September 1966
 Great Lakes Region           Chicago, Illinois

   Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins Project






       The fight for clean waters is being pressed today as never before.
At the signing of the Water Quality Act of 1965 on October 2, 1965, President
Johnson said, in part:

       "...This moment marks a very proud beginning for the United
       States of America.  Today, we proclaim our refusal to be
       strangled by the wastes of civilization.  Today, we begin to
       be masters of our environment.

          "But we must act, and act swiftly.  The hour is late, the
       damage is large...

          "No one has a right to use America's rivers and America's
       waterways that belong to all the people as a sewer...

          "...This bill that you have passed, that will become law
       as a result of a responsive Congress, will not completely
       assure us of absolute success.  Additional bolder legislation
       will be needed in the years ahead.  But we have begun.  And
       we have begun in the best American tradition - with a program
       of joint Federal, state and local action..."

       That Congress was in a mood for bolder legislation is evidenced by
subsequent congressional actions.  The Washington Post on July 15, 1966, in
an editorial typical of many throughout the Nation, commented on current
legislative action as follows:

       "The 90-to-O vote by which the Senate passed the clean-rivers bill
       is indicative of a tidal wave of reaction against filth ir. cur
       streams.  A few years ago it was difficult to arouse any interest
       in pollution or its abatement on a national scale.  .Now there is
       mounting alarm, and, according to Senator Muskie, the chief sponsor
       of the Senate bill, the people have given a mandate tc Congress to
       end the shocking abuse of our water resources."

       Nowhere in the Nation is the tidal wave of reaction - the mounting
alarm over pollution - more evident than in the Great Lakes «.rea.  Governors
of the Lake States have given strong support to water pollution control -
convening top-level conferences, promoting State programs of financial aid to
cities as a supplement to Federal construction grants, and initiating action
toward establishing standards for enhancing water quality.

       Once buried on the back  pages  of  newspapers, water pollution is now
front-page news.  Civic groups,  labor unions, and  crusading private citizens
have added their voices to those of public  health  and conservation spokemen.

       The present generation holds the  Lakes in trust, with an obligation to
posterity to pass along this magnificent resource  in the best possible

       The water pollution problems of the  Great Lakes are myriad and complex.
But the will to do something about it is strong.   Ways will be found.  Some of
the ways are described in the narrative  that follows.


        The Great Lakes Area (see map in the middle of this booklet) is
characterized by large concentrations of people, industry and fresh water.
In I960 more than 25 million people lived within its boundaries; more
than 20 million or 80 percent of the total live in metropolitan areas.
In 1963 manufacturing activity exceeded 40 billion dollars - almost
one-fourth of the Nation's total.  For many decades much of the area
has been referred to as the industrial belt of the Nation.  The area has
the largest, most dependable, and most valuable fresh water resources in
the United States.  It is imperative that they not be lost or degraded.
Not only is a large part of the existing population and industry of our
country dependent upon them, they also are vital to future growth.
Within less than fifty years the population of the Great Lakes Area is
expected to double, or exceed 50 million people; industrial activity
during the same period may well increase four or even five-fold.

        Industrial water use in I960 in the Great Lakes Area was estimated
to be 2,660 billion gallons.  The quantity may triple within 50 years.
These industries employed almost a half million persons.  Municipal water
use in the same year was approximately 1,400 billions of gallons.  It
may reach 3,000 billion by the year 2010.  Municipal water facilities
drawing water from the Lakes or connecting waters serve almost 15 million
                     World's largest municipal water
                       treatment plant - Chicago.

        To state the value of the water resources to industry and for
municipal consumption only partially tells the story.  The importance
of the Lakes and their tributaries for recreation and for commercial
fishing, although difficult to measure in dollar terms, is clearly
enormous.  During the summer months of I960 in the Lake Michigan Basin
alone there were more than 50 million "activity days" of water-oriented
recreation.  If suitable facilities exist, the number may be five times
as large by the year 2010.  With regard to commercial fishing the U. S.
catch in 1964 totalled over 53 million pounds - half of which was taken
from Lake Michigan.

        The enhancement of recreational opportunities, the improvement
or maintenance of water quality for municipal and industrial use, and the
over-all betterment of the esthetic aspects of lake shores and tributaries
will result not only in dollar savings but also in greater personal
enjoyment to millions of people.  To a great extent the future growth of
the area is dependent upon the adequacy of a suitable quantity and quality
of its water resources.
                        Little waters of the
                           Big Lakes area.

                       WATER POLLUTION PROBLEMS

Physical Problems

        When the Great Lakes were formed by receding glaciers some
20,000 years ago, their waters were excellent in quality.  Although
the overall quality remains generally good, particularly when compared
to some of our severely polluted streams, it has undergone continuous
deterioration as a result of waste inputs from natural runoff and the
activities of man.  The widely publicized water quality problems of
Lake Erie dramatically emphasize the consequences of this deterioration.

        The major physical problems of the Great Lakes Area are:

        	 Over-enrichment of the Lakes.
        	 Build-up of dissolved solids in the Lakes.
        	 Bacterial contamination of the Lakes and Tributaries.
        	 Chemical contamination from industrial waste discharges.
        	 Oxygen depletion of the Lakes and Tributaries.

        Discussion of each of these significant water quality problems

                       Over-enrichment of the Lakes

        Every lake, including our own Great Lakes, undergoes an aging
process which is inevitable and leads - in time measured on a geologic
scale - to its destruction.  Of immediate concern, however, is not the
lake's inexorable fate but the rate of its evolution.  Aging is rapidly
accelerated by inputs of nutritive materials, nitrogen and phosphorus,
that enrich the aquatic environment.  Fertilizers carried into a lake
by land runoff, along with the nitrogen and phosphorus contained in
municipal and industrial waste discharges, hasten the aging or
eutrophication process.

        At some stage in the life history of the lake, nutrient concen-
trations reach a level where the addition of more nutrients produces
"blooms" of algae and the water becomes murky.  Initially, the blooms
are not dense but blooms of greater density follow, and the algal
population and species change to the blue-green types that cause noxious
odors and appear as unsightly scums on the water surface.

        Concurrent with the development of algal blooms, other significant
changes occur.  Dissolved oxygen levels become depressed in the bottom
of thermally stratified lakes. (See subsequent discussion of oxygen
depletion.)  Bottom-dwelling fauna change from clean water forms to
pollution-tolerant forms.  Drastic changes take place in the fisheries


with the highly-prized game fish, such as pike, trout and whitefish
becoming scarce as the coarse, less valuable fish such as carp, catfish,
and sheepshead become dominant.  In shallow waters near shore, attached
filamentous forms of algae grow abundantly, forming in long strings
which break loose and wash up onto the shore.  Unsightly odorous messes
result, interfering with the recreational use of waters and beaches,
clogging water intakes, and depressing property values.
                      Dead algae foul beaches and
                             swimming waters.
        Sad as it may seem, we have in effect just described the principal
water quality problems in the smallest of our Great Lakes, Lake Erie.
A Federal enforcement conference last August disclosed that 174,000 pounds
of soluble phosphate are being discharged to Lake Erie each day.  Algal
concentrations have reached such proportions that extensive blooms have
been observed.  A bloom occurred in 1964 which affected 2,600 square miles
of the central basin.  Oxygen levels in the 2,600 square mile area, near
the water bottom, were as low as zero to 2 milligrams per liter (mg/1).
Algae in other areas of the Lake foul beaches and waterfront property,
often result in filter clogging in water treatment plants, and produce
taste and odors in drinking water under some conditions.

        Evaluation of biological conditions in Lake Ontario shows that
this Lake is on the verge of becoming eutrophic (waters with a good
supply of nutrients and capable of supporting rich organic productions).
The ability of the Lake to support algal blooms and great masses of
attached filamentous forms of algae along the shoreline is a definite
indication of eutrophication.  Apparently the major reason Lake Ontario
has not already become eutrophic is its deep waters.

        In Lake Michigan enrichment of the waters has not reached the
stages of Lakes Erie or Ontario.  However, in isolated locations such ?.s
the southern part of Green Bay near the mouth of the Fox River, the
Milwaukee Area and the Calumet Area, biological findings have indicated
the presence of waters subject to organic enrichment.  Much filamentous
algae has been found at nearly every beach in the southwestern corner of
the Lake.  Clogging of water intake screens has caused serious trouble
at Chicago's South District Filtration Plant.

        The problems resulting from over-fertilization have been well-
documented and pose a significant threat to the quality of the Great Lakes,

        The continuing practice of dredging harbors and streams to
maintain adequate navigation depths and the subsequent off-shore disposal
of dredgings containing residues of municipal and industrial wastes is
also a waste input of significance in the over-enrichment of the Great

        Many smaller lakes in the Great Lakes Area have reached a state
of deterioration even more advanced than Lake Erie's.  Notable among
these are some of the famed Finger Lakes, in upstate New York.

              Build-up of Dissolved Solids in the Lakes

        Waste inputs to the Lakes have also resulted in a build-up in
average concentrations of dissolved constituents such as chlorides,
sulfates, and the hardness-producing salts.  The rate of build-up is
increasing in Lake Michigan, for example, where the chloride concentration
has doubled since 1910, increasing from k to 8 mg/1.  Sulfates are in-
creasing at a slightly greater rate, averaging about 1 mg/1 in 7 years.
The present sulfate level in Lake Michigan is 20 mg/1.

        Although these concentrations are well below levels that would
seriously impair water uses, they are heavily influenced by population
and industrial growth.  Localized problems are being experienced in the
vicinity of heavy waste input points.  These problems emphasize the need
to prevent indiscriminate dumping of unwanted materials into the Lakes.

                Bacterial Contamination of the Lakes
                           and Tributaries

        Another indication of deteriorated water quality, and one which
can be traced more directly to man, is the presence of coliform bacteria.
Coliform organisms are significant because they occur in the fecal matter
of all warm-blooded animals, including man.  Consequently, the presence
of these bacteria in a body of water is interpreted as evidence of fecal
contamination.  Since contamination of water by fecal matter is one
avenue of transmission of certain water-borne diseases, the presence of
coliforms is an indication of a potential health hazard.

        Studies have shown that the bacterial quality of Lake Michigan
is generally good in deep water but is degraded along the shoreline and
in harbor areas.  High bacterial densities show a close correlation
with heavily populated areas.  Evidence of severe bacterial contamination
of tributaries to Lake Michigan has been found in the Fox River between
Lake Winnebago and Green Bay, Wisconsin; the Milwaukee River within
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin; and the streams of the Calumet Area, Illinois
and Indiana.

        Tributaries of Lakes Erie and Ontario introduce fairly high
quantities of polluted water, but the main bodies of the Lakes are not
considered to be bacterially contaminated.  As the tributaries enter the
Lakes, their waters mix and dissipate the pollutional load with the Lakes
and, except for harbor-inshore areas in close proximity to or downflow
of tributaries, the quality remains good.  The Niagara River, the
connecting link between Lakes Erie and Ontario, is severely polluted in
terms of bacterial contamination.

        Generally the severe problems of bacterial contamination in the
Great Lakes Area are located around the population centers.  But, of
course, this is precisely where the great demands for water usage occur.
Many Great Lakes beaches are currently closed because of health hazards.

         The large number of vessels,  commercial ships and recreational
 boats, now plying the waters of the Great Lakes and their tributaries
 also represent significant sources of both untreated and inadequately
 treated wastes capable of causing local problems of bacterial pollution.

                         IF YOU
                         OONTSWIM FOR AN HOUR AFlffcATING
                         NEVER SWIM ALONE
                         DON'T SWI« IN WATER COIPER THAN 65"
                         OOH'TSIVIIW IF YOU HAVE HURT TROUWI
                         SWIM ONLY AT PATROLLED JE/CHtS
                                   JOfiN S
                    To close or not  to  close the beach?
                      This is the way one Great Lakes
                       city approaches  the question.
                  Chemical Contamination  from  Industrial
                              Waste  Discharges

       Industrial plants have been identified  as the source of waste discharges
causing chemical contamination of water.  Such  contamination takes the form of
oil and tarry substances, phenolic compounds or other persistent organic chem-
icals contributing to taste and odor problems,  ammonia and other nitrogeneous
materials, phosphorus, suspended matter,  and highly acidic or alkaline

       The principal areas exhibiting pollution of this nature are as follows:

                Duluth-Superior Area,  Minnesota and Wisconsin
                Southern Green Bay,  Wisconsin
                Milwaukee Area, Wisconsin
                Calumet Area, Illinois and  Indiana
                Saginaw River and Bay, Michigan
                Detroit Area, Michigan
                Maumee River, Indiana and Ohio
                Lower Cuyahoga River,  Ohio
                Niagara Area, New York
                Rochester Area, New  York
                Syracuse Area, New York

                     FORT WAYNI


              AND INDUSTRY

       Industrial wastes produce unsightly conditions, contribute to taste
and odor problems and treatment problems at water treatment plants, and in
some cases are toxic to desirable fish and aquatic life.  The detrimental
effects of these chemicals on man have not been fully evaluated.
                 Paper mill wastes - one of the largest
                          causes of- pollution.
                   Oxygen Depletion of the Lakes and

       The small quantity of oxygen normally dissolved in water is perhaps the
most important single ingredient necessary for a healthy, balanced, aquatic
environment.  Dissolved oxygen is consumed by living organisms through respira-
tion and is replenished, if a well-balanced environment exists, by absorption
from the atmosphere and through the life processes, of aquatic plants.  When
organic pollution enters this environment, the balance is altered.  The
bacteria, present in the water or introduced with pollution, utilize the organic
matter as food and multiply rapidly.  The resulting deficiency may be great
enough to inhibit or destroy the fish and other desirable organisms and to con-
vert the stream or lake into an odor-producing nuisance.  Solubility of oxygen
in water is quite low, saturation values ranging from 8 to 13 milligrams per
liter (mg/l) depending on water temperature and, in lesser degree, on atmo-
spheric pressure.  Commonly accepted minimum concentrations that should be
maintained at a]1 times to prevent nuisance and promote desirable aquatic life,
range from a minimum of 3 nig/1, which will support minimal aquatic life and
rough fish, to 6 or more mg/l for certain types of game fish.

                     Both sport and commercial fishing
                         are affected by pollution.
       As previously mentioned, the main body of Lake Erie has exhibited oxygen
depletion in widespread areas due primarily to widespread algal blooms.  Oxygen
depletion has also been observed in some of the major tributaries to Lake
Michigan.  Prime examples of this water quality problem are the Lower Fox River,
the Grand River below Jackson and Lansing, and the Calumet Area streams.  Trib-
utaries to Lake Ontario at the Barge Canal, Black River, Rochester, and Lockport
Areas have also demonstrated poor dissolved oxygen resources.

       In general the discharge of treated and untreated municipal and indus-
trial wastes in these areas produces these polluted conditions.  The high
concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the waste discharges com-
bine, in some cases, with severe drought flows of receiving waters to intensify
the problems of this nature.

Management Problems

       Although the physical problems discussed above are very complex, their
solution depends in turn upon the solution of extremely complex economic and
political problems.  One of the primary problems is the diversity of, and need
for coordination between, the large number of organizations at all levels of
government which have an interest in and authority for various phases of water
pollution control.  Two Nations, Canada and the United States, a number of
international and interstate organizations, eight States and two Provinces,
and many local communities are actively involved in the control of water pollu-
tion in the Great Lakes.

                            WHAT IS BEING DONE

Federal Activities

                             National Program

       Increasing interest and concern over the widespread problems related
to water pollution are reflected in Federal legislation, particularly during
the past 10 years.  The Water Quality Act of 1965 is the most recent and one
of the most significant legislative milestones.  This Act amends the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act of 1956, which was previously amended in 1961.

       The basic Act, as amended in 1961, authorized certain water pollution
control activities.  The major program activities included the development
of comprehensive water pollution control programs, research, technical
assistance, training, grants for state programs and the construction of
sewage treatment facilities, enforcement, and pollution control from Federal
installations.  A Federal program of this stature required substantial
resources in personnel, facilities, and funds.  The years 1961 through 1965
were a period of widely expanding effort in the war on water pollution.  Ten
of the Nation's major basins, including the Great Lakes, were under study for
the development of comprehensive programs.  The construction grants program,
from its beginning in 1956 to the middle of 1966, granted over $775 million
in Federal funds to help finance some 6,940 municipal sewage treatment
projects.  Equally important, 39 Federal-State enforcement conferences have
brought recommended measures and schedules for pollution abatement.

       The Water Quality Act of 1965, previously mentioned, established a
new Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, increased dollar ceil-
ings on sewage treatment construction grants, and authorized an additional
10 percent for any such grant conforming with metropolitan or regional master
development plans.  The Act requires the development of water quality
standards for interstate waters, and also authorizes grants for demonstrating
new or improved methods for controlling wastes discharged from storm or com-
bined sanitary and storm sewers.  One such grant was announced by President
Johnson during his visit to Buffalo in August, 1966, to personally view
pollution in the Great Lakes.  The new provisions of the Act were designed
to strengthen and expand the collective effort in attaining adequate pollu-
tion control throughout the country.


       In the 1961 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act,
Congress directed the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to develop
and demonstrate practicable means of treating sewage and other waterborne
wastes to restore the Nation's waters to a quality suitable for reuse.  Of
the funds appropriated, $5 million annually up to an aggregate of $25


million, about $5»4 million have been allocated to the advanced waste
treatment research effort.  Encouraging progress has resulted and initial
research has indicated that advanced waste treatment can be made both
technologically and economically feasible.  The most promising processes
developed to date are:  l) foam separation, 2) coagulation - solids removal,
3) granular carbon adsorption, and 4) electrodialysis.  Much research and
development work remains to be done, however, before the essential goal of
accomplishing any degree of waste treatment required, at any location, under
any condition, and at a minimum cost that technology can achieve, is reached.

       Recent investigations of phosphate removal efficiencies in conven-
tional municipal sewage treatment plants have also proved rewarding.  It
appears that relatively minor modifications in plant operation can result
in much higher phosphate removal efficiencies.  The value of such research
findings could prove quite significant, particularly in the Great Lakes
where many of our large communities discharge large phosphate loadings to
the Lakes and algal problems have resulted.

                           Water Quality Standards

       As previously mentioned the Water Quality Act of 1965 requires the
establishment of water quality standards for all interstate waters.  There
is general agreement as to the need for, and the benefits attainable from,
this provision.

       Each State has the opportunity of filing, by October 2, 1966, a
letter indicating its intent to adopt, on or before June 30, 1967, water
quality criteria and a plan for implementing and enforcing such criteria,
for the interstate waters and portions thereof within its jurisdiction. If
such criteria and plan are so established and are determined by the Secretary
of the Interior to be consistent with the provisions of the Act, then the
criteria and plan will become the water quality standards applicable to the
waters involved.  If a State fails to establish quality standards, the
Federal Government, through carefully delineated procedures, will do so.

       Establishment of water quality standards for all our Nation's inter-
state waters will be a monumental achievement.  Many persons representing a
wide variety of disciplines will be involved; many more will be affected.
Nearly all of our States have indicated their intention to adopt standards
by the mid-1967 deadline.  On May 10, 1966, when the Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration became a part of his Department, Secretary of the
Interior Stewart L. Udall issued guidelines to the States for setting of
standards.  In a message to the 50 State Governors, the Secretary urged a
cooperative State-Federal effort in the establishment and implementation of
water quality standards.  This partnership approach is the key to successful
accomplishment of the standards provisipn of the Federal Water Pollution
Control Act.  The pace of progress will depend greatly upon the leadership
and impetus provided by responsible officials in each State.  The Federal
Water Pollution Control Administration stands ready to give all possible sup-
port and assistance - administratively, technically, and financially.


                             Federal Installations

       The Federal Government has not overlooked the pollution hazards
created by its own activities.  On November 17, 1965 President Johnson
issued Executive Order 11258, Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Water
Pollution by Federal Activities.  The Order was later revised by Executive
Order 11288 which placed the responsibilities of the original Order under
the Department of the Interior.  The Order directs the heads of the depart-
ments, agencies, and establishments of the Executive Branch of the Government
to provide leadership in the nation-wide effort to improve water quality.

       All agencies have been directed to present a phased and orderly plan
for needed corrective and preventive measures and facilities to the Bureau
of the Budget in order to facilitate budgeting procedures.  In addition, all
Federal installations are required to provide a minimum of secondary waste
treatment.  Federal installations such as Air Force bases, NIKE Sites, Army
ammunition plants and depots, Job Corps Centers, National Forest recreation
facilities, and Coast Guard stations in the Great Lakes Area have initiated
pollution abatement programs in furtherance of the Order.  General improve-
ment in housekeeping and surveillance as well as the upgrading of existing
waste treatment facilities have resulted from each agency's desire to provide
the leadership necessary to effect the Nation's goal of clean water.

       Federal water resources projects and facilities and operations
supported by Federal loans, grants, or contracts are also included in
Executive Order 11288.  Water resource projects must be designed, constructed,
and operated in a manner which will reduce pollution from such activities to
the lowest practicable level.  The head of each Federal department, agency,
and establishment has been directed to conduct a review of the loan, grant,
and contract practices of his own organization to determine to what extent
water pollution control requirements set forth in the Order should be ad-
hered to by borrowers, grantees, or contractors.  This review has resulted
in practices designed to reduce water pollution in various programs.  Urban
renewal projects now require the construction of separate storm and sanitary
sewer systems rather than combined systems.   The nation-wide highway con-
struction program, financed with Federal funds and administered by the Bureau
of Public Roads, is now being conducted in accordance with practices aimed at
preventing water pollution through their design, construction, and maintenance.
The various agencies have consulted with the Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration in an effort to insure maximum water quality consideration in
their various activities.

       The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers is reviewing its harbor and waterway
dredging operations in an effort to reduce water pollution.  The disposal of
dredgings in diked areas and other suitable spoil areas rather than disposal
in open waters will aid in overall water quality enhancement.

       This Order represents a major step forward in the battle to preserve
and enhance the quality of our Nation's waters.   It has sparked a keen aware-
ness on the part of government officials of the  need for corrective action and

vigorous pollution abatement programs.  The effort being shown by these
various Federal agencies provides leadership in the nation-wide water quality
improvement program.

                    Enforcement Action-Great Lakes Area

       Under the provisions of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the
Secretary of the Interior is authorized to call an enforcement conference
when requested to do so by the Governor of a State, and when, on the basis of
reports, surveys, or studies, he has reason to believe that pollution of
interstate waters subject to abatement under the Act is occurring.

       The purpose of the conference is to bring together the State water pollu-
tion control agencies, the representatives of the Department of the Interior,
and other interested parties to review the existing situations, the progress
which has been made, to lay a basis for future action by all parties concerned,
and to give the States, localities, and industries an opportunity to take any
indicated remedial action under State-and local laws.

       There have been four such Federal-State enforcement actions in the
Great Lakes Area.

Conference Area                  States Involved                Date

Detroit River-Western                                     March 27, 1962
  Lake Erie                      Michigan                 (Reconvened on
                                                          June 15, 1965)

Menominee River                  Michigan & Wisconsin     November 7, 1963

Calumet Rivers &                                          March 2, 1965
  Lake Michigan                  Indiana & Illinois       (Technical Session
                                                          January k, 1966)

Lake Erie and its                Pennsylvania, New York,  August 3, 1965
  Tributaries                    Michigan, Indiana, and   (Cleveland)
                                 Ohio                     August 10, 1965
                                                          (Conferees Meeting
                                                          June 12, 1966)

       The conclusions and recommendations reached by the conferees cover
subjects peculiar to the problems of each conference area.  In the Menominee
Conference pulp and paper wastes were the greatest contributors to pollution.
In Lake Erie the prime concern was over-fertilization that causes excessive
algae growths.

       Because of these differences, clean-up agreements and policies have
been reached covering several aspects of pollution control.  These clean-up
agreements vary from one conference area to another.  The required control

measures range from "construction and operation of sewage treatment plants for
maximum phosphate removal" to "prevention of garbage dumping along streams and
lake shorelines."

                Comprehensive Program-Great Lakes Area

       The Great Lakes-Illinois River Basins Project has been charged with the
responsibility of developing comprehensive programs for the Great Lakes and
Illinois River Basins.  The major objectives of the comprehensive program are:

       	Identification of the causes of water pollution and the effects of
such pollution on the quality of water resources and on beneficial uses.

       	The development of agreements on the desired beneficial uses and
the water quality required to accommodate those uses.

       	The development of water quality control measures to achieve the
desired objectives, including the establishment of a timetable for their

       	Provision of the mechanisms for carrying out program objectives,
including continuing surveillance for the purpose of updating the programs to
accommodate changing technology and changing water quality needs.

       To accomplish these objectives the Project has a staff consisting of
professional personnel of a variety of scientific disciplines including
sanitary and hydraulic engineers, chemists, biologists, microbiologists,
radiochemists, oceanographers and economists.  All work is closely coordinated
with other Federal, State and local interests.

       Project activities began late in I960 with a concentrated information
gathering phase which included the development of municipal and industrial
water and waste inventories, gathering of economic base data, and intensive
sampling of waters in selected areas considered critical from a water pollu-
tion standpoint.  Simultaneously, the Project staff in cooperation with its
Lake Michigan-Illinois River Basins Technical Committee developed water quality
criteria to serve as goals for various water uses in the Lake Michigan Basin.

       In the Lake Michigan Basin the field work and two reports have been
completed.   The two reports on the Milwaukee and Green/Bay Areas in Wisconsin
were presented at the Governor's Conferences on Lake Michigan Pollution held
at Milwaukee and Green Bay on June 28 and June 30, 1966, respectively.
Reports describing the comprehensive programs for water pollution control in
other areas of the Lake Michigan Basin are now in .preparation.  Field activ-
ities have been completed in the Lake Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Ontario Basins.
Reports are scheduled for completion for the Lake Michigan and Lake Erie
Basins by January, 196?.  The Lake Huron and Lake Ontario Basin reports are
scheduled for completion by July, 1967.   Field studies are scheduled to begin
on the Lake Superior Basin in January, 1967.
                                                                     GPO 827-197-3

State Activities

       All Federal water pollution control legislation has recognized that
the primary responsibility for the control of pollution resides in the States.
The rising public concern over water pollution which has resulted in stronger
laws at the Federal level has also had a significant impact on State water
pollution control legislation.

       The eight States that border the Great Lakes are among the richest and
most progressive in the Nation and their approach to the problems of water
resource management is broad.  The tools available to the State governments
in their anti-pollution efforts range from the power to prohibit waste dis-
charges to the use of tax incentives to encourage the construction of needed

       An example of recent water resource legislation is the new Wisconsin
law which went into effect August 1, 1966.  The law provides for financial
aid to local communities, the establishment of water quality criteria for the
waters of the State, and for comprehensive planning by regions within the
State.  In addition the staff and funds of the water resource agency were
greatly increased.  In the State of New York a bond issue totaling approx-
imately one billion dollars for the construction of sewage treatment facilities
was passed last year.  Other States in the Great Lakes Area have also shown
significant increases in the amount of funds allocated to State water pollu-
tion control programs.  The Governors of several Great Lakes States have
shown their interest in the pollution problem in their respective States by
calling conferences to emphasize the seriousness of the problems.

       The above factors indicate that the States are becoming increasingly
aware of their central role in water pollution control, and that they must do
much more in the future than has been done in the past.

Regional and Local Activities

       In recent years there has been an increase in the number of regional
planning agencies concerned with the water pollution problems of metropolitan
areas.  However, such regional agencies do not at the present time have
sufficient funds, manpower or authority to adequately implement the master
plans needed for our complex urban areas.

       Local pollution control activities often receive less recognition than
the actions taken at the Federal and State levels.  It is essential to realize,
however, that remedial action to correct many of our major water pollution
problems must ultimately be taken at the local level.  There are many signs
that our municipalities are becoming increasingly aware of their pollution
problems and are taking appropriate steps to eliminate them.

Industrial Activities

       Industries in the Great Lakes Area are demonstrating their concern over
the problems of water pollution.  Many leaders of industry have come to the


realization that the cost of pollution control is a necessary and legitimate
cost of production.  Planning for pollution abatement is an integral part of
the construction of new plants, and methods to reduce the pollutional load
from older plants are receiving much attention.

Interstate and International Cooperation

       Several organizations have been established to attempt to deal with the
complex interstate and international problems of water resources management in
the Great Lakes Area.

       The Great Lakes Commission, although not recognized as an interstate
compact, is composed of the States of Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Indiana,
Pennsylvania, Illinois and New York.  It was formed to conserve and develop
the water resources of the Great Lakes Area.

       The Great Lakes Study Group is composed of representatives of several
Canadian and U. S. government agencies, formed on an informal basis to ex-
change technical information concerning studies of the Great Lakes.

       The Great Lakes Fisheries Commission was established by the United
States and Canada in accordance with the terms of the Convention on Great
Lakes Fisheries ratified in 1955.  Its major functions are to formulate and
carry out research programs to protect the fisheries of the Great Lakes Area.

       The Boundary Waters Treaty between the United States and Canada,
signed in 1909, established the International Joint Commission.  The Commission
appointed two Advisory Boards on Control of Pollution of Boundary Waters, com-
posed of Federal and State engineers from the two Nations, to examine and
evaluate pollution problems and to interpret progress of abatement programs.
Since 1952, field units have been maintained by the U. S. in Detroit and
Buffalo to collect basic water quality data, study transboundary travel of
pollution, determine improvements resulting from municipal and industrial
waste treatment, assemble data on water uses, and apply new analytical
techniques in boundary water pollution control investigations.  In October,
1964, the Commission was requested by Canada and the U. S. to report upon
pollution in the waters of Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and the International Sec-
tion of the St. Lawrence River.  An Interim Report on the subject was prepared
by the Commission in December, 1965.  Recommendations were made for the max-
imum possible removal of phosphates from all municipal and industrial waste
discharges, the prohibition of the construction of combined sewer systems, and
the separation of existing systems, and an effective system of sampling ef-
fluents of waste sources.  A program of investigation and research was also

       In order to establish effective organizations to plan basin-wide water
resource management programs, Congress passed significant legislation in 1965.
The Water Resources Planning Act provides for the creation of river basin
commissions.  Each commission would serve as the principal agency for the
coordination of Federal, State, interstate, local and non-governmental plans
for the development of water and related land resources in its area.  The Great
Lakes States have already requested that a commission be established for their

                               ACTION NEEDED
       Although engineering and economic analyses for developing the final
program for the Great Lakes Area are still in progress, work has advanced to
the point that many of the improvement measures necessary to achieve program
objectives have been determined.  Some of these measures apply present
technology to problems needing immediate correction and are based on experience
gained in solving similar problems elsewhere.  The immediate actions needed are
listed below.

       1.  All municipal waste treatment facilities should be designed to
           provide at least secondary (biological) waste treatment.  Such
           facilities should be efficiently and continously operated to
           achieve an overall 90 percent, or higher, removal of the un-
           treated waste load, as measured in terms of oxygen-consuming

       2.  Continous disinfection should be provided for all municipal
           waste treatment plant effluents.

       3.  All separately discharging industrial wastes should receive
           the equivalent of at least secondary treatment, as described
           above.  Action should also be taken toward the exclusion or
           treatment of industrial wastes causing chemical pollution.
           Where practicable, industrial wastes should be discharged to
           municipal sewerage systems.

       /*.  Organic wastes and sanitary sewage discharged by industries
           should receive the same treatment as recommended for municipal

       5.  Maximization of phosphate removal, through modification in the
           operation and/or design of existing and newly constructed
           secondary waste treatment facilities should be an immediate
           objective.  Records of phosphorus removal at treatment plants
           should be carefully evaluated after one year to determine if
           significant phosphorus removals have been achieved.  If such
           removals are not achieved, consideration should be given to
           the installation of chemical precipitation facilities at such

       6.  Combined sewers should be prohibited in all newly developed
           urban areas and should be separated in coordination with urban
           renewal projects.  Existing combined sewer systems should be
           patrolled and overflow regulating devices should be adjusted
           to convey the maximum practicable amount of combined flow to
           treatment facilities.

 7.  Agricultural practices  should be  reviewed to ensure the
     maximum protection of the waters  of the Great Lakes from the
     improper application of fertilizers and pesticides.  The use
     of pesticides and herbicides should be more closely scrutinized.
     At a minimum, accurate  estimates  of quantities utilized on a
     county basis should be  developed.  This will aid in pin-
     pointing potential problem areas.

 8.  Where practicable, waste heat discharges, particularly from
     steam power plants, should be reduced where other water uses
     are adversely affected.  In the planning of new installations
     requiring large amounts of cooling water, the quality require-
     ments of the receiving  bodies of  water should be a prime factor
     in determining the location of such installations and the need
     for cooling towers to dissipate heat.

 9.  Master plans for future waste collection and treatment facil-
     ities should be developed for the rapidly urbanizing metropolitan
     areas as quickly as possible.  Such plans should provide, among
     other things, for maximum use of  integrated facilities which
     will permit eventual elimination  of the conglomeration of small,
     inefficient facilities  surrounded by residential and commercial
     development.  Master plans should encompass whole metropolitan
     areas and should not be restricted by political boundaries.

10.  The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration has been
     working closely with other Federal agencies and with equipment
     manufacturers in the development of efficient miniaturized waste
     disposal units for recreational boats.  Regulations have been
     proposed by the U. 3. Public Health Service to control the dis-
     charge of sewage and other wastes from commercial vessels both
     domestic and foreign.   Forceful action is needed now at all
     levels of government to control and prevent pollution from these
     mobile and largely uncontrolled waste sources.

11.  The off-shore disposal of dredgings from harbor and channel
     areas which contain residues from the sewage of cities and
     industries is a poor practice,  if the quality of the water
     of the Great Lakes is to be maintained.  It is recommended that
     those involved in such practices provide other means of dis-
     posal which will not adversely affect the water quality of the

12.  Monthly reports covering the operation of all municipal and
     industrial waste treatment plants including the quality and
     quantity of discharged effluent should be submitted to the
     appropriate State agencies for review, evaluation and appro-
     priate action.

13.  The operation of all streamflow regulation facilities should
     be reviewed to ensure the availability of the maximum practicable
     streamflow at all times.

1A.  The water quality monitoring programs of the State agencies of
     the Great Lakes Area should be strengthened.  The programs should
     be geared to indicate change or trends in water quality and the
     need for additional quality improvement measures.  The use of
     automated equipment in key locations is recommended.

15.  State agencies should conduct waste treatment plant inspections
     at least annually for small and medium-sized plants, and at
     least twice annually for the larger plants.

16.  It is recommended that the water pollution control activities in
     each of the Great Lakes States be strengthened in terms of
     staffing and budget.  With additional resources and the support
     available from the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
     the implementation of the program outlined herein can be accelerated
     to meet the growing need for clean water.

Its 30-mile lakefront
is today the pride of
Chicago, because 70
years ago the pollution
was shifted to other
                                                          ...the other waters
                                                          are still polluted.
                                                                   GPO 827—497-2