United States
           Environmental Protection
               December 1988
           Research and Development
1989 Visiting
Scientists and
Engineers Program
           Office of Exploratory Research
           Office of Research and Development
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Washington, DC 20460

                               December 1988
1989 Visiting Scientists and
     Engineers Program
      Office of Exploratory Research
    Office of Research and Development
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
         Washington D.C. 20460

                      Table of Contents

Program Description  	    1
Basic Eligibility Requirements   	     1
Application Requirements    	   2
   1. Cover Page   	   2
   2. Brief Statement of Interest	   2
   3. Full Resume  	   2
   4. Narrative of Proposed Research  	   2
     Objectives  	   2
     Background  	   2
     Proposed Project  	   2
     Level of Effort  	   2
Application Deadline	   3
Review and Selection 	   3
   1. Administrative Review  	   3
   2. Laboratory Review   	   4
   3. Peer Review  	   4
Assignment Start Date   	   4
General Terms  	   4
Funding Mechanism  	   5
Participating Laboratories and Research Descriptions  	   5
   Environmental Research Laboratory, Corvallis, OR  	   6
   Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA	   7
   Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory,
      Ada, OK  	,	   8
   Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory,
      Cincinnati, OH  	   9
   Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory,
      Las Vegas, NV 	    12
   Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment
      Laboratory, RTP, NC  	   15
   Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office,
      Cincinnati, OH  	   16

          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    1989 Visiting Scientists and Engineers Program

Program     The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA)  Office of
Description  Research and Development (ORD) administers a  Visiting
              Scientists and Engineers Program (VSEP). The purpose of
              the program is to attract eminent researchers in the areas of
              environmental science and engineering to  the  Agency's
              research laboratories to collaborate with ORD researchers
              on projects proposed by the visitor and tailored to meet the
              specific  needs of EPA (as  identified  in annual  program
              descriptions such  as this).  The   program fosters
              collaborative research  activities and  provides creative
              research opportunities intended to benefit EPA, the visitor,
              and the environmental  research community at large by:
              (a) strengthening ties  between EPA and  the outside
              environmental  research community,  (b)  providing an
              efficient means  for introducing  new  capabilities into the
              research community  by creating a  setting  in which
              important environmental  problems are jointly tackled by
              EPA   and   outside   environmental    researchers,   and
              (c) broadening awareness of  respective EPA and external
              capabilities throughout the general  environmental research
              community. The VSEP is a competitive program which has
              supported the efforts of over twenty researchers, over half
              of whom are currently conducting research  under the

              Applicants to the  program are  sought annually through
              advertisements in  well-known scientific and engineering
              literature. For the 1989 program, advertisements will appear
              in Science, Environmental Science and Technology, and
              The Scientist. Also, copies of this program announcement
              will  be sent  to  over  5000, departments at colleges and
              universities  through  EPA's  Center for Environmental
              Research Information.
Basic        Anyone who has established substantial credentials in one
Eligibility     or more of   the   areas   of   environmental science or
Require-     engineering listed under "participating laboratories" and is
ments        not an EPA employee is eligible to apply. Individuals with at
              least five  years experience beyond  the  Ph.D. in the
              environmental sciences  or engineering  and  a  good
              publication  record are particularly encouraged to apply.

              U.S. citizenship is not a requirement for participation in the
Application  in order to be considered for the  1989 program, interested
Require-     individuals must   submit an  application   containing the
ments        following  sections and strictly  within  indicated  page
              limitations. Joint  or group  applications  will not  receive
           1.  Cover  Page  containing  the  following: full  name,
              professional  discipline, affiliate  institution or organization,
              mailing  address and phone number, general research area
              (as contained in this  document, including  laboratory)  to
              which application  is directed, and approximate desired
              starting  date (month and year), (limit  1 page)

           2.  Brief Statement of Interest  indicating  interest  in
              competing in the  1989 program, (limit -  1  single-spaced

           3.  Full Resume containing  education, background, awards,
              honors  and other qualifying experience,  summary  of
              employment (including current projects), and a bibliography
              of publications,  (no page limit)

           4.  Narrative of Proposed Research Project to be conducted
              at the relevant EPA laboratory. The following format should
              be used to  describe the project (limit - 15 double-spaced
              pages plus references):
              Objectives  - Describe the principal  and  subordinate
              objectives (if any) of the proposed project.
              Background - Provide a technical synopsis of background
              information which  places the proposed project in context
              relative to on-going efforts in the relevant research area.

              Proposed project - Describe the proposed project, tying it
              to the  background discussion. Indicate  results  expected
              from the project.
              Level of effort - List the number of years and approximate
              budget per year needed to accomplish the stated objectives

               (VSEP appointments are for one to three years). Budgets
               should be broken down into the allowable cost categories
               indicated below. Indicate  whether additional personnel
               would be  needed.  Also,  indicate  whether any special
               equipment  or facilities  would be needed at the  EPA
               laboratory in order to complete the project.

                 Allowable cost categories
                      fringe benefits
                      indirect costs charged by parent institution  (if

               The complete application should not exceed 17 pages plus
               (a) any references necessary to complete the "narrative of
               the  proposed research project" and (b) the  resume.  It
               should strictly adhere to the above format.

Application   Six copies of fully developed applications must be received
Deadline      in the Office  of Exploratory  Research by April 30,  1989.
               They should be sent to:

                     Alvin Edwards
                     1989 Visiting  Scientists and Engineers Program
                     Office  of Exploratory Research, RD-675
                     U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                     401 M  Street, Southwest, Rm NE306
                     Washington, DC 20460

               Applications received after that date will be returned without

Review       Applications received  on  or before April 30,   1989,  will
and           receive  an  administrative  review,  a peer  review  and  a
Selection     laboratory review.
              Administrative  Review: An  administrative review will be
              performed in the Office  of  Exploratory Research. Three
              grounds for administrative rejection are: (1) disregard of the
              application  requirements  as outlined above,  (2) OER's
              receipt of an application after the closing date of April 30,

              1989, and (3) a proposal to do work in an area not specified
              in this document. Violation of any one of these may result in
              automatic rejection.

          2.  Laboratory Review: Applications will  be reviewed by the
              EPA  laboratory  responsible for  the topic  addressed in a
              proposal. Primary emphasis in the laboratory review will be
              placed on the degree of relevance of the proposed research
              to the objectives and interests of the laboratory.

          3.  Peer Review: Applications will  be competitively reviewed
              by an  ad  hoc committee of  outside peer reviewers.
              Emphasis  will be  placed  on:  (1)  the  applicant's
              qualifications,  with  a  focus on  the applicant's  research
              record within the environmental sciences or  environmental
              engineering, and (2) the  merits  of the proposed research
              project. The committee  will  recommend to EPA  those
              candidates considered best qualified  to receive  support
              under the VSEP.
              The Assistant Administrator for the Office of Research and
              Development within EPA will approve candidates based on
              the results of the laboratory and peer reviews. Every effort
              will be made to complete the review process and inform
              applicants of the outcome prior to August 31, 1989.

Assign-      To allow time for settling personal matters, etc., subject to
merit         the approval of the sponsoring EPA laboratory, visitors will
Start         be allowed to  postpone  the  start of their assignment for
Date         more than  a  year  after receiving notification  of  their
              selection and approval. Accordingly, visitors selected under
              the 1989 VSEP may  start their  assignments as late as
              September 30,  1990. The exact  date, of course, must be
              negotiated with and agreed to by the sponsoring laboratory.
General      For a candidate selected for assignment, terms, including
Terms        salary, travel expenses,  equipment allowance,  and other
              expenses, will be negotiated by him/her directly with the
              laboratory  to  which  he/she  has  been  selected  for
              assignment  and will be tailored to meet the  research
              objectives  of  the  candidate  and  EPA.  Periods  of
              appointment are also negotiable and may vary from one to
              three years. It  is  assumed that visitors will  spiend i a
              substantial portion of the project period on-site at the EPA
              facility. If, however,  a visitor chooses not to, then he/she is

              required to spend at least 15 percent of the project period
              on-site, which shall  consist of more  than  mere overnight
              visits to deliver status reports, make presentations, discuss
              project details, and the like.

Funding     For selectees who are not federal employees, appointments
Mechanism  under the VSEP will be  executed  through  the cooperative
              agreement instrument. Upon  successfully  completing  the
              review  process  and being  approved for support by  the
              Assistant Administrator for  Research and  Development,
              selectees will  be sent a formal application kit for federal
              assistance. The selectee  will complete the kit and forward it
              through the administrative offices of his affiliate institution to
              the EPA assistance administration office whose address will
              be indicated in the application kit. (Selectees  who are  not
              associated  with  an  institution may submit the formal
              application directly to the  EPA assistance administration
              office.) On the  basis  of the  completed application,  the
              selectee  will  receive a formal  cooperative agreement
              through his affiliate institution (or directly as the case may
              be).  The selectee  may  begin work  under the  VSEP in
              accordance  with  the date indicated in the  cooperative

              Selectees who are  federal  employees will  receive support
              through an interagency agreement between EPA and their
              federal agency.

              For  further  information  on  the overall program,  contact
              Alvin Edwards at  (202)382-7663.

Participating Visitors  are  sought  to  conduct  research   in  the
Laboratories laboratories  listed below.  Under each laboratory are listed
and          general topics  of interest  to the laboratory followed by a
Research    more  detailed  description  of the research needed. The
Descriptions description should provide sufficient detail for applicants to
              develop well-focused research  proposals. If,  however,
              more  clarity is  needed, applicants  should  contact  the
              individual listed. It  should be apparent  that a proposal to
              conduct research on a specific topic  is  also a proposal to
              work in collaboration with the corresponding laboratory.

General Research  Topic 1: Implication of the  loss
biological and genetic diversity in a regulatory context
Research  Focus:   Loss  of  biodiversity  is a  critical
but extremely complex area  of  research. Reductions  in
species or gene  pools may have major  ramifications for
mankind as the rate of loss accelerates. The interaction with
global climate and its effect on biological diversity needs to
be determined. Innovative research approaches are  needed
to provide policy  makers  with a relevant scientific  data

Duration of Effort: 3 years

Contact: Robert T. Lackey  Phone: (503) 757-4673

General Research Topic 2:   Ecological effects of global
climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, tropospheric
ozone, acidic deposition and air toxics

Research  Focus:  The interactive  effects of these pollutant
stresses are very  difficult to determine. Research is  needed
to develop practical methods to quantify ecological  effects,
both caused  by  single pollutant stresses and  multiple

Duration of Effort: 3 years

Contact: Robert T. Lackey  Phone: (503) 757-4673

General Research Topic 3: Effects of pollutants on plant

Research  Focus:  Efforts to use toxicological knowledge for
ecosystem level  prediction confront  important issues  of
population dynamics. There is a need to develop methods
to evaluate chemical impacts on plant  population dynamics
and trophic level interactions.

Duration of Effort: 1 -3  years

Contact: Lawrence Kapustka  Phone: (503) 757-4606
               General Research Topic 4: Applied molecular biology of

Research  Focus: Recent advances  in molecular genetics
and biology offer promise for application to ecological risk
assessment, such as molecular detection assays for  plant
exposure  and  response  ("biomarkers"),  bioassays for
distinguishing between different classes of toxicants,  and
monitoring  of degradation processes in plants.  In addition,
there is an  emerging need to evaluate the risks to plant life
from the products of genetic engineering.

Duration of Effort: 1-3 years

Contact: Lawrence Kapustka  Phone: (503) 757-4606

General Research Topic  1: Spectroscopies of transient
processes in natural water systems

Research  Focus:   Natural   luminescence,   transient
absorptions,  light  scattering  and  optical  dispersions
properties of ions, molecules and dispersions  in naturally
occurring substances in surface or groundwater systems
will be  investigated  by various spectroscopic  means in
order  to understand the  natural  processes of binding,
complexation, speciation, aggregation-disaggregation,  and
other  important  dynamic processes involving metals  and
organic matter in natural water systems.

Duration of Effort: 2 years

Contact: Leo Azarraga  Phone: (404) 546-3453
              General Research  Topic 2: Characterization  of  redox
              transformation  of  inorganic pollutants  in  aqueous

              Research Focus:  Research  is needed  to  establish  an
              alternative to the  Eh-equilibrium  approach for  redox
              transformation in the environment. Redox transformation of
              inorganic pollutants (e.g.,  Cr,  Se, Aa)  in controlled
              biologically active laboratory systems will be monitored by
              species-specific  analysis. The coupling between: 1) redox
              active  inorganic pollutants and  the geochemical  matrix;
              2) the geochemical matrix and redox sensors; and 3) redox
              sensors  in the  redox active  pollutants  will  be studied
              systematically,  toward the goal  of  determining  a)  under
              what conditions particular redox transformations take place
              and  b) what  sort of  sensors  can  detect  these conditions.
              The  study will  be  conducted on  a  species-by-species

              basis. The results will then be applied as appropriate to
              equilibrium speciation models.

              Duration of Effort: 2 years

              Contact: George Bailey  Phone: (404) 546-3307

              General Research  Topic 3:  Analysis  of  uncertainty in
              environmental simulation

              Research Focus: The role of uncertainty in the identification
              of mathematical models of environmental processes and in
              the application of these models to environmental prediction
              is of increasing concern to EPA. Four research areas are of
              specific  interest:  uncertainty  about model  structure,
              uncertainty  in  estimated model  parameter  values,
              propagation of prediction errors, and design of experiments
              to reduce model uncertainty. Areas of application include:
              terrestrial,  surface  water,  and  ground-water fate  and
              transport models; food chain/bioaccumulation models;  and
              ecological  effects  models.  Potential research  products
              include  standard  procedures,  algorithms,  and  protocols;
              documentation of case  studies;  and  a  graduate-level

              Duration of Effort: 3 years

              Contact: Tom Barnwell Phone: (404) 546-3210
Robert       General  Research   Topic  1:   Microbial  transport  of
S. Kerr       hydrophobic  neutral organic compounds
mental       Research Focus: This  research will focus on determining
Research    the mobility of selected microorganisms through selected
Laboratory,  soils  under constant   nutrient levels  by measured batch
Ada,         partitioning between water  and  colloidal  suspension  of
Oklahoma    tritiated microorganisms. Study on the transport of 14c
              labeled organic compounds by oligotrophic bacteria and the
              ability  of oligotrophic bacteria to transport organics  without
              transformation is also needed.

              Duration of Effort: 1.5 years

              Contact: C. Enfield  Phone: (405) 332-8800 Ext 334

              General Research Topic 2: Solute transport in subsurface
              systems, particularly with respect to.macromolecules

              Research Focus: This  research will focus ori determining
              what parameters control the rate and extent of transport of
              large,  non-ionic, nonreactive molecules through  a
              characterized soil column. The variables will be molecular
              size and configuration and pore size distribution of the soil.

              Duration of Effort: 1 year

              Contact: Candida West Phone: (405) 332-8800 Ext 257

              General Research Topic 3:  Modeling of the transport of
              hazardous materials through structured soils

              Research Focus:  This research  will  focus  on   the
              development of mathematical techniques  to  aid  in  the
              modeling of the transport of hazardous chemicals through
              structured soils which  contain  a  large  number  of pores
              and/or  aggregates.  The results of the study  will  allow
              estimates of the pollutant  profile in the soil as a function of
              time. The methods to be  developed will  be  capable of
              utilizing specific information on the size and geometry of all
              the structure elements in the soil to estimate the amounts of
              materials contained in the  pores,  aggregates,  and  the
              remainder of the soil. The method must be able to deal with
              nonuniform structure. Soils containing mixtures of structure
              sizes as well as geometries must be considered.

              Duration of Effort: 1 year

              Contact: Thomas E. Short  Phone: (405) 332-8800 Ext 292
General Research Topic 1:  Development of methods to
detect and measure biomarkers of environmental exposure

Research  Focus: This  research  will focus on the
development of   bioanalytical methods  for quantifying
(a)   chemicals   in    biological   tissues   and   fluids,
(b) metabolites or adducts resulting from biotransformation
of organic or inorganic environmental pollutants in biological
tissues  and fluids,  and (c) enzyme activity affected by
exposure to environmental contaminants. These methods
will be developed for both plant and animal biomarkers. The

resulting methods  will  be used to monitor environmental
exposures to adverse and nonadverse toxicants.

Duration of Effort: 2 years

Contact: Alfred  Dufour  Phone: (513)  569-7218

General Research Topic 2: Development of  recombinant
DNA methods for measuring bacteria, viruses and protozoa
in environmental samples

Research  Focus: This  research  will focus on  the
development of highly  specific and  sensitive  methods for
quantifying or detecting bacteria,  viruses and  protozoa  in
environmental samples such as sludge,  sewage effluents,
surface  water and  drinking water. These methods will be
applied  to the  surveillance  of aquatic and terrestrial
environments to determine the presence  of potential health
hazards. Emphasis will  be placed  on  techniques using the
polymerase chain reaction and  similar gene  probe

Duration of Effort: 3 years

Contact: Alfred  Dufour  Phone: (513)  569-7218

General Research Topic 3: Investigate  the application  of
advanced  analytical techniques  to  current problems  in
microbial ecology

Research Focus: This research will be oriented toward the
development and  application  of advanced analytical
techniques to obtain  information  on community
composition, physiological state,  and metabolic  activity  of
microbial populations found in environmental samples.  This
will be  accomplished  through the  extraction  of microbial
cellular  components and their subsequent analysis to  give
information on  microbial  biomass,  metabolic  activities,
nutritional status and community structure. This information
will be  used to monitor ecological processes  related  to
biodegradation of hazardous compounds in the  environment
and to  monitor the movement  of  genetically engineered
microorganisms deliberately or  accidentally released  into
the environment.

Duration of Effort: 3 years

Contact: Alfred Dufour  Phone: (513) 569-7218

General Research Topic 4: Identification and adaptation of
biomarkers for use in establishing  ecosystem  status and

Research  Focus: This research will involve identifying new,
potentially useful, biomarkers for fish and other  aquatic life
at molecular and cellular levels which would be  suitable for
monitoring ecosystem status and trends, determining  the
relationship  between  the most promising biomarkers and
exposure to xenobiotics, developing predictive  models for
exposure risk assessment, and adapting methods for use in
surface water monitoring  programs  by selecting cost
effective,  user-friendly techniques.

Duration of Effort: 3 years

Contact: Cornelius Weber   Phone: (513) 569-8350

General  Research  Topic  5: Enhanced,  short-term
methods for measuring chronic, aquatic toxicity of wastes
and water

Research  Focus:  This  research will focus on  identifying
new,  more  sensitive, test  end-points  for fish  and other
aquatic  life which will result in shorter, more  cost-effective
methods of measuring  threshold toxicity. Test conditions
will  be  evaluated  and optimized and  the applicability  of
tests to measurement of effluent and surface  water toxicity
as predictors of ecosystem effects should be demonstrated.

Duration of Effort: 3 years

Contact: Cornelius Weber   Phone: (513) 569-8350

General Research  Topic 6: Development  of  analytical
methods for organic disinfection by-products  in drinking

Research Focus: Disinfection of drinking water with chlorine
has been  in use for  many years.  In the last 15 years, a
number of  chemical by-products  of the  disinfection
process have been discovered, and questions raised about

Las Vegas,
the potential  adverse health effects  of  these materials.
Studies of alternative disinfection agents, including ozone,
have shown that the nature and concentration of disinfection
by-products is a complex function of a number of process
variables.  Laboratory analytical  methods  are needed to
ascertain the  nature and concentration  of  organic
disinfection by-products produced by  chlorine, ozone,  and
other agents in various types of source waters. Additional
real-time methods are needed for process control in water
treatment  plants.  The  most  efficient and powerful
instrumental  analytical techniques will be applied in  this

Duration of Effort: 3 years

Confacf: William L. Budde Phone: (513) 569-7309

General   Research   Topic    1:   Development   of
immunochemical methods for  monitoring  environmental
contaminants:  sample  preparation  techniques,  new
immunoassay formats, portable assay kits

Research Focus: It is certain that immunoassays will have a
major role in  the analysis of environmental  contaminants;
therefore,  acceptance by analytical chemists is  essential.
The  immunoassay program at  this  laboratory  includes
development and evaluation  of immunoassays.  Such
research activities will provide stimulation to the field  and
expedite acceptance of  immunoassays for  environmental
contaminants.  In-house development efforts  include
specific antibodies for sample  preparation  steps  such as
extraction, cleanup, and  concentration,  as   well  as
integration of immunochemical  methods  into conventional
analytical procedures.

Duration of Effort: 1 year

Contact: Jeanette M. Van Emon   Phone: (702) 798-2154

General Research Topic 2: Use of remote sensing  digital
imagery in  conjunction  with  geographical information
systems (GIS), to delineate, map, and monitor  wetlands

Research  Focus: Research  is  needed (1)  on the use of
aircraft  MSS, satellite TM  and  SPOT digital imagery to
delineate, map, and produce data base products for wetland

ecosystem evaluations and (2) to evaluate the use of new
passive  sensor  systems using  prototpye aircraft  sensors.
There is also a need (1) to demonstrate the use of map
products and digital  data  base products  to  evaluate the
impacts  associated  with  specific contaminant  insults,
hydrologic perturbations, and Section 404 activities on both
a site specific and regional basis  and  (2)  to  develop and
demonstrate the use of GIS to perform remote sensing data
analysis  to  develop  data  base products  for  input into
ecosystem models.

Duration of Effort: 2 years

Contact: Ross Lunetta  Phone:  (702) 798-2175

General Research Topic 3: Advanced instrumentation for
analysis of environmental and biological samples

Research Focus:  Efforts are  needed to  develop an
expanded research  theme in  the area of environmental
mass spectrometry  (including  LC/MC, FAB/MS,  ICP/MS,
LC/MS/MS  and  hyphenated  techniques  such  as
GC/FTIR/MS) and to develop  bioanalytical mass  spectral
techniques  associated  with DMA and  protein  adduct
characterization  and associated isolation.

Duration of Effort: 2 years

Contact: Ronald K. Mitchum  Phone: (702) 798-2103

General Research  Topic 4: Mathematical methods such
as statistical approaches (including multivariate techniques
and  pattern  recognition)  for  the improvement  of the
assessment of large analytical chemistry data bases

Research Focus:  Research is needed  to  expand the
general  area of improving  data quality through  quality
assurance/control research targeted  for  analytical and
bioanalytical chemistry.  Mathematical  methods, such as
statistical approaches, including  multivariate techniques and
pattern  recognition,  need  to be developed  for the
improvement of  the assessment  of large  analytical
chemistry data  bases.  Research  is needed to  develop
innovative performance based  approaches for  assessing
data quality, including  performance  material research,
methods improvements  research, field sampling/design and

implementation  of  new  technology into  the analytical

Duration of Effort: 2 years

Contact: Jimmy D. Petty  Phone: (702) 798-2103

General Research Topic 5: Free product monitoring in the
vadose zone

Research Focus: There is a national need to concentrate on
vadose zone monitoring  techniques as an alternative to
saturated zone monitoring as required under RCRA. New
compounds  need to  be incorporated  into  lysimeter
manufacturing to increase the ability of the sensor to reach
the lower end of matrix potentials.

Duration of Effort: 1 year or more

Contact: Joseph  J. DLugosz  Phone: (702) 798-2103

General Research Topic 6: Development  and  application
of advanced analytical  methods for measurement and
monitoring of toxic chemicals at or around hazardous waste

Research Focus: Recent advances in analytical technique
and miniaturization offer opportunities for  development of
portable instruments and field screening  methods for rapid,
cost-effective  measurement and monitoring of toxic
chemicals  at or around hazardous  waste sites.  Rapid
developments in  such technologies as fiber optics and solid
state chemical  sensors,  immunochemical  techniques, x-
ray spectrometers,  "suitcase"  mass spectrometers, ion
mobility  spectrometers, and   long-path-length  FTIR
spectrometers  may revolutionize  the way in which on-site
measurement is  carried out. Research will involve testing
and modification, as  required,  of  prototype  or  existing
instrumentation,  development of  field test kit  technology
based  on  antibodies,  fabrication  of  chemical  sensors, or
development of  expert systems  for selection  and use of
field methods for hazardous waste site monitoring.

              Duration of Effort: 1 -2 years

              Contact: Llew Williams  Phone: (702) 798-2138

Atmospheric General Research  Topic 1: Development  of  human
Research    exposure  models  to  accurately   predict  exposures  to
and          environmental pollutants
Assessment  Research Focus: A large data base has been collected  in
Laboratory,   the  Total  Exposure Assessment  Methodology  (TEAM)
Research    programs for Volatile Organic  Compounds  (VOCs),
Triangle      pesticides, and carbon monoxide.  Using  the  information
Park,         gathered   on   human  activity   patterns  and   micro-
Worth        environmental  concentrations,  a statistical model  can be
Carolina      developed  and  validated  which  will  account for the
              contribution of the major sources. Possible approaches may
              include source  receptor modeling  and stochastic
              multivariate modeling.

              Duration of effort: 2 years

              Contact: William  C. Nelson  Phone:  (919) 541-3184

              General Research Topic 2: Management and assessment
              of quality assurance data from large  air pollution monitoring

              Research Focus:  This laboratory is  involved  in the
              collection  of air  quality data  for  numerous national  or
              otherwise large scale monitoring projects.  Current  Agency
              quality assurance policy and requirements (for regulated air
              pollutant monitoring) result  in the generation of very large
              and complex data bases for assessing and characterizing
              the  quality of the primary  data. Currently, these data are
              assessed  under  the  minimum requirements of existing
              policy and regulations. Important and pertinent information,
              such  as sampler  performance,  methodology, problem
              areas, and geographical effects on precision and accuracy,
              could  be obtained with a definitive and thorough analysis  of
              these  data  bases. This  research will  be focused on
              developing better quality assurance data bases in improved
              formats and  procedures for interpreting and assessing the

              Duration of effort: 2 years

              Contact: William J. Mitchell  Phone: (919) 541-2769

              General Research  Topic  3:  Laboratory  simulation  of
              buoyant plume penetration of elevated inversions

              Research  Focus: The Fluid  Modeling Facility (FMF)  is
              about to embark on  a new  project involving laboratory
              simulation  of atmospheric  diffusion in the  convective
              boundary layer (CBL).  Highly buoyant plumes  released in
              the CBL rise rapidly  to  the  top  of the CBL,  partially
              penetrate the stably stratified layer capping the CBL, then
              mix gradually downwards to  the ground surface. Recent
              field experiments have shown that the maximum surface
              concentrations around tall  stacks  occur under these
              conditions when effluent is trapped  within a shallow mixed
              layer. The  laboratory  convective-tank studies will attempt
              to simulate  the  dynamics of these CBL processes. The
              FMF desires the expertise of an accomplished researcher
              to spearhead these studies.

              Duration of Effort: 3 years

              Contact: William H. Snyder Phone: (919) 541-1198

Environ-     General Research Topic 1:  Statistical problems  in the
mental       application  of probabilistic simulation methods to existing
Criteria      EPA risk assessment models
Assessment Research  Focus: Algorithms used for estimating human
Office,       exposure/risk from chemicals  must   employ   data
Cincinnati,   gathered from diverse sources (e.g., chemical properties,
Ohio         concentrations,  soil or  subsoil characteristics, human
              consumption of food and  water, residential patterns, etc.),
              which  typically are inconsistent  or incomplete  as  to
              distribution  type. Simulation methods (e.g.,  monte  carlo,
              latin hypercube) have been employed to sample these input
              distributions and provide  supposed  distributions of results.
              Research should address  the statistical problems inherent
              in such analyses to answer the following questions:

                  1.    What means exist to overcome or minimize these

                  2.    How can  the meaning  and limitations of the
                       results be best  expressed  so  as  to  guide their
                       interpretation and use?

Duration of Effort: 1 year

Contact: R.  Bruins  Phone: (513) 569-7539

General Research  Topic 2: Development of models to
describe interactions between agents in binary mixtures

Research  Focus: Biologically  based mathematical models
will be  developed that  relate  intensity of toxic interaction
(e.g.,  synergism and antagonism) to dose. The processes
to be described include cellular  mechanisms of interaction
at sites of toxicity as well as pharmacokinetic interactions.
Primary focus  is  on interactions  not  directly involving
carcinogenesis,  i.e.,  pharmacokinetic interactions between
carcinogens will be included but not interactions  involving
DNA  adducts.  Real  data  will  be available,  but simulation
studies will also be conducted to  determine model behavior.
Statistical  methods  may  need  to be developed for
parameter estimation.

Duration of Effort: 1 year

Contact: R.  Hertzberg   Phone: (513) 569-7582
          &U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1989/648-163/87050