WHAT'S NEW





   IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT?
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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                       WHAT'S NEW

               IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT?
   This script for the 3?-minute} 16 mm motion picture
              written and produced for the
            Solid Waste Management Office by
                   STUART FINLEY, INC.
    under Contract No. CPE 69-111, is reproduced here
as an Office of Information open-file report (SW-32c.of)
          U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
              Solid Waste Management Office
                          1971

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                        WHAT'S NEW IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
                          57-Minute, 16-mrn Motion Picture
                        Sound, color.  Order No. M-2049-X.*


                     WHAT'S NEW IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT shows a variety
                     of new and improved solid waste management techniques,
                     featuring specially developed equipment, in actual
                     operation.  These projects are part of the demonstra-
                     tions and investigations conducted under provisions of
                     the Solid Waste Disposal Act.  The film is designed
                     for technical audiences and is particularly intended
                     to assist public works directors and elected officials
                     who must evaluate alternative systems and equipment,
                     including costs, capacities, and other data.
Truck drives up;
man throws out
tires and wood;
can of refuse is
removed; all is
thrown into the
trench incinerator
INTRODUCTION (Trench Incinerator)

Sometimes the Federal Government does the strangest

things!

Here the ingredients are a few old tires...

some fire wood...

and a can full of  refuse.

Now we're ready to create some intentional air pollu-
Technician sets
fire; men climb
ladder to platform   tion.  This field laboratory in Cincinnati is being
of trench incinera-
tor; closeup of
fire with black
smoke; stack with
black smoke
                     the technology of incineration.  The objective is to
operated by the Bureau of Solid Waste Management of the

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to study
                     discover how to incinerate solid wastes as completely

                     as possible, economically, and yet minimize air pollu-

                     tion...both particulate matter and gasses.
 *May  be  borrowed  from  the  National Medical  Audiovisual  Center  (Annex),
  Station K,  Atlanta, Georgia   30324

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Trench incinerator
burning with black
smoke; oxygen is
supplied and smoke
disappears; pan
to top of stack
to see black smoke
disappearing

Operation of the
trench incinerator
continues showing
men with walkie-
talkie communica-
tions, control
measurements in
adjacent building,
etc...culminating
in another example
of air injection
with smoke clear-
ing in stack
This experimental "trench incinerator" is designed to

regulate combustion rates and temperatures.  As the

air feed is adjusted, combustion is improved.
It works!  Or, to be more accurate, a novice might

think it's working by outward appearances.  But the

control of stack emissions is a tricky business.

Tomorrow's incinerators are going to need new and

improved technology if they are to conform to in-

creasingly strict air pollution standards.  But, what

about the Director of Public Works of a typical city

or county?  Should he wait until this research is com-

pleted before he builds needed new facilities?  Or

should he risk wasting huge sums of money constructing

facilities which might soon be obsolete?  This film

is intended for the Directors of Public Works of

America and the elected officials who depend on them

for technical guidance.  It illustrates some recent

developments and innovations.  This film and individual

demonstration project reports along with personal

consultation with your regional office of the Bureau

of Solid Waste Management can eliminate expensive

time-consuming travel to demonstration projects all

over the country, thus simplifying your evaluation of

alternative techniques available today.

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Burning dump
near Fresno
Truck moving
across landfill;
compactor and
trucks at landfill
Collection truck
downtown;
truck and crew
collecting wastes
at hospital
GENERAL PROBLEM (Fresno, California)

If consumers really consumed, this problem wouldn't

exist.  But mostly, consumers use and throw away.

Every day...ten pounds per person.  America discards a

million tons of residential, commercial, and industrial

solid waste a day.  Collection and disposal costs about

$4.5 billion a year.

At Fresno,  California, sanitary landfills are replacing

open burning dumps.  The Fresno Region includes the

central city and smaller nearby centers, all rapidly

urbanizing, and the surrounding central area of the

County, part of the San Joaquin Valley, devoted to

high-yield crops and livestock and poultry production.

The Region, like countless others, generates a combina-

tion of municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastes;

and followed, until recently, a variety of uncoordinated

and largely inadequate collection and disposal

practices.

Then, State and local agencies, aided by a Federal

demonstration grant, undertook a unique study of the

Region's solid waste problems and management needs.

Using computerized systems-analysis techniques, a

number of alternative integrated management systems

were developed, as well as ways to measure their

relative effectiveness in terms of a better

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Collection truck
(continued)
Street sign in
hardpan field;
man spades up
clod of earth
and breaks it
apart with his
hands
Suburban
collection
environment.  The completed study indicates that about

one-third of the total waste load expected by the year

2000 can be effectively managed by improving existing

methods but new techniques will be required to dispose

of the other two-thirds.  For example, it is proposed

that organic matter including sewage sludge, manures,

and agricultural and food processing wastes be composted,

thus making constructive use of a portion of the region's

solid wastes.  The local people call this unusable

saline land "hardpan."  By the year 2000, a million

tons of compost a year from the Fresno region can be

made available to reclaim its usefulness.

Meantime, conventional collection and disposal pro-

cedures must be improved to handle the one-third of

the total waste load that can be effectively managed

by existing methods.  Planned improvement include a

semi-automated collection system, closed transport,

and disposal in sanitary landfills, with only hospital

and other specialized wastes being incinerated.  This

proposed plan is tailored for the Fresno Region, but

the basic procedures can be applied by any community.

Literature is available on this and other general

systems analysis demonstration grant projects from the

Bureau of Solid Waste Management to guide local

officials undertaking comparable studies.

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                     COLLECTION - REFUSE SACKS (Barrington. R.I.)
Refuse collection
in Harrington with
metal cans
Collection truck
rounds corner
Refuse sack
collection;
transport to
landfill;
landfill
operation
Some solid waste innovations in the field of

collection.

The traditional metal garbage can is a part of the

fundamental collection problem, making the operation

costly, dirty, noisy, and hazardous.  Gathering loose

refuse or handling 55-gallon oil drums is even more

inefficient.  Any system that would improve working

conditions or streamline the collection process could

save money and improve service.

The stakes are high because most communities spend

more for collection than disposal...a national average

of $5.39 per person per year.

In Harrington, Rhode Island, a demonstration project

has evaluated large-size paper refuse sacks.  Each

householder received a lidded, stand-type holder, two

strong kraft paper bags a week, and a set of instruc-

tions.  Garbage, wrapped separately, and rubbish went

into the same bag together.  Odor and spilled refuse

problems were solved by instructions on bag closure

and a limited leash ordinance for dogs.  Town officials

and residents of Barrington are pleased with the new

bag system. Eighty-eight percent of the residents sur-

veyed indicated approval, commenting on reduced noise

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Refuse sack
collection
(continued)
Completed grassed
sanitary landfill
Container train
collection
and litter and neater container appearance.  Town

officials now have fewer service complaints and note

improved employee morale.  The bags cost about 9c each,

or 18c per household per week.  Town officials esti-

mate that the bag system cut the man-minute-per-ton

collection time in half.  The resultant savings offset

about two-thirds of the expense of the sacks.  The

total collection cost with the bag system for twice-a-

week collection (two bags a week per household) was

$18.38 per house per year.  A complete description of

paper refuse sack collection systems is shown in the

film In the Bag made by the National Refuse Sack

Council.

This is Harrington's first landfill...almost ready to

become a Little League ballfield.


COLLECTION - Container & Truck (Whichita Falls, Texas)

Another attempt to reduce collection costs and improve

service!  Wichita Falls, Texas, is demonstrating a

systems analysis study of the container train method

of collection.  Wheeled container trains collect

residential refuse....a technique which is most appro-

priate on relatively flat terrain and in low traffic

areas.  The container train system conserves expensive

packer truck time and functions well where a packer

truck can't go.

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Master truck
picks up
container

Man in cab with
data transmitter
Computer center
Master truck
completes pickup
Man at desk
studying printout
The load is weighed using a novel strain gauge as it

is transferred to the master truck.

The cab operator transmits weight data to a processing

center where it is fed

into a computer along with data on routes and equipment

and personnel usage.  The data is analyzed overnight,

providing information on operational patterns and

costs, allowing immediate response to changing opera-

tional needs and correlating the type and volume of

waste generation with land-use and population density.

This information will permit development of a complete

management model, simulating the container-train

collection and disposal system.

Planners can then rely on the model to project optimum

configuration and expansion of the system, including

selection of suitable additional landfill sites, as

population grows and land-use patterns change.  Thus,

computer technology can contribute significantly to

solid waste technology and sound management planning

for the future.

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Chilton County
rural crossroads
with container;
another container
with lady
depositing; several
containers in
Alexander at desk;
panton map
COLLECTION - RURAL CONTAINERS (Chilton County. Alabama)

We here in rural Alabama have quite a problem

collecting our solid waste.  The home are so widely

scattered that it creates quite a problem because we

can't .. it's not practical to have house-to-house

pickups.  So, we place these containers in strategic

places for these people, and people traveling the road

can place their waste in these containers.  These con-

tainers are mostly for housewives.  It works for us 24

hours a day.  We keep them there 7 days a week, and

they're there at all times.  People know they're there

at all times.  They're  2 o'clock in the morning, if

they have something they want to get rid of, they carry

it to the container.  Now, we're in a dry county.  How-

ever, we collect quite a few beer cans which would

otherwise go out on the side of the road, and spoil

the looks of the countryside, which they were doing

until we placed the containers there.

I'm Bob Alexander, County Engineer for Chilton County

at Clanton, Alabama.  We have a rural waste collection

in Chilton County that we believe is second to none.

We have containers scattered throughout the county for

the people to deposit their waste in, that we pick up

completely 3 times a week.  We have two routes in this

system  an upper route and a lower route.

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 Truck approaches      These  routes  cover  about  700  square miles  and  serve
 container,  empties
 it, and departs      26,000 people.   Of  these,  9,000  live  in municipalities

                      and  have  house-to-house collection.   The 17,000  rural

                      residents who are served  by  the  containers bring their

                      refuse an average of  1.6  miles to  a container.   The

                      90 containers have  replaced  all  of the small,  random,

                      rat-infested  dumps.   Now  all  of  them  have  been cleaned

                      up and the rats  have  been exterminated.  The container

                      collection system uses one truck and  employs one man.

                      Containers are emptied every  other day.  During  the

                      first  eighteen months of  operation, 25-hundred tons  of

                      refuse has been  collected from the rual containers at

                      a cost of $9.79  per ton including  operating costs and

                      equipment depreciation.   Other rural  counties  have

                      already adopted  this  system.  One nearby county

                      improved  the  container design by reducing  its  height

                      and  providing a  sure-close lid.  A report  on this

                      project provides cost data which have been developed

                      by the Project Director and  his  Engineering Consultant.

                      A descriptive film  illustrates this project.

Chilton County       The  county's new central  landfill serves  both  rural
landfill
                     residents  and the city collection systems.   It  has been

                     operated at $2.50 per  ton  including operational costs

                     and  equipment depreciation.

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Alexander at
his desk
Oxon Cove sanitary
landfill; wide pan
of earth covered
area
Rolling equipment
in working area
CU compactor
spreading and
compacting wastes
We believe that this collection system that we have is

one of the best things that ever happened to the county.

Prior to this collection system, we had garbage and

waste scattered throughout the county.  At this time,

we have one central landfill that we're bringing this

waste to...the people are just delighted.


DISPOSAL - LANDFILL TECHNIQUES (Kenilworth-Oxon Cove,
                                Washington, D. C.)

Now some ideas on solid waste disposal.

Today's most economically acceptable disposal method

is the sanitary landfill.  A film  Burn, Bury, or What?

describes the difficulties the District of Columbia has

had attempting to devise a workable solid waste system.

This is a new fill operated by the District of Columbia

on a site straddling the District-Prince George's

County, Maryland, line, on land owned by the National

Park Service.  The site was selected because of its

proximity to the city and the need for fill material

in preparation for park development.

The District's well-operated Oxon Cove Landfill was

made possible by experience gained in converting its

notorious Kenilworth Dump into a model sanitary land-

fill with the assistance of a demonstration grant from

the Bureau of Solid Waste Management.  The Kenilworth

site, also owned by the National Park Service, is now
10

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CU compactor
(continued)
CU earth being
pushed over waste;
equipment working
face and covering
being transformed into parkland, while Oxon Cove will

become a public golf course....both community assets.

The creation of new recreational facilities is desir-

able, but residents and landowners usually react with

strong disfavor to a proposal for a sanitary landfill

nearby.  Thus, directors of public works are often

inhibited in site selection and may face protracted

negotiations to resolve objections.

Good sanitary landfilling procedure continuously covers

the refuse with a layer of clean earth after consoli-

dating it in the smallest practical area and volume.

The working face is kept as narrow as possible to

minimize equipment, personnel, and cover required.  On

flat terrain, the face may be as high as 8 to 10 feet

on a three-to-one slope so the heavy compactors can

apply maximum pressure.  Almost any solid waste can be

disposed of in a sanitary landfill, and often unusable

land can be reclaimed.  An operating cost of three

dollars to three-fifty per ton is common in urban

areas but high volume operations or rural landfills

frequently cost less.  The Bureau's publication

Sanitary Landfill Guidelines contains useful informa-

tion for public works officials.
                                                                        11

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                      DISPOSAL - ROUGH TERRAIN  LANDFILLS  (Los  Angeles  County)

 Traffic Los  Angeles   Los  Angeles County,  California,  has  seven million
 freeway; landfill
 operation            residents and  generates three-quarters of a million

                      tons of  solid  wastes every month.   It also has

                      mountainous areas where deep  cuts,   canyons,  and

                      ravines  provide  large natural  sites  for  large capacity

                      refuse disposal  operations.  Working faces are often

                      quite steep, requiring adherence to  rigid safety con-

                      trols.   The Los  Angeles County Sanitation Districts

                      operate  the fills and charge a disposal  fee of only

                      $1.75 a  ton.   These  are some of  the  largest and  best

                      landfills in the world.   The County  is conducting  a

                      demonstration  project to  develop operating standards

                      for  both public  and  private fills.   A technical  film

                      has  been produced illustrating techniques.
                      DISPOSAL  -  STRIP  MINE  LANDFILLING  (Allegheny  County,
                                                         Maryland)
 Long pan of
 abandoned strip
 mine
This is rough terrain, too, but there's nothing

natural about an abandoned strip mine.  It's a man-

made scar on the landscape, offering a special

opportunity for rehabilitation through sanitary land-

filling.  To demonstrate the feasibility of such an

operation, the State of Maryland, Allegheny County,

and the Cities of Frostburg and Cumberland are partici-

pating in a federally-assisted demonstration project,
12

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Long pan
(continued)
CU landfill
operation;
wider shot
Gully landfill
project sign,
panning across
road to tree-
covered gully
Road at crest
of hill panning
to gully
providing centralized disposal for the solid wastes of

sixty thousand people at three abandoned mine sites.

The County operates the fills at a disposal cost of

slightly over a dollar-a-year per person served.

Municipalities have closed their dumps, and deliver

collections to the sites.  Strip mine landfilling is

practical and could provide disposal sites for urban

areas.  The refuse could be transported by truck,

railroad, or barge ... but the longer the haul, the

higher the cost.  However, the major problem is that

local folks often resist receiving someone else's

refuse.


DISPOSAL - GULLY LANDFILLING (Sarpy County, Nebraska)

In Sarpy County, Nebraska, a few miles outside Omaha,

another federally-assisted project has demonstrated the

value of sanitary landfilling to reclaim gullied farm

land made useless by years of unchecked erosion.

Standard landfill methods were used to dispose of

wastes from surrounding communities.  A gully like

this was cleared, an earthen dam constructed at its

mouth to establish a stable grade, and refuse deposited

behind the dam.
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Wide shot of
reclaimed tract
Refuse trucks
bring in wastes
Lake in foreground
of mountain of
trash
Here is the reclaimed tract.  Gully landfilling re-

quires a thorough engineering study to design the dam

and spillway and prevent drainage and erosion problems

and water pollution from leaching.  This project was

sponsored by Sarpy County and operated by the Sarpy

Soil and Water Conservation District.  Your local soil

and water conservation district can provide technical

assistance with similar projects.


DISPOSAL - ABOVE GRADE LANDFILL (Virginia Beach.
                                 Virginia)

Virginia Beach had no natural depressions suitable for

a landfill and thus accepted the suggestion of the

director of Virginia's solid waste agency to build an

experimental elevated landfill.  A total of up to 800

tons a day is being received including Norfolk's

wastes.  The deposit area was originally excavated to

a depth of four feet, somewhat above the water table,

to provide an initial supply of earth cover; and wells

have been sunk to monitor any effects on ground water.

Additional earth cover was excavated from a borrow pit

which is being left to fill with water, forming an

artificial lake.  Around the lake, the land-building

operation is forming a bowl.  It will eventually rise

to a height of about 70 feet above grade.
14

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Pan of bowl
Mount Trashmore
one year later
with height of
nearly 70 feet
Container of waste
being emptied into
mole hopper
Interior of mole
cab; man at con-
trols; exterior
of cab; pan down
to refuse
trenching and
compacting
This is the inner loop of the bowl.   Soon it will be a

ten-thousand seat amphitheater with  the lake as a back-

ground.  The other side of the hill will serve as a ramp

for soapbox derbies.  Nearby picnic  grounds, tennis

courts, and other recreational facilities will be built.

One year later....and Mount Trashmore (as they've

nicknamed it) is nearly seventy feet high, an unusual

attraction in this flat coastal region.

Today's wastes building tomorrow's recreation

facilities.  Virginia Beach's demonstration may serve

as the impetus for similar projects  elsewhere.


DISPOSAL - THE MOLE (King County, Washington)

At the fill site of the King County, Washington,

Department of Sanitary Operations, a hydraulic unloader

lifts a 42-cubic-yard container of refuse arriving

from a transfer station and empties  it into the hopper

of a prototype machine, constructed  with the assistance

of a Bureau of Solid Waste Management Demonstration

grant.

This unusual device is called "the mole" and it buries

refuse...processing up to 100 tons an hour.  It ex-

trudes a continuous bale of densely  compacted refuse.

Auxiliary equipment digs, backfills, and compacts the

trenches.  The concept is feasible and the technique
                                                                        15

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Interior of mole
(continued)
Shippensburg
incinerator,
exterior of
building as
truck backs into
unloading dock

Waste handling
inside building
Borough manager
Smith opening
combustion
chamber porthole
Flames through
porthole
may prove economically attractive where conventional

sanitary landfill methods cannot be employed.  The

film Waste Away, which is available from the Bureau,

shows operational details for the Seattle-King County

solid waste system.


DISPOSAL - INCINERATION (Shippensburg, Pennsylvania)

Even a small community may find incineration feasible

and economically attractive.  The Shippensburg

Pennsylvania Sanitary Authority is faced with disposing

of the solid wastes of only 12,500 people, but has no

suitable area available for a conventional sanitary

landfill.  With the assistance of a Federal demonstra-

tion grant, the Authority has built a pilot incinerator

with a uniquely designed rotary combusion chamber

which has the configuration of an inclined bowl.  It

consists of two units, each capable of handling

36 tons of combustible solid wastes every 24 hours.

The facility is designed to meet air pollution control

standards and eliminate environmental health hazards,

while achieving maximum incineration and reducing the

refuse to the smallest possible volume.
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Flames through
rotary grate
Flames within
drum; residue
dropping into
truck; truck
pulls away from
building
Stamford
incinerator being
charged; zoom
back to show
entire plant and
stack without
visible emission
The rotary combustion chamber, a stainless steel

perforated drum,

revolves in a steady stream of air, facilitating com-

bustion.
A well-designed incinerator, properly operated and

maintained, should be able to handle about eighty per-

cent of typical urban solid wastes.... reducing weight

by as much as seventy percent or more.  This project

has demonstrated that a small-community incinerator

can be economical and provide a high degree of com-

bustion, producing a residue with a very low

percentage of unburned material.


DISPOSAL - LARGE OBJECT INCINERATOR (Stamford,
                                     Connecticut)

Many communities which normally incinerate their

refuse have difficulty with bulky wastes such as

stumps and volatile material which would be dangerous

to handle in a conventional incinerator.  For this

reason, the City of Stamford, Connecticut, applied for

a demonstration grant to build this unique front-

charged incinerator equipped with an electrostatic

precipitator for air pollution control.  Stack emis-

sions are being analyzed under various operating
                                                                       17

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Stamford
incinerator
(continued)
Fire chamber
panning to
precipitator
and stack
Plant exterior,
truck approaches
Wastes on
conveyor
Masked man
climbs past mill
Man inspecting
hammers
conditions.  It is possible for even new incinerators

to be forced out of service because of nonconformance

to increasingly strict air pollution regulations.

However, the attractiveness of incineration lies in

its extensive volume reduction.  A properly designed

and operated incinerator can reduce refuse to less

than 10 percent of ics original volume.  The Bureau's

publication Incinerator Guidelines contains detailed

technical information.


DISPOSAL - MILL VOLUME REDUCTION (Madison, Wisconsin)

The City of Madison, Wisconsin, employs the landfill

disposal method but is using a hammermill to reduce

the volume of wastes before disposal.

The pilot plant ahs some deficiencies in design.  A

straight-line feed to the mill would eliminate pile-

ups experienced with this one;

and dust and noise controls would improve working con-

ditions; but the two mills tested are simply constructed,

easy to operate, and reliable.

Modifications have made hammers easier and quicker to

reach and change; and control problems, which initially

caused frequent stops due to overloading, have been

corrected.
18

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Man inspecting
large metal
reject
Mill being
stopped
Milled refuse
coining out
Milled refuse
being unloaded at
the fill site;
milled refuse
being leveled
Man walks across
uncovered fill,
stoops to inspect,
breaks a handfull
of refuse apart
The mill rejects resilient objects ballistically, but

may have trouble with fibrous materials such as rugs

or bundles of paper.

When a jam occurs, the mill can be stopped and opened

in four minutes or less, and there is very little

"down time."

This is the milled product....about 15 percent garbage

and with a moisture content varying between 30 and 50

percent.  Milling garbage alone has not proved

practical, but either rubbish alone or combined

refuse mills quite satisfactorily.

Milling reduces the volume of the waste, effectively

extending the life of the landfill.  The milled

product spreads and grades easily.  Project measure-

ments indicate that when the milled refuse is compacted

to a depth of six feet, a density of nine-hundred to

eleven-hundred pounds-per-cubic-yard can be obtained.

This is twice that of unmilled refuse handled in the

same way.

Test cells of milled refuse have been left without

earth cover for up to three years as an experiment

and no sanitary or esthetic problems were detected.

The material is inert and non-odorous, doesn't harbor

or attract rodents, and breeding of flies has not been

noted.  Milled refuse provides a more uniform surface,

is more stable, and requires less cover.

                                                 19

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 Tractor-trailer
 driving  across
 uncovered milled
 fill
 Exterior  of
 Gainesville
 receiving
 building;
 truck crosses
 to compost pile

 Man walks to
 compost  stock-
 pile, picks  up
 handfull, sniffs
 and shreds it
 Manned control
 panel and picking
 table
Based on data collected at this facility, the cost of

grinding refuse at an optimally designed installation

was estimated to be between two-dollars-and-forty-five-

cents and four dollars a ton, depending on the capacity

of the plant-


DISPOSAL - COMPOSTING (Gainesville, Florida)

At Gainesville, Rlorida, municipal solid wastes are

milled, but for a different reason....to prepare them

to be converted into compost.


The humus-like soil conditioner is stockpiled for use

by the city, Alachua County, and the University of

Florida....all participants in this demonstration

project...and for sale, largely in bulk to the citrus

industry.

Incoming refuse first passes a picking table for

removal of salvageable or large non-compostable items.

Ready markets for baled cardboard, paper, and rags

have been found....but none for glass, cans, and other

metals.  These are disposed of, along with other non-

compostables and trash, at a land disposal site.

Beyond the picking table, the high-rate mechanical

composting system performs a series of preparatory

operations before depositing a moist mixture of ground

refuse and sewage sludge from the adjacent sewage
20

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Control panel and
picking table
(continued)
Compost pro-
duction line:
mill, milled
refuse, rejected
metals, compost
dropping to
conveyor
Men loading
and operating
fluidized bed
incinerator
treatment plant in one of two digester tanks.  During

the six-to-eight-day digestion period, the mixture is

aerated periodically to speed biological degradation.

The resulting relatively stable compost receives a

final grinding on its way to the stockpile.

The primary crusher-disintegrator, which proved

particularly troublesome, was replaced with a

different type; and a variety of other mechanical and

operating problems are being systematically solved.

Methods are also being developed for evaluation of the

system's performance and public health aspects.

Compost can be useful in some situations, but neither

composting nor the salvage associated with it are

presently profit-making ventures.  They are methods

of handling small parts of the total waste load bene-

ficially.  Usually, they can be only equally small

parts of a comprehensive solid waste management

program.


RESEARCH PROJECTS

Some current research!

A new approach to handling solid wastes more effective

effectively....a new concept of incineration being

studied at the University of West Virginia.  Refuse,

already ground to a uniform consistency, is fed into
                                                                       21

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Fluidized bed
incinerator
(continued)
Demonstration
tube of boiling
water; man drops
red balls in
Close up of red
balls agitating
in boiling water
Two men examining
residue
a fluidized bed reactor, equipment commonly used by

the chemical industry to obtain controlled reactions

between gases and solids.  Here, the modified pilot

reactor becomes a furnace in one of many varied

research projects beingconducted with Federal aid under

programs of the Bureau of Solid Waste Management of the

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

This is a simulation of the reaction inside the furnace.

The fluidizing gas is air, moving up the column at

controlled velocities.  The fluidized bed contains

particles of inert sand raised to the ignition tempera-

ture of the material to be burned.  When the air and

the suspended sand reach the fluidized state resembling

a boiling liquid, the particles of ground waste are

added, and combustion occurs.

The fluidized bed incinerator is still experimental,

but it already promises more complete and cleaner

burning.

Project personnel examine the residue which constitutes

only a small fraction of the original volume of the

refuse.  Stack emissions from the fluidized bed furnace

contain far less particulate loading than conventional

incinerators.
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Attendants at
hospital collect
waste; man
separates waste
materials
Man examining
waste samples
Two men remove
molten glass
from kiln and
pour into mold
Glass sample
Another university research project is examining

hospital wastes.  Think how diverse they are.  In

addition to the ordinary ones....garbage, paper, and

other dry combustibles, and non-combustibles such as

bottles and cans...hospitals generate unusual wastes

related to medical treatment and surgical procedures.

Hospital wastes require special handling since they

may contain pathogenic material.  In order to develop

data on the nature and volume of the various waste

materials, and to devise better management methods,

they are identified and carefully separated.

Analysis of the different materials and their

processing may even point to desirable changes in the

design of hospital service areas and waste handling

equipment.

Glass has few equals as a container.  Being chemically

inert, it won't react with any other substance.  But,

after use, neither will it oxidize and degrade....nor

burn at ordinary incinerator temperatures.  These

Clemson University scientists are seeking a solution

to the solid waste problem posed by millions of dis-

carded bottles and jars.

They start with water-soluble glass, already in wide

commercial use,
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Glass goes into
coating apparatus;
coated sample
Time lapse;
broken sample
disintegrates
beside unbroken
sample

Man examining
caged chickens;
pan down to
waste trough;
water flushes
through;
filtration tank
with man taking
sample
Teacher and
students at
strip mine
and through a chemical vapor deposition process, coat

it with a very thin overlay of inert material.   A

container made in the same way would hold anything.

But break the film, and the glass slowly dissolves.

It works in the lab, but commercial production may be

some years away.

Chickens and other animals concentrated in commercial

cages and feed lots contribute increasingly to the

solid waste load.  In this University of California

experimental closed hydraulic system, water flushes

the manure to a high-rate oxidation pond.  There its

nutrients are reclaimed photosynthetically in the pro-

duction of algae.  The digested sludge can be used as

fertilizer, and the dried algae as supplemental food

for ruminant animals.  Resources from waste through

research.

These students, inspecting an abandoned strip mine,

are a new breed.   Their graduate studies emphasize

environmental control.  Several universities are

expanding their curricula to provide qualified engi-

neers in this crucial area....recognition that

specialized training, as well as imaginative research,

is essential for effective solid waste management and

the total protection of the environment.
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New York City        Solid waste collection and disposal costs American
strike
                     over four and a half billion dollars a year.  Your

                     community may have a budget in the thousands, hundreds

                     of thousands, or millions.  Every dollar of this should

                     be spent wisely to provide good service effeciently

                     and economically.  The selection of solid waste system

                     components is of primary importance.  The equipment

                     and methods must match your local requirements and

                     limitations.  However, certain general principles seem

                     to apply to all communities today.  Labor costs are

                     rising....particularly when working conditions are un-

                     pleasant or dangerous.  A disruptive situation, such

                     as the noteworthy New York City garbage strike, can

                     reflect on staff officials and elected officials alike.

                     Environmental enhancement is becoming more important

                     and solid waste management practices must be geared

                     toward protecting air, water, and land and eliminating

                     unsightly litter.

                     Summaries of all projects and up-to-date information

                     are available from your regional office or the Office

                     of Information of the Bureau of Solid Waste Management.
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