United States
                Environmental Protection
               Office of External Affairs
               Region VII
               324 East 11th Street
               Kansas City, Missouri 64106
September 1980

The Environmental Profile is a report
to the people of Missouri on  the
quality of their environment.

At one time natural  cleansing pro-
cesses were adequate to maintain a
livable environment,  but these pro-
cesses have not been able to keep
pace  with rapidly evolving modern
society. Our aim  for  the  future of
Missouri  must   be  to   reach  a
reasonable  balance  between  the
benefits of economic growth (with its
attendant   increased   energy
demands) and the need for healthful
air, clean  water, and  the  aesthetic
qualities of life that characterize the

Toward  this  end,   I  invite  all
Missourians to be involved in identi-
fying   and   solving   environmental

The technical data on which this re-
port is based are available from the
Region VII office of the U.S. Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA). Any
persons interested in investigating a
particular topic in greater depth or
those needing additional detail for
planning  or  management  purposes
should contact this  office. Updated
reports will  be  issued  as  im-
provements and expansions to the in-
formation become available.
Your comments, questions, and sug-
gestions are welcome.
Kathleen Q. Camin, Ph.D.
Regional Administrator
Region VII, U.S. EPA

   Contents    Page Number

Water Resources	   6
Air Quality	  22
Solid Waste	  28
Hazardous Materials	  30
Pesticides	  32
Radiation	  34
Noise	  36
EPA Mission	  38
Further Information ......     39

Missouri,  Iowa,  Kansas, and  Neb-
raska,  which make up EPA Region
VII, produce a significant share of the
soybean, corn, wheat, grain sorghum,
cattle,  and finished hogs  that are
supplied to American and foreign

Although the States in Region VII can
best be characterized as rural, 65 per-
cent of their nearly 12 million people
live  in urban areas.  In  Missouri,
metropolitan areas such as Kansas
City and St. Louis have environmen-
tal problems resulting from major in-
dustrial operations, municipal ser-
vices, transportation, and energy pro-
duction.  Metropolitan  areas,  how-
ever, do not have a monopoly on envi-
ronmental  problems.  Hundreds  of
communities with  populations  of
less than 5000 have  some  of the
same  problems,  but suffer  the
disadvantage of having inadequate
tax bases to deal with them.
Few realize the extent and serious-
ness of the results of air pollution. It
not only harms public health, but also
corrodes  physical structures of  all
kinds  and  damages  agricultural

Air quality varies widely throughout
the Region. Pollution in rural areas
may result from higher-than-recom-
mended background levels  of  sus-
pended particles, whereas pollution
in urban areas comes from industry
and  transportation.  The  means  of
controlling air pollution depends on
the meteorology, the sources,  and
the background air  characteristics,
which will differ from area to area.

Missouri is blessed  with many high-
quality streams and lakes. The  Cur-
rent, Jacks Fork, and  Eleven Point
Rivers  have been designated as na-
tional  scenic  rivers. Nevertheless,
many  of our  streams, rivers,  and
lakes are  severely  polluted,  and it
would  be difficult to find  a body of
water that does not  bear some mark
of  man's  activities. The pollution
comes from various sources: inade-
quately treated sewage from some
communities; oil and chemical spills
by industry; and animal wastes, fer-
tilizer,  salts, sediment,   and
pesticides from farms.

Solid waste (some of which is hazard-
ous) is a problem to everyone. Mil-
lions of tons are discarded  in  the
Region each year. This waste ranges
from common  household trash  to
complex   materials in   industrial
wastes, sewage sludge, agricultural

residues, mining  refuse, and  path-
ological  wastes  from  institutions
such as hospitals and laboratories.
Many dangerous materials discarded
by society over the past few decades
have endured in  the environment.
These  materials may contribute to
the pollution of groundwater because
of improperly sited or operated land-
fills  and  surface  waste  disposal
ponds. This  is particularly critical in
Region VII because nearly half of the
population  uses groundwater  as a
source of drinking water. In addition,
improper handling or disposal of haz-
ardous waste can cause other  kinds
of environmental damage, such as air
pollution, contamination of  the food
chain, and poisoning by  direct con-

The Environmental Protection Agen-
cy is engaged in a massive effort to
restore America's  water quality, to
reduce air pollution, and to find a
comprehensive approach to other en-
vironmental   problems  associated
with pesticide use,  radiation,  solid
and  hazardous  waste disposal,
mechanically generated  noise, and
toxic substances.  The EPA is first
and  foremost a regulatory  agency
with responsibility for setting and en-
forcing standards. The agency also
offers   technical  and  financial
assistance for environmental protec-
tion 'efforts  at all  levels of govern-

As a research body, the EPA monitors
and analyzes  the  environment and
conducts  scientific  studies.  The
agency provides technical and scien-
tific information to the public and the
training  necessary  to develop  the
skilled environmental capability that
the Nation needs.

The  EPA, State  and  local  govern-
ments,  and  private citizens  must
work together to restore the quality of
our  environment and protect  the
Region's natural  resources for future

Water Resources
Sources of Water Pollution
Water plays a crucial role in the lives
of every person  living in Missouri.
Good quality water for drinking, agri-
culture, and  other daily needs  is
essential. Water  is also  needed  for
recreational activities such as swim-
ming, fishing, and boating. Cities and
towns that have  grown along water-
ways frequently  depend  on these
waterways for waste disposal and
sometimes  for  water  supply.  In-
dustries require fresh water to pro-
duce goods and to carry away treated
wastes  resulting from their  opera-
                                        As a result of the demand made on
                                        them, the waterways of Missouri are
                                        often  contaminated.  Pollution
                                        sources can be categorized as either
                                        point or nonpoint. A point source is a
                                        polluting  discharge with  an iden-
                                        tifiable outlet, such as a pipe to  a
                                        lake  or stream.  Examples  are in-
                                        dustrial and municipal  wastewater
                                        treatment plants. A nonpoint source
                                        has no particular outlet;  rather,  it
                                        allows  pollutants to enter the water-
                                        ways at several different places  and
                                        often over broad areas. Examples of
                                        contaminants from nonpoint sources
include  fertilizers,  pesticides, and
sediment from agricultural practices;
metals, salts, solids, and other con-
taminants in runoff from city streets;
and sulfates, metals, and solids from
mining activities.

Both point and nonpoint sources af-
fect the water  quality of Missouri's
rivers. The lowered quality manifests
itself in such things as fish kills and
lake use impairment.  These  same
pollutant sources  also affect Mis-
souri's groundwater,  which  is the
principal source of drinking water.

Point Sources

Point source discharges into water
bodies are both municipal and non-
municipal in nature.

The people and industries served by
municipal sewerage  generate  more
than 25  billion  gallons of sewage
every day in the United States. In the
past,  some communities provided
only primary treatment of their waste;
that is, they screened floating solids
and allowed other solids to settle in
holding ponds. This screening and
settling   process   is  known  as
"primary treatment."  Present laws re-
quire  wastewater   to  be  further
treated  by a  series of processes
called "secondary treatment." In cer-
tain  cases, treatment beyond  this
second level may be mandated  to
meet water quality standards in the
receiving streams or  lakes.

Recognizing that many State  and
local governments could not afford to
build  needed  treatment  facilities
without financial assistance,  Con-
gress developed a program of Fed-
eral aid, in which grants are offered
to cover  75 percent  of the costs  of
constructing publicly owned sewage
treatment works. The remaining 25
percent is  paid  by State and  local
governments. The graph shows the
amount  of Federal construction
grants provided in Missouri in recent
years. More than 17,000 such grant
projects are active nationwide.
        Federal Support Obligated for Wastewater Treatment Facilities
                               in Missouri
=   60
§   50
                                                        1971   1972   1973    1974   1975   1976   1977   1978   1979

Sources of Water Pollution (continued)
Point Sources (continued)
The EPA has also established ef-
fluent limits on the amount and kind
of pollutants that can be discharged
from  various  categories  of  non-
municipal sources such as chemical
plants, oil refineries, and meat pack-
ing  plants.  No point source, muni-
cipal or nonmunicipal, can discharge
wastes into a body of water unless it
first obtains a permit from the State.
The  permit  states  what  and how
much can be discharged to meet ef-
fluent limits and  water quality stan-
dards. The pie charts show com-
pliance with permit conditions.

Federal and State agencies also use
other  means of controlling pollution
from  point  sources. These  include
(1)a   requirement that  some very
strong or toxic industrial wastes be
"pretreated"  before they  are
discharged  into  public  sewer sys-
tems,  (2) a special program  to
regulate toxic pollutants, and (3) the
issuance of permits for disposal and
use of dredged and fill material in or
near the water.
Percentage of Major Sources Meeting Permit
   Requirements for Effluents in Missouri
                            Municipal Sources
                                               Nonmunicipal Sources

Nonpoint Sources

Agricultural  runoff is  a major non-
point  source of pollutants.  Runoff
from farming and grazing land con-
tributes  significant  amounts  of
suspended  solids,  nutrients, and
bacterial    contamination   to
Missouri's water.

Missouri has prepared a water quality
management plan to assess existing
and possible water quality problems
and is developing a strategy  to deal
with these problems. A key element
of  this  planning has  been  the
designation  of those areas most in
need  of  practical  and  effective
measures  to  curb  runoff from
agricultural operations and thereby
minimize soil erosion and water con-
tamination. Known as Best Manage-
ment  Practices, these measures  in-
clude  terraces,  drainage  tiles,
grassed waterways, schedules for ef-
ficient application of fertilizers and
pesticides,  and  other  conservation

The water quality management plan
also deals with pollution from other
nonpoint sources, such as  urban
stormwater  runoff,  septic tank
failure, roadside erosion, streambank
erosion, construction site runoff, and
leaching from landfills.

Water  Resources

River Quality

The 1983 goal of the Clean Water Act
is to make our Nation's waters suit-
able  for swimming  and  fishing
wherever  that  goal  is  attainable.
Many types of pollutants now affect
these and other uses. Important as-
pects of clean water are described

  •Water temperature is vital. Each
  fish species has its own  range
  of water temperature tolerance.
  When  these tolerances are ex-
  ceeded,  aquatic  life  can  be

  •Oxygen dissolved in water is as
  important to aquatic life as ox-
  ygen  in air is to humans.  Pol-
  lutants  such  as  improperly
  treated sewage can deplete ox-
  ygen  and  suffocate fish  and
  other aquatic life.

  •The pH of water, which relates
  to the acidity and alkalinity, is
  measured on a scale from 0 to
  14. The value of 7 is considered
  neutral; anything over 7 is alka-
  line; anything under 7 is acidic.
  Either too high  or too low a pH
  adversely affects stream life. Ex-
  treme values in either direction
  can be harmful in themselves or
  can increase  the  toxicity  of
  other substances in the water.
  Changes in pH can affect  fish
  life by preventing fish eggs from
  hatching  and  by  destroying
  floating plants and animals that
  serve as food for the fish.
•The trophic state of a river refers
 to the productivity of the water.
 An overabundance  of nutrients,
 especially  nitrogen and phos-
 phorus,  can  create excessive
 plant growth, which not only is
 unsightly,  but  also affects
 recreational and other uses  of
 the water.

•The  toxicity of water refers  to
 the concentrations  of toxic ma-
 terials  found in it. Pesticides,
 polychlorinated  biphenyls
 (PCBs),  heavy metals,  cyanide,
 and  ammonia are examples  of
 toxic materials.

•Excessive  levels   of  bacteria
 cause streams to be unfit for ac-
 tivities involving human contact,
 such as water-skiing and swim-
 ming. The amount  of fecal col-
 iform (bacteria that normally live
 in the intestines of  humans and
 other warm-blooded animals) is
 directly  related to  the amount
 and kinds of pollution from sew-
 age  and animal waste sources
 in the water. These bacteria are
 used as indicator organisms  to
 alert the possible  presence  of
 more harmful organisms in the

•The total volume of  solids refers
 to the dissolved and suspended
 material  in  the water.  These
 solids affect  the clarity,  hard-
 ness, and corrosiveness  of the
 •Aesthetic  value  refers to the
  general beauty and quality of
  the water and takes into con-
  sideration the  levels of oil and
  grease, visual clarity, and taste-
  tainting chemicals.

The information depicted in the river
quality map is  based on  a  com-
parison of those  physical, chemical,
and  biological   data  with  recom-
mended  Federal  Water  Quality

                                                               Stream Quality
        Water Quality Problems

          o   Oxygen
          AM  Ammonia
          B   Bacteria
          N   Nutrients
          s   Solids
          M   Toxic metals
          *   Aesthetic deterioration
— Meets Federal water quality goals

— Moderate water quality; provisionally
     meets Federal water quality goals

— Does not meet Federal water quality goals

— Insufficient data to determine quality

•^ Water quality improving
4 Water quality deteriorating
  Where no arrows are shown tor  a slretch of river.
  either me water quality has been stable for trie past 7
  years or data were insufficient to determine trends

Water Resources
Lakes are important water resources
for  recreation,  water  supply,  and
aesthetic appeal. Increases in pollu-
tion from nutrients such as nitrogen
and phosphorus can impair the value
of Missouri lakes. Although plant life
is an important part of a lake's  eco-
system, an  overabundance  of
nutrients will cause  excessive
growth of algae and larger plants.
Such overgrowth can deplete the lake
of needed  oxygen,  decrease light
penetration,  and be a  nuisance to
those using the lake for recreational
or other purposes. Siltation and tur-
bidity from agricultural runoff,  con-
struction activity, and other nonpoint
sources may also affect  light pene-
tration  and contribute to premature
filling of lakes by sedimentation.

Publicly owned lakes with these and
other water quality problems may
receive help through the Clean Lakes
Program.  This  program provides
funds to assist the State of Missouri
in (1) ranking its public lakes, (2) con-
ducting studies, and (3) restoring and
protecting these  lakes. In Missouri,
Creve Coeur, Finger, Forest Park, and
Steiner  Lakes  have  received
assistance through this program.

The map shows the principal lakes in
Missouri — those that have a surface
area greater than 6,400  acres and
some smaller lakes that have signifi-
cant recreational importance,  are
easily accessible to urban areas, or
are used extensively by the public.
The table shows the level of impair-
ment to principal lakes resulting from
                             Principal Lakes

                 Pollution-Related Use Impairment of Principal Missouri Lakes


Lake of the Ozarks

Pomme de Terre


Table Rock


Thomas Hill Reservoir

Surface Area,
Swimming Fishing Boating Aesthetics


|     |  Low impairment

j     ]  Low Impairment with periodic moderate impairment.

Water  Resources
Fish Kills
Reports indicate that approximately
468,197 fish were killed in 21 separate
incidents  of  water  pollution  in
Missouri in 1978. The map shows the
location and size of the kills. The
largest documented  fish  kill  in
Missouri's  history occurred below
Harry S. Truman  Dam during April
and May of 1978. In this incident, gas
bubble disease killed  an estimated
421,785 fish valued at $168,350.

Because reporting is entirely volun-
tary, the information shown probably
represents only a fraction of the kills
that occurred. Numerous small kills
go  unnoticed  or  unreported,  and
some significantly large  kills are not
included because information is  in-
sufficient  to determine  if the  kills
resulted from pollutants  in the water
or from natural causes.
Reported Pollution-Caused Fish Kills
                                                      O 1-500 Fish
                                                      O 500-1.500 Fish
                                                      O1,500-15,000 Fish
                                                      015,000-500,000 Fish
                  Percent of Fish Killed by
                     Type of Pollutants
             Gas Bubble Disease           90%
             Agriculture, Including Pesticides   4%
             Municipal                   3%
             Petroleum                  1 %
             Other                      2%

Water held in underground soil and
rock layers (aquifers) is referred to as
groundwater.  Surface  water  and
precipitation  trickle through cracks
and  pores in the earth to reach the
aquifers. The quality of groundwater
is important because it is the water
source for many small communities
and rural areas in the southern part of
the  State.  The  contamination  of
groundwater supplies by nitrates and
toxic substances  is  receiving  in-
creased attention.

Nitrates are known to cause anemic
conditions  in  infants.   Although
nature provides some of the nitrates
in groundwater  (through decaying
organic   material),  the  amount  of
nitrates can be increased by modern
agricultural practices requiring irriga-
tion and the use of such fertilizers as
ammonia and liquid nitrogen. The ap-
plication of  more fertilizer than the
plant roots can use allows the excess
to reach the groundwater, and porous
soils  allow nitrates  to  enter the
groundwater  rapidly, before  the
plants can utilize them. The ground-
water in certain areas in the State
has high nitrate levels, but concen-
trations tend to vary widely.

Uncontrolled toxic chemical disposal
sites are another possible source of
groundwater contamination. The Re-
source Conservation and Recovery
Act of 1976 addresses this problem. It
requires such  sites to have an im-
permeable barrier to prevent ground-
water contamination from the buried
Naturally  occurring   radiation,
selenium, and fluoride released from
underlying rocks have contaminated
groundwater in some areas. The con-
centration of these  contaminants
vary erratically and sometimes reach
levels of concern.

Once  groundwater  has  become
contaminated, purifying  it by natural
means is very slow at best. Therefore,
prevention of groundwater pollution
is critical. With this in mind, EPA has
instituted the Underground injection
Program  to limit  the  injection of
waste  underground.  States  may
assume responsibility for this  pro-
               Sources and Pathways of Nitrogen to the Aquifer
                                                                   Water Level

Water  Resources
Drinking Water

The  average  adult consumes from
one and a half to five quarts of water
a day. Most people assume the water
they drink is  safe, and it usually is.
Sometimes, however, it can be con-
taminated by bacteria, metals, toxic
chemicals, or other pollutants.

At least 4000 documented cases of
waterborne illnesses occur each year
in the  United States;  the  actual
number is probably much greater, as
many go unreported. In addition, the
health effects of long-term, low-level
exposure to contaminated water are
not well known. Nevertheless, these
also should be of concern to each of

To help fight these health  threats,
Congress (in the Safe Drinking Water
Act) directed EPA to establish drink-
ing  water standards  for all public
water supplies having 15 or more ser-
vice connections or regularly serving
25 or more persons. The pollutants
for  which  standards  have  been
established  are briefly described

Bacteria — Coliform  bacteria from
human  and other animal wastes can
be found in improperly treated drink-
ing water.  These bacteria may  in-
dicate the presence of other harmful
organisms.  Waterborne  diseases
such as typhoid, cholera, infectious
hepatitis, and dysentery have  been
traced   to  improperly  disinfected
drinking water.

Nitrate  —  Drinking  water having
nitrate levels above the national stan-
dard poses an immediate threat to
children under three months of age.
In some infants, excessive levels of
nitrate have been known to react with
the hemoglobin  in the blood to pro-
duce an anemic condition commonly
known as "blue baby."

Arsenic  —  This element  occurs
naturally in the environment. It is also
found   in  insecticides,  foods,
tobacco, shellfish, drinking water,
and the air. Consumption of water
that  continuously exceeds the na-
tional standard  can  cause fatigue
and loss of energy to those who drink
it, and extremely high levels can  be

Barium — This element also occurs
naturally in  the environment in some
areas, but it is not as widespread as
arsenic. Barium can also enter water
supplies through industrial waste
discharges.  Although small doses
are not  harmful, consumption  of
large quantities is quite dangerous
and can cause high blood pressure,
nerve damage, and even death.

Cadmium — Only minute amounts of
this  element are found  in  natural
waters in the United States; however,
improperly treated waste discharges
from electroplating, photography, in-
secticide, and metallurgy industries
can  increase  cadmium  levels.  Al-
though  most  cadmium enters the
body through cigarette smoking and
food intake, minute quantities have
also been found in water supplies
having galvanized pipes and fixtures.

Chromium — Cigarettes, foods, and
air are the most common sources of,
chromium. High  levels of chromium
in drinking water may cause skin and ;•
respiratory ailments. Although some
studies suggest that minute amounts
of chromium  may be essential to
humans, this theory has not yet been

Lead — This metal is found In the air,
in food, and in the pigment of some
older paints. The  lead in drinking
water comes from plumbing, auto ex-
hausts, and  other  sources.  When
standards  are  greatly  exceeded,
humans  may  suffer  from nervous
system disorders or  from brain or
kidney damage.

Mercury —  Mercury levels in water
can be raised above  normal  by in-
dustrial  discharges   and  mercury-
based  pesticides. A  greater health
risk  results  from eating  fish  from
such waters than simply from water-
borne mercury itself, because the ele-
ment  becomes concentrated in the
fish  tissues. Ingested mercury can
cause  liver,  intestinal, circulatory,
kidney, and neurological ailments —
even death. Mercury poisoning can
be acute, as a result of large doses,
or chronic,  as a result  of  smaller
doses  received  over  an  extended

Selenium  —  This  mineral  occurs
naturally in soil and  plants and is
found  in  meat and  other  foods.
Although selenium is believed to be
essential in the diet, indications are
that excessive amounts may be toxic.
Studies are under way to determine
the amount required for good  nutri-
tion and that which may be harmful.

Silver — The need to set a drinking
water standard for silver arises from
its intentional addition as a disinfect-
ant in some water supplies.  Overex-
posure to silver causes discoloration
of the skin and mucous membrane.
When absorbed through the skin or
consumed at high levels, silver can
cause  kidney,  liver,  and  spleen

Pesticides — Each year some of the
millions of pounds of pesticides used
on croplands, forests,  lawns, and
gardens in the United States drain off
into  surface waters  or  seep  into
underground water supplies. If they
get into drinking water and the  water
is not properly treated, many of them
may  pose  health  problems.  The
pesticides for which drinking water
standards have been established are
Endrin, Lindane, Methoxychlor, Tox-
aphene, 2,4-D, and 2,4,5-TP Silvex.
Radioactivity —  Radiation,  which
results from both natural  and man-
made processes,  is of concern  be-
cause it  is known to cause cancer
and  genetic defects  in   humans.
Some water supplies within the State
have been found to contain radio-
activity  above  the  concern  level.
Radioactivity is discussed further in
the radiation section  of this publica-

Turbidity  — Turbidity  (cloudiness
resulting from minute suspended par-
ticles)  in  drinking water  interferes
with the  aesthetic  quality of  the
water.  Excessive  turbidity can also
interfere with disinfection  and allow
disease-causing organisms  to sur-
vive. National  standards have been
set to correct this problem.

Water Resources
Drinking Water (continued)

The figure shows the percentage of
Missouri communities meeting drink-
ing water standards for each of these

Percentages out of compliance are
based on the number of violations
divided by the number of community
water supplies.
Compliance of Missouri Community Water Supplies
    With Chemical Drinking Water Standards

               (1267 Supplies)
All Organic*
pesticides) |
/ ^ ^>

) 5



90 95 100
                                                        Percent in Compliance in 1979

Fluoride is a naturally occurring ele-
ment that is commonly  added  to
water supplies to help prevent tooth
decay. The recommended concentra-
tion is  1  part  per  million  (ppm).
Because  too  much  fluoride  can
cause  mottling of teeth, concentra-
tions above 2 ppm are  a cause for
concern. The map shows  Missouri
counties that have adequate fluoride
in their drinking water.
Population Receiving Adequately Fluoridated Water
                                               of Population

                                                a 0-20%
                                                a 21 • 40%
                                                a 41 - eo%
                                                D 61 - 80%
                                                a si • 100%
                                                O Adjusted Source
                                                O Natural Source
                                                            Total Population
                                                            Population with Fluoridated
                                                             Water Supplies

                             2,005,000 or 43%

Water Resources
Wetland Areas

Wetlands are lowland areas, such as
marshes  or  swamps,  that  are
saturated with moisture all or part of
the  year. These  lands  represent
unique ecosystems of major impor-
tance.  Missouri's  wetlands provide
unique recreational areas, which sup-
port  hunting and fishing, are high in
aesthetic  value,  and contain
irreplaceable plant and animal  life
that  make them especially valuable
for  educational  and  scientific

Some other roles  and  functions of
wetlands are often not appreciated.
For  example,  these  areas  can
recharge groundwater supplies  and
help  maintain flow  during  dry
periods. The dense vegetation, acting
as a filter, traps pollutants and helps
to maintain water quality in nearby
streams and lakes. By storing flood-
waters and excess runoff, the wet-
lands can serve as buffer zones and
reduce erosion by dissipating  the
energy of floddwaters. They also can
be a source of harvestable timber and

The destruction of wetlands has been
extensive in  Missouri. More than 93
percent  of  the  wetlands  were
destroyed  in the period  from  1906
through 1977. Data indicate that ap-
proximately  172,000  acres of
     wetlands still remained in 1977. One
     of the hardest  hit areas, the Boot
     Heel Region, suffered an 80 percent
     loss  between  1955  and  1977.
     Drainage  by a  large  network  of
     ditches and conversion to farmland
     are  the  primary causes  for  the
     destruction of wetlands in this area.
     The map on the opposite page  shows
     the remaining major wetland zones in
     Missouri. These are located primarily
     in the floodplains of the Missouri and
     Mississippi Rivers.

Wetland Acreage Remaining in Missouri
                              3000 -
           Zones in Which Remaining Wetlands Are Located
Other Wetlands

Riverine Wetlands

Air Quality
Air Pollutants and Standards
The objective of the EPA's air pollu-
tion control program is to meet the re-
quirements of the Federal Clean Air
Act by achieving and maintaining Na-
tional Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS) by 1983. Toward this goal,
the EPA provides research on health
effects,   offers the  State  both
technical  and financial assistance,
and   sets  standards  for  specific

The primary concern is the effect of
air quality on  public health.  Com-
monly known health  effects of air
pollution are respiratory aggravation
and cardiovascular stress. The fatali-
ty rate  is  also  generally higher  in
areas plagued by air pollution. More-
over,  air pollution threatens crops,
forests, fish, lake  ecosystems, and
property values. These are referred to
as public welfare considerations.

The  many sources of air pollution
range from natural sources, such as
dust,  to  the   daily  emission  of
thousands of tons of pollutants from
industrial   smokestacks   and
automobile exhausts.
State Implementation Plans

The EPA required that all states have
an  approved State  Implementation
Plan (SIP) by 1972. The plans were to
detail the state's program for achiev-
ing and maintaining the National Am-
bient Air Quality Standards and the
regulatory  mechanisms for  accom-
plishing that goal.  When monitoring
shows that a particular pollutant ex-
ceeds the standards, an inadequacy
in the original SIP is indicated. The
area where this occurs is declared a
nonattainment area.

Revisions to the  SIP  must be sub-
mitted to EPA for the nonattainment
area and  pollutant standard being
violated. The revised  SIP must  in-
dicate  additional  controls  for ex-
isting and new sources and the sup-
porting  regulatory mechanisms. As
part of  the control program, all ex-
isting  point  sources  must  apply
Reasonably  Available  Control
Technology. All  new point sources
must apply the  more  stringent
Lowest  Achievable Emission  Rate

Further, in the interim period before
the SIP  revision is approved by EPA,
no  new  point sources  can be built
unless emissions from other sources
are correspondingly reduced.  After
the SIP  is approved, every new  point
source   must  be evaluated  to
demonstrate that  its proposed emis-
sions will not cause a violation of the
applicable air quality standard.

Standards have been written for six
criteria  pollutants: Total suspended
particulates (TSP), ozone (O?), carbon
monoxide .(CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2),
lead (Pb), and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Primary  standards are written to pro-
tect public  health, and  secondary
standards  are  written  to  protect
public welfare.

The State  determines  compliance
with National Ambient  Air  Quality
 Population Exposure Where Ambient Air
Health Standards Are Exceeded in Missouri
        Total State Population

Standards (by monitoring air quality)
and acts as the primary enforcement
agent.  The  Independence  Health
Department, the St. Louis Depart-
ment of Public Safety, the St. Louis
County  Department of Community
Health and Medical Care, the Greene
County Air Pollution Control Authori-
ty,  and  the  Kansas City  Health
Department assist the State in these

In  addition  to  the  six  criteria
pollutants for  which ambient stan-
dards have  been established, EPA
also regulates emissions of a special
group of  hazardous air pollutants.
These are asbestos, vinyl chloride,
mercury,   benzene,  beryllium, and
radioactive particles.  All  of  these
have been shown to cause cancer in
humans.  Missouri has 7  sludge in-
cinerators, 16  asbestos processors,
and 2 beryllium sources, all of which
are in compliance with the National
Emission  Standards for Hazardous
Air Pollutants.

             Number of Days Total Suspended Particulate Standards
                       Were Exceeded in Missouri in 1978*

               City of New Madrid F

               City of St. Louis

               Kansas City

               St. Joseph

                              0   24   6   8  10  12  14   16

                 Number of Days Carbon Monoxide Standards
                      Were Exceeded in Missouri in 1978
               City of St. Louis
               St. Louis County
                              0246    8  10  12  14  16

                       Number of Days Ozone Standards
                      Were Exceeded in Missouri in 1978
              City of St. Louis

              St. Louis County
                              024   6   6  10  12  14  16  50   52  54
'Note: Because consideration must be given to natural   I    I Health standard exceeded
      meteorological events, exceeding Ambient Air
      Quality Standards for one day during a single
      year does not constitute a violation; the
      standard must be exceeded at least two days
      in a single year to be considered a violation.
                      Alert level exceeded

Air Quality	

Air Pollutants and Standards (continued)
           Nonattainment Areas for                                 Nonattainment Areas for
                   Ozone                                    Total Suspended Participates (TSP)
                   (1980)          • Violates primary (public health) standards.          (1980)
                                  D Violates secondary (public welfare) standards.

The city of St. Louis and the counties
of St. Louis, Franklin, Jefferson, and
St. Charles are  nonattainment  for

Ozone is  a  major component of
photochemical smog formed  by a
series of chemical reactions that oc-
cur when hydrocarbons and nitrogen
oxides are  exposed  to  sunlight.
Hydrocarbons  include  the fumes
from  any  of numerous  oil-derived
liquids {for example, gasoline,  kero-
sene, diesel fuels, lacquers, and thin-
ners). The  most common sources of

airborne  hydrocarbons  are  auto-
mobiles,  refineries,  fuel  transfer
facilities, painting  operations, fuel
combustion  in stationary sources,
and nature itself. Ozone,  which is a
severe irritant  to  mucous  mem-
branes,  aggravates  respiratory
disorders, reduces lung function, and
increases susceptibility to bacterial

Total Suspended
Particulars (TSP)

Parts of Kansas City, St. Joseph, St.
Louis, New Madrid, and Columbia are
nonattainment  areas
suspended particles.
for  total
The term TSP refers to all the solid
material floating in the air, such as
dust, soot, and fly ash. Agricultural
activities,  construction   sites,  un-
paved   roads,  grain   handling,
automobile exhausts, and coal com-
bustion  are all sources  of TSP. All
TSP affects the respiratory system,
but the smallest particles are the
most  harmful.  In  addition,  toxic
materials such  as  pesticides  and
lead are sometimes carried by these
suspended particles.

            Nonattainment Areas for
             Carbon Monoxide (CO)
                               Nonattainment Areas for
                                 Sulfur Dioxide (SO3)
Violates primary (public health) standards.         (1980)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Parts of St. Louis County and the city
of St. Louis are nonattainment areas
for carbon monoxide.

Carbon  monoxide, a toxic byproduct
of  incomplete  combustion  (auto-
mobile  exhausts  are  the  major
source), reduces the amount of ox-
ygen available  to lung tissues, im-
pairs  visual  perception,  decreases
alertness,  and  in  high concentra-
tions, can be  fatal.
 Sulfur Dioxide (S02)

 A part of the city  of St.  Louis  is a
 nonattainment area for sulfur diox-

 Sulfur dioxide  results  from  the
 combustion of sulfur-containing coal
 and oil, the smelting of metal ores,
 the refining  of  oil,  and  other  in-
 dustrial processes. This  compound
 reacts readily with other atmospheric
 substances  to   form  a  group  of
 pollutants called sulfates, which ag-
gravate   heart  disease  and  such
respiratory ailments as  bronchitis,
emphysema,  and  asthma.  Sulfur
dioxide also reacts with moisture to
produce acid rain, a problem affect-
ing the delicate ecosystems of lakes
and forests.

Air Quality

Air Pollutants and Standards (continued)
The entire State  of Missouri  meets
the national standards for the other
criteria pollutants, which are  briefly
described below.


The metal lead (Pb) reaches the air
primarily through the  use of leaded
gasoline. Other sources include lead
and  zinc  mining and  processing
sites, lead  recovery plants, battery
manufacturing facilities, and certain
industrial chemical processing  fac-
tories. Lead is particularly harmful to
the soft tissues of the body,  the
reproductive system, and the nervous
system. It also can cause anemia and
irreversible brain  damage.

Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are produced
by fuel  combustion and  come from
both stationary and mobile sources.
Coal- and  oil-fired  furnaces  and
automobiles  are  major  sources.
These compounds react with  hydro-
carbons in the presence  of sunlight
and produce ozone. They also cause
acid rain. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a
form of  NOx, can affect lung tissue,
reduce resistance to disease, con-
tribute to bronchitis and pneumonia,
and  aggravate  chronic  lung

               No SIP revisions are required in areas
               where  monitoring  indicates com-
               pliance  with NAAQS.  Existing
               sources,  however,  must meet  ap-
               plicable State and local regulations,
               and new sources may also be subject
               to more stringent regulations. Some
               new  source categories must meet
               New Source Performance Standards.
               Major new  sources must meet Pre-
               vention of  Significant  Deterioration

               Of  the 372  existing  major point
               sources in Missouri, 357 are  in com-
               pliance with applicable  emission
 Ranges in color keys
indicate 1000's tons/yr.
                                                                     TSP Emissions

                   D 10-20
                   • 51-100
   j Emissions
 Ozone  Emissions
                    D 20-75
                    D 76-140
CO Emissions
NO, Emissions

Solid Waste
Disposal and Recovery

Besides the well-known household
garbage, solid waste includes such
material as waste from agricultural,
industrial,  and  mining  activities;
sludges from water and air pollution
control  facilities; demolition
material; and abandoned cars. Na-
tional statistics show that 87 percent
of the  solid  waste  in  the  United
States is  produced  by  agricultural
and mining activities, 9 percent by in-
dustrial activities, and 4 percent by
residential  and  commercial ac-
tivities. The amount  of solid waste
constantly  increases, and its com-
position changes with the Nation's
population growth and technological
Increases in solid waste result in the
littering of city streets, country road-
sides,  and  any  available  open
spaces. Such littering diminishes our
enjoyment  of the environment and
creates an  expensive cleanup prob-

The  most   fundamental  ways  to
lessen environmental damage from
solid waste are  (1)to generate less
waste or (2) to  recover and  reuse
valuable  resources  from   those
wastes. Both approaches would not
only  reduce  degradation,  but save
energy and materials as well.

Generation  of  solid  waste  by
municipalities is high — about 1300
pounds per person per year; the rate
of resource recovery is low — about 7
percent. The  rising cost of land dis-
posal and energy, however, is likely

to make resource recovery and con-
servation increasingly more  attrac-

The Missouri Solid Waste Manage-
ment  Law  of 1972  banned  open
dumping and required sanitary land-
fills for the disposal of solid  waste.
Uncontrolled open dumps and open
burning of solid waste are essentially
a thing of the past. Sanitary landfills
are the most common replacement
for open  dumps  in  solid  waste
management programs. The design
of these landfills is such that solid
waste can be buried in a manner effi-
cient enough to protect both ground-
water and surface water. The map in-
dicates the approved sanitary land-
fills in Missouri, as of May 1979.

Proper operation  of  the landfills is
essential to adequate control  of the
waste  placed there.  Also,  every
Missouri  citizen must recognize his
or her role in environmental protec-
tion by assuring that any household
waste, dead animals, pesticide con-
tainers, and the like are disposed of

                                           Permitted Solid Waste Disposal Facilities
                                                            (May 1979)
O  Sanitary Landfill

O  Special Landfill

O  Demolition Landfill

O  Transfer Station

O  Solid Waste Processing Facility

Hazardous  Materials
Hazardous Waste

The  use  of  large  quantities  of
chemicals has become a way of life
in our society. The list of more than
4,000,000 recognized chemical com-
pounds grows at the rate of 6,000 per

Many  of  these  chemicals  are
beneficial, but some are  known to
produce adverse effects in our food,
water, and air; the effects of many
others  are still unknown. The EPA
estimates that at  least  57 million
metric tons of waste generated in the
United  States in  1980  may  be
classified as hazardous.

Many once believed that the Midwest
would  never have to worry about
health  hazards associated with im-
proper handling of chemicals such as
those experienced in the East — for
example,  the  nationally  publicized
Love Canal incident in New York. The
problem was brought closer to home
in the fall of 1979 when EPA received
word of  alleged  dumping of waste
containing dioxin, an extremely toxic
chemical, in several sites near Aurora
and Verona, Missouri. Subsequent in-
vestigation  by  EPA  personnel
disclosed the presence  of several
metal drums containing dioxon-laden
waste. It is believed that the dioxin in
the area was left over from the days
of the now-defunct Northeast Phar-
maceutical  Chemical Co.,  which
manufactured hexachlorophene until
the skin cleanser was banned by the
U.S. Food and Drug Administration in
1971.  The  dioxin  created  as  a
byproduct of the  manufacturing of
hexachlorophene is 2, 3,  7, 8-TCDD,
the deadliest of 75 chemicals in the
dioxin family.

In  the  40 years  preceding  the
passage of the Resource Conserva-
tion  and Recovery Act (RCRA) in
1976,  the  disposal  of  hazardous
wastes was largely unregulated. The
act  mandated  a  comprehensive
"cradle to grave"  hazardous  waste
management program.  Such proper
environmental control will cost more,
but eliminate the astronomical costs
of correcting poor disposal practices.
For  example,  a  1979  EPA  study
reported that cleaning up abandoned
and improperly operated  hazardous
waste sites could cost as much as
$44 billion, of which only a portion
would likely be paid by the owners of
the sites.

In  1977,  the  Missouri Hazardous
Waste  Management  Law  was
enacted.  This  law implements the
RCRA requirements in Missouri. It
provides  a  system  for following
hazardous waste from its point of
origin to  its  final disposal.  This
system includes:

 • Identifying hazardous waste.
 •Setting standards for producers
  and  shippers
of  hazardous
 •Specifying performance, design,
  and operating requirements for
  facilities  that  treat, store,  or
  dispose of hazardous waste.
 • Providing a system for issuing
  permits to such facilities.
                        • Furnishing  guidelines that
                         outline conditions under which
                         state   governments  can  be
                         authorized to carry out their own
                         programs for hazardous waste

                       The second phase of the program en-
                       tails the identification of dangerous
                       abandoned  or uncontrolled dump
                       sites. If danger to human health and
                       the  environment is deemed "immi-
                       nent and substantial," the owner can
                       be forced to clean up the site. Unfor-
                       tunately, many of the owners cannot
                       be found or are not financially able to
                       correct the problem.

  Hazardous Spills

  Most environmental problems do not
  require immediate action, but the ac-
  cidental release of oil  or some haz-
  ardous  material  can  constitute an
  emergency condition. Such incidents
  necessitate immediate  action to pro-
  tect  public health and to minimize
  damage to natural resources.

  In the event of such emergencies, a
 response team must be prepared to
 travel to the area, identify the nature
 and source of the substance spilled,
 and take direct action to contain the
 spill. Cleanup of  the spilled material
 can then begin, and if necessary, ap-
 propriate legal action can be taken.

 This type of response is  complex and
 expensive. The workers must wear
 protective  equipment and take  the
 necessary  precautionary  measures
 until such  time as the nature of the
 chemical  involved has  been  deter-
 mined.  Few safe sites are readily
 available for disposal of hazardous
 materials,  and  such material  often
 must be transported a great distance
 for proper long-term disposal.

The charts show the number of spills
 by type of material and environment
affected for the two-year period from
October 1977 to September 1979.
               Percent of Total Number of Spills by Type* in Missouri
                                                                 . 1% Fertilizer

                                                                 •1% Pesticide
Percent of Total Petroleum Spills
    by Environment Affected*
Percent of Total Nonpetroleum Spills
     by Environment Affected*
                                                              •Based on Spill Investigation Reports by EPA's
                                                               Surveillance and Analysis Division (October
                                                               1977-September 1979).

Use and Misuse
The  use  of  insecticides  and her-
bicides is common and beneficial on
farms, in the home and garden, and in
commercial and institutional estab-
lishments. Besides  the  increased
crop  production made  possible by
the extensive  agricultural use of pes-
ticides, another benefit derived from
the use of pesticides is the control of
such pests as rodents, flies, roaches,
and other insects.

Because of the manner in which they
provide these  benefits,  pesticides
must  be considered poisons, and as
such, they can be dangerous not only
to the people who apply them, but
also to those who may be acciden-
tally exposed. Harm can result from
inhaling the pesticide or from absorb-
ing it through  the skin.  Pesticides
can also contaminate food crops and
harm  the people who consume them.
Many  pesticides kill plants,  birds,
animals, and such beneficial insects
as  honeybees,  along with the in-
tended pests. They can also become
concentrated  in fish and wildlife and
pose a threat  to those who eat them.
For these reasons, the manufacture,
sale,  and  use of these compounds
are regulated  by the government.

More  than 1,400 chemicals are in-
cluded in  the approximately 40,000
pesticide  products registered with
the EPA.  As  of 1980, 49 of  these
chemicals (involving  about  1,700
products) have been restricted to cer-
tain   uses,  and  the use  of  44
pesticides  has  been   limited,
suspended, or banned. Persons who
wish to apply restricted-use products
must become certified as applicators
and, in some cases, are required to
attend training courses  prior to cer-
tification. The  Missouri  Department
of Agriculture  has certified 45,839
private and  2,180  commercial  ap-

The charts show the uses and types
of pesticides in Missouri, based on a
1974 survey.

                                  Pesticide Usage in Missouri
                      3.3% Industry

                        0.7% Government
            96% Agriculture
                     9.4% Nematocides
                      0.3% Fungicides
                                                                   74.5% Herbicides
                        Total 1974 Pesticide Usage = 19,984,000 pounds

Environmental Exposure

Radiation results from the breakup of
an atomic nucleus.  Two types are
emitted during the breakup: ionizing
radiation  (a stream  of  nuclear
fragments) and nonionizing radiation
(a high-energy burst of X rays). When
radiation passes through living cells,
it disturbs essential  chemical mole-
cules. Such disturbance can result in
death of the cell, cancer, or a genetic
defect. Scientists are  currently un-
sure whether or not there is a safe
level of radiation — one  at  which
these effects are not produced.

Some radiation in the environment is
due to natural causes;  some results
from  human  activities.  Natural
radioactivity  (known as cosmic rays)
continuously bombards Earth from
space, and the planet itself contains
radioactive   uranium, thorium,  and
potassium.  Because  this natural
radioactivity is in the air we breathe,
the water we drink, and the foods we
eat,  we all  have some amount of
radioactivity within us.

Man adds to this radiation exposure
in various ways: dental and medical X
rays,  the  production of fallout
through atmospheric tests of nuclear
weapons, the combustion of coal
(which contains several radioactive
elements),   and  the  creation  of
radioactive materials during nuclear
energy production.
Radiation Exposure From Environmental Sources
                          Internal to
                         Human Body


                                Combined Terrestrial and Cosmic Radiation Exposure by State
                          40-50 Millirems*  D 61-70 Milllrems
                                Per Year

                        D 51-60 Millirems
                                Per Year
                 Per Year

           71-80 Millirems
                 Per Year
I 81-90 Millirems
       Per Year
"Note: A millirem is one-thousandth of a rem, which is
     a unit of radiation exposure to the human body.
     For example, a chest Xray equals about SO millirems
     per hour, a dental Xray about 20 millirems per hour,
     and viewing color television about 2 millirems per hour.
     The lethal dosage is about 500,000 millirems.

Effects and Controls

Everyone is exposed to noise of vary-
ing intensities and  from many dif-
ferent sources every day.  Constant
exposure to loud noise can be harm-

Noise-induced hearing  loss is par-
ticularly recognized in employees of
highly  mechanized  industries and
other  occupations  involving  ex-
posure  to loud  noise.  Excessive
levels  of noise  appear to  cause
stress, which may in turn  increase
susceptibility to disease and infec-
tion,  notably heart disease and
ulcers.  An estimated  14.7  million
workers  are  exposed  to an 8-hour
average  sound  level  above  75
decibels,  at which there is risk of
hearing damage.

The EPA is in the process of estab-
lishing  standards that  require the
reduction of noise in new production
of portable air compressors, medium-
and heavy-duty  trucks, earth-moving
machinery,  buses, truck-mounted
solid  waste  compactors,  motor-
cycles,   jackhammers,  and  lawn-
mowers.  As  older  equipment  "s
replaced with products  conforming
with the standards, a gradual reduc-
tion in  environmental  noise  levels
will occur. Other EPA activity centers
around  the development of regula-
tions requiring  equipment  to  be
labeled  so that  prospective buyers
are aware of  the  level of noise the
product emits.

Most noise ordinances are not based
on actual measurements; rather, they
consider sound a problem only when
it  is  a  "nuisance."  The State of
Missouri, however, has laws setting
objective levels  in  establishments
that serve alcoholic beverages and
requiring some type  of  muffler on
motor-driven vehicles.

Kansas City participates in the Quiet
Communities  Program,  which,
through  surveys  and  sound
measurements, will prove or disprove
the need for  noise  control,  locate
specific  areas in need of control, and
demonstrate the level of public in-
terest in the problem.
  Missouri Population Protected by
   Enforceable Noise Ordinances
         Total Stale Population:

           Typical Exposure Levels
                  (in decibels)
 Jet Takeoff
(100 m away)
                   10 -J
                                    Live Concert
         Possibility of noise-induced
             hearing damage
          (after 8-hour exposure)
                         _ Threshold
                          of Hearing
The measure of energy per area
is presented in decibels. An
increase from 20 to 30 or 90 to
100 represents a tenfold increase
in energy.

The EPA Mission
The Environmental Protection Agen-
cy serves as the advocate for a liv-
able environment in a  number of
ways. First  and foremost, it is a
regulatory agency  responsible  for
setting and enforcing standards. The
EPA  is  currently  engaged  in  a
massive effort to restore America's
waters, to reduce air pollution, and to
find a comprehensive approach to
other environmental problems asso-
ciated with pesticides use, radiation,
solid and hazardous waste disposal,
mechanically generated  noise, and
toxic substances.  As  a  research
body, the EPA monitors and analyzes
the environment and conducts scien-
tific studies. The agency  furnishes
technical and  scientific  information
to  the public, provides  training to
develop the environmental skills the
Nation needs, and offers  technical
and  financial  assistance  for  en-
vironmental  protection efforts at all
levels of government.
 Missouri Environmental

 The Missouri Department of Natural
 Resources, Division of Environmen-
 tal Quality,  is responsible for air
 quality, water quality and supply, and
 the disposal of solid  and hazardous
 wastes. The  Department of Public
 Health and Welfare is responsible for
 the State's radiation  program. The
 Department   of  Agriculture ad-
 ministers  the  registration of
 pesticides, the certification of ap-
 plicators, and an enforcement pro-


For  Further  Information
If you would like additional information about specific en-
vironmental programs in which EPA is involved, please con-
tact EPA Region VII, Public Affairs Office, 324 E. 11th St.,
Kansas City, MO 64106, or call (800) 821-3714. This office
maintains a supply of EPA publications that relate to the
various programs mentioned in this document, operates an
informal speaker's bureau, and coordinates distribution of
environmental films (all free of charge to the public). If you
encounter an environmental problem, report it first to your
local and then to your state pollution control agency.
EPA Region VII program numbers:
Action Line	(800)821-3714
Air Pollution Programs	(816) 374-3791
Hazardous Wastes Program	(816) 374-3307
Oil and Chemical Spills
  Region VII Emergency Response Center.. .(816) 374-3778
  National Emergency Response Center	(800) 424-8802
Pesticides Program 	(816) 374-3036
  Pesticides Poisoning Emergency	(800)424-9300
Radiation Program	(816) 374-6621
Resource Recovery Program	(816) 374-6532
Solid Wastes Program	(816) 374-6532
Toxic Substances Program	(816) 374-3036
Wastewater Treatment	(816) 374-2725
Water Supply	(816) 374-5429
Wetlands	(816) 374-2921
In addition to the U.S. EPA, State agencies assist residents
with  their  environmental questions and  problems.  In
Missouri, these agencies are:
Department of Natural Resources
Division of Environmental Quality	(314) 751-3241
  Air Quality
  Water Quality
  Water Supply
  Solid Wastes
  Land Reclamation
Department of Public Health and Welfare
Department of Agriculture