows outward perpendicularly from one contour line to the contour line having the next lowest elevation. It is important that these arrows be as perpendicular as possible to give the best estimate of the direction of ground water flow. Erase the contour lines and other pencilled-in lines to make the map less confusing. To get a better sense of overall direction of flow, you might want to draw a few longer arrows which average out the shorter ones. 6. LIGHTLY, with pencil, draw lines between each well and its nearest neighbors having at least a 20 foot difference in elevation. To divide these lines into equal segments representing 10 ft. increases in elevation, stretch the marked rubber band so that a marie is over each well at the line's endpoims, with the necessary number of marks between to allow you to count up by lens from one well to the next For example, a line between the two wells at 10 and 40 ft. needs two marks between the wells. Stretch the band so that a mark falls at each endpoint on the line and two marks lie between the endpoints. Make marks on the line at each of the two intervening marks on the stretched band. Label these marks 20 and 30 ft. Repeat for each line. 7. LIGHTLY draw smooth curved lines connecting all wells and marks having the same elevations. These are contour lines. 9. Draw a loop tut groups together all of the contaminated wells. From the flow arrows, note that the plume has spread in two directions, to the top right comer and to the lower left It should be clear that the Tracking Co. (T) is the source of pollution. Also, the uncontaminated well found within the cluster of contaminated wells is a newer, deep well which taps an aquifer protected by an underground layer of dense rock (shale) which keeps fuel out This may serve as a lead-in to the Resource Management Activity. ------- Office of WB WH-556 EPA 800-B-9M04 March 1993 Tracking Pollution • A Hazardous Whodunnit TEACHER'S GUIDE Introduction-. . -. This activity presents the student with a real world problem and provides a simple, but not always accurate tool for investigating the problem. The problem is that a town's drinking water is contaminated In many small towns like Riverville, every home and most businesses have a private well. Lab results from several wells showed that the ground water has been contaminated with a kind of fuel stored by three companies. Of the three possible suspected sources of contamination, each suspect has a reasonable argument as to why they are not responsible for the problem: 1. The Healing Oil Company is the prime suspect since they store the most fuel and sell it to the other two suspected companies. 2. The Heating Oil Co. has just tested their tanks and knows they are safe. They argue that the Trucking Company is the source of pollution. 3. The Trucking Co. says the source could just as likely be the Heating Oil Co. or the Gas Station. They claim there is no proof that they are responsible. The only way to find out who is responsible is to produce some evidence to help decide which of these is the actual source of contamination. Emphasizing the expense of cleaning up ground water contamination and the need for certainty before forcing a business to begin cleaning up lets the student know that there is often a lot at stake in this kind of investigation. Objective Students will make a topographic map, use it to predict ground water flow and investigate the most likely source of ground water contamination. General Procedures 1. It will be best for students to work together in groups of at least two. Each group will need: a medium sized rubber band about 1/8 inch in width a ruler, pencil and pen Student activity sheet 2. Read over with the class the Introduction on the Student Activity Sheet. Ask them which of the three they think is the actual source and have them write down their best guess. Underground Storage Tank p$b Contaminated 3. You might also explore whether anyone can think of any simpler ways of finding out the source of contamination than by doing this activity. Point out .the fact that another way of finding out whodunnit is to test the contaminated wells again to find out which wells have more contaminant in the water. The wells nearest the source should have the highest levels; those farthest from the source will be lower. This can be expensive though, since lab tests are between$100 to $200 apiece. 4. The contours of a landscape can be estimated even if the elevation is known for only a few points, provided the points are well scattered around the area. The procedure used here assumes a constant slope between these known points. If one point is at 10 ft above sea level and another point is at SO ft, men when the distance between the points is divided into four equal segments, the elevation will increase 10 ft over the length of one segment This process is described in more detail on the next page. 5. The rubber band is used to divide lines into equal segments, depending oh the difference in elevations of the endpoints of the line. This process of dividing the lines can be very tedious if done mathematically, and diverts from the point of the activity. Using the rubberband method simplifies the process considerably. Cut the rubber band open and lay it out flat, without stretching it, along die edge of a ruler. With a pen. make at least five marks 1/2 inches apart beginning from about the middle of the band. Step 6 on the next page describes how to use it to divide a line. 56 ------- OfficrofWa VH-SS* Ready, Set, GO! (|£ Forming New Habits! ^SBXSR. ^y i» i^3« i»Si5S3m«iS«i«5S«M* Sylvester and Tweety both realize we have a problem with so much trash. Tweety is trying to make a difference, but Sylvester just continues doing things the old way—making lots of trash. How can we form new habits? Tweety has some IDEA STARTERS! Practice makes perfect! Key words: hat*.: sort reduce, reuse. © Get ready! {"You wilfneed 2 boxeslarge enough* toTJoidTquannty oVonish:"8"pa^)cr~ " I grocery bags; at least 2 "clean" trash items per student"'"_'" I bottles), representing reduce—e.g. containers for concentrated products I and refutable containers, reuse—e.g. handkerchief rcfillable^ballppinr j pen, and recycle—^.g. items that arexollected in your community (call I companies to find out what they are buying), leaves and peanut shells, for I composting. 'Note to the teacher: do not use glass containers for {jhis activity. «.___.._.. __—_ IDEA 1 — You and your students make a list of items for them to bring in. IDEA 2 — You bring in the items. IDEA 3 — Find liner from the school grounds. We can all get ready for the 3Rs relay. We will need to: • Set up a relay course 50 feet, or longer. • Label 2 bags with each of the following: "Reduce." "Reuse." "Recycle." and one for "Compost." a form of recycling. • Place one set of four bags at the one side of the end of course and one set of four on the other side, with labels facing toward starling line. | • Kill two boxes with equal amounts of "clean" trash. • Place trash boxes halfway down the course—one on each side. • Mark" the starting line. LABELED CD BAGS: 50' COURSE STARTING LINE CD BOXES © Get set! To practice sorting trash, we need the class divided into two teams. As reams, let's think ot'gr-r-rcat names for our teams. Now. here come the rules: • Each team lines up at the starring line. • The first player from each team runs to their box. pulls out one item, runs to the paper bags, and places the item in the bag with the label that describes how that item can be kept out of the landfill. • Once the item is put into the bag. it can't be taken out and put into another bag. • The player then runs back to the end of the team line, and the next teammate starts down the course. • Teammates can cheer (Yeah!), but cannot yell out advice. • The relay continue.-; until the trash boxes are empty and all players are sitting down. Tu-eety's Idea Starter And the Winner Is... A Mathstarter »»lf either team gets 8 out of 10 items right (80%)...it is a winner! As a group, lets go through each bag and find out how each team did. We'll have 10 do a lot of thinking! Could items have been put into 57 t Alliance for Environmental Education Made possible through a grant from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (J RECYCLE fj REUSE Q REDUCE F] COMPOST Q RECYCLE PI REUSE REDUCE COMPOST © GO! Tweety sax's. "It's OK it" we make mistakes. That's how we learn." another bag? Which one? Why? IDEA 1— How did we do? Do we need more practice? IDEA 2—How can we reduce trash in the classroom? What will we have to do to "get ready" to sort our trash? IDEA 3—Where else can we set up Reuse and Recycle containers at school? IDEA 4—Can we set up Reuse and Recycle containers at home? IDEA 5—VVhat can we buy or use that is made from rccvclcd materials? ------- Office of Water EPA 800-5-9M04 March 1993 Tweety's Idea Starter Paper Patrol At Work! PAPER PATROL The Big problem! What is the big problem? Think about all the- '• .ivs \\v U.M.- paper — write on it. read from it. wrap things in it. wir our noses \\ith it1 Sylvester just keeps using lots and lots ot p:i• -.-r! What on \\v tit- about all this paper trash:' Tweety has son . 1DKA STARTERS: Let's see how big this problem really is! Key words: landfiB. ton. reduce, reuse, recycle |The star of this "activity is the dassroom wastebasket with the contents | * from one day's activities. i Front and center — the wastebasket! What kinds of trash do you think we will find in it? Which.kind will be the most? Let's check it out. What's the verdict? Tuvetys Idea Starter Where does all this paper come from? r ——-——-———--., 'To see what one ton of paper looks like, have a yardstick, ruler or ! [measuring tape, (or your idea), some notebook paper, string and tape.! Sometimes paper is made from recycled paper, but mostly from trees. Guess what? It takes 17 trees to make one ton (2.000 Ibs.) of paper! But. what does a ton of paper look like? One ton of notebook paper measures approximately 3 x 58" x <»' high. A Mathstarter •» (On die floor, have the students measure 3' by 58".) Seventeen of us can represent the 17 trees that it takes to make one ton of paper. We can stand next to each other along those lines with our toes on the lines. Measure -»' high. At that height, we stretch our arms in front of us. The space inside our "stack" represents the approximate size of die one ton of paper (250,000 sheets) made from 17 trees. ol o 4' JL A Mathstarter •» What would 1/2 ton look like? What would 2 tons look like? IDEA 1 — Back to the wastebasket. (You will need to call your local recycling collection center to find out which paper they will take: each community is differ- ent. ) Son the one-day's contents of paper into three piles-, paper with clean space that can be reused, fully- used paper that can be recycled, and paper that cannot be reused or recycled and must be thrown away. Now. will there be less trash to throw away from our class- room? A Mathstarter •» How much less trash is there? IDEA 2 — Let's make a place to collect paper that can be reused. If our paper can be recycled, let s make a place i Affiance tor Environmental Eduction 3 Maoe possible through a grant from me United States Environmental Protection Agency What do we do with paper when we are finished? When Sylvester throws all this paper away, it probably goes to the landfill. Oh. my! Look ai the space it will take up in the landfill! Stop! We can't keep putting all this paper into the landfill. to collect that. Now. our Paper Patrol is ready to reduce the amount of paper we throw away each day! IDEA 3—There are lots of ways to help younger stu- dents form Paper Patrols: write a song and sing it fur them, make posters and displays, prepare and present a puppet show, prepare a news report, write and present a play. And when you make your presentation, give the class a gift — a box for reusable paper and a box for recyclable paper. Make it a BIG deal with lots of excitement! IDEA 4 — Tour idea about how a Paper Patrol can help keep our landfills from filling up. and preserve trees for all their other values. TWVPPTV'C rtl rtDAi ------- Office of Waur WH-556 EPA 800-B-93-004 CH1993 TWEETY'S SCHOOL PATROL We make lots of trash at school! Tweety is worried about all the trash we throw away in our schools. It can be a big problem. Tweery says if you want to do something about a problem, first you learn all you can about it. So let's find out — what kind of trash do we throw away at school? How much trash? Tweetv has some IDEA STARTERS! Tweetv's Idea Starter Check it out! Key wordsrreducBr reuse;-: What does our class throw away? In small groups, let s think about things we do at school, such as eating lunch, doing an projects, and working on assignments. What kinds of. trash do we think we throw away when we do these things? Now it's time to find out if we re right. Every day for one week, we'll each collect everything we throw away at school, if we can't collect the trash, we can make a list of the things we throw away. Now. how does the trash we really make compare with what we thought we throw away? A Mathstancr •* make a bar graph of the com- parisons. What does our school throw away? If we want to learn about the problem of trash in our school, we can form a School Patrol. These are some of the things we II need to find out: What kind of trash is thrown away? What kind of material is thrown away the most? Where is the trash collected? How often is it picked up? Is the con- tainer ever full? \\hat happens if the container is full? Is there more trash at one time of year than another? What else can we find out? We can start by finding out about the trash our school throws away in just one week. • Let's start with our classroom. What do we throw away- • Small teams can each ask another class. At the end of the week, we can compare their iral office. • One team can a.-k the people who work in the school lunch room. • One team can :i>k the custodian alxn.it the trash thrown away other than from the classrooms, the lunch mom and the-office. • One team can a-k the principal where the trash is taken and how much the school pays for removal of one week's trash. \\Tiich clay is it picked up? Can we watch it Iwing picked up? A Mathstarter •* Make a grnph of all the findings. Pictures of trash will make it more interesting. Tuvtft's Sumer We can help Tweety! Yes!! i What do recycling collection companies accept now in j j^our community? They each vary. j IDEA 1 - Now it's time tor our Sch»ol Patrol cc» act! At d»c end of the week, each ream will have important information ro share with all of us. Which materials can be recycled? U'e can set up collection containers for these and tell everyone about our plan. There arc lots of things to think about: Who will help with the collection? Who will take the items to the collection center- IDEA 2 - What other wax's can we make less trash? What can we recvclc? Reuse: What buying habits can we change ro reduce trash? The people we talked to will have good ideas about ways r/;rr can make less trash, like reusing things and not using throw-aways. How much money can the school save by having less trash? Tweety's School Patrol can help our school make las trash, and save monev too! : Alliance lor Environment* Educanon Made oossitxe tnrougn a gram from ine united State* €n»« iMi floiBction ftgancv ------- Office of Waur EBA800-B-93-004 Don't Just Bag It! Where does all the trash go? Sylvester just keeps making lots and lots of trash. He doesn t think about what happens to all that trash. What do \vu think happens? Sometimes it is burned. but most of our trash ends up in a landfill. The problem is. someday the landfill will be full. What will we do when the landfill is full? Let's think about it. Tweety has some IDEA STARTERS! Let's sort it all outi Tweety's Idea Starter . — — Sylvester's Bag o' Trash Sylvester s bag of trash looks about like what most of us throw away each day! IDEA 1:— Make a Sylvester's Bag o' Trash bulletin board!* | We can all bring in assorted trash that includes items representing the 3Rs {(e.g., reduce — containers for regular and concentrated laundry and juice ! products, regular and refillable containers; reuse—old: shut, plastic flat- 'ware, used envelopes; and recycle—products accepted for recycling in ! your community, such as aluminum cans, newspaper, 2-liter plastic bottle, las well as food scraps like dried bread and peanut shells). Include some ! items that do not fit into those categories (e.g., bones, paper towels and ! cups, throw-away pen). Wash containers. Safety! Do not include items ! widi sharp edges. > IDEA 2—Make a "Sylvester s Bag o Trash" i —— ____-—-—.—— „., ! Bring in a labeled "Sylvester's Bag o' Trash " trash bag containing about 5 ' ! Ibs. of assorted trash as suggested above. Use gloves to handle trash. ! Let's guess what might he in this trash bag. and then see if we re right. Can we imagine how big a pile we would have if we all had bags like Sylvesters to throw away each day? A MathStarter •» If we measure one bag and add that much more space for each person in the class, how big would the pile be? Ho\v big would the pile be tor one week? Tuvety's Idea Starter Tweety's Bag o' Trash \Ve don't want the landfills to till up so fast. Tweecy wants to make a dif- ference! How? By making less trash. IDEA 1— Look at Sylvester's Bag o Trash: let's help Tweety make it less. It's as easy as I-2-3--»! I - Can we use some things again, including refillable bottles? Take them out. and put them in a reuse pile. 2 - Are some things made from materials that can be used to make new things, including yard waste and f------- Office of W 'EPA800-&3MM Tweety and the Beanstalk .==•—•=••=•_ Nature's Original Recycling Program In nature, there is no waste. Everything is ted hack into the system! Imagine a world without waste! We can leam from nature's recycling program: the world of cycles. But. how can we feed everything back into the system? Well, that's pretry difficult. but Tweetv has some IDEA STARTERS! Think Cycle. Tweety's Idea Starter The end is the beginning. Key words: cyde. recycle compost, decomposers J You will need as many 2-liter recyclable plastic hordes as you want to use with your; ! dass, leaves diat have fallen or grass clippings, soil, scissors, and a source of water. _ -1 Unlike nature, we try to get rid of as much yard waste (leaves, grass clippings, small branches, etc.) and food scraps as possible. But guess what! \Vhat we think is the end of their usefulness can actually be the beginning of something wonderful! Let s watch it happen! • Cut 2 bottles and tape pieces together as shown. Many different arrangements can be made, but this one is for compost columns. • Make air holes in cylinder with heated paper clip. scissors, or cold needle. .The decomposers •(living things that assist in the natural process of decay) need oxygen. • Fill columns Vj full with small pieces of leaves or other organic material, \vidi and without soil. (You may \vant to start one 3 weeks ahead of time so "before and after" comparisons can be made without waiting so long, i • Schedule for it to Tain" periodically (keep it moist). Watch! As the organic material decays, it rums into compost. IDEA 1 — Can each student make a compost column? Can they be set up differently and results compared? IDEA 2 — What will we do widi die compost? Grow a giant beanstalk, what else? Tweety's Idea Starter A Giant Beanstalk or a "Giant" Anything Else LulinerTxSrfscedsTFor g7aVu~an"yihing eTseT^nyseeds of ! marigolds, coleus, sunflowers, or Fast Plants from Carolina Biological Supply. You'll also I need soil with a high percentage of day and "pots," such as cardboard egg cartons, small | plastic containers or milk cartons with holes in the bottom — all with a waterproof •^protective laver underneath. This can be fun — and messy! A Mathstarter •» We'll need to mix some comn<»' material with the soil (1 pan compost to 3 parts soil), and put some into each -pn: Follow directions for planting seeds and keep soil moist. When the seeds start to sprout, it is very important to keep them in a sunny window — south or west direction. If it's possible to move the seedlings into a garden outside, we will have a beautiful school garden, or a garden at home! Stake beanstalks so they will grow tall. IDEA 1 — Compare seeds grown in clay soil only and in soil with compost. What do you think we will find out? Make a graph of results. IDEA 2 — Write a poem, song, or story about rJiis experience and the things you have observed. C Alliance tor Environmental Education MadA OOfiSlhlft thmiinh a nranf m trwi I If***w4 Of**.* C_.«~ 61 ------- *H-SM March t9B WATER FACTS QUIZ Water is one of our most precious resources! Without It. we could not drink, eat our favorite foods, or even live! Notice how much water It takes to produce o serving of some of these tasty treats: 1 glass milk ; 48 gallons of water 1 ounce cheese 56 gallons of water 1 cup plain yogurt 88 gallons of water 1 cup lettuce 3 gaBons of water 3 ounces fresh broccoli 11 gallons of water 1 medium orange 14 gallons of water 1 serving watermelon „ ;... 100 gallons of water 1 egg :. '. .'... 63 gallons of water 4 ounces chicken 165 gallons of water 4 ounces hamburger 616 gallons of water 8 ounce steak 1.232 gallons of water We also use quite a bit of water at home each day. It takes an average of 162.950 gallons (1/2 acre foot) of water to supply the indoor and outdoor water needs of a typic al family of 4 each year. Notice how much water the following activities use: Taking o bath or shower 15-30 gallons of water Watering the lawn or yard 180 gallons of water Washing the dishes 14-60 gallons of water Washing clothes 50 gallons of water Wosning the car 100 gallons of water Brusning your teeth 1 gallon of water Flushing the toilet 4-7 gallons of water Leaking toilet (per day) 60 gallons of water Most of the water on the earth is not qvaiiable for us to use. The following pie gropn expiqins the EARTH'S WATER SUPPLY: 97% = Salt water 2% = Frozen water 1% = Fresn water available for use 62 ------- Teachers And Librarians Please help spread the word about Earth Day 1990 in your school. Earth Day is vitally important because it focuses the attention of the nation on the state of the planet. Our request to you is that you share this information with all the administrators, teachers, and students in your school — and reach out to parents and the community with your activities so that everyone can participate and do something NOW to protect the environment.. Environmental issues often seem _ overwhelming. Vet some-actions can'be taken by students and their families which are not difficult but which can be very helpful; they may even result in habits which will endure. This booklet provides many ideas for activities covering all subject areas of the curriculum plus home and community activities in which students from kindergarten through sixth grade can participate to bring their attention to the prevention of pollution. These activities emphasize recycling, tree planting, water conservation and energy conservation. Here are some important facts everyone should know: • Why recycle? Garbage ... solid waste . .. refuse .. .trash! The waste we produce in our homes and businesses adds up to a massive pile of waste — a total for the nation of about 160 million tons a year. And the garbage problem is growing steadily; if we don't change the way we deal with garbage, we could be producing 193 million tons a year by the year 2000. Usually, in making and using products, three things happen that affect the environment: the amount of the Earth's limited supply of valuable natural resources is reduced, the energy used to produce and distribute the products may contribute to air pollution, acid rain, and global warming, and these products can become part of the garbage that has to be buried in overflowing landfills or burned in expensive incinerators. To help prevent pollution, the Environmental Protection Agency has set a goal of reducing the amount of waste we dispose in 1992 to three-fourths of today's volume. You Educators Earth Dav Sourcebook can help by not using disposable items and by recycling. Recycling means making further use of something you would otherwise throw away. Today, about 80% of what Americans throw away is recyclable. Here is how many things are recycled: • By adding water, most used paper can be turned into a mush that is then made into new paper. • Aluminum cans, other metals and glass can all be melted down and made into new products. Recycling aluminum cans uses only 5% of the energy required to make new ones. • The oil used in the engines of cars and trucks wears out; it can be filtered and re-refined for use again. Just one gallon of used oil can be recycled into the same amount of motor oil that it takes 42 gallons of virgin oil to make. • Lawn clippings and garden weeds can be put in a compost pile, where they are broken down by tiny organisms; the rotted result can improve your garden's soil. Yard wastes make up almost 20% of all landfill trash. We can all contribute to solving our' nation's increasing garbage problem by cutting down on the number of things we have to throw away, which will reduce the pollution caused by the' production of new items and the disposal of old ones. At home and at school, you can do your part to win the war against waste by buying recycled products and by recycling products instead of throwing them away. • Why plant trees? Trees provide us with wood, paper, fruit, nuts, shade, . natural beauty and a buffer against noise. They also play an important role in Earth's natural cycles. Trees remove carbon dioxide, a gas, from the • atmosphere and store it until they die and decompose or are burned. Since carbon dioxide is responsible for half of the gas build-up which causes the greenhouse effect, trees act as a natural control against global wanning. A typical healthy tree removes between 25 and 45 pounds of carbon from the air every year. Trees also help prevent flooding and help control soil erosion. Although trees are necessary for our survival, forests are being destroyed at a rate far faster than our current efforts to replace them. In American cities, four trees are removed for every one planted. • Why conserve water? Water is central to all life and life activities. Plants and animals must have water to survive. Water represents about 75% of a person's body weight and covers nearly 75% of the earth's surface. Nearly everything on earth can be directly or indirectly traced to a connection with water. Rocks channel water into streams; streams and rivers carry water across the land. Ponds, lakes, marshes and swamps often hold water in place. Trees draw water from the soil and transport it up into the leaves and out again into the air. Clouds are airborne carriers of water across the sky. People, plants, wildlife need, water forsurvival. The water must be clean, free of toxic contamination. Humans use water for many purposes other than drinking. Care must be taken to protect water quality. Water is a source of beauty and recreation. It is the basis of a massive planetary transportation system. Water helps our food grow, cools our cars, and is one of the first things on the list of substances the astronauts take into space. There are about 320,000,000 cubic miles of water in the oceans. The tiny plants that live in the earth's oceans (phytoplankton) produce one-third or more of our oxygen, a gas vital to breathing. Conserving water saves energy and money and preserves fresh water habitat. Much energy goes into transporting water to our residences, and then more is vised to heat water for bathroom and kitchen uses and still more in cleaning the water after use, for reuse by others. By conserving water it is possible to prevent some of the pollution caused by excessive energy use, such as global warming and acid rain. • Why conserve energy? It is hard to imagine the world today without the use of energy. But our dependence on energy — especially that which comes from fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas — is aggravating global environmental problems such as habitat destruction, acid rain, and global warming. Every time we switch on a light, turn on the heat, cook a meal, or drive in our cars, we contribute to these problems. Habitat is damaged as new energy sources are tapped. Cars and power plants pollute the air and water and contribute to the greenhouse effect Furthermore, our supply of fossil fuels is dwindling. As energy consumption rises and energy supply falls, it will cost ------- OffktofWa H7/-556 March 1QB3 us more and more to do the hundreds of things we do every day that use energy. Thus, we must all limit our energy use and find ways to use energy more efficiently. Reducing the demand for energy will reduce the need to build more power plants. Fewer power plants mean less pollution — the cheapest and least polluting power plant is the one that is never bulk! And. as we conserve energy to extend the use of our decreasing fossil fuel supply, we' will have more time to develop cost-effective technologies for using renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind power. Suggested Activties Across The Curriculum K-3 The following activities on the theme of pollution prevention are designed to work across the entire curriculum, so please share these suggestions with other science, English, mathematics, social studies, art, drama, music, physical education, and special education teachers. If we've left anyone out, please include them too! Arts Activities • Have students create an exhibit of the pollution problems by cutting pictures from magazines. • Have students bring in photographs from magazines that show water, its uses, and how it can be polluted. Ask them to look especially for pictures that show how living things depend upon water. Display these photographs and use them as a basis for a discussion on the role water plays in our lives. • Have students illustrate their ideas generated under the English Activities and create a class book. • Make a paper tree on the classroom wall with each leaf giving a tip on how to protect the environment. • Make nature cards to wish parents and friends a happy Earth Day. English Activities • Make a list of water words. Have students brainstorm about water words, make word trees with those words and write poetic statements about water. • Have students list at least 100 words that have something to do with water. Ask them to think of words about water, including its importance to people and wildlife. Keep students stretching into new areas by suggesting examples and categories of ideas if they get bogged down. Using the words that were recorded, ask the students to create word trees.of water-related words. After finishing several word trees, have them look at what they have done and create poetic definitions of water or water-related concepts. These could begin: "Water..." or "Water is ..." For example, using the word tree "condensation" - "cloud" - "rain" - "storm", you might get: "Water is gray elouds causing4 loud summer-storm." After ompletfng their poetic statements, have them write them onto various shades of construction paper cut to graphically fit the feeling of their ideas. Arrange these cut-outs on a wall or window in an aesthetic fashion. The same process can be used to explore such concepts as "energy" or "recycling". • Have children portray through creative dramatics such concepts as loss of wildlife due to oil spills or water . -', • pollution, stories about their favorite ' endangered species, or other environmental themes. • Have students perform a play or puppet show with an environmental theme. • Read stories with environmental themes such as The Lorax by Dr. Seuss, or Charlotte's Web and The Trumpet of the Swan by E. B. White (both give excellent descriptions of animal habitats), or poems such as "Sarah Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take the Garbage Out", a humorous treatment by Shel Silverstein of what happens when you don't take care of garbage. These can form the basis of discussion or motivate students in their writing assignments. Science Activities (Trees As An Example) • Students can participate in community tree planting activities. • To develop long range thinking skills, pose the following situation to your students: We have six fully grown trees on our land. We have no other trees around our house or anywhere else on our land. We need firewood and are trying to decide whether to cut all the trees down during next winter to use 64 them for firewood. Given the information, try to decide what seems to be the best action to take. Consider: What will happen next summer when it gets hot. (No shade) What might happen the following winter when more firewood is needed to keep warm? (No fuel for cooking and heating.) What problems might there be for animals? (Fewer places for some birds and squirrels to live.) What might a person do to be sure that there are trees left for the future? (For example, each time a tree is cut two could be planted) Through the discussion, emphasize to the students the differences between the short-term and the long-term effects of actions they recommend.(Each year 2.3 billion seedlings are planted in the United States, covering 3.4 million acres. Even with that effort, the annual net loss of forest in the United States is about 900,000 acres. In tropical forests, 27 million acres are cleared for farms and other uses each year - a loss of 500,000 trees every hour of every day!) Music Activities • Listen to songs about nature and wildlife such as Walt Disney's Burl Jves' Animal Folk Songs and Pete Seeger's "How Does Your Garden Grow". • Encourage students to make up their own lyrics to popular songs. Social Science Activities • Have students list actions that can be taken in support of pollution prevention and decide what they will do. Physical Education Activities: • Have students join with other community groups to celebrate Earth Day through such recreational programs as Earth Day runs, nature hikes, bicycle races or rallies with an environmental . protection theme. Such races could be held in local, state, or national parks. • Participate in an all-school Bike to School Day for students and teachers. • Create a dance performance in honor of the environment. Field Trips • Visit a dump and a recycling center to learn about two different methods of waste management. • Visit a nature center, a natural history museum or a wilderness area. ------- Office of Water W-556 EPA800-B-93-004 March 1993 Library Activties Please consider having your school . library participate in Earth Day activities for the period of two weeks "before, and a week or so after April 22, 1990. Some things your school library can do are: • Create displays about environmental pollution and actions that can be taken to improve our environment, using items such as: posters, newspaper clippings, and books on the environment. • Develop reading lists of books and articles in your library on the environment. • Develop a "reader's guide" on how to use library resources about the environment. • Promote reading a book on an environmental theme during this time period. • Hold discussion groups with classes of students in the library by the display (Discussion topics might include pollution prevention or any of the concepts listed below in the vocabulary section.) • Librarians, journalism teachers, or other interested teachers and students could write a newsletter for the school reporting on student activities on Earth Day, as well as activities in the community, nation and the world. • Librarians and teachers can invite knowledgeable scientists or persons who have written books, articles, or newspaper articles about environmental problems to speak or to make themselves available to students in the classroom, library, or assembly. School Outreach Activities « Urge your local park system and local business offices to have students' art displays on Earth Day, April 22. and the week after. Students could participate with other community groups such as community art classes, photography programs, after school programs, Head Start programs, and others. • Work with your local zoos and nature centers to do a "wildlife protection" program. • Have students contact the area library system urging a display of books. posters, and art work at all libraries in your community. • Contact local government officials responsible for protecting and improving trees, flower beds, and other vegetation about local forestry and tree planting efforts and request them to publicize their efforts and needs during the Earth Day program. • Encourage use of consumer power — suggest students use their money as votes for environmental betterment . • Passes can write a letter to the local newspaper, signed by all students, urging concern about the environment and calling on the community to participate in local Earth Day activities. Seeing their names in the paper can have a lasting effect on the students and cause them to remember Earth Day 1990. Vocabulary (Here are some selected vocabulary words associated with environmental awareness which everyone should know. You can add to this list.) abatement abiotic acid precipitation adaptation advanced waste treatment aerobic aerosol ambient anadromous fish anaerobic aquifer assimilation atmosphere bacteria benthic biodegradable biome biosphere biota bog brackish water buffer zone canopy carbon dioxide carcinogen carnivore carrying capacity chlorinated hydrocarbons climatic climax £5 coastal zone community competition composting coniferous conservation decomposition detergent detritus dissolved solids distillation diversity drainage basin dredging dump ecology ecosystem effluent emission endangered species environment erosion ethics eutrophication evapo-transpnation extinction finite food chain fossil fuels fresh water fungi fungicide green belts greenhouse effect groundwater habitat heavy metals herbicide herbivore hydrocarbons hydrologic cycle multiple use natural selection niche noise nonrenewable resource nuclear power plant nutrient oil spill omnivore open space organic organism oxidation ozone particulates pathogenic percolation pesticide phytoplankton point source pollen pollution population potable water preservation radiation reclamations recycling reservoir resource recovery runoff salt marsh septic tank sewage sewer sludge species stagnation synergism thermal pollution threatened species toxicity troposphere understory urban runoff Activities Across The Curriculum Grades 4—6 The following activities on the theme of pollution prevention are designed to work across the entire curriculum, so please share these suggestions with other science, English, mathematics. social studies, art, drama, music, physical education, and special education teachers. If we've left anyone out, please include them, too! Arts Activities • Organize an environmental picture contest, dramatizing the best (beauty) and worst (pollution) of nature. • Have a poster contest on themes such as pollution prevention or endangered species. Acknowledge the winners in an all-school meeting. Display posters in public areas. • Have students make reusable canvas grocery bags as a craft project. English Activities • Have an essay contest on the theme of pollution prevention or any environmental theme. Read winning ------- Offet of Water WH-S56 EPA 800-B-93-004 March 1993 essays on the public address system or at an all-school assembly. TO' to get essays printed in local papers. • Have students write and recite poems about the environment. • Have students write a play and read or produce it for the class on an environmental theme, focusing on a crisis that develops in a family or community because of serious pollution problems. Bring out the depth of feelings that are experienced by the loss of wildlife, open space, forests, clean air, or water. • Read books on environmental themes such as Ray Bradbury's short story "The Green Morning" in the Martian Chronicles. Use this to open a discussion on air pollution and its effect on trees and human health. • Have students give speeches to fellow students and other classes to inform them about the dangers of pollution or about any other environmental issue. Have them include requests for specific actions. • Show movies about nature such as National Geographic specials, "Never Cry Wolf", or "Call of the Wild". Science Activities • Students can conduct a street or area tree inventory to determine opportunities in the community for planting new trees. • Children in urban areas can conduct an inventory of the effects of air pollution on trees, shrubs, and especially evergreen trees. Which trees should be growing in your area that are not there now? Note pollution effects like loss of leaves, high rates of insect infestation end, on evergreens, whether or not the needles have turned brown during the growing season (spring and summer). Analyze your findings and discuss the implications for the future. • Students can adopt a local wetland, or observe and identify the variety of wildlife there. Music Activities • Celebrate your appreciation of the planet by listening to classical compositions such as Beethoven's Symphony #6 (The Pastoral); Richard Strauss's An A/pine Symphony; Ferde Grofe's Grand Canyon Suite; Smetana's The Mouldou, and folksongs such as Woody Guthrie's "This Und Is Your Land" and "Roll On Columbia" and John Denver's "Rocky Mountain High". Folksingers recordings about the dangers of pollution include: Pete Seeger's "Sailing Up My Muddy Stream". Peter, Paul, and Mary's "What Have They Done with the Rain", Tom Paxton's 'There Goes the Mountain". John Denver's "Whose Garden Was This?", and Malvina Reynolds's "God Bless the Grass".Contemporary rock singer Sting sings of saving the rain forests in "Don't Bungle the Jungle" and "Save the Rain Forest". Peter Gabriel sings of the dangers _of acid rain in "Red Rain".- • Encourage students to sing songs about nature and. using the melodies of popular songs, write their own lyrics expressing environmental concerns. (An environmental songbook of lyrics set to popular songs has been put together by the Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Watte. P.O. Box 926, Arlington. VA 22216. (703) 276-7070,$9.95) Social Science Activities .< • Explore the terms "consumerism" and "conservation" through class discussions and written assignments. • Have students list actions that can be taken in support of pollution prevention and have them each decide what they will be responsible for doing. • Write to the U.S. Department of Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240, requesting any available information about threatened and endangered animals, poster-making materials, or writing materials available from state and federal agencies. Physical Education Activities • Have students Join with other community groups to celebrate Earth Day through such recreational programs as Earth Day runs, nature bikes, bicycle races or rallies wftfc an environmental protection theme. Such races could be held in local, fUte, or national parks. • Join in a whole cdiool system Bike to School Day for students and teachers. • Create a dance in honor of the environment. 66 Classroom Discussion Plan This panel can be reproduced for students so they can follow your discussion and questions. YOU CAN HELP Teach Your Friends And Family About Proventng Pollution By Your Example Action by the President, Congress and state legislatures, rulings by the courts. speeches by public leaders, or your wishing it — as important as they are — cannot, by themselves, clean up the' environment or keep it from becoming more polluted than it is. Millions of people cause pollution. Many people contribute to unsightly and unsafe neighborhoods, litter on highways, schools and in our homes, but millions of people can also help plant trees, create parks, save wildlife, and improve our oceans, rivers, streams, and wetlands. You can help. You can become a very important person in this effort. ,' • Here are some things you and your family can do: Please look at the following page titled YOU CAN HELP. Selected Quotes About The Environment "We travel together, passengers on a little space ship ... preserved from annihilation only by the care, the work and, 1 will say. the love we give our fragile craft." — Adlai Stevenson "The need is not really for more brains, the need now is for a gentler, a more tolerant people than those who won for us against the ice, the tiger, and the bear." — Loren Eiseley ------- Educators Earth Day Sourcebook Office of Wa WH-SS6 Grades? 44MA 1? Teachers And Librarians We are asking you to help spread the word about Earth Day 1990, to help focus your school's attention on the state of the planet. We are asking that you share this information with administrators, teachers, and students, and reach out to parents and the community with your activities so that everyone can participate and do something NOW to protect the environment. Let Earth Day be the starting point for continuing environmental education. Although environmental issues often seem overwhelming, there are actions that can be taken by your students and their families which, while not difficult, are very helpful; they may even result in good environmental habits which will endure. Suggested Activties Here are some teaching ideas which may be used to start an environmental education program in your school. These ideas are designed to work across the entire school curriculum. Please share these suggestions with other science, English, mathematics, social studies, art, drama, music, physical education, and special education teachers. If we've left anyone out, please include them, too! Act now and get others in your school involved by means of projects that cross all areas of the curriculum. • Plan a class discussion around the messages in this booklet. What other messages about caring for the planet could be included? What other messages about preventing pollution could be conveyed? How do you inspire people to take particular actions? What do you think is the most important message? • Individual writing assignments can be done on any of the questions posed for discussion. • Break class into small groups. Have each group design and prepare a poster to illustrate a particular environmental message. Share the posters with the class and discuss their messages. For the School Library • Create displays of posters, newspaper clippings, and books that deal with environmental pollution and actions that can be taken to improve our environment. Use these displays for stimulating discussion among students in organized discussion groups in the library. • Develop a reading list of books and articles in your library which are about the environment. • Develop a "reader's guide" on how to use library resources about the environment. • Promote reading a book on an environmental theme during this time period. _• Identify important historical and current environmental leaders and discuss how they made or are making a difference. Discuss how each individual can make a difference in the future of our environmental quality. • Librarians, journalism teachers, or other interested teachers and students could write a newsletter for the school reporting on student activities on Earth Day, as well as activities in the community, nation, and the world. • Librarians and teachers can invite y-' speakers who have written books, articles, or newspaper articles about environmental issues or knowledgeable scientists from nearby universities or laboratories, to make themselves available to students in the classroom, library, or assembly. Art Activities • Have a poster contest on the theme of pollution prevention or any of the other concepts suggested in the vocabulary list. Acknowledge the winners in an all-school meeting. Display posters in public areas. • Have a photography contest. Create a photographic exhibit of the pollution problems in your community, environmental improvements, or community efforts on the environment. Acknowledge the winners of this contest publicly. • If you have access to the necessary equipment, make a class movie such as a "documentary" or a "news broadcast" about the environment. English Activities • Have an essay contest on the theme of pollution prevention or any of the related concepts listed in the vocabulary section. Read winning essays In an all-school assembly. Have them printed in local newspapers and read in community meetings. • Write poems about the environment. • Write a play and read or produce it for the class or an all-school assembly. It can be on an environmental theme focusing on a crisis that develops in a family or community because of serious pollution problems. Bring out the depth of feelings that are experienced by the Joss of wildlife, open space; forests, clean air, or water. • Have students give speeches to other students, teachers, parents, and - community leaders to inform, to inspire, or to take action to become non-polluters. Have them include requests for specific actions, like the initiation of a community-wide recycling program. Encourage them to speak at community meetings. Science Activities • Students can conduct a street or area tree inventory and develop a plan for planting new trees. Have them document the largest (diameter, height, spread) of each native tree species in your area. • Children in urban areas can conduct • an inventory of the effect of air pollution on trees, shrubs, arid. especially evergreen trees. Which trees should be growing in your area that are not there now? Note other effects like the loss of leaves, high rates of insect infestation, and, on evergreens, whether or not the needles have turned brown. Analyze your findings and discuss the implications for the future. • Students can adopt a wetland. conduct a water monitoring project or observe and identify the variety of wildlife in a wetland area. • Plan tests in your school and at homes for the presence of radon. Music Activities • Celebrate your appreciation of the planet by listening to classical compositions such as Beethoven's Symphony #6 (The Pastoral); Richard Strauss's An Alpine Symphony; Ferde Grofe's Grand Canyon Suite; Smetana's The Mouldau, and folksongs such as Woody Guthrie's This Land is Your Land and Roll on Columbia and John 67 ------- Office of Wa WH-556 Denver's Rocky Mountain High. Folksingers' recordings about the dangers of pollution include: Pete Seeger's Sailing Up My Muddy Stream; Peter. Paul and Mary's What Have They Done with the Rain; Tom Paxton's There Goes the Mountain; John Denver's Whose Garden Was This?; and Malvina Reynold's God Bless the Grass. Contemporary rock singer Sting sings of saving the rain forests in Don't Bungle the Jungle and Save the Rain Forest. Peter Gabriel sings of the dangers of acid rain in Red Rain. Encourage students to write their own lyrics and/or music. Social Science Activities -; • Explore the terms "consumerism" and "conservation" through class discussion and written assignments. Discuss the concepts of "planned obsolescence" and recycling. • Have students list actions that can be taken in support of pollution prevention and have them each decide what they will be responsible for doing. Physical Education Activities • Have students join with other community groups to celebrate Earth Day through such recreational activities as Earth Day runs, nature hikes, bicycle races, or rallies with an environmental protection theme. Such races could be held in local, state, or national parks. • Organize a "Walk-or-Bike to School" day for students and teachers, promoting alternatives to the use of fossil fuels for transportation. • Create a dance in honor of the environment. School Outreach Activities • Urge your local park system and local business offices to have students' environmental art displays on Earth Day, April 22, and the week after. Students could participate with other community groups such as community art classes, photography, after-school Heed Start programs, and other local programs. • Work with local zoos and nature centers to do a "wildlife protection" program. • Have students contact the area library system urging a display of books, posters, and art work at all libraries in your community. • Contact local government officials responsible for protecting and improving trees, flower beds, and other vegetation about local forestry and tree planting efforts and request them to publicize their efforts and needs during the Earth Day program. • Encourage the use of consumer power by identifying and supporting "environmentally safe" products — use your money as votes for environmental betterment. • Classes can write a letter to the local newspaper, signed by all students, urging concern about the environment and calling upon the community to participate in local Earth Day activities. Vocabulary (Here are some selected vocabulary words associated with environmental assessment which everyone should know. You and your students can add to this list.) General Environmental Words: ecology* ecosystem, habitat, gene pool, •'' pesticides, deforestation, desertification, compost, biosphere Related concepts: "cleansing effect of vegetation," "population explosion" Waste Products Words: biodegradable, toxic, dioxins, PCBs, landfill, municipal wastestream, recycling Air Pollution Words: ozone, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorofluorocarbon, benzene, particulates, greenhouse effect, sulphur dioxide, smog, acid rain, ozone layer Water Pollution Words: eutrophication, fish kill, algae bloom, oil spill, ocean dumping, sludge, groundwater Social Concepts: consumerism, planned obsolescence, conservation, packaging, throwaway society Some Books to Read on the Subject (Your librarian can add more...) Silent Spring by Rachel Carson Practical Waste Treatment and Disposal Edited by Denis Dickinson (A Halsted Press Book) Vanishing Air (Ralph Nader's Study Group Report on Air Pollution) by John C Esposito 68 Garbage As You Like It (A Plan to Stop Pollution by Using Our Nation's Wastes) by Jerome Goldstein [Rodale Press] Radon: The Invisible Threat by Michael La Favore Terracide: America's Destruction of Her Living Environment by Ron M. Linton Water and Life by Lorus and Margery Milne Must the Seasons Die? by Colin Moorcraft GAIA • An Atlas of Planet Management Edited by Dr. Norman Myers WorJdtvaJch Paper 62: Water: ~ Rethinking Management ~ in an Age of Scarcity, December 1984 WorJdwatch Paper 87: Protecting Life on Earth: Steps to Save the Ozone Layer, December 1988 Timetable /or Disaster by Don Widener Classroom Discussion Subjects These pages can be reproduced for students so they can follow your discussion of the subjects shown'. You Can Make A Difference Teach your friends and family about preventing pollution by your example: Action by the President, Congress, and state legislatures, rulings by the courts, speeches by important people, or your wishing it — as important as they are — cannot, by themselves, clean up the environment or keep it from becoming more polluted than it is. Millions of people cause pollution. Many people contribute to unsightly and unsafe neighborhoods, litter on highways, schools and to our homes. but millions of people can also help plant trees, create parks, save wildlife, and improve our oceans, rivers, streams, and wetlands. You can help. You can become a very important person in this effort. Here are some things you can do: Please look at the page You Can Help. ------- Office ofWaxr WH-556 March t You can teach your friends and family by your example to prevent pollution. Share this information with them. One use is not enough. Recycle paper, glass, plastic, aluminum, scrap metal,, motor oil, and yard wastes. Reuse, repair, and recycle as often as possible. Don't throw away what can be used again. Avoid creating unnecessary garbage by using wasteful disposables. Consider using reusable mugs, glasses, dishes, cloth towels, or sponges. Save your leaves, grass, and bush clippings to use as compost. Participate in a recycling program. Encourage your * - community and your school to begin recycling. Maintain and repair clothes and products. Donate usable clothes and materials to thrift shops. Use less energy. Set back your thermostat, insulate your water heater, and buy energy-efficient appliances. Setting back the thermostat not only saves money, but also saves energy. It's an investment in yourself and your environment. Cars — Buy energy-efficient vehicles and keep them tuned. Carpool, bike, walk, or use mass transit when possible. A well-tuned internal combustion engine makes your car, boat, or tractor safer for you and the environment. Carpooling and using mass transit, biking, and walking result less pollution being emitted. Disposal of auto waste is another significant problem. Used oil can contaminate water supplies; used auto batteries contain lead, lead sulfate, and sulfuric acid which can leak into soil. Take used oil, batteries, and auto tires to a recycling center or to an appropriate disposal facility. A PPty pesticides and herbicides jf\.carefully if they must be used. Follow instructions carefully. Use natural control materials whenever possible. Noxious air (indoor air pollution) invades our homes and workplaces. Reduce tobacco smoke, radon, asbestos, and other indoor air pollutants. Americans spend more than 85% of their time indoors, so this is one of the most important areas where you can protect yourself from environmental hazards. One of the most harmful hazards is radon, a naturally occurring colorless and odorless gas that seeps into homes through cracks in foundations or floors. It is the second leading cause of lung cancer — leading to 20,000 deaths a year. Commercial testing kits are helpful if directions are followed carefully. Another indoor air pollutant, tobacco smoke, which causes problems for both smokers and nonsmokers, further increases one's chances of developing ling cancer, especially when combined with radon. Formaldehyde in new furniture and carpets, pesticides, aeroso.ls, household cleaners, and solvents from dry-cleaning are other common indoor pollutants. Household hazardous waste — Buy only as much potentially toxic materials or products as you need. Dispose of remnants and containers properly. Be alert to labels. Materials that are toxic for people must be labeled "Dangerous," medium toxicity products are labeled "Warning," and low toxicity products are labeled "Caution." Store ;.--' such materials carefully and use them up. If you must throw them out, check your local community's policy on hazardous waste disposal. Encourage your local community to institute a hazardous waste disposal plan if one is not in effect. Environmental shopping — Buy recycled or recyclable products. Seek out biodegradable, reusable, or returnable packages. Look for the recycling symbol on products you buy. Such symbols identify recycled or recyclable products. For home and work, buy products that are made of recycled or recyclable material. Buy durable-products — don't buy throw aways. Borrow or rent things you use infrequently. Avoid buying products which use unnecessary plastic or paper packaging. Use returnable or reusable containers. Look for pump rather than aerosol sprays. Buy rechargeable batteries for flashlights, toys, and household items. Consider carrying your own reusable shopping bag. 69 Lead — Be careful around surfaces covered with lead-based paint and be cautious when children are near renovation or rehabilitation of old buildings. Be concerned about lead in drinking water. Recycle auto batteries that contain lead. Older homes, especially those in poor repair or in need of painting, may contain old lead-based paint. The fine dust from deteriorating old paint and that created during renovation or rehabilitation of older buildings may contain lead particles. This dust can travel throughout the house and even outside. Keep children away from such areas. Your family might consider contacting an expert before undertaking such renovations. EPA has found unhealthy contaminants in drinking water in some areas. Because lead and other contaminants may cause health problems, consider having your water tested if your house . has lead pipes. Two drinking water precautions are to run water until it changes temperature, and use only the cold-water tap for drinking and cooking, especially for making baby formula. Lead can slow children's physical and nervous system development and cause other neurological, reproductive, and . circulatory problems. Auto batteries contain lead and should be recycled or disposed of at appropriate sites to help reduce the amount of lead in the environment. Plant trees, shrubs.and indoor plants. They replenish the Earth's oxygen supply and can provide habitat for wildlife. Plant trees or bushes in your yard or neighborhood. Trees in your yard may save you money in heating and cooling. They can beautify your property and increase its value. ------- AIR STRIPS* OBJECTIVES The student will do the following: 1. Define paniculate milter. 2 Collect paniculate matter from the air In twt areas (round (he school. 3. Analyze the particles collected and draw conclusions (bout the airborne paniculate pollutants. SUBJECT: Science TIME: 2 class periods (one week apart) MATERIALS: posterboard or cardboard scissors rulers clear tape string magnifying glasses hole punch permanent markers Optional: compasses, dissecting microscope, balance student sheet (Included) BACKGROUND INFORMATION Our atmosphere Is almost umiplettly made up of invisible gaseous substances. Most major air pollutants are also invisible gaseous substance*, although large amounts of them concentrated In area » such as cities canbescenas smog. However. oneeaslly viiiMeair pollutant is paniculalemarler. especially when the surfaces of buildings and other structures ha\ e been exposed to it for long periods of lime or when II Is present In Urge amounts. Paniculate matter is made upof liny particles of solid matter and/or droplets of liquid. Natural paniculate matter tends to be less of a problem to human health and the general well- being of the environment than that which Is man-made. Natural sources include volcanic ash, pollen, and dust blown about by the wind. Coal and oil burned by power plants and industries and diesel fuel burned by many vehicles are the chief sources of man-made paniculate pollutants, but not all important sources are large-scale. The use of wood In fireplaces and wood-burning stoves also produces rather significant amounts of paniculate matter In localized arras, although the total amounts are much smaller lhan those from vehicles, power plants, and industries. Paniculate air pollutants can be harmful to plant life and to animal and human life when the pollutants are Inhaled. Discoloration of buildings and other structures Is also caused by paniculate pollutants: this Is unslghtlyandqutleexpensivelocleanup. Becaujeilcanhaveharmfulandseriouseffecls.paniculate rMtterlsoneofthesi>criteriapolluUnts-^ponuuntforwhlchthegovernrnenthaseslablijhedlawsand air quality standards. • This activity wasadaptcd from the "Science and Technology Week roster.' distributed by the Nrcdham Science Center. Neniham. Massachusetts. RESOURCES M*Mhan,StnutyE. Enrirmui^ntal Chemtitrv. 4th ed. Monterey. CA: Brook* Coat, 1984. Stewing and CJ-SUrdtsJd. Chemical Principle!. 6th ed. PROCEDURE I. Setting the Stage A. Ask the student* how we know air pollution extols. Are atr pollutant* vtsibter Invisible? B. Havethestudentsglvesorneexamplesofvlsfbleairpollubints. (They win probably list smote, dust, smog, and others.) C. Define paniculate matter for the students and (hare with them ^AOCGROUND tNFORMA- TION- n. Activity A. Construction of tn sti'iut* I. Give each student a copy of the student sheet'AIR STRIP* (Included). Provide the materials to make the strips and have the students follow the directions on the sheet. Make an air strip for yourself. Die this strip to show the students ho wtheir finished products should look, then use it as a control in pan C for comparison wilh the test strips exposed to the air lor I »vek. NOTE: Each student should make at least one air strip, more if there is Hme. 2. (OPTIONAL) Have the studenf*) measure the mass (weight) of the air strips (Including the control strip) as accurately as possible on a balance. If you choose to do this step, explain that the massof the strips will bemeasuredagainafler the week of exposure. NOTE: Control strip weighing at beginning and end will tell the students how much of the difference is caused by Increase or decrease in humidity. Add or subtract weight change of control strip to last weight of each test strip. B. Location of air strips. 1. Have the students hang the strips at different place* around the school, both Inside and outside. Inside the school, rang,strips In the halls, cafeteria, bathrooms, shop, gym. labs, and/or kitchen. Outside, hang strips in tree*, along main walks, and at all entrances of the school. Give e*ch student tape to secure the air strip's string to a stable surf ace at the selected sites. The air strips should be able to move freely without bumping other surfaces. NOTE: All air strips should be carefully labeled with date, location, and student's name. 2. After one week, have the students collect the strips. Tell them to be careful not to touch the sbcky side of the tape. C. Analysis of air strips. i i 1. Have the students visually compare the control air strip to the air strips used to collect paniculate matter. ' 2. (OPTIONAL) Haveeachstudenlmeasurelnemassofhls/heralrstripandcompareittolrv mass of the air strip before the collection of paniculate matter. (See note in A J.) 3. Distribute magnifying glasses and have the students try to Identify as many particles on the tape as possible. Dusl.ash.sool.and/or other particles may be pnxnl. Depending upon the timeofyear.pollenmayalsohavebeencollected. (OPTIONAL: You may choose to ha velte students use dissecting microscopes Instead of, or in addition to. magnifying glasses.) D. Aiktlxt (indents to drBweandvitora abort ttepcitfcabitiirpo An there difference* hi the particle* based on where the air strips were placed? m. Follow-Up Hare each student develop • ctait or graph using the Information gathered by 0* da** and write • summary paragraph about the activity. . IV. Extension ' A. Ptoce air strips to a variety of oft«r places tor • week: o«tls. home*, churchea. store*, urban and rural areas, factories, the bumpers of e*i» or school buses, on roof*, or m basement*. Have the student* compare the parbcubhn collected from the different areas. mtodeterrrirMUlte day cJtte week rmfcesadlflercno- Saunters. 1983. B. PoM ne»» ah strtpa dairy and com| In the amount of paniculate matter collected. Have the students consider such possible factor* on lead to • dhcusaton of paniculate matter pollution tourcea.) NOTE: If the student* at* jdjOrybuTuenc«t,uVyr«wdtolu-jpdauyreeonlswhentr^h«i^tr«ilr*trtpt. •s, s ------- MAGNIFYING THE PROBLEM Student AIRSTRIP Directions: 1. Using a ruler to measure, cut a strip of posterboard or cardboard that is 2 Inches wide and 10 Inches long. 2. Cut 5 holes, each about an Inch In di- ameter. In the strip. Use the ruler to find a round object of the right diame- ter or use a compass todraw the circles. (NOTE: A quarter Is about 1 Inch In diameter.) \ Use a hole punch to put a small hole In oneendofthestrip.Tteastrlngthrough the hole; theslringwlll be used to hang the strip at a selected site. 4. Put a long piece of dear tape over one side of the strip. Be sure to completely cover all 5 holes. (Depending upon the width of the Upe, you may need 2 or more pieces.) The sticky side of the tape will collect paniculate matter from the air. Make sure you do not touch the sricky side of the tape over the holes. 5. Before hanging the air strip at a se- lected site, use a permanent marker to write on the lop edpe of the strip the date, location, and your name. string "tape SUBJECTS: Science, Mathematics TIME- 1-2 class periods MATERIALS: student sheets (Included) OBJECTIVES The student will do the following I. Identify the makn-characteristic*. the sources, and the effects of leaU air pollulints. 2. Demonstrate an understanding of biological magnification. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Some heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, and some man-made chemicals such as PCBs and DDT can be highly toxic to living organisms even though they are present In relatively small amounts. Although metals such as lead occur naturally. Industrial processing and use can greatly Increa selhequanHly present In the environment over nalurallevels. Even when such chcmicalsand extra amounts of metals are no kmger being used by humans. some of them can persist for a long time. The concentration of these compounds In living organisms increases asthe chemicals or metalsarepassed up the food chains In both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. A food chain represents the way food Is transferred from one level of organisms to other levels of organisms. For example.atimplc food chain would start with plants, followed by an animal Ihateats only plants, and finally by an animal that cats other animals. Although the plants may not be visibly affected by the tonic compounds, anirruls that rat the contaminated plants lor food may accumulate the Ionic compounds from the plants in their bodies. The animals that eat other animals acquire even more of the toniccompoundsfromlhcirfood. Thisprocesslsreferredloasbiologicalmagnificarion. Some chemicals or heavy metals can build up to Ionic levels In the upper part of the food chain, seriously harming or evon killing animals and people. Lead Is one of the criteria air pollutants Identified and regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by Environment Canada. It is a paniculate pollutant and It is also toxic— harmful to people and animals in relatively small amounts/ Lead air pollutants enter the body through Inhalation nr ingestionlfoudorwatrr). Leadlendstobulldupinlhebodybecauseilisexcretcdvcryslowly. Mission*) primarily in bones, remaining potentially hazardous to health as long is it remains in the body. Because lead is known to cause damage to many body organs, the brain In particular. Its effects on childrenareofspecialconcrm. A 1981 study revealed that 1 out ofevery 25 pre-schoolroin the United Slates and 1 out of every 5 inner-city Mack pre-schoolers had dangerously high levels of lead in their blood. Over 10.000 U.S. children are treated every year for lead poisoning, and of those, about 200 die. In Mexico City7of every 10 newboms hive blood lead levels that are dangerously high. Because ohheir actively developing bodies, children are more vulnerable than adults to the effects of lead concentrations. but lead can be a poison for anyone. Airponuttonbnoltteonlywiyrjeopbanexpoaedtoleadardltbrrttteor^ scena rlosabove. but it Is the most easily pit »eiueJ. The primary source of lead paniculate ma iter In the air we breathe comes from leaded gasoline burned by automobiles. Beginning in 1975, new cars were required to useoiuy unleaded gasoline.and the ETA and Environment Canada have further required the phasing out of the production of leaded gas. The result has been a dramatic reduction of lead in our air. benefits are numerous. However, we still have* Irad problem to uckle. The lead thai human activitl** ha vemao> more physically •rdbWoglciDyprnalem In DOT rnvlmrinvnt win not |us< go away. Some oflhlslead.alor^wlthlhele^ponultonweamttnuetoprTxJuce.lssub^tobtolc^alrnagriiHealtoii 3£ ^% =J> if ------- PROCEDURE I. Setting the Stage A. Ask the students If trieyarefamillarv/ithlheelernentlead. (Ifpossible.showthcrnapieceof lead. A fishing line sinker Is a convenient example.) Remind them of familiar Hying* like "heavy as lead." You can point out the element's symbol on a periodic chart and discuss its properties. B. Ask the student} If they can name son* use* ol lead. Sumecne should name leaded gasoline. Explain (hat can made before I97S use gasoline with lead-containing additives. The lead com- pounds reduce engine "knock* and help the can run more smoothly. However, can made after 1975 are required to have pollution control devices on their engines and cannot use leaded gasoline. C. Toll the students that this activity concerns lead air pollution, which comes primarily from can burning leaded gasoline. It Illustrates both the problem* with current lead pollution and lead which is already in the environment from previous lead pollution. II. Activity A. Have the student* consider (he topic of toad air pollution. 1. Give each student acopy of tne»roden«iheet"CETnNCTHELEADOUr(includ*J>and allow the class lime to read II. 2. Discuss the content of Ihestudent sheet briefly. Asklhestudentstoidcniifythvmain sources and the effects of lead air pollutants. You might list these on the chalkboard as the students give them. i .1. Remind (he students thai lead, like many other substances made more available to the en- viRmrnenlbyhurranactt*ity.accumuUtnlnlivtngorganismvThisbuild-upo(leadc*nbe passed up through Ihc food chain from the leaves and stems of plants to the bodies of animals and people. (If necessary, review what a food chain is with the students.) B. Define the term •biological magnification' forthestudents. Enplalnlo the students that they will simulate this process through a pencil and paper activity. Make il clear that this activity serves demonstrative purposes only; It does not exactly duplicate the actual biochemical and biophysi- cal processes of biological magnification and must ml be taken literally. Lead is excreted very slowly from living organisms. To simplify this exercise, tell the students to assume trial all the lead is transferred from one (eve) to Ihc next. a. TH1 the srudenn that for Ibe purpose of stmulattag biological magnification, they should assume the handout represents • grassy field wlthcow«| grazing on It located near a major highway. Each word or number on the iiageiepifstnlsabite of gnu*. The shjdentsaietocounl the "Whriofgrasa- In the -field.- The total number representsgrass biomass. b. Tell the students that whenever me word lead' appear* on the page. It represenMa •bite* that Is contaminated with particles of lead from the exhaust of vehicles burning haded gasoline. Have them circle the lead "biles- and then count the number of circled words. 2. Clv«eaehsttidentacopyo Is turned into waste, heal, motion, and other activities like thinking and talking. I. Tellthesluden»stoentwtr«edaUlnTab^lllandtr«ncalcuUl«lr«concentTaticmoflcad(as Indicated) found in Ihe person who ate the cow. Remember, all of the lead is retained in the body. E. Summarize the activity on the chalkboard for the students: have them enter the data In Ihe table -LEAD IN THE FOOD CHAIN." Explain why the amount of lead per unit of body weight Increases at each level of the food chain. Make sure they understand the simulation. F. Teacher's Key t Bites Lead 43 • Bites Lead 43 • Hies Lead 43 i .077 ppu Total f Bites MO 10% Total Bites S6JO 1% Total Bites 3.60 Cow Lead Concentration .77 ppu Crass Lead Concentration .077 ppu Cow Lead Concentration .77 ppu Human Lead Concentration 7.70 ppu, Human Lead Concentration 7.70 ppu m. Follow-Up A. Have the students list from imnmy the major sources and the effect* of lead air pollution. B. Have the students draw Ihe food chain used In the simulation of biological magnification. C (Optional) You may wish to ha ve Ihe students evaluate the simulation; I.e.. name the assump- tions made and list reasons why they are or are not likely to be valid or realistic. For example. In part D (above), the students may be able to point out that one person would not eat a whole cow. especially the bones (where most of Ihe lead Is stored). IV. Extensions A. The class may want In examine further Ihe issue of phasing out leaded gasoline. Can older can run well on unleaded gas? Wr|y do people remove the pollution control devicesfromlhcir newer can? How much control should government agencies have over Individual citizens? Hpwdo Ihe benefits compare to the possible drawbacks? B. You may want to havecUssmembeislnofcal lead poisoning from sources other than ah-pollution Inmoredetail. A major Issue has been the condition of older housing, most often occupied by Ihe poor of the inner cities. Buildings like these have lead pipes so lead gets into the drinking water. (Copper pipes soldered with solder that contains lead are widely found.) Old buildings • also are frequently painted with lead-based paints. Leaded paint chips are frequently eaten by babies and toddlers. Have students find out what the current federal regulations on lead-based paints are. ' C. The most often used example of biological magnification Is Ihc pesrkUV DDT. You may want to have the class look in more detail at why this chemical was banned from most uses (in the U.S. In 1972). The following chart gives actual measurements which show biological magnification. RESOURCES Air Pollution Control Association. SffiU Pittsburgh. PA 15320). 1984. i Hnok on Air PfllhiHon To (Address: P.O. Box 2861. Brown. Inter, et-al. Stale of Ihe World. 1990. WorldWatch Inslllhjte. New York: Norton. 1990. Kupchella, C.E. and M.C HjrUnd. EnvlmmixmalSclenct^ 2nd. ed. Boston: AtVyn and Baton. 1989. Miller, C. T.. fr. philnMumnulScttntK An Introduction. Brtmont. CA: Wadsworfh. 1QM P *«9 ------- Student GETTING THE LEAD OUT people began mining and using lead almost 3,000 years ago. Lead and materials containing it have been used In paints, bullets, cookware, solder, batteries, plumbing, pesticides, gasoline, and many other things. Although very useful, every form of lead I; harmful to people and animals if It gets into their bodies. Lead poisoning is the d isease tliat results when a person (or animal) has enough lead in his/her body to cause muscle tjemors, digestive system problems, anemia, and brain damage; it can even be fatal. Because of lead's many uses and the many ways it becomes a pollutant, lead pollution Is found all over the world. It is even carried in the air to places where very few people live or to places where people live primitive lifestyles and use no lead products. All of us have some lead in our bodies. People who live in large cities have more lead than those living In rural areas. There is some scientific evidence that even very low levels of lead In the body cause problems (for example, high blood pressure) in some people, but most people have only a fraction of the lead it takes to cause lead poisoning. HOW does lead get into the body? Most of the lead entering our bodies comes from things we eat or drink. For instance, consuming food out of cans made with lead solder and drinking water from plumbing systems with lead, both put lead into our bodies. This is not the only way our bodies collect lead. We also breathe lead air pollutants, tiny particles of lead that float in theair, especially in cities. Lead air pollutants can also settle Into things we eat and drink. Animals that graze near busy highways can eat enough lead particles in the grass on which they feed to show symptoms of lead poisoning. Once in the body, lead stays for • long time. As lead circulates through our bodies in the blood, it tends to collect In bones. The more lead to which we are exposed, the more we collect in our bodies. This is especially serious for children, who are more sensitive to lead's effects than adults. Children around the world, especially those living in large cities, are suffering from lead poisoning. Even those who don't show signs of lead poisoning can suffer lowered intelligence, behavioral problems, and other effects of lead. The effects of lead on people, especially children, is one reason lead air pollution is of so much concern. The government has passed laws that have greatly reduced the amount of lead air pollution in the United States. The fight against this air pollution has been much easier than the fight against others, because the source of the pollution is easily done away with. Some lead air pollution comes from industries using lead, but most of it comes from cars burning leaded gasoline. Cars don't have to bum gasoline with lead In it; in fact, all the cars made since 1975 cannot use it. The law requires that the leaded gas made today have less lead than in the past, and soon, no leaded gas will be made at all. By getting the lead out of gasoline, we are getting the lead out of our air. We are breathing, eating, and drinking less lead, and that Is good for all of us. SOURCE A CASE STUDY OF BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION: CONTAMINATION OF LONG ISLAND SOUND IN 19*7 '. DDT CONTAMINATION FISH-EATING BIRDS 25 ppm LARGE FISH .._......2 ppm SMALL FISH — J 05 ppm PLANKTON . .0.004 ppm WATER , 0.00000) ppm Concentration of DDT magnified approximately 10 million lime* from the level of DDT in the surrounding water Student BIOLOGICAL MAGNIFICATION T.bl. I > of •bteiof'gran* Tail f of "bitn In Lead concentration hi containing lad the field" "gra»»" (In pant par unit Ippu) , (grata Woman) where unln ar> "MteT) •» ' I (word! lead") (100% of wordll • Tabkll eoftritatnihefteld containing lead ' * 1 10» of total number of bitct In twU (cow MomaHl • Lead concentration in wow (In pant per unit of cowl *" (word) lead") , (10% of wordil (ppu) Tabklll 9 of bltci con ti in tag lead 1% of total number of hilt* In fold • human biofnjui Lead concentration In the Modem who ejtt the cow (in part* per unit t»f itudentt (word! lead-) M*ofwon)O (ppu) SUMMARY LEAD IN THE FOOD CHAIN tonttntratton in i lead concentration m cow trad (onrcmrattnn In human (ppu) (ppul (ppu) I fan you explain why the amount of lead Increija at each level ol In* food chain? ------- TEMPERATURE'S RISING vj *> OBJECTIVES The student win do the following: 1. EnpUIn how the Greenhouse Effect Is capable of changing (he climate of the earth. 2. Describe how a greenhouse g>s winks. 3. Identify the sources of the Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO,) in the earth's SUBJECTS: Science. Mathematics TIME: 1-2 class periods MATERIALS: dry Ice (science department it local college or high school or local businesses are possible sources; store In an Ice chest and break Into small pieces before use) CAUTION: Do not handle dry Ice with bare hands. Use gloves. 4 or 5 light sources (lamps with 100-watt bulbs or 3-way reading lights turned to highest wattage) For each studenigroup: watch or timer 2 clear glass bottles with lids lhal fit rightly 2 small thtrmunietns that fll inside the glass bottles (aquarium theiiimmrtm work nicely) student sheets (Included) BACKGROUND INFORMATION Carbon dioxide is a by-product 01 most living things and many commercial processes. Organ* Isms "burn" food (fuel) to release the energy re- quired for llfeactivion. Carbon dioxide isa waste productofthHprocess. When humans burn fossil fuels (fuels such as coal and oil formed by plants > ' millions of yean ago). CO, Is also given off. Today we use huge amounts of energy (fuel) for transportation and Industry. Concern Is giuwliig about the Urge amount of CO, that Is building up in the atmosphere as fossil fuels are burned. Such an Increase In atmospheric COr along with Increases inolhcr gases such as CFCt (chlorofluorocarbons). could lead to an Increase in the average temperature of the earth. This Is known as the "Ormhous* Effect.' Carbon dioxide differs from nitrogen (N,) and oxygen (O.). the two main gases In our atmosphere. because it absorbs Infrared radiation (heat) emitted by the earth, causing the temperature of the earth to Increase. TheCieenhouse Effect canbeoburved in parked cars in the sun or In gieeiihuuscs made mostly of glass. The glass In the windows Is transparent to visible light. This light heats the surface it shines ori. Then, the hot surfaces emit Infrared radiation, which does not penetrate the glassand is trapped, causing the Inside n* the cars (or greenhouses) to warm up. The theoiized warming of the earth Is certainly not M dramatic as the heat gain in parked can, but Is nonetheless a real concern. Studleshave shewn that since 1890 the amount of CO. In the earth's atmosphere has been Increasing. The following table shows this Increase DATE 1890 1958 (988 CO, (ppm) 2 313 J47 The concern of adcntWs to Out If (ht amount of O^ In me atmosphere continues ID rise, (he average temperature of theearthcould be affected. Some computer predictions Indicate that by the year 2050 (he average temperature of the earth could rfs> bjr as much as 3*C (about tfFt. Such a change in temperature may sound small, but ettmstologM* believe It could drtmattemlh; affect future climates. Areas that now receive ample rainfall might become arid and vice versa. Polar Ice caps could mHi to some degree. causing a rise hi so level. Even a slight rise maw level could have drastic effects on many of (he world's Uri^dttes, established narcoasts for good access toocean*. Noonecanbesureexactfvwhsttheeffects on dimatc or tool weather pattern would be. but any change that occurs could be very serious: Plants and animals h»v« adapted to existing climates over thousand s of years; many species cou Id not adapt to climate changes thai happen over shorter periods of time, and famine and/or extinction could result. PROCEDURE I. Setting the Stage A. Tell the students that the CO, found In the earth's atmosphere is a greenhouse gas. Shaw the background information with (He das*. B. Show the students a piece of dry Ice. Explain that it Is CO, that has been solidified by cooling CO, gas to a very luw t C. Have thestudents suggest an expeilmeiii.usmgdry tee asaCO, source, thafmlght demonstrate that CO, is a greenhouse gas. II. Activity A. Have the students conduct the experiment as directed bHow. 1. Divide the class into pairs or small groups of students. Give o«ch group the materials required and a copy of the student sheet "CO. AND TEMPERATURE DATA SHEET (included). 2. Have the students place the (htnujimuu In (he bottles and label one bottle "air- and the other XOr" The teacher should place a small piece of dry Ice into each CO, bottle. (CAUTION: Use gloves!) Then the students should place the top on the bottle but do NOT tighten; pressure could cause the bottle to break. Place the top on the bottle labeled "air.- but do not lighten it either. (Whenmosiofthedry keis gone, the lopsonlhebottksshouldlhcn be lightened.) Allow 10 minutes for (he CO, bottle's temperature to come back to room tem- perature. (NOTE: CO, could be placed m the bottle at (he beginning of the dass period to saverime.>Recordtheicmperaturelnbot)iboii)es. Do not remove the tops from the oolites until the experiment is complete. 3. After the temperatures have stabilized, haw the students place both bottles on* foot from a lOOwatt light and read the temperature from the (hermomttyis every 10 minutes for one hour (or until the end of the dass period). Record the temperatures on the data sheet. B. Record the temperature differences for each group on the board. Have each group look at the data and draw a conclusion about whether or not CO, could be a greenhouse gas. Can the students think of ways to improve the experiment? HI. Follow-Up A. Review the poat&lepnenl effects of the CrcerAotae Effect wlm^ Be sure they mention change In eUmale. change In weather pattern*, and rise of oceans. R rbvethestadmtiipeciiUtehowtheb-UvawiMddbedlf^^ How would agriculture and population centers In North America change? C Telltr«ftudentstralpUntsrrtonrfproduceCX)rba1theyabooseCO,tormkefcod. Thera^ forests In the tropical and semHrofjical areas of the world an; enorimus users of COr However, OJpercent of the total forest' (s being destroyed each year. How wfjl this affect CO, In the atmosphere? D. Hare ftcsttiden.3dtacp3»w«y» that rn^^ limit the Greenhouse Effect They should fndude limiting the use of fossil fuels and preserva- tion of rain forests* IV. Extension A. rbve the studeiter^tuieiiiionietenmtwo cats. TtelherniometeisahuuM sundoes not directly strike themand where theycanbe read without opening Ihec.ir doors. Park one car In the fun tun and roll up the windows. Park the second car In the shade and roll up the windows. (NOTE: Be sure to choose ears with untinted windows!) Take the temperature readings Inside the two cars every 10 minutes for a dass period. Compare the results. B. CTCgasiMnotherpoliuUntthat|scoimtbutrnglDrheGfe------- Student CO, AND TEMPERATURE DATA SHEET 1. Bulb wattage: 2. Bulb distance from bottles: TIME (min) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 AIR BOTTLE (temp) CO, BOTTLE (tempi RESOURCES Ebbing, Darrell. General Chemhtrv. 3rded. Boston: Houghton Mtfflln. 1990. Manahan. Stanley E. Environmental Chemistry. 4lhed. Monterey. CA: Brooks Cole. 1984. Merken. Mdvin. Physical Science with Modem Application. 4lhed. Philadelphia: Saunders. 1989. SOCK IT TO ME OBJECTIVES The students will do the following: 1. Describe how wave chemicals from auto ex- hausts can cause acid rain. , 2. Dncribe measure? In prevent acid rain. • SUBJECTS: Science. Math. Language Arts TIME 1-2 class periods MATERIALS: clean plastic bottles with lids for collecting samples of polluted water stick-on address labels or masking tape permanent Ink pen or pencil petri dishes pHpaper sock filter paper eyediouper . distilled water BACKGROUND INFORMATION Acid rain is living proof that what goes up eventu- ally must come down. Cars, trucks, and fossil fuel burning industries and smelting operations release sulfur oiides and nitrogen oxides into the atmo- sphere. Coal-burning power plants and Industries .ire the primary sources pi sullur. Cars and trucksemit mainly nitrogen oxides. These gases are carried by the winds and weal her When (hose chemicals mi> with water vapor, they form sulfuhc and nitric jcids. The gases iSO. and NO,i may also react with other pollutants to form sulfates and nitrates which can also form acids when combined with water. Eventually they fall to the ground In the form of rain. snow, hall. foe. and dew Acid ram pollutants can cause problems when they reach water bodies as wet ,------- Student Sheet II. Activity A. Divide the student* into small group* and pve etch croup a SOCK SAMPLE DATA RECQRD Date Sample • Date of Sample ( i 1 I i Time Sample Taken Type of Vehicle pH of Sample WATER SAMPLE DATA RECORD Sample * Date of Sample Time Sample Taken i i ! . Location of Samrili- Water Source of Sample pH of Sample ------- Environmental Resource Guide • Nonpoint Source Pollution Prevention X^ Copyright 1992 Air * Waste Management Association AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION Teachers may reproduce parts of this book for noncommercial classroom use without permission of the copyright holder. For all others, reproduction without permission is prohibited. For information on obtaining copies of this manual, contact Beth OToole, Education Program Manager, Air & Waste Management Association, P.O. Box 2861, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15230, (412) 232-3444. fax (412) 232-3450. WATER POLLUTION DETECTIVES OBJECTIVES The students win do the following: 1 . Define wtler pollution ind doofhe the dif- ference between point and nonpolnt 2* Deicribe ttw main sources of water polnv lion— urban, agriculture, mining, and forestry and list examples of each. Identify ways to minimize nonpofnt mi pollution. SUBJECTS: Science. Soda) Studies, Language Am TIME: 1-2 dan periods MATERIALS: Can You -Detect" Potential Water Pollu- tion Problem? Handout magazine phutogr a phs, slides, or oliici Dictum of water pollution BACKGROUND INFORMATION Water pollution Is generally defined as any human-caused contamination of water that reduces Its usefulness to humansand other organisms m nature. There are two broad daises of water pollution. One Is point Kmrce pollution. II has Its source In a well-defined location, nich as the pipe through which factory discharges enterastreara The other rsmmpolnt source pollution. It has Its sou ice over Urgeareas such as farms, grazing lands, logging roads, construction sites.abandoned mines, and the gardens, lawns, streets, and parking lots of elite*. People can cause nonpoint lource pollution by Uttering, wrongfully disposing of household hazardous wastes and pet wastes, dumping motor oil. over-fertilizing lawns and farmlands, mtsappljrlng pesticides and herbicides. Illegally discharging wastes from boats, and Inap- propriately de-Icing sidewalks and driveways. Nonpoint tource pol lubon does not enter the waterway al a single point or originate from a single location. Nonpoint lource pollution Is much more difficult to control than point source pollution, where the source is easily identifiable. Tvpes of nonpoint pollution vary and examples Include sediment, iiuhleiils. and pesticides. Other significant nonpoint sources Include leachate and runoff from waste disposal systems, farming, urban ninofl. miningind logging areas* and construction sites. Regionally significant nonpotnt sources include beich and shoreline erosion and atmospheric deposition. Of all the types of nonpoint pollution, sediment conipi Ises the greatest amount by weight of materials transported. Sediment pollution or erosion results mainly from row-cropping, livestock operations, construction sites, logging opeialtons. and urban runoff. Sediment can adversely affect recreational. Industrial, and municipal water uses as well« aquatic habitat*. Sediment can also fill takes, navigation channels, and harbors. TMs can result In costly dredging operations. Sediment can also transport other pollutants. Other than sediment the pollutants of greatest concern from rural and urban areas ere plant nutrients, mainly nitrates and phosphates. Nonpoint sources of nutrients Include Inorganic fertilizers and anhnal wastes from agricultural opeialtons. runoff from urban gardens and lawns, and septic lank failures. Excessive nutrients cm cause unsightly growths of algae and aquatic weeds wMeh adversely Impact the entire acjuarkettnysiein and an rrtuauVusefalness of water bed lesfcriecirallon. water suppfygand wildlife habitat Often nutrients enter water bodies along with Urge quantities of organic material socn as soft which. upon decompositloii limease the demand for oiy^eii. Algae, animal wastes, domestic wastes, and Industrial discharges can contain oxygen-denundlng substances that deplete the supply of oxygen available for fish, and may cause fish kills. Fish kills occur when dissolved oxygen levels drop below levels required by the fish to breathe. This causes fish to suffocate. Other pollutants, though pimmfr much smaller quantities, an also a concern because of their potentially harmful effects on human health and aquatic life. M Intng activities, pesticides, animal wastes. soil erosion, runoff from urban areas, leachate from sanitary landfills, and septic lank failures eon tribute toxic substances such as heavy metals, oil, and other dangerous organic chemicals to water systems. Water bodies contaminated wilh bacteria or toxic metals and pesticides require extensive liealniein to make the water safe for drinking or other purposes. Water bodies contaminated with disease-causing bacteria may need to be closed for recreational purposes like swimming and fishing. I Finally, atmospheric pollutants can cause \nobtain when they reach water bodies as wet or dry fallout Wet fallout Is when water vapor coqiplnes with pollutants hi the amiupslieie and Is deposited In rain, snow, and dew. Dry fallout Is deposited as dust particles. Add rain forms primarily when fossil fuels are burned. Add rain reaches water bodies either directly as rain and snow from contaminated douds or when dry fallout Is deposited on land and washed Into water bodies as runoff or snow melt. Nonpoint source pollution occurs over large areas and b often difficult to pinpoint The mosteffe wav to control nonooint gnttrrr nxlluMm u u> * — —•"•••— -" —•—"-• ' . —, „—» pw-.w. «^M. > WTO M*gr«renBna a onen auncuii io pinpoint The most effective way to control nonpoint source pollution Is to pnmnt or reduce all potential sources of pollution. Erosion, for instance. Is a major contributor of sediment, nutrients, toxics, and oxygen-demanding pollutants. No-till and reduced tillage agricultural piaclkea. contour plowing, and controlled drainage (use of glassed waterways. berms.and tile drainage systems) can go a long way toward protecting water bodies fiuiii the excessive erosion associated with row^iuuuing. Conliuulng nmoff from livestock operations, reclaiming strip mine areas, carefully constructing logging roads with water diversions. using good forest harvesting pi at Ikes, and exercising good Judgment when planning and carrying out construction activities can all help control sediment pollution of water bodies. Atmospheric deposition can be controlled at the point of geneiallun with scrubbers In smokestacks and reduced use of automobiles. Reducing solid wastes decreases the need for landfills and reduces the potential for groundwarer contamination from leachate. These are hist a few of the many ways nonpoint source pollution can be reduced or eliminated. PROCEDURE I. Setting the Stage Introducethetermswater pollution, point, and nonpoint. Passout student handful "Can You 'Detect' Potential Water Pollution Probterror Have the students distinguish point from nonpoint and explain why. B. Show the dass magazine photographs, slides, or other pictures of water pollution. Ask them for their own observations of water pollution In their con unurdtyorrn places they have vis! ted. C. Tell the students that the lesson wul Introduce them to the four main sources of water pollutants—urban, agriculture, mtning,and forestry. Note that urban rndudesdties. residential areas, malls, and roadways. A. II. Activity A. Read the followtnggulded Imagery tolhteUss.Afiereachpassage.ask the students to Identify the source of the pollution and explain why. 1. IPs raining during rush-hour traffic m an Industrial park where several factories an changing shifts. Smoke b billowing from the smokestacks at the factories and from some automobile and truck exhaust pipes. Visibility li limited due to the smog and drivers are being very cautious of the wet roads. WhatU the pollution seurce?(URBAN-Ca«»fiu»ilusin fuel bun^spoxtr Industrial smokestacks I without scrubbers or other type of pollution control devtcesland cars and trucks cause add rain.) Rain to also falling on parking lots at shopping maOa and on fht highways. The waters flow Into a nearby stream. After the rain stops, soflit boys pun/tag In the water downstream notice that then b a tight Aim of oil on the wata. Wralbthepc------- •VJ OC 3. Farther dtmiBlieain trie boys notfce a heim bi^ putll art u^ stream Is muddy. What Is the pollutant source? (URBAN • Erosion from ban land exposed during construction.) 4. ThlsMmestTeamlhennowsbyaeottonflekl which hssbeeimup-duutd to kfll weevils. The farmer's grandchildren who are fishing to the stream the next day notice that there are several dead Hsh in the water that were not there the day before. What Is the pollution source? (AGRICULTURE - The pesticide drifted Into the stream when the field was being crop-dusted and killed the fish.) 5. The farmer's grandchildren dedde to continue on dowiatieam to Rnd another Bshmg spot. The stream continues to flow by another farmer's land where he/she has dairy cows. Some co wsare grazing in the pasture and others andrinkmgoutof the stream. The children notice that the water Is very muddy. What Is the pollution source? (AGRICULTURE - Dairy cows an trampling down the streambank and are also depositing animal wastes Into the water. Trampling" resullsln loss of vegetation and Increased erosion. Animal wastes can pollute the water with bacteria and nutrients. This Is making the water muddy.) 6. The children continue hiking on downstream. They go by a com field. Tliey leiiieinber how hot they got last month when they helped their granddaddy ferolln the field to get It ready to plant. They remember how wonderful It was when It rained the next day. At last the children got to a spot where they usually catch a lot of fish. They found algae and weeds that were not there during the first part of the summer. The children wonder why there was so much algae and weeds growing m the stream now. What Is the pollution source? (AGRICULTURE - The fertOlzer runoff (excessive ntrtrt- ents) from the corn field caused the algal bloom and excess aquatic weed growth.) 7. Meanwhile, back In thedty.theemuluyits of the wastewater treatment plant notice an I ncreaselnbacterla when conducting their routine water testsontheSKKMIJOp.m.shHl. The employees remember that the heavy rams earlier In the day washed a lot of mud and litter dowri gutters and curbs, and caused the storm sewers to overflow. What is the pollution source? (URBAN • Heavy rams cause pet wastes, soil, and litter, to wash from impervious surfaces Into streams. Both pet waste and litter can contribute bacteria to the stream. Also, If storm sewers are combined with sewers for domestic and commercial wastes, untreated waste may also be released to surface waters following heavy rains. (NOTE: Most dtles have separate storm and wastewater sewers. If they are combined, water may flow too fast Into the wastewater treatment plant and not get adequately treated.) B. During the next week, imptoytts of the wistewaler treatment plant i p the creek turns green and smells. The einuloyecscouldn't uiideistand this, so the employees look attheirmapstodeteiiiuiielf any creeks flowing Into the river might be the source of the new pollution. They notice that a creek a couple of miles upstream flows by the new golf course that had friH opened and they call the golf course office to find out If they had fertilized their grass. They had. In fact, fertilized It right before a heavy rain. What Is the pollution source? (URBAN • The fcrtllcer was washed Into the creek that eventually flowed Into the river that was used by the water treatment plant. The fertiltoer added nutrients which caused an algal bloom.) The drinking water Irealnieiil plant employees do a metal analysis and Bnd that there is an unacceptable amount of lead In the water. They look at their map for possible areas where metals might be entering the creek, They notice an abandoned area by a creek which flows Into the river that Is the source of the city's drinking water. Of fidals go to check the area and And hall-filled paint cans among garbage that had been Illegally dumped. What Is the pollution source? (URBAN -Theold paint contains lead and the rain washed the lead into the creek which flowed into the river used by the drinking water treatment plant.) 10. Months later, drinking • ate nployees notice test results which Indicate that the water Is loo acidic Remembering that a coal mine Is located near one of the streams that flows into the river they use tor drinking water, they send someone out to check out the situation. The coal mine had been abandoned. What was the sc«me of polrutton?(MINu>C-TherurcO(iom the sponpOes of leftover rocks towing into thecreekwascddlc. Spoil piles contain sulfur and other compounds which turn mtp Mid* when they combine with water.) [™»w«r»l'"onms. the wastewater treatment plant had an Increase hi the amount of sediment in the water, so they send someone out to cheek this out. They find that a "fly- by-night logging company had clearcul the forests near the creek that is used for drinking water. .Wr«lte soil is not Protected, soil en* on Increases. Therefore, there Is more soil or sediment (lowing into the streams. More sediment makes the water muddy.) III. Follow-Up A. Divtdetl«classtatosnu,llgToupsandhaveihemn^^ communities. Haveeachgroupwrltethelrown stories similar to Ihegulded imagery using this information and share them with the class. After each story have the studenft Identify the source and explain why. in me guided Imagery. C £"Ve1,el*,5J^nll,"l!!e ' *0ly tbou» • WMW d"** '"•« His how It became polluted, and how It could ha re been prevented. Have them draw pictures of before and afteV IV. Extension •—--•-• • •"•- -«•• B»™..UI«III» iiivliuiuiieinal agency (EPA or Environment Canada) to request Information about water pollution and what Is being done to prevent It i RESOURCES t Tlonpomt Source Polhilion.- Water Quality Factsheet 94. Tennessee Valley Authority. 1988. Sliuh-nl Sheet CAN YOU "DETECT" POTENTIAL WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS? ------- NO PLACE TO RUN TO V0 OBJECTIVES The students win do the following: I. Develop a model which demonstrates how nonpermeable areas collect a number of pollutants which can runoff Into nearby lakes and streams. 2. Citeexamplesofurbi by observing the model. rpolhitta 3. SuggestwaystoreducerunoHmurDanareaiby redesigning ind testing their models. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Rainwater ninnhig off roofs, lawns, streets, and parking lot* can wash a number of water pollutants Into lakes and streams. These pollutants include nutrients fiom garden fertilizers, bacteria from pel wastes and rotting litter, sediments from erosion. toxic chemicals such as pesticides, oil, gasoline. and trace metals from emissions and grinding car parts (lead, mercury, and cadmium), tine from roofs and gutters, arid road salt or sand. SUBJECTS: Science, Social Studies. Language Arts TIME: 1-2 class periods MATERIALS! cardboard bOJiesoi plasnc rectangular boxes (1 per group) garbage bags (If cardboard boxes are used) plastic hose duct tape (to seal hose) slyrofbam pieces (different sizes and thick- nesses) sponges food colorings vegetable oil potting soil eyedroppersd per group) small plastic (an (6 per group) scissors hacksaw watering can water paper towels pictures of different parking lots and uiban areas (optional) iii. levdoped areas, these pollutants usually collect on hard-surfaced parking lots and streets where they naln until a hard rain washes them Into nearby storm sewers. Sometimes these pollutants collect In such high concentrations that they kill fish when they are washed all at once by a heavy rain into a stream. This Iscalted shock load Ing. To prevent mb from happening, urban pUnneraarr now plan tinggrm filter strips, diversion ditches, and holding ponds to collect the runoff and allow it to seep slowly Into the ground and/or to slow runoff down so that less enters sloimseweisor washes Into water bodies. Agrau filler strip Isan area of land planted with grass where water can flow Instead of running intoa stormdrain. Adiverslondltchlsachannelllnedwlthgrassorriprapusedtodlreclwaterawayfromanarea. Diversion ditches divert water to open land or ponds where it can collect and be slowly absorbed Into the ground. ADVANCED PREPARATION I. Prepare the foDowtrBjmWuresmtnuul plastic jars and label as follows: A. 1/4 cup (68 ml) salad ofl + 2-3 drops yellow food coloring + 2-3 drops green food coloring—label "oil or gasoline.' B. 1/2 cup (125 ml) water* 3-5 drop* red food coloring—label trace metals," C. 1/2 cup 1125 mO water* 3-5 drops green food colotuig . label femlnera.' D 1 /2cupll25ml) water »1 teaspoon (5 ccl salad ofl + 3-5 drops yellow food coloring— label "pet wastes and rotting Utter." E. I /2eup< 125 mn water* petting sod and shake vigorously—label 'erosion.' P. 1 /2 crip (125 ml) water* 5 drops blue food coloring—label-tooac chemicals.' II. TosaveJsj«toruKwlththeirtM^tto«macoolpla«topi«^ Do not store more than two days. PROCEDURE I. Setting the Stage B, Tell ttieshtdeneitliathard-surfacedpailLlnglats provide no place forram In slowly filter down through the soil, and pollutants transported In urban storm sewer systems Include nutrients, bacteria, litter, soil, toxic chemicals, and organic materials. II. Activity A. DJvidethecUsslntogroupsloftruTeorrourandglveeachgiDiipabrn. Have them line the box with a garbage bag. Then poke a hole m the end of the box and attache hose to serve** a dram. Put the hose in the hole. Make sure the hose fits tightly. Use duct tape to seal the hose. The hose will represent a city storm sewer. TeD them that water flowing through the hose will travel straight into a nearby stream. B. Design and construct environment. 1. Have the students design Ihelr own urban environment on a piece of paper first. Tell them theyaregolng louse styrofoambtocksand sponges lo create thisenvironmeni. The styrofoam will represent buildings and parking lots. The sponges will represent grassy areas, landscape plantings, diversion ditches, or grass filter strips. i • 2. When they havt completed thedeslgn. havethemcutoulandarrangethepiecesmthelr .boxes. (NOTE: Suggest to the students that they minimize cutting In their designs because it lakes a tot of work to cut the design oul.t C. When the students finish designing their urban areas, have them use eyedroppers to deposit pollutants onto their environments. Use the pollutants prepared in the advanced preparation section. The pollutants should be placed where they would occur normally. D. naceabi^pla^tk^runderthehoselocstchthednhvgeardcreateaheavyralnstormuslRg a sprinkling-type watering can. Keepralntiigunttlpollutantswashoff. (NOTE: Use the same amount of "rain" on each model). Watch the water draining out the storm drain. What does It look like? Did the runoff look fromdilfeieiu models vary. Explain that nowalllhepollutants are mixed up so we can't see what they are. in. Follow-Up A. Tell them about diversion ditches and grass strips lo prevent or reduce the amount of contaminants reaching the surface waters. How could the model be designed differently to reduce pollution? What other things could be done to prevent urban pollution? Have the students redesign their models with diversion ditches, grass filter strips, or holding ponds. B. ComparethewalercDnecMrromthtiedeslgnedinodelMtr* Werethe^successhil? Why? What worked and what dhhit? Why? Extension A. Invite an uiban planner, architect, or water quality professional to visit your class and talk about what Is being done to reduce urban water pollution hi your area. B. Ask the Invited speaker to fudge the students original or redesigned models and suggest additional modifications. HOHt els. Industrials A. Explain thatiamwatei running off roofs, lawi ana* washes • number of poOutants Into lakes and streams. undo BWLOimS, ROAM BWIP *MM ------- FERTILE GREEN OBJECTIVES The students will do the folluwlng. 1 • Identify sources of fertilizer runoff. 2. Describe the effect* of fertilizer on algal growth by e»peiiinent with different witcr nonet. BACKGROUND INFORMATION SUBJECTS: Science. Math. Language Arti TIME: 1*2 cltss periods MATERIALS! dear plastic quart contained or liter bottles (4 per group) measuring spuuns water samples plant fertilizer lap water camera and fltm (optional) phoiogiaphs of water bodies with algal problems and euliuulilcation (optional) Farmers, fuiesten. honieowiieis, and businesses can pollute water by Improperly usrng chemical fertilizers* For example. In uiuan areas, nomeovmert often apply 2*3 nmes the recommended ajuutmli of fertilizer to lawns, gardens, and flowers. Farmenapplymg too much manure or feroiizersat the wrong lime can cause similar piuMems. For Instance. It Is not good to apply fertilizer ID saturated ground or duringthe rainy season. After heavy rains, fertilizer c«n wash into the rivers and lakes and nipplyaquatic plants with too many nutrients. A> a result, algae can multiply faster and cause algal blooms. Algal blooms can reduce the supply of oxygen in Ihe water beiauseojiygeii is insulted for algal if ipuationand growth. When the algae dies, cjyfctn is requlied to break down or decompose the dead algae.. Both piomses can make oxygen unavailable to fish and other aquatic life and may cause fish kills. When plants and animals die. they settle to the bottom. Under normal conditions this results In the water body gradually filling up with sediment. THs process Is called eutrophtcation. This process Is sped up when cxccto nutrients And wolnwnl trt Adoco to A wBttr oody. ADVANCED PREPARATION I. nil SfTei^bockettocothareontamers with tap water arelte them set for a day or »o(oanow any chlorine to dissipate. II. Prep»rererUllzeTaccertlngtoOiep»ctajftdlrect.or»«iiddoublensstrttig^ For example. If the directions call Tor one teaspoon per quart of water and your sample Is one quart, add two teaspoons of fertilizer to the water sample. PROCEDURE I. Setting the Stage A. Explain that (1) water pollution Is any human-caused contamination of water that \taen> Its value to humans and nature; and (2) phosphorus entering lakes In runoff from fertilized areas can cause heavy algal blooms and excessive weed growth In lakes. B. l^ke a list o( aD lhepo«enrUlsoim» of mitrientswWch might wash In to a water body after a heavy ram. The list ariould rnehi* agrlculrure. forests, plant nurseries, golf courses, home or business landscape!, and home gardens. P. Activity A. Tdllhest»lentslr.eyareaplra|loc*serTetr«efrectsoihm^^ manure, be used? Are they as effective? fV. Extension Have the students research "eutropWeation." AlgalblocmsspeedoptheaglngoreutTophlcation of water bodies and cause them to fill m. i ------- RESOURCES Water testing klu and equipment • For a auto*, write Hath Equipment Company. T.O. Box 389. LoveUnd. Colorado 80539 or LaMotteC«npiny,r.O.Box329.ltoute213North.a«steitown. Maryland 21620. Student Sheet Narnets) NUTRIENT ENRICHMENT OBSERVATIONS DATE* TIME DAY1 DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 DAYS DAY 6 DAY? DAY 14 DAY 21 DAY 28 OBSERVATIONS JAR1 JAR 2 JAR 3 JAR 4 PESKY PESTICIDES OBJECTIVES The students will do the following: 1. Ust and describe the purpose,of autumn pesticides used by farmers and gardeners. 2. In(erviewfarmersandgardenerst6gatherdata on now cunuiiun pesticides •re used In* their List examples of safe pesticide alternatives tor home use. SUBJECTS: Science, Language Arts. Social Studies TIME: 2-1 dan periods MATERIALS! pencil paper scissors glue Firmer/Gardener Interview Questions Handout farming magazines, chemical phamptets and advertisements, cooperative extension publlcatons. EPA publications, and faclsheets from local farm co-ops Safe Pesticide Alternatives for Hun leowners Handout (optional) BACKGROUND INFORMATION Each year, about three billion pounds (IJ62JOO metric tons) of pesticides are used In the United States. Pesticides are beneficial because they on Improvecrop yields signifkantly by controlling weeds, Injects, and plant disease. Farmers are by far the largest usen of pesticides. However, homeowners over-apply pesticides more often than farmers. Because pesticides are designed to kill II vingorganisms, they can cause serious health and environmental problems if not used properly. Some pesticides can stay In the environment for long perlodsof Hmeand may travel from the soil into groundwarer and surface waters. Some pesticides continue to move up the food chain from single-celled organisms and Insects to animals and humans. For example. DOT, now bannedlnlheUS, washed Into water bod iesand wasabsorbed Into single-cell organisms that were eaten byaqiiaUclnsectsandflsh. Predatory fish ale these fish and eagles at them. Female eagles contaminated with DOT laid eggs with thinner shells which were crushed when sat on. ThJsand other factors reduced eagle populations to the point where they are currently listed as a federal endangered species In the U. S. Exposure to certain pesticides may cause Illnesses m humans such as cancer or birth defects. Under the U.S.»>denl Insecticide. Ringic^. and RodentttdeAclfRFIlU ETA to resr^ the risks of pesticides through a registration process. This registration only ensures that when • pesticide Is properly used, it poses no unreasonable health or envlioniiieiital risks. It Is up to the person applying the pesticide to make sure it Is used properly. However, the best way to limit nonpolnt source pollution from pesticides is to reduce their use and consider safer alternatives such as biological controls and resistant plant species. PROCEDURE I. Setting the Stage A. EirplalnthaKDwaterpollutlonlsany human-caused contamination of water that fcmru Its value to humans and nature; and (2) understanding nonpolnt sources of pollution means looking at a wide range of human activities and land management practices. B. Defir«pe5tteiQ>»>sheibicldc».uuealchte».fung>c>de* students that pesticides are used or! agricultural lands, urban lawns and gardens, forests, and rn lakes and ponds for aquatic weed control, and surface water can be contaminated by drift from pesticide spraying and by runoff from pesticide treated soil. P. Activity A. Havee^*thxleniconl»------- OittMtuE the lixiui nutton* 1. After getting the Information (toted. the students should compile the taformaoon mto • chart. On (he chart. Identify the chemical. what II to used for, who met tl ((inner. gardener, or other), how It to applied, and what precautions ire taken. ?. Then assign a group of trot* or four trodento to Investigate each chemical. Have them find out whit the chemical to usually used for. who typically usn II. don It require a license, how long don it penUI In the environment and to it approved by U. S. EPA? 3. If possible get a copy of me Instructions and warning label* of each. Ifwamlngbbeto and Instructions are not available, go to a farmers co-op, garden center, or your local cooperative extension agency or toll conservation service office and copy down the information. Your county oteialu" agent would ahe be a good resource person. He/ she could supply materials or leaflets about pntictdn. 4. Have the groups make uuslei s thawing Information they gathered. Student Sheet III. Follow-Up A. When the poster* are dent, tape them op around the room. Also tape up the chart. Art the pndctdn being used correctly by the people you Interviewed? How dangerous are the • chemicals being used? What do farmers and anyone else who usn pnncidn do with the empty containers? Explain to the students that rain cr litigation of crept would wash some of these chemicals Inio the soil and then Into the groundv/ater, streams, and lakes. What Impacts might pesticide use have on fish and wildlife? Can the fanner make a living without thnc chemicals? Invite a person from your local f arm coop or a local (aimer to come speak to your dais. D. how they could reduce their use of pesticides. • Can a gardener be successful without eherracab? What arc some of the alternatives to pesticides? How could people reduce the chance of pesucldn washing Into the environment? IV. Extension A* Hare the students use Informs uun from •rtide or local news story. fntsrvHws and other research materials to vnite an Ori^rtcfanrdr^ to a n*0«xl of farmlr^ without am- chemical*. Ham the students research organic farming. Crow a small garden at the school and use organic gardening methods. Divide the ffBrden Into two plots and ooirrpaU^ orcjinx cafdenifl^ to c Why might organically grown vegetables cost more? Is U worth It? Have the stadentsresesrcnand wrlteapaperon tn vliwuiiciilal laws rcgulatlRgpeslkJdes. For1 Instance, hi the US the Environmental Protection Agency regulates pesncidn under the Federal Insecttdde. Fungicide, and Rodenttdde Act (FTFRA). In Canada, pesticides are regulated under the Pest Control Products Act. In both countries, permits to buy. handle, and use pesHcidn Is regulated by the state (US.) or provinces (Canada). RESOURCES HWWR*a Quldt* n Pmrtitrta Around >h» Home. 2nd edition. Household HaUaUdous Waste Project. Sprtngfteld. Mtsaoun. 1989. Llfton. BemJce. Bu,! ^^^* JMtl of Homehold P^pgt> Without McCraw HOI Book Company. New York. Mew York. 1985. Wallace. Dan led). The Matur«l Fonmi Pennsyhmnla. 1982. flrtf - Rodale Books. Emrnaus. FARMER/GARDENER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. What crops do you grow? 2. How many acres or square feet of oropa do you have? 3. Do you use any chemicals or'pcsncldesT What are theyT 4. What Is the purpose of each chemical? 5. How to cadi chemical applied? WhatpreiiuBcrodoyooukewnetiapplyiiigpeslk.Uei? (r^exampte.checkiraweatherforeeasls forramairiwmdpredlctiomOTttomgapgtationsoMbiTatado label directions as to proper concentration, application, handling of product, and disposal of containers.) SAFE PESTICIDE ALTERNATIVES FOR HOMEOWNERS* Perth)) AnU Prevention or Coatrol Method Vinegar Wash couraertopa. cabinet*, and Ooora with equal parts vinegar end wmter to deter art mfestauons. Floor and Borac Mb 1 cup 11/4 Uteri dour and 2 cups (1/2 liter) boru tn • quart (Inert jar. Sprinkle the contents •round the house foundation. Keep borax out of the reach of children and pets. Benemeal nd Powdered Ckareoal or Lenoau Set up banters where ants are entering. They wffl generally not cross lines of bonemeal or powdered charcoal. If you can Dnd a hole when ants are entering the house, squeeze the juice of a lemon tn the hole or crack. Then slice up the lemon and put the peeling aD around the entrance. Pennyroyal. Spearmint, •owthenwood. aad Tanas?: Growmg these plants around the border of your home wfll deter ants and the aphtds they cany. Vacuum, remove the vacuum bag. seal n. and dispose of It immediately outside your home. Vinegar: A ratio of I 4easpoon (5 eel vinegar to I quart (I inert water per 40 pounds 118 kg) of pet weight tn then- drtnktng water helps to keep your pets free of fleas and ticks. Fennel. Rosemary, Bed Cedar Murrtnfs. Sassafras. Bcjearfp- tus,' or Pemuyroyal] Spread leaves or shavings of these plants under and around the pet's bed. r ------- Garden Pests Mice oo Mole* Mflamiltmt* Moth* Pi«»fBtlo«l Keen kitchen garbage tightly closed. Sprinkle dry soap or borax Into garbage cans after they have been washed and allowed to dry. n acts as a repellant. Onn(e: Scratch the sktn of an orange and leave It out: the citrus acts as • repellant. Cloves: Hang clusters of cloves to repel flies.' Mint or Basil: Mint planted around the home repels files. A pot of bast) set on the windows!)! or table helps to repel files. Keep the basil well-watered from the bottom so that It produces a stronger scent. Drted ground leaves left in small bowls or hung in muslin bags are also effective. Fly Swattera. Fir Trap*, or Plr Paper. Use according to label directions. Sugar and Com Syrup: Make your own fly paper by boning sugar, com syrup, and water together. Place mixture onto brown paper and hang or set out. Egg. Molasaes. and Black Pepper: Beat the yolk of an egg with a tablespoon 113 ccl each of molasses and finely ground black pepper. Set It out in shallow plates. Cultural Controls: Nutrition, resistant varieties, tnterplantlng. limed planting, crop rotation, mulch, trap crops, and cultivation. Mechanical Controls: Handplcklng. physical barriers, traps. Biological Controls: Progs, spiders, ladybugs. praying minuses. other predatory and parasitic Insects, and microbes. Chemical: natural sprays and dusts. Mashed Potato Powder or Bads: Place instant mashed potato powder or buds tn strategic places with a dish of water close by. After eating the powder or buds mice win need water. This causes fatal bloating. Moose Traps: Use according to label directions. Castor OH cad Uqnld Detergent: Whip together 1 tablespoon (13 ccl castor oil and 2 tablespoon* PO ccl liquid detergent In a blender until the mmure la like shaving cream. Add 6 table spoons 190 ccl water and whip again. ICaotlon: Keep this mix lure out of the reach of children and pets.) Take a garden spnn kllng can and flD with warm water. Add 1 tablespoons I3O ccl of the oil mixture and *Ur. Sprinkle Immediately over the areas of Die-greatest mole infestation. For best results, apply after a ram or thorough watering. If moles are drawn to your lawn because of the grubs feeding tn the soil, yournay be able to rid yourself of both pests by spreading milky spore disease to tall the grubs. Pieveutloni Eliminate pools of stagnant water. Avoid wearing perfume, bright colors, flowery prints, and bright Jewelry as these nans attract mosquitoes. Biological control: Put up purple martin bird house*. Cltronella: Bum dtronella candle* to repel Insects. Tansey or Basil: Plant tansey or basil around the patio and house to repel mosquitoes. Prevention: Store items In a clean condition: moth larvae especially tike areas soiled with food stains. Rosemary, Mint. Thyme. Cloves, and Ginseng (optional): Chicago area »ia»n» and spinners use 1II pound (.23 kg) rose mary. 1/2 pound 1.23 kg) mint. 1/4 pound (.12 kg) thyme. 1/4 pound (.12 kg) ginseng (optional), and 2 tablespoons 110 cc) cloves Mix and put In cheesecloth bags and place In closets or drawers. Dried Lavendar or Rosemary and Mint: Make sachets of dried lavendar or equal portions of rosemary and mint. Place In clos ets. drawer*, or closed containers to mothproof garmets. Rosemary, Sage. Mint. Dried Lemon Peel, and Cinnamon: MK handfub of the first three ingredients. Add a. little lemon peel and a pinch of cinnamon. Place in muslin bags. Molasses. Vinegar, and TeOew Contalaen To trap moth*, rntx I part molasses with 2 parts vinegar and place tn yellow container to attract moths. Clean regularly. Cloth** Dryen WD math eggs by running, garment through • warm drver, Roaehea Sings and Snail* Prevention: Close off aD gaps around pipes and electric lines where they enter the house by using cement or screening. Caulk small cracks along baseboards, walls, cupboards, and around pipes, sinks, and bathtub fixtures. Seal food tightly. Rinse off dishes that are left overnight. Do not leave pet food out over night. Hedge Apples (O*age Orange): Cut hedge apples m half and place several In basement, around In cabinets, or under the house to repel roaches. Floor.'Cocoa Powder, and Borax: Mix together 2 tablespoons (30 ccl flour. 4 tablespoons (GO cc) borax and 1 tablespoon (15)cc) cocoa. Set the mixture out In dishes. (Caution: Borax Is toxic tf eaten. Keep out of reach of children and pets.) Boras and Floor: Mix 1/2 cup (1/8 liter) borax and 1/4 cup (1/16 Inert flour and OB a glass Jar. Punch holes m Jar Ud. Sprinkle along baseboards and doorsllls. (Caution: Borax Is toxic If eaten. This recipe may not be for you If there are young children or pets In the house. OatmeaL Hoar, and Plaster of Parts: Mix equal parts and set In dishes. (Caution: Keep out of reach of children and pets.) Baking Soda and Powdeied Bogar: Mix equal parts and spread around Infested area. rTatvral Predator*: Carter snakes, grass snakes, ground beetles. box turtles, salamanders, ducks, and larvae of lightning bugs aD feed on snails. Clay Pots: Place overturned clay flower pots near the shady side of a plant. Rest one edge on a small twig or make sure that the ground Is Irregular enough for the slugs and snails to crawl under the rim. They will collect there during the waiuiesl part of the day. Remove slugs and snails regularly and drop in a bucket of soapy water. Beer: Set out sauces or Jars fufl of stale beer, placed below ground level near the garden. The fermented liquid draw* them and they drown. Sand. Lime, or Ashes: Snails avoid protective borders of sand. lime, or ashes. Tin Can: Protect young plants by encircling them with a tin can with both ends removed. Push the bottom end of the can into the soil. 'Material tn this handout adapted from HHWrra nmH<- tn H«r«f«------- More than three quarters of the Earth's surface to made tip of water. Apiwoxitmtely 80 percent oflhe human body to water. Water to essential to al) plant and animal life. Many organisms can live without oxygen, but none without water. So water supply and quality are critical. The Water Cyd* Water to the orfghvJrenewstle resource. We use the same water today at we did ««nturtet ago. Wekol keep recydlng and reusing it over and over. Water has its own cyde tnwMehh to naturtBy pnrtfktd and replenished. In «us cyde, water naturally drruUtes through seven principle placet: ocaans. lake*, and riven; ice caps and glaciers: underground; and the atmosphere. Thit cyde consists of the processes of evaporation, sublimation, transpiration. condensation, and precipitation. Evaporation it the changing of t liquid to a gas. SubUmttton to the ehangmg of »«olid (toe) directly to a gas. It Is a slower process than evaporation but it It ttlll pan of the water cyde. particularly in colder • gas, It leaves behind tny omtsminana thai II may have picked up In liquid or nttd form. Tnntpiranon to the procen by which plant* BStwattrfromUiegieiindandgr** off water »apui Into the air. A tingle we out release more than 10000 gaflora O7.850 Uten) of water a day back Into (he atmosphere. This to alto a purification process. At the abnosphera absorbs water vapor from evaporation, summation, and BmtDirstten. it i saturation point A* the airtosaturated. water vaper condenses into droplets that form cloud*, fog, dew, and In cold weather, frost. When water droplets in a doud become loo heavy, they fall u precipitation m the form of rain. snow, sleet or hail. Conoeraaitor. and precipitation umiptett the cycle of water from the earth to the atmosphere and back again. v Surface Wata and Croundwatet Much of our water supply to visible. In the form of turface water bi ocean*, lake*, streams, rtven. and glacien. Surface water originate* at either runoff from rain, melting mow, and/or graundwater. H.rmiichofthewaMrtupplytounMen.lnlhefonnofgrottndwater. Cnandwaltroriglnatei either at cam or snow which gradually Kept mto the ground until It reachet Impermeable layer*. «ueh at thale. slate, or clay. When water completely (ill* the tpacet b»n»itn toil and rock panicles, it form a xaneof Miuraiton. The top of Ihli sane it called the water table. The water labl* can rite or fall, depending on how much water it abtorbed Into the ground or how much water to removed from IL An area capable of (upplying a tignificant amount of groundwater to a wet) or tpring It known at an aquifer. Croundwater may be napped In nxk formation!, or It may flow through porout rock or even underground riven. The ability to acceu groundwater cuppliet through wclb or tpring! to vital to the development of aome anas. Deiera have been trantformed Into viable agricultural areat using ^roundwater resource!. WATER POLLUTION Water poDu ton ls any human-caused contamination of watet that reduces its useful ness tahumant and ither organisms bi narure. rom tha moment It begins to faO strain, water begtMtocoDea nantrsl fanpartttt*. These can be dun articles In the air. minerals and organic matter In the tod. or material that enam lakes, smarm, ocean t, rgroundwattr. Some of these impurities, m smtD quantities, can be beneficial. Minerals are a good (ampte. But m larger quanrjbet, natural toipurtttet become water contammatton. For example, when volcano erupts and dust from tha volcano enatn water bodies, the water I* contaminated. MM polluted. reordine, to the US. dean Water Act o/19*6. watar pollution to caused by humans and can btdlvided two daises. Point source pollution Is oontamlnation that comes from a single, dearly identifiable uite. tuch as a pipe which discharges material from t factory into a lake, stream, river, bay, or other idy of water. Point source pollution to rebo very any 10 Identify and control. wpoint toons pollution to more difficult to Identify becaust It orlgmatts over a broad araa rrom a netyof causes. Enmpl« of r«mpc^ttmm»pollubOTinehidel) animal waste* from agriculture::) st>dtaandftrcaiim;3>iadiinmrrminnexeMismicn^ dfUb:3)effniemfTcrmfdlmgMptfcuiUaled both turf ace and ground water. One study estimated that If afl stockpiles wire ui»tia CDftt to the cnvnwinimt rroni itv vtt of 8HCin£ itiaiiWieaU v*wlo of cnfiwiuMQi Frequent or highly concentrated road1 salt application can erase surface water quality particularly hi email lakes or streams. Shallow ground wantroantamtnatlonmay be caustd by theme of detdng materUh. paniculariy In areas of sandy sous or kam lopoftiaphy (where there arc direct tujuietlic»»t.tuchastinkJ^ettbtlwtuitnTfac«andgreondwaier*>. Ooplaada if s* f iterpofltttlotx xtntftn point toorttor i. can babrolcan down Mo four main cm Djf volume* MO bYMfw o DW f significant aourea of aedimem. Good water quality and aoO stopping valuable toil lota. Thbaboprotscai ether polhi tints from oopumdt te wttenx ------- Uvcstack Operation* AjilrriilfeedTc^aredef.T^as.otsandbund'mgsosedtoconrowanin^ or hold ing purposes. This definition indudriopen ranges used for feeding and raising poultry, but does not include pastures. Poor or Inadequate feedlot manaaamuu can allow sttrmwater runoff to carry poBuomt* from accumu- lating manure into surface and groundwaters. TK trend nationally ha* been toward the construction and Ofjeratloti of fewer, but larger and more specialized livestock and poultry farms. Feedlots can create significant pollution problems. Pollutants coming from animal feedlots Include nutrients, onygen-demanding materials, and pathogens that may affect humans and animals. High nitrate levels in groundwater have been associated with improper storage of animal manure. Fertilizers Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the three primary nutrients applied to crops, gardens, and lawm as fertilizers. Phosphorus and nitrogen entering water bodies in runoff from overfertUtzed areas can cause nuisance conditions, such as heavy algal bloom* and excessive weed growth, making lakes unsuitable for swimming, watenkimg. and other uses. The presence of nitrates In rural well wat?rpuiei. control undeiraMe plans ce animal*. They Indude herbicides, insecticides. *" mnglcides.aT.dK(«.»oeMes.Pesl.*idvsareu»edonag gardens, a* aquatic nuisance controls tn lakes, and in forest management Pesticide appUcatton can lead «a groundwater ttauaiidiiaUun. Surface waten cm be contamlnaied by drUlfromrM.u.lddcs|rnymgai.dbrr.rr.offfrm Beth surface and ground waters are vulnerable to contamination by stormwater nmoff flowing from .aortge. mixing loading, and tpray- lankckarang areas. Mlninj Activities Mlringae«MDe»c.snc,«iiied™inabeehine»«m.n^^ Laka^strean* and ground- water can be polluted by sediment tailings, dust chemicals, and waste* from open pit. strip, and underground u lines. ReguUtteratocomralininmgaetlvltfeshavvbeenmstltutada The National Pollutant Discharge elimination System (NPDES) permit program admlnisiered by Mate aeerKi«n^Utesd.seharpa horn Wustrtea into satevrttersarvJ from mining. Forest Practice* Waters In to Eda jaDyano ecosystems In balance. Butwhen plant species can experience explosive growth. literally om- rmBiej.Uajphibt.o^i**na.vra]lyocramngprecen of years. When the process is accelerated by the addition of excesi nutrients, it can be very serious. Eutrophication caused Lake Ene to "age" nearly 15.000 years between 1950 and 1975. Sotatton* Since many sources of rMtrieMpo^ltenanhumajHcaiart.lheyhaverhepotenualtobeeDrmoDed. It has been estimated that the amount of fertilizer* used has increased more than 15 Uma (met 1945. There is a movement to curb Ihe use of Mgh phospha K and nitrate fertilizers in area* where nutrient poUunon Is a uiublenx even though crop yields would be reduced. Land management practices, such as crop rotation to reduce fertilizer requiiejue.!-*. Is another optkviL Homeowners can also a •By sound bjwn and | . bi many places. health. Substituting compost as a mulch and fertilizer can ettmtnate this potential potrution source. (Composting also reduces waste1 going m*> UndnllaJ Most sewage Ueauntm plant* only remove about SO percent of the iiUiugaji and SO percent of the phosphorus from domestic sewage. Thi* rill allows an estimated 200 to 300 mfluon pounds (90 to 125 million kg) of phosphates Into waterway* am»ytai. The use of tower phoapriate da augmu has been encouraged to reduce this, along with Improving sewage mauiieiu systems K> remove more nutrients befuie water Is released* Lagoons anl and l and holding pordimfeedkM can tnpar.to.sl wastes aMnriu------- BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES There are manyi !heJtef>iiy|Jitgoi pneiiiUitg Miltf poDtrtiofi. Tntvevvydependingonthelype of pollution and its source. Human activities on land have a direct impact not only on the types of pollution owed, but also on the methods used to control pollution. The most effective ways of controlling water pollution am aomeUmu called best management practices. Urban And Suburban Control of Doth point source and nc obit i ra pollution In urban and suburban areas is Increasing. Tremendous Investment by cities and Industiy have helped curb pollution pmukam Immensely. Municipal aewage treatment faculties have grown faster than the nation's population. However, more li»uioi>m«ntsarestlD needed to make sure that water timing it systems can keep np with our needs. US. Federal and Bate laws, beginning with the landmark 1977 dean Water Act, are continually bring developed that limit what types of contaminants can be released Into water systems. These controls have stopped many of the fish kills and other problems associated with poDuttonm the 1970s. Many urban area lakes that were consider "dead* are now dean enough to support many fuh species and other animals. Urban runoff Is still contreUed primarily by vohmtary means, but dbes have adopted new practices like leaf collection and Hieenlcaiilug at oineal Urnes. that can reduce the flow of sediment and other contanunams Into waterways. City planning places new emphasis on water catan »auun and control, particularty In areas where wateraupplies may be limited. Be laiiUoiHetenooii ponds ha va been I iiuji poiated Into some water cuiiuul systems to allow contaminants to settle, and to feed ralnwam into runoff channels al a controlled not. In some fasesL building codu Umlt mnsmnttun based on watai demand. A single. new Household consumes more than a hundred thousand gallons (370.000 liters) of water each year, placing more demand on water supplies and on wastewater and sewage tieauimu systems. Education uregtamsdeslgned to teach peepsttht pi opeiuse of wattr and disposal of potential pollutants are also having a positive Impact. These program show people the staggering amount* of water they consume each day. and steps they can take to reduce consumption. Less consumption means less wastewater that has the ability to carry pollutants. Constractfoa Construction must take Into account both slonmnn and long-turn water pollution iiauiagtinent practices. Construction mimes vegetation from the ground, inviting erosion and sediment pollution. Practices lo reduce this include temporary measures such as diverting water flow through trenches or sediment ponds that allow sill and other material! to settle before water runs off Into streams. Sit screens. hay bates, mulch, and other materials may also be used as temporary controls, as well as the planting of temporary grasses to control erosion before more permanent landscaping can be done. the location of streams, and the topography of the area must all be the construction process begins. Permanent measures may have to be taken to ensure that slow erosion doesn't create problems several yean in the future. These measures may include storm drains: 'riprap.' a permanent layer of none that retards water flow and enhances infiltration; or even construction of grassed or lined waterways that convey crass storm water away from developing areas or critical slopes. The construction process Itself may be modified to include a none 'pad* at the construction entrance to reduce the transportation of mud off the building site by vehicles or runoff. Croplands Cn3pun.d* are l>» primar m* of sedbr..-!* pollution rtomfertlUnr or pesltctde runoff, r^lew management methods are being used to reduce these voontOlage. Instead of plowing \jnf pWCOW HH BWI*Uel^ -BU-ajajan) aaurasuj pas-tHuvuM |M»ai ••*-**•• a* VWiii£ unilu IN ii aklm fiiini a |»i »lmil I ui|i ami npnalng nan anil i inm i ulloii llllagr iiari a filar m iiilii i device to cut through the residue ao aaads on be planted. This process allows a protective layer of »-geuttoteran»montepoltr«aoUs9i-Mdej-)ato Impact Is that this process may require b»ueased on of herbicides. Another process, called ridge planting, put* seeds in ridges of plowed aoil Thto method allows waj-maoUttnomrures for planting and traps rainwater In the furrows between the ridges. AptoiraTralexi..t.stos.-rvtoato provide eoQ The tests iJ-dieate which nuBlu.uua>benasJiJf-»tr.« type of sc*J and tr-«e^ fertiUattan does not occur. MM only does this practice reduce pollution, u can reduce the cost of UOuOCUtl tl 90pt Other best management practice* Indnd* crop rotation, which may replaee • row crop with • grain or other pUntlhilooven man pound and reduceserosion. PUrmlt Mtniaf Minhig is e*\» activity thai bspedtatlyfeT^Usrd as a potrntulec^^ State 1965. more than three minion aeits (1.125 JO ha) of land in the US. have been disturbed by strip-mining activities. Severe problems hare been created by erosion and acidity. However, mined lands must now be 'reclaimed.* or restored to arreptahlf condition after operations are complete. The best management practices Included tn tWs process are preplanning to determine how the sitr will be used after operatkms are finished, stabilisation of the site while work Is m progress so that It does not create an Immediate source of pollupen) utaBon of storm water control and sun age. and utieallunof natural beauty by replanting the site so It has mnttmum acsthctic Impact on tne area. Since mining can destroy topsofl. new soil or nutrients may need to be added before plants can thrive! or different vegetation requiring less nutrients may be used to start growth. Undei gieund mines can also be polluttuiiiumees.partiCBlarty lor grcond water. Then err ate nbk»cl to reclamation and other laws requiring steps be taken to keep sediment or unto horn entering waterways. ', Forests Fuiesu» pi settees ha veliCTHiiuilr^ voluntarily aj»d by lawtortdu^ Inroad of clearcurang sites and mvmng erosion, many logging companies now us* selective cutting practices that allow for better Umber choices and minima] impact on the land. Many forest products companies have found that proper land management can actually Increase ilieii [jiuflB by Increasing forest yields. For softwoods like pine, which art used tor paper production and lumber, forest product companies manage their own 'plantations* of timber, replanting several trees for every one cut down. TWs has Increased the amount of useaMe timber available In the US., and has reduced the potential of pollution. Siteplanning is now an important constderinon. Loggingreadsmay wind around Mill to reduce erosion and allow natural growth to quickly 'retake' the land alter cutting Is finished. ------- INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS There area rmmbercrfthiriptfatlndTldiial* can demthrtr own to reduce watp^ Many of these practice* are stmpte ones that only require changing eld habit* or switching to moreen»iiuim»o»- talry responsible product*. Lawn And Garden Individuals can create mon poDution on smaB plots of land than many farms create over hundreds of acres (ha). One reason for this Is that Individual* tend to' overuse fertfflxen and pestiddes. Theeness that runs off during rains combined widi similar overuse from the rest of a neighborhood can cane significant pollution problems. Homeowners may apply 50 time* niuiefei liter than neceasary for plant health, for example. Or«goodalterMtivil(ncna:t*>ao»ipo(tpae(9prodaceMniralfertaiar. Composting can be started by simply gathering leaves, branches, and other materials, and placing them in a location when their Is enough aeration and iiaistmt to allow bacteria to begin breaking the material down. This produces a rich mulch that can be applied to gardens or plant bases for fertilizer. Chemical pesticides can be avoided by the us* of natural Intact controls. Inciudmg predatory tnsecls like ladybugs or praying manUata. Theseuea tuns feed on many gai den peso and auu«peuple actually keep mantisesaspets. Simply trtttaltrngabtrd feeder toanract birds can helpumiiel population* ol Japanese Beetlesandotnerpests. Pestiddal soaps that do less harm thancherrdeals an alto available, a* an some forms of insect diseases that wipe out pest* but don't harm other organism*. Proper selection of plants for gardens and lawns can also reduce pests. Some, like mint, garbc and marigold*, win drive insects a way, white others may not a/feet the local Insect populations at aD. Automobile* Even sitting still with their engine* off. automobile* an sources of puDuUon. Petroleum based fhdd* on Cu wreak havoc In water supplies, contaminating thousand* of gallon* of water. Do-ll-yuui selfei s spffl or *** dump more oil in a month than I* lost in major tanker disasters. Do-it-yourself (obsltke oil changes should also have oil disposal taken mto consideration. Many sei»tco stations accept oil for recycling, and most auto pans stores offer oil collection bores thai soak oil Into shredded paper or other material. These boxes can then be taken to wade oil collection stations for proper disposal. Low price quick oil change businesses can actually be more economical than doing It yourself, particularly If your car requires special tools w reach oil niters and drain plugs. And most of these businesses have waste oil handling procedures in place so that used oil is collected and recycled. Fluids like annfreen and battery add an especially dangerous tcndes. Even small amounts can cause personal health piobtems or gnat environmental damage. Special can should be taken when dealing with these materials so they an not spilled. If a job appears that H may be particularly messy. It may be best to take the vehicle to a responsible professional mechanic Many garages now use safer environ- mental practices to make sure undo are disposed of carefully. Household Cleaners and Solvents Miny household thrives woaldbennstdertdtoxtcwasttdurnpsmbvlus Eveneoiiuiion cleaners and solvents contain adds, lye, volatile organic compounds, and other material* that can contaminate drinking water, even bi small amounts. Detergent* can add nutrient* like phosphates to water and create rjroMems like algal btooma. People tend to practice *everkjn- with tleeiieisas they do withfertillzmandpeshdde*. And aineethnematerial* an usually much more to«k—and much men concentrated they can create serious pollution problems. Natural ctanenltebakit^scda.vlnegaT.aid bora an be mbsn These maarlals can mate good all-purpoae deaners. grease cutters, and even drain deaners. It is also possible to boy tow-pbosphata laundry detergent* and detergent* that an free of dye* and perfume*. These an men easily handled by aewmy mii» and cause less nutrient or tcodc pollution. Catnimhou**&pn6i in itself, a form of runoff. One very effective way to reduce water pollution Is to simply reduce water Thiscanbedonebychangmgartw habits. ftin^a than letting wattr run Into the sink until H gets cold uses less water. Peeling fruits and nftelabltj and t hen rinsing them saves two gallons (73 |lters)e»ery minute. A dishwasher uses less waterthan washing by hand— about sta gallons (23 liters) a load. And washing an entire toad of dishes— or dotno savrs water over washing several partial loads. New washing machines can reduce water consumption by one I hi it), or more than 400 gallonsdSOO liters) monthly fora family of four. But the greatest water use occurs in the bathroom. Simply turning off the water white brushing youiteuth will save as much a* ten gallons (38 liters) per person per day. Taking a1 shower instead of a bath will save about 25 gallons (95 liters), and new low-flow shower heads on reduce consumption even more. Forty-five percent of the water used every day is flushed down the toilet. New toflet* use aboul half the water as old models, and older toilen can still work effectively with less water. Devices like toilet dams block pan of the water In the tank and reduce the amount used with each flush. If a toflet dam sounds too difficult to install, you can get the same effect si rnply by putting a water-filled plastic bottle in the toilet tank. This displaces water and means that less Is used. i Washing the ear with a nmnrng hose will use more than 100gaIlont(380Htm)of water. Using a bucket and sponge cuts that by 90 percent. And it's best to water lawns and plants late In the evening or early in the morning so water will soak into root systems and not be lost to evaporation. Another personal choice that can be made 10 reduce water consumption Is to eat less meat. Half the water consumed hi the U.S. goes to men production. Bimina nng a single eight-ounce (22g> portion of meat a month will save more water than not turning on your kitchen sink for the same 30-day period. ------- Office of Waur WH-556 Sharing Science: Linking Students with Scientists and Engineers A Survival Guide for Teachers The Task... Students learning science can experience the excitement of discovery and invention. Understanding science prepares them to participate in an increasingly complex and competitive scientific and technological world. Meeting the challenge of teaching our children in this rapidly changing world is not easy. Teachers have limited time and materials for teaching science and often find themselves teaching without access to the real world experiences that can make science come alive. -.'.. y One of the best allies any teacher can have is a person who knows and understands science. A scientist or engineer can help students: ' experience the excitement of discovery and invention develop an informed approach to the role of science and technology in our world observe teachers and scientists working together as partners . associate science with a real human being . . see the personal rewards of scientific and technical careers realize that women and minorities can pursue careers in these fields Every community is home to a variety of science professionals who are concerned, just as you are, about educating tomorrow's citizens. Across the nation thousands of them have demonstrated their willingness and ability to become involved in our schools. This guide provides suggestions to help you collaborate successfully with scientists and engineers in your classroom and to make the experience a success for you, for your students, and for those who volunteer to share science 'withyou. _' ' (' \. '""• '"' '• -'" -•••••••'•• ' -• . - • • . • Now — Get ready! Get set! Go! 88 ------- OET READY! Think creatively about what you want to accomplish. Look for opportunities for your students to get to know a real scientist as an interesting person. Encourage scientists to share the excitement of discovery and enthusiasm for their professions. Cultivate student interests and questions through new experiences, ideas and information. Identify a scientist, engineer, or a science user. Many school systems have formed active partnerships with science centers, science alliances, scientific societies and local universities. Corporations and business groups are interested -in volunteering~in the classroom. Ask your system or state science coordinator for help in contacting local scientists. It may be easier than you think. Make contact well in advance. Remember, it will take time to develop a plan. Your volunteer has a busy schedule, too, so be flexible. Find out when and how contacted. Provide backup phone numbers in case a change in contact necessary. "YJe had a discussion about AIDS. The teacher .& I had talked it over prior tomy visit,and IWIB . prepared in case awkward issues arose. 1 think my communication with the teacher was essen- tial in this case." —Deborah K. Smith, Ph.D. each of you prefers to be plans makes last minute Decide together what to do. , Have a conversation with your volunteer about what she can do to help you enrich your science program. Explore with her what experiences, activities, information would be of interest to your students and appropriate to your curriculum. Agree on one or more activities which engage your students. To ask questions ami to find out — science is a part of what it means to be human. Teachers, scientists and engineers have to become partners in efforts to bring science to children. Working together, we can connect children to the ideas and the processes of science, to the applications of science and mathematics which are all around us, and to the promises and challenges of science and technology. Teachers are vitally important to education and literacy in science because K-12 is the front end of the pipeline toward careers in science, engineering and medicine; it is also the gateumy to lifelong learning, enjoyment and appreciation of science. Scientists have much to share and much to learn when they link to teachers and students. It is worth the effort to reach out and bring scientists into your classroom. Some of them used to teach in schools, as I did. Many of them are parents of school age children, as I am. This guide will help voit make the experience of sharing science a meaningful one for uou, for them, and most importantly, for your students. Shirley M. Malcoin. Ph.D. Head. Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs American Association for the Advancement of Science 89 ••*;$%--, ' "&S& ^ '-^BT "-* -.V'.vfJS-, *" *£&* -Vv2tv v- ••Zi&tsg ;*:*f&>t& ------- Office of Water WH-SS6 ~EPA 800-B-3J-004 March 1903 GET SET! A month or so in advance: • Schedule and determine the setting for the activity. Will the scientist work with your whole class or with small groups? Will the activity be indoors or out? Agree on the time allotted for the activity. Allow for flexibility! • Identify any special equipment or space that is needed.. _ . . . This could include laboratory equipment, A-V materials, flat tables, electrical outlets, water, or scissors. Agree on how materials and equipment will be managed to ensure both safety and efficiency. • Give the scientist a profile of your students. Let him know the number, age, learning characteristics, and special needs of your group. Tell the volunteer what your students have been studying and how the proposed activity will fit in. • Provide directions to the school and parking information. Tell the scientist where and how she will be greeted. A few days before the visit: • Call the volunteer to confirm your plans. • Prepare a welcome. Select a team of several students to greet the volunteer and help with any equipment which may need to be carried in. • Prepare your students. Explain who their guest is and what he will be doing. Review rules of courtesy. Prepare name tags so the scientist can call on students by name. If students will be working in groups, assign them ahead of time. "/ have no children of my own; I have never had a teacher education course; and I have never taught either grade school or high school before in my life. Consequently, I was a bit apprehensive about the whole thing. However, you put me at ease, and your class was a model of attentiveness and good behavior. I found your students tobeajoy to teach. If ever you feel like taking a chance with me again, I'd love to come and teach your class a second time." —Dr. David M. DeMarini, Research Genetic Toxicologist "I. .discussed basic principles of electricity and magnetism and helped students make simple circuits. Students enjoyed the "hands-on" ex- perience. Based on past experience, I expected iron filings and small compasses to be available. I should have reviewed the list of materials with the teacher ahead of time." — William M. Yager, Ph.D. 90 ------- Office of Woo- ~EPA 800-B-93-004 wn-556 March 1993 GO! On the day of the visit: • Be sure students, equipment, and space are ready. • Have your welcome team meet your visitor. • Introduce the visitor to your class. • Remain actively involved during the visit. Show your students that teachers are learners, too. When you are interested, students will follow your example. Be a second pair of adult hands if needed. Lend your quiet expertise in classroom management. • Understand what your students are learning. Anticipate and identify questions they may have so that you can prepare to follow up. After the visit: • Extend appreciation. Thank-you notes, drawings, or photographs from students are always appreciated. Scientists especially like to know what students learned and what interested them. • Provide feedback about the activity to the scientist. Scientists are learners, too. They will respond to your positive reinforcement as well as constructive criticism. • Follow up Discuss with your students what they learned and what else they want to know. Build on their experience with follow up activi- ties. Incorporate interdisciplinary activities in writing, spelling, art, social studies, reading, and math. Completeany experiments left by the visitor and let her know the results. • Share your experience with parents and colleagues as well as school administrators. • Plan for more visitors. Make your experiences diverse. Invite people with different backgrounds, women and men, minorities, and people with disabilities. "Like the children we teach, we learn as a result of our own activity—our own struggle to make sense of what we see....We are in this classroom together, and this science work will only be exciting if we care about it together. If 1 say 'Scientists are curious,' but lam not showing curiosity, children will perceive this incon- sistency. 1 need to show, as well as say, how tliat looks." —Ellen Doris, Northeast Foundation for Children, "Doing Wliat Scientists Do" "More than twenty "Thank-You" cards made by these students with their own words of per- sonal appreciation were sent to me. This was certainly unexpected but was definitely a thrill for me to see the creativity of these students, of how they conceived the microbes and me and then expressed it in pictorial illustrations." —Joseph K. Li, Pharmacologist 91 ------- Office effKacr WI1-556 ~EP* 800-B-SWXM v |Iarch1flB3 Scientists! Children and scientists have much in common. Naturally inquisitive, young children ask endless questions. They may spend half an hour watching a bug crawl on the floor. Children sort money, pictures, toys, shells, pasta shapes, and words. They experiment by pouring water into soil, mixing different colors of paints, or adding blocks to a tower until it falls. They draw conclusions about the way things work. They leam from and share information with others. Scientists share with children a natural curiosity about the world. They are trained to use a more systematic and sophisticated approach to inquiry than children do. They have developed the discipline to remain objective, to reserve judgment until they have the facts, and to recognize the limits of their knowledge. Nevertheless, the skills used in doing science are the same — whether you're a student or a scientist! Science Process Skill Children observe experiment collaborate record measure sort and classify compare analyze share information look, touch, smell, taste, listen change something and watch what happens partners in classroom journal, score card scale, riiler, stopwatch measuring cup color, size, shape, weight fastest, largest, farthest what happens most class meeting; at recess, "Guess what I found out?" Scientists microscope, x-rays, chromatography, seismograph change and control variables colleagues around world field notes, computer computer analysis, calibrated apparatus taxonomic key, relevant functional groupings change over time, change in differing conditions statistical analysis scientific meetings, E-mail; over coffee, "Guess what I found out!" 92 ------- WH-356 March Science in the Classroom Listed below are suggestions of people who might be able to help you in the classroom. Some are research scientists. Others use science in their everyday work life. Other people who might be helpful are hobby- ists and collectors who study weather, plants, animals, astronomy, rocks and minerals, or fossils. Animals Plants O Weather Physical & Chemical Properties Electricity & Magnetism Earth & Space Science Behavioral & Social Science Zoologist, entomologist, microbiologist, marine biologist, paleontologist, cytolo- gist, physiologist, chemist, ecologist, neu- robiologist, geneticist, anatomist, mam- malogist, limnologist, pharmacologist Botanist, paleobotanist, agronomist, agri- cultural chemist, ecologist, geneticist, pa-- leontologist, pathologist, soil scientist Meteorologist, ecologist, agronomist, ge- ologist, oceanographer, dimatologist Chemist, biochemist, pharmacologist, mo- lecular biologist, physicist, ecologist, toxi- cologist, metallurgist, geologist, forensic criminologist, materials scientist, engi- neers: chemical, textile, industrial, acous- tical, optical, mechanical, civil, nuclear, agricultural, and ceramic Physicist, geologist, computer hardware/ software designer, engineers: industrial, electrical, thermal, mechanical, and elec- tronic Astronomer, geologist, paleontologist, ecologist, physicist, biologist, chemist, vul- canologist, seismologist, oceanographer, soil scientist, engineers: aeronautical, avia- tion, construction, and civil Animal psychologist, clinical psychologist, psychiatrist, sociologist, anthropologist, historian, archaeologist, geographer, de- mographer Zookeeper, veterinarian, beekeeper, ani- mal trainer, physician, forest ranger, wild- life manager, fanner, rancher, audiolo- gist, nurse, dietician. X-ray technician, fo- rensic specialist, pharmacist Horticulturist, farmer, forest manager, nutritionist, landscape architect, soil con- servation officer, park ranger, agricultural extension agent TV weather forecaster, airport flight con- troller, fisherman, boat captain, farmer, pilot, environmentalist, soil and water con- servatioihagent Architect, inventor, mechanic, carpenter, musical instrument ma ker, musician, pho- tographer, builder, police lab technician, water company technician, cosmetics de- veloper, gemologist, building inspector, potter Electrician, radar technician, amateur ra- dio operator, telephone system mainte- nance technician, electrical inspector, in- ventor, radio/TV engineer Pilot, astronaut, geographer, cartographer, surveyor, geotechnical tester, aerial pho- tographer Marketing professional, business man- ager, city planner, applied economist, school psychologist, pollster, market re- search analyst, statistician 93 ------- Office of Water WH-S56 800-8-9*864 March 1993 How Scientists Can Help You Scientists, engineers, and people who use science in daily life can: Demonstrate scientific concepts and direct appli- cations of science and technology Develop experiments and do them with students Lead or arrange for field trips or guest speakers Stimulate and guide independent research Show students practical applications of computers in science Serve as a resource person for you or your students Help obtain, fix, and maintain equipment Serve as tutors, mentors, and role models for indi- viduals or small groups Encourage female and minority students to enter science-oriented careers Work with parents and families Lead after-school science and math clubs Assist with science, math, and career festivals and more—be creative! "Thank you so much for visiting our class. The kids (and I) learned a lot about Manne Biology and Diving. Last iveek in Reading Class we were studying "Diagrams" and we had a practice paper with a diagram of "diving gear." I was pleased to see how much of the equipment the kids still recognized! Thank you, especially, for giving the kids a chance to see that scientists can be "real people". lam not sure that is something 1 realized at their age. P.S. You can see from the kid's letters what an impression your visit made upon them." —Bonnie Farb, 5th grade teacher "One thing ] try to get across is that you don't have to have a Ph.D. to contribute in science." —Melissa Mar, Research Biologist "I discussed the role of fungi in our lives and displayed examples of fruit- ing bodies and culture plates. The students displayed a great deal of interest and asked both interesting and stimulating questions. The teacher showed an extremely high degree of interest and enthusiasm that seemed to transfer to students. I found the experience to be rewarding beyond my expectations." —Dr. John E. Mayfield, Mycologist "I liked when you put the blue and orange compounds together in the liquids. Please say hello to Dr. Hegley, and doctor Pinhas forme. Your friend, Dennis (the person who wants to find out the chemical reaction)." —5th Grade Student "I talked about entomology, showed the students a collection of unusual insects, allow the students to handle some live insects, and gave each of them caterpillars and supplies to rear them to adults. The students were interested and excited. Meeting with a scientist enhanced the students' perception that science is a real activity and occupation, and not just a school subject." —M. Scott Thomson "I showed the separation of dyes in grape soft drink as a way of illustrating separations and their utility in analyzing for pollut- ants. Students reacted with en- thusiasm and suggested other separations to try. I hope stu- dents learned that scientists are real people and that science can be fun." —Douglas E. Rickert "A scientist helped a second- grade class make electromag- nets from materials no more complex than a battery, a nail, and a length of wire. With fumbling fingers, the students created their apparatus and then proceeded, without fore- knowledge, to see what the contraption would do. Thrilled with herself and her creation, one bright-eyed girl cried out, "I made a magnet! I did it! 1 really made a magnet!" Relating his experience, the scientist grew wistful. "It was that experience," he said, "that reminded me of why I am doing all this. Now 1 know my efforts are worth some- thing." —Colorado Alliance for Science 94 ------- You're Not in This Alone! Science education is a national priority. Thousands of scientists are interested in volunteering. Sharing Science With Children: A Survival Guide for Scientists and Engineers, a companion to this publication,^ in the hands of tens of thousands of scientists. Many national organizations have committed to improving science learning. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has designated National Science & Technology Week, 1992 as April 26-May 2 and 1993 as April 25-May 1. NSF encourages teachers, scientists, and others to participate through school activities, community projects, and public lectures. Science centers provide rich experiences in science. They are a resource for science activities and ideas for teaching science. Their national organization, the Association of Science-Technology Cen- ters (ASTC), is promoting partnerships between teachers, muse- ums^and scientists. Contact your local science center to learn what is available in your community. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a national organization of 130,000 scientists, actively encourages member scientists to work with teachers in schools. Their publica- tion, Sourcebook for Science, Mathematics b Technology Education, includes more than 2,000 listings of programs, people, projects, publications, and organizations. It can be ordered by writing: AAAS, 1333 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. Office of Wtaer tPA 800-B-93O04 Developed by the•Nortn Carolina Museumo? 1 Life and Science. Thomas H. Krakauer, Executive Director Georgiana M. Searles, Editor and Director of Education Noncommercial duplication of this publication is encouraged. For additional copies of this guide or its com- panion, "Sharing Science With Children: A Sur- vival Guide for Scientists and Engineers," write: Georgiana M. Searles North Carolina Museum of Life and Science P.O. Box 15190 Durham, North Carolina 27704 The North Carolina Museum of Life and Sci- ence gratefully acknowledges funding sup- port from: National Science Foundation North Carolina Science and Mathematics Alliance North Carolina Museum of Life and Science Sharing Science: Linking Students with Scientists and Engineers /I Survival Guide for Teachers Printed on recycled paper 95 ------- Office of Waur EPA 800-B-33-004 H7/-556 March 1993 SHARING SCIENCE WITH CHILDREN: i«-------- Survival Tips for Your Classroom Visit Before you go into the classroom... ' Decioe on your approach. You may select some aspect of the curriculum. An alternative, more personalized, approach is to focus on what you do. ^.•^•rare voir? acHvit h^ed o rfrl^rer^s nef-ffs nnd abilrties, - - Ask the teacher what students already know. "Typical Science and Technology Topics" on page 6 will give you a general understanding of what students typically learn at different grades. You can also check with the teacher about local curriculum and/or texts. Know the age of the class you are visiting and their "Thinking and Learning Characteristics" (page 7). I*- };~r.rji5''fd fcr v-/;5?rji :-earf:or= and hehy\ior. Keep in mind that teachers and parents may have concerns about how sensitive issues, such as evolution or reproduction, are presented to their children. If you have questions^bout appropriate ways to present your subject, discuss your plans with the teacher. '<.;!•.*••.< HY.iv i'v:Ct Vvhorc-- \------- CtficrofWtoer ~EI»A 80OB-9WIW wii-556 March 1993 £ ,*«!.'-' i; • *»» r$ .' •.-;. iT > "..-• •V- • y § I &£• s^tr. m\± s&<3 • &'/.i*.' ¥r; - W^fffW^^^^m ! i^i N^;;:- fe ^ life ^;?%I His IF If each student is to have a handout or materials, make sure you have enough of each. See that materials are organized. Do a test run of experiments, games, or any other activities you plan to do. iVs-pnrv1' • • •'-*' it*rni»»'>io«y liuir is appropriate for fhv ssadents. If there are a number of words or concepts students would benefit by knowing in advance, give them to the teacher and (s)he can help students learn them. 98 ------- Office of Waxr ""EPA 800-B-93-004 WH-556 March 1993 Let the children know you are a real person with a family, pets, hobbies. Talk about how you got to be achemist, an anthropologist, an engineer,... Was there a special event or person in your life — a teacher, a learning experience, a book, a visit to a museum — that aroused your interest in your field? What do you do on an average day? What is interesting or unique about your work? involve tut :>n of \ ow efforts. Ask the students what they liked (and didn 't like) about your visit. Ask the teacher to critique your presentation and help you improve your in-class skills. Schedr.lt; V'.Ktr next visit: 99 ------- Office ofWacr ~EPR 800-8-33^)04 WH-556 March 1903 - ••'•-'-•^£?A;^',:J-^^ .>;i:->- ;:.-I^::^V^SK>> ---'•>:::;"•'*&/;;•;^"^^'^yy^:'^^^ rv>>-./.•-•" ;•; -.•.* '•••;• .;.r v.':,,;; ^ ,4f;'. • xt^jK'-. TEACHING TIPS * * Make eye contact with the students because they love the personal contact. Smile and feel comfortable telling amusing anecdotes because kids love a good laugh. Organize all materials in advance because kids sometimes have a hard time waiting. Use student volunteers to help you set up and distribute materials, samples, pictures, and handouts because kids love to feel important. . Require that students raise their hands to participate because they will probably all want to talk at once. Call on many different members of the class because everyone wants to be involved. Model good safety practices because kids learn by following role models. Give specific directions when distributing specimens because kids sometimes disagree about who has been holding an object the longest. Use a prearranged signal to get students' attention during activities (clapping, flipping light switch, etc.) because it is too hard to give good directions unless students are quiet. Stop and wait for students to let you continue speaking if they get noisy because they have probably heard the "cold silence" before and know that it means they need to be less noisy. Wait to give handouts to students until it is time to read or use them because if the students have the handouts while you are speaking they will be distracted. Wait several seconds before calling on students to answer a question because the whole class needs time to think about the question before someone answers it. Praise attentive or helpful behavior because this is the behavior you want to encourage. Enjoy the students, their enthusiasm, and their sense of wonder because they have a fascinating perspective on the world! 100 ------- Cffict of Water WH-X6 -Eparsea-frsww March 1.883 Typical Science and Technology Topics Kindergarten Many kinds Have different coverings Eat different kinds of foods Many kinds Grow in different places • Vegetables and fruits Dayscanbesunny. cloudy, rainy, and snowy pour seasons Things have colors, sizes, shapes Classifying objects Hot and cold Serial ordering Moon Day and night y Soil First and Second Third and Fourth Fifth and Sixth Are alike and different Move and grow Different homes Different sounds Care of pets Characteristics of plants Collecting pans of plants Seeds become plants Uses of plants Air occupies space, has weight Atmosphere Air has pressure Wind is moving air States of matter. Different types of matter Dissolving Movement of things in air, water Sinking and floating Sources of electricity Uses of electricity Safety Sun, moon, earth Stars Day and Night Adaptations to the environment Defense mechanisms Helpful and harmful animals Classification of plants Effect of soil, water, air, and light on growth Conservation Prehistoric plants Effect of sun on earth Temperature and thermometers Expansion and contraction Heat Fuels Producing sound Music Magnets Simple compass Uses of magnets Heat and light Seasons Day. night, year Tides and eclipses Solar system Gravity, inertia and orbit Comets, meteors and meteorites Space exploration Animal classification Selective breeding Interaction with the environment Balance of nature Pans and functions Life processes Plant movements Adaptation Evaporation and condensation Precipitation Air masses Forecasting and instruments Factors affecting climate Atoms Chemicals Mixtures and compounds Matter and energy Sources of energy Reflection/refraction Lenses Static electricity Nature of electricity Simple circuit Batteries Series and parallel circuits Safety Ecology Pollution Recycling Constellations Space travel Right Oceans Water cycle Properties of water 101 ------- Office of Wax, ~EPA 800-B-93-O04 WH-556 M?"*1 1993 Message to all members of the scientific and engineering communities concerned about improving science education in the nation's schools: I encourage practicing scientists and engineers to share personally some of their knowledge and experience with school children. In September of 1989, President Bush convened the historic Education Summit with the Nation's Governors in Charlottewille. Virginia. The National Education goals developed following the Summit established targets for American educational achievement by the year 2000. The National Science Foundation and other Federal agencies, in partnership with the States, school districts.academic institutions,private industry and professional organizations, are generating the systemic reforms needed to realize these national goals as they apply to mathematics and science achievement for all students. Yet these reforms, which include improved curricula and better teacher preparation, cannot in themselves convey fully the excitement and dynamics of modern science. There is no substitute for personally meeting real scientists and engineers in the classroom and learning first-hand about what they do. Many of you may have little formal teaching experience. Others who are teachers may never have taught at the grade school level. Some may question their ability to convey their knowledge and experience adequately to school age children. Yet each of you has a unique and important story to tell. This pamphlet provides reliable, time-tested guidance as to what to expect when you enter the classroom, how to support and complement the school curriculum, and how to make your visit a valuable, enriching experience for the students. You will find that it can be a deeply rewarding personal experience for you as well. I urge each of you to contribute in this unique way to the enrichment of mathematics and science education in our schools. By doing so, you can help today's students to lead fuller and more productive lives in the future. You might also help to inspire and motivate the students who will become the next generation of professional scientists and engineers. Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources National Science Foundation Thinking and Learning Characteristics of Young People Early Elementary (K-2) Late Elementary (3-5) >" Middle Grades (6-8) As a thinker... • Leams through manipulating objects. • Believes what he or she sees. • Can't trace steps back from a conclusion. • Sees pans, not the whole. • Does not understand that making physical changes in an object does .not change its amount. As a learner... • Is expansive, adventurous, curious, eager to learn, energetic, always in motion, loud, and emotional — has mood swings. • Wants to please adults. • Has difficulty controlling impulses and regulating behavior. • Is very "me" centered. Seeks attention. Loves praise. • Likes to work in groups, but will need assistance. • Can sit still and listen 10-15minutes; needs frequent change of pace. As a thinker... • Although still somewhat tied to see- ing in order to believe, begins to un- derstand concepts as well as objects. • Understands hierarchical classifica- tion systems. • Can combine, son, multiply, substi- tute, divide. • Begins to generalize, formulate hy- potheses, use systematic problem- solving strategies. • Likes to memorize, to learn facts. As a learner... • Understands rules and can follow them. • Likes group activities and excursions. Is a great socializer and eager to fit in. • Considers fairness to be important. • Takes initiative and is self motivated. • Is becoming an independent learner. • Is a perfectionist who will practice the same thing over and over again. • Avoids opposite sex. • Can sit still and listen 20-30 minutes (variety increases attention span). As a thinker... • Can hypothesize, create propositions, and evaluate. • Can conceptualize in the abstract and understand probability. • Begins to understand multiple causation. • Developing understanding of ethical principles. As a learner... . • Is emotional, restive, and eager to get moving. • Is easily bored. • Challenges rules, routines, and authority. • Is beginning to have an interest in the opposite sex. • Is typically more oriented to small group activity. • Has a vulnerable ego, is very self- conscious and concerned about how he/she is perceived by others. • Can handle 30-40 minute sessions. 102 ------- WH-5S6 March 1993 COMMIT TO THE CHALLENGE Leam about and support science related activities in your local community and those sponsored by state and national organizations. Here are some resources: Each year the National Science Foundation (NSF) designates the last full week in April as National Science & Technology Week. NSF provides instructional kits with student activities, educational posters, and other materials. It encourages teachers, scientists, and others to participate through school activities, community projects, and public lectures. National Science & Technology Week will be celebrated in 1992 on April 26-May 2. The Association of Science-Technology Centers and its member science muse- ums promote experiences in science and technology for children, families, and the general public. Science centers and museums feature hands-on exhibits, science activities, and teacher training workshops and serve as educational resources to theircommunities. Contact your local science center to offer your support. ASTC can refer you to museum contacts in your state. Call (202) 783-7200 for assistance. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) sponsors activities through its Committee on the Public Understanding of Science andTech- nology including a project which encourages scientists to volunteer at science and technology centers and other places of science. Call (202) 326-6602. Many professional societies lend support to local schools, museums, and other community institutions. Check with your national organization to find out what programs or materials are available. Developed by the North Carolina Museum of Life and Science based on numerous publica- tions, guidelines, and other sources drawn from all over the United States. Non-commercial duplication is encouraged. We want to know how you use this guide and any suggestions you have for improving it. Contact: Georgians M. Searles, Director of Education, North Carolina Museum of Life and Science, P.O. Box 15190, Durham, North Carolina 27704. The North Carolina Museum of Life and Sci- ence gratefully acknowledges funding support from: National Science Foundation American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists American Mathematical Society American Society for Microbiology Apple Computer, Inc. E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company Schering-Plough Research North Carolina Museum of Life and Science SHARING SCIENCE WITH CHILDREN: •i: •>•<-\i-lftl piifttr 103 -------