U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Industrial Environmental Research     FPA-fiflO/7-77-11fi
Office of Research and Development  Laboratory                ' ' ' ''  J' '     J
                 Research Triangle Park. North Carolina 27711 October 1977
        CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
        FRP-100 WET SCRUBBER
        EVALUATION
        Interagency
        Energy-Environment
        Research and Development
        Program Report
                                z
                               z
                              7_

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                       RESEARCH REPORTING SERIES
Research reports of the Office of Research and  Development, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, have been grouped  into seven series.
These seven broad categories were established  to  facilitate further
development and application of environmental  technology.  Elimination
of  traditional grouping was consciously planned to  foster technology
transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.  The seven series
are:

     1.  Environmental Health Effects Research
     2.  Environmental Protection Technology
     3.  Ecological Research
     4.  Environmental Monitoring
     5.  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies
     6.  Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR)
     7.  Interagency Energy-Environment Research  and Development

This report has been assigned to the INTERAGENCY  ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT series.  Reports in  this series result from
the effort funded under the 17-agency Federal Energy/Environment
Research and Development Program.  These studies  relate to EPA's
mission to protect the public health and welfare  from adverse effects
of  pollutants associated with energy systems.   The  goal of the Program
is  to assure the rapid development of domestic  energy supplies in an
environmentallycompatible manner by providing the necessary
environmental data and control technology. Investigations include
analyses of the transport of energy-related pollutants and their health
and ecological effects; assessments of, and development of, control
technologies for energy systems; and integrated assessments of a wide
range of energy-related environmental issues.

                            REVIEW NOTICE

This report has been reviewed by the participating Federal
Agencies, and approved for publication.  Approval does not
signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and
policies of the Government, nor does mention  of trade names
or  commercial products constitute  endorsement or recommen-
dation for use.
This document is available to the public through the National  Technical
Information Service, Springfield, Virginia  22161.

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                                          EPA-600/7-77-116
                                              October 1977
   CENTURY INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS
FRP-100 WET SCRUBBER EVALUATION
                           by

                      D.S. Ensor and R.G. Hooper

                      Meteorology Research, Inc.
                          Box 637
                      Altadena, California 91001
                      Contract No 68-02-2125
                     Program Element No. EHE624
                    EPA Project Officer Dale L. Harmon

                 Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
                   Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry
                    Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711
                         Prepared for

                 U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                   Office of Research and Development
                      Washington. D.C. 20460

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                           ABSTRACT


      The performance of the Century Industrial Products FRP-100 wet
scrubber installed on a lightweight aggregate kiln was evaluated with a field
test.  Inlet-outlet tests for particle-size distribution with cascade impactors
and extractive sampling with an electrical aerosol size analyzer, and plume
opacity with a plant process visiometer were conducted.   The scrubber,
operating at 80 percent of the rated capacity, had an aerodynamic cut diameter
(50 percent collection efficiency) of 0. 8 microns at a theoretical hydraulic
power of 15. 8 watts/am /min (0. 6 hp/1000 acfm).  The liquid-to-gas ratio
was about 2. 16 1/m3 (16 gal/1000 acf).

      The formation of submicron aerosol from the evaporation in the gas
cooling section of water containing dissolved solids was observed during all
tests. Also,  the carryover of spray from the scrubber (there was no mist
eliminator) was observed at flow rates greater than 23. 7 m  /sec (50, 000
acfm).
                                111

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Section
Abstract
                           CONTENTS
   1
   2
INTRODUCTION

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

DESCRIPTION OF SITE AND SCRUBBER
   SITE DESCRIPTION
   SCRUBBER DESCRIPTION
      General Description
      Configuration of Scrubber at Site

FIELD TEST
   TEST PLAN
      General
      Schedule
              GAS MEASUREMENT
              SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT
                 Cascade Impactor
                 Submicron Particles
              OPACITY MEASUREMENT

           FIELD TEST RESULTS
              CALCULATION OF SCRUBBER PERFORMANCE
              PROCESS FLOWS AND POWER REQUIRED
                 Gas Flows
                 Gas Composition Measurements
                 Water Flows
                 Power Requirements
              PARTICLE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY
                 Size Distribution
                 Penetration
                 Particle Generation
              SCRUBBER PERFORMANCE
                 Calculation of Aerodynamic Cut Diameter
                 Comparison to Other Scrubber Types
              OPACITY
References
Appendices
   A
   B
Manufacturer's Description of Scrubber
Estimation of Capital and Installation Costs for
  FRP-100 Scrubber
Test Data
 3
 3
 3
 3
 4
 6
 6
 6
 6
 6
 7
 7
 9
14
17
17
17
17
19
19
19
19
19
23
31
31
31
33
33
38

39
41

42
                                iv

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                           SECTION 1

                        INTRODUCTION
      The Century Industrial Products  FRP-100 wet scrubber was evalu-
ated with field measurements of collection efficiency and analysis of power
consumption.  The scrubber is  a horizontal s'pray chamber with a low pres-
sure drop on the gas side.  Most of the scrubbing power is introduced
through the water side by pressure drop through spray nozzles.

      The scope of the study was limited to the field test of a single unit.
The following  tests were conducted:

           Cascade impactor tests at the inlet and  outlet

           Extractive sampling and measurement of sub-
            micron particles with a  ThermoSystems, Inc.,
            Electrical Aerosol Size Analyzer (EASA) at
            the inlet and outlet

           Opacity measurement with a Meteorology Re-
            search,  Inc. Plant Process Visiometer  (PPV)
            at the inlet and outlet

      The energy use of this scrubber was compared to other scrubber
types and particle-size dependent penetration determined for this unit.

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                           SECTION 2

            CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      This evaluation was one of a series of such evaluations being con-
ducted by the Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory of the Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify and test novel devices  which are
capable of high efficiency collection of fine particulates.  The test methods
used were not the  usual compliance-type methods but were,  rather,  state-
of-the-art techniques for measuring efficiency as a function of particle size
using cascade impactors and an Electrical Aerosol Size Analyzer.

      The following conclusions were made during this study:

1.    The performance of the scrubber was compared to  that of a theoreti-
      cal venturi scrubber and found to have about a 60 percent smaller
      aerodynamic cut diameter on the average for the same theoretical
      power requirements.  However, the standard deviation of the aero-
      dynamic cut diameter was about 30 percent of the mean.  Thus, much
      of the difference is contained within the error band of the measure-
      ment.

2.    Water carryover from the scrubber was detected at gas flows in ex-
      cess of 23. 6 m3/sec (50, 000 acfm).  The subject scrubber was not
      equipped with a mist eliminator.

3.    Submicron particles were generated in the cooling section of the
      scrubber from evaporation of dissolved solids in the water.  This
      phenomena tended to obscure the requirements of the test to quantify
      the fine particle collection efficiency of the scrubber.  The subject
      device did not meet the objectives of EPA to identify fine  particle
      collectors.

      It is recommended, for operations where scrubbers are practical,
the Century scrubber should be considered if the emissions are not pre-
dominantly fine particles.

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                           SECTION 3

            DESCRIPTION OF SITE AND SCRUBBER
SITE DESCRIPTION

      The field tests were conducted at a plant producing lightweight aggre-
gate. Shale mined from a. nearby quarry is transported to the site and
stored in a covered area.  The crushed shale is conveyed to two rotary
kilns which are fired by pulverized coal.  In the kilns,  the shale is expand-
ed to reduce the density of the material.  The expanded shale is allowed to
cool in stockpiles  and is crushed to  the desired size.  The exhaust gases
from the kiln are ducted to a single  wet scrubber.  The saturated gases
are then exhausted to the atmosphere through a 2. 4 m (8-foot) diameter
stack.

SCRUBBER DESCRIPTION

General  Description

     A diagram of the  scrubber is shown in Figure 3-1. The unit consists
of three  sections:  cooling section, scrubbing section,  and the stack.  In the
cooling section, the gas is quenched to a  temperature less than 77 C (170F)
by evaporation of a water spray.

      The scrubbing section is a large circular chamber consisting of two
sections  of nozzles, a high-pressure and low-pressure.  The high-pressure
nozzles are suspended from horizontal headers and the low-pressure noz-
zles from vertical headers.  The high-pressure nozzles (fine droplet) are
located near the front of the chamber, while the low-pressure nozzles
(coarse droplet) are near the  rear of the  chamber.  The mechanism for
collection is claimed to be capture of the particles with the fine droplets
and then removal of the droplet-particle with the coarse droplets.

      The stack may contain baffles or a  demister, depending on the instal-
lation.

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                                                            SCRUBBED
                                                            GAS
CAS
IN,.
             Figure 3-1.  Diagram of FRP-100 Scrubber
                                                                    77-412
 Configuration of Scrubber at Site

      The subject scrubber had some features which were unique to the site.

           The scrubber had no mist eliminators.  The scrubber
            only had a diagonal baffle at the outer radius of the ex-
            haust elbow

           The nozzle configuration consisted of 43 high-pressure
            and 23 low-pressure nozzles

           The cooling section was modified by plant personnel
            from that supplied by the vendor.  The spray rings
            were replaced by a pair of low-pressure nozzles di-
            rected into the gas flow

           The water was recirculated through a series of four
            settling ponds. Sufficient water was added at the final
            pond to make up for evaporation from the ponds  and in
            the scrubber

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    A high-pressure pump with a 40 hp motor and a low-
     pressure pump with a 50 hp motor were installed at
     the site.  A rather long piping  run of about 100 m was
     between the pump and scrubber

    The scrubber is  operated at about 80 percent the rated
     gas volume

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                           SECTION 4

                          FIELD TEST
TEST PLAN

General

      The test plan called for measurement of the size fractional collection
efficiency for normal operating conditions.   Cascade impactors were used
for measurement of particles above 0. 50 micron in diameter, and a Model
3030 ThermoSystems, Inc.,  Electrical Aerosol Size Analyzer (EASA) was
used to measure particle distribution from 0. 003 to 1. 0 microns in diameter.
Supporting measurements included gas composition with an Orsat analyzer,
gas velocity, process flows,  opacity, and power required.

      The small size  of the sampling platform prevented truly simultaneous
tests.  However,  inlet-outlet EASA and four inlet and two outlet impactor
tests were completed on the  same day.

Schedule
      The scrubber was tested three days in an "as is" condition.  The rup-
ture of a waterline on the scrubber forced an outage of the plant to repair
the scrubber. Inspection of the scrubber indicated a buildup of material
at the dry-wet interface, a deposit of material in the lower 1/3 of the scrub-
ber, and several items (such as missing nozzles) requiring maintenance.

      The scrubber was cleaned and maintenance performed on the unit.  The
scrubber was again tested under normal operation conditions.  A total of
three days of testing was conducted under conditions of a maintained unit.
These data are presented in this report as being representative  of opera-
tion of the  scrubber as designed.

GAS MEASUREMENT

      The gas volumetric flow was obtained using a multipoint traverse with
a pitot probe following EPA Methods 1 and 2.  The concentration of Qg, CO,
and CQs was measured with an Orsat analysis following EPA Method 3.  The
water content of the flue gas was obtained with the impinger catch during the
cascade impactor tests.
                                  6

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SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENT

Cascade Impactor

      The Meteorology Research, Inc. (MRI) Model 1502 Cascade Impactor
was used in the test.  The MRI Cascade Impactor is an annular jet-collector
type, similar to that reported by Cohen and Montan (1967).  A cut-away
drawing of the instrument is shown in Figure 4-1.  The body of the device
consists of quick connect rings supporting jet plates, collection discs,  and
a built-in filter holder.  The design permits flexibility in application to
various  sampling  situations.
                                             *
      The particulate matter is collected on collection discs.   The discs are
a lightweight metal stamping (730 mg) of 316 stainless steel.  The discs
were used  only once, thereby permitting a permanent record of the test.

      The surface of the collection disc for the outlet tests was prepared
with a solution of high-vacuum grease in toluene.  The solution was  painted
onto the discs.  It was found that the thickness of the coating is important
in the performance of the impactor.  After air drying, the discs  were heated
at 149C (300 F) for 4 hours to remove volatiles.   The collection discs were
handled with clean forceps by the edge to prevent contamination and  weight
changes.

      The filter was held by Kapton washers and was backed by a porous
metal plate.  A tared aluminum foil dish was used to weigh the filter and
Kapton washers.

      The inlet impactors utilized Reeve Angel 934AH glass fiber filter
mats as collection substrates held down with a stainless steel rim.

      The weighing of the collection discs was a critical part of the test.
The collection disc was designed to fit the weighing chamber of a Cahn 4100
Electrobalance.  The weighings were conducted at the motel to avoid dis-
ruptions due to low-frequency plant vibration.  The discs and filters were
desiccated for 24 hours before weighing to stabilize the water content.

      A weighing by substitution method was used.

Quality Control Tests--
      Two types of quality control tests were conducted.

Controls--
      Collection discs were prepared normally and transported to the test
site,  but not mounted into an impactor.  The control collection disc was a
good  check of the performance in weighing of the samples.  The tests of
                                 7

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        Nozzle
       Jet Plate
       Collection
          Disc
                                      1st Stage
                                       O" Ring
                                        Filter
                                   75-II3
Figure 4-1.  Assembly Drawing of Model 1502 Inertial

             Cascade Impactor
                         8

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weighing repeatability were conducted with the collection discs under field
conditions during the normal pattern of work.  Thus, problems with static
charges,  balance adjustments,  and handling were identified.

Blank tests--
      Blank tests are impactors prepared in the normal manner which
sampled only filtered stack gas.  These runs can identify problems from
chemical reactions of the substrate with stack  gas,  loss of substrate from
vaporization or abrasion,  and contamination of the substrates from leaks,
or during assembly and disassembly.  The blank runs also have at least one
control disc.

      The  results of  the control and blank test at the inlet are shown in
Table 4-1.  The  control value of 0. 04 mg is within precision of the balance.
The blank value of 0. 18 mg is probably due to the high SOg concentration and
elevated temperature of 277  C (530 F).  The tests were conducted for long
enough times to obtain sufficient particulate matter to reduce the  effects  of
substrate weight changes.

      The outlet impactors were modified with a 30 cm (12-inch) nozzle ex-
tension.   The nozzle extension was heated with a 50 watt heater, and the  im-
pactor body was  heated with a 350 watt heater.  The heaters were  sealed
with tape to insulate  and waterproof the assembly.   The temperature of the
gas at the outlet of the impactor was monitored during the test. A tempera-
ture of at least 82C (180F) was maintained to avoid  water condensation.

      The sample train used for the impactor tests  consisted of:

           An in-stack impactor with a stainless steel probe

           Hose to four Greenberg-Smith impingers containing
            100 ml water in each of the first two impingers, the
            third dry, and the final containing  silica gel

           A dry gas meter and pump following the impingers

Submicron Particles

      The measurement of the  size distribution of submicron particles was
a two-stage process:

      1.     The aerosol sample was removed from the stack and
            diluted with clean,  dry air
      2.     The particulate matter in the diluted gas was then
            measured with an EASA

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     TABLE 4-1.  RESULT  OF CONTROL AND BLANK TEST
Run No. :
Substrates:
Time:
Location:
Temperature:
Date:
30
Reeve Angle 934 AH
                  M
5 min.
Inlet
277"C  (530F)
8/30/76
Control Discs ,  mg:
Blank Discs , mg:
0.04
0.04

0.06
0.15
0.20
0.28
0.23
Blank backup filter ,  mg: 0. 67
                                mean 0. 04
                                mean: 0.18
                                Standard deviation: 0. 08
a--taken to the field but not mounted in impactor
b--taken to the field and exposed to filtered stack gas
                               10

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      The sample was extracted at nonisokinetic flow rates due to system
design and instrumentation specifications.  This should not affect sample
collection of the submicron particles of interest.

      A precutter was used to prevent large particle contamination of the
fine particle sample train. A modified MRI Model 1502 Cascade Impactor
was used to mate  with the environment being sampled.  The advantage of
using the modified impactor by eliminating  collection discs and filter media
is the flexibility of determining the d50  separation point by manipulation of
stage jet diameters.  When assembled properly, the impactor allows sam-
ples to be collected for approximately eight hours without plugging.  The
inlet of the precutter-impactor should face  downstream of particle flow.

      Diluting the sample served a dual purpose:

           Matching sample concentrations to particle detection
            capabilities

           Reducing the dew point of the sample

      Dry dilution air was created by recirculating air through a bed of
CaSO4 desiccant (dew point,  -68 C) and then filtering to prevent contamina-
tion.  Dilution was accomplished by a three-stage process of mixing the dry,
particle-free dilution air with the sample.  Sample flow was measured by
venturi-type flow meters preceding each dilution stage, while dilution flows
are measured across orifice-type meters.  Temperatures and pressures
were also monitored throughout the flow scheme. Tubing diameters in the
sample path are reasonably large (0. 95 cm diameter) to minimize particle
loss due to diffusion, and tubing lengths were short to minimize sample
residence time.   Flow control was accomplished by manipulation of the
dilution air control valves.

      Dilution ratios of about 6:1 to  1000:1  can be obtained by adjustment of
the control valves.

      Figures 4-2 and 4-3 illustrate the extractive sampling systems at the
inlet and outlet of the scrubber.  The outlet cascade impactor precutter and
probe required electrical heat tracing to evaporate entrained droplets be-
fore dilution.

      The operation of the EASA for source measurements was described by
Sem (1976).  The  EASA must be protected from dirt and moisture and iso-
lated from vibration for  successful operation.
                                  11

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               Stack
Buttonhook
 Nozzle
           Flow
                                      Vacuum Pump
        Figure 4-2.  Inlet Extractive Sampling System
                            12

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  Stack
          Hat Traced
         Sampling Line
                                   EASA
Vacuum Pump
                           Vacuum Pump
Figure 4-3.  Outlet Extractive Sampling System
                          13

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OPACITY MEASUREMENT

      The opacity at the inlet and outlet of the scrubber was measured with
an MsRI Plant Process Visiometer.   The instrument was installed in a 3-inch
port, and the sample was heated to remove water vapor.  A diagram of the
instrument is shown in Figure 4-4.  The aerosol particles in the chamber
are illuminated by a flash lamp.  The optics have been designed so that the
output of the photomultiplier tube is proportional to the  extinction coefficient
due to scattered light.  The instrument is a physical analog  of the following
equation:
                 b       =   2V     &( 9 ) sin  0  d  0
                  S Cctt
where
      b     = the scattering coefficient due to scattered light
       S Celt
      /3( 9 )= volume scattering function
      0     = scattering angle

If there is no light absorption, the scattering coefficient is identical to the
extinction coefficient.  The extinction coefficient is related to plume opacity
with the Bouguer Law.

                 Opacity (percent) =   j"l - exp (-b   L)~|  100

where

      b     = extinction coefficient, m
       ext
      L     = stack diameter, m

      The instrument is spanned with an internal calibrator consisting of an
opal glass lens of known scattering coefficient.  The lens is mechanically
placed in the view of the detector for calibration and was retracted into a
sealed chamber between calibrations.  The PPV calibrator is calibrated with
oil smoke with reference instruments using both an integration nephelometer
and a transmissometer.  The PPV was described in detail by Ensor,  et al
(1974).
                                                                       i
      The PPV at the inlet of the  scrubber was mounted on a support at the
ground.   The sample was removed from the stack with a 1/2-inch ID stain-
less steel probe extending 0. 65 m (2 feet) into the stack through an elbow and
down through a vertical 1-inch diameter pipe 2. 1 m (7 feet) long to the optical
chamber.  The inlet probe was aligned with the flow, and near isokinetic
sampling rate was maintained.  The sample rate was estimated to be 0. 28
m /min (10 cfm).  A high -efficiency aspirator at the exhaust of the optical
                                 14

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      SAMPLE  FLOW
 LIGHT TRAP
                                      LIGHT  RAYS
FLASH
LAMP
DIFFUSER
                                                ELECTRONICS
HOTO MULTIPLIER
       SAMPLE
       VOLUME
                    \
                           ASPIRATOR
                                                   76-394/1
Figure 4-4.  Diagram of the Plant Process Visiometer
                        15

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chamber was supplied with compressed air from a Rotron blower.  The in-
let piping and optical chamber were insulated and heated to keep the aerosol
above the water dew point.

      The PPV at the outlet was mounted on the sampling platform.   The
electrically heated probe extended about 0.65 m (2 feet) into  the stack.  The
inlet of the probe was protected by a flat splash plate to prevent entrained
water droplets from entering the probe.

      In both instruments, the optical chamber was electrically heated.  A
remote control panel was rack-mounted in the truck.   The light scattering
coefficients were recorded on strip charts.  The remote control panel has
controls to allow remote operation of the instruments.  Each PPV was ad-
justed to provide a typical midscale reading.

      The internal opal glass calibrator is used as a field reference.  After
installation, the instruments were operated  continuously.  The zero and span
were  checked at least three times per day by back-flushing with clean air
and activating the calibrator.  Thus both a check of the electronics and drift
and contamination of the optical surfaces were  obtained.   When required,
the units were cleaned and adjusted.
                                16

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                           SECTION 5

                     FIELD TEST RESULTS


CALCULATION OF SCRUBBER PERFORMANCE

      The performance of this  scrubber was compared to other types of
scrubbers with the following procedure:

           The theoretical hydraulic power required for the
            scrubber was computed from both the gas and
            water flows and pressure drop

           The scrubber performance aerodynamic  cut dia-
            meter was computed from the cascade impactor
            results.   The cut diameter as defined by Calvert,
            et al (1972) is the particle size  collected with 50
            percent efficiency in the scrubber

           Utilizing  results reported by Calvert (1974) and
            adapted by Cooper and Anderson (1975),  the per-
            formance of the subject scrubber was compared
            to the theoretical performance of other common
            types of scrubbers

PROCESS FLOWS AND POWER REQUIRED

Gas Flows

      The gas flows were determined by using an S-type pitot tube.  A 36-
point traverse at the inlet upstream of the cooling  section and a 48-point
traverse at  the outlet were conducted each day.   In addition, a 1. 22 m (4-foot)
extension was added to the stack to reduce the effect of local winds on the
stack velocity.

      The results of the gas flow measurement are summarized in Table 5-1.
The inlet velocity traverse is more reliable than the outlet tests for the fol-
lowing reasons:

           The outlet test location was about one stack diameter
            downstream from a bend and 1/2 upstream diameter
            from the exhaust [with 1. 22 m (4-foot)  extension]

                                17

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 TABLE 5-1.  SUMMARY OF GAS VOLUME MEASUREMENTS
Date:
Location
Temperature, C
F
Velocity, cm/ sec
ft/ sec
Static Pressure, cm H_O
in. H2O
Pressure Drop, cm I^O
in. H2O
Gas Flow, am3 /sec
acfm
Water Vapor, percent
Saturated Water Vapor,
percent
Gas Flow, sd m /sec
sdcfm
Gas Flow In/Gas Flow Out
Gas Flow from Inlet Tra-
verse Corrected to Scrub-
ber Conditions , am /sec
acfm
Liquid Carryover6, I/sec
gpm
Velocity in Scrubber*
cm/sec
ft/ sec
8/29
Inlet Outlet
277 46
531 115
1067 381
35.0 12.5
0.20 0.25
0.08 0.10
	

36.0 18.0
77, 000a 38, 000b
3.0 11.5

10.2
18.5 14.5
39, 100 30, 800C
1.27


22.8
48, 300
0.208
3.3

216
7.1
8/30
Inlet Outlet
275 46
527 115
1210 427
39.7 14.0
0.18 0.13
0.07 0.05
0.05
0.02
41.3 30.0
87,400 42,400
5.8 32.7

10.2
20.5 16.3
43, 400 34, 600
1.25


25.2
53,400
4.10
65

241
7.9
8/31
Inlet Outlet
284 43
543 110
1173 515
38.5 16.9
0.20 0.18
0.08 0.07
0.03
0.01
41.3 24.1
37,500 51, 100
4.6 23.9

8.0
19.7 20.0
41,800 42,400
0.99


24.5
51,900
2.71
43

232
7.6
a--Inlet duct cross sectional area,  3.407 m2 (36. 68 ft2)
b--Outlet duct cross sectional area, 4. 694 m2 (50. 53 ft2)
cComputed using saturated water concentration at scrubber outlet
     conditions
d--Computed using dry gas volume from inlet traverse and saturated
     water concentration
e--Assumed to be the excess water above saturation
f Scrubber cross sectional area,  10. 51  m  (113.1 ft2)
   Standard conditions 21.1C, 76 cm Hg (70F, 29-92 in. Hg)
                                  18

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           There was minor gas leakage at the juncture of the
            duct work and scrubber

           The inlet traverse point was a good sampling loca-
            tion and had sufficient flow for good measurement
            accuracy

           The outlet gas velocity was low [about 3. 66 m/sec
            (12 ft/sec)] thus prone  to measurement error.  Also,
            the drop laden emissions tended to fill the pitot pressure
            lines with water

      The inlet velocity adjusted to scrubber conditions  and a saturated water
content were used for the actual gas volumetric flow rate.

      The water carry-over summarized in Table 5-1 and Figure 5-1, was
estimated by the additional water in excess of saturation. Based on the
limited data, the carry-over is a sensitive function of gas velocity in the
scrubber.   Unless an entrainment  separator is installed, carry-over might
limit the capacity of the unit.

Gas Composition Measurements

      Results from the Orsat tests are summarized in Table  5-2.

Water Flows

      The water flow was estimated by counting the number of high and low
pressure nozzles and using the rated water flow rate.  The calculation is
summarized in Table 5-3.

Power Requirements

      The determination of the hydraulic power required is shown in Table
5-4.  The power loss computations developed by Semrau, as  reported in
Strauss (1974), were used to compute the theoretical energy  required.  The
power measured at the  pumps is also included for comparison.

PARTICLE COLLECTION EFFICIENCY

Size Distribution

      The impactor and EASA results were combined to obtain particle size
distribution and fractional penetration curves over the particle size ranges
of both instruments.  The particle  density was assumed to be 2 g/cm during
the computation of the actual particle diameter for the impactor  tests.  The
stage calibration constant for the impactor (50) was assumed to be 0. 38.
                                19

-------
  4.5-.
  4.0-
  3.5-
  3.0
I2'5
a

5 2.0
a.
LJ
<
  1.0-
  0.5"
         70
         60
         50
       = 40
       E
       10
       c.
         30
         20
         10
           40 42  44   46  48  50  52   54  56  58  60
                           kacfir
                                i   i
               20  21   22   23   24   25   26  27   28   29   30
                       GAS  FLOW, ar'/sec
                                                           77--! I I
Figure 5-1.  Gas Flow Water  Carry Over From Scrubber
                            20

-------
        TABLE 5-2.  SUMMARY OF ORSAT GAS ANALYSIS
Date
8/20
8/20
8/21
8/25
8/25
8/30
8/31
Location
Outlet
Inlet
Outlet
Outlet
Inlet
Inlet*
Inlet
C02
%
5.8
5.8
5.5
5.2
5.8
5.0
5.3
08
%
14.0
12.6
13.1
13.9
12.6
12.6
12.6
CO
%
0.2
1.0
1.1
0.6
0.0
0.6'
1.61
Na
%
80.0
80.6
80.3
80.3
81.6
81.8
80.5
Dry Molecular Weight
gna/gm mole
29.6
29.6
29.6
29.6
29.6
29.5
29.5
a.  Mercury used as fluid
            TABLE 5-3.  ESTIMATION OF WATER FLOWS
Location
Cooler
Front Section
Scrubber
Back Section
Scrubber
Number
2
47
21
Type
Low pressure
High pressure
Low pressure
Related
Flow,
I/sec (gpm)
1.78 (28.3)
0.25 ( 4.0)
1.79 (28.3)
Total
Flow,
I/ sec (gpm)
3.57 (56.6)
11.86 (188.0)
37.5 (594.3)
52.9 (838.9)
  Low pressure nozzle -- 3.1 x 105 N/M  (45 psig)
  High pressure nozzle -~8.'7 x 10  N/M2 (125 psig)
b. Number of nozzles determined by inspection
                               21

-------
                                     TABLE 5-4.   ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC POWER REQUIRED


Date

8/29



8/30



8/31



Gas
Flow,
m /SBC
(acfm)
22.7
(46,000)


25.2
(53,400)


24.5
(51,900)


AP
cmHzO
(In H20)
...



0.051
(0.02)


0.025
(0.01)


Hydraulic
Power.
Watts/am /min
(hp/lOOOacfm)

(0. 00*)


0.079
(0.003)


0.053
(0.002)


Liquid
Flow,
I/sec
(gpm)
41
(651)
12
(88)
41
(651)
12
(188)
41
(651)
12
(188)
AP. 2
n/m
(psig)
3xl05
<45) e
8.6x10
(125)
3xl05
(45)
8.6x10
(125)
3xl05
(45)
8. 6x10
(125)
Hydraulic
Power
Watts/am /min
(hp/1000 acfm)
9>2b
(0.35b)
7.4
(0.28)
8.4
(0.32)
6.8
(0.26)
8.7
(0.33)
6.85
(0.26)
Total
Hydraulic
Power
Watts /am /min
(hp/1000 acfm)
16.6
(0.63)


15.3
(0.58)


15.5
(0. 59)



L/C
I/in3
(gal/ 1000 acf)
2.35
(17.4)


2. 12
(15.7)


2.19
(16.2)



Measured
Power at Pump
Watts/am /min
(hp/1000 acfm)
N. D.



45.6
(1.73C)


47.9
(1.82)


Is)
IN)
          a--Hydraulic power loss gas computed with the equation:

          bHydraulic power loss liquid computed with the equation:
G,
                                                                    =  0. 157 AP^,                 AP      = pressure drop
                                                                                                             in H20

                                                                                     3 ),          ^^L.     = ^1u*d pressure
                                                                "             **  "                          drop, psig
                                                                                                  Q,      = liquid flow, gpm
                                                                                                   Lf
                                                                                                  Q       = gas flow, acfm

c--Determined by measuring the applied voltage and amperage at the two pumps.  The difference between the hydraulic power and
   measured power was due to line pressure drop, pump efficiency, and power factor.
N. D. .-Not determined.

-------
      The size distribution statistics are reported in Table 5-5.   The geo-
metric mass mean diameter and geometric  standard deviations were deter-
mined by a least squares fit to a lognormal  size distribution.  These statis-
tics indicate the mean diameter and width of the distribution.  The correla-
tion coefficient indicates the goodness  of the fit.  The inlet particulate
matter was very coarse and in many tests the major fraction of the weight
was on the first stage of the impactor.

      The particle size distributions are shown in Figures  5-2 to 5-4.  These
curves were computed with a procedure reported by Markowski and Ensor
(1977) which is a modification of a technique developed by Calvert and re-
ported by Ensor et al (1975). The impactor data is  plotted as cumulative
"smaller than" mass versus diameter curves.- These curves are then
interpolated to consistent selected size increments with a fitting routine
utilizing overlapping parabolas.   The differential curves in Figures 5-2 to
5-4 are the slopes of the cumulative curve at the selected diameters.  The
mean and standard deviation are computed for the differential distributions
from all tests  at a given operating condition.

Penetration

      The penetration of particles through the scrubber shown in Figures
5-5 to 5-7 is simply the outlet differential size distribution divided by the
inlet differential size distribution.  The standard deviation for the penetra-
tion is given by:
                                             v
                                      -^t
                                      \   out  '
where
      S     =   Standard deviation
      F    =   Differential distribution
      P    =   Penetration
      in    =   Inlet
      out   =   Outlet
      The Standard deviation contains both process variation and measure-
ment errors.  The cascade impactor reduced data are reported in Appendix
C.
                                 23

-------
TABLE 5-5. SUMMARY OF SIZE DISTRIBUTION STATISTICS
Day Run
Inlet 8/Z9/76 31
32
33
34
Mean
Standard Deviation
Outlet 25
35
Mean
Standard Deviation
Inlet 8/30/76 40
41
42
43
Mean
Standard Deviation
Outlet 36
37
38
Mean
Standard Deviation
Inlet 8/31/76 44
45
47
49
Mean
Standard Deviation
Outlet 39
48
50
Mean
Standard Deviation
Geometric
Mass
Mean Dia.
micron
12.3
57.3
61.6
117.7
62.2
43.18
9.95
8.10
9.03
1.31
68
91.5
70.2
101.7
82.93
16.35
0.970
0.404
0.516
0.630
0.30
108.3
174.5
55.2
53.0
114.7
62.4
7.15
0.84
2.02
3.34
3.35
Geometric
Standard
Deviation
8.4
11.4
13.5
23.5
14.2
6.54
48.8
16.7
32.8
22.7
19.3
11.5
16.5
15.3
15.65
3.23
24.8
58.0
13.0
31.93
23.33
11.4
12.0
5.41
14.70
10.68
3.42
205.4
45.9
6.83
86.0
105.2
Correlation
Coefficient
to Lognormal
Distribution
0.970
0.974
0.972
0.981
0.974
0.005
0.958
0.900
0.929
0.041
0.986
0.986
0.977
0.991
0.985
0.006
0.974
0.967
0.960
0.969
0.010
0.985
0.986
0.983
0.983
0.983
0.003
0.982
0.969
0.971
0.974
0.007
                           24

-------
        io"r
     c.
     E
        TO3
     2   io2
     Of
     in

     _)
     <
     z.

     10.0
        1.0
 INLET

O OUTLET

PARTICLE DENSITY   2  g/cm

*50  = -38


ONE  STANDARD  DEVIATION BOUNDS
           0.1              1.0              10.C


                    PARTJCLE DIAMETER, micron
                                                           77-416
Figure 5-2.  Differential Particle Size Distribution for

              August 29, 1976
                              25

-------
       10'
       10*
    s:
    <
    S  100
    a
    t-
    in

    O

    u
    N

    in

    _)
    <
    Z
    UJ
    lu
    u.
      10.0
       1.0
          0.1
   T  T
INLET


OOUTLET


PARTICLE DENSITY
                                  2g/cm3
                r50
                     0.38
               ONE STANDARD  DEVIATION BOUNDS
            1.0               10.0


      PARTICLE DIAMETER,micron
                                                          77-4(4
Figure 5-3.  Differential Particle Size Distribution for

              August 30, 1976
                               26

-------
      1C3
   o
   o
   O
     100
   UJ
   Isl
   z
   UJ
   u.
   u.
    10.0
     1.0
         0.1
 INLET
O OUTLET
PARTICLE DENSITY = 2 g/cm3
*50 -  0.38
ONE STANDARD DEVIATION BOUNDS
         1.0               10.0
     PARTICLE  DIAMETER, microns
                                                         77-415
Figure 5-4.  Differential Particle Size Distribution for
              August 31. 1976
                             27

-------
   100
  10.0
  1.0
UJ
z
UJ
a.
o
o
<
c:
0.1
  0.01
 0.001
      0.01
                            PARTICLE/GENERATION
           EASA

           CASCADE IMP AC TOR

           (PARTICLE DENSITY

                 0.38
                                 2 -g/cm3)
              ONE STANDARD DEVIATION  BOUNDS
               0.1
   1.0          10.0


PARTICLE  DIAMETER,microns
                                                                            0)
                                                                            o.
                                                                      90.0   
                                                                              o
                                                                              *
                                                                              I
                                                                              o
                                                                      99.0   S
                                                                        99.9
                                                                  77-423
       Figure 5-5.  Fractional Penetration As a Function of Actual

                     Particle Diameter for August 29,  1976
                                     28

-------
 100.0
  10.0
o

K
LLJ
a.
o

t-
u

at
u.
   1.0
0.1
  o.oi
  a. 001
                             PARTICLE GENERATION
 EASA

O CASCADE IMPACTOR

 CPARTICLE DENSITY - i

  *50  0.38

  ONE STANDARD DEVIATION BOUNDS
      .01
               0.1           1.0          10.0

                     PARTICLE DIAMETER, microns
                                                                      90
                                                                         o

                                                                         t
                                                                         u
                                                                      99
                                                                 77-^22/1
                                                                         99.9
     Figure 5-6.  Fractional Penetration As a Function of Actual

                   Particle Diameter for August 29,  1976
                                    29

-------
  100
 10.0
  1.0
z
UJ
a.

_i


O
  0.1
ee
  0.01
 0.001
            EA5A

           O CASCADE IMPACTOR
             CPARTICLE DENSITY

                   0.38
                                2 g/cm3)
             ONE STANDARD DEVIATION BOUNDS
     0.01
                 0.1           1.0          10.0


                         PARTICLE DIAMETER,  microns
                                                                              L.

                                                                              0)
                                                                        90.0  G
99.0
                                                                        99.9
Figure 5-7.  Fractional Penetration as a Function of Actual Particle

              Diameter for August 31,  1976
                                   30

-------
Particle Generation

      Submicron particle generation was observed during all three days.
An estimation of the amount of particulate matter formed is reported in
Table 5-6.

      The temperature of the gas at the cooling section outlet was measured
with a dial thermometer, and the gas was assumed to be saturated with water
at that point.  The  rate of water evaporated was used with the concentration
of dissolved solids in the supply water  to estimate the amount of solids
formed in the scrubber.  These estimates of particulate  formation do ex-
plain the day-to-day variation of aerosol generation in a  qualitative fashion.

      The particulate matter is believed to form primarily from evaporation
of water in the cooling section.   In the  remainder of the  scrubber, water
vapor is being condensed, probably from sensible heat transfer from the
incoming scrubbing water.   The condensing conditions may possibly aid the
scrubber efficiency through particle growth and phoretic forces. However,
it is apparent that the submicron particles formed in the cooling section are
not efficiently captured in the main chamber of the  scrubber.  The efficiency
of the scrubber could  be improved by using water with low dissolved  solids
in the cooling section.

      The increased concentration of particles greater than 5 microns in
diameter observed in  some impactor tests was not due to particulate genera-
tion in the scrubber.   The water droplets were not separated from the aero-
sol by a precutter but were evaporated with a heated nozzle at the inlet of
the impactor.  The residue of the droplets was collected on the  first  two
or three stages of the impactor.  Thus, the effects of liquid carry-over on
emissions can be measured.

SCRUBBER PERFORMANCE

Calculation of Aerodynamic Cut Diameter

      The aerodynamic diameter as defined by Calvert et al (1972) is given
by
where
            d      = d   4  .
             aero     actual
      C      = Cunningham correction factor
      p      =  Particle density,  g/cm

       actual =  Actual cut diameter, microns
                                  31

-------
                            TABLE 5-6.   ESTIMATION OF AEROSOL GENERATION
Date
Location
Temperature, *C
(F)
Abaolute Humidity, (Ib HjO/lb Gas)
Gaa Flow, m /sec
(dacfm)
Increaae H.O Concentration through
Cooler, gmH-O/gm Gas
(Ib H2O/lb Gas)
Water Evaporated In Cooler kg/min
(Ib/mln)
Suspended Solids, mg/l
Dissolved Solids, mg/1
Dissolved Solids Evaporated, gm/mln
Evaporated Solids Concentration,
gin/dam
gr/dscf)
8/29/76
Inlet
277
(531)
0.0509B
18.5
[39, 100)



nil
6,440



Cooler
Outlet
52
(125)
0.0955b


0. 0446
(0.0446)
60.6
(133.4)


390
0.34
(0.15)
Scrubber
Outlet
69
(115)
0. 0692b





4,000
6,480



8/30/76
Inlet
275
(527)
0. 0992a
20.5
(43,400)



100
6,190



Cooler
Outlet
54
(130)
0.1 lb


0.0108
(0.0108)
16.3
(35.9)


101
0.082
(0.036)
Scrubber
Outlet
69
(115)
0. 0692





3.300
6, 170



8/31/76
Inlet
284
(543)
0. 0793*
19.7
(41,800)



60
6,200



Cooler
Outlet
54
(130)
O.ll"


0.0307
(0.0307)
44.6
(98.2)


276
0.23
(0.10)
Scrubber
Outlet
643
(HO)
0.0595b





3,000
6,000



w
ts)
         aMeasured


         b--Assuming gas saturated with water (Perry, 1963)

-------
      The actual cut diameters were taken from Figures 5-5 to 5-7.  The
aerodynamic cut diameters were then computed using the above formula.
The calculation is summarized in Table 5-6.

Comparison To Other Scrubber  Types

      The aerodynamic cut diameters calculated in Table 5-7 combined with
the power requirements from Table 5-4 are shown in Figure 5-8.  The mean
aerodynamic cut diameters are  below the theoretical performance curve
for the venturi scrubber.   This  suggests that the horizontal spray chamber
is more efficient particle collector for a given power input than the venturi
case.  However,  the error bounds are  sufficiently broad to limit conclusions.

OPACITY

      The PPV proved to  be a useful monitor of real-time operation of the
scrubber.  The inlet PPV performance was limited by the buildup of par-
ticulate matter on the flash lamp lens.   An example of the opacity data is
shown in Figure 5-9.  The opacity at the inlet and outlet are summarized
in Table 5-8.  The outlet opacity was about 30 percent of the inlet opacity
from particulate  removal in the scrubber.
                                 33

-------
TABLE 5-7.  CALCULATION OF AERODYNAMIC CUT DIAMETERS
Date
8/29


8/30


8/31


Cut Diameters _
(Density = 2g/cm )
micron
^Standard Deviation 0. 70
Mean 0. 50
-Standard Deviation 0. 35
+Standard Deviation 0.46
Mean 0. 39
-Standard Deviation 0. 33
^Standard Deviation 0. 70
Mean 0. 58
-Standard Deviation 0.46
C
1.275
1.39
1.55
1.42
1.50
1.59
1.275
1.33
1.42
V PC
(g/cm3)
1.60
1.67
1.76
1.69
1.73
1.78
1.60
1.63
1.69
d
aero
micron
1. 12
0.83
0.62
0.78
0.68
0.59
1.12
0.95
0.78
                               34

-------
                 3.0
                 2.0
              u
              O.
             I-
             UJ
             a.
1.0


0.8



O.C

0.5


O.I)
             o
             o
             oc.
             uj   0.3
                 0.2
                 0.1
                              1.5
                          PRESSURE  DROP, inches  M7o

                        3   t   5  G 7 8 910     15
                                                                      20
                                                    30   MO  50 60   80  100
                                                    I
                                         I I
                                                   la. 11  SIEVE  PLATE SCRUUULRS

                                                   2a. 2b  VEHTUR1  SCRUBbERS

                                                   3       IMPINGEMENT PLATE

                                                   4       PACKED COLUMNS
                                                                      T
 8/29/7C

O8/30/76

A8/31/76

ONE STANDARD DEVIATION BOUNDS
                                    10
                                20   30        50
                               POWER, watts (am3/ni1n)
                                                                         100-
                                                          200
                                                                         300
                              0.25
                  I   |  |
                        0.5     0.81.0         2.0

                                POWER, hn/1000 acfm
                                                                      J.O
                                              I
                                                                    I
                                                                       l   I
                                                    5.0
                                                                              I  I  i
8.0  10
                                                                                            I
                                                                                                2a
                               <   5  6 7 8 9 10         20     30   0  50

                                                 PRESSURL  OROP,cm H20
                                                           70  <(0100
                                                                  200  300


                                                                    77-413
Figure 5-8.   Aerodynamic Cut-Diameters of the FRP-100 Scrubber Compared to  the Theoretical
              Performance of Other Scrubber Types, (after Cooper and Anderson  (1975), adapted
              from Calvert (1974)

-------
     1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
               Hoars
Figure 5-9. Outlet Scattering Coefficients Measured with Plant
            Process Visiometer,  August 29,  1976

                           36

-------
       TABLE 5-8.  SUMMARY OF MEASURED OPACITY

Inlet
Typical
Range

Outlet
Typical
Range
Duct Temp.
C (F)

288-304
(550-580)

43-46
(110-115)
PPV Temp.

116-127
(240-260)

82-93
(180-200)
b scat
m-1

1.4
0.62-1.86

0.162
0. 134-0. 165
a
Opacity

97
77-99

33
28-33
a -- Computed using an 8-foot path length.
     Opacity = 100 (1 - exp (-bsca,8 x 0.3048))
                                  37

-------
                           REFERENCES

Calvert, 3. ,  J.  Goldshmid, D. Leith, and D. Mehta.  Scrubber Handbook.
      EPA Contract No.  CAP-70-95, PB-213-06, 1972.

Calvert, S.  Engineering Design of Fine Particle Scrubbers.  J.  Air Poll.
      Cont. Assoc., 24:929-934,   1974.

Cohen,  J. J. and D. M.  Montan.   Theoretical Considerations, Design, and
      Evaluation of a Cascade Impactor.  Am. Ind. Hyg. Assn. J. , 28:95-104,
      1967.

Cooper, D. W. and D. P. Anderson.  Dynactor  Scrubber Evaluation.
      EPA-650/2-74-083-a,  U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
      1975.

Ensor,  D. S., L.  D.  Bevan, and G. Markowski.  Application of Nephelom-
      etry to the Monitoring of Air Pollution Sources.   67th Annual Meeting
      of the Air  Pollution Control Assoc. ,  Denver,  Colorado,
      Paper No. 74-110,  1974.

Ensor,  D. S., B.  S. Jackson, S.  Calvert, C. Lake, D. V. Wallon,
      R. E.  Nilon, K.  S. Campbell, T. A.  Cahill, and R. G. Flocchini.
      Evaluation of a Particulate Scrubber on a  Coal-Fired Utility Boiler.
      EPA 600/2-75-074,  NTIS PB 249562/AS,   1975.

Markowski,  G. R., and  D. S. Ensor.  A Procedure for Computing Particle
      Size Dependent Efficiency for Control Devices from Cascade  Impactor
      Data.  70th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,
      Toronto,  Canada,  June, 1977.

Sem,  G. J.  Submicron Particle Size Measurement of Stack Emissions Using
      the Electrical Mobility Technique.  In: Proceedings of the Workshop on
      Sampling,  Analysis,  and Monitoring of Stack Emissions, EPRI SR41,
      1976.  pp. 111-129.

Strauss, W.  Industrial Gas Cleaning.  Pergamon Press, New York, New
      York,   1974. pp.  333-334.

Perry,  J. H.  Chemical Engineer's Handbook.   McGraw-Hill Book Company,
      Inc., New York, New York,  1963.  p. 15-5.
                               38

-------
                            APPENDIX A

         MANUFACTURER'S DESCRIPTION OF SCRUBBER

      The following is a description of the control device provided in a

brochure prepared by Century Industrial Products.  It indicates the principles
guiding the design and the specifications  for the scrubber.


      Cooling -- Hot, particulate-laden gases,  often containing
      oxides of sulfur and other noxious fumes,  are first intro-
      duced to a cooling section where rapid quenching occurs
      through exposure to cooling sprays.  Inlet temperatures
      of over 500F  are acceptable.  Gases are cooled to  approxi-
      mately  170F upon entering the main scrubbing shell. A
      film cooling technique is employed to  augment the  evapora-
      tive cooling sprays in maintaining temperatures well below
      tolerance levels of the fiberglass used in the cooling system
      housing the main scrubber shell.

      Particulate Scrubbing -- The capture  of fine particulates
      by water spray and subsequent removal of the particulate-
      laden  water droplets  have been  the principal mechanisms
      for the control of this type of emission from industrial
      processes for many years.  In most devices based on these
      mechanisms, the dust particle and the water droplet is
      important to efficient dust capture.  Hence,  many  scrubber
      designs in use today are of the so-called medium to high
      energy types.

      Century's research efforts have determined that the  most
      important parameter governing  the performance of a scrubber
      is the mean free path* in collisions between dust particles
      and water droplets; and that mean free path does not depend
      on the relative  velocity between the dust particle and the water
      droplet, but rather on the density of water droplets (the num-
      ber of droplets per unit volume).  The higher the density, the
      shorter the mean free path, and the higher will be  the proba-
      bility  of collisions between particulates  and water  droplets.

      However,  if the water droplets are too small, they are swept
      away readily by the gas stream  and droplet-particulate
 *The path an object takes before it hits another object.
                                 39

-------
collisions become unlikely.  Required,  then, is a low
velocity gas stream in order to maximize the scrubbing
action available in a high density field of fine water drop-
lets.   The FRP-100 achieves this by utilizing a long, hori-
zontal shell configuration with a large diameter.  Gas
velocity is thus dramatically reduced and,  therefore, the
time available for particulates to collide with the fine
water  droplets is increased.

The collisions between particles and water droplets occur
mainly in the forward section of the scrubber shell where
four arrays of nozzles produce fine spray droplets of about
200 microns in diameter.  Once these droplets have cap-
tured dust particles,  the new droplet-particle combinations
must themselves be trapped and coalesced into a stream for
discharge out of the scrubber before they can be swept  out
of the  scrubber by the gas stream.

Capture of the droplet-particle combinations is  accom-
plished by another four arrays of nozzles producing coarse
spray  droplets of about 2, 000 microns in diameter.   These
coarse droplets capture the particulate-laden small water
droplets in much the  same way the latter captured the still
smaller dust particles.  The large droplets are not swept
away by the gas stream due to their greater mass, but
impinge directly against the inside wall of the scrubber
shell.   They then flow by gravity to the  bottom of the shell
and collect for drainage out of the rear  of the scrubber.

SO B Removal   The same principles of operation (moving
gases  at low velocity through multi-stages of water droplets)
provide a means for absorbing the water-soluble gases.
The FRP-100 utilizes 900 GPM of fluid,  which,  when atomized
by the spray nozzles,  creates  an exceedingly high liquid surface
area for contact with gases.  While efficiencies in SO2 removal
are dependent upon the alkalinity of the  scrubbing  fluid, the
SO2 concentration, and gas flow rate through the scrubber,
significant removal is obtainable using only moderately alka-
line (not slurry) water supplies.

Dimensions of the FRP-100 Scrubber

The scrubbing section of the FRP-100 Scrubber is 12 feet inside
diameter and 40 feet long.  The cooling section  is 8 feet long
by approximately 6 feet in diameter.  Exhaust stacks are custom
designed for particular applications.
                            40

-------
                           APPENDIX B
           ESTIMATION OF CAPITAL AND INSTALLATION
                  COSTS FOR FRP-100 SCRUBBER

Scrubber rated at 100, 000 acfm with 70-foot stack            $120, 000
Freight (1500 to 1800 miles)                                    4,000
Foundations, material and labor                                4,000
Pumps (assumes water is available 500 feet from scrubber)      8, 000
      1.     60 psig main pump
      2.     60 psig main standby
      3.     Booster pump
Electrical components and labor                                2, 000
Pipe, valves, and fittings (Schedule 80, PVC pipe)               4,000
Ducting                                                        5, 000
Support for 70-foot stack
            Steel                                               8,000
            Foundation                                         2, 000
Installation labor (200 manhours)                               3, 000
Testing                                                        3, 000
Spare parts                                                    3, 000

The above costing is based  on information supplied by Century Industrial
Products.   The actual installation costs may vary greatly depending on
site and availability of water.
                                41

-------
             APPENDIX C
             TEST DATA
            COAL ANALYSIS
Heat Content
Moisture
Volatiles
Fixed Carbon
Ash
Sulfur
7341    cal/gm
   2. 96 percent
  41.4  percent
  48. 8  percent
  10. 15 percent
   1. 26 percent
                   42

-------
   OUILLr  ibA B/29/76  200S (IKS 1MPACTOH
04 1 a
                                                             Jit PLAIl  I Oh SUr.f-3  7  HOI E3 12
U)
ItSI OUHAIION *
MEIEM IEMP. a
METER PHES a
BAKU. PRES 
NUZZLE 1)1 A. a
VOL. MKTEH =
8IACK PHES3UHK :
CUNO. MATER a
(ESt RESULTS
PEHCL-NT MOISIUPE
VOLUME GAS SID. DRY
PERCENT 1SOKINE11C
5 . 0 M 1 NU 1 1 S
70. DEOS. F
.39 IN.
29.29 INCH HR
TIMP IMPACIOR =
1LMP A1MOS. s
VTLOCI rr =
SAMPLE RAIE =
.312b INCHES TOTAL VOLUME (31 ACK) =
2.2P CUBIC H.F1
29.30 INCH HP
6.1 CC

s 12.17
= .632L-01 CUBIC Mf TF.R
= HB.16
PAU1ICLE DENSITY =
SIACK SUCTION a
VISCOSITY =




121. I'IGS. F
HO. UlGS. F
20.21 FT/SLC
.57 Cf (SIACK CONO. J
2.8S CF(SIALK CONO.)
2.00 GNAM/CC
.73SF.-02 INCH HG
. 19E-03 POISE
















SIZt DISTRIBUTION RESULTS
CUN HOLE
PLATE COR NUMBER
1 .01 B.
2 .02 12.
3 .05 2
-------
 nru.1
USI OAtA
      HUA 1 1 UN  a
   Mtfl.M  IhMP.  a
    MtU.R PHtS  =
    BARO. PI'IS  =
   NOULE DIA.  =
    VOL. MEUH  e
StACK HHtSSUHF.  s
   CU"0. rtAlfcH  =

 11.31 HlSULTS
        3IF  K/J?9/7h I f.<. MkS  IMPACTUP  lilt Jl f PI Alt  102  3UBE3 1 HOLFM  b


                                                   IMP AC I |J  a
                        .1.1)  M1MJTI3
                        70.  OF 08.  >
                        .00  IN.
                      29.29  INCH HU
                      ,|2SO  1NCHLS
                        ,,B  cuuic  M.M
                      29.30  INI II HG
                         ,'f  CC
                                                   VF.LUCtrY  a
                                                SAMPI.L PAft  =
                                        IU1AL VOL UN(STACK)  s
                                           PAKIHLE DFM3MY  =
                                              SIAf.K SIICT ION  =
                                                  VJtiU.OltV  =
        HAS SID.
  PKHCtNl  ISIIKIMLTIC =
                         ,776t-n<>  CUBIC  Ml 1FH
                            9H.(lft
                                                                    DH;S. F
                                                                    UMiii. F
                                                     S3H.
                                                      no.
                                                               .IH  f.FOIAlK
                                                               .S  CF (S1AI.K (.UNO. )
                                                              ^.00  (iHAM/CC
                                                                                    MO I 5F.
SUL OlSIHlBUTIUN  HF.SULtS

              HOLf.
   I
   2
   3
   4
   b
   b
   7
CUM
COM
.01

ion
.10
        ,'t'i
 8.

20!
20.
                  6.
  HULL
OlAMtltH
.BhUI +00
.U76F. + 00
                .SOlt-01
                ,SIE-OI
                                         DSO
                                      (Mjr.PUhlR)
,206E(I?
.fll)HE + fl|
                                       VH
                                     CM/SU
MASS FHACt
  MfiMAMt;
  .HUSF. + 01
  .0501*00
  .20UF.401
  ,bB5F.01
   CUNC
MG/CUHIC M
  .I09F +OU
  .SHOt+02
                                                     CUM
                                                    MG/CIJB1C
                                                                                                 +041
                                                   .57
Mb/CUHR M
-99.0
46.0
112.
190.
'166.
. IOflK + OU
. I6U +0'l
.(fl/L + OU
.2171 +OU
.1 Wt +0(1
73.
3'IH.

-------
  MfLH INI.Hi
 II- .11 OAIA

 thSI iniNAUON
   MLILH ILMP.
    rtfclLH PHIS
    HAHU. PHfcS
   NUi/l.t D1A.
    VOL. MtllH
STACK PMfcSSURE
   CU'JU. MAtEH
       32?
                            \t!>t HMS
                                               lOB  Jit  W.AII  103 3T4.3  7 WHJ 3   *>
                        3.0
                        M).
                        .01
                        .28
                     i?9.30
                         ,<
                             IN.
                             INCH MI;
                             INCHIS
                             CUMIC l-H-t
                             INCH MO
                             II
           MU181UHE  =        3.22
VOLUME GAS SID. DHY  =    .776I.-02
         ISUKINMIC  =       94.06
                                                ltM|>  AIMOS.  =
                                                   VLLUCITY  =
                                                SAMMLt  KATE  =
                                       I (HAL VULUMt (3IACK)  =
                                          PARTICLE DENSI1Y  =
                                             STAC SUC(I ON  e
                                                  VISCOSITY  =
                                   CUBIC
SSH.
no.
36.09
.IH
.so
i>.00
Uh -Ot>
Hf -03
Ob OS. 1
DIGS, f
FT/StC
LH STACK
CFISIACK
GMAM/CC
INCH MR
PUISI



CUNO.I
C(INI).)



SUL UISIHIBUTION KI.3ULIS
 MLAIL
   I

   3
   03ttOO

.HH9L-OI

.b'Ut-01
                               usn
                            (MICRONS)
                                     .HOOt+OI
                                     ,<40<>t + 00
                              VI1L
                            CM/SLC
           MASS FRACT
             MUKAMS
.UOM03
.*92I 03
,S7St03
.ISSk OU
.6211tOO
                                           F ILUR  hf IGHT
                                           TOTAL nil (ill I
                                                                 , 7051tOl
                                                                .68(>KtOI
                                                                .IHIEtOl
                                                                .1
            .600
            ./SO
            1.00

            2!oO
            'I.DO
            h.OU
            9.00

            IH!"|
                       CUM CONC
                      MU/CUBIC M
                        -9V. (10

                         7b.O
                         H07.9
                         86U.9
                         979.0
                         HbO.
                         3131.
                          I 'I 3 .

                         boos!
                            DM/DLOGD
                           Mtt/CHBlC M
                             -99. o

                              29l!
                              399.
                              SOS.
                              608.
                              .ISOEtOO
                              .'jlhLtOO
                              .SHHttOO
                              .SlOttOO
                              ,3b'itO)0

-------
 TlfUtt 1NLMI
     DATA
                 3JF  rt/29// 1BJ7 MRS 1HPAC10H  117  Jl I  MLAll
                                                                          MiiLF.3   b
 fist UIIHAtlON B         3.0
   MLHR ItMP. =         70.
    Mtll.H W.S *         .01
    I1AKU. PHI.S x       29.29
   MU//Lt 01A. s
    VUL, ME I EH s
SUCK HHkSSUHL =
   CONU, rtAtl-H =

 IE3T HtSULTS
                        . to
                     M1NI.MIS
                     DLCS.  F
                     IN.
                     INCH MU
                     INCHt S
                     CUBIC  FF_
                     INCH H
                     CL
           MUISMJKE  =        3.22
VULUMt UA3 Sri). UKr  t    ,7/ht-02
         1SOK1NEIIC  =       9b.l"
                                                           IMPACTUP
                                                        II hP  AtMUS.
                                                           VtLtlCItV
                                                               U!fc
                                               lOIftl
                                   CUBIC
                                                            F.MHItY =
                                                     SlAth  HUC I ION =
                                                          VISCOSITY =
S22.
HO.
3h. If
. IM
.Sd
? , on
SHMf -0?
.Hh-0.i
Dtr.S. F
oi un . F
Ft/RIC
CF CitACK
CF (SUCK
KHAM/CC
INCH HG
fOISF



CONO.)
CONU.)



SUt D19IH1BUT10N
            mw^ 
             MOLE
            MU^Ufct
                fl,

         ou    2HnFo3
                             .2221*01      .S6AI*03
                             .9700      .IS3FtO'l
                             .411E+00      .611(40'!
                                   FiLlfcR  *t II;MT
                                   TUIAL NEIRHI
                            .1 J6F402
                            .1IUE402
                            .570E40I
                                                                               !7bL00
                                         ,(I7HF()0
                                         ,50Ut404
                                         .IS6E40Q
                                           .I90t*05
                                           .I7R(4QU
                                           .U2/E40U
                                                                              .228t+lH
                                                                .S70F401
                                                                .BS7E402
                                                                    .209t<
                                                                     O . t L. '
                                                                    .2931 403
                                                                                            735t*OJ
sum
MSI'jO

  !5B
  .J8
                                                                  .38
                                                                  .3B
INUKPUtartD SUK OlSTHlBUrtllN RESULTS
PUlNt

1
f.
3
')
>
b
;
H
9
to
It
12
PlAMf.TER
IMICHONS)
.300
.120
.60 1)
.750
1.00
1.50
2. no
a. oo
(..(10
9.00
I2.li
IH.fl
CUM CONC
MU/CUB1C M
-99.00
736.2
767.0
?9/.7
Q
-------
        INI.EI3 3F H/29/76 IflflJ DOS  IMPACIUK  109  JM  PLAH  |01 StAGt-S / HOLES  6
rist
 TEST DURA I ION 
   MttEH IEMP. s
    MEIfcH I'RtS c
    IIAHU. PHI.S =      i
   NOmt DIA. *
    VOL. METLH =
SUCK PKES3UHE s      i
   CONO. AIEH =

 fEST HLSULIS

    PERCENT MOISTUHE =
 VULUML WAS SID. OHY =
  PLKCENI ISOKtNEIlC &
J.o
70.
.01
.29
250
.211
.30
.2
M 1 Nil 11 a
UEUS. \
IN.
IHCH HG
INCHES
CUBIC KET
INCH Hn
cc
                        .776L-02
                           93.o;
                                                          IMPACTOH s
                                                       TEMP AtMus. =
                                                          VELOCIlr e
                                                       SAMPLF HfllE =
                                               10IAL VULIINt (STACK) =
                                                  PARTICLE DENSltY =
                                                     STACK SUC(IUN s
                                                         VISCUS1TV =
CUBIC M|. tt
                                          no.
                                        37.51
                                          .18
                                          .">
                                         2.00
                                     .5HOI-02
OK;S. \
DECS. K
FT/SEC
CF(STACK COND.)
CHSTACK COND.)
GRAM/CC
INCH HG
f>01SE
     UIStHIHUTIUN HESULI3

PLAtt
1
2
i

6
1
6
9
10
II
12
OUMUEH
(H1CWONS)
.300
.2U
.f>0
 rjo
1.00
1.50
2.U
1.00
6.00
9.110
12.0
!.
CUM fUNC
MG /CUB 1C M
-V9.UO
7 'IV. I
no/.u
650. i
915. >
I0i>9.
1110.
2IS3.
2Mi.
320S.
i7U.
3B2I.
DM/OLOC!)
MG/CUPIC M
-99.0
32H.
I9.
!<*.
6
-------
00
MlLkt 11UILI. 1 ISF 8/29/76 20W llM.S |MPAU(lR 116 Jh T P| ATI loS SIAljtS 7 HtlifS |2
T13I UAIA
Itsr DuxAlliiN  to. (i MINIMI r, II*P IM-ACTOH t i?i. DM;S. >>
MtttK M.WV. s 70. 01 bS. F It Ml' AIMUS. * 60. Of US. t
MtltH PUkS s ,20 IN. VELOCITY s f.n.ft H/StC
BAKU. MOO .lllt. + fl(? ,9>hf+0? .2901*02 .iOlb+Oi .6991*03
3 .04 24. .203E + 00 .U301+01 .2hi(n3 .IH^F+OI .|9Qt.t02 .3951+03
4 .09 24. .I2bt+00 ,202k401 .6971*03 . hidb + Ul .661E + OS .3f9t03
S .16 24. .8R9L-OI .IIBF. + OI .I37I04 .S22E + OI ,V43E02 .3I3M03
6 . *6 24. .S4|b-OI ,Sl7b00 .UOF + 04 .2051: + 01 .2I4E*02 .259K03
1 b6 12. .b4|E*OI .342b+00 .74lb+04 .I92F+OI .200C402 .237K+03
fILTIR bHGHT .209b02 .2l/t03 .217F.+03
TOIAl. WblGHT .OH5K + 02
HH.HPOLAIH) Hltf. UlSIHtlUlllUN PtbllLlS
POlNl DIAMEItH CUM CONC D/ULOGD
(M1CHONS) Mli/CUBIC M MG/CUHll M
1 ,SDO -99.00 -99.0
2 .420 22H.I 99. H
3 .600 239.4 61.3
4 . 7bO 243.9 b6.0
> 1.00 2S2.4 109.
6 l.S" 2HI.3 212.
/ 2.00 311.H r>34.
0 4.QU W.l 129.
9 6.00 3PS.9 tlH.l
10 9.00 394.1 172.
11 12.0 421.1 S0.
12 IU.O 5*'l.3 .Il6b04















UM/DIUGO 3UHT
MG/CUBIC M psibO
.7331*01 3ft
.999t*03 3H
.464F.*02 )A
.202t. + OS 5H
.233t+OJ 38
,S95E02 3H
.lilt +03 $8


















-------
  MTU: UlMH.t
 ir.si  DMA
                   B/J0/76  112H
 1E8I OHM ATI UN s
   Ml. TEH TEMP, i
    ML I EH PHIS s
    BAKU. PHkU s
   NUllLE 1)1 A. =
    VUL. MEltH =
STACK PHESSUHE =
   LONG. aAim =

 1ESI KESULTS
 10.0
  70.  DELS. F-
  .19  IN.
29.36  INCH Ht
       INCHES
                                  Mi;
                      32.3  1C
    PEKIENT MUlsrUHt s
 VOLUME tiAS Sfl). DRY t
  PtHCtHI I SUM ME TIC =
                            30. 10
   JET PLH  los
      Tt^P IMPACTUH f
        IEMP ATMUS. =
           vKOCirr =
        SAMPLE WAT1. =
tUIAL VOLUME(STACK) =
   I'ARTIl.LI  DF.USllr =
      9TACK SIICTIUN x
          VISC1IS1TY =
                                   CUIUC  MtTfH
                                                   / NIH.I s
 121.
  70.
                                                                                  DI.CS. F
Ih.Sh
.SO
5.36
2.00
.UO|R-Of>
.19E-03
t I/SFC
CP (STACK
CF (STACK
GHAM/CC
INCH Mb
po i si:

CONO.)
COND.)



3UE OISUtlHUIlON RtSULIS

PLAIE
1

i
4
5
6
7
CUN HOLE
CDK NUMHEH
.01 H.
.02 1?.
.05 20.
.10 24.
.16 20.
.11 20.
.bO (2.
MOLE
D1AMETEK
.HfidKtOO
,U7t>t 400
.203E00
. I2SL400
.HH9E-01
,51E-OI
tbO IE-01
                                        I)SO
                                     (MlCHONS)
                                VEl.
                              r.M/stc
              MASS FMACI
                MGHAMS
                                     .9931
                                                    1IHL403
                                                   .B03E403
                                      ,105E4n)
                                      .OS7I 400
                                      .300E4HO
                                            ULTER HEIGHT
                                            TOTAL "EICiHT
HttRPOLAttO Sift! DiaTHlHUUUN  HESULTS
POINT

1
2
3
0
5
b
7
a
9
10
11
12
01AMEUH
(MKHUN3)
.300
.020
.600
. 7bO
1.00
I.SD
2.00
0.00
6.00
9.00
12.0
IB.n
CUM CONC DM/
MK/tUHIC M fU/C
1S1.6 0
20S.7 2
232.9 I
201.6 7
2U6.H 6
261.9 1
27S.7 I
310.9 9
$2-3.2 1
33H.3 b
302. h U
309. b 3
                                      00?.


                                      70.0

                                      ID'S.

                                      90. t


                                      us!>
   C(INC
MG/CUIJIC
                                                                                    M
 CUM CONC
MG/CUHIC M
  .023E403
                                          .11U.401
                                          .260E401
                                          .350H401
                              .120E40?
                              .29IE402
                              .J9IE402
                              .233E402
                                          .277E401
                                          .579M01
                                          .135E402
                                          .379E402
                                                                             .607E+02
 DM/ULUGD
MG/CUHIC *
  .2001403
                .338E40J
                .309L403
                .270M03
                .207E403
                .216M03
                .I5IE403
                                                                                                       .70PE+02
                                                                                                       .990E402
                                                                                                       .8S3E402
                                                                                                       .353E40J
SOW I
PS I SO
  .36
                            .38

                            . *6

-------
 tint i utnur
H.SI DATA
                in e/30/76  1231 HWS  IMPACIUW  120  JET  PLATE  io<<  SIAOES  i  HUUS 12
 US I DURATION t       10.0
   MtTLN TLMP. t        70.
    MtlEH PHS s        .17
    HAHO, PHIS       ?9.36
   NU/ZLE U1A. :      .2500
    VOL. Ml I EH =       3.Ob
STAC* PHtSSUKl       ?9.3b
   CUNI). MA I EH =       30.7

 ttST RESULTS
                            OIKS. I
                            IN.
                            INCH UK
                            1NCHIS
                            CIMI1C \l
                            INCH HG
                            CC
   PEKCtNt M013IURI  s      34.13
VULUME GAS STD. l)HY s   .BSOE-01
 PEHCLNI I3UK1NETIC =     1'jO.UI
           1MPACTON
        n MH ATMIJS.
           VfLOCI TV
        SAMPLE MATE
IIMAL  VI.il.UHt (STACK)
   PAH1ICLE DENSITY
      STACK SUCtION
          VISCOSITY s
                                   CUH 1C
:
s
s
s
s
9
s
s
l?l.
75.
lf<,5(<
.51
5.09
2.00
.4411 -02
.|9*/-03
DET.S. 1
DKJS. ^
M/SEC
CMSTACK
a CS1ACK
CWM/CC
INCH HG
POISE



CUNU.)
CdND.)



 31Zt DISIH1BUTION KESUL1S

PLATE
1
2
3
4
S
b
7
CUN
CUR
.01
.02
.OS
.10
.17
.40
. d2
HOLE
NUMHLH
B.
12*
?.n.
24.
24.
24.
12.

01
.
 *
.2
* 1
.n
.b
.b
                          HULI
                          AMEIKH
                        .HbUtUI)
                                                                ,150L*UI
                                                                                           396Ltfl3
                                      050            VH.      MASS  ^BACT       CUNC       CIJM CONC
                                   (MItMUNS)      CM/SEC       HGHAM3      MG/CUB1C M   MG/CUIHC M
                                    .204E*Q2      .S13K*Q2      .67^6*01
                                    .102M02      .I12M03
                                    ,39hE*OI      .309MOJ
                                    .|Hhfni      .a20E03      .20*iK*01      .242E*0?     .362E*03
                       .na9t-OI     .I06E*01      ,IMt*0      . 1^6t*OI      .23IL02     .SiHt03
                       .b4IE-01     .4/|E*00      .4361*04      ,2bSE*01      .3I2E*02     .3lbE03
                       .b4U.-01     .3()9FtQO      .B71MOa      .5311*01      .62SE402     .2Q4E03
                                          ULTfR  hUGHI        .|HHff02      .22IE+03     .221Et03
                                          TUTAL WEIGHT         ,404k*02
                                                      OM/DLOGD
                                                     MG/LUH1C M
                                                       .263E*03
                                                                                                       .430E*02
                                                                                                       .7356*02
                                                                                                       .9H5E+02
                                                                                                       .H6|E*02
                                                                                                       .34 03
SOH1
PS1SO
  .36
  .36
  .36
  .58
  .30
  .38
  .18
 INTERI'HLAIH> 3I/E UlSIRIDUl ION kt.SULIS
PU1NI

|
2
3
(I
j
b
7
a
t
10
1 1
12
It t AUI t t U
I/ 1 A~i 1 t. Ff
(hICHUNS)
.300
.420
.600
.7SO
1.00
l.bO
2.00
4.00
6.DO
9.00
12.0
16. ')
CUM CUNC
MUmiUlL M
-99.011
269. 7
29fl,8
300.3
314.4
32H.9
340.6
3b2.2
370.3
377. b
363.3
392.9
DM/OLOCD
MG/CUIHC I
-99.0
2H<>,
1 iS.
76.5
66.6
93.6
6h.b
bS.7
It. 6
4 l.H
49.4
S/.b

-------
TIILE1 OUTLET
    DA I A
                        3Bf  a/30/7b 1439 HRS IMpACUlft l?0 JIT PLATt  )Qtt  STAGES 7 HOLES 12
        TL3I OUR A HUN
           MEILH PHIS
           HHU PRE.S
          NOi/Lt [)1A.
           VOL. XbTtH
       STACK PHESSUWL  =
          CONl).
1E9I RtSULlS
   PERCLNT. MOISTURE
VOLUME GAS SID, DRY
 PERCENT 1SUK1NET1C
10.0
70.
.16
29.30
.2SOO
3.15
29.30
31.4
MINUHS
DEC3. F
IN.
INCH HK
INCHES
CIIHIC fl
INCH Ht;
cc





Ft


                                 .Bb8E-OI
                                   1^3.V5
                                                    TKM|>
                                                      ItMP A1MUS. 
                                                         VILOCIIY s
                                                      SAHHLL RATt =
                                              IllTAL VOLUME (STACK) s
                                                 MAHIICtE DENSITY =
                                                    STACK SUCTION s
                                                        VISCOSITY =
                                 CUBIC  MtlER
                                                                            no.
                                                                          16.Sh
                                                                           2.00
       DECS. F
       DECS, f
       FT/SEC
       CKSTACK
       CF(STACK
       GRAM/CC
       INCH MG
       POISE
                                                                                           COND.)
                                                                                           COND.)
         SIZE  OISIHIBIHION HESULIS
Oi

PLAIl
I
I
3
(1
5
b
1
CLIN MOLL
COR NUMBER
.01 B.
.02 12.
.OS 24.
.10 24.
.17 24.
.uu ?a.
.hi 12.
HOLE
UlAMtTtR
.HbdhtOO
.Uldb*00
.2031*00
,l5l*no
.B69E-OI
.SU1E01
.SUlfc-01
                                               USD
                                            (MICRONS)
                                             . Hill- (Or5
                                             .1U7L40I
                                                    VK
                                                  CM/SEC
                                                             MASS FRACT
                                                               MRKAMS
   CONC
MG/CUHIC M
 CUM CONC
MG/CUHIC M
  .3I7E*03
 UM/OLOGD
MG/CUHIC M
                                                 ,1I5E03
                                                      03
                                                               ,470E*00
                                                               .111E*01
                                                                                                               .I60M02
                                                 .'J"bE04
                                    .30bE<'0
                                          f IL1EK
                                          TOTAL  WLItHT
                                                               ,|47E*OI
                                                               .17bE*OI
                                                               .b47E*01
                                                               .111M02
                             .98SE+02
                             .7231*02
                             .5bOE*02
                             .4Q7E 0i
3URT
PS ISO
  .38
  .38
  .8
  .38
  .38
  .1H
  .38
                                                                                                  .12flEOJ
         iNltRfOLATtl) SUt  01STRIBUUON WI8ULTS
POINT

J
i
3
4
S
ft
7
B
t
in
II
l/>
OlAMETEM
(MICRONS)
.300
.(120
.000
.750
1. 00
I.S
2.00
4.00
fc.OO
9.00
12.0
1H.O
CUM LONC
Mli/CUBIC M
-99.00
IBH.9
209.0
2H.4
221. U
23J.2
203.9
2^2.9
2HO.U
?flO.
-------
Ui
t\)
tltlbt INLI \f OF
H.T DATA
ILST DllRAllON s
MEItH IL-MH, s
ME ILK I'HtS B
I1AHII. PHES B
UUmi 01 A, =
VUL. MEILR B
STACK PHtSSUKt s
CUND. HAIER s
ItSt Ht. SULtS
/3/7h ibi^ MRS IMPACUIM
1.0 Ml Mill IS
70. I) tGH. \
.OH IN.
?9. 3S INLH MG
.Irfso INCHIS
.61 CUBIC FELT
29, 3b INCH HU
.H Ct
|0<> JkT I'lAll |0| STAKES 7 HULLS t
TIMP IMP AC HIR = blO. l)Ki;3. \
IIMP A1MUS. s HO. (HNS. >
VI.LOCUv = a^.10 F r/SF.C
.'SAMPLE RAU = .30 CF (SIACK CONO.)
IOTAL VOLUME (SIACK) = I. 21 CI(SILK LUND.)
PAHIICLI UFNSIIY s t.00 GRAM/CC
SIACK SUCTION = .367k-0e INCH Ht;
V1SCOS1IY = .2HI--03 PU1SE

PERCENT MOISTURE a (,.12
VOLUME BAS STD. DRY a .I6QE-01 I.UHIC MEIER
PtHlENI ISUKlNtllC = IUI.O"
SIZE DISTRIBUTION RESULTS
CUM MULE HOLE 050 VEL MASS FRAC1 CONC CUM CONC
PLAIE COR NUMIUR DIAMLII.R (MK.RONSJ CM/SEC MGRAMS MB/CUUIC M MG/CUIUC M
1 .01 B. .BML400 .3<>ll to? .306l.tOt? .POUE402 .(I75E40U ,906Eoa
03E400 .619k4(ll .IHUI0!l .237l:40i? . M(lEl i>4. .HMVt-OI .I67E401 .462E403 .'I96F.40I .^<)Ui:403 .I35L40U
6 ,bl 2b
-------
         IIILE:  iNLf
        Tt3t  DATA
4IF fl/JO/76 1544 HHS  1MPACTUK  |IH JLt  PLAIt  102 SlAGfS 7 HUUS  6
        Ttst  UUHATION 9        2.0  HINDUS
          MtltN TI.MP. 3        70.  l)tt,S. ^
           MUI.H PHIS =        .os  IN.
           tfAHU. PMtS e      29.J5  IMIH Hi;
          NUMLE 01A. s      .1250  IMCHtii
           VOL. MUER B        ,2B  CJH1C FEET
       SUCK  PHKSSIJHt =      29. }5  INCH HG
          CUNU. NAIt s         .U  CC

        Tt3!  RbSULIS

           PLRCENf MUISlURL a       6. Of,
        VOLUMt GS STO. I)HY s   ,7?7t-02  CUBIC  MtTF.M
         PtHCLNt ISOMNbrit =     l9.uo
                                      TEMP iMHALfOH s       5JO.
                                        It^l' AfMUS. =        BO.
                                           vttocn v =      of. 10
                                        SAHPLt HAft =        .rfH
                                IOIAL  VOI IIMMS1ACK) =        .56
                                   fAKUCU OE.N31IY =       i>.00
                                            SUCTION =   .3h7F.-02
                                          V1SCUSHY s    .2Ht-Oi
                                             ntr.s. F
                                             UM-S. F
                                             Fl/StC
                                             LF(STACK CUNO.)
                                             CRSTACK CONO.)
                                             GHAM/CC
                                             INCH HU
                                             POISt
Ul
U)
        Sl/b OlStHIPtltKIN HLSULfS

PLAlt
1
2
3
4
5
6
CUN
CUR
.01
.02
.06
.12
.20
.49
"ULE
NUMBED
a.
12.
'O.
24.
i>4.
24.

01
,(
.1
.2
 1
.fl
.5
 6.
                                 HUU
                               OlAMtfKH
                               .2031400
                               .H89E-Ot
                               .54IL-01
                       D50
                     (MICRONS)
                      ,|67t40?
                      .6481401
                      .3021401
.3011.400
                VH.
              CM/SIC
             .?P|tMl?
MASS FNACT
  MGHAMS
             . J69E403
                  M>3
                  M)3
   , 34SK40I
   ,75E40I
                                                .410E*01
                                                .I)2t401
                                                    ILUN  wtlGHT
                                                   IUIAL hblGHT
                                                .I66E401
                                                .7B7M02
MG/tUblC M
  .649E404
  .975E403
  .II5E404
               .I70E403
               .I57E403
 CUM
MU/CUHIC M
  . IOU 405
  .363K404
  .3I9K404
  .2211400
  .107E404
  ,540t403
  .371E403
  .2I4M03
                           OM/DLOGO
                          MG/CU8IC M
.237(404
    : 404
                                                                  .460E403
                                                                  .396E403
SlvRf
PS150
  .38
  .38
  . J8
  .38

  ^38
  .38
        INIEHPOLAfLO SUE OlSfHIBUllUN RE.SULIS
PtfINt

1
2
J
f>0
.750
1 .00
1.50
2.00
4.00
6.00
9.110
12.0
1  . 0
CUM CONC
MU/CUD1C M
-99.00
26f ,9
329. B
370.6
42H. 1
50V. 1
641.2
1460.
2096.
2606.
2902.
3249.
DM/DLUliO
MU/CUIIIL M
-9V. 0
387.
mr.
4 in.
57.
P33.
. 1631 404
.33flt 404
.3231404
.256LMJ4
.2?0f 404
. 1 /6l 404

-------
         TllLti  INLEII t2f e/3o/?6  ih3!>  MRS  IMPACIHR  UIH  JH  I'IAIE  lot :;i4i,is ;  HOLIS  b
                                                             1(Mp  |MPAC TDK
                                                               I IMP  AfMUS.
                                                                  VELUC1IV
                                                               SAMPLf  RAM.
                                                       I01AL  VOLOMf(3TACK)
                                                          PAH1KLI  DENSIIY
                                                             STACK SUCTION
                                                                 VI.SHIS Mr
TEST DURATION
MEItH IEMP.
MtTER PRE3
BAHU. PHES
MO/JLE UIA.
VOL. MEIER
SUCK PHhSSUHE
CONO. flAIEH
s
s
s
s
3
=
:
s
3.0
'0.
,0b
29,32
. I2S
.44
29.31
.<3
MINUIIS
UlliS. f
I'M.
INCH HI;
INCHES
CUBIC mT
INCH Mr;
LC
        TL3I RESULTS

           PERCENI MUISIURE =
        VOLUME UAS SID. ORt :
         PERCENT ISOKIMtflC =
         .I22E-01
           134./3
                                  CUBIC MKIKR
5?u.
HO.
fj J If)
jo
!/
2.00
.73Sk-02
.2Kt-03
DIUS. F
Otf.S. F
M/StC
CF (STACK
CKSTACK
UHAM/CC
INCH HO
POISE



CONO.)
CUNO.)



Ul
        3Ut OlSIHlBUTiUN RESULTS
PLAIE
  1

  3
  4

  fa
  ?
                COH  HOLE
                COR NUMBER
          HOLE
        DIAMETER
 .01
 .02
 .(Id
 .12

 |49
2. 14
 0.
12.
24.
24.
 6.
                               ,4/b.00
        .12bEUO
        .HH9E-OI
        .S4lt-i)l
        .b41E-OI
                               DSO
                             (MICRONS)
                      IMHO?
                                     VI L
                                   CM/SEC
                        MASS FRACT
                          MGRAMS
                                                           1761 U3
,7311400
     400      .992E04
      Ml IER  UGHT
      IUTAL wiIUHT
        INTEHPULATED SUE DISTNIHUTION MISHITS
POINT

1
2
3
a
b
6
f

9
10
11
12
U1AM( TEN
(MICRONS)
.300
.420
.600
./50
1.00
1.50
2.00
4.00
6.00
9.00
12. 0
18.1
CUM CONC
MG/CUUIC M
50.'l
52M.7
601.3
63H.S
bb4.6
72b. 1
79b.S
1310.
1023.
23/3.
2732.
317H.
OM/OLflC-r,
M5/CUIUC M
569.
SDJ.
3H9.
313.
2/9.
DBS.
B25.
.2S9Lfl'J
.3051 *ii4
.29Ht *04
.27b 04
.2I1K404
              CONC
           MG/CUUIC
            COM
           Mu/cunic M
.IMEf02
.292EOI
.I4IE+01
.23bEOI
.1B6E403

.906E+03

.M6Et03

!4
-------
         INLETS 911-  R/iQ/Jb  16 ATMII!!. r
.0? IN. VtLOCIft =
2V. 3^ INCH IK; SAMPLE HAU =
.1250 INCHES IMTAL VflLUMf. (STACK) s
.36 CUHIC FFfT PARTir.lt DHN.'UTY s
?V.33 INCH MR STACK SUCTION = .'
.IT -02 INCH MO
2HF.-(H POISF




SIZt DISTRIBUTION RESULTS
CUM HULL
PLATE COM NUMBER
1 .01 .
i .0? 12.
3 .OS 24.
4 .11 24.
5 . \t in.
h .4/1 24.
G, / 2.14 6.


MOLK DSO vei MASS FPACT
DlAMtftR (MJLWIirgS) fM/SK MliRAMS
.H/>Ut*00 . 16?MHr> .r>fVMO^ .dS3l-t02
,6t40a . 17HF.40a .50
.1h9E403 .H05M03 .0
3 .600
 ./SO
S 1.00
6 1 .SO
1 2.00
H a. 00
9 6.00
10 9.00
II 12. 0
\f. 1 9.0
CUM tuNc DM/Dinr.n
MG/CUHIC M MK/ciiHic w
-99.00 -99.0

-------
           tlTUf  OIIILf.l
          TtSl DATA
                     H/H/76  MO? HHS IMPACIIW I 16 Jf.T Pl.ATt  105  STAGES 1 HULE3 12
 TE3T DURATION
   METIM  IMP.
    *ETER PRES
    BArtU. PRE3
   NO**Lt UIA.
    VOL. MfcHH
STACK PHLSSUHE
   COHI). wAIER

 TEST HESULI3
10.0
/o.
.16
29.2"
.2500
2.94
29.25
19, 1
MINllltH
UM;S. i-
IN.
INCH HG
INCHES
CUHIC IEET
INCH Mi;
tc
                                                         IUIAL
UMP IMPACTOR
IEMM ATMUS.
VILOCltY
SAMPLE HATF
VOLUMt (STACK)
ItfU DENSITY
STACK SUCTION
VISCOSITY
*
s
2
t
*
s
s
2
no.
HO.
17.44
.42
a.23
2.00
.5MF-02
.19E-03
DIRS, f
ntr.s. i-
r- 1 /st c
CMSTACK
CFIflTACK
C.BAM/CC
INCH HG
POISt



COND.)
COND.)



    PENCE NT MiHSTIjHt         25.16
 VOLUME GAS SIU. DHV  c    .BI3E-OI
  PEMCLN1 TSUKIxJEIlC  =      118.52
                                            CUBIC Mf. UH
         SUE. PISTHIHUTION RESULTS
Ul
                  CUN   HULt
         PLAIE    CllK  NUMtlEI-
            I      .Ul      H.
   3
   a
   5
   b
   7
                           HUl.t
                         JIAMLfEH
                          HdUtMlO
                               050
                            (MICHI.1NS)
                vr.u
              CH/SK
           MASS (-HAC1
             MOHAMS
              CUNC
           MO/CUHIC M
             .241E403
.no    2a.
.09    i-fl.
.15    ?4.
,35    ?..
.54    I?.
                                                    40>>
                                 .BH9E-OI
                                 .5'IU-OI
.204t 401
. I I 9 4 (I I
     400
                                                    HLUR
.6POI.403
. 1 33!
M IGHT
.690FIOO

,U37E*0|
.2396*01
                           .I95E401
                           .I4UE402
.S37E402
,?9gt402
.204K402
.240E402
.inE401
 CUM CONC
MG/CUB1C M
  ,S7bE403
  .335E403
  .326E403
  .305E403
  .25lf03
  .222E403
  .20IE403
  .1771403
                         UM/DLUGU
                        MG/CUHIC M
                                                     TOTAL  WE1KH1
         iNTLRPULATtO  SUt  DI9TR1HUT ION KESULTS
POINT

1
2
3
u
>
b
7
A
9
I')
II
12
DIAMHIH
(MJCHONS)
.300
.a?o
,f>00
,7iO
1.00
1.50
2.00
a. 00
b.OO
9.00
12.0
IB.O
CUM CONC
MG/CUHIC M
-99.00
1UV.9
205. 1
210.6
21 f 8
233.2
?50.l
29V. 7
SIS.H
324.2
327.'*
332.7
UM/OLOtU)
MR /CUHIC M
-99.0
I2B.
11. S
5Kb
fi9. t
117.
IS2.
I<*H.
65. 1
36. 3
29.2
?.!?
                                                                                                                 .281E402
                                                                                                                 5I9E402
                                                                                                                 . I64E40i
                                                                                                                  I34L403
sum
PS ISO

  !lfl
  .38
  .SB
  .SB
  .58
  .}

-------
 11 ILL I INLI \f l^a^
Tk3t DATA
                                  HfS 1MPACIUR  109 Jf T  MlATt  10|  STAKf.'S 7 HUUS   6
 TESI DURATION s
   MET EH i IMP. 
    MEItH PRtS =
    HARM. PRIS =      t
   NUZ/lt 01A. s
    VOL. ME I EH s
STACK PHtSSURt =      t
   CONO. MAttR =

 list RESULTS

    PERCENT MOISTURE  s
 VOLUME GAS Sib. DRY  s
  PtHCEMT ISUK1NETIC  =
                        2.0
                        70.
                        .01
MINUTES
UEIiS. 
IN.
INCH iu;
iwr.Hf s
cuuic MET
INCH HG
cc
                             .>?
      IfMP IMP AC I OR  s
        1I>P flTMUS.  =
           VFLOCITY  =
        SAMPLE HATE  =
IOTAI  VUI. UMf. (STACK)  s
   PAH11CI.F. OFNS1TY  =
      STACK SUCTION  s

          VISCOSITY  =
                                   CUBIC MflFR
S45.
no.
on. HI
.20
.40
?.oo
4F-02
JF-OI
DECS. F
DHJS. f
F1/SEC
CF (STACK
U (STACK
GRAM/CC
INCH HI,
POISE



CONU. )
CUND. )



SUE DISTRIBUTION  RtSULtS

PLAIt
1
i
3
n
<3
6
7


CUN HOLE
COR NU^HER
.01 II.
.02 12.
.05 24.
.10 34.
.17 24.
.40 24.
2.0) 6.


iNTtRPULMEt) Sl/E
POINT

1
2
3
4
S
6
;
a
9
10
Ii
I
\z
DIAMEIEH
(MICRONS)
.300
.'J2U
.600
 7'JO
1.00
l.bO
2.00
4.00
b.OO
9.00
I j n
1 c  "
1B.O
HOLE
01 AMK fEH
.H64LfOO
.476EtOO
.?01ttOO
. !2SEno
.OB9t >OI
.54IE-01
.b41t-OI


D1STRIUIMION
CUM CONC
wu/cunic M
-99.00
210.2
271.6
319. t
371.1
460.2
b9P.3
1471.
2123.
2bH/.
0 I U ll
C f "" 
2992.
1)50 VEL MASS KHACT
(MICRONS) CM/StC MGRAM3
,39flEn? ,2nit*02 .3fl4FU2
,|99F02 .UUOM02 ,3hbE*OI
.773E40J .)?IM03 .296FtOI
.3^?MOI .12IE + 03 .66IE401
.211E40I .632(03 .37(lFt01
.91 moo .171M04 .I46K401
.361tno .68?E04 ,9SOttOO
F ILtl R lv 1 IUHT .109Ff01
10TAL hi JGMT .SflHE+02
RESULTS
DM/OLOKI)
MG/CUBIC M
-99.0
119.
454.
4h.
44?.
S7.
.!7Uf 04
. 45SI 04
. 33IH 04
.202f i04
ttiL  f. /i
> J r t II U
. 1'ior. in/I
CdNC CUM CONL OM/DLOtiO SORT
MC/CUHIC M Mc/ciinic M MG/CUHIC M PSISO
.69^E+04 ,IOftE+05 .?30EOS 
-------
         mut
        TEST DATA
               4SF H/JI/76  1|*9 MRS  IMPAUKiR  I1H JET PLATE 102 STAGES 7 HOI I 3  6
        TEST DURATION s        2.0  MINUTES
          MUtR TEMP, s        70.  OMJ8.  t-
           METI.R PHIS a        .Oi"  IN.
           HAND, CHLS       ?9.30  INCH Mb
          NOZ/LE 1)1 A. B      . I2SO  INC HIS
           VOL. MtTIR =        .21  CUBIC  HI T
       StACK PMtSStlRt =      29.51  INCH Hi;
          CUMI). NAUR =         .2  CL

        TtST RESULTS

           PERCENT M01S1URE *       0.92
        VOLUME GAS SIM. DRY s   .5B2K-02   CUHTC
         PtHCLNI ISUKlNbltC s     100.1-)
                                                       UP 1MPACTOR s
                                                       TEMP ATMOS. a
                                                       SAMf-Lh HA 1 1 3
                                               TOTAL VULUMt (STACK) =
                                                  PAHt ICLI  DtNSIlY s
                                                     STACK RUCTION s
                                                         VISCOSITY =
545.
HO.
40. Bl
.21
.4?
?.oo
41. -02
9E-03
urns. *
tnt.3. f
( r/:t c
CF(STACK
CMSTACK
GRAM/CC
INCH HG
PUISf.



COND.)
IOND.1



00
SUE
                          RESULTS

PLATE
1
2
3
4
5
b
/ (

tUN
COR
.01
.Or*
.05
.10
.16
.41
,07

HOLE
NUMtfbR
H.
12.
2'l.
^ (1
^ (J
24.
6.

HOLE
DIAMtTIR
.H64E*00
.476E400
.203E400
,12'jE + OO
,en9E-oi
,b!E-Ol
.541E-OI

DSO
(MICRONS)
.3HHE402
. I94E 10?
.753E+OI
,3'i3E40)
.?06l01
,8B.
1901.
2S1 .
3021.
ihflO.
DM/DLOGD
KU/CIIH1C M
-99.0
212.
303.
3H|.
466.
55H.
. 12^E40a
.32Ht40U
.376E404
. 166) 40(1
.3U2t404
. M)7t40U

-------
  tITLEt iNLt IV
 rtsr UAIA

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-------
 tlTLI.i INIMJ 47F H/31/76  120ft  MWS
H3I DAIA
                                         . I()H H7 JEI PLAfE 10 STAGES  7  IUILKS   t
 IE31 DURATION
   MEIER TE^P.
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  1
  2
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  7
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 OM/DLURU
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-------
 TITLE!  OUTLET  OAA  H/31/76  lb.17  MkS
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-------
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POINT

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
B
9
to
It
12
01 AMI TER
(MICRONS)
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."20
,t>nu
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-------
                                TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                          (Please read Jiiuntciions on the reverse before completing)
1. REPORT NO.
EPA-600/7-77-116
                           2.
                                                       3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSION NO.
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
Century Industrial Products FRP-100 Wet Scrubber
   Evaluation
            5. REPORT DATE
             October 1977  
            6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
7. AUTHOR(S)
D.S.  Ensor and R.G. Hooper
            8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT N(

              MRI 76-FR-1468
9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
Meteorology Research,  Inc.
Box 637
Altadena, California 91001
                                                       10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
            EHE624
            11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.

            68-02-2125
12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
 EPA, Office of Research and Development
 Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory
 Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
            13. TYPE OF REPORT
            Task Final; 8
C AND PERIOD COVEREl
/76-8/77
            14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE
              EPA/600/13
15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES jRL-RTP project officer for this report is Dale L. Harmon,
Man Drop 61, 919/541-2925.
16. ABSTRACT
          The report gives results of a field test evaluation of the performance of
the Century Industrial Products FRP-100 wet scrubber installed on a lightweight
aggregate kiln.  Inlet/outlet tests for particle size distribution with cascade impactors
and extractive sampling with an electrical aerosol size analyzer, and plume opacity
with a plant process visiometer were conducted. The scrubber, operating at 80%
rated capacity,  had an aerodynamic cut diameter (50% collection efficiency) of 0.8
microns at a theoretical hydraulic power of 15.8 watts/a cu m/min (0.6 hp/1000 acfm]
The liquid-to-gas ratio was  about 2.16 1/cu  m (16 gal./lOOO acf). The formation of
submicron aerosol from the evaporation in the gas  cooling section of water containing
dissolved solids was observed during all tests. Also,  the carryover of spray from
the scrubber (there was no mist eliminator) was observed at flow rates greater than
23.7 cu m/sec (50,000 acfm).
17.
                             KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                DESCRIPTORS
                                           b.lDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS  C. COSATI I'lCld/GfOUp
Air Pollution
Evaluation
Scrubbers
Kilns
Air Pollution Control
Stationary Sources
FRP-100 Scrubber
13B
14B
07A
18. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

 Unlimited
19. SECURITY CLASS (ThisReport)
Unclassified
                                                                    21. NO. OF PAGES
    67
20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)
Unclassified
                         22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)

-------