Office of Water
EPA. 800-8-93-004
March 1993
                           Teacher's  Kit _
United States Environmental Protection Agency
                                   Printed on Recycled Paper

                Earth Day Teacher Kit
                     Table of Contents
Investigating the Dynamic Hydrologic Cycle                 1-17

Activities from Always a River                            18-20

Sample Lesson Plan from Let's Reduce and Recycle         21 - 25

Learning Exercises from Turning the Tide on Trash          26 - 27

Wise Wetland Ways from Wetlands Poster                      28

Science Demonstration Projects in Drinking Waters          29 - 42

Blue Thumb Information and Activities                     43-56

Tweety's Global Patrol Activities                          57 - 62

Educators Earth Day Sourcebooks, Grades K-6
     and 7-12                                         63-69

Air Quality Activities for Grades 6-8                       70 - 76

Nonpoint Source Pollution Prevention Activities             77 - 87

Sharing Science Survival Guides
     (Teachers/Scientists                               88-103

Dear Educator

      Environmental science education means many things: promoting
stewardship, developing lasting values and commitments that recognize the
importance of the environment both locally and globally, building a literate
citizenry that know how to analyze issues, ask critical questions, apply science
knowledge in decision-making, and also the means for America's youths to pursue
careers essential to protecting and improving the environment.   Environmental
science education is further defined here to include all science disciplines as well as
engineering and technology. Providing environmental science education can be
accomplished nationally if inservice and preservice teachers (all disciplines) are
trained to use and make use of integrated environmental science teaching materials.
Many of the steps for this to happen are underway. A national science standard is
soon to be developed, after which most States (hopefully) will make the
corresponding adjustments to their State Curriculum Frameworks thereby adjusting
what may be taught in the classroom. There is however a small  problem.  There
may not be enough integrated materials to teach with, barring problems of
dissemination. Responding to this concern, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) - Office of Research and Development, has prepared this demonstration
teaching tool kit that provides a foundation in a single issue area that should
' "break the ice" in teaching environmental science in an applied, integrated manner.

      This material (we think) is revolutionary in that it ties together different
aspects of a broad topic, water, and links them to subjects other than science, such as
math, geography, social studies, and english. Another unique aspect to this material
is who it is geared for. Many of the activities can be used in classrooms from the
first grade up to high school The activities are simple and engaging enough so that
the younger children will understand and learn, yet "extras" are provided for many
of the activities which make them more challenging for the older students.  "Extras"
include numerous questions and extension activities.
      Further, this material was originally created for EPA employee volunteers
without teaching backgrounds for presentation to their local schools.  The comfort
level of our employee's in formal classroom setting was a concern to us, so the
individual units or activities were designed to surround and help our employees
feel comfortable to present related knowledge they possessed about environmental
protection. They did that superbly. Imagine if they were real teachers!

      Most of the activities are not geared to consume an entire class period.
Instead, they intended to be used to introduce or enhance a topic the students know
or are currently learning about.  It is our hope that you use this material in your
 classrooms, and provide us with both positive and negative feedback.  It is only with
 your help that improvements can be made. Also, if there are topics or issues that
 you feel are not well represented or need more attention, please tell us, we would
 like to know.
                                                     E.P.A OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

                                            INVESTIGATING THE DYNAMIC HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
                                         WITH ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

                                                   UsinR low /no cos», round al home, recyclable, reusable materials

                                                                  ACTIVITIES LIST

                                      NOTE: THE FOLLOWING ARE  ALL DRAFT  COPIES, feel tree to comment.

                                           GLACIERS AND THE TIME OF MELT DOWN: relates to global warming /
                                                 cooling changes (solid)(predlction  and graphing)





                                           MAKING A CLOUD (gas) (making it rain)

                                           HOW WET IS OUR PLANET?  (liquid) geography, percent and ranking of
                                                 the earth's water

                                           HOW RIVERS ARE FORMED (surface water/gradient)

                                           SEDIMENT JAR / DIRTY WATER (surface water / wetlands)

                                           WATER FLOW PER SECOND/MINUTE/CENTIMETER, does water flow at
                                                 different rates,  and what  determines those rates?
 Call 202-260-7671, ask for Ron Slotkln or Write:
    Ron Slotkin. H-8105
    U.S. EPA
    Washington, D.C. 20460
7.    SALT WEDGE ACTIVITY FOR ESTUARIES (river meets estuary)

8.    GROUND-WATER  MODEL (water table/pollution)

9.    PORE SPACE / PERMEABILITY,  how much space is there in the "solid"

10.   FILTER  MEDIA,  the water treatment  process and obtaining clean


12.   MAKING A SCIENTIST  (evaporation investigation)

13.   ECOSYSTEM DEPENDENCY. A discussion on the parallels between our-
            dependency  for shelter and the  dependency of organisms  on
            the ecosystem in  which they live.

14.   THE  MASTER LIST (list  of materials for all the activities)
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                      Credited to J.V. O'Comoc

*  Rags / Paper Towels

•  Clock / Stop Watch

*  Standard Rectangular Ice Cubes

*  Recording Sheet for Data

*  Red or Blue food coloring

•-  World Map.

This activity is not intended to replace
a  lecture or  another activity,  but
instead to  proceed  while another
lecture/activity is going on.
GRADE LEVEL:  Grades 3 -12.
TIME: Introductory / filler.
SUBJECTS: Math, Physical Sciences,
      Social Studies, Geography.
  -Estimate and subtract time.
  -Relate to global climate change.
  -Make accurate predictions.
 v«Graphing trends.
  -Interpolation  (how much has melted)
  -Understanding of uncertainty of
  -Illustrate absorption / capillary action.
VOCABULARY: glacier; capillary action.
                Discuss with students if they have ever taken a guess or made a bet and it
                turned out to be Incorrect.  Could they have known they were going to be
                incorrect? Ask them to list things that can easily be predicted, and those
                that cannot.  Why are predictions uncertain? If what the scientists say is
                true about global wanning and the Green House Effect, will they be able
                to predict glacial melt?

 1.     Obtain ice cubes. Try to have one cube per child, or group of two.
 2.     Place a dot of food coloring on the paper towel. Put a standard ice cube over the dot
       of food coloring on the rag or piece of paper towel.  Use a few sheets for absorption
       and capillary action.
 3.     Measure how long and wide the ice cube Is in inches and centimeters. .
 4.     Have the children write down their estimates of how long it will take for the ice
       cube to melt.
 5.     Make a chart using the estimates, and write down the start time.
 6.     Call attention to the ice every 10-15 mins., crossing off the incorrect predictions.  If all
       the estimates get crossed off, have the students make a second prediction. "Refer to

 Depending on the time remaining,in class and the level of the students you are working
 with, these questions may be appropriate for a follow-up to the activity.

 Q.     What are temperatures at which water freezes and melts, in both
       Celsius and Fahrenheit.

 Q.     Taking your time estimate, convert  it into seconds.

 Q.     Taking the measurements from step 3, convert them into metric.

 Q.     What outside influences would speed up or slow down the melting of the ice cube?

 Q.     Explain why the dot of coloring moves?

 Q.     Can you make a prediction for melt down if the temperature was 2-5 degrees
       warmer or colder in the room?

 Q.     What climatic, geologic, atmospheric Influences would provide the environment
       for glaciers to grow?

 Q.     Would it make any difference if a different shaped cube were used?  Why or why
       not? (issue of surface area)   ,

 Q.     Find articles in recent magazines and newspapers on the effects of climate change.
       Can you find any articles related  to  the effects of glacial melting?

 Q.     Can you locate on a map where glaciers can be found? Can you name three glacial


 You may want to share with the students that  the following states presently iiave glaciers: Alaska.
 Washington, California, Montana, Wyoming, Oregon, Colorado, Idaho. Nevada and Utah.

. , \   1. Hand out graph paper, or make a graph on the blackboard. Show how to plot time vs. size of
 'theIce cube. Can more accurate estimates be made by using the predicting trend of the graph?  Based on
 your background, controlled settings for this experiment may act as a term or homework activity.

       2. On paper, design a controlled'Experiment to explain what happens to ice at various
 temperatures, correlating glacial melt,  etc. With your approval of the paper on the controlled
 experiment the student would go ahead and do the experiment.

       3. Place an Ice cube In a cup of sail water, and one in plain water. Mark where the water level Is
 after you place the cubes in their cups. Now, time how long it takes for the ice cubes to melt. Compare
 the meltdown times of both ice the ice cubes in the cups, and the ice cube on the paper towel. Is there a
 difference?  Why?  Compare the water  level  at the start of the exercise and after the cube is melted. Is
 there a difference?  Why?

       Note to the class that the melting of icebergs, due to global warming, will not significantly
 raise the sea level, it is the melting of the land  glaciers that will cause the problem.
 Dtmanimtion TnrMn*. Tool Kit: HyJrnlmiie Cyclr
        U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development
 Dtmanilralwn Teaching Tool Kit: Hydnrfojic Cycle
                                                                                            U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development

                                                                                                                                                         UNIT II-A
                  Making  a  Cloud
                                                         Credited to: Ron Slotkin
                                            GRADE LEVEL: All
                                            TIME: 5-10 minutes.
                                            SUBJECTS: Science.
                                            RELATED TOPICS:
                                                -Physical states of water.
                                                -Water Cycle.
                                                cloud; condensation.

 * a hot pot
 * a clear plactic non-melt cup
 * a dome cover that fits the top of the cup,
   or three pencils and enough plastic to
   loosely wrap the top of the cup, or lop
   one third of clear plastic soda bottle
 • water.


   What are clouds made of? Where are they
 found? ("if time allows, see teacher note at
 the end of activity.)


  I.  Pour boiling water into non-melt clear
 (plastic) cup.

 2.  Cover the cup with a plastic dome (such as those found on frosty drinks at fast food
 establishments) so when the steam rises off the water, the students can see the cloud. If you
'''cannot find an already made cover, stick three pencils in the cup and loosely cover both the
 cup and the pencils with plastic wrap so that a clear "lent" is formed over the top of the cup.

 3.  If (he water is hot enough, after a few minutes it will start to "rain" Inside the cup, and
 individual water droplets will be visible on the inside of the cup cover.

 Q. What is the cloud made of?
 Q. What is the quality of the water in the cloud, as compared hi the water in the cup?

 Q. Where else can clouds be formed?

 Q. Is it mining inside the cup? How can this be?

  "TEACHER NOTE: EXTENSION ACTIVITY- This activity can easily be linked to English
  and art class activities. Have the students imagine themselves as clouds, and describe (write
  or paint) what they think a cloud is, and what it feels like to rise  into the sky as water vapor.
  cool, condense, and form a cloud, and fall to earth as rain, etc.  Song, sound, music can  also
  be helpful.  After that activity have them write down actual facts about clouds.  Then have
  them discuss the differences between solids and gas; what an object appears to be, and what
  it really is.  You may also want to  show the Encyclopedia Britannica Film: "What Makes
  Clouds?" (No. 4240)
                                      E5BB.B  How Wet Is Our  Planet?
                                       Objective         Students will compute the amount and distribution of water on the
                                                         earth in oceans, riven, lakes, ground water, icecaps, and the atmos-
                                                         phere, and make inferences about the importance of responsible use
                                                         of water.

                                       Setting           Classroom

                                       Duration         One 40- to 60-minute period

                                       Subject          Mathematics? Science
                                            *                      *i
                                       Skill!            Computation, Description, Discussion, Estimation, Inference, Inter-
                                          '              prelation.  Measuring,  Observation,  Psychomotor  Development,
                                                         Small Group Work. Synthesis

                                       Grade Level      4-7 (For younger students,  this activity can be  presented  as a

                                       Vocabulary      ground water  surface water

                                                         Refer to Unit IL Sections A-l through A-3.

                                                         •  A globe, 12 inches in diameter.

                                                         •  Five gallons of water poured into a 5- or 10-gallon aquarium.
                                                         •  Writing .materials.

                                                         •  Calculators. •
                                                         •  Measuring cup.
                                                         •  One quart container for every three students.
                                                         •  One tablespoon for every three students.

                                                         1.  Review with students, if necessary,  that water exists in three
                                                             forms (solid, liquid, and gas). Explain that water is found on
                                                             Earth In all three states. Review also the concepts of ground
                                                             water and surface water with students.

                                                         2.  Divide the classroom into groups of  three. Give each group a
                                                             quart container and a tablespoon.
 Ottnonttntion Tricking Tool Kil: HyArvtv^ie Cycle
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                                                                                                           UNIT II-A
 Procedure       (contlnuod)
                  3.  Provide students with the following statistics concerning the
                     amount of water found on Earth:
                     Water Type

                     Ground water
                     Freshwater lakes
                     Inland seas/salt takes
   (In percent)

                      Show students the aquarium filled with 5 gallons of water. Tell
                      them how much is there. Provide students with the following
                      quantity. 5 gallons = 1,280 tablespoons.
                      Have students assume that the 5 gallons represent all the water
                      on Earth. Ask students to calculate the volume of water for each
                      category listed above using the percentages given. This will re-
                      quire the use of decimals.  Remind students that for multiplica-
                      tion, all the decimal places must be shifted two places to the left
                      so that 97.2 percent becomes 0.972 prior to multiplication (0.972
                      x  1.280  tablespoons = 1,244.16 tablespoons). The following
                      values result:
                      Water Type

                      Ground water
                      Freshwater lakes
                      Inland seas/ salt lakes
 (In tablespoons)

app. 1,280 tablespoons
                       Once the values are obtained, ask the students to calculate the
                       amount of fresh water potentially available (in tablespoons) for
                       human use. The following calculation must be performed:
                      Water Type               On percent)
                      Icecaps/gladers                2.0
                      Ground water                 0.62
                      Freshwater lakes               0.009
                      Rivers                         o.OOOl
                      Total                          16291

               Answer. 16291 x 1,280 tablespoons
                                                                                          : 33.6 tablespoons (or about 34
7.  Ask each group of students to take 34 tablespoons of water
    from the aquarium, put it in a container, and take the container
    of water back to their workplaces.

8.  At their workplaces, ask  the students to remove the amount of
    water represented by all freshwater lakes and rivers. (It is about
    0.111 tablespoon,  approximately one-tenth of a tablespoon.)
    Then ask students to extract the amount represented  by just
    rivers (it is  less  than  one-thousandth of a tablespoon). This
    amount is less than one drop. Discuss the relative proportions
    with the students.
9.  Discuss that there is a limited amount of freshwater on our
    planet and, that the amount of usable water available to humans
    is a very small percentage of the total water on the Earth. Dis-
    cuss how  all spedes depend upon this minute percentage of
    water  for their  survival  (see the Activity "Water,  Water
    Everywhere"). Also make the point that  most freshwater is
    locked up in icecaps/gladers and that not all ground water is
    readily available for human use).

10. Summarize the activity by using a globe to illustrate that if the
    Earth were this size (12 inches in diameter), less than one-half
    cup (8 tablespoons) of water would fill all the oceans, rivers,
    lakes, and icecaps.
11. Conclude by  emphasizing  the  importance  of  keeping the
    Earth's waters clean and healthy and of using water wisely and
    responsibly. Ask what  steps students can  take  to conserve
    water (see Unit III Section A-3).

  Convert the activity to the metric system. The table below shows
  metric approximations for the quantities used in this activity.
                 12 inches
                 5 gallons
                 10 gallons
                 1,280 tablespoons

                 34 tablespoons
                 1 tablespoon
                 111 tablespoons
                 0.0001 tablespoon
                            3 decimeters
                            20 liters
                            40 liters
                            1000 centiliters or
                            20,000 miililiters
                            5176 centiliters
                            1.55 centiliters
                            0.182 centiliters
                            0.002 centiliters
                            8 tablespoons or
                            115 centiliters
                                                           Adapted with permission from: Western Regional Environmental -y
                                                           Education  Council, Aquatic Project Wild  (Boulder, CO: WREEC, -*
                                                           01987).    }•',                                                 £
                                                    Credited to: Ron Slotkin
                                             GRADE LEVEL: All
                                             TIME: 5-10 minutes.
                                             SUBJECTS: Science.
                                             RELATED TOPICS:
                                                   -Slope / Gradient
                                                   -Flow rate
                                                   Slope, gradient, (low
                                                   rate, gravity, erosion

* 2 ft. of clear surgical tubing.
* Rectangular pan to hold water.
' Food dye.
* Water.

water has the tendency to (low to lower ground,
and accumulate at that spot. This is how lakes
and ponds are formed. Lakes and ponds are
essentially closed systems.  However, if a
gradient or slope is introduced at one end, a new
low will be established and a river will start to flow from this lake or pond. The surgical
tube, filled with colored water, (for easy visibility) represents such a closed system. Lifting
one end of the rube will force the water to the opposite end, and vice-versa.  This is an
example of the effects of gravity. The effects on a river due to an increase in slope or
gradient can also be demonstrated. If you were to position the tube over a pan, unplug one
end of the tube and tilt the tube slightly so that the water barely flows out, and then tilt it
 further so that the water flows faster the students can see why an increase in slope pulls the
 water downhill faster, quickening the flow of the river.  This is how rivers start.  You may
 want to show the Encyclopedia Britannica Film: "Erosion: Leveling the Land" (No. 2194)
 before go into the activity on How Rivers Are Formed.

                   How Rivers Are Formed




  Grade Level


                  Students will create models of rivers, identify river features, and
                  compare their models to actual rivers.

                  Classroom or laboratory

                  One 40- to 60-mlnute period

                  Geography, Sdenee

                  Recording Data, Media Construction, Psychomotor Development,
                  Small Group Work, Decision-Making, Inference, Communication,
                   Comparing Similarities and Differences

                   3-8 (Conduct as a demonstration for younger students.)

                   tributaries  meanders   alluvium  cutoff   oxbow lake

                   Refer to Unit I, Sections A-l through A-3.
 •  Sand table/sand box.
 •  Pitcher or other container of water.
 •  Paper and pencil.

 Explain to students that they will be creating miniature rivers in
 this demonstration. Break older students into small groups to
 perform the activity, if space and materials permit. For younger
 students, perform the demonstration yourself.

 1.  Mound the sand or soil into a small hill.
 2.  Pour water slowly onto the sand or soil.
 3.  Have students draw a picture of what they see.
 4.  Have students identify the source of the river and its mouth,
    then label these features on their diagrams.
 5.  Ask students if they can identify other river features. If students
    are not already familiar with tributaries, meanders, oxbow lakes,
    cutoffs, and other features, allow time for them to research in
    geology textbooks or other reference materials.

6. Have students label their diagrams with any additional  river
   features, then discuss what they have found.

Have students experiment with different slopes in the sand boxes
and different water flows to see the effect on the formation of their
rivers.  Encourage students to draw pictures of rivers formed on
shallower and steeper slopes and  with faster  and slower flows.
Compare these rivers and discuss the differences.

If there is a river .area nearby where students can observe the forma-
tion of oxbows, waterfalls, deltas, meanders, or other river features,
arrange a field trip.
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                                             U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development'
                                                                                           Drimnilnlinn TVertmj Tool Kit: Hyrfrnfngir Crr/r
                                                U.S. EPA Office o( Research and Development

                     THE    SEDIMENT    JRR
                                                        to: J.V. O'Connor

'  Clean peanut butter or
   mayonnaise jar, preferably
   plastic, with tight fitting lid
   per group or student.

'  Different types of "loads:"
  - grass and sticks: floating /surface.
  - fine sand or soil: suspended.
  -.salt: solution/dissolved.
  - sand and gravel: bed.

'  Pint of clean water per jar.
   (give metric conversion too.)

'  Flashlight

'  Local map
GRADE LEVEL All grade levels.
TIME  Introductory / filler.
SUBJECTS: Physical Science.
  •Learn the different types of
    river loads.
  -Discuss the concept of erosion and
  -Identify areas on a map where river
    loads have been deposited.
  -Understand (he importance of wetlands
    in relation to water purifying.
  deposition; erosion; sediments.
It may be wise to demonstrate this activity to younger students instead of having each child
or group of students handle and shake the jars.  Also, depending on how involved you
want the discussions to be. this activity can last a full period.
 On the blackboard or poster board write the
     Discuss the four types of river loads.
 Engage students with questions on their
 experiences with rivers. Has anyone looked at a
 river / stream / creek?  What color was the water?
 Could you see the bottom? How about after a
 rainstorm? What  is in the water that makes it
 look cloudy?
   For the concept of erosion and drainage, start
 with the "mud puddle." Why is there a mud
 puddle?  Is there anything other than water in it? How did it get there?  Is this why you
 can't see the bottom of a mud puddle?  (For a visual explanation, adapt the How Rivers Are
 Formed activity by using not only sand and soil but also pebbles, sticks, grass, etc.)  Would a
 river / stream / creek gel  it's material after it rains in it the same way a mud puddle does?
          Different types of river loads:
         -floating/surface:  grass  and
          -suspended: fine sand or soil.

          •solution/dissolved:  salt.

          -bed: sand and gravel.	

1.  Gather small amounts of samples of each of the four different types
   of river toads.

2.  Give one jar to each student, or group of students.

3.  Have students in each group play (act out depending on age group) the roles of soil,
   grass..etc and contribute their load  in a descriptive* and illustrated* manner.

4.  Add water and tighten the cover so no water spills out.

5.  Have a student(s) shake the jar for approximately one minute.

6.  Set the jar down in a  place where it will not be disturbed, and observe the following:
   -The different load layers.
   -The color of the water.
   -How long it takes the water to return to it's original clearness.

7.  Hold a  flash light up  to the jar.  Does the light penetrate the water?


Depending on the time remaining in class and the level of the students you are working
with, these questions may be appropriate for a follow-up to the activity.

Q. Where does sedimentation take place?

Q. What are some materials that could classify as floating load? As
   suspended load?  Dissolved livid? Bed livid?

Q. Why does the water get cloudy after it is shaken?

Q. Is the dissolved load always visible?

Q. Which load settles the quickest? The slowest? Why?

Q. How would material get to a river?

Q. When a river is moving fast enough it has the energy hi curry material from the size of a twig to
1. • * ,the size of a tree.  However, when the flow slnws down the river loses energy and drops it's load.
    Looking at a map, can you find were rivers may have slowed down and therefore deposited the
    material it was carrying?

Q.  What are some things that would cause a river to slow down?

Q.  Wetlands are important for a number of reasons, one being the filtering of water. What would
    happen to our surface water supply if there was no place for a river to filter the water it was
Q.  Can you locate on a map where probable wetland areas are located? Explain why you think they
    would be there.
** After the students have a good understanding of the loading process, the types of loads, where the
material ends up, have the student imagine for * brief time, together, and discuss what it might be like
to be a fish, or perhaps another denizen of the river that is receiving  the loads the students jubl learned
about. Exercises that rely on empathy help interest the depth of understanding among other things.
Advanced students may wish to evaluate the relationship between the lime of the year, intensity, and
eruskin as a longer term project.       • '
 Demonilrtlion Trtthinf Teat Kit: HvJrnliyic CVfr
       U-S. EPA Offict uf Rrwarch and Devdupmtnt
 Dtmanitntion TVwJimj Tool Kit: Hpfra/ngtc Cyclt
U.S. EPA Offiot of Itocirdi and Dtvdupment

                                                                    UNIT II-B
                                                                    UNIT II-B





Grade Level



Dirty Water
Students will compare the effects of various levels of nutrients on water
and discuss the results of eutrophication on an aquatic environment.


One 20-minlite class period; four 10-minule class periods (one per
week for 4 weeks); and one final 20-minute class period

Chemistry, Mathematics, Science

Analysis, Application, Comparing Similarities and Differences, Dis-
cussion. Generalization, Psychomotor Skills, Observation


algae   erosion    nutrients    turbid

Refer to Unit II, Section B-8 and Unit III, Section B-l.
•  Five clear containers, one  quart or more  (plastic soft drink
   bottles or canning jars are ideal).
•  Water with  algae  from  freshwater  aquarium, a  pond, or
   purchased pond water from a biological supply company.
•  Soil from a yard or flower bed or garden, or potting soil.
•  Cloth to filter soil from water.
'•  Plant fertilizer.
•  Aged lap water.
•  Good light source, either indirect sunlight or strong artificial light.
•  Camera and roll of 12-exposure print film (35 mm is best).

1. Before class, mix 2 cups of soil with  1 quart of water and shake
   vigorously. Let the  mixture sit until the dirt settles and  (hen
   strain the water through cloth into another container.

2. In the classroom, add soil to water in one of the jars and shake.
   The  water becomes  turbid as  soil particles become suspended.
   Discuss some causes of  turbidity and how  an increase in tur-
   bidity in a water body affects plants and animals thaUive there.
   Put the jar aside for fu rure observation.
Procedure       (continued)
                 3. Add tap water to one of the other jars and label it "control." Fill
                    two of the three remaining jars with tap water and label one " 1
                    tsp fertilizer" and the other "2 tsp fertilizer." To the last jar, add
                    water you  prepared in Step 1 (explain that this water was
                    prepared in the  same manner  as  the shaken soil and  water
                    demonstration). Label this jar "soil."  Add 1  teaspoon of fertilizer
                    to the jar labeled "1 tsp fertilizer," and 2 teaspoons of fertilizer to
                    the jar labeled "2 tsp fertilizer."  Now add aquarium water with
                    algae or. pond water with algae  to each jar. Use equal amounts,
                    up to one cup each. Set all three jars where there is good light.
                 4. For the next 4 weeks, take photographs of the jars side by side in
                    good light from close up once each week.  Write the date on a
                    piece of paper  that shows in  the photograph and make sure the
                    labels on the jars show. Keep the jars in the same place in each

                 5. After a month has passed, develop the photographs and arrange
                    them in order. Discuss the changes that were recorded. The jars
                    with  the soil water and  fertilizer should  show a much more
                    luxurious growth of algae than the plain tap water. Discuss why
                    this has happened. Observe if there was a difference in the
                    amount of algae growth with the two different dosages of fer-
                 Discuss what nutrients arc and where they come from (erosion.
                 runoff, etc). Also  discuss whether  nutrients are "good" or "bad."
                 (Nutrients  are  good  initially because they  help  promote  plant
                 growth. Too many nutrients, however, can generate water scums
                 and   foul odors,  and  inhibit light  penetration).  Help students
                 understand the term eutrophication.

 Extension/     ' Study the label of the plant fertilizer to discover what some  plant
 Evaluation      nutrients are. .The label will  probably list compounds  containing
                 nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium. Many brands have a number
                 of other chemicals as well.
                  Adapted w,ith permission from:  National Aquarium of Baltimore,
                  Living in Water, 2nd ed. (Baltimore, MD: Department of Education,
                  National Aquarium of Baltimore, 1989).
            TntUng Ton* Kil; Hfrfrrfnjfic Cw/f
                            U.S. EPA Office nl Rne.irch And D»vf lupmrw
 r>mniulr»fmn Tracking Tad Kil: HyjrfnWngic Cyrlr
                                                                                                                 U.S. EPA Offiw «f Rnwrth and r>v»l.Tmwii

                                                  Credited to: Nancy Hardlmann
    Flow meter.
    Meter stick.
    Water-proof stop watch, or watch
       with second hand.
    Surveyor's measuring tape, or other like.
    Paper and pencils.
    Cord long enough to cross the width of
       the river.
    At least one stream or river.
    Graph paper.

Grade Level: Grades H and up
Time:  Two class periods, or 2 hours
Vocabulary: Meander: discharge; tributary
Math Skills:
       Measuring of area and velocity;
       converting feet and meters;
       equation solving.
       Rivers; currents; aquatic
       Hydrology; geology; ecology; math.
  A class prior to this on the parts of the  ^^^^^^^^^^
river may be helpful.  It may also be wise to take a trip to the stream before class and find
sections that are different, such as a straight section, a section the has several curves, a
section that  has obstructions in it (fallen tree or branches), a section near a waterfall, etc.
  This activity has the potential to be very wet. You may want to caution the students to
wear clothes that can get dirty to class on the day of the activity. Also encourage those that
have waders or hip boots to bring them in. You may also want to recruit parents to
accompany  you on this activity.
  It is easier to do this activity if you have a flow meter. However, if you do not have or
cannot use one,  an alternate activity can be used which involves oranges, which gives
similar results. Due to it's shape, weight and color, an orange  is quite useful in measuring
surface flow rates.  They are also bio-degradable, so incase they  "escape," they won't pollute
or harm  the stream.

  Just how  fast does a river flow? Does the rate of flow determine the type of flora and
fauna that might inhabit this location?  How do seasonal flow changes effect the habitat?
What different kinds  of flow environments exist?  How can we measure  them?  What is
the discharge  of a particular stream?  The equation for finding  discharge is:
                        Q = A v  (Discharge = Area x  velocity)
            MVsec = (depth (m)  x  width (m)| x  (distance (m) / time (sec))

Two sets of instructions are given. A » use with the flow meter; B = use with the oranges.
A.1. Locate  at least one river or'stream, preferably one with curves (or meanders) and
connecting  tributaries so the students can measure the different flow  rates at different parts
of- the curve (inside, outside, and in the middle) and compare the rates of  before and after
the tributary.

 A.2.  Have the students break up into groups of four and  have them decide who will fill.
 each of the following jobs.
   -speed recorder;  -2 people to measure and record the depths of the section;
   -someone to work the flow meter.

 A.3.   Set each of the groups up at a different part of the stream.

 A.4.   Before they actually enter the water, or disturb it in any way, have the students write
 down what they see.  Describe: color of the water; types of soils present; vegetation; any
 visible life; any visible current; characteristics of the stream itself (ie: depth, width, curves,
 types of banks,). Is there a sign indicating where the flood plain is?
A.5.   Have each group measure the depth of their particular sectlqn of the stream (with
the meter stick) across the way, in the middle, and at the close bank. This will also be where.
they will take their flow measurements.

A.6.   Have each group make a chart with the following information:
                                                  A.7.   Then have each group run the test.  Make sure that each section of each portion of
                                                  the width is tested three times so that an average speed can be found.  Therefore, after the
                                                  activity is completed, there should be eighteen separate entries into the chart.

                                                  A.8.   Return to the classroom to discuss the results.

                                                  B.I. Locate at least one river or stream, preferably one with curves (or meanders) and
                                                  connecting tributaries so the students can measure the different flow rates at different parts
                                                  of the curve (inside, outside, and in the middle) and compare the rates of before and after
                                                  the tributary.                  ''

                                                  B.2. Have the students break up into groups of six and have them decide who will fill each
                                                  of the  following jobs.
                                                      -time keeper;  -time recorder -2 people to measure and mark the section; -
                                                      someone to start the orange in the stream, and tell the timer to start the watch; -
                                                      someone to retrieve the orange at the end, and tell the timer to stop the watch.

                                                  B.3. Set each of the groups up at a different part of the stream.

                                                  B.4. Before they actually enter the water, or disturb it in any way, have the students write
                                                  down  what they see. Describe: color of the water; types of soils present; vegetation; any
                                                  visible life; any visible current; characteristics of the stream itself (ie: depth, width, curves,
                                                  types of banks,); is there a sign indicating where the flood plain is.

                                                 ', B.5. Have each group measure  off 100 centimeters along the bank, and mark both the
                                                  beginning and end with cord going across the stream.  Have each group measure, at the
                                                  beginning and the end, the depth ,of their particular section of the stream  across the WHY, in
                                                     the  middle, and at the close bank. This will also be where they will start the orange.

                                                  B.6. Have each group make a chart with the following information:
                                                     LENGTH OF SECTION COVERED
                                                          fin cpntimetgrO
                                        PORTION OF WIDTH USED
                                        (FAR, MinntF
            Tsflftiinp Tnnl fit-
                                                I! 4
                                                       fVSro n» P»«e.irrh inH
                                                                                                  U S. EPA Offlr» of Rnmirrh nnd Development

B.7. Then have each group run the test. Make sure that each-portion of the width is tested
three times so that an average speed can be found. Therefore, after the activity is
completed, there should be nine separate entries into the chart.

B.8. Return to the classroom to discuss the results.


Q.Which areas had the faster currents? The slower?  Why?  Where there any clues in the physical
make-up of your section of the stream? What was the overall flow rate of your section?

Q. Using graph (taper, create a pictorial cross section of the stream where you worked. Combine all the
group's cross sections to create a cross section nf (he portion of the stream sampled. Note if and where
there were any curves, large debris in the water, or any other variables that would possibly change the
flow rate.

Q. Label different sections of the cross section and have the class estimate the flow rate, using all the
available data.

Q. Using the overall flow rate and the area of the section sampled, find the discharge for your section
per second. Convert that to meters per hour, per week. What variables would effect the flow cale?
(both natural and man made)

Q.Calculate the overall flow, and discharge of the total area sampled by the class. What would
happen if this rate suddenly decreased? Increased? (you may wish to consult an area map for real
effects such as flooding; decrease in irrigation, which leads to crop  failure)

Q.Going back to your notes on the vegetation, were there any special adaptations for the plants living
in the water?  What were they, and  what effect did they have on the plants  life?  Where there any
special adaptations for the plants living near the water, but not in  it?  What were they, and what
effect did they have on the plants?

Q.Going back to your notes on the animal life, were there any special adaptations for the organisms
living in the water? What were  they, and what effect did they have on the r.nimals life?

Q.lf the water were to change somehow, depth or speed, would it effect the plants and/or animals
living there?  In what way?
                                        I  Salt Water Wedge
                                        Materials Needed:

                                        •••  PInslic Box
                                        ». Cool Water
                                        '••;.;. Cool  Sally Water
                                        • v Food Coloring
                                        '•'';.' While Paper
                                        >•;. Wood Block
                                        • • P.iper Cup
                                        • -Small Stones
Grade Level:
Time Required:  1/2. i iw»
Dieclpdnee: octinoinpfcy
Objective*:    '
*   To be able to wplita wfcy rretbwww win itty M it* turtec wtoto wU w.
    \tt will inTCl pp • fl«f «loa| Ow bo<|oa) Ml I w«4l|« bfMuK »f ifciuuy ji
  '< rcrtncct.
•.  To be ibto »ifcicrfbe (to wn« (tinttalwk* of M CMuiry. from uliy
   'iocttn wrncr, to brackUa. K> frcih.
•   To be »ble |o WenUfjr etinwy vt4t In MMNtftwtlll where
                                         Special Note:
                                         To mi» t teiwaier solution, add 35 trwnj of kosher all (nftlar tall lui oddlttrtl) 10 I liter of water Of approitaMcly I 2
                                         ounce* II stani tablttpoont) of nil to I qutn of water. To make • taractbh mlilara, halve Itw MMMMM of |«I|. |Ui| Mx w><
                                         water wilh ihe food coloring.


                                         1.  (Optional but recommended)  Rewf (ho *Ow lh« Wedge' porter
                                             and *A Raindrop Journey* brochure (both puMfcatloro we l*leo! In
                                             the reference section) before starling trill experiment

                                         2.  Place one end of the box on a small biock,' Place a piece of wtile
                                             paper under the box and fold  the extra paper up along the back to
                                             broduce a while background.

                                         3.  Make several liny holes In  the bottom of the cup. Weight the cup wftl)
                                             small stones and place at the  lower end ot the box.

                                         4.  Pour cool, fresh water Into  the box until II reaches close to the top of
                                             the cup. Allow the water to settle.

                                         S.  Gently pour the cool, salty, tinted waist, Into the cup (do not orerrTfl).

                                             O.  Describe what happens.
                                             O.  Why?
 Drmpfufraffan Traehiny Tanf Kit: Hyrfrnfn^ic Cytte
U.S. EPA Offin of Rrwnrch and
                                                                                                Dtmnnflrtlinn TrttHinj fnof Ki'l: Hyrfrntngw Cyt/r
                                                                                               U.S. EPA OfHn of Rnfarch and D»v»l«^mmt

                Ground-Water Model

                Students will demonstrate through building a model how aquifers
                are formed and ground water becomes polluted.
                One 11/2-hour period
                Observation. Analysis, Discussion, Experimenting, Media Construc-
                tion, Comparing Similarities and Differences
                3-6 (if teacher performs demonstration); 7-12  (if students build
                ground water   pollution    aquifer
                Refer to Unit III Section B-5.
                For each modtl
                m  Ground-Water Model handout.
                •  One 20 ounce clear plastic tumbler.
                •  12 inches of clear plastic tubing.
                •  A small piece of nylon fabric to cover the end of the tubing.
                •  Masking tape.
                •  Small pebbles.
                •  Clean sand.
                •  Filter paper (e.g., a section of a coffee filter).
                •  Pump-type sprayer (e.g., from window cleaner).
                •  A disposable syringe.
                •  Red food coloring.
                •  A clear glass container.

§   Setting
                                                                      UNIT III-B
                                                                                                           PORE  SPRCE/PERMEHBILITV
12. Continue "pumping" water from the tumbler with the syringe.
    When the syringe fills with water, remove it from the tubing and
    pour the water into the clear  glass container.   Refasten  the
    syringe to the tubing and continue "pumping* water. Ultimate-
    ly, the water in the clear glass container will have a reddish hue.
    Discuss with students how the "pollutant"  applied at surface
    level has "contaminated" the "ground water" in the experiment.

 Discuss with students how ground-water contamination occurs in
 real-life situations and how it can be prevented.  In addition, a film
 or nimstrip can be shown on ground water (consult Unit III, Section
 B, Resources).
                               Ground-Water Model
DM/Poning Sol
rtock«/Gfav«.|	/£«>
  Drirnimlrdiim Tnchinf TIN* Kit: Hyrfrpfnyic Cyclr
                              U.S. EPA Office nl Rrtrnrth and
                                                                                                                                                 Credited to: Ron Slotkin
                                                                                                                                    Grade Level:
                                                                                                                                    Math skills:
Grades R and up
45 min. • 1 hour
saturation; ground water
permeability; capillary
action porosity;
infiltration; vulnerability.
measuring of liquids and
volumes of known
shapes; use of scales.
soil types /horizons;
aquifers; gtoundwater;
science of solids; math and
geology; math: geography;
hydn>logy; current events.
  4 tall, clear containers (such as tennis
   ball containers).
  Geologic material such as: pebbles,
   sand, soil and clay.
  Two 1 gallon jugs (milk containers),
   filled with water.
  Knife or scissors.
  4 well marked measuring cups <")
   (") Optional: masking tape;
   permanent marker; ruler..
  Detailed geologic map of your state.

Have you ever been to the beach and seen
what happens to the waves as they roll up
the sand?  What happens to the water that is left on your driveway after you wash a car?
When it rains, just where does the water go when it seeps into the ground?  Isn't the
ground solid? So where is the water stored? How much water can the ground hold? Are
there problems associated with different soil types and their rates of absorption or
vulnerability to pollution?


1. ('*) If you do not have measuring cups, they can be simply made by using masking tape, a
ruler and a permanent marker. Cut four even pieces of masking tape.  Line up the pieces of
tape side by side, with a ruler, draw even lines across all four pieces of tape, about a 1/4 inch
apart. Now tape a tape "ruler" vertically to each of the four cups.
2. Fill one of the containers with.water and note how much water will fit into an empty
container. Empty the container, (remember to you can use this water later, so do not
discard it!)
3. Fill the containers with equal amounts of the following material:
    Container #1= pebbles.   Container *2» sand.  Container #3= clay. Container f4= soil.
4. Line the containers up so  the students have a clear view of them.

5. After BRIEFLY introducing the subjects and issues surrounding the different  natures of   ,
the various soils in the area (such as their relationship to the movement of water; their     i
ability to filter; and the location of groundwater (using one of the cross section diagrams in  !
the National Geographic kit  or other suitable), orient the students to your set up and ask
questions surrounding their understanding of the subjects.
6. Have the students guess how much water each container will absorb, and have them
explain why. (record the guesses for each container)

7. Start your demonstration.
                                                                                                                                            When the container is filled to the
                                                                                                                                            Then move onto container number
8. Begin by pouring water into container number one.
top, record how much water went into the container.
2, and so on.                    ,

9. When all four containers have been Tilled, go back and note if any of the materials
absorbed all the water, and note.

10. During the pouring of the water, Into the containers, check the student's knowledge of
water measurement such as cups, quarts, liters and gallons. If the students do 'not already
know it, go over the formula for the volume of a cylinder (your container).

11.  After the water has stopped seeping in. or the material has become saturated, (this can
be observed by looking for the material to have stopped bubbling, or the material to have
uniformly turned a darker color) empty out the unsaturaled water (or water lying on  top)
into into the measuring cup.

11  Take the amount of water that was originally poured in, and subtract the amount of
unsaturated water just removed. This final number is the total amount of water absorbed
into the soil.

13.  After all the water amounts have been recorded, determine the ratio of water to
material in the container.  These ratios are important because the number can than be
projected over a much larger area such as how much water is under the student's house.

14.  Next take a knife and cut a small hole on the bottom of the container.  Drain the water
into an empty measuring cup. After the container has finished draining, record the
amount of water that  drained out.

15.  Subtract this number from the total amount of water absorbed into the soil.

16.  Using a geologic map, local areas where sandy, clay, rocky and organic soil may  be
found. What are some physical differences between these areas?  (vegetation, water,
hills/flat, etc)

17.  Look through local or other newspapers and magazines for articles associated with
flooding.  See  if the students can give reasons why flooding may have occurred. Then look
for articles concerning ground water pollution.  If possible locate the source of the pollution
on a map, or visit the area. Can the students determine the soil type? Would a different
type of soil have effected the rate of pollution?  How?

Depending on the time remaining In class and the level of the students you are working with, these
questions may be appropriate (or n follow-up to the activity.

Q. Where there any differences in how much water each container held? Can you explain why?

Q. Were there any differences between how much water was drained from each container, and how
much that particular material could hold? Can you explain why? Relate the porosity of the material
to the amount of water "left behind" in the material.

Q.From this information, can you explain the effects these different soils would have on their
respective environments?

Q.Could there be different types of organisms or plants that may prefer a specific soil type because of
the hydrology associated with it? Give examples.

Q. Now answer the questions posed in the discussion:
   What happens  to the waves as they roll up the sand, and why?
   What happens to the water that is left on your driveway after you  wash a car. and why?
   Where is the water stored before it enters the water table?
   Why are the  rates of the water seeping into the ground different?
   Are there problems associated  with different soil types and their rates of absorption or
   vulnerability to pollution?


   So as not to add to the garbage problem, the containers can be made useable again by placing heavy
 duty  tape over the small hole, therefore stopping it up.
                                                                          FILTER   MEDIR
                                                           UJflTER TRERTMENT RNO OBTRINING CLERN lilflTER
                                             ft********************* V* it**************************
                                                                                                       Credited to Ron Slotkin
                                                                                             Grade Level:
                                                             Grades 8 and up
                                                             Introductory or 45
                                                             min. - 1 hour
                                                       Sedimentation;  Filtration;
                                                       Separation;  Aeration;
                                                       Absorption;  related terms for the
                                                       type of water treatment in the
                                                                                                    Follow-on to "How Clean is
                                                                                                    Clean" and the "Sediment Jar":
                                                                                                    Prw -activity to any Water
                                                                                                    Treatment Plant  field trip.
 8 clear 12 oz (or greater) plastic cups
 2 pieces of window screen
   (cut to a dimension slightly larger
   than the cup's opening)
 Paper towels
 Piece of nylon
 1 cup of sand (fine)
 12 oz. of pond water (includes dirt)
    "the water from the Sediment Jar activity
   can be used.
 An ounce of chlorine bleach

   This activity can be linked to the drinking water taste test as it demonstrates the process
 of getting water ready for drinking.' However, we do not expect the students to drink the
 results. The water cleaned  in this activity is only clean enough to wash their hands.  If this
 activity is used with the sediment jar activity, the same water can be used in both.
 Advanced preparation is recommended and may include gathering and reading through
 information on water treatment technology, both current and older.
    Be aware of the source of water for the school you are presenting to and any potential
 problems related to it's source of supply.. Get a copy of the water supply's test result
 (physical, organic).  These can be used as an illustration  of post filtered and pre-filtered
\ waters (raw).

 How well do filters work?  What makes them work?  Orient the students to the purpose of
 the activity: the biological needs for clean water and the various methods, both natural and
 man-made, used to obtain the water we drink.  Quiz students (or a list of other things we do
 with clean water. Given the class duration, you may also want to have the students write
 down their estimates of their water usage for all of the above  listed water use activities. List
 both the activities and the estimated use of water on the blackboard, along with the generic
 water use figures that can be obtained from several sources. Now. pose the question of how
 do we get all this clean water? Briefly discuss the local water  source, the watershed, and the
 collection point— the water  treatment facility.
    Optional Bnckcround Discussion: the relation between clean water and health.  On a
 worldwide basis, enough precipitation falls  annually to  cover the Earth's land area to a
 depth of 83 centimeters.  Yet, distribution and technology constrain economic growth and
 food production thereby causing. detrimental effects  on  the general health of the people
 from many nations.  Using  the newspapers, periodic articles can be found on droughts that
                                                                                                                                                                                   _ f,
                                                                                                                                                                                   ft «• '
                                                                                                                                                                                   5  "
  Drmomtrtlutn TVorfcinf Too*  Kit: Hydratayte Ctcle
U.S. EPA Office ot ftomreh and Dvvelopmenf
Dtmontlrtlivn Ttichinf Tool  Kit: HyJn1«i(ic Cyclr
                                                 U.S. EPA Office of Rrtrarch and Dwriupmcm

lead to the death of millions through famines (especially in Asia and Africa).  Even where
water is of sufficient quantity, it may be of insufficient quality.  It has been estimated that
80% of all the world's sickness is caused by contaminated water and that approx. 25,000
people die of water-borne sicknesses each day.  It is particularly hard for American students.
who may use 60-100 gallons of clean water a day and never having seen .the results of
cholera and other water borne sickness, to appreciate conditions in developing nations
where it  is hard to obtain the biological minimum of 2-5 liters of water a day.  For whatever
this is worth, it has been estimated that less than 10% of the world's population can obtain
sufficient quantities of clean water.  This  should be enough to drive home a number of
points concerning the wasting of water, the introduction  to the various ways of keeping it
clean, and why the technology we create  and use is so  important, among  other things.

1. Pour about 10 or. of pond water into a cup. Have the students describe the appearance
and smell of the water.

2. Pour the water back and forth between  two cups, aerating it. This allows gases trapped in
the water to escape, and adds oxygen to the water.

3. Let the water stand in cup number 2 for 20 minutes, letting any solids settle out. While
sedimentation is taking place, cut off the  bottom of cups number 3, 4, and 5.  Put a screen
piece on the bottom of cup number 3,  nylon on the bottom of cup number 4, and a screen
with a piece of paper towel on the bottom of cup number 5. ("See Teacher's Note)

4. Pour the top 2/3 of the water into cup number 3. The other 1 /3 of the water is the
untreated water. Let the water from cup  number 3 drain into cup number 4.  The water
from cup number 4 should drain  into cup number 5. The water from cup number five
should be drained Into cup number 6.

5. Draining the water from cups number 3, 4 and 5 filters the larger particles from  the water.

6. Poke small holes in the bottom  of cup number 7. Then fill it 1/2 way with  fine sand.

7. Lastly, pour the water from cup number 6 into cup number 7, filtering  out the last of the
small particles.  Let the water in cup 7 drain into cup 8. This is the longest step.  If this were
a real treatment plant, the water would then be sent out to the public.

8. Put one or two drops of chlorine bleach in the water in cup 8.  Explain the purpose
behind chlorination.

9. Examine the water in cup 8.  Have the students describe the appearance and smell of the
Q.What was the appearance of the water before and after treatment?
•Q.How did sedimentation change the water's appearance?
 Q.Huw did the filtered water differ  from the unfiltered water?
 Q.Could there be other contaminants in the water? How do you think they are removed?
 Q.   What other chemical is often added to the water supply before it is released  to the public.
                                                              How  a Surface Water Treatment  Plant Works
                                            Teacher's Note:
                                                  "Instead of using cups, that after a while will need to be replaced, soup cans can be
                                            used.  Simply cut out the top and bottom of the can and attach the screen, or whatever
                                            filtering material you are using, to one end with a rubber band:
                                                  Also, the nylon, screen and paper towel can be replaced with other items (such as
                                            screens with different sized mesh, cloth, etc.), to  observe their filtering capabilities.
                                                                                                                                H? §
                                                                                                                                y* *
 Drimmslrafinn Tetthinf Tvd  Kil: Hyrfrci/nyic Cyr/f
U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development
Demonstration Tracking Toot Kil: HyJrnlnyie Cycle
U.S. EPA Of fie* of Research and Development

                                                    Credited to: J.V. O'Connor

       u LEVEL;   ALL

                    A map of the world; 5 different types of bottled water (double the amount of
                    one type); and each of the following per student bathroom paper cup (2oz).
                    spittoon or bucket, circle sheet.  Brown paper bags to hide the labels on the
                    bottled water.
  I.   Bring to class five to ten different types of bottled water from various locations. (Five is
      enough) One type of bottled water should be repeated to act as a control. Some water should
      be carbonated, some not. If Tap water is used as one type, place it in a clean container.                  Q

  2.   Place each bottle of water in a brown paper lunch bag and label each bag: A. B. C etc.(verdcal
      scale on circle sheet) Tape bag closed.

  3.   Give each taste tester a bathroom size paper cup and a circle sheet

  4.   Have • spittoon or bucket to collect water not liked before next test                                  Q

  S.   Set up the horizontal test scale from I -5. or 1-3 Cower grades). 1 being the worst or Yuck end
      of the scale; S being the good or awesome end. Lower grades may also use red (bad), yellow,
      or green (good) colors in the circles.

  6.  Discuss how the test will work. Test the students knowledge to assure they understand the
      scale. Ask for • volunteer from each group of students to start pouring the bottled water.  For           E
      younger students, or when using large bottles of water, ask for teacher's assistance or plan
      to have • second volunteer in the class room.

   7.  Have the students use their circle sheet to summarize their choices.

   8.  To conduct the test, have the teacher use a circle sheet to tally the class selections when the              p
      students are asked to raise their hands. Record the amount in the proper circle, (hint: draw              '
      scale on blackboard)

   9.  Repeat the hand count and recording process for each water taste test

   10. Illustrate to the class the summary data from the teacher's circle sheet and see which water              ~t
      scored best or had the highest rating. Which water had the lowest rating for the class? Did              «
      anyone like the lowest  rated water? Did anyone dislike the highest rated water?

   11. Unveil the water from each bag. On the teacher's circle sheet, write where each water came
      from (it's source) and it's name. Place a star near the carbonated water.

   12. Check your values for the repeated water.  Hands up, how many had the same value or choice           }-|
       for both waters? Use this difference as the true standard deviation, or illustration of error in
       (he method of testing, (do'not spend too much time on this) Variation on this last step may be
       to go directly to one of the options.

       •Study the chemistry on the bottles for minerals, dissolved solids and amounts. What causes           |
          (he difference in taste?
       -Study the different units that are reported on the label, eg: ppm, mg/1, etc.
       •Talk about the color of the bottles and the material of the containers.
       •Identify on a map where the bottled water sources are located.
       -Talk about the different water regimes that bottled water may come from: spring, ground,               i
          surface, etc.                                                                             **
Dtmamtntmn Tuthing Tnnf Kit: Hyrfmfnyir fytlt
                                             U.S. EPA Office of RtMarch and Devtlupmmt

        R long term Extension flctlulty Dealing With The Topic Of Euaporation
 *  9 clear plastic cups, all the same size,
        with marked, graduated sides. (*
        04 in procedure)
 *  Water.
 •  Plastic Wrap.
 *  Salt.
 *  Black paper or paint.
 *  9 notebook pads and pencils.
 *,  Permanent marker.
 *   Thermometer.
 *  Masking Tape.
 *  World Map.
<—•             '

    Discuss with students what happens to
 puddles after a rain storm.  What happens to
 the water left on the driveway after the lawn
 has been watered. Does it make a difference if
 the sun is out. or if it is a cloudy day? ('see
 teachers note at end.*) If puddles evaporate,
 why doesn't the ocean completely evaporate
 as well?  Is the rate  of evaporation of a body of
' water effected when an oil spill occurs on it?
                                                           Credited to: Ron Slotkin
GRADE LEVEL: Grades 3 and up.
TIME:  Al least a few weeks, if not a full
       marking period.
SUBJECTS:  Math, Science. English.
OBJECTIVES: (depending on grade,
       some or all of the following
       are applicable.)
    •Measure the different rates of
    •Measure rime and temperature.
    •Become familiar with fractions
       and averaging.
    •Graphing and model making.
    •Evaluate the rale differences.
    •Speculate as to why there are
    •Hypothesis and  theorize the
       problems associated with
       "unnatural" rates of
    •Record data, and keep a journal
       over a period of days.
Glaciers and the Tim;  of Meltdown;
Discuss Weather: temperature, humidity,
and cloudy versus sunny; Discuss the water
cycle;   This activity;   "How Clean Is
Clean". See objectives for other links
within  this  activity.
  1. Divide the class up into 9 equal groups.  If
  the group consists of more than four children,
  repeat some of the cups as controls. Have
  each group assign functions to each of the  members, ie: record keeper, temperature reader,
  weather observer, water level reader. The  functions of each member can vary each day, or
  remain constant throughout the activity.

  2. Hand out to each group a notebook, with a pencil attached.
  3. Have the students create a chart on the  second page, with the following information:
  DATE; TIME; WATER LEVEL; WEATHER OUTSIDE (sunny; windy; partly cloudy; cloudy;
4. Take nine pieces of masking tape, all of equal size.  Line them up on a desk, one next to
the other.  Using a ruler and permanent marker.-draw lines across all the pieces of tape,
equidistant from each other. Start fche lines a 1/2 inch from the top.  Place a piece of tape on
the side of each of the cups. This will act as the graduations.

5. Line the 9 cups up on a window sill, or a place where they will not be disturbed. If spills  •
are possible, place in a pan on the window sill, (this may be a factor in the rate of

6. Fill each of the cups to the top mark  on the tape with one of the following, and on the top
of the tape, label the cups A-H, as appropriate:
    a. plain water. (2 cups, one acting as a control)
    b. plain water, but seal the top with plastic wrap.
    c. plain-water with a teaspoon of salt.
    d. plain water with 3 teaspoons of salt.
    e. plain water with 6 teaspoons' of salt.
    f. plain water with either a black piece of paper wrapped around the outside of the
    cup, or black paint on outside, or a black party cup.	
6b.The next two cups are side activities dealing with the problems related to oil spills and
pollution. Evaporation is not an issue in cups g and h... G. plain water, with enough motor oil to
cover the surface. Seal with plastic wrap.  H. water with 6 teaspoons of salt, and enough motor oil to
cover the surface. Seal  it with plastic wrap.  (** G and H are examples of what would happen in the
event of an oil spill.  They are sealed because large bodies of water, especially oceans, are essentially
closed systems.)
                                              7. Have the students make their first entry into their journal, as specified in
                                              number 3...
                                              8. The groups should observe their cup at least three times a week, putting entries into their
                                              journal each time. Observations should be ma'de until the water is completely evaporated.
  Demonstration  Teething Tool Kit: Hydrdnyic Cycle
  U.S. EPA Office tif Research and Development
                                                                                              Demontlralien Teaching Tool Kit: Hydmltyic Cycfr
                                                                                             U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development

9. For the ambitious...Have students refill their cup with the exact same material and
continue the activity for x number of cycles, letting the group accumulate comparable data.
10. Graphing-
       plot: time vs. temperature.
       time vs. water level.
       temperature inside vs. temperature outside.

11. On a map, locate areas were evaporation would take place quickly, and those places
where evaporation would take place slowly.  Is there any place where evaporation does not
take place?  Why is this?
Depending on the time remaining in class and the level of the students you are working with, these
questions may be appropriate for a follow-up In the activity.
Q. Which cup of water evaporated the quickest? The slowest? Why?
Q. Where there any cups of water that did not evaporate? Why? Could you have changed something so
that the water could  have evaporated?
'Q. Order the cups from which liquid evaporated the quickest hi the one that evaporated the slowest. For
those that have not yet evaporated, which do you think will finish first, second, etc. Are there any cups of
water that won't ever evaporate?
Q. Why was a control used?
Q. Did your group vary the functions each n«mbei did?  Do you think this made a difference in the
collecting of the data?
Q. Do you think the weather outside and the temperature inside and outside the mom made any difference?
Q. What would happen if it were colder in the nxim?  Hotter? What would  happen if you put all the cups
in the shade? Or exposed them to the light of a lamp for 24 hours straight?
Q. What was different about the cups with the oil in them.  Can you relate that to what happens when
there is an oil spill on a real body of water? What might happen to the animals and plants that live in
that water?
Q. Why was it necessary to keep a journal? Could you have remembered all the information?  Would it
have made a difference if you checked the cup every day?
Q. What were the average classroom and outside temperatures?
Q. What should be done with the water that has not evaporated? Should it just be dumped?
 Q. What correlations, if any, were there between I.) the time it took for the water to evaporate and the
 temperature of the room? 2.) the time elapsed and the water level? 3.) the temperature outside the
 classroom and the temperature inside? 4.) the  water level «ml the classroom temperature.
 Q. For those that repeated the activity, did you find any factors that significantly altered the evaporation
 rate of the water? Were there any factors that were not significant?  Was your data relatively constant
 throughout the different cycles?

 1.  A possible side activity may be to have any interested students take, or find, pictures of the different
 types of weather.
 2.  Math teachers may want to make a wall chart showing the weekly evaporation rate of each of the cups.
 This chart can then be used to  illustrate percentages, fractions, averages, and basic graphing techniques.
                                                                ECOSYSTEM   DEPENDENCY
                                              R facilitated discussion on the parallels between our dependency for shelter
                                                 and the dependency of organisms on the ecosystem In which they Hue.
                                                                                                       Credited to: Ron Slotkln
                                            Chalk board or large pad of paper and
                                            Pictures of various ecosystems1'
                                               (such as  rainforest, wetland,'
                                               desert, tundra)
                                            World map                   i

                                            SPECIAL NOTE
Grade Ltvt 1:   Grades 8 and up.
Tlmt:         Introduction or 45 min. to 1
Sequence     method of introduction to
             earth systems development;
             ecosystems; conservation;
             resource limitations. This
             activity can also be combined
             with social studies and
             discussions on the homeless,
             different cultures, and varying
             Current events; social studies;
             geography; ecology.
   Unlike other environmental education
activities, this activity is strictly a
discussion activity.  The teacher is
expected to facilitate dialogue among the
students, leaving the majority of 'the
discussion to be between the students.       	
   The following activity is not unlike
activities you may already be familiar with. A primary list will be made.  Nothing
mentioned by the students should be excluded from this list, if possible.  From that primary
list, items will be deleted according to the student's opinions of their lack of importance.
Eventually decisions will need to be made between several very important items.  The last
list created should be comprised of only a handful of items.  From there you can lead the
discussion in several directions, one way is explained below.

   Start by asking the students to think about where they live. Do they have food and
water? Shelter? Do you have a safe place to live and play?  Who do they share their
ecosystem or neighborhood with? Now, begin a list listing everything in your home (both
concrete  and abstract) that makes it a desirable place to live in.  Write 'hese on the board.
From the prior  list create a list of the more important items.  (The first list must decrease by
20%.)  From this second list, create a third list of the very important items needed to live
comfortably. (The second list must decrease by 50%.) Lastly, from the third list create a list
of the most important items needed to live. (The third list should be decreased by 80%.)
Now, how would you feel if these last few items were taken away from you?  Could  you
find a way to survive?
   Now show various pictures, posters, or slide shows on a particular ecosystem. Ask the
students who would call these ecosystems home.  What qualities do these ecosystems have
that make it a proper home for these organisms. Going back to the student's ecosystem,
how is their home like that of the animals and plants just mentioned?  Point out,  or have
them list areas  on the planet where each of the particular ecosystems shown are found.
 DtmnrHtntioH Teaching Tool Kit: Hydr»l<*(i( Cycle
US. EPA Offic* uf Rewarch and Development
                                                                                              Demomtration Teaching Tart Kit: Hyd'n/pyic Cyc/f
                                                                                             U.S. EPA Office of Riuarth and Ovtlopmmt

                                                                                                  THE  MASTER  LIST
   Think about how it feels to have lint everything. Now think about how it must be for plants and
Animals who. unlike humans, do not have a very big choice in where they live.  Many animals need
special living conditions. The temperature, or water conditions found where they live might be
essential to their survival. To find another place to live, that has the same conditions, is often not an
option because it many rimes means migrating a distance too great for the animal to make.  There is also
the problem that an animal may be able to migrate to a better  place, but their fond supply can't, or the
ecosystem that they need to reproduce may be disappearing so they animal simply stops producing
offspring, but it is still surviving. What would happen then?
   There is also very large, and important group of organisms  that will never, be able to get up and
move. What are they, and why can't they just leave? If we begin to think about plants, we remember
that they cannot move. If their environment changes or is taken away, there is absolutely nothing they
can do. To change their ecosystem is to eventually kill them off. and for them to die often means others
who depend on plants for food will die also.
   Now let's go back to our lists. What are some ways we can prevent the loss of our possessions? Are
there some things that you thought were important before, but  don't seem so important now? And what
about the ecosystems? What are some things that  are leading to their destruction? What can we do, as
citizens of the United States, and citizens of the world, to help prevent the destruction of the
ecosystems in our town? State? Country?  World?  Unlike other living things, humans have the ability
to survive in almost any environment. Also different from other living organisms, humans have the
ability and resources to help others.  Let's use that ability and make » difference. Remember, we all
have to live together on this one planet we call home.

 Why my home
 is desirable?

 ice cream
What is

What Is more

What is most

                                Now, you only have one
                                thing left. How would you
                                feel if you had no choice, and
                                that one  thing was taken
                                away from you?  What
                                would you do?
                                                                                The following is a complete list of materials needed to be able to complete the activities in the
                                                                         Investiparinp the Dynamic Hvdrolopic Cycle teacher's tool kit, all of which should be able to fit into a
                                                                         milk crate. Many of the items can be cross-used in more than one activity, therefore some of the items •
                                                                         are followed by the numbers which indicate which  activities they can be used in.
bleach (1 oz) -10
bottled water (5 types) • 11
calculators - 3
camera and film - 5
5 containers (quart) - 3.8,11
4 containers (tall, dear) - 9
cord (several feet) - 6                 >
cover (dome shaped) that fits heat resistant cup -2
cup (heat resistant) - 2
15 cups (12 oz. clear, plastic) • 7,10,12
cups (2 oz), disposable -11
eye dropper • 3
tiller paper (coffee filter) • 8
flashlight. 5
flow meter-10
food coloring -1,4,7,8
graph paper - 6
grass, sticks • 5
hotpot -2
ice cubes • 1
map (area/state) • 10
masking tape • 8,9,12
measuring cup - 3,9
rneter stick (ruler) - 9.10.12
2 mifk jugs (1 gaS.) - 9
10 notepads and pencils • 1,3,4, 8,12
nylon piece of fabric • 5,8,10
oranges - 6
paper or paint (black) • 12
paper bags (small, brown) • 11
paper lowels or rags • all activities
peanut butter jar with lid • 5
pebbles • 5, 7. 8.9
permanent marker • 9,12
plant  fertilizer • S
plastic wrap-2.12
pump-type sprayer - 8
sand -4.5.8,9,10
screen (2 pieces) -10
shoe box (clear, plastic)- 4,7
5 soda bottles (clear, plastic) • S. 8
stop watch or dock -1,8
surveyor's measuring tape - 6
syringe (disposable) - 8
tablespoon / 3 students - 3
1 ft. tubing  (dear, plastic)  • 4,8
water -,7.8,9.12
water (aged tap)  - S
water (pond or aquarium) • S, 10
white paper - 7
wood wstyrofoam block (1CT by 41 -7
world map-1. 3,11.12

"limn tueh «• man. pttbfot, tie. tttouU fw Jrepf
In tip-tack bit/gift.
"/tons sucn as wtttr should b» kept out of
the box
  Dtmemlnltan Trertiiij fool Kit: Hydrnfarir Cyclt
                            U.S. EPA Office of Research and
                                                                                                   Demonstration Teaching Tool Kit: Hyrdologic Cycle
                                                                                                                           U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development

            Exerpts  from  Always  a  River,  Office  of  Research  &  Development  -  EPA
            Available  from  EPA CERI,  26  W. Martin Luther King  Drive,  Cincinnati,  Ohio
            Attention:  Thelma  Johnson
                                                                                                                                                            UNIT I-B




Qrada Laval



                      Water Wings
Students wiD learn to Identify water-related sounds and their sour-
ces within an ecosystem. They wiD also explore their own thoughts
and feelings about aquatic environments through visualization and
creative writing.

Outdoon of in a classroom

One 20-mlnute listening session and one 40-minute period for art or
creative writing

Art, Language Arts, Music

Listening, Visualization. Creative Writing


ecosystem  aquatic

Refer to Unit I, Sections M through ft-3.
rf Tape-record ings of water sounds or of an aquatic habitat such as
   a river, lake, stream, swamp, or marsh. (You can either make
   these tapes yourself or obtain them from bookstores, music
   stores, or stores that specialize in nature.)
• Art materials, including water-based paints (i.e,  acrylic, water
   color, or poster paints), brushes, paper, containers for water.
• Writing materials.

1. Play the tape for the children. The first time, have them listen
   quietly and try to picture a setting for the sounds they hear.
   Have them concentrate on the quality of the sounds, but  ask
   them not to write or draw anything while the tape is playing.
2. Now play the tape a second time. This time, have children in
   grades 2r6 write down  the names  of things they think  are
   making the sounds they hear. For children in grades K-l, have
   them say the names of things they hear  as they listen, while you
   write them on the board.
Procaduia       (continued)  •
                3.  Ask children to name some of the things they wrote down (e.g.,
                   rain, bird songs, frogs croaking, a waterfall, a beaver's tail slap-
                   ping). Ask children where and when they think  the sounds
                   might have been recorded (e.g., a marsh during a storm, a river
                   early in the morning). Have'children justify their choices.

                4.  Ask children to dose their eyes and try to recreate the picture in
                   their  minds that was created by the sounds. What do they see?
                   Tell them to imagine as much detail as possible, the colors, the
                   plants and animals, the sky. If you feel it would be helpful you
                   may play the recording again.
                5.  Now tell children they will be painting a picture of the scene
                   they  have hist been listening to. Provide the art materials and
                   ask them  to include all of the things that they heard and saw
                   when they dosed their eyes. Alternatively, you may wish to
                   have older children write short poems about what  they heard.
                   Some simple'poetic forms are described below.

                Originated by'the Japanese,  haiku consists of three lines of five,
                seven, and five syllables each. The emphasis is syllabic, not .rhym-
                ing. Here is an example:

                                    The fish swam by me
                                 Nothing left in the shimmer
                                     My heart beat faster

                Cinquain is derived from the French and Spanish words for five.
                This form of poetry is also based on syllables—or may  be based on
                numbers of words. The parts are 1) the title in two syllables (or two
                words);  2) a description of the title in four syllables (or words); 3) a
                description of the action in six syllables (or words); 4) a description
                of a feeling in eight syllables (or words); and 5) another word for the
                title in two syllables (or words).  Here is an example:

                                        Fishing eagle
                                   Moves above dark water
                             With graceful strength it finds its meal


                  Diamante is a poem shaped in the form of a diamond. It can be
                  used to show thai words are related through shades of meaning
                  from one extreme to an opposite extreme, following a pattern of
                  parts of speech like this:

                                       adjective adjective
                                  participle participle participle
                                     noun noun noun noun
                                  participle participle participle
                                       adjective adjective
                  For example:
                                          Small clear
                                   Rippling, moving, growing
                                   Life, plants, animals, people
                                  Rushing, sustaining, cleansing
                                      Connected, universal
                  You may wish to create a display of children's artwork and poetry
                  on a bulletin board.
Older students may enjoy going out into the field to tape record
their own sounds. Take a field trip to a stream, pond, lake, river, or
wetland where human-made sounds will be at a minimum. Divide
students into groups and have them tape water-related sounds and
write down what they have recorded. Later in the classroom, allow
the different groups  to play back their sounds so that the other
groups can guess what they are.

Adapted with  permission  from:  Western Regional Environmental
Education Council Aquatic  Project Wild (Boulder,  CO: WREEC





                                                                         Grado Lavd



   Designing  a  Habitat

  Students wiD learn about the components of a habitat that are essential
  for the survival of aquatic animals by designing artificial habitats for
  particular .spedes. Through'this activity they wifl recognize and ap-
  preciate the complex life requirements of aquatic wildlife.

  Two or more 45-minute periods

  Art Language Arts, Science

  Media Construction, Small Group Work, Public Speaking, Research.
  Interviewing, Writing


  aquatic  habitat

  Refer to Unit L Section B-l and B-2.

 •  A set of 3iX 5 cards, each with the name of one of the following
    animals written on it: trout, river otter, largemouth bass, water
    strider. diving beetle, crayfish, leopard frog,  moose, ruddy duck,
    great blue heron, and beaver (expand the choice as appropriate).
 •  Art  supplies,' including  paints  and  brushes,  paper mache,
    modeling clay, string, cardboard.
 •  Gallon jars for aquatic environments.
 •  Cardboard boxe* for semi-aquatic environments.
 a)  Field guides and other reference  materials.  (See Resources for
    Unit L Sections B and C.)

 Explain  to the class that to successfully house  aquatic wildlife in
 zoos or aquaria, careful attention must be paid to the range of con-
 ditions each life form can tolerate. There are also  certain physical re-
 quirements in terms of shape and dynamics of the display that must
 be compatible with each creature. For example, some fish require
 moving  water  or currents, while others  prefer  the still waters of
lakes or ponds. Some animals prefer deep water, others shallow
rocky bottoms, and still others marshes or swamps.

                                                                                                                                                                UNIT 1-8
 Procw-hira       (continual)
                  1. Divide th« das* Into groups of two or four.  Have each group
                     draw one end from • container.

                  2. Ask each group to design an artificial habitat in which its animal
                     could Uve. Inform them that teams will be expected to conduct
                     library research or consult reference materials or resource people
                     to determine the life requirements of their creature. In addition,
                     they must investigate and  establish  the characteristics of the
                     natural habitat of the animal. They must be concerned not only
                     with the basic life-giving conditions for survival, but must also
                     pay attention to the animal's comfort. Their 'aquaria* should be
                     as similar to the animal's natural habitat as possible.
                  3. When the research is complete, each team of students should
                     design and build a model of a zoo exhibit or aquarium habitat
                     that would be  suitable  for its animal's survival and comfort
                     Have eadi group establish a scale for their exhibit (for example,
                     1 inch • 5 feet for the large animals; actual size for the insects).

                  4. Once the models are complete, ask each team to report to the
                     rest of the das*. Each report should Include a description of the
                     basic biological needs of the animal, as well as a description of
                     the characteristics of its natural habitat The students should point
                     out how their models are designed to meet the needs of "he animal.
                  S. Ask students to summarize the components of habitat that seem
                     to be  necessary for  the survival  of the aquatic animals they
                     studied. (Food, shelter, and  space  in  a suitable arrangement
                     would be the minimum necessary components.)
                  6. OPTIONAL: You may wish  to  have students  arrange  their
                     models In a plan for a zoo or aquarium, and invite other classes
                     in to see their display.

  Extension/      v'sil an aquarium and arrange  for a staff person to address the cotn-
  Evatuation      portents of habitat and the  bask requirements necessary to sustain
                  the animals in healthy environments.

                  Create a balanced  freshwater aquarium for the classroom. (Refer to
                   Appendix A, "Keeping Classroom Aquaria—A Simple Guide for
                   the Teacher.*)

Discuss the reasons for and against keeping aquatic wildlife in cap-
tivity in zoos and aquaria. (Pros might include conservation, protec-
tion  of endangered species, and environmental  education:  cons
would  be difficulties of survival and reproduction in captivity, dis-
rupting the habitat and food chain by removing  them from  their
original home, and changing their natural behavior.)

Adapted with permission from: Western Regional Environmental
Education Council, Aquatic Project Wild (Boulder, CO:  WREEC,

           EPA/530-SW-90-005,  revised in 1990
                                         from  LET'S REDUCE  AND RECYCLE:  CURRICULUM FOR SOLID .WASTE" AWARENESS
          Available from USEPA, Office  of Solid Waste,
          Publications,   401  M Street SW
          Washington,  D.C.  20460
                         UNIT FOUR
                        How Can We
                Produce Less  Waste?
                   To explore changes in lifestyle that
                   have led to increased production
                   of waste.
disposable   product   durable
                                                                 BDo you think people have always thrown away as many things as they do now?
                                                                 Why or why not?

                                                            Discuss with children what kinds of changes in lifestyle have caused us to create more
                                                            waste in our day-to-day lives. Some examples might include:

                                                                 Buying new clothing instead of mending socks and patching worn clothing.
                                                                 Eating prepared foods or "fast foods" rather than cooking food from scratch.
                                                                 Buying individual servings or amounts convenient for storage instead of
                                                                 buying foods in bulk quantities.

                                                                 Getting plastic or paper bags with each purchase instead of shopping with
                                                                 baskets or reusable bags brought from home.
                                                                 Replacing broken) items rather than repairing them.

                                                            This would be a good opportunity to read the skit "Throwaway Three" at the back of the
                                                            guide, focusing on the issue of waste production through the ages.  You might also conduct
                                                            this activity in conjunction with a social studies unit on how people lived at a certain period
                                                            of time in history. Compare their use of resources and generation of garbage with our own.
                                                            Have children  work in groups to prepare skits showing the contrast between the two
      What do you do when your pen runs out of ink?
 •  t
Most children will say that they throw it away or get a new one. Explain that an item that is
made to be used once or for a short period of time and then thrown away is called
   _ What are some examples of disposable products that you have used? (diapers, pens,
  • * razors, cameras, shopping bags, wrapping paper, fast food containers, plastic eating
      utensils, paper plates, paper napkins, paper towels)

      Why do you think people use these disposable products rather than more durable, or
      long-lasting, alternatives?
 Help children to understand that people often use disposable items because it is easier, and
 sometimes cheaper, to replace these items than to clean, refill, or repair nondisposable
 products.  However, although it may be more convenient to throw out paper plates, paper
 cups, and plastic utensils than to wash dishes, these disposables create a tremendous amount
 of waste.
                                                                              To introduce children to the
                                                                              concept of source reduction.
                                                           Vocabulary:      source reduction

                                                           Review with children some of the problems associated with having too much garbage:
                                                                 Air, land, and water pollution.
                                                                 No place to put all of the waste.
                                                                 Shortages of natural resources.
                                                                 High costs of burying or burning garbage.
                                                                                 i        t(
                                                           Have children imagine that for I week they are not allowed to throw anything out in a
                                                           garbage can at home or at school.
5 tS

                                                                                                                                                            7-12  Unit Four
          How would you eat?
          (Bake your own quick breads and cookies, drink juice in the largest containers you
          could find, buy vegetables without any wrapping, buy huge boxes of cereal.)

a          How would you clean up a spill?
          (Use reusable rags and sponges instead of paper towels.)

a          What would you do if you tore your clothes?
          (Patch them or sew up the hole.)

     JjJ  Can you think of any other habits you would have to change for that week?

   Explain to the class that eventually they would probably have to start throwing out some
   things — the empty juice container, the cereal box, the wrapper from a new bar of soap.
   However, putting into practice some of the ideas they just mentioned could drastically
  , reduce the amount of garbage they produce.

   Tell children that what they have just been talking about are methods of source reduction.
   Explain that source reduction is the concept of using up fewer materials so that less waste is
r-_- produced. Define for children or call on volunteers to define the words source and reduce
^ lo give children a  better understanding of the term. There are several components of source
          1.   Cutting down on the quantity and weight of waste, including cutting down
              on packaging of the products you use.

          2.   Making things last as long as possible, thereby extending the useful life of

          3.   Using things more than once for the same or for different purposes, such
              as taking a clean jug back to a farmstand lo be refilled with cider or using a
              specially designed jelly glass as a drinking glass.

          4.   Using products that are less toxic, meaning those that contain potentially
              harmful ingredients.
   These components will be discussed in more detail in the next few activities. Help children
   to understand that the less waste we produce, the fewer problems we will have disposing of
                     To explore options for reducing
                     packaging.    ,
Send students on a survey of their local supermarket looking for examples of the following
three types of packaging:
       1.   Natural packages (oranges, nuts)

       2.   Older and reusable packages (paper bags, paper wrapping, glass jars that
           become drinking glasses, returnable bottles)
       3.   Modern packages  (plastic, polystyrene, tin foil, individual wrappings)

 Ask students to list five examples from category 1. five from 2, and ten from 3. Compile
 their findings and make a combined list for the entire class.
      What purpose does the packaging serve for each of the items on the list?

      How dependent is the product on the package?

      How could each package be reused or recycled?
      What alternate packaging could be used that is more environmentally sound?

For each item on the list, decide which packages create excessive waste and which
minimize waste.

Discuss some other packaged products students might find in a grocery store. Have
students distinguish between products that must be packaged the way they are. and ones
that could use less packaging.  Initiate a discussion of what students could do to promote
the use of less packaging when they shop. Elicit from them that they could buy only
products that have no unnecessary packaging and contain no materials that could be
harmful to the environment.' They could also bring some of their own containers (for b ilk
cereals, nuts, etc.) from home or reuse shopping bags. Emphasize (o students that buyi -.g
products in bulk quantities produces less waste.
                                                                                                                                                                           g >

                                                                                                                                                 7-12  Unit Four
7-12   Unit Four
Suggest 10 students that they write to product manufacturers or store managers to encourage
them to make or to stock items that use less packaging.  You might also want to choose one
particular manufacturer, and write a letter as a class.
                     To introduce students to the idea
                     that certain types of waste can be
Vopabulary:       junkyards   antiques

Have, students think about the different kinds of things people throw away.
      Where did the used items at scrap or Junkyards and antique stores come from? What
      might there be in one person's trash that might be a treasure to others? Relate any
      personal experiences with such discoveries.

      Has anyone in the class sold scrap metals, used appliances, or furniture for money?
Emphasize that many things that we throw away have value and can be reused.

To practice reuse in the classroom, hold a clothing drive or toy collection and donate what
you collect to a local Goodwill or Salvation Army.

Ask students to think of other ways in which waste could be used rather than disposed of.
Briefly discuss with students the possibility of recycling certain materials such as bottles,
plastic, soda cans, and newspapers.
      What can we do with yard wastes such as grass clippings and raked leaves?
Elicit from students the idea that yard wastes can be composted to produce fertilizer that
enriches and improves the consistency of poor soils.
                     To explore options for reducing the
                     toxicity of products.
 Vocabulary:       household hazardous waste   green products

 Ask students to identify some household products that contain ingredients that may be
• harmful to their health or to the environment. Household batteries contain lead and
 cadmium, which are both toxic elements. Other examples are turpentine, drain cleaner,
 chlorine bleach, flea repellent,'mothballs, bug spray, air fresheners, and chemical
 fertilizer. Discuss with students the problem of disposing of these household
 hazardous wastes. Help them to understand that these products should not be thrown
 away in  the trash to be landfilled or combusted because the poisonous components
 could contaminate the environment. Instead, many communities hold special collection
 drives or have dropoff centers to coordinate the safe disposal of household hazardous
 wastes.  If there is one in your community, take students to see how it is run.
 (fyote:  Do not allow students 'to run such a collection themselves.)

 Emphasize to students that an Important way to reduce the problem of household hazardous
 waste disposal is to use less-toxic products. Explain that nontoxic substitutes exist for
 many of the products named above. Baking soda, lemon juice, and vinegar are a few
 common items that can be used instead of many toxic cleaners.

  Have students conduct the following experiment to demonstrate the use of a nontoxic
  substitute for silver polish.  If possible, conduct this activity in a laboratory equipped with
  stations for pairs of students.

  Boil 2 to 3 inches of water in a shallow pan with 1 teaspoon salt. 1 teaspoon baking soda,
  and a sheet of aluminum foil. Submerge a piece of tarnished silverware in the solution and
  boil for 2 to 3 minutes. Use a cloth to wipe away tarnish. Repeat the procedure if tarnish
  remains.                .                                                    5
  Emphasize that all of the ingredients they have just  used are safe and can be found in their
  own homes. For some grade levels, you may want to conduct this activity in conjunction
  with a chemistry unit on ion exchange.

  Have students research the use, of nontoxic substitutes as alternatives to toxic products.
  Local organizations such as chapters of the League of Women Voters and local conservation
  commissions may be able to provide you with information about toxic products and lists or  |

7-12  Unit Four
Tell students that the term green products is often used to refer to products that are
"environmentally friendly" — don't harm or unnecessarily pollute the environment Here
are some examples of toxic products and nontoxic substitutes:
      Turpentine — Use water with water-based paints instead

      Drain cleaner — Plunger; boiling water mixed with baking soda

      Flea repellent — Garlic, brewers yeast; herbs such as fennel and rosemary

      Mothballs — Cedar chips or herbal sachets

      Bug spray (ants and roaches) — Lines of chalk or charcoal dust, talcum
      powder, and cayenne peper; borax

      Air fresheners — Baking soda, fresh flowers, herbs

      Chemical fertilizer — Compost
 Remind students that they can also reduce the amount of toxic material they throw away by
 purchasing reusable products, such as rechargable rather than disposable batteries.

 Have students compile their findings into a bulletin board display or a fact sheet for
 distribution to the school or community. They might also create a promotional brochure or
 poster for a local household hazardous waste collection.
                         UNIT THREE
                     How  Does Waste
               Affect Our  Resources?
                    To introduce students to the
                    concept of natural resources.
Vocabulary:       natural resource

List on the blackboard the different materials that compose refuse. Trace each of these back
to its original source. (Paper to.wood to trees to soil to earth; glass to sand to rocks to earth;
metal to rocks to earth; plastic to petroleum to fossil plants to earth; food to animals and
plants to earth.) You may wish to refer to the illustration on p. 25.

Investigate where different objects in your classroom come from.

Introduce the term natural resource as anything that is supplied by nature that has plant.
animal, or human utility.

     What are the natural resources in the list on the board?

     Why are natural resources important?

[fw  Are our resources in endless supply?

a     What will happen if we continue to waste our natural resources by burning, littering. &
     or burying them?

     Can you think of anything .that does not use up natural resources?
                                                                                                                                                    67- >

                  To introduce the concept of
                  renewable versus nonrenewable
                  natural resources.
Vocabulary:       renewable   nonrenewable   aluminum
                   petroleum   bauxite

Obtain a collection of items that would normally be included in the waste stream. The
collection should include examples of products from natural resources that both can and
cannot be renewed (or recreated).

Reproduce the "Resource Tree" on p. 69 and distribute to the class.

Using the diagram, have students identify the raw materials used to make each item and
decide whether they are renewable or nonrenewable. In the discussion, point out that
aluminum, tin, steel, and petroleum are all nonrenewable resources. Help students to
understand that some materials are not renewable because they are the result of geological
processes that take millions of yean to complete. Nonrenewable resources are in limited
supply and once (hey are used up, they are gone forever.

Paper and cardboard come from the renewable source of wood (trees), but wood is being
used at a foster rate than it can be produced commercially. At the conclusion of the
discussion, students should be able to place any piece of solid waste into the categories of
renewable and nonrenewable resources.
      Aluminum cans, from bauxite (nonrenewable)

      Tin-plated steel cans, from Iron and tin (nonrenewable)

      Glass bottles, from sand, soda ash, and limestone (nonrenewable, but in
      plentiful supply)'

      Paper, from wood (renewable)

      Cardboard, from wood (renewable)

      Organic waste, such as plant clippings and food scraps (renewable)

      Plastic containers or bags, from petroleum (nonrenewable)

             EARTH'S  RESOURCES

                                USEPA OFFICE  OF  WATER   Publication EPA842-B-92-003
                                Turning  the  Tide on Trash  -    A  Learning  Guide  on Marine  Debris
                                available  from  NCEP1  Box 42419,  Cincinnati,  OH    45242-2419
                                                                                                                                                                                               Unit I
                                                               Trash  Trails
Objective:  To team about e*nan
cftaractanstici ol marn* dobrit and
how :heu chs'acteniici altaci whan
uiauw debus « found n the
Activity: Students perform
««nei»ntnla to manna wheOlW V
rot trash can flow. How around, or
wam away. Th* altecta ol trwta
cha'acienstcs on the presence el
name def 4 in (he ormonmani ar*

>• Enough copies of rhe Trash Train
  ^esullf" handout for «ach student
.- ••onai poem of plastic glass.
  •jober. mm A oaper. wood, and
  "oo trash
> * Ducket (Had with water
 > d large, shadow comnmer (such o> a
   j-ge drshoan)
 .•^ »* waterng can
Subjects: language Ans.Sdenoa

Learning SkUs: Anotvov
 C.'.assitvng. Collecting Data. Comparmg
 n' list on the dulkboifd
     and have the students fill in the "Does It Float.'' column on their
    • What will happen to buoyant items when diey get into the ocean?
     What could some of the problems be with buojrant marine debris?
    • What will happen to items that don't float when they get into the,
     ocean? li there a tendency lor all of the articles of the same type
     (plastic, paper, metal, etc.) to float or sink?

3    Set up the fan n one end
    of a table. Place each trash
 item in front of the fan. one at
 a time, ro see if it is blown
 around. Ask the students these
    •  Which items are  easily
      Mown  around? (Make a
      list on the chalkboard and have the students Gil in the 'Can It Be
      Blown Around on Land?" column on their handouts.)
    •  What blows trash around in the environment?
    •  Is there a tendency for all of the articles of die lime type (plastic.
      paper, metal, etc.) to be blown around in a similar way?
4   Fill the large, shallow container with water and place it in front of the
   fan. One at a time, put each article of tiash io the container and turn
on the fan. Ask the students:
   • Which items ate easily Mown around in the water? (Make a list on
     the chalkboard and have the students HI in the 'Can It Be Blown
     Around in die Water?" column on their Handouts.)
   • Is there a tendency for all of the snides of the same type (plastic, pa-
     pet, metal, etc) to be blown around in the same way?

5   Fill the  sprinkling can with water. Take the sprinkling can and the
   trash pieces outdoors, and find a llightly doped, smooth am (a paved
surface on a slight hill  would work well). Place the trash pieces on the
sloped area, and sprinkle water on them one at a time. (Note This pan of
the experiment also can be conducted in the classroom by elevating one
end of a board and placing the lower end In  a sink. Place the trash pieces
on the elevated end of the board, arid sprinkle water down die board.) Ask
die students:                    ,
   • Which items are easily moved by the sprinkled water? (When you get
     back inside make a list on the chalkboard and have the students fill
     in the "Can Sprinkled Watet Move It?" column on their handouts.)
   • What element in nature acts like the sprinkled water?
   • Is there a tendency for all of the articles of the same type (plame. pa-
     per, metal, etc) to be affected by the sprinkled water in the same way?

6    Discuss  how the charaaetistka examined (whether an  item floats, is
    blown around, or is carried by iprinkled water) affect whether an hem
 is likely to  become marine debris. Also discuss how the natural environ-
 mental forces of running water, wind, land rain can cause trash to become
 marine debris.
    Try one of the following projects': I) compare the types and amounts
 of ttash found on rural versus urban beaches; 2) compare types and
 amounts of trash found in different locations on a beach: and. 3) compare
 types and amounts of trash found on a rocky beach compared to a sandy
 beach. Tor each project, speculate on why differences were observed.
    Another approach would be to compare the types and amounts of trash
 found on an ocean beach versus the shoreline of a lake, pond, river, or
 stream in older (o compare the impact of debris on marine and freshwater

Trash   Traits   Rc§uU









All  Tangled
                                                                                                                                                              Unit II
                                                                         •f Distribute the rubbertnndi co students tnd hm them follow the pro-
                                                                          1 cedure below. (Note: You may w»m to km one 01 two siudenu come
                                                                         up to thr front of the room 10 peffctm the exercise wiih rubberbands u a
                                                                         demonstration: then indude the entire diu in the discussion.)
                                                                            • Hold your hands up in from1 of your hoc. with the back of your
                                                                              hands towards rout hot.
                                                                            • Hold ihe rubberband in you* right hand and hook one end of it over
                                                                              the little finger ofyour left hand.
                                                                            « Hook the other end of die rubbotrand oirer the left-hand thumb.
                                                                              The rubberband should be taut and resting across the bottom knuck-
                                                                              les on ilie back of your left hand.
                                                                            • Plire your right hand on the bottom of your left elbow, and keep it
                                                                             . Try to free your hand of the rubberband without using your  right
                                                                              hand, teedi. face, or other body para.

2                                                                             While students are struggling.'ok'me data to imagine that they are
                                                                             teagulls that ha»e gotten pieco of fishing line, abandoned net. or other
                                                                          dcbrij wrapped around their beaki or nedtt. Tell them the birds would be
                                                                          unable to eai until they had gotten ihenueHra free. Ask them the following
                                                                             . How would you reel after straggling like dill all morning?
                                                                             • How would you feel after missing breakfast?
                                                                             . What would happen if you continued to mill meals and spent all of
                                                                               your strength fighting to get free}
                                                                             • What would happen if a predator waf dialing you?
                                                                             Encourage students to  share theit rhoughn anrl  fedingi about  being
                                                                          rnianglcd. Remind ihem that their experience i» similar to ihat of a bitd or
                                                                          oilier marine animal that become* entanglrd in debrii.
                                                                   Objective To mam about
                                                                     dWe onungfemeni by e»per»
                                                                   encing what « might be like to be a
                                                                   marine anfnal traoped in debris.
                                                                             Students perform >n
                                                                    e*an*ntn n whch they wrao a
                                                                    rubberband around their lingers and
                                                                    W to disentangle ihemseivei. Ai a
                                                                    class, students dneuss the*
                                                                    thoughts and reactions and relate to
                                                                    real annuls.
                                                                    Vocabulary: abandoned net

                                                                     -A smatv to medwn-sired (thin)
                                                                      'ubberiund tar each tturJent
                                                                     ••One copy 01 the "Animal Entangle-
                                                                               Lsnguaoe Arts.
                                                                    Learning Skffls: AnaNto»

                                                                   08** of Waa    EPA 600-B-SO-004
                                                                   TKJ-556            Aiarrh l«n
            Fron  the poster Wetlands: Water,Wildlife,  Plants and People


                              Wise Wetland  Ways
     People use wetlands in  many ways, directly and indirectly.   In this activity, students  pretend to be
archaeologists of the future and work in groups to examine a collection of "artifacts." They then create a short story
cr skit to explain how the "artifacts" relate to human uses of wetlands by the "ancient" people of the 20th century."
     After completing this activity, students will be able to:
     1.  Describe at least five ways people benefit from wetlands.
     2.  Discuss actions people can take to be sure that this diversity of use does not damage or
         destroy wetlands for future generations.
                         Wetland "artifacts" (can be labeled with numbers)
         can of clam chowder -   ~          '-"      "    "  "binoculars
         commercial and sport fishing lure                    field guide to birds or wetland plants
         camera lens or film container                        book of nature poetry
         woven basket                                     empty soft drink can
         blueberry muffin                                   sport fishing or hunting license
         can of smoked salmon                             duck stamp
         paper and pencil for each group
         brochure from a hunting.or fishing-guide company that uses wetlands
Gather "artifacts." Label with numbers (optional).
1. Explain to students that this is the year 2100. They are fortunate that today a local archaeologist has left some
   artifacts from a study of the nearby (name a local) wetland for students to examine. Some artifacts were actually
   found in the wetland, and others were gathered during research on how people used wetlands  100 years ago.
   (The principal or a willing teacher or parent might want to role play the archaeologist.) Explain that students must
   handle each artifact carefully to try to figure out how the artifact is related to human use of the wetlands and how
   it got to the place where the archaeologist found it.
2. Divide the class into groups of three to five (depending on the number of students and artifacts). Their assignment
   is to create a story or skit, using their artifacts, that explains how their artifacts relate to human uses of wetlands
   by "ancient" 20th-century people. Set a time limit of 10 minutes or so for the groups to develop their presentation.
3. Each group should present their story or skit about how the wetlands were used to the class. On the chalkboard,
   make a list of all the uses of wetlands that are mentioned. Ask the class if they can think of other uses of wetlands
   by people. Discuss the uses in terms of coexistence of people and wetlands: How can people use the wetlands
   in ways that ensure that the wetlands and the life within them will continue to thrive? Which uses need to be
   moderated so that the uses can continue indefinitely? Which uses would have to be stopped to avoid wetland
   destruction? Which uses would have to be altered to minimize their effect on the wetland and the wildlife that
   lives there?  Is it possible for people and wetlands to coexist?
1. Which uses would still continue in the year 2100 if people had used the wetlands wisely?
2. Which artifacts would students find in the year 2200 (in another hundred years)?
3. Presuming that the students in the year 2100 are very conscientious about taking good care of wetlands, which
   artifacts would the students in the year 2200 likely not find?
1. Students can think about the kind of information they would want future generations to know about wetlands.
   What are some  important aspects of wetlands that they would  want to express, and how would they
   communicate these aspects to the people of the future? Ask students to identify items related to wetlands to
   include in a time capsule that will be opened 20 years from now.
2. Use items similar to those included in the time capsule to make a collage.
3. Visit a local wetland.  Take along resource books for identification of the plants and animals  that live in the

                                                                               March 1963
                     This pamphlet includes a brief selection of science demon-
                     stration projects related to drinking water for K-12 students.
                     The projects are organized-according;'to the following grade
                     categories: primary (K-4); middle/junior high (5-8); and
                     secondary (9-12). The divisions between  grade categories
                     are arbitrary. The projects are essentially  applicable to all
                     grade levels. By simply varying the vocabulary and expand-
                     ing or contracting the background and discussion sections,
                     each project can be made relevant to a specific grade level.

                     The general areas covered by the demonstration projects
                     include the chemical/physical aspects of water, contamina-
                     tion and treatment of drinking water, distribution and supply
                     of drinking water, and water conservation. While theprojects
                     presented are complete activities, teachers are encouraged to
                     expand the projects to meet the needs and goals of their
                     respective teaching situations.

                     The demonstration projects included in this pamphlet are
                     representative of many such projects developed by talented
                     professionals in the science, engineering, and. education
                     communities. The projects have been reprinted in whole or
                     in part with the permission of the appropriate publishers.
                     Reference and/or credit information is included with each
                     activity. In addition, a list of organizations that have devel-
                     oped or are developing projects related to drinking water are
                     included at the back of this document
                                                                  EPA 570/9-90-007
                     United States             Off ice of Water            April 1990
                     Environmental Protection     WH-550
<&EPA          Science
                     Pro'ects  "n   »
                          IrilxitnA*  lAf*%***M

           The Never Ending
              Cycle of Water
 Water is very abundant on Earth It circulates continu-
 ously- between the air, the ground, and plants and
 animals. This constant circulation of water is known as
 the water cycle. Water is carried through air where it
 eventually condenses into small droplets which form
 clouds. From the clouds, water falls to the Earth in the
 form of rain .or snow (precipitation). This water is
 absorbed into the ground or runs over the surface of the
 ground into rivers and lakes. Plants and animals use the
 water to live. Water then evaporates from soil, the
 leaves of plants, the lungs and skin of animals, and from
 the surface of puddles, streams, and lakes to the air.
 Woodland plants (e.g., violets, ferns, or mosses—gathered in
 backyards or available from nurseries)
 Light source or a sunny window sill
 Tight-fitting jar lid (or plastic wrap secured by rubber band
 or masking tape)


 1)   Place a one-inch layer of gravel on the bottom of
     the clear glass jar. Cover this layer with one of
     sphagnum or peat moss, followed by a layer of
     soil (see illustration at right).         -

 2)   Set woodland plant(s) into the soil mixture.

 3)   Water terrain lightly.

 4)   Cover glass jar tightly with lid (if available) or
     with plastic wrap secured by a rubber band or
                         masking tape and place
                         under or near a light

                         5)  Observe the glass jar
                         over several hours.


                        DWhat collected on the
                        sides of the glass jar? (con-
                        densed moisture)

                        2) Where did  the moisture
                        on the sides of the glass jar
                        come from?  (evaporated
                        water from plants)

                        3) What provided the en-
                        ergy for the  changes ob-
                        served in the water's form?
                        (the sun)
                                                    Source: Scitna Actmtia for Outdrtn
 To demonstrate that water moves in a continuous cycle.


 Large, wide-mouihed clear glass jar
 Sphagnum or peat moss*

"(available from hardware stores or nurseries)
                                                  Suggested Activities
Prior to conducting this activity, the teacher may wish
to more fully demonstrate the processes of precipita-
tion, evaporation, and condensation. In addition, a
discussion or demonstration of water in its three states
(solid, liquid, gas) might also be useful. Samples of such
experiments can be found in the source material noted

 Activity #1
 Background information adapted with permission front
 Willard J. Jaoobson and Abby B. Bergman. Science Activities for
 Children. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Int. 1983). p. 47.
 Activity adapted with permission from:
 Water Woards. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources Au-
 thority. 1983). pp. 2-4.
 •Water We Can't Live Without It." National Wildlife Week Educators'
 Guide. (Washington, DONational Wildlife Federation, MarchlS-24,
 1984). p. 7.
            Sotucc: National VHUHft Wok Uueatan' Cuidi
  How People Get Their Water


Nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface is water, yet less
than one percent can be used for drinking water. Water
moves in a continuous cycle between the air, the ground,
and  plants and animals (see previous activity). Most
water does not naturally exist in a pure form or in a form
that  is safe for people to drink. Consequently, water
must be cleaned prior  to consumption. Water utilities
provide such treatment before water is sent through
pipes to homes in the community.

The demand for water by people varies. The availabil-
ity of water also varies in different areas of the country.
Consequently, utilities store extra water in spaces known
as reservoirs. Water is usually contained in reservoirs
by a dam. Reservoirs help ensure that communities do
not run out of water at any given time regardless of the
communities' total water use.
 To illustrate how a reservoir works.
 Plastic box
 Spnty bottle
 Soil .
                                                                                      Sounx: Woltr Wutnt$
1)  Construct a model of a reservoir using a clean,
    clear plastic box (see illustration). Line the
    bottom of the box with small pebbles and then
    layer sand, soil, and leaves on top (sloping the
    material downward toward the edges of the

2)  Carefully  spray water on the four corners of the
    model until the soil mixture is saturated and the
    water has seeped through to the open area—the

1)  What  are  the sources of water for a reservoir?
    (precipitation in the form of rain and snow)

2)  How does water get into a reservoir? (It seeps over
    and through the soil above the reservoir.)

3)  What contains or holds water in a real reservoir?

4)  What kind of treatment  does water receive in a
    reservoir? (natural filtration through leaves, grass,
    and soil; also some settling occurs in the reservoir)

                                                                   Office of W&
 Activity #2
 To build a model of a water delivery system from source
 to user.

 Large piece of paper or cardboard
 Paper towel tubes
 Different sizes of pasta (linguini, spaghetti, manicotti)
 Reservoir built in Activity til (optional)

 1)  Using the  pasta and paper towel tubes, create a
    community pipe system (see illustration). Connect
    the "pipes" with glue and lay out on the large sheet
    of paper or cardboard.

 2)  Either use the reservoir constructed in the previous
    activity or draw one on the cardboard; also draw
    houses, schools, and other buildings that receive
    water from the delivery system.

Students should consider how water gets from reser-
voirs to distribution systems and to individual homes.
(The circumference of pipes decreases as the distribu-
tion system expands  into  the community. As water
travels through a distribution system, it is continuously
diverted down different pathways. These pathways
lead to individual homes and businesses.  The circum-
ference of a pipe determines the quantity of water that
can be contained in the pipe at any one time and deter-
mines,  in part,  the rate at which the water will travel
through the pipe. As the distribution system expands
to homes and businesses, the volume of water needed
per home or business represents only a portion of the
total volume leaving the treatment plant. Consequently,
smaller pipes are needed in these areas of the distribu-
tion system, whereas larger pipes are needed near the
treatment plant. Water treatment plants generally pump
water from the reservoir to holding or water towers.
The water flows by gravitational force from the water
tower and throughout the distribution system.)
 Activities adapted with permission from:

 Water Wizards. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources Au-
 thority, 1983). pp. 10-14.
                                   Sounx: W**r Watrdt
       Conserving Water for
               The Future


Water is very valuable to us. We all need approximately
2 liters of water each day. We can live several weeks
without food, but can only live several days without
water. Water makes up our body's blood (which is 83%-
water), transports bodily wastes, and helps us digest
our food. We get,most.of our body's daily requirement
of water from food. But water is a limited resource/
which means that there is only so much water on Earth
available for use. In order for water to be available when
needed, it must be conserved.

                                                                        Office of Water
                                     EPA 800^9^004
                                        March 1993
 To emphasize the need for water conservation.


 One 12 ounce clear glass
 Question and answer sheet for each student


1)  Explain to the students thatftiey are conducting an
    experiment that will test whatlt is like to not have
    a drink of water. Inform the students that they may
    not drink water the entire morning or afternoon
    preceding the conclusion of the activity.

2)  Place the glass of water on a desk in the front of the
    classroom to visually remind students of water.

3)  About one half-hour before lunch or the conclusion
    of the school day, provide students with  the
    following questions to answer individually or as a


1)  An average glass can hold 12 ounces of a liquid
    such as water. An average drip from a sink can
    waste 5 gallons of water per day or 240 ounces per
    day. How many glasses of water could be saved
    per day by fixing the leak? (Answer 20)

2)  An average bathtub uses 36 gallons of water while
    the average short shower uses only 25 gallons — a
    difference of 11 gallons or 1408 ounces. Approxi-
    mately how many glasses of water could be saved
    if a person took a short shower instead of a bath?
    (Answer:  117.3)

3)  Do you think that some glasses of water could be
    saved if people filled dishwashers or washing
    machines with partial rather than full loads? (No.
    Most  dishwashers and washers use the same
    amount of water, no matter if there is a full or
    partial load; in some models the cycle can  be
4)  What other conservation measures can you think
    of that would save glasses of water? (Answers, will

5)  How thirsty do you feel after not receiving water
    the entire morning or afternoon? (Answers will

6)  How do you think you would feel if you could only
    have several ounces  of  water  each day? (Very
    thirsty, sick, and eventually dead.)

Suggested Activities

Many other activities can teach students about water
conservation, including "water audits" of personal,
family, and even school-wide water use. A variation of
the "Water Use Analysis" project presented later in this
pamphlet may be  appropriate to demonstrate how
people use water differently. A discussion of how vari-
ous cultures (e.g., desert versus city dwellers) value
water as well as spend time and effort obtaining it might
also be useful.


Activity adapted with permission from:
Water and Water Conservation Curriculum.
Utilities Department), p. 197.
(Aurora, CO Aurora

                                                                       Office of Wm
                                     EPA 800-frSMi
                                        March t983
         How Substances are
          Measured in Water
We often find references to parts per million, parts per
billion',, and  even parts per trillion in our everyday
reading and news reports. What do they mean? Most of
us have difficulty imagining large numbers of objects.
How many stars can you see in the  clear night sky far
away from the smog and lights of the city? What does it
mean when we read that an insecticide has been found
in our  ground water at a concentration of 5: parts per
billion? Developing  an understanding of extremely
large and extremely small numbers  is very difficult.


To visualize the concept of extremely small numbers.


1 bottle of food coloring

1 medicine dropper

1 white egg carton (6 or 12 eggs) or sir  small clear

 . plastic cups

2 other containers to hold food coloring  and water


1)  Prior to  conducting the activity, ask students to
   .consider the following:

   a)  What is the largest number of things you can
       clearly visualize in your mind? [Most of us can
       handle 5,10, perhaps even  20 if we use all of
       our fingers and toes.]

   b)  CanyouvisualizeagroupoflOOpeople?[Many
       people think they can by describing a party or
       community meeting. If you try to visualize a
       group of 80 or 120 differently from the 100, it
       soon becomes apparent that our visualization
       is not that clear. The Rose Bowl full of people
       represents about 100,000. Trying to pick out
       just 1 individual in that crowd would be find-
       ing 1 in 100,000.]

   c)  Food coloring from the store is usually a 10%
       solution. What does 10% mean? [It means 10
        parts (by weight) of solid food coloring dye is
        dissolved in 100 parts (by weight) of solution.
        For example, 10 grams of dye dissolved in 90
        grams of water make a total of 100 grams of
        10% solution.]

 2)  Fxit some food coloring  (5 or  6 drops from the
    bottle) into one small container and some tap water
    into the other.

 3)  Use the medicine dropper to drop of 10
    percent food coloring (as it comes from the store)
    into the first container. [Since 10% means 10 parts
    of food coloring per 100 parts of solution, it is the
    same as 1 part food coloring in 10 parts of solution.]

 4)  Use the medicine dropper to add 9 drops of water
    to the first container. Stir well. What is the concen-
    tration of the food coloring? [You have 1 drop of the
    original food coloring in 10 drops of the new solu-
    tion. Thus the concentration of the new solution is
    1/10 of the original. The original was 1 part in 10,
    so the concentration of the food coloring is now I/
    10 of 1 part Jn 10. This is 1 part in 10 x 10, or 1 part
    of foodjcoloring in 100 parts of solution.]

 5)  Use the medicine dropper  to transfer 1 drop of
    solution to  the next container. Add 9 drops of
    water. Mix. You have again changed theconcentra-
    tion  by a factor of one-tenth.  What is 'the food
    coloring concentration in this container? [1 /10 of 1
    part in 100 is 1 part in 10 x 100, or 1 part in 1000 parts
    of solution.]

 6)  Transfer one drop of the 1  part in  1000 parts of
    solution into the next container. Add 9 drops of
    water. Mix.  What is the concentration? [1 part in
    10,000 parts of solution.]

 7)  Continue to dilute 1 drop of each solution by add-
    ing water as before to obtain 1 part in 100,000 and
    then 1 part in 1,000,000. Your final solution is one
    part per million.


 1)  In which cavity do you  first observe no visual
    evidence that food coloring is present? [This gener-
    ally occurs in the final container, which is 1  ppm of
    food  coloring.]

2)  Since you cannot see any color present, how do you
    know there is indeed food coloring present?

3)  Can you think of an experiment that you could do
    to prove there is food coloring present in each cup?

 4)  Which is more concentrated, one part per million  Materials
     or 200 parts per billion? [A billion is a thousand
     million. Therefore, 1 ppm is 1000 ppb. 1 ppm is
     more concentrated than 200 ppb.]
 Activity adapted with permission from:
 Chemicals in Society Participant's Guide. (Berkeley, CA: Chemical
 Education for Public Understanding Program, University of Califor-
 nia at Berkeley, 1989). pp. 5-6.
      Conserving the Nation's
           Water  Resources


 People require*an-arerage of 2 L of water per day to.
 sustain life. However, the average American uses about
 100 times more water than this every day at home. An
 average family of four in the United States might use
 about 900 L of water per day for the purposes identified
 in the table below.

  Approximate daily water use by a family of
                 four in the U.S.
Liters per Day
    Drinking and cooking
    Dishwasher (3 loads per day)
    Toilet (16 flushes per day)
    Bathing (4 baths or showers per day)
    Laundering clothes
    Watering houseplants
    Rinsing garbage into disposal unit
      Total dally use:
    (A reminder: 1 gallon - 3.8 L; 26.3 gallons - 100 L The total
    daily water use of 900 L is equal to about 237 gallons.)
                               Source Eortk TV Waltr Haul
To provide a real-life model of how much water a family
typically uses on a daily basis; to allow participants to
experience firsthand how much effort is required to
transport water; and to illustrate  that when people
desire, they can sharply reduce their water usage.
 A schoolyard or large room with a water source
 Two 122 L (32 gallon) trash cans
 Empty milk jugs and/or buckets (as many as possible)
 100 L of water
 A watch or clock with a second hand
 A meter stick (optional)

 The story begins:

 One cold January, the Smith family rent a house in the
 mountains for a ski vacation. The house, though old,
 has all the comforts of home — three bathrooms, a
 complete laundry room, dishwasher, and garbage dis-
 posal, plus a newly installed solar hot water heating
 system. Unfortunately, the weather gets so cold one
 night that a water main in town breaks, and the Smiths
 find out that the house will have no water service from
 the local utility for the entire week. What should they do
 — go back home or try to find another water supply?

 Mr-Smith learns from a neighbor that there is an unfro-
 zen spring 100 m from the house that could still be used
 for drinking water. Mrs. Smith, who is a mechanical
 engineer, discovers that if the municipal water line
 coming into the house were shut off, the water in the
 storage tank for the solar water heater could be routed
 directly into the plumbing system. The water system in
 the house will work as long as the storage tank is kept
 filled with water from the spring.

 Mr. and Mrs. Smith discuss the situation with their two
 children Alice (14) and Sam (12). The family decides to
 form a "family bucket brigade" from the spring to the
 house, fill the storage tank each day, and continue their
 vacation. The storage  tank can hold about 900 L of


 1)  Place the two trash cans 100 m apart (measure with
    a meter stick or the distance is equal to approxi-
    mately 150 paces for an average size adult).

2)  Place 100 L of water in one of the trash cans. This
    can will represent the spring.

3)  Select four students to represent the Smith family;
    equip each person with as many buckets and milk
    jugs as he/she can carry; and have students trans-
    fer the 100 L of water from the spring to the house
    (the house being represented by the second trash
    can located 100 m away).

 4)   Have students record the time when the Smith
     family begins  and finishes carrying the first 100 L
     of water. Students should then determine the total
     time that was required for the Smith family to
     transfer all of the water.

 5)   The Smiths may feel a little tired after transferring
     the 100 L of water. Thus far, they have only carried
     11 percent of  the water required  to fill the tank.
     They still have 800 L to go. To save water (since this
     is role playing), have the Smiths bring the same 100
     L back from the house to the spring rather than
     getting additional water out of the faucet being
     used.                           -

 6)   The Smiths should continue carrying the water
     back and forth until the 100 L of water has changed
     cans a total of nine times, and the Smiths have
     carried the equivalent of 900 L of water 100 m to the

 7)   Have students record the time  when the Smiths
     finish moving the entire 900 L of water from the
     spring to the house. Ask students the total amount
     of time (probably will be about 30 minutes) that
     was required to move the 900 L of water.

 The story continues:

 After carrying all of the water, the Smiths are too tired
 to ski very much. They come home early, have spaghetti
 for lunch, wash the dishes,  and launder their bucket
 brigade clothes (which got muddy at the spring). After
 eating dinner, washing more dishes and clothes, water-
 ing the houseplants, and taking long, hot showers, they
 go to bed.

 It is snowing too hard the next day to ski, so the Smiths
 stay in the house all day. When Mr. Smith tries to start
 the dishwasher after lunch, he discovers that the family
 is out of water! Sam and Alice groan and say that they .
 would rather be grounded until they are 21 than carry
 900 L of water to the house every day.  They point out
 that they haven't even been in the house a full 24 hours
 since previously carrying the water.


 Have students identify and defend water conservation
 measures. What steps could  the Smiths have taken to
conserve water and save their ski  vacation? (Some
conservation measures include washing clothes less
 frequently, running thedishwasher once per day, fixing
 any leaking plumbing fixtures, taking quick showers,
 not flushing toilets after every use, reducing the amount
 of water required for toilet flushing, etc.)


 Activity adapted with permission from:

 Jack E. Gartrell, Jr., Jane Crowder, and Jeffrey C Callister. Earth: The
 Water Plaruet. (Washington, DC: The National Science Teachers
 Association, 1989). pages 85-89.
       How Water Is Cleaned

Water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often  contains
impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water
may also contain  bacteria  and other microbiological
organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water
from surface sources must be "cleaned" before it can be
consumed by people. Water treatment plants  typically
clean water by taking it through the following proc-
esses: 1) aeration; 2) coagulation; 3) sedimentation; 4)
filtration; and 5) disinfection. Demonstration projects
for the first four processes are included below.


To demonstrate the procedures that municipal water
plants use to purify water for drinking.


SLof "swamp water" (or add 2 1/2 cups of dirt or mud to
 5 L of water)
One 2 L plastic soft drink bottle with its cap (or cork that
 fits tightly into the neck of the bottle)
Two 2 L plastic soft drink bottles — one bottle with the top
 removed and one bottle with the bottom removed

                                             Office of Water
                                                                                         tFA 8OO-B-93-004
                                                                                            March 1993
Source: tank TV Water Plants
One-15 L (or larger) beaker or
 another soft drink bottle

20 g of alum (potassium
 aluminum sulfate —
 approximately 2 tablespoons;
 availabk at a pharmacy)

Fine sand (about 800 ml in

Coarse sand (about 800 ml in

Small pebbles (about 400 ml in

A large (500 ml or larger)
 beaker or jar

A small (approximately 5 cm x 5 cm) piece of flexible nylon

A tablespoon

A rubber band

A clock with a second hand or a stopwatch


1)   Pour about 1.5 L of "swamp water" into a 2 L bottle.
    Have students describe the appearance and  smell
    of the water.

2)   Aeration is the addition of air to water.  It allows
    gases trapped in the water to escape and  adds
    oxygen to the water. Place the cap on the bottle and
    shake the water vigorously for 30 seconds. Con-
    tinue the aeration process by pouring the water
    into either one of the cut-off bottles, then pouring
    the water back and forth between the cut-off bottles
    10 times. Ask students to describe any changes
    they observe. Pour the aerated water into a bottle
    with its top cut off.

3)   Coagulation is the process by which dirt and other
    suspended solid particles are chemically "stuck to-
    gether" into floe so that they can be removed from
    water.  With the tablespoon, add 20 g of  alum
    crystals to the swamp water. Slowly stir the mixture
    for 5 minutes.

4)   Sedimentation is the process that occurs when
    gravity pulls the particles of floe (clumps of alum
    and sediment) to the bottom of the cylinder. Allow
    the water to stand undisturbed in the cylinder. Ask
    students to observe the water at 5 minute intervals
    for a total of 20 minutes and write their observa-
    tions with  respect to changes  in  the water's

    Construct a filter from the bottle with its bottom cut
    off as follows (see illustration at left):
    a)  Attach the nylon screen to the outside neck of
       the bottle with a rubber band. Turn the bottle
       upside down and pour a layer of pebbles into
       the bottle—the screen will prevent the pebbles
      ..from falling out of the neck of the bottle.

    b)  Pour the course sand on top of the pebbles.

    c)  Pour the fine sand on top of the course sand.

    d)  Clean the filter by slowly and carefully pouring
       through 5 L (or more) of clean tap water. Try not
       to disturb the top layer of sand as you pour the

6)  Filtration through a sand and pebble  filter re-
    moves most of the impurities remaining in water
    after coagulation and  sedimentation have taken
    place. After a large amount of sediment has settled
    on the bottom  of the bottle of swamp water, care-
    fully — without disturbing the sediment — pour
    the top two-thirds of the swamp water through the
    filter. Collect the filtered water in the beaker. Pour
    the remaining  (one-third bottle) of swamp water
    into the  collection bucket. Compare the treated
    and the untreated water. Ask  students whether
    treatment has changed the appearance and smell of
    the water. [Inform students that a water treatment
    plant would as a final step disinfect the water (e.g.,
    would add a disinfectant such as chlorine gas)  to
    kill any remaining disease-causing organisms prior
    to distributing  the water to homes. Therefore, the
    demonstration water is not safe to drink.]


1)  What was the  appearance of the swamp water?
    (Answers will vary, depending on the water source
    used.  Water from some sources may be smelly
    and /or muddy.)

2)  Does aeration change the appearance or smell  of
    water? Of the original water sample was smelly, the
    water should have less odor after aeration. Pouring
    the water back and forth allows some of the foul-
    smelling gases trapped to escape to the air of the
    room. Students may have observed small bubbles

                                                                       Office of Water
                                    fcPA 800-B-93-004
                                       March 1993
    suspended in the water and attached to the sides of  Suggested Activities
    the cylinder.)
3)  How did the sedimentation process effect the
    water's appearance? Did the appearance of the
    water vary at each 5 minute interval? (The rate of
    sedimentation depends on the water being used
    and the size of alum crystals added. Large particles
    will settle almost as soon as stirring stops. Even if
    the water contains very fine clay particles, visible
    dumps of floe should form and begin to settle out
    by the end of the 20-minute observation period.)

4)  How does .the treated water (following filtration)
    differ from  the  untreated swamp water? (After
    filtration, the treated swamp water should look
    much clearer than the untreated water. It probably
    will not be as clear as tap water, but the decrease in
    the amount of material suspended in the water
    should be quite obvious. The treated sample should
    have very little odor when compared to the starting
    supply of swamp water.)
    •   A field trip to a local water treatment plant.

    •   Have the State or a certified testing laboratory
       conduct analyses of the students' treated and
       untreated water for various contaminants.

Activity adapted with permission from:
Jack E. Gartrell, Jr, Jane Crowder, and Jeffrey C Callister. Earth: TV
Water Planet (Washington, DC: The National Science Teachers Asso-
ciation, 1989). pp. 97-101.
                                 How a  water treatment system works,
                                                             Source: TV Official Ciptain Hydro Water Cmsenatim WorHnok

                            racr    tr7NWO-O-a3-W4
   Concentrations of Chemical

          Pollutants in Water


 Concentrations of chemical pollutants in water are fre-
 quently expressed in units of "parts per million" (ppm)
 or  "parts per billion" (ppb). For example, chemical
 fertilizers contain nitrates, a chemical that can be dan-
 gerous to pregnant women even in quantities as small
 as  10 parts per  million. Trichloroethylene (TCE), a
 common industrial solvent, is more dangerous than
.nitrates and.when present in drinking water in quanti-
 fies as small as 5 parts per million carf cause a higher
 than normal  incidence of cancer among people who
 drink the water regularly.


 To  demonstrate the concept of ppm and ppb as these
 units are used to explain chemical contaminant concen-
 trations in  water; to explain how chemicals may be
 present  in very small amounts in water such that they
 cannot often be detected by sight, taste, or smell; though,
 still possibly posing as a threat to human health.


 Solid coffee stirrers or tooth picks
 Clean water for rinsing the dropper
 Medicine dropper
 Red food coloring (for "contamination")
 Set  of 9 clear containers
 Clean water for diluting
 White paper


 1)  Line up  the  containers side-by-side and place a
    piece of white paper under each one. From left to
    right, number the containers 1 to 9.
 2)  Place 10 drops of food coloring into container #1
    (food dye is already diluted 1:10).
3)  Place one drop of food coloring into container #2.
4)  Add 9 drops of clean water to container #2 and stir
    the solution. Rinse the dropper.
5)  Use the medicine dropper to transfer 1 drop of the
    solution from container #2 into container #3. Add
    9 drops of clean water to container #3 and stir the
    solution. Rinse the dropper.
6)  Transfer 1 drop of the solution from container #3 to
    container #4. Add 9 drops of clean water to con-
    tainer #4 and stir the solution. Rinse the dropper.
7)  Continue the same process until all 9 containers
    contain successively more dilute solutions.
8)  Complete the discussion questions below.


1)  The food coloring in container # 1 is a food coloring
    solution which is one part colorant per 10 parts liq-
    uid.  What is  the concentration for  each of the
    successive dilutions? (Have students use the table
    below; each dilution decreases by a factor of 10—
    1/10,1/100,1/1000, etc.)

2)  What is the concentration of the solution when the
    diluted solution first appeared colorless? (Usually
    occurs in container #6,1/1,000,000 or 1 ppm.)

3)  Do you think there is any of the colored solution
    present in the diluted solution even  though it is
    colorless? Explain. (Yes. The solution is still pres-
    ent but has been broken down into such small
    particles that it cannot be seen.)

4)  What would remain in  the containers if all the
    water were removed? (Residue from the  food

Suggested  Activities	

1)  Allow the water in the containers to evaporate and
    have students record their observations on what
    remains in the containers.

2)  Discuss chemical contamination of drinking water.
    Use the list of maximum contaminant levels (MCLs)
    on the following page for some toxic or carcino-
    genic chemicals in drinking water (as regulated by
Container No.
                                                                              Source: W*er Wisdom

                                                                      Office of Water
                                    tPA 800-B-93-004
                                       March 1993
     the US. Environmental Protection Agency). These  contaminated aquifers are quite costly.
     MCLs represent the maximum amount of a chemi-
     cal that can occur in drinking water without the  Objective
     water being dangerous to human health. [Note:
     Some of the MCLs listed are subject to revision by
     EPA shortly.)
Sub*tane« Concentration (ppb) Substance Concentration (ppb)
2.4-0 (herbicide)
 To illustrate how water flows through an aquifer, how
 ground water can become contaminated, and how diffi-
 cult it is to clean up contamination.
 Note: The above substances do not represent a complete list of
 regulated drinking water contaminants.   -           .

 3)   Explain the  relationship between ppm and ppb
     and the conversion of these units to milligrams and
     micrograms  per liter. For example: 1 ppm =  1000
     ppb; 1 ppm = 1 mg/1; and 1 ppb = 1 ug/L

 4)   Relate the previous conversions to the drinking
     water regulations. [MCLs are established in milli-
     grams per liter (mg/1)]. Convert the numbers in the
     above chart from ppb to mg/L


 Activity adapted with permission from:

 Water Wisdom. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources
 Authority, 1989). Exercise #16.
  Contamination of an Aquifer


Many communities obtain their drinking water from
underground sources called aquifers. Water suppliers
or utility officials drill wells through soil and rock into
aquifers for the groundwater contained therein. Unfor-
tunately, the groundwater can become contaminated
by harmful chemicals that percolate down through soil
and rock into the aquifer—and eventually into the well.
Groundwater contamination by chemicals is caused
mainly by industrial runoff and/or improper manage-
ment of chemicals, including  improper  disposal  of
household chemicals such as lawn care products and
cleaners. Such contamination can pose a significant
threat to human health. The measures that must  be
taken by  utilities to  either  protect or clean up
 6"x8" disposable aluminum cake pans or plastic boxes
 2 Ibs. non-water soluble plasticine modeling clay or floral clay
 3-4 Ibs. white aquarium gravel
 Pea gravel
 Small drinking straw
 Food coloring
 6 oz. paper cups (no larger)


 1)   Set up a model aquifer as shown in the diagram
     below. If a disposable aluminum baking pan is
     used, make a small hole in one end and insert a
     section of ia drinking straw to serve as the drain
     spout. Seal the hole around the straw with glue or
     clay. In addition, seal the clay layers of the model
    against the side of the container.
 2)   Place 10 drops of food coloring on the surface of the
     model near the highest end. This dye represents
    chemicals or others pollutants that have been spilled
    on the ground.
 3)  Slowly pour one 6-ounce cup of tap water on the
    aquarium gravel areas  as shown in the diagram.
    Collect the water as it runs out of the straw. Repeat
    this process starting with 6 ounces of tap water and
    continue the flushing process until all the  food
    coloring is washed out and the discharge water is
          Add food coloring and Dusk w3t*r her*.
Pm <;

                                                                      UJpctoj Water
    clear. (Collecting the water in white paper cups or
    in test tubes held up against a white background
    will enable students to detect faint coloration.)
 4)  Record the number of flushings required until an
    output with no visible color is reached (may re-
    quire up to ten flushes). [Note: 6 ounces of water in
    this model equals about 1 inch of rain.]

 Before the Activity
 1)  Where does the water go that falls on the surface of  Background
    an aquifer? How about any chemicals or other
    pollutants that fall on the ground? (Some chemi-
    cals/pollutants are washed away by rain, some
    become attached-to rocks and soil, and some'end
    up in the groundwater.)
 Activity adapted with permission from:
 Water Wisdom. (Boston, MA: Massachusetts Water Resources
 Authority, 1989). Exercise #11.
                                                          Water Use Analysis
2)  What things might influence the time needed to
    flush an aquifer clean? (Depth and volume of the
    water table, type of underlying rockand soil, nature
    and concentration of the pollutant.)

After the Activity
1)  After flushing, is the water in the model aquifer
    completely free of food  coloring? (Probably not;
    trace amounts may remain.)

2)  Estimate how much contamination remains in the
    model aquifer. (Refer to previous exercise.)

3)  What keeps  the chemical contamination in the
    demonstration from reaching the lower levels of
    the model aquifer? (The clay layer.)

4)  What are some of the problems that might result
    from a major chemical spill near a watershed area?
    (Answers will vary.)

5)  What steps could be taken to avoid damage to an
    aquifer? (Answers will vary.)

Suggested Activities

1)  Discuss the need for proper disposal of hazardous
    industrial wastes and harmful household chemi-
    cals, including used motor oil.

2)  Simulate nitrate pollution due to fertilizer runoff.
    Pollute the aquifer with a small amount of soluble
    nitrate and perform a standard nitrate test after
    each  successive flushing (be sure to wear safety
 Although household and other municipal water use
 accounts for only about 9 percent of total water use in
.the United States, delivering adequate quantities of
 water of sufficient quality for this purpose is becoming
 increasingly expensive for individuals and communi-
 ties. It would, therefore, be useful for individuals and
 communities to employ conservation measures when
 using water.


 To demonstrate the quantities of water that an average
 family uses on a daily basis.
              . 's •

 1)  Ask students to keep a diary of water use in their
    homes for three days. Students should make a
    chart similar to the one listed on the following
    page, adding any appropriate activities that are not
 2)  Ask students to review the table of average water
    volumes required for typical activities and then
    answer  the  following  questions using the data
    from their three-day water use diary.
    a) Estimate the total amount of water your family
       used in the three days. Give your answer in
    b) On average, how much  water did each  family
       member use during the  three days? Give your
       answer in liters per person per three days.
    c) On average, how much water was used per
       family member each day? Give your answer in
       liters per person per day.
    d) Compare the  daily volume of water used per
       person in your household (Answer c)  to the
       average daily water volume used per person in
       the United States  (325 L per person per day).
       What reasons can you offer to explain any

                                                      Office o] Water
                             March 1993
Ask students to identify ways in which their families  Activity adapted with penniuion from
f Average water volumes required for typical
p Use

|l Tub bath
^ Shower (per mjn)
f^ Washing machine
L, Low setting
J"; High setting
>-'- ' Dish washing
>: By hand
' , By machine
p Toilet flushing
Volume of Water
(in liters and gallons)
13QL (35 gal)
19 L (5 gal)
72 L (19 gal)
170L (45 gal)
40 L (10 gal) 1
46 L (12 gal) I
11 L (3 gal) f
                    faprlMtd wth paatuloD limn Onotry n ik> Qmnaaiity. C \9U, Anrion Chtmicil Sadtty
Data Table
Number of persons in family
Number of baths
Number of showers
Length of each in minutes
Number of washing machine loads
Low setting
High setting
Dish washing
Number of times by hand
Number of times by dishwasher
Number of toilet flushes
Other uses and number of each:
Making juice and coffee
1 23

. JUprMtd wtth pcnnbtlon from i^nttry h At Ganrandfy. e 1588. Amtrian Chtntfci] SodMy

                What are Blue Thumbs?
                   Blue Thumbs symbolize the need
               to take better care of our water sup-
          plies. A Blue Tluimb encourages the three
         basic actions we must take: conserve water,
protect it from pollution, and pet involved in drinking
wntcr issues in our local communities. Each commu-
nity's emphasis on the three Blue Thumb basics will
differ according to local conditions and issues.

Why do we need Blue Thumbs?
   More than 300 billion gallons of water a day are
used in die U.S. About 250 million people are using the
same water resources (hat four million people did  200
years ago. And, pollutants are pouring into our water
resources at a rate of about 500,000 tons a day. That's
just industrial waste.  Experts estimate that non-point
pollution, that's agricultural and urban runoff as well as
residential drips and drabs of pollution, threatens our
water resources  more than industry.

Where can we use our Blue Thumbs
to make an impact?

   Use your Blue Thumb by doing something every
day that protects water sources, conserves our Finished
water supplies, or affects decisions about drinking
water in our communities. Use it at home, at work,
at school, in any public place. We have the opportunity
to make a water decision every time we reach out to
turn on tlie tap to take a shower, walk by a dripping
faucet at work, see a business run-
ning its sprinklers on a rainy
day, buy recycled paper prod-
ucts, or read about a public
meeting on a kxral land use.
There are many  opportunities
each day to practice the
Blue Thumb basics.
                                                             National Drinking Water Week Headquarters
                                                             American Water Works Association
                                                             6666 West Quincy Avenue
                                                             Denver, Colorado 80235

   Americans have the safest drinking water supplies  '
in the world — so safe that most of us never think
about it. It takes a unique network of people dedicated
to safe drinking water to ensure adequate supplies for
all. As our population grows into the next century, we
will use increasing amounts of this natural resource.
And, the potential for contamination of our water
sources continues to grow.

   There is much that individual citizens can do to
pitch in and help...  to use their 'Blue Thumbs' to con-
serve, protect, and  influence drinking water decisions.
Tliis brochure describes actions which you can take to
aflcct the quality and quantity of your community
drinking water.
                   begin by finding out where your
              \  drinking water comes from. If you
              ;  receive public water, it is captured
              '   and then treated from cither surface
               water (lakes, rivers, streams, or reser-
               voirs) or groundwatcr (underground
aquifers) or some combination of the two. Forty-eight
million people in die U.S. receive their drinking water
from private or household wells.
   Ijeam what activities could cont-
aminate your water. Many activi-
ties can affect your water quality,
whether your water comes from a
public supply or a private well. The
most important of these arc:
 • Expanding or building new industrial, residential, or
  commercial arras. Routine road maintenance, such as
  repaying or deicing during winter months.
 • Pesticides or fertilizers, used in any commercial
  or residential areas.
 • Household waste dumped at landfills, or in   •
  your backyard.
 • Underground storage tanks or drains with harmful
  substances, such as those at gasoline stations or
  on turns.
              I     Learn how to use the right tools. Com-
              •  munitics actually have'quite a bit of power
                 over how land is used, how buildings arc
               built, and how health standards are met.
               There are several tools you can use to influ-
    ence these decisions.

    D Pay close attention to local ordinances regulating activi-
       ties that can affect water quality; and those Uui set lim-
       its on population density and regulate development.

    O Support standards that ensure structures (such as under-
       ground tanks) will not affect water quality. Support
       standards that ensure the best management practices
       are used for sqme activities, for example, pesticide
       applications or feedlot operations.

    D Get involved in volunteer water monitoring programs,
       clean-up activities, or household hazardous waste
       collection programs.

    D Call your local water supplier. If you arc concerned with
       water quality or changes in taste and odor, call and ask
       to speak with an individual involved in water quality or
       treatment operations.
D Support wellhead protection programs if your source
  of drinking water is groundwatcr. There are also water-
  shed protection programs for surface waters such as
  lakes, rivers, or springs.
D Test private wells. There are more than 13 million pri-
  vate wells in the United States. These wells are not regu-
  lated by the government and testing is up to the
  individual owner. Use a certified laboratory and if Uic
  test shows the presence of nitrate (over 10 pans per
  million), there's cause for concern. Talk with your local
  public health department or agricultural extension
  agent to find ways to change some of the practices
  which can affect your private well.
                   Get involved in the long-term protection
                of your water supply.

                D Take note of new construction. Check
                   the local newspaper for articles about
                   new development of industry.

D Attend local planning hearings or zoning appeals on
  development or industrial projects that could possibly
  affect your water. Ask questions about how your water
  source will be affected and protected.

D Support plans to improve your community water system,
  sewage system, or waste disposal landfills. Ask local officials
  whether your town's budget does or should contain appro-
  priations for these projects.
  D Join any local citizen's advisory groups which serve
    planning or utility commissions or your local chapter
    of groups like the League of Women Voters.
                                                             Source US Environmental Protection Agency

           BLUE THUMB
3 l^'/^,'*-'-^ , ,~- v >*.;*'• V •-^•IV ^ •^•.IJAA
                                                                                     Office ofWater
                                                                                              March 1993
      Here are 20 quick questions to find out if you
   know how to give drinking water a hand.
      Mark the following true or false and compare your
   a'nswers with those on the back of~ihis
   INUC r*u.3t  **
   D D   1 • Installing a low-flow toilet can save a
           family of four more than 45 gallons of water
           a day.

   D D   2. More than 75 percent of the water in
          the United States is located underground.

   D D  \J. Reading the labels on common
           household products won't  tell you what
           products are harmful  to water.

   D D   4. Americans improperly dispose of more
          oil in a year than the  Exxon Valdez spilled.

   D D   I) • Even when a recipe calls for using warn'
          or hot water, you should draw cold water
           from the tap and heat it on the stove or in
          the microwave.
    D D
    1  F
6.  n
s safe to drink water directly from
          remote streams.
   D D   / . There are ways to landscape that use
          between 30 - 80 percent less water than
          traditional landscaping.

   D D  O. If you have your own well, you can be
          sure your water is safe.

   D D  /'. You can drink more than 4.000 eight-
          ounce glasses of tap water for the same cost
          as a six-pack of soda pop.
                                              D D
                                              T  F
                                              D D
                                              T  F
                                              D D
                                              D D
                                              T  F
                                              D D
                                              T  F
                                                10. Common outdoor bug and weed killers
                                                can contaminate underground water or end
                                               .up in your local river or lake.  _

                                                1 1 . The quality of U.S. drinking water is
                                                not regulated by the federal government for
                                              D  D
                                              T  F
                                        D D
                                         T  F
                                              D  D
                                              T  F
                                              T  f
                                              D  D
                                              T  F
                                                        D D
    . Two-thirds of the water you use at
home you use in the bathroom.

1 J. Trash and debris around a lake won't
affect water quality.

14. It's better for water if you dry out
leftover household products such as furniture
polish, car wax, or latex paint, before
disposing of them.

15. More than 800,000 new water wells are
drilled  each year for domestic, commercial.
and industrial use.

10. Letting the  water run while you brush
your teeth or shave is water wise.

1 /. New water sources are being
discovered even- day.

lo. An abandoned well can be left
unsealed without jeopardizing the ground-
water source.

I;/. You can  ignore a  leaky faucet at work
or at school...  it's only worth saving water at

20. You can  influence decisions your
community makes on drinking water.


                                                                                        Office of Wm
                                                                                                   EPA 800-B-a«X>4

3.    False.
6.    False.

7.    True.

8.    False.
9.   True.

10.  .True.

11.  False.

12.  True.

13.  False.
14.  True.
That's 1,350 gallons a month!

However, 50 percent of U.S. drinking
water is from surface sources.
Don't buy products that say
"poisonous, toxic, corrosive," etc.
Heat can dissolve lead from pipes and
solder into your water.  New houses
with lead-free solder are not as likely
to have lead problems.

Giardiasis can be caused by animal
wastes in remote untreated streams.

It's called Xeriscape™.

Contaminants can seep through the
ground — have your well  tested for
contaminants by your local Health

In some  cities, the number of glasses
can go as high as  15,000.

They can seep into the water under
ground or rain can wash them into
surface water.

The U.S. government regulates quality
and currently has standards for more
than 80 contaminants.

Showers and toilets are the major
        Even though some landfills have a
        protective lining, leakage can occur
        and contaminate groundwater.
 15-  True.   Many are drilled to monitor water
              quality in aquifers and in areas around
              dump sites.
 16.  False.   It wastes water.

 17.  False.   We have identified or are using most
              water sources in the  U.S.
 18.  False.   All unused wells should be capped.
              Open wells can provide a route for
              contaminants to reach aquifers.

 19.  False.   It's smart to save water no matter
              where you are.

 20.  True.   Call your water utility company, speak
              up at public meetings, write a letter to
              your City Council — you can
              affect decisions!
O American Water Works Association

Permission is granted 10 (he media and the following
organizations and their members to reprint the Blue Thumb
Quiz in whole or in part. American Water Work.1; Association.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. American Ground Water
Trust. U.S. Department of Agriculture Extension Sen-ice.
The League of Women Voters. Water Education Foundation.
National Geographic Society. Association of State Drinking
Water Administrators. National Association of Water Companies.
Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, and the American
Library Association.
National  Drinking Water  Week Headquarters.  6666  West Quincy  Ave..  Denver. Colorado II 0 2 J 5

                                                                          Office'of Water


                            STUDENT ACTIVITY  SHEETS
                            FOR  DRINKING  WATER  PROJECTS
 How  Clean  f>: Cic-sn?
                           United States
                           Environmental Protection
  Office of Water (WH-550)
  Washington DC 20460
EPA 810/F-92-003
July 1992
 As recently as 20 yearsago, the standards for "clean
 based tin aesthetic factors such as taste, odor and color.
 Today, we know that there are many things which we can't
 taste, smell or see that can still be harmful to  us. For this
 reason, standards for what is "safe" or "clean" have been set
 by the government. This activity is designed to allow
 students to experience how  difficult it is to "clean" an
 aquifer once it has become polluted by simulating hazardous
 material  accidents  which contaminate their aquifers
 Students will investigate how pollutants contaminate ground
 water by using a simple model of an aquifer.
 General  Procedures
 1. Each group will need a large cellulose household sponge,
 3 -16 oz. clear plastic cups, a paper or foam dinner plate
 and a tray or bucket to collect water squeezed from their
 sponges. Make several copies of the  Student Activity Sheet
 on the reverse side of this sheet The  class will also need the
 following three liquids to represent the pollutants in the
 different accident scenarios for each Group:
  Group 1    1 ounce of Liquid soap
  Group 2    1 ounce of  Salad oil (If  small graduated
           cylinders are available use 20 mL of oil)
  Group 3    1 ounce of Gelatin (dissolve a package in hot
           water just before class)
  Group 4    1 ounce of an equal mixture of soap, oil and
 2. Before class pour each "pollutant" in a separate small
 paper cup. Locate each group's materials near its work
 station or let students collect materials and take them to their
 work stations.
 3. Divide the class into four random  groups, each with four
 or five students. If more groups are needed, make extras of
 groups  1 and 3, to minimize clean up problems. Pass out
 the Student Activity Sheets to each group and direct then to
begin collecting the materials as described in Step 1 of the
 activity. Those not directly involved in squeezing sponges
should be assigned duties such as predicting  how many
 rinses it will take for the sponges will become clean,
emptying the cups between squeezes, recording  the number
of squeezes, deciding when their group's sponge is clean,
and whether it would be safe to drink the water that has
been squeezed from the sponge.
4. After the students have finished the preparations in Step
1. read over the introduction on the Student Activity Sheet
as a class. Be sure each group understands that the mixture
in the small paper cup represents a "pollutant" released in
the accident described for each group on their Activity
5. Each group should repeat Steps 3 - 6 on their Activity
Sheet until they either decide that the sponge is clean^or
estimate how long it would take to clean the sponge or judge
whether the sponge can be cleaned at all. If they haven't
cleaned the sponge within 10 minutes, it may be best to let
them make an estimate.
(NOTE: If possible, provide Group 2 with graduated
cylinders. Have them pour each cup of rinse water into the
cylinder and try to measure the volume of the oil layer in
each rinse after the oil separates out)
6. After all groups have recorded the number of rinses
(actual or estimated) needed to clean the sponge, have them
clean up their work stations and return their materials.
Have each group report their results to the rest of the class.
As they give their report, ask the following questions:
  1. Could they get the water clean?
  2. Describe how easy or difficult it was to remove the
     pollutant from the sponge. Once the sponge was
     contaminated with 1 ounces of a pollutant, how many
     more ounces of water  were needed to clean the
  3.1f Group 2 used graduated cylinders, ask them how
     much oil was recovered from the sponge. Will all of
     die oil ever come out of the sponge?
  4. How could they tell it was clean? If they cannot see any
     pollutant, does that mean it's not mere?
  5. What reasons can the class give as to why some
     pollutants might be easier to clean up than others?
  6. For group 4, which pollutant in  their mixture would
     clean up first, based on what the other groups found?

                                                                                Office of Water

                                                        STUDENT  ACTlWfy
I'll     r  s~**     r
kJc-an ;•• <^ica?v
 In comparison with rivers or streams, water in the ground
 moves very slowly and very calmly in rivers that are very
 wide - sometimes more than one hundred miles wide. These
 slow underground rivers are called aquifers. Many of us get
 our drinking water from aquifers. When a pollutant is
 spilled on the ground, it slowly seeps down and can get into
 an aquifer, making our water unsafe to drink. When our
 aquifer gets polluted, we need to get answers to many
 difficult questions  like how toxic are the pollutants?, how
 fast are the pollutants moving in the aquifer?, and how
 difficult are they to remove from the aquifer?
 In this activity, the class is divided into at least 4 groups.
 Each group will  experiment with  a different  kind of
 pollutant to find out how  difficult it is  to remove the
 pollutant from a sponge. Aquifers are not really spongy, but
 we can still use a  sponge to  give us some idea of what
 happens when an aquifer gets contaminated.
 Group  1  will use soap as its pollutant In this case, the
 ground  is contaminated when a tanker truck gets into an
 accident on the highway and spills the pollutant on the side
 of the road. The soap is  a lot like real pollutants which
 dissolve in water but are not hazardous or toxic.
 Group  2. will use salad  as its pollutant Again, a truck
 accident has caused the spill as for Group 1 's pollutant The
 oil is a lot like gasoline which is hazardous and toxic, but
 does not mix well with water.
 Group  3 will use  gelatin as  its pollutant This time the
 pollutant has leaked into the ground from a large old and
 rusty underground tank where it has been stored for years.
The gelatin is a lot like pesticides which dissolve in water
and are toxic.
 Group 4 will have the worst  troubles. An explosion has
occurred at a major chemical plant, and all three types of
pollutants - soap, oil and gelatin - have been spilled onto the
You will investigate how pollutants contaminate an aquifer
by using a sponge as a simple model of an aquifer.
 General  Procedures
 1. One student in  each group should pre-moisten their
                                                 sponge by soaking it in water, then squeezing it until it is
                                                 just moist to touch. Other students in each group should be
                                                 sure they have the following items at their woik station:
                                                        One large cup of clean water
                                                        Two empty large cups
                                                        Tray or bucket for collecting rinse water
                                                        One paper or plastic dinner plate
                                                        Small cup containing a "pollutant"
                                                 After these materials have been collected, wait for the
                                                 teacher to read over the Introduction with the class.
                                                 2. Place the sponge on the plate and pour the liquid
                                                 "pollutant" in the small  cup onto the sponge, letting the
                                                 sponge soak up as much pollutant as possible.
                                                 3. SLOWLY pour clean water onto sponge, letting it soak in
                                                 until the sponge is full. Pour back into the cup any-excess
                                                 water on the plate. You will need to know  how many
                                                 cupfuls of water are being used to rinse the sponge, so keep.
                                                 track of all the water vou use.
                                                4. Lift the sponge and squeeze it out completely, catching
                                                 the water in an empty large cup.
                                                5. Pour more water onto the sponge, letting it soak in.
                                                 6. Squeeze out the sponge again, this time using the other
                                                empty large cup to catch  the water squeezed from the*
                                                7. Compare the two cups of polluted water. Decide which
                                                cup seems to have the most polluted water, then empty this
                                                cup. Set aside the cup containing the water which looks fess
                                                8. Repeat Steps 5,6 and 7 each time comparing the water in
                                                the two cups to decide whether the water is getting cleaner
                                                each time the polluted sponge is rinsed out Count the
                                                number of times the sponge is rinsed.
                                                9. Estimate to the nearest 1/4 cup, how many cupfuls of
                                                water were used  to rinse the sponge. Convert to ounces
                                                (One cupful equals 16 ounces). How much more rinsing • if
                                                any - must be done  before the water squeezed from the
                                                sponge would be "safe" to drink?
                                                10. After you have finished the experiment return materials
                                                to the proper place, then get ready to report your results to
                                                the class.
                                                                            7   (discard)

                                                                             Office of Water

                                                                  ~EPA 800-B-9&O04
                                                                     March 1993
 Model of ground  voter vulnerability
 There art many factors affecting the vulnerability of a
 water supply, but we will only  look at the five factors
 described in Table 1. A value of 1 means it is harder for
 rain water (and pollutants) to reach the supply, while a
 value of 3 means it is easier. It may be easy to see that the
 greater the depth to water, the longer it will take rain water
 to reach the supply. But how  does a steep slope make the
 area less vulnerable? Figure 1 shows how some of these
 factors affect the vulnerability of various aquifers.
                      Table 2
Directions: Use Table 1 to find out how many points
should be given for each of the five factors.
For example. Table 1 tells you that if die depth to water
is less than 15 ft you should give 3 points for this factor
in Quadrant 1. Values from Table 1 may be averaged.
Fill in the rest of the blanks for each factor, then add them
up to find the vulnerability of each quadrant -
  Quadrant 1
       Depth to water
       Yearly rainfall
       Aquifer type
       Soil type
       Lav of land
                  VULNERABILITY SCORE
  Quadrant 2
       Depth to water
       Yearly rainfall
      ; Aquifer type
       Soil type
       Lav of land
 Gentle slooc
               '  VULNERABILITY SCORE
  Quadrant 3
       Depth to water
       Yearly rainfall
       Aquifer type
       Soil type
       Lav of land
 Roll in P hills
                  VULNERABILITY SCORE
  Quadrant 4
       Depth to water
       Yearly rainfall
       Aquifer type
       Soil type
       Lav of land
 Steen hilk
                  VULNERABILITY" SCORE
How to use  the model
You can get a rough idea of the vulnerability of the
underlying aquifer in each of Priceford's four quadrants
by using these five factors to give each quadrant a "score"
on how easy it would be for a pollutant to pass through
the ground to contaminate the aquifer.
                            Follow the instructions for filling out Table 2. Then use
                            your results along with the map of ihe Priceford area to
                            answer the questions at  the bottom of the page. Give
                            your  reasons for each answer!
1. Discuss how Factors 2-5 described in Table 1 affect the
vulnerability of water supplies at Points B. C and D in
Figure 1. If three towns get their water supplies at Points
B, C and D. which supply would be the most vulnerable?
The least vulnerable?
2. Use Table 3 below to interpret the vulnerability scores
you calculated in Table 2. Which town's water supply
would be most likely to be contaminated if a larger tanker
truck full of a toxic chemical spilled its contents during a
traffic accident on the nearest road?
3. Compare the vulnerability values you calculated in the
four towns in the above map to Points A, B, C and D in
Figure 1. Which  of these towns is  most likely to be .
located at which of these Points?
4. How would one town's pollutants affect the other
town's supplies? If a wood preserving chemical is found
in Small town's water, but not in Riverville's. where is the
most likely area where the source of contamination might
be found?
. ' 5 -.
very low
. .: y-JZm&i:-,.^
VuinerablHty. Score
7.5 " . . -4^0^/ ' :"t 12.5
1 '••'•'•#.£ I
— 1 	 « i '
Relative Vulnerability
very high

                                                                           Office of Water
                                                                          March 19»3


 Resource Management • Protecting your Drinking Water
In almost any town, a large variety of chemicals and
wastes are used or disposed of in day-to-day life. We are
now learning that  if things  like gasoline, road salt.
pesticides or sewage are not used or discarded wisely.
they can contaminate a town's water supply.
We are also learning that some sources of water are easier
to contaminate than other sources. Whether or not your
town's supply is vulnerable to contamination depends
onrmany different factors. These factors may add together
to protect the supply, or to leave it very vulnerable to
To estimate the vulnerability of the ground water flowing
under an area of land, a hydrogeologist measures several
factors which affect  how quickly rain water moves
through the ground in that area. Pollutants will usually
move in the same way as rain water.
Once you know something about each of these factors.
you will be able to decide what must be done to be sure
your drinking water will always be safe.
In this activity, you will use a simple mathematical model
of ground -water vulnerability to estimate the vulnerability
of a small town's water supply.
Table 1
Estimated value of five factors affecting
groundwater vulnerability
1. Yearly rainfall
(total amount of rain
that falls in one year)
2. Depth to water
(vertical depth from
surface to aquifer)
3. Aquifer type ;
aquifer passes through)
4. Soil type^£';
(Main type of soil and
rock above the aquifer)
5. Lay of the land
The general slope of
surface of the land)
~. if more than 40 in.
«. if from 15 to 40 in.
_ if less than 15 in.
_. if less than 10 ft.
~ if from 10 to 75 ft
— if greater than 75 ft
_ if sand or gravel
_ if limestone
,; ..if bedrock
: ' • '; -.'if sand or gravel
: •• M. if limestone
• :. u. if loam or sflt
'— if clay or shale
-if flat
~ if gently rolling hflls
_ if steep hUlsAnountains


Figure  1.  Aquifers form where water-carrying layers  of  earth.
like sand, cover layers of shale or clay which do not allow water to
pass through. If the layer forming the aquifer is 'confined*  above
by shale or clay, the aquifer is less  vulnerable to contamination.
  SSConfining layers of shale

                                                                                Office of Water
                                       EPA 800-8-33-004
                                      	March 1HB3
Station/student 2 • collect plastic soap bottles, tubing (1/2"
I.D. and 1/2" O.D.). foam strips, and syringe or other
aspirator. Force foam up about one inch into each of the
large (1/2" I.D.) pieces of tubing for use in step 5.
Station/student 3 • collect sand, gravel, felt sheet and
straws. Soak felt sheet in water, wring out, then roll the
sheet into a tight coil about 3/4" thick and 20" long. Use in
step 6.
Station/student 4 - First help Student 1  with assembly
steps 1 to 4, then get food coloring, water supply, cups.
Student 5 - Help with model assembly in steps 1 to 9.
Once the model is assembled, and water is flowing
through the sand, into the river valley  and out of the
collector tube, do the activities described on back.
I. Which wells have the most water in them? Raise the
water supply bottles as high as possible without pulling
out the tubing • what happens to the water level in each of
the wells and to the amount of water coming out of the
collector tube? Next, lower the bottles and observe what
happens. How does the height of the water supply relate
to water flow rate?
2. Pour out half of the water from the supply bottles, mark
the water level, then pour a 4 ounce cupful of water into
each bottle. Every few minutes,  as the water reaches the
mark.ipour in another cupful of water. Also measure the
total amount of water added during the time periods before
the dye appears in water from the collector tube and after
the dye is no longer visible  in water from this tube.
3. At the same time, place four drops o;T food coloring on
die sand at Point A shown in the assembly diagram for
Steps / - 9. Ou the plexiglass, mark the point with a water
soluble marker. Every two minutes, make a mark on the
plexiglass at the front edge of the dye as it coves through
ihe sand. Measure the distance between the marks and
record the distance moved per unit time.
4. Ask  your teacher to show you how to do  a 10-tube
series of 1:10 dilutions of food color in water. Number
each tube 1 to 10. Use this series as a guide for estimating
the concentration of dye  in the water coming out of the
collector tube. After the dye you added in Step 3 above
begins to appear in the water from the collection tube,
collect a sample in a test tube every two minutes. Compare
the color of this sample  with each tube in the dilution
series and record the number of the tube which is nearest
in color of your sample. This will be the concentration of
your sample.
5. Graph your data, plotting  time on the x-axis and dye
movementjon the y-axis. Also plot time vs. concentration
after dye appears in water coming out of the collector tube.
What does your data tell you about how long it takes for
ground water to get clean after being contaminated?
Clean  Up
First, empty any water in the water supply bottles into the
model and  remove bottles and tubing. Then, place screen
over a bucket and flush sand and gravel onto screen • use
a screen with a mesh large enough to allow sand to sift
through but small enough to  catch the gravel. Rinse our
foam strips and felt roll.
 Sun with strip of duct tape about 2*
 longer than panel Lay tape on table :
(tkky side up. Place first panel on tape
  with 1/2" overuoxUsing ruler as
 '.: guide, lower edge of second,-:'. ;-r.;•..£
    panel onto upe about 3/4" ....;;...  ^, -...".
    ; from edge of Snt panel   !•... .-;:
                                                                  Once pud* ue
                                                                  aliened. lay second
                                                                 panel flat and press.
                                                                    t good seal
                               Use mother strip of upe on
                                    top surfaceo, to
                                   .Teouorce Che
                                      v joint. :•••
                                                                       Ccmrr the joined ptnrtt oo a Curd' • •• •_•..
                                                                   snip of upe long coverthe base and
                                                                    two sides of the panels. Matea food seal   .
                                            TDttfteboxandponrm'a'pea -":
                                            gravel layer sloping from about
                                           a quarter of the way up one side
                                          and down to the bottom on (he other.
                                          Ron felt sheet into a 3/4" thick rope
                                          ' long enough to completely cover
                                          the gravel Tap down with a ruler, '•'-
                                                          tight agaum
              '. Cut two 10" strips of foam and stuff into
              *-^l/F- ID tubing.- lift me panels"
              f upright, place foam straps cetwHr:'"'
               panels, adhesive side out, and puD
               me endi of me tape up
               to cover  ":. .
 Q Push • long straw between, felt and panel.
    down into ID (ravel leaving the upper end
    of straw near the top of dw box.   •

 Q Pour in masomyund sad nuke •TiDeytb
    uncover the bole in the panel. Cover send
    wim layer of gravel aod pack slightly B
    help bold the vaDey's shape. Attach
    1/2* ID tubing to bonk, mvm
    and fiD with water.
                        IDPOQCD IOJOL IDBO Caioo IDA cm uvcx
                          k battom of vaSey. men flow
                           oat of toil tube. Have a CBW
                              'paper cups *> eoDect
                                  this flow.  . . '

 Building a Model Aquifer
                                                                            Office of Voter

                                      EPA 800-8-93-004
                                         March 1993


'Background  -             ~r.   ~
 Although nearly half of all Americans get their drinking
 water from wells, many people have  never  heard of
 ground water. Use of ground water supplies is increasing
 at twice the rate of surface supplies, and the trend is
 expected to continue. Until the late 1970's, it was widely
 believed  that  ground water was protected  from
 contamination by the natural filtering effect of the many
 layers of soil, sand, gravel and rocks. We now know that
 pollutants can travel through all these layers. Incidents of
 serious contamination have been reported in every state in
 The student will use a model of an aquifer to describe how
 ground water flows through an aquifer, how ground water
 can become contaminated, and why it is so difficult to
 clean contaminated ground water.
 Teacher  Suggestions
This model can be a very flexible tool which will allow
students to simply study groundwater flow, look at how
well placement affects yield, or examine how ground
water is vulnerable to contamination.
 Depending on resources, the teacher may lead groups of
 four or five students in building their own models is
 described below, or the teacher may build a single, larger
 (the longer the better) version  for demonstration. If
 students are able to make their own models, then it would
 create less traffic and crowding if all materials for students
 1 - 4 are placed at different stations around die room. Then
 it will be easier for each group to pick up what they need
 and take it back to their own work area.
 Begin by orienting the students to how the earth looks
 below the surface, demonstrating a working model and
 relating its pans to a diagram of the hydrogeologic cycle.
 Using unassembled materials, go over the basic assembly
 plan illustrated in Steps 1 - 9 on the back, briefly showing
 students how to put  the model together. Then divide
 students into groups to build their own model.
Student  Activities  • Model Assembly
for a. group having four or five students, responsibilities
may be divided among students as below.
Station/student 1 • get two plexiglass panels (one with
hole in it), duct tape, and  ruler and begin  assembling
model as shown in steps 1 to 4 on back.
                                                                  Us* oT Materials (per model)

                                                                  1  Two plexiglau pndf -10'x 20".
                                                                  .  . In one pntel. drifl 13/8" bob located 5" from
                                                                  ..topBid'  frOOmCCQfb, •. •
                                                                  2  Duct T4»- 2-W wide roU
                                                                  3  Uihrweichi Mi-lO-120" iheet raDed into tube
                                                                  4  Scud • ilMMU 3 <{on
                                                                 7 Two 6- pa. tnbinj - l/T fener dtnetor (ID.)
                                                                 & ODB6*pc.Mai-1/2"outer
                                                                     Office of Water    "H'A 800-8-93-004
                                                                     WH-5S6           March 1963
       40 •n
Trucking    I
   Pn. V.   ^""^
                                         Heating Oil
                                                                       G©   •
                                                                        0 Contaminated well

                                                                        9 Uncon tarn mated well
1. Start with a well with a known
elevation. Using ruler and pencil,
LIGHTLY draw a line from this
well to the nearest wells having at
least  a  20-foot  difference  in

2. Cut a rubber band open and  lay
it out flat,  without  stretching it,
along  the edge of a  ruler. With a
pen, make at least five marks  1/2
inch apart  beginning from the
middle of the rubber band. Use  the
marked rubber band to help you
divide each  line  into  equal
segments. Your teacher will  show
you how this is done.	
3. Label each mark on the  line
between the known elevations with
the  estimated  elevations.  For
example, if the elevations at each
end of a line are 10 and 40  feet
above sea level, you should make
two marks on the line, dividing the
line into three equal lengths.  The
first mark should be labeled 20,
and the next one labeled 30.

4. Connect  all marks having the
same elevation with  a smooth line.
These are contour lines.

5. Every half inch or so along each
contour line, draw a short arrow
                                              perpendicular from one line  out
                                              towards the line having the next
                                              lowest elevation.  Ground  water
                                              flows in the direction of the arrows.

                                              6. Find all the contaminated wells
                                              and draw  a single  loop that
                                              contains only these wells and none
                                              of the uncontaminated wells, if
                                              possible. The .area inside this loop
                                              shows how far the contamination
                                              has already  spread through  the
                                              ground  water, and is called  the
                                              contamination plume.

                                              7.  Use  your map to answer
                                              questions on page 1.

                                                                              Office of Water

                                       EPA 800-B-93-004
                                          March 1993
 Tracking  Pollution • A Hazardous Whodunnit


 Introduction                                 ,
 RiverviHe is a fictional" town with a real problem. Each
 week, more citizens are complaining that their drinking
 water tastes bad. In many small towns like this one, there is
 no central water supply. Every home and most businesses
 have a private well. The town's mayor tested the water from
 several wells and found that the ground water has been
 contaminated with some kind of fuel. The wells that have
 been  contaminated are marked out on the map on back of
 this page.
 The mayor thinks the Heating Oil Company is responsible
 for this contamination and wants them to start investigating
 their fuel storage tanks which are buried underground and to
 check the tanks for leaks. The Heating Oil Co. says they
 just tested their tanks and knows they are safe. They think
 the Trucking Company is the source of pollution. The
 Trucking Co. says the source  could just as likely be the
 Heating Oil Co. or the Gas Station, since all  three places
 have underground tanks for storing the same kind of fuel
 So Riverville has a problem and no one is sure who is
 responsible. The mayor needs some way of proving who is
 causing the pollution and who should clean it up. You will
 be the  "detective"  who helps prove where  the
 pollutant is coming from.
 Qeaning up ground water contamination is a very expensive
 job. You should be very sure of the place you choose to
 start cleaning up, otherwise the money will be wasted. It is
 up to you to solve the mystery.
 You will make a topographic map, use it to predict ground
 water flow and investigate the most likely source of ground
 water contamination.
 General  Procedures
To decide which of the suspected businesses is the most
likely source of contamination, the easiest thing you can do
 is find out the direction that ground water flows. Since
 ground water generally flows downhill, following the slope
of the surface of the land, you can be fairly certain that the
suspected source which is farthest "upstream" is the real
source of contamination.
This activity shows you how to estimate ground water flow
by making a contour map. As in many very small  towns,
 only a few people in Riverville know the exact elevation
 above sea level for their property. To make a contour map.
 it usually helps to know the elevations of as many places as
 possible. But this simple procedure can be used even
 though you only know a few elevations.
 The map on back shows the elevations for seven wells and
 gives directions for drawing in the contours of the land.
 After you  have finished this  procedure,  answer the
 questions below.
 1. If the flow of ground water and the pollutants in it follow
 the contour of the land, what is the most likely source of the
 contamination, the Heating Oil Co., the Trucking Co. or the
 Gas Station?
 2. The contamination plume will continue to spread slowly
 through  the ground, much like  smoke from a chimney
 drifting with the wind. Describe  where on your map you
 think the plume will move with time.
 3. Which of the uncontaminated wells do you expect to
 become contaminated in the near future? Do you think the
 school's water well will be contaminated?
 A. How do you explain the fact that one well within the
 plume was not contaminated? Give  at least two possible
 reasons  how this could happen. (Hint: see the  Resource
 Management Activity)
 5. Is it possible you are wrong in assuming that ground
 water flow follows the contour of the land? What else could
 you investigate to be sure?
 6. Assuming that ground water flow does follow the
 contours of the land, is it possible that there are two sources
 of contamination? What would you expect to find if all three
 companies had  leaking storage  tanks and were actual
 sources of contamination?
 1. Get a map of your own community and use it to chart out
 ground water direction. Locate the  community's water
supply and any potential sources of contamination. What
kind of precautions should be taken to keep an eye on
potential sources of contamination?

                                                                                      Office of Wa
                                           EPA 800-8-3^004
                                              March 1993
                                    • Conumimted wefl '
                                    91ifnvmdmffi*;*^ well
8. Using a PEN, every half inch or so along each contour line,
draw short arrows outward perpendicularly from one contour line
to the contour line having the next lowest elevation. It is important
that these arrows be as perpendicular as possible to give the best
estimate of the direction of ground water flow. Erase the contour
lines and other pencilled-in lines to make the map less confusing.
To get a better sense of overall direction of flow, you might want
to draw a few longer arrows which average out the shorter ones.
6. LIGHTLY, with pencil, draw lines between each well and its
nearest neighbors having at least a 20 foot difference in elevation.
To divide these lines into equal segments representing  10 ft.
increases in elevation, stretch the marked rubber band so  that a
marie is over each well at the line's endpoims, with the necessary
number of marks between to allow you to count up by lens from
one well to the next For example, a line between the two wells at
  10 and 40 ft. needs two marks between the wells. Stretch the
  band so that a mark falls at each endpoint on the line and two
  marks lie between the endpoints. Make marks on the line at each
  of the two intervening marks on the stretched band. Label these
  marks 20 and 30 ft. Repeat for each line.
  7. LIGHTLY draw smooth curved lines connecting all wells and
  marks having the same elevations. These are contour lines.
9. Draw a loop tut groups together all of the contaminated wells.
From the flow arrows, note that the plume has spread in two
directions, to the top right comer and to the lower left It should be
clear that the Tracking Co. (T) is the source of pollution. Also, the
uncontaminated well found within the cluster of contaminated
wells is a newer, deep well which taps an aquifer protected by an
underground layer of dense rock (shale) which keeps fuel out
This may serve as a lead-in to the Resource Management Activity.

                                                                                 Office of WB

                                          EPA 800-B-9M04
                                             March 1993
 Tracking Pollution  •  A  Hazardous Whodunnit

 Introduction-.  .         -.
 This activity presents the student with a real world problem
 and provides a simple, but not always accurate tool for
 investigating the problem.
 The problem is that a town's drinking water is contaminated
 In many small towns like Riverville, every home and most
 businesses have a private well. Lab results  from several
 wells showed that the ground water has been contaminated
 with a kind of fuel stored by three companies. Of the three
 possible suspected sources of contamination, each suspect
 has a reasonable argument as  to why they  are  not
 responsible for the problem:
 1. The Healing Oil Company is the prime suspect since they
 store the most fuel and sell it to the other two suspected
 2. The Heating Oil Co. has just tested their tanks and knows
 they are safe. They argue that the Trucking Company is the
 source of pollution.
 3. The Trucking Co. says the source could just as likely be
 the Heating Oil Co. or the Gas Station. They claim there is
 no proof that they are responsible.
 The only way to find out who is responsible is to produce
 some evidence to help decide which of these  is the actual
 source of contamination. Emphasizing the expense of
 cleaning up ground water contamination and  the need for
 certainty before forcing a business to begin cleaning up lets
 the  student know that there is often a lot at stake in this kind
 of investigation.
 Students will  make a topographic  map, use  it  to predict
 ground water flow and investigate the most likely source of
 ground water contamination.
 General  Procedures
 1. It will be best for students to work together in groups of
 at least two. Each group will need:
    a medium sized rubber band about 1/8 inch in width
    a ruler, pencil and pen
    Student activity sheet
2. Read over with the class the Introduction on the Student
Activity Sheet. Ask them which of the three they think is the
actual source and have them write down their best guess.
                         Underground Storage Tank
 3. You might also explore whether anyone can think of any
 simpler ways of finding out the source of contamination
 than by doing this activity. Point out .the fact that another
 way of finding out whodunnit is to test the contaminated
 wells again to find out which wells have more contaminant
 in the water. The wells nearest the source should have the
 highest levels; those farthest from the source will be lower.
 This can be expensive though, since lab tests are between
 $100 to $200 apiece.
 4. The contours of a landscape can be estimated even if the
 elevation is known for only a few points, provided the
 points are well  scattered around the area. The procedure
 used here assumes a constant slope between these known
 points. If one point is at 10 ft above sea level and another
 point is at SO ft, men when the distance between the points
 is divided into  four equal segments,  the elevation will
 increase 10 ft over the length of one segment This process
 is described in more detail on the next page.
 5. The rubber band is used to  divide lines into equal
 segments, depending oh the difference in elevations of the
 endpoints of the line. This process of dividing the lines can
 be very tedious if done mathematically, and diverts from the
 point of the activity. Using the rubberband method
 simplifies the process considerably. Cut the rubber band
 open and lay it out flat, without stretching it, along die edge
of a ruler. With  a pen. make at least five marks 1/2 inches
apart beginning from about the middle of the band. Step 6
on the next page describes how to use it to divide a line.

                                           Ready,  Set,  GO!   (|£

                                           Forming New Habits!   ^SBXSR.
                                                       ^y                     i» i^3« i»Si5S3m«iS«i«5S«M*
                                           Sylvester and Tweety both realize we have a problem with so
                                           much trash. Tweety is trying to make a difference, but Sylvester
                                           just continues doing things the old way—making lots of trash.
                                           How can we form new habits?
                                            Tweety has some IDEA STARTERS!

                                            Practice makes perfect!
                          Key words: hat*.: sort reduce,
©  Get ready!

 {"You wilfneed 2 boxeslarge enough* toTJoidTquannty oVonish:"8"pa^)cr~ "
 I grocery bags; at least 2 "clean" trash items per student"'"_'"
 I bottles), representing reduce—e.g. containers for concentrated products
 I and refutable containers, reuse—e.g. handkerchief rcfillable^ballppinr
 j pen, and recycle—^.g. items that arexollected in your community (call
 I companies to find out what they are buying), leaves and peanut shells, for
 I composting. 'Note to the teacher: do not use glass containers for
 {jhis activity.	«.___.._..	__—_

 IDEA 1 — You and your students make a list of items for them to bring
 in.  IDEA 2 — You bring in the items. IDEA 3  — Find liner from the
 school grounds.
 We can all get ready for the 3Rs relay. We will need to:
 •  Set up a relay course 50 feet, or longer.
 •  Label 2 bags with each of the following:  "Reduce." "Reuse." "Recycle."
   and one for "Compost." a form of recycling.
 •  Place one set of four bags at the one side of the end of course and
   one set of four on the other side, with labels facing toward starling
   line.                                                         |
 •  Kill two boxes with equal amounts  of "clean"  trash.
 •  Place trash boxes halfway down the course—one on each side.
 •  Mark" the starting line.                               LABELED
                  CD	BAGS:
     50' COURSE
 ©  Get set!
 To practice sorting trash, we need the class divided into two teams. As
 reams, let's think ot'gr-r-rcat names for our teams. Now. here come the
 • Each team lines up at the starring line.
 • The first player from each team  runs to their box. pulls out one item, runs to the
   paper bags, and places the item in the bag with the label that describes how that
   item can be kept out of the landfill.
 • Once the item is put into the bag. it can't be taken out and put into another bag.
 • The player then runs back to the end of the team line, and the next teammate starts
   down the course.
 • Teammates can cheer (Yeah!), but cannot yell out advice.
 • The relay continue.-; until the trash boxes are empty and all players are sitting down.

 Tu-eety's Idea Starter
 And the Winner Is...
 A Mathstarter »»lf either team gets 8 out of 10 items
 right (80%) is a winner!  As a group, lets go through
 each bag and find out how each team did. We'll have
 10 do a lot of thinking! Could items have been put into
 t Alliance for Environmental Education
 Made possible through a grant from the United States Environmental Protection Agency
          (J RECYCLE

          fj REUSE
          Q REDUCE
          F] COMPOST

          Q RECYCLE
          PI REUSE

                          ©  GO!

                          Tweety sax's. "It's OK
                          it" we make mistakes.
                          That's how we learn."
another bag? Which one? Why? IDEA 1— How did we
do? Do we need more practice?  IDEA 2—How can we
reduce trash in the classroom? What will we have to do
to "get ready" to sort our trash? IDEA 3—Where else
can we set up Reuse and Recycle containers at school?
IDEA 4—Can we set up Reuse and Recycle containers
at home? IDEA 5—VVhat can we buy or use that is
made from rccvclcd materials?

                                                                          Office of Water
                                   EPA 800-5-9M04
                                      March 1993
  Tweety's Idea Starter

  Paper Patrol At Work!
                                       PAPER PATROL

                                       The Big problem!

                                       What is the big problem? Think about all the- '• .ivs \\v U.M.- paper —
                                       write on it. read from it. wrap things in it. wir  our noses \\ith it1
                                       Sylvester just keeps using lots and lots ot p:i• -.-r! What on \\v tit-
                                       about all this paper trash:'  Tweety has son . 1DKA STARTERS:

                                       Let's see how big this problem really is!
                          Key words: landfiB. ton.
                          reduce, reuse, recycle
 |The star of this "activity is the dassroom wastebasket with the contents |
 * from one day's activities.                                        i
  Front and center — the wastebasket!  What kinds of trash do you
  think we will find in it? Which.kind will be the most? Let's check it
  out. What's the verdict?

  Tuvetys Idea Starter

  Where does all this paper come from?
 r	——-——-———--.,
 'To see what one ton of paper looks like, have a yardstick, ruler or    !
 [measuring tape, (or your idea), some  notebook paper, string and tape.!

  Sometimes paper is made from recycled paper, but mostly from trees.
  Guess what?  It takes 17 trees to make one ton (2.000 Ibs.) of paper!
  But. what does a ton of paper look like? One ton of notebook paper
  measures approximately 3  x 58" x <»' high.

  A Mathstarter •» (On die floor, have the students measure 3' by 58".)
  Seventeen of us can represent the 17 trees that it takes to make one
  ton of paper. We can stand next to each other along those lines with
  our toes on the lines.  Measure -»' high.  At that height, we stretch our
  arms in front of us. The space inside our "stack" represents the
  approximate size of die one ton of paper (250,000 sheets) made
  from 17 trees.
  A Mathstarter •» What would 1/2 ton look like? What
  would 2 tons look like?
  IDEA 1 — Back to the wastebasket. (You will need to
  call your local recycling collection center to find out
  which paper they will take: each community is differ-
  ent. ) Son the one-day's contents of paper into three
  piles-,  paper with clean space that can be reused, fully-
  used paper that can be recycled, and paper that cannot
  be reused or recycled and must be thrown  away.  Now.
  will there be less trash to throw away from our class-
  A Mathstarter •» How much less trash is there?
  IDEA 2 — Let's make a place to collect paper that can be
  reused.  If our paper can be recycled, let s make a place
  i Affiance tor Environmental Eduction                           3
  Maoe possible through a grant from me United States Environmental Protection Agency
               What do we do with paper
               when we are finished?

               When Sylvester throws all this paper
               away, it probably goes to the landfill.
               Oh. my! Look ai the space it will take
               up in the landfill!  Stop!  We can't keep
               putting all this paper into the landfill.
to collect that. Now. our Paper Patrol is ready to
reduce the amount of paper we throw away each day!

IDEA 3—There are lots of ways to help younger stu-
dents form Paper Patrols:  write a song and sing it fur
them, make posters and displays, prepare and present a
puppet show, prepare a news report, write and present
a play. And when you make your presentation, give
the class a gift — a box for reusable paper and a box
for recyclable paper. Make it a  BIG deal with lots of

IDEA 4 — Tour idea about how a Paper Patrol can help
keep our landfills from filling up. and preserve
trees for all their other values.

                                                                           Office of Waur
                                                                                         EPA 800-B-93-004
                                         TWEETY'S SCHOOL PATROL

                                         We make lots of trash at school!
                                         Tweety is worried about all the trash we throw away in our schools.
                                         It can be a big problem.  Tweery says if you want to do something
                                         about a problem, first you learn all you can about it. So let's find out —
                                         what kind of trash do we throw away at school? How much trash?
                                         Tweetv has some IDEA STARTERS!
 Tweetv's Idea Starter
                                         Check it out!
                                                                                   Key wordsrreducBr reuse;-:
What does our class throw away?
In small groups, let s think about things we do at school, such as eating
lunch, doing an projects, and working on assignments. What kinds of. trash
do we think we throw away when we do these things? Now it's time to find
out if we re right.
Every day for one week, we'll each collect everything we throw away at
school, if we can't collect the trash, we can make a list of the things we
throw away.  Now. how does the trash we really make compare with what
we thought we throw away?  A Mathstancr •* make a bar graph of the com-

What does our school throw away?
If we want to learn about the problem of trash in our school, we can form a
School Patrol.  These are some of the things we II need to find out:  What
kind of trash is thrown away?  What kind of material is thrown away the
most?  Where is the trash collected? How often is it picked up?  Is the con-
tainer ever full? \\hat happens if the container is full? Is there more trash at
one time of year than another? What else can we find out?  We can start by
finding out about the trash our school  throws away in just one week.

• Let's start with our classroom. What do we throw away-
• Small teams can each ask another class.  At the end of the week, we can
  compare their iral office.
• One team can a.-k the people who work in the school lunch room.
• One team can :i>k the custodian the  trash thrown away other than
  from the classrooms, the lunch mom and the-office.
• One team can a-k the principal where the trash is taken and how much the school pays for removal of one
  week's trash. \\Tiich clay is it picked up? Can we watch it Iwing picked up?

A Mathstarter •* Make a grnph of all the findings. Pictures of trash will make it more interesting.
 We can help Tweety! Yes!!
i What do recycling collection companies accept now in j
j^our community? They each vary.                   j

IDEA 1 - Now it's time tor our Sch»ol Patrol cc» act! At d»c end
of the week, each ream will have important information ro
share with all of us. Which materials can be recycled? U'e can
set up collection containers for these and tell everyone about
our plan. There arc lots of things to think about: Who will
help with the collection? Who will take the items to the
collection center-
                                                    IDEA 2 - What other wax's can we make less trash? What can
                                                    we recvclc? Reuse: What buying habits can we change ro
                                                    reduce trash? The people we talked to will have good ideas
                                                    about ways r/;rr can make less trash, like reusing things and not
                                                    using throw-aways. How much money can the school save by
                                                    having less trash? Tweety's School Patrol can help our school
                                                    make las trash, and save monev too!
: Alliance lor Environment* Educanon
Made oossitxe tnrougn a gram from ine united State* €n»«
                                      iMi floiBction ftgancv

                                                                       Office of Waur
                               Don't Just Bag It!

                               Where does all the trash go?

                               Sylvester just keeps making lots and lots of trash. He doesn t think about what
                               happens to all that trash. What do  \vu think happens? Sometimes it is burned.
                               but most of our trash ends  up in a landfill. The problem is. someday the landfill
                               will be full.  What will we do when the landfill is full? Let's think about it.
                               Tweety has some IDEA STARTERS!

                               Let's sort it all outi
 Tweety's Idea Starter     .                   —     —

 Sylvester's Bag o' Trash
 Sylvester s bag of trash looks about like what most of us throw away each
 IDEA 1:— Make a Sylvester's Bag o' Trash bulletin board!*
| We can all bring in assorted trash that includes items representing the 3Rs
{(e.g., reduce — containers for regular and concentrated laundry and juice
! products, regular and refillable containers; reuse—old: shut, plastic flat-
'ware, used envelopes; and recycle—products accepted for recycling in
! your community, such as aluminum cans, newspaper, 2-liter plastic bottle,
las well as food scraps like dried bread and peanut shells). Include some
! items that do not fit into those categories (e.g., bones, paper towels and
! cups, throw-away pen). Wash containers. Safety! Do not include items
! widi sharp edges.                                          >

 IDEA 2—Make a "Sylvester s Bag o Trash"
i	——	____-—-—.——	„.,
! Bring in a labeled "Sylvester's Bag o' Trash " trash bag containing about 5  '
! Ibs. of assorted trash as suggested above. Use gloves to handle trash.         !

 Let's  guess what might he in this trash bag. and then see if we re right.
 Can we imagine how big a pile we would have if we all had bags like
 Sylvesters to throw away each day? A MathStarter •» If we measure one
 bag and add that much more space for each person in the class, how big
 would the pile be? Ho\v big would the pile be tor one week?

 Tuvety's Idea Starter
Tweety's Bag o' Trash
 \Ve don't want the landfills to till up so fast.  Tweecy  wants to make a dif-
 ference! How? By making less trash.
 IDEA 1— Look at Sylvester's Bag o Trash: let's help Tweety make it less.
 It's as easy as I-2-3--»!
 I  - Can we use some things again, including  refillable bottles? Take them
     out. and  put them in a reuse pile.
 2  - Are some  things made from materials that can be  used to make new
     things, including yard waste and f
                   Office of W
                          Tweety  and the  Beanstalk .==•—•=••=•_
                          Nature's Original Recycling Program
                          In nature, there is no waste.  Everything is ted hack into the system!  Imagine a world
                          without waste!  We can leam from nature's recycling program:  the world of cycles.
                          But. how can we feed everything back into the system? Well, that's pretry difficult.
                          but Tweetv has some IDEA STARTERS!
                          Think Cycle.

                          Tweety's Idea Starter
                          The end is the beginning.
                            Key words: cyde. recycle
                            compost, decomposers
                         J You will need as many 2-liter recyclable plastic hordes as you want to use with your;
                         ! dass, leaves diat have fallen or grass clippings, soil, scissors, and a source of water. _   -1
                          Unlike nature, we try to get rid of as much yard waste (leaves, grass clippings, small
                          branches, etc.) and food scraps as possible. But guess
                          what!  \Vhat we think is the end of their usefulness
                          can actually be the beginning of something wonderful!
                          Let s watch it happen!
                          • Cut 2 bottles and tape pieces together as shown.
                          Many different arrangements can be made, but this
                          one is for compost columns.
                          • Make air holes in cylinder with heated paper clip.
                          scissors, or cold needle. .The decomposers •(living
                          things that assist in the natural process of decay) need
                          • Fill columns Vj full with small pieces of leaves or other
                          organic material, \vidi and without soil. (You may \vant to
                          start one 3 weeks ahead of time so "before and after"
                          comparisons can be made without waiting so long, i
                          • Schedule for it to Tain" periodically (keep it moist).
                          Watch! As the organic material decays, it rums into
                          IDEA 1 — Can each student make a compost column? Can
                          they be set up differently and results compared?
                          IDEA 2 — What will we do widi die compost? Grow a
                          giant beanstalk, what else?
                          Tweety's Idea Starter
                          A Giant Beanstalk or a "Giant" Anything Else
                                                       LulinerTxSrfscedsTFor g7aVu~an"yihing eTseT^nyseeds of
                         ! marigolds, coleus, sunflowers, or Fast Plants from Carolina Biological Supply. You'll also
                         I need soil with a high percentage of day and "pots," such as cardboard egg cartons, small
                         | plastic containers or milk cartons with holes in the bottom — all with a waterproof
                         •^protective laver underneath.
                          This can be fun — and messy!  A Mathstarter •» We'll need to mix some comn<»'
                          material with the soil (1 pan compost to 3 parts soil), and put some into each -pn:
                          Follow directions for planting seeds and keep soil  moist. When the seeds start to
                          sprout, it is very important to keep them in a sunny window — south or west
                          direction. If it's possible to move the seedlings into a garden outside, we will have a
                          beautiful school garden, or a garden at home! Stake beanstalks so they will grow tall.

                          IDEA 1 — Compare seeds grown in clay soil only and in soil with compost. What do you
                          think we will find out? Make a graph of results. IDEA 2 — Write a poem, song, or story
                          about rJiis experience and the things you have observed.
C Alliance tor Environmental Education
MadA OOfiSlhlft thmiinh a nranf
                   m trwi I If***w4 Of**.* C_.«~


                                                            *H-SM           March t9B
                         WATER  FACTS QUIZ

Water is one of our most precious resources! Without It. we could not drink, eat our favorite foods, or even
live!  Notice how much water It takes to produce o serving of some of these tasty treats:

            1 glass milk	;	48 gallons of water
            1 ounce cheese	56 gallons of water
            1 cup plain yogurt	88 gallons of water
            1 cup lettuce	3 gaBons of water
            3 ounces fresh broccoli	11 gallons of water
            1 medium orange	14 gallons of water
            1 serving watermelon	„	;... 100 gallons of water
            1 egg	:.	'.	.'... 63 gallons of water
            4 ounces chicken	165 gallons of water
            4 ounces hamburger	616 gallons of water
            8 ounce steak	1.232 gallons of water

We also use quite a bit of water at home each day.  It takes an average of 162.950 gallons (1/2 acre foot)
of water to supply the indoor and outdoor water needs of a typic al family of 4 each year. Notice how much
water the following activities use:

            Taking o bath or shower	15-30 gallons of water
            Watering the lawn or yard	180 gallons of water
            Washing the dishes	14-60 gallons of water
            Washing clothes	 50 gallons of water
            Wosning the car	100 gallons of water
            Brusning your teeth	1 gallon of water
            Flushing the toilet	4-7 gallons of water
            Leaking toilet (per day)	60 gallons of water

Most of the water on the earth is not qvaiiable for us to use. The following pie gropn expiqins the EARTH'S
                                           97% = Salt water
                                           2% = Frozen water
                                           1% = Fresn water available for use

  Teachers And Librarians
  Please help spread the word about Earth
  Day 1990 in your school. Earth Day is
  vitally important because it focuses the
  attention of the nation on the state of
  the planet. Our request to you is that
  you share this information with all the
  administrators, teachers, and students in
  your school — and reach out to parents
  and the community with your activities
  so that everyone can participate and do
  something NOW to protect the
    Environmental issues often seem _
  overwhelming. Vet some-actions can'be
  taken by students and their families
  which are not difficult but which can be
  very helpful; they may even result in
  habits which will endure. This  booklet
  provides many ideas for activities
  covering all subject areas of the
  curriculum plus home and community
  activities in which students from
  kindergarten through sixth grade can
  participate to bring their attention to the
  prevention of pollution. These activities
  emphasize recycling, tree planting,
  water conservation and energy
  conservation. Here are some important
  facts everyone should know:
  • Why recycle? Garbage ... solid
  waste . .. refuse .. .trash! The  waste we
  produce in our homes and businesses
  adds up to a massive pile of waste — a
  total for the nation of about 160 million
  tons a year. And the garbage problem is
  growing steadily; if we don't change the
  way we deal with garbage, we could be
  producing 193 million tons a year by
  the year 2000. Usually, in making and
  using products, three things happen that
  affect the environment: the amount of
  the Earth's limited supply of valuable
  natural resources is reduced, the energy
  used to produce and  distribute  the
  products may contribute to air
  pollution, acid rain, and global
  warming, and these products can
  become part of the garbage that  has to
  be buried in overflowing landfills or
  burned in expensive incinerators. To
  help prevent pollution, the
  Environmental Protection Agency has
  set a goal of reducing the amount of
  waste  we dispose in 1992 to
  three-fourths of today's volume. You
Earth  Dav Sourcebook
 can help by not using disposable items
 and by recycling. Recycling means
 making further use of something you
 would otherwise throw away. Today,
 about 80% of what Americans throw
 away is recyclable. Here is how many
 things are recycled:
 • By adding water, most used paper can
 be turned into a mush that is then made
 into new paper.
 • Aluminum cans, other metals and
 glass can all be melted down and made
 into new products. Recycling aluminum
 cans uses only 5% of the energy
 required to make new ones.
 • The oil used in the engines of cars
 and trucks wears out; it can be filtered
 and re-refined for use again. Just one
 gallon of used oil can be recycled into
 the same amount of motor oil that  it
 takes 42 gallons of virgin oil to make.
 • Lawn clippings and garden weeds can
 be put in a compost pile, where they are
 broken down by tiny organisms; the
 rotted result can improve your garden's
 soil. Yard wastes make up almost 20%
 of all  landfill trash.
   We can all contribute to solving our'
 nation's increasing garbage problem by
 cutting down on the number of things
 we have to throw away, which will
 reduce the pollution caused by the'
 production of new items and the
 disposal of old ones. At home and  at
 school, you can do your part to win the
 war against waste by buying recycled
 products and by recycling products
 instead of throwing them away.
 • Why plant trees? Trees provide us
 with wood, paper, fruit, nuts, shade, .
 natural beauty and a buffer against
 noise. They also play an important role
 in Earth's natural cycles. Trees remove
 carbon dioxide, a gas, from the  •
 atmosphere and store it until they die
 and decompose or are burned. Since
 carbon dioxide is responsible for half of
 the gas build-up which causes the
 greenhouse effect, trees act as a natural
 control against global wanning. A
 typical healthy tree removes between 25
 and 45 pounds of carbon from the air
 every  year. Trees also help prevent
 flooding and help control soil erosion.
Although trees are necessary for our
survival, forests are being destroyed at a
rate far faster than our current efforts to
replace them. In American cities, four
trees are removed for every one planted.
• Why conserve water? Water is central
to all life and life activities. Plants and
animals must have water to survive.
Water represents about 75% of a
person's body weight and covers nearly
75% of the earth's surface. Nearly
everything on earth can be directly or
indirectly traced to a connection with
water. Rocks channel water into
streams; streams and rivers carry water
across the land. Ponds, lakes, marshes
and swamps often hold water in place.
Trees draw water from the soil and
transport it up into the leaves and out
again into the air. Clouds are airborne
carriers of water across the sky. People,
plants, wildlife need, water forsurvival.
The water must be clean, free of toxic
contamination. Humans use water for
many purposes other than drinking.
Care must be taken to protect water
quality. Water is a source of beauty and
recreation. It is the basis of a massive
planetary transportation system. Water
helps our food grow, cools our cars, and
is one of the first things on the list of
substances the astronauts take into
space. There are about 320,000,000
cubic miles of water in the oceans. The
tiny plants that live in the earth's
oceans (phytoplankton) produce
one-third or more of our oxygen, a gas
vital to breathing. Conserving water
saves energy and money and preserves
fresh water habitat. Much energy goes
into transporting water to our
residences, and then more is vised to
heat water for bathroom and kitchen
uses and still more in cleaning the
water after use, for reuse by others. By
conserving water it is possible to
prevent some of the pollution caused by
excessive energy use, such as global
warming and acid rain.
• Why conserve energy? It is hard to
imagine the world today without the
use of energy. But our dependence on
energy — especially that which comes
from fossil fuels such as oil, coal and
natural gas — is aggravating global
environmental problems such as habitat
destruction, acid rain, and global
warming. Every time we switch on a
light, turn on the heat, cook a meal, or
drive in our cars, we contribute to these
problems. Habitat is damaged as new
energy sources are tapped. Cars and
power plants pollute the air and water
and contribute to the greenhouse effect
Furthermore, our supply of fossil fuels
is dwindling. As energy consumption
rises and energy supply falls, it will cost

                                                                March 1QB3
 us more and more to do the hundreds of
 things we do every day that use energy.
 Thus, we must all limit our energy use
 and find ways to use energy more
 efficiently. Reducing the demand for
 energy will reduce the need to build
 more power plants. Fewer power plants
 mean less pollution — the cheapest and
 least polluting power plant is the one
 that is never bulk! And. as we conserve
 energy to extend the use of our
 decreasing fossil fuel supply, we' will
 have more time to develop cost-effective
 technologies for using renewable energy
 sources, such as solar and wind power.
 Suggested  Activties Across
 The  Curriculum K-3

  The  following activities on the theme
 of pollution prevention are designed to
 work across the entire curriculum, so
 please  share these suggestions with
 other science, English, mathematics,
 social studies, art, drama, music,
 physical education, and special
 education teachers. If we've left  anyone
 out, please include them too!

 Arts Activities
• Have students create an exhibit of the
 pollution problems by cutting pictures
from magazines.
• Have students bring in photographs
from magazines that show water, its
uses, and how it can be polluted. Ask
them to look especially for pictures that
 show how living things depend  upon
 water.  Display these photographs and
 use them as a basis for a discussion on
 the role water plays in our lives.
• Have students illustrate their ideas
generated under the English Activities
and create a class book.
• Make a paper tree on the classroom
wall with each leaf giving a tip on  how
to protect the environment.
• Make nature cards to wish parents
and friends a happy Earth Day.

English Activities
• Make a list of water words. Have
students brainstorm about water words,
make word trees with those words  and
write poetic statements about water.
• Have students list at least 100 words
that have something to do with water.
Ask them to think of words about water,
 including its importance to people and
 wildlife. Keep students stretching into
 new areas by suggesting examples and
 categories of ideas if they get bogged
 down. Using the words that were
 recorded, ask the students to create
 word trees.of water-related words. After
 finishing several word trees, have them
 look at what they have done and create
 poetic definitions of water or
 water-related concepts. These could
 begin: "Water..." or "Water is ..." For
 example, using the word tree
 "condensation" - "cloud" - "rain" -
 "storm", you might get: "Water is gray
 elouds causing4 loud summer-storm."
 After ompletfng their poetic statements,
 have them write them onto various
 shades of construction paper cut to
 graphically fit the feeling of their ideas.
 Arrange these cut-outs on a wall or
 window  in an aesthetic fashion. The
 same process can be used to explore
 such concepts as "energy" or
 •  Have children portray through
 creative dramatics such concepts as loss
 of wildlife due to oil spills or water . -', •
 pollution, stories about their favorite '
 endangered species, or other
 environmental themes.
 •  Have students perform a play or
 puppet show with an environmental
 •  Read stories with environmental
 themes such as The Lorax by Dr. Seuss,
 or Charlotte's Web and The Trumpet of
 the Swan by E. B. White (both give
 excellent descriptions of animal
 habitats), or  poems such as "Sarah
 Cynthia Sylvia Stout Would Not Take
 the Garbage Out", a humorous treatment
 by Shel Silverstein of what happens
 when you don't take care of garbage.
 These can form the basis of discussion
 or motivate students in their writing

Science Activities (Trees As An
•  Students can participate in
community tree planting activities.
• To develop long range thinking skills,
pose the following situation to your
students: We have six fully grown trees
on our land.  We have no other trees
around our house or anywhere else on
our land. We need  firewood and are
trying to  decide whether to cut all the
trees down during next winter to use
them for firewood. Given the
information, try to decide what seems to
be the best action to take. Consider:
What will happen next summer when it
gets hot. (No shade) What might happen
the following winter when more
firewood is needed to keep warm? (No
fuel for cooking and heating.) What
problems might there be for animals?
(Fewer places for some birds and
squirrels to live.) What might a person
do to be sure that there are trees left for
the future? (For example, each time a
tree is cut two could be planted)
Through the discussion, emphasize to
the students the differences between the
short-term and the long-term effects of
actions they recommend.(Each year 2.3
billion seedlings are planted in the
United States, covering 3.4 million
acres. Even with that effort, the annual
net loss of forest in the United States is
about 900,000 acres. In tropical forests,
27 million acres are cleared for farms
and other uses each year - a loss of
500,000 trees every hour of every day!)

Music Activities
• Listen to songs about nature and
wildlife such as Walt Disney's Burl Jves'
Animal Folk Songs and Pete Seeger's
"How Does Your Garden Grow".
• Encourage students to make up their
own lyrics to popular songs.

Social Science Activities
• Have students list actions that can be
taken in support of pollution prevention
and decide what they will do.

Physical Education Activities:
• Have students join with other
community groups to celebrate Earth
Day through such recreational programs
as Earth Day runs, nature hikes, bicycle
races or rallies with an environmental  .
protection theme. Such races could be
held in local, state, or national parks.
• Participate in an all-school Bike to
School Day for students and teachers.
• Create a dance performance in honor
of the environment.

Field Trips
• Visit a dump and a recycling center
to learn about two different methods of
waste management.
• Visit a nature center, a natural history
museum or a wilderness area.

                                                                                 Office of Water
                                                             March 1993
 Library Activties

   Please consider having your school
. library participate in Earth Day
 activities for the period of two weeks
"before, and a week or so after April 22,
 1990. Some things your school library
 can do are:

 • Create displays about environmental
 pollution and actions that can be taken
 to improve our environment, using
 items such as: posters, newspaper
 clippings, and books on the
 • Develop reading lists of books and
 articles in your library on the
 • Develop a "reader's guide" on how to
 use library resources about the
 • Promote reading a book on an
 environmental theme during this time
 • Hold discussion groups with classes
 of students in the library by the display
 (Discussion topics might include
 pollution prevention or any of the
concepts listed below in the vocabulary
• Librarians, journalism teachers, or
other interested teachers and students
could write a newsletter for the school
reporting on student activities on Earth
Day, as well as activities in the
community, nation and the world.
• Librarians and teachers can invite
 knowledgeable scientists or persons
 who have written books, articles, or
newspaper articles about environmental
problems to speak or to make
themselves available to students in the
classroom,  library, or assembly.

 School  Outreach Activities

 « Urge your local park system and local
 business offices to have students' art
 displays on Earth Day, April 22. and the
 week after. Students could participate
 with other  community groups such as
 community art classes, photography
 programs, after school programs, Head
 Start programs, and  others.
• Work with your local zoos and nature
 centers to do a "wildlife protection"
• Have students contact the area library
system urging a display of books.
posters, and art work at all libraries in
your community.
• Contact local government officials
responsible for protecting and
improving trees, flower beds, and other
vegetation about local forestry and tree
planting efforts and request them to
publicize their efforts and needs during
the Earth Day program.
• Encourage use of consumer power —
suggest students use their money as
votes for environmental betterment  .
• Passes can write a letter to the local
newspaper, signed by all students,
urging concern about the environment
and calling on the community to
participate in local Earth Day activities.
Seeing their names in the paper can
have a lasting effect on the students and
cause them to remember Earth Day
Vocabulary (Here are some selected
vocabulary words associated with
environmental awareness which
everyone should know. You can add to
this list.)
acid precipitation
advanced waste
anadromous fish
brackish water
buffer zone
carbon dioxide
carrying capacity
coastal zone
dissolved solids
drainage basin
endangered species
food chain
fossil fuels
fresh water
                    green belts
                    greenhouse effect
                    heavy metals
                    hydrologic cycle
                    multiple use
                    natural selection
                    nuclear power plant
                    oil spill
                    open space
                     point source
                     potable water
                     resource recovery
                     salt marsh
                     septic tank
                     thermal pollution
                     threatened species
                     urban runoff
Activities Across The
Curriculum  Grades 4—6

  The following activities on the theme
of pollution prevention are designed to
work across the entire curriculum, so
please share these suggestions with
other science, English, mathematics.
social studies, art, drama, music,
physical education, and special
education teachers. If we've left anyone
out, please include them, too!

Arts Activities
• Organize an environmental picture
contest, dramatizing the best (beauty)
and worst (pollution) of nature.
• Have a poster contest on themes such
as pollution prevention or endangered
species. Acknowledge the winners in an
all-school meeting. Display posters in
public areas.
• Have students make reusable canvas
grocery bags as a craft project.

English Activities
• Have an essay contest on the theme of
pollution prevention  or any
environmental theme. Read winning

                                                                                 Offet of Water
                                                          EPA 800-B-93-004
                                                             March 1993
 essays on the public address system or
 at an all-school assembly. TO' to get
 essays printed in local papers.
 • Have students write and recite poems
 about the environment.
 • Have students write a play and read
 or produce it for the class on an
 environmental theme, focusing on a
 crisis that develops in a family or
 community because of serious pollution
 problems. Bring out the depth of
 feelings that  are experienced by the loss
 of wildlife, open space, forests, clean
 air, or water.
 • Read books on  environmental themes
 such as Ray Bradbury's short story "The
 Green Morning" in the Martian
 Chronicles. Use this to open a
 discussion on air  pollution and its effect
 on trees and  human health.
 • Have students give speeches to fellow
 students and other classes to inform
 them about the dangers of pollution or
 about any other environmental issue.
 Have them include requests for specific
 • Show movies about nature such as
 National Geographic specials, "Never
 Cry Wolf", or "Call of the Wild".

 Science Activities
 • Students can conduct a street or area
 tree inventory to determine
 opportunities in the community for
 planting new trees.
 • Children in urban areas can conduct
 an inventory of the effects of air
 pollution on trees, shrubs, and
 especially evergreen trees. Which trees
 should be growing in your area that are
 not there now? Note pollution effects
 like loss of leaves, high rates of insect
 infestation end, on evergreens, whether
 or not the needles have turned brown
 during the growing season (spring and
 summer). Analyze your findings  and
 discuss the implications for the future.
• Students can adopt a local wetland,
 or observe and identify the variety of
 wildlife there.

 Music Activities
 • Celebrate your appreciation of the
 planet by listening to classical
compositions such as Beethoven's
 Symphony #6 (The Pastoral); Richard
Strauss's An A/pine  Symphony; Ferde
Grofe's Grand Canyon Suite; Smetana's
 The Mouldou, and folksongs such as
 Woody Guthrie's "This Und Is Your
 Land" and "Roll On Columbia" and
 John Denver's "Rocky Mountain High".
 Folksingers recordings about the
 dangers of pollution include: Pete
 Seeger's "Sailing Up My Muddy
 Stream". Peter, Paul, and Mary's "What
 Have They Done with the Rain", Tom
 Paxton's 'There Goes the Mountain".
 John Denver's "Whose Garden Was
 This?", and Malvina Reynolds's "God
 Bless the Grass".Contemporary rock
 singer Sting sings of saving the rain
 forests in "Don't Bungle the Jungle" and
 "Save the Rain Forest". Peter Gabriel
 sings of the dangers _of acid rain in "Red
 • Encourage students  to sing songs
 about nature and. using the melodies of
 popular songs, write their own lyrics
 expressing environmental concerns. (An
 environmental songbook of lyrics set to
 popular songs has been put together by
 the Citizens Clearinghouse for
 Hazardous Watte. P.O. Box 926,
 Arlington.  VA 22216. (703) 276-7070,

 Social Science Activities             .<
 • Explore the terms "consumerism" and
 "conservation" through class
 discussions and written assignments.
 • Have students list actions that can be
 taken in support of pollution prevention
 and have them each decide what they
 will  be responsible for doing.
 • Write to the U.S. Department of
 Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240,
 requesting any available information
 about threatened and endangered
 animals, poster-making materials, or
 writing materials available from state
 and federal agencies.

 Physical Education Activities
 • Have students Join with other
 community groups to celebrate Earth
Day through such recreational programs
as Earth Day runs, nature bikes, bicycle
races or rallies wftfc an environmental
 protection theme. Such races could be
held in local, fUte, or national parks.
•  Join in a whole cdiool system Bike to
School Day for students and teachers.
•  Create a dance in honor of the
 Classroom Discussion
 This panel can be reproduced for
 students so they can follow your
 discussion and questions.


 Teach Your Friends And Family About
 Proventng Pollution By Your Example
   Action by the President, Congress and
 state legislatures, rulings by the courts.
 speeches by public leaders, or your
 wishing it — as important as they are —
 cannot, by themselves, clean up the'
 environment or keep it from becoming
 more polluted than it is.
   Millions of people cause pollution.
 Many people contribute  to unsightly
 and unsafe neighborhoods, litter on
 highways, schools and in our homes,
 but millions of people can also help
 plant trees, create parks, save wildlife,
 and improve our oceans, rivers, streams,
 and wetlands.
   You can help.  You can become a very
 important person in this effort.
,' • Here are some things you and your
 family can do: Please look at the
 following page titled YOU CAN HELP.
 Selected Quotes About The
 "We travel together, passengers on a
 little space ship ... preserved from
 annihilation only by the care, the work
 and, 1 will say. the love we give our
 fragile craft." — Adlai Stevenson

 "The need is not really for more brains,
 the need now is for a gentler, a more
 tolerant people than those who won for
 us against the ice, the tiger, and the
 bear." — Loren Eiseley

    Earth  Day  Sourcebook
                                         Office of Wa
 Teachers And Librarians

  We are asking you to help spread the
 word about Earth Day 1990, to help
 focus your school's attention on the
 state of the planet. We are asking that
 you share this information with
 administrators, teachers, and students,
 and reach out to parents and the
 community with your activities so that
 everyone can participate and do
 something NOW to protect the
 environment. Let Earth Day be the
 starting point for continuing
 environmental education.
  Although environmental issues often
 seem overwhelming, there are actions
 that can be taken by your students and
 their families which, while not difficult,
 are very helpful; they may even result
 in good environmental habits which
 will endure.
Suggested Activties

Here are some teaching ideas which
may be used to start an environmental
education program in your school.
These ideas are designed to work across
the entire school curriculum. Please
share these suggestions with other
science, English, mathematics, social
studies, art, drama, music, physical
education, and special education
teachers. If we've left anyone out, please
include them, too! Act now and get
others in your school involved by
means of projects that cross all areas of
the curriculum.
• Plan a class discussion around the
messages in this booklet. What other
messages about caring for the planet
could be included? What other messages
about preventing pollution could be
conveyed? How do you inspire people
to take particular actions? What do you
think is the most important message?
• Individual writing assignments can be
done on any of the questions posed for
• Break class into small groups. Have
each group design and prepare a poster
to illustrate a particular environmental
message. Share the posters with the
class and discuss their messages.

For the School Library
• Create displays of posters, newspaper
clippings, and books that deal with
environmental pollution and actions
 that can be taken to improve our
 environment. Use these displays for
 stimulating discussion among students
 in organized discussion groups in the
 • Develop a reading list of books and
 articles in your library which are about
 the environment.
 • Develop a "reader's guide" on how to
 use library resources about the
 • Promote reading a book on an
 environmental theme during this time
_• Identify important historical and
 current environmental leaders and
 discuss how they made or are making a
 difference. Discuss how each individual
 can make a difference in the future of
 our environmental quality.
 • Librarians, journalism teachers, or
 other interested teachers and students
 could write a newsletter for the school
 reporting on student activities on Earth
 Day, as well  as activities in the
 community,  nation, and the world.
 • Librarians and teachers can invite y-'
 speakers who have written books,
 articles, or newspaper articles about
 environmental issues or knowledgeable
 scientists from nearby universities or
 laboratories,  to make themselves
 available to students in the classroom,
 library, or assembly.

 Art Activities
 • Have a poster  contest on the theme of
 pollution prevention or any of the other
 concepts suggested in  the vocabulary
 list. Acknowledge the  winners in an
 all-school meeting. Display posters in
 public areas.
 • Have a photography contest. Create a
 photographic exhibit of the pollution
 problems in your community,
 environmental improvements, or
 community efforts on the environment.
 Acknowledge the winners of this
 contest publicly.
 • If you have access to the necessary
 equipment, make a class movie such as
 a "documentary" or a "news  broadcast"
 about the environment.

 English Activities
 • Have an essay contest on the theme of
 pollution prevention or any of the
 related concepts listed in the vocabulary
section. Read winning essays In an
all-school assembly. Have them printed
in local newspapers and read in
community meetings.
• Write poems about the environment.

• Write a play and read or produce it
for the class or an all-school assembly.
It can be on an environmental theme
focusing on a crisis that develops in a
family or community because of serious
pollution problems. Bring out the depth
of feelings  that are experienced by the
Joss of wildlife, open space; forests,
clean air, or water.
• Have students give speeches to other
students, teachers, parents, and  -
community leaders to inform, to inspire,
or to take action to become
non-polluters. Have them include
requests for specific actions, like the
initiation of a  community-wide
recycling program. Encourage them to
speak at community  meetings.

Science Activities

• Students can conduct a street or area
tree inventory and develop a plan for
planting new trees. Have them
document the largest (diameter, height,
spread) of each native tree species in
your area.
• Children in urban  areas can conduct •
an inventory of the effect of air
pollution on trees, shrubs, arid.
especially evergreen  trees. Which trees
should be growing in your area that are
not there now? Note  other effects like
the loss of leaves, high rates of insect
infestation, and, on evergreens, whether
or not the needles have turned brown.
Analyze your findings and discuss the
implications for the future.
• Students can adopt a wetland.
conduct a water monitoring project or
observe and identify  the variety of
wildlife in  a wetland area.

• Plan tests in your school and at
homes for the  presence of radon.

Music Activities

• Celebrate your appreciation of the
planet by listening to classical
compositions such as Beethoven's
Symphony #6 (The Pastoral); Richard
Strauss's An Alpine Symphony; Ferde
Grofe's Grand  Canyon Suite; Smetana's
The Mouldau, and folksongs such as
Woody Guthrie's This Land is Your
Land and Roll on Columbia and John

                                                                                    Office of Wa
 Denver's Rocky Mountain High.
 Folksingers' recordings about the
 dangers of pollution include: Pete
 Seeger's Sailing Up My Muddy Stream;
 Peter. Paul and Mary's What Have They
 Done with the Rain; Tom Paxton's
 There Goes the Mountain; John Denver's
 Whose Garden Was This?; and Malvina
 Reynold's God Bless the Grass.
 Contemporary rock singer Sting sings of
 saving the  rain forests in Don't Bungle
 the Jungle and Save the Rain Forest.
 Peter Gabriel sings of the dangers of
 acid rain in Red Rain. Encourage
 students to write their own lyrics and/or

 Social Science Activities      -;
 • Explore the terms "consumerism" and
 "conservation" through class discussion
 and written assignments. Discuss the
 concepts of "planned obsolescence" and
 • Have students list actions that can be
 taken in support of pollution prevention
 and have them each decide what they
 will be responsible for doing.

 Physical Education Activities
 • Have students join with other
 community groups to celebrate Earth
 Day through such recreational activities
 as Earth Day runs,  nature hikes, bicycle
 races, or rallies with an environmental
 protection theme. Such races could be
 held in local, state, or national parks.
 • Organize a "Walk-or-Bike to School"
 day for students and teachers,
 promoting alternatives to the use of
 fossil fuels for transportation.
 • Create a  dance in honor of the

 School  Outreach Activities

• Urge your local park system and local
business offices to have students'
environmental art displays on Earth
Day, April 22, and  the week after.
Students could participate with other
community groups such as community
art classes,  photography, after-school
Heed Start programs, and other local
• Work with local zoos and nature
centers to do a "wildlife protection"
 • Have students contact the area library
 system urging a display of books,
 posters, and art work at all libraries in
 your community.
 • Contact local government officials
 responsible for protecting and
 improving trees, flower beds, and other
 vegetation about local forestry and tree
 planting efforts and request them to
 publicize their efforts and needs during
 the Earth Day program.
 • Encourage the use of consumer power
 by identifying and supporting
 "environmentally safe" products — use
 your money as votes for environmental
 • Classes can write a letter to the local
 newspaper,  signed by all students,
 urging concern about the environment
 and calling  upon the community to
 participate in local Earth Day activities.
 Vocabulary (Here are some selected
 vocabulary words associated with
 environmental assessment which
 everyone should know. You and your
 students can add to this list.)

 General Environmental Words: ecology*
 ecosystem, habitat, gene pool,      •''
 pesticides, deforestation, desertification,
 compost, biosphere
 Related concepts: "cleansing effect of
 vegetation,"  "population explosion"
 Waste Products Words: biodegradable,
 toxic, dioxins, PCBs, landfill, municipal
 wastestream, recycling
 Air Pollution Words: ozone, nitrous
 oxide, carbon dioxide, carbon
 monoxide, chlorofluorocarbon, benzene,
 particulates, greenhouse effect, sulphur
 dioxide, smog, acid rain, ozone layer
 Water Pollution Words: eutrophication,
 fish kill, algae bloom, oil spill, ocean
 dumping, sludge, groundwater
Social Concepts: consumerism, planned
obsolescence, conservation, packaging,
throwaway society
Some Books to Read on the Subject
(Your librarian can add more...)

 Silent Spring by Rachel Carson
 Practical Waste Treatment and Disposal
  Edited by  Denis Dickinson
  (A Halsted Press Book)
 Vanishing Air (Ralph Nader's
  Study Group Report on Air Pollution)
  by John C Esposito

 Garbage As You Like It (A Plan
   to Stop Pollution by Using Our
   Nation's Wastes) by Jerome Goldstein
   [Rodale Press]
 Radon: The Invisible Threat
   by Michael La Favore
 Terracide: America's Destruction of
   Her Living Environment
   by Ron M. Linton
 Water and Life by Lorus and
   Margery Milne
 Must the Seasons Die?
   by Colin Moorcraft
 GAIA • An Atlas of Planet Management
   Edited by Dr. Norman Myers
 WorJdtvaJch Paper 62: Water:
 ~  Rethinking Management       ~
   in an Age of Scarcity, December 1984
 WorJdwatch Paper 87: Protecting Life on
   Earth: Steps to Save the Ozone Layer,
   December 1988
 Timetable /or Disaster by Don Widener
Classroom Discussion

  These pages can be reproduced for
students so they can follow your
discussion of the subjects shown'.

You Can Make A

  Teach your friends and family about
preventing pollution by your example:
  Action by  the President, Congress,
and state legislatures, rulings by the
courts, speeches by important people, or
your wishing it — as important as they
are — cannot, by themselves, clean up
the environment or keep it from
becoming more polluted than it is.
  Millions of people cause pollution.
Many people contribute to unsightly
and unsafe neighborhoods, litter on
highways,  schools and to our homes.
but millions of people can also help
plant trees, create parks, save wildlife,
and improve our oceans, rivers, streams,
and wetlands.
  You can help. You can become a very
important  person in this effort.
  Here are some things you can do:
Please look at the page You Can Help.

                                                                                     Office ofWaxr
                                                                March t
    You can teach your friends and
    family by your example to prevent
 pollution. Share this information with

    One use is not enough. Recycle paper,
    glass, plastic, aluminum, scrap
 metal,, motor oil, and yard wastes.
 Reuse, repair, and recycle as often as
 possible. Don't throw away what can be
 used  again. Avoid creating unnecessary
 garbage by using wasteful disposables.
 Consider using reusable mugs, glasses,
 dishes, cloth towels, or sponges. Save
 your  leaves, grass, and bush clippings to
 use as compost. Participate in a
 recycling program. Encourage your   *  -
 community and your school to begin
 recycling. Maintain and repair clothes
 and products. Donate usable clothes and
 materials  to thrift shops.

    Use less energy. Set back your
    thermostat, insulate your water
 heater, and buy energy-efficient
 appliances. Setting back the thermostat
 not only saves money, but also saves
 energy. It's an investment in yourself
 and your environment.

    Cars —  Buy energy-efficient vehicles
    and keep them tuned. Carpool, bike,
 walk, or use mass transit when possible.
 A well-tuned internal combustion
 engine makes your car, boat, or tractor
 safer for you and the environment.
 Carpooling and using mass transit,
 biking, and walking result less pollution
 being emitted. Disposal of auto waste is
 another significant problem. Used oil
 can contaminate water  supplies; used
 auto batteries contain lead, lead sulfate,
 and sulfuric acid which can leak into
 soil. Take used  oil, batteries, and auto
 tires to a recycling center or to an
 appropriate disposal facility.

 A PPty pesticides  and herbicides
 jf\.carefully if they must be used.
 Follow instructions  carefully. Use
 natural control materials whenever

    Noxious air (indoor air pollution)
    invades our homes and workplaces.
Reduce tobacco smoke, radon, asbestos,
and other indoor air pollutants.
Americans spend more than 85% of
 their time indoors, so this is one of the
most important  areas where you can
protect yourself from environmental
hazards. One of the most harmful
hazards is radon, a naturally occurring
colorless and odorless gas that seeps
into homes through cracks in
foundations or floors. It is the second
leading cause of lung cancer — leading
to 20,000 deaths a year. Commercial
testing kits are helpful  if directions are
followed carefully. Another indoor air
pollutant, tobacco smoke, which  causes
problems for both smokers and
nonsmokers, further increases one's
chances of developing ling cancer,
especially when combined with radon.
Formaldehyde in new furniture and
carpets, pesticides,, household
cleaners, and solvents from dry-cleaning
are other common indoor pollutants.

    Household hazardous waste — Buy
    only as much potentially toxic
materials or products as you need.
Dispose of remnants and containers
properly. Be alert to labels. Materials
that are toxic for people must be  labeled
"Dangerous," medium toxicity products
are labeled "Warning," and  low toxicity
products are labeled "Caution." Store ;.--'
such materials carefully and use  them
up. If you must throw them out, check
your local community's policy on
hazardous waste disposal. Encourage
your local community to institute a
hazardous waste disposal plan if one  is
not in effect.

   Environmental shopping — Buy
   recycled or recyclable products. Seek
out biodegradable, reusable, or
returnable packages. Look for the
recycling symbol on products you buy.
Such symbols identify recycled or
recyclable products. For home and
work, buy products  that are made of
recycled or recyclable material. Buy
durable-products — don't buy throw
aways. Borrow or rent things you use
infrequently. Avoid  buying products
which use unnecessary plastic or paper
packaging. Use returnable or reusable
containers. Look for pump rather than
aerosol sprays. Buy  rechargeable
batteries for flashlights, toys, and
household items. Consider carrying your
own reusable shopping bag.
   Lead — Be careful around surfaces
   covered with lead-based paint and be
cautious when children are near
renovation or rehabilitation of old
buildings. Be concerned about lead in
drinking water. Recycle auto batteries
that contain lead. Older homes,
especially those in poor repair or in
need of painting, may contain old
lead-based paint. The fine dust from
deteriorating old paint and that  created
during renovation or rehabilitation of
older buildings may contain lead
particles. This dust can travel
throughout the house and even outside.
Keep children away from such areas.
Your family might consider contacting
an expert  before undertaking such
EPA has found unhealthy contaminants
in drinking water in some areas.
Because lead and other contaminants
may cause health problems, consider
having your water tested  if your house   .
has lead pipes. Two drinking water
precautions are to run water until it
changes temperature, and use only the
cold-water tap for drinking and  cooking,
especially for making baby formula.
Lead can slow children's physical and
nervous system development and cause
other neurological, reproductive, and  .
circulatory problems. Auto batteries
contain lead and should be recycled or
disposed of at appropriate sites to help
reduce the amount of lead in the

   Plant trees, shrubs.and indoor plants.
   They replenish the Earth's oxygen
supply and can provide habitat for
wildlife. Plant trees or bushes in your
yard or neighborhood. Trees in your
yard may save you money in heating
and cooling. They can beautify your
property and increase its value.


 The student will do the following:

 1. Define paniculate milter.

 2  Collect paniculate matter from the air In twt
    areas (round (he school.

 3. Analyze the particles collected and draw
    conclusions (bout the airborne paniculate

2 class periods (one week apart)

posterboard or cardboard
clear tape
magnifying glasses
hole punch
permanent markers
Optional:  compasses, dissecting
   microscope, balance
student sheet (Included)

  Our atmosphere Is almost umiplettly made up of invisible gaseous substances. Most major air pollutants
  are also invisible gaseous substance*, although large amounts of them concentrated In area » such as cities
  canbescenas smog. However. oneeaslly viiiMeair pollutant is paniculalemarler. especially when the
  surfaces of buildings and other structures ha\ e been exposed to it for long periods of lime or when II Is
  present In Urge amounts. Paniculate matter is made upof liny particles of solid matter and/or droplets
  of liquid. Natural paniculate matter tends to be less of a problem to human health and the general well-
  being of the environment than that which Is man-made. Natural sources include volcanic ash, pollen,
  and dust blown about by the wind. Coal and oil burned by power plants and industries and diesel fuel
  burned by many vehicles are the chief sources of man-made paniculate pollutants, but not all important
  sources are large-scale. The use of wood In fireplaces and wood-burning stoves also produces rather
  significant amounts of paniculate matter In localized arras, although the total amounts are much smaller
  lhan those from vehicles, power plants, and industries.

  Paniculate air pollutants can be harmful to plant life and to animal and human life when the pollutants
  are Inhaled. Discoloration of buildings and other structures Is also caused by paniculate pollutants: this
  Is unslghtlyandqutleexpensivelocleanup. Becaujeilcanhaveharmfulandseriouseffecls.paniculate
  air quality standards.
  • This activity wasadaptcd from the "Science and Technology Week roster.' distributed by the Nrcdham
    Science Center. Neniham. Massachusetts.


M*Mhan,StnutyE.  Enrirmui^ntal Chemtitrv. 4th ed. Monterey. CA: Brook* Coat, 1984.

                       Stewing and CJ-SUrdtsJd. Chemical Principle!.  6th ed.

  I. Setting the Stage

    A.  Ask the student* how we know air pollution extols.  Are atr pollutant* vtsibter Invisible?

    B.  Havethestudentsglvesorneexamplesofvlsfbleairpollubints. (They win probably list smote,
        dust, smog, and others.)

    C.  Define paniculate matter for the students and (hare with them ^AOCGROUND tNFORMA-

  n. Activity

    A.  Construction of tn sti'iut*

        I.  Give each student a copy of the student sheet'AIR STRIP* (Included). Provide the materials
           to make the strips and have the students follow the directions on the sheet. Make an air strip
           for yourself. Die this strip to show the students ho wtheir finished products should look, then
           use it as a control in pan C for comparison wilh the test strips exposed to the air lor I »vek.
           NOTE:  Each student should make at least one air strip, more if there is Hme.

        2.  (OPTIONAL) Have the studenf*) measure the mass (weight) of the air strips (Including the
           control strip) as accurately as possible on a balance. If you choose to do this step, explain that
           the massof the strips will bemeasuredagainafler the week of exposure. NOTE: Control strip
           weighing at beginning and end will tell the students how much of the difference is caused by
           Increase or decrease in humidity. Add or subtract weight change  of control strip to last
           weight of each test strip.

    B.  Location of air strips.

        1.  Have the students hang the strips at different place* around the school, both Inside and
           outside.  Inside the school, rang,strips In  the halls, cafeteria, bathrooms, shop, gym. labs,
           and/or kitchen. Outside, hang strips in tree*, along main walks, and at all entrances of the
           school. Give e*ch student tape to secure the air strip's string to a stable surf ace at the selected
           sites. The air strips should be able to move freely without bumping other surfaces. NOTE:
           All air strips should be carefully labeled with date, location, and student's name.

        2.  After one week, have the students collect the strips.  Tell them to be careful not to touch the
           sbcky side of the tape.

    C.  Analysis of air strips.
                                        i i
        1.  Have the students visually compare the control air strip to the air strips used to  collect
           paniculate matter.             '

        2.  (OPTIONAL) Haveeachstudenlmeasurelnemassofhls/heralrstripandcompareittolrv
           mass of the air strip before the collection of paniculate matter. (See  note in A J.)

        3.  Distribute magnifying glasses and have the students try to Identify as many particles on the
           tape as possible. Dusl.ash.sool.and/or other particles may be pnxnl. Depending upon the
           timeofyear.pollenmayalsohavebeencollected. (OPTIONAL: You may choose to ha velte
           students use dissecting microscopes Instead of, or in addition to. magnifying glasses.)

      D.  Aiktlxt (indents to drBweandvitora abort ttepcitfcabitiirpo                      An
          there difference* hi the particle* based on where the air strips were placed?

   m. Follow-Up

      Hare each student develop • ctait or graph using the Information gathered by 0* da** and write
      • summary paragraph about the activity.

.   IV. Extension '

      A.  Ptoce air strips to a variety of oft«r places tor • week: o«tls. home*, churchea. store*,
          urban and rural areas, factories, the bumpers of e*i» or school buses, on roof*, or m basement*.
          Have the student* compare the parbcubhn collected from the different areas.

                                            mtodeterrrirMUlte day cJtte week rmfcesadlflercno-
   Saunters. 1983.
                                                            B.  PoM ne»» ah strtpa dairy and com|
                                                                In the amount of paniculate matter collected. Have the students consider such possible factor*

                                                                on lead to • dhcusaton of paniculate matter pollution tourcea.) NOTE:  If the student* at*

                                                                                                                  MAGNIFYING THE  PROBLEM
1.  Using a ruler to measure, cut a strip of
    posterboard or cardboard that is  2
    Inches wide and 10 Inches long.

 2.  Cut 5 holes, each about an Inch In di-
    ameter. In the strip.  Use the ruler to
    find a round object of the right diame-
    ter or use a compass todraw the circles.
    (NOTE: A quarter Is about 1 Inch In
 \  Use a hole punch to put a small hole In
     the hole; theslringwlll be used to hang
     the strip at a selected site.

  4.  Put a long piece of dear tape over one
     side of the strip. Be sure to completely
     cover all 5 holes. (Depending upon the
     width of the Upe, you may need 2 or
     more pieces.)  The sticky side of the
     tape will collect paniculate matter from
     the air. Make sure you do not touch
     the  sricky side of the tape over  the
   5.  Before hanging the air strip at a se-
      lected site, use a permanent marker to
      write on the lop edpe of the strip the
      date, location, and your name.
                                                                          Science, Mathematics

                                                                          1-2 class periods

                                                                          student sheets (Included)

The student will do the following

I.  Identify the makn-characteristic*.
   the sources, and the effects of leaU air

2.  Demonstrate an understanding of
   biological magnification.

                              Some heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, and some man-made chemicals such
                              as PCBs and DDT can be highly toxic to living organisms even though they are present In relatively small
                              amounts. Although metals such as lead occur naturally. Industrial processing and use can greatly
                              Increa selhequanHly present In the environment over nalurallevels. Even when such chcmicalsand extra
                              amounts of metals are no kmger being used by humans. some of them can persist for a long time. The
                              concentration of these compounds In living organisms increases asthe chemicals or metalsarepassed up
                              the food chains In both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

                              A food chain represents the way food Is transferred from one level of organisms to other levels of
                              organisms. For example.atimplc food chain would start with plants, followed by an animal Ihateats only
                              plants, and finally by an animal that cats other animals. Although the plants may not be visibly affected
                              by the tonic compounds, anirruls that rat the contaminated plants lor food may accumulate the Ionic
                              compounds from the plants in their bodies. The animals that eat other animals acquire even more of the
                              toniccompoundsfromlhcirfood. Thisprocesslsreferredloasbiologicalmagnificarion. Some chemicals
                              or heavy metals can build up to Ionic levels In the upper part of the food chain, seriously harming or evon
                              killing animals and people.

                              Lead Is one of the criteria air pollutants Identified and regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency
                              (EPA) and by Environment Canada.  It is a paniculate pollutant and It is also toxic— harmful to people
                              and animals in relatively small amounts/ Lead air pollutants enter the body through Inhalation nr
                              ingestionlfoudorwatrr). Leadlendstobulldupinlhebodybecauseilisexcretcdvcryslowly. Mission*)
                              primarily in bones, remaining potentially hazardous to health as long is it remains in the body.

                              Because lead is known to cause damage to many body organs, the brain In particular. Its effects on
                              childrenareofspecialconcrm. A 1981 study revealed that 1 out ofevery 25 pre-schoolroin the United
                              Slates and 1 out of every 5 inner-city Mack pre-schoolers had dangerously high levels of lead in their
                              blood. Over 10.000 U.S. children are treated every year for lead poisoning, and of those, about 200 die.
                              In Mexico City7of every 10 newboms hive blood lead levels that are dangerously high. Because ohheir
                              actively developing bodies, children are more vulnerable than adults to the effects of lead concentrations.
                              but lead can be a poison for anyone.

                              scena rlosabove. but it Is the most easily pit »eiueJ. The primary source of lead paniculate ma iter In the
                              air we breathe comes from leaded gasoline burned by automobiles. Beginning in 1975, new cars were
                              required to useoiuy unleaded gasoline.and the ETA and Environment Canada have further required the
                              phasing out of the production of leaded gas.  The result has been a dramatic reduction of lead in our air.
                                                                                                                  benefits are numerous. However, we still have* Irad problem to uckle. The lead thai human activitl**
                                                                                                                  ha vemao> more physically •rdbWoglciDyprnalem In DOT rnvlmrinvnt win not |us< go away. Some
                                                                                              3£  ^%


 I.  Setting the Stage

    A.  Ask the students If trieyarefamillarv/ithlheelernentlead. (Ifpossible.showthcrnapieceof lead.
       A fishing line sinker Is a convenient example.) Remind them of familiar Hying* like "heavy as
       lead." You can point out the element's symbol on a periodic chart and discuss its properties.

    B.  Ask the student} If they can name son* use* ol lead. Sumecne should name leaded gasoline.
       Explain (hat can made before I97S use gasoline with lead-containing additives.  The lead com-
       pounds reduce engine "knock* and help the can run more smoothly. However, can made after
       1975 are required to have pollution control devices on their engines and cannot use leaded

    C.  Toll the students that this activity concerns lead air pollution, which comes primarily from can
       burning leaded gasoline. It Illustrates both the problem* with current lead pollution and lead
       which is already in the environment from previous lead pollution.

II.  Activity

    A.  Have the student* consider (he topic of toad air pollution.

       1.  Give each student acopy of tne»roden«iheet"CETnNCTHELEADOUr(includ*J>and
           allow the class lime to read II.

       2.  Discuss the content of Ihestudent sheet briefly. Asklhestudentstoidcniifythvmain sources
           and the effects of lead air pollutants. You might list these on the chalkboard as the students
           give them.
       .1.  Remind (he students thai lead, like many other substances made more available to the en-
           passed up through Ihc food chain from the leaves and stems of plants to the bodies of animals
           and people. (If necessary, review what a food chain is with the  students.)

    B.  Define the term •biological magnification' forthestudents. Enplalnlo the students that they will
       simulate this process through a pencil and paper activity. Make il clear that this activity serves
       demonstrative purposes only; It does not exactly duplicate the actual biochemical and biophysi-
       cal processes of biological magnification and must ml be taken literally. Lead is excreted very
       slowly from living organisms. To simplify this exercise, tell the students to assume trial all  the
       lead is transferred from one (eve) to Ihc next.
          a.  TH1 the srudenn that for Ibe purpose of stmulattag biological magnification, they
              should assume the handout represents • grassy field wlthcow«| grazing on It located
              near a major highway. Each word or number on the iiageiepifstnlsabite of gnu*. The
              shjdentsaietocounl the "Whriofgrasa- In the -field.- The total number representsgrass

           b.  Tell the students that whenever me word lead' appear* on the page. It represenMa
              •bite* that Is contaminated with particles of lead from the exhaust of vehicles burning
              haded gasoline. Have them circle the lead "biles- and then count the number of circled

        2.  Clv«eaehsttidentacopyo
                                                                                                                               Is turned into waste, heal, motion, and other activities like thinking and talking.

                                                                                                                            I.  Tellthesluden»stoentwtr«edaUlnTab^lllandtr«ncalcuUl«lr«concentTaticmoflcad(as
                                                                                                                               Indicated) found in Ihe person who ate the cow. Remember, all of the lead is retained in the

                                                                                                                        E.  Summarize the activity on the chalkboard for the students: have them enter the data In Ihe table
                                                                                                                            -LEAD IN THE FOOD CHAIN." Explain why the amount of lead per unit of body weight
                                                                                                                            Increases at each level of the food chain. Make sure they understand the simulation.

                                                                                                                        F.  Teacher's Key
t Bites Lead
• Bites Lead
• Hies Lead
43 i

.077 ppu
Total f Bites
10% Total Bites
1% Total Bites
Cow Lead Concentration
.77 ppu
Crass Lead Concentration
.077 ppu
Cow Lead Concentration
.77 ppu
Human Lead Concentration
7.70 ppu,
Human Lead Concentration
7.70 ppu
 m. Follow-Up

    A.  Have the students list from imnmy the major sources and the effect* of lead air pollution.

    B.  Have the students draw Ihe food chain used In the simulation of biological magnification.

    C  (Optional) You may wish to ha ve Ihe students evaluate the simulation; I.e.. name the assump-
        tions made and list reasons why they are or are not likely to be valid or realistic. For example.
        In part D (above), the students may be able to point out that one person would not eat a whole
        cow. especially the bones (where most of Ihe lead Is stored).

 IV. Extensions

    A.  The class may want In examine further Ihe issue of phasing out leaded gasoline. Can older can
        run well on unleaded gas? Wr|y do people remove the pollution control devicesfromlhcir newer
        can? How much control should government agencies have over Individual citizens? Hpwdo
        Ihe benefits compare to the possible drawbacks?

    B.  You may want to havecUssmembeislnofcal lead poisoning from sources other than ah-pollution
        Inmoredetail. A major Issue has been the condition of older housing, most often occupied by
        Ihe poor of the inner cities. Buildings like these have  lead pipes so lead gets into the drinking
        water. (Copper pipes soldered with solder that contains lead are widely found.) Old buildings
       • also are frequently painted with lead-based paints. Leaded paint chips are frequently eaten by
        babies and toddlers. Have students find out what the current federal regulations on lead-based
        paints are.                '

    C.  The most often used example of biological magnification Is Ihc pesrkUV DDT. You may want
        to have the class look in more detail at why this chemical was banned from most uses (in the U.S.
        In 1972). The following chart gives actual measurements which show biological magnification.
                                                                                                                        Air Pollution Control Association.  SffiU
                                                                                                                            Pittsburgh. PA 15320). 1984.
                                     i Hnok on Air PfllhiHon To
                                                                   (Address: P.O. Box 2861.
                                                                                                                        Brown. Inter, et-al.  Stale of Ihe World. 1990. WorldWatch Inslllhjte. New York: Norton. 1990.

                                                                                                                        Kupchella, C.E. and M.C HjrUnd. EnvlmmixmalSclenct^ 2nd. ed. Boston: AtVyn and Baton. 1989.

                                                                                                                        Miller, C. T.. fr. philnMumnulScttntK An Introduction. Brtmont. CA: Wadsworfh. 1QM

                         GETTING THE LEAD OUT

people began mining and using lead almost 3,000 years ago.  Lead and materials
containing it have been used In paints, bullets, cookware, solder, batteries, plumbing,
pesticides, gasoline, and many other things. Although very useful, every form of lead
I; harmful to people and animals if It gets into their bodies. Lead poisoning is the d isease
tliat results when a person (or animal) has enough lead in his/her body to cause muscle
tjemors, digestive system problems, anemia, and brain damage; it can even be fatal.

Because of lead's many uses and the many ways it becomes a pollutant, lead pollution
Is found all over the world. It is even carried in the air to places where very few people
live or to places where people live primitive lifestyles and use no lead products. All of
us have some lead in our bodies. People who live in large cities have more lead than
those living In rural areas. There is some scientific evidence that even very low levels
of lead In the body cause problems (for example, high blood pressure) in some people,
but most people have only a fraction of the lead it takes to cause lead poisoning.

HOW does lead get into the body?  Most of the lead entering our bodies comes from
things we eat or drink. For instance, consuming food out of cans made with lead solder
and drinking water from plumbing systems with lead,  both put lead into our bodies.
This is not the only way our bodies collect lead. We also breathe lead air pollutants, tiny
particles of lead that float in theair, especially in cities. Lead air pollutants can also settle
Into things we eat and drink.  Animals that graze near busy highways can eat enough
lead particles in the grass on which they feed to show symptoms of lead  poisoning.

Once in the body, lead stays for • long time. As lead circulates through our bodies in
 the blood, it tends to collect In bones. The more lead to which we are exposed, the more
we collect in our bodies. This is especially serious for children, who are more sensitive
 to lead's effects than adults. Children around the world, especially those living in large
cities, are suffering from lead poisoning.  Even those  who don't show signs of lead
 poisoning can suffer lowered intelligence, behavioral  problems, and other effects of

 The effects of lead on people, especially children, is one reason lead air pollution is of
 so much concern.  The government has passed laws  that have greatly reduced the
 amount of lead air pollution in the United States. The fight against this air pollution has
 been much easier than the fight against others, because the source of the pollution is
 easily done away with. Some lead air pollution comes  from industries using lead, but
 most of it comes from cars burning leaded gasoline. Cars don't have to bum gasoline
  with lead In it; in fact, all the cars made since 1975 cannot use it. The law requires that
  the leaded gas made today have less lead than in the past, and soon, no leaded gas will
  be made at all.

  By getting the lead out of gasoline, we are getting the lead out of our air. We are
  breathing, eating, and drinking less lead, and that Is good for all of us.

                      '.  DDT CONTAMINATION
     LARGE FISH			.._......2 ppm
     SMALL FISH —	J	05 ppm
     PLANKTON		.	.0.004 ppm
     WATER		,	0.00000) ppm
                         Concentration of DDT
                         magnified approximately
                         10 million lime* from
                         the level of DDT in the
                         surrounding water

> of •bteiof'gran* Tail f of "bitn In Lead concentration hi
containing lad the field" "gra»»" (In pant par unit Ippu)
, (grata Woman) where unln ar> "MteT)

I (word! lead") (100% of wordll

containing lead

1 10» of total number of
bitct In twU (cow

Lead concentration in
wow (In pant per unit
of cowl

*" (word) lead") , (10% of wordil (ppu)
9 of bltci con ti in tag
1% of total number of
   hilt* In fold
 • human biofnjui
Lead concentration In the
  Modem who ejtt the
 cow (in part* per unit
     t»f itudentt
  (word! lead-)
                        LEAD IN THE FOOD CHAIN
 tonttntratton in
                         i lead concentration m cow
                                                   trad (onrcmrattnn In human
                                                                                                      fan you explain why the amount of lead Increija at each level ol In* food chain?


        The student win do the following:

        1.  EnpUIn how the Greenhouse Effect
           Is capable of changing (he climate of
           the earth.

        2.  Describe how a greenhouse g>s winks.

        3.  Identify the sources of the Increasing amounts
           of carbon dioxide (CO,) in the earth's
Science. Mathematics

1-2 class periods

dry Ice (science department it local college
  or high school or local businesses are
  possible sources; store In an Ice chest
  and break Into small pieces before use)
  CAUTION: Do not handle dry Ice with
  bare hands. Use gloves.
4 or 5 light sources (lamps with 100-watt
  bulbs or 3-way reading lights turned to
  highest wattage)
For each studenigroup:
 watch or timer
 2 clear glass bottles with lids lhal fit rightly
 2 small thtrmunietns that fll inside the
   glass bottles (aquarium theiiimmrtm
   work nicely)
student sheets (Included)

Carbon dioxide is a by-product 01 most living
things and many commercial processes. Organ*
Isms "burn" food (fuel) to release the energy re-
quired for llfeactivion. Carbon dioxide isa waste
productofthHprocess. When humans burn fossil
fuels (fuels such as coal and oil formed by plants     >	'
millions of yean ago). CO, Is also given  off.  Today we use huge amounts of energy (fuel) for
transportation and Industry. Concern Is giuwliig about the Urge amount of CO, that Is building up in the
atmosphere as fossil fuels are burned. Such an Increase In atmospheric COr along with Increases inolhcr
gases such as CFCt (chlorofluorocarbons). could lead to an Increase in the average temperature of the
earth.  This Is known as the "Ormhous* Effect.'

Carbon dioxide differs from nitrogen (N,) and oxygen (O.). the two main gases In our atmosphere.
because it absorbs Infrared radiation (heat) emitted by the earth, causing the temperature of the earth to
Increase. TheCieenhouse Effect canbeoburved in parked cars in the sun or In gieeiihuuscs made mostly
of glass. The glass In the windows Is transparent to visible light. This light heats the surface it shines ori.
Then, the hot surfaces emit Infrared radiation, which does not penetrate the glassand is trapped, causing
the Inside n* the cars (or greenhouses) to warm up. The theoiized warming of the earth Is certainly not
M dramatic as the heat gain in parked can, but Is nonetheless a real concern.

Studleshave shewn that since 1890 the amount of CO. In the earth's atmosphere has been Increasing. The
following table shows this Increase
CO, (ppm)
        The concern of adcntWs to Out If (ht amount of O^ In me atmosphere continues ID rise, (he average
        temperature of theearthcould be affected. Some computer predictions Indicate that by the year 2050 (he
        average temperature of the earth could rfs> bjr as much as 3*C (about tfFt. Such a change in temperature
        may sound small, but ettmstologM* believe It could drtmattemlh; affect future climates. Areas that now
        receive ample rainfall might become arid and vice versa.  Polar Ice caps could mHi to some degree.
        causing a rise hi so level. Even a slight rise maw level could have drastic effects on many of (he world's
        Uri^dttes, established narcoasts for good access toocean*. Noonecanbesureexactfvwhsttheeffects
        on dimatc or tool weather pattern would be. but any change that occurs could be very serious: Plants
        and animals h»v« adapted to existing climates over thousand s of years; many species cou Id not adapt to
        climate changes thai happen over shorter periods of time, and famine and/or extinction could result.

                                                              I. Setting the Stage

                                                                A.  Tell the students that the CO, found In the earth's atmosphere is a greenhouse gas. Shaw the
                                                                    background information with (He das*.

                                                                B.  Show the students a piece of dry Ice.  Explain that it Is CO, that has been solidified by cooling
                                                                    CO, gas to a very luw t
   C. Have thestudents suggest an expeilmeiii.usmgdry tee asaCO, source, thafmlght demonstrate
      that CO, is a greenhouse gas.

II. Activity

   A. Have the students conduct the experiment as directed bHow.

      1.  Divide the class into pairs or small groups of students.  Give o«ch group the materials
          required and a copy of the student sheet "CO. AND TEMPERATURE DATA SHEET

      2.  Have the students place the (htnujimuu In (he bottles and label one bottle "air- and the
          other XOr" The teacher should place a small piece of dry Ice into each CO,  bottle.
          (CAUTION: Use gloves!) Then the students should place the top on the bottle but do NOT
          tighten; pressure could cause the bottle to break. Place the top on the bottle labeled "air.- but
          do not lighten it either.  (Whenmosiofthedry keis gone, the lopsonlhebottksshouldlhcn
          be lightened.) Allow 10 minutes for (he CO, bottle's temperature to come back to room tem-
          perature. (NOTE: CO, could be placed m the bottle at (he beginning of the dass period to
          saverime.>Recordtheicmperaturelnbot)iboii)es. Do not remove the tops from the oolites
          until the experiment is complete.

      3.  After the temperatures have stabilized, haw the students place both bottles on* foot from a
          lOOwatt light and read the temperature from the (hermomttyis every 10 minutes for one
          hour (or until the end of the dass period). Record the temperatures on the data sheet.

   B.  Record the temperature differences for each group on the board. Have each group look at the
      data and draw a conclusion about whether or not CO, could be a greenhouse gas.  Can the
      students think of ways to improve the experiment?

 HI. Follow-Up

    A.  Review the poat&lepnenl effects of the CrcerAotae Effect wlm^            Be sure they
        mention change In eUmale. change In weather pattern*, and rise of oceans.

    R  rbvethestadmtiipeciiUtehowtheb-UvawiMddbedlf^^
        How would agriculture and population centers In North America change?

    C  Telltr«ftudentstralpUntsrrtonrfproduceCX)rba1theyabooseCO,tormkefcod. Thera^
        forests In the tropical and semHrofjical areas of the world an; enorimus users of COr However,
        OJpercent of the total forest' (s being destroyed each year. How wfjl this affect CO, In the

    D.  Hare ftcsttiden.3dtacp3»w«y» that rn^^
        limit the Greenhouse Effect They should fndude limiting the use of fossil fuels and preserva-
        tion of rain forests*

 IV. Extension

    A.  rbve the studeiter^tuieiiiionietenmtwo cats. TtelherniometeisahuuM
        sundoes not directly strike themand  where theycanbe read without opening doors. Park
        one car In the fun tun and roll up the windows. Park the second car In the shade and roll up the
        windows. (NOTE: Be sure to choose ears with untinted windows!) Take the temperature
        readings Inside the two cars every 10 minutes for a dass period. Compare the results.

    B.  CTCgasiMnotherpoliuUntthat|scoimtbutrnglDrheGfe
                     CO, AND TEMPERATURE DATA SHEET
1.  Bulb wattage:
2.  Bulb distance from bottles:



   Ebbing, Darrell. General Chemhtrv. 3rded.  Boston: Houghton Mtfflln. 1990.

   Manahan. Stanley E. Environmental Chemistry.  4lhed. Monterey. CA: Brooks Cole. 1984.

   Merken. Mdvin. Physical Science with Modem Application.  4lhed. Philadelphia: Saunders. 1989.

The students will do the following:

1.   Describe how wave chemicals from auto ex-
    hausts can cause acid rain.   ,

2.   Dncribe measure? In prevent acid rain. •
Science. Math. Language Arts

 1-2 class periods

 clean plastic bottles with lids for collecting
    samples of polluted water
 stick-on address labels or masking tape
 permanent Ink pen or pencil
 petri dishes
 filter paper
. distilled water
                                                                                                                       BACKGROUND INFORMATION

                                                                                                                       Acid rain is living proof that what goes up eventu-
                                                                                                                       ally must come down.  Cars, trucks, and fossil fuel
                                                                                                                       burning industries and smelting operations release
                                                                                                                       sulfur oiides and nitrogen oxides into the atmo-
                                                                                                                       sphere.  Coal-burning power plants and Industries
                                                                                                                       .ire the primary sources pi sullur. Cars and trucksemit mainly nitrogen oxides. These gases are carried
                                                                                                                       by the winds and weal her  When (hose chemicals mi> with water vapor, they form sulfuhc and nitric
                                                                                                                       jcids. The gases iSO. and NO,i may also react with other pollutants to form sulfates and nitrates which
                                                                                                                       can also form acids when combined with water. Eventually they fall to the ground In the form of rain.
                                                                                                                       snow, hall. foe. and dew  Acid ram pollutants can cause problems when they reach water bodies as wet
                                                                                                                                                                                                Student Sheet
II.   Activity

    A.   Divide the student* into small group* and pve etch croup a 

Sample •

Date of Sample



Time Sample Taken

Type of Vehicle

pH of Sample


Date of

Time Sample

i i


Location of

Water Source
of Sample

of Sample

      Environmental Resource Guide • Nonpoint Source Pollution Prevention   X^
                                   Copyright 1992
                        Air * Waste Management Association
                                                                        AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT
Teachers may reproduce parts of this book for noncommercial classroom use without
permission of the copyright holder.  For all others, reproduction without permission is

For information on obtaining copies of this manual, contact Beth OToole, Education
Program Manager, Air & Waste Management Association, P.O. Box 2861, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania 15230, (412) 232-3444. fax (412) 232-3450.


 The students win do the following:

 1 .  Define wtler pollution ind doofhe the dif-
     ference between point and nonpolnt

 2*  Deicribe ttw main sources of water  polnv
     lion— urban, agriculture, mining, and forestry
     and list examples of each.
     Identify ways to minimize nonpofnt mi
Science. Soda) Studies, Language Am

1-2 dan periods

Can You -Detect" Potential Water Pollu-
  tion Problem? Handout
magazine phutogr a phs, slides, or oliici
  Dictum of water pollution

  Water pollution Is generally defined as any human-caused contamination of water that reduces Its
  usefulness to humansand other organisms m nature. There are two broad daises of water pollution. One
  Is point Kmrce pollution. II has Its source In a well-defined location, nich as the pipe through which
  factory discharges enterastreara The other rsmmpolnt source pollution. It has Its sou ice over Urgeareas
  such as farms, grazing lands, logging roads, construction sites.abandoned mines, and the gardens, lawns,
  streets, and parking lots of elite*. People can cause nonpoint lource pollution by Uttering, wrongfully
  disposing of household hazardous wastes and pet wastes, dumping motor oil. over-fertilizing lawns and
  farmlands, mtsappljrlng pesticides and herbicides. Illegally discharging wastes from boats, and  Inap-
  propriately de-Icing sidewalks and driveways. Nonpoint tource pol lubon does not enter the waterway
  al a single point or originate from a single location. Nonpoint lource pollution Is much more difficult to
  control than point source pollution, where the source is easily identifiable.

  Tvpes of nonpoint pollution vary and examples Include sediment, iiuhleiils. and pesticides. Other
  significant nonpoint sources Include leachate and runoff from waste disposal systems, farming, urban
  ninofl. miningind logging areas* and construction sites. Regionally significant nonpotnt sources include
  beich and shoreline erosion and atmospheric deposition.

  Of all the types of nonpoint pollution, sediment conipi Ises the greatest amount by weight of materials
  transported. Sediment pollution or erosion results mainly from row-cropping, livestock  operations,
  construction sites, logging opeialtons. and urban runoff. Sediment can adversely affect recreational.
  Industrial, and municipal water uses as well« aquatic habitat*. Sediment can also fill takes, navigation
  channels, and harbors. TMs can result In costly dredging operations. Sediment can also transport other

  Other than sediment the pollutants of greatest concern from rural and urban areas ere plant nutrients,
  mainly nitrates and phosphates. Nonpoint sources of nutrients Include Inorganic fertilizers and anhnal
  wastes from agricultural opeialtons. runoff from urban gardens and lawns, and  septic lank failures.
  Excessive nutrients cm cause unsightly growths of algae and aquatic weeds wMeh adversely Impact the
  entire acjuarkettnysiein and an rrtuauVusefalness of water bed lesfcriecirallon. water suppfygand
  wildlife habitat
                                                                 Often nutrients enter water bodies along with Urge quantities of organic material socn as soft which.
                                                                 upon decompositloii limease the demand for oiy^eii. Algae, animal wastes, domestic wastes, and
                                                                 Industrial discharges can contain oxygen-denundlng substances that deplete the supply of oxygen
                                                                 available for fish, and may cause fish kills. Fish kills occur when dissolved oxygen levels drop below
                                                                 levels required by the fish to breathe. This causes fish to suffocate.

                                                                 Other pollutants, though pimmfr much smaller quantities, an also a concern because of their
                                                                 potentially harmful effects on human health and aquatic life. M Intng activities, pesticides, animal wastes.
                                                                 soil erosion, runoff from urban areas, leachate from sanitary landfills, and septic lank failures eon tribute
                                                                 toxic substances such as heavy metals, oil, and other dangerous organic chemicals to water systems.
                                                                 Water bodies contaminated wilh bacteria or toxic metals and pesticides require extensive liealniein to
                                                                 make the water safe for drinking or other purposes. Water bodies contaminated with disease-causing
                                                                 bacteria may need to be closed for recreational purposes like swimming and fishing.
                                                                 Finally, atmospheric pollutants can cause \nobtain when they reach water bodies as wet or dry fallout
                                                                 Wet fallout Is when water vapor coqiplnes with pollutants hi the amiupslieie and Is deposited In rain,
                                                                 snow, and dew.  Dry fallout Is deposited as dust particles. Add rain forms primarily when fossil fuels
                                                                 are burned. Add rain reaches  water bodies either directly as rain and snow from contaminated douds
                                                                 or when dry fallout Is deposited on land and washed Into water bodies as runoff or snow melt.

                                                                 Nonpoint source pollution occurs over large areas and b often difficult to pinpoint The mosteffe
                                                                 wav to control nonooint gnttrrr nxlluMm u u>       * — —•"•••— -" —•—"-•	'
. —,	„—» pw-.w. «^M. > WTO M*gr«renBna a onen auncuii io pinpoint The most effective
way to control nonpoint source pollution Is to pnmnt or reduce all potential sources of pollution.
Erosion, for instance. Is a major contributor of sediment, nutrients, toxics, and oxygen-demanding
pollutants. No-till and reduced tillage agricultural piaclkea. contour plowing, and controlled drainage
(use of glassed waterways. berms.and tile drainage systems) can go a long way toward protecting water
bodies fiuiii the excessive erosion associated with row^iuuuing. Conliuulng nmoff from livestock
operations, reclaiming strip mine areas, carefully constructing logging roads  with water diversions.
using good forest harvesting pi at Ikes, and exercising good Judgment when planning and carrying out
construction activities can all help control sediment pollution of water bodies. Atmospheric deposition
can be controlled  at the point of geneiallun with scrubbers In smokestacks and  reduced use of
automobiles. Reducing solid wastes decreases the need for landfills and reduces the potential for
groundwarer contamination from leachate. These are hist a few of the many ways nonpoint source
pollution can be reduced or eliminated.

I.   Setting the Stage

         Introducethetermswater pollution, point, and nonpoint. Passout student handful "Can You
         'Detect' Potential Water Pollution Probterror  Have the students distinguish point from
         nonpoint and explain why.

    B.   Show the dass magazine photographs, slides, or other pictures of water pollution. Ask them
         for their own observations of water pollution In their con unurdtyorrn places they have vis! ted.

    C.   Tell the students that the lesson wul Introduce them to the four main sources of water
         pollutants—urban, agriculture, mtning,and forestry. Note that urban rndudesdties. residential
         areas, malls, and roadways.
                                                                II.  Activity

                                                                    A.   Read the followtnggulded Imagery tolhteUss.Afiereachpassage.ask the students to Identify
                                                                         the source of the pollution and explain why.

                                                                    1.    IPs raining during rush-hour traffic m an Industrial park where several factories an
                                                                         changing shifts. Smoke b billowing from the smokestacks at the factories and from some
                                                                         automobile and truck exhaust pipes. Visibility li limited due to the smog and drivers are
                                                                         being very cautious of the wet roads.

                                                                         WhatU the pollution seurce?(URBAN-Ca«»fiu»ilusin fuel bun^spoxtr
                                                                         Industrial smokestacks I without scrubbers or other type of pollution control devtcesland
                                                                         cars and trucks cause add rain.)

                                                                         Rain to also falling on parking lots at shopping maOa and on fht highways. The waters
                                                                         flow Into a nearby stream. After the rain stops, soflit boys pun/tag In the water
                                                                         downstream notice that then b a tight Aim of oil on the wata.

3.    Farther dtmiBlieain trie boys notfce a heim bi^ putll art u^ stream Is muddy.

     What Is the pollutant source? (URBAN • Erosion from ban land exposed during

4.    ThlsMmestTeamlhennowsbyaeottonflekl which hssbeeimup-duutd to kfll weevils.
     The farmer's grandchildren who are fishing to the stream the next day notice that there
     are several dead Hsh in the water that were not there the day before.

     What Is the pollution source? (AGRICULTURE - The pesticide drifted Into the stream
     when the field was being crop-dusted and killed the fish.)

5.    The farmer's grandchildren dedde to continue on dowiatieam to Rnd another Bshmg
     spot. The stream continues to flow by another farmer's land where he/she has dairy
     cows. Some co wsare grazing in the pasture and others andrinkmgoutof the stream. The
     children notice that the water Is very muddy.

     What Is the pollution source? (AGRICULTURE - Dairy cows an trampling down the
     streambank and are also depositing animal wastes Into the water. Trampling" resullsln
     loss of vegetation and Increased erosion.  Animal wastes can pollute the water with
     bacteria and nutrients. This Is making the water muddy.)

6.   The children continue hiking on downstream. They go by a com field. Tliey leiiieinber
     how hot they got last month when they helped their granddaddy ferolln the field to get
     It ready to plant. They remember how wonderful It was when It rained the next day. At
     last the children got to a spot where they usually catch a lot of fish. They found algae and
     weeds that were not there during the first part of the summer. The children wonder why
     there was so much algae and weeds growing m the stream now.

     What Is the pollution source? (AGRICULTURE - The fertOlzer runoff (excessive ntrtrt-
     ents) from the corn field caused the algal bloom and excess aquatic weed growth.)

 7.    Meanwhile, back In thedty.theemuluyits of the wastewater treatment plant notice an
      I ncreaselnbacterla when conducting their routine water testsontheSKKMIJOp.m.shHl.
      The employees remember that the heavy rams earlier In the day washed a lot of mud and
      litter dowri gutters and curbs, and caused the storm sewers to overflow.

     What is the pollution source? (URBAN • Heavy rams cause pet wastes, soil, and litter, to
     wash from impervious surfaces Into streams.  Both pet waste and litter can contribute
     bacteria to the stream. Also, If storm sewers are combined with sewers for domestic and
     commercial wastes, untreated waste may also be released to surface waters following
     heavy rains. (NOTE: Most dtles have separate storm and wastewater sewers. If they are
     combined, water may flow too fast Into the wastewater treatment plant and not get
     adequately treated.)
        B.    During the next week, imptoytts of the wistewaler treatment plant i
                     p the creek
             turns green and smells. The einuloyecscouldn't uiideistand this, so the employees look
             attheirmapstodeteiiiuiielf any creeks flowing Into the river might be the source of the
             new pollution. They notice that a creek a couple of miles upstream flows by the new golf
             course that had friH opened and they call the golf course office to find out If they had
             fertilized their grass. They had. In fact, fertilized It right before a heavy rain.

             What Is the pollution source? (URBAN • The fcrtllcer was washed Into the creek that
             eventually flowed Into the river that was used by the water treatment plant. The fertiltoer
             added nutrients which caused an algal bloom.)

             The drinking water Irealnieiil plant employees do a metal analysis and Bnd that there is
             an unacceptable amount of lead In the water. They look at their map for possible areas
             where metals might be entering the creek, They notice an abandoned area by a creek
             which flows Into the river that Is the source of the city's drinking water. Of fidals go to
             check the area and And hall-filled paint cans among garbage that had been Illegally

             What Is the pollution source? (URBAN -Theold paint contains lead and the rain washed
             the lead into the creek which flowed into the river used by the drinking water treatment
        10.   Months later, drinking •
nployees notice test results which
             Indicate that the water Is loo acidic Remembering that a coal mine Is located near one of
             the streams that flows into the river they use tor drinking water, they send someone out
             to check out the situation. The coal mine had been abandoned.

             What was the sc«me of polrutton?(MINu>C-TherurcO(iom the sponpOes of leftover
             rocks towing into thecreekwascddlc. Spoil piles contain sulfur and other compounds
             which turn mtp Mid* when they combine with water.)
                                                                                                                               [™»w«r»l'"onms. the wastewater treatment plant had an Increase hi the amount of
                                                                                                                               sediment in the water, so they send someone out to cheek this out. They find that a "fly-
                                                                                                                               by-night logging company had clearcul the forests near the creek that is used for
                                                                                                                               drinking water.
                                                                                                                               soil is not Protected, soil en* on Increases. Therefore, there Is more soil or sediment
                                                                                                                               (lowing into the streams. More sediment makes the water muddy.)

                                                                                                                  III.  Follow-Up

                                                                                                                      A.  Divtdetl«classtatosnu,llgToupsandhaveihemn^^
                                                                                                                          communities. Haveeachgroupwrltethelrown stories similar to Ihegulded imagery using this
                                                                                                                          information and share them with the class. After each story have the studenft Identify the
                                                                                                                          source and explain why.
                                                                                                                          in me guided Imagery.

                                                                                                                      C   £"Ve1,el*,5J^nll,"l!!e ' *0ly tbou» • WMW d"** '"•« His how It became polluted, and
                                                                                                                          how It could ha re been prevented. Have them draw pictures of before and afteV
                                                                                                                 IV.  Extension
                                                                                                                          •—--•-•	• •"•- -«•• B»™..UI«III» iiivliuiuiieinal agency (EPA or Environment
                                                                                                                          Canada) to request Information about water pollution and what Is being done to prevent It



                                                                                                                 Tlonpomt Source Polhilion.- Water Quality Factsheet 94. Tennessee Valley Authority. 1988.
                                                                                                                                                   Sliuh-nl Sheet
                                                                                             CAN YOU "DETECT" POTENTIAL WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS?


     The students win do the following:

     I.  Develop a  model which demonstrates how
        nonpermeable  areas collect a number of
        pollutants which can runoff Into nearby lakes
        and streams.
     2.  Citeexamplesofurbi
         by observing the model.
     3.  SuggestwaystoreducerunoHmurDanareaiby
        redesigning ind testing their models.

     Rainwater ninnhig off roofs, lawns, streets, and
     parking lot* can wash a number of water pollutants
     Into lakes and streams. These pollutants include
     nutrients fiom garden fertilizers, bacteria from pel
     wastes and rotting litter, sediments from erosion.
     toxic chemicals such as pesticides, oil, gasoline.
     and trace metals from emissions and grinding car
     parts  (lead, mercury, and cadmium), tine from
     roofs and gutters, arid road salt or sand.
Science, Social Studies. Language Arts

1-2 class periods

cardboard bOJiesoi plasnc rectangular boxes
  (1 per group)
garbage bags (If cardboard boxes are used)
plastic hose
duct tape (to seal hose)
slyrofbam pieces (different sizes and thick-
food colorings
vegetable oil
potting soil
eyedroppersd  per group)
small plastic (an (6 per group)
watering can
paper towels
pictures of different parking lots and uiban
  areas (optional)
iii. levdoped areas, these pollutants usually collect on hard-surfaced parking lots and streets where they
  naln until a hard rain washes them Into nearby storm sewers. Sometimes these pollutants collect In
such high concentrations that they kill fish when they are washed all at once by a heavy rain into a stream.
This Iscalted shock load Ing. To prevent mb from happening, urban pUnneraarr now plan tinggrm filter
strips, diversion ditches, and holding ponds to collect the runoff and allow it to seep slowly Into the
ground and/or to slow runoff down so that less enters sloimseweisor washes Into water bodies. Agrau
filler strip Isan area of land planted with grass where water can flow Instead of running intoa stormdrain.
Adiverslondltchlsachannelllnedwlthgrassorriprapusedtodlreclwaterawayfromanarea. Diversion
ditches divert water to open land or ponds where it can collect and be slowly absorbed Into the ground.


 I.   Prepare the foDowtrBjmWuresmtnuul plastic jars and label as follows:

     A.   1/4 cup (68 ml) salad  ofl + 2-3 drops yellow food coloring + 2-3 drops green food
          coloring—label "oil or gasoline.'

     B.   1/2 cup (125 ml) water* 3-5 drop* red food coloring—label trace metals,"

      C.    1/2 cup 1125 mO water* 3-5 drops green food colotuig . label femlnera.'

      D    1 /2cupll25ml) water »1 teaspoon (5 ccl salad ofl + 3-5 drops yellow food coloring—
           label "pet wastes and rotting Utter."

      E.   I /2eup< 125 mn water* petting sod and shake vigorously—label 'erosion.'

      P.   1 /2 crip (125 ml) water* 5 drops blue food coloring—label-tooac chemicals.'

  II.  TosaveJsj«toruKwlththeirtM^tto«macoolpla«topi«^
      Do not store more than two days.

        I.    Setting the Stage
    B,  Tell ttieshtdeneitliathard-surfacedpailLlnglats provide no place forram In slowly filter down
        through the soil, and pollutants transported In urban storm sewer systems Include nutrients,
        bacteria, litter, soil, toxic chemicals, and organic materials.

II.  Activity

    A.  DJvidethecUsslntogroupsloftruTeorrourandglveeachgiDiipabrn. Have them line the box
        with a garbage bag. Then poke a hole m the end of the box and attache hose to serve** a dram.
        Put the hose in the hole. Make sure the hose fits tightly. Use duct tape to seal the hose. The
        hose will represent a city storm sewer. TeD them that water flowing through the hose will
        travel straight into a nearby stream.

    B.  Design and construct environment.

         1.    Have the students design Ihelr own urban environment on a piece of paper first. Tell
              them theyaregolng louse styrofoambtocksand sponges lo create thisenvironmeni. The
              styrofoam will represent buildings and parking lots. The sponges will represent grassy
              areas, landscape plantings, diversion ditches, or grass filter strips.
                             i •
         2.    When they havt completed thedeslgn. havethemcutoulandarrangethepiecesmthelr
             .boxes. (NOTE:  Suggest to the students that they minimize cutting In their designs
              because it lakes a tot of work to cut the design oul.t
    C.  When the students finish designing their urban areas, have them use eyedroppers to deposit
        pollutants onto their environments. Use the pollutants prepared in the advanced preparation
        section. The pollutants should be placed where they would occur normally.

    D.  naceabi^pla^tk^runderthehoselocstchthednhvgeardcreateaheavyralnstormuslRg
        a sprinkling-type watering can. Keepralntiigunttlpollutantswashoff. (NOTE: Use the same
        amount of "rain" on each model). Watch the water draining out the storm drain. What does
        It look like? Did the runoff look fromdilfeieiu models vary. Explain that nowalllhepollutants
        are mixed up so we can't see what they are.

in.  Follow-Up

    A.  Tell them about diversion ditches and grass strips lo prevent or reduce the amount of
        contaminants reaching the surface waters. How could the model be designed differently to
        reduce pollution? What other things could be done to prevent urban pollution? Have the
        students redesign their models with diversion ditches, grass filter strips, or holding ponds.

    B.  ComparethewalercDnecMrromthtiedeslgnedinodelMtr*
        Werethe^successhil? Why? What worked and what dhhit? Why?

                       A.  Invite an uiban planner, architect, or water quality professional to visit your class and talk
                           about what Is being done to reduce urban water pollution hi your area.

                       B.  Ask the Invited speaker to fudge the students original or redesigned models and suggest
                           additional modifications.

                                                         els. Industrials
            A.  Explain thatiamwatei running off roofs, lawi
                ana* washes • number of poOutants Into lakes and streams.
                                                                                                                  BWLOimS, ROAM
                                                                                                                                BWIP *MM


The students will do the folluwlng.

1 •  Identify sources of fertilizer runoff.

2.  Describe the effect* of fertilizer on algal growth
    by e»peiiinent with different witcr nonet.
Science. Math. Language Arti

1*2 cltss periods

dear plastic quart contained or liter bottles
  (4 per group)
measuring spuuns
water samples
plant fertilizer
lap water
camera and fltm (optional)
phoiogiaphs of water bodies with algal
   problems and euliuulilcation (optional)
 Farmers, fuiesten. honieowiieis, and businesses can pollute water by Improperly usrng chemical
 fertilizers*  For example. In uiuan areas, nomeovmert often apply 2*3 nmes the recommended ajuutmli
 of fertilizer to lawns, gardens, and flowers. Farmenapplymg too much manure or feroiizersat the wrong
 lime can cause similar piuMems. For Instance. It Is not good to apply fertilizer ID saturated ground or
 duringthe rainy season. After heavy rains, fertilizer c«n wash into the rivers and lakes and nipplyaquatic
 plants with too many nutrients.  A> a result, algae can multiply faster and cause algal blooms.  Algal
 blooms can reduce the supply of oxygen in Ihe water beiauseojiygeii is insulted for algal if ipuationand
 growth. When the algae dies, cjyfctn is requlied to break down or decompose the dead algae.. Both
 piomses can make oxygen unavailable to fish and other aquatic life and may cause fish kills. When
 plants and animals die. they settle to the bottom. Under normal conditions this results In the water body
 gradually  filling up with sediment. THs process Is called eutrophtcation. This process Is sped up when
 cxccto nutrients And wolnwnl trt Adoco to A wBttr oody.

 I.    nil SfTei^bockettocothareontamers with tap water arelte them set for a day or »o(oanow any
      chlorine to dissipate.

 II.   Prep»rererUllzeTaccertlngtoOiep»ctajftdlrect.or»«iiddoublensstrttig^ For example.
      If the directions call Tor one teaspoon per quart of water and your sample Is one quart, add
      two teaspoons of fertilizer to the water sample.


  I.   Setting the Stage

      A.  Explain that (1) water pollution Is any human-caused contamination of water that \taen> Its
           value to humans and nature; and (2) phosphorus entering lakes In runoff from fertilized areas
           can cause heavy algal blooms and excessive weed growth In lakes.

      B.   l^ke a list o( aD lhepo«enrUlsoim» of mitrientswWch might wash In to a water body after
           a heavy ram. The list ariould rnehi* agrlculrure. forests, plant nurseries, golf courses, home
           or business landscape!, and home gardens.

  P.  Activity

      A.  Tdllhest»lentslr.eyareaplra|loc*serTetr«efrectsoihm^^
                                                                             manure, be used?  Are they as effective?

                                                                    fV.  Extension

                                                                        Have the students research "eutropWeation." AlgalblocmsspeedoptheaglngoreutTophlcation
                                                                        of water bodies and cause them to fill m.


Water testing klu and equipment • For a auto*, write Hath Equipment Company. T.O. Box 389.
LoveUnd. Colorado 80539 or LaMotteC«npiny,r.O.Box329.ltoute213North.a«steitown. Maryland
                                                                           Student Sheet


DAY 14
DAY 21
DAY 28






The students will do the following:

1.   Ust and describe the purpose,of autumn
    pesticides used by farmers and gardeners.

2.   In(erviewfarmersandgardenerst6gatherdata
    on now cunuiiun pesticides •re  used In* their
                                                                                                                    List examples of safe pesticide alternatives tor
                                                                                                                    home use.
Science, Language Arts. Social Studies

2-1 dan periods

Firmer/Gardener Interview  Questions
farming magazines, chemical phamptets and
  advertisements, cooperative extension
  publlcatons. EPA publications, and
  faclsheets from local farm co-ops
Safe Pesticide Alternatives for Hun leowners
  Handout (optional)

Each year, about three billion pounds (IJ62JOO
metric tons) of pesticides are used In the United
States. Pesticides are beneficial because they on
Improvecrop yields signifkantly by controlling weeds, Injects, and plant disease. Farmers are by far the
largest usen of pesticides. However, homeowners over-apply pesticides more often than farmers.
Because pesticides are designed to kill II vingorganisms, they can cause serious health and environmental
problems if not used properly. Some pesticides can stay In the environment for long perlodsof Hmeand
may travel from the soil into groundwarer and surface waters. Some pesticides continue to move up the
food chain from single-celled organisms and Insects to animals and humans. For example. DOT, now
bannedlnlheUS, washed Into water bod iesand wasabsorbed Into single-cell organisms that were eaten
byaqiiaUclnsectsandflsh. Predatory fish ale these fish and eagles at them. Female eagles contaminated
with DOT laid eggs with thinner shells which were crushed when sat on. ThJsand other factors reduced
eagle populations to the point where they are currently listed as a federal endangered species In the U.
S. Exposure to certain pesticides may cause Illnesses m humans such as cancer or birth defects. Under
the U.S.»>denl Insecticide. Ringic^. and RodentttdeAclfRFIlU ETA to resr^
the risks of pesticides through a registration process. This registration only ensures that when • pesticide
Is properly used, it poses no unreasonable health or envlioniiieiital risks. It Is up to the person applying
the pesticide to make sure it Is used properly. However, the best way to limit nonpolnt source pollution
from pesticides is to reduce their use and consider safer alternatives such as biological controls and
resistant plant species.


I.  Setting the Stage

    A.  EirplalnthaKDwaterpollutlonlsany  human-caused contamination of water that fcmru Its
         value to humans and nature; and (2) understanding nonpolnt sources of pollution means
         looking at a wide range of human activities and land management practices.

    B.   Defir«pe5tteiQ>»>sheibicldc».uuealchte».fung>c>de*                       students
         that pesticides are used or! agricultural lands, urban lawns and gardens, forests, and rn lakes
         and ponds for aquatic weed  control, and surface water can be contaminated by drift from
         pesticide spraying and by runoff from pesticide treated soil.

 P.   Activity

     A.  Havee^*thxleniconl»
        OittMtuE the lixiui nutton*

         1.   After getting the Information (toted. the students should compile the taformaoon mto •
             chart. On (he chart. Identify the chemical. what II to used for, who met tl ((inner.
             gardener, or other), how It to applied, and what precautions ire taken.

         ?.   Then assign a group of trot* or four trodento to Investigate each chemical. Have them
             find out whit the chemical to usually used for. who typically usn II. don It require a
             license, how long don it penUI In the environment and to it approved by U. S. EPA?

         3.   If possible get a copy of me Instructions and warning label* of each. Ifwamlngbbeto
             and Instructions are not available, go to a farmers co-op, garden center, or your local
             cooperative extension agency or toll conservation service office and copy down the
             information.  Your county oteialu" agent would ahe be a good resource person.  He/
             she could supply materials or leaflets about pntictdn.

         4.   Have the groups make uuslei s thawing Information they gathered.
                                                                                                                                                                                           Student Sheet
III.  Follow-Up
        When the poster* are dent, tape them op around the room. Also tape up the chart. Art the
        pndctdn being used correctly by the people you Interviewed? How dangerous are the •
        chemicals being used?  What do farmers and anyone else who usn pnncidn do with the
        empty containers?

        Explain to the students that rain cr litigation of crept would wash some of these chemicals Inio
        the soil and then Into the groundv/ater, streams, and lakes. What Impacts might pesticide use
        have on fish and wildlife? Can the fanner make a living without thnc chemicals? Invite a
        person from your local f arm coop or a local (aimer to come speak to your dais.
         how they could reduce their use of pesticides. •

         Can a gardener be successful without eherracab?  What arc some of the alternatives to
         pesticides? How could people reduce the chance of pesucldn washing Into the environment?
IV.    Extension

    A*  Hare the students use Informs uun from
        •rtide or local news story.
                                          fntsrvHws and other research materials to vnite an
        Ori^rtcfanrdr^ to a n*0«xl of farmlr^ without am- chemical*. Ham the students research
        organic farming.  Crow a small garden at the school and use organic gardening methods.
        Divide the ffBrden Into two plots and ooirrpaU^ orcjinx cafdenifl^ to c
        Why might organically grown vegetables cost more? Is U worth It?

        Have the stadentsresesrcnand wrlteapaperon tn vliwuiiciilal laws rcgulatlRgpeslkJdes. For1
        Instance, hi the US the Environmental Protection Agency regulates pesncidn under the
        Federal Insecttdde. Fungicide, and Rodenttdde Act (FTFRA).  In Canada, pesticides are
        regulated under the Pest Control Products Act. In both countries, permits to buy. handle, and
        use pesHcidn Is regulated by the state (US.) or provinces (Canada).
 HWWR*a Quldt*  n
                           Pmrtitrta Around >h» Home. 2nd edition. Household HaUaUdous
     Waste Project. Sprtngfteld. Mtsaoun. 1989.
 Llfton. BemJce. Bu,!
                              ^^^* JMtl of Homehold P^pgt> Without
     McCraw HOI Book Company. New York. Mew York.  1985.

 Wallace. Dan led). The Matur«l Fonmi
     Pennsyhmnla. 1982.
                                                          flrtf - Rodale Books. Emrnaus.
                                                                                                                   FARMER/GARDENER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

                                                                                                                   1.  What crops do you grow?

                                                                                                                   2.  How many acres or square feet of oropa do you have?

                                                                                                                   3.  Do you use any chemicals or'pcsncldesT What are theyT

                                                                                                                   4.  What Is the purpose of each chemical?

                                                                                                                   5.  How to cadi chemical applied?
                                                                                                                    WhatpreiiuBcrodoyooukewnetiapplyiiigpeslk.Uei? (r^exampte.checkiraweatherforeeasls
                                                                                                                    label directions as to proper concentration, application, handling of product, and disposal of

                                                                                                                   SAFE PESTICIDE ALTERNATIVES FOR HOMEOWNERS*
                                                                                                                                      Prevention or Coatrol Method
                                                                                                                                      Vinegar Wash couraertopa. cabinet*, and Ooora with equal
                                                                                                                                      parts vinegar end wmter to deter art mfestauons.
                                                                                                                                      Floor and Borac Mb 1 cup 11/4 Uteri dour and 2 cups (1/2
                                                                                                                                      liter) boru tn • quart (Inert jar.  Sprinkle the contents •round
                                                                                                                                      the house foundation. Keep borax out of the reach of children
                                                                                                                                      and pets.
                                                                                                                                      Benemeal nd Powdered Ckareoal or Lenoau Set up banters
                                                                                                                                      where ants are entering. They wffl generally not cross lines of
                                                                                                                                      bonemeal or powdered charcoal.  If you can Dnd a hole when
                                                                                                                                      ants are entering the house, squeeze the juice of a lemon tn the
                                                                                                                                      hole or crack.  Then slice up the lemon and put the peeling aD
                                                                                                                                      around the entrance.
                                                                                                                                      Pennyroyal. Spearmint, •owthenwood. aad Tanas?: Growmg
                                                                                                                                      these plants around the border of your home wfll deter ants and
                                                                                                                                      the aphtds they cany.
                                                                                                                                                Vacuum, remove the vacuum bag. seal n. and dispose
                                                                                                                                      of It immediately outside your home.
                                                                                                                                      Vinegar:  A ratio of I 4easpoon (5 eel vinegar to I quart (I inert
                                                                                                                                      water per 40 pounds 118 kg) of pet weight tn then- drtnktng
                                                                                                                                      water helps to keep your pets free of fleas and ticks.
                                                                                                                                      Fennel. Rosemary, Bed Cedar Murrtnfs. Sassafras. Bcjearfp-
                                                                                                                                      tus,' or Pemuyroyal] Spread leaves or shavings of these plants
                                                                                                                                      under and around the pet's bed.

Garden Pests
                            Pi«»fBtlo«l Keen kitchen garbage tightly closed.  Sprinkle dry
                            soap or borax Into garbage cans after they have been washed
                            and allowed to dry. n acts as a repellant.
                            Onn(e: Scratch the sktn of an orange and leave It out: the
                            citrus acts as • repellant.
                            Cloves:  Hang clusters of cloves to repel flies.'
                            Mint or Basil: Mint planted around the home repels files. A pot
                            of bast) set on the windows!)! or table helps to repel files. Keep
                            the basil well-watered from the bottom so that It produces a
                            stronger scent. Drted ground leaves left in small bowls or hung
                            in muslin bags are also effective.
                            Fly Swattera. Fir Trap*, or Plr Paper. Use according to label
                            Sugar and Com Syrup:  Make your own fly paper by boning
                            sugar, com syrup, and water together. Place mixture onto
                            brown paper and hang or set out.
                            Egg. Molasaes. and Black Pepper: Beat the yolk of an egg with
                            a tablespoon 113 ccl each of molasses and finely ground black
                            pepper. Set It out in shallow plates.
                            Cultural Controls: Nutrition, resistant varieties, tnterplantlng.
                            limed planting, crop rotation, mulch, trap crops, and cultivation.
                            Mechanical Controls: Handplcklng. physical barriers, traps.
                            Biological Controls:  Progs, spiders, ladybugs. praying minuses.
                            other predatory and parasitic Insects, and microbes.
                            Chemical:  natural sprays and dusts.
                    Mashed Potato Powder or Bads:  Place instant mashed potato
                    powder or buds tn strategic places with a dish of water close by.
                    After eating the powder or buds mice win need water. This
                    causes fatal bloating.
                    Moose Traps:  Use according to label directions.
                    Castor OH cad Uqnld Detergent:  Whip together 1 tablespoon
                    (13 ccl castor oil and 2 tablespoon* PO ccl liquid detergent In a
                    blender until the mmure la like shaving cream. Add 6 table
                    spoons 190 ccl water and whip again. ICaotlon: Keep this mix
                    lure out of the reach of children and pets.)  Take a garden spnn
                    kllng can and flD with warm water.  Add 1 tablespoons I3O ccl of
                    the oil mixture and *Ur.  Sprinkle Immediately over the areas of
                    Die-greatest mole infestation.  For best results, apply after a ram
                    or thorough watering. If moles are drawn to your lawn because of
                    the grubs feeding tn the soil, yournay be able to rid yourself of
                    both pests by spreading milky spore disease to tall the grubs.
                    Pieveutloni  Eliminate pools of stagnant water. Avoid
                    wearing perfume, bright colors, flowery prints, and bright Jewelry
                    as these nans attract mosquitoes.
                    Biological control:  Put up purple martin bird house*.
                    Cltronella: Bum dtronella candle* to repel Insects.
                    Tansey or Basil: Plant tansey or basil around the patio and
                    house to repel mosquitoes.
                    Prevention: Store items In a clean condition: moth larvae
                    especially tike areas soiled with food stains.
                    Rosemary, Mint. Thyme. Cloves, and Ginseng (optional):
                    Chicago area »ia»n» and spinners use 1II pound (.23 kg) rose
                    mary. 1/2 pound 1.23 kg) mint. 1/4 pound (.12 kg) thyme.  1/4
                    pound (.12 kg) ginseng (optional), and 2 tablespoons 110 cc) cloves
                    Mix and put In cheesecloth bags and place In closets or drawers.
                    Dried Lavendar or Rosemary and Mint: Make sachets of dried
                    lavendar or equal portions of rosemary and mint.  Place In clos
                    ets. drawer*, or closed containers to mothproof garmets.
                    Rosemary, Sage. Mint. Dried Lemon Peel,  and Cinnamon: MK
                    handfub of the first three ingredients. Add a. little lemon peel and
                    a pinch of cinnamon. Place in muslin bags.
                    Molasses. Vinegar, and TeOew Contalaen  To trap moth*, rntx  I
                    part molasses with 2 parts vinegar and place tn yellow container
                    to attract moths. Clean regularly.
                    Cloth** Dryen WD math eggs by running, garment through •
                    warm drver,
                                                                                                                           Sings and Snail*
Prevention: Close off aD gaps around pipes and electric lines
where they enter the house by using cement or screening. Caulk
small cracks along baseboards, walls, cupboards, and around
pipes, sinks, and bathtub fixtures. Seal food tightly. Rinse off
dishes that are left overnight.  Do not leave pet food out over
Hedge Apples (O*age Orange): Cut hedge apples m half and
place several In basement, around In cabinets, or under the
house to repel roaches.
Floor.'Cocoa Powder, and Borax: Mix together 2 tablespoons
(30 ccl flour. 4 tablespoons (GO cc) borax and 1 tablespoon
(15)cc) cocoa. Set the mixture out In dishes.  (Caution: Borax Is
toxic tf eaten. Keep out of reach of children and pets.)
Boras and Floor: Mix 1/2 cup (1/8 liter) borax and 1/4 cup
(1/16 Inert flour and OB a glass Jar.  Punch holes m Jar Ud.
Sprinkle along baseboards and doorsllls. (Caution:  Borax Is
toxic If eaten. This recipe may not be for you If there are young
children or pets In the house.
OatmeaL Hoar, and Plaster of Parts:  Mix equal parts and set In
dishes.  (Caution:  Keep out of reach of children and pets.)
Baking  Soda and Powdeied Bogar: Mix equal parts and spread
around  Infested area.
rTatvral Predator*:  Carter snakes, grass snakes, ground beetles.
box turtles, salamanders, ducks, and larvae of lightning bugs aD
feed on snails.
Clay Pots: Place overturned clay flower pots near the shady side
of a plant. Rest one edge on a small twig or make sure that the
ground Is Irregular enough for the slugs and snails to crawl under
the rim. They will collect there during the waiuiesl part of the
day. Remove slugs and snails regularly and drop in a bucket of
soapy water.
Beer:  Set out sauces or Jars fufl of stale beer, placed below
ground level near the garden.  The fermented liquid draw* them
and they drown.
Sand. Lime, or Ashes: Snails avoid protective borders of sand.
lime, or ashes.
Tin Can: Protect young plants by encircling them with a tin can
with both ends removed. Push the bottom end of the can into the
                                                                                                                       'Material tn this handout adapted from HHWrra nmH<- tn H«r«f«
More than three quarters of the Earth's surface to made tip of water. Apiwoxitmtely 80 percent oflhe
human body to water. Water to essential to al) plant and animal life. Many organisms can live without
oxygen, but none without water. So water supply and quality are critical.

The Water Cyd*

Water to the orfghvJrenewstle resource. We use the same water today at we did ««nturtet ago. Wekol
keep recydlng and reusing it over and over.

Water has its own cyde tnwMehh to naturtBy pnrtfktd and replenished. In «us cyde, water naturally
drruUtes through seven principle placet: ocaans. lake*, and riven; ice caps and glaciers: underground;
and the atmosphere. Thit cyde consists of the processes of evaporation, sublimation, transpiration.
condensation, and precipitation.

Evaporation it the changing of t liquid to a  gas. SubUmttton to the ehangmg of »«olid (toe) directly to
a gas. It Is a slower process than evaporation but it It ttlll pan of the water cyde. particularly in colder
• gas, It leaves behind tny omtsminana thai II may have picked up In liquid or nttd form.

Tnntpiranon to the procen by which plant* BStwattrfromUiegieiindandgr** off water »apui Into the
air. A tingle we out release more than 10000 gaflora O7.850 Uten) of water a day back Into (he
atmosphere. This to alto a purification process.
At the abnosphera absorbs water vapor from evaporation, summation, and BmtDirstten. it i
saturation point A* the airtosaturated. water vaper condenses into droplets that form cloud*, fog, dew,
and In cold weather, frost. When water droplets in a doud become loo heavy, they fall u precipitation
m the form of rain. snow, sleet or hail. Conoeraaitor. and precipitation umiptett the cycle of water from
the earth to the atmosphere and back again.               v

Surface Wata and Croundwatet

Much of our water supply to visible. In the form of turface water bi ocean*, lake*, streams, rtven. and
glacien. Surface water originate* at either runoff from rain, melting mow, and/or graundwater.

H.rmiichofthewaMrtupplytounMen.lnlhefonnofgrottndwater. Cnandwaltroriglnatei either at
cam or snow which gradually Kept mto the ground until It reachet Impermeable layer*. «ueh at thale.
slate, or clay. When water completely (ill* the tpacet b»n»itn toil and rock panicles, it form a xaneof
Miuraiton. The top of Ihli sane it called the water table. The water labl* can rite or fall, depending on
how much water it abtorbed Into the ground or how much water to removed from IL An area capable
of (upplying a tignificant amount of groundwater to a wet) or tpring It known at an aquifer.

Croundwater may be napped In  nxk formation!, or  It may flow through porout rock or even
underground riven.  The ability to acceu groundwater cuppliet through wclb or tpring! to vital to the
development of aome anas.  Deiera have been trantformed Into viable agricultural areat using
 ^roundwater resource!.

 Water poDu ton ls any human-caused contamination of watet that reduces its useful ness tahumant and
 ither organisms bi narure.

 rom tha moment It begins to faO strain, water begtMtocoDea nantrsl fanpartttt*. These can be dun
 articles In the air. minerals and organic matter In the tod. or material that enam lakes, smarm, ocean t,
 rgroundwattr.  Some of these impurities, m smtD quantities, can be beneficial. Minerals are a good
 (ampte. But m larger quanrjbet, natural toipurtttet become water contammatton. For example, when
  volcano erupts and dust from tha volcano enatn water bodies, the water I* contaminated. MM polluted.

  reordine, to the US. dean Water Act o/19*6. watar pollution to caused by humans and can btdlvided
   two daises. Point source pollution Is oontamlnation that comes from a single, dearly identifiable
  uite. tuch as a pipe which discharges material from t factory into a lake, stream, river, bay, or other
  idy of water. Point source pollution to rebo very any 10 Identify and control.

  wpoint toons pollution to more difficult to Identify becaust It orlgmatts over a broad araa rrom a
  netyof causes. Enmpl« of r«mpc^ttmm»pollubOTinehidel) animal waste* from agriculture::)
   dfUb:3)effniemfTcrmfdlmgMptfcuiUaled both
                                                                                                                      turf ace and ground water. One study estimated that If afl stockpiles wire ui»tia
                                                                                                                      CDftt to the cnvnwinimt rroni itv vtt of 8HCin£ itiaiiWieaU v*wlo of cnfiwiuMQi

                                                                                                                      Frequent or highly concentrated road1 salt application can erase surface water quality
                                                                                                                      particularly hi email lakes or streams. Shallow ground wantroantamtnatlonmay be caustd by theme of
                                                                                                                      detdng materUh. paniculariy In areas of sandy sous or kam lopoftiaphy (where there arc direct

   iterpofltttlotx xtntftn point toorttor
i. can babrolcan down Mo four main cm
                                                                       Djf volume* MO bYMfw o DW f
                                                                       significant aourea of aedimem.

                                                                       Good water quality and aoO
                                                                       stopping valuable toil lota. Thbaboprotscai
                                                                       ether polhi tints from oopumdt te wttenx

      Uvcstack Operation*

      or hold ing purposes. This definition indudriopen ranges used for feeding and raising poultry, but does
      not include pastures.
      Poor or Inadequate feedlot manaaamuu can allow sttrmwater runoff to carry poBuomt* from accumu-
      lating manure into surface and groundwaters.

      TK trend nationally ha* been toward the construction and Ofjeratloti of fewer, but larger and more
      specialized livestock and poultry farms.

      Feedlots can create  significant pollution problems. Pollutants coming from animal feedlots Include
      nutrients, onygen-demanding materials, and pathogens that may affect humans and animals. High
      nitrate levels in groundwater have been associated with improper storage of animal manure.


      Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the three primary nutrients applied to crops, gardens, and
      lawm as fertilizers.

      Phosphorus and nitrogen entering water bodies in runoff from overfertUtzed areas can cause nuisance
      conditions, such as heavy algal bloom* and excessive weed growth, making lakes unsuitable for
      swimming, watenkimg. and other uses.

      The presence of nitrates In rural well wat?rpuiei. control undeiraMe plans ce animal*. They Indude herbicides, insecticides.
*"    mnglcides.aT.dK(«.»oeMes.Pesl.*idvsareu»edonag
       gardens, a* aquatic nuisance controls tn lakes, and in forest management

       Pesticide appUcatton can lead «a groundwater ttauaiidiiaUun. Surface waten cm be contamlnaied by
       drUlfromrM.u.lddcs|rnymgai.dbrr.rr.offfrm                   Beth surface and ground waters
       are vulnerable to contamination by stormwater nmoff flowing from .aortge. mixing loading, and tpray-
       lankckarang areas.

       Mlninj Activities

       Mlringae«MDe»c.snc,«iiied™inabeehine»«m.n^^                Laka^strean* and ground-
       water can be polluted by sediment tailings, dust chemicals, and waste* from open pit. strip, and
       underground u lines.

       ReguUtteratocomralininmgaetlvltfeshavvbeenmstltutada                              The
       National Pollutant Discharge elimination System (NPDES) permit program admlnisiered by Mate
       aeerKi«n^Utesd.seharpa horn Wustrtea into satevrttersarvJ
       from mining.
       Forest Practice*
       Waters In to
ecosystems In balance. Butwhen
plant species can experience explosive growth. literally om-
                                                                                                of years. When the process is accelerated by the addition of excesi nutrients, it can be very serious.
                                                                                                Eutrophication caused Lake Ene to "age" nearly 15.000 years between 1950 and 1975.

                                                                                                Since many sources of rMtrieMpo^ltenanhumajHcaiart.lheyhaverhepotenualtobeeDrmoDed. It
                                                                                                has been estimated that the amount of fertilizer* used has increased more than 15 Uma (met 1945. There
                                                                                                is a movement to curb Ihe use of Mgh phospha K and nitrate fertilizers in area* where nutrient poUunon
                                                                                                Is a uiublenx even though crop yields would be reduced. Land management practices, such as crop
                                                                                                rotation to reduce fertilizer requiiejue.!-*. Is another optkviL
                                                                                                Homeowners can also a
                                                                                                                                        •By sound bjwn and |
                                                                         . bi many places.
                                                                                                health. Substituting compost as a mulch and fertilizer can ettmtnate this potential potrution source.
                                                                                                (Composting also reduces waste1 going m*> UndnllaJ

                                                                                                Most sewage Ueauntm plant* only remove about SO percent of the iiUiugaji and SO percent of the
                                                                                                phosphorus from domestic sewage. Thi* rill allows an estimated 200 to 300 mfluon pounds (90 to 125
                                                                                                million kg) of phosphates Into waterway* am»ytai. The use of tower phoapriate da augmu has been
                                                                                                encouraged to reduce this, along with Improving sewage mauiieiu systems K> remove more nutrients
                                                                                                befuie water Is released*

anl and l
 holding pordimfeedkM can wastes aMnriu
There are manyi
                   !heJtef>iiy|Jitgoi pneiiiUitg Miltf poDtrtiofi. Tntvevvydependingonthelype
of pollution and its source.  Human activities on land have a direct impact not only on the types of
pollution owed, but also on the methods used to control pollution.  The most effective ways of
controlling water pollution am aomeUmu called best management practices.
Urban And Suburban
Control of Doth point source and nc
                                 obit i
                                       ra pollution In urban and suburban areas is Increasing.
Tremendous Investment by cities and  Industiy have helped curb pollution pmukam Immensely.
Municipal aewage treatment faculties have grown faster than the nation's population. However, more
li»uioi>m«ntsarestlD needed to make sure that water timing it systems can keep np with our needs.
US. Federal and Bate laws, beginning with the landmark 1977 dean Water Act, are continually bring
developed that limit what types of contaminants can be released Into water systems. These controls have
stopped many of the fish kills and other problems associated with poDuttonm the 1970s. Many urban
area lakes that were consider "dead* are now dean enough to support many fuh species and other
animals.  Urban runoff Is still contreUed primarily by vohmtary means, but dbes have adopted new
practices like leaf collection and Hieenlcaiilug at oineal Urnes. that can reduce the flow of sediment and
other contanunams Into waterways. City planning places new emphasis on water catan »auun and
control, particularty In areas where wateraupplies may be limited. Be laiiUoiHetenooii ponds ha va been
I iiuji poiated Into some water cuiiuul systems to allow contaminants to settle, and to feed ralnwam into
runoff channels al a controlled not.

In some fasesL building codu Umlt mnsmnttun based on watai demand.  A single. new Household
consumes more  than a hundred thousand gallons (370.000 liters) of water each year, placing more
demand on water supplies and on wastewater and sewage tieauimu systems.

Education uregtamsdeslgned to teach peepsttht pi opeiuse of wattr and disposal of potential pollutants
are also having a positive Impact.  These program show people the staggering amount* of water they
consume each day. and steps they can take to reduce consumption.  Less consumption means less
wastewater that has the ability to carry pollutants.


Construction must take Into account both slonmnn and long-turn water pollution iiauiagtinent
practices. Construction mimes vegetation from the ground, inviting erosion and sediment pollution.
Practices lo reduce this include temporary measures such as diverting water flow through trenches or
sediment ponds that allow sill and other material! to settle before water runs off Into streams. Sit screens.
hay bates, mulch, and other materials may also be used as temporary controls, as well as the planting of
temporary grasses to control erosion before more permanent landscaping can be done.
the location of streams, and the topography of the area must all be
                                                                         the construction
process begins. Permanent measures may have to be taken to ensure that slow erosion doesn't create
problems several yean in the future. These measures may include storm drains: 'riprap.' a permanent
layer of none that retards water flow and enhances infiltration; or even construction of grassed or lined
waterways that convey crass storm water away from developing  areas or critical  slopes.  The
construction process Itself may be modified to include a none 'pad* at the construction entrance to
reduce the transportation of mud off the building site by vehicles or runoff.

Cn3pun.d* are l>» primar
                          m* of sedbr..-!*

pollution rtomfertlUnr or pesltctde runoff, r^lew management methods are being used to reduce these
                                                           voontOlage. Instead of plowing
\jnf pWCOW HH BWI*Uel^ -BU-ajajan) aaurasuj pas-tHuvuM |M»ai ••*-**•• a* VWiii£
unilu IN ii aklm fiiini a |»i »lmil I ui|i ami npnalng nan anil i inm i ulloii llllagr iiari a filar m iiilii i
device to cut through the residue ao aaads on be planted. This process allows a protective layer of
Impact Is that this process may require b»ueased on of herbicides.  Another process,  called ridge
planting, put* seeds in ridges of plowed aoil Thto method allows waj-maoUttnomrures for planting
and traps rainwater In the furrows between the ridges.

 AptoiraTralexi..t.stos.-rvtoato provide eoQ
The tests iJ-dieate which nuBlu.uua>benasJiJf-»tr.« type of sc*J and tr-«e^
 fertiUattan does not occur. MM only does this practice reduce pollution, u can reduce the cost of
 UOuOCUtl tl 90pt
                                                                                                                  Other best management practice* Indnd* crop rotation, which may replaee • row crop with • grain or
                                                                                                                  other pUntlhilooven man pound and reduceserosion. PUrmlt

 Minhig is e*\» activity thai bspedtatlyfeT^Usrd as a potrntulec^^            State 1965. more
 than three minion aeits (1.125 JO ha) of land in the US. have been disturbed by strip-mining activities.
 Severe problems hare been created by erosion and  acidity. However, mined lands must now be
 'reclaimed.* or restored to arreptahlf condition after operations are complete.

 The best management practices Included tn tWs process are preplanning to determine how the sitr will
 be used after operatkms are finished, stabilisation of the site while work Is m progress so that It does not
 create an Immediate source of pollupen) utaBon of storm water control and sun age. and utieallunof
 natural beauty by replanting the site so It has mnttmum acsthctic Impact on tne area. Since mining can
 destroy topsofl. new soil or nutrients may need to be added before plants can thrive!  or different
 vegetation requiring less nutrients may be used to start growth.

 Undei gieund mines can also be polluttuiiiumees.partiCBlarty lor grcond water. Then err ate nbk»cl
 to reclamation and other laws requiring steps be taken to keep sediment or unto horn entering
 waterways.                  ',


 Fuiesu» pi settees ha veliCTHiiuilr^ voluntarily aj»d by lawtortdu^                     Inroad
 of clearcurang sites and mvmng erosion, many  logging companies now us* selective cutting practices
 that allow for better Umber choices and minima] impact on the land.  Many forest products companies
 have found that proper land management can actually Increase ilieii [jiuflB by Increasing forest yields.

 For softwoods like pine, which art used tor paper production and lumber, forest product companies
 manage their own 'plantations* of timber, replanting several trees for every one cut down. TWs has
 Increased the amount of useaMe timber available In the US., and has reduced the potential of pollution.
 Siteplanning is now an important constderinon. Loggingreadsmay wind around Mill to reduce erosion
 and allow natural growth to quickly 'retake' the land alter cutting Is finished.

       There area rmmbercrfthiriptfatlndTldiial* can demthrtr own to reduce watp^         Many of
       these practice* are stmpte ones that only require changing eld habit* or switching to moreen»iiuim»o»-
       talry responsible product*.

       Lawn And Garden

       Individuals can create mon poDution on smaB plots of land than many farms create over hundreds of
       acres (ha). One reason for this Is that Individual* tend to' overuse fertfflxen and pestiddes. Theeness
       that runs off during rains combined widi similar overuse from the rest of a neighborhood can cane
       significant pollution problems. Homeowners may apply 50 time* niuiefei liter than neceasary for plant
       health, for example.

       Or«goodalterMtivil(ncna:t*>ao»ipo(tpae(9prodaceMniralfertaiar. Composting can be started
       by simply gathering leaves, branches, and other materials, and placing them in a location when their Is
       enough aeration and iiaistmt to allow bacteria to begin breaking the material down. This produces a
       rich mulch that can be applied to gardens or plant bases for fertilizer.

       Chemical pesticides can be avoided by the us* of natural Intact controls. Inciudmg predatory tnsecls like
       ladybugs or praying manUata. Theseuea tuns feed on many gai den peso and auu«peuple actually keep
       mantisesaspets. Simply trtttaltrngabtrd feeder toanract birds can helpumiiel population* ol Japanese
       Beetlesandotnerpests. Pestiddal soaps that do less harm thancherrdeals an alto available, a* an some
       forms of insect diseases that wipe out pest* but don't harm other organism*. Proper selection of plants
       for gardens and lawns can also reduce pests. Some, like mint, garbc and marigold*, win drive insects
       a way, white others may not  a/feet the local Insect populations at aD.


       Even sitting still with their engine* off. automobile* an sources of puDuUon. Petroleum based fhdd* on
Cu     wreak havoc In water supplies, contaminating thousand* of gallon* of water. Do-ll-yuui selfei s spffl or
***     dump more oil in a month than I* lost  in major tanker disasters.

       Do-it-yourself (obsltke oil changes should also have oil disposal taken mto consideration. Many sei»tco
       stations accept oil for recycling, and most auto pans stores offer oil collection bores thai soak oil Into
       shredded paper or other material. These boxes can then be taken to wade oil collection stations for proper
       disposal. Low price quick oil change businesses can actually be more economical than doing It yourself,
       particularly If your car requires special  tools w reach oil niters and drain plugs. And most of these
       businesses have waste oil handling procedures in place so that used oil is collected and recycled.

       Fluids like annfreen and battery add an especially dangerous tcndes. Even small amounts can cause
       personal health piobtems or gnat environmental damage. Special can should be taken when dealing
       with these materials so they an not spilled. If a job appears that H may be particularly messy. It may be
       best to take the vehicle to a responsible professional mechanic  Many garages now use safer environ-
       mental practices to make sure undo are disposed of carefully.

       Household Cleaners and Solvents

       Miny household thrives woaldbennstdertdtoxtcwasttdurnpsmbvlus             Eveneoiiuiion
       cleaners and solvents contain adds, lye, volatile organic compounds, and other material* that can
       contaminate drinking water, even bi small amounts. Detergent* can add nutrient* like phosphates to
       water and create rjroMems like algal btooma. People tend to practice *everkjn- with tleeiieisas they do
       withfertillzmandpeshdde*. And aineethnematerial* an usually much more to«k—and much men
       concentrated  they can create serious pollution problems.

       Natural ctanenltebakit^scda.vlnegaT.aid bora an be mbsn                           These
       maarlals can mate good all-purpoae deaners. grease cutters, and even drain deaners. It is also possible
       to boy tow-pbosphata laundry detergent* and detergent* that an free of dye* and perfume*. These an
       men easily handled by aewmy mii» and cause less nutrient or tcodc pollution.

                                                                   Yet maty people teno
 warning labels and dispait of these materials tn water systems. EPA tests on drmUra water aroplM*
 ffnttftih.i~«i««fc«iMh«i<^—   ''                              "
                                                                                                               Water Conservation

                                                                                                               Each of us uses aboDt 150 gallons (965 Uters) of water every day. One half -gallon O Btert) is used for
                                                                                                               drinking. The other 149 1/2 gallons (*63 liters) go lor deaning. cooking, toilet flushing, and other uses.
                                                                                                               M i> in itself, a form of runoff. One very effective way to reduce water pollution Is to simply reduce water
                                                                                                               Thiscanbedonebychangmgartw habits. ftin^a
                                                                                                               than letting wattr run Into the sink until H gets cold uses less water. Peeling fruits and nftelabltj and
                                                                                                               t hen rinsing them saves two gallons (73 |lters)e»ery minute. A dishwasher uses less waterthan washing
                                                                                                               by hand— about sta gallons (23 liters) a load. And washing an entire toad of dishes— or dotno  savrs
                                                                                                               water over washing several partial loads. New washing machines can reduce water consumption by one
                                                                                                               I hi it), or more than 400 gallonsdSOO liters) monthly fora family of four. But the greatest water use occurs
                                                                                                               in the bathroom. Simply turning off the water white brushing youiteuth will save as much a* ten gallons
                                                                                                               (38 liters) per person per day. Taking a1 shower instead of a bath will save about 25 gallons (95 liters), and
                                                                                                               new low-flow shower heads on reduce consumption even more.

                                                                                                               Forty-five percent of the water used every day is flushed down the toilet. New toflet* use aboul half the
                                                                                                               water as old models, and older toilen can still work effectively with less water. Devices like toilet dams
                                                                                                               block pan of the water In the tank and reduce the amount used with each flush. If a toflet dam sounds
                                                                                                               too difficult to install, you can get the same effect si rnply by putting a water-filled plastic bottle in the toilet
                                                                                                               tank. This displaces water and means that less Is used.
                                                                                                               Washing the ear with a nmnrng hose will use more than 100gaIlont(380Htm)of water. Using a bucket
                                                                                                               and  sponge cuts that by 90 percent. And it's best to water lawns and plants late In the evening or early
                                                                                                               in the morning so water will soak into root systems and not be lost to evaporation. Another personal
                                                                                                               choice that can be made 10 reduce water consumption Is to eat less meat. Half the water consumed hi the
                                                                                                               U.S. goes to men production. Bimina nng a single eight-ounce (22g> portion of meat a month will save
                                                                                                               more water than not turning on your kitchen sink for the same 30-day period.

                                       Office of Waur
Sharing   Science:
   Linking Students with Scientists
                                and  Engineers
          A Survival Guide for Teachers
  The Task...

  Students learning science can experience the excitement of discovery and invention.
  Understanding science prepares them to participate in an increasingly complex
  and competitive scientific and technological world.

  Meeting the challenge of teaching our children in this rapidly changing world is
  not easy. Teachers have limited time and materials for teaching science and often
  find themselves teaching without access to the real world experiences that can
  make science come alive.           -.'.. y

  One of the best allies any teacher can have is a person who knows and understands
  science. A scientist or engineer can help students:        '

   experience the excitement of discovery and invention
   develop an informed approach to the role of science and technology in our world
   observe teachers and scientists working together as partners     .
   associate science with a real human being      .  .
   see the personal rewards of scientific and technical careers
   realize that women and minorities can pursue careers in these fields
  Every community is home to a variety of science professionals who are concerned,
  just as you are, about educating tomorrow's citizens. Across the nation thousands
  of them have demonstrated their willingness and ability to become involved in our
  schools. This guide provides suggestions to help you collaborate successfully
  with scientists and engineers in your classroom and to make the experience a
  success for you, for your students, and for those who volunteer to share science
 'withyou.  _' ' (' \. '""• '"' '• -'" -•••••••'••  '   -• .    -    • • .   •
      Now —
           Get ready!
                     Get set!

   Think creatively about what you want to accomplish.
   Look for opportunities for your students to get to know a real scientist as an interesting
   person. Encourage scientists to share the excitement of discovery and enthusiasm for their
   professions. Cultivate student interests and questions through new experiences, ideas and
   Identify a scientist, engineer, or a science user.
   Many school systems have formed active partnerships with
   science centers, science alliances, scientific societies and local
   universities. Corporations and business groups are interested
  -in volunteering~in the classroom. Ask your system or state
   science coordinator for help in contacting local scientists. It may
   be easier than you think.

   Make contact well in advance.
   Remember, it will take time to develop a plan. Your volunteer
   has a busy schedule, too, so be flexible. Find out when and how
   contacted.  Provide backup phone numbers in case  a change in
   contact necessary.
  "YJe had a discussion about AIDS. The teacher
 .& I had talked it over prior tomy visit,and IWIB
 . prepared in case awkward issues arose. 1 think
  my communication with the teacher was essen-
  tial in this case."

  —Deborah K. Smith, Ph.D.
each of you prefers to be
plans makes last minute
   Decide together what to do.                                 ,
   Have a conversation with your volunteer about what she can do to help you enrich your
   science program.  Explore with her what experiences, activities, information would be of
   interest to your students and appropriate to your curriculum. Agree on one or more activities
   which engage your students.
To ask questions ami to find out — science is a part of what it means to be human.
Teachers, scientists and engineers have to become partners in efforts to bring science to
children.  Working together, we can connect children to the ideas and the processes of
science, to the applications of science and mathematics which are all around us, and to the
promises and challenges of science and technology.

Teachers are vitally important to education and literacy in science because K-12 is the
front end of the pipeline toward careers in science, engineering and medicine; it is also the
gateumy to lifelong learning, enjoyment and appreciation of science. Scientists have much
to share and much to learn when they link to teachers and students. It is worth the effort
to reach out and bring scientists into your classroom.  Some of them used to teach in
schools, as I did. Many of them are parents of school age children, as I am.

This guide will help voit make the experience of sharing science a meaningful one for uou,
for them, and most importantly, for your students.

Shirley M. Malcoin. Ph.D.
Head. Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs
American Association for the Advancement of Science

                                     ' "&S& ^
                                      '-^BT "-*
                                       -.V'.vfJS-, *"
                                       -Vv2tv v-

                                                                    Office of Water
                             ~EPA 800-B-3J-004
                                 March 1903
A month or so in advance:

•  Schedule and determine the setting for the activity.
   Will the scientist work with your whole class or with small
   groups? Will the activity be indoors or out? Agree on the
   time allotted for the activity. Allow for flexibility!

•  Identify any special equipment or space that is
   needed..   _         .                   .  .
   This could include laboratory equipment, A-V materials, flat
   tables, electrical outlets, water, or scissors. Agree on how
   materials and equipment will be managed to ensure both
   safety and efficiency.

•  Give the scientist a profile of your students.
   Let him know the number, age, learning characteristics, and
   special needs of your group. Tell the volunteer what your
   students have been studying and how the proposed activity
   will fit in.

•  Provide directions to the school  and parking
  Tell the scientist where and how she will be greeted.
A few days before the visit:

•  Call the volunteer to confirm your plans.

•  Prepare a welcome.
   Select a team of several students to greet the volunteer and help
   with any equipment which may need to be carried in.

•  Prepare your students.
   Explain who their guest is and what he will be doing. Review
   rules of courtesy. Prepare name tags so the scientist can call
   on students by name. If students will be working in groups,
   assign them ahead of time.
"/ have no children of my own; I have never had a
teacher education course; and I have never taught
either grade school or high school before in my life.
Consequently, I was a bit apprehensive about the whole
thing.  However, you put me at ease, and your class
was a model of attentiveness and good behavior.  I
found your students tobeajoy to teach. If ever you feel
like taking a chance with me again, I'd love to come and
teach your class a second time."

—Dr. David M. DeMarini,
  Research Genetic Toxicologist
                                                       "I. .discussed basic principles of electricity and
                                                       magnetism and helped students make simple
                                                       circuits.  Students enjoyed the "hands-on" ex-
                                                       perience. Based on past experience, I expected
                                                       iron filings and small compasses to be available.
                                                       I should have reviewed the list of materials with
                                                       the teacher ahead of time."

                                                       — William M. Yager, Ph.D.

                                                                             Office of Woo-    ~EPA 800-B-93-004
                                                                             wn-556             March 1993
On the day of the visit:

•  Be sure students, equipment, and space are ready.

•  Have your welcome team meet your visitor.

•  Introduce the visitor to your class.

•  Remain actively involved during the visit.
   Show your students that teachers are learners, too. When you are
   interested, students will follow your example. Be a second pair
   of adult hands if needed.  Lend your quiet expertise in classroom

•  Understand what your students are learning.
   Anticipate and identify questions they may have so that you can
   prepare to follow up.

After  the visit:

•  Extend appreciation.
   Thank-you notes, drawings, or photographs from students are
   always appreciated.  Scientists especially like  to know what
   students learned and what interested them.

•  Provide feedback about  the activity to the scientist.
   Scientists are learners, too. They will respond to your positive
   reinforcement as well as constructive criticism.

•  Follow up
   Discuss with your students what they learned and what else they
   want to know. Build on their experience with follow up activi-
   ties. Incorporate interdisciplinary activities in writing, spelling,
   art, social studies, reading, and math. Completeany experiments
   left by the visitor and let her know the results.

•  Share your experience with parents and colleagues
   as well as school administrators.

•  Plan for more visitors.
   Make your experiences diverse. Invite people with different
   backgrounds, women  and men, minorities, and people with
"Like the children we teach, we learn as a result of our
own activity—our own struggle to make sense of what
we see....We are in  this classroom together, and this
science work will only be exciting if we care about it
together. If 1 say 'Scientists are curious,' but lam not
showing curiosity, children will perceive this incon-
sistency. 1 need to show, as well as say, how tliat

—Ellen Doris, Northeast Foundation for Children,
  "Doing Wliat Scientists Do"
  "More than twenty "Thank-You" cards made
  by these students with their own words of per-
  sonal appreciation were sent to me. This was
  certainly unexpected but was definitely a thrill
  for me to see the creativity of these students, of
  how they conceived the microbes and me and
  then expressed it in pictorial illustrations."

  —Joseph K. Li, Pharmacologist

                                                                    Office effKacr
                                                 ~EP* 800-B-SWXM
                                                  v |Iarch1flB3
Children and scientists have much in common.  Naturally inquisitive, young children ask endless
questions. They may spend half an hour watching a bug crawl on the floor.  Children sort money,
pictures, toys, shells, pasta shapes, and words. They experiment by pouring water into soil, mixing
different colors of paints, or adding blocks to a tower until it falls. They draw conclusions about the way
things work. They leam from and share information with others.

Scientists share with children a natural curiosity about the world.  They are trained to use a more
systematic and sophisticated approach to inquiry than children do. They have developed the discipline
to remain objective, to reserve judgment until they have the facts, and to recognize the limits of their
knowledge. Nevertheless, the skills used in doing science are the same — whether you're a student or
a scientist!
    Science Process Skill





   sort and classify



   share information
look, touch, smell,
taste, listen
change something and
watch what happens
partners in classroom
journal, score card

scale, riiler, stopwatch
measuring cup

color, size, shape,
fastest, largest, farthest
what happens most

class meeting;
at recess, "Guess what
I found out?"
microscope, x-rays,

change and control
colleagues around world
field notes, computer

computer analysis,
calibrated apparatus

taxonomic key,
relevant functional

change over time,
change in differing

statistical analysis

scientific meetings,
E-mail; over coffee,
"Guess what I found out!"

                       Science  in the  Classroom

 Listed below are suggestions of people who might be able to help you in the classroom. Some are research
 scientists. Others use science in their everyday work life. Other people who might be helpful are hobby-
 ists and collectors who study weather, plants, animals, astronomy, rocks and minerals, or fossils.
 Physical &
Electricity &
Earth &
Space Science
Behavioral &
Social Science
 Zoologist, entomologist, microbiologist,
 marine biologist, paleontologist, cytolo-
 gist, physiologist, chemist, ecologist, neu-
 robiologist, geneticist, anatomist, mam-
 malogist, limnologist, pharmacologist
 Botanist, paleobotanist, agronomist, agri-
 cultural chemist, ecologist, geneticist, pa--
 leontologist, pathologist, soil scientist
Meteorologist, ecologist, agronomist, ge-
ologist, oceanographer, dimatologist
Chemist, biochemist, pharmacologist, mo-
lecular biologist, physicist, ecologist, toxi-
cologist, metallurgist, geologist, forensic
criminologist, materials  scientist, engi-
neers: chemical, textile, industrial, acous-
tical, optical, mechanical, civil, nuclear,
agricultural, and ceramic
Physicist, geologist, computer hardware/
software designer, engineers: industrial,
electrical, thermal, mechanical, and elec-
Astronomer, geologist, paleontologist,
ecologist, physicist, biologist, chemist, vul-
canologist, seismologist, oceanographer,
soil scientist, engineers: aeronautical, avia-
tion, construction, and civil
Animal psychologist, clinical psychologist,
psychiatrist, sociologist, anthropologist,
historian, archaeologist, geographer, de-
 Zookeeper, veterinarian, beekeeper, ani-
 mal trainer, physician, forest ranger, wild-
 life manager, fanner, rancher, audiolo-
 gist, nurse, dietician. X-ray technician, fo-
 rensic specialist, pharmacist
Horticulturist, farmer, forest manager,
nutritionist, landscape architect, soil con-
servation officer, park ranger, agricultural
extension agent
TV weather forecaster, airport flight con-
troller, fisherman, boat captain, farmer,
pilot, environmentalist, soil and water con-
Architect, inventor, mechanic, carpenter,
musical instrument ma ker, musician, pho-
tographer, builder, police lab technician,
water company technician, cosmetics de-
veloper, gemologist, building inspector,
Electrician, radar technician, amateur ra-
dio operator, telephone system mainte-
nance technician, electrical inspector, in-
ventor, radio/TV engineer
Pilot, astronaut, geographer, cartographer,
surveyor, geotechnical tester, aerial pho-
Marketing  professional, business man-
ager, city planner, applied economist,
school psychologist, pollster, market re-
search analyst, statistician

                                                                                 Office of Water
                                             March 1993
                      How  Scientists  Can Help You
                Scientists, engineers, and people who use science in daily life can:
      Demonstrate scientific concepts and direct appli-
      cations of science and technology
      Develop experiments and do them with students
      Lead or arrange for field trips or guest speakers
      Stimulate and guide independent research
      Show students practical applications of computers
      in science
      Serve as a resource person for you or your students
   Help obtain, fix, and maintain equipment
   Serve as tutors, mentors, and role models for indi-
   viduals or small groups
   Encourage female and minority students to enter
   science-oriented careers
   Work with parents and families
   Lead after-school science and math clubs
   Assist with science, math, and career festivals
                                         and more—be creative!
 "Thank you so much for visiting our class. The kids (and I)
 learned a lot about Manne Biology and Diving.  Last iveek in
 Reading Class we were studying  "Diagrams" and we had a
 practice paper with a diagram of "diving gear." I was pleased to
 see how much of the equipment the kids still recognized! Thank
 you, especially, for giving the kids a chance to see that scientists
 can be "real people". lam not sure
 that is something 1 realized at their
 age. P.S. You can see from the kid's
 letters what an impression your visit
 made  upon them."

 —Bonnie Farb, 5th grade teacher

 "One  thing ] try to get across is that
 you don't have to have a Ph.D. to
 contribute in science."

 —Melissa Mar, Research Biologist

 "I discussed the role of fungi in our
 lives and displayed examples of fruit-
 ing bodies and culture plates. The
 students displayed a great deal of
 interest and asked both interesting
 and stimulating  questions.  The
 teacher showed an extremely high
 degree of interest and enthusiasm
 that seemed to transfer to students. I
found the experience to be rewarding beyond my expectations."

 —Dr. John E. Mayfield, Mycologist

 "I liked when you put the blue and orange compounds together
 in the liquids. Please say hello to Dr. Hegley, and doctor Pinhas
forme. Your friend, Dennis (the person who wants to find out the
 chemical reaction)."

 —5th  Grade Student
"I talked about entomology, showed the students a collection
of unusual insects, allow the students to handle some live
insects, and gave each of them caterpillars and supplies to rear
them to adults.  The students were interested and excited.
Meeting with a scientist enhanced the students' perception
that science is a real activity and occupation, and not just a
                       school subject."

                       —M. Scott Thomson

                       "I showed the separation of dyes
                       in grape soft drink as a way of
                       illustrating separations and their
                       utility in analyzing  for pollut-
                       ants. Students reacted with en-
                       thusiasm and suggested other
                       separations to try.  I hope stu-
                       dents learned that scientists are
                       real people and that science can
                       be fun."

                       —Douglas E. Rickert

                       "A scientist helped a second-
                       grade class make electromag-
                       nets from materials no more
                       complex than a  battery, a nail,
                       and a length of wire.   With
                       fumbling fingers, the students
created their apparatus and then proceeded, without fore-
knowledge, to see what the contraption would do. Thrilled
with herself and her creation, one bright-eyed girl cried
out, "I made a magnet! I did it! 1 really made a magnet!"
Relating his experience, the scientist grew wistful. "It was
that experience," he said, "that reminded me of why I am
doing all  this.  Now 1 know  my efforts are worth some-

—Colorado Alliance for Science

          You're Not in This Alone!

   Science education is a national priority. Thousands of scientists are
   interested in volunteering. Sharing Science With Children: A Survival
   Guide for Scientists and Engineers, a companion to this publication,^
   in the hands of tens of thousands of scientists. Many national
   organizations have committed to improving science learning.

   The National Science Foundation (NSF) has designated National
   Science & Technology Week, 1992 as April 26-May 2 and 1993 as
   April 25-May 1. NSF encourages teachers, scientists, and others to
   participate  through school activities, community projects, and
   public lectures.

   Science centers provide rich experiences in science.  They are a
   resource for science activities and ideas for teaching science. Their
   national organization, the Association of Science-Technology Cen-
   ters (ASTC), is promoting partnerships between teachers, muse-
   ums^and scientists. Contact your local science center to learn what
   is available  in your community.

   The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS),
   a national organization of 130,000 scientists, actively encourages
   member scientists to work with teachers in schools. Their publica-
   tion, Sourcebook for Science, Mathematics b Technology Education,
   includes more than 2,000 listings of programs, people, projects,
   publications, and organizations.  It can be ordered by writing:
   AAAS, 1333 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005.
               Office of Wtaer     tPA 800-B-93O04

Developed by the•Nortn Carolina Museumo? 1
Life and Science.
Thomas H. Krakauer, Executive Director
Georgiana M. Searles, Editor and Director of

Noncommercial duplication of this publication
is encouraged.

For additional copies of this guide or its com-
panion, "Sharing Science With Children: A Sur-
vival Guide for Scientists and Engineers," write:

Georgiana M. Searles
North Carolina Museum of Life and Science
P.O. Box 15190
Durham, North Carolina 27704

The North Carolina Museum of Life and Sci-
ence gratefully  acknowledges funding sup-
port from:

National Science Foundation
North Carolina Science and Mathematics Alliance
                                                                   North Carolina
                                                                   Museum of Life and Science
            Sharing  Science:
Linking Students with Scientists and Engineers
           /I Survival Guide for Teachers
                                                                                 Printed on recycled paper

                                     Office of Waur   EPA 800-B-33-004
                                     H7/-556        March 1993
Survival Tips  for Your  Classroom Visit

Before  you go into the classroom...

'  Decioe on your approach.
  You may select some aspect of the curriculum. An alternative, more personalized, approach is to focus
  on what you do.

  ^.•^•rare voir? acHvit  h^ed o  rfrl^rer^s nef-ffs nnd abilrties,       -           -
  Ask the teacher what students already know. "Typical Science and Technology Topics" on page 6 will
  give you a general understanding of what students typically learn at different grades. You can also check
  with the teacher about local curriculum and/or texts.
  Know the age of the class you are visiting and their "Thinking and Learning Characteristics" (page 7).

  I*- };~r.rji5''fd fcr v-/;5?rji :-earf:or= and hehy\ior.
  Keep in mind that teachers and parents may have concerns about how sensitive issues, such as evolution
  or reproduction, are presented to their children. If you have questions^bout appropriate ways to present
  your subject, discuss your plans with the teacher.

  '<.;!•.*••.< HY.iv i'v:Ct  Vvhorc--  \
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                                                                     wii-556           March 1993
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                  ^;?%I His  IF

          If each student is to have a handout or materials, make sure you have enough of each. See that materials

          are organized. Do a test run of experiments, games, or any other activities you plan to do.

          iVs-pnrv1' • • •'-*' it*rni»»'>io«y liuir is appropriate for fhv ssadents.

          If there are a number of words or concepts students would benefit by knowing in advance, give them to

          the teacher and (s)he can help students learn them.

                                                                        Office of Waxr    ""EPA 800-B-93-004
                                                                        WH-556            March 1993
  Let the children know you are a real person with a family, pets, hobbies. Talk about how you got to be achemist,
  an anthropologist, an engineer,...  Was there a special event or person in your life — a teacher, a learning
  experience, a book, a visit to a museum — that aroused your interest in your field? What do you do on an
  average day? What is interesting or unique about your work?
  involve tut :>n of \ ow efforts.
 Ask the students what they liked (and didn 't like) about your visit. Ask the teacher to critique your presentation
 and help you improve your in-class skills.; V'.Ktr next visit:

                                                             Office ofWacr    ~EPR 800-8-33^)04
                                                             WH-556           March 1903
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                             •                                                        xt^jK'-.

                          TEACHING  TIPS                         * *

 Make eye contact with the students because they love the personal contact.

 Smile and feel comfortable telling amusing anecdotes because kids love a good laugh.

 Organize all materials in advance because kids sometimes have a hard time waiting.

 Use student volunteers to help you set up and distribute materials, samples, pictures, and
 handouts because kids love to feel important.  .

 Require that students raise their hands to participate because they will probably all want to talk
 at once.

 Call on many different members of the class because everyone wants to be involved.

 Model good safety practices because kids learn by following role models.

 Give specific directions when distributing specimens because kids sometimes disagree about who
 has been holding an object the longest.

 Use a  prearranged signal to get students' attention during activities (clapping, flipping light
 switch, etc.) because it is too hard to give good directions unless students are quiet.

 Stop and wait for students to let you continue speaking if they get noisy because they have
 probably heard the "cold silence" before and know that it means they need to be less noisy.

 Wait to give handouts to students until it is time to read or use them because if the students have
 the handouts while you are speaking they will be distracted.

 Wait several seconds before calling on students to answer a question because the whole class
 needs  time to think about the question before someone answers it.

 Praise attentive or helpful behavior because this is the behavior you want to encourage.

 Enjoy the students, their enthusiasm, and their sense of wonder because they have a fascinating
 perspective on the world!

                                                                    Cffict of Water
                                                                  March 1.883
   Typical Science and Technology Topics

Many kinds
Have different coverings
Eat different kinds of foods
Many kinds
Grow in different places
Vegetables and fruits
Dayscanbesunny. cloudy,
  rainy, and snowy
pour seasons
Things have colors, sizes,
Classifying objects
Hot and cold
Serial ordering
Day and night
First and Second    Third and Fourth   Fifth and Sixth
Are alike and different
Move and grow
Different homes
Different sounds
Care of pets
Characteristics of plants
Collecting pans of plants
Seeds become plants
Uses of plants
Air occupies space, has
Air has pressure
Wind is moving air
States of matter.
Different types of matter
Movement of things in air,
Sinking and floating
                        Sources of electricity
                        Uses of electricity
Sun, moon, earth
Day and Night
Adaptations to the
Defense mechanisms
Helpful and harmful
Classification of plants
Effect of soil, water, air,
  and light on growth
Prehistoric plants
Effect of sun on earth
Temperature and
Expansion and contraction
Producing sound
                        Simple compass
                        Uses of magnets
Heat and light
Day. night, year
Tides and eclipses
Solar system
Gravity, inertia and orbit
Comets, meteors and
Space exploration
Animal classification
Selective breeding
Interaction with the
Balance of nature
Pans and functions
Life processes
Plant movements
Evaporation and
Air masses
Forecasting and
Factors affecting climate
Mixtures and compounds
Matter and energy
Sources of energy
                        Static electricity
                        Nature of electricity
                        Simple circuit
                        Series and parallel circuits
Space travel
Water cycle
Properties of water

                                                                                 Office of Wax,    ~EPA 800-B-93-O04
                                                                                 WH-556              M?"*1 1993
 Message to all members of the scientific and engineering communities

 concerned about improving science education in the nation's schools:

 I encourage practicing scientists and engineers to share personally some of their knowledge and experience with school children.

 In September of 1989, President Bush convened the historic Education Summit with the Nation's Governors in Charlottewille. Virginia. The
 National Education goals  developed following the Summit established targets for American  educational
 achievement by the year 2000. The National Science Foundation and other Federal agencies, in partnership with
 the States, school districts.academic institutions,private industry and professional organizations, are generating
 the systemic reforms needed to realize these national goals as they apply to mathematics and science achievement
for all students. Yet these reforms, which include improved curricula and better teacher preparation, cannot in
 themselves convey fully the  excitement and dynamics of modern science. There is no substitute for personally
 meeting real scientists and engineers in the classroom and learning first-hand about what they do.

 Many of you may have little formal teaching experience. Others who are teachers may never have taught at the
 grade school level. Some may question their ability to convey their knowledge and experience adequately to school
 age children. Yet each of you has a unique and important story to tell. This pamphlet provides reliable, time-tested
 guidance as to what to expect when you enter the classroom, how to support and complement the school curriculum, and how to make your
 visit a valuable, enriching experience for the students.  You will find that it can be a deeply rewarding personal experience for you as well.

I urge each of you to contribute in this unique way to the enrichment of mathematics and science education in our schools. By doing so, you
can help today's students to lead fuller and more productive lives in the future. You might also help to inspire and motivate the students who
will become the next generation of professional scientists and engineers.
                                                                Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources
                                                                                     National Science Foundation
       Thinking and Learning Characteristics of Young People

  Early Elementary (K-2)         Late Elementary (3-5)       >"  Middle Grades (6-8)
  As a thinker...
  •  Leams through manipulating objects.
  •  Believes what he or she sees.
  •  Can't trace steps back from a
  •  Sees pans, not the whole.
  •  Does not understand  that making
    physical changes in an object does
   .not change its amount.
  As a learner...
  •  Is expansive, adventurous, curious,
    eager to learn, energetic, always in
    motion, loud, and emotional — has
    mood swings.
  •  Wants to please adults.
  •  Has difficulty controlling impulses
    and regulating behavior.
  •  Is  very  "me"  centered.   Seeks
    attention.   Loves praise.
  •  Likes to work in groups, but will
    need assistance.
  •  Can sit still and listen 10-15minutes;
    needs frequent change of pace.
As a thinker...
• Although still somewhat tied to see-
  ing in order to believe, begins to un-
  derstand concepts as well as objects.
• Understands hierarchical classifica-
  tion systems.
• Can combine, son, multiply, substi-
  tute, divide.
• Begins to generalize, formulate hy-
  potheses, use systematic problem-
  solving strategies.
• Likes to memorize,  to learn facts.

As a learner...
• Understands rules and can follow
• Likes group activities and excursions.
  Is a great socializer and eager to fit in.
• Considers fairness to be important.
• Takes initiative and is self motivated.
• Is becoming an independent learner.
• Is a perfectionist who will  practice
  the same thing over and over again.
• Avoids opposite sex.
• Can sit still and listen 20-30 minutes
  (variety increases attention span).
As a thinker...
• Can hypothesize, create propositions,
  and evaluate.
• Can conceptualize in the abstract and
  understand probability.
• Begins to understand multiple
• Developing understanding of ethical
As a learner...                  .
• Is emotional, restive, and eager to get
• Is easily bored.
• Challenges  rules, routines,  and
• Is beginning to have an interest in the
  opposite sex.
• Is typically more oriented to small
  group activity.
• Has a vulnerable ego, is  very self-
  conscious and concerned about how
  he/she is perceived by others.
• Can handle 30-40 minute sessions.

                                                                                                         March 1993
  Leam about and support science related activities in your local community and
  those sponsored by state and national organizations. Here are some resources:

  Each year the National Science Foundation (NSF) designates the last full week
  in April as National Science & Technology Week. NSF provides instructional kits
  with student activities, educational posters, and other materials. It encourages
  teachers, scientists, and others to participate through school activities, community
  projects, and  public lectures.  National Science & Technology Week will  be
  celebrated in 1992 on April 26-May 2.

  The Association of Science-Technology Centers and its member science muse-
  ums promote experiences in science and technology for children, families, and the
  general public. Science centers and museums feature hands-on exhibits, science
  activities, and teacher training workshops and serve as educational resources to
  theircommunities. Contact your local science center to offer your support. ASTC
  can refer you to museum contacts in your state. Call (202) 783-7200 for assistance.

  The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) sponsors
  activities through its Committee on the Public Understanding of Science andTech-
  nology including a project which encourages scientists to volunteer at science and
  technology centers and other places of science. Call (202) 326-6602.

  Many professional societies lend support to local schools, museums, and other
  community institutions. Check with your national organization to find out what
  programs or materials are available.
Developed by the North Carolina Museum of
Life and Science based on numerous publica-
tions, guidelines, and other sources drawn from
all over the United States. Non-commercial
duplication  is encouraged. We want to know
how you use this guide and any suggestions you
have for improving  it. Contact: Georgians M.
Searles, Director of  Education, North Carolina
Museum of Life and Science, P.O. Box 15190,
Durham, North Carolina 27704.

The North Carolina Museum of Life and Sci-
ence gratefully acknowledges funding support

National Science Foundation
American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
American Mathematical Society
American Society for Microbiology
Apple Computer, Inc.
E. I. duPont de Nemours & Company
Schering-Plough Research
                                                                           North Carolina
                                                                           Museum of Life and Science
                                                                                                •i: •>•<-\i-lftl piifttr