CARBON  MONOXIDE
    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
    PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE

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CONTROL NOW-
FOR CLEAN AIR!

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CARBON   MONOXIDE
A  BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH  ABSTRACTS
COMPILED BY
ANNA GROSSMAN COOPER
TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS WRITER
DIVISION OF AIR POLLUTION
AIR POLLUTION TECHNICAL
 INFORMATION CENTER
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE
Washington, D.C. 20201
1966

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Public Health Service Publication No. 1503

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                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACE	      v

INTRODUCTION	   viii


                              BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LISTINGS


ANALYSIS 	      1

BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS	     49
   Animal, s	     49
      effect of acute (short term and severe) concentrations	     49
      effect of chronic (long term and low) concentrations 	     59
   Humans	     67
      effect of acute (short term and severe) concentrations 	     67
      effect of chronic (long term and low) concentrations	     84
      experimental exposures	   104
   Biochemistry and Biophysiology	   110
   Cardiac Impairment 	   124
   Cerebral Effects 	   128
   EEC Patterns	   135
   EHG Patterns	   138
   Lung Diffusion	   142
   Neurological Changes 	   160
   Postmortem Investigations 	   172
   Smoking	   176
   Tissue Chemistry 	   185
   Vision Impairment	   193

BLOOD CHEMISTRY	   200
   Hemoglobin	   200
   Method of Detection 	   24l

CONTROL	   260

CRITERIA AND STANDARDS	   270

INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES  	   285

SAMPLING AND NETWORK OPERATIONS 	   308

SOURCES	   316
   Aircraft Cabins, Submarines and Others	   316
   Diesel Engines 	   324
   Garages and Workshops  	   328
   Gasoline Engines	•	   337
   Tunnels	   374

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES	   388
   Books 	   388
   Legislation	•	   400
   Review Papers	,	   408
                                          iii

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STATE REPORTS	

CITY-COUNTY BEPOKTS 	

INTER-STATE REPORTS	

MISCELLANEOUS REFERENCES	

AUTHOR INDEX 	    427

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION INDEX 	    437
   United States	
   Foreign	

GK)SSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS	«	
                                          iv

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                                         PREFACE


       In screening the literature for this bibliography, the compiler became aware of
an immense wealth of papers on this subject, practically from the time combustion became
known to man.  According to the legend, described by many poets,  Prometheus gave fire to
man, wanning not only man's body but also his mind, kindling in it a devouring faith in
knowledge and progress.  Man learned fast,  and it did not take him long to discover the
adverse aspects of combustion, including the toxic properties which were exploited early
in history and not always for the best of purposes.  In following the history of carbon
monoxide, one finds it entwined with the history of mankind.  The interesting book of
Louis Lewin on the toxicology of carbon monoxide, for example, is also a book of
history.  Carbon monoxide forms a part of volcanic gases, and the mythological gods
produced it in their forges.  In ancient Rome, he who felt that there was no way left
except to "cross the bridge of death" sought its aid in the fumes of charcoal.  But not
only was carbon monoxide used in suicide in antiquity, it was also used for punishment at
the time of Cicero (lo6-lt-3 B.C.).

       Reference to the effect of carbon monoxide on the health of man are found in the
writings on natural history by the Greek philosopher Aristoteles, who lived in the
Third Century.

       Erasistratus, a Greek physician and writer, also of the Third Century,  who is
known for his theory of the pneuma as a substance vital to life,  expressed his ideas on
the toxic properties of carbon monoxide in a hypothesis on causes and effects, stating
that the thinness of the air caused by carbon monoxide fumes obstructed the normal
breathing of man.

       In a statement by another physician of the same Century, Caeluis Aurelianus,  two
most important symptoms caused by carbon monoxide are discussed,  the disturbance of
motion and the senses in general.  "...It is not easy to be aware of the danger which is
effected by the oppression of the senses through turpur of carbon..."

       Another scientist of that time wrote on the physiological effect of carbon mon-
oxide, in particular on the effect it has on the brain.  Dr. Lewin also tells us of the
therapeutic advice given at a later date by the Arabian physician and philosopher,
Avicenna (98°-1037)j concerning paralysis caused by the toxic fumes of carbon monoxide.

       Despite the advance of knowledge in the natural sciences in antiquity and the
following centuries, one encounters in western European countries in the early Eighteenth
Century a certain ignorance, at least concerning carbon monoxide.  Many sudden deaths or
chronic ailments, which in those days were ascribed to the work of the devil,  may have
been caused by the effect of carbon monoxide.  There is a true story of an incident which
took place in 1715 in Jena, Germany, and aroused great public concern as being a work of
the devil:  one student promised two farmers to share a treasure with them if they would
come with him on Christmas Night to a little hut in a vineyard where the treasure was
buried.  At the stroke of midnight the student was to call the spirits to reveal to him
the secret place of the treasure.  It was a cold night, and to warm themselves while
waiting for the hour of the ghosts, they kindled a wood fire inside the hut.  The next
day, all three were found dead.  And so the story spread, and also the myth that those
who call the devil become victims of the master of darkness.  And this theory was not
believed by the simple people alone, but also by members of the medical profession.  The
renowned physician Fredrich Hoffman, professor at the nearby University of Halle, felt it
necessary to dispel the ignorance expressed by his worthy colleagues by publishing a
paper about the case*  He remained anonymous at first, denying the intervention of the
devil, explaining the cause and effect of carbon monoxide, and demonstrating that
"polluted vapors suppress the influx of clean air, and if man or animal has breathed this
type of polluted air, he may faint and, if not helped immediately, suffocates for lack of
air.  Because the sensation is that of strangulation or like drowning in water."

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       The modern world has come a long way since 1715* but not far enough in regard to
the air which  surrounds us.  Air pollution control engineering in the United States was
developed in 1868 and organizations demanding legislation made their voices heard, but
it was not until the  First International Congress of Labor, held in Washington, D. C.,
in the fall of 1919,  that delegates were asked to call the attention of their respective
governments to the  steady increase in industrial CO and requested to make  investigations
leading to its prevention.  The rapidly increasing use of the internal combustion engine
was mentioned  as one  source of this toxic gas.

       It is recognized today that the motor vehicle is the Nation's greatest single
source of carbon monoxide pollution.  Eighty-five million motor vehicles were
registered in  the United States in 1965.  From every gallon of fuel turned in the
motor vehicle, three  pounds of carbon monoxide (plus other pollutants) are emitted into
the air.

       In March 1966, the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare approved new
standards, including  standards for carbon monoxide, which will be applicable to new
motor vehicles and  new motor vehicle engines (domestic and imported) "beginning with 1968
models.

       With the tremendous industrial and technological advances in the United States,
we have arrived at  an era where the pollution of our environment has become an important
issue.

       One of  the programs of the Division of Air Pollution is evaluation of the current
knowledge in regard to carbon monoxide and further research on its biological and
environmental  effects and to establish criteria for the overall quality of the air in
order that we  may enjoy the industrial advances of our century, and at the same time
safeguard our  health  and well-being.

       We are  living  in an exciting time indeed.  Today,  one of man's greatest
unsatisfied desires,  a desire as old as man himself—the conquest of space—seems at last
to be within his reach.  However, man is a terrestrial animal and sometimes we tend to
ignore this important fact.  Mian directs his efforts mostly toward the near-impossible--
thereby neglecting  every-day life and necessities.  What our modern man has achieved
in modern technology  and will still achieve before this century is over is indeed the
near-impossible; however, with all his knowhow he is still enslaved by his environment.
This he could  master, were he only to be mindful of it.

       In this connection one can draw an analogy between our wonderful civilization and
the golden age of ancient Rome.  Then as now it was an era teeming with technology.
Roads, aqueducts, and sewers were constructed and many of them are still in use today.
The houses of  the Roman patricians were fitted with a comfort equaling our Twentieth
Century homes.  Yet in spite of all their knowledge and achievements,  the most
elementary sanitary precautions were disregarded.  The great mass of refuse and garbage
that accumulates in a big city, including the bodies of gladiators and carcasses of
animals slaughtered in the arena games, were just dumped into open pits,  where they
formed what Mumford calls a "cordon malsanitaire."  The archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani
found in his excavations about 75 pits or vaults filled with a "uniform mass of black
viscid, unctous matter," and the day he discovered the third pit he had to relieve his
gang of workmen from  time to time, because the "stench from that putrid mound,  turned up
after a lapse  of twenty centuries, was unbearable, even to men inured to every kind of
hardship, as were my  excavators."

       We are  appalled.  However, despite our ultra-hygienic environment,  sterile
hospitals,  white rooms, air conditioned houses and cars,  and all those sanitary and
protective modern conveniences we are blessed with, we have not the slightest qualms
about pouring  daily approximately 250,000 tons of carbon monoxide,  in addition to other
pollutants,  from motor vehicles alone,  into the atmosphere.  We regard it as a vast
boundless dumping place for our aerial garbage.

                                           vi

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       More facts and figures could be stated.  However, these facts and figures should
not be our only criteria; what about the esthetics?  What about the beauty of nature
to enhance our life and our well-being?  The beauty of our environment is now obscured by
smog; the fresh, crisp air on a clear morning is polluted by the smell of combustion.
Will our future generations be just hibernating in air conditioned dwellings and become
oblivious to the sense of outdoor beauty?  Will life offer nothing but technology and to
quote Sarton produce only "technocrats"?  For some time to come we will be inhabitants
of this planet, dependent for life on the air surrounding us.  With all the admiration
we have for the great technological achievements, we should be mindful also of the
every-day humdrum environment in which we live, and do  all we can to make it a healthful
and beautiful place in which to live.


                                                      A. G. C.
                                       REFERENCES


Lanciani, Rodolfo Amadeo:  Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries.  Eighth
Edition.  Boston, 1892.

Lewin, Louis:  Die Kohlenoxydvergiftung. Ein Handbuch ftir Mediziner, Techniker,  und
Unfallrichter-   (Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  A Manual for Physicians, Engineers and
Accident  Investigators.)  Julius Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1920, 370 pp.

Medizinischer Monatsspiegel.  Eine Zeitschrift fttr den Arzt.  (Medical Monthly Mirror.
A Journal for Physicians.)  Heft 12, Dec. 1957.

Mumford,  Lewis:  The City in History.  Its Origins, Its Transformation and Its Prospects.
Harcourt  Brace and World Inc., 1961, 657 pp.

Restoring the Quality of Our Environment.  Report of the Environmental Pollution Panel,
President's  Science Advisory Committee.  The White House, Nov. 1965, 317 PP-

Sarton, George:  A Guide to the History of Science..  A First Guide for the Study of the
History of Science.  With Introductory Essays on Science and Tradition.  Walthara, Mass.,
Chronica  Botanica, Co., 1952, 3l6 Pp.
                                           vii

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                                       INTRODUCTION


       Although this annoted bibliography on carbon monoxide includes publications from
1880 to 1966, it represents a selection from the wealth of literature on this subject.

       Many sources have been used in preparing this bibliography,  including other bibio-
graphies, books, journals, and reviews on the subject.  Where an abstract has been
adapted from other bibliographic sources, credit is given by adding the abbreviation of
the publication, or initials of the abstractor, at the end of that particular abstract.
(See Glossary of Abbreviations.)

       The bibliography proper is arranged under subjects.  Within each subject the
abstracts are arranged by first author, or by first significant word in the title, if
no author is given.  Since many articles contain material on several phases of the
subject, an effort has been made to place each abstract under the most pertinent subject.
An item number at the upper left of each abstract is used for identification.

       In addition to the bibliographic listing of the abstracts,  the State, City-County
and Inter-State Eeports are listed separately,  as well as miscellaneous references.
These entries are not numbered.  The State, City-County and Inter-State Reports are
listed alphabetically by geographic name.  Some are briefly annotated.  "Miscellaneous
References" are listed by title.

       There is a complete author index, listing all United States authors,  but only two
authors of foreign publications.  The authors are arranged alphabetically listing the
number of the corresponding abstract and, in parentheses,  the year of publication.
Dashes and commas are used to indicate whether the author is the principal,  second,
third, fourth author, etc.  For example:

                                 Larsen, R.I.,  851 (1966),
                                    -, 676 (1965), -, -,  909 (1965)

       This indicates that Larsen, R.I. is the principal author of item 851, the second
of 676, and the third author of item 909.

       A Geographic Location Index and Glossary of Abbreviations complete this
bibliography.
                                           viii

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                          BIBLIOGRAPHICAL LISTINGS


ANALYSIS
1.    Air injection has high potential.   Chem. & Eng.  Mews k$:k6  (May 31}
      1965.

      Recent work on air-injection systems shows that  method has  potential
      for nearly eliminating, not just reducing, hydrocarbons and possible
      carbon monoxide from exhausts.  Gore of the system is a pump that
      injects air into an autofs exhaust manifold.  Du Pont, according
      Dr. Cantwell, is doing work on ceramics that might be strong
      enough for manifolds to make air-injection system commercial
      practicable.  Present manifold not durable but do cut hydrocarbon
      emission to 51*- p.p.m. and carbon monoxide to 0.6%.  Other tests  by
      General Motors show higher levels but in their opinion, also, good
      potential exists for the system.  -  CBK


 2.    Adams, E.G., and Simmons, H.T.:  The determination of carbon monoxide
      by means of iodine pentoxide. J. Appl.  Chem.  (London) l(Suppl.  l):
      S20-SiK>, 1951.

      Difficulties in the application of  iodine pentoxide to the  determination
      of carbon monoxide in mine air, Diesel  exhaust gas, coal gas, etc.,
      are reviewed.   Re-examination of the problems has shown that they can
      readily be overcome.
             The preparation of pure iodic acid and fully reactive iodine
      pentoxide is discussed.  A trouble-free purifying and drying train,
      employing solid reagents only, for  the  removal of interfering gases,
      is described and the  effect of lower paraffinic  hydrocarbons is
      discussed.  -   Authors' Abst.
      Allen, T.H., and Root, W.S.:  Colorimetric determination of carbon
      monoxide in air by improved palladium chloride method. J. Biol.
      Chem. 216:309-317 (Sept.) 1955.

      Ghristmn's method of analyzing CO in air by the reduction of Pd CCU
      has been extremely improved so that it is suitable for use in physiolo-
      gical experiments.  With samples of less than 100 ml* it is possible
      to analyze CO percentages of 9^»2, 0.03X), and even less. The accuracy
      and consistency of the method are shown by recovery of 99.6$, with a
      standard deviation of 2.21$.  The lower-most limit -of the method, which
      has not been approached, has to do with the least quantity of Pd CL^
      that can be accurately measured by spectrophotometry of Pdlp solutions.-
      APCA 582

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      Anderson, T., and Dahlstrom, H.:  A clinical method for the
      determination of carbon monoxide  in air.  Sc. Tools (Stockholm)
      5:9-11  (April) 1958.

      An, objective method for determining the concentration of  carbon
      monoxide in air in the  range 1-100  ppm. using indicator tubes
      according to Shepherd is described.   The  sample is passed at a
      constant flow through the indicator tube  mounted  in the
      optical path of a Beckman Model-B spectrophotometer and the  time
      required to obtain a certain extinction value is  measured.   This
      time is a function of the CO concentration in the sample.  The
      sensitivity of the method is very high and corresponds to an error
      of the  order of 1-6$ in the range investigated.   In addition, it
      has  several considerable advantages over  earlier  methods.  Once
      a calibration curve has been obtained, the method is  absolute and
      requires no standard gas mixtures.   It is completely  independent
      of the  existing lighting conditions as veil  as  of the investigator's
      color sense.  It is easily adapted  to different ranges of carbon
      monoxide concentrations.  Finally,  a relatively small quantity  of
      sample  gas  is required  even at very low CO concentrations.   -
      APCA 2118
5.    Ayer, H.E., and Saltzman, B.E.:  Note on interferences by oxides
      of nitrogen with estimations of carbon monoxide in air by the NBS
      indicating tubes.  Araer. Indust. Hyg. Ass. J. 20:337-339 (Aug.)
      1959.

      Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide interference with carbon
      monoxide estimations by the NBS indicating tube were investigated.
      Both oxides were found to interfere seriously, the nitrogen
      dioxide to a great extent,  nitrogen dioxide interference can be
      eliminated and nitric oxide intereference considerably reduced by
      using a U-tube with solid potassium permanganate in the upstream
      leg and Ascarite in the downstream leg.  The U-tube is flushed with
      the contaminated air, using the rubber bulb, and then connected
      ahead of the indicating tube.  The field determination of carbon
      monoxide is then made in the usual way.  No interference may be
      expected from concentrations of nitrogen oxides up to 15$ of that
      of carbon monoxide.  If an HBS tube estimation without the U-tube
      does not give a color lighter than one made with the tube, thea
      nitrogen dioxide can be presumed to be within its threshold limit
      of 5 ppm.  The degree of interference eliminated by the tentative
      method reported here was sufficient for immediate needs.  -
      APCA 2732


6.    Beatty, R.L.:  Methods for Detecting and Determining Carbon
      USBM B557 (Rev.  of TP582), 1955, 3^ PP.

      This publication discusses the various methods now used more or
      less generally for detecting and determining carbon monoxide in air
      and in other gaseous mixtures, outlining briefly the reactions or

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    principles upon which the methods are based, the range of
    concentrations that may "be determined, and the accuracy of
    determination.  Other methods that are specialized in application
    or that have not received general use are discussed in less detail.
    References are given to pertinent original publications that
    describe the methods in greater detail.  Methods for detecting and
    determining carbon monoxide that have been developed since this
    publication first was issued by the Bureau of Mines SMTP 582:
    Methods for the Detection and Determination of Carbon Monoxide,
    by Berger, L.B., and Schrenk, H.H.  -  Author's Abst.


7.  Berger, L.B., and Sehrenk, H.H.:  Methods for the Detection and
    Determination of Carbon Monoxide.  U.S. Bureau of Mines Technical
    Paper #582, 1938, 30 pp.

    Carbon monoxide may be formed in any process involving the oxidation
    or combustion of carbon-containing material, hence it occurs as a
    product of many industrial and domestic processes.  It may be
    considered a normal product of combustion)  as in automobile exhaust
    gas, or an abnormal product, as in the gases from space heaters.
    Contamination of the atmosphere with carbon monoxide is hazardous
    to the health and safety of persons exposed to such atmospheres.
           The numerous accidents caused by carbon monoxide have led to
    a more general appreciation of the hazards created by this gas and
    have aroused increasing interest in methods for its detection  and
    determination in the atmosphere.  Knowledge of these methods should
    promote health and safety, and they should be applicable to many
    processes that are studied or controlled by gas analysis.
           This publication discusses the various methods now used more
    or less generally for the detection and determination of carbon
    monoxide, the range of concentrations that may be determined,  and
    the accuracy of the determination.  The reactions or principles upon
    which the methods are based and the technique of operation are
    described briefly.  References are given to publications that  describe
    the methods in greater detail, but no attempt has been made to compile
    a complete bibliography.  -  Authors' Introduction


8.  Berger, L.B.:  Determination of Carbon Monoxide by Absorption in
    the Haldane Type of Gas-Analysis Apparatus.  Bureau of Mines Kept.
    Investigations Wo. 4l37, 19^7, 6 pp.

    A method is described for determining small concentrations (0.2
    to 0.5 percent) of carbon monoxide by absorption in a cuprous
    sulfatebeta naphthol-sulfuric acid reagent, known commercially as
    "cosorbent."  The modifications necessary to adapt a Haldane gas-
    analysis apparatus for this purpose are illustrated.  Experiments
    with synthetic gaseous mixtures demonstrated an accuracy and
    precision of better than +0.5 percent for CO in concentrations
    of 0.10 percent or more.  Unsaturated hydrocarbons and hydrogen
    interfere with the results to the same extent that they are soluble
    in the reagent employed.  A comparison of the analyses of several
    samples by this absorption method and two other methods yielded

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     agreement within + 0.05 percent between the various methods used.
     The absorption method is quite rapid and only requires 20 ml. of
     sample.  -  BMB 1520


     Broering, L.C., Jr.:  An evaluation of techniques  for measuring air-
     fuel ratio.  Presented at the SAE Annual Meeting,  Detroit, Jan. 10-
     14,  1966.

     Pour methods for determining air-fuel ratio by exhaust analysis are
     compared.  The methods selected for study are all  potentially useful
     with analyses of integrated samples obtained in road tests or
     exhaust  samples generated in the laboratory.  A V-8 engine mounted
     on an engine dynamometer was used to generate exhaust, from which
     the air-fuel ratios were determined simultaneously by the various
     methods. The air-fuel ratio of the mixture delivered to the engine
     was determined by measuring directly the quantities of air and fuel
     supplied.  This value was compared to those obtained by the four
     exhaust  analysis techniques.  Comparisons were made during normal
     operation and during conditions of deliberate cylinder misfire to
     simulate the most adverse combustion condition encountered on the
     road.  - Author's Abst.
10.  Chass,  B.L., Luche, R.G.,  Tow, P.S., and Shaffer, N.H.:  Total air
     pollution emissions in Los Angeles County.   J. APCA 10:351-3^6
     (Oct.)  I960.

     The Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District conducts
     extensive studies of the emissions of air contaminants into the
     Los Angeles atmosphere.  Results of these studies show 1500 tons
     of hydrocarbons, 60 tons of aldehydes and ketones, 150 tons of
     other organic gases, 100 tons of aerosols,  700 tons of oxides of
     nitrogen,  550 tons of sulfur dioxide and 5^50 tons of carbon
     monoxide emitted daily.  These emissions are catalogued by source
     and,  where possible, emission factors have also been included.
     Procedures used by the APCD In obtaining basic data and utilizing
     these data for preparing estimates are explained.  Examples are
     given of survey letters and questionnaire forms.  The value of
     total air pollution data to an air pollution program is discussed
     briefly and the APCD scheme of graphically displaying the emission
     estimates is illustrated.   - APCA 2822


 11.  Choiak,  J.g   Maturecf  atmospheric pollution in  a number of
     Indust.  Communities.   Proceedings of  the  Second National Air
     Pollution Symposium, May 5-6,  1952, Pasadena,  Calif., pp. 6-15,

     This report  deals with following atmospheric  contaminants
     present  in atmosphere  of certain American communities!
     suspended matter, carbon dioxide, carbon  monoxide,  the
     halogens, sulfur compounds,  ammonia,  the  oxides of  nitregen,
     and a group of aldehydes.   Since determinations of  CO, which
     exists  at an approximately uniform level  of 0.03%  (300 ppm)

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     in  the normal  atmosphere, are not  commonly made,  few compara-
     tive data are  available.  Findings are given in a table.
     The gradual increase  in the  averages and the ranges  of
     concentration  are shown proceeding from  rural  toward the more
     industrialized urban  areas.   Seasonal variations  in  the
     concentrations were not pronounced and are not shown.   The
     data for  Chicago and  Salt Lake City, are in good  agreement
     with those for Cincinnati ,   -AGC.


12.  Cholak, J., Schafer, L*J., and Hoffer,  R»F. :  Besults of a five-
     year investigation of air pollution in Cincinnati.  AMA Arch.
     Indust. tyg. & Occupat. Med. 6:31^-325 (Oct.) 1952.
     Carbon monoxide was determined at selected points in Cincinnati
     over 2k months during the years 19^7-1950.  The method of
     determination is not given in this paper.  The ranges of mean
     concentrations in rural areas was 0-15 ppm, mean less than 5
     in residential areas 0.25 PPm* mean k ppm; in industrial and
     commercial areas 0-55 PP% mean 9-5 Ppm.  The mean of all sections
     was 7*5 Ppm.  In two downtown locations on December 19 and 20,
     19^9 ji the range was 5-50 ppm and the mean 20.2 ppm.  One test
     result of 200 ppm was not included in the foregoing data as it
     occurred "briefly when a bus stopped near the sampling site.  -
     PHS-BG 5676


 13. Cholak, J:       Measurement of air pollution.  A.M. A. Arch. Indust.
     Hyg.  & Occupat.  Med. 10:203-209   (Sept.)
     Attempts to detect and measure the constituents of the atmosphere on a
     comprehensive  scale are of rather recent origin.  Although many data are
     available on certain air pollutants, procedures and equipment are lacking
     for collecting and analyzing these and many other pollutants during
     adverse weather conditions.  Hot even a tentative appraisal of the impact
     of air pollution upon community health can be obtained solely through
     the determination of the qualitative and quantitative'Qoaiposition of the
     atmosphere of  communities, but it is evident that no satisfactory under-
     standing of the matter can be achieved without fairly comprehensive
     information of this type.  It seems necessary threfore that this, probably
     the simplest aspect of the general problem, should be investigated widely
     and intensively.  -Author's Sum.


Ik.  Cholak, J.,  Schafer, L.J., and Yeager, D.W.:  The concentration of
     ozone in the atmosphere of certain American cities.  J. APCA 5:227-
     248 (Feb. ) 1956.

     The determination of oxldant in the atmosphere of 10 Eastern and
     Midwestern American cities by the method used in the Los Angeles
     area demonstrates that the concentration of oxidant, as so
     determined and recorded, varies Inversely with the concentration
     of sulfur dioxide present in the atmosphere.  The levels of
     concentration  of oxidant were generally so low as not to lend

                                     5

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     themselves,  through quantitatively adequate fluctuations,  to
     correlation with meteorologic variables.
            The levels of concentration of carbon monoxide in the
     atmosphere,  so far as this was investigated,  appeared to vary
     with the density of motor traffic.  The concentration during the
     day generally reached its peak during the period of maximum
     traffic, but on other days it remained at a uniform level  (whether
     high or low) throughout the entire day.  The latter fact would
     seem to indicate that there are highly significant sources of
     carbon monoxide in the atmosphere which do not depend upon
     vehicular traffic,  or—what is more llkely-rthat the concentration
     varies with the turbulence of the air at  the site.  -  Authors'
     Abst. Modified.
     Cholak, J.,  Schafer,  L.J.,  Yeager,  D.W., .and Younker, W.J.:   Gaseous
     contaminants in the atmosphere.  Arch.  Indust. Health 15:198-206
     (March) 1957.

     The concentration of  sulfur dioxide in  Cincinnati varied with the
     season.  It  was lowest during the summer when the combustion of solid
     fuel was at  a minimum.  The level of concentration  of oxidant as
     recorded by  the potassium iodide recorder varied  inversely with the
     concentration of sulfur dioxide; it was highest in  the summer. The
     oxidant was  usually highest during  the  afternoon  and lowest  during the
     night.  The  pattern was different from  that  observed in downtown
     Los Angeles  where the maximum concentration  was generally reached  near
     the middle of the day.  The concentration of the  oxidant in  Cincinnati
     ranged between 0,2 and 6 pphm.  The concentration of nitrogen dioxide
     ranged -between 0.2 and 9.5 pphm, and was generally  highest at night.
     The lowest concentrations were found when the oxidant was highest.
     The concentration of carbon monoxide at all  periods was very near  the
     limit of detection of the method employed, generally below 1 ppm.  The
     effects of meteorological factors on the fluctuation in the  four
     contaminants should be determined by an extended  program of  monitor-
     ing with continuous recording equipment*  More information is needed
     to establish the relationship between the fluctuations in the con-
     centrations  of oxidant and nitrogen dioxide  in the  air«  Continuous
     records for total nitrate and nitric oxide would  be of value in
     establishing the fate of the nitrogen dioxide in  the atmosphere. -
     Authors' Abst.


15.  Chovin, P.:   Studies of Atmospheric Pollution in the Department of
     the Seine, in 1963*  Municipal Laboratory Police  Headquarters, Paris,
     France, l$6k.

     1963 test results for continuing studies in  Paris,  France, titled
     "Carbon Monoxide," "Policemen 1963," "Seine  Loop,"  and  "Smokeless
     Zones," are  reported.  Previous years'  results are  confirmed.
     Surface and underground tunnel measurements  of CO in air are
     compared. The CO pollution level in the air vent from "considerable"
     in 1962 to "serious"  in 1963* 'bu'b in the first 9  months  of 196*4.,
     the situation reversed to that of 1962. The increase  in 1963 is

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     ascribed to the number of new roads and concurrent traffic increase.
     CO levels in blood were examined in a CO-exposed population consisting
     of industrial employees, auto drivers involved in accidents, and
     individuals suffering from CO exposure.  Tests for "average real
     risk" of carbon monoxide absorption by individuals indicated that
     the auto drivers as a group had a much higher level of carbon
     monoxide in the blood than that of the rest of the population
     studied, including workers exposed professionally.  -  CBK (from
     French)


16.  Christman,  A.A., Block,  W.D., and Schultz,  J.:   Determination of
     carbon monoxide in air.   Indust.  Eng.  Chem. (Anal.  Edition) 9:153-156
     (April 15) 1937-

     A comparatively siinple procedure  requiring very little special  apparatus
     is described for the determination of carbon monoxide  in air.   The
     method is based primarily on the  fact that palladium chloride is
     reduced by carbon monoxide and the excess of palladium chloride which
     is present is determined colorimetrically after addition of potassium
     iodide. - Authors' Sum.


17.  Cier:  Detection and measurement of carbon monoxide.   Rev. Corps
     Santi Militaire (Paris)  14:338-352 (Sept.) 1958.

     The author reviews and briefly discusses some of the various
     methods for the detection and measurement of carbon monoxide.
     These are grouped under the 2 headings of chemical  methods and
     physical methods.  The chemical methods are those based on the
     oxidation of CO (in the presence of metallic oxides; by anhydrous
     iodine liberating iodine gas; by metallic salts), or the
     formation of complexes.   Physical methods involve either an
     indirect (by first absorbing the  gas) or a direct approach*
     Several of the latter methods, such as refractometry,
     interferometry, polarography, or those based on conductibility,
     are not readily available in small laboratories.  A practical
     method based on infrared spectrography is discussed in soao detadl.
     There is appended a. bibliography of 5.2 items.   - APCA 2737


 18. Ciuhandu, G;   Photometric determination of carbon monoxide in the air.
     fresenius Zeitschrift fur Analytische  Chemie 155:321-327, 1957.

     A photometric process of CO determination based on  gas absorption in  an
     alkaline silver compound solution of the p-sulfonamide-benzoate  is
     discussed in this paper.  The silver compound is being reduced to metallic
     silver which remains in  colloidal distribution.  The extinction  of the
     silversol is being measured and is proportional, according to working
     prescriptions,  in the area of 0.001-0.5$ CO.  By wavelenghts below 500 mu
     there is a considerable  increase  in  the extinction.  For this reason
     incasurements are made during short  periods of  light.  With a ZEISS -
     filter £&2 the incasurement sensitivity is  about doubled.  The method
     of CO determination is described  in  detail. -Author's abst. translated AGC

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19.  Clayton, G.D., Cook, W.A., and Frederick, W.G.:  A study of the
     relationship of street level carbon monoxide concentrations to
     traffic accidents.  Amer. Indust. Hyg. Ass. 21:46-54 (Feb.) I960.

     Three locations representative of different traffic situations, and
     one residential, non-traffic location in Detroit were monitored for
     CO level using 2 MSA Lira Infra-red Gas Analyzers and one Perkin-
     ELmer Tri-non Infra-red Gas Analyzer, Model 105.  Sampling sites:
     1) Central Business ^strict—triangular traffic island, 50 feet to
     a side, in the middle of busy intersection; 2) neighborhood Shopping
     Area—inlet k feet above street at curb line;  3) Depressed Highway--
     inlet k feet above street, at curb line; 4) Residential Area--back
     yard of home.  Results:  1) Central Business restrict--21 weeks
     sampling.  Range, 0-100 ppm; median, 9 ppm.  2) Neighborhood Shopping
     Area—-58 weeks sampling.  Range, 0-100 ppm; median, 10 ppm.  3)
     Depressed Highway--27 weeks sampling.  Range,  0-100 ppm; median,
     8 ppm.  k) Residentail Area—18 weeks.  Range, 0-29 £Pm> median,
     2 ppm.
            CO levels in the driver's breathing zone of passenger
     automobiles were also measured, using an MSA Type 45^11 carbon
     monoxide indicator.  Levels in the automobiles were higher than at
     curb side, but were judged not physiologically significant.  Range,
     0-120 ppm; median, 17 ppm.  Blood samples were analyzed from 237
     persons involved in traffic accidents, (drivers, passengers, and
     pedestrians).  Only 3 had CO-hemoglobin saturation exceeding 10$,
     the generally accepted threshhold for impairment of driving ability.
     The conclusion is that ambient CO levels in Detroit are not
     sufficient to impair driving ability.
 19a.  Clayton,  G.D.,  Cook, W.A., and Fredrick, W.G.:  Carbon Monoxide and
      Its Relation to Traffic Accidents.  Report of Research - U.S. PHS
      Grant RG 5676 National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, Michigan
      (Received Feb.  1964).

      Carbon monoxide is a common air pollutant in urban areas.  To what
      extent this  gas contributed to traffic accidents was the basis for
      an extensive study in Detroit, Michigan*  Variations in carbon
      monoxide gas concentration in the atmosphere near streets can be
      partially explained by changes in meteorological and traffic
      conditions.   A  statistical analysis has demonstrated that hourly
      carbon monoxide concentration can be predicted with sufficient
      accuracy using  as explanatory variables traffic density, temperature
      inversion, wind speed, and temperature.  Variations in the effect of
      traffic density were found for the several regressions fitted.  The
      smaller positive coefficient at the depressed highway station
      suggested that  because of a more rapid flow of traffic, a larger
      input of traffic is needed at the margin per unit output of gas.
      The larger coefficient at the neighborhood shopping and downtown
      Detroit locations indicated a less significant role for the ground
      turbulence variable.  Large traffic density coefficient were
      established  at  the neighborhood shopping area.  The significance of
      the meteorological variables on carbon monoxide concentration levels
      also varied  by  sampling location.  Although only tentative conclusions

                                     8

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     may be drawn from the downtown Detroit data, the meteorological impact
     appears strongest at this  station.  Whatever dispersive or retentive
     effect these variables may have at the other two locations, there they
     appear to be of  secondary  importance when compared with the ground
     turbulence created "by the  more rapid flow of traffic.  Investigators
     state that downtown Detroit, with its congested traffic, taH
     buildings, and slow traffic movement, has the necessary input to make
     it a potential air pollution danger area.  Investigators further state
     that it is precisely in this part of the city additional research may
     well be directed.  For the present and immediately succeeding years
     the current study has demonstrated that ambient carbon monoxide as an
     air pollutant  is not a factor in causation of motor vehicle accidents
     under urban conditions comparable to those existing during the course
     of this study.  There are  29 tables and 26 figures.  -  Authors' Sum.
     Jfodified-AGC


 20.  Colucci,  J.M., and Begeioan,  C.R.:  The automotive contribution to
      air-borne polynuclear arozaatic  hydrocarbons in Detroit.  J. APCA
      15:113-122 (March) 1965.

      The General Motors Research Laboratories and the Sloan-Kettering
      Institute for Cancer Research are  collaborating to determine the
      contribution by automotive vehicles to the polynuclear aroiaatic
      hydrocarbons in city air.   San^ling of particulate zaatter at the
      rate of 140 I-P/min (5000 cfm) was  carried out at two heavily-
      trafficked sites in  Detroit and one suburban site in Warren, Michigan.
      Carbon monoxide was  determined  continuously, and particulate Hatter
      was analyzed for "tar,'1  polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, lead,
      vanadium,  and sulfates.   Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in
      automobile exhaust gas  are assumed to be dispersed in air along with
      carbon monoxide or lead from automobiles.  It is further assumed that
      automobiles are the  sole source of carbon monoxide and lead in the
      atmosphere.   Concentrations of  carbon monoxide and lead in exhaust
      gas and in the air are utilized to estimate the percentage of
      polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons  in the air attributable to
      automobiles.   The aean  automobile  contributions to benso(a)pyrene
      in the air,  based on lead concentrations, were 18$ at a Freeway
      Interchange,  5$ in a, downtown coianercial area, and k2% in suburban
      Warren.   The~average concentrations of benzoCaJpyrene at the sites
      were 6 ug/Kr M , 7  ug/10  M5 and  1 ug/Kr M5, respectively.  Mean
      contributions based on  carbon monoxide concentrations were approximately
      twice the levels based  on lead  concentrations.  Benzo(a)pyrene and
      benz(a)anthracene in air were not  statistically related to carbon
      monoxide or lead in  air,  but were  higher in winter than in sunmer,
      probably because of  the  higher  levels of these materials emitted in
      space heating combustion in winter.  -  Authors' Abst.


21.   Connolly, J.I., Martinek, M.J., and Aeberly, J.J.:  The  carbon monoxide
      hazard in city streets.  Amer.  J. Pub. Health 18:1375-1383, 1928.

      An investigation was carried on in Chicago wherein 690 street-air
      samples were collected and tested  for carbon monoxide content.  The

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    distribution of samples by concentration brought out three type of
    streets:  Residential and industrial; traffic and carline; 3"ft motorcar
    boulevards.  The boulevards had approximately twice the air pollution
    of the traffic streets, and four times that of the residential and
    industrial streets.  A definite correlation was found between the number
    of motorcars passing at the time the sample vere collected and the
    amounts of carbon monoxide found to be present.  When no car was passing
    for 5 minutes the carbon monoxide was as low as 0.1 part per 10,000.
    Two peaks occurred daily, coinciding with the morning and evening rush
    hours.  The concentration for such times is enough to menace the health
    of anyone exposed for several hours to such an atmosphere, particularly
    if his 'activities call for deep and rapid breathing.  Further studies
    are required to determine the concentration of carbon monoxide in the
    blood of such persons, and the presences of any injury to health.  It is
    recommended that idling of motors on street should be restricted to a
    minimum, and it is pointed out that the whole question is one of
    increasing importance.- BMB 398


22.  Del Vecchio,  V.,  D'Arca,  B.} and Talenti, M.:  Carbon monoxide
     intoxication and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere in Rome.  Nuovi
     Ann.  d'Igiene e Microbiol. 7:81-102, 1956.

     The 1st part of this article discusses the origin of CO contamination
     of the atmosphere of towns, the  pathogenesis of CO poisoning, the
     relation between syniptoms and  concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin
     (COHb) and the atmospheric concentrations estimated by investigators
     in various cities of the world.  The chief source of CO in urban
     surroundings is the presence of escape gases from motor vehicles,
     estimated in proportions varying from 3-lk$, depending on the
     nature of the fuel,  the cylinder performance, traffic congestion,
     confined spaces,  etc.   The affinity of CO for hemoglobin is 210
     times greater than that of Og,  so  that only  .small amounts of CO
     are necessary to immobilize significant amounts of hemogolbin with
     resulting decrease of Og transport by red blood corpuscles, leading
     to anoxemia and asphyxia.   CO  also binds respiratory ferments,
     interfering seriously with the oxidation-reduction mechanism, thus
     adding to  its asphyxiant action  the inhibition of respiratory
     tissue activation.   Its toxic  action is related essentially to the
     concentration of COHb.   A table  is given showing the correlation
     between the concentration of CO  and Og in inspired air, the
     duration of exposure and the condition of pulmonary ventilation.
     Thus,  for example,  if a man with pulmonary ventilation of 9.51./
     min.  is exposed for 2 hours to 0.03$ CO, the $ of COHb in the
     blood reaches 15,6;  in 3 hours it  reaches 20.  The coefficient of
     COHb/Hb indicates the % of Hb  effectively transformed into COHb.
     In man,  the lethal index is 0.66,  i.e., death takes place when 2/3
     of Hb is fixed.   In a normal person at rest, 10$ of COHb causes  no
     symptoms,  20$ slight headache, 32$ headache, irritability and
     vertigo,  50$ mental confusion  and  syncope, 66$ unconsciousness and
     death,  if prolonged.   In the 2nd part of the article, the authors
     describe their own investigation of the CO concentration in the
     air of Rome from tfov.  l9J&-Oct.  1955; in various zones, at
     different times and in varying weather conditions, using Drager's

                                   10

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     apparatus with l^Oe as the colorimetric agent.  The maximum
     concentration (0.015$) occurred in the Traforo del Quirinale in
     cloudy veather during intense traffic.  While this is not likely
     to cause appreciable intoxication in the adult pursuring his ordinary
     avocations,  individuals doing heavy work for 1-1/2 hours may
     experience initial symptoms, and in those spending a great part of
     their life in places where CO is constantly present may undergo
     some disturbance which may be aggravated by atmospheric contaminants.
     -  Kett.
23.  Eel Vccchio, V.:  Determination of carbon monoxide in the air.
     Minerva med. (Turin) 49:1028-1048 (March 21) 1958.

     Carbon monoxide is discussed as to nomenclature, physiochemical
     properties, toxicity, tolerable concentrations, and methods of
     measuring its concentration in the air.  Some of the semi-
     analytical methods of measurement in the air are listed and
     discussed in detail.  They fall into the 3 main groupings of:
     titrlmetric, using lentose oxide; photometric, using palladium
     chloride; and a method measuring the level of carboxyhemoglobin,
     or COHb, in the blood.  Some of the continuously or send-
     continuously measuring methods are also discussed.  Many
     schematic drawings and photographs of the testing equipment are
     included in the text, together with graphs showing the toxicity
     of CO as a function of concentration and of the period of time
     of exposure; the rate of saturation of hemoglobin with various
     concentrations of CO in the air; and the percentage of
     carboxyhemoglobin in the blood correlated with percentage of CO in „
     the air, the period of exposure, and the activity of the subject.
     -  APCA 2823


24.  Demidov, A.V., and Mokhov, L.A.:  Rapid Methods for the Determination
     of Harmful Gases and Vapors in the Air.  Medgiz, Moscow, 1962.  In:
     Levine, B.S. (translator):  U.S.S.R. Literature on Air Pollution and
     Related Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol. 10, 1964, 10$ pp.,
     CFSTI-TT-64-11767, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va.

     Following a short discussion of the bases of the rapid methods and
     of suggestions on the collecting of samples, information is given
     in considerable detail on various inorganic substances and on various
     organic substances in the air.  The inorganic substances are:   carbon
     monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides, hydrogen peroxide (HpOp), ozone (0,),
     chlorine (Clo)* hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen sulflde (llpS),
     carbon bisulfide (CSQ), ammonia and aliphatic amines, arsenic hydride
     or arsine (AsHg), antimonous hydride (SbHo), fluorine (Fg), sulfur
     dioxide (sulfurous anhydride, or sulfur dioxide, S0o)> mercury vapor
     (Hg), hydrocyanic acid (HCN), nickel tetracarbonyl  [(HiCCOjg^,
     carbon dioxide  (C02).  The organic substances are:  formaldehyde
     (HCOH), ethyl alcohol vapor ^HjjOH), liquid fuel vapor, phosgene
     (COC12) acetylene (C^SQ}, benzene vapor, ethylene oxide  (C2H40),
     aniline (CgHjUH^), acetone (CHg—CO—CEj).  f&ere are six appendices


                                    11

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     which give such information as volume, percent, and weight conversion
     formulas and tables; tables of ready calculated factors; and specific
     gravity equivalent concentrations for some acids.  -  APCA 7082


25.  Development of a Mathematical Model for Predicting Carbon Monoxide
     In an Urban Area.  Report of research on carbon monoxide and its
     relation to traffic accidents.  National Sanitation Foundation,
     Ann Arbor, Mich, (received Feb. 17, 1964),  U.S. PHS R.G. 5678.

     Carbon monoxide is a common air pollutant in urban areas*  A major
     objective of this study was the statistical estimation of the,
     parameters of those variables which influence atmospheric carbon
     monoxide concentration.
            It is known that variations in carbon monoxide gas
     concentration in the atmosphere near streets can be partially
     explained by changes in meteorological and traffic conditions.
     Although traffic density is the major contribution variable,
     meteorological factors such as wind speed,  tenrperature, temperature
     inversion, and wind direction must be. considered because of their
     relentive and dispersive effect on gases.  However, no one,  to  the
     knowledge of the investigators, has attempted statistically to
     assess the quantitative importance of these variables,  or to test
     the efficacy of a postulated mathematical model in .explaining carbon
     monoxide variability in the atmosphere.
            A statistical experiment was designed and executed in the
     city of Detroit.  Statistical analysis has demonstrated that
     hourly carbon monoxide concentration can be predicted with
     sufficient accuracy using as explanatory variables traffic density,
     temperature inversion, wind speed, and temperature.  There is
     evidence to Indicate that the impact of these variables differs
     by sampling location*  The significance of the meteorological
     variables on carbon monoxide concentration levels also  varies
     by sampling location.
            This study illustrates idle complementarity and importance
     of careful experimental design and proper statistical analysis.
     There are 29 tables, 26 figures and an annotated bibliography.
        AGC
26.  Dubois, L., and Monkman,  J.L.:   The analysis of carbon monoxide  in
     urban air at the PPM level and the normal carbon monoxide  value.
     J. APCA 16:135-139 (March) 1966.

     Present methods for the determination of carbon monoxide are  discussed
     including indicator tubes, the iodine pentoxide reaction and
     measurement by gas chromatography.  In the gas chromatographic
     method an air sample is separated on a gas-solid chromatographic
     column and the separated CO is converted to methane by hydrogenation
     at elevated temperature.   The separated CO, in the form of methane,
     is passed into a hydrogen flame detector and measured. The
     conversion from CO to methane allows the use of a  sensitive ionization
     detector in place of the thermal conductivity cell which is


                                    12

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     insufficiently sensitive for the measurement of trace amounts of CO.
     The optimum operating conditions are discussed.   It is possible to
     determine 1 ppm.  CO in air.   The iodine pentoxide reaction with CO
     has been combined with electrometric measurement.  The iodine liberated
     is passed into a Ditte cell  and the current generated is measured by
     an electrometer-recorder combination.  This method is continuously
     direct reading with a permanent record.  It is suitable for the
     continuous routine analysis  of 1 ppm. CO.  -  Authors'  Abst.


27.  Brawin, H.W.:   Mass spectrometric analysis of auto exhaust and air
     pollutants.  Autoiaobiltechnische Zeitung 62:104-109, 1960.

     With an electric or magnetic field arrangement mass spectrometry
     permits the separation of ions in space and time, according to
     their ratio of mass to electric charge.  The substance to be investigated
     has to be put into the ion sources in the form of gas or vapor.  The
     ion streams, in proportion with the concentrations of the components,
     are measured by oscillagraphy*  When investigating auto exhaust it
     can be directed through a pipe line to the mass spectrometer.  It is  to
     be observed that the condensating components (approximately 15$) are
     not lost to the analysis because this would falsify the results.  The
     usual instruments are to be equipped with reheat devices up to l80°C,
     auxiliary attachments even up to 350°C.  By other methods of sampling
     an evacuated glass flask can be used.  Mass spectrometry is also suitable
     for the analysis of other air pollutants.  -  AGC


 28, Dunlap, R.:  Carbon monoxide the silent killer.  Today's Health  (Wov.)
     1961, pp.   26-27, 67-68, and 71-72.

     Every year motor vehicles pour  out 169,600,000,000 pounds of CO into
     the air of  American cities.   The share of each urban dweller amounts  to
     some 30 pounds of the deadly gas every 2k hrs.  By 1970 an expected 100
     million vehicles will be traveling some trillion miles a year and the
     possible environmental danger from CO will have to be controlled.   CO
     has a remarkable affinity for red blood cells.  It is absorbed by them
     250 times as fast as oxygen.  The gas unites with the hemoglobin and
     keeps it from carrying oxygen to the tissues.  This means that even a
     seemingly inconsequential .02 percent CO can be lethal.  Tobacco
     smoking also increases the level of CO in the blood.  Police files show
     that every year 600 lives are lost due to carbon monoxide in the United
     States.  It is also assumed that this colorless, tasteless, nonirritating,
     and odorless poison gas is a contributing factor to a high percentage  of
     approximately 180,000 highway accidents caused annually by drivers who
     black out or fall asleep at the wheel.  Concern is expressed about the
     level of CO poisoning that may be encountered by a motorist smoking a
     cigarette.  Studies conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service's
     Division of Air Pollution and such by other authorities are discussed
     to alert the public to the danger of carbon monoxide. -AGC
                                    13

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 29 •  Edell,  G.M.:   Determination of small amounts  of carbon monoxide  in
     air.   (Abstract of Thesis,  Syracuse Univ.)  Indust. Eng.  Chem. 20:
     275 (March) 1928.

     It seemed desirable to test air for smaller concentrations of carbon
     monoxide than had previously been reported.   Oxidation by means  of
     iodine pentoxide was selected  as the most accurate method in use.
     Several test  analyses were  made from each of  four different
     concentrations of carbon monoxide in air, using an apparatus modeled
     after Graham's portable type with the bromine tube omitted.  One-
     liter samples of the two more  concentrated mixtures and 3-liter
     samples of the dilute mixtures were used.                    :
            It was found that only  the purest iodine pentoxide should be
     used.  Even then there was  a constant, though small, liberation  of
     iodine when pure air was drawn through the tubej  the rate of
     decomposition, however,  was nearly uniform.   It had to be determined
     and corrections made in computing the results of the analyses.   One
     tube filled with an inferior grade of iodine  pentoxide gave untrust-
     worthy results due to a high and uneven rate  of decomposition.
     Water displacement of the gas  sample from the reservoir and sampling
     bulb gave results fully as  accurate as vacuum displacement.
     No. of
     Deter-
     mina-
     tions


       6
       4
       5
       7
                               Analytical Results
            Carbon Monoxide
         Computed    Determined
         Per Cent    Per Cent
                    Deviation of Determined Per-
                       centages from Computed
                  Average    Maximum    Minimum
                  Per Cent   Per Cent   Per Cent
         0.0575
         0.0094
         0.0018
         0.0008
0.0599
0.0109
0.0027
0.0011
+0.0024
+0.0015
+0.0009
+0.0003
+0.0031
+0.0023
+0.0020
+0.0008
+0.0010
+0.000?
+0.0001
+0.0001
            The excellent checks obtained on the work of other investigators
     and the accuracy of determinations on  still more dilute concentrations
     mark the method as one having greater  refinement than is generally
     known,   and one whose limit of usefulness has not yet been determined.
     -  Author's Abst.
30.
Effenberger, 1.:  Carbon monoxide and its importance in hygiene*
Med. Meteorolog. Hefte No. 12, 1957?  PP-  128.

Author discusses in this reference work,  besides general data,  the
problem of carbon monoxide with special consideration of the
quantitative method of analysis of atmospheric and industrial air
and in the blood.  Small, amounts of CO in the air are being generally
analysed by the J/,0 5-method.  According to the method by Hschingen,
with minor changes by the author, which is described,  it is possible
to determine 0.001 Vol.-$ of CO.  Exact determination of CO
quantities below 0.001 Vol.-# are still very difficult to obtain.
The most sensitive methods at this time,  the iodine and the COHb
methods, are also only 7 to 10$ accurate.  The method for the
determination of CO in the blood by Wolff is described and considered
                                    14

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      by the author to "be the most simple and a more reliable procedure
      than the standard salt solution method.  It also has the advantage
      that the color comparison can be performed independently of wave
      length of light and also of the color of serum.  The accuracy of
      measurement increased to 3-5$.  An extensive bibliography completes
      this volume.  -  AGC
31.   Evans, R.H., and Davenport, J.E.:  Analysis of combustibles in flue
      gas.  Indust. Eng. Chem. (Anal. Ed.) 7:17^-178 (May 15) 1935-

      A laboratory procedure for flue-gas analysis, designed to estimate
      the loss due to incomplete combustion, is described, including a
      comparison of the results of field and laboratory procedures of flue-
      gas analysis from a recent efficiency test on a modern steam-generating
      unit.  A laboratory apparatus which, employing a synthetic flue gas,
      is capable of measuring this loss directly is also described.  -
      Authors1 Abst.
  32.   Evreux,  R.:   Green spaces in Rouen.   Current  status and prospects.
       Rev.  ^rg. Med.  Soc. (Paris)   11:243-2^8  (April-May) 1963.

       A study was made of the green spaces of  Rouen and its  suburbs.  In
       this  area the demographic growth is  very high, the economic activity
       intense, and the atmospheric pollution sometimes reaches an alarming
       rate.  The  levels of carbon monoxide in  the atmosphere of the arterial
       streets in  the center of the city are similar to those of Paris.  The
       levels of dust,  strong acids, and fumes  are, also high, with conditions
       being much  more severe during the winter.  In 1939 the green spaces
       represented only 1/lVf of the total  area of Rouen and  its suburbs.  Big
       improvements have been made during recent years but the area of the
       planted space should be doubled if the needs  of the town are to be
       completely  satisfied.  Different plans have been proposed to accom-
       plish this.   -  APCA 5732


  33.   Farre-Rius,  F.,  and Guiochon, G.: Rapid analysis by gas phase
       chromatography.   Separation of a mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, methane,
       and carbon  monoxide.  J. Chromatog, (Amsterdam) 13:382-390  (Feb.) 196^.

       By careful  preparation of molecular  sieve  5 A powder,  it is possible
       to obtain much more efficient and permeable columns than were
       previously  available.  With such columns a mixture of  Op, Mg,  CHlj.,
       and CO can  be resolved in less than  15 seconds.  - APCA 6366


   3^.  Fassina, L:   Fighting the toxic gases of the  atmosphere.  China, et
       lad.   (Part*) 84:529-531 (0£t.) I960.

       An attempt  was  made to perfect a chemical  catalytic system for the
       oxidation of toxic carbon monoxide with  the resulting  formation of  the
       more-or-less harmless compound, carbon dioxide.  This  was done during


                                     15

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     tne combustion of  petrol or gas-oil and air vapors  in the cylinders  of
     the engines of operating vehicles.   The device employed  the use  of
     Mn02,  to form, in  the presence of moisture, the compound Mn(OH)?0.
     This latter form combines with the  CO to produce C02  and the unstable
     compound Mh(OH)2,  which spontaneously absorbs  oxygen  from the air
     and again forms Mn(OH)20.  - APCA 3958


35.  Field, P., and McGuire, J.K.:  The need for more meaningful
     meteorological and air  quality observations for mortality and
     morbidity  studies.  In:  Air Over Cities.  Symposium,  SEC TR
     A62-5, USPHS,  Cincinnati, Ohio, 1962, CFSTI PB-167 552,  pp. 277-290.

     Author expresses in this paper the need for more knowledge on the
     interaction between pollutants in the atmosphere and between
     pollutants and weather  elements.  Observational and experimental
     evidence indicates that the toxic effect of CO, a pollutant, is
     enhanced by higher temperature, a meteorological element.  In order  -
     to  study more  specific  forms of illness, further investigation is
     needed to  ascertain the role played "by weather in transforming or
     altering pollutants in  the photochemical reactions, in the absorption
     of  gases and vapors on particulate material, and in catalytic
     oxidation  and other chemical and physical changes.   -  AGC


36.  Florentin, D.: On the  composition of the air in the streets of Paris.
     Compt. rend.,  Acad. Sc.  185:1538-1541,^1928.

     The observations by Florentin relate  to the presence of CO and CO,,.  The
     former was estimated by the  "blood method" described by himself and
     Vandenberghe.  The air  in  those streets where there is much motor traffic
     shows slight  increases  in C0» content and notable increases of CO content;
     the amount depends upon atmospheric conditions, an increase from less
     than 0.01  liter per cubic meter up to as much as 0,045 liter in still
     weather being observed  at  times.  The increase is greatest at ground
     level and  does not extend  to  the third floor  (troisieme etage).  Air for
     ventilation systems should be drawn from this level.   The air in the
     suburbs is much less polluted than that in the center of Paris.  A table
     shows the  result of 27  analyses.  - BMB 395


37.  Flynn, N.E.,  and  Grouse, W.R.:  Carbon monoxide emissions in the
     Bay Area  - 1963.  Bay Area APCD, San  Francisco, Calif., 18 pp.

     Total emissions of carbon monoxide  (CO) in the Bay Area Air Pollution
     Control District  for 1963  are estimated at 6500 tons per day.
     Table 1 contains  a summation of emissions  of  carbon monoxide by
     general source categories.
            Transportation is the major  category of carbon monoxide
     emissions  at  ty?60 tons  per day and accounts for 76% of all  carbon
     monoxide emissions.  Incineration comprises the largest  stationary
     sources of carbon monoxide  emissions  at 660 tons per day or kyfr of
     stationary sources.  Petroleum refinery operations contribute


                                   16

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      tons per day,  mainly from one fluid catalytic cracker.  Agricultural
      burning is estimated at 470 tons per day.
             Average concentration levels of carbon monoxide in the Bay
      Area range from 2 to 15 ppm (1963) with peaks as high as 49 ppm
      recorded (1958).  The trend in carbon monoxide emissions has been
      increasing in Los Angeles at the rate of approximately 1 ppm per
      year.  -  Authors' Sum.


38.   Georgii,  H.  W.,  and Weber,  E.:   Investigation of  carbon monoxide
      emission in a large city.  Internat.  J.  Air & Water Poll. 6:179-195
      (May-Aug.) 1962.

      This paper discusses continuous records  of the carbon monoxide con-
      centration of the air gained at different sampling stations with
      different traffic intensity in the city of Frankfurt,  Ger.  The
      method applied for these measurements was nondispersive ultrared-
      spectroscopy.  The diurnal trend of the  CO concentration is mainly
      influenced by the fluctuation of the traffic during the day.   The
      absolute CO values found are primarily determined by  wind velocity,
      wind direction,  and traffic density.   The results show that a wind
      velocity of 3 m./s. or more lead to an efficient dispersion of the
      automobile exhaust gases within the streets.  The investigations
      show that the automobiles are the only important source of CO in
      the city, and they are supplemented by measurements in 1 of the
      recently constructed parking garages and finally deal with pre-
      liminary results of the vertical distribution of CO above the streets.
      - APCA 4893.


39,   Giuliani. V., and Belli, R.:  Carbon monoxide.  Presence in the air of
      cities and the possibility of poisoning.  Folia Med.   (Naples) 38:238-248,
      1955.

      The carbon monoxide in the air of streets, squares, tunnels,  and places
      with heavy traffic, in industrial zones, and in the periphery of Naples
      was studied.  Toxic concentrations vere  not observed.   Persons exposed
      occupationally for many hours to the highest concentrations showed a
      carbon monoxide content in the blood within physiological limits
      and no case of poisoning is on record, - APCA 701


40.   Goldsmith, J.R.:  Recurrent carbon monoxide exposure.  Presented
      at the Western Indust. Ifcrg. Conf., San Francisco, Calif., Oct. 7»
      I960.

      Field investigations, methods applied, and some preliminary results
      are presented in this paper.  Means to introduce a very rapid,
      simple, and sensitive way of studying CO exposures were established.
      Using this method, values in equilibrated expired air greater than
      ten parts per million more than ambient should be considered as
      evidence of some carbon monoxide, source, either occupational, from
      inhalation of cigarette smoke,  from community air pollution, or


                                   17

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from hemoglobin breakdown.  The use of this test procedure for
screening purposes should facilitate the study of recurrent carbon
monoxide exposure.   -  Author's ana.


Goldsmith, J.R. :  Some epidemiologies! problems of community carbon
monoxide exposures.  Presented at the Air Pollution Research
Conference, Los Angeles, Calif., Dec. k-J, 1961.

The agent, carbon monoxide, was shown to fluctuate over time and
place.  This is a major factor in effects of exposures of human
populations.
       The patterns  of population exposure must include the exposure
of cigarette smokers, of those subjected to community air pollution,
those with exposures to motor vehicle exhaust during commuting,
and those with occupational exposure, to carbon monoxide.  A'
reasonable division  of the population in a community was shown to
consist of six different categories.  Another important population
variable consists of those usually sensitive to impaired oxygen
transport because of age or medical status.
       The mechanism of action is predominantly the impairment of
the oxygen transport function of the blood.  Other possible
mechanisms were discussed.
       A mathematical approach for predicting the time course of
carboxyhemoglobin, given the temporal fluctuation of carbon monoxide,
was derived.  These  mathematical expressions required some simpli-
fying assumptions.   The expressions were used to develop a computer
program, and with a  simulated set of sinusoidal exposure data*  the
expected carboxyhemoglobin was calculated, using, a method of
interative integration.
       The possible  synergistic effect of other pollutants was
reviewed.  -  Author's Sum.
Goldsmith, J.R.: Effects of air pollution on man.   Connecticut  Med.
27:455-464 (Aug.) 1963.

Community air pollution has been lethal in the disasters  of Dpnora and
London and possibly in the New York metropolitan area.  Community air
pollution is capable of causing acute illness and  interference  with
important bodily function.  In addition to its obvious  irritating effects,
some pollutants such as carbon monoxide produce a subtle  impairment of the
body's reserve for the transmission of oxygen to the living cell.  Com-
munity air pollution is suspected as one of the causes  of chronic lung
disease and lung cancer.  So far in the United States it  has not been
proven to produce these chronic conditions, but it has  been shown to do
so in England.  Community air pollution can be very irritating, can
interfere with visibility and produce property damage.
      Medical judgment has much to do with the control  of air pollution
and the prevention of further pollution. - Author's Sum.
                                18

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43.  Goldsmith, J.R., Terzaghi, J., and Hackney, J.D.:  Evaluation of
     fluctuating carbon monoxide exposures.  Arch of  Environ. Health
     7:647-663 (Dec.) 1963.

     The patterns of population exposure must include exposure of
     cigarette smokers, of those subjected to community air pollution,
     those with exposures to motor vehicle exhaust during commuting, and
     those with occupational exposure to carbon monoxide.  Combinations
     of these exposures were reduced to 6 typical daily routines which
     approximated the exposures usually encountered by the population.
     Estimated exposure of automobile commuter is about 35 PPm* twice
     normal downtown peak, for duration of trip.  Estimated exposure of
     cigarette smoker is 475 ppm for 6 minutes smoking time per
     cigarette.  -  LEPS
 44. Goldsmith, J.R.:  Uses of medical and epideirdological research ii_
     the control and prevention of air pollution.  Proc. Royal Soc. Med.
     57(Part 2):1034-1040  (Oct.) 1964.

     Control by local agencies of visible smoke, odor,  and soiling is
     usually carried out without specific reference to medical or
     epidemiological research.  Systematic atmospheric monitoring usually
     raises questions about the effects on health of exposure to specific
     pollutants.  While medical and epidemiological data from exposures
     to sources other than community air pollution may provide specific
     answers,  quantitative relationships cannot usually be derived.
     Medical and epidemiological research is needed to assess the effects
     of air pollution on health.  While the questions may originally be
     asked in  terms  of mortality and morbidity rates, the most valid
     OEjavars   are likely to be in terms of sensory irritation, interference
     with  function,  or impairment of visibility.  With such information,
     valid air quality criteria and standards may be defined and used as
     a basis for regulating the emission of existing pollutants and for
     planning.  In. California., air quality standards for oxidant and for
     carbon monoxide have  been used as a basis for control of motor vehicle
     emissions.  Air conservation is a recent concept which is partly
     dependent on medical  and epidemiological research.  It emphasizes
     the need  to apply existing knowledge to planning for urban land use,
     transportation, industrial development and use of fuel and power so
     that  air pollution may be prevented.  Epidemiological studies of
     the chronic effects of air pollution in the United States have been
     more  complicated than in the United Kingdom because of population
     mobility  and changing patterns of e:rposure to pollution.  Estimations
     of individual exposure to carbon monoxide are now practical and
     investigations  on other pollutants are being undertaken.  Many of
     these problems  are reflected in the differing points of view concerning
     use of sulphur-containing fuels for thermal power generating stations
     in Los Angeles.  Recent pollution in Los Angeles has not been shown
     to have long-term effects; if such effects were seen they would
     represent a sericus failure to use available medical and epidemiological
     information to  protect the public health.  -  APCA 64-290

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^5*  Baldane, J. :  A method of detecting and estimating carbonic oxide in
     air.  J. Physiol. 18:^63-^69, 1895-

     In view of the very poisonous nature of carbonic oxide, and the
     comparative frequency with which cases of poisoning "by this gas occur,
     much attention has "oeen given to its detection and estimation.  No
     satisfactory method has hitherto been described, however, for determin-
     ing very small, "but still more or less poisonous, percentages of
     carbonic oxide in air.  There is special difficulty when, as almost
     always happens, marsh-gas or other hydrocarbons are present along with
     the carbonic oxide.
            The method described in this paper is very simple, and depends
     on the fact that when a haemoglobin solution is well shaken with air
     containing carbonic oxide the proportion of the haemoglobin,  which
     finally combines with the carbonic oxide, varies with the percentages
     of carbonic oxide present in the air.  By determining colorimetricaHy
     the proportion of the haemoglobin which has combined with the carbonic
     oxide it is thus possible to infer the percentage of carbonic oxide
     present in the air.


k6.  Hamming, W.J., MacPhee, PUD. , and Taylor, J.R. :   Contaminant
     concentrations in the atmosphere of Los Angeles County.  J. APCA
     10:7-16 (Feb.) I960.

     The carbon monoxide concentrations are recorded by means of
     nondispersing infrared analyzers.  Monthly average values plotted
     for the years 1955 through 1958 showed 3 to 12 ppm as the Basin
     averages and k to 13 ppm for downtown sampling  stations.   The
     trend was from an average of 5 Ppm in 1955 to 8  ppm for the first
     half of 1958 for the Basin averages and 6 ppm to 9 ppm for this
     time range of downtown stations.  A graph of diurnal variations in
     the Basin average for December 1957 showed a range of 6 ppm to
     Ik ppm.  -  PHS-B& 5676   (APCA
     Hechter, H.H. » and Goldsmith, J»R. :  Air pollution and daily
     mortality.  Amer, J. Med, Sci. 241:581-588 (May) 1961.

     Analysis has been made of the relationship between various environmental
     factors and daily cardiac and respiratory deaths in Los Angeles County
     from 1956 to 1958.  It was found that the variables, when studied over
     time, exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern plus some irregular oscilla-
     tions.  The seasonal component from each series was isolated and removed
     by  the techniques of harmonic analysis.  A correlation analysis,
     adjusting for the autocorrelation remaining in the residuals ,- indicated
     that changes in the daily air pollution level, as measured by the
     oxidant and carbon monoxide concentration, exerted no detectable
     influence upon the day-to-day mortality pattern.  Carbon monoxide levels
     were found to range from about 7 to 22 ppm. and oxidant from 4 to 21
     pphm.  It is emphasized that these findings, which deal only with the
     acute terminal response of man to variations in the daily air pollution
     level, do not mitigate the importance of air pollution as a possible
     menace to the health and well-being of man.  - APCA 3847
                                    20

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48.  Heller,  A.M.,  and Walters,  D.F.:   Intact of changing patterns of
     energy use on community air quality.   J. APCA 15:423-428 (Sept.)
     1965.

     The air  quality of an urban area  depends to a great extent upon the
     quantity and type of fuel consumed.   Thus,  a marked change in energy
     demand from I960 to 2000 A.t>.  will affect the air quality of all
     of our urban centers.  Interwoven with this potential effect is the
     anticipated influence of the change in type and quality of fuels,
     e.g.,  nuclear fuels,  high sulfur  coals,  and a major modification
     in energy derived motive power, i.e.,  fuel cells,  and the subsequent
     depletion -of natural gas as an energy raw material.  The current
     trend is to greater urban population densities,  and it is estimated
     that by the year 2000 A.D,, 85 percent of America's population will
     live on 'only 10 percent of the land mass.  To assess the potential
     impact of the energy demands for  the next half century on air quality,
     particularly of America's urban centers, a review of current practices
     of combustion of coal, petroleum, and natural gas,  and the potential
     effect on community air quality will be developed.   To meet the
     impact of the interrelated changing patterns of population growth,
     urban developments, energy requirements and available sources,  research
     needs on both a short and long term basis will be explored.  -
     Authors' Abst.


49.  Hettche,  H,0.:  Comparing views on the burden of soot and carbon
     compounds in  the air of the Federal Republic and other countries.
     Staub 23:136-140  (March) 1963.

     Hydrocarbons  and  carbon monoxide at present hardly represent a
     hazard  if small groups, such as for example, the neighbours of
     treatment plants or motor drivers working continuously in large
     towns,  are Ignored.  The situation is different with respect to the
     burden placed on large sections of the population by soot and its
     two adsorbates  -  sulphuric acid and benzpyrene.   In larger towns,
     therefore, an attempt must be made to employ only low-soot
     combustion of low-sulphur fuel.  (English Summary)


 50.  Hi slop,  H.J.:  The air we breathe.  J. Amer, Physical Therapy Ass.
     1*4:970  (Nov.) 1964.

     The air we breathe is being constantly polluted by automobile exhaust,
     wastes  from Industrial plants, smoke, and more recently by
     contaminants  from modern weaponry.  Air pollution Is affecting not
     only human health but animal and plant existence as well.  At a
     recent  forum  of the  Ifetional Health Council it was clearly pointed
     out that, the  rapid pollution growth and the increase of urban
     living  has created much of the problem.  Two-thirds of the
     population of the U.S.A. will live in 185 metropolitan areas by
     1975.   It has been pointed out that the rise in mortality from
     chronic obstructive  ventilatory disease has come much more rapidly
     than the mortality from carcinoma of the lung.  Correlation of


                                    21

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    this  fact with air pollution will probably be  forthcoming,  Other
    facts that have  emerged from numerous investigations raise many
    questions,  The  increase in  air pollution  presents a real as well
    as  a  potential hazard to life and property.  As in other areas of
    public health, this problem  calls for awareness of the individual
    citizen and guidance by responsible and informed leaders.  The
    physical therapist can  serve his community by becoming informed of
    the local problem, assisting the local health authorities to
    enforce local remedies,  and  by demanding action from lethargic
    governments.   Jfost important, perhaps, is  to ensure that adequate
    public policies  on the  problem of air pollution are developed.  -
    APCA  6V187
51.  Hottel,  E.G.,  Williams,  G.C.,Nerheim, N.M., and Schneider,  G.R. :
     Kinetic studies in stirred reactors:  Combustion of carbon
     monoxide and propane.   Tenth Internat.  Symposium on Combustion
     at Cambridge,  England,  Aug.  1964.   The  Combustion Inst.,  Pitts-
     burgh, Pa., i486 pp.,  1965,  pp.  111-121.

     The burning rates of carbon monoxide  and of propane premixed
     with oxygen, nitrogen,  and water vapor  in various proportions
     were measured over ranges of equivalence ratios and pressures.
     Burning rates were determined from metered flow rates  and
     analysis of reactor products.  The "burning rate of carbon
     monoxide g moles/ml (sec) can be expressed as

                = 12 X 1010 exp (-l6,000/RT}/o20'3!:CO/^2o0*5(P/RT)1*8

     (T in °K, P in atm, /  = mole fraction in reactor );  that of
     propane'..as

           Nco2 = 2.9 X 1010 exp (-1

     A kinetic mechanism is proposed which fits the  data for CO  with
     rate constants consistent with literature values.  It  calls for
     the rate -limiting step
                            CO + OH ~> COg + H,
     equilibrium for the following reactions:
                            OH H- H2 = H20  +  H
                             H + 02 = OH + 0
                             0 4- H2 = OH + H
     and a three-body chain terminating step.
            The mechanism proposed for propane combustion involves  in
     addition the very fast reaction of propane to  CO and HgO at  the
     expense of OH,  0,  and H.  -  Authors'  Abst.


52.  The investigation of atmospheric pollution.  Depart, of Scientific
     and Industrial Res. Fuel Res. London, 1957-

     This publication has been prepared at the Juel Research Station  to
     assist those who are interested in the measurement of atmospheric

                                   22

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     pollution.  It describes the investigation of atmospheric pollution,
     a scheme in which local authorities,  Government Departments,  industrial
     organizations, and others,  co-operate for the study of pollution
     and its prevention.  It also contains an account of the methods
     recommended for making systematic measurements of pollution,
     consistent with a scientific interpretation of the results.   -
     Authors' Sum.
53-  Jacobs, M.B., and Greenburg, L.:  Air pollution sources.  Air Condit.  Heat.
     8s Vent.  52:lto-ll|£ (Nov.) 1955.

     The results of a 2-year study on air pollution in New York City was
     given in MLnneopolis, at the National Meeting of the American Chemi-
     cal Society.  Although soot has decreased, more domestic incinerators
     are being used.  An increase in consumption of fuel oil and wider "use
     of vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel fuel indicated that more
     pollutants were being put into the atmosphere as exhaust gases. - APCA


 5^-  Jacobs, M*B*, Braverman, M.M,, and Hochheiser, S.:  Continuous
     determination of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in air by a modified
     infrared analyzer.  J. APCA 9:110-11^  (Aug.) 1959•

     By increase of length of the sample tube and by increase of the
     pressure o-sampling of the  Lira-type infrared analyzer, the
     sensitivity of this instrument was increased sufficiently so that
     it could be used for the direct measurement of carbon monoxide in
     the  ranges of 0  to 20 ppm and  0 to 50 PPm and of hydrocarbons such
     as hexane  in the ranges of  0 to 5  PP& and 0 to 10 ppm.  The
     elimination of the interference of water vapor attributable to its
     absorption in the infrared  by  saturating the air stream with water
     vapor adjusting  the  controls has made the instrument suitable for
     continuous determination of air contaminants in the ppm range.  -
     Authors' Sum.


 55.  Jeney, E., Szendrey, S.,  and David,  E.:   Examination of air
      pollution with microbiological methods,  the accelerative effect
      of CO on fermentation.  Its influence on Pasteur's reaction.
      Ifeeszsegtudomany (Budapest) 3:Wi~58,  1959-

      The effects of S02,  KDH,  and CO on the alcoholic fermentation
      caused by bakers' yeast (S. cerevisiae) in a glucose medium were
      studied.  The effects were mainly compared by measurement of the
      COo production.   Sulfur dioxide and KCN reduced the production of
      gas in direct relation to their respective amounts.  Carbon
      monoxide caused an acceleration of the fermentation; therefore,
      this method for the demonstration of CO can be used only when
      no other impurities are present in the air.  The method may be
      used for demonstrating SOg, KEB,  and other impurities in the air
      if the CO is removed from the rinsing fluid in the impurities in
      the icpinger "by physical m««ns.  Ihe method can be of value for


                                    23

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    the  demonstration of impurities  in the air,  especially those  of
    unknown origin.   The results  of  the  examinations were  supported by
    measurement  of the  "fermentation energy" by  Meissel's  method,
    using fermentation  experiments with  greater  amounts of glucose in
    test tubes.  The  amount of gas generated was measured  with eudio-
    meters; the  amount  of heat developed was measured with micro-
    calorimetrtc methods.  After  recognizing the accelerative  effect  of
    CO,  the authors consider  the  question of "endogenous"  or "essential"
    carboxaemia  on the  basis  of studies  in the literature.  -   APCA 33^2


56. Jones, G.W., Yant,  W.P.,  and  Berger, L.B.:   Carbon-Monoxide Hazards
    from Tobacco Smoke. USBM, No. 2539  (Oct.) 1923, 6 pp.

    The  Bureau of  Mines is interested in the general question  of  carbon-
    monoxide  hazards  from tobacco smoke, mainly  with regard to mine
    ventilation.  In  non-gaseous  mines,  especially metal mines, the question
    arises, whether,  if groups of miners are permitted to  smoke while
    working at unventilated faces or entries, would the accumulation  of
    tobacco smoke  in  these places create any additional hazards due to
    carbon-monoxide poisoning. The  results should, in addition,  be of
    general interest  in connection with  ventilation of building and
    inclosed places where people  may be  assembled  and smoking  is  permitted.
    The investigation described in this  report was made with the  above
     idea in view.  - Brom Text-AGC
57•  Kanter, C.V., and Lunche, R.G.:   Emissions and pollutant, levels.
     Trends in Los Angeles.  Arch.  Environ.  Health 8:5-1^ (Jan.) 1964.

     The concentration of a contaminant in the atmosphere at a given time
     and place is the result of factors which include the rate of injection
     into the atmosphere, formation or destruction by chemical interaction,
     and dilution and transport by air movement.   Averages of the trend of
     particulate matter observed at 4 locations,  and sulfur dioxide at 5
     locations in the Los Angeles Basin are shown.   In L. A. total air
     pollution surveys and air monitoring activities have provided for under-
     standing of the basic causes of the smog problem, and guiding actions
     which have slowed the advance of smog.   Of the major contaminants
     discussed, only sulfur dioxide,  which is not significantly affected
     by motor vehicle emissions, has regressed. APCA 579^.


 58.  Kaskan, W.E.:  The  source of the continuum in carbon monoxide-
     hydrogen-air flames.  Combustion and Hame (London) 3:39-60
     (March) 1959.

     The source of the continuum from flames containing  carbon monoxide
     and oxygen has been investigated by measuring both  the emission
     intensity and OH in the  flame gases from  rich carbon monoxide-
     hydrogen-air flames.  The concentrations  of carbon monoxide are
     calculated from the water gas equilibrium and those of oxygen
     atoms are calculated  from the measured OH.  It is shown that the


                                    2k

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     light-producing step involves a reaction "between a carbon monoxide
     mol. and an oxygen atom with a rate constant of 2,7 x 10"^ cnu
     sec.   In the range of conditions employed tus continuum amounts to
     about  95$ of the radiation.   The rate of decay of radicals is not
     much affected by the presence of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
     -  APCA 2^06
59•  Katz, M., Riberdy, R., and Grant,  G.A.:  The oxidation of carbon monoxide
     by  solid silver permanganate  reagents.   Canadian J. Chem. 3^:1719-1729*

     The temperature dependence of the  rate  constant, k, in the heterogeneous
     oxidation of  carbon monoxide  on the  surface of  silver permanganate--zinc
     oxide, indicates  that  in  the  temperature range  of about 11° to 4o°C.,
     the process is  subject to diffusion  or  transport control and the experi-
     mental activation energy  is lA to 1.9  kcal. per mole.  In the range of
     11° to -3°C.  the  rate  of  the  surface chemical reaction decreases with a
     corresponding increase in activation energy to  15 kcal. in this transition
     stage.   At lower  temperatures the  system is subject to chemical control
     and E rises to  about 27 kcal.
            Four adsorption isotherms for water vapor on this reagent have been
     obtained in the range  of  -10° to 20°C.   The isotherms are sigmoid and
     indicative of Type II  adsorption.
            The mechanism of this  heterogeneous reaction is discussed on the
     basis of several  possibilities for providing oxygen ions in the electron-
     ion exchange  step of the  over-all  reaction. -Authors' abst.


59a»  Kerr, J.A.,  and Calvert,  J.G,:  The  formation and  decomposition
      reactions of the acetyl radical and  the heat  of formation of the
      acetyl radical.  Fhys. CJhem.  69:1022-1029  (ilarch) 1965.

     The 3660-A. photolyses of azomethane in the presence of either
      carbon monoxide or acetaldehyde have been  investigated, and the
      formation and decomposition reactions of the  acetyl radical have
     been shown to be dependent on the  over-all pressure in the system.
     The activation energies obtained for the decoiqposition and formation
      reactions of  the acetyl radical are  consistent  with recent results
     of O'Beal and Benson.   A combination of the present results and
      recent independent estimates  gives AHf°(CHoCO) =  -k- + 2 kcal./mole.
     Results  on the  reaction (8)  CH^ +  CH^CHO —>  City. + CHqCO have been
     obtained from the azomethane-acetalclehyde  system and together with
     three other .determinations yield the Arrhenius  equation:  kg =
                     cc./mole-sec.   The approximate  rate  constant  for the
      reaction (10) CS-, + (CHo^^  —^ (CHa^NNCHo was derived from the
      data:   kin = 10-1-*-*7e"'7-l/KI? cc./uole-sec.   -  Authors' Abst.


 60.  KLrsberg, V.A., and Belozovskii,  A. B.:  A method for purifying a
      g-as-air oixture of carbon monoxide.  Biul Izobret. (Moscow)
      22:27-28; 1961.

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     A method is discussed for purifying a gas-air mixture of carbon
     monoxide "by oxidizing the latter on a hopcalite calalyst.  The
     distinctive feature is that, for the purpose of increasing the
     degree  of oxidation and accelerating the process involved* the
     gas-air mixture is subjected to the action of ultraviolet rays prior
     to being fed to the catalyst.  - APCA 4600.


61.  Korth,  W.;  Dynamic irradiatioa chamber t*sts of automotive exhaust.
     PHS No. 999-AP-5  U.S.D.H.E.W., PHS, Div. of Air Pollution,  Cincinnati,
     Ohio. (HOV.)  1963 -  54 page*.

     As part of an intensive study by government and private agencies the
     U.  S. PHS has built  an irradiation chamber facility for investigation
     of irradiated auto exhaust  tinder mixing conditions similar to those
     in the atmosphere.   The facility consists of a. programed continuous-
     cycling chassis dynamometer, an exhaust Ailution-air purification system,
     2 irradiation chambers, arnJ exposure facilities for evaluation of
     bacteria kill, plant damage, and various effects aa small animals*
     Of the 3 variables studied  during the 1st test series,  the exhaust
     concentration at  the start  ojf irradiatios appeared to produce the
     most significant  effects.   Fuel composition had a lesser influence.
     Very little difference vas  noted in the effects produced at 2 different
     average irradiation  times.  - AFCA 6065


62.  Korth,  M.W., and Sigsby, J.E.,  Jr.:  Composition of blowby
     emissions.   Presented at the 57th APCA Annual Meeting, June 21-25,
     1964,  Houston,  Texas

     The composition of  blowby emissions were evaluated from ten different
     cars with displacements  ranging from 52 in. " to 365 in.  at four dif-
     ferent operating  modes.  Detailed chromatographic analyses were
     made of the blowby  hydrocarbon composition covering a range of ap-
     proximately  75 components.  Nondispersive infrared and flame ioniza-
     tion equipment were also used to determine CO, CO^ and hydrocarbon
     concentrations.  - Authors' abstract.


63.  Kraft,  D.:  Afterburning of the exhaust gases of motor  vehicles.
     Tech. Uberwach.   (Essen) 4:326-328 (Sept.) 1963.

     Three methods for the elimination of the components of  motor exhaust
     gases which are injurious to health have been tested.   Filtering did
     not prove successful, but after-burner devices based either  on ignition
     or  catalysis  methods have shown some positive results.   The latter 2
     methods are described in some detail.  Work on various  after-burner
     devices is  being  speeded up in the U.S.  - APCA 6674
                                  26

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°^«  Kuley, C. J.;  Gas chromatographic analysis of GI to Clj. in the parts per
     million range in air and in vaporized liquid oxygen.  Anal.  Chem.
     35:1^72-1475 (Sept.) 1963.

     A column has been developed for use with a B-ray ionization  detector for
     the determination of Cj> to Clj. hydrocarbons and for use with  a flame
     ionization detector for GI to Clj. hydrocarbons in air and vaporised liquid
     oxygen.  Detectable limits for the B-ray ionization detector are of
     0.2 to 0.08 ppm. for G£ to Clf hydrocarbons using a 1-cc. or  10-cc. gas
     sample.  Concentrations as low as 0.00% to 0.07 PP»» f°r GI  to Cif. hydro-
     carbons can be detected with a flame ionization detector using a 10-cc.
     gas sample.  Preparation of a modified activated alumina column for
     the analysis is described. - APCA 5^68


65.  Lamport, P.  P.:  Experiments in studying the hygienic effect of garages
     and gasoline pumps located in the proximity of dwellings.  Gigiena i
     Sanitaria 24:74-76 (March)  1959.

     Inspection was made of  the hygienic conditions in some residential
     districts of Moscow.  The author found unfavorable atmospheric conditions
     prevailing in many places where garages and gasoline pumps were located
     in close proximity to residential dwellings.  An analysis of air samples
     in such areas showed carbon monoxide and lead to be present  in inadmis-
     sible concentrations*   In 1 of the 2 tables in the text the  carbon
     monoxide content in mg./l. is given for several locations.   Near the
     gas pump, the min. concentration was 0.018; the max», 0.036; and the
     average 0.025*  In a dwelling area within 18 m. of the pump, the min.
     concentration was 0.004; the max., 0.042; and the average 0*023.  In
     a control area, these concentrations were 0.003; 0.021; and  0.012. -
     APCA 3031
 65.   Lawther,  P.J.,  Comfflins, B.T.,  and Henderson, M. :  Carbon Monoxide
      in Town Air.  An Interim  Report.   Ann.  Occupat. 5yg. 5:2Ul-2^6
      (Oct. -Dec.) 1962*

      When the  Suez crisis resulted in  the  rationing of petrol it was
      realized  that an opportunity was  at hand to measure air pollution
      in the city of  London in  the presence of minimal petrol traffic.
      A series  of tests was carried on  then and until 6 months after
      the termination of rationing.  When petrol was rationed, CO
      virtually disappeared from the street;  when car-traffic reappeared,
      the CO concentrations rose markedly and on 1 day reached a figure
      of 235 ppm.   On this calm day, a  concentration of 360 ppm. was
      also found in samplings taken  on  the  pavement at Oxford Circus.
      Carbon monoxide analyses  at Oxford on Sept. 1, 1958, had shown a
      mean concentration for an 8-hour  daytime period of 36 ppm,, with
                concentration of 155 PPn»« during the evening rush hour.
     In the autumn of 1961, a series of analyses was begun of the air
     of Eieet  Street  compared with that of nearly Mitre Court
     (relatively uninfluenced by traffic).  A figure in the text shows
     the mean  hourly  concentration, on Jan. 29, 1962, to vary from 0

                                    2?

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    to nearly 60 ppm. and the maximum concentration at ttat  same hour
    (l8th) to be 100 ppm.  Carbon monoxide concentrations in the
    Blackwell tunnel have been found to reach a mean hourly
    concentration of 295 Ppm» in the morning rush hour.  At  the
    Rotherhithe tunnel, a transient peak value of 500 ppm. was
    found.  In the discussion of this paper the authors state that
    they have been lead to conclude that detailed comparison of
    carbon monoxide concentration in the air of different cities is
    of limited value since they will all depend on the density of
    traffic in the streets and the weather.  And that it is  reasonable
    to believe that in congested streets in almost any modern city
    concentrations of carbon monoxide exceeding 300 ppm. may be
    reached in calm weather and that concentrations exceeding 100 ppm.
    may  be found not uncommonly.  Also that the significance of these
    figures is not clear-cut since in this study they have not been
    related to concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blood of
    people working in the streets.  It is stated that the figure of
    30 ppm., which has been adopted by the State of California
    Department of Public Health as the maximum allowable concentration
    in ambient air, and the arguments on which this decision was based,
    appear to the authors to be sound.  -  APCA
67. Lawther, P. J.: Air Polhition. Bull. New York Acad. Med. 41:214-216
    (Feb.) 1965 >

    Following the Beaver report and the pollution control activities which
    came about following the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1956,  smoke
    is slowly disappearing from the air of Britain but other pollutants are
    left, notably SC^.  Pollution in Britain is due overwhelmingly to the
    combustion--both complete and incomplete--of coal and oil, much of
    which contains compounds of sulfur as impurities.  The commonest
    pollutant, CO^, is accepted as innocuous; smoke (from incomplete
    combustion) and SC^ are measured routinely and are  used as indices of
      pollution.  These 2 pollutants vary widely in concentration and are
    present in roughly the same amounts in New York and London.  It is
    well that in neither city does the topography and climate favor the for-
    mation to any significant extent of the photochemical haze which plagues
    the citizens of Los Angeles, especially since CO from motor vehicle
    exhausts has been found at levels as high as 360 ppm.  on the pavement
    at Oxford Circus in London. After much hard work it can be said with
    a degree of certainty that high concentrations of urban pollution, meas-
    ured in terms of SO2 and smoke,  aggravate existing chronic nonspecific
    pulmonary disease and may prove to be an intolerable stress to those
    in a community who are aged or suffering from severe illness.  The
    implementation of the Clean Air Act has radically altered the smoke/
    SCn ratio and it is hoped that it may now be possible to distinguish be-
    tween the effects of these 2 main  pollutants.  Studies  of daily varia-
    tions in morbidity and mortality undertaken in London and New York


                                  28

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     City (which is Low in smoke content of the air) may add much to the
     knowledge  of these 2 pollutants.  Laboratory findings of sensitivity to
     SO £ and the response of the individual to varying pollution levels,  often
     do not correlate well.  Air pollution is, of course, still suspect as an
     etiological factor in the production of chronic bronchitis but it will be
     hard to indict it with certainty since it  is but 1 of many noxious factors
     in urban life.  Current work would lead to the belief that "classic" car-
     cinogens,  such as 3,4-benzpyrene, may have claimed too much atten-
     tion in recent yrs,  to the detriment of the search for more  sophisticated
     mechanisms by which lung cancer may develop.   The manner in which
     asbestos produces  neoplasms  may have much to teach us with respect
     to the wider problems of carcinogenesis.  -  APCA 6773


68.  Levaggi, D.A., and  Feldsteinj  M.:  The  colorimetric determination of
     low concentration of carbon, monoxide. Amer* Indust. Hyg. Ass.  J. 25:64-66
     (Jan.  -  Feb.) 1964.

     A series of incinerator effluents were  analyzed by the procedure des-
     cribed and compared with analysis for carbon monoxide by infrared
     spectrophotometry and gas chromatography.  Carbon monoxide  in combustion
     effluents  or in the ambient atmosphere  is reacted with an alkaline
     solution of the silver salt of para-sulfaminobenzoic acid.   The ab-
     sorbance of the resulting colloidal solution of silver is measured
     spectrophotometrically,  and is proportional to the concentration of GO
     present  in the sample.   Concentrations  of 5 to 1800 ppm. can be measured
     with an  accuracy of 95^5$.  - APCA 5906


69.  Liesegang, W.:  The present position of the hygiene of the  atmosphere.
     Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 1:463, 1928.

     "The use of tar is advocated for keeping dust down on the street.
     There is no definite proof that smoke has  any influence on  health.
     Carbon monoxide in amounts present  in Berlin  has a pronounced effect
     on the health of city dwellers."  - BAAP 128


70»  likhachev, A.D,:  Chromatographic determination of carbon monoxide
     and oxygen in fuel combustion  products.  Zavod.  lab.  (Moscow) 29:1302-
     1304,  1963.

     The chromatographic analysis of fuel combustion products was conducted
     on an installation utilizing the separate loops of the KhT-2M chroma-
     tograph.   Activated carbon served as sorbent and atmospheric air as
     carrier.   The objective of the present  investigation consisted in
     obtaining  on the chromatogram  a  separate and distinct peak  for carbon
     monoxide,  which was achieved by rising a chromatographic column 480
     cm.  long,  with a 3-4 mm.  inside  diameter, and with a flow rate of the
     carrier  gas of 50-80 cc./min., the temperature of the gas being 18-20°C.
     The determination of oxygen was  conducted on apparatus GKbP-3M, which
     registers  zero when the ratio  MJ2/02 is  equal to 3.76 (as found in

                                   29

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     un-contaminated air) and shows a peak of maximum height when the gas
     sample is free of oxygen.  The oxygen content is determined as a function
     of the height of this socalled "excess nitrogen peak." - APCA 6171


 71. McCabe, L.C.:  Atmospheric pollution.  Indust. Eng. Chem. 47:101A-
     102A  (June) 1955-

     The Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control Board recently asked
     a medical and scientific group to set maximum limits at which
     pollution levels might be dangerous to public health.  Limits
     were  established for oxides of nitrogen, ozone, sulfur dioxide,
     and carbon monoxide, based on judgment and experience.
     Instruments are now installed at several stations for continuous
     measurement of these 4 pollutants and also total oxidant, total
     hydrocarbons, and wind speed and direction.  Standard plant boxes,
     each  containing a variety of smog-sensitive plants, are kept at
     12 stations for the detection of crop damaging gases; continuous
     high-volume filters are used to collect ether-soluble aerosols
     and radioactive materials.  It is estimated that some 14,000 tons
     of combustible rubbish are disposed of daily by burning, two
     thirds of it in single chamber incinerators.  The incineration of
     this material releases to the air aerosols, aldehydes, oxides of
     nitrogen, and organic acids which contribute to reduced
     visibility, eye irritation, plant damage, and general discomfort.
     There are more than 1,500,000 single chamber incinerators in use
     in homes and commercial *»«+.**"11 sbments in the county, and they
     can not be controlled by practicable engineering refinements.
     Hence, they will be prohibited in unincorporated areas after
     June 30, when weekly collection of combustible rubbish is
     established.  Incorporated areas (lt-5 in Los Angeles County) have
     been asked to expand private or public collection service to
     peimit the prohibition of this type of incinerator by July 1.
     After j^rae 3®* new regulations will apply to open burning.
     APCA 390
72.  McCulloughj J.D., Crane, R.A., and Bec'kman,- A.O.:  Determination
     of carbon monoxide in air by use of red mercuric oxide.  Anal. Chem.
     19:999-1002 (Dec.)
     A new laboratory method for the determination of carbon monoxide
     in air makes use of the reaction:  CO (gas) + HgO (solid, red) =
     Eg (gas) + C02 (gas).  The gaseous sample is passed through a
     reaction tube containing granular red mercuric oxide held at a
     temperature of 175° to 200° C.  The loss in weight of the reaction
     tube during passage of the sample is an exact measure of the
     quantity of carbon monoxide present and involves a highly
     advantageous gravimetric factor.  The accuracy of the method has
     been demonstrated through the analysis of three unknown submitted
     by the National Bureau of Standards.  -  Authors' Abst.
                                   30

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73.  Jfersh, A. :  Analysis of the air pollution factor,  anokeless Air
               1958.
     This paper reviews the principal ways in which the pollution of
     the atmosphere impairs the natural environment, and the amount of
     pollution discharged into the atmosphere of Great Britain.  The
     estimated quantities of the pollutants, from the burning of coal
     and its derivatives, and from oil/year, are discussed.  There are
     also large quantities of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and other
     compounds.  There are local forms of pollution encountered only
     in the vicinity of certain industrial works, such as cement,
     limestone "burning, and certain types of chemical plants.  Nearly
     1/2 the smoke comes from domestic coal-burning fires.  This is
     particularly obnoxious because of its high content of tarry matter
     and low level of discharge.  The ways in which this pollution may
     affect the health of those living in large towns and industrial
     areas are:  (1) Deprivation of natural light.  (2) The respiration
     of suspended impurity.  (3) The deposition of irpurity.  The new
     Clean Air Act gives hope for more rapid progress towards the
     reduction, and ultimate abolition, of atmospheric pollution.  -
     APCA 2227
     Mehrstens, J.H. :„ Solution of the problem of the smoke nuisance.
     Glaser Annalen fur Gewerbe and Bauwesen Vol. 60, 190?.

     A general resume of the effects of various constituents of smoke  upon
     health:

     "It is not the dust only that is injurious, but it is the invisible
     products of combustion escaping from the chimney in the form of gases,
     of which we need to take into consideration only carbonic acid, nitrogen,
     carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur trioxide, sulfur dioxide  and
     sulfurous acid and other heavy gases*  Carbonic acid and nitrogen can
     probably be regarded as injurious only when they are driven directly
     into dwellings, and this cannot happen unless the chimneys are not high
     enough.  The carbonic add, which is extremely poisonous, is usually
     present in such slight quantities that it becomes greatly diffused as
     soon as it escapes from the chimney.  On account of its lightness, it
     also arises rapidly and is lost in the higher strata of air; but, on
     the other hand, the gaseous sulfuric acid (sulfur dioxide) which  is
     considerably heavier than air, is such an injurious gas that first of
     all our efforts must be directed toward preventing it from doing  harm,
     ^n the more as it is not only the human organism that is injured but
     also, in a positively destructive manner, the vegetation, soil, and
     buildings.  Those facts show that any smokeless furnace with a direct
     combustion has little value for the public as far as the purification
     of the air is concerned unless the dust and the sulfurous acid are
     retained at the same time."  -  BAAP 150
                                    31

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75.   Meigs,  J,W.:   Carbon aumoxide poisoning.  Bu.il. U.S.  Army Dept.
      8:542-546,  1948.

      The danger  of carbon monoxide poisoning among nen working on gasoline-
      driven vehicles is emphasized.  A concentration of several thousand
      parts per million may occur in the air near the exhaust outlet, even
      outdoors, unless  exhaust gases are discharged so that the carbon
      monoxide is diluted before it can return to any area where it may be
      inhaled. Symptoms, which usually occur when the carboxy-haemoglobin
      content of  the blood reaches 20 percent, include headache, dizziness,
      faintness,  nausea, and vomiting.  Samples of oxalated blood should be
      analyzed for the presence of carbon monoxic^ as soon  as possible after
      exposure, to minimize reoxygenation of carboxy-haemoglobin, but they
      can be frozen and sent to a laboratory.  The presence of a significant
      amount of carbon monoxide in the blood will differentiate symptoms due
      to carbon monoxide poisoning from those due to other  causes, especially
      alcohol.  Heavy cigarette smoking may produce carboxy-haemoglobin
      levels up to 10 percent.- BMB 402


 76.   Mddleton,  JNT., and Middleton, B.C.:  Air pollution and California's
      State Control Program.  Proc. Amer. Petrol. Inst.  3:636-6^2, 1962.

      Our limited  resource is unwittingly being destroyed by man's activities,
      The destruction of air appears to be correlated with the extent and
      nature  of fuel utilization to meet the energy demands of contemporary
      society.  An increasing knowledge of the causes and nature of air
      pollution has resulted in changing concepts of control.  The state of
      California,  which in 19^7 authorized the regulation of stationary
      sources of atmospheric contamination "by local government bodies, is
      now directly engaged in a program to control mobile sources of con-
      tamination through the creation in 1960 of the State Motor Vehicle
      Pollution Control  Board.  Air-quality standards developed by the
      state define both the acceptable air quality and the needed reduction
      in motor vehicular emissions.  While the present program will ensure
      an improved  air quality and thereby reduce damage to health and
      property, long-range conservation of air will be dependent upon a
      continuing evaluation of society's fuel utilization,   means of
      transportation, and metropolitan area planning and development.
      -Authors' AT>st«


 77.    Mbureu, H., Chovin,  P.,  Truffert, T., and Lebbe,  J.:   Some lessons
       drawn from determinations of carbon monoxide poisoning of city
       inhabitants.  Compt. Rend. (Paris) 2^7:552-555 (July 28) 1958.

       The use of a simple but exact infrared absorption technique to
       determine  the amount of CO in the blood and in the ambient
       atmosphere is reported.   Two experiments were made to study the
       effects of automobile exhaust gases on 36 volunteer subjects
       stationed on selected streets and intersections in Paris,  The
       amount of CO in the blood of the subjects was determined
       immediately before and after a 3-hour period at a test station,


                                    32

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      and simultaneously 2 or 3 air samples were made to determine per-
      centages of oxygen and CO.  The atmospheric conditions and
      intensity of auto traffic were noted at each station.  The first
      test was made on January 15, 1957* "between 9 A9M, and 12 noon; a
      relatively strong NE wind (20-30 km./hour) prevailed to disperse
      exhaust gases.  The average amount of CO in the air was 8 ppm.
      The average amount in the blood before exposure (0.35 ml./lOO ml.
      "blood), increased about 25$ to O.W- ml.  A second test was made
      7 days later "between k and 7 P.M.; wind had "been nearly absent for
      several days and a slight tendency to fog was present.  A rise
      in the initial CO content of the blood was noted, averaging
      0.5^ ml./lOO ml, "blood, i.e., slightly exceeding the normal limit
      for city dwellers of Q,k ml.  The average CO content of 100 samples
      of air was 26 ppm.  The increase in the CO content of the blood at
      the end of the test period was marked:  0.11 ml., i.e., a 31$
      increase.  Similar tests were made of 136 samples of blood of
      automobile drivers held on charge of intoxication after an auto
      accident or traffic offense.  Results were statistically analyzed
      in comparison to 1*507 cases suspected of CO poisoning.  CO levels
      in the blood of the intoxicated drivers were found to be much
      greater than among the controls*  -  APCA 2023

78.   Mulay, A.G.:  Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide at low
      concentrations.  Dissertation Abst. 22:828 (Sept.) 1961.

      A reaction model for the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide in
      air at low  concentrations has been established.  A commercial
      catalyst, hopcalite, consisting of Mn02, CuO, ^sPzr and ^Sg0 was
      used  in this investigation.  This catalyst (20 UT S. Standard mesh
      size) exhibited constant catalytic activity even after 50 hours of
      use.  The experimental data were taken art atmospheric pressure and
      temperatures of 60, 72, and 82°C.  At each temperature the rates of
      catalytic oxidation were measured at initial carbon monoxide
      concentrations of 1, 1.5* a^d 2$.  Rates of reaction were found to
      increase with the extent conversion of carbon monoxide, apparently
      the reaction was catalyzed by the formation and adsorption of
      carbon dioxide.  The rate constants were determined by means of an
      ZBM-70^ digital computer.  The data were correlated with less than
      10$ average error.  It was found that the adsorption equilibrium
      constants for both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide decreased
      with  increase in temperature.  This investigation is pertinent to
      the design  of afterburners for removing carbon monoxide from
      exhaust gases of internal combustion engines.  -  APCA Ml-09

79,   Murphy. E.J.:   Comparison of methods for detecting and analyzing fumes
      from  explosives.  IBM KC 5883, 19&-, 13 PP.

      A comparative study has been made by the Bureau of Mines of several
      analytical methods for determining carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides
      in toxic gases produced by the detonation of explosives.  laboratory and
      field methods and detector-tube-devices are described,  Analystical
      results are compared, and reliability of the various methods is discussed.
      Author's Sum.

                                     33

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80.   Nagarjunan, T.S., and Calvert, J.G.:   The photooxidatlon of carbon
      monoxide on zinc oxide.  J. Phys. Chem. 68:17-26 (Jan.) 1964,

      The photooxidation of carbon monoxide on zinc oxide solid has
      been studied in experiments at 0°.  Zinc oxide with presorbed
      oxygen was irradiated with 3660-A. light in the presence of
      carbon monoxide gas.  Carbon dioxide was formed in the irradiated
      system, while its rate of formation in the dark was negligible.
      The reaction was studied under varied conditions:  the temperature
      at which the oxygen was presorbed on the zinc oxide, the pressure
      of oxygen during the presorption, the pressure of carbon monoxide
      gas, the time of irradiation, and the intensity and the wave length
      of the absorbed light.  The results confirm that oxygen is adsorbed
      in at least three different forms on zinc oxide in an amount which
      depends on the temperature of the treatment.  Two of these * types
      of adsorbed species of oxygen react with carbon monoxide to form
      carbon dioxide on irradiation, while the third type is inactive.
      The three types may be 02-, 0-, and 0- , with the first two the
      active forms.  Carbon monoxide appears to react either from the
      gas phase or from a weakly adsorbed state.  The reaction may
      occur through two different reaction paths,  one much faster than
      the other.  The quantum efficiency of the carbon dioxide formation
      varies from 0.001 at high intensities to greater than 0.1 at low
      intensities at 3660-A.  Some aspects of the detailed mechanism are
      considered.  From these and other results some speculation is given
      concerning the contribution of photooxidations sensitized on
      suspended solid particulates to the chemistry of the polluted
      atmosphere.  There is a high probability that such reactions are
      of little importance in the usual polluted atmosphere.  -  Authors'
      Sum.


81.   Nelson, K.H., Grimes, M.D., Smith, D.E., Heinrieh, B. J.:  Determination
      of trace amounts of carbon monoxide in gaseous hydrocarbons.
      Anal. Chem. 29:160-183 (Feb.) 1957.

      Methane is added to sample of gaseous hydrocarbons to aid in the
      separation of trace amounts of carbon monoxide from the hydro-
      carbons by low temperature fractional distillation.  Methane which
      boils between carbon monoxide and the hydrocarbons, does not inter-
      fere in the subsequent determination of carbon monoxide by combus-
      tion over hot iodine pentoxide.  The liberated iodine is determined
      spectrophotometrically. - APCA 1519


  82. Oppenheim, U.P.:  Experimental Verification of Theoretical Relations
      Between Total Gas Absorptivities and Total Gas Buissivities for CO.
      Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center, Calif. Inst. of Technol., Pasadena,
      Oct. 1958, 14 pp., k Fig.  DISC AD 204287.

      An experimental study was carried out for the purpose of verifying
      theoretical predictions concerning the relations between total
      absorptivities and total emissivities for transparent gases.  The

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      experimental conditions were designed in such a way as to permit a
      direct check of theoretical relations derived for (a) non-overlapping
      dispersion lines and ("b) spectral lines with sufficient pressure
      "broadening to permit neglect of the rotational fine structure.   A
      comparison "between the emissivities derived from absorptivity
      measurements and emissivities calculated from the spectroscopic
      constants of CO shows good agreement (within 20$ for most of the
      temperature range).
             The apparatus for the measurement of total gas absorptivities
      is described.-  Results for total absorptivities of carbon monoxide
      measured at temperatures between 300 and 500°K are given and total
      emissivities were calculated in the temperature range of 300 to
      1600°K.  The range of total gas pressure is 0 to 515 psia.  -
      Author's Abst.
83.   Paulin, P. :  Sensitive Method of Deletion and Determination of
      Carbon Monoxide in the Atmosphere.  Bull. Soc. Chim. France (Paris)
      11-12: 181*5 -181*9 (Hov.-Dec.) 1959.

      The reduction of Aucl^ (on an impregnated filter paper) by a drop
      of AS^)3 is accelerated in the presenc.e of CO.  It has been shown
      that the time of appearance of reduced Au, as a black ring on the
      paper, is inversely proportional to the cube root of CO concentration.
      Interference by other gases which darken the paper (HgS, AsHo, acetylene,
      aniline, SOg, acetone, and Hg vapor) or by acid vapors which delay
      the appearance of the ring is discussed.  Some interference can be
      reduced by Chaignon's method, in which the paper is held between
      2 plates of glass to exclude less rapidly diffusing gases.  Quantities
      of CO of the order of 1 in 10-? can be detected with a time appearance
      of the black ring of 115 seconds at 20° and 275 seconds at 5*«
      APCA
 84.  Perrelli, G., and Rosettani, E. :   Criteria of evaluation of the
      environmental risk from carbon monoxide.  Folia Med.  47:1062-1067
      (Nov.)
      The authors give a brief survey of environmental msans of detection
      of carbon monoxide and then underline that it is difficult to obtain
      an adequate determination of industrial hazards by these methods.
      It is therefore believed that carboxyhernoglobin determination might
      offer a greater accuracy.  -  APCA 64-279


 85.   Petri, H. :  Evaluation of the effects of gaseous air pollutants on
      health.  Staub 25:^16-423 (Oct.) 1965.

      Many gases and vapours in molecular dispersion have pathophysiologic
      effects, that is, effects dangerous to health.  Various substances
      can be detected by smell even if present in air in small quantities,
      and at a certain concentration they may become a nuisance; these
      substances are, for instance, mercaptans, butyric acid, acrolein and


                                     35

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     amines, such as trimethylamine; hydrogen sulphide, carbon di&ulpbide,
     pyridine, etc. cause nuisance at slightly higher concentrations.
     Sulphur oxides, hydrogen fluoride and other acid aerosols, further,
     ozone, chlorine, "bromine and nitrous gases are dangerous to health,
     because they irritate body tissue.  As a result of the increase in
     road traffic the odorless carbon monoxide has become very important.
     The biological assessment of gas or vapour emission with regard to
     their effect on men, and special effects of these substances are
     discussed in detail.  -  Author's Sura.


 86.    Porter, K., and Volman, D. H. :  Flame ionization detection of carbon
     monoxide for gas chromatographic analysis.  Anal. Chem. 3^:7^8-7^9
      (June) 1962.

      Carbon monoxide  may be  detected by a flame ionization detector after
      catalytic  conversion to methane.  A high percentage conversion is
      obtained,  mainly independent of catalyst temperature over the operating
      range.  This method is  more sensitive that  katharometer detection.
      Carbon dioxide and hydrogen may be detected by use of the same
      nickel catalyst.   - W&A S&T

87,   Portheine, F. :   Medical problems  of air pollution.  In:   Fachtagung
      des Stadtetages Nordrhein-Westfalen uber Massnahmen zur Reinhaltung
      der Luft in Stadten,  Jan.  8, 1958, Wuppertal.  Stadtehyg.  (Uelzen)
      10:59 (Mirch)  1959.
      Man in the course of a life of 68 years, in securing his oxygen
      requirements,  breathes 1/3 to 1/2 million m.3 of air.  Each
      living person has a right to pure air.  Because of the great
      increase in industrial production in the last 10 years, there
      exists the danger of increased pollution of the air.  An additional
      source of danger comes from atomic research.  The number of power-
      driven vehicles in the world has reached a billion.  The most
      dangerous sources of pollution emit  a dust which is becoming finer
      and thereby more capable of entry into the lungs.  Many injuries
      are not currently known  since the living organism is capable of
      adapting itself.  The latter is physiologically possible and is
      especially noted in industrial plants.  Even an adaption of the
      mucous membranes to high concentrations of S02 has beer, observed.
      The dust cloud covering  a city, filters out the solar radiation.
      Inhabitants of a city are apt to become aware of this only on
      Sundays and on vacations.   Remedial  measures are the planting of
      trees and other vegetation,  decentralization of the cities,
      provision for free-flowing traffic,  and improvement of car engines.
      According to the author,  the effects of coarse dust are over-
      estimated.   The nature of the pollutants is important, whether
      the particles  are sand or quartz, ashes, or soot.  Russian methods
      control pollution effectively. Soot combined with S02, or soot
      combined with vanadium compounds, are very noxious.  In driving
      cars in long lines through narrow streets, the CO concentrations
      in the blood of drivers  and passengers may be markedly increased.
      -   APCA 2985

                                    36

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     Procedures and Analytical Methods for Determining Toxic Gases Produced
     by Synthetic Materials.  Procedures for Hash-Ignition and Self-
     Ignition Temperature Determinations.  United States Testing Company,
     Inc., Hoboken, N.J., Dec. 1963, 1*9 pp.  DDC AD 297^57.

     Equipment, procedures and analytical methods for determining the
     nature and concentration of toxic gases produced when synthetic
     materials are  subjected to flammability tests are described.  A
     method for flash-ignition temperature determination is given.  The
     necessary equipment and a procedure for determining the self-
     ignition temperature of heat resistant material is described.  -
     Authors' Abst.
89•  Rice, E.W.:  Improved photometric determination of carbon monoxide
     by means of palladious chloride.  Arch. Indust. Hyg.& Occupat.
     Med. 6:1(87.490  (Dec.) 1952.

     Details are given  for a method for detection and determination of
     carbon monoxide involving reduction of palladious chloride in which
     the palladium can be  estimated spectrophotometrically, instead of
     colorimetrically,  as  palladious iodide.  This method was devised
     as a test  for the  toxicological determination of carbon monoxide.
     -  LC


90.   Rihm,  A.,  Jr.:   New York State's classifications-ambient air quality
     objectives system.   J. APCA 15:519-522 (Nov.)  1965.

     The air pollution potential of any area is directly  related to its
     population and economic development.   In New York State,  this pollution
     potential ranges from that existing in the sparsely  inhabited recreational
     zones to that prevailing in the densely populated and/or heavily
     industrialized areas.  Wo one set of air quality standards  or objectives
     can be developed which can reasonably be applied on  a statewide basis.
     A classifications-air quality objectives system has  been adopted by
     the State Air Pollution Control Board for application in New York State.
     In accordance with this system,  specific areas can be classified in
     one of l6 categories.  Air quality objectives,  in keeping with each
     classification,  are designed to protect health and to promote the
     maximum comfort and enjoyment and use of property consistent with the
     needs of the area concerned.  The system was developed by the staff
     with the assistance of a council of technical  advisors.   Units of
     measurement related to the most important effect of  specific contaminants
     are utilized.  Methods of sampling and analysis are  specified.  The
     details of the classifications-objectives system,  the place of the
     system in the state's air resource management  plan,  the  manner in which
     each segment of the state after study will be  classified, and how
     attainment will be evaluated are described.  -  Author's Abst.
                                   37

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 91.   Sakabe, H., Soda, R., Matsumura, Y., Hbnma, K., and Nbzaki, K.:
      Air pollution study at heavy traffic road.  Bun. Nat. Inst.
      Indust. Health (Japan) 1*: 72-76, 1960.

      Carbon monoxide determinations were made "by means of Kitigawa
      colorimetric tubes at the center of a heavy traffic Y
      intersection in Tokyo on March 3 and k, 1960.  Samples were
      collected every hour from 8 through 11 A.M., 2 P.M. and every
      hour from 3 to 7 P.M. on both days omitting the 11 o'clock
      sample on March 4.  Concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 10.0 ppm
      on March 3 with a mean of 5.0 ppm.  On March 4, the range was
      from 4.8 to 20.2 ppm with a mean of 12.2 ppm.  -  PHS-EG 5676


92.   Salsbury, J.M., Cole, J.W., and Yoe, J.H. :  Determination of carbon
      monoxide:  Microgravimetric method.  Anal. Chem. 19:66-68,
      A microgravimetric method, accurate to about 2 percent, is described
      for low  concentrations  (0.002 to 0.1 percent) of carbon monoxide
      in air.  The gas is drawn over Hopcalite at 195° C., and the carbon
      dioxide  thus formed is  absorbed in microabsorption tubes containing
      Ascarite, the volume being measured with a flowmeter and stop watch.
      Frcji the weight of carbon dioxide absorbed in the tubes, the
      percentage of carbon monoxide is calculated.  -  Authors'  Abst.


93.   Sayers,  R.R., Yant, W.P., and Jones, G.W.:  The pyro-tannic acid
      method for the quantitative determination of carbon monoxide in blood
      and air.  Pub. Health Rep. 38:2311-2320 (Oct. 5) 1923-

      A durable and compact laboratory or field apparatus for the quantitative
      determination of carbon monoxide in blood and air has been described.
      On account of the compactness, durability, and ease with which
      accurate and dependable results can be obtained, it should be of
      great use in investigations pertaining to the cause, diagnosis, and
      treatment of carbon-monoxide poisoning.
             The percentage saturation of CO in blood can easily be deter-
      mined to a degree of accuracy involving only 5 per cent error.
             The actual error of the method for determination of CO in air,
      even when used by inexperienced men, was found to be 0.005 in regions
      of 0.000 to 0.05 per cent CO; 0.01 in regions of 0.05 to 0.08 per
      cent; 0.02 in regions of 0.08 to 0.12 per cent; and 0.03 in regions
      of 0.12  to 0.18 per cent carbon monoxide. - Authors' Sum.


 94.    Schrenk, H.H. :  The  chemistry of smog.   Indust,  Syg.  Newsletter 10:
      7-9, 1950.

      The word "smog" has  come  to  refer to the sum of air contaminants,
      not the  particulate matter alone.  The chemistry of smog  is  an
      essential  factor in its evaluation and control.   The sources,
      formation, and interrelationship  of the  contaminants are  discussed,
      using combustion of  coal  and production  of zinc as examples  and

                                    38

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      showing that the reactions and interrelationships may be  quite
      complex.  A number of questions calling for increased study are
      raised.  The Donora (Pa.) investigation furnished some experience
      in developing methods for answering these  questions.  The weather
      is an important factor in smog production*  The five Bubstances
      contributing most to the atmospheric load are:  Total particulate
      matter, sulfur dioxide, total sulfur, carbon monoxide, and carbon
      dioxide.  A number of others in smaller quantities contribute to
      the total effect.  The toxicology of the single substances is fairly
      well known, but the physiological action of mixed gases and the
      influence of aerosols is an almost une;cplored field.  -   BMB 664
 95.    Sendroy,  J., Jr.:   Manometric analysis of gas mixtures. VI. Carbon
       monoxide  by absorption with blood. J. Biolog. Chem. 95:599-611,
       1932.

       A method  is described, whereby  air containing carbon monoxide
       in concentrations  from 0.05 to  0.3 per cent may  conveniently be
       analyzed  In the Van Slyke-Neill apparatus.  The  CO is first
       combined, in the chamber of the apparatus, with  the hemoglobin
       of completely  reduced blood, and the  CO  content  of the blood is
       then determined by the method of Sendroy and Ilu,  -  Author's
       Sum*
96.    Shapritskii, V.W.:   Characteristics of emissions into the
       atmosphere  from iron- and steelworks.  Stal in English (London)
       1002-1004 (Dec.) 1964.

       To  develop  a complete series of technologically sound measures to
       protect the atmosphere, it is necessary to consider the emissions
       from each shop  of an iron* and steelworks.  Such calculations have
       been carried out at  "Gipromez" (the State planning institute for
       iron- and steelworks).  In Table I in the text the quantity of
       emissions per ton of basic shop production, or of steel melted at
       the works,  is compared with their value after the introduction of
       measures that are technically possible at the present time for
       protecting  the  air supply (scrubbing of gases, rational distribution
       of  gas fuel throughout the works, etc.).  Table H presents the
       emissions from  the shops  of a works with a complete metallurgical
       cycle with  the  following basic types of production (in millions of
       ton's per annum):  Steel  (1.0); pig iron (0.85); rolled products
       (0.8); sinter (1.5); coke (0.5); and refractories (0*03).
       Table HI presents the approximate consumption of fuel in the
       separate shops,  from which it is possible to calculate a
      preliminary rational distribution of various types of fuel over
       the  works area,  depending on fuel consumption, flue height, local
       relief, and the make-up of sources.  The data presented make it
      possible to determine the  total quantity of dust,  sulphur dioxide,
      and carbon  monoxide in the Hue gases, and to distinguish the
       sources to  which attention should be paid in the first instance in
       deciding upon measures to protect the atmosphere.   The data show

                                    39

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      that by carrying out a series of protective measures, the emission
      of harmful substances into the atmosphere can "be reduced, in the
      case of dust by a factor of 14, in the case of sulphur dioxide
      by a factor of 3 (in residential areas the content of either in the
      atmosphere should not exceed 0.5 mg./m.^), and in the case of
      carbon monoxide by a factor of 1.2 (its upper permissible
      concentration is 6 mg./m.3 ).  -  APCA 6
 97.   Shaw, J.H., and Howard, J.N. :   Carbon Monoxide in the Earth's
      Atmosphere.  Ohio State Univ.  Res. Foundation, Columbus, July 17,
      1953, 79 PP.  DDC AD aicft.

      The abundance of CO in the earth's atmosphere above Columbus, Ohio,
      has been determined from measurements of the curves of growth of
      the rotational lines P(6) in the 2-0 overtone vibration band near
      2.3n and R(2) of the 1-0 fundamental band near 4.7u.  Abundances of
      approximately 0.1 atmo-cm in a column through the zenith were obtained.
      A discussion is given of the theoretical assumptions made in calculat-
      ing the abundance and a detailed account of the experimental procedure
      is presented.  -  Authors' Abst.
98,    Shaw, J.H.:  A determination of the abundance of nitrous
       carbon monoxide, and methane in ground level air at several
       locations near Columbus, Ohio.  Geophysics Research Direc. Cont.
       No. AF 19(604)2259.  Sci. Rept. No. 1.  Ohio State University
       Res, Foundation.  Columbus, Ohio.  June 1959.  33 PP.

       Studies of the infrared spectra of long path lengths of air (70U au)
       permitted determination of the abundance of nitrous oxide (N20),
       methane (CH^) and carbon monoxide (CO) in ground level air*  There
       would appear to be two possible sources of the nitrous oxide in
       the atmosphere.  The gas may be produced by an aerobic bacterial
       decomposition of nitrogen compounds, or it may be formed from
       nitrogen and the various forms of molecular oxygen in the
       atmosphere.  In this study the NgQ abundance was estimated as
       0.28 + 0.04 ppm. with no seasonal variation detected.  Air samples
       from greenhouses and barns showed an NgO abundance of 0.33 +
       O.C4 ppm.  The estimated abundance of CHjj. and CO in ground level
       air were 2.k and 1.1 ppm., respectively.  It was noted that the
       results for ground level air were uniformly lower than the results
       from solar spectra, indicating the possibility that NgO may not
       have a uniform vertical distribution, assuming that both methods
       have about the same accuracy.  Results of spectrometer studies
       indicated that a better method for compensating for B^O absorption
       in the 4.5 Ji and the 3.3 V- region of the band would improve the
       data; work is now being done on methods for removal of HpO.  Air
       samples are being collected from various other locations such as
       silos, sewers, congested traffic areas, farms, etc., in the hope
       that this data will give more information on the origin of NoO.
       -  APCA 3671

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  99*   Shepherd, M. :  Sapid determination of small amounts of carbon monoxide.
        Preliminary report on the KSB colorimetric indicating gel.  Anal.
        Chem.  19:77-81 (Feb.)
        This condensed report furnishes the ffl-i^n^yn preliminary information
        necessary to make and use the UBS indicating gel for the rapid
        colorimetric determination of small or physiologically significant
        amounts of carbon monoxide in air in the field or laboratory.  The
        gel will detect and estljnate less than 1 part of carbon monoxide
        in 500,000,000 parts of air.  It will detect 0.001$ by volume in
        less than 1 minute, and determine physiologically significant
        amounts in approximately 1 minute.  Field use requires a small,
        inexpensive apparatus without maintenance problems, and involves
        procedures so simple that untrain personnel will be able to
        obtain reliable results.  -  Author's Abst.
100.    Shepherd, M., Schuhmann, S», and Kilday, M»V,:   Determination of
        carbon monoxide in air pollution studies.  Anal, Chem. 27:380-383*
        1955-

        Field and laboratory methods of determining carbon monoxide in
        air by colorimetric indicating gels have been developed.   The
        field method compares commercially prepared tubes with fixed
        color standards painted or printed on paper.  Air is drawn
        through the indicating tube and the presence of carbon monoxide
        is indicated when the yellow gel turns green.  The field method
        is widely used where physiological considerations are important,
        but it is not sufficiently accurate for careful studies in air
        pollution.  Refinements of this method permit estimation of 1 to
        0.1 ppm.  The laboratory method can detect and estimate extremely
        small amounts, such as 1 part in 500,000,000.  -  APCA 267


 101.   Silverman, L., and Gardner, G.R.:  Potassium pallado sulfite method
        for carbon monoxide detection.  Amer. Indust. Hyg. Ass. J.  26:97-105
        (March-April) 19&5-

        This paper describes an ^proved method for directly measuring low
        concentrations of carbon monoxide in air.  Carbon monoxide reacts
        with potassium pallado sulfite impregnated on a chemically inert gel
        contained in sealed glass tubes.  Length of discoloration caused by
        conversion of yellow sulfite to dark brown palladium or its oxide
        is an exponential function of CO concentration.  Data are presented
        on the measurement of carbon monoxide in air as veil as in oxygen-
        deficient or oxygen-free atmospheres.  Applications are given relative
        to interfering and non-interfering gases and vapors as well as
        temperature correction data covering range of -50°F to 120 °F and
        ambient pressure correction.  -  Authors' Abst.

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102.   Skvortzova,  N.N.:   Pollution of atmospheric air with carbon monoxide in the
       vicinity of ferrometallurgical plants.   In:  Levine,  B.S.  (editor and
       translator):  U.S.S.R.  Literature on Mr Pollution and Related Occupational
       Diseases.  A Survey.   Vol.  2,  1960,  pp.  204-212, CFSTI-TT-60-21188,  U.S. Dept.
       of Commerce, Springfield, Va.


       Author describes a Study made of the atmospheric air surrounding
       ferro-metallurgical plants.  Concentration of CO ranged between
       5.6 - 190 mg/nP,  and  in 78.8 - 93.5$ of  the samples CO
       concentrations exceeded the allowable limit for maximal, single
       concentrations for the atmospheric air.   Results of simultaneous
       studies of the atmospheric  air and the air in dwellings showed
       a similarity between  the CO concentrations.  Children,  observed
       during this study, showed a high content of carboxyhemoglobin,
       and a large percentage of the children developed erythrocytosis,
       accompanied by subjective complaints, characteristic of CO
       poisoning.
              Author points  to the urgent need  for abatement of air
       pollution in particular of  CO, because of its deterimental
       health effects, especially  of its effect on young children.
       -AGC.


103.   Smith, R.N.,  Swinehart, J., and Lesnini, D.G.:  Chromatographlc
       analysis of gas mixtures containing nitrogen, nitrous oxide, nitric
       oxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.  Anal. Chem. 30:1217-
       1218  (July) 1958.

       A gas chromatography column using 2 layers of silica gel separated
       by  iodine pentoxide makes  possible the separation and determination
       of  nitrogen,  nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide or
       nitrogen, nitric  oxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in
       10  minutes.   Simple gas sampling and gas transfer units made from
       standard equipment are described.  -  APCA 1869
 104.   Sobolev, G.K.:  High-terqperature oxidation and burning of carbon
       monoxide.  Seventh International Symposium, on Combustion at London
       and Oxford, 28 Aug.-3 Sept., 1958.  Butterworths Scientific
       Publications, London, 959 PP... 1959, PP. 386-391.

       The purpose of this study wap to measure the rate of burning of CO
       in the flame  front, using the results of normal flame velocity
       measurements  for this purpose, and simultaneously to make direct
       measurements  of the rate of oxidation of CO in the after-burning
       zones of the  same flames.  A comparison of the data obtained by
       these two independent methods will evidently be not only of
       theoretical but of practical value as well.  -  Author's Abst.

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 105.  Soraklna,  S.F.:   A study of carbon monoxide concentrations in the air of
       living dwellings and its effect on organism.   In: Levine,  B.S. (editor
       and translator):  U.S.S.R.  Literature on Air Pollution and Related
       Occupational Diseases.   A Survey.   Vol. 8,  1963,  pp. 207-213,
       CFSTI-TT-63-11570,  U.S.  Dept.  of Commerce,  Springfield, Va.
      This paper deals with investigations of the carbon monoxide content of the
      air in apartments with gas facilities for heating and cooking purposes.
      The CO concentrations of the 895 samples collected were determined by
      conductometric methods.  Sixty-five of the eighty persons interviewed com-
      plained of head-ache, pain around the heart, vertigo, nausea, vomiting,
      general debility, etc.  Housewives examined showed an average hemoglobin
      content of 77-807., against the normal 70-71%,  with elevated erythrocjcte
      counts.  Blood carboxyhemoglobin was above 9% in 627. of the investigated
      persons, the average was 9*5-107..  About 33.5% of the housewives which
      were investigated showed symptoms of hypotonia and hypothermy,.  General
      chronaxy in the persons investigated was delayed as compared with the
      controls.  Author states that  subjective complaints, blood changes, arterial
      blood pressure and increase in chronaxy in chronic exposure to the inhala-
      tion of carbon monoxide cannot be accounted for by anoxy alone; the direct
      action of carbon monoxide on tissues and cells of organisms must also be
      taken into account. * A.G.C.
106.    Spector,  N.A.,  and Dodge, B.F.:   Colorimetric method for determination
       of traces of carbon dioxide in air.  Anal. Chem.  19:55-58 (Jan.)
       A colorimetric method for determining traces of carbon dioxide,
       using a Luzaetron photoelectric colorimeter,  depends on the decrease
       in color intensity of a solution of sodium hydroxide colored with
       phenolphthalein indicator.  The alkalinity of the solution decreases
       as it absorbs carbon dioxide from the gas sample to be analyzed
       and consequently the depth of color decreases.  The change in the
       amount of light which the solution transmits is made a measure of
       carbon dioxide concentration.  The precision and sensitivity of
       the method are functions of the carbon dioxide concentration as
       well as the volumes of the gas sample and absorbing solution.  In
       general the precision increases with increase in carbon dioxide
       concentration being measured, with the use of larger gas samples
       and, within limits, with the use of smaller volumes of absorbing
       solution.  The accuracy of the results is considered to be of the
       same order as the precision.  A 1-liter gas sample is sufficient
       to determine a carbon dioxide concentration in air of 0.0010$ (10
       p.p.m. ) with a precision of 10%-- i.e., + 0.0001$.  -  Authors'
       Abst.


107,   stepanovich, A.:  Determination of carbon monoxide in air.  Glasnik
       Higienskog Institute 4:77-85, 1955.  In: Levine, B.S. (editor and
       translator):  U.S.S.R. Literature on Mr Pollution and Related

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       Occupational Mseases.   A Survey.   Vol.  1,  I960, pp.  151-160,
       CFSTI-TT-60-21049,  U.S.  Dept.  of Commerce,  Springfield,  Va.


       The palladium chloride method for  the determination of CO in the
       air can be used conveniently in the field.  It is easy to perform,
       can "be used for CO concentrations  ranging between 0.001-05$,
       and is well adopted for the determination of concentrations
       usually found in industrial establishments.  A field worker can
       be trained to collect and analyze  10 air samples a day.   Range of
       error is £*$•
              Commercially produced materials and apparatus used in the
       detection of CO in the air should  be checked and used in strict
       conformity with the instructions supplied.                 "'
              Indicator paper strips can  be used reliably for the Detection
       of CO concentrations exceeding the allowable limits.
              At no time should a single  CO determination be regarded
       as reliable or indicative.  Air of industrial work rooms should
       be examined over long periods of time in order to obtain reliable
       average maximal concentrations of  CO in the air of industrial
       shops and workrooms.  -  Author's  Conclusion


108.   sturrock, P.E., and KLtzes, G.: An Estimation of Exposure to Carbon
       Monoxide by Breath Analysis.  ¥ADC Technical Report 57-291*  March
       1958, DDC AD 118274, pp. 11.

       A semiquantitative screening method for determination of carbon
       monoxide poisoning in human subjects is presented.  The method
       is based upon measurement of the carbon monoxide concentration of
       the breath  with the national Bureau of Standards1  colorimetric
       carbon monoxide-indicating gel.  The results of a "smoker-
       nonsmoker"  survey of 5^ Aero Medical Laboratory personnel are
       included to show the significance of the method in measuring
       incipient carbon monoxide-exposure levels.  The method has an
       accuracy of +2$ blood-carbon monoxide saturation.  It is rapid,
       easy to use,"and supplements the use of blood specimens.  -
       Authors1 Abst.


109.    Swartz, D.J., Wilson, K.¥., and King, W.J.:  Merits of liquified
       petroleum gas  fuel  for  automotive air pollution abatement.  J. APCA
       13:15^-159  (April)  1963.

       A major result of this  investigation is to provide new data emphasizing
       the striking differences  in the composition of exhaust gas from
       similar engines operating on liquified petroleum gas (LPG) fuel as
       contrasted  with their operation on gasoline.  Our tests show that in
       the case of LPG exhaust there are essentially no heavy hydrocarbons
       (04 or  greater) present.   Since the olefins are the worst offenders
       as regards  smog formation from gasoline exhaust, the absence of heavy
       olefins in  LPG exhaust  suggests the possibility of a significant
       reduction in automotive smog if enough vehicles in a given area use
       LPG fuel.   The sealed fuel system offers  an additional advantage by

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       eliminating the evaporation of fuel to the atmosphere, which is
       currently a source of added expense to the motorist as well as adding
       to the total amount of air pollution from cars.  -  Authors' Conclusion
110.   Taylor, G.J.:  Trends  in air pollution outside  Los Angeles County.
       Arch. Environ. Health  (see 6th APM Conference)  8:15-18  (Jan.)
       196U.

       The basic air pollution problems as prevailing  in Los Angeles
       County are  discussed.   The State Department organized a l6-station
       statewide network in cooperation with local air pollution agencies
       permitting  the collection for  the first time of statewide data on
       carbon monoxide  and hydrocarbons.  In the  fall, 1961, during a
       period of very light winds,  the  carbon monoxide recorder set up in
       downtown Sacramento recorded seven days of carbon monoxide pollution
       which exceeded the "serious" level set by  the Department's Air
       Quality Standards,  i.e., 30 ppm.  average over 8 hours.  Extension
       of monitoring activities into  new areas are contributing to new
       findings.   - AGC
 1H.  Tebbett, R.W.:   The detection and estimation of carbon monoxide.  Ann.
       Occupat.  Eyg.   (London)  5:201-210  (Oct.-Dec.) 1962.

       A brief outline of the various methods which are available for the
       detection and estimation  of CO is given.  Colorimetric detection methods,
       based on the reduction of palladous salts are described with partic-
       ular reference to the use of the P.  S. detector and the M. S. A.
       tubes.   For more precise  estimation, the use of Sleigh or Haldane
       apparatus is recommended  when dealing with high ranges of CO (above
       0.02$) while the Wbsthoff apparatus should be used for quantities in
       the ppm. region.   For process control both the infrared gas analysis
       method and  the oxidation  method, based on hopcallte, are satisfactory.
       A description is given of a portable monoxiclo detector and alarm
       designed by the N. Western Div.  of  the Matl. Coal Board which should
       find applications in  many industries where carbon monoxide constitutes
       a hazard. - APCA 5259


 112.  Truhaut, R., and Lemoan,  G.:  On the quantitative determination
       of carbon monoxide in the air and in biological environments.
       Programed. (Paris) 87:427-^35 (Dec- 10) 1959-

       Recognized methods for the quantitative  determination of  carbon
       monoxide,  in either the blood or the atmosphere, are nunerous
       but those methods being currently used in laboratories
       for toxicologies! and biological analysis are limited.  For
       quantitative determination of the gas  in the atmosphere,  analysis
       of the blood has been used both to act as a method  of reference
       and independently. But it is not as much used currently  as  the
       method of Infrared absorption,  the latter being more sensitive  and
       easily executed.  A method, although less specific  and less  exact,

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      which permits a continuing evaluation of the atmospheric content
      is that of an indicator method which is based on the reduction of
      the aelts of palladium.  Determination of CO in blood by the
      method of Ilcloux  Bull. Soc. Chem. Biol. 75:57-60 (1913)   gives
      excellent precision but involves a delicate and lengthy technique.
      The employment of infrared absorption has the disadvantage of
      needing to be done in  certain specialized laboratories where the
      equipment is available.  In the clinical laboratories a diffusion
      method utilizing  the reduction of palladium salts has proved to
      be a simple, sufficiently sensitive method which can be used to
      determine both the acute and the subacute levels of CO.  The
      latter level is becoming increasingly important in current
      industrial hygiene practices.  -  APCA 3213


113.  Turkel'taub,  N.:   Determination of carbon monoxide with the aid of a
      gas analyzer.   Zhur. Ana1.it. Khimii, Vol. 5, K>. 4, 1950.  In:  Levine,
      B.S.  (editor and translator):   U.S.S.R.  literature on Air Pollution
      and Related Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol. 1, 19&),; pp. 161-
      162,  CFSTI-TT-60-21Q49, U.S.  Kept, of  Commerce, Springfield, Va.

      Carbon monoxide is oxidized with the aid of a red-hot platinum wire
      spiral in a special apparatus.  The resulting carbon dioxide is
      absorbed by a given volume  of 0.005 or 0.01 N barium hydroxide
                          Ba(OH)2 + C02 = BaCOo + H20.
      The quantity of carbon dioxide  is determined by the difference in
      titrations against HC1 before and after the air sample is passed
      through the oxidizing (combustion) chamber.  The sensitivity and
      accuracy of the method was  found to be  0.0014 mg.  -  Author's
      Introduction
114.  Ulrich, S.S.:  Carbon Monoxide Contamination Tests on Various Vehicles.
      Lab. Division Develop, and Eng., Detroit Arsenal, Mich., Dec. 18, 1953,
      6 pp. and 8 Tables.  DDC AD 25822.

      Environmental factors influence the percentage of CO contamination
      in a vehicle for a given period of time.  Four of the vehicles tested
      indicated the production and retention of dangerous CO percentages.
      A standard operating procedure for duplication of test results was
      not established because environment was not sufficiently controllable.
      -  Author's Abst.


115.  Vanderwerf, D.:  A study of the temperature dependance of the total
      absorptance of CO near 4.7 microns and 2.3 microns and CH4 near 3.3
      microns.  Masters' Thesis.  Ohio State Univ. Res. Foundation,
      Columbus, Ohio, Mby 1964, DDC-AD-442 926.

      The dependence of the total absorptance of the bands of carbon
      monoxide near 4.7 microns and 2.3 microns, and of methane near
      3.3 microns, on absorber concentration, pressure, and temperature
      was measured,


                                      46

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              Data were taken for absorber pressures "between 100 and
      1,000 MM EG, and at temperatures up to 400 C, for a fixed absorber
      path length of 30.6 CM.
              The nature and possible reasons for the observed temperature
      dependence of the total absorptance are discussed.  -  Author's
      Abst.


116.  Van Slyke, D.D.:  Studies of acidosis.  II.  A method for the deter-
      mination of carbon dioxide and carbonates in solution.  J. Biol.  Chem.
      30:3^7-368, 1917.

      A simple one piece apparatus is described for determination of the
      carbon dioxide or carbonate content of water solutions.  It has been
      designed especially for anlaysis of 1 cc. samples of blood plasma,
      but is applicable to water solutions in general as well as to the
      determination of dissolved gases other than carbon dioxide.
              The entire analysis is performed at room temperature, requires
      about 3 minutes, and without especial precautions is capable of
      accuracy to within 1 per cent of the amount determined.
              A micro-apparatus designed on a similar principle is described.
      With it the carbon dioxide content of 0.2 cc. of plasma can be deter-
      mined with an accuracy of 1 volume per cent. - Author's Sum.
 117,  Van Slyke,  D.D.,  and Bobscheit-Robbins, F.S.:  The gasometric
      determination of  small amounts of carbon monoxide in blood, and its
      application to blood volume studies.   J. Biol, Chem. 72:39-50, 1927*

      This paper  presents a development of  the blood carbon monoxide methods
      of Van Slyke and  Salvesen and of Harington and Van Slyke with attention
      to certain  details which reduce the error to 0.02 or 0.03 volumes
      percent.  A technique is described for quantitative gasometric
      determination of  small amount of carbon monoxide in blood.  The
      present procedure was develope primarily to  make possible the
      determination of  blood volumes by the  carbon monoxide method of
      Grehant and Quinquaud without saturating, as has previously been
      necessary,  as much as one-third of the blood hemoglobin with CO
      in order  to obtain accurate results.   A technique requiring the
      saturation  of only one-tenth to one-twenthieth of the circulating
      hemoglobin  makes  the method more safe  and convenient for use with
      human subjects, and with an^m1* permits the introduction of CO by
      intravenous injection of CO-saturated  blood  instead of by inhalation
      of the gas.  It appears that k minutes after injecting carbon monoxide
      blood as  described in this paper one can estimate the volume of the
      circulating red cells from the blood CO content with less than 5
      per cent  error due to analytical technical and CO distribution within
      the blood.   We have not ascertained the magnitude of the possible
      additional  error  due to diffusion of CO from blood to tissue hemoglobin.
      -  Authors*  Sum. Jfodified.

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118.    Vaskevich,  D.K.,  Bulycheva, A.I.,  and Mel'nikova, P.A.:   Bapid method
       for the determination of carbon monoxide in the  air of working premises.
       Vodosnozhenie i  Sanitarnaya Tekhnika,  No.  1, pp. 12-13, 195^.   In:
       Levine, B.S.  (editor and translator):  U.S.S.R.  Literature  on  Air
       Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases.  A  Survey.   Vol.  7>  19^2,
       pp. 97-101, CFSTI-TT-62-11103,  U.S.  Dept.  of Commerce, Slpringfield,  Va.


       Present method used for carbon  monoxide  determination is  "based on
       the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide  "by iodine
       pentoxide,  presents considerable difficulties when  it becomes
       necessary to  collect and analyze many air samples in a short time.
       The authors describe an indicator  method for the determination of
       low carbon monoxide concentrations in the air of production premises,
       an improvement over the present complicated procedure.  The method
       described in detail is based  on passing  the test air for  3-5 minutes
       through an indicator tube filled with a  special white powder.   As
       the CO passes through the tube, the powder acquires a greenish
       violet color, the intensity of  which is  proportional to the CO
       concentration in the air. The  intensity of the developed color is
       then compared with the color  of a  specially prepared standard  series
       of tubes representing CO concentrations  in the range of 0.01-0.4  mg/li.
       The procedure requires 10 minutes  and the  determination can be made
       directly on the  spot.  Table  shows comparative data of CO  determinatioas
       by standard method and by the new  indicator method.   -  AGO


 119.   Walker, J.K., and O'Hara, C.L.:  Analysis of automobile exhaust gases
       by mass spectrometry.  Anal.  Chem. 27:825-828 (May) 1955.

       Mass spectrometer techniques  for the analysis of automobile exhaust
       gases (CO),  and  a sampling procedure for laboratory gas analysis
       are presented.  These data are  supplemented by results from
       continuous monitoring of exhaust gas composition at various engine
       speeds.  The  hydrocarbon content of automobile exhaust varies  with
       engine speed, approaching steady state at high speed.  The  oxides
       of nitrogen produced, as indicated by continuous analysis,  show an
       increase with engine speed.   -  Authors'  Abst.


 120.   Waller, R.E., Coinmins,  B.T.,  and Lawther,  P.J.:  Air pollution in
       a city street.  British J. Indust.  Med.  22:128-138  (April)  1965.

       Measurements  of  the concentrations of smoke, lead,  and five polycyclic
       hydrocarbons  in  the air have  been  made in  the City  of London in the
       middle of a busy street and at  two control sites.   Samples  were taken
       only throughout  the daytime hours  on weekdays to enable us  to  assess
       the maximum contribution made by traffic to the pollution in the
       street.  The  results showed that during  these periods the air  in  the
       middle of the street contained  three times as much  smoke, four
       times as much lead,  and 1.7 times  as much  3:^-benzpyrene  as were
       present in the general atmosphere  of the City of London as  estimated
       from samples  taken at the control  sites.   One of these sites was
       chosen because it vas only 150  feet  away from the street; analyses

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       yielded no evidence that the traffic  contributed to the pollution
       sampled there.  Sulphur dioxide concentrations were determined in
       the early part of the study and the results  showed that traffic
       appeared to add little to the background level.  The  concentrations
       of lead found were below those held to be  safe by  many authorities.
       Carbon monoxide concentrations, reported in  greater detail elsewhere,
       sometimes reached the accepted industrial  maximum  allowable concentration
       of 100 p.p.m.  -  Authors' Abst.
121.   Wanta, R.C., and Stern, A.C.:  Classification of air pollution
       exposures.  Amer. Indust, Hyg. Ass. Quart. 18:156-160 (June) 1957.

       The concentration, averaging-time, recurrency triad has been introduced,
       and its significance and some of its properties for air pollution have
       been explained.  Application has been made to familiar air pollution
       incidents of the past.  It  is suggested that research efforts employ-
       ing the triad approach require enlargement, if not stimulation, in
       order to improve our ability to assess the kind of air environment
       toward which communities are now tending, and in the expectation that
       short-term methods of assessing long-term effects will eventually
       become successful. - Authors' Abst.


 122.  Wilfce, H.:  Advantages  and  disadvantages cf aiet.hods of supervision of
       firings on  the  formation of soot.  Wasser Luft Betrieb (Wiesbaden)
       6:104-109  (March)  1962.

       Considerable  information is given  on  the amount of excess air, or
       oxygen, necessary  to  assure complete  combustion of various fuels
       including gas,  oil, brown coal, anthracite coal, and hard coal, in
       an effort  to  prevent  soot-formation.  Also given is information on
       the amount  of CO,  produced  when combustion conditions are controlled.
       A diagramatic drawing of a  scheme  for producing soot-free combustion
       is shown in a table in  the  text.   Also shown are schemes for continuous
       measuring of  C02,  CO, and H- near  a combustion unit, and for construction
       of an optical-electrical soot registering system.  - APCA 5506
 BIOLOGICAL
        Animals
             effect of acute (short term and severe)concentrations


 123.   Burda, A.S., and Oborin, H.A.:  Therapeutic effect of Cytochrome C
        in acute carbon monoxide poisoning in animals.  Gigiyena Truda i
        Professional'nyye Zabolevaniya 7:56-57 (Aug.) 1963.

        The search for new antibiotics to combat CO poisoning is of greet
        practical importance.  The need for this effort stems from the
        variety of mechanisms that regulate the development of the
        pathological process in acute CO poisoning.  This paper describes
        investigations revealing injpairment of the enzymatic systems,

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        especially the respiratory enzymes  of the brain.  The  direct
        injurious effect of CO on tissue  respiration was  confirmed by
        experimental data on gas  exchange,  change in blood  gases,  and
        arteriovenous difference  and by the positive prophylactic  effect
        of thiohine on tissue respiration following exposure to  carbon
        monoxide.  According to this investigation Cytochrome  C  merits
        attention as a means of pathogenetic  therapy.   -  Authors' Abst.


 124.   Candura,  F,,  Craveri,  A.,  and Brasca,  F.:  Fibrinolysis  in acute carbon
        monoxide  poisoning.   Experimental research.  Folia  Med.  (Naples)
        44:400-408 (May) 1961.

        In experiments with  rabbits, the  authors studied  the fibrinolytic
        behavior  of the blood serum following acute or fatal poisoning with
        city-gas  (CO content of 1.8-5%).  A constant and  significant  increase
        in the content of fibrinolysin  or plasmin, was found.  This resulting
        increase  in the fibrinolytic power  of  the blood may explain the
        occasional finding of a fluidity of the post-mortem state of  the
        blood following a CO-poisoning  death.  No correlation was found
        between the rate of  increase of fibrinolysis and  the blood hemoglobin
        CO (HbCO) level.  In view of the  absence of any correlation,  it  is
        suggested by the authors  that post-mortem blood fluidity—a finding
        which is  not wholly  characteristic  of  CO poisoning—might occur  through
        nonspecific mechanisms which are brought into action by stress.
        - APCA 4255
124a.    Candura,  P.,  and Craveri, A.:  Value and significance of fibrinolysis
        in experimental carbon monoxide intoxication.  Bass. Med. Indust.
        33:404-406 (May-Aug.)  1964.

        Starting from the observation of the fluidity of the blood of
        subjects who  have died from asphyxia, a study has been made on the
        behaviour of  fibrinolysis in animals acutely intoxicated with
        carbon monoxide.  The  increase of  fibrinolysis is found only in
        vivo,  even in animals  after removal of the adrenals.  The removal
        of the spleen however, prevents the occurance of this process, so
        that two hypotheses may be advanced:  the freeing of "ipossilienina"
        capable of orientig the blood coagulation towards hypocoagulability
        or the immission of splenin B in the circulation, a principle with
        a profibrinolytic activity.  -  Authors' Sum.


  125.   Carlo,  S.,  and Bruno,  P.:  Biochemical and E.E.G. findings in some
        modern occupational poisonings.  Riv. Sper. Freniat, 87:858-862
        (June)  1963.

        The literature on biochemical or E.E.G. findings of investigations
        of various industrial  poisonings,  is reviewed in this paper.  Acute
        CO poisoning  of rabbits resulted in cortical depression.  Sharp
        reduction in  the responsiveness of the electrical activity of the
        brain  to  intermittent  photic stimulation was recorded immediately


                                       50

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       after the acute poisoning was induced.  This condition could be
       reversed after a few days.  Authors consider the many enzymic
       activities, such as dehydrogenase, flavine cyto-chrome-oxidase
       responsible for the changes in E.E.G. patterns.  Authors draw the
       conclusion from the literature reviewed that only through the
       correlation of 'biochemical, histopathological and electrophysiolog-
       ical data, advances in industrial medicine can be made.  They state
       that no data are,  as yet, available concerning the activity of various
       parts of the central nervous system in industrial poisonings.  -
       AGO
126.    Chiodi, H., Dill, D.B., Consolazio, F., and Horvath, S.M. :  Respiratory
       and circulatory responses to acute carbon monoxide poisoning.  Amer.
       J. Physiol. 134:683-693 (Nov. l)
       No hyperpnea was observable during rest in either dogs or men when
       subjected to acute and severe CO poisoning.  The C02 combining capacity
       was unchanged, the arterial pCOg was increased, and accordingly the
       pH was shifted toward the acid side.
              In severe GO poisoning the respiratory center was depressed.
              The cardiac output showed no more than slight increases with
       HbCO saturations ranging up to 30 per cent.  From that level up to 50
       per cent HbCO the cardiac output increased as much as one-half.
              The direct action on the respiratory center of the acute hypoxemia
       produced by CO poisoning that is severe yet compatible with life is
       purely depressive in nature.
              From the data given the oxygen tension in venous blood can be
       calculated for various levels of HbCO.  -  Authors' Sum.
 127.  Chornyak, J., and Sayers, R.R.:  Studies in asphyxia.   I.
       Neuropathology resulting from comparatively rapid carbon-monoxide
       asphyxia.  Pub.  Health Rep. 46:1523-1530 (June) 1931.

       The chemical and pathological reaction of dogs to asphyxia by
       carbon monoxide and by atmospheres which are deficient in oxygen
       has been studied during the past two years by the United States
       Bureau of Mines.  These studies have been conducted for the purpose
       of obtaining fundamental information on the response of the organism
       to asphyxial environment, with the particular viewpoint of devising
       a procedure for treating moribund cases of carbon-monoxide poisoning.
       It has been repeatedly observed that many of these cases have a fatal
       termination, even though respiration has been induced and the carbon
       monoxide removed from the blood.
              The neuropathology produced in dogs by fatal exposures of 20
       to 30 min. to 0.6$ CO in air by volume was studied.  Carbon monoxide
       produces a diffuse degenerative change throughout the entire brain.
       In this type of asphyxia the most serious effect appears to be eder^.
       of the dorsal :.,otor nucleus of the vagus and the adjacent area in
       the uedulla oblongato,.  -  Authors  Introduction Modiiled-AGC

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128.  De Boer,  S., and Carroll, E.G.:  The mechanism of the  splenic reaction
      to general  CO poisoning.  J. Physiol. 59:312-332, 1924-1925.

      When cats are poisoned with CO the  spleen volume decreases.  The
      B.P.  falls  if the rate of poisoning is rapid and either  falls slightly
      or remains  constant  if the CO  is slowly absorbed.  In  a  few cases
      a sharp initial rise in B.P. takes  place.  The mechanism is very
      sensitive and responds to as low a  percentage of COHb  in the blood
      as 8 p.c.
              The  decrease  in volume  of the spleen  is independent of the  B.P.
      changes and is  due to an  active contraction  of the splenic musculature.
              CO poisoning  does  not cause  any vaso-constriction in the
      spleen.
              The  excised surviving spleen does not contract, but dilates,
      when poisoned with CO. This effect is due to oxygen want.
              The  spleen does not contract in response to general CO poisoning
      of the grttmal when it is  removed from nervous connection with the
      "body either by  nicotine poisoning or by decentralisation although  in
      each case the spleen itself is poisoned with CO.
              The  contraction is not  due to an effect on the  adrenals or  on
      the  pituitary body.
              The  spleen perfused with oxygenated Ringer but  in normal
      nervous communication with the body contracts when the animal is
      poisoned with CO.
              The  spleen of the  decapitate^cat contracts in response to
      general CO  poisoning.
              It is concluded that the spleen contracts owing to the effect
      of CO in producing an oxygen want in the spinal cord.
              It is suggested that a  function of the splenic  contraction  is
      to expel unpoisoned  red cells  into  the blood and so reduce the
      proportion  of COHb to HbOg in  the general circulation.   -  Authors' Sum.


129.  Douglas,  T.A.,  Ledingham, I., Lawson, B.D.,  and Iforman, J.N.:
      Carbon monoxide poisoning.  A  comparison between the efficiencies
      of oxygen at one  atmosphere pressure, of oxygen at two
      atmospheres  pressure and of 5$ and J% carbon dioxide In oxygen.
      Lancet, Jan. 13,  1962, pp. 68-69.

      Two groups,  each  of  ten dogs, were gassed with carbon monoxide
      mixtures  until  the carboxyhaemoglobin level was 70$.   They
      were  then resuscitated with pure oxygen at two atmospheres
      pressure, and the time taken for the carboxyhaemoglobin level
      to fall from 70 to 35$ was noted.                            it
            The  results were  compared with the times for half-clearance
      of the blood when the  same dogs,  gassed in the same way,  were
      resuscitated with oxygen at normal atmospheric pressure,  or
      with  5$ or 7% 'Carbogeri*   (carbon dioxide in oxygen).
             Treatment with pure oxygen at a pressure of two atmosphere
      absolute was by far the most efficient.   Next in order was 5$
      or 7% carbogen.   Least effective was pure oxygen alone,
      -Authors1  Sum.

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130.   Ehrich, W.E., Bellet, S., and Levey, F.H.:  Cardiac changes from CO
       poisoning.  Amer. J. Med. Sc. 208:511-523,
       All experiments were performed upon dogs.  Acute CO poisoning was
       produced in some animals "by inhalation of the gas and in others by-
       intravenous introduction of erythrocytes saturated vith CO; while
       chronic poisoning was effected by exposure to 0.01 vol. % CO for 5
       hours daiily over a period of 11 weeks.  As a control, chronic anoxia
       was produced in other animals by exposure to an atmosphere containing
       only 10 vol. £ 02-
             The electrocardiograph ic changes observed were inversion of the
       T wave, elevation of the R-T segment, atrioventricular dissociation,
       and A-V heart block.  The morphologic changes included certain
       degenerative changes of individual muscle fibers, as well as hemorrhages
       and necroses of the myocardium.  While the changes in the T wave
       and R-T segment and the degenerative changes appeared as early as
       at 40$ COHb in acute experiment, s, or at 21$ COHb or an equivalent
       02 deficiency in chronic exposure, heart block and myocardial hemor-
       rhages and necroses were observed only when the COHb level exceeded
       75$ for 1 hour or longer.
             It was noted that the electrocardiographic and morphologic
       changes of the heart in CO poisoning closely resemble those observed
       in anoxia due to other causes .  Authors also give a brief review of
       the literature on cardiac changes. - Authors' Sum.
131.   End,  E., and Long, C.W, :   Oxygen under pressure in carbon monoxide
       poisoning.   J.  Indust. Hyg.  & Toxicol. 24:302-306 (Dec.)
       Carbon monoxide causes tissue damage by producing anoxia.  Our current
       methods  of treatment are unable  to  correct this anoxia.  Inhalation
       of  oxygen under three atmospheres of pressure is capable of preventing
       such anoxia by causing solution  of  enough oxygen in the blood to
       provide  for the needs of the tissues.   Inhalation of oxygen under this
       pressure for  several hours is safe.  In experiments reported in this
       paper, guinea pigs and dogs poisoned with carbon monoxide were quickly
       restored to consciousness by inhaling  oxygen under three atmospheres
       of  pressure.   This is taken to indicate that their anoxia had been
       corrected.  Such treatment also  accelerates elimination of carbon
       monoxide so that thirty minutes' treatment proved ample to remove
       most of  the carbon monoxide from the animals bodies.  Elimination
       curves for this and other types  of  treatment are given.  It is pro-
       posed  to introduce inhalation of oxygen under pressure in the treatment
       of  human beings severely poisoned by carbon monoxide. - Authors' Sum.
             *

132.   Gorbatow,  0.  and Noro,  L. :  On acclimatization In connection with acute
       carbrjo monoxide poisoning.   Acta Physiol. Scandinavia  15:77-87, 1948.

       The authors have exposed rats and mice  daily to carbon monoxide in contents
       of  0.25,  0.4,  0.5 and 1%.   Their observations are as follows:
              The test animals became acclimatized to carbon monoxide in contents
       of  0.25-0.5%  and the tolerance against  CO in 8-15 days increased 2-4 times
       its former value.   In 11 CO only slight acclimatization was observed.

                                     53

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              An intermission of several days in exposure diminished the tolerance,
       The longer the intermission was the more tolerance (got by acclimatization)
       the animal lost.
              In connection with acclimatization polycythemia was observed which
       disappeared later.  However, tolerance clearly increased without polycythe-
       mia.
              No decrease of COHb was observed in connection with acclimatization.
              The general condition of test animals became worse during ''acclima-
       tization". - Authors' Sum.


133«   Haggard,  H.¥.:   Studies  in  carbon monoxide asphyxia.  I.  The
       behavior  of the heart.   Juuer* J. Pbysicl, 56:390-^3, 1921.

       Death tinder carbon monoxide asphyxia is d«e to failure of respiration.
       This  is in the  nature of a  fatal apnoeavera.  The anoxemia resulting
       from  the  formation of carboxyhemoglobin induces excessive "breathing;
       and respiratory failure  follows the excessive loss of COg.
       Oxygen deficiency caused by carbon monoxide, even in advanced asphyxia
       is not in itself sufficient to cause impairment of auriculo-ventricular
       conduction.   Ptollowing respiratory failure, however, the  increased
       anoxemia  from this cause speedily results in the development of heart
       "block through its various stages.
              By restoring  respiration and rapidly eliminating the carbon
       monoxide  by means of inhalations of carbon dioxide and oxygen, cardiac
       conduction is restored to normal following the development of "block.
              The cardie-inhibitory center maintains its activity longer
       than  does the respiratory center.  This center is stimulated by the
       increased Cg  which occurs during respiratory failure.  Prom this there
       results a temporary  cessation of auricular activity.  This period of
       Inhibition is prevented  by  the administration of atropine.
              Wh'en respiratory  failure is prevented by means of  inhalations
       of 8  or 10 per  cent  carbon  dioxide, the carbon monoxide combination
       with  hemoglobin rises to an unusually high percentage without any
       evidence  of impairment in a-v conduction.  This indicates that there
       is no direct  tacLc action of carbon monoxide upon the cardiac
       conducting system.
              Illuminating  gas  results in an earlier development of respiratory
       failure than  does pure carbon monoxide in corresponding concentration.
              llectrocardiographic records are given from two animals which
       differed  from the rest in that one developed a traoeieaat period of
       alternation involving the R and T waves and the other presented,
       during the time of complete a-v block, a condition resembling
       auricular fibrillation or flutter.  -  Author's Conclusion


 134.   Jerzykowski,  T., and Nowak, S.:  The effect of acute carbon monoxide
       poisoning on  riboflavin  level  in blood and tissues,  ACTA Physiologica
       Polonica, 14:115-126, 1963.

       Rabbits with  acute carbon monoxide poisoning had riboflavin levels that
       were  in muscles 25 percent  lower and in blood 21.3 percent higher than
       .in controls.  The differences were statistically significant.  No

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       differences of riboflavin levels was demonstrated in the liver of
       poisoned rabbits.
             The levels of riboflavin in liver and muscles were investigated also
       in rats before and after acute carbon monoxide poisoning, but no distinct
       differences similar to those described before were detected.
             The authors suppose the changes recorded in rabbits to be due to
       a general      effect of carbon monoxide poisoning> which causes
       riboflavin to become released from the muscles probably owing to protein
       decomposition, and to escape into blood.
             The following average values of total riboflavin were recorded:
       in rabbits: blood 21 y%, muscles 199 y.%, liver 960 y.%; in-rats^muscles
       3S3 yX, and liver 1313 y%. - Authors' Sum.


135,    Jferchiaro, G., Margaria, E., Gaido, P.O., and Aquaro, G.:  Acid-
       "base equilibrium in experimental acute intoxication from carbon
       monoxide.  Rass. Med. Indust. 33:^52-453 (May-Aug.) 1964.

       In dogs experimentally intoxicated with CO a progressive decrease
       has been found in the pH values of the blood accompanied by an
       increase of the pCX>2.  The acidosis condition tends to correct
       partially during the successive stages of treatment.  -  Authors'
       Sum.
136.   Pattono, R., Marchiaro, G., Capellaro, F., and Orione, G.:   Dynamics
       of CO elimination under various conditions.  Rass. Med. Indust.  33=
       456-1*57 (May-Aug.) 1964.

       The elimination of CO has been studied in experimental animals
       during various stages of intoxication.  When animals vere treated
       with clean air the carboxyhemoglobin dropped 40$.  Treated  with
       controlled pure oxygen the process was a much faster one.  When
       having animals breathing simultaneously oxygen,  air and hypothermal
       air up to 32° the progress of elimination was slowed down.
       Authors' Sum.-AGC
137.   Pecora, L., Vecchione, C,, and Fati,  S.:   On the binding of carbon
       monoxide in the blood in acute and chronic carbon monoxide  poisoning*
       Folia Med.  43:568-580 (June) 1960.

       Experimental studies in vitro were made by the authors of the
       stability of the carbon monoxide linkage  with the blood subsequent
       to acute or chronic poisoning.  In acute  poisoning a group  of 12
       rabbits were exposed on the 1st, 5th,  10th,  and 20th days;  in
       chronic poisoning a similar group of rabbits were exposed for 120
       days with the carbon monoxide at a level  of 100 ppm.   For each
       type of poisoning the CO levels were  determined for  newly-drawn
       samples of blood and of samples which had been exposed to the air
       for varying periods.  From results of these studies  it was  shown
       that the greater the number of acute  poisonings, or  the more
       prolonged the chronic poisoning, the  less was the quantity  of CO

                                       55

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        freed from the red cells or from the plasma after exposure to air.
        There was, therefore, a progressive increase in both the plasma and
        globulin carboxyemia.  From these studies it is evident that in
        repeated poisonings CO is not only distributed in the blood in a
        different way compared with single poisonings, but also that links
        which are unlikely to be reversible are established both in the
        plasma and in the red blood cells.  -  APCA 4021


  138.   Pecora, L.:  Ferrous therapy in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
        Rass. Med. Indust. 33:352-353 (May-Aug.) 196k.

        In experiments, rabbits poisoned with carbon monoxide showed
        hypochromic anemia, increased enzymatic erythrocytic activity,
        decreased iron in bone, muscle, liver, lung, an^ spleen tissue,
        and an increased urinary elimination of iron.  On this basis, 62.5
        mg of iron was injected intravenously into acutely poisoned
        humans.  Symptomatology regressed rapidly as did the blood level
        of carboxyhemoglobin, demonstrating that in addition to producing
        a condition of asphyxia, carbon monoxide also exerts a true toxic
        action.  -  NASA 8028k


 139-    Querci, M.,  Margaglia,  F.,  Orione,  G., and Acquaro,  G.:   Hemodynamic
        variations in experimental acute carbon monoxide poisoning,   Rassegna
        di Medicina Industriale e di Igiene del Lavoro 33:k5k-k55 (May-Aug.)
        196k.

        The authors have observed that the inhalation of CO by laboratory
        animals produces an increase in the cardiac frequency with a
        simultaneous increase in the systolic pressure which decreases
        progressively when the carboxyhemoglobinemia values reach about
        10$.  The marked progressive increase of the pressure of the
        pulmonary arteries is probably due not so much to the decrease of
        the alveolar tension of the oxygen but to the decrease of the
        oxygen in the blood.  -  Authors'  Sum.


140.     Ramsey, T.L., and Eilmann,  H.J.:  Carbon monoxide acute and chronic
        poisoning and experimental studies.  J. Lab. & Clinical Med. 17:
        k!5-k27, 1931-1932.

        Presented is a study of carbon monoxide from a standpoint of the
        method of its production, its affinity for hemoglobin,  its action
        upon being respired, the percentages of blood saturation in varying
        lengths of time according to the concentration in the respired air,
        the symptoms and effect upon the body, possible methods of its
        elimination from the body,  the production of chronic carbon monoxide
        poisoning,  methods of treatment, the postmortem macroscopic appearances
        of the body following carbon monoxide deaths, some Important
        medicolegal facts, a series of experiments on guinea pigs to
        ascertain its persistence in the body following exposure, and the

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      histopathology of various tissues in animals dying, directly during
      exposure, and those killed and autopsied at varying periods later. -
      Authors' Sum.
141.   Rubino, G.F»:  Hemodynamic alterations during acute intoxication
      from carbonmono3d.de.  Rass. Med. Ind. (Borne) 33:268-27^ (May-Aug.)
      In this paper the results are reported of research on the hemodynamic
      alterations observed during experimental intoxication from carbon
      monoxide (using air with a content of CO varying from 0.8$ to 2.0$),
      and the subsequent revival of the dogs.  An increase in the cardiac
      frequency was observed and a slight increase in the systemic
      pressure.  The pressure of the pulmonary artery, however, increased
      as much as twice and even three times.  A particular aspect of the
      autonomy of the coronary circulations is pointed out, and the
      hypothesis is advanced that the responsibility for the pathogenesis
      of chronic pulmonary heart lies not so much in the decreased alveolar
      Og tension as in the lessened Og content of the blood.  -  APCA 6V171


      Spencer, T. D, :  Effects of carbon monoxide on man and canaries.  Ann.
      Occupat.  Hyg.  (London) 5:231-21(0 (Oct. -Dec.) 1962.

      Since the scientific literature contained little information on the
      measuring of the effect of CO on canaries, and none since the refine-
      ment of measuring techniques whicb^ have occurred in the last decade or
      so, the author a few years ago carried out a series of tests of such
      effects. There are £ major differences "between the effects of CO on man
      and of those on the canary.  The 1st is the difference in what can be
      measured.  In man the gas produces headache, dizziness, and nausea
      but these symptoms cannot be assessed with any certainty in the canary.
      The time that the canary falls off the perch is the only measurement
      that can be made with any assurance.  It is obvious that there is
      no equivalent to the walking or working man; all canaries are "resting."
      The 2nd is that a canary reaches a state of equilibrium with the CO
      it is breathing much more quickly than a man does.  If the atmosphere
      contains enough CO to cause all canaries put in it to fall of their
      perches (i.e., more than 1?. 5 parts/10,000 parts of air), this fall
      wiU occur within 20 minutes and usually wittdn 10.  A resting man
      could be ^-5 hours in such a concentration before losing consciousness.
      At concentrations of more than 17.5 parts the canary would fall off
      its perch nearly always before a walking roan had developed any symptoms
      of poisoning and always before a resting man had done so.  It is this
      fact, of course, which has made the canary so valuable in rescue opera-
      tions. The 3rd difference is 1 which does not appear to be widely
      known.  It takes 2 or 3 times the concentration of CO to produce in
      a canary effects which can be considered as equivalent to those in
      man.  The lowest concentration of CO which appeared to produce any
      effect whatever in a canary seemed, from these observations, to be
      6 parts/10,000 parts.  The lowest concentration that will make any
      canary fall off its perch is 12. 5 parts; in man unconsciousness will


                                     57

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     occur in it- or 5 parts.  It has always been considered that the canary
     was more "sensitive" to CO than man.  In man, hemoglobin has about
     250 times the affinity for CO than it has for oxygen; in the canary
     this figure appears to be 110.  In 1 sense of the word a canary is,
     therefore, not nearly as "sensitive" to CO as man.  This fact is more
     than counterbalanced in CO of more than 20 parts by the speed at
     which the canary's blood comes into equilibrium with the atmosphere
     breathed.  At the lower levels, and particularly in 12 parts/10,000
     parts of CO or less, a canary will not only be useless but will be
     a dangerous cause of false confidence. - APCA 53^9*


143.  Takahashi, K.:   XI.   Changes of the heart excitability, due to acute CO
     poisoning.  Tohoku J.  Expt. Med.  (Sendai) ?4: 224-233  (July 25)
      Changes of the heart excitability were  observed on the electrocardio-
      gram of dogs poisoned acutely by inhalation  of  CO gas.  Due to inhala-
      tion of 0.05-1$ CO gas for 60 min., a remarkable prolongation of
      refractory periods was observed in all  animals  and the elevation of
      resting threshold was seen in a few animals.  The lowering of heart
      excitability wast shown not only during  gas inhalation but after
      its cessation.  Then the strength interval curve shifted to the
      right.  Due to inhalation of 2.5$ CO  gas  for 15 min., the heart
      excitability was decreased slightly during inhalation but recovered
      quickly by inhalation of pure oxygen.   Then  the absolute refractory
      period was reduced.  It required a definite  time duration for which
      the carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)  level was  maintained at a certain high
      level, to produce the lowering  of heart excitability.  Lowering of the
      excitability continued and became severe  after  cessation of gas inhalation.
      The disturbances of heart muscles due to  CO poisoning may be attributed
      to disturbances of myoglobin and/or cytochrome  C.  The reduction of
      the absolute refractory period  was observed by  the inhalation of. 2.5$
      CO gas for 15 min. and this may be attributed to the compensatory
      function in the early stage of  hypoxemia.  - APCA 4465.


 144. Yant, W.P., Chornyak, J., Schrenk, H.H.,  Patty, F.A., and Sayers, R.R. :
      VI.  Blood chemistry of dogs after comparatively rapid carbon-monoxide
      asphyxia.  In:  Studies in Asphyxia.  U.S. Treasury Dept., PHS, PHB
      Ho. 211, 1934, pp. 61.

      Among dogs exposed to atmospheres which were depleted of oxygen at a
      rate which caused a progressive asphyxia! condition simulating
      asphyxia resulting from exposure to approximately 0.6 percent carbon
      monoxide in air by volume, there was  a  marked hyperglycemia and
      hyperuricemia .
             The nonprotein nitrogen  and urea increased slightly.  The
      total and preformed creatinine  remained practically normal; the
      inorganic phosphorus increased.
             There was an increase in the hydrogen-ion concentration, and
      a marked decrease in the carbon-dioxide capacity of the plasma and
      the carbon-dioxide content of the blood.

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            The oxygen saturation of the arterial blood at death ranged
     from 1.3 to 8 percent.
            The "blood counts shoved no marked abnormalities.   -  Authors'
     Sum.


                effect of chronic (long term and low)  concentrations


145. Beck, H.G., and Fort, W,:   Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.   Ann.
     Clin. Med. 3:^37-^3, 1924-1925.

     Two case studies of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning are discussed
     in detail in this paper.  Because of the manifold and protean  character
     of the clinical manifestations, only a few of the more common  symptoms
     could be given in this  paper.  The pallor of many patients resembled
     a high grade of anemia, as well as a group of symptoms are suggestive
     of anemia in the presence of a red cell count of over 5,000,000.
     This condition is of considerable diagnostic significance.  There
     is no specific antidote for chronic carbon monoxide poisoning  and
     treatment has to be symptomatic.
            An English bull  dog vas named the victim in a third case study
     of carbon monoxide poisoning.  The blood examination showed a
     hemoglobin of 95$, erythrocytes 5,120,000 and leukocytes 12,250.
     There were no morphological changes in the red cells.  -  AGO


146. Beck, H.G.:  Slow carbon monoxide asphyxiation.   A neglected clinical
     problem.  J. A.M.A. 107:1025-1029 (July-Sept.) 1936".

     A series of carefully studied cases of slow carbon monoxide asphyxiation
     has been studied.
            The symptoms exhibited have been correlated with  the pathologic
     lesions produced in experimental animals and found at autopsy.
            The results establish the fact that slow carbon monoxide
     asphyxiation (anoxemia) produces a definite clinicopathologic  entity
     despite views held to the contrary.
            The symptoms arise predominantly from organs rich  in blood
     supply, thus demanding  much oxygen, such as the central  nervous
     system and the heart nzuscles.
            Owing to doubt and uncertainty as to the actual existence of
     the malady and a scant  literature on the subject,  the condition is
     not generally recognized by the profession and its importance  has
     been underestimated.
            Since there is no medicinal remedy when the organic changes
     have once developed, treatment must be directed toward its prevention
     by proper public health measures.  -  Author's Sum.


147. Burrell, G.A., Seibert, F.M., and Robertson, I.W.:  Relative Effects
     of Carbon Monoxide on Small Animals.  U.S. Bureau of Mines Technical
     Paper #62, 191k, 23 pp.
                                     59

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      In testing for gas in mines small animals may "be used repeatedly
      without danger of their "being less susceptible to carbon-monoxide
      poisoning after many exposures than after the first,  if they are
      allowed to recover between exposures.
             Canaries are less resistant to  carbon-monoxide poisoning than*
      mice, chickens, rabbits, guinea pigs,  or dogs.  It is recommended
      that canaries be used whenever possible and that at least three of
      them be carried by an exploration party.
             Men may display distress in the presence of proportions of
      carbon monoxide as small as 0.10 per cent,  whereas small animals in
      the same atmosphere may show no signs  of being affected.  -   Authors'
      Sum.
148.  Campbell,  J.A.:   Hypertrophy of the heart in acclimatization to chronic
      carbon monoxide poisoning.   J.  Physiol. 77:8P-9P> 1933«

      In the course of the post-mortem examinations of tar-cancer mice,
      some of which had been exposed for about 9 months to chronic carbon
      monoxide poisoning and others for the  same period to oxygen at high
      pressure (60 p.c. atmos.)  in the air,  it was observed that the
      average weight of the hearts of the mice exposed to carbon monoxide
      was much greater than that of the mice exposed to high oxygen and
      also than that of the control mice.  Only one of the controls and
      two of the mice exposed to high oxygen possessed hearts weighing more
      than 0.235 gm«   Of the 19  mice exposed to carbon monoxide, Ik possessed
      hearts weighing between 0.235 and 0.3^0 g.j in k others the weights
      were between 0.200 and 0.235 g.j  0.^35 g. was the weight of the heart
      in the remaining mouse. -  Author's Abst.


149.  Campbell,  J.A.:   Growth, fertility, etc. in animals during attempted
      acclimatization to csjrbon  monoxide.  Quart. J. Sxper. Physiol. 24:
      271-281, 1935-

      Some mice and rabbits maintain their rate of growth when slowly
      acclimatized to about 0.3  PQ** cent, of carbon monoxide in the
      inspired air.  It is pointed out that  man's ability to acclimatize
      gradually to the gas has never been properly tested, and, although
      not so resistant as certain animals appear to be, he probably
      possesses much greater resistance, to  such gradual exposure, than
      has so far been suspected.
             The heart of the mouse is often much hypertrophied during
      slow acclimatization,  and  this organ is regarded as playing a chief
      part in the powers to acclimatize.
             !Ehe mouse appears to be more easily acclimatized to carbon
      monoxide than to low oxygen pressure in the aiv.
             Mice after acclimatization to 0.30 per cent, carbon monoxide
      are not fertile;  true acclimatization  is thus not attained.
             If carbon monoxide  is consumed  by living animals when
      breathing 0-30  per cent, of the gas, the consumption must be of a
      very low order,  as is to be expected from Fcnn and Cobb's results
      for frog's skeletal muscle exposed in  vitro to 80 per cent, of the
      gas.

                                     60

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             The carbon monoxide pressure in the tissues is less than
      hali' that in the inspired air.  Oxygen pressures in the tissues are
      reduced to half the normal value in an acclimatized animal breathing
      0.30 per cent, carbon monoxide.  -  Author's Sum.


150.  Chernov, V.M., and Liberman, S.S.:  Problem of combined action of carbon
      monoxide and benzene vapor.  Farmakol. i. toksikol. 10:22, 1947.

      Experiments were performed with mice to determine the combined toxic
      action of CO and benzene, such as might develop in those working in
      motor transport.  The concentration, period «f exposure and temperature
      of air in the vapor chambers were noted.  It was found that neither CO
      alone nor benzene alone caused a very marked mortality at certain
      temperatures.  But when animals were exposed to the 2 together the
      cumulative toxic effect was notable.  A rise in temperature considerably
      increased the toxic action of benzene.  The practical importance of
      these observations is great in view of the many cases of poisoning
      among those exposed to the 2 substances.  - Kett.


151.  Clark, R.T., Jr., Otis, A.B., and Leung, S.W.:   Acclimatization of mice
      to carbon monoxide and low oxygen.  Amer. J. Physiol.  159:564,  1949.

      Mice were exposed to carbon monoxide in gradually increasing concentra-
      tion from 0.03% to 0.15% over a period of 14 days,  after which the
      animals were removed to room air for a day.   They were then tested for
      tolerance to a simulated high altitude of 34,000 feet.  Survival times
      of the mice previously acclimatized to CO were  considerably longer than
      mice unacclimatized to CO.  The converse of  the above  experiment  was
      attempted by subjecting mice to an atmosphere containing oxygen in
      gradually decreasing amounts from 10% to 7% for a period of 14 days.   The
      controls and experimental were then exposed to an  atmosphere containing
      0.25% carbon monoxide.  Survival times of tlis mice  previously acclimatized
      to low oxygen were considerably longer than the mice unacclimatized to low
      oxygen.  Blood studies were made on mice after  acclimatization to carbon
      monoxide and low oxygen.  In both cases the  oxygen  capacity increased
      about 60% above the controls, and the hematocrit 85%*   The carbon dioxide
      capacity of the plasma was found to decrease for the mice acclimatized to
      low oxygen, but showed no change from controls  for  these animals  acclimatized
      to carbon monoxide*  The pH of the blood of  mice acclimatized to carbon
      monoxide was found to be considerably higher than that of the mice acclima-
      tized to low oxygen*  The rate of oxygen consumption was the same the first
      few days of exposure to carbon monoxide and  low oxygen as at the end.


152.  Clark, R.T., Jr., and Otis, A.B.:  Comparative studies on acclimatization
      of mice to carbon monoxide and to low oxygen.  Amer. J. Physiol. 169:285-
      294, 1952.

      Mice which have "been acclimatized to concentrations of CO up to 0.15
      per cent for 1^ days can survive an acute exposure to 3lf,000 feet
      considerably longer than mice unacclimatized to CO.  Mice vhich have


                                      61

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     been exposed to low 02 for Ik days can survive in an atmosphere containing
     0.25 per  cent CO considerably longer than mice unacclimatized to low
     02.  The  oxygen capacity and hematocrit increased to about the same
     extent  for the mice acclimatized to CO and low 02.  The oxygen capacity
     increased about 50 per cent above the controls, and the heraatocrit 85
     per cent.  The C02 capacity of the plasma was found to decrease for
     the mice  acclimatized to low 02-  Mice acclimatized to CO showed a higher
     C02 capacity than unacclimatized mice.  The decrease in C02 capacity
     of the  mice acclimatized to low 02 was of the same magnitude as the
     decrease  that other investigators have observed for human residents at
     high altitude.  Hematocrit ratios and weight changes were measured during
     acclimatization and retro-acclimatization to CO and low 02.  The changes
     noted for the mice in CO and low 02 were the same.  The hematocrit values
     increased steadily during the acclimatization period.  During the retro-
     acclimatization period the hematocrit remained at about the same high
     value for the first 8 days and then dropped rapidly to the normal level.
     The weights of the mice during acclimatization decreased rapidly during
     the  first few days and then more slowly.  About 35 Per cent of the body
     weight  was lost during the acclimatization period.  During the retro-
     acclimatization period the weights rose rapidly for the first few days
     and  reached the control level about the eighth day-
             The average rate of oxygen consumption during the acclimatization
     period  for mice in low 02 was 3.1 cc/gm/hour; for mice in CO, 3*0
      cc/gm/hour; and for mice in room air, 3»2 cc/gm/hour.  -  Authors' Sum.


153-  Desoille, H.,  Truffert, L., Lebbe J., Boncour, R., and Girard-Wallon, C.:
      Experimental chronic  carbon monoxide poisoning.  Arch» Maladies Profess.
      Mdd.  Travail  Securite  Vol. 25, No. 7/8, pp. 389-392, 1964.

      The  sequence of experiments in regard to the problem of chronic
      carbon monoxide poisoning,  often investigated but not yet finally
      solved, is described in this paper.  Two experimental sequences with
      animals are discussed.  1.  A constant carbon monoxide content was
     maintained in the atmospheric air for six hours daily, for five days
     per week.  2.  Periodic carbon monoxide inhalations interchanged with
     periods of breathing  in atmosphere clear of carbon monoxide.  In
      experiment no. 1, no  elevated CO-content of the blood was ascertained
      48 hours after discontinuation of the CO influence of 250 to 450 ppm.
      Only changes in the electroencephalograph and in the blood serum could
     be ascertained.  Certain acclimatization effects could be observed
     according to the authors.   In the second experiment the animals were
      exposed to 2000 ppm carbon monoxide for one hour, four times daily.
     The  considerably elevated CO-blood content was immediately reduced by
     breathing clean air.  Also, after a rest period of two days, on Monday,
     no elevated CO-blood  content was ascertained.  These results correspond
     to earlier investigations of the authors with smokers.  These investigations
     will be continued in  view of the changes of the serum-protein in the
     blood.   - AGC
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 154. Hinners, B.G.:   Engineering  the  Chronic Exposure of Animals to
     Laboratory Produced Automobile -Exhaust.  J.  APCA 12:527-530 (Nov.)
     1962.

     In addition  to  studies involving direct exposure to urban atmospheres
     characterized by automotive  emissions,  the biological effects of
     exposure to  controlled atmospheres where automobile exhaust is the
     sole pollutant  must be identified, both to evaluate the  importance
     of the  known source and to define its comparative role in the
     presence of  other contaminants and environmental factors.   The
     laboratory facility at the Laidlaw Avenue annex to the Robert A.
     Taft Sanitary Engineering Center was established to initiate studies
     utilizing  automobile emissions tailored to simulate realistically
     the conditions  and daily changes of  city air.   An automobile engine
     is coupled to a dynamometer  unit designed to produce exhaust and
     blowby  according to an established "driving" pattern.  The emissions
     are proportionally diluted with  cleaned conditioned air  under
     regulated  pressure and fed to four dynamic flow irradiation chambers.
     The chambers are lighted by  a composite of three types of fluorescent
     bulbs designed  to simulate sunlight  to intensity and spectral
     distribution.  The dilution  system provides  non-irradiated or "raw"
     exhaust in a similar time-concentration pattern.   A third line carries
     cleaned air  at  the same rate of  flow.  Four  separate sets of
     conditions are  to be maintained  in the chambers,  the variables of
     concentration,  rate of flow,  duration and intensity of light being
     subject to decision.  These  atmospheres are  monitored with continuous
     recording  instruments for CO, NO,  W02,  hydrocarbons and  ozone  on  a
     rotational schedule.  Periodic samples will  be  analyzed by wet
     chemistry  to determine aldehydes,  peroxyacetylnitrates (PAN),  olefins
     and organic  acids.  Effluents from the h irradiation chambers  along
     with their companion raw exhaust and cleaned air are ducted to k
     large tables, each supporting 2k animal exposure chambers.   A
     single  type  of  atmosphere supplies one group of 8 chambers/table.
     The locations are interlaced to  balance distance from source.
     Animals under exposure will  be tested for immediate responses  and
     will be observed over their  lifetime also to detect the  development
     of chronic disease conditions.   - Author's  Abst.


155* Lewey,  F,H.,  and Drabkin,  D.L.:  Experimental chronic carbon monoxide
     poisoning  of dogs.   Amer.  J. Med. Sc.  208:502-511  (Oct.) 1944.

     Dogs, exposed for 5% hours per day,  6 days a week, over 11 weelcs, to
     an atmosphere containing 0.01 vol. % CO, and reaching daily 20.1 * 1.1%
     HbCO, showed a  consistent disturbance of postural and position reflexes,
     and of  gait*
             Some  of  them showed a pathologic electrocardiogram, character-
     istic of anoxia, and necrosis of single heart muscle fibers.
             Their central nervous systems  showed, 3 months after  termination
     of the  experiment,  histologic changes in the cortex and white matter
     of the  cerebral hemispheres,  in  the globus pallidus  and the  brain stem.
     These alterations corresponded in  type  and localization  to those  found
     in ecute CO  poisoning,  bat were  smaller, mere scattered aiisi  less


                                    63

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      destructive.   They followed in their arrangement the course of blood-
      vessels,  the  walls of which were damaged only occasionally*
             One dog,  in which the posterior coronary artery had been ligated
      1 year prior  to  the exposure for a period of only 18 days to CO, showed
      the earliest  and severest cardiac and cerebral changes of all animals
      observed.  This  result suggests that an inadequate functioning heart
      increases the general risk in CO poisoning,  and may be responsible for
      a higher  degree  of brain damage*
             Our findings indicate that chronic CO intoxication may occur in
      dogs at CO concentrations which have been regarded as being within the
      safety limits for man.
             These  experiments do not permit any conclusions as to the
      potential reactions of the human body to the same conditions* - Authors'
      Sum.
156.  Malorny, G., Fodor, C., and Pomp, H.:  Effect of low CO-concentrations
      on movement and reflexes.  Arch. Experiment. Pathol. & Phannacol.
      21*6:23-24, 1963.

      Tests were conducted with rats and mice for the determination of
      whether very low CO-concent rations contained in the atmosphere
      and inside working places can cause physical or psychological
      disturbances.  The swimming performance of mice put into water
      and exposed for one hour to CO-concentrations of 0.03-0.05 Vol. $
      was much lower than the performance of control animals.  The same
      slow performance was observed with animals put into water 2 hours
      after having been exposed to CO.
              In testing spontaneous movements of mice the a"^yn«v*:g were
      placed into an air tight container into which alternating quantities
      of CO (160, 8k and 55 ppm) were piped in.  After a 14 hour
      exposure the mice were put into a thread wheel and again exposed
      to CO for three hours.
             In comparison with control animals running 1500 m in
      three hours, those exposed to 84 ppm CO were running 750 m and
      those exposed to 55 ppm 500 m during the same period of time.
             The reaction of rats was tested after an exposure to
      Ill0-l6o ppm CO.  Tests were made 6 hours after exposure.  Complete
      loss of reflexes was noted after 10 weeks.  Since these
      disturbances remained for a long time after tests were completed,
      authors assume that the central nervous system had been permanently
      damaged.  -  From German-AGC
 157.  Murphy, S.D.:  A review of effects on animals of exposure to auto
      exhaust and some of its components.  J. APCA 1^:303-308 (Aug.) 196U.

      The studies conducted on anisalfi exposed to experiments.} atmospheres
      polluted with automobile exhaust, produced and irradiated under con-
      ditions resembling those existing in urban communities are described..
      The series of experiments demonstrated, that respiratory function and
      activity patterns of experimental animals are altered during brief
      exposure to irradiated air, auto exhaust mixtures at concentrations of


                                      64

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     total exhaust that '-rere only 2-3 times those that occur in certain
     urban communities during max. periods of photochemical air pollution.
     The data indicated that the qualitative nature of the physiological
     response was dependent upon the relative concentrations of individual
     constituents with qualitatively different physiological actions. -
     APCA 6332


158. Musselman, N.P., Groff, W.A., Yevich, P.P., Wilinski, F.T., Weeks,
     M.H., and Oberst, F.W.:  Continuous Exposure of Laboratory Animals
     to a Low Concentration of Carbon Monoxide.  U. S. Array Chemical
     Warfare Labs., Array Chem. Center, Md., Jan. I960, pp. 11.  DDC
     AD 232115, and Aerospace Med. 30:52^-529 (July) 1959.
     The effects on dogs, rabbits, and rats of continuous exposure
     hours a day, 7 days a week) to a low concentration (50 ppm) of carbon
     monoxide (CO).  Three weeks after initial exposure, the hemoglobin,
     hematocrit, and red "blood cell (RBC) counts of the dogs showed slight
     increases, which persisted throughout the remainder of the tests.
     The average per cent saturation of hemoglobin by CO was 7.3 for
     dogs, 3-2 for rabbits, and 1.8 for rats.  Except for a «™Q.I 1 increase
     in the eosinophil count of the rats, no other blood changes were
     found.  All tissues examined microscopically and macroscopically
     appeared similar to those of the controls.  The exposed animals
     showed no significant differences as compared with the control
     animals in voluntary activity, behavior, body weight, ratio of
     heart weight to body weight, and electrocardiograms (EES).
            The absence of toxic signs and only slight blood changes in
     the dogs, rabbits, and rats used in the experiments indicate that no
     harmful effects result from continuous exposure of these animals to
     a concentration of 50 ppm of CO.  -  Authors' Abst.
159. Bozera, G,,  and Fati,  S.:  Acid and alkaline intra-erythrocytic
     and serous phosphatases  in chronic  carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Folia Med. te:12C&-121k  (Oct.)  1959-
      During the course of laboratory-induced chronic carbon monoxide
      poisoning in rabbits,  the authors  studied the behavior of both
      serum and intra-erythrocytic acid  and alkaline phosphatase
      activity*  A very early and marked decrease in acid erythrocytic
      phosphatase activity was found and, as  the poisoning progressed,
      there was a less marked decrease in erythrocyte alkaline phosphatase
      and in serum phosphatase.  -   APCA 3312


 160.  SchSnbauer,  L. :   Air pollution and lung tumors.  Wiener Klinische
      Wochensehri ft 74:202-206 (mrch) 1963.

      Increasing atmospheric pollution brings about an increase in diseases
      of  the respiratory organs,  in  severity from bronchial catarrh to
      bronchial carcinoma.   About 1912 the  designation of a primary cancerous
      growth in the lungs was rare;  presently, bronchial carcinoma has become

                                    65

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      a world-wide disease of considerable importance.   Tobacco smoking has
      been said to be a very great, perhaps decisive cause of bronchial
      carcinoma.  But apparently, also, the incidence depends upon the degree
      of industrialization of the region.   Experimental studies on mice,
      which were exposed daily to dusts and to the exhaust gas of a car,
      disclosed in kk out of 130 animals the presence of epithelial pulmonary
      tumors.  This leads to the hypothesis that the exhaust gas of motor
      cars contribute to the genesis of lung tumors, at least in experiments
      on animals.  It is essential that laws should be  enacted against at-
      mospheric pollution and that laboratories should  be set up for its
      control. - APCA 6195


l6l.  Walters, F.M.:  Effects of carbon monoxide inhalation upon metabolism.
      Amer. J. Ehysiol.  80:1*10-149, 192?.

      Carbon monoxide depresses the rate of metabolism, the degree of
      depression varying directly with the degree of saturation.
             There is a lowering of body temperature that corresponds closely
      with the slowing of the metabolic rate.
             The breathing of carbon monoxide concentrations of from 0,02
      to 0.05 per cent for short periods (l to 2 hours) has little if any
      effect upon the rate of metabolism of the rat, but for long periods
      (if to 6 hours) it depresses the rate in individual cases.
             Concentrations above 0.05 per cent have marked effects in,
      depressing the rate even for short periods of exposure.
             There is a correlation between the fall in the metabolic rate
      and the symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning. -  Author's Conclusion
 162. WUks,  S.S., Tomashefski, J.F., and Clark, R.T., Jr.:  Physiological
      effects of chronic exposure to carbon monoxide,  J. Appl. Physiol,
      14:305-310 (May) 1959-

      A group of 7 dogs was given a daily 6-8 hour exposure to CO levels
      of 0.08 to 0.10$ for a period of 36 weeks and their tolerance to
      CO was  compared with that of normal dogs, altitude-acclimatized
      dogs, and dogs  transfused with blood from normal dogs.  The
      observed  increased tolerance to CO was attributed primarily to the
      increase  in concentration of the hemoglobin pigments in the blood.
      With this increased hemoglobin there was a greater reserve of the
      pigment for 02  transport at a given concentration level of HbCO
      (carboxyhemoglobin)*  There was no evidence of factors, other than
      hematologic, which increased the tolerance of the dogs to CO.
      Animals subjected to other hypoxic stress such as altitude, or
      normal  animals  transfused with normal blood to increase the
      hematocrit level, showed increased tolerance similar to that
      accomplished by chronic exposure to low CO levels.  -  APCA 26^-3
                                      66

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163. Yant, W.P., Patty, F.A., Schrenk, H.H., and Berger, L.B.:  The
     response of Japanese waltzing mice and canaries to carbon monoxide
     and to atmospheres deficient in oxygen.  US BM RI 30^0,  Oct. 1930,
     pp. 12.

     The response of Japanese waltzing mice to  carbon monoxide and to
     atmospheres deficient in oxygen was  determined, and a comparison
     made with the response of  canaries.  Because of their almost
     incessant activity, it was thought that the waltzing mice would
     respond more quickly than  canaries and ordinary white mice to
     carbon monoxide and possibly atmospheres deficient in oxygen, and
     thus be more satisfactory  than the latter  animals for detecting
     air contamination that is  harmful to man.  A comparison  of the
     response of these animals  was made and the results correlated with
     the response of man.
            The sensitivity of  ordinary white mice, canaries, and
     waltzing mice to concentrations of carbon  monoxide ranging from
     0.10 to 0.25 per cent, increases in  the order  named.
            Although waltzing mice appear to be slightly more sensitive
     to atmospheres deficient in oxygen than canaries and the latter
     slightly more sensitive than man, the  margin of time between serious
     response of man and observable response of these animals is not
     wide enough for either canaries or waltzing mice to be of practical
     use  for avoiding harmful exposure of man.  -   Authors' Sum.
      Humans
           effect of acute (short term and severe) concentrations


 164.  Abe,  M.,  and Kara Y.:   A case on an apallic syndrome as observed after
      an acute  carbon monoxide toxicosis.  Fukuoka Acta Med. 5^:1057-1061
      (Sept.) 1963.

      This  report is concerned with an apallic syndrome observed after a
      carbon monoxide poisoning with an acute course.  The patient was a
      lf-2-year old woman.  Her husband  found her in the state of unconsciousness
      in the living room who apparently fell down due to a carbon monoxide
      toxicosis.   She gradually regained her consciousness but was noticed
      somewhat  different from what  she was before the illness; she was
      expressionless and more silent.
            It was ten days after  the accident that the patient began to
      lose  increasingly her  spontaneity to such an extent that she ate only
      when  she  was spoon-fed;  she never changed her position on the bed
      unless otherwise helped,  and  she showed no verbal response when
      questioned  but gave only slight  nodds.
            For  about a month and  a half from the onset, the patient was in
      a full state of apallic syndrome.  However, the patient then began to
      improve gradually and  became  able to smile and respond to some simple
      questions on the 100th day from  the onset.  At the examination on the
      UOth day,  she was able to state her name, age and birth place, etc.
            The  patient is  still under hospital observation.  At present
      various clinical examinations have been showing no particular change.


                                    67

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            Histological considerations have "been also done of the brain in
     carbon monoxide toxicoses along with reference materials in this field. -
     Authors' Abet. Modified-AGC


165. Abt, I.A., and Witt, D.B.:  A case of carbon monoxide poisoning in
     a child.  Med. Clin. North America 5:16^5-1651, 1922.

     Acute carbon monoxide poisoning of a five year old boy who suffered
     total blindness, is described in this paper.  The effect of CO
     poisoning on the "blood and on various tissues and organs, particularly
     on the nervous structures, is discussed.  Possibility of permanent
     blindness, assumed to be due to small hemorrhages or areas of
     softening in the visual centers, is outlined.
            Authors review some of the hypotheses of other investigators
     in regard to the pathological changes produced by CO.  Hemorrhages
     in the brain, degenerations, and optic thalmus, thrombosis, and
     areas of softening in the central nervous tissue and scattered
     small hemorrhages and intense hyperemia of all the body organs may
     occur as consequences to this type of poisoning.  -  AGC


166. Adler, A.: Disintegration and restoration of optic recognition in visual
     agnosia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 51:243-259, 1944.

     A case of visual agnosia in a woman aged 22 has been described,  the  course
     of the illness having been followed from the first day until the condition
     became stationary.  The patient is 1 of the 2 persons in whom permanent
     lesions of the brain were produced, probably by carbon monoxide fumes,  in
     a fire disaster at a night club on Nov. 28, 1942.
            The fundamental disturbance consists of the patient's inability  to
     perceive the whole, the Gestalt, visually.  Only parts of the whole  are
     perceived, and their correct relation is not recognized.   This results  in
     an inability to read, to copy letters and geometric figures and to recog-
     nize pictures or objects on short exposure.   Writing Is unimpaired.
            Owing to the patient's intelligence and insight into her disability,
     it was possible to identify an additional disturbance in the nature  of  a
     perserveration of visual attention and optic impressions.  Preceeding optic
     impressions superimpose themselves on subsequent ones, so that proper per-
     ception and recognition are interferred with.  This symptom is of the same
     category as psychomotor perseveration and perseveration of speech and writ-
     ing.
            According to Lissauer's first description,  such a condition belongs
     to the "apperceptive" type of visual agnosia, since there is a primary  dis-
     turbance of optic perception.  In this patient the disturbance is clearcut
     to an unusual degree.  The identity of the mechanism exhibited by this
     patient in each of the disorders of visual performance makes it unlikely
     that the various symptoms of optic agnosia have a separate localizing
     significance.
            Compensatory efforts to build up new methods of visual recognition
     should be encouraged.  Constant practice is necessary, since such a patient
     Is likely to distort and to forget what he has learned. - Author's Sum.
                                      68

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167. Arena,  J.M,:   Carbon Monoxide: Report from The Duke University Poison
     Control Center.  North Carolina Med. J. 2^:28-29 (Jan.) 1963.

     This short paper summarizes the effect of CO poisoning on the health
     of nan and advises on respective treatments.  There is also a
     description of symptoms, in relation to percentage of CO in the
     atmosphere, duration of exposure and saturation of the blood.  -
     AGO
168. Beghe,  R.:   Experiences in the treatment of acute carbon monoxide
     poisoning.   Rass.  Med.  Indust. 33:337-351 (May-Aug.)  1964.

     Experiences ¥ith 16 cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning are
     presented,  which vere treated in artificial-respiration -wards of
     Rome hospitals.  The cases are clinically subdivided  into three
     groups according to the degree of nervous,  cardiovascular, and
     respiratory dysfunction.  A review is included of the therapeutic
     procedures  used during respiratory resuscitation (oxygen therapy),
     cardiovascular resuscitation, and drug therapy (vitamin C,
     hexaphosphene, cocarboxylases).  Antibiotics are also administered
     to carbon-monoxide poisoned patients in order to prevent the
     frequently  occurring complication of respiratory infection.  It is
     advocated that departments be set up in hospitals to  handle emergency
     treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.   -   NASA 80283


 169.Belza, J.:   Electrocardiograph!c changes following acute carbon
     monoxide poisoning.  Inaugural-Dissertation for  the Degree of
     Doctor of Medicine.  P.G. Keller, Winterthur, Switzerland, 1955,
     PP. 39-

     The aim of this dissertation is to present the effect of acute
     carbon monoxide poisoning on the heart.  The damaging influence
     on the myocardium as reflected in the clinical picture and
     electrocardiogram during the past ten years at the Medical Clinic
     of the University of Zurich, has been studied in particular.
     Frequency of pathological changes in the EGG following acute CO
     poisoning are discussed, and an attempt has been made to estimate
     the relation of the age factor to the speed of improvement of
     electrocardiographic findings.  The most recent  literature related
     to this problem is also reviewed.  -  Author's Sum. Modified-AGC


 UO.Bokonjic, N.:  Stagnant Anoxia and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.  A
     Clinical and Electroencepholographic Study in Humans,
     Electroencepholography & Clinical Neurophysiol.,  1963,  Suppl. 21,
     102 pp.

     A detailed description and comparison of clinical and electro-
     encephalographic symptoms in humans suffering from acute anoxia due
     to strangulation and carbon monoxide poisoning is provleded in this
     publication.  The important differences of these two  types of anoxia


                                    69

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     are  clinical  and electroencephalographic syndromes which require
     differential  prognosis.  The association established between duration
     of unconsciousness and recovery prospects, and clarification of the
     influence  of  age and cardiovascular  failure on the final outcome, are
     of particular prognostic value.   -   AGC
171.  Borman,  M.C.:   Carbon monoxid poisoning.  Mental and neurological
     changes  in a case of acute carbon monoxid poisoning with partial
     recovery.  Amer. J.  Psychiatry 6:135-1^3, 1926.

     A case of  accidental carbon monoxid poisoning is reported in which
     the patient  showed evidence of wide-spread central nervous system
     changes  from which there was apparent recovery, followed again by
     numerous mental and  neurological disturbances with ultimate recovery,
     except for the  mental state.
            The chemical  alterations in the blood and clinical tests
     thereof  in carbon monoxid poisoning are mentioned.
            The anatomical changes in the central nervous system follow-
     ing carbon monoxid poisoning are discussed together with the various
     explanations offered for their occurrence.  -  Author's Sum.
 172.  Burck,  H-C.,  and Portwich,  F. :  Acute renal  failure after  severe
      CO intoxication.   Frankfurter Zeitschrift  fur Pathologic 73:520-
      Symptomology,  clinical course  and pathologic -anatomic findings Ik
      days after severe CO poisoning of a woman, who at death,  showed
      symptoms of acute renal failures  are  discussed.  Since acute renal
      failure as consequences of CO  poisoning are rare and due  to
      anatomical findings,  and other pathogenic factors, the shock syndrom
      had to be considered primarily.   Two  types of cell changes were noted
      in the tubules:   vacuolation of the large epithelia and flattening
      of the epithelio,  indicating the  severity of damage.  Authors
      discuss their  own concept on the  origin of the dilation of the
      tubules.   - From German-AGC
173.  Chalupa,  B. :   Disorders  of memory in a<2ute carbon monoxide intoxications.
      Pracovni  Lekar.  (Prague) 12:331-336,
      The author presents an account of experimental examinations of the
      memory in a  group of kk persons who had recently suffered from acute
      CO intoxication.   The average age was 35-6 yrs.  The following methods
      were used:   repeating 20  separate words, recognition of same material
      with control items,  or repeating 30 verbal pairs having some relation-
      ships as  to  their content.  The disturbances of memory manifested
      themselves by, an  affection  of logic memory and difficult differentiation
      when attempting to recognize; mechanical memory was relatively intact.
      When evaluating the results in individual persons examined pathological
      changes of memory structure were revealed in 26 (59.1$).  These  findings
      were most frequent in a group of accidental acute and subacute CO

                                     TO

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    intoxications (78.6$) though loss of consciousness was noted in only
    21.6$.  In suicidal CO intoxications, which in all instances were
    associated with loss of consciousness, pathological deviations were
    found in 5k.b%.  Differences in the affection are explained
    "by the different conditions of exposure and the different methods
    of treatment of the patients investigated.  In addition to concen-
    tration of CO, the time of exposure must be taken into account, this
    "being particularly important in industrial and accidental CO
    intoxication where frequently protracted acute and subacute exposures
    with pathological findings occur though they are not - associated with
    loss of consciousness.  A comparison with COHb levels on admission
    revealed in 22 patients a positive correlation withthe reduction of
    logical memory and with some indicators in the experiments on recognition.
    At COHb levels up to 29.9$ disorders of memory were found in 33.3$
    at levels of 30-78$,  in 61.5$ of all cases.  Repeated examinations
    after intoxication had subsided showed that logical memory and
    recognition had returned to normal and mechanical memory remained on
    the same level.  From the present work some practical suggestions
    can "be drawn for the prevention and assessing of toxic changes of
    the central nervous system after acute CO poisoning.  - APCA 4835-


     Ciocatto, E., and Pattono, R.:  Organization of an artifical
     respiration center:  Therapy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning,
     Rass. Med.  Indust.  33:330-333 (May-Aug.) 1964.

     The emergency treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning and other
     types of poisoning is generally relatively simple to carry out,
     but is handicapped in practice by organizational difficulties.
     A brief outline is given of the different problems regarding the
     medical staff and auxiliaries, the emergency wards and equipment,
     and the transportation of poisoned subjects.  All these points
     are of basic importance for the organizational function of an
     artificial  respiration and cardiovascular center in a big industrial
     town.  -  NASA 80281


175. Colvin, L.T.:  Electrocardiographic  changes in a case of severe
     carbon monoxide poisoning.  Amer. Heart J. 3:^84-488, 1927-1928.

     The points  of interest  in this case  seem to be:
           The  electrocardiographic  changes due apparently in the main
     to asphyxia,  but possibly in  some degree to the action of benzol,
     were  such as to  suggest damage below the division of the His
     bundle instead of at the A-V  node.
           These changes,  suggesting damage to the ventricular muscle,
     disappeared rapidly and coa?pletely.
           The  supposition  that if such  damage may be done to a
     presumably  healthy heart, an  already impaired myocardium might, under
     similar conditions,  suffer irreparably.  -  Author's Sum.

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176.  CourviHe,  C.B.:   Forensic neuropathology.   XI.   The asphyxiant
      gases.  J.  Forensic Sc.  9:19-46 (Jan.) 1964.

      Noxious gases or  vapors  which produce untoward manifestations in man
      may be divided into the  direct asphyxiants,  whose toxic effects are
      due mainly to replacement of oxygen,  and the indirect asphyxiants,
      whose toxic effects result from absorption  of poison through the
      air passages.  There are three types  of direct asphyxiants:   simple
      asphyxiants (smoke, fumes, and inert  gases), chemical asphyxiants
      (carbon monoxide  and cyanide gas),  and central depressants (the
      anesthetic gases).
             The primary effect of the simple asphyxiants is the exclusion
      of oxygen from the lungs.  The chemical asphyxiants produce anoxia
      either by preventing the transportation of  oxygen in the blood stream
      or by interfering with its utilization by the nerve cells of the brain.
      The central depressants  produce anoxia by direct narcotic action on
      the cortex and basal ganglia, or by the precipitation of cerebral or
      respiratory failure and  superimposition of  other types of anoxia.
             The indirect asphyxiants are divided into the industrial gases
      and the war gases.  The  most common industrial gases are hydrogen
      sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia.
             In acute asphyxiation (survival up to two weeks),  the brain is
      severely congested, with focal hemorrhages  in the leptomeninges and
      white matter.  Distention of the small blood vessels,  perivascular
      hemorrhages and acute changes in the  nerve  cells occur.   The parenchy-
      matous elements and the  Purkinje cells may  also  show acute change.
      Focal or laminar  necrosis of the cortex and central necrosis of the
      basal ganglia are often  associated  with proliferation of the
      endothelium of the small blood vessels.
             In the subacute stage (two to  six weeks), a variety of cerebral
      lesions develop.   Congestion may be present and  focal cortical and
      subcortical softening may be seen.  The cerebral cortex may have a
      diffuse granular  appearance or may  show a thin yellow zone of necrosis.
      Usually, softening of some portion  of the basal  ganglia will be found.
      Patchy, focal, laminar or subtotal  necrosis occur in the cerebral
      cortex, with changes in  the astrocytes and  microglia,  and proliferation
      of the vascular endothelium.  The arterioles of  the lenticular nucleus
      may contain rings of calcium or iron.  The  unmyelinated cortical nerve
      fibers, the myclinated sheaths of the corticofugal
      nerve fibers, and the white matter  may show degenerative changes.   The
      Purkinje cells may be changed and reduced in number.   Deterioration
      of the granule cell layer may also  occur.
             The residuals of  severe anoxia may be only minor,  diffuse
      leptomeningeal thickening and cortical nerve cell loss,  or they may
      be irregular cortical atrophy, cyst formation due to focal softenings,
      and central softening and demyelination. Microscopically, the cytological
      alterations observed in  the subacute  stage  are present,  as are iron
      deposits in the nerve cells.  -  Author's Sum.

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177.  Del Vecchio, V., D'Arca, S., and Talenti, M,:  Carbon monoxide
      intoxication and carbon monoxide in the atmosphere in Rome.  Nuovi
      Ann. d'Igiene e Microbiol. 7:81-102, 1956.

      The 1st part of this article discusses the origin of CO contamination
      of the atmosphere of towns, the pathogenesis of CO poisoning, the
      relation between systems and concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin
      (COHb) and the atmospheric concentrations estimated by investigators
      in various cities of the world.  The chief source of CO in urban
      surroundings is the presence of escape gases from motor vehicles,
      estimated in proportions varying from 3-14$, depending on the
      nature of the fuel, the cylinder performance, traffic congestion,
      confined spaces, etc.  The affinity of CO for hemoglobin is 210
      times greater than that of Og, so that only small amounts of CO
      are necessary to immobilize significant amounts of hemogolbin with
      resulting decrease of Og transport by red blood corpuscles, leading
      to anoxemia and asphyxia.  CO also binds respiratory ferments,
      interfering seriously with the oxidation-reduction mechanism, thus
      adding to its asphyxiant action the inhibition of respiratory
      tissue activation*  Its toxic action is related essentially to the
      concentration of COHb.  A table is given showing the correlation
      between the concentration of CO and 02 in inspired air, the
      duration of exposure and the condition of pulmonary ventilation.
      Thus, for example, if e. man with pulmonary ventilation of 9-51-/
      min. is exposed for 2 hours to 0.03$ CO, the % of COHb in the
      blood reaches 15.6; in 3 hours it reaches 20.  The coefficient of
      COHb/Hb indicates the % of Hb effectively transformed into COHb.
      In man, the lethal index is 0.66, i.e., death takes place when 2/3
      of Hb is fixed.  In a normal person at rest, 10$ of COHb causes no
      symptoms, 20$ slight headache, 32$ headache, irritability and
      vertigo, 50$ mental confusion and syncope, 66$ unconsciousness and
      death, if prolonged.  In the 2nd part of the article, the authors
      describe their own investigation of the CO concentration in the
      air of Borne from tfov. 195U-Oct. 1955; in various zones, at
      different times and in varying weather conditions, using Drager's
      apparatus with 1905 as the colorimetric agent.  The maximum
      concentration (0.015$) occurred in the Traforo del Qiirinale in
      cloudy weather during intense traffic.  While this is not likely
      to cause appreciable intoxication in the adult pursuring his ordinary
      avocations, individuals doing heavy work for 1-1/2 hours may
      experience initial symptoms, and in those spending a great part of
      their life in places where CO is constantly present may undergo
      some disturbance which may be aggravated by atmospheric contaminants.
      -  Rett.


 178. Francois, R.Ch., and Bertin, M.:  Statistical study of the incidence
      of  certain  clinical  signs during the course of acute carbon monoxide
      poisoning,  and  their immediate prognostical value (on ij-952
      observations  of acute intoxication).  Rass. Med. Indust. 33=380-391
       (May-Aug-) 19^.

      A statistical analysis  is made on ^952 cases of acute carbon
      monoxide poisoning that were observed over a k-year period.  The

                                    73

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     incidence of the following clinical manifestations, which may be
     of value for immediate prognosis, are outlined:  state of conscious-
     ness; neurological, mental, respiratory, and cardiovascular symptoms;
     face color (cyanosis); loss of urine; digestive and abdominal
     disorders; and hyperthermia.  -  NASA 80286


179. Henderson, Y.:  Carbon raonoxid poisoning.  J. AMA 67:580-583 (Aug. 19)
     1916.

     Carbon monoxid is  a physiologically harmless gas, except in its
     affinity for hemoglobin.   Its toxic effects are wholly due to the
     inability of the blood combined with carbon monoxid to transport
     oxygen to the tissues.
            Carbon monoxid does not form a permanent compound with
     hemoglobin.  In the presence of excess  oxygen, or even of pure air,
     carbon monoxid is  rapidly given off and the oxygen carrying power
     of the hemoglobin  is  restored.
            The continuance of coma, the subsequent tissue degenerations,
     and death after several days, resulting from carbon monoxid
     poisoning, are not due to retention of  the gas, but are the results
     of injury to the brain and other organs by the insufficiency of
     oxygen supplied to them by the blood while the patient was breath-
     ing the  gas.
            There is no reason to believe that either bleeding or
     transfusion of blood  is beneficial.  They are more likely to be
     harmful.
            Fresh air—with oxygen inhalation for a short time as early
     as possible—symptomatic  treatment, and good nursing are the only
     measures to be recommended.  Practically the die is already cast
     for death, permanent  defects, or complete recovery at the moment
     when the patient is brought out of the  asphyxial atmosphere.
            It is just  possible theoretically that alkali therapy may
     be beneficial in combating the acidosis induced by asphyxia.
     Author's Sum.


180  Hundreds of motorists are killed by carbon monoxide.  Public Health
   "  (Johannesburg) 63:30,32 (Sept.) 1963

     In this  article it is stated that many  victims of death from carbon
     monoxide fumes are included in that group of persons dying from injuries
     sustained in car accidents commonly attributed to driver fatigue,
     drowsiness, or inattention.  The charge is usually phrased as "failure
     to drive in a careful and prudent manner."  A research project on
     deaths and injuries from  CO, undertaken by a near-victim of the gas,
     revealed that neither the auto insurance companies nor the safety
     organizations had  any statistical breakdown of numbers of deaths or
     accidents  from this cause.  But he also found that his own experience
     was not  unique.  Incidence in Canada and the U. S. of deaths from
     CO in automobiles  are cited including 1 where the medical examiner
     judged that the driver in a fatal accident may have breathed the gas
     cmning into his car from  vehicles ahead of himself in the heavy traffic


                                     74

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     since blood tests indicated a  CO saturation 35$.  Individuals re-
     spond in various ways to CO, sometimes acting drunk or hilarious.   The
     author  suggests that the blood of such drivers be tested for both
     alcohol and CO content.   Such  tests may well save many lives.  Kegu-
     lar checks of cars, for corrosion of the muffler and tail pipe, should
     be made and the driver should  be sure that the car trunk closes tightly.
     When following another car within 60 feet the car ventilator should
     be closed.  The ventilators should also be closed in heavy traffic,
     in tunnels, and when parked behind a car with the motor running.  It
     should  be a policy also never  to sit, for any length of time, in a
     parked  car with the motor running and the windows closed. APCA 6095.
           i

181.  Jackson,  R.C.,  Bunker, ^N.V.,jElder,  W.J., and O'Connor,  P.J.s
     Case of  Carbon-monoxide poisoning with complications.  Success-
     ful treatment  with an artificial kidney.  British Med. J.
     Nov. 28,  1959,  pp. 1130-1134.

     A case is described  of carbon  monoxide poisoning with the
     following complications—skeletal-muscle necrosis,  probable
     myocardial necrosis,  acute  renal failure, mental changes,and
     a radiculomyelitis of L 2-5.
            The details of conservative  management and haemodialysis
     (twice)  by a Kolff twin-coil artificial kidney are  given.
     The literature concerning muscle necrosis and renal failure,
     with the neurological sequelae, is  reviewed.   -Authors'  Sum.


182.  Johnson, D.M.:  Killer on our  highway.  Good Housekeeping, June 1961,
     pp. 49  and 146-148.

     This is a report of auto accidents fatal or near fatal possibly caused
     by the  inhalation of CO.  Author relates her own experience of CO
     asphyxiation, and describes the symptoms before she was overcome by
     CO fumes and crashed into another automobile. When she felt  a strong
     sensation of drowsiness she wanted to pull off the road but was
     unable  to see the side due to, as she found out later, the narrowing
     of the  field of vision caused  by the CO.  In being overpowered by the
     drowsiness she lost judgement, control and consciousness, due to the
     fact that the inhaled lethal CO combines more than 200 times  faster
     with the blood than oxygen. Thus the saturated blood cannot  absorb
     enough  life-giving oxygen.  Deprived of oxygen the brain is affected
     sometimes severely and sometimes permanently. Author in quoting
     several case histories makes a plea for more research.  Blood tests
     which are made routinely for the presence of alcohol, should  be done
     just as routinely for the presence of CO in accident cases.   Only the
     city of Philadelphia is doing  these tests routinely when someone dies
     in a wreck.  Philadelphia's medical examiner states that an appreciable
     percentage of drivers who die  in automobile accidents have significant
     levels  of CO In their blood.  Author cautions driver; to be aware  that
     CO is odorless, to keep the car in good running condition and well
     ventilated - AGC

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183.   McBay, A. J.: Carbon monoxide poisoning.  New England J.  Med.
      272:252-253 (Feb. 4) 1965,

      Medicolegal problems in regard to death by carbon monoxide are dis-
      cussed.  Author states that the most puzzling cases are those produced
      by motor-vehicle exhaust fumes.  About half of the fatal poisonings in
      the U.S. are attributed to CO,  and many chronic sublethal poisonings
      by this gas are unrecognized.   Exhaust of the gasoline engine may  pro-
      duce up to 7% CO.  Exhaust of an automobile will saturate the interior
      of a small garage in IS to 30 minutes with a  lethal amount of CO.  The
      affinity of CO for hemoglobin is 200-300 times greater than that  of
      oxygen.  Fatal poisoning may occur with a blood saturation of 30 or
      40% of CO.  Symptoms are not  striking  enough to make diagnosis
      easy.  The much discussed pink color of the skin is rarely seen and
      the only valid test is the  determination of the amount of CO in the
      blood.   -AGC.


  184. McConnell, J.W., and Spiller, W.G.: A cli nice-pathologic study of
      carbon  monoxid poisoning.  J. AMA. 59:2122-2126  (Dec. 14) 1912.

      Authors cite actual cases of acute carbon monoxid poisoning and the
      sequela  thereof.
             Authors divide poisoning by CO  into  three  classes:  acute
      poisoning, chronic poisoning and the third  class  is designed as
      relapsing CO poisoning a term used to  indicate  the  conditions of
      those who, having apparently recovered from the initial effect of
      the poison, develop after a period of  fair  health a grave type of
      symptoms leading to death.
             The special clinical interest in case  study  described lies
      in the  time which elapsed between the  initial poisoning and the
      development of the grave  symptoms, in  the bilaterality of the motor
      symptoms,  in the intense  spasticity present and in  the absence of
      distinct vasomotor or trophic symptoms.   -  AGC


 185. Mant, A.K.:  Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning:  A review of 100
      consecutive cases.  Medico-Legal J. 28:30-39, 1960.

      One hundred consecutive deaths following the  accidental exposure to
      carbon  monoxide from miscellaneous sources  have been analysed.  The
      increasing number of poisonings amongst the elderly and the infirm
      has been demonstrated.  The comparative ease  with which accidental
      carbon  monoxide poisoning may be missed,  expecially where the source
      is not  the simple  escape  of coal gas,  has been  shown, and emphasis
      has been laid  upon the rapidity with which  a  fatal concentration  of
      carbon  monoxide may be built up in a poorly ventilated space when
      only  a  small amount of fuel is burnt.
             Some of the new safety devices  which are being developed to
      exclude many of the dangers of accidental poisoning have been mentioned.
      -  Author's Sum.


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186. ifeigs, j.w., and Hughes, J.P.W.:  Acute  carbon monoxide poisoning:
     An analysis of one hundred five cases.   Arch.  Indust. Hyg. &
     Occupat. Med. 6:3^356 (Oct.) 1952.
             5
     An analysis is presented of findings  in  105 patients admitted to
     the Grace  - New Haven Community Hospital,  Conn, between Jan.  1,
     1920 and Dec. 31, 19^8,  with a diagnosis of acute  carbon monoxide
     poisoning.  A number of oanifestations previously  considered  unusual
     were shown to be  common in this series,  namely, skin lesions,
     transient  respiratory findings, excessive sweating, liver enlargement,
     localized  pain or soreness,  and localized edema.   All these signs
     except pain or soreness and edema were shown to correlate statistically
     with severity of  poisoning,  as did several others  including temperature
     of 102eF or higher,  respiratory rate  of  30/rnin or  higher, and
     leucocyte  count of 18,000/cc or higher.   Several manifestations which
     were almost as common in patients with mild as with severe poisoning,
     were thought to be precipitated by responses of the automatic
     nervous system and the extent of  response to be a  function of the
     individual more than of the degree  of intoxication.  The signs
     which  correlate with severity of  poisoning may be  manifestations
     of direct  hypoxic injury to the oxygen-sensitive cells of the brain,
     as well as stimulation of  the pituitary-adrenal mechanisms.   -  LC
187.  Molfino, F., and Zannini, D. :  On the treatment of acute  carbon
      monoxide poisoning with oxygen therapy in a pressure chamber.  Bass.
      Med. Indust.  SS^-SSS (May-Aug.)
      Three cases of carbon monoxide poisoning were treated with pure
      oxygen in a pressure chamber.  This method not only provides good
      tissue oxygenation, but as regards carboxhemoglobinemia,  50$
      desaturation is attained in about half the time required  to reach
      the same reduction with oxygen at normal pressure.   -  IUASA 80282
 188. Neubuerger, K.T., and Clarke, E.R. :  Subacute carbon monoxide
      poisoning with cerebral myelinopathy and multiple myocardial
      necroses.  Rocky Mountain Med. J. U2: 29-35 (Jan.)
      A case of subacute CO poisoning in a 19-year-old girl is reported.
      The condition led to death after thirteen days.  Autopsy revealed
      cerebral  myelinopathy and myocardial necrosis.  The pathogenesis
      of these  lesions is discussed.  The significance of a low
      concentration of CO together with high atmospheric temperature in
      the present  case is emphasized.  -  Authors1 Sum.


 189.  Kicloux,  M. :  Acute carbon monoxide poisoning.  J. AMA 77:1289
      (Oct. 15)  1921.

      Author emphasizes that the blood corpuscles even saturated with
      carbon monoxide are not devitalized at all, but are ready to resume
      functioning with a little aid, that is, when supplied with oxygen.

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      In a case described,  seventy-five minutes after the poisoning,  and
      after 650 liters  of oxygen had been administered by the pulmotor,
      the blood still contained 9.08 per  cent, carbon monoxide,  showing
      that 1*1.3 Per cent, of the hemoglobin was saturated with it.  The
      oxygen was pushed,  and in about an  hour this percentage was only
      25.5,  and four hours  later, 8.3.  The survival of this patient
      after apparent death  for twenty- five  minutes shows that even 9-08
      per cent, of carbon monoxide  in the blood is not fatal.  In the
      cases on record in  which death occurred with poisoning of  0.1,
      0.3 or even O.U,  author is convinced  that some other factor than
      this poison was responsible for the fatality.  The slightest
      movement is liable  to bring on vertigo and loss of consciousness*
      This occurred twice in this case, the man saying he felt well and
      wanted to go home,  and becoming unconscious when he started to  get
      up.  The pulmotor had been used beginning five minutes after
      apparent death which  Icept up  for twenty minutes longer.  About
      650 liters of oxygen  had been used  and more was given in the
      hospital, for twenty  minutes  each hour, to a total of 1,500 liters.
      The headache and  vertigo disappeared  after the first inhalation.


 190.  Noro, L. :  Carbon monoxide poisoning, Nord. med. 26:771-6, 1945.

      The author describes  the clinical picture and pa tho genesis of CO
      poisoning and the existence of the  poisoning in drivers of motor
      cars operated by  charcoal gas in Finland.  Of the 5,000 drivers,
      who were questioned,  symptoms of CO poisoning were found in 67.5%
      of the cases. The  symptoms of acute  poisoning were complained  of
      by 3,069; symptoms  of chronic poisoning, by 2,506 drivers.  In  530
      cases the poisoning had caused inability to work.  In Finland at
      present, CO poisoning is the  most common occupational disease.
      - Kett.


19 1.  Paris,  J. :   Study of  the "excitation-duration" curves after
      occupational acute  CO poisoning.  (French) Rass. Med.  Indust. 33 i
      275-291 (May-Aug.)
      The author has made a study of the neuromuscular excitation curves
      after acute occupational intoxication from CO with an electronic
      rheotome.   These  curves are featured by hypoexcitability of the
      nerve with corresponding inversion of the nerve-muscle excitability
      ratio.  The inversion of this proportion seems to render objective
      the subjective clinical syndrome of muscular asthenia and great
      weakness of the lower limbs that is observed after acute carbon
      monoxide poisoning.   - Author's Sum.

192.  Parmeggiani, L.,  Ces'bruzzi, S., and Colombo, G. :  Carbon monoxide
      determination in  expired air as a practical method of diagnosis of
      acute CO intoxication. Med. lavoro (Milan) lt9:teB-W*l (June- July)
      1958.

      Several methods of carbon  monoxide determination in  expired air
      were submitted to a series of tests*  It was found that the best

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      containers  for collecting and keeping expired air samples were
      rubber footballs with plastic covers.  The simplest and most
      reliable sampling technique consisted in collecting the last
      fractions of expired air, without effort,  through a filter.
      Iodine pentoxide indicator ampoules gave a false positive CO
      reaction in a range of 0.5$ in the presence cf ethanol vapors,
      0.2$ with acetone vapors, and 0.1$ with benzol vapors.  Metabolic
      products from ethanol excreted through the lungs within 2 hours
      from time of ingestion can interfere more markedly with the
      colorimetric reaction, giving values corresponding to 6-8$ HbCO
      in conditions of clinically evident alcoholic inebriation.   The
      correlation of CO values in the expired air to CO extracted  by
      Roughton-Scholander's method shows a coefficient r = 0.6l6,  while
      the correlation to HbCO values according to Heilmeyer's method
      shows  a coefficient r - 0.578 (in both cases P < 0.001).  This
      is a satisfactory correlation, since the correlation of extracted
      CO to  HbCO  is lower.  Simplicity,  rapidity,  and low cost are the
      advantages  of the present method that make it especially applicable
      for clinical use.  -  APCA 2303
193.  Peffek, R.:  Mass poisoning with carbon monoxide.   Pracov.  Lek.
      17:24-25, 1965.

      The author describes in this paper an extraordinary leakage of carbon
      monoxide from a defective gas-conduit, that seeped under the road
      pavement to a distance of 28 meters where it accumulated in a watermain
      shaft.  6 days later work was started in the watermain shaft and
      two workers suffered a lethal intoxication.  It is interesting that
      even the prescribed 10 minutes ventilation of the  shaft could not
      avert the occurrence of this accident.  -  Author's Abst.
      Raskin,  N.,  and Mullaney,  O.C. :   The mental and neurological sequelae
      of carbon monoxide asphyxia in a case observed for fifteen years.  J.
      Nerv.  & Mental Dis.  92:&K>-659  (Nov.)
      Author describes the mental and neurological sequelae of a patient
      who survived,  for 15 years, a case  of  CO asphyxia.  This patient
      developed Parkinsonian* s syndrome,  and the mental picture was one
      of involution melancholia.   The extensive literature of case studies
      of patients who survived CO poisoning  for a few days or months is
      also reviewed.  -  AGC


195.  Rothschild, J.E.:  Carbon monoxide poisoning.   Amer.  Pract.  13:
      213-218 (March) 1962.

      In reviewing literature, author discusses the overall effect Of
      CO on the health of man.  He also reports a case of acute CO
      poisoning in which he used exchange transfusion to treat the
      victim.  -  AGC
                                      79

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196. Sayers, R.R., and O'Brien, H.R.:  The treatment of carbon monoxide
     poisoning.  Pub.  Health Rep.  37:271-27^  (Feb. 10) 1922.

     Carbon monoxide poisoning is  one of the  most widely distributed and
     most  frequent of  industrial accidents.   The gas is a product of
     incomplete  combustion and is  -without color, odor, or taste; therefore,
     its presence is frecently unsuspected in many places where it  exists.
     It is an  ever-present danger  about blast and coke furnaces and  foundries.
     It may be found in a building having a leaky furnace or chimney or
     a gas stove without  flue connection, such as a tenement, tailor shop,
     or boarding house.   Hospitals receive a  great number of victims of
     poisoning,  whether by accident  or in an  attempt at suicide, from
     artificial  illuminating gas.  Persons may be affected by leaks
     wherever  water gas is formed  or used.  The exhaust gases of gasoline
     automobiles contain  from k to 12 per cent of carbon monoxide, and in
     closed garages men are not infrequently  found dead beside a running
     motor.  A similar danger may  arise from  gasoline engines in launches.
     The gas is  formed also in stoke-rooms, in gun turrets on battleships,
     in petroleum refineries, and  in the Leblanc soda process in cement
     and brick plants. In underground work carbon monoxide may appear
     as the result of  shot firing, mine explosions, or mine fires, or in
     tunnels from automobile exhausts or from coal or oil burning
     locomotives.
            Carbon monoxide exerts its extremely dangerous action on the
     body  by displacing oxygen from  its combination with hemoglobin.
     The affinity of CO for hemoglobin is about 300 times that of oxygen.
     Because of  this,  even when only a small  amount of the poisonous gas
     is present  in the air breathed  into the  lungs much of the hemoglobin
     is locked up in combination with CO and  so cannot keep up its usual
     work  of carrying  oxygen to the  tissues.  Author describes symptoms
     of acute  and chronic CO poisoning, and suggests treatment.   -  From
     Text-AGC
197.  Shafer, H.,  Smilay, M.G., and MacMillan, .F.P.:  Primary myo-ardial
      disease in man resulting  from acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
      Amer. J. Med.  38:316-320  (Feb.) 1965.

      The purpose  of this paper is to present a case of leyocardial damage
      resulting  from acute  carbon monoxide poisoning.  A review of the
      literature reveals a  paucity of such reports.  The standard text-
      books of medicine make little or no mention of cardiac signs and
      symptoms arising from carbon monoxide poisoning, but emphasize
      instead cerebral involvement.  The case presented herein is of
      further interest as the patient has remained symptomatic to the
      present time and has  shown persistent changes on the electrocardio-
      gram.; the  electrocardiographic patterns reported thus far consist
      of transient and reversible changes.  -  Authors' Abst.
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198.  Shillito,  F.H.,  Drinker,  O.K.,  and Shaughnessy,  T.J.:   The problem
      of nervous and mental sequelae  in carbon monoxide poisoning.
      J. A.M.A.  106:669-674 (Feb.  29) 1936,

      The New York metropolitan area  was chosen for a study  of nervous
      and mental sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning.  It  is known that
      at least 21,1^3  acute exposures of all degree occurred there  in a ten
      year period.  For the same period a survey of the state mental
      institutions serving the meteropolitan area of New York City  showed
      thirty-nine certain cases of sequelae of carbon monoxide.   Such patients
      formed 0.05 per  cent of the  total admissions.  Serious mental or
      nervous sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning are thus infrequent
      in relation either to other  nervous and mental diseases or to the
      number of  acute  exposures.
             Study of  case records reveal that when nervous  or mental damage
      occurred the acute carbon monoxide intoxication was extreme.
      Complete unconsciousness was invariable and the most active resusci-
      tative measures  were necessary.  None of these cases followed so-
      called chronic carbon monoxide  exposure over a long period of time.
             A clear period of from seven to twenty days preceded the
      onset of symptoms in one third  of the cases.  In the remainder of
      the cases  the symptoms started  immediately following the poisoning.
             Mental sequelae consisted of a confusion psychosis,  with
      disorientation,  lack of judgment and amnesia.  Motor overactivity
      and aphasia were much less common.  Hallucinations,  delusions or
      convulsions played no conspicuous part.
             Nervous sequelae consisted of signs varying from s3ightly
      increased deep reflexes to well advanced parkinsonism.   Sensory
      disturbances, such as skin anesthesia and peripheral motor neuritides,
      were also encountered.  These cases all showed improvement, but the
      final result depended on the degree of initial damage.
             In the total group of forty-three cases,  twenty-three  patients
      recovered completely, nine suffered permanent nervous or mental sequelae
      and eleven died.  -  Authors' Sum.


 199.  Smith, G., and Sharp, G.R.:   Treatment of carbon monoxide  poisoning
      with oxygen under pressure.   Lancet So. 7156:905-906 (Oct.  22)
      I960.

      Two cases are presented in which the patients arrived at a hospital
      separately but within a short period of time, in an unconscious
      and deeply unconscious state following exposure to carbon  monoxide
      la a closed room.  Before treatment the carboxyhemoglobta  levels
      were established as 26 and 50$  respectively.  The patients were
      placed In a pressure chamber, where the pressure was raised to
      15 Ib./in.*" over a period of 15 minutes,  and each patient  was
      given oxygen. The 1st patient  revived very rapidly; the 2nd
      patient was able to breathe  without the aid of the resuscitator
      after 20 minutes and after Uo minutes could answer questions  and
      move his limbs purposefully. At the end of an hour the pressure
      was reduced over a period of 31 minutes,  to atmospheric pressure.
      janples of venous blood taken at this time, at atmospheric

                                      81

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     pressure* showed no carboxyhemoglobin to be present in either case.
     -  APCA 3736


200. Spencer,  T.  D. :  Effects  of carbon monoxide on man and canaries.  Ann.
     Occupat.  Hyg.  (London) 5:231-240  (Oct.-Dec.) 1962.

     Since the scientific literature contained little information on the
     measuring of the effect of CO on  canaries, and none  since the refine-
     ment of measuring  techniques which have  occurred in  the last decade  or
     so,  the author a few years ago carried out a series  of tests of such
     effects.  There are § major differences between the effects of CO  on  man
     and of those on  the canary.   The  1st is  the difference in what can be
     measured.  In man  the gas produces headache, dizziness, and  nausea
     but these symptoms cannot be assessed with any certainty in  the canary.
     The time  that the  canary  falls off the perch is the  only measurement
     that can  be made with any assurance.  It is obvious  that there is
     no equivalent to the walking or working  man; all canaries are "resting."
     The 2nd is that  a  canary  reaches  a state of equilibrium with the  CO
     it is breathing  much more quickly than a man does.   If the atmosphere
     contains  enough  CO to cause aH canaries put in it to fall of their
     perches (i.e., more than  17.5 parts/10,000 parts of  air), this fall
     will occur within  20 minutes and  usually within 10.  A resting man
     could be  4-5 hours in such a concentration before losing consciousness.
     At concentrations  of more than 17.5  parts the canary would fall off
     its perch nearly always before a  walking man had developed any symptoms
     of poisoning and always before a  resting man had done so.  It is  this
     fact, of  course, which has made the  canary so valuable in rescue  opera-
     tions. The 3rd difference is 1 which does not appear to be widely
     known. It takes 2 or 3 times the concentration of CO to produce  in
     a canary  effects which can be considered as equivalent to those in
     man.  The lowest concentration of CO which appeared  to produce any
     effect whatever  in a canary seemed,  from these observations, to be
     6 parts/10,000 parts. The lowest concentration that will make any
     canary fall off  its perch is 12.5 parts; in man unconsciousness will
     occur in  4 or 5  parts. It has always been considered that the canary
     was more  "sensitive" to CO than man.  In man, hemoglobin has about
     250 times the affinity for CO than it has for oxygen; in the canary
     this figure appears to be 110. In 1 sense of the word a canary is,
     therefore, not nearly as  "sensitive" to  CO as man.   This fact is  more
     than counterbalanced in  CO of more than  20 parts by  the speed at
     which the canary's blood  comes into  equilibrium with the atmosphere
     breathed.  At the  lower  levels, and  particularly in  12 parts/10,000
     parts of  CO or less, a canary will not only be useless but will be
     a dangerous cause  of false confidence,  - APCA 5389«


201. Tronzano, L., and  Coscia, G.C.:  Ba4ial.paralysis in a case  of acute
     carbon monoxide  intoxication.  Rass. Med. Indust. 33:401-403 (fcfey-
     Aug«) 1964.

     A case is reported of paralysis of the right arm in  a 38-year-old
     worker acutely poisoned by carbon monoxide.  The paralysis persisted


                                     82

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      for three months,  although no signs of central-nervous-system
      distress were evident.   This case demonstrates the occurrence of
      isolated lesions in the peripheral nerve trunks of the arm during
      acute carbon monoxide poisoning.  -  NASA 80287
202.  Turner, J.W.A.:  Parkinsonism:  Aetiology and Treatment.  London Clin.
      Med. J. 5:41-49 (Jan.) 1964.

      The following paragraph is taken from this paper in the section
      entitled:  "Aetiology of the Parkinsonism Syndrome".
             "The occurrence of Parkinsonism following acute poisoning
      is well authenticated, and pathological softening of the anterior
      part of the globus pallidus has "been found in patients who have
      survived for 2k hours or more after carbon monoxide poisoning.  In
      some recorded cases there has been an interval of months,  even up
      to a year or more before Parkinsonism developed, but in the most
      clear-cut case I have personally seen, well-marked Parkinsonism was
      present two to three weeks after an unsuccessful suicidal attempt
      in which the patient had been unconscious for about 48 hours.
      Although the condition may become worse for some months, progressive
      deterioration over the course of years does not usually take place.
203.  Vyskocil, J.:  "Neurohumoral regulation" in acute and chronic carbon
      monoxide poisoning.  Arch. Gewerbepathol.  Gewerbehyg.  15:457-472,
      1957-

      The varying views on the mechanism of carbon monoxide poisoning,
      clinical findings, laboratory and other tests of 40 cases of acute
      and 29 cases of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning are discussed in
      this paper.  In summary, the author states that in acute poisoning
      during the first few days there is leucocytosis, diminution in the
      eosinophil count, increase in blood sugar, glycosuria and pathological
      values of the adrenaline test (Thorn test) and of the Walsh-Robinson-
      Kepler water test.  Theee pathological findings disappear in most
      cases, in about 14 days, but in other instances signs suggestive of
      damages to the central nervous system develop gradually.  Congestion
      of the adrenals, pancreas, liver and spleen were found in 23 fatal
      cases.  Among the 29 persons who had for an average period of 8 years
      worked in an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide, the findings
      were enlargement of the thyroid (38$), loss of hair (45$), diminution
      in potency (17$), pathological values in the adrenaline test (59$),
      increase in blood sugar (4l$) and pathological values in the water
      test (27$).  -  AGC


 264. Zaffiri, 0.:  ^pc-thermia in treatment of acute carbon monoxide
      poisoning.  Rass. Med. Indust. 33:433-436 (May-Aug.} 1964.

      A case is reported of acute carbon monoxide poisoning treated with
      hypothermia to 32°, and with recovery of the patient without
      sequelae after 5 days in a coma.  The decreased metabolic

                                      83

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     requirements during hypothermia provide a good oxygen supply to the
     cerebral, hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissue, thus defending them
     from the action of hypoxia.  Moreover, the hemoglobin dissociation
     curve is displaced to the left.  From a theoretical viewpoint,
     hypothermia appears to be the most rational treatment to avoid
     hypoxia of the nervous and cardiovascular systems and the resultant
     sequelae in those who survive the coma of carbon monoxide poisoning.
     -  NASA 80290
205. Zorn, H. :  Diagnosis and therapy of CO-poisoning in practice.
     Mtinchner Med. Wochenschrift 106:235-239 (Feb.)
     The technical and medical problems concerning the protection of health
     by preventing the perilous effects of the old gas containing much
     carbon monoxide and the modern city gas with little CO are discussed.
     The symptoms of CO-lntoxication vary and render the diagnosis
     frequently very difficult; with the appropriate test-tubes, however,
     it can be stated easily.  Primary treatment depends on the hypoxemic
     condition and ranges from simple mouth-to-mouth breathing to high
     pressure Og-respiration.  Even the mild CO-intoxication requires
     treatment.  Adequate oxygen therapy prevents or lessens sequelae.
     Further specific and non-specific conservative therapy of CO-poisoning
     is discussed.  -  Author's English Sum.
           effect of chronic (long term and low)  concentrations
 206o  Austen, F.K.:  The medical grand rounds.   Massachusetts General
      Hospital.  Amer. Pract. 13:171-185*
      Among the cases discussed is one concerning a medical problem caused
      by CO, in connection with .the construction of a garage under the
      Boston Common.  The physiological and chemical reactions of oxygen
      and CO as they become bound to hemoglobin are described.  The rules
      of how CO and hemoglobin combine are summarized in a simple equation.
      The severity of the symptoms of anoxia from CO poisoning as compared
      with anemia are explained.  -  AGC


 207. Automobiles and air pollution.  J. AMA. 162:13^ (Sept. 8) 1956.

      In a report of the Fuel Besearch Station to the Royal Societyf of
      Health, England, it is pointed out that air pollution caused by
      automobile exhaust gases is small conpared with that caused by coal
      cotibustion; however, since vehicular exhaust gases are  emitted in
      the streets at a low level, there is little chance of their being
      dispersed before being inhaled.  In gasoline engines, the  carbon
      monoxide emitted is about k%, and in diesel engines about  0.1$.
      Practically no benzopyrene is detected at gasoline engine  loads
      exceeding 50$, while in efficiently run diesel engines  only a trace
      is evident.  Yearly pollution from carbon monoxide totals  2k

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     metric tons of which 10 tons are from industrial c!iii..neys, 10 tons
     frcu dooeetic appliances, and 4 tons frcn automobile exhausts.
     The average carbon nonoxide in the air of London streets in 1955
     was 15 ppm.  In the smog of Jan. 1956, the carbon monoxide content
     rose to 50 ppm in London and 80 ppm in Salford, England.  Data
     indicate that the average pedestrian experiences an effect of carbon
     monoxide poisoning at a concentration of 50 ppni after exposure of
     ^ to 8 hours.  -  LC
 208.Baetjer,  A.M.:  Chronic eapoeures to air pollutants and acute infectious
     respiratory diseases.  Arch. Indust. Byg. & Occupat. Med.  2:bOQ-kQ6
     (Oct.) 1950.

     Data in this review, obtained from studies of the health of persons
     who had been exposed to specific chemical contaminants of  the air
     have not yielded any definite evidence that chronic inhalation of
     such chemical contaminants In low concentrations affects susceptibility
     to acute infections of the respiratory tract.  Author states  that
     the data available at present are entirely insufficient to enable
     one to draw any definite conclusions, and suggests further fundamental
     research along the following four subjects:  1.  Basic studies on
     the physiologic effects of air pollutants on the body tissues;
     2.  animal experimentation on the effects of these substances on
     susceptibility to infectious diseases; 3.  industrial morbidity studies
     in relation to fcnown exposures and k-.  well controlled epidemiologic
     studies.  Not until such data become available can any positive
     statement be made concerning the effects of chronic inhalation of
     atmospheric contaminants on acute infections of the respiratory tract.
     -  Author's Conclusions Modified - AGC
209. Beck, H.G., and Fort, W.:  Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.  Ann.
     Clin. Med. 3:437-^3, 192U-1925.

     Two  case  studies of  chronic carbon monoxide poisoning are discussed
     in detail in this paper.  Because of the manifold and protean character
     of the clinical manifestations, only a few of the more common symptoms
     could be  given  in this paper.  The pallor of many patients resembled
     a high grade of anemia,  as well as a group of symptoms are suggestive
     of anemia in the presence of a red cell count of over 5,000,000.
     This condition  is of considerable diagnostic significance.  There
     is no specific  antidote  for chronic carbon monoxide poisoning and
     treatment has to be  symptomatic.
            An English bull dog was named the victim la a third case study
     of carbon monoxide poisoning.  The blood examination showed a
     hemoglobin of 95$, erythrocytes 5,120,000 and leukocytes 12,250.
     There were no morphological changes in the red cells.  -  AGC

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210. Beck,  H.G,:  The clinical manifestations of chronic carbon monoxide
     poisoning.   Ann. Clin. Med. 5:1088-1096, 1927.

     It has been stated that CO, a product of many industries, ranks 2nd as
     a death-dealing agent.  Certain occupations, e.g., working in garages,
     around blast furnaces, gas works, smelting works and firing gas engines
     are particularly hazardous in chronic CO inhalation.  Combustion sources
     in the home and in the streets give off much CO.  The nature of CO gas
     is discussed.  The severity and clinical course of the symptoms produced
     depend upon the concentration of CO gas, frequency and duration of
     exposure, temperature and humidity, physical exertion, health of the
     individual,  admixture of other poisonous gases and individual suscep-
     tibility.  In an attempt to meet the increased demand for 02> because
     part of the hemoglobin is tied up with CO, the blood often contains an
     increased amount of red blood cells and hemoglobin.  In 665 steel
     workers, the red counts ranged from 6,000,000-9,676,000 and hemoglobin
     content from 95-1257..  In a large % of fatal cases of CO poisoning, the
     cause of death may be attributed to cerebral lesions, e.g., congestion
     of the meninges and brain substance, hemorrhage into and softening of
     the internal capsule, lenticular nucleus and adjacent structure.
     Pneumonia often follows as an immediate sequence to acute poisoning.
     The various stages of symptomatology in acute poisoning are described.
     In some cases, a delayed CO poisoning occurs.  Severe chronic CO
     poisoning presents many of the same symptoms as the mild acute form.
     The most frequent are headache, dizziness, muscular weakness, disturbance
     of gait, parasthesis, breathlessness on exertion and nervous and
     emotional instability. The-muscular symptoms are particularly pronounced.
     Several illustrative cases where the symptoms simulated- ulcers, hyper-
     thyroidism and pernicious anemia are reported.  Diagnosis and prognosis
     are also discussed.  - Kett.
 211. Beck,  H.G.:   Slow carbon monoxide asphyxiation.  A neglected clinical
      problem.  J.  A.M.A.  107:1025-1029 (July-Sept.) 1936.

      A series  of carefully studied cases of  slow carbon monoxide asphyxiation
      has been  studied*
             The  symptoms  exhibited have been correlated with the pathologic
      lesions produced in  experimental animals and found at autopsy.
             The  results establish the fact that slow carbon monoxide
      asphyxiation (anoxemia)  produces a definite clinicopathologic entity
      despite views held to the  contrary.
             The  symptoms  arise  predominantly from organs  rich in blood
      supply, thus demanding much oxygen, such as the central nervous
      system and  the heart muscles.
             Owing to doubt and  uncertainty as to the actual existence of
      the malady  and a scant literature on the subject, the condition is
      not generally recognized "by the profession and its importance has
      been underestimated.
             Since there is no medicinal remedy when the organic changes
      have once developed,  treatment must be  directed toward its prevention
      by proper public health  measures.  -  Author's Sum.
                                    86

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212. Beck, H.G.:   Chronic carbon monoxide anoxemia:   Clinical syndromes.
     Southern Med.  J.  30:824-829 (Aug.) 1937-

     The object of this paper is not to discuss the  immediate effects of
     acute carbon monoxide poisoning as the incidence and the nature of
     this condition are well known;  but to consider  the more remote effects
     of acute poisoning and the effects of chronic poisoning produced by
     frequent and prolonged periods  of exposure to sublethal amounts,  and
     to describe  some  of the characteristic syndromes.


 213. Beck, H.G.,  and Suter, G.M.: Role of carboa monoxide in the  causation  of
     myocardial disease.  J.A.M.A.  110:1982-1986 (June II)  1938,

     In a. group of 136 persons who had been intermittently exposed to  carbon
     monoxide over varying periods,  nyocardial symptoms were frequently  mani-
     fested.
            The lesions affectiug the heart, brain and other organs  are  pri-
     marily vascular,  consisting of  small hemorrhages and perivascular infil-
     tration  vith focal necrosis. When the heart is affected,  coronary
     thrombosis frequently develops, as ascertained  by postmortem and  electro-
     cardiographic studies.
            Hemorrhagic lesions affecting the  heart  muscle have been produced
     experimentally in animals subjected to varying  amounts  of  carbon  monoxide
     in inspired  air.
            The impression that unless the patient dies in acute  asphyxiation
     no harm  may  result is erroneous.
            Patients who apparently  recover from acute asphyxiation  frequently
     have  later manifestations, which appear in from three to seven  days.   These
     are known as delayed symptoms,  or sequelae,  and may affect the  heart,  brain
     or other organs and terminate fatally.
            Those who  survive the delayed manifestations may completely  recover
     or ultimately itsy have severe organic disease of the heart or of  other
     organs*  to which  they finally succumb.
            Lesions may occur simultaneously In the  heart and the brain, as
     evidenced by clinical studies and post mortem observations.
            In order to make a positive diagnosis of chronic myocardial  disease
     resulting from carbon monoxide, it is essential that an accurate  history be
     obtained with respect to exposure to gas,  exhibition of symptoms  of anoxemia,
     clinical course of the disease  and absence of preexisting  cardiac lesions. -
     Authors' Sum.


 214.Birren,  J.E., Fisher, M.B., Vollmer, E.P.,  and  King,  B.G.:   Effects
     of anoxia on performance at several simulated altitudes.  J. Exp.
     Psycholog. 36:35-^9 (Feb.) 19&.

     This paper reports the results  of a series of tests on  humans
     exposed  to simulated altitudes  in a low pressure chamber.  These
     tests were made not to determine possible bases for personnel selection
     but to provide limited performance norms  for subsequent studies of
     variables superimposed on anoxia, e.g., carbon  monoxide.  The purpose
     of the present investigation is similar to that of many other studies


                                   8?

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     employing sensorimotor tests, that is, to appraise the efficiency
     of personnel under an environmental stress.


215. Bjerver, K., and Goldberg, L. :  Alcohol tolerance in individuals with
     chronic producer-gas intoxication.  Quart.  J.  Stud.  Alcohol 9:329-351*
     One subjective symptom of "chronic producer-gas intoxication,"
     believed to be due to prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide,  has been
     reported to be a lowered tolerance to alcohol.
            The alcohol tolerance in 11 patients with chronic producer-
     gas intoxication was established quantitatively by a number of tests
     in relation to the alcohol curve in the blood after ingestion.
            The results were compared with those in a control group of 7
     healthy subjects, examined during the same experiment,  and to the
     findings in a larger control group of 1*9 subjects, determined
     previously.
            The tolerance to alcohol in the patients (experimental
     subjects) was the same as in the healthy control subjects. Ho
     difference was found between the patients with chronic  producer-gas
     intoxication and the control subjects either in regard  to the blood
     alcohol curve - whether in 3 > r or maximum - or in regard to  alcohol
     tolerance.  The threshold for a battery of tests showed the same
     values in the patients as in the controls.


 216. Breysse, P. A.:  Chronic Carbon monoxide poisoning.  Indust. Med. &
     Surg. 30:20-22  (Jan.) 1961.

     Author summarizes this review of eleven papers with the following:
     "Some of the attitudes that have been encountered are reflected in
     this review.  At once it becomes apparent in some instances that
     what has been termed chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is not other
     than repeated episodes of acute poisoning.  This indicates chronic
     exposure rather than chronic poisoning.  Other situations that have
     been characterized as chronic poisoning relate to the well-known
     sequelae that sometimes follow severe acute poisoning,   notwith-
     standing,  there is warrant to iterate the statement contained in
     the 1930 International Labor Office publication:  The question of
     the existence or not of chronic CO poisoning has been much discussed
     and is not yet  settled."  -  quoted from text-AGC


217. Chronic carbon  monoxide poisoning.  New Engl. J. lied. 261:1248-1249
      (Dec. 10)  1959.

     In this review  it is noted  that carbon monoxide poisoning in  the acute
     form has long been recognized but that the slower and more insidious
     form of intoxication, with intermittent symptoms and vague relations
     to the sources  of poisoned atmosphere, is only ROW being brought into
     prominence.  The basic facts were mostly gathered in Europe and about
     10 years ago were published in a Danish monograph by Grut  (Copenhagen,
     Ejnar Munksgaard, 1949).  Recently the subject has been activated with

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    report from health authorities in the state of  Connecticut.  Carbon
    monoxide poisoning in a chronic form, because of psychiatric and
    neurologic symptomatology, is frequently incorrectly diagnosed as
    epilepsy.  It is possible that some people are  more susceptible to
    this form of attack than are others, but the timing of attacks, their
    nature, the mental changes, and the intermittent symptoms should lead
    to a diagnosis in all persons exposed to carbon monoxide whether
    inside or out-of-doors.  -  APCA  39^9


218. De Bruin, A., Vroege, D., and Van Haeringen, A.:   Study of carbon
    monoxide uptake in traffic policemen.   T.  Soc.  Geneesk. 43:146-151
    (March 5) 1965.

    The HbCO-conteut of the blood of 36 municipal traffic policemen--
    non-smokers--in Rotterdam exposed to exhaust from  motor vehicles,
    during one to four hours, has been measured.  The  data were compared
    to those of a control group of 16 non-smoking policemen working in
    the office.  Blood samples have been taken before  and after work.
    The HbCO-content was on the average 0.93$ before work and increased
    to 1.11$ in the exposed group, whereas  the HbCO-content in the
    control group remained  about  the same.  The peak CO-content in
    the air was between 5-15 ppm.  The chemical analysis has been
    performed with two independent methods.  -  APCA 65-154


219. Duvoir,  M.,  and Gaultier,  M.:  Etiology:   Clinical and chemical study
     of forty cases of chronic industrial carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Arch. Mai.  Prof.  7:449-452,  1946.

     Scepticism concerning the reality of chronic CO  poisoning has been
     justified by the multiplicity of symptoms  attributed to the disease.
     This paper attempts to establish chronic CO poisoning as a reality
     and as an individual disease by establishing a  clinical and chemical
    basis.
          Using Nicloux1  method to determine the amount of CO in 40
     subjects,  a blood level above .4  to .5 cc.  per  100 cc. blood is
     considered abnormally high.   Cessation of  exposure resulted in a
     gradual reduction of the blood level.   In  two months, one subject
    went from .85 to .52,  another from 2.5 to  =52,  another from .82 to
     .46,  etc.   The blood level persisted for a longer  time in a number
     of cases,  a typical case being:   .88 after e:cposure,  .80 after 3
    months,  .30 after 5 months.   Rest  alone results in improvement, but
     oxygen therapy accelerates recovery.   Vitamin Bg also hastens return
     of blood levels  to normal although its action is neither immediate
     nor constant.
          Chronic CO poisoning is characterized by this elevated blood
    level and by three major symptoms,  always  appearing together.  These
    are,  1) Asthenia.  The  asthenia is  almost  constant.  Muscular
     fatigue,  intellectual apathy,  depression,  slowness of speech, and
    impaired memory are  frequently found,  and  sexual impotence is
    occasionally concurrent.   2)  Severe  headache.   The headache is
    persistent,  and usually more severe  during exposure, although it


                                    89

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     may continue for several hours  after work.   It is not localized to
     any specific brain area.  3)  Vertigo and syncope.   Vertigo is
     frequent and may signal syncope.   Syncope is a less important
     differentiation,  since it is  so often found in acute poisonings.
          Pathogenesis and mechanisms  remain, obscure,  but determination
     of blood level of CO,  the constancy of symptoms,  and improvement
     occurring during cessation of exposure are indicative of the reality
     of chronic CO poisoning.
220. Piandaca, S., and Vercellotti,  E.:   Effects on the sick and accident
     rates in subjects exposed to the risk of chronic carbon monoxide
     poisoning.  Rass. Med. Indust.  33:360-379 (May-Aug.) 196U.

     A statistical survey was made of the sickness and accident  rate in
     a population of workers exposed to the risk of chronic carbon
     monoxide poisoning.  A constant increase was found in the accident
     rate, and an increase was also found in the sickness rate,  which
     was only statistically significant in relation to the relapses of
     the number of subjects who were smokers.  The increased accident
     rate was probably due to the Eomentary action of the high level of
     carboxyhemoglobinemia.  A direct causal relationship may be found
     in the sickness increases and in the short indispositions identified
     in subjective symptomatology with those due to sudden increased
     environmental carbon monoxide concentrations, along with cigarette
     smoke.  -  NASA 80285
221. Gilbert, G.J. , arrd CSL/isar, G.E. :  lleurolo^Ic mart! f ©stations of
     chronic carbon monoxide pcisonlug.  Hew Ecgland J". Kod,  261:1217-
     1220 (Dec. 10) 1959.
     A detailed case history is given of a patient ^i^eriag from
     chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.  Tbe condition was verified
     by the finding of a significantly-elevated blood carbon monoxide
     level.  A detailed occupational history waa obtained indicating
     that the patient had "been a policeman for 18 yeere.   Els first
     few "^pells" had occurred four years before hospital admission in
     1958 at the age of 50 while he was assigned to directing heavy
     automobile traffic.  Fearing that his job was too strenuous,  he
     had requested transfer to the police garags f^ai fed served as a
     mechanic there for the past three years.  It was ortea necessary
     to run the motors of the police cars in the gjxeaga,  particularly
     in the repair of police radios which required a, ronning motor for
     their operation.  T&e garage doors were us-oally left open but were
     closed often after March to keep out the sua.  The time of closing
     of the garage doors corresponded to the period of exacerbation of
     the patient's syaptomatology,  The patient had anorexia, weight
     loss, a fluctuating organic montal syndrome, and recurrent episodes
     of loss of consciousness, each attack preceded by a period of
     dizziness and attxla.  After the patient lw». cd scontinued his
     work, serial electroencephalograms showed progressive clearing
     of focal and paroxysmal abnormalities, correlated with clinical

                                    90

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    Improvement*  It Is noted in the text--and cemented editorially,
    in the same journal, ppt 121(8-1249—that unless the occupational
    history is carefully taken, the different diagnoses can "be
    difficult.  The patient under discussion had received anticonvulsant
    therapy for 2-1/2 years previous to the correct diagnosis.  It is
    noted in the editorial also that there were a few more attacks
    which were always associated with driving a farm tractor.  It was
    found that the patient had a habit of walking "behind the tractor
    where the exhaust was on a level of about his head.  When this
    occupation was also discontinued he recovered fully, and the
    diagnosis was confirmed.  -  APCA 3185

222. Grudzinska, B.:  Electroencepnalographic patterns in cases of chronic
    exposure  to carbon  monoxide in air.  Folia Medica Cracoviensia 3:
    ^93-515,  1963.

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether  chronic exposure
    to CO produces pathologic changes in man and to analyse electro-
    clinical  correlations.   Sixty workers from gas works and coking
    plants  exposed to CO concentrations not exceeding 0.01$ were
    studied.  The  control group consisted of 30 workers similarly
    employed  but not exposed to CO.  Only healthy individuals were
    included  in both groups without history of cranial trauma or acute
    CO poisoning.   Examination included determination of erythrocyte
    counts, Hb  and COHb levels, complete history, functional tests
    of the  vegetative nervous system.  EEG's were made at rest and
    after activities.   CO exposure was confirmed by examination of
    COHb.   The  mean level of COHb was J.k$> in the exposed group, and
    3$ in the control group.  The COHb level exceeded 10$ in 11 persons
    of the  exposed group.   A neurasthenia syndrome was diagnosed in
    63$ of  the  exposed  group and in kd% of the control group.  The
    type  and  intensity  of complaints in each group was studied.
    Statistical analysis of the differences revealed significantly
    greater incidence of headache and general debility in the exposed
    group.
            Among the normal tracings from the exposed group there was
    a significantly higher  proportion of flat, low-voltage tracings with
    scanty  alpha rhythm (p <;0.0l).
            Statistically significant electroclinical correlations were
    found in  the group  exposed to CO.  All the pathologic tracings and
    81$ of  the  low-voltage  tracings and those with scanty alpha rhythm
    were  found  in  individuals with neurasthenic syndromes.  In addition,
    all the tracings of the first sleep phases were also found in
    neurasthenic individuals.
            Prom, the findings it may be concluded, that chronic exposure
    to low  concentrations of carbon monoxide does not cause distinct
    changes in  the  nervous system, but may have a certain inhibitory
    effect  on the bioelectric activity of the brain, manifested
    clinically  as  neurasthenia and in the EEG as scantly low-voltage
    alpha rhythm and tracings of the first sleep phases.  However,
    since these changes are  nonspecific, EEG examination in cases
    suspected of chronic  CO poisoning is not decisive, although it may
    be auxiliary factor in making the diagnosis.  -  Author's Sum.
    Modified
                                    91

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223. Grut, A.:  Chronic Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, a Study in
     Medicine.  Ejnar Munksgaard, Copenhagen, 19^9, 229 PP-

     The following topics are discussed in twelve chapters:  1. Introduction,
     2. Exposure to Carbon Monoxide, 3. Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning,
     k. Chronic Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, 5. Hyperthyroidism Following Exposure
     to Carbon Monoxide, 6. Diagnosis of Chronic Carbon Monoxide Poisoning,
     7. Aggregate Result of Examinations of Producer Gas Drivers and Other
     Workers Exposed to Carbon Monoxide, 8. The Individual Working Processes
     Connected with Producer Gas Driving, 9. Development and Course of Chronic
     Carbon Monoxide Poisoning, 10. Variations in Susceptibility to Carbon
     Monoxide, 11. Pathogenesis and Pathological Anatomy, and 12. Treatment
     and Prophylaxis.
            Various methods to determine the CO content of the air and of
     COHb are described.  Exposures are ascertained by the detection of a
     pathological COHbJb of CO in the air of places of work or by examination
     of the working process.
            The occurrence and severity of chronic CO poisoning of drivers and
     mechanics of motor vehicles, respectively of fuel trucks, of traffic
     policemen and workers in tunnels are discussed.
            Acclimatization to CO has been experimentally verified in animals
     but experiments with man are not convincing.  Pathologic neurological
     symptoms and histological changes have, been found in the brains of dogs
     exposed to 0.01$ CO, but only slight histological changes have been
     described in human beings after chronic CO poisoning.  The bibliography
     contains 180 references.  -  AGC


 224. Hackney, J.D., Lashier, H., Lynn, K., and Spier, C.:  Comparative
     effect  of two  sources of  exposure to  carbon monoxide on carbon
     monoxide hemoglobin levels.  Presented at the Air Pollution Besearch
     Conference on  "Effects  of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Health,"
     Dec.  6, 1961,  Los  Angeles,  Calif.

     The  comparative  effect  of two  sources of carbon monoxide exposure,
     e.g., ambient  CO and ambient CO plus  cigarette smoke on the COHb
     of two  normal  subjects  working as a team is discussed in this
     study.  The  rebreathing method for indirect estimation of COHb
     as previously  described (1) was used  in this study  for the  frequent
     monitoring of  COHb.  Samples of the ambient air were collected
     almost  continuously during  the experimental run as  a means of
     representing the integrated total ambient CO exposure.   -  Authors'
     Introduction


 225. Halperin, M.H.,  Niven,  J.I., McFarland, R.A., and Roughton, F.J.W.:
     Variations in  visual thresholds during carbon monoxide and  hypoxic anoxia.
     Fed.  Proc. (Abstract) 6!120-121,  1947.

     The  comparative  and combined effects  of carbon monoxide  and hypoxic anoxia
     on human visual  intensity discrimination, as well as the effects  of normal
     and  high 03  atmospheres during recovery from CO, were  investigated.

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           In previous  studies we  have  found  that  the  measurement  of visual
     intensity discrimination thresholds  at a low  level  of illumination provides
     a very sensitive,  useful and  precise quantitative index of the  physiological
     disturbance  caused by oxygen  deprivation.   We therefore applied the same
     technique in measuring the  effects of small amounts of CO. Extensive studies
     were carried out on four well-trained subjects.
           A given increase in % COHb in  the  blood at  sea level produces an
     effect approximately equal  to that of an equal decrease in %  (^Hb  due to
     hypoxic anoxia.  At simulated high altitudes, a given % COHb  produces an
     impairment equivalent to a  further ascent which would cause an  equal
     additional decrease in 7. 02Hb.  The  visual  threshold i« therefore  much more
     sensitive to CO than are other physiological  functions so  far investigated.
           In studying  the recovery from  CO,  we  found  that the  inhalation of
     oxygen, in addition to its  value in  accelerating  the elimination of CO,  had
     another beneficial effect as  compared with  the inhalation  of  ordinary air.
     An added improvement equivalent to a decrease of  about 5 to 7%  COHb was
     produced by  breathing oxygen.  When  the  subjects  then breathed  ordinary air,
     the thresholds were again impaired by this  amount.   If, instead of oxygen,
     the subject  breathed ordinary air  throughout  the  recovery  period,  the
     visual  thresholds  failed to recover  as rapidly as the % COHb  declined.  -
     Authors* Abst.
226.  Hayhurst, E.R,:  Carbon monoxide and automobile exhaust gases.   Amer.
      J. Pub. Health 16:218-223 (March) 1926.

      This paper deals with the problem of diagnosis of carbon monoxide
      poisoning, but not with cases where esposure Is evident and severe
      symptoms or death ensue.  Author is interested In exposure to limited
      amounts and whether such symptoms as the common ones of headache,
      weariness, weakness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, loss of strength
      and muscular control, Increased pulse and respiratory rates, loss of
      reflexes, and even coma with intermittent convulsions, cessation
      of respiration, and death are due to carbon monoxide poisoning or
      any of the many other possible factors connected with the environment
      or the condition of the victim.  -  Author's Abst* Modified.
 227. Hofreuter, D.H., Catcott, E.J., and Xintaras,  C,:   Carboxyhemogldbin
      in men exposed to carbon monoxide.  Arch* Environ.  Health 4:81-85
      (Jan.) 1962.

      This study was designed to appraise the influence of exposure to
      various sources of carbon monoxide on carboxyhemoglobin levels.
      Also, the relationship of COHb levels with symptoms associated
      with CO Intoxication was considered.  Environmental factors such
      as smoking, occupational exposure, and commuting to work in a
      private automobile were not reflected In marked or sustained
      differences of COHb levels that could be related to these
      influences•  No relation was found between symptoms and COHb values.
      To summarize the effects of a rather continuous esrposure throughout
      the day, 54 of the subjects were exposed daily to CO in their
      working environment, while smoking, and while commuting to work in

                                     93

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     a private automobile.  The mean COHb value of this group was
     This mean was not markedly different from the mean levels observed
     in groups which had lesser exposure.  -  APCA ^298


228. Katz,  M. :  Carbon monoxide asphyxia,  a common clinical entity.
     Canadian Med.  Ass. J. 78:182-185 (Feb.  l) 1958.

     Forty-one cases of chronic CO poisoning are reviewed. Presenting
     symptoms are headache,  anorexia, dyspepsia, weakness and dizziness,
     singly or in combination,   The finding of a carboxyhemoglobin level
     of 10$ or more plus the relief of symptoms when the patient  is
     removed from exposure confirms the diagnosis.  All provincial
     laboratories are equipped  to do carboxyhemoglobin  tests.  The outdoor
     worker and the housewife are not immune.   Compensation boards will
     now accept claims for illness arising out of  exposure to carbon
     monoxide on the job,  - Author's Sum,


22$. Killick, E.M. :  The nature of the acclimatization occurring  during
     repeated exposure of the human subject to atmospheres  containing
     low concentrations of carbon monoxide.  J. Pliysiol.  (London) 10J:
     A single human subject was repeatedly exposed to low concentrations
     of CO in an airtight chamber; each exposure was prolonged until
     the COHb$ attained a steady value.
            The degree of acclimatization was indicated by (a) the
     diminution in severity of the symptoms during successive exposures
     to the same concentration of CO, (b) the discrepancy between the
     observed COHb$ at the end of an exposure,  and the COHb$ obtained
     in vitro when the subject's blood was equilibrated with a mixture
     containing Og and CO at the same partial pressure as in the alveolar
     air.
            Acclimatisation was not accompanied by changes in the red-
     cell count, in the proportion of reticulocytes,  or in the blood
     volume ,
            The results of inhaling a measured volume of CO from a closed-
     breathing circuit confirmed the existence of acclimatisation,  and
     demonstrated that no appreciable destruction of CO occurred in the
     body.
            The value of the constant for the partition of Hb between
     Og and CO, as determined in vitro, remained unaltered as acclimatization
     developed.
            A possible explanation of these results is discussed.  -
     Author's Sum.

230. Lindgren,  S.A. :   A study of the effect of protracted oooupational
     exposure  to carbon monoxide with special reference  to the occurrence
     of so-called chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.   Acta Med.
     Scandinav.  167  (suppl.  356): 1-135,
    The author examined workers occupationally exposed to  carbon monoxide
    and controls paired off principally according to age,  from the same

                                     9k

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    types of industry as the exposed subjects.  The degree of exposure
    was Judged to "be equal to or greater than that of the groups of
    patients diagnosed to be suffering  from chronic carbon monoxide
    poisoning  reported in modern literature.  An excessive frequency
    of headache was found in the group  exposed to carbon monoxide.
    The author interpreted this as a sign of repeated slight acute
    poisonings and considers he has  support for this view in his
    studies of exposure.  Among miners  there was also a certain amount
    of complaints  of headaches which was judged to be caused by handling
    of nitroglycerine.  The author found, in a study of the
    simultaneous occurrence of fatigue, headache and dizziness, a very
    low frequency  of this constellation of symptoms in the exposed as
    well as the unexposed groups.  No difference was found between the
    groups however.  No higher frequency of other clinical manifest-
    ations regarded asv typical of so-called chronic carbon monoxide
    poisoning  was  found in the exposed  group than in the control
    group.  Nor did a  scrutiny of National Health Insurance records for
    a period of 10 years reveal any differences in the frequency of
    illness between the two groups.   -  Author's Abst.


231. Lumio,  J.S.:   Hearing Deficiencies  Caused by Carbon Monoxide (Generator
     Gas).   Acta Oto-Laryngologica  Suppl. IXXI, Helsinki, May 19**d, 112 pp.

     This paper deals with the investigation of possible hearing disturbances
     due to exposure to carbon monoxide*
            Chapter one gives a short review of the origin and development
     of the CO poisoning problem In Northern European Countries.  Chapter
     two is a review of previotis  investigations and in chapter three author
     discusses his own investigations, on the basis of which author states
     that chronic CO poisoning seems  comparatively often responsible for the
     impairment of hearing.
            Seven hundred patients  suffering from chronic CO poisoning were
     examined.   Hearing disturbances  were ascertained in 73-3$ of the
     patients.   A considerable smaller number  of hearing disturbances,
     namely 26.7$,  were found in patients who  had been exposed to CO in
     their places of work,  but in whom chronic CO poisoning could not be
     verified.   -  AGC
232. Lumio, J.S. :  Symptoms in the inner ear associated with chronic
     carbon monoxide poisoning.  Arch,  f . Gewerbepath.  u. Gewerbehyg.
     13:139-1^,
     Giddiness in 85% of the cases of chronic generator gas poisoning
     in Finland is often associated with otological disorders,
     vestibular or cochlear.  Actual slight defect in hearing occurred
     only in 48$ of these cases.  There was a coincidence  in 90$
     of positive oto -neurological cases with a reduction in the  visual
     field as reported by Helminen.

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 233.  Lutmer,  R.F.,  Buscli,  K.A.,  and DeLong, P.L.:  Effect of nitric  oxide,
      nitrogen dioxide,  or  ozone  on  blood carboxyhemoglobin  concentrations
      during low-level  carbon monoxide  exposures*   Intemat,  J. Air &
      Water Poll.,  in press.

      Compared to exposure  to CO  alone, no enhancement of blood
      carboxyhemoglobin concentrations  was observed following 7-hour
      exposures of rats and mice  to  low levels of CO plus NO,  NOp, or
      0^.   -  Authors'  Abst.


234. McFarland, R.A., Dunlap, J.W.,  Hall, W.A.,^ tfoseley, A.L.:  Human
     Factors in the Design of Highway Transport Equipment.   A Summary
     Report of Vehicle Evaluation.  Harvard School of Public Health,  June
     1953> PP. bb, figures and tables.

     There is  one  small section on CO in this treatise (pp.  37-39),
      concerning the adequacy of the cab in regard to overall safety.   Tests
     were conducted on closed,  moving cabs and on closed cabs (i.e.  aH
      doors, windows, and vents closed) after 15 minutes of standing with
     the engine idling.  A table shows following results:

          In %                 In PPM 10,000          The Effect Is:
          0.01$                 1/100,000           Ho symptoms for 2 hours
          0.04$                 k/lOfQOO            No symptoms for 1 hour
          0.06-0.07$            6-7/10,000          Headache & unpleasant
                                                      symptoms in 1 hour
          0.10-0.12$            10-12/10,000        Dangerous after 1 hour
          0.35$                 35/10,000           Fatal in less than 1 hour

     Authors state that prolonged periods of exposure to 0.01$ should not
     be permitted, and warns that the inspiration of carbon monoxide  does
     not have  to produce serious toxic effects to become a source of hazard.
     Sensory losses, especially in vision occur at low carboxyhemoglobin
     levels, so that every reasonable control is essential.   -  AGO


235. jfedaglini, E. :  Studies on the urinary elimination of  17-ketosteroids
     and 17-hydroxycorticosteroids in persons affected with  chronic intoxi-
     cation from carbon monoxide.  Rass.  Neuropsichiat. (Salerno)  16:55-58,
     1962.

     The author studied the elimination of the 17-Jsetosteroids and of the 17-
     hydroxycorticosteroids in. the urine of each of a group- of persons following
     chronic exposure to carbon monoxide.  The studies revealed a diminished
     elimination of the substances during the period of intoxication with a
     gradual return to normal of the adrenal functioning in direct relation-
     ship to the improvement of the total clinical picture.  - APCA 5103


236. Noro, L.:  Carbon monoxide poisoning.  Nord. med. 26:771-6, 1945.

     The author describes the clinical picture and pathogenesis of CO
     poisoning and the existence of the poisoning in drivers of motor

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      cars operated by charcoal gas in Finland.  Of the 5,000 drivers,
      who were questioned, symptoms of CO poisoning were found in 67.5$
      of the cases.  The symptoms of acute poisoning were complained of
      by 3,069; symptoms of chronic poisoning, by 2,506 drivers.  In 530
      cases the poisoning had caused inability to work.  In Finland at
      present, CO poisoning is the most common occupational disease.
      - Kett.


237*  Pfrender, R.E.:  Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.  A critical
      resxnae.  Indust. Jfed. & Surg.  31:99-103 (March) 1962.

      Author discusses CO combinations with other substances,
      pathological effects attributable to CO per se, and the
      nature and extent of acceleration to the gas.  Pertaining
      literature is also reviewed. - From author's sum. -AGC.


 238. Ricci, C., Capellaro, P., and Gaido, P.O.:  ELectrophoretic and
      immuno-electrophoretic examinations in workers exposed to chronic
      CO intoxication.  Bass. Med. Indust. 33:4l4-4l6 (May-Aug.) 1964.

      The authors have examined the behaviour of the transferrin with
      inmunochemi cal methods in individuals exposed to occupational
      risks from CO.  In all the subjects an increase was noted in the
      globulin fraction of the serum regardless of the time of exposure
      an increase particularly linked to the globulin fraction
      (transferrin or siderophillin).  -  Authors' Sum.


 239. Rokaw, S. N., and Massey, F.:  Air pollution and chronic respiratory
      disease.  Amer. Rev. Resp. Bis. 86:703-704 (Nov.) 1962.

      An investigation was made of the day-to-day variation in respiratory
      function in a group of 25 selected patients with chronic obstructive
      airway disease while domiciled at the Ranches Los Amigos Hospital,
      a chronic disease center for the County of Los Angeles, compared with
      a group of normal subjects.  The changes in respiratory function were
      compared with various indices of air pollution, most notably particulate
      matter, ozone, total oxidants, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen.
      There was a marked variability in the performance of the pulmonary
      function tests described.  It was greater for the patient group than
      for the normal subjects and perhaps was greater than for patients
      described in other series studied, such as the Canadian Veterans'
      study.  In searching for associations of environmental variation
      with performance variation, only occasionally was a correlation number
      found high enough to be "interesting."  In only a few instances
      was there a correlation number that seemed to indicate some major
      association.  In 4 of the patients the carbon monoxide exposed seemed
      perhaps to be involved, but it cannot be stated that this pattern applied
      to all patients.  Examining time series plots of the results of the
      various tests, the patients' performances on a given test over a year
      and a half did not indicate either a cyclic uniform performance for the


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   group or any response to major smog episodes.  Other analyses did not
   indicate a strong relationship of pulmonary performance to the way the
   patient himself evaluated his feelings about his respiratory disease
   at the time of the test. - APCA 6333


   Salen, E.B. :  The period of carbon monoxide (the "generator gas epoch")
   in Sweden 1939-19^-5.  Nordisk Med. 30:923-93^ (April 26)
    In connection with the almost total lack of mineral oils in Sweden in
    1939 the  country was forced to make a sudden change-over to carbon
    monoxide.  In 19^1 the number of "gengas" cars in the country amounted
    to 72000, in 19^2 to more than 100,000.  The number of persons that
    during work came in contact with gengas was estimated in 19^2 to have
    amounted  to between 200,000 and 250,000,  As a result there were a
    great  number of cases of acute carbon monoxide intoxication.  Further,
    there  were a number of cases of a disease designated as chronic
    carbon monoxide intoxication.  The diagnosis in question has been
    based  on  the following criteria:  1) absence of ascertainable acute
    CO intoxication; 2) existing sensibility to CO; 3) characteristic
    picture of symptoms, and the appearance of the separate symptoms in
    a certain characteristic order of time; 4) the possibility to
    ascertain, in certain (as a rule serious) cases, a) "super-
    sensibility" to CO on testing, b) positive oto -neurologic test, c)
    the existence of ophthalmoneurologic changes, d) pathological issue
    of alcohol test, e) deterioration of memory, concentration, and
    learning  functions, ascertainable through psychiatric examination.
    The author is of the opinion that this proves the relatively
    frequent  occurrence of lesional and functional brain changes in
    chronic carbon monoxide intoxication.  -  Author1 s Sum. Modified
241.Sayers,  R.R.,  Meriwether,  F.V.,  and Yant, W.P.:  Physiological
    effects of exposure to low concentrations of  carbon monoxide.  Pub.
    Health Rep. 37:1126-11^2 (May 12)  1922.

    The combination of CO with hemoglobin takes place  slowly when the
    subject is exposed to low concentrations and  remains at rest, many
    hours being required before equilibrium is reached.
           The rate of combination of  CO  with hemoglobin takes place
    much more rapidly during the first hour of exposure than during
    any succeeding hour,  with the subject remaining at rest.
           Strenuous exercise causes much more rapid combination of CO
    with hemoglobin than when the subject remains at rest.  The symptoms
    of CO poisoning are emphasized by  exercise.
           High temperature and humidity,  with a  given concentration of
    CO,  cause more rapid combination of CO with hemoglobin than do normal
    conditions of  temperature and humidity.
           All symptoms and effects  described in  this  paper are called
    acute in character.   None of the subjects has shown any permanent
    deleterious effects from the exposure to CO.  -  Authors' Conclusion
                                  98

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242. Sayers, R.R., and Yant, W.P.:  Dangers of and Treatment for Carbon
     Monoxide Poisoning.  U.S. BMRI No. 2476, May 1923, 11 pp.

     Properties, chemical and physiological action of CO are discussed.
     Approximate percentage of CO found in gases from various sources of
     poisoning are given.  Methods of detection by odor, blood methods,
     detection by tests on small animals, and the Hoolamite detection
     are described.  Time required for various concentrations of CO to
     procure 80$ of equilibrium value of blood saturation are listed,
     and symptoms caused by various percentages of CO in the blood are
     described in relationship to percentage of blood saturation.  -  AGC


243. Savic'evic, M., MLliJic, B., and Stankovic,  M.:  Contribution to
     the study of chronic intoxication with carbon monoxide*  Acta Med.
     lugosl. (Belgrade) 13:129-137, 1959-

     After a review of the literature and an evaluation of the situation
     following clinical and laboratory examinations of 153 persons over
     a period of 3 years, the authors give their views of the conditions
     of chronic carbon monoxide intoxication.  There are no specific and
     constant pathognomic signs of this intoxication.  Rather the
     condition is based on subjective and objective aspects, with the
     characteristic neuroses, and can be diagnosed as such only after
     a thorough clinical and laboratory examination.  Considered to be
     the basis for a Judgment of the presence of chronic carbon monoxide
     intoxication are:  a concentration of greater than 0.75$ in the
     blood coincident with the finding of more than 50 ppm. of carbon
     monoxide in the atmosphere, the presence of the cephalic triad,
     asthenia and vertigo, not yet fully developed encephalitic signs,
     and the presence of the syndrome of neurovegetative dystonia.
     Such findings indicate the need to make some drastic changes in
     the patient's way of life or his work schedule to remove him to
     an atmosphere of little or no air pollution.  It was ascertained
     as a result of these physical examinations that the person who
     had been sporadically exposed to high levels of carbon monoxide
     was subject to various types of neuroses and other personal chronic
     ailments and was also much more sensitive to further exposure than
     was the normal, healthy individual.  The studies also indicated
     other variations from the normal in the various electrocardiographic,
     encephalographic, and metabolic studies.  -  APCA 3322


244. Shumway, E.A.:  Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning an increasing  danger
     to municipalities from automobile traffic.   Med.  J.  & Record 121:657-
     659 (June) 1925.

     This paper reviews  and discusses the literature on CO and as  author
     states serves to impress upon the general practitioner the importance
     of going into the living conditions of his  patients,  and making
     inquiries as to the possibility of chronic  poisoning by carbon
     monoxide in those suffering from headache,  gastrointestinal
     disturbances,  anemia,  lowered nutrition and neurasthenia.
     Author's Sum.

                                     99

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245« SKvortZOva, N»N. s   PclJ'Ttion c*f. aS'r-rph-sr.-vc  or.?: i?tfh carbon
     monoxide in the  vicinity of ierxTCHaetai.Lurgj.eal  plants.   Ing
     Levine,  BBS.  (editor and translator)s   U.S*S.R.  Literature
     on Air Pollution and Relatad Occupation! Diseases.  A  Survey,
     U.S.  Dept. of  Commerce,  OTS 60-21108,  Washington, D.C.,  Vol.
     2, I960, pp.  204-212.

     Author describes a study made of the atmospheric air surrounding
     ferro-metallurgical plants.  Concentration of CO ranged between
      5.6  - 190 mg/m3,  and in 78,8 - 93.5% of the samples CO
     concentrations exceeded  the allowable  limit  for maximal single
     concentrations for the atmospheric  air.  Results of simultaneous
     studies  of the atmospheric air and  the air in dwellings showed
     a similarity  between the CO concentrations.  Children,  observed
     during this study, showed a high content of  carboxyhemoglobin,
     and a large percentage of the children developed erythrocytosis,
     accompanied by subjective complaints , characteristic of CO
     poisoning.
             Author  points to  the urgent  need for  abatement of air
     pollution in  particular  of CO, because of its deterimental
     health effects,  especially of its effect on young children.
     -AGC,


2460 Stevens,A.M.:  Carbon monoxide poisoning.   Gradual, cumulative effects
     in young  children, with report of a fatal  case,  J. A.M.A. 86:1201-
     1204 (april 1?)  1926.

     There  is  a seasonal increase, in the winter, of the hazard of gas
     poisoning, acute and  chronic.
            There is a  cumulative poisonous effect of repeated or continuous
     exposure  to small amounts of carbon monoxide.
            Young children and infants are peculiarly susceptible to
     gradual carbon monoxide poisoning.
            In serious  cases of gradual gas poisoning, there will probably
     "be more than 10 per cent of carbon monoxide in the "blood.
            There is a  simple and rapid qualitative test  for carbon monoxide
     in the "blood, which will show the presence of 10 per  cent or more.
            Clinicians  should be on the alert  to recognize cases of gradual
     poisoning by carbon monoxide, .especially in infants.  -  Author's  Sum.


246a. Vollmer, E.P., King, B.C., Fisher,  M.B., and Birren, J.E.:   The Effects
     of Carbon Monoxide on Three Types of Performance, at Simulated
     Altitudes of 10,000 and 15,500 Feet.  BMRI Res.  Report X-417,  Report
     Ho. 7,  Feb.  27, 1945,  and J.  Exp. Phychol. 36:244-251, 1946.

     Measurements of  the critical  flicker frequency threshold, "body sway,
     and the red visual field were made on subjects "before, during and
     after low pressure chamber runs.  Twenty subjects with 12 to 22 per
     cent blood carboxyhemoglobin  (COHb) took part in runs at 15,500
     feet, and six subjects with 5 to 10 per cent COHb vere tested at
     10,000  feet.   Control runs were made at the same altitudes with the
     same subjects.

                                   100

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           •There v;as a significant impairment of performance at altitude,
    both under conditions of anoxia alone and anoxia after exposure to
    carbon monoxide (CO) as compared with performance at sea level.
           There was no statistically significant difference between
    the mean scores of the tests during anoxia alone and during anoxia
    following administration of CO.  Furthermore, the time-performance
    curves for group means during the hour at altitude are nearly
    coincident under the two conditions.
           All the mean values for performance of each of the three tests
    at altitude are within one standard deviation of the sea level mean.
    (More than one-half of the scores for individual performance in the
    two series may therefore be expected to fall within the range of
    performance of normal subjects at sea level.)
           Individual responses were variable and without correlation
    with the percentage of increment or of total COHb in the blood.
           Three of the subjects who started the experiments showed
    symptoms of impending collapse at 15,500 feet without CO.  One of
    these had successfully completed his corresponding CO run; the
    other two did not participate in CO runs.
           Five subjects showed symptoms of impending collapse at altitude
    (one at 10,000, four at 15,500 feet) after they had breathed mixtures
    containing CO.  -  Authors' Sum.
247. Strzelczyk,  P.,  and Zenk,  H. :   Permanent sub-toxic  effects of
     «arbon monoxide on organs connecting hearing and balance  in gas
     workers.  Archiv Ohren-,  Nasen- u.  Kehlkopfheilk. l8U:8l-92,
     Early diagnosis of slow developing chronic CO poisoning is  discussed
     in this paper.  Investigations of subjective complaints of  workers
     exposed to CO concentrations of 0.01$ and above were made in
     addition to audiometric and vestibular function tests.   Although
     the effects of acute CO poisoning have been recognized,  there are
     still divided opinions as to damaging health effects following
     continuous or intermittent exposure to this gas.   Experiments
     with two groups of workers,  one group exposed to low CO content
     and one control group exposed to clean air,  were made.   Standardized
     methods of investigation were used,  which made  it possible  to obtain
     objective results of pathologic changes.   Eighty- four percent of
     the CO group had subjective complaints in comparison with kf in
     the control group.  The investigations showed a significant
     difference of subjective audiometric and vestibular symptoms.
     The noise-audiometry showed that six cases suffered cortical, and
     four cases retro-ganglion damage.  A significant difference In
     subjective audiometric and vestibular symptoms  were noted,  caused
     Toy sub-toxic doses of CO,  In comparison with the control group.
     -  From German-AGC
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248.  Tope, O.s   Health effects from axbauat w?.*-h consideration of
     special vehicles and  motorized equipment.   Stadtehygiene.
     2/1965.

     The noxious components  of exhausts from  combustion  engines are
     discussed  in this paper.  Author states  that the most  dangerous
     component,  the carbon monoxide,  causes already in low
     concentrations symptoms of poisoning.  The  maximal  allowable
     concentration for carbon monoxide is about  0.01 percent
     per volume,  however repeated concentrations below 0.01%
     cause pathogenic symptoms.  Literature review shows that small
     amounts of CO may cause chronic  poisoning.   One investigator
     established that very low CO concentrations lower the  physical
     and mental capacities of animals.  The effect of CO is quite
     treacherous because symptoms of  acute poisoning appear only
     when a considerable percent of hemoglobin has been  changed to
     carboxyhemoglobin.  This leads to disturbance of the orienta-
     tion and judgment ability in drivers, and driver may fall
     asleep while driving.   Also, the ability to see is  impeded,
     content of the exhaust  gas depends very  much in the
     condition  of the engine.  Author recommends a revision of
     the construction of combustion engines and  the application
     of electric energy in order to eliminate the potential
     danger of  auto exhaust.  -AGC.


249.  West, J.B.:   Diffusing capacity of the lung for  carbon monoxide at high
     altitude.  J. Appl. Fnysiol.  17:421-426 (May) 1S62.

     Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide  (Dl.) was measured in
     London  (pb approx. 750 mm Hg), at 15,300 ft (4,700 m; Pb. approx. 440 mm
     Hg),  and at  19,000 ft (5,GOO m; PB approx. 380 cam Hg) on seven members
     of the Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition,  1960-61.
     At each altitude Dl was measured at two work levels  (300 and  SOO kg-m/min)
     and at three different inspired oxygen tensions  in order to separate
     membrane and blood components of the diffusing barrier.  A steady state
     method was used with mixed  expired gas analysis; dead space-to-tidal
     volume ratio was assumed  but  calculated D.I was insensitive to this.  There
     was no consistent change  in Dl at 15,300 ft (subjects breathing ambient
     air)  compared with sea level, but Dl was significantly increased after 7-10
     weeks at 19,000 ft (mean  changes of 15 and 19% for work levels of 300 and
     900 kg-m/min, respectively).  However, this small change in Bl can be
     wholly accounted for by the increased  rate of reaction of carbon monoxide
     with  hemoglobin due to hypoxia and by  the increased blood hemoglobin
     concentration. - Author's Abst.


250.  Wilson, E.D., Gates, I.,  Owen, H.R., and Dawson,  W.T.:  Street risk
     of carbon monoxide poisoning.  J.A.M.A. 87:319-320  (July 31)  1926.

     Policemen at heavily traveled intersections in Philadelphia complained
     of symptoms  of CO poisoning,  i.e., headache, slight nausea and muscular
     weakness.  Tests for COHb saturation made on 14  foot-traffic  patrolmen
     after 8 hr.  of duty in a  crowded section of the  city gave values

                                 102

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      ranging from 0-307o; 6 of them were between 20 and 30%.  Another exami-
      nation of 18 foot-traffic men gave values of from 0.91-2.28% by
      vol. CO, and values of the CQHb saturation ranging from ca. 5-13%.  It
      is concluded that there is a definite street risk of repeated or
      chronic slight CO anoxemia.  Kett.


251.  Yarrow, T.J., Jr.:  Chronic carbon monoxid poisoning and carbonyl
      hemoglobinuria:  The latter a hitherto undescribed condition.  Amer.
      Med. U:338-3^3, 1902.

      In April 1900, author called attention to chronic toxemia resulting
      from inhalation of small quantities of illuminating gas from leaky
      gas pipe fixtures.  He emphasizes the point that chronic CO poisoning
      occurs more frequently than is thought possible and that it is
      responsible for many obscure conditions which often remain unsolved.
      Author advocates the extensive use of the spectroscope in diagnosis
      of such obscure conditions.  Two cases of chronic CO poisoning are
      described.  One is believed to be the first reporting carbonyl
      bemoglobinuria following or accompanying CO poisoning.  -  AGC


252.  Zorn, I.O., and Kruger, P.D.:  The problem of chronic carbon monoxide
      poisoning.  Indust. Med. & Surg.  29:580-581 (Dec.) 1960.

      Authors studied industrial carbon monoxide exposure in coke and
      metallurgical works.  Conclusions were reached that no "chronic
      carbon monoxide poisoning11 exists, and recurring carbon monoxide
      poisoning was identified as "light, recurring carbon monoxide
      poisoning."  There is an important difference between concentration
      of carbon monoxide and the consumption tolerance.  High percentages
      of carbon monoxide is endured by some persons for short exposures
      without clinical results.  Even slightest doses are sufficient to
      produce symptoms in others.  The boundaries of the consumption-
      tolerance can be overstepped through prolonged work in an atmosphere
      containing even slight volumes of carbon monoxide.  Because of the
      way carbon monoxide acts in replacing the oxygen in the hemoglobin,
      it results in a state of acute poisoning when inbalance is reached.
      Almost all patients recover in a short time and chronic illness
      does not occur.  - AGC


 253. Zorn,  H.:   On the diagnosis of chronic CO poisoning.   (German) Bass.
      Med.  Indust.  33:325-329 (May-Aug.)  196U.

      The author has the opportunity of observing a group of workmen who
      worked in noisy premises  and were exposed to low  concentrations
      of CO over a relatively long period on account of a leak  of gaa
      which had not been noticed.  Examinations and psychological tests
      when compared to  those previously made showed an increase  in the
      excitability and  irritability  to noises.  The percentage  of
      carboxyhemoglobinemia varied between 10 and 20$.   The  electro-
      encephalogram revealed a picture of extremely unstable frequency.
      When the leak had finally been found and stopped,  the  tests returned

                                      103

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      to normal after eight weeks in the young subjects and after 16 in
      the elderly and old.  These observations led the author to advise
      a series of examinations and tests to be given to workmen at
      intervals of 3-4 years, so as to follow up the action of sub-toxic
      concentrations of CO.  -  Author's Sum.
           experimental exposures


 254. Behnke,  A.R.,  White, W.A., Consolazio, W.J., and Pace,  ».:   A Study
      of Repeated Daily Short Exposure to High Concentrations of CO.  U.S.
      Naval Med. Res.  Inst., Bethesda, Md., Report No. 1,  June 1,  1943*
      pp. 5-

      It has been found that the breathing of uncontarainated air by men
      whose blood contains 20 to 23 per cent COHb results  in the complete
      clearance of CO  from their blood well within 24 hours.   In fact,
      the elimination  is practically complete within 8 hours after removal
      from air containing CO.
             Four men  at rest who breathed 20 parts per 10,000 of CO  for
      20 minutes daily for four consecutive days, and who  reached blood
      levels of 23 per cent COHb by this exposure, failed  to show any
      cumulative CO saturation of the blood.
           Some of these men showed mild symptoms of CO anoxia during
      the course of the experiment.  However, the symptoms did not appear
      to be progressive or cumulative, and all four men were symptom-free
      on the last day  of exposure to CO.
           If pure oxygen is breathed following exposure to CO, previous
      work indicates that the elimination time is reduced  to a period of
      30 to 60 minutes when compared with 8 hours for air.
           In. view of  this and other evidence, it is concluded that short
      (i.e., 20 minutes) daily exposures to concentrations of 15  parts
      per 10,000 of CO as encountered on the ACV class of  naval vessel
      is permissible for non-flying personnel in view of the emergency
      nature of the operations leading to such conditions.   - Authors1
      Sum.
254a,  Bogatkov, P. I. ,  Nefedov, Yu.G, and Poletayev, M. I.:  Exhaled air as
      a source of carbon monoxide contamination of the atmosphere in con-
      fined chambers.  /v.ID Report 61-82, May 24, 1961, DDC AD 257922.

      A study on the contamination of air by exhaled carbon monoxide in con-
      fined rooms is reported.  Smokers and nonsmokers selected from a
      number of different professions  were confined in groups of three in a
      testing chamber with a volume of 24 m of air for several days.   All
      possible external sources of CO contamination were carefully checked
      and eliminated.   The air-purification system in the chamber was the
      peroxide type and could only reduce the concentration of CO.  Deter-
      mination of the CO concentration was made colorimetricaliy with the


                                    104

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     Swedish LKB 3261A device.  Results of the test showed that the non-
     smokers exhaled CO at an average rate of 0.016 mg/1 and the smokers,
     at 0. 038 mg/1.  After 9-10 days the air of the testing chamber with
     three persons in it contained 0.023-0. 027 mg/1 of CO.  The authors
     are of the opinion that the toxic effect of CO consists  1) in the exchange
     of the oxyhemogiobin in the blood for carboxyhemoglobin and 2)  in the
     suppression of the redox ferments of living tissues.   - Authors' Abst.


255. Canter,  H.G., and Luchsinger,  P.O.:  Effect of a  respiratory
     stimulant on the ventilatory response to  carbon dioxide Inhalation.
     Amer. J. Med. 37:386-391 (Sept.)  1964.

     The effect of a respiratory stimulant,  Emivan, on the  respiratory
     response to carbon dioxide inhalation has "been studied in
     emphysema patients with and without hyper capnia,  as well as in a
     group of normal subjects.   A rebreathing  technic  which allowed
     gradual progressive increases in inspired carbon  dioxide t.-oneent ration
     (0 to 5 percent) was used.  The ratio of  the change in minute
     ventilation to the change in arterial carbon dioxide tension served
     as an index of respiratory efficiency.  This ratio  was found to be
     1.48 1./minute/mm. Hg. PaCOp in persons without any lung disease
     and was similar to the values obtained  by other workers.  With the
     addition of the respiratory stimulant,  ventilation  was further
     increased with a proportional change in arterial  carbon dioxide
     tension and hence no change in the ratio.  Therefore,  in subjects
     without lung disease and no mechanical  restriction  to  ventilation
     within the physiologic range,  respiratory stimulation  has no
     effect on efficiency of respiration. However, when higher  levels
     of ventilation are achieved the work of breathing and  carbon
     dioxide production become increasingly  important  limiting factors,
     even in this normal group.  In emphysematous patients  with
     hypercapnia the ratio was low and fell  further during  drug  infusion.
     This was due to a disproportionate increase in arterial carbon
     dioxide tension and indicates the adverse effect  of respiratory
     stimulation in patients with an increased work of breathing.
     APCA 64-220


256. Eorcus, R.M., and Weigand, G.E.:   The effect of  exhaust gas on the
     performance in certain psychological -tests. J.  General Psychol. 2:
     73-96 (Jan.) 1929.

     Authors state that the increase in the  number  of automobiles and
     trucks and the accompanying increase in the exhaust gas  caused
     thereby has given rise to some new physiological and psychological
     problems.  These problems involve both  the immediate and the
     cumulative effects upon the human organism.
          In order to ascertain such effects, si;: medical students were
     exposed daily to exhaust gas for a period ranging from about 3-1/2
     to 6 hours, except for certain control  days.
          The psychological tests employed in this  investigation were
     steadiness, tapping, dynonometer, substitution,  arithmetic, location

                                   105

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     memory, and the so-called Felix test.  In the summary, authors state
     that it might be concluded that no significant difference in
     performance was found after exposure to exhaust gas-air mixtures
     which contained 2, 3, and 4 parts of CO per 10,000 of air for
     periods ranging from 3 to 5 hours and which caused 25 to 35 per
     cent of the hemoglobin to be in combination with CO.  Although there
     vas a slight tendency for a poorer performance to be made on the
     prolonged steadiness test, the difference in performance on all the
     other tests used was no greater than the variation in performances
     on successive control periods.
          The necessity for more work in this area is emphasized.  -  AGO
 257.  Ftorbes, W.H., Dill, D.B., de Silva, H., and Van Deventer, P.M.:
      The  influence of moderate carbon monoxide poisoning upon the
      ability to drive automobiles.  J. Indust. Byg. 19:598-603 (Deo.)
      1937.

      This paper reports the procedures and findings of what is probably
      the  best  research study on this subject so far conducted.  Tests
      were made on eight normal male subjects with various percentages
      of carbon monoxide in the blood.  These included measurement of
      the  time  required to remove the foot from the accelerator and the
      time to push down a brake pedal after a red light was flashed on;
      depth perception; ability to see d-lro objects at the side of a
      bright light; ability to perceive the approach or recession of
      objects;  accuracy of steering.
            These investigators found that the test performance was
      unaffected at a carboxyhemoglobin saturation level of 25% and was
      not  disturbed until 30$ was reached.  The present investigators
      note that this  value appears high as compared to present day
      concepts  but observe that this study gives every impression of
      having been conducted with a high degree of competency,  -  PHS-
      RG 5676
258/, Hanson, J.S., and Tabakin, B.S.:  Steady state carbon monoxide diffusing
     capacity  in normal females.  J. Appl. Physiol. 16:839-841 (Sept.) 1961.

     The diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was determined
     in 100 normal females age 20-60 years during steady star.e treadmill
     exercise.  Values obtained were compared with a corresponding study in
     oales, and it was established that when body surface area is taken into
     account there is no significant sex difference in $lco.  No significant
     decrease  in diffusing capacity was seen with advancing age.  Normal
     ncan values and limits of normal for the various age groups are given. -
     Authors" Abst.
                                     106

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259. Henderson, Y., Haggard, H.W4, Prince, A.L., and league, M.C,:
     Ventilation of vehicular tunnels.  Part II.  Physiological effects
     of exhaust gases from motor vehicles.  J. Amer. Soc. Heating &
     Ventilating Eng. 32:153-158 (March) 1926.

     Standar-ds for the ventilation of tunnels, which will greatly reduce
     the expense of ventilation below that of 1 to 10, OCX) dilution, are
     proposed in this paper.  Since traffic through the Holland Tunnel
     consists of passenger cars which take 10 to 12 min. for the trip,
     and trucks taking 35 to 40 rain., the standards worked out afford
     according to the authors, absolute safety and freedom from any trace
     of discomfort for healthy and vigorous adults exposed for a period
     of 45 to 60 min. to CO.  Thirty-nine experiments involving nine
     men and one woman, using a six-cubic meter chamber are described*
     The essential practical results of this investigation is summed
     up in a diagram which  shows  the rate at which CO may be absorbed,
     and the amounts at which physiological effects may occur.  The
     curves are drawn to show the rate of absorption of CO when air
     with various concentrations from one to seven parts of CO in
     10,000 is breathed.  They express the absorption by the blood during
     one hour of half the amount of CO that would be taken up after a
     prolonged stay in each of these atmospheres.  -  AGO


260. KLllick, E.M.:  The nature of the acclimatization occurring during
     repeated exposure of the human subject to atmospheres containing
     low concentrations of carbon monoxide.  J. Piysiol. (London) 107:
     27-1&, 1948.

     A single human subject was repeatedly exposed to low concentrations
     of CO in an airtight chamber; each exposure was prolonged until
     the COHb$ attained a steady value.
            The degree of acclimatization was indicated by (a) the
     diminution in severity of the symptoms during successive exposures
     to the same concentration of CO, (b) the discrepancy between the
     observed COHb# at the end of an exposure, and the COHb# obtained
     in vitro when the subject's blood was equilibrated with a mixture
     containing Oo and CO at the same partial pressure as in the alveolar
     air.
            Acclimatization was not accompanied by changes in the red-
     cell count, in the proportion of reticulocytes, or in the blood
     volume.
            The results of inhaling a measured volume of CO from a closed**
     breathing circuit confirmed the existence of acclimatization,  and
     demonstrated that no appreciable destruction of CO occurred in the
     body.
            The value of the constant for the partition of Hb between
     On and CO, as determined in vitro, remained unaltered as acclimatization
     developed.
            A possible explanation of these results is discussed.  -
     Author's Sum.
                                     107

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261. Pace, N., Consolazio, W.V., Pitts, G.C., and Pecora, L.J. :  The
     rate of blood absolution of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in
     ambient air at  simulated altitudes up to 10,000 feet.  NMRI Project
     X-417,  Report No. 2, Aug. 31,
     Tests  of 3  to  5 hours' duration vere conducted at a simulated
     altitude of 10,000  feet  (520 mm. Hg), in which subjects breathed CO
     concentrations of 0.8? parts/10,000 and 1.7° parts/10,000 by means
     of a demand system  and A-l4 mask.  Analyses of "arterialized*
     blood  withdrawn from veins of the heated hand, and measurements of
     pulse  rate  and respiratory minute volume were made.  The altitude
     decrement attributable to the presence of given amounts of COHb was
     not ascertained.  This problem is now being studied.
             The  results  of these tests permit the following statements:
             At the  end of 5 hours' exposure at 10,000 feet, the inhalation
     of 1.79 parts/10,000 CO  was accompanied by an uptake of not more than
     12 per cent COHb.
             The  rate of  uptake of CO follows a predictable course in a
     range  of concentrations  from 0.87 parts/10,000 to 20 parts/10.,000.
             The  blood  level of COHb may be predicted over the range by
     the equation:
               A $COHb = ?arts CO x Corr. Min. Vol. x Time
                                 42.5 x Blood Vol.
             The  effect of altitude is taken into account by correcting
     the minute  volume of respiration, as measured at altitude, to SEP.
             The  experimental  data show close agreement with calculations
     based  on theoretical values obtained by means of the equation.
             The  time of  exposure required to reach a given blood level
     of COHb in  relation to the CO concentration in ambient air can be
     computed within the limits of experimental error for sea level, and
     for various altitudes up to 10,000 feet.
             A summary  of the  data obtained in this study was prepared for
     limited distribution as  Report No. One.  -  Authors' Stan.
 262. Pace,  N.,  Consolazio, W.V., White, W.A., Jr., and Behnke, A.R. :
      Formulation of the principal  factors affecting the rate of uptake
      of carbon monoxide by man.  Amer. J. Physiol. 1^7:352-359,
      The rate of uptake of carbon monoxide has been  shown to be constant
      with respect to blood concentration of COHb, up to values of one-
      third the equilibrium level, when air containing CO in the range 1
      part to 20 parts per 10,000 is breathed by men at rest or engaged in
      moderate physical activity.
             An equation has been derived which serves as a means of estimating
      in man the degree of blood saturation with CO as a result of exposure
      to air containing this gas as  follows:
        /\ -DOT* PPnt roHb - Parts CO  X Minute Volume X Exposure Time
        - per ceoc tAmo             46.5 X Blood Volume -

              The equation is  valid  for values of  per cent COHb up to one-
      third the equilibrium value for the air concentration of CO under
      consideration.   Within this range /-X per cent COHb nay be estimated
      within a degree of error whose standard deviation is 4-2.3 per cent COHb*


                                    108

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            The fraction of CO removed from the inspired air by the blood
     was found to be constant as uptake progressed, and the mean for a group
     of twelve men was 4l.2 per cent with a standard deviation of +4.4 per
     cent.  This value is somewhat lower than that observed by previous
     investigators.  -  Authors' Sum.
263. Sayers, RR., Yant, ¥.P., Levy, E., and Fulton, W.B.:  Effects of
     repeated daily exposure of several hours to «m*pi amounts of
     automobile exhaust gas.  USPHSB No. 186, 1929, 58 pp.

     Six wen were exposed in a chamber from 4 to 7 hours daily, for
     68 days, to gasoline engine exhaust containing 200, 300, and 400
     ppm of carbon monoxide.  At 200 ppm, carboxyhemoglobin reached
     25 percent in 5 or 6 hours; more than one-half the subjects
     experienced no symptoms at all, the remainder suffering slight
     discomfort in 2 hours and frontal headache in 4 hours.  At 300
     ppm and at 400 ppm, carboxyhemoglobin reached 30 percent, within
     5 and 4 hours respectively.  At the higher concentration, more
     than 90 percent of subjects suffered frontal headache within 4
     hours, and a few complained of occipital headache.  No deleterious
     effects upon health or well-being were detected, and psychologic
     examination revealed only a slight tendency to poorer performance
     in the prolonged steadiness test.  A definite increase in hemoglobin
     and red blood cell count was noted.  -  Sch, p. 122


264. Schulte, J.H.:  The medical aspects of closed cabin atmosphere control.
     Military Med. 126:40-48 (Jan.) 1961.

     One hundred and eight healthy adult males between the ages of 17 and
     37 years were exposed in an operating nuclear submarine to an
     atmosphere with an average consistency of 19«7$ oxygen, 1.04$ carbon
     dioxide, 1% hydrogen, 44 ppm carbon monoxide, 15 ppm freon-12 and
     approximately 78$ nitrogen continuously for 72 days.  The atmosphere
     occasionally contained small amounts of ammonia, chlorine and aromatic
     hydrocarbons.  Presumably other contaminants were also present in
     trace amounts.
            The physiological and metabolic evaluations which were studied
     during the 72 day exposure consisted of the general health, vital
     signs, blood cell determinations, exercise tolerance, caloric
     requirements, and dietary habits.  Using these criteria, no changes
     occurred which are attributable to exposure to the existing atmosphere
     and no harmful effects were elicited either during or shortly following
     the exposure.  -  Author's Sum. Modified


265. Von Post-Lingen, M.L.:  The significance of exposure to small
      concentrations of carbon monoxide.  Results of an experimental
      study on  healthy persons.  Proc. Royal  Soc. Med. 57(Part Il):1021-
     1029  (Oct.) 1964.

     The investigations being reported were  carried out, between 1955
     and 1958, at the National Institute of  Public Health in Stockholm.

                                      109

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     Observations ere made of the reactions of healthy persons to carbon
     monoxide concentrations which do not generally cause subjective
     disturbances, i.e., which produce carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blow
     25$.  The reactions were evaluated by means of flicker fusion tests
     and Evipan tolerance tests.  An ordinary Krogh spirometer of the
     type used in measuring basal metabolism,  was used.  In this closed
     rebreathing system the concentrations of CO ranged from 0.35 to
     2.13 volumes $, with a duration of exposure of about 7 minutes.
     The results of the experiments showed that:  (l) Daily inhalation
     of CO for four weeks, producing COHb of 10-11$,  gave rise to a
     cumulative effect which was manifest as latent impairment of the
     ability to distinguish between light flashes in rapid succession.
     (2) Daily inhalation of CO producing 6-7$ or 10-11$ COHb caused
     increase of sensitivity in some persons and reduction of sensitivity
     in others.  The increased sensitivity subsided during the following
     months and had disappeared after a year*   The modifications of
     sensitivity were more pronounced when the daily tests gave 6-7$
     COHb for eight weeks than when the COHb was 10-11$ for four weeks.
     The author discusses the differences in his findings and those
     reported by Lindgren (I96l) on occupational exposure to CO with
     special reference to "chronic CO poisoning."  -  APCA 6U-270


266. young, W.A., Shaw, D.B., and Bates, D.V.:  Effect of low concentrations
     of ozone on pulmonary function in man.  J. Applied Physiology,  9, k,
     765-768 (July) 1964.

     Describes results of measurements of pulmonary function made on 11
     subjects in 16 experiments breathing ozone (0.6-0.8 ppm) through
     mouthpiece for 2-hour periods.  Ozone produced highly significant
     reduction in steady-state DLCQ (diffusing capacity of lung for carbon
     monoxide).  Vital capacity ana expiratory flow rates may be limited
     in part by tracheobronchial irritation that follows inhalation of
     0.6 ppm of ozone for 2 hours.  -  CBK
     Biochemistry and Biophysiology
267» Ambrosio, L., and Mazza, V.:  Tmmunologlcal potency in carbon
     monoxide intoxication.  III.  Behavior of the antistreptolysin
     titer,  Riv. istituto sieroterapico ital. (Naples) 34:399-^05
     (Sept.-Oct.) 1959-

     The behavior of the antistreptolysin (a.s.) titer in 12 dogs,
     divided into 3  groups, was  investigated.  Group 1 inhaled for ^
     hours  daily 1$  (?) carbon monoxide for ho days; group 2 was
     similarly treated and vaccinated with streptococcal vaccine;
     group  3 received vaccine only.  In the CO-treated animals (group 1)
     the a.s. titer  was not different from the values at the beginning
     of the experiment; vaccination of group 3 animals brought about
     a progressive increase of the a.s. titer up to a maximum value of
     500 units, while vacinated  and CO-intoxicated group 2 animals
     showed a lower  antibody response with a maximum value of 125 units.

                                    no

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      It is suggested that the lower immune response of group 2 animals
      is associated with the alteration of plasma protein composition
      caused by CO intoxication.  -  APCA
268.  Anson,- M.L., Barcroft, J., Mirsky, A.E., and Oinuma, S. :  On the
      correlation between the spectra of various haemoglobins and their
      relative affinities for oxygen and carbon monoxide.  Proc. Royal
      Soc. London 97:61-83, 192^-1925.

      A convenient calibration of the Hartridge reversion spectrcaocpo is
      described,
             For a number of different mammals the following relationship
      exists.  If A be the position of maximum intensity of the a-oxy-
      haemoglobin spectral band, B that of CO haemoglobin, and K the
      equilibrium constant of the equation
           CO + Hb02 "£=   COHb
                                 Log K = 0.05 (A— B),
      A and B being measured in Angstrom units.
             Log K is a measure of the change in free energy involved in
      the reaction.
             The value of (A — B) called in the paper "the span," varies
      from 43 to 56 Angstrom units in the mammals which we have observed.
      The variation in individuals in the same species is very marked.
             The relation stated in <£ 2 is true of the recrystaHised
      haemoglobins .
             The cause of variation seems to lie rather in the specificity
      of the globin portion of the molecule than in the haematin portion.
             Brown and Hill's observations on the effect of temperature
      on blood have been treated along similar lines.  The reaction being
      taken as
             If at temperatures TI and T2> Qj^ cod Qpg represent the
      concentrations of oxygen in solution when the haemoglobin is half
      saturated in each case, and ATJ_ and ATg represent the position of
      maximum intensity of the a-bands,

                                             .  .01,9
      -  Authors' Sum.
269.  Asmussen, E., and Chiodi,  H. :   The effect of hypoxemia on ventilation
      and circulation in man.  Amer.  J.  Physiol. 132:426-436,
      Respiration.  Our experiments have shown that hypoxemia caused by
      partial CO-poisoning (20-30 per cent) (anemic hypoxemia) elicts little
      or no respiratory response whereas hypoxemia caused by an alveolar
      pOo of about kO mm.  Hg (hypoxic hypoxemia)  causes a  very pronounced
      hyperventilation both in rest and in work.
             It is concluded:  1. General O^lack  in the tissues does not
      evoke a hyperventilation.  2. The 02 tension of the arterial blood,

                                      111

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      and not its 02 content,  is  the  active  factor in  causing hyperventilation.
      3.  The effect is produced through the  p02 of the carotid body  (glomus).
             Circulation.   Our experiments have shown  that both in rest
      and during work a  state  of  hypoxic hypoxemia, with the 02 in the
      inspired air low enough  to  reduce the  arterial Hb02 to 70 to 80 per
      cent,  produces an  increase  in cardiac  output above the ncrnal.
      Furthermore,  both  in rest and during work a state of anemic hypoxemia
      (20-30 per cent Hb saturated with CO)  has little or no effect on the
      cardiac output,  but increases the pulse rate considerably.
             It is concluded:   1.  Acute 02-lack in the tissues is not a
      stimulus for the circulation.   2.  A lowered 02 tension of the arterial
      blood, not a lowered 02  content,  is a  stimulus for the circulation.
      3.  The effect probably is produced through the chemoreceptors of the
      carotid glomus.  -  Authors'  Sum.


270.  Bacaner, M.:  Physiologic process in absorption  of pollutants.  Arch.
      Environ. Health 8:77-85  (Jan.)  1964.

      This is a short discussion  of the physiologic mechanisms in the
      handling of absorbed pollutants.   A few specific examples (carbon
      monoxide among those mentioned) are cited to illustrate the problem
      involved.
             Author points out that a true estimation  of body burden for
      any individual pollutant recpires comprehensive  study of multiple
      parameters.  -  AGO
271.  Bernhard, W.F. :   Ifyperbaric oxygenation.  New England J. Med. 271:
      562- 564 (Sept. 10)
      Author states  that although the data may suggest that hyperbaric
      oxygenation is of value in the management of three specific classes
      of diseases, for example, carbon monoxide intoxication, extrapolation
      to other areas of clinical medicine does not seem warranted.
      Instead,  it is hoped that these investigations will stimulate the
      pursuit of basic problems in hyp.erbaric physiology, so that with
      time,  improved methods for the management of other disease processes
      may be found.   Author's Conclusion Modified-AGC
272.  Campbell,  J.A.:   Comparison of the pathological effects of prolonged
      exposure to carbon monoxide with those produced by very low oxygen
      pressure.   British J.  Exp. Pathol. 10:304-311, 1929.

      It is shown that in  chronic carbon monoxide poisoning in animals
      the pathological effects resemble very closely those of prolonged
      exposure to very low oxygen pressure in the inspired air; the
      main changes are venous congestion with atrophy of certain cells
      (e.g. liver,  heart muscle near epicardium), oedema and dropsy
      indicating that  heart  failure is the cause of inability to tolerate
      prolonged exposure to  carbon monoxide.  Q3ie organs showing most
      marked congestion and  its sequelae are the liver, lungs, heart muscle


                                     112

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       near epicardium and the "brain.   Haldane's view that carbon monoxide
       acts purely by interfering with the oxygen supply to the tissues is
       supported.
              Power to tolerate carbon monoxide--just as in the case of low
       oxygen pressure in the air—depends upon the ability of the vital
       organs, particularly the heart,  to continue to function under a low
       tissue oxygen tension; tissue oxygen tension is not brought back to
       normal level by so-called acclimatization under severe degrees of
       oxygen want.  -  Author's Sum.


  273. Carleen,  E., and Comroe, J.E., Jr.:  The rate of uptake of carbon
       monoxide and of nitric oxide by normal human erythrocytes and
       experimentally produced spherocytes.  J. General Physiol. 42; 83-
       10? (Sept.) 1958.

       An in vitro study was made of the uptake of carbon monoxide and
       nitric cxide by normal human erythrocytes and by similar erythrocytes
       altered T»y treatment either with heat or with immersion in hypotonic
       or hypertonic saline solutions.  The initial overall rate of gas
       uptake was measured with a modified version of the Hartridge-
       Roughton-Milikan rapid-reaction-constant-flow apparatus.  As the
       chemical combination of nitric oxide with hemoglobin is extremely
       rapid, uptake measurements included only diffusion across the
       cellular membrane and intraerythrocytic diffusion.  Results show
       that human biconcave discoicJal erythrocytes at 38 and 48*C. have
       the same initial rate of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide uptake
       as the same cells changed to spherical form by heating (no change
       in volume) or by treatment with a hypotonic solution (a 30$ increase
       in cell volume).  Similar cells, changed to crenated epheres and
       reduced in volume by treatment with a hypertonic solution, showed
       a marked decrease in the gaseous uptake rate of the dehydrated
       cells.  -  APCA 2068
273a.  Coscia, G.C., Perrelli, G.,  Gaido,  P.C.,  and Capellaro, P.:  The
       behavior of glutathione, stable glutathione, and glucose-6-
       phosphate-dehydrogenase in subjects exposed to chronic Inhalation
       of carbon monoxide.  Eass Med. Indust.   33:*&6-^51 (Jfey-Aug. )
       The authors have studied the behaviour of glutathione and glucose
       6-phosphate-dehydrogenase of the red globules in a group of 19
       subjects who had been given supraliminal inhalations of CO.   In 6
       subjects with COHb above normal, a decrease of the GSH proportion
       was found while the G-6-P-EL was decreased in 6 cases.   AH the
       same the comparison of the average values obtained with those of
       a group of normal subjects did not bring to light statistically
       significant differences.  -  Authors' Sum.
                                      113

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274.  Dales,  S.,  and Fisher,  K,C.:  The effect of carbon monoxide on oxygen
      consump bion,  glucose utilization, and growth in mammalian cells in
      vitro.   Canadian J. Biochem. Physiol. 37:623-638  (May) 1959.

      The effect  of carbon monoxide on respiration, growth, and carbohydrate
      metabolism  of Earle's L strain  cells was investigated.  The rate of
      gas uptake  by suspensions  of cells in a Warburg respirometer was the
      same from mixtures containing various proportions of CO/02/N2 or
      containing  only 02/N2.   Apparently carbon monoxide was not inhibiting
      oxygen consumption.  In respirometers filled with carbon monoxide
      and oxygen  in the ratio of 9:1, illumination caused the net gas up-
      take to rise  23$ above  that of  the controls.  This suggests that
      the rate of oxygen consumption  in the dark was reduced as a consequence
      of an inhibition of a respiratory enzyme by carbon monoxide.  In
      keeping with  this suggestion, a spectroscopic examination revealed
      the presence  in L cells of absorption bands corresponding to those
      of the cytochrome enzymes.  Using differential manometers it was
      established for the first  time  that carbon monoxide is taken up by
      L cells in  the dark.  It is concluded that a fraction of the gas up-
      take which  is represented by the consumption of oxygen associated
      with normal metabolism  must be  reduced in the presence of carbon
      monoxide.   It is also concluded that L cells oxidize carbon monoxide
      to carbon dioxide.  The rate of multiplication of cells was reduced
      by carbon monoxide while the rate of glucose breakdown and lactic
      acid production were markedly accelerated,  suggesting that there was
      inhibition  of cytochrome oxidase.  Low partial pressures of oxygen
      also reduced  the rate of multiplication of L cells while increasing
      the rate of glucose disappearance and the rate of lactic acid
      production.  The observations reported here thus emphasize the role
      of aerobic  oxidations in the maintenance of the maximum rate of
      growth.  -  Authors' Abst.


275.  Datsenko, I.I.:   The effect of  aero-ionization on animals in CO
      intoxication.  Hygiene  & Sanitation (Trans. Gigiena i Sanitariya)
      29:12^-125  (Aug.) 1964,  CFSTI - TT65-50023/8.

      Intoxication  of laboratory animals with carbon monoxide results
      in a decrease of activity  of the cholinesterase of blood serum.
      This can be used as a sensitive index of the degree of poisoning.
      Changes in  the animals  under chronic intoxication with carbon
      monoxide are  persistent, as demonstrated by the incomplete
      restoration of the activity of  cholinest erase three months after
      the inspiration of CO had been  stopped.  The use of air ionization
      had a favorable effect  on  the organism with regard to conditions
      of the action of carbon monoxide on the body.  -  APCA 6^-32$


 276.  Datsenko, I.I.:.   Disturbances of carbon metabolism in experimental
      carbon monoxide  intoxication.   Gigiena i Sanitaria 30:30-3^ (May)
      1965.

      The article contains the results of quantitative analyses of sugar
      in the  blood  of animals  in a glucose test after introduction of

-------
     adrenalin and insulin under  conditions of a prolonged action  of
     various concentrations of CO.   In chronic poisoning  concentrations
     of this gas within the limits  of 0.012-0.018 mg/1  in the  inhaled air
     produced changes  in  the  glycemic curves.  These  data may  serve  as
     an early diagnostic  sign of  intoxication, "besides.   They  substantiate
     the necessity of  decreasing  the maximum permissible  concentration of
     CO in the.air.  - Author's  Abst.
 277.  Feldstein, M.:   The  colorimetric  determination of blood and breath
      carbon monoxide.  J.  Jbrensic  Sc.. 10:35-42 (Jan.) 1965.

      A colorimetric procedure for the  accurate  determination of  carbon
      monoxide in  air  and  in combustion effluents has been adapted to the
      determination of carbon monoxide  in blood  and breath samples.
      The method is based  upon the reaction of carbon monoxide with an
      alkaline solution of the silver salt  of para  sxilfaminobenzoic acid.
      The adsorbence of the resulting colloidal  solution of  silver is
      measured spectrophotometrically and is proportional to  the
      concentration of carbon monoxide  present in the gas sample*
      Concentrations of CO from 5 ppa to  1800 ppm can be measured with
      an accuracy  of 95 +  5$»  This  corresponds  to  5 PPm directly for
      breath samples,  and  Q.Ok volume % for a 1  ml. sample of blood.  -
      APCA 65-96
278.  Ito,  M.:   The effect of  the inhalation of  carbon monoxide on the
      estrus cycle of  rats.  J.  Sc.  Labour  (Tokyo)  36:496-507  (Sept.) 1960.

      The estrus cycle of  rats exposed  to carbon monoxide was  investigated
      by the vaginal smear method.   Of  14 female rats, 9 were  exposed to 2%
      CO for 2  hrs. a  day  for  8 weeks and the other 5 were used as control
      animals.   The vaginal smear was taken daily by cotton plediget for a
      period as long as 12 weeks.  The  exposure  to  CO caused disturbance of
      estrus cycle as  shown in a figure in  the text.  It seems to be note-
      worthy that the  stage of initial  repression due to the exposure to CO
      was followed by  the  state of  adaptation, when the rats were exposed to
      CO repeatedly.  The  results of the experiments by the present author
      seem to confirm  the  pattern of disturbance of estrus cycle observed by
      other authors.  Besides, it attracted the  author's attention to the
      fact that the effect of  exposure  to CO upon body-weight  growth and
      respiratory metabolism was more evident in animals which showed marked
      initial repression of estrus  due  to exposure.  This fact seems to
      suggest that the disturbance in estrus cycle  should be regarded as a
      manifestation of polyglandular impairment  due to stress.  - APCA 4396


279.  Joels, H., and Neil,  E.:  Carotid chemoreceptor response to high carbon
      monoxide  tension. J.  Physiol. 156:5P-6P (Abstract), 1961.
      The combination of as much as  00% of the blood haemoglobin with CO
      causes no carotid chemoreceptor discharge  in cats breathing 1-2$ CO
      in air, providing that the arterial pOg be not lowered  (Duke, Green


                                     115

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     & Neil,  1952).   The glomus  cells  normally betray  a high oxygen usage
      (9ml./100  g/min).  Their blood flow of 2000 ml./lOO g/min (Daly,
     Lambertsen &  Schweitzer, 195*0 is,  however, so high that they have
     little difficulty  in  extracting their  large oxygen requirements
     without causing much  fall in the  local blood pOo«  Anoxic anoxia
      disrupts their  oxidative metabolism, whereupon the chemoreceptor
      nerves display  a vigorous impulse traffic.  Cyanide also causes
      chemoreceptor discharge, and Anitschkov (1951) has assumed that the
      drug acts  by  inhibiting cytochrome  oxidase.  Cyanide, however,
      inhibits many of the  enzymes which  aid carbohydrate metabolism.   Only
      carbon monoxide exerts  a specific inhibition of cytochrome oxidase
      (Dixon & Webb,  1958).   The  affinity of cytochrome oxidase for CO is
      less than  that  for 02*  Thus it is  necessary to use high CO tensions
      locally in glomus  circulation  in  order to ascertain whether
      chemoreceptor discharge ascribable  to  cytochrome oxidase inhibition
      can be aroused.
             Two sets of experiments were performed on cats anaesthetized
      with pentobarbitone.
             1-2 ml,,  of  blood (pCO = 300-500 mm, p02 = 150 mm,  pC02 =
      1*0 mm  Bg)  was injected  locally into the carotid glomus  circulation.
      Transient  hyperpnoea  and hypertension  which occurred was abolished
     by cutting the  relevant sinus  nerve.
             Electroneurography of chemoreceptor fibres shoved that vigorous
      impulse activity was  aroused by the perfusion of solutions equilibrated
      with pCO 300-500 mm Hg  and  normal p02  and pC02.
             The inhibition of cytochrome oxidase thus does mimic the
      effect of  anoxic ancxia on  the glomus  cells.  It must be stressed
      that CO is used here  as a biochemical  tool; ordinarily  in CO poisoning
      the tissue pCO  is  far too low  to  exert such histotoxic  effects.   -
      Authors' Abst.
280.  Konecci, E.B., Taylor,  W.F.,  and WiUcs,  S.S.:  Biological and medical
      aspects of ionizing radiation:   Protective  action of  carbon monoxide
      in mammalian whole-body x-irradiation.   USAF School of Aviation Med.
      Rep. Ho. 55-8, March, 1955.

      The present study was designed  to test the  possible prophylactic
      and therapeutic usefulness of carbon monoxide  in mammalian  whole-
      body x-irradiation.  Guinea pigs, rats,  and rabbits were  utilized
      in a variety of treatments.  CO  was administered  either by inhalation
      (0.10 percent CO) or intraperitoneal injection (100 percent CO).
      Whole-body x-irradiation was  performed with a  Picker  x-ray  unit
      (260 KVP, 18 ma.), and  all Of the statistically  treated animqip
      were exposed to lethal  doses  of x-rays.
             Protection occurred in pre- and/or post-irradiated,  CO-
      treated animals to different  degrees.  Experiments indicate that
      CO protection depends on (l)  optimal amounts of  CO inhaled  or
      injected, (2) critical  times  of CO administration pre- and/or post-
      irradiation,  and (3) dose of  whole-body  x-irradiation.  Possible
      modes of protection afforded  by carbon monoxide  are discussed.  -
      Authors1 Abst.
                                    116

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281.  Medagllni, E. :  Studies on the urinary elimination of 17-ketosteroids
      and 17-frydroxycorticosteroids in persons affected with cnronic intoxi-
      cation from carbon monoxide.  Rass. neuropsichiat. (Salerno)  l6:55~5&\
      1962.

      The author studied the elimination of the 17-ketosteroids and of the 17-
      hydroxycorticosteroids in the urine of each of a group of persons following
      chronic exposure to carbon monoxide.  The studies revealed a diminished
      elimination of the substances during the period of intoxication with a
      gradual return to normal of the adrenal functioning in direct relation-
      ship to the improvement of the total clinical picture. - APGA 5103


 282.  Mosinger, M., and Rochette, J.:  Histological reactions of the
      lungs after  inhalation of certain anesthetics and toxic gases.
      Zentralblatt der Gewerbehygiene und Unfallverhtitung 27:227, 19^0.

      Guinea pigs  were subjected  for varying periods of time to the
      inhalation of ethylene oxide and chloride and carbon monoxide and
      to the action of cold (3°-4° F.)«  Circumscribed areas of emphysema
      and atelectasis were more pronounced after long inhalation of
      ethylene  oxide than with the other gases studied.  Necrosis of the
      bronchial epithelium occurred only after chloride inhalation.
      Vasofiiletation was present  also.  Interalveolar edema was also
      slight after inhalation of  ethylene oxide and carbon monoxide, very
      severe after chloride inhalation, and pronounced after exposure to
      cold.  Perlbronchial edema  occurred only after chloride inhalation.
      Alveolar  edema appeared early after inhalation of chloride and
      carbon monoxide and late after ethylene oxide inhalation of
      chloride  and carbon monoxide but was not otherwise observed.  The
      appearance of mitoses in the alveolar epithelium and capillary
      epithelium was found only after the inhalation of ethylene oxide.
      The desquanation of the alveolar epithelium, which has "been
      considered characteristic for war gases and anesthetics, was noted
      also after the action of carbon monoxide; it is therefore not
      characteristic, at least in the guinea pig.  -  BMB 93^-


 283. Uavrotslcii,  V.K.:  Bamunobiological reactivity as a method of
      determination of the maximum permissible concentration of harmful
      chemical  substances in the  air of closed premises.  Gigiena i
      Sanitaria 25:29-33 (June) I960,

      The agglutination titer after immunization with typhoid fever
      vaccine proved to be a very sensitive test for evaluating the
      reactivity of rabbits during chronic poisoning with small
      concentrations of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide gases, and
      vapours of aviation benzene.  -  APCA ^262
                                    117

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284.  Pecora, L., Fati, S., and Vecchione, G. :  Free erythrocytic
      protoporphyrins and urinary coproporphyrins in experimental and
      clinical CO poisoning.  Folia Med. 1*0:213-226, 1957-

      The behaviour of the free erythrocytic protoporphyrins and urinary
      coproporphyrins has been studied.
             The erythrocytic protoporphyrins increase constantly and
      remarkably nearly immediately afterwards the poisoning and the
      disorder continues for many hours.
             The daily repeated poisoning induces a progressive standing
      increase of the rate of the protoporphyrins and the urinary
      coproporphyrins .
             This finding proves a direct action of poison on the metabolism
      of the porphyrinic pigments, and the pathogensis will be studied
      furthermore.  -  Authors' Sum.


 285. Pecora, L.J. :  Physiologic  study of the summating effects of ethyl
      alcohol and carbon monoxide.  Amer. Indust. Eyg. Ass. J. 20:235-2^0
      (June) 1959-
       No significant  summating effects of alcohol and etuxcm monoxide
       were noted In a physiologic study made using 3 groups of dogs.
       One group  received only alcohol, another  CO alone and the 3rd
       both alcohol and  CO.  The blood alcohol level, confirmed by
       analysis,  was kept at over 0.15 volume % during the daily exposure
       to 0.01$ CO for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 21 weeks.  The
       expected level  of COHb, between 18 and 20$, after exposure to
       0.01$ CO for several hours was obtained.  The hemoglobin
       concentration was in the normal range for 3 groups.  The alcohol-
       carbon monoxide group had a mean value of 13.2$ COHb while the
       group on CO alone had a mean value of 20.8$.  The Hb mean group
       values were Ik.k  and 14.8 g./lOO respectively.  The bromsu^phalein
       liver function  test waa negative and the electrocardiograms were
       essentially normal during the whole experiment.  No observable
       neurologic abnormalities were noted.  Body temperature was
       normal during the whole test.  Hiqtologic study did not reveal
       any differences between groups nor were there any remarkable
       changes*  A single electrophoretic assay of serum protein and
       lipoprotein showed a marked decrease in total lipoprotein due
       chiefly  to reduced fraction.  -  APCA 2636


  286.  Prokhorov,  f&.D.,  and Rozov, A. A. :  The pathohistological and histochemical
       changes  in the  organs of rabbits subjected to a prolonged action of carbon
       monoxide,  sulfur  dioxide, and their mixtures.  Gigiena i Sanitaria (Moscow)
       2^:22-26 (June) 1959-  In:  Levine, B.S. (editor and translator):  U.S.S.R.
       Literature on Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.
       Vol.  5t       I960, PP. 81-86, CFSTI-TT-61-11149, U.S. Dept. of Commerce,
       Springfield,  Va.

       Histological and  histochemical changes have been studied in the organs of
       rabbits  subjected for a period of 3 months to poisoning with carbon monoxide


                                   118

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     at concentrations of 0.2 and Q.k mg./l.,  with sulfur dioxide at 0.2 mg./l.,
     and with mixtures of both gases.  The author has noted vascular disturbances,
     dystrophic lesions in the internal organs,  a fall in the activity of the
     succindehydrase (succino-dehydrogenase?)  due to the effect of sulfur dioxide
     and a more pronounced change produced by the same concentration of sulfur
     dioxide in the presence of carbon monoxide.  In the presence of carbon
     monoxide at a concentration of 0.2 mg./l. the activity of succindehydrase was
     observed to increase and this could be regarded as a compensatory effect.  -
     APCA 3100
 287. Pukhov, V.A. :  The influence of adrenal cortex insufficiency and
     hyperfunction on the sensitivity of rats and mice to carbon monoxide
     poisoning.  Farmakol. Toksikol. 27:3^3-3^5 (May-June)
     Result of experiments made on rats and mice showed that after removal
     of adrenals the animals showed increased sensitivity to carbonic
     oxides after one week.  During the first two weeks after the
     transplant took place there was still sensitivity to CO.  However
     after one month the resistance was again about the same as before
     the transplant took place.  The ACTH administered to the mice in
     doses of 0.2 Un/kg for a period of 7 days increased the resistance
     to CO.  -  Author' s Ab st.


288. Root, W.S. , Allen, T.H., and Gregersen, M.I. :  Simultaneous determinations
     in splenectomized dogs of cell voluce with CO and P^2 and plasma volume
     with T-1824. . Amer. J. Physiol. 175:233-235, 1953-~

     Blood was removed from splenectomized dogs and separate portions were
     labeled with CO and P^ .  The tagged cells vere then injected into the
     same dog in order to measure the cell volume with the two methods
     simultaneously.  At the same time plasma volume was measured witli
            In 10 dogs the results show that the cell volume measured with
     CO is 12$ greater than that measured with P^ -labeled cells,  Indicating
     that distribution of CO includes more .than the circulating cell volume.
     The possibility is considered that the difference in the estimates of
     cell volume with CO and P-*  may be a useful index of changes in
     erythropoietic tissue.  -  Authors' Sum.


289. Rossl-Fanelli, A., and Antonini, E. :  Studies on the oxygen and carbon
     monoxide equilibria of human myoglobin.  Arch. Biochem. 77:^78-^92,
     1958.    J

     A new spectrophotometric method of determining the oxygen-dissociation
     curves of Mb (and Hb) has been developed.
           The oxygen equilibrium of human crystallized Mb has been
     studied by this method.  The effect of temperature, pH, ionic
     strength, and concentration of the pigment has been examined.
           The oxygen-dissociation curves of reconstituted Mb's and of
     Mb components Mb I and Mb II have also been investigated.


                                    119

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            The partition constant K = (MbCO) X pog/(MbOg)  X pco,
      human crystallized Mb has been determined. -Authors' Sum.
290.  Roughton,  F. J.W. :   The kinetics of the reaction CO -t- O^Hb
      Op + COHb in human blood at "body temperature.   Amer. J7 Physiol.
      153:609-620 (April) 19^5.

      Measurements are given of the velocity with which CO displaces
      GO from combination with human hemoglobin in solution and in un-
      laked red cells at 37° C.
              The kinetic data conform to the same equation as has
      been established for sheep hemoglobin solution at 10 to 20° C.,
      namely,
              At (Og) values of 0.6 mM and over,  the value of m  ,  i.e.,
      21.0, is within error the same for hemoglobin in solution as  in
      the red cell.  This indicates that at high (0_) values diffusion
      through the membrane and substance of the red cell has no limiting
      effect on the velocity of the overall reaction.  At lower (0  )
      values theoretical calculations suggest that the rate in  the^red
      cell would be less than in solution but this has not yet  been
      experimentally verified.
              The value of m at 37° C. is 0.1.  The time for half
      dissociation of human COHb is thus 6.9 seconds in the body.
              A minimum value for the permeability of the red cell
      membrane to Q^, is given.
              The kinetic data of this paper are available for  several
      physiological problems such as the rate of uptake and output  of
      CO from the human body and the calculation of the average time
      spent by the blood in the lung capillaries.  -  Author's  Sum.
  291. Schtitze, ¥.:  On the danger for man and animal from high concentration
      of some toxic gases through the skin.  Archiv fur Hygiene und
      Bakteriologie 98:70-83, 1927.

      The results of animal tests show that also high concentrations of
      CO are not absorbed through the skin.  -  AGO
 292. shtrum, I.Ya.:  The combined action of carbon monoxide and hydrogen
      sulfide.  J. Physiol. U.S.S.R. 24:624-629, 1938.

      Author found no evidence of summation or potentiation between hydrogen
      sulfide and carbon monoxide upon the reflex time of rabbits or the
      mortality of mice  and concluded that "incomplete summation" occurs:
      that because hydrogen sulfide produces tissue anoxia, the anoxemia
      of carbon monoxide is less injurious than it would otherwise be
                                     120

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     because the tissues no longer require their full quota of oxygen.
     -  Sch 201, p. 123


293. SJ&strand, T.:  Endogenous formation of carbon monoxide in man.  Nature
     Iflf:580-58! (Oct. 1) 1949.

     When determining the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by analysing
     the concentration of carbon monoxide in the alveolar air according
     to a method described earlier, it has been observed that a low
     concentration of carbon monoxide is present invariably in the alveolar
     air in man.  To investigate this observation, it was necessary (l)
     to determine whether it really is carbon monoxide that gives the
     effect with the indicator used, and (2) to endeavour to show whether
     the presence of this factor in the alveolar air is due to carbon
     monoxide absorbed from the atmospheric air or to endogenous formation.
            The observations so far made seem to show that small quantities
     of carbon monoxide are constantly being formed in the human body and
     are emitted with the expiratory air; this endogenous carbon monoxide
     formation increases considerably in certain pathological conditions
     with abnormal decomposition of the blood cells.  -  Frcm lext-AGC


294. SjBstrand, T.:  The formation of carbon monoxide by in vitro
     decomposition of haemoglobin in bile pigments.  Acta Physiol.
     Scandinav. 26:328-333, 1952.

     Solutions  of crystalline horse haemoglobin were incubated at 38* C
     after the  addition of ascorbic acid.  It was possible to show the
     formation  of CO constantly in conjunction with the appearance of an
     absorption band at wave length 630 mji corresponding to the choleglobin
     (verdoglobin) band.
            A linear relation exists between the amounts of CO and chole-
     globin formed during incubation up to about 2k hours.
            When  incubation is carried on for a longer time, the CO
     formation  continues in linear relation to the time of incubation up
     to approximately 200 hours.  At this point the absorption band of
     the haemoglobin has practically disappeared.
            The maximal amount of CO obtained during incubation for
     longer periods corresponds to the CO-binding capacity of the initial
     haemoglobin  solution.
            These observations are in agreement with the previously
     expounded  hypothesis that a molecule of CO is liberated when each
     of the porphyrin rings in the haemoglobin molecule splits.  -
     Author's Sum.


295. Sjfistrand, T.:  Formation of carbon monoxide by coupled oxidation of
     myoglobin  with ascorbic acid.  Acta Physiol. Scandinav. 26:33^-337,
     1952.

     Solutions  of myoglobin have been incubated at 38° C after the addition
     of ascorbid  acid.  Consequently there is a manifestation of carbon


                                    121

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     monoxide and a substance with an absorption "band at 640 mu.  The
     observation coincides with previous observations of the decomposition
     of haemoglobin, and indicates that myoglo'hin can decompose in a manner
     similar to haemoglobin by oxidation of e, meth^r^ group to CO, which
     splits.  It may be supposed that this reaction also takes place in vivo
     and contributes to the endogenous formation of carbon monoxide.  -
     Author's Sum.
296. SjBstrand, T.:  The formation of carbon monoxide by the decomposition
     of haemoglobin in vivo.  Acta Pbysiol. Scandinav. 26:338-3^, 1952.

     Haemolysed blood and solutions of haemoglobin were injected into dogs
     intramuscularly, and into human beings and rabbits intravenously in
     connection with repeated determinations of the alveolar CO concentration
     or the concentration of CO in exhaled air.  From the concentration
     and volume of CO in expired air, the volume of CO exhaled per minute
     was detezroined for a period of 5 to 8 hours after the injection.
            It transpired from this that the injection of haemoglobin or
     haemolysed blood causes an increase in the alveolar CO concentration
     and the volume of CO exhaled per minute.
            The quantitative relation between the increase in CO formation
     and the amount of haemoglobin that was injected,  corresponds to the
     formation of  k molecules of CO for each molecule of haemoglobin.
            The observations agree with the supposition that a molecule
     of CO is formed during the splitting of haemochromogen1 s tetrapyr-
     role ring.  It would seem that the endogenous formation of CO and
     its variations under noncal and pathologic conditions can be explained
     in this way.  -  Author's Sum.


297. Sktild, G., and Brunk, U.:  Effect of mode of sacrifice on histo-
     chemically demonstrable activity of unspecific esterases and
     unspecific alkaline monophosphatases in golden hamsters.  Acta
     Path. Microbiol. Scand. 61:190-19*)-, 1964.

     Recent years  have witnessed a surge of interest in the histochemically
     demonstrable  activity of different enzymes and their distribution
     under various experimental conditions.  The purpose of the present
     investigation was to find out whether the mode of sacrifice of the
     experimental  animals had any effect on the hi sto chemically
     demonstrable  activity and distribution of unspecific esterases and
     unspecific alkaline monophosphatases.  -  Authors' Abst.
298. Tiunov, L.A., Sbkolova, T.I., and Paribok, V.P.:   Duration of carbon
     monoxide excretion from the body.  Farmakol.  1.  Toksikol.  20:76-78
     1957.  In: Levine, B.S. (editor and translator):   U.S.S.R. Literature
     on Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases.   A Survey.  Vol  7
     1962, pp. 262-26^, CFSTI-TT-62-11103, U.S. Dept.  of Commerce,      *
     Springfield, Va.
                                    122

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         authors state that data reported in the literature on the rate
     of carbon monoxide excretion from the "body are contradictory.  In
     this study, the authors investigated the rate of carbon monoxide
     excretion from the blood and the possibility of its being retained
     by the tissue, employing the labled atoms method which is being
     described.  Besults of this investigation is shown in two tables.
     -  AGO
299. Tiunov, L.A., and Vasil'ev, G.A.:  Effect of cytochrome C on
     radioprotective action of carbon monoxide.  Radiobiologiya 3:766-
     767, 1963.  Translation in:  Fed. Proc. (Part Il):T133-T13U (Jan.-
     Feb.) 1965.


     Cytochrome C, in a dose of 8 mg/kg, does not affect the prophylactic
     action of carbon monoxide in X-irradiation.
            Cytochrome C abolishes the therapeutic effect of carbon
     monoxide in X-irradiation.
            Injection of cytochrome C intraperitoneally in a dose of
     8 mg/kg body weight into albino rats 15 minutes before, or after
     irradiation has no effect on the survival rate of albino rats
     irradiated in a dose of 730-750 r.
            The possible mechanism of this effect of cytochrome C on the
     radioprotective action of carbon monoxide is discussed,  -  Authors'
     Conclusions
300.  Williams,  L.A.,  Linn,  R.A.,  and Zak, B,:  Ultraviolet absorptiometry
      of palladium for determination of carbon monoxide hemoglobin.  Amer.
      J. Clin. Pathol. 3^:33^-337  (Oct.) 1960.

      Previous methods for the determination of carbon monoxide hemoglobin
      have involved the reduction  of palladium ions  in. acid solution to
      a free metal by means of diffused carbon monoxide.  The residual
      palladium was then reacted with various materials to provide colors
      that would have absorptiometric properties in  the visible light range.
      Investigations of the spectral characteristics of palladium ions
      themselves in the ultraviolet portion  of the spectrum indicated that
      this substance had a high molar absorptivity.  Thus, the sensitive
      ultraviolet absorbance of palladium  chloride in acid could itself
      be used to obviate an unnecessary reaction with palladium ions to
      form a colored complex in a  quantitative scheme.  In the procedure
      described, an ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination is made
      after the  excess of palladium ions,  which result after reaction of
      excess palladium chloride with diffused carbon monoxide, have been
      diluted with hydrochloric acid.  The ultraviolet area of the
      spectrum is much more sensitive for  palladium  ions than the visible
      range where the calibration  curve is coniparatively flat.  -  APCA
      3716
                                    123

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     Cardiac Impairment


301. Beck, H.G. , and Suter, G.M. : Role of carbon uionoxide In the causation of
     myocardial disease.  J.A.M.A.  110:1982-1986  (June 11) 1938,

     In a group of 136 persons who had been intermittently exposed  to  carbon
     monoxide over varying periods, myocardial symptoms were frequently mani-
     fested.
            The lesions affecting the heart, brain and other organs  are pri-
     marily vascular, consisting of small hemorrhages and perivascular infil-
     tration with focal necrosis.  When the heart  is affected, coronary
     thrombosis frequently develops, as ascertained by postmortem and  electro-
     cardiographic studies.
            Hemorrhagic lesions affecting the heart muscle have been produced
     experimentally in animals subjected to varying amounts of carbon  monoxide
     in inspired air.
            The impression that unless the patient dies in acute asphyxiation
     no harm may result is erroneous.                       ;
            Patients who apparently recover from acute asphyxiation  frequently
     have later manifestations, which appear in from three to seven  days.   These
     are known  as delayed symptoms, or sequelae, and may affect the  heart,  brain
     or other organs and terminate fatally.
            Those who survive the delayed manifestations may completely recover
     or ultimately icay have severe organic disease of the heart or of  other
     organs, to which they finally succumb.
            Lesions may occur simultaneously in the heart and the brain, as
     evidenced by clinical studies and post mortem observations.
            In  order to make a positive diagnosis  of chronic myocardial disease
     resulting  from carbon monoxide, it is essential that an accurate history be
     obtained with respect to exposure to gas, exhibition of symptoms of anoxemia,
     clinical course of the disease and absence of preexisting cardiac lesions. <-
     Authors' Sum.
302
   . Efarich, W.E., Bellet,  S.,  and Levey, F.H. :  Cardiac changes  from
     CO poisoning.  Amer. J. Med.  Sc. 208:511-523, 19^«

     Discussed in this paper are acute  experiments at k&f, carboxyhemoglobin
     and in chronic experiments at 21$  carboxyhemoglobin or an equivalent
     oxygen deficiency,  electrocardiographic and morphologic changes
     were  seen,  including inverted T wave, elevated R-T segment,  and
     degenerative changes in individual muscle fibers.  When the
     carboxyhemoglobin exceeded; 75$ for an hour or more, atriovenixricular
     heart block and myocardial hemorrhage and necrosis  supervened.   -
     AGO
 303. Haggard, H.W. :  Studies in carbon monoxide asphyxia.  I,  The
     behavior of the heart.  Amer. J. Fhysicl. ?6;390«^03, 192L.

     Death under carbon monoxide asphyxia is due to failure of respiration.
     This is in the nature of a fatal apnoeavera.  The anoxemia resulting

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      from the formation of earboxyhemoglobin induces excessive breathing;
      and respiratory failure follows the excessive loss of COg.
      Oxygen deficiency caused by carbon monoxide, even in advanced asphyxia
      is not in itself sufficient to cause impairment of auriculo-ventricular
      conduction.  Following respiratory failure, however, the increased
      anoxemia from this cause speedily results in the development of heart
      block through its various stages.
             By restoring respiration and rapidly eliminating the carbon
      monoxide by means of inhalations of carbon dioxide and oxygen, cardiac
      conduction is restored to normal following the development of block.
             The cardio-inhibitory center maintains its activity longer
      than does the respiratory center.  5Ms center is stimulated by the
      increased Cg which occurs during respiratory failure.  From this there
      results a temporary cessation of auricular activity.  This period of
      inhibition is prevented by the administration of atropine.
             When respiratory failure is prevented by means of inhalations
      of 8 or 10 per cent carbon dioxide, the carbon monoxide combination
      with hemoglobin rises to an unusually high percentage without any
      evidence of impairment in a-v conduction.  This indicates that there
      is no direct toxic action of carbon monoxide upon the cardiac
      conducting system.
             Illuminating gas results in an earlier development of respiratory
      failure than does pure carbon monoxide in corresponding concentration.
             ELectrocardiographic records are given from two animals which
      differed from the rest in that one developed a traaeieat period of
      alternation involving the R and T waves and the other presented,
      during the time of complete a-v block, a condition resembling
      auricular fibrillation or flutter.  -  Author's Conclusion


 304. Hayes, J.M., and Hall, 6.V.:  The myocardial toxicity of carbon monoxide.
      Ifed. J. Australia, June 6, 1964, pp* 865-86G.

      The toxicity of carbon monoxide to the myocardium is well recognized, but
      reports concerning the mechanism, frequency and electrocardiograph.ic
      manifestations are not numerous.  For this reason, a. resume*'of the
      disturbed physiology is presented, together with a small number of
      case reports, and the therapeutic implications involved are discussed. -
      luthors' Abst.


305.  Hechter,  H.H.,  and Goldsmith,  J.R.:  Air  pollution and daily
      mortality.   Amer.  J. Med.  Sci.  241:581-588  (May)  1961.

      Analysis  has been  made of  the  relationship  between various environmental
      factors  and daily  cardiac  and  respiratory deaths  in  Los Angeles County
      from 1956 to 1958.   It was found  that  the variables, when studied over
      time,  exhibited a  distinct seasonal pattern plus  some irregular oscilla-
      tions.   The seasonal component from each  series was  isolated and removed
      by the techniques  of harmonic  analysis.   A  correlation analysis,
      adjusting for  the  autocorrelation remaining in the residuals,  indicated
      that changes in the daily air  pollution level, as measured by  the
      oxidant  and carbon monoxide  concentration,  exerted no detectable
      influence upon  the day-to-day  mortality pattern.  Carbon monoxide levels

                                     125

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     were found to range from about 7 to 22 ppm, and oxidant from 4 to 21
     pphm.  It is emphasized that these findings, which deal only with the
     acute terminal response of man to variations in the daily air pollution
     level, do not mitigate the importance of air pollution as a possible
     menace to the health and well-being of man.  - APCA 3847


 306„ Litzner,  St.:  On circulation and damage to the heart due to carbon
     monoxide poisoning.  Medizinische ICLinik 32:630-631, 1936.

     Author discusses the effect of CO poisoning and the general damage
     to the capillaries, which is responsible for the secondary sickness
     phenomena-damage to circulation and to the heart.  Attention should
     be paid,  as soon as possible to these conditions and the general
     atony of the vessels should be counteracted by medication.  Until
     recently little attention had been paid to the change in the heart.
     Passing functional disturbances or organic damage may occur as
     consequence of damage to the vasa privata, affecting muscles and
     the nervous system.  Sinus bradicardia, arrhytmia and ventricular
     extrasystology appeared in a patient after asphyxiation with CO,
     from which he recovered within several weeks.  At the same time
     dilation of the left ventricle was noted.  Further observations of
     likely disturbances are urgently needed.  -  From German-AGC
 307.  Mills,  C.A.,  an* Poz-hpcr, M.M.:  Tobacco smoking and automobile-
      driving stress in relation to deaths from cardiac and vascular
      causes.  Amer. J. Med. Sc. 234:35-^3 (July) 1957*

      A  direct association well beyond the realm of reasonable chance
      occurrence has been found to  exist between cardiovascular
      disease death rates in white men and the amount of cigarette smoking
      in which they habitually indulge.   Superimposed upon all categories
      of this cigarette smoking relationship is a further sharp death-
      rate rise associated with annual driving mileages above 12,000 miles,
      and still further superirasposition in ,all categories  is associated
      with residence in the solidly built-up basin areas of the city
      (Cincinnati).
             These xelationships are essentially  analogous to those we
      found to exist for lung cancer death rates in white men, although
      the apparent exacerbating relationship was much greater between
      smoking and lung cancer deaths than between smoking and cardiovas-
      cular disease deaths.  -  Authors' Sum.
308. Neubuerger, K.T., and Clarke, E.R. :  Subacute carbon monoxide
     poisoning with cerebral myelinopathy and multiple myocardlal
     necroses.  Rocky Mountain Med. J. lj-2: 29-35 (Jan.)
     A case of subacute CO poisoning in a 19-year-old girl is reported.
     The condition led to death after thirteen days.  Autopsy revealed
     cerebral myelinopathy and myocardlal necrosis.  The Pathogenesis
     of these lesions is discussed.  The significance of a low
                                     126

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     concentration of CO together with high atmospheric temperature in
     the present case is emphasized.  -  Authors' Sum.


309. Qjaerci, M., Margaglia, F., Orione, G., and Acciuaro, G.:  Hemodynamic
     variations in experimental acute carbon monoxide poisoning.  Rassegna
     di Medicina Industriale e di Igiene del Lavoro 33:45^-^55 (May-Aug.)
     1964.

     The authors have observed that the inhalation of CO by laboratory
     animals produces an increase in the cardiac frequency with a
     simultaneous increase in the systolic pressure which decreases
     progressively when the carboxyhemoglobinemia values reach about
     10$.  The marked progressive increase of the pressure  of the
     pulmonary arteries is probably due not so much to the  decrease of
     the alveolar tension of the oxygen but to the decrease of the
     oxygen in the blood,  -  Authors' Sum.


 310. Shafer, N., Smilay, M.G., and MacMillan,  F.P.:  Primary myo-ardial
     disease in man resulting from acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Amer. J. Med. 38:316-320 (Feb.) 1965.

     The purpose of this paper is to present a case of nqrocarrilal damage
     resulting from acute carbon monoxide poisoning.  A review of the
     literature reveals a paucity of such reports.   The standard text-
     books of medicine make little or no mention of cardiac signs and
     symptoms arising from carbon monoxide poisoning/ but emphasize
     instead cerebral involvement.  The case presented herein is of
     further interest as the patient has remained symptomatic to the
     present time and has shown persistent changes on the electrocardio-
     gram; the electrocardiographic patterns reported thus far consist
     of transient and reversible changes.  -  Authors' Abst.
 311. Vollmer,  E.P.,  King,  E.G.,  Fisher,  M.B., and Birren, J.E. :  The
      Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Three Types  of Performance, at
      Simulated Altitudes of 10,000 and 15,500 Feet.  NMRI Res. Project
      X-417,  Report No. 7,  Feb.  27,  19^5,  and J. Exp. Psychol.  36 :
      251,
     Measurements of the critical flicker frequency threshold,  body sway,
     and the red visual field were made on subjects before,  during and
     after low pressure chamber runs.  Twenty subjects with 12 to 22 per
     cent blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) took part in runs at 15 > 500
     feet, and six subjects with 5 to 10 per cent COHb were tested at
     10,000 feet.  Control runs were made at the same altitudes with the
     same subjects.
            There was a significant impairment of performance at altitude,
     both under conditions of anoxia alone and anoxia after exposure to
     carbon monoxide (CO) as compared with performance at sea level.
            There was no statistically significant difference between
     the mean scores of the tests during anoxia alone and during anoxia


                                    127

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      following administration of CO.   Furthermore,  the time-performance
      curves for group means during the hour at altitude are nearly
      coincident under the two conditions.
             All the mean values for performance of each of the three tests
      at.altitude are within one standard deviation of the sea level mean.
      (More than one-half of the scores for individual performance in the
      two series may therefore "be expected to fall within the range of
      performance of normal subjects at sea level.)
             Individual responses were variable and without correlation
      with the percentage of increment or of total COHb in the "blood.
             Three of the subjects who started the experiments showed
      symptoms of impending collapse at 15,500 feet without CO.  One of
      these had successfully completed his  corresponding CO run;  the
      other two did not participate in CO runs.
             Five subjects showed symptoms  of impending collapse at altitude
      (one at 10,000, four at 15,500 feet)  after they had breathed mixtures
      containing CO.  -  Authors' Sum.
      Cerebral Effects
  312, Bell, M.A.:  Subacute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.   Arch.  Environ.  Health
      3:108-110  (Nov.) 1961.

      Attention is directed to unexpected collapse or fainting upon mild
      to moderate effort as a clue to cerebral hypoxia possibly due to
      carbon monoxide poisoning not revealed in the patient's  initial
      history.  A case considered to be illustrative is presented in this
      paper. -Author's Sum.


313.  Ghornyak,  J.,  and Sayer,  R.R.:  Studies in asphyxia.  I.
      Neuropathology resulting  from comparatively rapid carbon-monoxide
      asphyxia.   Pub.  Health Rep.  46:1523-1530  (June) 1931.

      The chemical and pathological reaction of dogs to asphyxia by
      carbon monoxide and by atmospheres which  are deficient in oxygen
      has been studied during the  past  two  years by the United  States
      Bureau of Mines.  These studies have  been conducted for the purpose
      of obtaining fundamental  information  on the response of the organism
      to asphyxial environment, with the particular viewpoint of devising
      a procedure for treating  moribund cases of carbon-monoxide poisoning.
      It has been repeatedly observed that  many of these cases  have a fatal
      termination, even though  respiration  has been induced v^ the carbon
      monoxide removed from the blood.
             The ueuropathology produced in dogs by fatal exposures of 20
      to 30 min. to  0.6% CO in  air by volume was studied.  Carbon monoxide
      produces a diffuse degenerative change throughout the entire  brain.
      In this type of asphyxia  the most serious effect  appears  to be edema
      of the dorsal  motor nucleus  of the vagus  and the  adjacent area in
      the medulla oblongata. - Authors' Introduction  Modified-AGC
                                    128

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314. Courville, C.B»:  The process of dsmyelination in  bhe central nervous
     system.  IV.  Demyelination as a delayed residual of carbon monoxide
     asphyxia.  J. Nervous Mental Bis. 125:534-5^6, 1957.

     In this study of a series dealing with the process of demyelination,
     the changes in the cerebral and cerebellar centrums have been noted
     following severe asphyxia incident to carbon monoxide.  Such changes
     are "delayed" in the sense that a suitable time interval must elaspe
     after the asphyxia! episode, 76 days in the case herein reported.
     The characteristic alterations constituting the residual lesions
     were 1) peri vascular demyelination as the initial lesion, leading
     to 2) diffuse demyelination by confluence of these individual foci,
     3) the tendency to spare the subcortical crcuate fibers, 4) vascular
     changes in the form of a decrease in number of capillaries in the
     degenerative foci, and a progressive collapse and disappearance of
     the arterioles in the affected area, 5) a decrease in the number of
     oligodendroglia in the degenerative areas, 6) the obvious secondary
     nature of loss of myelin being an effect of ischemia and 7) the
     occasional occurrence of islands of preservation in the periphery
     of the lesion.
            The findings are significant in their remarkably close
     correlation to the changes observed in diffuse sclerosis.  But in
     addition, there was found evidence of support for the conclusion that
     demyelination per se is very likely a secondary process, probably
     never a primary one.  It is also very likely that the loss of
     oligodendroglia in areas of demyelination (i.e.,  the plaques of
     multiple sclerosis) is due to their sensitivity to ischemia (local
     anoxia) and bears no cause-effect relationship to the process of
     demyelination.  -  Author's Sum.


315. Courville, C.B.:  Forensic neuropathology.  XI.  The asphyxiant
     gases.  J. Forensic Sc. 9:19-46 (Jan.) 1964.

     Hoxious gases or vapors which produce untoward manifestations in man
     may be divided into the direct asphyxiants, whose toxic effects are
     due mainly to replacement of oxygen, and the indirect asphyxiants,
     whose toxic effects result from absorption of poison through the
     air passages.  There are three types of direct asphyxiants:  simple
     asphyxiants (smoke, fumes, and inert gases), chemical asphyxiants
     (carbon monoxide and cyanide gas), and central depressants (the
     anesthetic gases).
            The primary effect of the simple asphyxiants is the exclusion
     of oxygen from the lungs.  The chemical asphyxiants produce anoxia
     either by preventing the transportation of oxygen in the blood stream
     or by interfering with its utilization by the nerve cells of the brain.
     The central depressants produce anoxia by direct narcotic action on
     the cortex and basal ganglia, or by the precipitation of cerebral or
     respiratory failure and superimposition of other types of anoxia.
            The indirect asphyxiants are divided into the industrial gases
     and the war gases.  The most common industrial gases are hydrogen
     sulfide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia.
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           In acute asphyxiation (survival up to two weeks), the train is
    severely congested, with focal hemorrhages in the leptoraeninges and
    white matter.  Distention of the small blood vessels, perivascular
    hemorrhages and acute changes in the nerve cells occur.  The parenchy-
    matous elements and the Purkinje cells may also show acute change.
    Focal or laminar necrosis of the cortex and central necrosis of the
    basal ganglia are often associated with proliferation of the
    endothelium of the small blood vessels.
           In the subacute stage (two to six weeks), a variety of cerebral
    lesions develop.  Congestion may be present and focal cortical and
    subcortical softening may be seen.  The cerebral cortex may have a
    diffuse granular appearance or may show a thin yellow zone of necrosis.
    Usually, softening of some portion of the basal ganglia will be found.
    Patchy, focal, laminar or subtotal necrosis occur in the cerebral
    cortex, with changes in the astrocytes and microglia, and proliferation
    of the vascular endothelium.  The arterioles of the lenticular nucleus
    may contain rings of calcium or iron.  The unmyelinated cortical nerve
    fibers, the myclinated sheaths of the corticofugal
    nerve fibers, and the white matter may show degenerative changes.  The
    Purkinje cells may be changed and reduced in number.  Deterioration
    of the granule cell layer may also occur.
           The residuals of severe anoxia may be only minor, diffuse
    leptomeningeal thickening and cortical nerve cell loss, or they may
    be irregular cortical atrophy, cyst formation due to focal softenings,
    and central softening and demyelination.  Microscopically, the cytological
    alterations observed in the subacute stage are present, as are iron
    deposits in the nerve cells.  -  Author's Sum.


316. Qilinskiy, V.A., Chapek, A.V., Kozlova, A.G.,  Kulikova,  W.M.,  and
    A. Ya. Loshak:  The effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide
    on man in pressurized cabins of passenger planes.   In:   Parin,  V.V.
    (editor) Aviation and !$pace Medicine, Moscow,  1963.  NASA Technical
    Translation TT-F-228.

                . Pressure-chamber experiments were performed on 82 persons
    to study the effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide.   Also,
    30 flights on IL-18, AN-10,  and TU-1C& planes were made during
    which 185 members of the crew and passengers were examined and 3if7
    air samples were obtained in the cabins.  The results of the
    investigations showed that 3 hours' exposure to carbon monoxide
    (starting with 0.01 nag/liter or more),  both under experimental
    conditions (ground and pressure-chamber at 2^00 m) and during actual
    flight had adverse effects on the functioning of several organs and
    systems, namely:  (a)  Higher nervous activity; (b) Functions of the
    visual and vestibular analyzers; (c) Metabolic processesj (d)  Cardio-
    vascular system; (e) Muscular strength; (f) Tissue respiration and;
    (g) Leukopoiesis.  On the basis of the physiological-sanitary data'
    obtained and the results of laboratory tests,  it is suggested that
    the maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in
    pressurized passenger airplane cabins be 0.01 mg/liter.   -  Authors'
    Abst.
                                    130

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317. Hill,  E.,  and Semerak,  C.B.:   Changes in the brain in gas (carbon
     monoxid) poisoning.  J. AMA 71:6to~6l»8 (Aug. 2^) 1918.

     Carbon monoxid poisoning produces a characteristic lesion of the
     brain, namely, a bilateral ischemic necrosis of the lenticular
     nucleus, especially the globus pallidus.  This lesion results from
     the vascular disturbance brought about by the presence of carbon
     monoxid in the circulating blood which produces a thrombosis with
     degeneration of the vessel walls.  Anatomic peculiar-ties in the
     circulation account for the localization of the lesion.  The
     necrosis varies from slight perivascular lesions in the globus
     pallidus to grossly visible softening of the entire lenticular
     nucleus and internal capsule,  depending on the eocunt of gas inhaled,
     duration of life after poisoning, and preexisting pathologic changes
     in the cerebral vessels.
            Spontaneous hemorrhages in the leptomeninges and punctiform
     hemorrhages throughout the white matter of the brain are part of
     the profound vascular disturbances in carbon monoxid poisoning.
            Nerve cells possess a high degree of tolerance to the
     poisonous action of carbon monoxid.
            Edema and hyperemia of the brain and internal hydrocephalus
     are frequent appearances in carbon monoxid poisoning.
            Carbon monoxid poisoning as a cause for the subsequent
     development of nervous and mental disease as well as for deaths
     which may not be explained easily receives emphasis from this
     study.  The occupation and other conditions of living as well as
     careful gross and microscopic examination of the brain are of
     importance in demonstrating such a causal relationship.  -  Authors'
     Sum.


318. Lentz, E.G.:  Human factors in "cause undetermined"  accidents.
     Aerospace Med. 36:21^-222 (March) 1965.

     USAF aircraft accidents over a four-year period that remain categorized
     as cause undetermined indicate that the  man-machine  complex tends to
     fail during the stressful phases of flight.   Loss of control and high
     speed impact are factors common to many of this series.  Man's
     limitations and specifically his ability to maintain orientation -
     i.e.,  disorientation - are major problems in the operation of high
     performance aircraft.  Aircraft performance has advanced to the
     place where exploration of the operational perimeters of the craft
     is reserved for the test pilot.  Experienced combat  pilots may
     still be novices with respect to the vagarities of the aircraft  he
     flies.  Safety of flight is enhanced by the division of duties with
     a qualified co-pilot.
            Loss of control due to impaired consciousness attributable to
     carbon monoxide from refueling operations has been raised as a
     possibility.  There are two instances in this series of loss of
     control associated with refueling operations.  Turbine engines
     are efficient oxidizers of fuel.  This combined with distances and
     dilution seriously compromises the hypothesis that the cockpit of  a
     plane could accumulate disabling amounts of carbon monoxide from air
     refueling operations.  -  Author's Abst. Modified

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319. Levey, F.H., and  Drabkin,  D.L.:  Experimental chronic carbon monoxide
    poisoning  of dogs.  Amer.  J. Med. Sc. 208:502-511  (Oct.)  1944.

    Dogs, exposed  for 5% hours per day, 6 days a week, over 11 weeks,  to
    an atmosphere  containing 0.01 vol. % CO, and reaching daily 20.1 * 1.1%
    HbCO, showed a consistent  disturbance of postural and position reflexes,
    and of gait.
           Some of them showed a pathologic electrocardiogram, character-
    istic of anoxia,  and necrosis of single heart muscle fibers.
           Their central nervous systems showed, 3 months after termination
    of the experiment,  histologic changes in the cortex and white matter
    of the cerebral hemispheres, in the globus pallidus and the brain  stem.
    These alterations corresponded in type and localization to those found
    in acute GO poisoning,  bat were smaller, more scattered and less
    destructive.   They  followed in their arrangement the course of blood*
    vessels, the walls  of which were damaged only occasionally.
           One dog, in  which the posterior coronary artery had been ligated
     1 year prior to the exposure for a period of only 18 days to CO, showed
    the earliest and  severest  cardiac and cerebral changes of all animals
    observed.  This result  suggests that an inadequate functioning heart
     increases  the  general risk in CO poisoning, and may be responsible for
    a higher degree of  brain damage*
           Our findings indicate that chronic CO intoxication may occur in
    dogs at  CO concentrations  which have been regarded as being within the
    safety  limits  for man.
           These experiments do not permit any conclusions as to the
    potential  reactions of  the human body to the same conditions* - Authors'
    Sum.
320. Lhermitte, J., and Ajuriaguerra,  D. :   Lesions  of central nervous
     system produced by carbon monoxide poisoning.   Semaine des  HcSpitaux
     de Paris 22:19^5 (Nov.
     According to the authors the changes in the brain in carbon monoxide
     poisoning differ widely, depending on the  time  elapsed between the
     exposure and necropsy.   Hemorrhages,  necrobiosis,  necrosis  and
     edema characterize the  anatomic picture in cases  in which death
     occurred rapidly.  These changes may involve primarily the  lenticular
     nuclei but also the subcortical white matter, the hippocampus,  the
     substantia nigra and the cerebellum.   Changes in  the vascular net-
     work with infiltration  of the walls by neutral  lipids and by  a
     peculiar substance containing ferric salts, calcium and lipids
     may be observed in cases in which the poisoning continues for a
     prolonged period or in  which death is delayed.  A diffuse
     demyclinization of the  entire white matter of the brain similar to
     Schilder's diffuse cerebral sclerosis may  be observed in  cases in
     which death occurs after a long period of  remission.   It  is suggested
     that in carbon monoxide poisoning a toxic  factor  in addition  to the
     anoxic factor affects the neuroglia and the vascular network,  with
     specific involvement of the basilar region and  the white  fibers of
     the centrum ovale.
                                   132

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 321. McConnell, J.W., and Spiller, W.G. :  A clinicopathologic study of
     carbon monoxid poisoning.  J. AMA  59:2122-2126  (Dec. 14) 1912.
     Authors cite actual cases of acute carbon monoxid poisoning and the
     sequela  thereof.
            Authors divide poisoning "by CO into three classes:  acute
     poisoning, chronic poisoning and the third class is designed as
     relapsing CO poisoning a term used to indicate the conditions of
     those who, having apparently recovered from the initial effect of
     the poison, develop after a period of fair health a grave type of
     symptoms leading to death.
            The special clinical interest in case study described lies
     in the time which elapsed between the initial poisoning and the
     development of the grave symptoms, in the bilaterality of the motor
     symptoms, in the intense spasticity present and in the absence of
     distinct vasomotor or trophic symptoms .   -  AGO
322 4 Neubuerger, K.T., and Clarke, E.R, :  Subacute carbon monoxide
     poisoning with cerebral myelinopathy and multiple myocardial
     necroses.  Rocky Mountain Med. J. 42; 29-35 (Jan.)
     A case of subacute CO poisoning in a 19-year-old girl is reported.
     The  condition led to death after thirteen days.  Autopsy revealed
     cerebral  myelinopathy and myocardial necrosis.  The pathogenesis
     of these  lesions  is discussed.  The significance of a low
     concentration of  CO together with high atmospheric temperature in
     the  present  case  is emphasized.  -  Authors' Sum.


323. Salen, E.B. :  The period of carbon monoxide (the "generator gas epoch")
     in Sweden 1939-19^5.   Nordisk Msd.  30:923-931i- (April 26) 19*4-6.

     In connection with the almost total lack of mineral oils in Sweden in
     1939 the country was forced to make a sudden change-over to carbon
     monoxide.  In 19^1 the number of "gengas" cars in the country amounted
     to 72000, in 19^2 to more than 100,000.  The number of persons  that
     during work came in contact with gengas was estimated in 19^-2 to have
     amounted to between 200,000 and 250,000.  As a result there were a
     great number of cases of acute carbon monoxide intoxication. Further,
     there were a number of cases of a disease designated as chronic
     carbon monoxide intoxication.  The diagnosis in question has been
     based on the following criteria:  l) absence of ascertainable acute
     CO intoxication; 2) existing sensibility to CO; 3) characteristic
     picture of symptoms,  and the appearance of the separate symptoms in a
     certain characteristic order of time;  k) the possibility to ascertain,
     in certain (as a rule serious) cases,  a) "super- sensibility" to CO on
     testing,  b) positive oto-neurologic test, c) the existence of ophthalmo-
     neurologic changes, d) pathological issue of alcohol test,  e) deteri-
     oration of memory, concentration,  and learning functions, ascertainable
     through psychiatric examination.  The author is of the opinion  that
     this proves the relatively frecjuent occurrence of lesional and
                                    133

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      functional train changes in chronic carbon monoxide intoxication.
      Author's Sum. Modified.
 324.  Schulte, JfL. :   Effects of mild carbon monoxide intoxication.  Arch.
      Environ.  Health 7:52^-37 (Nov.) 1963.

      The effects of exposures for varying lengths of time to an atmosphere
      containing 100 ppm. of carbon monoxide were measured in a group of
      49 healthy men between 25 and 55 years, of age.  This exposure produced
      levels of earboxybemoglobin in the blood of the subjects ranging from
      0-20$.  Impairment of function due to exposure to CO occurred earliest
      in the higHer centers of the central nervous system in that area
      (or areas) of the brain which controls some of the cognitive and
      psychomotor abilities.  Impairment is detectable at levels of car-
      boxyhemoglobin below 5$,. and the degree of impairment increases with
      increasing concentration of the carboxyhemoglobin in the blood.  The
      need for reducing the max. allowable concentration of CO in the worlcing
      environment has been speculated upon. - APCA 5°99


  325. Sklenovsky, A.:  Brain levels of free aminoacids in carbon monoxide
      anoxia in rats.  Activita Nervosa Superior 5:272-275, 196^.

      A significant  decrease in glutamic acid (by 15$), glutamine (by
      16$), serine,  and glycine; and a significant increase in alanine
      were  found after 25 minutes CO anoxia.  The level of gamma-
      aminobutyric acid did not chang*.  The results are related to a
      stimulation of glycolysis and simultaneous depression of aerobic
      oxidation of glucose  in  the Krebs cycle.  The changes observed may
      .participate in the mechanism of functional brain disorders in
      anoxia.  -  NASA 80230


326.  Xintaras, C.,  ULrich,  C.E.,  Sobecki,  M.F.,  and Terrill,  R.E.:
      Brain potentials studied by computer analysis.   Arch.  Environ.
      Health,  in press.

      The operation of an on-line digital computer that summates evoked
      low-asiplitude brain responses to flashes of light in the implanted
      rat is described.   The application of this  technique in developing
      a "biological model"  for inducing a reversible functional blindness
      in rats inhaling carbon monoxide is considered.   The differential
      rate of recovery of specific components of  the evoked response  to
      carbon monoxide and pentobarbital are more  easily resolved with
      this method.   The use of the technique of the evoked response in
      parallel animal and human inhalation toxicity studies involving
      time-limited perceptual phenomena is suggested.   -  Authors' Abst.

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      EEG Patterns


 327. Bokonjic,  N,:   Stagnant Anoxia and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.   A
      Clinical and ELectroencepholograjphic Study in Humans.
      Electroencepholography & Clinical Neurophysiol.,  1963,  Suppl.  21,
      102 pp.

      A detailed description and comparison of clinical and
      electroencephalographic symptoms in humans suffering from acute
      anoxia due to  strangulation and carbon monoxide poisoning is
      provided in this publication.   The important differences of
      these two types of anoxia are  clinical and electroencephalographic
      syndromes vhich require differential prognosis.   The association
      established "between duration of unconsciousness and recovery
      prospects, and clarification of the influence of  age and
      cardiovascular failure on the  final outcome,  are  of particular
      prognostic value.  -  AGC


 328.  Carlo,  S., and Bruno,  P.:   Biochemical and E.E.G.  findings in  some
      modern occupational poisonings.   Riv.  §per.  Freniat. 87:858-862
      (June)  1963.

      The literature on "biochemical  or E.E.G.  findings  of investigations
      of various industrial  poisonings,  is reviewed in  this paper.  Acute
      CO poisoning of rabbits resulted in cortical depression.   Sharp
      reduction in the responsiveness of the electrical activity of the
      brain to intermittent  photic stimulation was recorded immediately
      after the acute poisoning was  induced.  This condition  could be
      reversed after a few days.  Authors consider the  many enzymic
      activities, such as dehydrogenase,  flavine cyto-chrome-oxidase
      responsible for the changes in E.E.G.  patterns.   Authors draw the
      conclusion from the literature reviewed that only through  the
      correlation of biochemical,  histopathological and electrophysiolog-
      ical  data, advances in industrial medicine can be made.  They state
      that  no data are,  as yet,  available concerning the activity of  various
      parts of the central nervous system in industrial poisonings.
      AGC
329. Gaultier,  M.,  Fournier, Et., Gervais, P., and bodin, F. :  Pancreatic
     encephalopathy occuring after  carbon monoxide poisoning.  Presse Medicale
     72:3263-3265  (Dec. 19)
      In the  course  of an encephalopathy following carbon monoxide poisoning,
      the  existence  of a  sever  digestive syndrome, important body-fluid
      disorders, and a hyperglycemia with an important increase of amylase
      led  to  a  diagnosis  of acute pancreatitis.  The mixture of ailments
      reacted favorably under the influence of treatment by anti- enzymes.
      This observation raises the general problem of the role which a
      pancreatic seizure  could  play in determining the secondary encephalopathic
                                       135

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     complications from carbon monoxide poisoning.   -  Authors' Abst.-
     translated CBK


330. Grudzinska, B.:   Electroencephalographic .patterns in cases of chronic
     exposure to carbon monoxide in air.   Folia ifedica Cracoviensia 3:
     ^93-515, 1963.

     The purpose of this study was to ascertain -whether chronic exposure
     to CO produces pathologic changes in man and to analyse electro-
     clinical correlations.   Sixty workers from gas works and coking
     plants exposed to CO concentrations  not exceeding 0.01$ were
     studied.,  The control group consisted of 30 workers similarly
     employed but not exposed to CO.  Only healthy individuals were
     included in both groups without history of cranial trauma or acute
     CO poisoning.  Examination  included  determination of erythrocyte
     counts, Hb and COHb levels, complete history,  functional tests
     of the vegetative nervous system. EEG's were made  at rest and
     after activities.  CO exposure was confirmed by examination of
     COHb.  The mean level of COHb was 7.4$ in the exposed group,  and
     3$ in the control group. The COHb level exceeded 10$ in 11  persons
     of the exposed group.  A neurasthenia syndrome was  diagnosed in
     63$ of the exposed group and in kO%  of the control  group.  The
     type and intensity of complaints in  each group was  studied.
     Statistical analysis of the differences revealed  significantly
     greater incidence of headache and general debility  in the exposed
     group.
            Among the normal tracings from the exposed group there was
     a significantly higher proportion of flat, low-voltage tracings with
     scanty alpha rhythm (p <;0.0l).
            Statistically significant electroclinical  correlations were
     found in the group exposed  to CO. All the pathologic tracings and
     8l$ of the low-voltage tracings and  those with scanty alpha  rhythm
     were found in individuals with neurasthenic syndromes.   In addition,
     all the tracings of the first sleep  phases were also found in
     neurasthenic individuals.
            Prom the findings it may be concluded, that chronic  exposure
     to low concentrations of carbon monoxide does not cause distinct
     changes in the nervous system, but may have a certain inhibitory
     effect on the bioelectric activity of the brain,  manifested
     clinically as neurasthenia  and in the EEG as scantly low-voltage
     alpha rhythm and tracings of the first sleep phases.   However,
     since these changes are nonspecific,  EEG examination in cases
     suspected of chronic CO poisoning is not decisive,  although  it may
     be auxiliary factor in making the diagnosis.   -  Author's Sum.
     Modified
                                    136

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331.  Helmchen,  H., and Kunkel, H. :  Findings on rythmic potential
      fluctuation in optically evoked responses in the human EBG.  Archiv
      fiir Psychiatric und Zeitschrift f. d. ges. Neurologic 205:397-408,
      Various aspects of rhytmic potential fluctuations (rhytmic after-
      fluctuations) are described in this paper, developing often within
      an irritation response, iomodlately after a secondary component.
      These findings indicate that the essential characteristics of these
      rhytmic potential fluctuations are influenced "by the central nervous
      system.  This is being demonstrated by general changes in the EEG
      after CO intoxication, by the anomaly of occipitals 3-4/sec-rhythmus
      and by paroxymol dysrhythrnic and overall changes under treatment
      with Perazin.  -  Authors' Abst. -Translated— AGC
 332. Linderiberg, R., Preziosi, T., Levy, D., and Christensen, M.K.:
      Experimental investigation of carbon monoxide toxicity.  Presented
      at the Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles,
      Calif., Dec. ^-7, 1961.

      Experiments performed by the authors indicated that the effects of
      CO were not completely accounted for by hypoxemia.  After single
      exposures, dogs exhibited necrotic lesions in the white matter of
      the brain, probably resulting from capillary stasis produced by a
      high venous-arterial pressure.  Electrocardiographic changes,
      however, appeared before electroencephalographic changes persisted
      for several days after exposure.  When dogs were exposed for 6
      weeks to either 100 ppm of CO six hours dally, 5 days a week, or
      to 50 ppm 2k hours daily, 7 days a week, no significant clinical
      effects other than a predictable degree of carboxyhemoglobinemia
      were observed, but at autopsy the heart and sometimes the cerebral
      ventricles were dilated and in some dogs the heart muscle was
      scarred.       A.G.C.
  333. Serra, C., and Pannain, B.:  Biochemical and E.E.G. findings in some
      modern occupational poisonings.  Riv. Sfper. Freniat. 87:858-862
      (June) 1963.

      From the numerous findings briefly reviewed the conclusion can
      be drawn that the most important advances in Industrial Medicine or
      in Legal Medicine can be achieved only through the correlation of
      many findings, such as the biochemical, the histopathological and
      the electrophysiological data.
             Mb data are as yet available concerning, for instance, the
      activity of various parts of central system in different professional
      poisonings.
             Likewise, in view of the regional differencies of enzymic
      activities in central nervous system, it is possible to foreseen that
      the correlation between the EEG changes and the neurochemical findings
      can give a satisfactory explanation of the e.lective neurotropism of
      various i»8astrial poisonings.  -  Authors' Sum.

                                    137

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334. Zorn,  H.:   On the  diagnosis of chronic CO poisoning.   (German) Bass.
     Med.  Indust.  33:325-329  (May-Aug.) 196k.

     The author has the opportunity of observing a group of workmen who
     worked in noisy premises and were exposed to low concentrations
     of CO over a  relatively  long period on account of a leak of gas
     which had not been noticed.  Examinations and psychological tests
     when compared to those previously made showed an increase in the
     excitability  and irritability  to noises.  The percentage of
     carboxyhemoglobinemia varied between 10 and 20$.  The  electro-
     encephalogram revealed a picture of extremely unstable frequency.
     When the leak had  finally been found and stopped, the  tests returned
     to normal after eight weeks in the young subjects and  after 16 in
     the elderly and old.  These observations led the author to advise
     a series of examinations and tests to be given to workmen at
     intervals of  3-4 years,  so as  to follow up the action  of sub-toxic
     concentrations of  CO.  - Author's Sum.
     EKG Patterns
335. Belza, J.:  Electrocardiographic changes following acute carbon
     monoxide poisoning.  Inaugural-Dissertation for the Degree of
     Doctor of Medicine.  P.O. Keller,  Winterthur,  Switzerland,  1955,
     PP. 39-

     The aim of this dissertation is to present the effect of acute
     carbon monoxide poisoning on the heart.   The damaging influence
     on the myocardium as reflected in the clinical picture and
     electrocardiogram during the past ten years at the Medical Clinic
     of the University of Zurich, has been studied in particular.
     Frequency of pathological changes in the ECG following acute  CO
     poisoning are discussed, and an attempt  has been made to estimate
     the relation of the age factor to the speed of improvement of
     electrocardiographic findings.  The most recent literature related
     to this problem is also reviewed.   -  Author's Sum. Mbdlfied-AGC


336. Colvin, L.T.:  Electrocardiographic changes in a case of severe
     carbon monoxide poisoning.  Amer.  Heart  J. 3:kBk~k8Q,  1927-1928.

     The points of interest in this case seem to be:
            The electrocardiographic changes  due apparently in the main
     to asphyxia, but possibly in some degree to the action of benzol,
     were such as to suggest damage below the division of the His
     bundle instead of at the A-V node.
            These changes, suggesting damage  to the ventricular muscle,
     disappeared rapidly and completely.
            The supposition that if such damage may be done to a
     presumably healthy heart, an already impaired myocardium might, under
     similar conditions, suffer irreparably.   -  Author's Sum.
                                   138

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337. Cosby,  R.S.,  and Bergeron,  M. :   ELectrocardiographlc changes in
     carbon monoxide poisoning.   Amer. J. Cardiol. 11:93-96 (Jan.) 1963.

     In 10 patients with severe carbon monoxide toxicity, electrocardiograms
     were abnormal in 9.  In the 3 patients reported in detail, electro -
     cardiographic changes consisted of arrhythmias (auricular fibrillation),
     ischemic changes and probable subendocardial infarction.   In 2 severely
     ill patients the electrocardiographic pattern did not return to normal
     for four weeks, and the clinical course was compatible with moderately
     severe coronary artery insufficiency and myocardial damage.  Anoxia,
     toxic changes and true coronary ischemia secondary to shock may all
     play a part in carbon monoxide poisoning, depending on concentration,
     duration of exposure and presence or absence of shock.  -  Authors'
     Sum.


338, Enrich, W.E., Bellet, S., and Lewey, F.H. :  Cardiac changes from
     CO poisoning.  Amer. J. Med. Sc. 208:511-523, 19^.
     Discussed in this paper are acute e:;periments at kO% carboxyhemoglobin
     and in chronic experiments at 21$ carboxyhemoglobin or an equivalent
     oxygen deficiency, electrocardiographic and morphologic changes
     were seen, including inverted T wave, elevated R-2 segment,  and
     degenerative changes in individual muscle fibers.  When the
     carboxyhemoglobin exceeded 75% for an hour or more, at rio ventricular
     heart block and myocardial hemorrhage and necrosis  supervened.


339. Lindenberg, R., Preziosi, T., Levy,  D.,  and Christensen,  M.K»:
     Experimental investigation of carbon monoxide toxicity.  Presented
     at the Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, Los Angeles,
     Calif., Dec. 4-7, 1961.

     Experiments performed by the authors indicated that the effects of
     CO were not completely accounted for by hypoxemia.  After single
     exposures, dogs exhibited necrotic lesions in the white matter of
     the brain, probably resulting from capillary stasis produced by a
     high venous -arterial pressure.  Electrocardiographic changes,
     however, appeared before electroencephalographic changes persisted
     for several days after exposure.  When dogs were exposed for 6
     weeks to either 100 ppm of CO six hours daily, 5 days a week,  or
     to 50 ppm 2k hours daily, 7 days a week, no significant clinical
     effects other than a predictable degree of carboxyhemoglobinemia
     were observed,  but at autopsy the heart and sometimes the cerebral
     ventricles were dilated and in some dogs the heart muscle was
     scarred.  -  Sch 193, p. 121
                                    139

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339a- Mainardi, M. :  Electrocardiographic alterations in cases of acute
      intoxication from carbon monoxide.  Bass. Med. Ind. (Rome) 33:
              (May-Aug.) 1964.
      A study has been made of electrocardiographic alterations in
      subjects with acute carbon monoxide intoxication who were observed
      at the medical department of Gallarate Hospital.  These alterations
      would appear to be due not only to the anoxemic action of CO but
      also to a cytotoxic one shown by increases in transaminases, in
      particular of lactic dehydrogenase, even in instances •where the
      damage was transient.  -  LC 64-197


 340.  Middleton, G.D., Ashby, D.W.,  and dark, F. :   Delayed and long-lasting
      electrocardiographic changes in carbon-monoxide poisoning.  Lancet 1:
      12-14 (Jan. 7) 1961.

      Two cases of carbon-monoxide narcosis are reported in which long-
      lasting changes were seen in serial electrocardiograms taken up to
      3 months after exposure.  An early return of the electrocardiogram
      to normal should not preclude continued follow-up.  -  Authors' Sum.


 341.  Stearns, tf.H. , Drinker, C.K.,  and Shaughnessy,  T. J. :   the electro-
      cardiographic changes found in 22 cases of carbon monoxide
      (illuminating gas) poisoning.   Amer.  Heart J.  15:434-447, 1938.

      Carbon monoxide asphyxia,  even though severe  enough  to cause death,
      may produce no important electrocardiographic changes.
             Changes in the T- waves  and in the S-T  segments occur most
      frequently.
             Paroxysmal auricular fibrillation may  occur,  as a rule in
      patients within the age group  in which any physiologic insult or
      trauma may cause this condition.
             One case of transitory  intraventrlcular block is present
      in the series.
             No cases of auricalo ventricular block  definitely attributable
      to carbon monoxide poisoning were found, although one case is
      repotted in which a marked disturbance of auricular  rhythm with
      partial auriculoventricular block was apparently aggravated by the
      asphyxia.  - Authors' Sum*


 342.  Takahashi, K. :  Cardiac diotiirbancec duo to CO poisoning in ex-
      perimental animals.  I.  Electrocardiographic changes due to CO
      poisoning and those under the influence of fluid infusion.  Tohoku
      j. Expt. Med. (Sendai) 74:211-223 (July 25) 1961.

      Rabbits under urethane anesthesia, were allowed to inhale through
      a cannula into the trachea for  fixed periods, a mixture of room air
      and 0.3 or 1% CO gas.  Electrocardiograms were made immediately,  then
      after 24, 48, or 96 hrs. a fluid infusion was given and this was
      followed by a 2nd EKG.  Microscopic examinations, following autopsy,

                                    140

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     were made of the hearts of the animals.  The earboxyhemoglobin (COHb)
     levels in the "blood had reached 33.9-42.5$ on inhalation of a 0.3$
     CO for 30 min., and 36.6-43.9$ for 60 min.  The COHb level never
     reached the saturation value.  The drop in COHb levels for the 1st
     30 min. after cessation of gas inhalation was more prompt in animals
     poisoned for the shorter period of time.  Changes in EKG were  ob-
     served in 12 ojf the 20 animals during gas inhalation.  The changes
     were elevation or depression of the S-T segment or a ZLat T wave.
     There was no intimate correlation "between the degree of EKG changes
     and the COHb levels.  The author infers that it may require a
     definite time duration over which a high concentration of COHb
     level is maintained, to produce the changes in EKG.  Microscopic
     changes resemble those reported by other authors.  Changes were
     also observed in animals which do not show changes in EKG.  The
     changes occurring during inhalation disappeared quite soon and
     returned to normal after 24 hours.  Infusion with Ringer-Locke
     solution, with 1.2% bovine hemoglobin added, brought about the
     following disorders of the EKG:  extra systoles, remarkable
     displacement of the S-T segment, or A.-V block.  It is conceivable
     that latent changes induced by gas inhalation, even though the
     EKG had returned to normal, had brought about a weakening of the
     heart which made it unable to bear the burden of infusion.  Thus
     the cardiac damages from the CO inhalation became evident.  "
     APCA 4465.


343. Takahashi, K.:  II.  Changes of the heart excitability, due to acute CO
     poisoning.  Tohoku J- Eaq?t. Med.  (Sendai) 74:224-233 (July 25) 19&L -

     Changes  of the heart excitability were observed on the electrocardio-
     gram of  dogs poisoned acutely by  inhalation of  CO gas.  Due to inhala-
     tion of  0.05-1$ CO gas  for 60 min., a remarkable prolongation of
     refractory periods was  observed in ail animals  and the elevation of
     resting  threshold was seen in a few animals.  The lowering of heart
     excitability was  shown  not only during gas inhalation but after
     its  cessation.  Then the  strength interval curve shifted to the
     right.   Due to inhalation of 2.5$ CO gas  for 15 min., the heart
     excitability was  decreased slightly during inhalation but recovered
     quickly  by inhalation of pure oxygen.  Then the absolute refractory
     period was reduced. It required  a definite ^ime duration for which.,
     the  carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level was maintained at a certain high
     level, to produce the lowering  of heart excitability.  Lowering of the
     excitability continued  and became severe  after  cessation of gas inhalation.
     The  disturbances  of heart muscles due to  CO poisoning may be attributed
     to disturbances of myoglobin and/or cytochrome  C.  The reduction of
     the  absolute refractory period was observed by  the inhalation of 2.5$
     CO gas for 15  min.  and  this may be attributed to the compensatory
     function in the early stage  of hypoxemia.  - APCA 4465.
                                    141

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     Lung Diffusion
344. Apthorp, G.H., and Marshall, R.:   Pulmonary diffusing capacity:  A
     comparison of breath-holding and steady state methods using
     carbon monoxide.  J. Clin. Invest. 40:1775-1764, 1961.

     In 16 normal subjects and 125 patients with cardiac or respiratory
     disease, measurements of the diffusing capacity of the lungs for
     carbon monoxide (Dc) were made by both the single breath and the
     steady state methods with end-tidal samples as a measure of
     alveolar CO.
            In 16 normal subjects at rest the steady state D/L was about
     75 per cent of the single breath IX.  The steady state DC. increased
     with increasing tidal volume so that at maximal tidal volume the
     steady state IX was approximately the same as the single breath
     DC.  The increase of DC on exercise was greater than could be
     accounted for by the increased ventilation on exercise.  An increase
     of respiratory rate without an increase in tidal volume did not
     increase DC-
            The patients with cardiac or respiratory disease were
     considered in three groups.  Group 1 (74 patients with normal
     pulmonary gas mixing):  the steady state DC was 7^ Pe** cent of the
     single breath DC at rest.  Group 2 (26 patients with impaired
     pulmonary gas mixing but no clinical evidence of emphysema):   the
     steady state DC was 66 per cent of the single breath figure.   The
     difference between groups 1 and 2 may be due,  in part, to the
     errors in end-tidal sampling in patients with uneven pulmonary
     ventilation.  Group 3 (25 patients with emphysema):   there was no
     relationship between the single breath and steady state D«..  The
     reasons for this are discussed,  -  Authors' Sum.


345. Bates,  D.V.:  The uptake of carbon monoxide in health and in
     emphysema.  Clin. Sc. 11:21-32, 1952.

     A simple method is described for the estimation of the rate of
     uptake  of carbon monoxide gas.
             Variations in the uptake of carbon monoxide in normal subjects
     with differing respiratory rates and tidal volumes are described;
     and it  has been shown that hyperventilation increases the volume
     of gas  absorbed but lowers the percentage of the gas removed from
     the inspired air.  These effects are modified if the hyperventilation
     is accompanied by exercise.
            The rate of uptake of carbon monoxide has been measured in
     43 cases of emphysema, and is  shown to be considerably reduced in
     comparison with normal subjects.  It is considered that this
     indicates that much of the inspired air is not coming into contact
     with pulmonary blood.  -  Author's Sum.
                                    142

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345 a. Cotes, J.E. :  An. inter-laboratory study of the estimation of carbon
     monoxide.   Ann.  Occupat. Hyg.  (London)  5:217-219  (oct.-Eec.)  1962.

     The author  has been concerned with standardisation of the measurement
     of pulaionary  diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide by a single breath.
     From  the;' instrumental point of view this requires the analysis of 2
     gas mixtures, each containing helium and carbon monoxide.   The accura-
     cy of the resulting diffusing capacity depends on the accuracy of analysis
     of ratios of  helium and CO concentrations in the  2 cylinders.   Three
     test  gas mixtures  of known composition were decanted into smaller
     cylinders and then distributed in pairs to 21 laboratories where
     measurements  of  pulmonary  diffusing capacity were being carried out.
     Complete results were received on 3 such pairs from 11 laboratories;
     these results were used to provide an estimate of the reproducibility
     and absolute  accuracy of the measurement of carbon monoxide.   For com-
     parison, corresponding figures for helium were used for which the
     concentrations were higher.  Helium is, in many ways, easier to analyze.
     Most  of the laboratories from which results were  obtained were staffed
     on a  part-time basis under the supervision of a physician interested
     in the assessment  of pulmonary function and not by physicists or chemists
     who might have been expected to have a more critical approach to the
     analysis.  The range of results for each master cylinder has  been
     described as  a percentage  of the mean concentration*   For CO the range
     is 8.6-12.6$; the  corresponding range for helium  is 3.5-4.0$.   Thus the
     scatter for CO is  nearly 3 times that for helium.   The results of the
     trial demonstrated that among physiological laboratories analyzing
     helium and  CO, the reproducibility of individual  estimates is rela-
     tively good.  However, whereas there is little Variation between labora-
     tories in the analysis of  helium concentrations and concentration ratios,
     there is considerable variation for CO and a tendency for laboratories
     to  report consistently high or low ratios on successive occasions.
     These differences  are reflected in the diffusing  capacities which
     can be calculated  from the data. - APCA 5351.


 346. Doiiery, C.T.,  I&rson, N.A., and Sinclair, J.D. :  Regional variations
      in uptake of radioactive CO in the normal lung.  J. Appl. Physiol.
                 (May) 1960.
      Carbon monoxide labelled with O1^ was produced by passing
      made in the Medical Research Council's cyclotron, over charcoal
      at 1000°C.  After a single breath of the radioactive gas (900 ml.;
      0.6$ CO with activity of ebout 5 me. /I.) the rate of fall of
      activity  during apnea was measured by external counting in
      different regions of the lungs of normal subjects in the sitting
      position.  The carbon monoxide "clearance rate" calculated from these
      data is proportional to the diffusion/unit volume in the zone under
      study. r There was a gradient of diffusion/unit volume; the highest
      value being found in the basal regions of the lung and much lower
      values toward the apex.  On exercise the clearance rate in the
      upper zone increased to a value similar to that in the lower zone
      at rest;  the clearance in the lower zone was unchanged.
      .Measurements of the O1^ clearance rate showed a similar gradient but

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     on exercise both upper and lover zone values increased so that the
     gradient was  maintained.   The results are interpreted as showing
     that in the resting state all the basal capillaries are open but
     that the proportion of patent capillaries diminishes toward the
     apex.  On exercise there  is an increase in flow at both apex and base
     and in consequence the remaining apical capillaries open.  -  APCA
     1^258
347. Filley,  G.F.,  Macintosh,  D.J.,  and Wright, G.W. :   Carbon monoxide
     uptake and pulmonary diffusing  capacity in normal  subjects  at  rest
     and during exercise.   J.  Clin.  Invest.  33:530-539  (April)
     The CO uptake has  been measured in 11 normal  subjects breathing
     0.1 per cent CO in air under resting conditions and during increas-
     ingly strenuous stints of exercise.  The  fraction of CO removed
     from respired gas  decreased progressively with increasing exercise.
            A method for calculating alveolar  CO tension has been
     developed.   The ratio of the CO uptake to this alveolar tension has
     been designated as Dco.   The mean Dco at  rest was 16.9 in seven
     subjects.  During  moderate exercise the mean Dco was 3^-3 in H
     subjects.
            The  fraction of CO removed from respired gas at a given
     ventilation rate varied  as much as 25 per cent among normal
     subjects during exercise.  Dco  is considered to be important in
     accounting  for this variation.
            Dco  showed  no tendency to increase during increasingly
     strenuous exercise.  When Dco is determined during exercise
     requiring an Q£ uptake of at least four times the resting value,
     it is considered to represent the maximum diffusing capacity of the
     lungs.  Dco is probably  a measure of the  number and size of the
     pulmonary, capillaries available for pulmonary gas exchange and the
     permeability of the alveolar membrane.  - Authors' Sum.


 348. Forster, R.E., Fowler^ W.C., and Bates, D.V. :  Considerations on
     the uptake  of carbon monoxide by the lur/gs.   J. Clin. Invest. 33:
     1128-113^ (Aug.)
     Preliminary investigations on the Krogh CO method of measuring  the
     diffusing capacity of the lung revealed the necessity  for re-
     examining the theory of CO uptake from the lungs.   Equations have
     been derived which describe mixed expired alveolar CO  concentration,
     during breathholding following a single inspiration of a gas
     containing CO and during "steady state" breathing of a mixture
     containing CO, when the alveoli have different ventilation rates,
     alveolar gas volumes, and diffusing capacities.   The effect of
     significant amounts of COHb in the mixed venous blood  is discussed.
     Two equations are also derived describing tlie expired  alveolar  CO
     concentration' during the breathing of a mixture containing CO.
     The first deals with the initial "washout" of the lung gases, and
     the attainment of the gas "steady state."  The second  deals with
     the much slower build-up of COHb in the mixed venous blood.  -
     Authors' Sum.

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349. Forster, R.E.,  Fowler, W.S., Bates,  D.V.,  and Van lingen, B. :
    The absorption  of carbon monoxide by the lungs  during breathholding.
    J. Clin. Invest.   33:1135-11^5 (Aug.)
    The  disappearance of CO from the alveolar gas of the  lung during
    breathholding has been investigated in seven normal subjects.
            The alveolar CO concentration did not fall exponentially
    vith time as had been assumed by previous workers.
            The most likely single  explanation of this phenomenon is
    that the  diffusing capacity per unit gas volume varies throughout
    the  lung*
            This finding is relevant to the consideration of the validity
    of present methods of measuring the diffusing capacity of the lungs.
    - Authors' Sum.
350. Forster,  R.E.,  Conn,  J.E.,  Briscoe,  W.A., Blakemore, W.S., and
     Riley,  R.L. :  A modification of the  Krogh carbon monoxide breath
     holding technique for estimating the diffusing capacity of the
     lung; a comparison with three other  methods.   J. Clin.  Invest.
                  (Sept.)  1955.
     Measurements of Dco were made at rest on seven subjects by a
     modification of krogh's breath holding technique.  These  findings
     were compared to simultaneous steady state measurements of DO2 by
     the lilienthal-Riley technique, of Dco by the  Filley technique and
     of fractional CO uptake as described by Bates.  The  latter methods
     were applied during exercise in five of the seven  subjects.  All
     but one of the subjects were hospital patients and together they
     provided a wide range of values for pulmonary  diffusing capacity.
             It is concluded for the present that the methods  for the
     estimation of steady state Db2 and Dco provide similar values
     when allowance is made for the differences in  physical
     characteristics between the two gases.  Estimates  obtained by the
     CO breath holding technique at rest show directional changes which
     are comparable to those obtained by the other  methods during
     exercise, although the absolute values are lower.  The fractional
     CO uptake, when uncorrected for changes in ventilation rate, is
     less reliable.
             The optimum conditions for each method vary, and  further
     studies of the advantages and limitations of each  are required.  -
     Authors' Sum.
351. Pbrster,  E.E.,  Roughton,  F.J.W.,  Cander,  L., Briscoe, W.A., and
     Kreuzer, F.:   Apparent pulmonary diffusing capacity for CO at
     varying alveolar 02 tensions.   J. Appl. Physiol.  11:277-289, 1957.

     The apparent pulmonary diffusing capacity for CO (DO has been
     measured at alveolar 0% tensions from kO to more than 600 mm Bg.
     Two methods were used:  a) in six healthy subjects a steady state
     method in which the end-expiratory tension of a continuous  record
     of respired CO concentration was considered "alveolar" and  b) in

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       seven healthy subjects a "breath holding technique. Di., measured
       "by either method decreased with increasing alveolar CU tension in
       all  subjects, varying as much as fivefold over the entire range.
       All  estimates of D^_were corrected for the presence of COHb in
       the  mixed venous blood.  Dt_ (steady state; breathing air) was  on
       the  average 0.85 of VL (breath holding; breathing air).  -
       Authors' Abst.


35la.  Gaensler, E.A., and Wright, G.W.:  Evaluation of respiratory*: impair-
       ment.  Arch. Environ. Health 12:lU6-3B9 (Feb.) 19^6.

       The  production of data relating to the evaluation of impairment,
       by methods available in the physician's office and in most urban
       centers, together with some aspects of the meaning of such data and
       the  manner in which used to meet common medical problems are
       discussed.  The importance of utilizing convential methods for
       evaluating respiratory impairment, such as clinical history,
       physical examination, and roentgenography has been established; as
       well as the value of objective procedures including laboratory
       methods.  Each of the methods provides certain essential information
       not  always obtained by the others.  Each has its limitations and
       only by combining them can the full potential for evaluating impair-
       ment be attained.  -  AGC
  352. Hamilton, L.H., and Smith, J.R.:  A slide rule for calculating single-
      breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide,  Amer. Rev* Eesp. Dis.
      91:112-116 (Jan.) 1965.

      A circular slide rule has been constructed that permits a simple
      calculation of Deo performed by the breath-holding technique.  It
      can be used when the gas analyses are performed by conventional
      methods or with a gas chromatograph.  Use of the Deo slide rule
      provides an accuracy well within clinical requirements and permits
      the entire calculation to be completed in one to two minutes.  -
      Authors' Sum.
 353,  Hanson, J.S., and Tabakin,  B.S.:   Steady  state carbon monoxide diffusing
      capacity in normal females.  J. Appl.  Physiol. 16:339-841  (Sept.)  1961.

      The diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was determined
      in 100 normal females age 20-60 years  during steady state  treadmill
      exercise.  Values obtained  were compared  with a corresponding study  in
      males, and it was established that when body surface area  is taken into
      account there is no significant sex difference in  31C0.  No significant
      decrease in diffusing capacity was seen with advancing age.  Normal
      mean values and limits of normal  for the  various age groups are given. -
      Authors' Abst.
                                      I k6

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354. Hatch,  T.F.:  Carbon monoxide uptake in relation to pulmonary
     performance.  A.M.A. Arch. Indust. Qyg. & Occupat. Med. 6:1-8
     (July)  1952.

     In man the rate of carbon monoxide uptake in relation to
     pulmonary performance follows the simple exponential equation
     for respiratory exchange of inert gases.
            The rate of uptake varies directly with atmospheric
     concentration because the physiological "solubility" of CO in
     blood increases with decreasing atmospheric concentration of
     the gas.
           The rate of uptake is independent of the pulmonary
     circulation rate.  At rest, it is primarily dependent upon lung
     ventilation.  Under hard exercise, the diffusion area of the
     lungs does not increase in proportion to the rise in ventila-
     tion rate. Consequently, the rate of CO uptake is about equally
     dependent upon ventilation rate and diffusion capacity. -
     Author's Conclusion
 355. Jay, B.E.,  and Wilson, R.H.:  Adaptation of the gas adsorption
     chromatographic technique  for use in respiratory physiology.  J.
     Appl. Physiol. 15:298-302, 1960.

     In this paper a technique  using the gas chromatograph as an
     analytical  tool for measuring pulmonary functions is presented.
     The technique is  vapor phase chromatography.  By this method the
     sample gas  mixture is  introduced into the apparatus into a contin-
     uously flowing stream  of carrier gas (which may be argon, neon,
     helium, hydrogen,  or nitrogen), which moves the individual
     components  through a column of selected material at different
     velocities  according to  its adsorption isotherm.
            The  employment  of a mixture of two or more inert gases and
     chemically  active gases  for measuring the several parameters of
     pulmonary function simultaneously has created analytical problems.
     The mass  spectrometer  and  infrared analyzer have been used by
     Porster et  al., Eiley  et al. and others as a technique for
     obtaining the percentage composition of different mixtures of
     nitrogen, oxygen,  carbon dioxide, helium, nitrous oxide and carbon
     monoxide  in the study  of respiratory physiology.  If additional
     components  are introduced  into a gas mixture, such as nitrous oxide
     or acetylene,  to  measure pulmonary blood flow and cardiac output,
     the analytical problems  are magnified.  This is especially true
     when the  pulmonary diffusing capacity is estimated simultaneously
     with pulmonary capillary flow and volume.
            Ideally, for the  studies of pulmonary functional residual
     capacity, diffusing capacity, and capillary blood flow and volume,
     a  simple  method is sought  for measuring the percentage composition
     of a mixture  of gases  containing any qualitative or quantitative
     combination of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.  Rapid
     dynamic simultaneous measurements of events in all phases of the
     respiratory cycle are  desired for the best physiologic measurements.
     Since such  apparatus is  not available, the next best technique

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     would be one that would allow batch analysis of small samples of
     complex mixtures of experimental gases.
            Recent work in the field of cfcrcoatography has shown that
     chromatography can be refined into a powerful analytical tool.  -
     Authors' Introduction
356. Johnson,  R.L.,  Jr.,  Spicer,  W.S.,  Bishop,  J.M.,  and Forster,  R.E.:
     Pulmonary capillary blood volume,  flow and diffusing capacity
     during exercise.  J.  Appl.  Physiol.  15:893-902,  1960.

     Pulmonary capillary blood flow (Qc) and apparent CO diffusing
     capacity (Dt) were calculated from the rates of disappearance of
     small alveolar concentrations of inspired acetylene and carbon
     monoxide during breath holding.   Such measurements were performed
     sloultaaecusly in four normal subjects at rest,  during  exercise
     and while perxoraing Yalsals or Mueller maneuvers;  they were
     also made at more than one alveolar oxygen tension so that true
     membrane diffusing capacity (D*-,) and pulmonary capillary blood
     volume (vc) could be calculated by the method of Roughton and
     Forster.  Dv, D,-, and Vc were closely correlated with Qc (r =
     0.92, 0.71 and 0.92, respectively), indicating that both
     volume and effective surface of the pulmonary capillary bed
     changed along wide corresponding directional changes in blood
     flow.  Curing transients after starting or after stopping
     exercise, changes in DC lagged slightly behind the associated
     changes in 4cj both parameters tended to reach steady values,
     however, after above 1 minute of steady exercise. The average
     time spent by red cells in the pulmonary capillaries at rest  was
     estimated to 0.79 second, falling to  about 0.5 second at levels
     of exercise at which volume flow through the capillary  bed was
     approximately tripled.  -  Authors' Abst.
357. Johnson, R,L., Jr.,  Taylor,  H.F.,  and Lewson, W-H,,  Jr.:   Maximal
     diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide.   J Clinical
     Invest. 44:3^9-355,  1965.

     The purpose of this investigation was to determine hov much the
     apparent CO diffusing capacity (D>_co) increases  from rest to
     peak exercise and whether it reaches a plateau with  increasing
     work load.  Pulmonary capillary blood flow  and apparent CO
     diffusing capacity were measured by a breath-holding technique
     both at rest and during exercise and repeated at two different
     alveolar oxygen tensions so that the true membrane diffusing
     capacity (DN-(CO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) could
     be determined by the Roughton-Forster method.
            DLCO kept rising as work load was increased until  the
     pulmonary blood flow and oxygen consumption stopped  going up.
     D».co increased principally because of a twofold  increase  in Vc
     during exercise.  DMCO increased only about 20$ above the resting
     value.
                                    148

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            In the  three patients with mitral stenosis pushed up to
     their peak work loads,  Vc  rose  to the  same level  as in normal
     subjects during exercise but did not exceed the normal  upper limit.
     This suggests  that maximal distensibility cf the  capillary bed
     in normal subjects is  reached or closely approached at peak work
     loads.  The maximal pulmonary capillary blood volume in the
     normal subjects as well as in the patients with mitral stenosis
     agrees closely with the anatomical  estimates made by Weibel of
     the maximal capacity of the pulmonary  capi!3.ary bed.   -  Authors'
     Sum.
 358e Johnson,  R.L.,Jr~.,  Taylor,  H.F.,  and De  Graff, A.C.,Jr.:  Functional
      significance of a low pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon
     monoxide.  J. Clinical Invest. W*!789-800, 1965.

      Our purpose was to  determine whether measurements of carbon
      monoxide  diffusing  capacity can be used  in accord with presently
      accepted  theory to  predict  the limits that a low diffusing
      capacity  can be used in accord with presently accepted theory to
      predict the limits  that a low diffusing  capacity imposes on oxygen
      consumption.  In six patients suspected  of having alveolar
      capillary block pulmonary capillary blood flow, capillary blood
      volume (Vc), and membrane diffusing capacity for CO (&'~ICQ) were
      measured  at full inspiration both at rest and exercise.  From
      these measurements  we predicted how oxygen saturation of arterial
     blood would fall as oxygen  consumption increases at a given
      alveolar  oxygen tension.  To make these predictions IW,CO and Vc
      were translated into terms  of oxygen transport using in vitro
      measurements of Staub, Bishop, and Forster to estimate kinetics
      of oxygen uptake by capillary red cells; we assumed that Di^Op
      equals 1.23 DNX,CO and that  lung volume, ventilation,  and blooa
      flow were uniformly distributed with respect to diffusing surface.
      Then the  same patients were exercised on a treadmill up to the
      heaviest  load tolerated, and the  relationship between oxygen
      consumption and oxygen saturation of arterial blood was measured.
      At heavy  exercise oxygen consumption approached the upper limits
     predicted from DivfCO and Vc even  though arterial oxygen saturation
     began to  fall at a  lower oxygen consumption than predicted.
      Reasons for the latter discrepancy are discussed.  The experimental
      data as well as theory indicate that maximal oxygen intake at sea
     level should not be limited significantly by diffusion until
     membrane  diffusing  capacity is less than 50% of predicted normal.
     Theory also indicates that  above  .10,000 feet diffusing capacity
      should become important as  a limit to oxygen consumption even in
     normal subjects.  -  Authors' Sum. Modified
359. Jones, R.S., and Meade, F.:  Pulmonary diffusing ccpacity an
     improved single-breath method.  Lancet 1:9^-95 (Jan. 9) 1960.

     Improved procedures for the single-breath method of estimating
     pulmonary diffusing capacity are described.

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             These eliminate the anomalous variations of DL with breath-
     holding time, observed using Forster's method.  These arise from
     neglect of the effects of alveolar-volume changes during the
     experiment and from the use of an inappropriate breath-holding
     time.
             At 10 seconds breath-holding time the alternative methods
     give a Dt which is about 20$ lower than that given by Forster's
     method with a normal subject.
             In any of its forms, the single-breath method of estimating
     pulmonary diffusing capacity is theoretically justified only in
     respect of ideally normal subjects.  As this qualification applies
     equally to the suggested improvements,  there still remains the
     problem of interpreting such data in the presence of inequality
     of ventilation, perfusion, and membrane property.  -  Authors'
     Sum.


360. Jouasset-Strieder,  D.,  Cahill,  J.M.,  Byrne,  J.J,  and Gaensier,  E.A.:
     Pulmonary diffusing capacity and capillary blood volume  in normal
     and anemic dogs.   J. Appl. Physiol.  20:113-116 (Jan.)  1965.

     The CO diffusing capacity (PL)  was measured  by the single-breath
     method in eight anesthetized dogs.  Pulmonary capillary  blood volume
     (Vc) and membrane diffusing capacity (EM)  were determined in six
     animals by the method of Roughton and Forster.   The studies were
     repeated after anemia had been induced by replacing whole blood with
     plasma.  Large dogs were selected with a mean body weight of 29 kg
     and a mean alveolar volume of 2020 ml (STPD) during tests.   The
     mean arterial blood Hb decreased from 14.3 to 6.6 g/100  ml,  the
     mean DL from 27 to 12 ml/min mm Hg,  and the  mean DM from 100 to ^7
     ml/min mm Hg.  The Vc averaged 67 ml in the  control state and was
     not significantly changed during anemia.   Reductions in  DL and DM
     during anemia were proportional to the fall  in blood Hb.   Both DL
     and DM in all dogs, normal and anemic,  were  proportional to the
     volume of red blood cells in the lung capillaries (VRBC).   These
     results suggest that VEBC might be an estimate of the useful area
     of the alveolar-capillary membrane while DM/VRBC should  vary with
     changes in its thickness.  The latter was  not altered by anemia.
     NASA 90313
361. Kilbura,  K.H.,  Miller,  H.A., Burton, J.E., and Rhodes, R.:  Effects
     of altering ventilation on steady-state diffusing capacity for
     carbon monoxide.   J.  Appl.  Physiol. 18:89-96, 1963.

     Alterations in the steady-state  diffusing  capacity for carbon
     monoxide  (Deo)  by the method of  Filley, Macintosh, and Wright,
     produced  by sequential  changes in the pattern of breathing were
     studied in anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated dogs.
     The Deo of paralyzed, artificially ventilated control dogs did
     not differ significantly during  3 hours from values  found in
     conscious and anesthetized controls.  A fivefold increase in tidal
     volume without changing frequency of breathing raised alveolar

                                   150

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    ventilation and CO uptake 500$ and Deo 186$.  A high correlation
    "between tidal volume and Deo was noted during reciprocal alterations
    of tidal volume and rate which maintained minute volume.  The Deo
    appeared to fall when alveolar ventilation was tripled by increments
    of rate with a fixed-tidal volume, despite a 63$ increase in CO
    uptake.  Doubling end-expiratory lung volume by positive pressure
    breathing without altering tidal volume or rate did not affect
    Deo.  The addition of 100 ml of external dead space with rate and
    tidal volume constant decreased Deo to *4-2$ of control level,
    however,: stepwise reduction of dead space from 100 ml to 0 in two
    dogs failed to change Deo.  Added dead space equal to 1/2 tidal
    volume (l?0 ml) reduced Deo to 25% of control in two dogs with a
    return to control with removal of dead space.  Thus, In paralyzed
    artificially ventilated dogs, tidal volume appears to be the
    principal ventilatory determinant of steady-state Deo.  Deo is
    minimally affected by increases in alveolar ventilation with a
    constant tidal volume effected by increasing the frequency of
    breathing.  Prolonged ventilation, at fixed rate and volume, and
    increased dead space either did not effect, or they reduced Deo,
    perhaps by rendering less uniform the distribution of gas, and
    blood in the lungs.  Although lung volume was doubled by positive-
    pressure breathing, pulmonary capillary blood volume was probably
    reduced to produce opposing effects on diffusing capacity and no
    net change.  -  Authors' Abst.


362. Kreukniet, J., and Visser, B.F.:  CO-diffusing capacity,  fractional
    CO-uptake and unequal ventilation.  Acts Physiol.  Pharraacol
    Beerlandica 11:386-40^, 1962.

    Determination of the CO-diffusing capacity was carried out by the
    steady state technique of Jllley, et al. (see no.      ).   Lung
    function data of 7^ patients are presented.  Authors conclude from
    this data that the fractional CO-uptake alone is an insufficient
    indication to demonstrate an impairment of pulmonary diffusion,
    particularly in patients with a ncn-unifora distribution of VA/QC,
    Of the 7^ patients examined, 38 had a low fractional CO-uptake,
    17 of these patients probably had no impairment of pulmonary
    diffusion.  The procedure discussed in this P^per affords a more
    plausible explanation of the fact that patients with non-uniform
    distribution of VA/QC sometimes show very high or even negative
    D values.  -  AGC


363. Krogh, A., and Krogh, M.:  On the rate of diffusion of carbonic
    oxide into the, lungs of man.  Skand. Arch. Physiol. 23:236-2^7,
    1910.

    According to the experiments described the value for the diffusion
    of carbonic oxide per mm and minute through the lungs of the
                                             G CHI
    subject examined may be taken as about 20    during rest and a
    little above 30, when the breathing is forced, as it will be
    during heavy muscular work.  In the latest paper by Bohr the
    value found during rest is 13-^     and immediately after very

                                   151

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     fatiguing work 28.4ccm.  On account of a systematic error in the
     determination of the alveolar tension these figures are somewhat
     too low.  The correction which must be applied to the last of
     them is very nearly 10$ of the value, raising it to about 31ccm/
     or the same figure as we found.  We do not think that much stress
     should be laid upon this coincidence.  There is in our opinion
     every reason to believe, that the efficiency of the lungs will
     prove to be about as variable individually as any other function
     of the body.  Not only have great differences been recorded in
     the mean and vital capacities of the lungs, but also the alveolar
     epithelium may possibly vary in thickness.  -  Authors' Sum.


 364. Krogh, M.:  Hie diffusion of gases through ti.« lungs of &a:a,  J.
     Physiol. 1*9:271, 1915.

     A new technique for the measurement  of the puli&ouary diffusing
     capacity in man is reported in this paper.  In tMs method a
     maximal inspiration of gas mixture contain")eg CO v?as made from
     residual volume and following immediately "by au expiration of at
     least one liter of gas.  At the remaining volume the breath was
     held for 6  to 10 seconds, and a maximal respiration was made.
     The  final volumes of the two expirations were considered to be
     alveolar gas and were  analysed for CO conceutratjons.  Author
     assumed that the CO concentration decayed e3q?o^ent.1.aJ.ly.  -fhe
     equation describing this decay is given.   -  AGC


364a. Lewis, B.M., Lin, Tai-Hon, Noe, F.E., and Bay ford-Wei sing, E. J.:
     The  measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide
     by a rebreathing method.  J. Clin. Invest. 38:2073-2086, 1959.

     This paper  describes a rebreathing method for the measurement of
     pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxid? (D^Q) using stable
     CO and continuous analysis.
            The  fall of CO  concentration in the rebreathing bag was
     apparently  exponential for at least 15 seconds in 571 of 578 studies.
     In 80A per cent of these studies, this exponential decrease began
     in the first 10 seconds of rebreathing.
            In four normal  subjects calculated DLco was independent of
     increases in apparatus dead space.  This would be true if the rate
     of rebreathing were infinitely fast.
            In patients with emphysema calculated Df.co decreases as
     apparatus dead space is increased.  This would occur if the rebreath-
     ing  system  were ventilated breath by breath at a finite rate.
            In four normal  subjects the rebreathing DLCO Decreased sharply
     when the total volume  of the lung-bag system was decreased from
     near total  lung capacity to approximately functional residual
     capacity.
            In 4T normal subjects the rebreathing Dj.co was  significantly
     correlated  with height, weight, body surface area and vital capacity.
            There is a high correlation between rebreathiag and single
     breath measurements of DLCO in norinal subjects and patients without


                                    152

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    airway obstruction.  There is a less striking correlation between
    these  two methods in patients with emphysema.
            The  residual  volume determined by the rebreathing method
    is  significantly correlated with that measured by the closed circuit
    helium method in both  normal  subjects and patients.
            An empiric argument is presented for the  approximate validity
    of  the rebreathing method in  patients with  uneven ventilation and
    slow mixing in whom  the rate  of rebreathing is finite.
            The  rebreathing method is rapid,  simple and gives a
    simultaneous measurement of D<^>o and residual volume.
            The  rebreathing DI.CO was definitely  decreased (two- thirds  or
    less the predicted value) in  only five  of 19 patients with  emphysema.
    -  Authors'  Sum.
365. Linderholm,  H.:   On the significance of CO tension in pulmonary
     capillary blood for determination  of pulmonary diffusing capacity
     with the steady state  CO method.   Acta Med. Scandinav. CLVI:4l3-
     427,  1957-

     In a determination of  the pulmonary diffusing capacity for CO,
     Dco with the steady state method,  the partial pressure of CO in the
     blood cannot be disregarded.   If this is not taken into account
     about 10-20  per cent too small values of Dco may be obtained.
     Correction for the back pressure of CO from the blood is essential
     when Dco is  large and  when  the CO  content of the blood is high.
     This is more important when the determination is made at rest than
     during exercise.
            Various methods for  an estimation of the mean partial pressure
     of CO in the blood of  the pulmonary capillaries are compared.
     Sstimation based on blood analyses, or on the rebreathing technique,
     is to be preferred.
            When  correction for  the mean partial pressure of CO in the
     blood of the pulmonary capillaries is made. Dco seems to be
     independent  of the CO  content of the blood.  If the correction is
     omitted,  Dco will decrease  with increasing CO content of the blood.
     -  Author's  Sum.
366. jfexks, A., Cugell, D.W., Cadigan,  J.B.,  and Gaensler, E.A. :   Clinical
     determination of the diffusion capacity of the lungs.   Comparison
     of methods in normal subjects and patients with "alveolar- capillary
     block" syndrome.  Amer. J, Med. 22:51-73 (Jan.) 1957-

     This clinical study was undertaken to compare the diffusion
     capacity of the lungs in man at rest measured by three  different
     methods utilizing carbon monoxide (Dco) an*3- ^y direct calculation
     from two-level alveolar-arterial oxygen "gradients"  (Do2)j  to
     establish normal values for the Dco methods; and to  assess  their
     clinical diagnostic value in patients with diffusion impairment.
     -  Authors' Sum. 1-fcdified
                                    153

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 367. Marshall, R.:   A comparison of methods of measuring the diffusing
     capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide; investigation by
     fractional analysis of the alveolar air.  J. Clin. Invest. 37:39^-
     408, 1958.

     The diffusing capacity of the lungs for CO (D,J has been measured
     in 5 normal subjects and in 11 patients with emphysema by the
     single breath method and by the steady state method,  using end
     tidal samples as a measure of the mean alveolar CO tension.  In
     five of the patients with emphysema,  DL was also calculated by a
     modification of Filley's method.
            Fractional samples were taken from a full expiration after
     breath holding and DL was claculated for each sample by the single
     breath method.  In normal subjects and in patients with emphysema,
     D/_ was uniform throughout the expired air.  Fractional analysis of
     the expired air of normal subjects in the steady state breathing
     CO showed that the concentration of CO in the lungs was uniform.
     In these subjects end tidal samples approximated the mean alveolar
     concentration of CO and could be used in the calculation of the
     steady state D/_.  Measurement of I\_ by the single breath and steady
     state methods gave the same results in normal subjects when
     allowance was made for the different lung volumes at which the
     measurements were made.
            Patients with emphysema did not have uniform concentrations
     of CO throughout the Ixmg in the steady state;  end tidal samples
     bore no relationship to the mean alveolar CO and could not be used
     for calculation of DL.
            A bloodless modification of Filley's method of calculation
     of the steady state D,_ is described.   This method gave results
     which were close to those of the single breath D,  measured in the
     same subjects.
            The clinical value of the single breath and steady state
     methods for measurement of D,  is discussed.  -  Author's Sum.
                         t

368. Ogilvie,  C.M., Forster.  R.E.,  Blakemore,  W.S.,  and Morton,  J.W.:
     A standardized breath holding technique for the clinical measurement
     of the diffusing capicity of the lung for carbon monoxide.   J. Clin.
     Invest. 36(Part l):l-17 (Jan.) 1957.

     A modification of the Krogh breath holding technique  for the clinical
     measurement of apparent pulmonary diffusing capacity  (D, ) is described.
     Reproducibility was investigated in 28 normal subjects;  the
     coefficient of variation for a single measurement on  a single
     subject was 8.5 per cent.   Dj  increased with increasing body sur-
     face area,  height and weight.   It also increased with exercise,
     returning to control values within several minutes of the cessation
     of exercise.  DL rose with increasing degrees of exercise,  but did
     not reach a maximal plateau in the subjects studied.   r>/  varied
     slightly  with posture, being greatest when the subject was supine,
     less when sitting and least when standing.   a*he importance of these
     and other factors in obtaining a standardized estimate of D/  is
     discussed.

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          Measurements of DL were made in 28 patients with various
    pulmonary diseases*  In four patients and one normal  subject, D,
    was measured separately in the two lungs.  There were no  difficulties
    in performing the test, and the values of T>, obtained were
    consonant with the clinico-pathological diagnosis.  - Authors' Sum.
369. Rankin, J., McWeill, R.S. , and Forster, R.E. :  Influence  of
    hypercapnia on pulmonary diffusing  capacity  for  CO  in man.
    Physiologist 1:68-69, 1957.

    Since  the pulmonary diffusing capacity for CO  (D, )  theoretically
    varies with changes in  the size  of  the pulmonary 'capillary  "bed,
    it  appeared to us to be a good tool for the  investigation of the
    effects of COp on the pulmonary  capillaries.   Therefore we  have
    measured D^_ during hypercapnia in 9 resting  normal  subjects by
    the CO - helium breath -hoi ding technique,  a)  When  10$ CO^  was
    simply added to the inspired gas mixture used  in the  measurement
    of  Dj_, T>i was increased an average  of 5$ and 12$ after 10 and 50
    seconds of breath holding respectively.  Pulmonary  capillary
    blood volume  (V  }, calculated by the method  of Roughton and
    Forster was measured in 2 subjects  and was increased  approximately
           b)  After the subject breathed a gas mixture  containing 7-5$
     COp for 10 minutes,  D<_ was increased an average  of 2k% in all
     suojects,  and Vc was increased an average of 60$ in the  2 subjects
     studied.   In 5 subjects repeated measurements of Dj_, ventilation
     rate,  systemic blood pressure,  pulse rate and pulmonary  blood  flow
     (by a single breath acetylene method) were made  before,  during
     and after the period of hypercapnia.  After  starting to  breathe
     the COg enriched gas mixture,  D[_ rose abruptly,  reaching near
     maximal values in 2-5 minutes,  while the other measurements of
     respiratory and circulatory phenomena continued  to rise  for 6-10
     minutes suggesting that the presumed increase in the pulmonary
     capillary bed was not directly dependent on  the  respiratory and
     circulatory changes.  -  Authors'  Abst.


370. Roughton,  F.J.W.,  Forster,  R.E.,  and Gander,  L. :   Rate at which
     carbon monoxide replaces oxygen from coBfoination with  human hemo-
     globin in solution and in the red cell.  J.  Appl.  Physiol. 11:
     269-276,  1957-

     The rate  at which CO replaces Op in combination with human hemo-
     globin in solution and in red cell suspensions at  37 °C was
     determined in vitro on the blood of six normal subjects  at 02
     tensions  from 100 to over 600 mm Eg,  by means of modifications
     of the Hartridge -Roughton rapid reaction velocity  apparatus, using
     either a  reversion spectroscope or a two-color photocolormetric
     method.  At low ratios of (CO)  to (02) (i.e.  <0.l), the rate  of
     the reaction in Hb solution conforms theoretically to  the equation
     d(COHb)/dt = n£. (CO)(02Hb)/(02),  where n£.  is a  true velocity
     constant.   Experimentally,  it was not possible to  use  ratios of
                                     155

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     (CO)  to  (02)  <0.2,  and the  results  for Hb solutions were inter-
     preted in terms  of the  equation d(COHb)/dt = mr(CO)(C>2Hb(/)02)>
     where m'is an apparent  velocity constant.  The measured values
     of m'in  Kb solution  ranged from 6.8  to 22.k sec.   as QQ tension
     rose,  the average  value of nr^. deduced therefrom being 18.8.  The
     apparent velocity  constant for cell  suspensions, m£, is less than
     m'owing  to the limiting effects of diffusion.  The ratio of m£ to
     m'rose from 0.^6 at  an  0%  tension of 100 mm Hg to 0.68 at an ©2
     tension  of 571 mm  Hg. \ ,  the ratio  of the permeability of the red
     cell  membrane to that of the red cell interior, was calculated
     from  these data  to average 1-53*  The values of m£ calculated from
     the in vitro  experimental  results cannot be used directly for
     calculations  related to in vivo pulmonary diffusing capacity
     experiments,  because the CO  tension  is over 40-fold greater in the
     former.   Corrections for this have been made and proper values of
     m£ obtained for  use  in  the calculation of true pulmonary diffusing
     capacity and  pulmonary  capillary blood volume.  -  Authors'" Abst.
371. Shephard,  R.J. :   'Breath-holding' measurement  of  carbon monoxide
     diffusing capacity.   Comparison of  a field test with  steady-state
     and other methods of measurement.   J. Physiol. (London)
          1958.
     An adaptation of the portable box -bag  suitable  for breath-holding
     measurements of carbon  monoxide  diffusing  capacity is described.
            Repeated tests on six healthy normal subjects have  shown
     that breath-holding Dco varies  in a non-linear  manner with changes
     in total alveolar gas volume.  During  a deep inspiration DCO may
     be doubled.
            Some subjects find difficulty in holding breath steadily
     for 10 seconds,  but vacillation of up  to 200 ml. in alveolar gas
     volume do not measurably alter  the calculated Dco.
            Comparison of the r^rtable breath-holding apparatus with
     the steady-state method and with  other types of portable equipment
     has yielded Dco values that show  a very similar coefficient of
     variation, but absolute values  are larger by the breath -holding
     technique, probably on account  of the  larger alveolar gas  volume
     during the test.
            Steady-state determinations of  fractional carbon monoxide
     uptake have a smaller coefficient of variation  than any available
     method for the calculation of Dco,  and this approach still seems
     the best where a simple field test of  pulmonary diffusion  is
     required.  -  Author's Sum.


372. Shepnard, R.J., Turner, M.E., Carey, G.C.R., and Phair, J. J. :
     Correlation of pulmonary function and domestic  mi croenvl remnant.
     J. Appl. Physiol. 15:70-76 (Jan.) 1960.

     Pulmonary pressures, total and timed vital capacity,  functional
     residual capacity and carbon monoxide uptake have been correlated
     with temperature, humidity, suspended particulate matter  and


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     gaseous acid in a 3-month prospective survey of 10 cardiorespiratory
     cripples.  Results have been analyzed by a sequential multiple
     regression technique, and significant relationships demonstrated
     between pulmonary function measurements and time, humidity and
     suspended particulate matter.  The immediate response to suspended
     particulate matter was consistent with bronchoconstriction,
     although the most significant features were a transient depression
     of pulmonary pressures and carbon monoxide uptake.  The prolonged
     depression of carbon monoxide uptake, starting k days after an
     intense episode of pollution, did not show itself as a significant
     long-lag coefficient for the survey as a whole; the existence of
     a threshold dose of suspended particulate to produce structural
     damage is postulated,  -  Authors' Abst.


373. Solvsteen, P.:  Lung diffusing capacity:  Cyclically and continuously
     ventilated closed systems.  J. Appl. Physiol. 20:92-98 (Jan.) 1965.

     In previous communications, distribution of ventilation and lung
     diffusing capacity (D^) were calculated from changes occurring in
     Ng and CO concentrations when a subject, whose lungs contained
     atmospheric air at the beginning of the experiment, respired in a
     spirometer containing oxygen and a little CO.  In the calculations,
     the system was assumed to be continuously ventilated and without
     dead space.  The present study examines which errors may arise
     from these simplifications.  Equations for cyclic ventilation are
     derived.  Definite values for dead space and for volumes,  alveolar
     ventilation, and D^ of two nonuniformly ventilated lung regions are
     assumed.  Thereupon it is computed howthe concentrations of Ng and
     CO will change, if a subject with the assumed values respire in a
     spirometer of a given volume.  From these changes in concentration,
     I>L and the distribution of ventilation are calculated using equations
     for continuous ventilation.  The differences between the assumed and
     the calculated values of D^ are small.  -  NASA 80309


 374. Solvsteen, P.:  Lung diffusing capacity:  Rebreathing method,
     applicability in nonuniform ventilation.  J. Appl. Physiol. 20:99-
     102 (Jan.) 1965.

     Carbon monoxide concentration changes were calculated when subjects
     with different distributions of ventilation and lung diffusing
     capacity (D^) respire in a small bag.  The curve (logg CO
     concentration in the bag) versus (time) will sooner or later appear
     as a straight line.  The E^ is calculated from the slope of the
     rectilinear section of the curve and from lung and bag volume.
     If the curve becomes rectilinear within the period considered,
     Dr is calculated too low-  In some cases the curve will not be
     rectilinear until more than 45 seconds have passed, but will
     appear to be rectilinear during the period from 30 to 45 seconds.
     If such an experiment is discontinued when 45 seconds (the usual
     duration of experiment) have passed, DL can be calculated at too
     high, at correct, or at too low values.  -  Author's Abst.


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 375. Spicer, W.S., Jr., Johnson, R.L., Jr.,  and Forster,  R.E.
     Diffusing capacity and blood flow in different regions of the lung.
     J. Appl. Physiol. 17:587-595,  1962.

     We have measured the disappearance of CO and,  in most instances,
     acetylene relative to helium from early and late portions of the
     expired alveolar gas after 1.5-20 sec of breath holding at rest
     in four normal subjects and seven patients -with obstructive
     emphysema and three with sarcoidosis.  In all individuals, except
     one patient with emphysema, graphs of the logarithm of the
     relative expired alveolar CO concentrations in early and late
     expired samples against time of breath holding were parallel, but
     those for the late expired samples lay below these for the early
     expired samples.  The equality of the slopes of the tvo curves
     indicated that net diffusing capacity/alveolar volume for those
     regions of the lungs contributing to the tvo samples even in severe
     obstructive disease.  The displacement of the disappearance curves
     can be explained by errors in estimation of the time the gas
     spends in the alveoli and by an increased rate of CO disappearance
     caused by reduced alveolar volume during expiration.  -  Authors'
     Abst.


375a. Sfcicer, 17.3., Jr., and Kerr, D.H.:  Variation in respiratory-function.
     Arch. Environ. Health 12:217-226 (Feb.) 1966.

     Daily measurement of the respiratory function of 17 patients with
     chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and of 11 normal subjects
     identified a day to day variation in the values obtained with the
     whole body pressure plethysmograph and with the spirometer.
            A significant percentage of the variance in these tests can
     be explained by the tendency for subjects to change together on a
     week to week basis and for subjects within disease groups to change
     together from day to day.  The pattern of change in lower airway
     conductance and certain other respiratory function tests may
     provide a more sensitive index of tlie normal or disease state than
     the customary battery of tests performed on a single occasion.
     Environmental factors, including air pollution and meteorological
     changes, would appear to fulfill the criteria of agents responsible
     for such patterns of change.  -  Authors' Sura.


 376, West,  J.B.:  Diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide at high
     altitude.  J. Appl. Physiol. 17:421-426 (May) 1SS2.

     Diffusing capacity of the  lung for carbon monoxide  (DL) was measured in
     London (pb approx. 750 mm Hg), at 15,300 ft (4,700 ai; ?h approx. 440 mm
     Hg), and at  19,000 ft (5,300 m; PB approx. 380 dm Hg) on seven members
     of the Himalayan Scientific and Mountaineering Expedition, 1960-61.
     At each altitude Dl was measured at two work levels  (300 and 900 kg-m/rain)
     and at three different inspired oxygen tensions in order to separate
     membrane and blood components of the diffusing barrier.  A steady state
     method was used with mixed expired gas analysis; dead space-to-tidal

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    volume ratio was assumed but calculated Dl was  insensitive  to this.  There
    was no consistent change in Dl at  15,300  ft  (subjects breathing ambient
    air) compared with sea  level, but  Dl was  significantly  increased after 7-10
    weeks at  19,000 ft (mean changes of  15 and 19%  for work levels of 300 and
    900 kg-m/min, respectively).  However, this  small change in TSl can be
    wholly accounted for by the increased rate of reaction  of carbon monoxide
    with hemoglobin due to  hypoxia and by the increased blood hemoglobin
    concentration. - Author's Abst.


377.Woolf, G.R. :  An assessment of the fractional carbon monoxide uptake
    and its relationship,,, to pulmonary  diffusing  capacity,   Dis. Chest
    1*6:181-189  (Aug.) 19&.

    The fractional carbon monoxide uptake (FUco) and pulmonary  diffusing
    capacity  (Deo) were measured in 48 normal subjects at rest  and during
    exercise.
           Measurements at  rest were made in  6k  patients with chronic
    chast disease and in 35 of these the tests vere repeated during
    exercise.  A modification of the Bates steady-state technique for
    estimating  diffusing capacity is described.
           The  FUco showed  no significant differences between men and
    women and there was no  relationship  to body  surface area.   There
    was a decrease in the FUco at rest with increasing age,  but this
    relationship was not present when  the FUco was  measured during
    exercise.
           The  normal FUco  had a narrower range  than Deo and was
    relatively  little affected by voluntary hyperventilation.  The
    FUco at rest and during exercise in  the same individual agreed
    well irrespective of vhether the result was  normal or abnormal.
           A  normal FUco corresponded  with a  normal Deo, and a low
    Deo was always  associated with a  low FUco.  Where the  FUco was
    low and the Deo was normal, evidence is presented which suggests
    that the  FUco revealed  an abnormality of  gas exchange which, was
    not shown by the Deo.   -  Author's Sum. Modified


 378. young, W,A., Shaw, D.B., and Bates,  D.V. :  Effect of low concentrations
    of ozone  on pulmonary function in  man.  J. Applied Physiology, 9> ^*
    765-768 (July)
     Describes results of measurements  of pulmonary function made on 11
     subjects in 16 experiments breathing ozone  (0.6-0.8 ppm) through
     mouthpiece for 2-hour periods.  Ozone produced highly significant
     reduction in steady-state DLCO  (diffusing capacity of lung for carbon
     monoxide).  Vital capacity and  expiratory flow rates may be limited
     in part by tracheobronchial  irritation that follows inhalation of
     0.6 ppm of ozone for 2  hours.   -   CBK
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     Neurological Changes
379. Beard, R.R., and Pribram, K. :  Effects of toxic agents and
     environmental  factors on human behavior.  Department of Defense,
     Armed Forces ^pidem. Board, Washington, D.C., Feb.
     No.
      Dynamic  esposure  chambers have been constructed in which an air
      flow of  up to 100 liters per minute can be maintained.  Carbon
      monoxide has been metered to the chambers under continuous monitoring,
      to  expose rats to concentrations from 100 to 1,000 p. p.m.  Rats were
      trained  to various operant behavior schedules.  Conditioned behavior
      during 10 minutes of  each hour for long periods gave unstable
      response patterns.  Continuous observation for periods of 1-1/2
      hours showed rapid reduction of response rate and disturbance of
      the "grain" of behavior with CO concentrations of 500 p.p.m. and
      higher;  at 250 p.p.m. perceptible disturbance of response pattern
      became apparent within an hour.  A response -attenuation ratio taking
      into account the  normal behavior of an animal on the day of exposure
      to  CO as well as  preceding control periods was devised.  Equipment
      for trials of the effect of CO on discrimination capacities in humans
      has been developed.   Methods Tor detailed analysis of behavior
      patterns by computer  techniques are being perfected.  -  Authors'
      Abst.
 380.  Borman,  M.C.:   Carbon monoxid poisoning.  Mental and neurological
      changes  in a case of acute carbon monoxid poisoning with partial
      recovery.  Amer. J.  Psychiatry 6:135-143, 1926.

      A case of  accidental carbon monoxid poisoning is reported in which
      the patient  showed evidence of wide- spread central nervous system
      changes  from which there was apparent recovery, followed again by
      numerous mental and  neurological disturbances with ultimate recovery,
      except for the  mental state.
            The chemical  alterations in the blood and clinical tests
      thereof  in carbon monoxid poisoning are mentioned.
            The anatomical changes in the central nervous system follow-
      ing carbon monoxid poisoning are discussed together with the various
      explanations offered for their occurrence.  -  Author's Sum.


 381. Chalupa, B.:  Disorders of memory in acute carbon monoxide intoxications.
      Pracovni Lekar. (Prague) 12:331-336,
     The author presents an account of experimental examinations of the
     memory in a group of kb persons who had recently suffered from acute
     CO intoxication.  The average age was 35-6 yrs.  The following methods
     were used:  repeating 20 separate words, recognition of same material
     with control items, or repeating 30 verbal pairs having some relation-
     ships  as to their content.  The disturbances of memory manifested
     themselves by an affection of logic memory and difficult differentiation

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   when attempting to recognize;  mechanical memory was relatively intact.
   When evaluating the results in individual persons examined pathological
   changes of memory structure vere revealed in 26 (59.1$).  These findings
   vere most frequent in a group of accidental acute and subacute CO
   intoxications (78.6$) though loss of consciousness was noted in onl;,r
   21.6$.   In suicidal CO intoxications, which in all instances were
   associated with loss of consciousness, pathological deviations were
   found in Sk-.^.  Differences in the affection are explained
   by the different conditions of exposure and the different methods
   of treatment of the patients investigated.  In addition to concen-
   tration of CO,  the time of exposure must "be taken into account, this
   being particularly important in industrial and accidental CO
    intoxication where frequently protracted acute and subacute exposures
   with pathological findings occur though they are not associated with
    loss of consciousness.  A comparison with COHb levels on admission
    revealed in 22 patients a positive correlation with the reduction of
    logical memory and with some indicators in tlie experiments on recognition.
    At COHb levels up to 29.9$ disorders of memory were found in 33-3$;
    at levels of 30-78$>  in 61.5$ of all cases.  Repeated examinations
    after intoxication had subsided showed that logical memory and
    recognition had returned to normal and mechanical memory remained on
    the same level.  From the present work some practical suggestions
    can "be drawn for the prevention and assessing of toxic changes of
    the central nervous system after acute CO poisoning.  - APCA 4835«


382. Courville,  C.B.:  The process of danyelination in the central nervous
    system.  TV.   Demyelination as a delayed  residual of carbon monoxide
    asphyxia.   J.  Nervoxis Mental ELs. 125:53^-5^6, 1957*

    In this  study  of a  series dealing with the process of demyelination,
    the changes in the  cerebral and cerebellar centrums have been noted
    following  severe asphyxia incident to carbon monoxide.  Such changes
    are "delayed"  in the  sense that a suitable time interval must elaspe
    after  the  asphyxia! episode, j6 days in the case herein reported.
    The characteristic  alterations constituting the residual lesions
    were 1) perivascular  demyelination as the initial lesion, leading
    to 2)  diffuse  demyelination by confluence of these individual, foci,
    3) the tendency to  spare the subcortical  arcuate fibers, !»•) vascular
    changes  in the form of a decrease in number of capillaries in the
    degenerative foci,  and a progressive collapse and disappearance of
    the arterioles in the affected area, 5) a decrease in the number of
    oligodendroglia in  the degenerative areas, 6) the obvious secondary
    nature of  loss of myelin being an effect  of ischemia and 7) the
    occasional occurrence of islands of preservation in the periphery
    of the lesion.
           The findings are significant in their remarkably close
    correlation to the  changes observed in diffuse sclerosis.  But in
    addition,  there was found evidence of support for the conclusion that
    demyelination  per se is very likely a secondary process, probably
    never  a primary one.  It is also very likely that the loss of
    oligodendroglia in  areas of demyelination (i.e., the plaques of
    multiple sclerosis) is due to their sensitivity to ischemia (local

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     anoxia) and bears no cause-effect relationship to the process of
     demyelination.   -  Author's Sum.


383. Dorcus,  R.M., and Weigand,  G.E.:   The effect of exhaust gas on the
     performance in  certain psychological *ests.  J. General Psychol. 2:
     73-96 (Jan.) 1929.

     Authors state that  the increase in the number of automobiles and
     trucks and the  accompanying increase in the exhaust gas caused
     thereby has given rise to  some new physiological and psychological
     problems.   These problems  involve both the immediate and the
     cumulative effects  upon  the human organism.
          In order to ascertain such effects, si:: medical students were
     exposed daily to exhaust gas for  a period ranging from about 3-1/2
     to 6 hours,  except  for certain control days.
          The psychological tests employed in  this investigation were
     steadiness,  tapping,  dynonometer,  substitution, arithmetic, location
     memory,  and the so-called  Felix test.  In the summary, authors state
     that it might be concluded that no significant difference in
     performance was found after exposure to exhaust gas-air mixtures
     which contained 2,  3,  and  k parts of CO per 10,000 of air for
     periods ranging from 3 "to  5 hours and which caused 25 to 35 PS**
     cent of the hemoglobin to  be in combination with CO.  Although there
     was a slight tendency for  a poorer performance to be made on the
     prolonged steadiness test,  the difference in performance on all the
     other tests used was no  greater than the  variation in performances
     on successive control periods.
          The necessity for more work  in this  area is emphasized.  -  AGC


 384.Duvoir,  M.,  and Gaultier,  M. :  Etiology:  Clinical and chemical study
     of forty cases  of chronic  industrial carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Arch. Mai. Prof. 7:^9-1*52,
     Scepticism concerning the reality of chronic CO poisoning has been
     Justified by the multiplicity of symptoms attributed to the disease*
     This paper attempts to establish chronic CO poisoning as a reality
     and as an individual disease by establishing a clinical and chemical
     basis.
          Using Nicloux'  method to determine the amount of CO in UO
     subjects,  a blood level above .k to .5 cc. per 100 cc. blood is
     considered abnormally high.   Cessation of exposure resulted in a
     gradual reduction of the blood level.  In two months, one subject
     went from .85 to .52,  mother from  2.5 to .52, another from .82 to
     .46,  etc.   The blood level persisted for a longer time in a number
     of cases,  a typical case being:  .88 after exposure, .80 after 3
     months,  .30 after 5 months.   Rest alone results in improvement, but
     oxygen therapy accelerates recovery.  Vitamin B2 also hastens return
     of blood levels  to normal although  its action is neither immediate
     nor constant.
          Chronic CO  poisoning is characterized by this elevated blood
     ievel and by three major symptoms,  always appearing together.  These

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     are, 1) Asthenia.  The asthenia  is  almost  constant.   Muscular
     fatigue, intellectual apathy,  depression,  slowness of speech,  and
     impaired memory are  frequently found,  and  sexual  impotence is
     occasionally concurrent.   2) Severe headache.  The headache is
     persistent, arid usually more severe during exposure,  although it
     may continue for several hours after work.   It is not localized to
     any specific brain area.   3)   Vertigo  and  syncope.  Vertigo is
     frequent and may signal syncope.  Syncope  is a less important
     differentiation, since it  is so  often  found in acute  poisonings.
          Pathogenesis and mechanisms remain obscure,  but  determination
     of blood level of CO, the  constancy of symptoms,  and  improvement
     occurring during cessation of  exposure are indicative of  the reality
     of chronic CO poisoning.
385. Fisher, B.M., and McFarland, R.A.:  Some psychological effects
     of automobile exhaust gases.  Presented at the Fourth Annual Air
     Pollution Medical Research Conference, San Francisco, Calif.,
     Dec. 7-9, I960.
     Background of  current problem is to be found principally in
     studies of altitude-induced anoxia.  There are fev studies vrhich
     include CO as  independent variable.  Complex behavior processes
     such as learning, remembering, problem-solving, show little
     evidence of deficit at altitudes below 10,000 feet (equivalent
     to about 10$ CoHb).  Personality changes, such as reduction in
     self criticism and gross disturbances of motor control are not
     usually evidence below altitudes of 15,000 feet.  Auditory
     function has shown no significant change with moderate altitude
     but visual functions have shown changes at 5^000 feet.  (3~k%
     CoHb.)  Effect on visual thresholds of breathing CO lasts longer
     than residual  CoHb will justify.  -  Authors' Abst.


386.  Gilbert, G.J., and Glaser, G.H,:  Neurologic manifestations of
      chronic  carbon monoxide poisoning. New England J. Med. 261:1217-
     1220  (Dec* 10) 1959.

     A detailed case history is given of a patient suffering from
      chronic  carbon monoxide poisoning.  The  condition was verified
     by the finding of a  significantly-elevated blood carbon monoxide
     level.  A  detailed occupational history was obtained indicating
     that the patient had been a policeman for 18 years.  His first
     few "spells" had occurred four years before hospital admission in
     1958 at the age of 50 while he was assigned to directing heavy
     automobile traffic.  Fearing that his job was too strenuous, he
     had requested  transfer to the police garage and had served as a
     mechanic there for the past three years.  It was often necessary
     to run the motors of the  police  cars in the garage, particularly
     in the repair  of police radios which required a running motor for
     their  operation.  The garage doors were usually left open but were
     close  often after March to keep out the  sun.  The time of closing


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    of the garage doors corresponded to the period of exacerbation of
    the patient's symptomatology.  The patient had anorexia, weight
    loss, a fluctuating organic mental syndrome, and recurrent episodes
    of loss of consciousness, each attack preceded by o, period of
    dizziness and at&yJ.a.  After the patient bar) a:! ^continued his
    work, serial electroencephalograms showed progressive clearing
    Of focal and paroxysmal abnormal ities, correlated with clinical
    improvement.  It is noted in the text—and commented editorially,
    in the same journal, pp. lOW-1249--that unless the occupational
    history is carefully taken, the different diagnoses can be
    difficult.  The patient under discussion had received anticonvulsant
    therapy for 2-1/2 years previous to the correct diagnosis.  It is
    noted in the editorial also that there were a few more attacks
    which were always associated with driving a farm tractor.  It was
    found that the patient had a habit of walking behind the tractor
    where the exhaust was on a level of about his head.  When this
    occupation was also discontinued he recovered fully, and the
    diagnosis was confirmed.  -  APCA 3185


387 • Gilinskiy, V.A., Chapek, A.V., Kozlova, A.G., Kulikova, N.M., and
    A. Ya. Loshak:  The effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide
    on man in pressurized cabins of passenger planes.  In:  Parin, V.V.
    (editor) Aviation and Space Medicine, Moscow, 1963.  NASA Technical
    Translation TT-F-228.

                 Pressure-chamber experiments ware performed on 82 persons
    to study the effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide.  Also,
    30 flights on IL-18, AW-10, and TU-IOk planes were made during
    which 185 members of the crew and passengers were examined and 3^7
    air  samples were obtained in the cabins.  The results of the
    investigations showed that 3 hours' exposure to carbon monoxide
    (starting with 0.01 Kg/liter or more), both under experimental
    conditions (ground and pressure-chamber at 2^00 m) and during actual
    flight had adverse effects on the functioning of several organs and
    systems, namely:  (a)  Higher nervous activity; (b) Functions of the
    visual and vestibular analyzers; (c) Metabolic processes; (d) Cardio-
    vascular system; (e) Muscular strength; (f) Tissue respiration and;
    (g) Leukopoiesis.  On the basis of the physiological-sanitary data
    obtained and the results of laboratory tests, it is suggested that
    the maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in
    pressurized passenger airplane cabins be 0.01 ing/liter.  -  Authors'
    Abst.


388. origor'ev, Z.E.:  Effect of volatile substances and of gases on the higher
    nervous activity of white rats in the course of inhalation exposure.
    Jarmakologiya i Toksikologiya 18:^9-52, 1955.  in:  Levine, B.S. (editor and
    translator):  U.S.S.R. Literature on Air Pollution and Related Occupational
    Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol. 5,      1961, pp. 125-130, CFSTI-TT-6l-m^9,
    U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va.

    The author describes attempt to evolve a nethod of experimental
    investigation which would permit the development of conditioned

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     reflexes and inhalation exposure in one chamber.  The following
     tests made in stages are described.  Development of positive motor-
     nutrition conditional reflex with red light; development of inhibition
     differentiation conditioned reflex to white lightj extinction and
     conversion of positive food conditioned reflexes into inhibition
     reflex response, and the latter into positive reflex response, and
     testing the effect of gasoline vapor on the higher nervous activity
     of rats.  This method was applied for the determination of the
     minimum gasoline and carbon monoxide concentration affecting the
     central nervous system and it proved sufficiently sensitive in
     studying the action of other volatile chemical substances used in
     the different industries.  -  AGO


389. Grudzinska, B.:   ELectroencephalographic patterns in cases of chronic
      exposure to carbon monoxide in air.  Folia Medica Cracoviensia 3:
      ^3-515,1963.

     The purpose of this study was  to ascertain whether chronic exposure
     to CO produces pathologic changes in man and to analyse electro-
     clinical correlations.   Sixty  workers from  gas works and coking
     plants  exposed to CO concentrations not exceeding 0.01$ were
      studied.  The  control group  consisted of 30 workers similarly
     employed "but not  exposed to  CO.  Only healthy individuals were
     included in both  groups without history of  cranial trauma or acute
     CO poisoning.  Examination  included determination of erythrocyte
     counts,  Hb and COHb levels,  complete history, functional tests
     of the  vegetative nervous system.  EEG's were made at rest and
     after activities.   CO exposure was confirmed "by examination of
     COHb.   The mean level of COHb  was J.k<$> in the exposed group, and
     3% in the control group.  The  COHb level exceeded 10$ in 11 persons
     of the  exposed group.  A neurasthenia syndrome was diagnosed in
     63$ of  the exposed group  and in 40$ of the  control group.  The
     type  and intensity of complaints in each group was studied.
     Statistical analysis of the  differences revealed significantly
     greater incidence of headache  and general debility in the exposed
     group.
             Among the  normal tracings from the exposed group there was
     a significantly higher proportion of flat, low-voltage tracings with
     scanty  alpha rhythm (p <0.01).
             Statistically significant electroclinical correlations were
     found in the group exposed to  CO.  All the pathologic tracings and
     81$ of  the low-voltage tracings and those with scanty alpha rhythm
     were  found in  individuals with neurasthenic syndromes.  In addition,
     *QT the  tracings  of the first  sleep phases were also found in
     neurasthenic individuals.
            From the findings  it may be concluded that chronic exposure
     to low  concentrations of carbon monoxide does not cause distinct
     changes in the nervous system, but may have a certain inhibitory
     effect on the bioelectric activity of the brain, manifested
     clinically as neurasthenia and in the EEG as scantly low-voltage
     alpha rhythm and tracings of the first sleep phases.  However,
     since these changes are nonspecific, EEG examination in cases


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     suspected of chronic  CO poisoning  is  not  decisive,  although it may
     be auxiliary factor in making the  diagnosis.   -  Author's  Sum.
     Modified
390- Kirichinskaya, "I.A.:  Sequelae of severe carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Soviet. Meditsina 22:152-154, 1958.  In:  Levine, B.S. (editor and
     translator):  U.S.S.R. Literature on Air Pollution and Related
     Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol. 5, 1961, pp. 115-119, CFSTI-
     TT-61-11149, U.S. Kept, of Commerce, Springfield, Va.

     Carbon monoxide poisoning is characterized by acute impairment of
     the central nervous system functions,  caused by carboxyhemoglobin
     formation and by disturbed brain cell  oxygen metabolism.   Author
     describes a case where the victim was  in an  atmosphere containing
     CO for about 12 hours.  The severe carbon monoxide poisoning of
     this middle-aged male described,  followed a  favorable course at
     first:  during 5 days of hospitalization his condition improved
     to such an extent that he was sent home and  allowed to return to
     work after 4 days.  Nine days later he began to manifest mental
     changes which necessitated his confinement to a psychiatric  hospital.
     Akinetic syndrome with symptoms of diffuse damage of the cerebral
     vessels were diagnosed.   Author suggests that persons with carbon
     monoxide poisoning should be under prolonged observation and
     hospitalized for not less than a month after intoxication.   -  AGO
 391.Kovnatskyy, M.A. :  Clinical study of chronic intoxication with
     carbon monoxide.  Gigiena Truda Professional Zabolevaniia (Moscow)
     5:25-30, 1961.

     The paper contains a detailed discussion of the problem relating
     to chronic intoxication with carbon monoxide.  Experimental data
     published in literature sources and many years of clinical
     observations prove that a prolonged period subjected to the
     effect of carbon monoxide may give rise to a chronic intoxication.
     The paper lists symptomatology of chronic intoxication, early
     manifestations of the poisoning, and curative -preventive measures.
     Special attention is given to the description of changes occurring
     in the nervous and the cardiovascular systems.  -  APCA ^366


392. LumiQ, J,S. :   6^'Eptcms in the inner ear associated with chronic
     carbon monoxide poisoning.  Arch.  f. Gewerbepath.  u. Gewerbehyg.
                 1954.
      Giddiness in 85$ of the  cases of chronic generator gas poisoning
      in Finland is often associated with otologies! disorders,
      vestibular or cochlear.  Actual  slight defect in hearing occurred
      only in 48$ of these cases.  There was a coincidence in 90$
      of positive oto -neurological cases with a reduction in the visual
      field as  reported by Helminen.   -  PHS-EG


                                   166

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393. Lumlo,  J.S.:   Hearing Deficiencies Caused by Carbon Monoxide (Generator
     Gas).   Acta Oto-Laryngologica Suppl.  IXXI, Helsinki, May 19^8,  112 pp.

     This paper deals with the investigation of possible hearing disturbances
     due to exposure to carbon monoxide.
             Chapter one gives a short review of the origin and development
     of the CO poisoning problem in Northern European Countries.  Chapter
     two is a review of previous Investigations and in chapter three author
     discusses his own investigations, on the basis of which author states
     that chronic CO poisoning seems comparatively often responsible for the
     impairment of hearing.
             Seven hundred patients suffering from chronic CO poisoning were
     examined.  Hearing disturbances were ascertained in 73-3$ of the
     patients.  A considerable smaller number of hearing disturbances,
     namely 26.7$/ were found in patients who had been exposed to CO in
      their places of work, but in whom chronic CO poisoning could not be
      verified.  -  AGC


 394.  Malorny, G., Fodor, G., and Pomp,  H.:  Effect of low CO-concentrations
      on movement and  reflexes.  Arch. Experiment. Pathol. & Fharmacol.
      246:23-24, 1963.

      Tests were conducted with rats and mice for the determination of
      whether very low CO-concentrations contained in the atmosphere
      and inside working places can cause physical or psychological
      disturbances.  The swimming performance of mice put into water
      and exposed for  one hour to CO-concentrations of 0.03-0.05 Vol. <&
      was much 'Blower  than the performance of control animals.  The same
      slow performance was observed with animals put into water 2 hour
      after having been exposed to CO.
             In testing spontaneous movements of mice the animals were
      placed into an air tight container Into which alternating quantities
      of CO  (160, 84 and 55 ppm) were piped in.  After a 14 hour
      exposure the mice were put into a thread wheel and again exposed
      to CO for three  hours.
             In comparison with control animals running 1500 m in
      three hours, those exposed to 84 ppm  CO were running 750 m and
      those exposed  to 55 ppm 500 m during the same period of time.
             The reaction of rats was tested after an exposure to
      l40-l6o ppm CO.  Tests were made 6 hours after exposure.  Complete
      loss of reflexes was noted after 10 weeks.  Since these
      disturbances remained for a long time after tests were completed,
      author assume  that the central nervous system had been permanently
      damaged.  -  From German-AGC


 395. Easkin,  N.,  and Mullaney,  O.C.:   The mental  and neurological sequelae
      of carbon monoxide asphyxia in a case  observed for fifteen years.  J.
      Kerv.  & Mental His.  92:640-659 (Nov.)  1940.

      Author describes the mental and neurological sequelae of a patient
      who survived,  for 15 years,  a  case of  CO  asphyxia.  This patient

                                    167

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     developed Parkin soul an's syndrome,  and the mental picture was one
     of involution melancholia.   The extensive literature of case studies
     of patients who survived CO poisoning for a few days or months is
     also reviewed.  -  AGO


396. Shillito,  F.H., Drinker, C.K.,  and  Shaughnessy,  T.J.:   The problem
     of nervous and mental sequelae  in carbon monoxide poisoning.
     J. A.M.A.  106:669-674 (Feb.  29) 1936.

     The New York metropolitan area  was  chosen for a study  of nervous
     and mental sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning.  It  is known that
     at least 21,1^3 acute exposures of  all degree occurred there  in a ten
     year period.  For the same period a survey of the state mental
     institutions serving  the meteropolitan area of  Hew York City  showed
     thirty-nine certain cases of sequelae of carbon monoxide.  Such patients
     formed 0.05 per cent  of the  total admissions.   Serious mental or
     nervous sequelae of carbon monoxide poisoning are thus infrequent
     in relation either to other  nervous and  mental  diseases or to the
     number of  acute exposures.
            Study of case  records reveal that when nervous  or mental damage
     occurred the acute carbon monoxide  intoxication was  extreme.
     Complete unconsciousness was invariable  and the most active resusci-
     tative measures were  necessary.  None of these  cases followed so-
     called chronic carbon monoxide  exposure  over a  long  period of time.
            A clear period of from seven to twenty days preceded the
     onset of symptoms in  one third  of the cases.  In the remainder of
     the cases  the symptoms started  Immediately following the poisoning.
            Mental sequelae consisted of a confusion psychosis, with
     disorientation, lack  of judgment and amnesia.   Motor overactivity
     and aphasia were much less common.   Hallucinations,  delusions or
     convulsions played no conspicuous part.
            Nervous sequelae consisted of signs varying from slightly
     increased  deep reflexes to well advanced parkinsonism.   Sensory
     disturbances, such as skin anesthesia and peripheral motor neuritides,
     were also  encountered.  These cases all  showed  improvement, but the
     final result depended on the degree of initial  damage.
            In  the total group of forty-three cases,  twenty-three  patients
     recovered  completely,  nine suffered permanent nervous  or mental sequelae
     and eleven died.  - Authors' Sum.


     Shillito,  F.H.,  Drinker,  C.K.,  and  Shaughnessy,  T.J.:   Contributing
     causes in  CO poisoning.   Amer.  Gas  Ass.  Monthly 18:260-261 (Mid-Summer)
     1936.

     From 528 cases of recent carbon monoxide exposure, 167  cases  were
     hospitalized after emergency treatment.   The records of these patients
     were studied and serve as the basis of this report.
            In  regard to contributing causes,  two thirds  of the patients
     gave evidence of pre-existing psychoses,  acute  alcoholism  or  serious
     organic diseases.
                                   168

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            Considering the mental and physical background of the group,
     it is not surprising to find an 82.6 per cent suicidal rate.
            The incidence of nervous and mental after-effects of acute
     carbon monoxide poisoning was found to be slightly higher than previously
     reported (0.56 per cent as compared vith 0,18 per cent).  This difference
     may be due to different methods of study, or to the fact that modern
     methods of treatment are reviving more seriously poisoned cases.
     Authors' Sum.


398. Strecker,  E.A.,  Taft,  A.E.,  and Willey, G.F. :  Mental sequelae of
     carbon monoxide  poisoning, with reports of autopsy in two cases.
     Arch.  Neurol.  &  Psychiat. 17:552-560,  1927.

     This paper presented before  the Philadelphia Neurological Society,
     refers to previous presentations  and studies reporting pathologic
     changes in the central nervous system caused by  carbon monoxide
     poisoning.  Studies  by scientists who examined thirty- two brains
     report similar conditions as presented in these  papers,  consisting
     of characteristic symmetrical  softening of the globus pallidus, with
     degenerative changes in the  arterial walls leading to the deposit of
     lime salts even by the third day.  Considerable  confirmatory,
     experimental work was done with animals by another investigator.
     Authors' relate studies of two cases made in the wards and laboratories
     of the department tor mental and  nervous  diseases of the Pennsylvania
     Hospital. -  AGC


399. Strzelczyk,  P.,  and  Zenk, H. :   Permanent  sub-toxic effects of
     >iarbon monoxide on organs connecting hearing and balance in gas
     workers.  Archiv Ohren-, Nasen- u. Kehlkopfheilk. 184:81-92,
     Early diagnosis of slow developing chronic CO poisoning  is discussed
     in this paper.  Investigations of subjective complaints  of workers
     exposed to CO concentrations of 0.01$ and above were made in
     addition to audiometric and vestibular function tests.   Although
     the effects of acute CO poisoning have been recognized,  there are
     still divided opinions as to damaging health effects following
     continuous or intermittent exposure to. this gas.  Experiments
     with two groups of workers, one group exposed to low CO  content
     and one control group exposed to clean air, were made.   Standardized
     methods of investigation were used, which made  it possible to obtain
     objective results of pathologic changes.   Eighty- four percent of
     the CO group had subjective complaints in comparison with kj% in
     the control group.  The investigations showed a significant
     difference pf subjective audiometric and vestibular symptoms.
     The noiae-audiometry showed that six cases suffered cortical, and
     four cases retro -ganglion damage.  A significant difference in
     subjective audiometric and vestibular symptoms  were noted, caused
     by sub-toxic doses of CO, in comparison with the control group.
     -  From German-AGC
                                     169

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400. Tronzano, L., and Coscia, G.:  Radial paralysis in a case of acute
     carbon monoxide intoxication.  Rass. Med. Indust. 33:^01-403 (May-
     Aug.) 1964.

     A case is reported of paralysis of the right arm in a 38-year-old
     worker acutely poisoned by carbon monoxide.  The paralysis persisted
     for three months, although no signs of central-nervous-system
     distress were evident.  This case demonstrates the occurrence of
     isolated lesions in the peripheral nerve trunks of the arm during
     acute carbon monoxide poisoning.  -  NASA 80287


 401. Vol'fson, Z.G.:  Limits of allowable concentration of carbon
     monoxide in atmospheric air.  In:  Levine. B.S. (translator) and
     Byazanov, V.A. (editor):  Limits of allowable Concentrations of
     Atmospheric Pollutants.  U. S. Office of Technical Services,
     Washington,D. C., Book 1, 1952, pp. 5°-&4«  OTS 59-21173.

     The U.S.S.R. literature on studies concerning CO in the atmosphere
     is reviewed in this paper.  Based on clinical and experimental
     evidence 20-30 mg/m3 of CO are considered maximum levels at which
     disturbances in the central nervous system are noticeable.  The
     recommendation for the adoption of standards was made after
     thorough study of results of investigation and experiments.  The
     population surveyed consisted of children, aged, sick,  and
     generally feeble persons.  Following recommendations were made:
     The maximal allowable limit of average daily CO concentrations
     in the city atmosphere is  not to be above 2 mg/m3.  Maximal
     single concentration of CO in the atmospheric air must not exceed
     6 mg/m3.  -  AGC


402. yon c-ettingen,  W.F.:   Carbon Monoxide:   Its Hazards and th^ Mechanism
     of its Action.   Federal Security Agency,  U.S.  Public  Health Service,
     PHSB No. 290.  U.S.  Government Printing Office,  Washington,  D.  C.,
     1944,  PP. 257-

     Investigations by the author show  that CO poisoning  is characterized
     by the formation of CO hemoglobin and that the amount of CO hemoglobin
     formed depends upon the concentration of CO in the air,  the duration
     of the exposure,  and the rate of respiration of the individual
     exposed.  An increase in the temperature,  humidity, and C0p content
     of the air or a decrease in the concentration of Op will stimulate
     the respiration and hence favor the absorption of CO.   But if such
     variations are eliminated,  certain concentrations of  CO in air will
     convert only a definite percentage of osiyhemoglobin into CO hemoglobin
     until an equilibrium is reached.  The speed with which  the maximal
     concentration is reached depends upon the concentration of CO in air,
     so that with high concentrations of CO maxiraal saturation may occur
     very rapidly.
            CO may also react with other "heme"-containing pigments and
     enzymes, but, of all pigments mentioned,  only the pseudohemoglobin
     has a greater affinity to CO than hemoglobin,  and at  present it appears

                                   170

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     impossible to judge on the physiological importance of this phenomenon.
     The question as to whether or not CO affects the functioning of other
     pigments such as myoglobin or cytochrome appears to need further
     study, and the same holds true regarding information on the effect
     of CO on certain pigments found in the brain.
           ,; Regarding the relation between toxic symptoms and the concen-
     tration of CO hemoglobin in the blood, it appears that concentrations
     below SO percent cause only moderate subjective complaints and that
     these become serious with concentrations up to 30 percent and alarm-
     ing with higher concentrations.  It appears impossible to state which
     concentration of CO hemoglobin in the blood will be fatal because
     this will vary considerably with the type of exposure and the Og
     need of the organism at the time of the exposure, but it appears
     that concentrations between 60 and 80 percent will be dangerous to
     life.
            Analysis of the clinical picture and the pathological findings
     in CO poisoning, especially in regard to the behavior of the
     circulatory apparatus and the central nervous system as well as the
     metabolism, appears to indicate that the sequelae of CO poisoning
     are more serious than would be ejected from mere anoxemia of a
     similar degree.  In spite of the impressive parallelism between the
     effects of CO poisoning and those produced by lack of QQ ^ cannot
     be denied that there are a number of reactions and phenomena which
     may indicate a specific primary or secondary effect of CO on certain
     "heme"-containing pigments or enzymes of the organism.  -  Author's
     Conclusions Modified.
403. Wechsler, I.S.:  Partial cortical blindness with preservative of
     color vision.  Arch. Qphthalmol. 9:957-9^5* 1933•

     This is a report of a case following possible CO asphyxiation,
     whereby the patient suffered a brain lesion in which the cortex was
     extensively affected.  It has been established by clinical observation
     and pathologic studies that cortical and subcortical lesions may
     give rise to dissociation of color perception from visual acuity,
     namely, loss of former without impairment of the latterj it is also
     well known that in inipairment of vision, whether peripheral or
     central, the first to be lost and the last to be regained is the
     perception of  color.
            Author  points out that CO has a predilation for the basal
     ganglious, especially causing lenticular softening, and for the
     peripheral nerves, but no part of nervous system is immune to the
     poison.  Parkinsonian syndromes and peripheral nerve palsies
     frequently characterize CO poisoning.  Mental deterioration and
     psychotic manifestations so commonly encountered attest the additional
     cortical involment, as well as Parkinsonian syndromes and peripheral
     nerve palsies.  -  AGC
                                    171

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404. Wilmer, W.H.:  Effects of carbon monoxid upon the eye.  Amer. J.
     Ophthalmol. h:73-89 (Pet.) 1921.

     This paper gives a general survey of the subject and includes a graphic
     description of the subjective and general nutritional effects pf
     carbon monoxid poisoning, by one of the victims; and incidentally
     throws light on the origin of a story of a haunted house.  It fgives
     an account of the ocular symptoms of such poisoning, revealing a
     distinct tendency of the poison to cause neuritis and especially to
     affect the optic nerve. - Author's Abst.
     Postmortem Investigations
 405.  Campbell, J.A.:  Hypertrophy of the heart in acclimatization to chronic
      carbon monoxide poisoning.  J. Physiol. 77:8P-9P, 1933*

      In the course  of the post-mortem examinations of tar-cancer mice,
      some  of which  had been exposed for about 9 months to chronic carbon
      monoxide poisoning and others for the same period to oxygen at high
      pressure  (60 p.c. atmos.) in the air, it was observed that the
      average weight of the hearts of the mice exposed to carbon monoxide
      was much greater than that of the mice exposed to high oxygen and
      also  than that of the control mice.  Only one of the controls and
      two of the mice exposed to high oxygen possessed hearts weighing more
      than  0.235 gm.  Of the 19 mice exposed to carbon monoxide, 14 possessed
      hearts weighing between 0.235 and 0.3^0 g.; in k others the weights
      were  between 0.200 and 0.235 g«j 0.^35 g. was the weight of the heart
      in the remaining mouse.  -  Author's Abst.


 406.  Candura, F., Craveri, A., and Brasca, F.:  Fibrinolysis in acute carbon
      monoxide poisoning.  Experimental research.  Folia Med. (Naples)
      44:400-408 (May) 1961.

      In experiments with rabbits, the authors studied the fibrinolytic
      behavior of the blood serum following acute or fatal poisoning with
      city-gas  (CO content of 1.8-5%).  A constant and significant increase
      in the content of fibrinolysin or plasmin, was found.  This resulting
      increase in the fibrinolytic power of the blood may explain the
      occasional finding of a fluidity of the post-mortem state of the
      blood following a CO-poisoning death.  No correlation was found
      between the rate of increase of fibrinolysis and the blood hemoglobin
      CO (HbCO) level.  In view of the absence of any correlation, it is
      suggested by the authors that post-mortem blood fluidity—a finding
      which is not wholly characteristic of CO poisoning—might occur through
      nonspecific mechanisms which are brought into action by stress.
      -  APCA 4255
                                     172

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407. Dominguez, A.M., Halstead, J.R.,  and Domanski,  T.J.:   Determination
     of Carboxyhemoglobin in Decomposed Bodies.   Armed Forces Institute
     of Pathology, ¥ashington,  D.C., July 1963,  15 PP.   DDC AD ^20631.

     The  interpretation and the significance of carbon monoxide findings
     in cases associated with decomposition is studied.  The evidence
     presented indicates that the percentage of carboxyhemoglobin
     saturation value is not markedly  altered during poatoortem decomposition
     vhen:   (1) the  specimens are properly preserved,  and (2) the blood
     extracted from  tissue is examined as soon as possible for the
     presence of  carbon monoxide.  It  appears possible to obtain carbon
     monoxide values, utilizing blood  extracted from tissue,  in the
     presence of  postmortem decomposition that are similar to the
     antemortem levels.  For example,  within the k% to 12% carboxyhemoglobin-
      saturation range covered, there was neither a marked increase nor
     decrease in  final  percentage of carboxyhemoglobin following
      decomposition.   Nevertheless, unreliable carboxyhemoglobin saturation
     values may occur.   A gas-solid chromatographic  procedure for
      determining  carbon monoxide  using blood or tissue is presented.
     This procedure  employs a Van Slyke apparatus for liberating gases
      from biological specimens modified for introducing released gas  into
     the gas chromatograph.  - Authors'  Abst.


 408. Giantz, W.M., Stembridge, V.A., Dominguez,  A.M.,  et  al:  Carbon monoxide
     determination in aircraft accident fatalities.   Aerospace  Med. 30:711-715
      (Oct.) 1959.

      Investigators at the Armed Forces Institute of  Pathology have studied 747
      cases  of aircraft  accident fatalities for the presence of  carbon monoxide
      in  postmortem tissues.  All  aircraft accident victims with carboxyhemoglobin
      elevations above 10 per cent rere shown to  have been  alive at the  time of
      the fire. Carboxyhemoglobin levels  between 6 and  9 per  cent saturation
      indicate the possibility that the subject was alive at the time of  exposure
      to  fire.  Extensive fragmentation and postmortem incineration of tissues
      subsequent to explosive impact forces do not elevate  the carboxyhemoglobin
      saturations. These investigators found no  cases  in which  carbon monoxide
      intoxication has been implicated  as  the cause of  an aircraft accident. *
      .Authors' Sum.


  409. Hayhurst, E.R.:   Carbon monoxide and automobile exhaust gases.  Amer.
      J.  Pub.  Health 16:218-223 (March) 1926.

      This paper  deals  with the problem of diagnosis of carbon monoxide
      poisoning,  but not with cases where  exposure is evident and severe
      symptoms or death ensue.  Author is  interested in exposure to limited
      amounts  and whether such symptoms as the common ones of headache,
      weariness,  weakness,  dizziness,  nausea,  vomiting, loss  of strength
      and muscular control,  increased  pulse and  respiratory rates, loss  of
      reflexes, and  even coma with intermittent  convulsions,  cessation
      of  respiration, and death are due to carbon monoxide poisoning or
                                        173

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      any of the many other possible  factors  connected with the environment
      or the condition of the victim.   -  Author's Abst. Modified.


 4 10. Ramsey, T.L., and Eilmann, H.J.:  Carbon monoxide acute and chronic
      poisoning  and experimental studies.  J. Lab. & Clinical Med. 17:
              1931-1933.
     Presented is a  study of carbon monoxide from a standpoint of the
     method of its production,  its affinity for hemoglobin, its action
     upon being respired, the percentages of blood saturation in varying
     lengths  of time according  to the concentration in the respired air,
     the  symptoms and effect upon the body, possible methods of its
     elimination from the body, the production of chronic carbon monoxide
     poisoning,  methods of treatment, the postnortem macroscopic appearances
     of the body following carbon monoxide deaths, some important
     medicolegal facts, a series of experiments on guinea pigs to
     ascertain its persistence  in the body following exposure, and the
     histopathology  of various  tissues in animals dying, directly during
     exposure,  and those killed and autopsied at varying periods later. -
     Authors'  Sum.
411.  Stembridge, V.A.j and Goldbaum, L.R.:  The role of the Armed Forces
      Institute of Pathology in tissue toxicity study.  Aviation Med.
      Symposium, Nov. 1957j PP- 5-8.

      Iforing the period from May 1957 through Oct. 1957; 269 determinations
      for CO have been accomplished at the Armed Forces Institute of
      Pathology utilizing a new method for obtaining a specimen.  Of
      those 110 determinations for carbon monoxide on post-mortem tissues,
      11  (10$) showed an elevation above 10 percent saturation.  None of
      these 11 cases were considered a sudden death and in all there was
      evidence that the individual died primarily due to fire.
            Post-mortem CO determinations are done in aircraft accident
      victims for two basic reasons:  First, to determine whether carbon
      monoxide was present in the cockpit environment prior to impact
      (due to such factors as in-flight fires, exhaust fumes or improper
      venting of other combustion products) and second, to determine
      whether or not an individual was alive following an impact associated
      with fire. -  From Text-AGC


 412.  Strecker, E.A., Taft, A.E., and Willey, G.F.:  Mental sequelae of
      carbon monoxide poisoning, with reports of autopsy in two cases.
      Arch. Neural. & Psychiat. 17:552-560, 1927.

      This paper presented before the Philadelphia Neurological Society,
      refers to previous presentations and studies reporting pathologic
      changes in the central nervous system caused by carbon monoxide
      poisoning.  Studies by scientists who examined thirty-two brains
      report similar conditions as presented in these papers, consisting
      of  characteristic symmetrical softening of the globus pallidus, with

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     degenerative changes in the arterial vails leading to the deposit of
     lime salts even "by the third day.  Considerable confirmatory,
     experimental work was done with animals by another investigator.
     Authors'  relate studies of two cases made in the wards and laboratories
     of the department fbr mental and nervous diseases of the Pennsylvania
     Hospital.  -  AGO
413. Taaas,  A.,  and McELroy, J. :   Postmortem Carbon Monoxide Analysis:
     Significance of Tissue Blood Content.  Aerospace Medical Research
     lab,, Wright-Patterson AFB,  Ohio, Hov, 1957> 15 PP« (tables) DDC
     AD 1^2 150.
     Proper interpretation of the results of a postmortem tissue analysis
     for carbon monoxide is essential to the Flight Surgeon investigating
     major aircraft accidents.  The pitfalls and shortcomings of the
     present technique of extra-polating presumed human in vivo "blood
     carbon monoxide levels from data obtained by rat experimentation
     are described.  Data are presented which indicate the necessity for
     relating carbon monoxide tissue analyses to the tissue "blood
     content.  -  Authors' Abst.
414. Trinkina, I. A.:  The time of the carbon monoxide excretion from the
     organism of the poisoned subject and the possibility of its post-
     mortem entry into  the blood.  Abst. Soviet Medicine Part B.
     Clinical Med. k: 985-986, 1960.

     Twenty rabbits were exposed in a hermetically- sealed chamber to
     carbon monoxide fumes at a  concentration of 0.15-0.20$ for 15-20
     minutes. Blood carbon monoxide levels were determined using
     Van Slyke's technique before and 15 minutes, 20 minutes, 3 hours,
     and 6 hours after  removal of the animals from the chamber.  In
     addition, 21 cadavers were  exposed to various concentrations of CO
     in the sealed chamber.   Subsequently, aqueous extracts of lungs,
     brains,  and ecchymoses,  as  well as cardiac and vascular blood,
     were examined with the help of spectroscopic analysis, tannin
     tests,  etc.  No CO could be demonstrated in the blood of the
     animals 9-11 hours after exposure.  In the case of cadavers,
     injured or  noninjured, no carboxyhemoglobin could be demonstrated
     whatever the duration of exposure  and whatever the time interval
     between death and the start of the experiment.  -  APCA
415. Wilks, S.S., and Clark, R.T. , Jr.:  Carbon monoxide determinations in
     post-mortem tissues as an aid in determining physiologic status pi-tor
     to death.  J. Appl. Physiol. 14:313-320, 1959.

     With appropriate methodology, carbon monoxide in the 'solid1 tissues
     of animals was quant itated and correlated with the blood carbon
     monoxide level in a series of controlled experiments with rats and
     dogs.  Experimental conditions simulating aircraft crashes were
     devised and again the blood and  'solid* tissue CO levels were determined,


                                     175

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     Using the experimental data on animals  as  a  basis  for  extrapolating
     blood CO levels,  along with tissue  CO values,  obtained from 'control1
     and CO-asphyxial  cases in human beings,  an analysis was made  of  the
     'solid' tissue specimens  obtained in  186 fatal aircraft accidents.
     From the analysis of tissue specimens from approximately  200  aircraft
     crash cases,  some 30% gave by this  method  a  blood  CO level  in excess
     of 307. saturation.  These results point  to the likelihood that CO was
     present in the personnel  compartments of some  or all of these aircraft
     at some time  during flight. - Authors' Abst.
     Smoking
416. Bokhoven,  C.,  and Niessen, H. J. :  Amounts of oxides of nitrogen and
     carbon monoxide in  cigarette smoke, with and without inhalation.
     Nature 192:^58-^59  (Nov. k) 1961.

     This paper describes  investigations to determine concentrations of
     MOS and CO in cigarette  smoke, with and without inhalation.  As a
     result of inhalation  both the UOS and the CO are absorbed to a large
     extent.  The amount of these compounds which may be taken up by
     the body were estimated.  If 20 cigarettes a day are smoked, 3.0 mgm
     of NOS ( calculated  as NOa) and 200 mgm of CO may be absorbed.  These
     figures are considerably higher than the amounts namely 12 X 0.1 =
     1.2 mgm NOgand 12 X 2 =  2^ mgm of CO, regarded as the maximum which
     can be safely tolerated.  Author points out that for evaluation of
     health effects of smoking, the possibility of synergism, caused by
     the simultaneous presence of both MOjj. and CO should also be taken
     into consideration.   - AGC
    chinn, H.I*:  The Effect of Stoking at Simulated Altitudes on
    Carboxyhemoglobin Formation.  School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph
    AFB, Texas, Feb. 29, 19W*, 3 pp.  BDC AD 121 70?.

    The Carboxyhemoglobin concentration of blood in regular smokers
    (10 to 30 cigarettes dally) averaged 2.2 per cent of the total hemo-
    globin.
           After  smoking k cigarettes in 30 minutes, the concentration
    of Carboxyhemoglobin rose to 3*9 Per cent.
           There  was no significant difference between the Carboxyhemo-
    globin concentration after smoking at ground levels or at simulated
    altitudes of  12,000 or 15,000 feet.
           The increased Carboxyhemoglobin after smoking is of little
    significance  at ground levels but becomes increasingly important at
    altitudes above 10,000 feet.  -  Author's Abst.
                                   176

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418.  Curphey,  T.tr.,  Hood,  L.P.L.,  and Perkins,  W.M.:   Carboxyhemoglobin
      in relation to  air pollution and smoking.   Arch.  Environ.  Health
      10:179-185 (Feb.) 1965.

      A total of 1,075 coroners'  cases, for each of which a carbon monoxide
      blood concentration determination has been made,  vere classified
      as to smoking habits to  ascertain what,  if any, association existed
      between the carbon monoxide content in the ambient air,  smoking
      history,  and carboxyhemoglobin levels found in  cadaver blood.  Persons
      classified as nonsmokers were presumed to  have been exposed in the
      last 2k hours of life only to atmospheric  carbon  monoxide.
             Analysis of the data reveals that nonsmokers consistently had
      lower carbon monoxide values than smokers.  In  the one instance
      where analysis  was possible on the basis of sex,  the median value
      for male nonsmokers was  greater by a factor of  two,  than for•female
      nonsmokers.  Graphically and by statistical analysis,  the  variables
      of age, location of examination, time of day, and day in week of
      death, maximum-minimum temperatures, or causes  of death  revealed
      little or no individual  effect on carboxyhemoglobin levels.   This
      was true for nonsmokers  as well as for smokers.   Smoking remained
      constant as the major variable -associated  with  observed  differences.
      When analysis was made to determine what association if  any among
      nonsmokers existed between carboxyhemoglobin levels and  ambient air
      carbon monoxide content, the association was significant (p<0.05).
      This significant association was not noted for  every location.
             This study points out the potentialities of utilizing populations
      and other facilities of  the chief medical  examiner-coroner's office
      in furthering explorations in the field of air pollution research in
      general and the effects  of carbon monoxide in particular.   -
      Authors' Sum.
419.  Be Bruin, A., Vroege, D.,  and Van Haeringen,  A.:   Study of carbon
      monoxide uptake in traffic policemen.   T.  Soc.  Geneesk. ^3:146-151
      (March 5) 1965-

      The HbCO-content of the blood of 36 municipal traffic policemen--
      non-smokers—in Rotterdam exposed to exhaust  from motor vehicles,
      during one to four hours,  has been measured.   The data were  compared
      to those of a control group of 16 non-smoking policemen working in
      the office.  Blood samples have been taken before and after  work.
      The HbCO-content was on the average 0.93$ before  work and increased
      to 1.11$ in the exposed group, whereas the HbCO-content in the
      control group remained about the same.  The peak  CO-content  in
      the air was between 5-15 ppm.  The chemical analysis has been
      performed with two independent methods.  - APCA  65-154


 420.  Dunlap, R.:  Carbon monoxide the silent killer.   Today's Health  (Nov.)
      1961, pp.  26-27, 67-68, and 71-72.

      Every year motor vehicles pour  .out 169,600,000,000 pounds of CO into
      the air of American cities.  The share of each urban dweller amounts to


                                    177

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     some 30 pounds of the deadly gas every 2k hrs.  By 1970 an expected 100
     million vehicles will be traveling some trillion miles a year and the
     possible environmental danger from CO will have to be controlled.  CO
     has a remarkable affinity for red blood cells.  It is absorbed by them
     250 times as fast as oxygen.  The gas unites with the hemoglobin and
     keeps it from carrying oxygen to the tissues.  This means that even a
     seemingly inconsequential .02 percent CO can be lethal.  Tobacco
     smoking also increases the level of CO in the blood.  Police files show
     that every year 600 lives are lost due to carbon monoxide in the United
     States.  It is also assumed that this colorless, tasteless, nonirritating,
     and odorless poison gas is a contributing factor to a high percentage of
     approximately 180,000 highway accidents caused annually by drivers who
     black out or fall asleep at the wheel.  Concern is expressed about the
     level of CO poisoning that may be encountered by a motorist smoking a
     cigarette.  Studies conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service's
     Division of Air Pollution and such by other authorities are discussed
     to alert the public to the danger of carbon nonoxide.  -AGC


421. Goldsmith, J.R., and Rogers, L.H.:  Health hazards of automobile exhaust.
     Pub. Health Rep. 7^:551-558  (June) 1959,

     In Los Angeles, the air pollution from diesel engine exhaust is about
     20 tons of organic emissions/day while that from automobile exhausts
     contributes about 1200 tons/day.  Because the theoretical value (15:1)
     for air to fuel required for complete combustion is seldom maintained
     in automobiles, their exhausts frequently contain carbon monoxide,
     hydrogen, aldehydes, uriburned hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, and some
     lead compounds depending on the additives ured.  The constituents
      (in $ of concentration, vol./vol.) of automobile exhausts are listed
     in table 1.  Of these only carbon monoxide. nitrogen oxides, lead com-
     pounds, and hydrocarbons are discussed in this paper.  The max. CO
     concentration in Los Angeles, reported in table 2, is 93.2 ppm., with
     an average value of 15 to 36 ppm.  British citiss have reported an
     average of k- to 20 ppm, with a max of 80 ppn. during smog.  In Detroit,
     during heavy traffic an average of 28*9 PP^j with 80 ppm. max., has
     been reported.  Although no health damage has been attributed to
     levels of CO below 100 ppm. there is undoubtedly some inactivation
     of hemoglobin.  The level of CO saturation in the blood is greatly
     increased in tobacco smokers.  Although experimental studies have
     shown an impaired adaptability of the eyes to darkness when young
     subjects were exposed to low levels of CO, this has not been shown by
     exposure to automobile exhausts at the levels found on city free-ways.
     It is, however, a plausible inference.  The toxicity of nitrogen dioxide
     is based on its irritant properties, especially to the pulmonary
     membranes in cases of significant exposure, which are often delayed
     in onset.  The nitrite ions formed when nitrogen dioxide dissolves are
     capable of forming the inactivated hemoglobin known as methemoglobin.
     Lead exposure by air pollution alone as reported by Los Angeles and
     other cities is usually not toxic but the sasall persistent amounts
     which could be contributed by auto exhausts may contribute to-cases of
     toxicity in certain individuals working in garages and other work areas.
     Hygienic standards have been established Ifor industrial exposure to Of,

                                     178

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    nitrogen dioxide, lead, and ozone.  Establishing a full set of levels
    for community exposure is difficult because of the many variables
    involved, including the effect of agents  in combination, the difference
    in sensitivity of ill persons, and the indeterminate period of exposure.
    The authors  suggest that, in the absence  of effective control for air
    pollution from automobile exhausts, the public health hazard should be
    evaluated. - APCA 2647


422. Goldsmith, J.R., Terzaghi, J., and Hackney, J.D.:  Evaluation of
     fluctuating  carbon monoxide exposures.  Arch of Environ. Health
    7:6V7-66"3 (Dec.) 1963.

    The patterns of population exposure must include exposure of
     cigarette smokers, of those subjected to community air pollution,
     those with exposures to motor vehicle exhaust during commuting, and
     those with occupational exposure to carbon monoxide.  Combinations
     of these exposures were reduced to 6 typical daily routines which
     approximated the exposures usually encountered by the population.
     Estimated exposure of automobile commuter is about 35 ppm,  twice
     normal downtown peak,  for duration of trip.  Estimated exposure of
     cigarette smoker is ^75 ppm for 6  minutes smoking time per
     cigarette.  - LEPS


 423.Gunderman, K.O.s  Hazards of the motorist by  carbon monoxide.
     Stadtehygiene.  77s248-253,  1964.

     The results of CO recording  in the  two  large  cities Kiel and
     Hamburg in Northern Germany,  during rush hours show clearly
     that they  are above the  harmless limits  of the industrial
    MAC of  0.01 Vol. %.  These values which present the maximal
     limits  at  the present time in both  cities, will most probably
     not be  increased because of  the relatively favorable climate
     of these cities.  However, under climatic unfavorable  condition
     the same traffic density may cause  dangerous  CO levels.   The
     recorded CO concentrations may become, however, a  severe  threat
     to the,health of the population in  these two  cities mentioned
     above,  if  traffic and withTit the exhaust emission are being
     increased  to the level  as it prevails at present  only  a  few
    hours during the day, for a  considerable longer period of
     time.   Additional danger to  the motorist is caused by  heavy
     smoking.   It is strongly recommended to reduce exhaust gas
     emissions.  It is also  requested to keep traffic  moving  by
    enlarging  roads, by planting greeneries  on traffic islands, and
     through improvement of  engine design. Of importance is also
     the construction along  the roads which  should not impede
    ventilation.   These measures would  also reduce the danger cause
    by other exhaust components,  for example carcenogenic  propertie
    However, chronic effects of  long-term inhalation  of various
     auto exhaust pollutants  needs to be investigated  further.
    Translation of sum.  -AGC.
                                  179

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424. Hackney, J.B., Lashier, if., Lynn, K., and  Spier, C.:  Comparative
     effect of two  sources of  exposure to carbon monoxide on carbon
     monoxide hemoglobin levels.  Presented at  the Air Pollution Research
     Conference  on  "Effects  of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Health,"
     Dec.  6, 1961,  Los Angeles, Calif.

     The comparative  effect  of two  sources of carbon monoxide exposure,
     e.g., ambient  CO and ambient CO plus cigarette  smoke on the COHb
     of two normal  subjects  working as a team is discussed in this
     study.  The rebreathing method for indirect estimation of COHb
     as previously  described (l) was used in this study  for the frequent
     monitoring  of  COHb.  Samples of the ambient air were collected
     almost continuously during the experimental run as  a means of
     representing the integrated total ambient  CO exposure.  -  Authors'
     Introduction
     Haddon, W.,  Jr.,  Hesbitt, R.E.L. , and Garcia, R. :  Smoking and pregnancy:
     Carbon monoxide in blood during gestation and at terra.  Obstet. Gynec.
     18:262-267 (Sept.) 1961.

     Blood carbon monoxide  (CO) concentrations in women seen in a prenatal
     clinic were  significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers.  Carbon
     monoxide  concentrations in paired cord and maternal blood specimens
     obtained  at  term  were  found to be approximately. :equal, whereas CO
     concentrations per 100 gm. of hemoglobin were lower in cord than in
     paired maternal blood  specimens.  The differences between smokers and
     nonsmokers in the reduction in 02- carrying capacity in the cord and maternal
     blood specimens,  respectively, were also statistically significant.
     These reductions  in maternal and fetal oxygen- carrying capacity and the
     action of CO as an enzyme inhibitor are discussed from the standpoint
     of their  possible effects on fetal development. - Author's summary


 426. Hanson, H.B., and Hastings, A.B. :  The effect of smoking on the
     carbon monoxide content of blood.  J. A.M.A. 100:1^81 (May 13)
     1933-
                                                                  »:
     In a short series of normal individuals who do not smoke, the
     hemoglobin of the blood was found to be saturated with carbon
     monoxide, 1.5 per cent.
            In subjects who smoke the saturation of the blood with
     carbon monoxide was  found to be from 3 to k per cent.  -  Authors'
     Conclusions


 427. Heron, H. J. r The effects of smoking during pregnancy:  A review with
     a preview.  New Zealand Med. J. 6l: 5^5 -5^8 (Nov.) 1962.

     Carbon monoxide blood  concentrations were found to be higher in
     maternal  and foetal  bloods in patients who smoked.           '*•
           Respiration  in  infants of mothers who smoked took longer  to
     establish and peripheral cyanosis was more common.

                                   180

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         The  condition of such infants  appeared to revert to more nearly
    normal when they were placed in a high oxygen concentration for a
    short time.   -  Author's  Sam.


428. Jones, G.W.,  Yant, W.F.,  and Berger, L.B.:   Carbon-Monoxide Hazards
    from Tobacco  Smoke.   USBM,  No.  2539 (Oct.)  1923,  6 pp.

    The Bureau of Mines  is interested in the  general  question of carbon-
    monoxide hazards from tobacco smoke, mainly with  regard to mine
    ventilation.  In non-gaseous mines,  especially metal mines,  the question
    arises, whether, if groups  of miners are  permitted to smoke while
    working at unventilated faces or  entries, would the  accumulation of
    tobacco smoke in these places create any  additional  hazards due to
    carbon-monoxide poisoning.   The results should, in addition,  be of
    general interest in connection  with ventilation of building and
    inclosed places where people may  be assembled and smoking is permitted.
    The investigation  described in  this report  was made  with the above
    idea in view. - From Text-AGC


    -McEarland, R.A.and Jfc>ore, R.C.:  Human factors in highway safety.   A
     Review and Evaluation.  Hew England J. Med.  256:890-897  (May 9)
     This article is the last of a series of three papers appearing in previous
     issues dealing ^rith the same subject.   The interrelationship between
     "lost" and "environmental" factors are the last subject discussed.
            Author states that the possibility of CO poisoning can rarely be
     completely eliminated in the operation of motor vehicles.  Although
     significant concentration of CO in motor vehicles usually is the result
     from leaks in the exhaust system, gas from the exhaust of preceding vehicles
     may also be drawn in through ventilation systems.  The paper points out
     that exposure to 0.10 percent CO can be dangerous to life after one hour.
     Exposure to even as small a concentration as 0.01 percent should not
     be permitted over a long period.  CO from other sources may be detrimental
     to the driver.  The blood of a person who has been smoking heavily may
     already contain 5 to 8 percent carboxyhemoglobin from the CO inhaled in
     the tobacco smoke.  This amount results in sufficient anoxia to reduce
     night vision significantly, comparable to the effects of high altitude
     of about 800 feet.
            This factor is Illustrated by a graph.  In conclusion , author
     states that the physician, in collaboration with other biologic scientists
     and engineers, will play an important part in the prevention of accidental
     trauma.  -AGC.


430. McParland,  R.A.,  and ffoseley,  A.L. :   Carbon monoxide in trucks and
     buses and information from other areas of research on carbon monoxide,
     altitude and cigarette smoking.  Conf. Proc.: Health,  Medical and
     Drug . Eacto*s in Highway Safety, April 196\,  Wash.,  B.C.,  Nat. Acad. Sc. -
     Nat.  Res. Council Pub. 328,  Sept. 196U,  pp.  ^.17-^.33.

     Data were presented concerning the frequency and severity of carbon
     monoxide accidents ±n passenger and cargo operation in interstate com-

                                    181

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     merce.  Approximately 1.3 percent of mechanical defects accidents from
     1947-1951 are known to be due to carbon monoxide.  Fatalities and
     property damage accidents were higher for property carrying vehicles
     than for passenger carrying vehicles while injuries were higher in the
     latter.  Fatalities occurred while vehicles were stopped, and injuries
     tended to occur while the vehicle was in motion.  The fatality and
     injury rates are disproportionate in relation to the total of mechani-
     cal defects accidents.
           Carbon monoxide sources within the vehicle are due primarily
     to engine exhaust and secondarily to combustion of lubricating oils
     and sources in other vehicles.  Accessability to the cab is through
     the breather, manifold, head gaskets, muffler, tail pipe, air tank and
     air operated devices and their connections, fittings and exhausts.  In
     some vehicles an extra source was found in methods of heating and of
     preventing engine freezing in cold weather.
           Operational data in a closed idling test after 15 minutes disclosed
     100 p.p.m. CO concentration in 10 truck models, no level in one, and 200
     p.p.m. in one.  In five of six buses the finding was less than 10 p.p.m.
     and in one was 100 p.p.m.  Two units converted to bookmobiles gave 200
     P.p.m. readings after 15 minutes of operation of a single gasoline heater.
     Using a highway test of 45 minutes of closed roadway operation, tests on
     20 trucks and 60 buses yielded CO values of less than 10 p.p.m,
           Clinical evidence of CO exposure was found in the.personnel of the
     bookmobiles.
           While gross studies of driving do not show losses due to CO until
     30% arterial saturation is reached, studies of differential brightness
     threshold indicate that visual sensitivity and acuity under low illumin-
     ation conditions are negatively influenced by anoxia and exposure to CO.
     The effects are progressive as the oxyhemoglobin decreases, and as
     carboxyhemoglobin increases.  The effects are produced by smoking.
     Visual losses due to anoxia may be offset: in part by increasing the
     level of blood sugar. - Authors' Sum.


431. Mantell,  C.D..:   Sacking in pregnancy: The  role played "by carbonic
      anhydrase.   New Zealand Med.  J.  63:601-603 (Sept.) 1964.

      An outline of the method used to estimate  the  carbonic  anhydrase
      content in a specimen of cord blood has been given.   This method
      involved the absorption of C02 by a buffer solution  so  as to lover
      its pH to the end point of the indicator.
             Results show a decrease in carbonic anhydrase activity in
      the cord bloods of infants whose mothers  smoked*.
             Classification at birth,  length  of gestation,  and "birth
      weights of the infants were also affected,
             The differences in enzyme activity,  foetal birth weights
      and condition,  and the prematurity rate between infants of light
      and heavy smokers and between those who smoked and those who did
      not smoke during labour,  were insignificant.   -  Author's Sum.
                                     182

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 432.Metgs, J.W«:   Carbon monoxide poisoning.   Bull.  U.S.  Army IJept,
     8:542-546,  1948.

     The danger of  carbon monoxide poisoning raicng nen working on gasoline*
     driven vehicles  is  emphasized.  A concentration,  of several thousand
     parts per million may occur in the air near the  exhaust outlet, even
     outdoors, unless exhaust gases are discharged so that the carbon
     monoxide is diluted before it can return to any  area where it may be
     inhaled.  Symptoms, which usually occur when the carboxy-haemoglobin
     content of  the blood reaches 20 percent,  include headache, dizziness,
     faintness, nausea,  and vomiting.  Samples of oxalated blood should be
     analyzed for  the presence of carbon monoxic'?. ds  soon  as possible after
     exposure, to minimize reoxygenation of carboxy-haemoglobin,  but they
     can be frozen  and sent to a laboratory.  The presence of a significant
     amount of carbon monoxide in the blood will differentiate symptoms due
      to carbon monoxide  poisoning from those due to other  causes, especially
     alcohol.  Heavy  cigarette smoking may produce carboxy-haemoglobin
      levels up  to  10  percent.- BMB 402
      Mills, C.A., and. Porter, M.M.:  Tobacco smoking and automobile-
      driving stress in relation to deaths from cardiac and vascular
      causes.  Amer. J. Med. Sc. 234:35-^3 (July) 195?.

      A direct association well beyond the realm of reasonable chance
      occurrence has been found to exist between cardiovascular
      disease death rates in white men and the amount of cigarette smoking
      in which they habitually indulge.   Superimposed upon all categories
      of this cigarette smoking relationship is a further sharp death-
      rate rise associated with annual driving mileages above 12,000 miles,
      and still further superijnpos.iti.on in all categories  is associated
      with residence in the solidly built-up basin areas of the city
      (Cincinnati).
             These relationships are  essentially  analogous to those we
      found to exist for lung cancer  death rates in white men,  although
      the apparent exacerbating relationship was much greater between
      smoking and lung  cancer deaths  than between smoking and cardiovas-
      cular disease  deaths.   -   Authors'  Sum.
434,  Mills,  C.A.,  and Porter,  M.M.:   Tobacco smoking, motor exhaust  fumes,
      and general air pollution in relation to lung cancer incidence.
      Cancer Res. 17:981-990 (Nov.) 1957.

      Details are presented of a survey covering residence, smoking and
      driving habits of living populations and those dying of lung cancer
      in the basin and suburban areas of Cincinnati and  in Ohio  rural
      areas.   The findings in this survey give rise to the following
      deductions and conclusions:
             Tobacco smoking was found to be significantly related to
      lung cancer incidence in the subjects of this study, whether or not
      there was in addition heavy exposure in urban motor traffic or  to
      general urban air pollution.

                                     183

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            Annual  driving mileages above 12,000 miles per year, as
      compared vith  lesser driving mileages, are significantly  related
      to lung  cancer incidence among urban men, except for those in the
      heavy  smoking  category.
            Lung  cancer  death frequencies were found significantly higher
      among  Cincinnati's  Basin men than among  suburban men in this
      survey.
            Lung  cancer  rates in nonsmoking men, urban or rural, did not
      differ significantly from the low rates  found prevailing  in women
      of all groups.
            Finally,  it  is suggested that the alarming rise in lung
      cancer incidence is predominantly a hazard pertaining to  urban
      tobacco  smoking,  but a hazard intensified for those urban smokers
      with heavy exposure also in urban traffic.  - Authors' Sum.


435.  Nichols, G., Jr., and Kinsey, J.L.:  Carbon monoxide as a habitability
      factor in prolonged submarine submergence.  U.S. Naval Medical  Research
      Laboratory,  New  London, Conn., Report No. 223,  (April 16) 1953.

      Toxic  cone,  of CO accumulate when  there  is unrestricted smoking in
      sealed spaces, such as a submarine during a prolonged submergence.
      23  volunteers  on Operation Hideout were  exposed to CO levels of
      approx.  100  or more ppm for continuous period of 6 days,  following
      a period of  12 days' exposure to CO cone, between 50 and  100 ppm
      and  period of  unknown length during which this cone, accumulated;
      6 day  period was followed by 4 days of exposure to CO cone, varying
      from 25  to 100 ppm. Comparing 6 day period of exposure to 100  ppm
      with 6 day period immediately following  return  to outboard ventilation,
      subjective complaints as ms. by number of headaches were  significant
      at  107. level.  Significant amts. of hb were saturated with CO;  in
      only 2 cases,  however, was  this considered to be in range where
      subjective complaints occur, and in each of these 2 there were  no
      symptoms. CO-blood saturation dropped rapidly  (1 day) upon return
      to  outboard  ventilation.  - Kett.


 436. Rlngold, A*, Goldsmith,  J.R., Helwig, H.L., Finn, R., and
      Schiette, F.:   Estimating recent  carbon  monoxide exposures.  A
      rapid method. Arch. Environ. Health  5:308-318  (Oct.) 1962.

      A valid method for determining the carboxyhemoglobin level in the
      body has been developed.  The method is  based on the 20-second
      breath-holding method first described by Jones  et al., using an
      Infrared analyser first  reported by Lawther and. Apthrop.  Our
      work shows that  a polyvinyl bag can be used for collection of
      samples  in the field.
            An application of this method Is  reported.  This confirms
      the fact that, cigarette  smoking is a major factor In determining
      the carboxyhemoglobin level in a population.  Pipe and cigar smokers
      appear not to have  much  Increase in carboxyhemoglobin.

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             The method should be suitable for studying the relationship
      of carboxyhemoglobin to occupational and to ambient air pollution
      exposures.  -  Authors' Sum. & APCA
437.  Sievere, R.F., Edwards, T.I., and Murray, A.L. t  A Medical Study of
      Men Exposed to Measured Amounts of Carbon Monoxide in the Holland
      Tunnel for 13 Years,  Federal Security Agency, U.S. PHSB No. 278,
      19^2, Washington, D. C., 7^ PP ,  and J.  AMA 118:585-588 (Feb.21)  19^2

      Medical examinations of 156 traffic officers on duty at the Holland
      Tunnel for 13 years and four months were made  as a practical test
      of the effectiveness of the medical and engineering control methods
      set up for their protection.  About half of these officers had been
      on tunnel duty every working day of this period.  Average carbon
      monoxide exposure throughout the tunnel for all hours of the day
      was approximately 70 ppm.  Results of medical  examinations of men
      on duty for the first five years showed them to be in excellent
      physical conditions.  Ho evidence of symptoms  attributable to
      carbon monoxide intoxication and for sequelae  of acute episodes was
      found.  The effects of both smoking habits and of occupational exposure
      to carbon monoxide concentrations in blood samples were analyzed by
      the Van SLyke method.  The lowest concentration value, expressed as
      percent of hemoglobin combined with carbon monoxide, was 0.5j the
      highest value was found in a tunnel officer, a heavy smoker, coming
      directly from unusually heavy atmospheric exposure, was 13.1.  No
      signs or symptoms attributable to carbon monoxide were observed
      within this range.  Concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blood of
      toll  collectors on the holiday selected for observation ranged up
      to 15.1 percent, expressed as percent of hemoglobin combined with
      carbon monoxide.
             Authors do not feel that there is  reason to assume that pro-
      longed exposure to these concentration JLevels  will result in injury
      to health.  Precautions in force in the Holland Tunnel set up for the
      elimination of the possibility of acute exposure is to be extended
      in order to protect the health of all persons  unavoidably exposed to
      carbon monoxide.  -  Authors' Abst. Modified-AGC


      Tissue  Chemistry
  438. Campbell, J.A.:   Tissue oxygen tension and carbon monoxide poisoning.
       J. Physiol. 68:81-96,  1929-1930.

       During the first few days of carbon monoxide poisoning the tissue
       oxygen tensions  are lowered to a more marked degree than by  a
       similar loss of  function of haemoglobin due to bleeding of haemolysis;
       this agrees with J.S.  Haldane's prediction.  A similar,  but  not so
       marked, difference applies to the carbon dioxide tensions in the
       tissues.
              It is possible for animals (rabbits, rats, mice,  guinea-
       pigs) to tolerate about »250 p.c. of carbon monoxide in the  air for

                                      185

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      several days after some degree  of acclimatization, whereas  -150 p.c.
      of the gas is not tolerated for three  days "by unaccliznatized animals.
             Even when an animal is exposed  to gradually increasing per-
      centage of carbon monoxide,  the tissue oxygen tensions are  abnormally
      low,  although there is increased "breathing and also great increase
      in the haemoglobin content per  cubic millimetre of blood.   At the
      same  time the tissues  show marked histological evidence of
      disintegration,  extreme congestion of  the liver with atrophy of
      liver cells being the  outstanding feature, for which heart  failure
      is held mainly responsible.  Power to  tolerate carbon monoxide
      depends upon the powers of the  vital organs, particularly the heart,
      to continue to function under a low tissue oxygen tension.
             The resemblance between  the effects (physiological and
      pathological) of carbon monoxide poisoning and of exposure  to low
      oxygen pressure in the air is striking.
             The carbon monoxide tension in  the tissues has been measured;
      usually it is about one-third of that  in the inspired air.  The low
      carbon monoxide tension in the  tissues is due to the very low oxygen
      tension (1-3 p.c.) which exists in the tissues, the reduced blood
      in the capillaries carrying  the carbon monoxide back again to the
      lungs.  -  Author's Sum.
439.  Campbell,  J.A.:  The  effect of carbon monoxide and other agents upon
      the rate of tumour growth.  J. Pathol. & Bacteriol. 35:379-39^>
      1932.

      It is  shown that breathing carbon monoxide (up to 0.26 per cent)
      for prolonged periods has a marked retarding effect upon the rate
      of growth  of mouse carcinoma 63 and increases duration of active
      life after inoculation.  No such effect was observed with the Rous
      fowl sarcoma.
             Some experiments with Fischer-Wasels' gas therapy and others
      with the "growth-retarding hormone"  gave no evidence of inhibitory
      effects upon Rous  fowl sarcoma and mouse carcinoma 63*  -  Author's
      Sum.
440. Campbell, J.A.:  Growth, fertility, etc. in animals during attempted,
     acclimatization to carbon monoxide.  Quart. J. Sbcper. Physiol. 24:
     271-S81, 1935.

     Some mice and rabbits maintain their rate of growth when slowly
     acclimatized to about 0.3 Per cent, of carbon monoxide in the
     inspired air.  It is pointed out that man's ability to acclimatize
     gradually to the gas has never been properly tested, and, although
     not so resistant as certain animals appear to be, he probably
     possesses much greater resistance, to such gradual exposure, than
     has so far been suspected.
            The heart of the mouse is often much hypertrophied during
     slow acclimatization, and this organ is regarded as playing a chief
     part in the powers to acclimatize.
                                    186

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            The mouse appears to be more easily acclimatized to carbon
     monoxide than to low oxygen pressure in the air.
            Mice after acclimatization to 0.30 per cent, carbon monoxide
     are not fertile; true acclimatization is thus not attained.
            If carbon monoxide is consumed by living animals when
     breathing 0.30 per cent, of the gas, the consumption must be of a
     very low order, as is to be expected from Fenn and Cobb's results
     for frog's skeletal muscle exposed in vitro to 80 per cent, of the
     gas.
            The carbon monoxide pressure in the tissues is less than
     half that in the inspired air.  Oxygen pressures in the tissues are
     reduced to half the normal value in an acclimatized animal breathing
     0.30 per cent, carbon monoxide.  -  Author's Sum.


441. Ellis, J.P., Clark, H.T., Jr., Wilks, S.S., and Criscuolo, D.:
     Carbon Monoxide Capacity Measurements on Human and Kat Skeletal
     Muscle.  School of Aerospace Med,, Brooks AEB, Texas, Oct. 1959*
     pp. 6.  DEC AD 231541.

     Two methods were comparatively evaluated for subsequent use as a
     measure of the CO capacity of animal tissues.  One method was based
     on measurement of the volume of carbon monoxide extracted from muscle
     homogenates which had previously been equilibrated with known CO-N2
     mixtures; the other method was based on estimation of the CO capacity
     from the spectre-photometric differential determination of the
     hemoglobin and myoglobin content of the muscle.  Use of the
     equilibration technic resulted in lower and more erratic values than
     those indicated by the  spectrophotometric analysis.  The fact that
     the spectrophotometric  analysis also permitted simultaneous
     estimation of the tissue blood content served to discourage further
     attempts to develop a more reproducible equilibration system.
            A comparative analysis, employing the two methods, was also
     carried out on human and rat muscle.  Although results from the
     equilibration analysis  were low, both methods indicated that the CO
     capacity of human tissue was three times greater than that of rat
     tissue.  An examination of the hemoglobin-myoglobin relationship in
     the two species revealed that the greater capacity of human tissue
     was due to a proportionate increase in the concentration of both
     pigments.  -  Authors'  Sum.


442. Fenn, W.O., and Cobb, D.M.:  The stimulation of muscle respiration
     by carbon monoxide.  Amer. J. Physiol. 102:379-392, 1932.

     Substituting carbon monoxide for the nitrogen of the air surrounding
     a  frog sartorius muscle increases the respiration usually 1.5 to 3
     times.
            A similar though smaller increase in metabolism is produced
     in the same way in muscle mash of frogs and rats, in frog muscles
     which are spontaneously non-irritable or non-irritable from isotonic
     KC1.
                                     187

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            The increase is diminished but not abolished by loss of the
     irritability of the muscle; it persists when the formation of lactic
     acid is inhibited by sodium bromacetate treatment;  it cannot be
     correlated with any changes in irritability or contractility of the
     muscle.
            Both the normal respiration and the excess respiration due
     to CO are diminished to approximately the same extent by KCN,
     isotonic CaCl2 and by loss of soluble material from the tissue by
     diffusion or water extraction.
            Light has no significant effect upon the excess respiration
     due to CO.
            The anaerobic acid-base changes of muscle.,  as followed by the
     COg absorption or elimination in C02 atmospheres were not affected
     by the presence of CO in place of H or N.  CO does not therefore
     affect significantly the formation of lactic acid or the breakdown
     of phosphocreatine although a slight increased anaerobic lactic acid
     content was found in gastroenemius muscles in CO.
            The tension developed in single shocks for a given amount of
     initial heat was not affected by CO.
            The R.Q. of muscles was lowered from 0.87 to 0.76 by CO.  This
     suggested a burning of CO to CO ,


443. Gilinskiy, V.A., Chapek, A.V., Kozlova, A.G., Kulikova,  N.M., and
     A. Ya. Loshak:  The effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide
     on man in pressurized cabins of passenger planes.   In:   Parin, V.V.
     (editor) Aviation and Sfcaee Medicine, Moscow, 1963.  HASA Technical
     Translation TT-F-228.

                 . Pressure-chamber experiments were performed on 82 persons
     to study the effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide.  Also,
     30 flights on IL-18, AN-10, and TU-104 planes were made during
     which 185 members of the crew and passengers were examined and 3^-7
     air samples were obtained in the cabins.  The results of the
     investigations showed that 3 hours' exposure to carbon monoxide
     (starting with 0.01 ing/liter or more), both under experimental
     conditions (ground and pressure-chamber at 2400 m)  and during actual
     flight had adverse effects on the functioning of several organs and
     systems, namely:  (a)  Higher nervous activity; (b) Functions of the
     visual and vestibular analyzers; (c) Metabolic processes;; (d) Cardio-
     vascular system; (e) Muscular strength; (f) Tissue respiration and;
     (g) Leukopoiesis.  On the basis of the physiological-sanitary data
     obtained and the results of laboratory tests, it is suggested that
     the maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in
     pressurized passenger airplane cabins be 0.01 mg/liter.   -  Authors'
     Abst.

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    Glantz, W.M., Stembridge, V.A., Dozninguez, A.M.,  et al:  Carbon monoxide
    determination in aircraft accident fatalities.  Aerospace Med.   30:711-715
    (Oct.) 1959.
    Investigators at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology have  studied
    cases of aircraft accident fatalities for the presence of carbon monoxide
    in postmortem tissues.  All aircraft accident victims with carboxyhemoglobin
    elevation above 10 per cent were shown to have been alive at the time of
    the fire.  Carboxyhemoglobin levels between 6 and 9 per  cent saturation
    indicate the possibility that the subject was alive at the time  of exposure
    to fire.  Extensive fragmentation and postmortem incineration  of tissues
    subsequent to explosive impact forces do not elevate the carboxyhemoglobin
    saturations.  These investigators found no cases in which carbon monoxide
    intoxication has been implicated as the cause of an aircraft accident.
    Authors1 Sum.
445. Haggard, H.W.:  Studies in carbon monoxide asphyxia.   II.   The growth
     of neuroblast in the presence of carbon monoxide.  Amer. J. Fhysiol.
                 1922.
     A technique is described whereby the growth of in vitro cultures of
     nervous tissue from the chick may be tested in any desired atmosphere
     or mixture of gases.
            Carbon monoxide even in concentrations of 79 per cent is found
     to have no ill effect upon growing nerve cells.  In this respect this
     gas is as neutral as nitrogen.
            Illuminating gas has been studied in like manner and found to
     be toxic for neuroblast cultures in concentration of even as little
     as 0.1 per cent.
            These observations indicate that carbon monoxide has no specific
     reaction with nerve tissue but acts in the body only through the
     asphyxia incident to its combination with hemoglobin.
            These experiments indicate, also, that illuminating gas contains
     another toxic substance or substances; but this observation is not to
     be interpreted as weighing against the fact, well demonstrated, that
     asphyxia from inhalation of illuminating gas is chiefly due to carbon
     monoxide. - Author's Sum.
446. Haldane, J.B.S. t  Carbon monoxide as a tissue poison.   Biochem.
     J. 21:1068-1075, IS-7-

     The movements of a moth and the germination of cress seed are
     inhibited by CO.  The greater the partial pressure of Og,  the more
     CO is required.
            Eats living on Og dissolved in their blood in
     presence of sufficient CO to combine with almost all their
     haemoglobin are killed by the addition of more CO, which must affect
     some substance in their tissues.
            It is concluded that cells contain a catalyst of oxidation
     which is poisoned by CO.  Its affinity for CO is determined in the


                                    189

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      case of the moth.   Its affinities differ in different  species,  and
      perhaps in different tissues.   -   Author's  Sum.


447.  Henderson,  Y.:   Carbon monoxid poisoning.   J. AMA 67:580-583  (Aug. 19)
      1916.

      Carbon monoxid is  a physiologically harmless gas, except in its
      affinity for hemoglobin.   Its  toxic effects are wholly due to the
      inability of the blood combined with carbon monoxid to transport
      oxygen to the tissues.
             Carbon monoxid does not form a permanent compound with
      hemoglobin.  In the presence of excess oxygen, or even of pure  air,
      carbon monoxid is  rapidly given off and  the oxygen  carrying pcwer
      of the hemoglobin  is restored.
             The continuance of coma, the subsequent tissue  degenerations,
      and death after several days,  resulting  from carbon monoxid
      poisoning,  are not due to retention of the  gas, but are the results
      of injury to the brain and other  organs  by  the insufficiency  of
      oxygen supplied to them by the blood while  the patient was breath-
      ing the gas.
             There is no reason to believe that either bleeding or
      transfusion of blood is beneficial.   They are more  likely to be
      harmful.
             Fresh air—with oxygen  inhalation for a short time as  early
      as possible—symptomatic  treatment,  and  good nursing are the  only
      measures to be recommended.  Practically the die is already cast
      for death,  permanent defects,  or  complete recovery  at  the moment
      when the patient is brought out of the asphyxia! atmosphere.
             It is just  possible theoretically that alkali therapy may
      be beneficial in combating the acidosis  induced by  asphyxia.
      Author's Sum.
448.  Howse,  A.J.G.,  and Seddon,  H.:   Ischaemic contracture of muscle
      associated with carbon monoxide  and barbiturate poisoning.  British
      Med.  J. 1:192-195 (Jan.  22) 1966.

      Four cases of ischaemic muscle contracture associated with carbon
      monoxide or barbiturate poisoning are reported.  It is probable
      that the condition is more  common than the number of previously
      reported cases suggests.
             Ischaemic nerve lesions occur, as in the more usual traumatic
      Vblkmann's ischaemia.
             The cause of this condition is almost certainly a combination
      of local pressure and general hypoxia.  -  Authors' Sum.
                                     190

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449. Ramsey, T.L., and Eilmann, H.J.:  Carbon monoxide  acute and chronic
     poisoning and experimental studies.  J. Lab. & Clinical Med. 17:
     415-427, 1931-1932.

     Presented is a study of  carbon monoxide from a standpoint of the
     method of its production, its affinity for hemoglobin, its  action
     upon being respired, the percentages of blood  saturation in varying
     lengths of time according to the  concentration in  the respired air,
     the symptoms and  effect  upon the  body, possible methods of  its
     elimination from  the body, the production of chronic carbon monoxide
     poisoning, methods of treatment,  the postmortem macroscopic appearances
     of the body following carbon monoxide  deaths,  some important
     medicolegal facts, a series of experiments on  guinea pigs to
     ascertain its persistence in the  body  following exposure, and the
     histopathology of various tissues in animals dying, directly during
     exposure, and those killod and autopsied at varying periods later. -
     Authors' Sum.


450. Root, W.S., Allen, T.H., and Gregersen, M.I.:   Simultaneous determinations
     in splenectomiaed dogs of cell volume  vith CO  and  p32 and plasma volume
     with T-l82fc.  Amer. J. Physiol. 175:233-235, 1953- DDC-AD 3*1898.

     Blood was removed from splenectomized  dogs and separate portions were
     labeled with CO and P^ .  The tagged cells vere then injected into the
     same dog in order to measure the  cell  volume with  the two methods
     simultaneously.   At the  same time plasma volume was measured with
             In 10  dogs the  results  show that the cell volume measured with
      CO is 12$ greater than that measured with P^ -labeled cells, indicating
      that distribution of CO includes more than the circulating cell volume.
      The possibility is considered  that the difference in the estimates of
      cell volume with CO and P^  may be a useful index of changes in
      erythropoietic  tissue.  -  Authors' Sum.


451.  Rounds,  D. E.,  Awa, A., and Pomerat, C. M. :  Effect of automobile
      exhaust on cell growth in vitro.  Arch. Environ. Health 5:319-32li-
      (Oct.)  1962.

      The State of  Calif. Dept. of Public Health has established in its
      standards for motor vehicle exhaust the reduction of hydrocarbon
      emissions by  80$ and carbon monoxide emission by 60$.  These
      standards specify that hydrocarbon concentrations are to be
      monitored by  a  hexane-sensitized nondispersive infrared analyzer or
      by an equivalent method.  Conjunctiva! cells were exposed to an
      atmosphere of gaseous  auto exhaust for varying periods of time,
      ranging from  15 sec. to 2k hrs.  This treatment was observed to
      produce a decrease in  the total mitotic index and an increase in
      abnormal mitotic figures.  The tissue was also treated with varying
      dilutions of  chloroform soluble constituents of auto exhaust with
      similar responses found in mitotic figures.  Since mitotic events
      are interrelated with  the rate of increase of the total cell

                                    191

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      population,  it was concluded that an evaluation of the effect of
      auto exhaust on cell number can provide a simple,  reproducible,  and
      sensitive test system for estimating the relative  concentrations of
      physiologically active components of automobile emissions.   -  APCA


452.  Schleusing,  G. :  Effect of hypoxia or anoxia on the mineral metabolism
      in  the myocardium  and skeletal muscles.   Zeitschrift der Inneren
      Medizin 19:820-822 (Nov.  l) 1961*.

      By  experiments of  neutralization in  vitro and by immunization of
      rabbits no substances corresponding  with  the antigens  of human
      thrombocytes could be proved  in  Czechoslovak vaccines  (dyphtheria,
      tetanus,  whooping-cough,  typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever,  smallpox).
      AB-substances were only found in vaccines against typhoid fever  and
      paratyphoid  fever.   - Author's  Sum.


453 ,  Schmitt,  F.O., and Scott,  M.G. :   Th.3 effect of carbon monoxide on
      tissue respiration.  Amer. J. Physiol. 107:85-93*  ^
     CO containing 21 per cent Og has little effect on the oxygen consumption
     of skin, nerve, kidney or intestine but produces definite accelerations
     with skeletal muscle, stomach, liver, spleen and particularly with
     heart muscle.
            When the oxygen concentration is reduced to lower values, CO
     produces inhibition in all the tissues studied with the exception of
     liver, heart, and skeletal muscle.
            Illumination causes partial, and in some cases complete recovery
     of respiration of the CO-poisoned tissues but has no effect on the
     control tissues in nitrogen containing a similar percentage of oxygen.
     There is some indication that the catalyst of CO combustion is also
     light sensitive.
            With nerve and certain other tissues under favorable conditions
     the shape of the respiration curve during illumination is similar
     to that obtained following admission of oxygen after asphyxia, and
     is interpreted as representing the payment of the oxygen debt incurred
     during the period of partial inhibition.  -  Authors' Sum.
454. Stembridge, V.A., and Goldbaum, L.R. :  The role of the Armed Forces
     Institute of Pathology in tissue toxicity study.  Aviation Med.
     Symposium, Nov. 1957, PP. 5-8.

     During the period from May 1957 through Oct. 1957 » 269 determinations
     for CO have been accomplished at the Armed Forces Institute of
     Pathology utilizing a new method for obtaining a specimen.  Of
     those 110 determinations for carbon monoxide on post-mortem tissues,
     11 (10$) showed an elevation above 10 percent saturation.  Hone of
     these 11 cases were considered a sudden death and in all there was
     evidence that the individual died primarily due to fire.
            Post-mortem CO determinations are done in aircraft accidoat
     victims for two basic reasons:  ilrst, to determine whether carbon

                                     192

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      monoxide vas present in the cockpit environment prior to impact
      (due to such factors as in-flight fires., exhaust fumes or isjproper
      venting of other combustion products) and second, to determine
      vhether or not an individual was alive following an impact associated
      with fire. -  From Text-AGC
      Vision Impairment
455.   Abt,  I.A.,  and Witt,  D.B.:   A case of carbon monoxide poisoning in
      a child.  Med. Clin.  North America 5:16^5-1651, 1922.

      Acute carbon monoxide poisoning of a five year old boy who suffered
      total blindness, is described in this paper.  The effect of CO
      poisoning on the blood and on various tissues and organs, particularly
      on the nervous structures,  is discussed.  Possibility of permanent
      blindness,  assumed to be due to small hemorrhages or areas of
      softening in the visual centers, is outlined.
             Authors review some of the hypotheses of other investigators
      in regard to the pathological changes produced by CO.  Hemorrhages
      in the brain, degenerations, and optic thalmus, thrombosis, and
      areas of softening in the central nervous tissue and scattered
      small, hemorrhages and intense hyperemia of all the body organs may
      occur as consequences to this type of poisoning.  -  AGC


455a. Adler, A.:  Disintegration and restoration of optic recognition in visual
      agnosia. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 51:243-259, 1944.

      A case of visual agnosia in a woman aged 22 has been described,  the course
      of the illness having been followed from the first day until  the condition
      became stationary.  The patient is 1 of the 2 persons in whom permanent
      lesions of the brain were produced, probably by carbon monoxide  fumes, in
      a fire disaster at a night club on Nov. 28, 1942.
             The fundamental disturbance consists of the patient's  inability to
      perceive the whole, the Gestalt, visually.   Only parts of the whole are
      perceived,  and their correct relation is not recognl2ed.   This results in
      an inability to read, to copy letters and geometric figures and  to recog-
      nize pictures or objects on short exposure.  Writing is unimpaired.
             Owing to the patient's intelligence and insight into her  disability,
      It was possible to identify an additional disturbance in the  nature of a
      perserveration of visual attention and optic impressions.  Preceeding optic
      impressions superimpose themselves on subsequent ones, so that proper per-
      ception and recognition are interferred with.  This symptom is of the same
      category as psychomotor perseveration and perseveration of speech and writ-
      ing.
             According to Lissauer's first description,  such a condition belongs
      to the "apperceptive!> type  of visual agnosia, since there is  a primary dis-
      turbance of optic perception.  In this patient the disturbance is clearcut
      to an unusual degree.  The  identity of the mechanism exhibited by  this
      patient in each of the disorders of visual performance makes  it  unlikely
                                     193

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     that the various symptoms of optic agnosia have a separate localizing
     significance.
            Compensatory efforts to build up new methods of visual recognition
     should be encouraged.  Constant practice is necessary, since such a patient
     is  likely to distort and to forget what he has learned. - Author's Sum.


456. Almgren, S. :  Twelve years experience in the field of chronic
     carbon monoxide poisoning in Sweden.  Arch. f. Gewerbepath. u.
     Gewerbehyg. 13:97-131,
     In  Sweden there was extremely high incidence of CO poisoning as a
     result of use of generator gas for automobiles and internal
     combustion engines in general.  This gas contained 20-30$ CO.
     Most of the workers in filling and cleaning of gas containers had
     more than 10$ CO-hemoglobin and 29 of 30 fatal cases going to autopsy
     showed CO saturation.
            Giddiness was shown on investigation by an otoneurologist
     to  be associated in many cases with organic vestibular injury.
            Other symptoms included ocular disorders (Disturbance of
     convergence and accommodation; diplopia; paresis of the eye
     muscles; and limitation of the field of vision); change of dis-
     position with disorientation, absence of mind and poor judgement
     of  distance leading to accidents.  In reply to criticisms that
     these symptoms were colored by neurotic patients and that the
     ocular and aural symptoms were over-diagnosed, the author details
     five special cases.


457. Feje'r, G. :  Blindness caused by inhalation of coal gases, recovery.
     Amer. J. Ophthalmol. 7:522-523, 1924.

     In  the case here reported, disturbance of vision was noted on regaining
     consciousness, but it became worse, until two days later the patient
     was practically blind.  Recovery was almost complete.  The lesions seem
     to  have been located in or near the cortical centers.  -  Author's Abst.
 458. Pink, A. I.:  Carbon-monoxide asphysia with visual sequelae.  Amer.
      J. Ophthalmol. 3^:102^-1027 (July) 1951-

      The  cerebral effects following carbon-monoxide asphyxia can be
      extremely varied.
            Severe reductions in visual acuity following exposure to the
      gas  are thought due to cortical blindness.
            Alterations in the visual fields do not conform to any single
      pattern.
            In many cases, perception for primary colors is present in
      spite of a severe reduction in visual acuity.  This is unusual
      since centers for both reside in the occipital cortex.  -  Author1 s
      Sum*
                                     194

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459.Gilinskiy, V.A., Chapek, A.V., Kozlova, A.G., Kulikova, N.M., and
     A. Ya. Loshak:  The effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide
     on man in pressurized cabins of passenger planes.  In:  Parin, V.V.
     (editor) Aviation and Space Medicine, Moscow., 1963.  NASA Technical
     Translation TT-F-228.

                 . Pressure-chamber experiments vrere performed on 82 persons
     to study the effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide.  Also,
     30 flights on IL-18, AN-10, and TU-104 planes vrere made during
     which 185 members of the crew and passengers were examined and 3^7
     air samples were obtained in the cabins.  The results of the
     investigations showed that 3 hours' exposure to carbon monoxide
     (starting with 0.01 ing/liter or more), both under experimental
     conditions (ground and pressure-chamber at 2^00 m) and during actual
     flight had adverse effects on the functioning of several organs and
     systems, namely:  (a)  Higher nervous activity; (b) Functions of the
     visual and vestibular analyzers; (c) Metabolic processes; (d) Cardio-
     vascular system; (e) Muscular strength; (f) Tissue respiration and;
     (g) Leukopoiesis.  On the basis of the physiological-sanitary data
     obtained and the results of laboratory tests, it is suggested that
     the maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in
     pressurized passenger airplane cabins be 0.01 ing/liter.  -  Authors'
     Abst.


1+60. Halperin, M.H., Niven, J.I., McFarland, R.A., and Roughton,  F.J.W.:
     Variations in visual thresholds during carbon monoxide and hypoxic anoxia.
     Fed. Proc. (Abstract) 6:120-121, 1947.

     The comparative and combined effects of carbon monoxide and hypoxic anoxia
     on human visual intensity discrimination, as well as the effects  of normal
     and high Q£ atmospheres during recovery from CO, were investigated.
           In previous studies we have found that the measurement of visual
     intensity discrimination thresholds at a low level of illumination provides
     a very sensitive, useful and precise quantitative index of the physiological
     disturbance caused by oxygen deprivation.  We therefore applied the same
     technique in measuring the effects of small amounts of CO.  Extensive studies
     were carried out on four well-trained subjects.
           A given increase in % COHb in the blood at sea level produces an
     effect approximately equal to that of an equal decrease in % 02Hb due to
     hypoxic anoxia.  At simulated high altitudes, a given % COHb produces an
     impairment equivalent to a further ascent which would cause an equal
     additional decrease in % 02Hb.  The visual threshold is therefore much more
     sensitive to CO than are other physiological functions so far investigated.
           In studying the recovery from CO, we found that the inhalation of
     oxygen, in addition to its value in accelerating the elimination of CO, had
     another beneficial effect as compared with the inhalation of ordinary air.
     An added improvement equivalent to a decrease of about 5 to 7% COHb was
     produced, by breathing oxygen.  When the subjects then breathed ordinary air,
     the thresholds were again impaired by this amount.  If, instead of oxygen,
     the subject breathed ordinary air throughout the recovery period, the
     visual thresholds failed to recover as rapidly as the % COHb declined. -
     Authors' Abst.

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461.  Halperin, M.H., McFarland, R.A., Niven, J.I., and Roughton, F.J.W.:
      The time course of the  effects  of carbon monoxide on visual
      thresholds.   J. Physiol.  146:583-593,  1959.

      Visual sensitivity to differences in light intensity was employed as
      a sensitive  indeK of (i)  the  effects of carbon monoxide, and of  (ii)
      the persistence of these  effects during elimination of this gas while
      ordinary air, oxygen and  carbogen mixtures were breathed.
             Recovery from detrimental effects of carbon monoxide on this
      visual function lags behind the elimination of carbon monoxide from
      the blood,  the effect apparently being determined by the duration of
      the presence of carbon  monoxide in  the blood as well as its concentra-
      tion.
             Administration of  100% oxygen results in an immediate improve-
      ment which disappears when ordinary air is again breathed.  This
      suggests the possible existence in  the C.N.S. and/or peripheral visual
      system of  some enzyme or  other  visually important constituent which
      combines competitively  with carbon  monoxide and oxygen.
             Carbogen not only  causes more rapid elimination of carbon
      monoxide from the body, but seems to have a somewhat more beneficial
      countering effect against carbon monoxide than does oxygen. - Authors'
      Sum.
 462.  Helminen, T. :   On opbthalmolo&ical symptoms of chronic CO poisoning.
      Archiv fur Gewerbehygiene 13:132-138,
      The author describes a case of complete blindness caused by acute
      CO poisoning.  The patient recovered within one month her  normal
      visual capacity, however,  a pecularity could "be ascertained with
      the return of her color field vision.  The author assumed  it to
      "be a symptom due to CO poisoning.   After the 2nd World War,  CO
      poisoning became the first major research project at the new clinic
      for occupational diseases.  The findings were  supported  by the
      work of another scientist who ascertained extensive changes in the
      brain of a person who died of acute CO poisoning.  Among others,
      he found necrotic lesions.  Since it was assumed that repeated
      exposures to CO may cause changes In the organism, for example in
      the brain tissue, neurologic investigations were included  in the
      research project.  The author investigated 570 ophthalmological
      cases, under suspicion of CO poisoning, in course of which he made
      1270 examinations of both sides of the field of vision.  Which
      means that he examined each patient 2.5 times, in some cases a
      patient was examined more often.  The results  of the investigations
      showed:  concentric shrinkage of the color field of vision.  The
      author used blue, green, red and white objects.  The blue  and green
      fields of vision were more limited than the red field of vision.
      By severe poisoning all color fields of vision were inside 10° and
      also the white field showed clearly a concentric shrinkage.  During
      reconvalescence the red field of vision enlarged faster, the blue
      and green fields slower.  According to the author, in the  case of
      doubt whether the patient is the victim of CO poisoning  the concentric
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     shrivelling of the color fields of vision is  to be considered a
     symptom supporting the  diagnosis.  -   From Gerraan-AGC


463, Johnson, D.M.:   Killer  on our highway.  Good  Housekeeping,  June 1961,
     pp. 49 and 146-148.

     This  is a report of  auto accidents fatal or near  fatal possibly caused
     by the inhalation of CO.  Author relates her  own  experience of CO
     asphyxiation,  and describes  the symptoms before she was overcome by
     CO fumes and crashed into another automobile.  When she felt a strong
     sensation of drowsiness she  wanted to pull off  the road but was
     unable to see  the side  due to, as she found out later,  the  narrowing
     of the field of  vision  caused by the  CO.  In  being overpowered by the
     drowsiness she lost  judgement, control and consciousness, due to the
     fact  that the  inhaled lethal CO combines more than 200 times faster
     with  the blood than  oxygen.   Thus the saturated blood cannot absorb
     enough life-giving oxygen.  Deprived  of oxygen  the brain is affected
     sometimes severely and  sometimes permanently.  Author in quoting
     several case histories  makes a plea  for more  research.   Blood tests
     which are made routinely for the presence of  alcohol, should be  done
     just  as routinely for the presence of CO in accident  cases.  Only the
     city  of Philadelphia is doing these  tests routinely when someone dies
     in a  wreck.  Philadelphia's  medical  examiner  states that an appreciable
     percentage of  drivers who die in automobile accidents have  significant
     levels of CO  in  their blood.  Author cautions driver  to be  aware that
     CO  is odorless,  to keep the  car in good running condition and well
     ventilated - AGC


 464. Kelly, R.G.C., and Hall, R.L.:  A survey of the visual problems
     relating to motor accidents.  In: Elliott, H»  (editor): Medical
     Aspects of Traffic Accidents.  Proc.  Montreal Conf.,  May 1955•
     Traffic Accident Foundation for Medical Res., 1955, PP. 317-322.

     One  chapter of this  book on traffic  accidents deals with ocular
     manifestations of traffic accidents.   And the following is  excerpted
      from the  survey of the  visual problems relating to such accidents.
       The  ability to see  at  night is cut  down fey alcohol,  carbon monoxide,
     anoxia and smoking cigarrettes.  Carbon monoxide  way  come from break-
     ing gaskets, mufflers or tail pipes.   McFarland found that  5%
      saturation with CO depresses visual  sensitivity to as great an
     extent as  anoxia at  8,000 to 10,000  feet altitude, while 15$
      saturation caused an impairment corresponding to  that of 15>000 to
     19,000  feet  altitude.  Other harmful effects  of CO in addition to
     this  visual  effect are  of course present.
                                     197

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465.  Knapp, H.:   A case of paresis of the eye muscle by carbon monoxide
      asphyxiation.  Archive fiir Augenheilkunde 9:229-231, i860.

      Author describes a case of acute CO poisoning resulting in the
      paralysis of the eye muscles.  The patient did not respond to
      various treatments, however, recovered partially after two months,
      leaving paresis of the sphincter of the pupil and the ciliary
      muscle.  Available literature does not report cases of paralytic
      affection of eye muscles as a result of CO poisoning, but it does
      report on cases where other parts of the body have been afflicted
      by this type of poisoning.  -  From German-AGC


 466.  McFarland,R.A.,  Roughton,F.J.W.,et al.:   The  effect of CO and altitude
      on visual thresholds.   Aviation Med. 15:381-394, 1944.

      The light sensitivity  of the eye is adversely affected by very
      small amounts of CO, "measurable impairment being demonstrable with
      increments  of about 3% carboxyhemoglobin*"  - PHS-RG 5676"


      McFarland,  R.A.,  Dunlap,  J.W.,  Hall, W.A., Moseley,  A.L.:  Human
      Factors in  the Design  of Highway Transport Equipment.  A Summary
      Report of Vehicle Evaluation.   Harvard School of Public  Health,  June
      1953, PP. 44, figures  and tables.

      There is one small section on CO in this  treatise (pp. 37-39).
      Concerning  the adequacy of the  cab  in regard  to overall  safety.  Tests
      were conducted on closed,  moving cabs and on  closed cabs (i.e. all
      doors,  windows,  and vents closed) after 15 minutes  of standing with
      the engine  idling.   A  table shows  following results:

           In %                  In PPM 10,000          The Effect Is:
           0.01$                1/100,000           Wo symptoms for 2 hours
           0.04$                4/10,000            Wo symptoms for 1 hour
           0.06-0.07$           6-7/10,000          Headache & unpleasant
                                                      symptoms in 1 hour
           0.10-0,12$           10-12/10,000        Dangerous after 1 hour
           0.35$                35/l°>000           Fatal in less than 1 hour

     Authors  state that prolonged periods of exposure tc 0.01$ should not
     be permitted, and warns that the inspiration of carbon monoxide does
     not have to produce  serious toxic effects to become a source of hazard.
     Sensory  losses, especially in vision occur at low carboxyhemoglobin
     levels,  so that every reasonable control is essential.  -  AGC


 468. McFarland, R.A.:  Human factors in air transportation.  McGraw-Hill,
     Hew York, 1953, PP»  301-303.

     R.J.  Goldsmith  and L.H. Rogers are quoted to the effect that  "The
     importance to automobile  drivers of visual  sensitivity at night is
     obvious.  However, it has not been shown that exposure to automobile


                                    198

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     exhaust at the levels found on the freeways of a modern  city impairs
     the adaptability of eyes to darkness or alters the exchange  of vital
     respiratory gases, although this is a plausible inference*"  -
     PHS-RG 5676


469, McFarland, R.A., and Moseley, A.L.:  Carbon monoxide  in  trucks and
     buses and information from other areas of research on carbon monoxide,
     altitude and cigarette smoking.  Conf. Froc.: Health, Medical  and
     Drug Factors in Highway Safety, April  1SS4, T7asli., D.C., Nat. Acad. Sc. •
     Rat. Res. Council Pub. 320, Sept. 1964, pp. 4.17-4.33.

     Data were presented concerning the frequency and severity of carbon
     monoxide accidents in passenger and cargo operation in interstate com-
     merce.  Approximately 1.3 percent of mechanical defects  accidents from
     1947-1951 are known to be due to carbon monoxide.  Fatalities  and
     property damage accidents were higher for property carrying  vehicles
     than for passenger carrying vehicles while injuries were higher in the
     latter*  Fatalities occurred while vehicles were stopped, and  injuries
     tended to occur while the vehicle was in motion.  The fatality and
     injury rates are disproportionate in relation to the  total of  mechani-
     cal defects accidents.
           Carbon monoxide sources within the vehicle are  due primarily
     to  engine exhaust and secondarily to combustion of lubricating oils
     and sources in  other vehicles.  Accessability to the  cab is  through
     the breather, manifold, head gaskets, muffler, tail pipe, air  tank and
     air operated devices and their connections, fittings  and exhausts.  In
     some vehicles an extra source was found in methods of heating  and of
     preventing engine freezing in cold weather.
           Operational data in a closed idling test after  15 minutes disclosed
     100 p.p.m. CO concentration in 10 truck models, no level in  one, and 200
     p.p.m. in one*  In five of six buses the finding was  less than 10 p.p.m.
     and in one was  100 p.p.m.  Two units converted to bookmobiles  gave 200
     p.p.m. readings after 15 minutes of operation of a. single gasoline heater,
     Using a highway test of 45 minutes of closed roadway  operation, tests on
     20  trucks and 60 buses yielded CO values of less than 10 p,p,m.
           Clinical evidence of CO exposure was found in the personnel of the
     bookmobiles.
           While gross studies of driving do not show losses due  to CO until
     30% arterial saturation is reached, studies of differential  brightness
     threshold indicate that visual sensitivity and acuity under  low illumin-
     ation conditions are negatively influenced by anoxia  and exposure to CO.
     The effects are progressive as the oxyhembglobin decreases,  and as
     carboxyhemoglobin increases.  The effects are produced by smoking.
     Visual losses due to anoxia may be offset in part by  increasing the
     level of blood  sugar. - Authors' Sum.


 470. Wechsler, I.S.:  Partial cortical blindness with preservative  of
     color vision.  Arch. Qphthalmol. 9:957-9^5, 1933*

     !Ehis is a report of a case fcllowing possible CO asphyxiation,
     whereby the patient suffered a brain lesion in which  the cortex vas


                                     199

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     extensively affected.  It has been established "by clinical observation
     and pathologic studies that cortical and subcortical lesions may
     give rise to dissociation of color perception from visual acuity,
     namely, loss of former without impairment of the latter; it is also
     well known that in impairment of vision, whether peripheral or
     central, the first to be lost and the last to be regained is the
     perception of color.
            Author points out that GO has a preoilation for the basal
     ganglious, especially causing lenticular softening, and for the
     peripheral nerves, but no part of nervous system is irranune to the
     poison.  Parkinsonian syndromes and peripheral nerve palsies
     frequently characterize CO poisoning.  Mental deterioration and
     psychotic laanifestations so commonly encountered attest the additional
     cortical involment, as well as Parkinsouian syndromes and peripheral
     nerve palsies.  -  .AGG


 471. Wilmer, W.H.:  Effects of carbon monoxid upon the eye.  Amer. J.
     Ophthalmol. 4:73-89 (Feb.) 1921.

     This paper gives a general survey of the subject and includes a graphic
     description of the subjective and general nutritional effects of
     carbon monoxid poisoning, by one of the victims; and incidentally
     throws light on the origin of a story of a haunted house.  It gives
     an account of the ocular symptoms of such poisoning, revealing a
     distinct tendency of the poison to cause neuritis and especially to
     affect the optic nerve. - Author's Abst.


472. Xintaras, C., ULrich, C.E.,  Sobecki,  M.F.,  and Terrill,  R.E.:
     Brain potentials studied by computer analysis.  Arch.  Environ.
     Health, in press.

     The operation of an on-line digital computer that summates evoked
     low-amplitude brain responses to flashes of light in the implanted
     rat is described.  The application of this technique in developing
     a "biological model" for inducing a reversible functional blindness
     in rats inhaling carbon monoxide is considered.   The differential
     rate of recovery of specific components of the evoked response  to
     carbon monoxide and pentobarbital are more easily resolved with
     this method.  The use of the technique of the evoked response in
     parallel animal and human inhalation toxicity studies involving
     time-limited perceptual phenomena is suggested.   -  Authors'  Abst.


BLOOD CHEMISTRY
     Hemoglobin


473. Abramson, E. and Heyman, T.:  Dark adaptation and inhalation of carbon
     monoxide. Acta Physiol. Scandinavia 7:303-305, 1944,

     Inhalation of carbon monoxide, producing coi.'.t«ntj of carbon monoxide
     haemoglobin up to 307., causes a diminution of dark adaptation,  sometimes

                                     200

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     considerable sometimes smaller or none.  It cannot be excluded that this
     condition may have practical significance for motorcar driving in the dark,
     e.g., in conjunction with dazzle when meeting. - Authors' Sum.


474. Almgren,  S. :  Twelve years experience in the field of chronic
     carbon monoxide poisoning in Sweden.  Arch. f. Gewerbepath.  u.
     Gewerbehyg. 13:97-131,
     In Sweden there was extremely high incidence of CO poisoning as a
     result of use of generator gas for automobiles and internal
     combustion engines in general.  This gas contained 20-30$ CO.
     Most of the workers in filling and cleaning of gas containers had
     more than 10$ CO-hemoglobin and 29 of 30 fatal cases going to autopsy
     showed CO saturation.
            Giddiness was shown on investigation by an otoneurologist
     to be associated in many cases with organic vestibular injury.
            Other symptoms included ocular disorders (Disturbance of
     convergence and accommodation; diplopia; paresis of the eye
     muscles; and limitation of the field of vision); change of dis-
     position with disorientation, absence of mind and poor judgement
     of distance leading to accidents.  In reply to criticisms that
     these symptoms were colored by neurotic patients and that the
     ocular and aural symptoms were over-diagnosed, the author details
     five special cases.
 475. Arena, J.M. :  Carbon Jfonoxide: Beport from The Bake University Poison
     Control Center.  North Carolina Med. J. 2k: 28-29 (Jan.) 1963.

     This short paper summarizes the effect of CO poisoning on the  health
     of man and advises on respective treatments.  There is also a
     description of symptoms, in relation to percentage of CO in the
     atmosphere, duration of exposure and saturation of the blood.   -
     AGO
 476. Ayres, S.M., Giannelli, S., Jr.,  and Armstrong,  R.G.:
     Carboxyhemoglobin:  Hemodynamic and respiratory responses to  small
     concentrations.  Science 1^9:193-19^ (July 9) 1965-

     Hemodynamic and respiratory measurements were made on humans  before
     and after inhalation of sufficient carbon monoxide to raise the
     Carboxyhemoglobin to between 5$ and 10$ of saturation.  Arterial and
     mixed-venous oxygen tensions decreased on average 7«3$ and  13-
     respectively.  One of five subjects developed evidence of mild
     left-ventricular dysfuction.  -  Authors' Abst.
                                    201

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477. Barcroft, J., and Barcroft, H. :  Observations on the talcing up of
     carbon monoxide by the haemoglobin in the spleen.  J. Physiol. 53:
              1923-1921*.
     When the haemoglobin of the spleen pulp, in rats breathing -06--1
     p.c. CO, is compared with that of the general circulation,, there is
     a lag between the percentage of CO haemoglobin in the general
     circulation and that in the spleen pulp which, it is shown, may
     attain thirty minutes.  A similar lag which may attain ninety minutes
     in demonstration in rats which have been breathing CO and are
     exhaling this gas.  •  Authors' Conclusion
 478.Barcroft, J., Murray, C.D., Orahovats,  D.,  Sands,  J.,   and Weiss,  R.:
     The influence of the spleen in carbon monoxide poisoning.  J.
     Physiol. 60:79-84, 1925.

     In an atmosphere which receives a continuous accession of coal gas,
     guinea-pigs  from which the spleens have been removed die sooner than
     either normal guinea-pigs, those from which omentum has been
     removed, or  those from which one horn of the uterus has been excised.
            Excision of the spleen four days prevously does not prej«dico
     the length of life of guinea-pigs when exposed to an increasing
     concentration of hydrocyanic acid, a gas which kills by a means
     quite unconnected with haemoglobin.
            The effects of removal of the spleen are not due to
     haemorrhage  during the operation.
            Having regard to the fact that in fatal pressure of carbon
     monoxide the spleen contracts, expelling its contents into the
     blood, it Is suggested that the longer life of the normal animals
     is due to this accession of haemoglobin to the blood.
            The percentage saturation of the blood with CO is almost the
     same in all  the categories of animals.  -  Authors' Sum.


479. Beck, H.G.,  and Fort, W.:  Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.   Ann.
     Clin. Med. 3:^37-^3, 192^-1925.

     Two case studies of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning are discussed
     in detail in this paper.  Because of the manifold and protean character
     of the clinical manifestations,  only a few of the more common symptoms
     could be given in this paper.  The pallor of many patients resembled
     a high grade of anemia,  as well as a group of symptoms are suggestive
     of anemia in the presence of a red cell count of over 5,000,000.
     This condition is of considerable diagnostic significance.  There
     is no specific antidote for chronic carbon monoxide poisoning and
     treatment has to be symptomatic.
            An English bull dog vas named the victim In & $tolrd case study
     of carbon monoxide poisoning.  The blood examination showed a
     hemoglobin of 95$, erythrocytes 5,120,000 and leukocytes 12,250.
     There were no morphological changes in the red cells.  -  AGC
                                   202

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1*80.  Behrike, A=R.,, White, W.A. , Consolazio, W.J., and Pace, N. :  A Study
      of Repeat Daily Short Exnosure to High Concentrations of  CO.  U.S.
      Ifeval Med. Res. Inst., Ttethesada, Md. , Report NO. 1, June 7, 1943,
      PP* 5.

      It has been found that the breathing of uncontaminated air by men
      whose blood contain 20 to 23 per cent COHb results in the complete
      clearance of CO from their bl^od veil within 2k hours.  In fact,
      the elimination is practically complete within 8 hours after removal
      from air containing CO.
             Four men at rest who breathed 20 parts per 10,000 of CO for
      90 minutes daily for four consecutive days, and who reached blood
      levels of PS -ner cent COHb by this exposure, failed to show any
      cumulative CO saturation of the blood.

           Some of these men showed mild symptoms of CO anoxia during
      the course of the experiment.  However, the symptoms did not appear
      to be progressive or cumilative, and all four men were symptom-free
      on the last day of exposure to CO.
           If pure oxygen is breathed following exposure to CO, previous
      work indicates that the elimination time is reduced to a period of
      30 to 60 minutes when compared with 8 hours for air.
           Tn view of this and other evidence, it is concluded that short
      (i.e., 20 minutes) daily exposures to concentrations of 15 parts
      per 10,000 of CO as encountered on the ACV class of naval vessel
      is permissible for non-flying personnel in view of the emergency
      nature of the operations leading to such conditions.  -  Authors1
      Sum.

   481.Brieger, H.:  Carbon monoxide polycythemia.  J. Indust. Hyg. &
      Toxicol. 26:321-32? (Dec.)
      Polycythemia, a typical reaction to low oxygen saturation, is
      believed to be a regular sign of carbon monoxide asphyxia.  It is
      supposed to compensate for the hemoglobin fixed to carbon monoxide
      and thus contribute in the defense of the organism.  Gradual
      disappearance of the polycythemia follows as a rule the disappearance
      of carbon monoxide hemoglobin.  Experiments described in this paper
      deal with acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning which furnish
      some new information on polycythemia in acute and chronic carbon
      monoxide poisoning.  -  AGC


481a. Candura, P., Craveri, A., and Brasca, F. :  Fibrinolysis in acute carbon
      monoxide poisoning.  Experimental research.  Folia Med. (Naples)
      44:400-408  (May) 1961.

      In experiments with rabbits, the authors studied the fibrinolytic
      behavior of the blood serum following acute or fatal poisoning with
      city-gas (CO content of 1.8-5%).  A constant and significant increase
      in the content of fibrinolysin or plasmin, was found.  This resulting
      increase in the fibrinolytic power of the blood may explain the
      occasional finding of a fluidity of the post-mortem state of the

                                    203

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      blood following a CO-poisoning death.  No correlation was found
      between  the rate of increase of fibrinolysis and the blood hemoglobin
      CO  (HbCO)  level.  In view of the absence of any correlation, it is
      suggested  by  the authors that post-mortem blood fluidity—a finding
      which is not  wholly characteristic of CO poisoning--might occur through
      nonspecific mechanisms which are brought into action by stress.
      - APCA 4255


 482. Candura,  P.,  and Craveri,  A.:   Value and significance of fibrinolysis
      in experimental carbon monoxide intoxication.   Rass.  Med.  Indust.
      33:404-406 (May-Aug.)  1964.

      Starting from the observation of the fluidity of the  blood of
      subjects who have died from asphyxia,  a study has been made on the
      behaviour of fibrinolysis in animals acutely intoxicated with
      carbon monoxide.  The increase of fibrinolysis is found  only in
      vivo, even in animals after removal of the  adrenals.   The  removal
      of the spleen however,  prevents the occurance of this process,  so
      that two hypotheses may be advanced:   the freeing of  "ipossilienina"
      capable of orientig the blood coagulation towards hypocoagulability
      or the immission of splenin B in the circulation, a principle with
      a profibrinolytic activity.   -  Authors'  Sum.


 483. Cerlsten, A., Holmgren, A.,  Linroth, K»f  Sjttstrand, T.,  and Strfim, G-.:
      Relationship between lov values of alveolar carbon monoxide concentration
      and carboxyhemoglobin percentage in human blood. Acta Physiol.
      Scandinav. 31:62-74, 1954.

      Alveolar CO concentration and COHb percentage in blood were determined
      in 55 subjects before and after exposure to low concentrations of CO.
             Percentage of COHb in blood was found to increase in,
      approximately, direct relationship with increasing values of alveolar
      pCO within the investigated range (below 6$ COHb), as predicted by
      Haldane's equation.
             The mean value of M in Haldane's equation for  the whole range
      of alveolar CO concentrations vas 245.
             When a small amount of CO was administered to  a subject, the
      Increase of COHb percentage was related to  the increase  of alveolar
      CO concentration by the value of M of 228 + 6,  S.D. 45 + 5.
             The variation of M in the material Investigated could be explained
      as produced wholly by errors in measurement.  Therefore, no real
      variation of M between different subjects could be established.  -
      Authors'  Sum*


484.-  Castellino, N.,  and Perla, V.:   Carbon monoxide  concentration in the
      blood.  Folia'Med. 42:209-222  (March)  1959.

      Blood concentrations of carbon monoxide was  measured  in  302 patients:
      46 with diabetes, 66 with gastrointestinal and hepatic disturbances,
      38 with anemia,  30 "with cardiac  conditions,  74 with respiratory

                                      204

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     ailments, and in a group of patients with occupational diseases:
     24 with caisson disease and Ik with lead poisoning.  The readings
     were compared with those obtained from 100 normal subjects.  In
     only a very few patients with uncompensated cardiocirculatory
     disturbances or respiratory diseases was any increase in the hematic
     CO level noted,  The high concentration in these particular morbose
     conditions is attributed to incomplete CO elimination through the
     lungs, with a consequent build-up in the blood, rather than, as
     others have argued, to oxygen insufficiency, with a consequent
     failure to oxidiae carbon to carbohydrate.  Hence tha presence of CO
     in the human bloodstream must be considered as of foreign origin.
     The wide variations observed, under normal as well as pathological
     conditions, simply reflect heavier absorption or a lowered elimination
     rate as a result of individual or environmental differences*  -
     Authors' Sum.
485. Chiodi, H., Dill, D.B, Consolazio, F., and Horvath,  S.M.:   Respiratory
     and circulatory responses to acute carbon monoxide poisoning.   Amer.
     J. Physiol. 134:683-693 (Nov. l) 1941.

     No hyperpnea was observable during rest in either dogs or men when
     subjected to acute and severe CO poisoning.  The C02 combining capacity
     was unchanged, the arterial pC02 was increased, and accordingly the
     pH was shifted toward the acid side.
            In severe CO poisoning the respiratory center was  depressed.
            The cardiac output showed no more than slight increases with
     HbCO saturations ranging up to 30 per cent.  From that level up to 50
     per cent HbCO the cardiac output increased as much as one-half.
            The direct action on the respiratory center of the acute hypoxemia
     produced by CO poisoning that is severe yet compatible with life is
     purely depressive in nature.
            From the data given the oxygen tension in venous blood can be
     calculated for various levels of HbCO.  -  Authors'  Sum.


486. Chinn, H.I.:  The Effect of Stacking at Simulated Altitudes on
     Carboxyhemoglobin Formation.  School of Aviation Medicine,  Randolph
     AFB, Texas, Feb. 29, 19^4, 3 pp.  HOC AD 121 ?07«

     The Carboxyhemoglobin concentration of blood in regular smokers
     (10 to 30 cigarettes dally) averaged £.2 per cent of the  total hemo-
     globin.
            After smoking 4 cigarettes in 30 minutes, the concentration
     of Carboxyhemoglobin rose to 3*9 per cent.
            There was no significant difference between the Carboxyhemo-
     globin concentration after smoking at ground levels  or at simulated
     altitudes of 12,000 or 15,000 feet.
            The increased caitoxybaaaoglobin after smoking is of little
     significance at ground levels but becomes increasingly Important at
     altitudes above 10*000 feet.  -  Author's Abst.
                                     205

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Chovin, P. :  Studies of Atmospheric Pollution in the Department of
the Seine, in 1963.  Municipal laboratory Police Headquarters, Paris,
France,
1963 test results for continuing studies in Paris, France, titled
"Carbon Monoxide/1 "Policemen 1963," "Seine Loop," and "Smokeless
Zones,"  are reported.  Previous years' results are confirmed.
Surface and underground tunnel measurements of CO in air are
compared.  The CO pollution level in the air went from "considerable"
in 1962 to "serious" in 1963, but in the first 9 months of 196^,
the situation reversed to that of 1962.  The increase in 1963 is
ascribed to the number of nev roads and concurrent traffic increase.
CO levels in blood were examined in a CO-exposed population consisting
of industrial employees, auto drivers involved in accidents, and
individuals suffering from CO exposure.  Tests for "average real
risk" of carbon monoxide absorption by individuals indicated that
the auto drivers as a group had a much higher level of carbon
monoxide in the blo«d than that of the rest of the population
studied, including workers exposed professionally.  -  CBK (from
French)
Curphey, T.J., Hood, L.F.L., and Perkins,  N.M, :   Carboxyhemoglobin
in relation to air pollution and smoking.   Arch.  Environ.  Health
10:179-185 (Feb.) 1965.

A total of 1,075 coroners' cases, for each of which a carbon monoxide
blood concentration determination has been made,  were classified
as to smoking habits to ascertain what, if any,  association existed
between the carbon monoxide content in the ambient air, smoking
history, and carboxyhemoglobin levels found in cadaver blood.  Persons
classified as nonsmokers were presumed to have been exposed in the
last  2k hours of life only to atmospheric carbon monoxide.
       Analysis of the data reveals that nonsmokers consistently had
lower carbon monoxide values than smokers.  In the one instance
where analysis was possible on the basis of sex,  the median value
for male nonsmokers was greater by a factor of two, than for- female
nonsmokers.  Graphically and by statistical analysis, the variables
of age, location of examination, time of day,  and day in week of
death, maximum-minimum temperatures, or causes of death revealed
little or  no individual effect on carboxyhemoglobin levels.  This
was true for nonsmokers as well as for smokers.   Smoking remained
constant as the major variable associated with observed differences.
When  analysis was made to determine what association if any among
nonsmokers existed between carboxyhemoglobin levels and ambient air
carbon monoxide content, the association was significant (p<0.05).
This  significant association was not noted for every location.
       This study points out the potentialities of utilizing populations
and other  facilities of the chief medical examiner- coroner's office
in furthering explorations in the field of air pollution research in
general and the effects of carbon monoxide in particular.   -
Authors' Sum.
                               206

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489. De Bruin, A., Vroege, D., and Van Haeringen, A.:  Study of carbon
     monoxide uptake in traffic policemen.  T. Soc. Geneesk. 43:146-151
     (March 5) 1965.

     The HbCO-content of the blood of 36 municipal traffic policemen--
     non-smokers—in Rotterdam exposed to exhaust from motor vehicles,
     during one to four hours, has been measured.  The data were compared
     to those of a control group of 16 non-smoking policemen working in
     the office.  Blood samples have been taken before and after vork.
     The HbCO-content was on the average 0*93$ before work and increased
     to 1.11$ in the exposed group, whereas the HbCO-content in the
     control group remained about the same.  The peak CO-content in
     the air was between 5-15 ppm.  The chemical analysis has been
     performed with two independent methods.  -  APCA 65-154


 490. Dominguez, A.M., Halstead, J.R., and Domanski, T.J.:  Determination
     of Carboxyhemoglobin in Decomposed Bodies.  Armed Forces Institute
     of Pathology, Washington, D.C., July 1963, 15 Pp.   DDC AD 420631.

     The interpretation and the significance of carbon monoxide findings
     in cases associated with decomposition is studied.  The evidence
     presented indicates that the percentage of carboxyhemoglobin
     saturation value is not markedly altered during postmortem decomposition
     when:   (l) the specimens are properly preserved, and (2) the blood
     extracted from tissue is examined as soon as possible for the
     presence of  carbon monoxide.  It appears possible to obtain carbon
     monoxide values, utilizing blood extracted from tissue, in the
     presence of postmortem decomposition that are similar to the
     antemortem levels.  For example, within the 4$ to 12$ carboxyhemoglobin-
     saturation range covered, there was neither a marked increase nor
     decrease in  final percentage of carboxyhemog2«>bin following
     decomposition.  Nevertheless, unreliable carboxyhemoglobin saturation
     values  may occur.  A gas-solid chromatographic procedure for
     determining  carbon monoxide using blood or tissue is presented.
     This procedure employs a Van SLyke apparatus for liberating gases
     from biological specimens modified for introducing  released gas into
     the gas chromatograph.  -  Authors' Abst.
 491,  Douglas,  C.G.,  and Haldane,  J.S.:   Investigations by the carbon
      monoxide method on the oxygen tension of arterial blood.  Skandinav.
      Arch. f.  Physiol.  25:169-182,  1911.

      This paper discusses various investigations of determining the oxygen
      tension of arterial blood.   Animals were used in studying the carbon
      monoxide method.  The theoretical basis, on which the carbon monoxide
      method of determining the arterial  oxygen tension depends, has been
      carefully re-investigated.   The method is based on the assumption
      that when blood is saturated with a mixture containing carbon monoxide
      and oxygen,  the percentage  saturation of the  hemoglobin with carbon
      monoxide depends on the relative partial pressure of the oxygen and
      carbon monoxide, multiplied by a constant.  Experiments on man were

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     also attempted,  using the same method as for pmTt animals,  in order
     to determine arterial oxygen tension.   However,  the method had to "be
     modified because of the long time required to make certain that
     maximum saturation of the blood has been attained. The paper is
     illustrated by graphs and tables.  -   AGO


492. Douglas, C.G.,  Haldane,  J.S.,  and Haldane,  J.B.S.:  The laws of
     combination of haemoglobin with carbon monoxide  and oxygen.
     J. Hiysiol. 44:275-304,  1912.

     When a solution of haemoglobin,  whether enclosed in blood  corpuscles
     or free, is saturated in presence of a gas  mixture containing oxygen
     and carbon monoxide,  the ratio of oxyhaemoglobin to CO-haemoglobin
     is always proportional to the  relative partial pressures of  oxygen
     and carbon monoxide,  and is not altered by  the presence of COg,
     or slight changes in reaction, or of reduced haemoglobin,  or by
     dilution, but is appreciably altered by temperature, as well as  by
     light, and varies distinctly in the haemoglobin  of different
     individuals and species.
            The oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curves for  the blood  of two
     persons is given, and the results agree closely  with Barcroft's.
     Curves are also given for mouse blood,  which differ greatly  from
     those for human blood.
            Dissociation curves of CO-haemoglobin in  presence of  varying
     partial pressures of C02 are also given for human  and mouse  blood, and
     it is shown that the results vary,  not only for  different  species,
     but also for different individuals.  The curve for CO-haemoglobin has
     the same form as that for oxyhaemoglobin.
            When blood is saturated in presence  of such  low  partial pressures
     of oxygen and CO that reduced haemoglobin is present, the proportions
     of oxyhaemoglobin, CO-haemoglobin,  and reduced haemoglobin can be
     calculated if the separate dissociation curves of  oxyhaemoglobin and
     CO-haemoglobin are known; and in consequence of  the form of  these curves
     it follows,that the presence of a small proportion of oxygen may
     greatly increase the formation of CO-haemoglobin,  and vice versa.  This
     paradoxical effect explains the favourable  physiological effect  some-
     times produced by carbon monoxide in conditions  of great anoxhaemia.
     The dissociation curve of the  oxyhaemoglobin remaining  in the blood
     when it is partially saturated with carbon  monoxide can also be  deduced;
     and the form of this curve explains the peculiarities of the symptoms
     Of carbon monoxide poisoning as compared with those of  anoxhaemia from
     other causes.
            A theory, based on A.V. Hill's  "aggregation" hypothesis,  and
     on the work of Barcroft and his associates,  as well as  on our own
     observations,  is put forward to account for the  peculiar form of the
     dissociation curve of oxyhaemoglobin and CO-haemoglobin in blood or
     in salt-solutions, and the effects of  C02 etc. on these curves.   An
     equation for the curve,  based  on this  theory,  is also given,  and is
     shown to correspond closely with the experimental  data  for human blood.
            The differences in the  relative affinities  for oxygen and carbon
     monoxide in different samples  of haemoglobin indicate that the average
     constitution of the globin part of- the haemoglobin molecule  varies,

                                     208

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     not only in different species, but also in different individuals of
     the same species*  -  Authors' Conclusion
493. Duvoir, M., and Gaultier, M. :  Etiology:  Clinical and chemical study
     of forty cases of chronic industrial carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Arch. Mai. Prof. 7:^9-^52,
     Scepticism concerning the reality of chronic CO poisoning has been
     justified by the multiplicity of symptoms attributed to the disease.
     This paper attempts to establish chronic CO poisoning as a reality
     and as an individual disease by establishing a clinical and chemical
     basis.
          Using Nicloux' method to determine the amount of CO in hO
     subjects, a blood level above A to *5 cc. per 100 cc. blood is
     considered abnormally high.  Cessation of exposure resulted in a
     gradual reduction of the blood level.  In two months, one subject
     went from .85 to .52, another from 2.5 to .52, another from .82 to
     .46, etc.  The blood level persisted for a longer time in a number
     of cases, a typical case being:  .88 after exposure, .80 after 3
     months,  .30 after 5 months.  Rest alone results in improvement, but
     oxygen therapy accelerates recovery.  Vitamin B2 also hastens return
     of blood levels to normal although its action is neither immediate
     nor constant.
          Chronic CO poisoning ig characterized by this elevated blood
     level and by three major symptoms, always appearing together.   These
     are, 1) Asthenia.  The asthenia is almost constant.  Muscular
     fatigue, intellectual apathy, depression, slowness of speech,  and
     impaired memory are frequently found, and sexual impotence is
     occasionally concurrent.  2) Severe headache.  The headache is
     persistent, and usually more severe during exposure, although it
     may continue for several hours after work.  It is not localized to
     any specific brain area.  3)  Vertigo and syncope.  Vertigo is
     frequent and may signal syncope.  Syncope is a less important
     differentiation, since it is so often found in acute poisonings.
          Pathogenesis and mechanisms remain obscure, but determination
     of blood level of CO, the constancy of symptoms, and improvement
     occurring during cessation of exposure are indicative of the reality
     of chronic CO poisoning.


     Eff eriberger, E. :   Carbon monoxide and its importance in hygiene.
     Med.  Meteorolog. Hefte  Mb. 12, 1957, 128 pp.

     Author discusses in this reference work, besides general data, the
     problem of  carbon monoxide with  special consideration of the
     quantitative method of  analysis  of atmospheric and industrial air and
     in the blood.   Small amounts of  CO in the air are being generally
     analysed by the JaOc method.  According to the method by Fischingen,
     with  minor  changes  by the author, which is described, it is possible
     to determine 0.001  Vol.-$ of  CO.  Exact determination of CO quantities
     below 0.001 Vol.-$  are  still very difficult to obtain.  The most
     sensitive methods at this time,  the iodine and the  COHb methods, are


                                    209

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     also only 7 to 10$ accurate.  The method for the determination of CO
     in the blood by Wolff is described and considered by the author to
     be the most simple and a more reliable procedure than the standard
     salt solution method.  It also has the advantage that the color
     comparison can be performed independently of wave length of light
     and also of the color of serum.  The accuracy of measurement increased
     to 3-5$.  An extensive bibliography completes this volume.  -  AGO


495. Enrich, W.E.,  Bellet, S.,  and Lewey,  F.H. :   Cardiac changes from
     CO poisoning.   Amer. J. Med. Sc. 208:511-523,
     Discussed in this paper are acute e:tperiments at 40$ carboxyhemoglobin
     and in chronic experiments at 21$ carboxyhemoglobin or an equivalent
     oxygen deficiency, electrocardiographic and morphologic changes
     were seen, including inverted T wave, elevated R-T segment, and
     degenerative changes in individual muscle fibers.  When the
     carboxyhemoglobin exceeded 75$ for an hour or more, atrio ventricular
     heart block and myocardial hemorrhage and necrosis  supervened.


496. Engstedt,  L. :  Endogenous Formation of Carbon Monoxide  in Remolytic  Disease.
     With Special Regard to Quantitative Comparisons  to  Other Hemolytic  Indices.
     Acta Medica Scandinavica, Vol.  159,  Suppl.  332,  pp.  61,  1957,

     During the last fifteen years the knowledge of erythrocyte  and  hemoglobin
     catabolism has rapidly increased.   New isotope techniques have  been useful
     tools, but other methods, for instance the  old principle of differential
     agglutination  of transfused ery throcy tes , have also contributed to  a great
     extent.
            Bile pigments have long been known as end products of hemoglobin
     catabolism, and they have been used as an index  of  erythrocyte  break-
     down.  A few years ago it was shown that there is a continuous  formation
     of small amounts of carbon monoxide in man  and that at least the greatest
     part of the exhaled carton monoxide is formed during the break-down of
     hemoglobin. The formation of carbon monoxide during hemoglobin catabolism
     was also confirmed by studies in vitro.
            However, it is not known to what extent carbon  monoxide  formation
     gives a quantitative estimation of hemoglobin break-down in clinical cases
     with increased hemolysis, or if increased carbon monoxide formation is a
     constant finding in such cases.  «Erythrokineticn studies have been  done with
     various other  methods, but determinations of carbon monoxide production have
     not been utilized for such investigation.
            The present paper deals with quantitative comparisons between carbon
     monoxide formation and some other indices of hemoglobin break-down, and be-
     sides an evaluation of the practical value  of the carbon monoxide method  is
     made. - Author's Introduction
                                     210

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     Fisher, M.B.:  A summary of previous carbon monoxide studies.  In:
     Conference Proc.:  Health, Medical and Drug Factors in Highway
     Safety.  2nd Highway Safety Research Correlation Conference, April
     5 & 6, 195^, Washington, B.C.  Nat. Acad. Sc.-Nat. Res. Council
     Pub. 328, Sept. 195^, pp. U. 1-U.6.

     Author relates the generally accepted physiological description of
     carbon monoxide poisoning, which basically is a process of anoxemia.
     The hemoglobin of the blood can take up either oxygen or carbon
     monoxide or a number of other materials.  The problem arises because
     hemoglobin has a much greater affinity for CO than for oxygen.  The
     ratio of these affinities is of the order of 210 to 1 with the result
     if there is any CO present in the atmosphere it will be taken up by the
     hemoglobin.  Author states that the extent of variability in human
     behavior in response to various levels of CO in the atmosphere and to
     various levels of COHb in the blood as well as chronic CO poisoning
     needs further investigation.  A.G.C.


 498. Forbes, ¥.H., Kill, D.B., de Silva, H», and Van Deventer,  F.M. :
     The influence of moderate carbon monoxide poisoning upon the
     ability to drive automobiles.  J, Indust. Hyg. 19:598-603 (Dec.)
     1937-

     This paper reports the procedures and findings of what is probably
     the best research study on this subject so far conducted.   Tests
     were made on eight normal male subjects with various percentages
     of carbon monoxide in the blood.  These included measurement of
     the time required to remove the foot from the accelerator and the
     time to push down a brake pedal after a red light was flashed on;
     depth perception; ability to see dim objects at the side of a
     bright light; ability to perceive the approach or recession of
     objects; accuracy of steering.
            These investigators found that the test performance was
     unaffected at a carboxyhemoglobin saturation level of 25$ and was
     not disturbed until 30$ was reached.  The present investigators
     note that this value appears high as compared to present day
     concepts but observe that this study gives every impression of
     having been conducted with a high degree of competency.


499. Forbes, W.H., Sargent, P., and Roughtdn, F.J.W.:  The rate of carbon
     monoxide uptake by normal men.  Amer. J. Physiol. 1^3:59^-608 (April)
     Hew data are presented for the rate of carbon monoxide uptake by normal
     men at sea level, when exposed to air containing various percentages
     of carbon monoxide  (0.01 to 2.0) and for various times.  The subjects
     were at rest, light activity, light work or hard work.
            A composite chart is given for calculating the average individual
     increase in percentage COHb in the blood with time, at varying CO
     pressure and varying ventilation rate.  Particular individuals may
     however vary consistently by as much as * 20 per cent from the data


                                   211

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     in the chart, which may therefore, in practical cases; often "be
     replaced by much simpler approximate equations given in the text.
     Variations in the ratio of tidal air to dead space, and in the value
     of the diffusion constant of the lungs appear to be responsible for
     the differences between individuals in the rate of CO uptake.
            The observed rates of CO uptake are lower than the average
     rates of most previous observers: the difference is attributed partly
     to more accurate estimation of COHb (by the Scholander-Roughton
     technique) and partly to adequate allowance for the blank CO already
     present in the .blood before the exposure.
            Lowering of the total barometric pressure (down to 1^0 mm. Hg)
     is without effect on the rate of CO uptake, provided the partial
     pressure of CO in the trachea is kept constant and correction is made
     for any increase in ventilation rate due to hypoxia.
            Increasing the Og from 20 to 98 per cent at sea level decreases
     the rate of CO uptake: the effect is more pronounced in hard work than
     at rest.  This decrease occurs because the rate of reaction of CO with
     Hb is inversely proportional to the 0% pressure. - Authors' Sum.


500. Gemzell, C.A., Robbe, H.,  and Strom,  G.:   On the equilibration of
     carbon monoxide between human material and fetal circulation in vivo.
     Scandinav. J. Cliu. & Lab.  Invest.  10:372-378,  1958.

     Measurements of COHb percentages in maternal and fetal blood immediately
     after normal delivery show a probable fetal/maternal ratio  of about
     1.5-1.6 when the mother has not been  exposed to exogenous CO.   If
     exogenous CO is administered to the mother before delivery,  fetal
     uptake of CO occurs slowly,  so that after 30 minutes of  CO  equilibration
     the fetal/maternal COHb percentage ratio  decreases to about 0.5-0.6,
     later rising to values well above unity.   Within 30 minutes of CO
     equilibration the fetal circulation has taken up only 1-2 percent or
     less of the amount of CO taken up by  the  maternal circulation.   This
     result suggests that,  in a pregnant woman,  the  overestimation of the
     maternal total amount of hemoglobin by the alveolar CO method which
     is due to fetal CO uptake  should usually  be negligible.  -   Authors'
     Sum.


501. Gettler,  A.O.,  and Mattice,  M.R.:   The  "normal"  carbon monoxide
     content of the blood.   J. A.M.A.  100:92-97 (Jan. lij.)  1933.

     This paper deals with investigations  as to what extent carboxyhemoglobin
     exists in the blood of presumably normal  persons as shown by a
     precise and delicate method.   The literature reveals no  record of
     such analyses*
            Sodium fluoride is widely used in  this country as an insecticide.
     Despite the fact that  many  fatalities have occurred following its
     accidental substitution for saline  laxatives and baking  powder,  it
     is still  widely dispensed without any indication that it is a
     poisonous substance.
            One fatal case  and seven nonfatal  cases  of accidental sodium.
     fluoride  poisoning were encountered at  the Miami Valley  Hospital,

                                     212

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    Dayton, within one mouth.   The fatality resulted from the accidental
    substitution of  sodium fluoride for epsom salt.   The nonfatal cases
    resulted  from  the accidental substitution of sodium fluoride for
    "baking powder  in the preparation of biscuits.   Since the labels on
    containers of  insect powders containing sodium fluoride give no
    indication of  its poisonous properties,  such containers are commonly
    kept in medicine cabinets  and in kitchen cupboards.
           The toxic properties of sodium fluoride are not generally
    appreciated, largely because of the inadequate information,  or
    misinformation,  contained in textbooks on toxicology.
           The urgent necessity for the proper labeling of containers
    of sodium fluoride-containing insecticides is apparent.  -  Authors'
    Sum. Modified
502. Gettler,  A.O.,  and Ereianith,  H.C. :   Carbon monoxide in blood.
     Amer.  J.  din.  Pathol.  Tech.  Sect.  7,  pp.  79-82,
     This paper discusses a rapid and simple method for estimating the
     carbon monoxide content in the blood.   This method permits
     completion of determination within 15  minutes (excluding the
     preparation of standards,  which will keep for several months) and
     requires no personal attention during  this time.   Principles
     involved,  preparation of standard stains,  and the methods are
     described.  -  AGC


503. Giant z, W.M. , Stembridge,  V.A., Dominguez,  A.M.,  et al:  Carbon monoxide
     determination in aircraft  accident fatalities.  Aerospace  Med. 30:711-715
     (Oct.) 1959.

     Investigators at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology have studied 747
     cases of aircraft accident fatalities  for  the presence of  carbon monoxide
     in postmortem tissued.   All aircraft accident victims with carboxyhemoglobin
     elevations above 10 per cent fere shown to have been  alive at the time of
     the fire.   Carboxyhemoglobin levels between 6 and 9 per  cent  saturation
     indicate the possibility that the- subject was alive at the time of exposure
     to fire.  Extensive fragmentation and  postmortem  incineration of tissues
     subsequent to explosive impact forces  do not elevate  the carboxyhemoglobin
     saturations.  These investigators found no cases  in which carbon monoxide
     intoxication has been implicated as the cause of  an aircraft  accident. -
     .Authors* Sum,


504. Goldsmith, J.R. , and Rogers, L.H. :  Health hazards of automobile exhaust,
     Pub. Health Rep. 7^:551-558  (June) 1959»

     In Los Angeles, the air pollution from diesel engine exhaust is about
     20 tons of organic emissions/day while that from automobile exhausts
     contributes about 1200 tons/day.  Because the theoretical value (15:1)
     for air to fuel required for complete combustion is seldom maintained
     in automobiles, their exhausts frequently contain carbon monoxide,
     hjdrogen^ aldehydes, unburned hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, and some


                                     213

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    lead compounds depending on the additives uced.  The constituents
    (in $ of concentration, vol./vol.) of automobile exhausts are listed
    in table 1.  Of these only carbon monoxide  nitrogen oxides, lead com-
    pounds, and hydrocarbons are discussed in this paper.  The max. CO
    concentration in Los Angeles, reported in table 2, is 93-2 ppm., with
    an average value of 15 to 36 ppm.  British cities have reported an
    average of k to 20 ppm. with a max of SO ppm. during smog.  In Detroit,
    during heavy traffic an average of 28.9 ppm., with 80 ppm. max., has
    been reported.  Although no health damage has been attributed to
    levels of CO below 100 ppm. there is undoubtedly some inactivation
    of hemoglobin.  The level of CO saturation in the blood is greatly
    increased in tobacco smokers.  Although exaeriraental studies have
    shown an impaired adaptability of the eyas to darkness when young
    subjects were exposed to low levels of CO, this has not been shown by
    exposure to automobile exhausts at the levels found on city free-ways.
    It is, h&v/ever, a plausible inference.  The toxicity of nitrogen dioxide
    is based on its irritant properties, especially to the pulmonary
    membranes in cases of significant exposure, which are often delayed
    in onset.  The nitrite ions formed when nitrogen dioxide dissolves are
    capable of forming the inactivated hemoglobin known as methemoglobin.
    Lead exposure by air pollution alone as reported by Los Angeles and
    other cities is usually not toxic but the small persistent amounts
    which could be contributed by auto exhausts may contribute to cases of
    toxicity in certain individuals working in garages and other work areas.
    Hygienic standards have been established If or industrial exposure to Ct,
    nitrogen dioxide, lead, and ozone.  Establishing a full set of levels
    for community exposure is difficult because of the many variables
    involved, including the effect of agents in combination, the difference
    in sensitivity of ill persons, and the indeterminate period of exposure.
    The authors suggest that, in the absence of effective control for air
    pollution from automobile exhausts, the public health hazard should be
    evaluated. - APCA
505. Goldsmith, J.R.:   Some implications of ambient air quality standards.
    Arch.  Environ. Health 4:151-167 (pfeb.) 1962.

    The  impetus  to set air pollution standards for California arose because
    of the recognition that the improvement - or even maintenance - in
    the  quality  of the air in California depended upon control methods
    for  motor vehicle  emissions.  The law, which in addition to
    calling for  public hearings and for revision of standards from time to
    time,   states that "standards shall be so developed as to reflect
    the  relationship between the intensity and composition of air
    pollution and the  health, illness, including irritation to the1 senses,
    and  death of human beings, as well as damage to vegetation and
    interference with  visibility."  Author discusses standards in other
    fields and compares industrial threshold limits, with maximal air
    pollution values,  and the alert stages for toxic air pollutants in
    the  Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District.  The
    community air pollution standards in the U.S.S.R. are also
    reviewed.  Available facts and determination of whether or not
    standards could be set for, i.e., the group of photochemical

                                   21 k

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    oxidants, oxides of sulfur, and carbon monoxide are also considered.
    Because of the many sources for carbon monoxide exposure it was
    decided that only 5% of hemoglobin inactivation by community air
    pollution would become the basis for standards.  Available data on
    reaction between hemoglobin and carbon monoxide were used to derive
    the standards - 30 ppm for 8 hours or 120 ppm for one hour.  Because
    the basis of this effect is an interference with physiological
    function, the standard by definition is at the "serious1'level.  The
    30 ppm standard averaged over 8 hours has often been exceeded in
    Los Angeles.  In the Appendix the policy of the California Standards
    for ambient air quality are discussed in detail. - AGC.


506. Hackney, J.D., Lashier, H., Lynn, K., and Spier, C.:  Comparative
    effect of two sources of exposure to carbon monoxide on carbon
    monoxide hemoglobin levels.  Presented at the Mr Pollution Research
    Conference on "Effects of Motor Vehicle Emissions on Health,"
    Dec.  6, 1961, Los Angeles, Calif.

    The comparative effect of two sources of carbon monoxide exposure,
    e.g., ambient CO and ambient CO plus cigarette smoke on the COHb
    of two normal subjects working as a team is discussed in this
    study.  The  rebreathing method for indirect estimation of COHb
    as previously described (1) was used in this study for the frequent
    monitoring of COHb.  Samples of the ambient air were collected
    almost continuously during the experimental run as a means of
    representing the integrated total ambient CO exposure.  -  Authors'
    Introduction
507. Hackney,  J.D.,  Kaufman,  G.A., Lashier, H., and Lynn, K.:  Rebreathing
     estimate  of carbon monoxide hemoglobin.  Arch. Environ. Health 5:
     300-307 (Oct.)  1962.

     Indirect  methods of estimating  COHb  fall into 2 groups:  rebreathing
     andbrcatliholdlng. Rebreathing  methods have the advantage of
     requiring less  subject cooperation and aid in sampling alveolar
     gas.   Normal subjects  rebreathed k liters of oxygen for 2 minutes.
     Samples of 25 cc. were analyzed for  oxygen and CO using gas
     chromatography.  These results  were  substituted into the Haldane
     relationship (M value  = 195)'   A total of 55 rebreathing estimates
     were  compared with blood COHb measurements in normal subjects.  There
     was good  correlation between the estimated and measured COHb:  Mean
     COHb  5.1$,  the  SD .22,  coefficient of variation k.kfy.  Using an
     assumed 0  concentration may lead to large errors in estimating the
     COHb.  Previous rebreathing methods  have utilized nitrogen wash out
     or other  time consuming approaches.  Our method requires 2 minutes
     and appears to  have greater sensitivity.  Preliminary studies on
     chronic lung disease subjects are reported.   -  Authors'  Sum.
                                    215

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508. Haddon, W., Jr., Nesbitt,  R.E.L.,  and Garcia,  R. :   Smoking and pregnancy:
     Carbon monoxide in blood during gestation and at term.   Obstet.  Gynec.
     18:262-267 (Sept.) L96l.

     Blood carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations in women seen in a prenatal
     clinic were significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers.   Carbon
     monoxide concentrations in paired cord and maternal blood specimens
     obtained at term were found to be approximately. :equal,  whereas CO
     concentrations per 100 gnu of hemoglobin were lower in cord than in
     paired maternal blood specimens.   The differences  between smokers and
     nonsmokers in the reduction in 02-carrying capacity in the cord and maternal
     blood specimens, respectively, were also statistically significant.
     These reductions in maternal and fetal oxygen-carrying capacity and the
     action of CO as an enzyme inhibitor are discussed  from the standpoint
     of their possible effects on fetal development.  -  Author's summary


509. Haggard, H.W., and Henderson, Y.:  The treatment of carbon monoxide
     poisoning.  J. AMA 77:1065-1967 (Oct. 1) 1921.

     In the course of a large series of investigations  the authors and
     their associates have marked out the following standard for exposure:
     "Multiply the time of exposure in hours by the concentration of the
     gas in parts per 10,000 of air.  If the product equals 3 or less
     there is no appreciable physiologic effect.  If it equals 6, there
     is sometimes slight malaise.  If it equals 9> a headache with some
     nausea is produced in most people.  If it equals 15> the conditions
     are dangerous for anything beyond brief exposure.   If it is more
     than 15 they are extremely dangerous even for brief exposure."
            In the proposed vehicular tunnel under the  Hudson, carbon
     monoxide is not to be permitted to rise above h to 5 parts per
     10,000, and the time for passage will be from fifteen to thirty
     minutes.  Fieldner and his associates have shown that an automobile
     engine may produce from 1 to 2 cubic feet of carbon monoxide per
     minute.  Thus, a car warming up in a small closed garage can make
     an atmosphere dangerous to life within five minutes.  Production
     of carbon monoxide increases on a rich mixture and decreases on a
     thin one.
            The whuo.e toxicity of carbon monoxide has been shown to
     depend upon its union with hemoglobin.
            The therapy of carbon monoxide poisoning depends on the
     hemoglobin combination and upon the fact that this combination is
     readily reversible.


 SlO.Haldane, J.:  The relation of the action of carbonic oxide to oxygen
     tension.  J. Pbysiol. 18:201-217, 1895.

     The poisonous action of carbonic oxide diminishes as the oxygen
     tension increases, and vice versa.  At a tension of two atmospheres
     of oxygen this poisonous action is abolished in the case of mice.
                                   216

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            The  disappearance  of the poisonous action is due to the fact
     that at high oxygen tensions the  animals can dispense entirely with
     the oxygen-carrying function of haemoglobin.
            The  poisonous action of carbonic oxide is entirely due to its
     power of  combining with the haemoglobin of the red corpuscles,  and
     so putting  them out of action as  oxygen-carriers.   -  Author's
     Conclusion
511. Haldane, J.:  The  action of carbonic  oxide on man.   J.  Physiol.
     18: If 30-462, 1895.

     Investigations  to  determine experimentally the  causes of the  eya&>1x>ms
     produced in man by carbonic oxides are described in this paper.
     The relation  of the changes in the blood to the symptoms,  to  the
     percentage of carbonic oxide breathed,  and to the period during
     which the  inhalation continued are particularly emphasized.   -
     AGC
512. Haldane, J.B.S.:  The dissociation of o:^yhaenioglobin in human blood
     during partial  CO poisoning.  J. Physiol. k$:XXII-XXIV, 1912-1913.

     This paper discusses the dissociation curve of oxyhaemoglobin in blood
     altered by the  presence of a constant percentage of carboxylhaemoglobin*
     Curves are given for human blood in presence of ko mm. pressure of
     COg.  This study agrees with the observed fact that 50$ saturation
     with CO is a serious condition, higher saturations producing coma.
     The comatose stage is longer, and death less sudden in CO poisoning
     than in asphyxia from simple 0% want, because at low tensions more
     02 is liberated from the blood in the former case than the latter.


 513. Halperin, M.H., Niven, J.I., McFarland, R.A., and Roughton, F.J.W.:
     Variations  in visual thresholds during carbon monoxide and hypoxic anoxia.
     Fed. Proc.  (Abstract) 6:120-121, 1947.

     The comparative and combined effects of carbon monoxide and hypoxic anoxia
     on human visual intensity discrimination, as well as the effects of normal
     and high Q% atmospheres during recovery from CO, were investigated.
           In previous studies we have found that the measurement of visual
     intensity discrimination thresholds at a low level of illumination provides
     a very sensitive, useful and precise quantitative index of the physiological
     disturbance caused by oxygen deprivation.  We therefore applied the same
     technique in measuring the effects of small amounts of CO.  Extensive studies
     were carried out on four we11-trained subjects.
           A given  increase in % COHb in the blood at sea level produces an
     effect approximately equal to that of an equal decrease in % 02Hb due to
     hypoxic anoxia. At simulated high altitudes, a given % COHb produces an
     impairment equivalent to a further ascent which would cause an equal
     additional decrease in % O-Hb.  The visual threshold is therefore much more
     sensitive to CO than are other physiological functions so far investigated.
                                      217

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           In studying the  recovery  from CO, we  found  that  the  inhalation o£
     oxygen,  in addition to its value  in accelerating  the elimination of CO, had
     another  beneficial effect as  compared with  the inhalation  of  ordinary air.
     An added improvement equivalent to a decrease  of  about 5 to 7% COHb was
     produced", by breathing  oxygen.  When the subjects  then  breathed ordinary air,
     the thresholds  were again impaired by this  amount.  If, instead of oxygen,
     the subject breathed ordinary air throughout the  recovery  period,  the
     visual thresholds failed to recover as rapidly as the  % COHb  declined.  -
     Authors1 Abst.
514. Hanson, H.B.,  and Hastings,  A.B.:   The effect of smoking on the
     carbon monoxide content of blood.   J.  A.M.A.  100:1^1 (May 13)
     1933-

     In a short series of normal  individuals who do not smoke,  the
     hemoglobin of the blood was  found to be saturated with carbon
     monoxide, 1.5 per cent.
            In subjects who smoke the saturation of the blood with
     carbon monoxide was found to be from 3 to k per cent.   -  Authors'
     Conclusions
515. Hartridge,  H. :   The  action of various conditions on carbon monoxide
     haemoglobin.  J. Physiol., pp.  22-23,
     The following factors are without  influence on the final saturation
     of haemoglobin with CO:   dilution, lactic acid, C02, certain acid
     and basic salts.
            The following have a very marked influence:  light, temperature,
     species.
            With regard to the first, I have shown that investigation  is
     simplified if the reaction  can be  made  reversible, by addition of
     some chemical agent which removes  the OgHb but leaves the undlssociated
     COHb unaffected.   The active rays  are found to correspond to the
     absorption bands,  those  in  the ultra violet being most active.  The
     screening fluid employed in the  spectroscope has been sufficient  to
     reduce this light action to a minimum.
            The dissociation  is  due to  a change in the stability of COHb,
     and not to any alteration in the combination with oxygen.
            Temperature has a most marked influence; the change in the
     saturation being  about 1/2$ for  every 1 degree rise of temperature;
     it is therefore relatively  more  important at low, than at high
     temperature .
            Equilibrium is reached at different saturations by the blood
     of animals of different  species.   -  Author's Sum.
                                    218

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516. Henderson, Y., and Haggard, H.W.:  The physiological principles
    governing ventilation when the air is contaminated with carbon
    monoxide.  J.  Indust. Eng. Chem. 14:229-236  (March) 1922.

    With  the building  of tunnels under the Hudson River between New York
    and Jersey City  for  the principal use of motor  vehicle problems
    have  arisen which  have never been extensively  investigated.  The
    investigations reported in this paper afford data upon which plans
    and designs for  the  ventilation of tunnels may  be based.  In the
    principal conclusions, authors state that the general standards
    agreed upon for  periods of a few hours are:  When the time in hours
    multiplied by the  concentration of carbon monoxide in parts per
    10,000 of air equals 3» there is no perceptible physiological effect.
    When  it equals 6,  there is a just perceptible effect.  When it
    equals $f headache and nausea are induced.   When it equals 15 or
    more,  the conditions are  dangerous to life.
            If the volume of breathing is increased  by exercise (even
    by slow walking, and correspondingly more by physical work) the
    rate  of absorption of carbon monoxide is increased proportionally.
            After  return  to fresh air, the elimination of carbon monoxide
    through the lungs  proceeds at a rate of  30 to 60 per cent reduction
    of the blood  saturation per  hour.
            In the exhaust gas from gasoline, carbon monoxide is the
    only  considerable  toxic constituent.  In the exhaust gas from coal
    distillate  (benzene, etc.),  and in illiminating gas, there are
    present accessory  toxic substances.  -   Authors' Conclusions Modified
     -AGO


517. Heron, H.J.t   The  effects of smoking during  pregnancy:  A review with
    a preview.  New  Zealand Med. J. 61:5^5-5^8 (Nov.) 1962.

    Carbon monoxide  blood concentrations were found to be higher in
    maternal and  foetal  bloods in patients who smoked.
          Respiration in  infants  of mothers who smoked took longer to
     establish and peripheral  cyanosis was more common.
          The condition of such infants appeared  to  revert to more nearly
    normal when they were placed in a high oxygen concentration for a
     short time.   - -Author's  Sum.


518. Hofreuter,  D.H., Catcott, E.J., and Xintaras, C.:  Carboxyhemoglobin
     in men exposed to  carbon  monoxide.  Arch. Environ. Health V.81-85
     (Jan.) 1962.

    This  study was designed to appraise the  influence of exposure to
     various sources of carbon monoxide on Carboxyhemoglobin levels.
    Also> the  relationship  of COHb levels with symptoms associated
    with CO intoxication was  considered.  Environmental factors such
     as smoking, occupational  exposure, and commuting to work in a
    private automobile were not  reflected in marked or  sustained
     differences of COHb  levels that  could be related to these
     influences*  No relation  was found between symptoms and COHb values.

                                   219

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     To summarize the effects of a rather continuous exposure throughout
     the day, 5^ of the subjects were exposed daily to CO in their
     working environment, while smoking,  and while commuting to work in
     a private automobile.  The mean COHb value of this group was 3-8$.
     This mean was not markedly different from the mean levels observed
     in groups which had lesser exposure.  -  APCA ^298


519. Hurtado, A.,  Merino, C*,  and Delgado,  E. :   Influence of anoxemia on
     the hemopoietic activity.  Arch.  Internat.  Med.  75:284-323,
     The investigations to be reported in this paper concern the
     morphologic and other characteristics of the circulating "blood under
     the influence of temporary,  intermittent and chronic  anoxie anoxia
     (anoxemia).  Most of the work has been carried out at high altitudes
     and the results obtained have been compared with those observed in
     the study of healthy subjects at sea level  and in previous related
     investigations.  No attempt has been made to cover all the vast
     literature accumulated in this field.  - Authors'  Abst.
 520. Hyperbarie oxygen in carbon monoxide poisoning.  J. AMA 193:157
     (July 19) 1965.

     In "International Comments" of J.  AMA  there  is a news  note  taken
     from "La Semaine Des Eopltaux Informations,  Paris, April lU, 1965"
     in which is stated that Dr. Cculon,  Chief, Weurorespiratory
     Reanimation Center at Garches,  Paris,  announced  to Medical  Society
     of Hospitals of Paris on March 26,  1965,  that he  found  hyperbaric
     oxygen very rewarding in the treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Patients were kept in pressure cabinets  made by  Wickers Company of
     England, using an oxygen pressure  of two atmospheres.   In less than
     10 minutes the carboxyhemoglobin content of  the  patients' blood
     began to decrease.  Of 20 patients,  16 recovered and only four
     died.  -  CBK


521. Joels,  W.,  and Pugh,  L.G.C.E.:   The  carbon monoxide dissociation curve
     of human blood.  J.  Physiol.  1^2:63-77,  1958.

     Carboxyhaemoglobia dissociation curves,  in the absence of Op, have been
     prepared for the blood of three subjects at  COgpressures ox 15, kQ
     and 70 mm,  Hg,  and pH values of 7-50,  7-25 and y.15, respectively.
     The determinations were made by equilibrating blood samples in tonometers
     with various concentrations of CO  and  measuring  both the COHb saturation
     of the blood and the CO concentration  in the tonometer gas  at equilibrium.
            These curves have been compared with  the  02Hb dissociation curves
     of the same three subjects, in the absence of CO, at the same C02
     pressures and pH values.  The effect of  C02  on the COHb dissociation
     curves is shown to be very similar to  though not identical  with its
     effect on the OoHb dissociation curves.
                                       220

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           The COHb dissociation curves differ slightly  from the curves
    published by Douglas et al. (1912).  Reasons  for the differences are
    given.
           The relative affinity of haemoglobin for CO and 02 varies only
    slightly from  subject to  subject.  On the other hand,  it is affected
    by changes in  plasma pH and C02 pressure, the relative affinity for CO
    rising as the  pH increases and the COo pressure falls.  In these
    experiments, which were performed at §7° C, the ratio  of the CO pressure
    producing 50$  saturation  with  COHb the 02 pressure producing 50%
    saturation with O^Hb rose from an average value of 1:230 at pH 7.15 and
    pC02 70 mm Hg, to 1:260 at pH  7.50 and pC02 15 mm Hg.
           The relative affinity as determined in this fashion from the 50$
    saturation pressures on the individual COHb and 02Hb dissociation curves
    has  been termed M*.  The  differences between  this value and M, the ratio
    of the CO and  02 pressures producing 50$ COHb and 50$  0^ in a mixture
    containing no  reduced haemoglobin, are discussed.  -  Authors' Sum.


522. Joels, N., and Neil, E.:  Carotid chemoreceptor response to high carbon
    monoxide tension.  J. Physiol. 156":5P-6P (Abstract), 1961.
     The combination of as much as 80$ of the blood haemoglobin with CO
     causes no carotid chemoreceptor discharge in  cats breathing 1-2$ CO
     in air, providing that the arterial p02 be not lowered (Duke, Green
     & Neil, 1952).   The glomus cells normally betray a high oxygen usage
     (9ml.AOO g/min).  Their blood flow of 2000 ml./lOO g/min (Daly,
     Lambertsen & Schweitzer, 195*0 is,  however, so high that they have
     little difficulty in extracting their large oxygen requirements
     without causing much fall  in the local blood  pOo.  Anoxic anoxia
     disrupts their oxidative metabolism,  whereupon fhe chemoreceptor
     nerves display a vigorous  impulse traffic.  Cyanide also causes
     chemoreceptor discharge, and Anitschkov (1951) has assumed that the
     drug acts by inhibiting cytochrome oxidase.   Cyanide, however,
     inhibits many of the enzymes which aid carbohydrate metabolism.  Only
     carbon monoxide exerts a specific inhibition  of cytochrome oxidase
     (Dixon & Webb,  1958).  The affinity of cytochrome oxidase for CO is
     less than that for 02.  Thus it is necessary  to use high CO tensions
     locally in glomus circulation in order to ascertain whether
     chemoreceptor discharge ascribable to cytochrome oxidase inhibition
     can be aroused.
            Two sets of experiments were performed on cats anaesthetized
     with pentobarbitone.
            1-2 ml.  of blood (pCO = 300-500 mm, p02 = 150 mm, pCOg =
     UO mm  Hg) was injected locally into the carotid glomus circulation.
     Transient hyperpnoea and hypertension which occurred was abolished
     by cutting the relevant sinus nerve.
            Electroneurography  of chemoreceptor fibres showed that vigorous
     impulse activity was aroused by the perfusion of solutions equilibrated
     with pCO 300-500 mm Hg and normal p02 and pC02.
            The inhibition of cytochrome oxidase thus does mimic the
     effect of anoxic ancxia on the glomus cells.  It must be stressed
                                    221

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     that CO is used here as a biochemical tool; ordinarily in CO poisoning
     the tissue pCO is far too low to exert such histotoxic effects.  -
     Authors' Abst.


 523. Jones,  J.G.,  and Walters,  D.H.:   A study of carboxyhaeraoblobin levels
     in employees at an integrated steelworks.   Ann.  Occupat.  Byg.  5:
     221-230, 1962.

     Carboxyhaemoglobin levels at the beginning, and end,  of a single
     shift's work in an integrated steelworks,  are compared in 57 blast
     furnace employees and 63 employees not exposed to carbon monoxide
     at work.  Results are presented in relation to smoking habits.
     The method of Whitehead and Worthington was used for the estimations
     and reasons for the choice,  and tests of accuracy of the method,
     are given.  Difficulties encountered in preparing standard
     concentrations of Carboxyhaemoglobin are discussed.   -  Authors1
     Abst.
524. Killick,  E.M. :   Carbon monoxide anoxemia.   Physiol.  Rev.  20:313-
         (July) 1940.
     Carbon monoxide derives its physiological interest from its  property
     of combining with hemoglobin in a manner apparently identical with
     oxygen.  The hemoglobin,  however,  has a very much greater affinity
     for carbon monoxide than for oxygen,  and therefore carbon monoxide
     is a potent cause of anoxemia when it is mixed with the inspired
     air.
           The combination of carbon monoxide with reduced hemoglobin,
     in the absence of oxygen,  and the dissociation of carboxyhemoglobin,
     follow the same laws as govern the combination of oxygen with reduced
     hemoglobin and the dissociation of oxyhemoglobin.   The curve
     relating the partial pressure of the  gas to the percentage saturation
     of the hemoglobin is identical in shape for both  gases,  and  its
     position is influenced by the same factors in both cases,  for
     example, pH, temperature,  and salt content (Douglas,  Haldane and
     Haldane, 1912).  The difference lies  in the range of partial
     pressures; while the hemoglobin of human blood becomes half  saturated
     with oxygen at a partial pressure of  about 30 mm.,  it is half saturated
     with carbon monoxide, under the same  conditions of temperature,  pH,
     etc., when exposed to a partial pressure of about 0.125 mm.   -
     Author's Introduction.


525. Korenevskaya, E.J. :  The effect of high air temperature on the toxicity
     of carbon monoxide.  Gigiena i Sanitaria No. 9> P* 19 > 1955.  In: Levine,
     B.S. (editor and translator):  U.S.S.R. Literature on Air Pollution
     and Related Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol. 1, 1960, pp. lj.6-52,
     CFSTI-TT-60-21049, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va.

     Studies of action of carbon monoxide at high air  temperatures showed
     that the toxic effect ojf CO increased due to a complex of causes,

                                    222

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     with a rise in air temperature.  At normal body temperature,  even
     at 30-35* the increase in CO toxicity vas slight.  The thermoregulation
     mechanism was disturbed and the toxic effect of CO considerably
     intensified at an air temperature of kQ-k5°.  Concentrations as low
     as 0.1 mg/1 elicited clear symptoms of poisoning, and the general
     clinical picture indicated inhibition effects exerted by the CO on
     the functional capacity of the brain cortex.  Experiments of the
     effect of CO on the physiological functions of the rabbit at different
     air temperatures are described.  The accumulation and breakdown of
     carboxyhemoglobin in rabbits exposed to  different carbon monoxide
     concentration at different air temperatures is shown in a graph.  The
     effect of adaptation to high temperature on changes in physiological
     functions of animals exposed to 0.2 mg/1 of carbon monoxide at kQ°
     air temperature is also discussed.  -  AGC
526. Kraut, H.:  Physiological-chemical effect of exhaust gases.  Jahrb.
     brennkrafttechn. Ges. 20:J-l6, 1939.

     The physiological effect of motor exhaust gases is attributed mainly
     to the action of CO.  The saturation of the blood hemoglobin with
     CO is given for the following concentrations (CO given in volume $):
     0.01 - 12$, 0.02 - 22$ and O.OU - 36$.  The saturation times
     decrease with increasing exertion.  On inhalation of 0.03$ of CO,
     an 18$ saturation of the Hb is reached:  during strenuous exercise,
     within 25 min., at rest, within 80 min.  Description of various
     types of exposure to CO illustrates that a moderate charge of the
     Hb with CO, which does not produce acute symptoms, may noticeably
     reduce the exposed individual's capacity for physical exertion.
     The degree of dilution of car exhausts was studied in a 3-hour test
     drive through a narrow valley in the Harz mountains, in which 10
     cars were used.  The average CO content of the exhaust gases was
     (given in volume $) 4.0$, that of the surrounding air within 12 m.
     distance - 0.01 during driving and 0.026 during idling.  -  Kett.


527. Lawther, P.S.:  The clinical Significance of dirty air.  Proc. Conf.
     National Stacks Abatement Soc«, Oct. 1956.

     Driving through London for 3 hours with the windows shut and the
     air intake on, investigator reported carbon monoxide concentrations
     of 130 ppm in the vehicle, the passengers' carboxyhemoglobin doubling
     over their previous control values.  Although these levels were not
     harmful to the healthy passengers, author is unable to state, as yet,
     that they would not be of any significance to ill persons.  This work
     is continuing.  -  AGC
                                    223

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528. Lilienthal, J.L., Jr., and Pine, M.B.:  The effect of oxygen pressure
     on the uptake of carbon monoxide by man at sea level and at altitude.
     Amer. J. Physiol. 1^5:3^-350,
     The rate of uptake of CO has been studied in 9 subjects at rest under
     a variety of partial pressures of oxygen in the inspired air.
            The rate of uptake of CO may be predicted with considerable
     accuracy for sea level and altitude conditions by means of the following
     relation of the "CO exposure index" to the increase in ( COHb): A (COHb)
     = (pCO X time X minute respiratory volume) X 0.05.
            In accordance with the laws of combination of CO with Hb in
     the presence of 02, the rate of uptake of CO is inversely proportional
     to the partial pressure of 0%.
            Total barometric pressure plays no discernible role, in the
     uptake of CO.
            The effects of minimal anoxia due to altitude sum with the
     effects of small amounts of circulating COHb to produce moderately
     severe symptoms of anoxia. - Authors' Sum.


529. Lilienthal, J.L., Jr., Eiley, R.L., Proeramel, D.D., and Franke, R.E. :
     The relationships between carbon monoxide, oxygen and hemoglobin in
     the blood of man at altitude.  Amer. J. Physiol, 1^5:351-358,
      Three male  subjects have been studied at varying pressure-altitudes
      while in equilibrium with inspired gas mixtures containing from 0.005
      to 0.015 per cent  carbon monoxide.
            The distribution of COHb, OjaHb and reduced Hb and their related
      gas tensions confirm in vivo the fundamental "laws" first defined by
      Baldahe  for the  equilibria obtaining in vitro.
            A  simple rearrangement of the Haldane equation makes possible
      an accurate prediction of the amount of COHb obtaining when man is in
      equilibrium with a CO- contaminated atmosphere at any given altitude.
      The equation,
           (COHb)   =            Q  X (Total hemoglobin saturation),

     requires  only that the percentage of CO in inspired air and the
     pressure-altitude be known.  The remainder of the terms may be read
     from standard values, tables and curves; e.g., M = 210, p02 « average
     alveolar  tension at the given pressure-altitude, and (Total hemoglobin
     saturation),  related to the tension of pQ^ + MpCO, may be read 'off
     the  standard  oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.
           The value of the relative affinity constant of Hb for CO compared
     to Q2 was found to be 20^ + 10 per cent in these experiments.
           The total barometric pressure has been found to play no role in
     the  distribution of CO and 0% at equilibrium.
           The hemoglobin of individuals who smoke appears not to differ
     from that of  non-smokers in its affinity for CO and Og.
           The symptoms produced by CO are proportional not only to the
     blood concentration of COHb but also to the duration of exposure to
     a given concentration. - Authors' Sum.
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530. Lilienthal, J.L., Jr., Riley, R.L., Proemmel, D.D., and Pranke, R.E. :
     An experimental analysis in man of the oxygen prassure gradient from
     alveolar air to arterial blood during rest and exercise at sea level
     and at altitude.  Amer. J. Physiol. 14?: 199-216,
     By means of new technics, measurements have "been made in man of the
     oxygen pressure gradient existing between the alveolar air and the
     peripheral arterial blood, during rest and exercise, at sea level
     and at simulated altitude.
            At rest the gradient averaged 9 mm. Hg and during exercise
     16.5 mm. Hgj the development of anoxia produced no significant changes
     in the size of the gradients.
            A method is presented for differentiating the total alveolar
     arterial oxygen pressure gradient into its two main components:
     membrane resistance and venous admixture.
            A theoretical analysis of the experimental data indicates that
     when the level of oxygenation was high (sea level) the observed
     pressure gradient resulted for the most part from the admixture of
     venous blood entering  from poorly ventilated alveoli, the bronchial
     circulation, the Thebesian and anterior cardiac veins and perhaps
     other sources.  By contrast, at low level oxygenation (anoxic anoxia)
     the gradient resulted  largely from the pressure head which must develop
     across the pulmonary membrane to effect the transfer of the required
     volume of oxygen.
            Exercise, by exerting a physiological stress on the mechanisms
     serving the transfer of oxygen from alveolar air to arterial blood,
     evokes an integrated series of respiratory and cardiovascular
     adaptations, one of which is the increase of the alveolar-arterial
     oxygen pressure gradient.
            The diffusion constant of the lung, calculated from the
     experimental observations, averaged 21 at rest (range 12 to 36) and
     increased during exercise to an average of 62 (range 50 to ?6).
     Authors' Sum.
 531. Lutmer,  R.F.,  Busch,  K,A«, and Belong, P.L.:  Effect of nitric oxide,
      nitrogen dioxide,  or ozone on  blood carboxyhemoglobin concentrations
      during low-level carbon monoxide  exposures.  Internat. J. Air &
      Water Poll.,  in press.

      Compared to exposure to CO alone, no enhancement of blood
      carboxyhemoglobin concentrations  was observed following 7-hour
      exposures of  rats and mice to  low levels of CO plus NO, NO^, or
      0^.   -  Authors'  Abst.


532.  jfentell,  C.D.:   Smoking in pregnancy: The role played by carbonic
      anhydrase. New Zealand Med. J. 63:601-603  (Sept.) 196^.

      An outline of the method used  to  estimate the carbonic anhydrase
      content  in a  specimen of cord  blood has been given.  This method
      involved the  absorption of C0g by a buffer  solution so as to lower
      its pH to the end point of the indicator.

                                    225

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            Results show a decrease in carbonic anhydrase activity in
     the cord "bloods of infants whose mothers smoked.
            Classification at "birth, length of gestation, and birth
     weights of the infants were also affected.
            The differences in enzyme activity, foetal birth weights
     and condition, and the prematurity rate between infants of light
     and heavy smokers and between those who smoked and those who did
     not smoke during labour, were insignificant.  -  Author's Sum.
533. Marcblaro, G., Margaria, B., Gaido, P.C.,  and Aquaro,  G.:   Acid-
     base equilibrium in experimental acute intoxication from carbon
     monoxide.  Rass. Med. Indust. 33:^52-453 (May-Aug.) 196k.

     In dogs experimentally intoxicated with CO a progressive decrease
     has been found in the pH values of the blood accompanied by an
     increase of the pCOg.  The acidosis condition tends to correct
     partially during the successive stages of treatment.  - Authors'
     Sum.
 534. Mayers, M.R.:  Studies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.   New York State
     Dept. of Labor, Div, Indust. Hyg. & Safety Standards,  19^6,  6k pp.

     This pamphlet contains six papers on the following subjects:
                     1.  Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
                     2.  Effects on Red Blood Cells
                     3-  Carbon Monoxide Headache
                     1*.  In Garages'
                     5«  In Hat Industry
                     6.  In Foundries
            Author states that there is need for further study of the
     toxicologies! effects of mixed gases,  in which CO is one of  the
     constituents, on both animals in the laboratory and on workers in
     industry.
            Although it is assumed that,  while the principal action of
     CO is undoubtedly the production of anoxeraia by displacing oxygen
     from the hemoglobin of the red cells,  it may in addition,  have other
     physiological effects not yet fully understood.  Whether CO  is a
     tissue poison is still another matter for further investigation.
     -  AGC
535.  Meda, E.:   Kinetics of the reaction of human hemoglobin with
      carbon monoxide.  Rass. Med. Ind. (Rome) 33:292-295 (May-Aug.)
     The  author reports the results of studies on the kinetics of the
     reaction of human hemoglobin with carbon monoxide; the results
     were obtained with the use of the method termed "interrupted flow".
     The  influence of temperature on the kinetics of the reaction was
     also studied  and in addition the equation is given for calculating
     the  speed constant.   -  APCA 6U-1?6

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536. Keigs, J.W.:  Carbot* monoxide poisoning.  Bujl. U.S. Army Dept.
     8:542-546,  1948.

     The danger  of carbon monoxide poisoning among nea working oh gasoline-
     driven vehicles is emphasized.  A concentration of several  thousand
     parts per million may occur in  the air near  the exhaust outlet, even
     outdoors, unless exhaust gases  are discharged so that  the carbon
     monoxide is diluted before it can return  to  any area where  it may be
     inhaled.  Symptoms, which usually occur when the carboxy-haemoglobin
     content of  the blood reaches 20 percent*  include headache,  dizziness,
     faintness,  nausea, and vomiting.  Samples of oxalated blood should be
     analyzed for the presence of carbon monoxide as soon as possible after
     exposure, to minimize reoxygenatipn of carboxy-haemoglobin, but they
     can be frozen and sent to a laboratory.   The presence of a  significant
     amount of carbon monoxide in the blood will  differentiate symptoms due
     to carbon monoxide poisoning from those due  to other causes, especially
     alcohol.  Heavy cigarette smoking may produce carboxy-haemoglobin
     levels up to 10 percent.- BMB 402
537.   Morgan,  J.L.:   Carbon monoxide poisoning-a danger of farm and home.
      Indust.  Med. 8= Surg.  24:302-306 (July)  1955-

      Carbon monoxide poisoning  is a problem  in  Kansas as elsewhere.  The
      gas when inhaled produces  anoxemia by combining with hemoglobin.
      Pathologically the  small blood vessels  are the main target organs of
      the anoxemia and these vessel  changes are  so widespread that the
      clinical picture is extraordinarily variable.  The diagnosis is
      usually  suggested by  the history or the surroundings in which the
      patient  is  found.   There are simple qualitative blood tests which may
      help  to  detect carboxyhemogloMn.  Treatment is based on ventilating
      the patien't lungs  with fresh  air or a  carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture.
      Permanent sequellae such as psychoses and  Parkinsonism do occur but
      they  are extremely  rare.   Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning is a
      debatable entity. -Author's Sum.
 538. Mbureu,  H., Chovin,  P., Truffert,  T.,  and Lebbe,  J.:   Some  lessons
      drawn from determinations of carbon monoxide poisoning of city '
      inhabitants.  Compt. Rend. (Paris) 247:552-555 (July 28)  1958.

      The use of a single but exact infrared absorption technique to
      determine the amount of CO in the blood and in the ambient
      atmosphere is reported.  Two experiments were made to study the
      effects of automobile exhaust gases on 36 volunteer subjects
      stationed on selected streets and intersections in Paris.  The
      amount of CO in the blood of the subjects was determined
      immediately before and after a 3-hour period at a test station,
      and simultaneously 2 or 3 air samples were made to determine per-
      centages of oxygen and CO.  The atmospheric conditions and
      intensity of auto traffic were noted at eacb station.  The  first
      test was made on January 15*  1957*  "between 9 A.M.  and 12  noon; a
      relatively strong TIE wind (20-30 km./hour) prevailed to disperse

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     exhaust gases.  The average amount of CO in the air was 8 ppm.
     The average amount in the "blood before exposure (0.35 ml./ICO ml.
     "blood), increased about 25$ to Q.kk ml.  A second test was made
     7 days later between 4 and 7 P.M. j wind had "been nearly absent for
     several days and a slight tendency to fog was present.  A rise
     in the initial CO content of the blood was noted,  averaging
     0.5^ ml./lOO ml. blood,  i.e.,  slightly exceeding the normal limit
     for city dwellers of O.k ml.  The  average CO content of 100 samples
     of air was 26 ppm.  The increase in the CO content of the blood at
     the end of the test period was marked:   0.11 ml.,  i.e.,  a yi$>
     increase*  Similar tests were made of 136 samples of blood of
     automobile drivers held on charge  of intoxication after an auto
     accident or traffic offense.  Results were statistically analyzed
     in comparison to 1*507 cases suspected of CO poisoning.  CO levels
     in the blood of the intoxicated drivers were found to be much
     greater than among the controls,  -  APCA 2023


539. Moureu, H.:   The various aspects of pollution by the  exhaust gases
     of motors of internal combustion.   Rev.  Fathol.  Gen.  Physiol.  Clin.
     (Paris) 61:915-931 (July) 1961.

     Although automotive traffic has not reached the  density  in Paris
     that it  has in Los Angeles,  it is increasing rapidly.   Concern
     for this type of pollution,  especially that from ozone and carbon
     monoxide, was felt for the drivers of automobiles  and for
     pedestrians involved in heavy traffic.   A chart  in the text
     compares carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO)  levels of a group  (303 persons)
     of automobile drivers,  another group  of professional personnel
     (867 persons) exposed to CO, and another of controls  (^35 persons).
     In a range of blood levels of 0.2  to  2*5 ml./l(X) ml.  of blood,
     a greater number of drivers had levels  in the higher  half of this
     range.  At a level marked in the table  as "serious" (1.2 ml./
     100 ml.)* nearly bQ% of the drivers,  less than 25$ of the workers,
     and only about 7$ of the controls  were  higher.   The technical
     solution of the control of exhaust gases has probably now been
     solved by American manufacturers with equipment, developed past
     the laboratory stage,  which will not  be prohibitive in cost.   The
     controversies over the use of diesel  motors have also become
     resolved with the decision being that well-run and well-maintained
     diesel motors produce little exhaust.   The international
     colloquium on atmospheric pollution,  which was held in
     Royaumont in April I960,  included  among its recommendations the
     dieselization of public transport.  It  has been  established that
     the level of CO pollution in the public gardens  is 5  times less
     than on busy streets.  Wide avenues and areas of greenery are
     imperative in control of this  type of air pollution.  Again the
     running conditions of the motor are so  important in controlling
     the degree of pollution that they  should be under  official
     supervision and inspection.  In large cities,  especially,  the
     running of motors at an idling level  should be reduced to a
     minimum.  -   APCA ^635
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540. Pace,  H.,  Consolazio, W.V., Pitts, G.C., and Pecora, L,J. :  The
     rate of blood absorption of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in
     ambient air at simulated altitudes up to 10,000 feet.  NMRI Project
            Report No. 2, Aug. 31,
     Tests of 3 to 5 hours' duration were conducted at a simulated
     altitude of 10,000 feet (520 mm. Hg), in which subjects breathed CO
     concentrations of 0.87 parts/10,000 and 1.79 parts/10,000 "by means
     of a demand system and A-14 mask.  Analyses of "arterialized"
     "blood withdrawn from veins of the heated hand, and measurements of
     pulse rate and respiratory minute volume were made.  The altitude
     decrement attributable to the presence of given amounts of COHb was
     not ascertained.  This problem is now being studied.
            The results of these tests permit the following statements:
            At the end of 5 hours' exposure at 10,000 feet, the inhalation
     of 1.79 parts/10,000 CO was accompanied by an uptake of not more than
     12 per cent COHb.
            The rate of uptake of CO follows a predictable course in a
     range of concentrations from 0.87 parts/10,000 to 20 parts/10,000.
            The blood level of COHb may be predicted over the range by
     the equation:
               ^ $COHb - Pa-rtg CO x Corr. Mn. Vol. x Time
                                 42>5 x -Bi00& vol.
            The effect of altitude is taken into account by correcting
     the minute volume of respiration, as measured at altitude, to STP.
            The experimental data show close agreement with calculations
     based on theoretical values obtained by means of the equation.
            The time of ejcposure required to reach a given blood level
     of COHb in relation to the CO concentration in ambient air can be
     computed within the limits of experimental error for sea level, and
     for various altitudes up to 10,000 feet;.
            A summary of the data obtained in this study was prepared for
     limited distribution as Report No. One.  -  Authors' Sum.
 541. Pace, N.:  Limits of Tolerance .for Carbon Manoxide Under Working
     Conditions and in Emergency Procedures Aboard Ship.  Naval Med.  Res.
     Inst., Nat. Naval Med. Center, Bethesda, Md., KH6-l/All/NMRl-12it-,
     June 12, 191*5.

     This report is made in response to a request from BuShips for
     information regarding the limits of tolerance of exposure to various
     concentrations of carbon monoxide.  The limits set forth herein
     pertain only to non-flying personnel, and must not be applied in
     other situations where lowered atmospheric oxygen tensions may also
     be encountered.
            Recent work at the Naval Medical Research Institute has led
     to the development of a general equation for the expression of the
     rate of accumulation of carbon monoxide in the blood in terms of the
     factors important to the process.  The equation described in this
     paper has been tested under a wide variety of conditions and found
     to hold well experimentally and in practice.  -  Author'.s Abst.
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542. Pace,  H.,  Consolazio, W.V., White, W.A., Jr., and Behnke, A.R. :
     Formulation of the principal  factors  affecting the  rate of uptake
     of carbon monoxide by man. " Amer. J.  Physiol. iVf: 352-359,
     The rate of uptake of carbon monoxide has been  shown to be constant
     with respect to blood concentration of COHb, up to values of one-
     third the equilibrium level, when air containing CO in the range 1
     part to 20 parts  per 10,000 is breathed by men  at rest or engaged in
     moderate physical activity.
            An equation has been derived which serves as a means of estimating
     in man the degree of blood saturation with CO as a result of exposure
     to air containing this gas as  follows:
       A per cent COHb - Parts CO  X Minute Volume X Exposure Time
          *         a              46.5 X Blood Volume
             The equation is  valid  for values of per cent COHb up to one-
     third the equilibrium value for the air concentration of CO under
     consideration. Within this range Z-\per cent £OHb may be estimated
     within a degree of error whose standard deviation is +2. 3 per cent COHb.
            The fraction of CO  removed from the inspired air by the blood
     was found to be constant as uptake  progressed,  and the mean for a group
     of twelve men was h-1.2 per cent with a standard deviation of +k.k per
     cent.  This value is somewhat  lower than that observed by previous
     investigators. -  Authors'  Sum.


543. Parmeggiani, L.,  and Gilardi,  F. :   Physiological levels of blood carbon
     monoxide.  MSd. Lavoro ^3: 179-183 (April) 1952.

     Values for HbCO in the blood of  3^  normal subjects both non-smokers
     and smokers of 10-40 cigarettes per diem were assessed with the
     Heilmeyer method and Koenig -Mart ens spectre-photometer.  The non-smokers
     showed an average level  of 2.Q%  with a k% maximum, the moderate smokers
     an averave of ^.9$ with  a maximum of 9%, while  in the case of the
     heavier smokers,  concentrations  of  HbCO up to lk% were found.  For the
     practical exercise of occupational  and insurance medicine the upper
     limit for the physiological carbon  monoxide level should therefore be
     fixed at, at least 10$ of HbCO,  a concentration currently observed in
     the blood of workers who are smokers, but not exposed to sources of
     occupational carbon monoxide.  Higher figures are signs of absorption
     of CO, higher than those for average smokers, but still not sighs (in
     the absence of clinical  symptoms of poisoning)  of carbon monoxide
     poisoning.  -  Authors'  Sum.


544. Pecora, L., Vecchione, C,, and Fati,  S. :   On the binding of carbon
     monoxide in the blood in acute and chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.
     Folia Med.  ^3: 568-580 (June) 1960.

     Experimental  studies  in vitro were made by the authors of the
     stability of  the carbon monoxide linkage with the blood subsequent
     to acute or chronic poisoning.  In acute poisoning a group of 12
     rabbits were  exposed  on the 1st, 5th,  10th,  and 20th days;  in


                                    230

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     chronic poisoning a similar group of rabbits were exposed for 120
     days with the carbon monoxide at a level of 100 ppm.  For each
     type of poisoning the CO levels were determined for newly-drawn
     samples of blood and of samples which had been exposed to the air
     for varying periods .  From results of these studies it was shown
     that the greater the number of acute poisonings, or the more
     prolonged the chronic poisoning, the less was the quantity of CO
     freed from the red cells or from the plasma after exposure to air.
     There was, therefore, a progressive increase in both the plasma and
     globulin carboxyemia.  From these studies it is evident that in
     repeated poisonings CO is not- only distributed in the blood in a
     different way compared with single poisonings, but also that links
     which are unlikely to be reversible are established both in the
     plasma and in the red blood cells.  -  APCA 4021
545. Pitts, G.C., and Pace, W.:   The rate of blood absorption of low
     concentrations of carbon monoxide at sea level.   Naval Medical  Res*
     lust., Bethesda, Md., Res.  Project X-^17,  Hep. Ho.  6,  Feb.
     Two tests of twelve and seven hours'  duration respectively were
     conducted at sea level upon supine subjects breathing, by means of
     a demand system and an A-14 mask,  CO concentrations of 89 ppm. and
     156 ppm*  The per cent saturation of hemoglobin with carbon monoxide
     was determined each hour.  The subjects were  ventilating  at a rate
     of approximately 6,7 liters per minute*
            The results of these tests permit the  following statements:
            Twelve hours' exposure of one subject  to 89 ppm. CO resulted
     in a carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentration of 11*0 per cent.
            Seven hours' exposure of one subject to 156 ppm. CO resulted
     in a COHb concentration of 16.6 per cent*
            The course of the respective uptake curves indicates that
     during the time of exposure neither subject attained final equilibrium
     with the CO concentration being breathed.
            The equilibrium concentrations of COHb are roughly estimated
     to be from 13 to 15 and from 30 to kQ per cent respectively for the
     89 ppm. und 156 ppm. CO mixtures*
            The results indicate the desirability  of further work on rate
     of uptake of low concentrations of CO at higher rates of  ventilation.
     -  Authors' Sum. and Conclusions
 546. Portheine, F. :  Carbon monoxide and traffic.  Arch.  f.  Gewerbepath.
     u. Gewerbehyg. 13:253-261,
     Carboxyhemoglobin saturation per cent of blood samples of 200
     automotive vehicle drivers whose blood was sampled by the police
     in Eusseldorf primarily for alcohol content was from zero through
     % for 65.5$ of the subjects, 6-10$ for 27$, 11-15$ for 6.5$,
     with one subject, at 16$ and at 20$,  At a high traffic street
     crossing in the Kuhr area, traffic officers were found to show
     18$ Co-Hb in the blood immediately at the completion of duty.
                                    231

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 547.RLcci, C., Capellaro, P.,  and Gaido,  P.C.:   ELectrophoretic and
     immuno-electrophoretic examinations in workers exposed to chronic
     CO intoxication.  Rass. Med. Indust.  33:toA-4l6 (May-Aug.)
     The authors have examined the behaviour of the trans ferrin with
     immunochemical methods in individuals exposed to occupational
     risks from CO.  In all the subjects an increase was noted in the
     globulin fraction of the serum regardless of the time of exposure
     an increase particularly linked to the globulin fraction
     (transferrin or slderophillin) .  -  Authors'  Sum.


548. Roberts, W.C.:  Correlation of blood carbon monoxide level with
     symptoms.  Indust. Med. & Surg. 21:323-325 (June) 1952.

     26 cases of intoxication by carbon monoxide are reported in this
     paper attempting to show the correlation,  if  any, between symptoms
     and physical findings seen,  and carbon monoxide blood saturation
     levels .
            It is concluded that there is no close correlation of
     physical findings and symptoms with carbon monoxide blood levels.
     The physiological reactions to carbon monoxide may vary  with the
     state of health of the individual,  or the presence of fatigue.
     In some cases frequent small exposures to carbon monoxide may
     develop a considerable degree of acclimatisation, and thus alter
     the physiological reactions to carbon monoxide.   -  Author's Sum.


549. Roughton, F.J.W., and Darling, E.G.:  The  effect of carbon monoxide
     on the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve.  Aaer.  J. Physiol.  l4l:
     17-31 (March 1) 19^4.

     A simplified method is proposed for calculating the Og- dissociation
     curve of OgHb in the presence of a given percent of COHb.  It
     utilizes the observed dissociation curve of O^Sb without CO and
     the theoretical assumptions of the partition of Hb between 02 and
     CO; but avoids any equation for the hemoglobin dissociation curve
     and does not require the choice of a numerical value for the
     partition coefficient M.
            The theory was tested in hemoglobin solutions in 0.6 M
     phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at two percentages of COHb and found to
     agree excellently with four out of six observed points,  and the
     discrepancy in the remaining two was not very serious.
            Whole blood showed generally excellent agreement between
     theory and observation when similarly tested at pC02 = 40 per cent
     and COHb approximately 20, 40, 60 per cent, and at pC02 = 25; per
     cent COHb = 22.
            The relation of the fundamental assumptions of the theory
     to the intermediate compound hypothesis of the Og-hemoglobin
     equilibrium is worked out.
            It is shown that the effect of COHb on the Og-dissociation
     curve in vivo should be quantitatively the same as the experimentally
     observed effect in vitro.

                                    232

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            Plotting of 02 pressure against total "bound Og rather than
     against the fraction of the available hemoglobin "bound with 0% is
     shown to give clearer indications of the effect of COHb on the
     transport of Og.  In particular the conditions under vhich a, 0%
     supply would begin to fail, and b, small amounts -of CO would have
     a beneficial effect at very low ©2 pressures (Haldane -Smith effect)
     are demonstrated.  -  Authors' Sum.
550. Roughton,  P. J.W. :   The average time spent by the blood in the human
     lung capillary and its relation to the rates of CO uptake and
     elimination in man.  Amer.  J.  Physiol. 1^3:621-633 (April)
     The average time,  tj^  which the blood spends in passing through
     the lung capillaries is of interest,  since it is only during this
     phase of the circulatory cycle that exchange of gases between the
     blood and air is possible.  A knowledge of the value of tj, is
     therefore important in several kinetic problems of respiration.
            A theoretical method of calculating t^ is described and
     its reliability critically discussed.  Its accuracy in normal man
     is believed to be of the order of + 30 per cent.
            The average value is 0.75 +"0.25 second for normal  men at
     rest, and 0.3^ + 0.1 second in haFd worki   These values are of the
     order of magnitude to be expected from other physiological data.
            The total volume of the blood in the patent lung capillaries
     is also calculated from tL>  In normal men it averages 60  cc. at
     rest and 95 cc. in hard work,  thus indicating that no very extensive
     opening up of extra capillaries occurs in  the lungs during exercise.
            Applications of the new data to the kinetics of CO  uptake
     and elimination in the lungs of man are discussed.  -  Author's
     Sum.


 551. Roughton, F.JYvJ.,  and Root, ¥.S. :  The fate of CO in the body during
     recovery from mild carbon monoxide poisoning in man.  Amer.  J.
     Physiol. l*f 5: 239-252,
     Analyses are given of the CO content of expired air and of the
     progressive fall in CO content of the blood during recovery  from
     mild CO poisoning.  From such figures, together with the blood volume,
     the percentage of CO recovered in the expired air is calculated.,
            In normal men, whether breathing oxygen or air,  the CO found
     in the expired air only averages 60 to 70 per cent of that currently
     lost from the blood during the first hour after the CO  administration.
     Independent theoretical calculations confirm the validity  of this
     result.
            If, however, the subjects continue to breathe oxygen  for k
     hours after the CO administration, about 96 per cent of the  CO initially
     absorbed by the subject is recovered in the expired air over this
     longer period.  It is inferred that the 30 to kQ psr cent  fraction of
     CO,  lost from the blood during the first hour and unaccounted for
     in the expired air, must have combined reversibly with  hemoglobin-
     like pigments outside the main blood stream.  Subsequently as the


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      blood CO content falls,  the CO dissociates  reversibly from these
      combinations,  diffuses back into the blood  and thence into the expired
      air.
             The results of the four hour experiments confirm previous views
      that  there is no significant loss of CO (a) through the skin,  sweat,
      urine,  or feces,  (b)  by  oxidation or other  forms of metabolism—at
      all events in mild CO poisoning and with the body adequately supplied
      with  oxygen.
             The possible sites for this extra-circulatory combination of
      CO are considered and its implications  in regard to blood volume
      determinations and other aspects of the chemical physiology of CO
      are discussed.  -  Authors'  Sum.


552.  Sakurai, T.:   The study  of the skin permeability of carbon monoxide
      and measurement of carboxyhaemoglobin in blood*  Japan J.  Legal Med.
      (Tokyo) 17:31^-326 (July) 1963.

      The question  had been raised at an earlier  scientific meeting  of the
      extent to which the skin was permeable  to carbon monoxide  gas.   Basic
      in vitro studies were 1st made,  using a photometric spectrophotometer,
      on prepared fresh blood  samples into which  fuel gas containing 7$ CO
      had been introduced.   In later studies,  bl&od  samples were taken periodically
      from  a recently-killed guinea pig which was confined to a  desiccator
      into  which the same fuel gas was introduced.   Results showed that CO
      did penetrate through the skin of the aniiEal to combine with the
      hemoglobin of the blood  to form carboxyhemoglobia (HbCO).  A live rabbit
      was confined,  except  for its head,  in an airtight box and  the  fuel
      gas was introduced and vented from the  box.  Blood  samples were taken
      periodically  from an  ear vein.   In a series of 3 rabbits so  exposed,
      CO was found  to have  penetrated the skin and entered the blood to
      form  HbCO.  There was some indication that  the normal defense  mecha-
      nisms of the  living body had been operating for a while to eliminate
      the CO from the body.  However,  these defense  mechanisms were  overcome
      and the rabbits died  after 31>  25,  and  10 hours respectively.   It was
      concluded from these  experiments that there was a decided  degree of
      skin  permeability to  CO.  - APCA 5875


 553. Sayers,  R.R.,  Meriwether,  P.V.,  and Yant, W.P.:   Physiological
      effects of exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide.  Pub.
      Health Rep. 37:1126-11^2 (my 12)  1922.

      The combination of CO with hemoglobin takes place slowly when  the
      subject is  exposed to low concentrations and remains at rest, many
      hours being required  before equilibrium is  reached.
             The  rate of combination of CO with hemoglobin takes place
      much  more rapidly during the first hour of  exposure  than during
      any succeeding hour,  with the  subject remaining at  rest.
             Strenuous  exercise causes much more  rapid combination of CO
      with  hemoglobin than  when the  subject remains  at  rest.  The  symptoms
      of CO poisoning are emphasized by  exercise.

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            'High temperature and humidity.,  with a given concentration of
     CO, cause more  rapid combination of CO with hemoglobin than do normal
     conditions of temperature and humidity.
            All symptoms  and effects described in this paper are-called
     acute in character.   Hone of the subjects has shown any permanent
     deleterious effects  from the exposure  to CO.   -   Authors'  Conclusion
 554. Sayers, KR., Yant, W.P., Lavy, B., and Fulton, ¥.B,:   Effects of
     repeated daily exposure of several hours to  small amounts  of
     automobile exhaust gas.  USPHSB No. 186, 1929, 58 pp.

     Six men were exposed in a  chamber from 4 to  7 hours daily,  for
     68 days, to gasoline engine exhaust containing 200, 300, and kOO
     ppm of carbon monoxide.  At 200 ppm,  carboxyhemoglobin reached
     25 percent in 5  or 6 hours;  more  than one-half the subjects
     experienced no symptoms at all, the remainder suffering slight
     discomfort in 2  hours and  frontal headache in h hours.  At 300
     ppm and at hOQ ppm,  carboxyhemoglobin reached 30 percent,  within
     5 and h hours respectively.  At the higher concentration,  more
     than  90 percent  of subjects suffered  frontal headache  within k
     hours, and a few complained of occipital headache.  No deleterious
  •   effects upon health  or well-being were detected, and psychologic
     examination revealed only  a slight tendency  to poorer  performance
     in the prolonged steadiness test.  A  definite increase in  hemoglobin
     and red blood cell count waa noted.
555. Schulte,05H. :  Effects of mild carbon monoxide intoxication.  Arch.
     Environ. Health 7:52^-37  (Hoy. ) 1963.

     The effects of exposures for varying lengths of time to an atmosphere
     containing 100 ppm.  of  carbon monoxide were measxired in a. group of
     49 healthy men between  25  and 55 years, of age.  This exposure produced
     levels of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood of the subjects ranging from
     0-20$.   Impairment of function due to exposure to  CO occurred earliest
     in the higtier centers of  the ' central nervous system in that area
     (or areas) of the brain which controls some of the cognitive and
     psychomotor abilities.  Impairment is detectable at levels of car-
     boxyhemoglobin below 5$,. -and the degree of impairment increases with
     increasing  concentration  of the carboxyhemoglobin  in the blood.  Ths
     need  for reducing the max.  allowable concentration of CO in the working
     environment has been speculated upon. - APCA 5699


556.  Sievers, R.F., Edwards, T.I.,- and Murray, A.L. :  A Medical Study of
     Men Exposed to Measured Amounts of Carbon Monoxide in the Holland
     Tunnel for 13 Years.  Federal Security Agency, U.S. PHSB No. 278,
           Washington,  D. C., Jk pp,  and J. AMA 118:585-588 (Feb. 21) 191*2.
     Medical examinations of 156  traffic officers on duty at the Holland
     Tunnel for 13 years and four months were made as a practical test
     of the effectiveness of the  medical and engineering control methods

                                     235

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     set up  for their protection.  About half of these officers had been
     on tunnel duty every working day of this period.  Average carbon
     monoxide exposure  throughout the tunnel for all hours of the  day
     vas approximately  70 ppm.  Results of medical examinations of men
     on duty for  the  first  five years showed them to "be in excellent
     physical conditions.   No evidence of symptoms attributable to
     carbon  monoxide  intoxication and for sequelae of acute episodes was
     found.  The  effects of both smoking habits and of occupational exposure
     to carbon monoxide concentrations in blood samples were  analyzed  by
     the Van SLyke method.  The lowest concentration value, expressed  as
     percent of hemoglobin  combined with carbon monoxide, was 0.5;  the
     highest value was  found in a tunnel officer, a heavy smoker,  coming
     directly from unusually heavy atmospheric exposure, was  13.1.  No
     signs or symptoms  attributable to carbon monoxide were observed
     within  this  range. Concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blood  of
     toll  collectors  on the holiday selected for observation  ranged up
     to 15.1 percent, expressed as percent of hemoglobin combined with
     carbon  monoxide.
            Authors do  not  feel that there is  reason to assume that pro-
     longed  exposure  to these concentration xevels will result in injury
     to health.   Precautions in force in the Holland Tunnel set up  for the
     elimination  of the possibility of acute exposure is to be extended
     in order to  protect the health of all persons unavoidably exposed to
     carbon  monoxide.  - Authors' Abst. Modi fled-AGO
557. Smith,  P.K. :   Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations in Personnel After
     Hying P-40-N Aircraft.   School of Aviation Medicare, Randolph AFB,
     Texas,  May 5>  19^5,  3 PP»  EDC AD 121708.

     Measurements  were made of the carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in
     eighteen pilots after flying fourteen different P-lj-O-M aircraft.
     The concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin varied from zero to eight
     per cent of the total hemoglobin.  It is concluded that the
     concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin  found were psfbbably not Mgh
     enough to interfere  with flying efficiency.  *  /Dior's /bat.
558. Sterz,  H. :   On hemoglobinemia.   Medizinische KLinik 58:1705-1709
     (Oct. 18) 1963.

     In discussing the pathology of  hemoglobin as prevailing  in
     people of various geographic areas,  the author treats also of
     the most common occurrence of hematologic changes  caused by
     CO poisoning.  CO has a 200 to  300 times greater affinity  for
     Hb than oxygen and 0.1$ of CO in the air is sufficient to  impede
     half of the Hb necessary for the function of breathing.  Severe
     headache, restlessness,  shaking,  weakness, cramps,  deep  coma,
     paralysis and death may be caused by the paralysis of the
     breathing mechanism and by hemorrhage in the brain.  About 60$
     CO-Hb in blood causes coma,  fQ-Qofy are fatal.   Chronic conditions
     may develop at exposures above  20$.   CO concentrations should
     be kept below 20$ the maximum limit. - From German AGC

                                   236

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559. Trompeo,  G.,  Gaido,  P.O.,  and Capellaro,  F.:   Concentrations of
    carbon monoxide in the air and carboxyhemoglobinemia (study on
    garage mechanics).  Bass.  Med. Indust.  33:440-U42 (May-Aug.)
     Measurements have been made of the carboxyhemoglobinemia in workmen
     in an underground garage at the end of a working day.   The average
     of the values was found to be higher than those of smokers who were
     not to other sources of carbon monoxide and in addition it was
     possible to note a close relation between the maximum carboxyhe-
     moglobinemia values and values of CO in the surroundings.   -
     Authors' Sum.
560. Van Slyke, D.D. :   Gasometric determination of the oxygen and
     hemoglobin of blood.  J. Biol. Chem. 33:127-132, 1918.

     The apparatus described by Van Slyke in J. Biol. Chem. 30:347,
     1917? for determining the carbonic acid content of plasma may be
     used with equal facility for determining the oxygen content and the
     oxygen-binding capacity (hemoglobin) of blood.  The oxygen is set
     free from combination with hemoglobin within the apparatus by
     addition of ferricyanide, is extracted in a Toricellian vacuum,
     and measured at atmospheric pressure, a few minutes sufficing for
     an accurate determination.  -  Author's Sum.


561. Vasil'eva, A.A.,  and Manita, M.D. :  Carboxyhemoglobin in the blood of
     persons directing city traffic.  Gigiena i Sanitaria 25:77-80 (Dec.)
     -I960*  In: Levine, B.S. (editor and translator):  U.S.S.R. literature
     bn Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol.  J,
     1962, pp. 290-293, CFSTI-TT-62-11103, U.S. Dept. of Commerce,
     Springfield, Va.

     Sixteen Mbscow city street traffic directing workers were examined
     for COHb blood concentration as described in the text.  Results  of
     analyses of 76 blood specimens showed a higher level of COHb blood
     content than in r,_>propriately selected controls.
            COHb blood concentration among the Moscow residing controls
     ranged between 0.0-6.0$ in the summer and 0.0-12.0$ in the fall;
     COHb concentration in the blood of Moscow traffic directing personnel
     ranged between 12.0-^0.0^.  -  Authors' Conclusion


562. von Qettingen, W.F. :  Carbon Monoxide:  Its Hazards and the Mechanism
     of its Action.  Federal Security Agency, U.S. Public Health Service,
     PHSB Ho. 290.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.,
           SP. 257.
     Investigations by the author show  that CO poisoning is characterized
     by the formation of CO hemoglobin and that the amount of CO hemoglobin
     formed depends upon the concentration of CO in the air, the duration
     of the exposure, and the rate of respiration of the individual
     exposed.  An increase in the temperature, humidity, and CO  content

                                     237

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     of the air or a decrease in the concentration of  Og will stimulate
     the respiration and hence favor the  absorption of CO.  But if  such
     variations are eliminated, certain concentrations of CO  in air will
     convert only a definite percentage of oxyhemoglobin into CO hemoglobin
     until an equilibrium is reached.   The speed with  which the maximal.
     concentration is reached depends upon the  concentration  of CO  in air,
     so that with high concentrations of  CO maximal saturation may  occur
     very rapidly.
            CO may also react with other  "hemeft-containing pigments and
     enzymes, but, of all pigments mentioned,  only the pseudohemoglobin
     has a greater affinity to CO than  hemoglobin., and at present it appears
     impossible to judge on the physiological  ia£>crtance of this phenomenon.
     The question as to whether or not  CO affects  the  functioning of other
     pigments such as myoglobin or cytochrome  appears  to need further
     study, and the same holds true regarding  information on  the effect
     of CO on certain pigments found in the brain.
            Regarding the relation between toxic symptoms and the concen-
     tration of CO hemoglobin in the blood, it appears that concentrations
     below 20 percent cause only moderate subjective complaints and that
     these become serious with concentrations  up to 30 percent and  alarm-
     ing with higher concentrations. It  appears impossible to state which
     concentration of CO hemoglobin in  the blood will  be fatal because
     this will vary considerably with the type of  escposure and the  Og
     need of the organism at the time of  the eitposure, but it appears
     that concentrations between 60 and 80 percent will be dangerous to
     life.
            Analysis of the clinical picture and the pathological findings
     in CO poisoning, especially in regard to  the  behavior of the
     circulatory apparatus and the central nervous system as  well as the
     metabolism, appears to indicate that the  sequelae of CO  poisoning
     are more serious than would be expected'from  mere anoxemia of  a
     similar degree.  In spite of the impressive parallelism  between the
     effects of CO poisoning and those  produced by lack of OQ it cannot
     be denied that there are a number  of reactions and phenomena which
     may indicate a specific primary or secondary  effect of CO on certain
     "heme"-containing pigments or enzymes of  the  organism.   - Author's
     Conclusions Modified.


563. white, J.J.:   Carbon monoxide and its relation to aircraft.  U.S.
     Haval Mad. Bull. 30:151-165 (April)  1932.

     Carbon monoxide, a product of incomplete combustion,  is  present in
     the exhaust  gas of all types of airplanes.  In some types of planes,
     depending on type of exhaust leads,  fuselage, etc,,  this gas is
     carried back to the cockpits of the plane in sufficient  concentration
     to result in as much as 15 per cent saturation of the blood of the
     pilot and other occupants of the plane.
            Although the highest saturation of blood obtained during the
     investigation  (15 per cent) is not sufficient to render a person
     unconscious, or to be a direct cause of a crash,  it is known that
     the absorption of even minute amounts of carbon monoxide is highly
     undesirable, due to the probable adverse effect on the efficiency of
     the pilot.

                                    238

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            The fact that exposure to a low concentration over a long
     period is more hanaful than a brief exposure to a very high concen-
     tration, increases the importance of eliminating all traces of carbon
     monoxide.
            Comparatively simple and inexpensive modification of the
     exhaust leads has eliminated carbon monoxide from the area where it
     is absorbed by the pilot or other occupants of the plane.  -  Author's
     Sum.
564.  Wilks,  S.S., Tomashefski,  J.F.,  and dark, R.T., Jr.:  Physiological
     effects of chronic  exposure to carbon monoxide.  J. Appl. Fhysiol.
     1^:305-310 (my)  1959.

     A group of 7 dogs was given a daily 6-8  hour exposure to CO levels
     of 0.08 to 0.10% for a period of 36 weeks and their tolerance to
     CO was  compared with that  of normal dogs, altitude-acclimatized
     dogs, and dogs transfused  with blood from normal dogs.  The
     observed increased  -tolerance to  CO was attributed primarily to  the
     increase in concentration  of the hemoglobin  pigments in the blood.
     With this increased hemoglobin there was a greater reserve of the
     pigment for Og transport at a given concentration level of HbCO
      (carboxyhemoglobin).  There was  no evidence  of factors, other than
     hematologic, which  increased the tolerance of the dogs to CO.
     Animals subjected to other hypoxic stress such as altitude, or
     normal  animals transfused  with normal blood  to increase the
     hematocrit level, showed increased tolerance similar to that
     accomplished by chronic exposure to low  CO levels.  -  APCA 26^3


564a Woodruff, R.S.:  Carbon monoxide poisoning.   Med. Sc. 7:550 (April 25)
     I960.

      At the  Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences held in Chicago in
     1960, items of general medical interest  were discussed.  In discussing
      effects of CO  poisoning before the Pathology Section, author presented:
         "evidence on the transmission of carbon monoxide across the
         placenta.   A woman five-months pregnant died of asphyxiation
         by illuminating  gas. Her blood showed a  carbon monoxide
         saturation  of 65$.  Heart blood obtained  from her fetus
         showed a carbon  monoxide saturation of kQ.  It is evident
         that carbon monoxide crosses  the placenta readily."


  565. Yant,  W.P., Chornyak,  J,,  Schrenk, H.H., Patty,  F.A.,  and Sayers,  R.R.:
      VI.  Blood chemistry of dogs after comparatively rapid carbon-monoxide
      asphyxia.  In:   Studies in Asphyxia.  U.S.  Treasury Dept.,  PHS, PHB
      No. 211,  193*b PP.  61.

      Among  dogs exposed to  atmospheres which were depleted of oxygen at a
      rate which caused  a progressive asphyxia! condition simulating
      asphyxia resulting from exposure to approximately 0.6 percent carbon


                                    239

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     monoxide  In air by volume, there was a marked hyperglycemia and
     hyperuricemia.
            The nonprotein nitrogen and urea increased slightly.  The
     total  and preformed  creatinine remained practically normal; the
     inorganic phosphorus increased.
            There was an  increase in the hydrogen-ion concentration, and
     a marked  decrease in the carbon-dioxide capacity of the plasma and
     the carbon-dioxide content of the "blood.
            The oxygen saturation of the arterial blood at death ranged
     from 1.3  to 8 percent.
            The blood counts showed no marked abnormalities.  -  Authors'
     Sum.
566. Yarrow, T.J., Jr.:  Chronic carbon monoxid poisoning and carbonyl
     hemoglobinuria:  The latter a hitherto undescribed condition.  Amer.
     Med.  4:338-3^3, 1902.

     In April 1900, author called attention to chronic toxemia resulting
     from  inhalation of  small quantities of illuminating gas from leaky
     gas pipe fixtures.  He emphasizes the point that chronic CO poisoning
     occurs more  frequently than is thought possible and that it is
     responsible  for many obscure conditions which often remain unsolved.
     Author advocates the extensive use of the spectroscope in diagnosis
     of such obscure conditions.  Two cases of chronic CO poisoning are
     described.   One is believed to be the first reporting carbonyl
     hemoglobinuria following or accompanying CO poisoning.  -  AGC


567. Zorn, H.:  On the diagnosis of chronic CO poisoning.   (German) Bass.
     Med.  Indust. 33:325-329 (May-Aug.) 1964.

     The author has the  opportunity of observing a group of workmen who
     worked in noisy premises and were exposed to low concentrations
     of CO over a relatively long period on account of a leak of gas
     which had not been  noticed.  Examinations and psychological tests
     when  compared to those previously made showed an increase in the
     excitability and irritability to noises.  The percentage of
     carboxyhemoglobinemia varied between 10 and 20$.  The electro-
     encephalogram revealed a picture of extremely unstable frequency.
     When  the leak had finally been found and stopped, the tests returned
     to normal after eight weeks in the young subjects and after 16 in
     the elderly  and old.  These observations led the author to advise
     a series of  examinations and tests to be given to workmen at
     Intervals of 3-^ years, so as to follow up the action of sub-toxic
     concentrations of CO.  -  Author's Sum.
                                    240

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     Method of Detection
568. Arnold, H.R., Carrier, E.B., Smith, H.P., and Whipple, 6.H.:
     Blood volume studies.  V.  The carbon monoxide method—its accuracy
     and limitations.  Amer. J. Physiol. 56:313-327, 1921.

     The carbon monoxide method gives a reasonably accurate measure of
     the body hemoglobin and hemoglobin volume*  We use these terms to
     indicate the total body pigment substances which fix the inhaled
     CO and bring about its dilution in the circulating blood.  It is
     obvious that the true red cell hemoglobin volume is slightly less
     than the total hemoglobin volume.
            Repeated hemoglobin volume estimations on normal dogs give
     figures which are reasonably constant, allowing for certain expected
     physiological variations.
            Hemoglobin volume estimations before and after unit hemorrhages
     give figures for the actual measured and indirectly calculated
     amounts which are in close accord*
            In our opinion this method alone gives no accurate information
     concerning plasma volume.
             Various controls of the several steps of this method,  as used
     in our hands, are submitted.  These controls establish this method
     as accurate at least within 5 per cent error.  Further refinements
     and the use of packed red cells, especially in anemia, increase the
     accuracy of the method.  -  Authors' Sum.


 569. Boor, A.K., and Bachem, A.:  A spectrographic study of carbon monoxide
     hemoglobin.  J. Biol. Chem. 85:7^3-7^9* 1930.

     The transmission curve of carbon monoxide hemoglobin spectrum is
     shown.
            Evidence of the purity of the carbon monoxide hemoglobin,
     made by the method described, is presented in Fig.  2.  No differ-
     ence is indicated between spectra of uncrystallized and crystal-
     lized carbon monoxide hemoglobin made by this method.
            Spectra of carbon monoxide hemoglobin from different species
     are shown to be alike.
            A water solution of oxyhemoglobin is shown to change upon
     standing $ in time methemoglobin is formed, probably with another
     modification of oxyhemoglobin.  Carbon monoxide hemoglobin seems
     very stable in this respect.  -  Authors' Sum.


570. Bowden, C.H., and Woodhall,  W.R.:   The determination and significance
     of low blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels.  Med.  Sc. Law. 4:98-107
     (April) 196^.

     The method described by Whitehead and ¥orthington (1961) for the
     determination of carboxyhaemoglobin has been examined and minor
     modifications are suggested.  The sensitivity and spedificity of the
     method has been confirmed at low COHb saturations.

                                    241

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            ]ft>rty-two non-smokers and 58  smokers were examined at  various
      times of  day using this technique.   The mean COHb values  obtained
      in the morning prior  to smoking were 0.7 per cent for non-smokers
      and 1.5 per cent for  smokers; the difference in means was highly
      significant.   In the  afternoon, smokers gave a mean value of  2.7 per
      cent.  It is calculated that a saturation of 8 per cent COHb  will
      be achieved "normally" "by a smoker only in exceptional circumstances.
            The significance of the results in relation to the reconstruction
      of fatal  transportation accidents is briefly discussed.   -  Authors'
      Abst.
571.  Chinn,  H.T. :   A Method for the  Determination  of  Carbon Monoxide in
      Alveolar Air,  Together with a Correlation of  Values Thus Obtained
      with Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations in Blood.  Aviation Medicine
      Randolph AFB,  Texas,  April 5, 1^, 9 pp.  DDC AD 135575
      A simple method has been devised  for the determination of carbon
      in alveolar air.   An  excellent  correlation has been shown between
      the alveolar carbon monoxide  content and the carboxyhemoglobin
      concentration in blood.   This procedure possesses the following
      advantages:  ease of operation,  rapidity of analysis, omission of
      blood samples,  use of untrained personnel, avoidance of all solutions,
      and compactness of apparatus.   Its disadvantages lies in the necessity
      for subject co-operation so that  determination cannot be made on
      unconscious or dead persons.  Replacement of oxyhemoglobin by
      carboxyhemoglobin  cannot be demonstrated by oximeter measurement.  -
      Author's Abst.
572. Chinn, H.I., Pavel, N.E.R., and Redmond, R.F.:  A Simple Micromethod
     for Blood Carbon Monoxide Determination.  USAF School of Aviation
     Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, July 1955, fc pp.  DDC AD 79985.

     During World War 11, Shepherd and coworkers at the National Bureau
     of Standards (7) developed indicating tubes for detection of minute
     quantities of CO in air.  The remarkable specificity and sensitivity
     of these tubes suggested that they might be adapted to the rapid
     determination of CO in small quantities of blood.  This report
     presents such a method, one in which finger blood can be analyzed
     by untrained personnel in the absence of laboratory facilities.  -
     Authors' Introduction.
573, Christman, A.A., and Randall, E.L.:  A convenient and accurate method
     for the determination and detection of carbon monoxide in blood.  J.
     Biol. Chem. 102:595-609, 1933.

     A simple and accurate method requiring inexpensive apparatus is
     described for the determination of carbon monoxide in blood.  The
     method is based primarily on the fact that palladium chloride is
     reduced by carbon monoxide, and the excess of palladium chloride

-------
      which is present is determined "by a colorimetric procedure.
      Authors'  Sum.
57^.   Commins, B.T., and Tawther, P.-T.:  A sensitive method for the
      determination of carboxyhaemoglobin in a finger prick sample of
      blood,  British J.. Tndust. Med. 22:139-143 (April) 1965.

      About 0.01 m"1. of blood taken from a finger prick is dissolved in
      10 ml. of 0.04$ ammonia solution.  The solution is divided into two
      halves, and oxygen is bubbled through one half to convert any
      carboxyhaemoglobin into oxyhaeraoglobin.  The spectra of the two
      halves are then comnared in a spectrophotometer, and the difference
      between them is used to estimate the carboxyhaemoglobin content of
      the blood either graphically or by calculation from a simple formula.
      Calibration is simple and need only be done once.  A sample of
      blood can be analysed in about 20 minutes, which includes the time
      to collect the sample.  The method is sensitive enough to be used
      for the analysis of solution of blood containing less than 1^
      carboxyhaemoglobin.  -  Authors' Abst.


 575 •  Crosby, ¥.H., Mann, J.I., and Furth, F.W.:  Standardizing a method
      for clinical hemoglobinometry.  U.S. Armed Forces Med. J. 5:^93-
      703,
      Using the Colernan Jr. spectre-photometer and Drabkin's solution, a
      method of standardizing hemoglobinometry for clinical use is
      described.  The procedure for standardization of the equipment
      involved is given in a detailed description of the methods of
      calibrating the instrument, selecting matched colorimeter curvettes,
      and calibrating the blood diluting pipettes.  The method for
      clinical hemoglobinometry is outlined by a description of the
      preparation of Drabkin's solution, and of the method for hemoglobin
      determination with cyanmethemoglobin.  -  Authors' Sum.
   57 6. Eel Vccchio, V. :   Determination of carbon monoxide in the air.
      Minerva med. (Turin) 49:1028-1048  (March 21) 1958,

      Carbon monoxide is discussed aa to nomenclature, physiochemical
      properties, toxiclty, tolerable concentrations, and methods of
      measuring its  concentration  la  the air.  Some of the aemi-
      analytlcal methods of measurement  in the air are listed and
      discussed In detail.  They fall into the 3 main groupings of:
      titrlmetric, using jentose oxide;  photometric, using palladium
      chloride; and  a method measuring the level of carboxyhemoglobin,
      or COHb, in the blood.  Some of the continuously or semi-
      continuously measuring methods  are also discussed.  Many
      schematic drawings and photographs of the testing equipment are
      included in the text, together  with graphs showing the toxicity
      of CO as a function of concentration and of the period of time
                                     2*4-3

-------
      of exposure; the rate of saturation of hemoglobin with various
      concentrations of CO in the airj  and the percentage of
      carboxyhemoglobin in the blood correlated with percentage of CO in
      the air, the period of exposure,  and the activity of the subject.
      -  APCA 2623


577.  Douglas, T.A.:  The Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Blood.  Ann.
      Occupat. Hyg. (London) 5:211-216 (Oct.-Dec.) 1962.

      The estimation of carboxyhemoglobin has been attempted by numerous
      methods, some extremely simple and others rather complex.   The fact
      that so many methods of estimating carboxyhemoglobin have been described
      would tend to indicate that no ideal and simple method is available.
      In some cases all that is required is a qualitative examination for the
      presence of carboxybemoglobin and no accurate estimate is required of
      the concentraiiioar'     In other cases,  a quantitative analysis is
      desired.  This latter presents difficulties since, although it is
      not difficult to estimate carboxyhemoglob^.n in higher concentrations
      in blood, at the lower end of the scale considerable discrepancies
      are encountered.  Three different tests which are subjective (based
      on the operator's ability to match color visibly) are those of the
      Haldane method, the alkali test,  and the tannin test.  In addition
      to the manometric method, other methods (based primarily on chemical
      procedures) are ones using palladium chloride,  heat precipitation,
      inability of dithionite to reduce carboxyhenoglobin, using the Eartrldge
      reversion spectroscope, and several other methods using the spec-
      trophotometer.  In a continuing experiment on carboxyhemoglobin,
      content of the blood of dogs, the author was searching for a method
      of determination which would be accurate, rapid,  and simple.   Com-
      parison of results were made between the modified manometric method
      of VanSlyke and Neil—which has appeared to be the most reliable and
      was used as the standard, and 2 other methods.   The Heilmeyer
      spectrophotometric method was simple and required little time; -toe
      method currently in use is the Harrison method using the reversion
      spectroscope.  When values between 80 and 60$ COHb were estimated,
      the Heiltaeyer method agreed well with the VanSlyke but the Harrison
      method tended to be a little low.   When values between 60 and 30$
      COHb were selected, the Harrison method was better whereas the Heil-
      meyer tended to be low.  At levels below 30$ COHb, the Harrison method
      was unreliable but the Heilmeyer method stood comparison with the
      VanSlyke method'.  It was concluded that, with suitable care being
      taken in the wavelength setting of the spectrophotometer,  the Heil-
      meyer method could be a useful method of estimating. COHb.  - APCA 5251


 578, Drabkin, D.L.:  The standardization of hemoglobin measurement*
      Amer. J. Med. Sc. 215:110-111 (Jan.) 1948.

      Author states that in Ms work on the standardization of
      hemoglobin, it had proved desirable to find an independent
      (non-hemoglobin or hemin derivative) instead for the
                                     244

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     .standardization of hemoglobin measurement, as well  as  instru-
     ments used for this purpose.  Standards applicable  to  the
     use of photoelectric  filter photometers seemed  to be also
     advisable.
            Drabkin and Austin's spectrophotometric  standards of
     cupric ammonium sulfate  (CuSOi,.  in 2N HH^OH)  successfully
     adopted  for the standardization of hemoglobin measurement,  and
     the Evelyn or Klett- Summer son filter photometer calibrated for
     hemoglobin measurement by means of the gravimetrically prepared
     independent standard  of  CuSOlj., kMHg,  H20,  are discussed in  this
     short paper. - AGC
579.  J5rab&in> £,t :   'j&e  standardisation of h^jLO&a cl>1. u measurement .
      Amer. J. Med. Sc.  317:710-711  (June)
      A simplified,  reliable procedure  for the  stana^dization of
      hemoglobin measurement, with hemoglobin iron as  the  final basis
      of reference is described in this paper.   It has been established
      that  the  spectrophotometric  or photometric determination of cyan-
      methemoglobin,  MHbCN, is  the most direct  analysis available for
      total hemin or hemoglobin iron.
             The method for circumventing tiresome and exacting
      standardization procedures in the calibration of coirmonly used
      photoelectric  filter photometers  for the  accurate msasursraent >of
      hemoglobin concentration  is  described  in  clotai.1 .
             For the calibration of instruments for hemoglobin measurement,
      the copper solution and calibrated  glass  serve as desirable
      instrumental performance  standards,  and are described in this short
      paper. - AGC
580.  Frederick, R.C.:  Carbon monoxide poisoning:  Its detection, and the
     determination of percentage saturation in blood, by means of the
     Hartridge Reversion Spectroscope.  Analyst 56:561-568 (Sept.) 1931«

     The history of CO poisoning is briefly reviewed.  Physiological
     responses to various concentrations of CO as studied and summarized
     by earlier investigators are shown in tables.  The application of
     the Hartridge Reversion Spectroscope which is a reliable tool for
     the detection of small amounts of CO in the blood is described in
     detail.  -  AGC


581.  Furlong, N.B.:  A Disposable Analyzer for Semi quantitative
     Determination of Carbon Monoxide in Blood.  Aerospace Med. Res.
     Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, Sept. 1957, 5 PP-  DUG AD 1^2013.

     A disposable blood-carbon monoxide analyzer with which it is possible
     to make relatively accurate measurements has been developed.  Use
     of this device requires no additional apparatus or training.  The
     analyzer is described; and the method of operation is presented.   -
     Author's Abst.

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582. Gaensler, E.A.,  Cadlgan,  J.B.,  Jr.,  Ellicott,  M.F.,  Jones,  R.H.,
     and Marks, A.:   A new method for rapid precise determination of
     carbon monoxide in Mood,  J. Lab. & Clin.  Med, 49:945-957  (June)
     1957-

     A simple, rapid, highly accurate method is  described for determination
     of carbon monoxide 'content, of blood.  The chamber of the manometric
     Van SLyke apparatus is used for decomposition  and vacuum extraction.
     The gas is diluted in a tonometer and analyzed for CO content with
     an infrared meter of great specificity and  good stability,  which
     has been modified for highest accuracy.
            Theoretically, readings to 0.0025 ml. per 100 ml. CO content
     are possible with a 3 ml. blood sample.  In practice, the S.D. of
     the variance of 50 paired observations was  0.023 nl- Per 100 ^l*  an(^-
     the coefficient of variation was 2.1 per cent.
            The error due to the presence of C02 in the extracted gas
     was shown to be within the limit of accuracy of the technique.  At
     low concentrations of CO, results were the  same whether acid
     ferricyanide or sulfuric acid was used for  conversion to methemoglobin;
     with higher CO concentrations, sulfuric acid led to incomplete
     decomposition.  Saponin should not be used  because it contains traces
     of CO.  Blank determinations were shown to  be  unnecessary.   Cold
     storage of blood up to 2k hours and slight  exposure to air  of the
     sample did not affect the results.
            Results by this method were compared to those obtained by
     more conventional techniques.
            A number of applications are  illustrated including assessment
     of smoking habits, the COHb saturation during  CO breathing,  the CO-
     Hb equilibration time and dissociation curve,  and determination of
     "true blood volume."  -  Authors' Sum.
 583. Giacomo, P., Guillot, M., and Jacquinot,  P.:   An automatic and
     instantaneous method of determining carbon monoxide in blood.   Compt.
     rend. 243:985-98?, 1956.

     A method is described whereby low or high carbon monoxide in the blood
     can be determined on one drop of blood in a few seconds within +0.5$
     by projecting and registering the absorption spectra on a photographic
     film, and the maximum can be determined by a registering microphoto-
     meter.  -  AGC
584. Gonzales, T.A., Vance, M., Helpern,  M.,  and tMberger,  C.J.:   Legal
     Medicine, Pathology and Toxicology (1345 PP.) 2nd edition 1954.
     Appleton-Century-Crafts, Inc.,  pp. 956-960.

     In chapter 42, Gaseous Poisons,  there is a section on methods of
     sampling and analysis of blood for CO content.  The alkali  dilution
     test is named as a quick probing test indicating a concentration
     of more than 10$ carboxyhemoglobin in blood.
            Procedure and analysis of a simple and rapid method,  the
     quantitative estimation of CO in blood by reduction of palladium

                                   246

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     chloride to palladium, is described in detail.  The Van Slyke
     fflonometric method is considered to be the most accurate method
     for the determination of CO in blood.  An analysis of air for
     CO has been compiled from the files of New York City Board of
     Health, showing the possible effects of exposure to low concentra-
     tions of CO in the atmosphere.  -  AGC


585 .  Gramer, L. :  On problems connected with methods for the determination
     of carbon monoxide in the "blood (Comparative Studies).  Zentr.
     Arbeitsmed. U. Arbeit sschutz  11:53-59 (March) 1961.

     The author made a comparative study of methods of determination of car-
     ton monoxide in the blood, discussing some of the possibilities and lim-
     itations of the several methods.  The methods were limited to those
     using simple laboratory equipment and to those which were quantitative
     rather than qualitative.  The Wolff test was the routine method used.
     At a fixed pH level, the blood was warmed causing the hemoglobin to coagu-
     late while the carboxyhemoglobin CO-Hb remained in solution.  After
     filtration, the resulting more or less intense red color of the filtrate
     was checked by photometer methods for content of CO-Hb depending on the
     degree of obstruction of light.  Ifeny studies were made to determine
     the effects of such factors as pH, temperature, time,  and type of filter
     paper on the results.  Several charts and curves -in the text indicate
     that the best results were obtained at a pH range of 4.98-5.08,  with
     heating at 55 °C. for 5 minutes. A relatively hard-surfaced filter pa-
     per should be used throughout the testing.  MLcro-gasanalyses were done
     on the same blood samples using the method of Roughton and Scholander,
     after the blood pH had been adjusted in the presence of acetate buffer
     to a pH of 4.52-6.0.  The Roughton and Scholander method was noted as
     being not only more accurate but also as needing for the test only 0.04
     cm. 3 of blood (as against 0.25 cm. 3 for the Wolff test) and for being
     a method of detecting traces only of CO.  The studies with the Gettler
     and Freimuth test were not as successful.  The method depended on the
     reduction of PdCl2, with which the filter paper was impregnated, to
     metallic palladium and the formation of a black-precipitate on the filter
     paper by reaction with the CO when the blood is filtered.  Blood samples
     were used of 0.5-5.0 cm.3.  Despite many attempts to improve the
     results, it was felt that tests by this method were not conclusive.  The
     method of Grosskopf and Sachs was a very simple and fast one, invol-
     ving the freeing of the gas following treatment with potassium
     ferricyanide and lactic acid, but was semi-quantitative only.  It was
     concluded that there is no 1 test which is wholly adequate and that
     a diagnosis should not be given unless based on the results of 2 or
     more test methods.  -  APCA
586.  Haldane, J. :  A method of detecting and estimating carbonic  oxide in
     air.  J. Physiol. 18:463-469,  1895.

     In view of the very poisonous nature of carbonic oxide,  and  the
     comparative frequency with which cases of poisoning by this  gas  occur,
     much attention has been given to its detection and estimation.   Ho

                                     247

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      satisfactory method has hitherto been  described, however,  for  determin-
      ing very small, "but still more or less poisonous, percentages  of
      carbonic oxide in air.  There is special difficulty when,  as almost
      always happens, marsh-gas or other hydrocarbons are present along with
      the carbonic oxide.
             The method described in this paper is very simple,  and  depends
      on the fact that  when a haemoglobin solution is well shaken with air
      containing carbonic oxide the proportion of the haemoglobin, which
      finally combines  with the carbonic oxide, varies with the  percentages
      of carbonic oxide present in the air.  By determining colorimetrically
      the proportion of the haemoglobin which has combined with  the  carbonic
      oxide it is thus  possible to infer the percentage of carbonic  oxide
      present in the air.


 587.  Henderson,  M., and Apthorp, G.H.:  A rapid method for the  estimation
      of carbon monoxide in blood.  British  Med. J. Wo. 5216:1853-185^
      (Dec. 2*0 I960.

      Using the SjBstrand rebreathing system (Acta Physiol, Scand.
      (Stockholm) 16:201, 19^),  a rapid method for the estimation of
      the percentage of carboxy hemoglobin in the blood, is described.
      The results are compared with those from a direct blood analysis.
      The modified rebreathing method gave results which compared well
      with the direct method.  Evidence is given which suggests  that for
      routine work an assumed oxygen value can be used in Bahlstrom's
      equation.  -  APCA 3835


588.  Lawther,  P.J., and Apthorp, G.H. :  A method for the determination
      of carbon monoxide in blood.  British J. Indust. Med. 12:326,  1955.

      The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for the determination
      of carbon monoxide in blood which is both simple and accurate.   The
      procedure is similar to that used for the determination of nitrous
      oxide in blood described by Lawther and Bates (1953).  The blood
      gases are extracted under vacuum after reduction of the haemoglobin
      by acid ferricyanide and are analysed by infra-red absorption.
      Other blood gases do not interfere with the estimation.  -  Authors'
      Abst.
589. Leclerc, E.:  Detection of carbon monoxide.  Rev, univ. mine a 11:
     310,
     Among the methods of detecting carbon monoxide described are the
     "blood method, the use of silver salts (which are reduced by the gas),
     of palladium or gold chloride (which are reduced to the metal),
     methods of  catalytic combustion, and the iodine pentoxide detector.
     -  BMB 1500
                                     248

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 590. Letourneau,  L.S.:   The laboratory detection of carbon monoxide
     poisoning.   Amer.  J.  Med.  Technol. 25:175-178 (May-June)  1959-

     The chemistry of carbon monoxide poisoning is primarily the
     chemistry of the combination of carbon monoxide gas with  the
     respiratory pigment,  hemoglobin.  Relatively low concentrations
     of this gas inhibit the oxygen uptake in the lungs.  However,
     carboxyhemoglobin must reach rather high concentrations—generally
     in the order of 50$ or more of the total hemoglobin in non-anemic
     persons, in order to  cause death.  The author discusses some of
     the physical chemistry of carbon monoxide poisoning and presents
     some simple chemical  and spectroscopic methods for the detection
     of carboxyhemoglobin,  -  APCA
591.  Jfeyer,  J. :   A Screening Semi-Quantitative Method for the  Determination
      of Carbon Mwxide in Blood.   Aerospace Med.  Res.  Lab., Wright-Patterson
      AFB, Ohio,  April,  1956, 19 pp.  JDC AD 93165.

      A simple diffusion technique  is presented for the determination of
      carbon monoxide in blood.  Statistical evaluation of  the data
      derived from quantitative  estimation of the carboxyhemoglobin by
      matching the unknown reaction with a standard chart  proves the
      definite reliability of this  procedure.   - Author's Abst.


 592,  Mlllikan, G.A. :  The oxiineter, an instrument  for measuring  continuously
      the oxygen saturation of arterial blood in man.   Rev.  So. Inst. 13:
      The oxygen saturation of arterial blood in man can be measured
      continuously in situ by means of bichromatic photoelectric color-
      imetry of the intact fully flushed ear.  The accuracy of the
      device as determined by gas analysis of arterial blood samples is
      from 3 to 8 percent.  The entire optical and photoelectric system,
      comprising a miniature lamp bulb, two color filters,  and two
      selenium barrier-layer photo-cells, weighs 30 grams,  and slips
      over the shell of the ear.  One of the color filters transmits a
      wave-length band which is equally absorbed by oxy- and reduced
      hemoglobin, thus providing a means of measuring the amount of total
      hemoglobin in the optical path, independent of its degree of oxygen
      saturation.  The other color is very differently absorbed by the
      two hemoglobin forms.  Several direct reading forms of the
      instrument are discussed.  -  Author's Abst.
 593. Rlngold, A., Goldsmith, J.R., Helwlg, H.L., Finn, R., and
      Schlette, F.:  Estimating recent carbon monoxide exposures.  A
      rapid method.  Arch. Environ. Health 5:308-318 (Oct.) 1962.

      A valid method for determining the carboxyhemoglobin level in the
      body has been developed.  The method is based on the 20-second
      breath-holding method first described by Jones et al., using an

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     infrared analyser first reported by Lswther and Apthrop.  Our
     work shows that a polyvinyl bag can be used for collection of
     samples in the field.
            An application of this method is reported.  This confirms
     the fact that cigarette smoking is a major factor in determining
     the carboxyhemoglobin level in a population.  Pipe and cigar smokers
     appear not to have much increase in carboxyhemoglobin.
            The method should be suitable for studying the relationship
     of carboxyhemoglobin to occupational and to ambient air pollution
     exposures.  -  Authors' Sum. & APCA 50^7
594. Rothschild, J.E.:  Carbon monoxide poisoning.  Amer. Pract. 13:
     213-218 (March) 1962.

     In reviewing literature, author discusses the overall effect of
     CO on the health of man.  He also reports e. case of acute CO
     poisoning in which he used exchange transfusion to treat the
     victim.  -  AGC
595. Roughton, F. J.W. t  The kinetics of hemoglobin IV— -General methods and
     theoretical basis for the reaction with carbon monoxide.   Proc. Royal
     Soc. (Series B) 115:^51-^, 1931*-
     The rapid reaction velocity method of Haftridge and Roughton has been
     applied to the following reaction- -(a) the combination of CO with
     reduced hemoglobin (Hb).; (b) the displacement of Og form combination with
     Hb by CO; (c) the displacement of CO from combination with Hb by Og.
            General descriptions of the experimental technique are given, and
     the importance, theoretical and practical, of such measurements is
     emphasized.
            The oxgen-heraoglobin reaction is briefly reviewed from the
     physico-chemical standpoint, with a view to the theoretical consideration
     of the carbon monoxide reactions.
            Under certain conditions it is shown that the equation for the
     velocity of reaction (a) is identical on the Bbfcter theory and on the
     intermediate compound hypothesis of Adair, but is quite different on
     the basis of Mil's equation.
            These deductions are experimentally tested in Part V; the issue
     is favorable to the Adair hypothesis and not to the Hill theory.
            Reactions (b) and (c) follow very simple equations both as regards
     their equilibrium point and their velocities.  This is also difficult
     to reconcile with the Hill equation; it can, however, be brought into
     line with the Adair hypothesis, if the competition of CO and 02 for
     combination with Hb obeys the same principles as those postulated
     (in simple cases) by Langmuir for the reactions between gases and
     heated metallic surfaces. -Author's Sum.
                                     250

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 596.  Roughton, F.J.W., and Root, W.S. :  The estimation of small amounts
      of carbon monoxide in blood.  J. Biol. Chem. 160: 123-133,
      A combination of Horvath and Roughton 's modified Van Slyke method
      with the syringe -capillary technique of Scholander and Roughton is
      described.  With this procedure the CO content of 0.5 cc. blood
      samples can be determined to within 0.02 volume per cent over the
      range 0 to 2 volumes per cent, and to within 0.03 volume per cent
      over the range 2.0 to 5.0 volumes per cent.  The method is thus
      specially applicable to blood volume determinations on small animals,
      and is also of value in the high range of CO saturation, wherein the
      maximum accuracy of the Van Slyke technique is readily obtained.  -
      Authors' Sum.
597.  Sayers>  R.R»,  and Yant,  W.P-t   Dangers of and Treatment for Carbon
      Monoxide Poisoning.  U.S.  BMRT No.  2Vf6,  May 1923,  11 pp.

      Properties,  chemical and physiological action of CO are discussed.
      Approximate percentage of CO found in gases from various sources of
      poisoning are given.  Methods of detection by odor,  blood methods,
      detection by tests on small animals,  and the Hoolamite detection
      are described.  Time required for various concentrations of CO to
      procure 80$ of equilibrium value of blood saturation are listed,
      and symptoms caused by various percentages of CO in the blood are
      described in relationship  to percentage of blood saturation.   -  AGC


598.  Sayers,  R.R.,  O'Brien,  H.R.,  Jones, G.W.,  and Yant,  W.P.:   Collection
      and preservation of blood  sainples for determination of carbon monoxide.
      Pub. Health Rep. 38:2005-2011 (Aug. 31) 1923.

      A modified Keidel tube method, by which 10 to 15 c.c. of blood may  be
      collected ia the field, shipped to a  central laboratory,  and kept with
      Blight chances of clotting or change  in carbon monoxide content has
      been described.  If such a tube is not available, a small vial, veil
      stoppered vith a cork, will serve satisfactorily.
             Sodium or potassium oxalate (0.2 per cent),  sodium fluoride
      (0.3 per cent), and sodium citrate (0.4 to 0.8 per cent) inhibit
      coagulation, the last-named being the least efficient.  Oxalate causes
      some change in the blood,  with a slight altering of the carbon monoxide
    -  content.  The fluoride is  recommended because it is not open to these
      objections.
             No change in the amount of carbon monoxide in the blood has  been
      detected from standing when 0.3 per cent sodium fluoride is used. -
      Authors' Sum.
                                     251

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599. Sayers,  R.R.,  and Yant,  W.P.:   The elimination of carbon monoxide
     from "blood,  by treatment with  air,  with oxygen,  and with a mixture
     of carbon dioxide and oxygen.   Pub. Health Rep.  38:2053-207^ (Sept.  7)
     1923.

     Recovery from carbon-monoxide  poisoning depends to a  great extent
     upon early elimination of carbon monoxide  from the blood.
            The rate of elimination of  carbon monoxide from the "blood
     depends upon the percentage of oxygen in the air "breathed,  also
     upon the rate and depth of respiration.
            Pure oxygen causes the  elimination  of carbon monoxide about
     four times as fast as normal air,  when breathed by persons who
     have been gassed until 35 or ^0 per cent of the  hemoglobin in their
     blood has been combined with carbon monoxide.
            Breathing a mixture of  oxygen containing  8 to  10 per cent of
     carbon dioxide causes deep and rapid respiration.
            Breathing a mixture of  oxygen and carbon  dioxide (8 to 10 per
     cent) causes the elimination of carbon monoxide  about five to six
     times as fast as normal air, when breathed by persons who  have been
     gassed until 30 to kO per cent of  their blood has been combined
     with carbon monoxide.
            It is recommended that  all  victims  not under a physician's care
     be caused to breathe oxygen in the purest  form available for at  least
     20 to k5 minutes.
            It is recommended that  physicians use the carbon dioxide-
     oxygen mixture where possible,  and note the results, but when this
     mixture is not available that  they use pure oxygen.   -  Authors'  Sum.


600. Sayers, R.R.,  Yant, W.P-, and  Jones, G.¥.: The  pyro-tannic acid
     method for the quantitative determination  of carbon monoxide in  blood
     and air.  Pub. Health Rep. 38:2311-2320 (Oct. 5) 1923.

     A durable and compact laboratory or field  apparatus for the quantitative
     determination of carbon monoxide in blood  and air has been described.
     On account of the compactness, durability, and  ease with which
     accurate and dependable results can be obtained, it should be of
     great use in investigations pertaining to  the cause,  diagnosis,  and
     treatment of carbon-monoxide poisoning.
            The percentage saturation of CO in  blood can easily be deter-
     mined to a degree of accuracy  involving only 5 per cent error.
            The actual error of the method for  determination of CO in air,
     even when used by inexperienced men, was found to be  0.005 in regions
     of 0.000 to 0.05 per cent COj  0.01 in regions of 0.05 to 0.08 per
     cent; 0.02 in regions of 0.08  to 0.12 per  cent;  and 0.03 in regions
     of 0.12 to 0.18 per cent carbon monoxide.  - Authors'  Sum.
                                    252

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601. Sayers, R.R., and Yant, W.P.:  The Pyrotannic Acid Method for the
     Quantitative Determination of  Carbon Monoxide in Blood and in Air.
     Its Use in the Diagnosis and Investigation of Cases of Carbon
     Monoxide Poisoning.  U.S.  Dept.  Commerce,  BMEP  373,  1925,  18 pp.

     A method found to "be satisfactory for  quantitative analysis of CO
     in blood and air cases of  CO poisoning is  outlined.
            A compact field apparatus is  described.   Owing to its durability,
     and the ease with which accurate and dependable results can "be obtained,
     it should be of  great use  in investigations pertaining to the cause,
     diagnosis, and treatment of  CO poisoning.   -  Authors'  Sum.


602. Scholander, P.P., and Roughton,  F..J.W. :  A simple  micro-gasometric
     method of estimating carbon  monoxide in blood.   J. Indust. Hyg.
     218-221,
      This paper describes a convenient micro gasometric method for
      estimating the CO content of a finger prick sample of blood (40 cu.
      mm.) in 6-10 minutes.  Apart from a special but simple glass syringe
      capillary apparatus,  only easily prepared solutions,  ordinary
      syringes and beakers are required.  The method is therefore
      available in any sheltered space without need for refined laboratory
      facilities.  The accuracy is about 0.2 volumes per cent of CO or
      1$ COHb.  -  Authors' Sum.
                    i

 603.  Scholander, P.F., and Roughton, F.J.W.:  Micro gasometxic estimation
      of the blood gases.  J. Blol. Chem. 148:551-563,  1943.

      Three applications of syringe technique to the microdetermination of
      CO in blood are discussed in this paper: (a) a general method for
      saturations ranging from 0 to 100 per cent COHb,  (b)  a method for
      combined determinations of 02 and CO on one sample of blood,  (c) a
      special method precise enough for blood volume determinati on in which
      the CO content is kept below 2 volumes per cent.
             The improvements are -described in the original syringe-capillary
      procedure of Scholander and Roughton for the micro gasometric determin-
      ation of CO in blood.  With the new technique the usual corrections are
      necessary for temperature, aqueous vapor pressure, and barometric
      pressure.  With blood samples of 40 c.mm. , the accuracy of a single
      determination is 0.15 to 0.20 volume per cent. With  blood samples of
      120 c.mm. and a modified technique the accuracy is increased to 0.03
      to 0.05 volume per cent and the method is therefore very suitable for
      blood volume determinations by the carbon monoxide method.  A technique
      for the combined determination of Q£ and CO in a  single 40 c.mm, sample
      of blood is also given. • Authors' Sum. Modified
                                   253

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604. Schrenk, H.H. :  Results of laboratory tests.  Determination of
     concentration of carbon monoxide in blood.  Federal Security Agency,
     U.S. PHSB No. 278, 19te, Washington, D. C., pp. 36-57-
     The levels of carbon monoxide found in the blood of traffic officers
     stationed in the Holland Tunnel during a period of two hours fall
     within the range of blood carbon monoxide concentration values
     observed in cigarette smokers with no occupational exposure to
     carbon monoxide.  Amounts of carbon monoxide absorbed during tunnel
     duty appear to be added to amounts absorbed as a result of smoking.
     No complaints of ill health attributable to carbon monoxide exposure
     were made by these men.  On the basis of earlier work, none was to
     be expected.
            In the section "Other exposures to CO," author summarizes
     the results of the recent survey made and of the data presented in
     the literature.  It appears that in most workplaces where there is
     reason to suspect that CO escapes into the breathing zone of the
     workers, the CO concentration usually remains below 1.0 part per
     10,000 (100 p. p.m.).  The commonest source of greater exposure than
     this is the operation of gasoline engines in an unventilated or a
     poorly ventilated room.  -  Author's Sum.


605. Sendroy, J., Jr., Liu, S.H., and Van Slyke,  D.D. :   The gasometric
     estimation of the relative affinity constant for  carbon monoxide and
     oxygen in whole blood at 38°.  Amer. J.  Physiol.  90:511,  1929.

     In the course of an investigation of the arterial  blood oxygen  tension
     in man, the carbon monoxide method of Haldane and  Smith was  used.  This
     method involves the law finally formulated by Douglas,  Haldane  and
     Haldane, expressed mathematically by the equation

                             fHbCO? „ K pCO
                             rHb02"}      p02

     where the brackets indicate concentrations of hemoglobin in  union with
     gas, pCO and p02 the gas tensions, and K the relative  affinity  constant
     for hemoglobin for the two gases.
           Undiluted, hemolyzed ox blood and human blood were saturated with
     various gas mixtures until equilibrium was attained.  Two methods of
     saturation were employed,  one a closed system, the other open to the
     atmosphere.  The CO hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin were  estimated gaso-
     metrically according to Van Slyke and Neill and Van Slyke and Robscheit-
     Robbins.  Oxygen tension was obtained by analysis.  CO tension  was
     accurately made up and the result calculated.
           Up to the present time, three normal and three pathological
     bloods studied indicate for thirteen separate experiments, an average
     value of 210 for K.  Fifteen experiments on ten different ox bloods
     give an average value of 179 for K.  These values  are  tentative, subject
     to a correction, which would not change the order  of magnitude.  All
     results are within t 2.5 per cent of the average.   We  have so far found
     no individual variation within the species in K for either ox blood or
     human blood, exceeding the limit of experimental  error. - Authors' Abst.

                                   254

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606. Sendroy,  J.,  Jr.,  and Liu,  S.H.:   Gasometric determination of oxygen
     and carbon monoxide in "blood.   J.  Biol.  Cheai. 89:133-152,  1930.

     An improved technique is described for the determination of oxygen
     and carbon monoxide in a single blood sample by the use of the
     Van Slyke-Neill naanometric apparatus.  The mixture of 02 + CO + N2
     extracted from blood is removed to a micro-Hempel pipette, where
     the G£ is absorbed, by a technique similar to that employed previously
     for manometric determination of amino nitrogen.  The extraction
     chamber is then washed free of blood and the gases are returned for
     completion of the analysis.  The procedure equals in accuracy the
     Van Slyke-Robscheit-Robbins method, is less laborious, and can be
     carried through in 25 to 30 minutes.  -  From text-AGC


606a. Sendroy, J., Jr.:  Manometric analysis of gas mixtures.  VI.  Carbon
     monoxide by absorption with blood.  J. Biolog. Chem. 95:599-611,
     1932.

     A method is described, whereby air containing carbon monoxide
     in  concentrations  from 0.05 to 0.3 per cent may conveniently be
     analyzed in the Van Slyke-Neill apparatus.  The CO is first
     combined, in the chamber of the apparatus, with the hemoglobin
     of  completely reduced blood, and the CO content of the blood is
     then  determined by the method of Sendroy and Liu.  -  Author's
     Sum.          l
607.  Siflsteen, S.M., and Sjflstrand,  T.:   A method for determination of low
     concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blood and the relation
     between the CO-concentration in the blood and that in the alveolar
     air.  Acta Physiol. Scandinav.  22:129-136,  1951.

     A new method for determination of carbon monoxide in blood is  described.
     Briefly, it consists of releasing the carbon monoxide by forming
     methemoglobin and mixing it with a known volume of oxygen.  The CO
     concentration is then determined with the Lindelo'v-Sjtistrand CO-mete*.
            The method makes it possible to measure a concentration of
     carbon monoxide as low as 0.005 volumes % in a blood sample of 20 ml.
     With a normal relative hemoglobin this corresponds to 0.02$ of the
     saturation value.  The accuracy, with double determinations, has
     been shown to be + 6.5$ at COHb levels of 0.5-2.056.  At higher COHb
     concentrations it""is about •+ 2.5$ of the value.  With relatively
     high COHb concentrations the carbon monoxide can be determined in
     blood samples of 0.2-1.0 ml.
            A comparison has been made between the CO concentration in the
     blood and that in the alveolar air.  An apparently linear relationship
     between the two values has been found within the concentration limits
     of 0.5 and 10$ COHb*  The CO levels in the blood and the corresponding
     ones in the alveolar air are significantly higher than the concentration
     in ordinary atmospheric or room air.  -  Authors' Sum.
                                    255

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608. Sjfistrand, 0?.:  A method for the determination of earboxy-baemoglobln
     concentrations by analysis of the alveolar air.  Acta Physiol.
     Scandinav. 16:201-210, 1948.

     A method for the determination of the COHb-concentration in the blood
     by using the analysis of the CO-concentration in the alveolar air
     is described.  An analytical apparatus for the measurement of low
     concentrations such as 0.0005$ CO in the air> was constructed for
     the purpose and a short description is given.  The alveolar air was
     obtained by collecting either the exhaled air and rebreathing this 10
     times, or by expiring the nitrogen from the lungs and breathing pure
     oxygen together with the absorption of carbon dioxide until equilibrium
     is reached between the air in the sample and in the lungs.  The first
     and simpler method has getting alveolar air samples for an error of
     about + 3$.  The latter method is even more accurate*  A comparison
     of the""accuracy of the method on different individuals shows a
     calculated error below + 10$ of the value.  The usefulness of the
     method is discussed*  •-""" Author1s Sum.

       n
609. SJostrand, T.I  The in vitro formation of carbon monoxide in blood.
     Acta Riysiol. Scandinav. 24:314-322, 1951-

     Earlier observations of nn endogenous formation of carbon monoxide in
     man have been analysed with reference to the possibility that the
     carbon monoxide is formed in the blood by the breakdown of haemoglobin.
     The following results were obtained.
            The COHb concentration of blood calculated from determinations
     of the CO pressure in alveolar air, agrees with the COHb concentration
     determined directly from blood.  The partial pressure of carbon
     monoxide in the alveolar air is, however, considerably greater than
     that of ordinary atmospheric air, which means that carbon monoxide is
     constantly exhaled during respiration.
            If blood is incubated at 38° C for 20-24 hours, an increase of
     40-165$ can be shown in the COHb concentration, this increase being
     particularly pronounced after haemolysis.  This apparent formation of
     carbon monoxide in blood is considerably increased at acid or alkaline
     pH's or by addition of sodium aside.
            If the blood is shaken with carbon monoxide before incubation
     at 38° C, the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration after 20 hours is
     decreased.  If sodium aside is added to samples containing 5-30$ COHb
     before incubation, the concentration is however increased, and at
     higher COHb-concentrations there is a decrease less than that observed
     without azide.
            The formation of carbon monoxide was found to parallel the
     spontaneous formation of methaemoglobin on alteration of the pH or
     addition of sodium azide.
            Addition of ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide greatly increases
     the CO formation.  The amount of CO produced corresponds to a conversion
     of up to 15 per cent of the haemoglobin to COHb, calculated from the
     original haemoglobin concentrations.
            The formation of CO seems to be parallel to the breakdown of
     haemoglobin to choleglobin (verdoglobin).  This observation can be

                                   256

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     explained by the assumption that the opening of the tetrapyrrole ring
     occurs with the liberation of the a-C atom after oxidation to CO.
            It was possible to demonstrate in one subject that the amounts
     of CO produced and haemoglobin decomposed bear a quantitative relation
     of approximately 1 molecule C0:l haerain group. - Author's Sum.


610.  Sjftstrand, T.:  The formation of carbon monoxide by in vitro
     decomposition of haemoglobin in bile pigments.  Acta Physiol.
     Scandinav. 26:328-333, 1952.

     Solutions of crystalline horse haemoglobin were incubated at 3^° C
     after the addition of ascorbic acid.  It was possible to show the
     formation of CO constantly in conjunction with the appearance of an
     absorption band at wave length 630 mp corresponding to the choleglobin
     (verdoglobin) band.
            A linear relation exists between the amounts of CO and chole-
     globin formed during incubation up to about 2^ hours.
            When incubation is carried on for a longer time,  the CO
     formation continues in linear relation to the time of incubation up
     to approximately 200 hours.  At this point the absorption band of
     the haemoglobin has practically disappeared.
            The maximal amount of CO obtained during incubation for
     longer periods corresponds to the CO-binding capacity of the initial
     haemoglobin solution.
            These observations are in agreement with the previously
     expounded hypothesis that a molecule of CO is liberated when each
     of the porphyrin rings in the haemoglobin molecule splits.  -
     Author's Sum.
611, Sjttstrand, T.:  Formation of carbon monoxide by coupled oxidation of
     myoglobin with ascorbic acid.  Acta Physiol. Scandinav. 26:33^-337,
     1952.

     Solutions of myoglobin have been incubated at 38° C after the addition
     of ascorbid acid.  Consequently there is a manifestation of carbon
     monoxide and a substance with an absorption band at 6kO mju  The
     observation coincides with previous observations of the decomposition
     of haemoglobin, and indicates that myoglobin can decompose in a manner
     similar to haemoglobin by oxidation of a metheae group to CO,  which
     splits.  It may be supposed that this reaction also takes place in vivo
     and contributes to the endogenous formation of carbon monoxide.  -
     Author's Sum.
612.  Sjostrand, T.:  The formation of carbon monoxide by the decomposition
      of haemoglobin in vivo.  Acta Physiol. Scandiuav. 26:338-3^, 1952.

      Haemolysed blood and solutions of haemoglobin were injected into dogs
      intramuscularly, and into human beings and rabbits intravenously in
      connection with repeated determinations of the alveolar CO concentration
      or the concentration of CO in exhaled air.  From the concentration

                                    257

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     and volume of CO in expired air, the volume of CO exhaled per minute
     was determined for a period of 5 to 8 hours after the injection.
            It transpired from this that the injection of haemoglobin or
     haemolysed blood causes an increase in the alveolar CO concentration
     and the volume of CO exhaled per minute.
            The quantitative relation between the increase in CO formation
     and the amount of haemoglobin that was injected,  corresponds to the
     formation of k molecules of CO for each molecule of haemoglobin.
            The observations agree with the supposition that a molecule
     of CO is formed during the splitting of haemochromogen's tetrapyr-
     role ring.  It would seem that the endogenous formation of CO and
     its variations under nonral and pathologic conditions can be explained
     in this way.  -  Author's Sum.
613. Stevens, A,M,:  Carbon monoxide poisoning.   Gradual,  cumulative effects
     in young children, with report of a fatal case.   J. A.M.A. 86:1201-
     1204 (April 17) 1926.

     There is a seasonal increase,  in the winter,  of  the hazard of gas
     poisoning, acute and chronic.
             There is a cumulative poisonous effect of repeated or continuous
     exposure to small amounts of carbon monoxide.
             Young children and infants are peculiarly susceptible to
     gradual carbon monoxide poisoning.
             In serious cases of gradual gas poisoning, there will probably
     be more than 10 per cent of carbon monoxide in the blood.
             There is a simple and raped qualitative  test  for carbon monoxide
     in the blood, which will show the presence of 10 per  cent  or  more.
             Clinicians should be on the alert to recognize  cases  of gradual
     poisoning by carbon monoxide,  especially in infants.  - Author's Sum.


614. Tan Slyke, D.D., and Salvesen, H.A.:  The determination of carbon
     monoxide in blood.  J. Biol. Chem. 40:103-107, 1919.

     A method is described for the determination of carbon monoxide in
     blood, the technique of which is exactly the same as  that previously
     described by Van Slyke for the determination of  oxygen, except that
     after the gases are extracted the oxygen is absorbed  in the apparatus
     by introducing alkaline pyrogallate solution.  The carbon  monoxide
     remains and is measured directly at atmospheric  pressure.  -   Authors'
     Sum.


615. van Slyke, D.D., and Robscheit-Robbins, F.S.:  The gasometric
     determination of small amounts of carbon monoxide in  blood, and its
     application to blood volume studies.  J. Biol, Chem.  72:39-50, 1927.

     This paper presents a development of the blood carbon monoxide methods
     of Van Slyke and Salvesen and of Harington and Van Slyke with attention
     to certain details which reduce the error to 0.02 or  0.03  volumes
     percent.  A technique is describe for quantitative gasometric

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    determination Of small amounts of carbon monoxide in blood.  The
    present procedure was developed primarily to make possible the
    determination of blood volumes by the carbon monoxide method of
    Grehant and Quinquaud without saturating, as has previously been
    necessary, as much as one-third of sthe blood hemoglobin with CO
    in order to obtain accurate results.  A technique requiring the
    saturation of only one-tenth to one-twentieth of the circulating
    hemoglobin makes the method more safe and convenient for use with
    human subjects, and with animals permits the introduction of CO by
    intravenous injection of CO-saturated blood instead of by inhalation
    of the gas.  It appears that k minutes after injecting carbon monoxide
    blood as described in this paper one can estimate the volume of the
    circulating red cells from the blood CO content with less than 5
    per cent error due to analytical technique and CO distribution within
    the blood.  "We have not ascertaine the magnitude of the possible
    additional error due to diffusion of CO from blood to tissue hemoglobin.
    -  Authors1 Sum. Modified,


616.  Van Slyke, D.D., Hiller,  A.,  Weisiger,  J.R.,  and Cruz,  W.O. :   Deter-
     mination of carbon monoxide in blood and of total and active  hemoglobin
     by carbon monoxide capacity.   Inactive hemoglobin and methemoglobin
     contents of normal human blood.  J.  Biol.   Chem.  l66: 121-148,
     Improved techniques for determining blood carbon monoxide  and total
     hemoglobin, active hemoglobin, and inactive hemoglobin by  the carbon
     monoxide capacity procedures are described.
             In a series of nineteen freshly drawn normal human bloods
     inactive hemoglobin by the carbon monoxide method has been compared
     with methemoglobin determined by the cyanide reaction with the photo-
     metric procedure of lorecker and Brackett.  The analyses were
     repeated after the blood had stood at room temperature for varying
     intervals up to k hours.
             The mean methemoglobin by the photometric procedure was only
     O.lf per cent of the total hemoglobin.  In about half the bloods the
     methemoglobin percentage observed was so low (0.0 to 0.3)  that the
     presence of methemoglobin was uncertain.  The low methemoglobin values
     confirm Paul and Kemp.  The same average value was found whether the
     blood was analyzed as soon as drawn or 2 or k- hours later.
             The mean inactive hemoglobin by the carbon monoxide method was
     1»3* °-35 Per cent of the total hemoglobin when the analysis  was
     started 2 minutes after the blood was drawn.  The inactive hemoglobin
     decreased as the blood stood at room temperature, and within  2 hours
     its average value fell nearly to the level of the photometrically
     determined methmoglobin.
            For precise gasometric hemoglobin determinations  the "total
     hemoglobin" method,  based on measurement of CO capacity  after reduction
     of any ferrihemoglobin present to ferrohemoglobin,  is more exact than
     CO or 02 capacities measured without previous reduction  of ferri-
     hemoglobin. - Authors' Sum.
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 617.  Waggoner,  J.,  and Pernell,  M.L.:   A Hew method  for "blood carbon
      monoxide determination,   U.S.  Armed Forces Med.  J. 6:121-12^, 1955-

      The major problem during an investigation into  aviation hazards
      conducted at the U.S.  Naval Air Station in San  Diego,  Calif*, was
      that of performing any sizeable number of blood CO determinations,
      whereby large numbers of blood CO analyses could be  readily devised.
      The new method for determining blood carbon monoxide levels
      described in this paper is believed to be quicker  and  more accurate
      and less expensive than methods in use.  Authors state,  if this
      method is generally adopted, it will stimulate  an  increase in the
      number of blood CO determinations whenever personnel are exposed to
      products of combustion or oxidation.  Thus a greater degree of  public
      safety may be obtained.   -  AGC


 618. Wilson, R.H., and Jay, B.E.:  Respiratory and blood  gas analysis
      with vapor phase chromatography.  Clinical Rss.  8:92,  1960.

      Measuring the parameters of pulmonary functions by employing a
      complex mixture of inert and chemically active  gases presents
      difficult analytical problems.  The gas chromatograph  was used
      for the analysis of a mixture of carbon monoxide,  helium,  carbon
      dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen and nitrous oxide.  The  gas  chromatograph
      and the method of Van Slyke and Sendroy were compared  in the
      analysis of the above mixture.  When the two methods of analysis
      were compared, no significant difference between the results of
      the measurements were noted.  For research and  a complex gas
      mixture can be analyzed more rapidly with less  expenditure of
      effort with the gas chromatograph.  In analyzing blood gases
      the gas chromatograph provides a simple,  rapid,  time-saving
      procedure.  -  AGC
CONTROL
619.  Abatement of Highway Noise and Fumes.  Highway Research Board
      Bull. 110, Washington,  D.  C.,  1955,  ^7 PP-

      This bulletin contains three separate studies.  There are two
      reports on the abatement of highway noise and one report on reduction
      of motor vehicle fumes in  which the toxicity of carbon monoxide is
      discussed.  It is stated in this report  that dangerous concentrations
      of carbon monoxide may be  present in motor  vehicles on open highways
      in both light and heavy traffic,  in congested city streets, in
      enclosed places such as garages,  bus terminals, and the like.  This
      gas may on occasion,  be drawn into office buildings and business
      places through ventilating systems and open windows.
             In California, more than 1,000 vehicles were tested for carbon
      monoxide after they had been driven over an open highway for five
      minutes or more.  Two percent of the vehicles were found to contain
      dangerous concentrations that could seriously affect the behavior

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      of drivers.   One surprising fact brought out was that vehicles with
      one or more  open windows were generally found to have higher
      concentrations than vehicles with closed windows.  This is contrary
      to the general belief that open windows are a safeguard against
      dangerous traffic fumes.
             It should be mentioned that exposure to relatively low
      concentrations of carbon monoxide for long periods, may be as
      dangerous as exposure to higher concentrations for shorter periods.
      Temperature  and humidity also have a, decided influence on the
      effect of carbon monoxide.  Concentrations that would normally be
      harmless may be dangerous on days of high temperature and high
      humidity. The American Standards Association considers maximal
      permissible  concentrations as 100 parts per million for periods not
      exceeding eight hours and 1*00 parts per million for periods not
      exceeding one hour, at 25 deg. C and 760 mm Eg.  -  From text-AGC


  620. Burrell, G.A.:  The Use of Mice and Birds for Detecting Carbon Monoxide
      after Mine Fires and Explosions.  U.S. Bureau of Mines Tech, Paper
      #11, 1914, 15 PP.

      Bureau of Mines is carefully studying methods to be employed with
      greatest efficiency for exploring mines containing smoke or suffocating
      or poisonous gases.  The use of mice and birds is, in the author's
      opinion, superior to chemical tests for CO in that the tests are
      quickly made without requiring technical experience, and that such
      tests are sufficiently accurate.  Because the rate at which chemical
      changes occur in mice and birds is by far greater than it is in man,
      symptoms of poisoning are much earlier manifested.  A mouse weighing
      one-half ounce consumes about 15 times as much oxygen as one-half
      ounce of the human body would consume during the same time.  One
      investigator observed that with 0.1$ CO in the air about two hours
      elapsed before giddiness, etc. began to appear in a man at rest,  and
      according to an analysis of the blood, exposure for another half hour
      would have sufficed to produce practical disablement.  A mouse
      became giddy within 10 minutes.  Experiments similar to those performed
      with mice were performed with birds, for the reason that mice may be
      slow responding to the presence, in the mine air, of such small
      percentages of CO, which would cause distress to a man at work.  The
      relative susceptibilities of mice and canaries to CO is shown in a
      table.
             The properties of CO and its physiological effect on man are
      also described.  -  AGC
621.  Campbell, J.M. :   Improved combustion held aid to air pollution
      abatement.  SAE J. 62: 5^-58 (Dec.)
      This paper relates the efforts of the auto industry to minimize
      pollution from the internal combustion engine.   Current products
      represent the best of today's knowledge, but substantial further
      progress will be made as new information becomes available.   Carbon
      monoxide, smoke and odor represent inefficient combustion and as

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     such indicate  a waste of fuel  as well as  the nuisance  that is created
     by them.   Exhaust treating devices have been invented, but at the
     present time none is available which meets all specifications in
     order to  be commercially practicable.  Automobile Manufacturers
     Association is supplementing joint research programs relating to
     this general problem.  - AGC.
622. Campbell,  O.F.,  and Fennels, N.E. :  CO toiler and fluidised-bed
     steam strperheater on  Sinclair Keflning Company's new fluid unit at
     the Houston Refinery.  Trans. ASME 77:927-938 (Aug.) 1955.

     The combination CO boiler and respray steam superheater allows for
     maximum flexibility of operation  of a fluid unit to produce more
     and "better products and provides  maximum conservation of fuel.
     In addition it prevents carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and
     maladorous gases from escaping to the atmosphere, and it
     conditions the flue gases for subsequent removal of particulate
     matter.
            Over SCO, CCO pound/hour of 700 psig. saturated steam are
     produced "by the oil industry1 s first direct-fired unit to recover
     both the sensible heat and the heat of combustion from the high-
     temperature regenerator-exit flue gas.  The heat of combustion of
     the regenerator-exit  flue gas is  derived frcm  its CO content.
     Saturated  steata produced in the boiler Is superheated to 750° F.
     in industry's first fluidized-oed respray steam superheater.  -
     APCA
623. Chovin,  P.:   Studies of Atmospheric Pollution in the Department of
     the Seine,  in 1963.   Municipal Laboratory Police Headquarters, Paris,
     France,
     1963 test results for continuing  studies in Paris, France, titled
     "Carbon Monoxide," "Policemen 1963,"  "Seine Loop," and  "Smokeless
     Zones," are reported.  Previous years' results are confirmed.
     Surface and underground  tunnel measurements of CO in air are
     compared.  The CO pollution level in  the air went from "considerable"
     in 1962 to "serious"  in  1963, but in  the first 9 months of 196U,
     the situation reversed to  that of 1962.  The increase in 19^3 is
     ascribed to the number of  new roads and concurrent traffic increase.
     CO levels in blood were  examined  in a CO-exposed population consisting
     of industrial employees, auto drivers involved in accidents, and
     individuals suffering from CO exposure.  Tests for "average real
     risk" of carbon monoxide absorption by individuals indicated that
     the auto drivers as a group had a much higher level of carbon
     monoxide in the "blood than that of the rest of the population
     studied, including workers exposed professionally.  -  CBK (from
     French)
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624.  Clarkson, D.,  and Middleton, J,T.:  The California control program for
     motor vehicle created air pollution.  J.APCA 12:22-28 (Jan.) 1962.

     California was assigned a new  role in the battle against air pollution
     in 1960 when legislation was enacted which established the Motor Vehicle
     Pollution Control Board and a  program to control air pollution created
     by the motor vehicle.   The  legislation extended the State's role in air
     pollution control beyond its traditional one of research and assistance
     to local governmental agencies to one of direct control.  The State thus
     is now responsible for controlling moving sources of pollution while
     local agencies retain their long-standing responsibility for control of
     stationary industrial and domestic polluters.  Whereas local agencies
     have instituted programs designed to control the stationary sources which
     vary in number* kind,  and importance as polluters in various areas of'
     California, a technically sound and administratively feasible program
     of control of vehicular emissions can be achieved only by the state
     level of government.  Uniformity in the requirements for control
     throughout the State is necessary because of the mobility of motor
     vehicles without regard to  local political boundaries and because they
     are an air pollution factor common to all densely populated areas of
     the State.  A State program insures equitability in the application of
     control requirements and ease  of administration.
            This paper discusses the program instituted by the Motor Vehicle
     Pollution Control Board, which represents a first attempt to control
     air pollution created by motor vehicles, an essential step  to achieve
     satisfactory air quality throughout California.  -Authors' introduction
     -AGC
 625. Crankcase emission control devices for typical gasoline engines.
      Information Report No. 1 (TA-10 Vehicular Exhaust Committee.
      Chairman: Jensen, D.A.) J.APCA 13:173-174 (April) 1963

      The purpose of this report is to present information to the APCA
      membership on various systems for the control of hydrocarbon
      emissions from motor vehicle crankcases.  Three classes of device
      are considered.  The  report also presents information regarding
      the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of crankcase contam-
      inant emissions from  typical gasoline  engines.  Because crankcase
      emissions from diesel engines have been found to be very low, these
      engines do not require crankcase control devices and are not  con-
      sidered in this report. -Author's Introduction


 626.  Crlbb,  O.S,,  and Marsh, J.D.F.:  Removal of carbon monoxide from
      fuel gases.  Gas World (London) 150:633 (Nov.  21)  1959.

      Carbon  monoxide can be removed from town gas by catalytic reaction
      with hydrogen to give  hydrocarbons, by absorption in cuprous salt
      solutions or  by reaction with steam on a catalyst to give carbon
      dioxide and hydrogen.   The last method, known as the water gas

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     shift reaction Is the most promising.  Processes widely used for
     gases available at pressures of 20 atm, "become uneconomic if the
     gas has to "be compressed solely for the purpose of removing carbon
     dioxide.  Of the methods available for treatment of the gas at
     atmospheric pressure, chemical absorption by ammonia or activated
     potash solutions, and absorption by molecular sieves appear to be
     most promising.  -  APCA 2939


627. Gumming,  A.P.C., and Horn, J.A.:  Studies In acetylene flames.
     IV.  Dangers associated with carbon monoxide produced from acetylene
     lamps in  coal mines.  J. Appl. Chem. (London) 1:198-202 (May) 1951.

     The present paper is an endeavour to interpret the experimental
     results (previously obtained by the present authors) from the point
     of view of safety in mines in which open acetylene lamps are,used
     as the source of Illumination.  The danger caused by the formation
     of CO from acetylene lamps in isolated workings becomes distinctly
     serious when the oxygen content of the atmosphere falls to Y[% or
     below.  At this concentration of 17$ oxygen, and operating with two
     acetylene lamps (2-inch flames) in an isolated working of 1000-cubic
     foot capacity, the concentration of CO in the working could reach
     the value of 0.09$ after a period of 8 hours.  It is estimated that
     under these conditions the time of exposure required to cause death
     would be  under 2 hours.
             Tables are provided which enable the concentration of CO in
     an atmosphere to be estimated under any particular conditions.
     Authors'  Abst.


 628. Edwards,  H.D.:  The removal of carbon monoxide from town gases.
     Coke & Gas (London) 22:331-336 (Aug.) 1960.

     Methods of reducing the carbon monoxide content of coal gas
     blended with gases high in carbon monoxide have been investigated.
     The most  promising method ajjjeare to be the water gas shift reaction;
     the carbon monoxide Is converted by reaction with steam to carbon
     dioxide with the  simultaneous  production of hydrogen.  -  APCA
     36^5


629. Feasibility of Control Methods for Automobile Exhaust.  Report No. 10,
     Air Pollution Foundation, Los Angeles, Calif., 1955* 62 pages.

     This report is based on a study by the Southwest Research Institute,
     San Antonio, Texas.  The general subjects considered are:  alternate
     fuels  (liquified petroleum gas, alcohol and alcohol-gasoline blends,
     and nonleaded gasoline); devices which treat exhaust gases; and devices
     which modify engine-operating conditions.  Most of these proposed methods
     were found Impracticable or too expensive.  The greatest promise in
     lessening auto fumes probably lies in the use of catalytic converters,
     or afterburners, or  a combination of a fuel shut-off device and improved
     car maintenance.  APCA 7^-2


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630. Fenizaore,  C.P.,  and Jones,  G.W.:   The water-catalyzed oxidation of
    carbon monoxide  "by oxygen at high temperature.   J.  Phys.  Chem.  6l:
    651-654, 1957.

    By sampling burnt gases from lean flat hydrocarbon flames at one
    atmosphere pressure,  the oxidation rate in the  presence of ample
    water at 1700.-20000, K.  is determined to be - l/(op)(dln(CO)/dt) »
    1.2 X 10?  e"2^000/^1^163/1-)"1 sec."1.   In the^urnt gas from
    carbon monoxide  flames,  containing very little  water,  -dln(CO)/dt
    is independent of oxygen and roughly proportional to water.  The
    slower rate of comparatively dry carbon monoxide flames is raised
    toward the value appropriate to hydrocarbon flames by adding
    hydrogen to the  carbon monoxide.   A partial mechanism is suggested
    which is consistent with these results.  -  Authors' Abst.


631. Forbes,  H.S.:  A survey of carbon monoxide poisoning in American
     steel works,  metal mines, and coal mines.   Indust. Hyg. 3:11-15
     (May) 1921.

     Carbon monoxide  as met with in metal and coal mines and about
    blast furnaces  in this country rarely causes late aftereffects
     following  acute  severe gassing.  When such effects do appear,
     there is evidence, almost always, of a pre-existing pathological
     condition.
            Frequent  exposure to carbon monoxide causes headache and
     malaise, but no  evidence has been found of a cumulative harmful
     effect.
            As  was to be expected, owing to the compensating increase
     of hemoglobin and red cells from prolonged oxygen want, it is
    possible to acquire some tolerance to carbon monoxide.
            A recent  advance in treatment has been made by adding
     carbon dioxide  to the oxygen inhalations administered.  Recovery
     is three times  as rapid as when oxygen alone is used.
            An efficient portable carbon monoxide respirator has been
     perfected by the U. S. government.  -  Author's Sum.


632. Forbes,  J.J., and Grove, G.W.:   Mine Gases and Methods  for Detecting
    Them. USBMC  33, 1954,  82 pp.

    In this  publication,detailed information is given on the nature  and
    occurrence of mine gases and mixtures of gases.   Detection of gases is
    so important that the various methods are  treated at length.  Particular
    attention  is given to flame safety lamps;  methane-indicating  instruments;
    various  types of carbon-monoxide  detectors; methods  for detecting
    atmospheres deficient in oxygen or containing accumulations  of black-
    damp; and  methods for detecting hydrogen sulfide,  oxides of nitrogen,
    and sulfur dioxide. - Authors1  Introduction
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 633.  Hayashi,  S.:   Present situation of the control of public hazards
      In Japan.  Kuki Seijo (Tokyo) 1:8-12 (March) 196k.

      Accompanying the rapid economic growth of Japan since 1959* there
      has been the establishment of 19 public agencies for the control
      of hazardous environmental conditions.  Previous to this time there
      were only 2 such agencies.  In this review are discussed various
      legislative measures, some statistics on the number of hazardous
      happenings during the years 1962 and 1963*  and some of the kinds
      of public hazards.  Among the latter are enumerated noise, water
      pollution, oining dust and gases, agricultural chemicals,  dust
      pollution, and vibration,  the amounts of deposited soot,  measured
      mainly in 1961, at various places in Japan are tabulated.   The
      maxlinan was 137 tons/km.2/month at Wakamatsu.   At Kamaishi it was
      116 tons/km. 2/month and at Yahata it was 113 tons/ka./month.  The
      maximum amount of SOg, expressed as 803,  was 6.W- mg./lOO cm. /day
      at Kawasaki.   The amount of CO and MOg in car exhaust gases,  in the
      air of some large cities reached values of 10-20 ppn. and 0.02-0.05
      ppm., respectively.  The general trend of air pollution is that the
      amount of deposited soot is decreasing while the amount of SOg is
      increasing; the amount of suspended dust is remaining constant*  -
      APCA 6M7


634.  Heinen,  C.M.:   Using the engine for exhaust control.   Presented at
      the Los Angeles Section of the Society of Automotive  engineers
      Nov.  19, 1962.

      The 1956 CRC Field Survey and the recent  survey by the MVPCB  both show
      wide variations in the carbon monoxide and  hydrocarbon content of the
      exhaust of vehicles in the field.
            There is strong evidence to show that the primary reason for
      these variations is engine condition.
            For Chrysler cars now in the field,  readjustment to  and main-
      tenance at factory specifications would result in values of about
      500 ppm HC and 2.0 - 2.5% CO.  This is an almost essential step for
      every type of additional control, whether it be by devices or engine
      modification.
            Various  engine modifications dealing  primarily  with  the
      carburetor and distributor are possible on  Chrysler vehicles.which
      reduce the emissions to 275 ppm HC and 1.5% CO or below, and'which
      have no substantial effect on performance.
            With the possible exception of the  idle  adjustments  (mixture and
      rpm) the normal factory recommended intervals  should  be adequate for
      maintaining vehicles at these levels.   No special tools are required.
            Maintenance of the type specified by  the manufacturers  for
      good vehicle  operation should be strongly urged as an air  pollution
      measure.   No  new garage equipment is required.
            As  soon as the present series of tests on engine modifications are
      completed, a  production test on the modified engines  discussed above
      will be  justified unless some unexpected  difficulty arises during the
      rest of  the tests.
                                     266

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          A production test of this type represents the final step prior
    to production and is conducted with the help of a substantial nummber
    of motorists. The object, of course, is to confirm that the experi-
    mental findings are verified by customer experience, - Author's Abst.
635.  Hofer, L.J.E.,  Gussey, P.,  and Anderson,  R.B. :  Specificity of
     catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide -ethylene mixtures.
     J. Catalysis 3:^51-^60 (Oct.)
     The specificity of five different catalysts for the oxidation of
     ethylene and carbon monoxide was determined in a micro catalytic
     reactor at temperatures from 50° to 600° C.  On all five catalysts
     carbon monoxide oxidized more readily than ethylene.  Complete
     removal of carbon monoxide occurred on the cobalt oxide at room
     temperature, on the copper oxide -chromium oxide on alumina catalyst
     at 100° C, on both copper oxide and iron oxide at 200° C,  and on
     chromium oxide at k^O" C.  On cobalt oxide, iron oxide, chromium
     oxide, and the copper oxide-chromium oxide on aluminum oxide the
     presence of carbon monoxide enhanced the oxidation of ethylene.
     Conversely the presence of ethylene inhibits the oxidation of
     carbon monoxide markedly in the case of cobalt oxide and iron
     oxide.  Significant chemisorption at any temperature was not
     observed for chromium oxide or copper oxide. The other three
     catalysts showed significant quantities of chemisorption for both
     ethylene and carbon monoxide. With chromium oxide, ferric oxide,
     and cobalt oxide, hydrogen was produced in amounts up to 2$ of the
     hydrogen in the initial ethylene.  -  Authors' Abst.


 636. Jensen,  D.A. ,  and  Seanlin,  J.R.s   Methods of reducing  pollution
     causad by internal combustion angina (motor vehicles.)
     Aspects  Techniques de la Securite" Routisre.   1981-24,29
     (Sept.)  1964.
           I.
     Methods  for  the control  of  pollution from internal combustion
     engines  in California,  are  discussed in this paper.  Devices
     have been developed to  recirculate crankcase gases back into
     the engine and burn them.  Catalytic mufflers and direct
     flame afterburners have  been developed to oxidize hydrocarbons
     and carbon monoxide.  There is a  reo^iiretnent that all  diesel
     trucks and buses use high-grade fuel and to be well maintained
     to reduce air pollution  respectively the smog problem.   Four
     new exhaust  systems have been approved by the California Motor
     Vehicle  Pollution  Control Board,  which will have to be fitted
     to all vehicles beginning Jan. 1966.  -AGC.
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637. Kerr, J.A., and Calvert, J.G.:  The formation and decomposition
     reactions of the acetyl radical and the heat of formation of the
     acetyl radical.  Phys. Chera. 69:1022-1029 (March) 1965.

     The 3^60-A. photolyses of azomethane in the presence of either
     carbon monoxide or acetaldehyde have been investigated, and the
     formation and decomposition reactions of the acetyl radical have
     "been shown to be dependent on the over-all pressure in the system.
     The activatipn energies obtained for the decomposition and formation
     reactions of the acetyl radical are consistent with recent results
     of O'Neal and Benson.  A combination of the present results and
     recent independent estimates gives AE-p°(CHoCO) = -k + 2 kcal./mole.
     Results on the reaction (8) CHo + CHoCHO —> CH^ + CH^CO have been
     obtained from the azometnane-acetaldehyde system and together with
     three other ,determinations yield the Arrhenius equation:  kg =
     1011.5e-D.o/RT cc./moie-sec.  The approximate rate constant for the
     reaction (10) CEU + (CHg)^ —5 (CH^NNCH^ was derived from the
     data:  k10 =? lO^'Te-f-l/RT cc./uole-sec.  -  Authors'  Abst.


638, Linville, W«, Holmes, R.G., and Kanter, C.V.:  Evaluation of methods
     for controlling vehicular exhaust.  J, APCA 10:21-28 (Feb.) 1960.

     The problem of reducing smog forming contaminants from automobile
     exhaust gases has for several years been the subject of study by air
     pollution control agencies, the automotive industry, engineering firms,
     research institutions, and independent inventors.  Methods and devices
     which have been evolved, the principles upon which they are based, and
     their capabilities for controlling exhaust gas contaminants are des-
     cribed.  These include fuel modifications, deceleration fuel shutoff
     devices, vacuum breakers, exhaust gas purifiers, direct flame after-
     burners, catalytic mufflers, and others.  These studies indicate that
     complete control of the organic contaminants will require an after-
     burner, either catalytic or direct flame, but lesser degrees of control
     may be achieved by some of the other devices or methods which have been
     proposed.  Although no automotive control device has as yet reached the
     stage of commercial availability,  development is progressing at an
     encouraging rate. - APCA
639. Methods of Reducing Pollution Caused by Internal Combustion Engines
     (Motor Vehicles).  (General Report.)  European Conference on Air
     Pollution, June 2k-July 1, 196^.  Council of Europe, Strasbourg
     (France), 1964, ^0 pp.

     This General Report, published following the European Conference
     on Air Pollution, is presented by Prof. Brunner, Federal Institute
     of Technology, Zurich, and Laboratoire f£de*ral d'essai des MatSriaux,
     Switzerland; and Mr. Lemaigre, President de 1'Union Technique de
     1'Automobile, du Cycle et du Motorcycle, Paris.  The table of
     contents lists:  Introduction; Organization of action to combat
     pollution from motor vehicles; Studies and research:  organization


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     and results; Ways and means of reducing pollution i Anti -pollution
     legislation.  Appendix I (13 pages) is entitled Public and private
     European bodies concerned with air pollution; Appendix II (26 pages),
     Bibliography; Appendix III (8 pages), Legislation.  -  APCA 6*1-267
     Thiebault, R. :  An interesting experiment, made with the vehicles
     of the Parisian Prefecture de Police, in order to reduce the rate
     of carbon monoxide emitted by petrol engines.  Centre international
     de documentation sur 1' inspection et la technique des vehicules
     automobiles.   (CIDITIVA Bulletin. )  Brussels, No. 23, pp. 2.1-
     2.11  (Sept.)  1965.

     Since 1959> the municipal laboratories of the Prefecture de Police
     have  been systematically measuring atmospheric pollution in Paris,
     deducing the  general picture from the carbon monoxide (CO)
     percentage.   The many recordings made have led to three main
     conclusions:   (a) Practically no CO during night hours, when motor
     traffic is sparse,  (b) Definite correlation between density of
     traffic flow  and CO rate,  (c) Increase of each vehicle's
     contribution  to the CO rate as traffic becomes less fluid, causing
     vehicles to stop frequently with motor idling.  This, together
     with  the fact that idling represents 75$ of the time spent on a
     journey in heavy rush hour traffic, led to the idea of adjusting
     the relevant  arrangements of the carburetor in order to reduce
     exhaust toxicity to a minimum, without hampering the engine.  The
     method for adjusting the idling and slow running arrangements of
     the carburetor is described and results obtained are shown in a
     table.  This  method was successfully applied to all 1300 police
     vehicles and  brought about the additional advantage of a
     considerable  air pollution abatement in the police garages.
     Author suggests an education campaign for mechanics and maintenance
     personnel and wide information of the public on this subject and
     method.  -  APCA 6^-167


640a. Yanov, A.P. :   Control of dust and- toxic gases after  shot firing.
      Gornyi Zhufnal 3:70-73, 1961.   S.M.R.E. Trans. Ho. 4669*  CFSTI 63-
      An experimental model of a unit for the combined removal of dust
      and toxic gases from the air after shotfiring is described.  Good
      results were obtained in practical trials of the experimental model
      of the unit.  With concentration of more than 200 mg/aH dust, 0,2$
      carbon monoxide, 0*01$ nitric oxides, and 0.8$ carbon dioxide, 98 -
      99$ dust and carbon monoxide were removed from the air, as were 90 -
      97$ nitric oxides and carbon dioxide.  Pastiness of  the air after
      this cleaning process was 1*2 * 1.6 mg/ar, and the carbon monoxide
      concentration vas 0.0010 - 0.0012$.
             The new method of removing dust and gases from the air will
      make it possible to carry out shotfiring operations  during any period
      of the shift.  The heat from the electric heater and from the oxidation
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     of carbon monoxide on hopcalite can "be used for the ventilation 3f the
     heading,  thus eliminating the need for pipelines.   -  From text-AGC
CRITERIA AND STANDARDS
641. Aviation Toxicology,  An Introduction to the Subject and a Handbook
     of Data.  The Blakiston Co.,  Hew York, Toronto,  1953;  PP- 120-

     This handbook on aviation toxicology provides toxicity data on
     chemicals of special interest in aviation,
            CO is the only toxic gas for which allowable concentration
     limits have been generally prescribed in aviation.   The allowable
     limit of concentration for CO set by military and civilian agencies
     of different countries vary somewhat.  The average limit is one part
     in 20,000 parts of air (ik b) for civil airplanes in the U.S.   In
     moderate altitudes carbon monoxide does not have any ill effects.
     Author points out, however, that careful laboratory tests have
     shown that vision is somewhat impaired at,  or even below, this
     concentration.  The concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in the
     blood stream at high altitude, and the general properties and
     occurrence of CO are discussed in this book.  There are diagrams
     showing time-concentrateon curves of CO toxicity.  -  AGC


642. Bryan, R.J., and Taylor, J.R.:  A Review of Mr Quality Eata Obtained
     in Ambient Mr Animal E*posui-e Project.  Presented at the 58th APCA
     Annual Meeting, June 20-2**, 1965, Toronto,  Canada.

     Since late 1961 a relatively large-scale study has been conducted
     in Los Angeles to determine possible biological effects upon
     animals to the exposure to air pollutants,  particularly as related
     to automotive emissions.  The protocol for this study called for
     the exposure of animals at four separate locations, differing'as
     to the proximity to sources of air pollution from major automobile
     source areas.  At each location, two colonies of animals were
     exposed—one to unaltered ambient air and one to purified air.
     The air quality data obtained and reported upon shows distinct
     pollution patterns with regular seasonal and temporal patterns.
     A substantial block of data has been obtained on the performance
     of the air purification system specified as related to contaminants
     studied, which include oaone, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide,
     sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter.  Some limited
     study on the reproducibility of various instrumental methods is
     also reported.  An evaluation of the data as relates to this study
     and Its possible usefulness in the planning of future studies  is
     presented.  -  Authors' Abst.
                                   2JO

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643. California Standards for Ambient Al-r Quality and Motor Vehitile -Exhaust.
    Tech. Kept.,  State Dept.  Public Health,  Berkeley, Calif.,  1960,  1$6 pp.

     Contents:   I.  The standards and their significance.  II.   Technical
     "bases for standards for the quality of ambient air.  III.   The technical
     bases for motor vehicle exhaust standards.  In establishing the
     standards, an attempt was made to determine what effects the various
     pollutants were known to have at various levels of concentration on human
     health and comfort, on animals and plants, and on visibility.  The
     resulting air quality standards together with data concerning motor vehicle
     emissions and their reactions then became the bases for motor vehicle exhaust
     standards.  The air standards do not establish a fine line below which
     is good air above which is bad air.  They indicate the approx. point
     at which air under some circumstances may produce undesirable effects.
     -APCA 3679


644. California Standards for Ambient Air Quality and Motor Vehicle
     Exhaust.  Suppl. I.  Crankcase Emission Standard.  Maga,  J.A.,
     Bass, G.C., and Wong-Woo, H.:  State Dept. Public Health,  Berkeley,
     Calif., 1961, 13 PP.

     Contents:  Introduction,  Standard for crankcase emissions.
     Definition of terms of motor vehicle emission standards crankcase
     emissions.  Crankcase emissions (data, calculations, and revised
     inventory).  Approach to crankcase emission standard (numerical
     standard, modes of operation, expression of numerical standard).
     This is supplement 1 to the technical report of 1960.  Others
     will be published  as new standards are added.  -  APCA 4rf6


645.  Carbon Monoxide (Revised 1965).  Amer.  Indust.  Hyg. Ass.  26:431-434
      (July-Aug.)  1965.
             i
      A revised section on carbon monoxide  is continued  in the  Hygienic
      Guide Series.   Hygienic Standards,  toxic properties, industrial
      hygiene practice,  and medical problems  are discussed.  -  AGC


646. Carbon monoxide on the highway.  Scientific American 212:52-57
     (May) 1965.

     Reported in this review is a study by A. J. Eaagen-Smit and T.W.
     Latham who investigated concentrations of CO encountered during
     eight trips along  the commuter route between Pasadena and Los Angeles
     during peak traffic hours, CO levels near the drives were recorded.
     The concentration  of CO fumes are found to be such as to present a
     possible danger to the health and driving abilities of the commuter.
     Normally Los Angeles air contains 10 to 12 parts of carbon monoxide
     per million parts  of air.  According to the California State
     Department of Health, 30 ppm is an "adverse" level and 30 ppm for
     eight hours or 120 ppm for one hour is a  ;tserious level of pollution,"
     The level measured by the two investigators was 37 PPiaj In slow and

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     heavy traffic the average was 5^ PPro,  with peaks as high as 120 ppm.
     The level dropped rapidly on less traveled streets but rose again
     at stop signals.  According to Haagen-Sznit, two hours in bad traffic
     would bring the CO concentration in a commuter's hemoglobin to the
     "serious" level.  Studies of the effect of CO on a person's alertness
     and driving skill are recommended.  Automobile exhaust-control
     devices, mandatory in California beginning with 1966 models, are
     expected to significantly lower the incidence of smog in general
     as well as the CO level in particular.  -  AGC


647. Control of air pollution from motor vehicles and new motor vehicle
     engines.  Proposed Rules.  Federal Register Part II,  30:17192-17199
     (Dec. 31) 1965.

     The maximum allowable rates for discharge of two major automotive
     air pollutants are similar to standards adopted by California for
     1966, and provide:  1. Vehicles with engine displacement of 1^0 cu.
     in. or less:  (a) hydrocarbons - 375 PPm as hexane (0.165 mole
     percent carbon atoms) and (b) carbon monoxide - 2.0$ by volume.
     2. Vehicles with engine displacement in excess of lio cu. in.:
     (a) hydrocarbons - 275 PPm as hexane (0.165 mole percent carbon
     atoms) and (b) carbon monoxide - 1.5$ by volume.
            The average car without an exhaust control sy.3tem emits
     approximately 800 ppm of hydrocarbons  and 3-5$ carbon monoxide
     from its exhaust.
            In addition to limiting exhaust emissions,  the standards are
     designed to eliminate complete hydrocarbon emissions from the
     crankcase.  -  AGC
648. Control of air pollution from motor vehicles and new motor
     vehicle engines.  Federal Register Part II, 31:5170-5178
     (March 30) 1966.

     Federal standards for the control of air pollution from new motor
     vehicles were published today in the Federal Register by Secretary
     of Health, Education, and Welfare John W. Gardner.  The standards
     will apply to 1968 model gasoline-powered passenger cars and
     light trucks, whether American-made or imported.
            The standards, issued under provisions of the 1965 Clean
     Air Act Amendments, will limit emissions of two major pollutants
     produced by motor vehicles—hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.
     hydrocarbons are a prime ingredient in the formation of
     photochemical smog.  Carbon monoxide is a lethal gas.
            Under the standards proposed on December 31, tailpipe
     emissions from motor vehicles with engines of 50 to 1^0 cubic
     inches cylinder displacement would have been limited to an
     average of 375 parts per million of hydrocarbons and 2.0 percent
     carbon monoxide over a vehicle life of 100,000 miles.  Engines
     of more than 1^0 cubic inches, which produce a greater volume of
     exhaust gas, would have been limited to an average of 275 parts
     per million of hydrocarbons and 1.5 percent carbon monoxide.

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            The final standards call for no change In the limitations
     on engines in the over-l40 cubic inches size range, but significant
     modifications have been made in the requirements applicable to
     smaller engines,  These have now been placed in two separate
     categories.  For those of 50 to 100 cubic inches cylinder dis-
     placement, which include the engines used in most small imported
     cars, the limitations are now an average of 410 parts per million
     of hydrocarbons and 2.3 percent carbon monoxide.  For engines of
     100 to 140 cubic inches, the limitations are an average of 350
     parts per million of hydrocarbons and 2.0 percent carbon monoxide.


649.  Danger Thresholds.  (General Report)  European Conference on Air
     Pollution, June 24-July 1, 196k.  Council of Europe,  Strasbourg,
     (France), 1964, 53 pp.

     The General Report, published following the European Conference on
     Air Pollution, is presented by Professor Truhaut,  Professor de
     Toxicologie et d'HysiSne Industrielle & la Facultg de Pharmacie de
     1'Universite de Paris.  The table of contents lists the following
     subject headings:  Nature of the risks (risks of immediate toxicity,
     risks of relatively long-term toxicity, risks of inducing malignant
     proliferation); Notes of the methodology of assessing risks
     (laboratory experiments on animals, observations on subjects exposed
     to pollution); Concept of maximum allowable concentrations applied
     to chemical air pollutants (significant divergencies,  points of
     agreement — gas and vapors, and dusts, fumes, and mists);
     Practical conclusions possible in the light of present toxlcological
     knowledge and economic and social factors; Scope for research and
     concerted preventive action at European level (biology,  analysis,
     conclusions, bibliography).  The Appendix (p. 44-53) consists of
     Resolutions of the 2 nd International Symposium on Maximum Allowable
     Concentrations of Toxic Substances in Industry,  Paris,  April 1-6,
     1963.  -  APCA 64-249


650.  Batsenko, I.I.:  Disturbances of carbon metabolism in experimental
     carbon monoxide intoxication.  Gigiena i Sanitaria 30:30-34 (May)
     1965.

     The article contains the results of quantitative analyses of sugar
     in the blood of animals in a glucose test after introduction of
     adrenalin and insulin under conditions of a prolonged action of
     various concentrations of CO.  In chronic [poisoning concentrations
     of this gas within the limits of 0.012-0.018 mg/1  in the inhaled air
     produced changes in the glycemic curves.  These data may serve as
     an early diagnostic sign of intoxication,  besides.  They substantiate
     the necessity of decreasing the maximum permissible concentration of
     CO in the.air.  -  Author's Abst.
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 651. Friberg,  L.,  and Rylander,  R.:   Scientific basis for some medical air
      quality guides.   J.  APCA 15:531-534 (Nov.) 1965.

      An attempt to develop medical  air quality guides are recently made in
      Sweden.  Even if air pollution is present in only fairly small amounts,
      problems frequently arise especially concerning nuisance reactions.
      Present regulations do not provide a basis for a standardized treatment
      of air pollution problems.   The national air pollution situation was
      discussed and a survey of the  literature was performed to collect data
      concerning current air pollutants.  For sulfur dioxide a 30 day value
      of eight pphm and a two hour value of 25 pphm was recommended.  It
      was further recommended to keep the carbon monoxide concentration as
      low as possible with an eight  hour value of  30 ppm as an absolute
      maximum.  lor carcinogenic and mutagenic substances it was also
      recoconended to keep the values as low as possible.  Although available
      data did not support complete  medical guides in all cases it was decided
      rather to have the above approximations than to leave the air pollution
      situation uncontrolled.  -  Authors' Abst.


651a  Friberg, L., and Rylander,  R.:  Swedish medical air quality guides.
      Nord. Hyg. Tidskr. 46:1-32, 1965.

      This report is the result of conferences held in Saltsjoebaden,  May 27-29,
      1964, on the initiative of the State Mr Control Board, and at the State
      Institute for Health on June 11, 1964.  The  participants, experts from
      several scientific fields,  presented various facets of the problem.
      Those contributions and the subsequent discussions provide the basis
      for this report.  It is also stated in this  report that valuable
      discussions have been carried on, in course  of the work,  with Dr. John
      Goldsmith, of the California State Department of Public Health.   The
      following paragraph is taken from "Summary of Recommendation" of this
      report:
            "At present, a basis is  lacking for presentation of pr cise medical
      recommendations.  There are reasons, however, for keeping the carbon
      monoxide content as low as possible, and under no conditions should it
      be permitted to exceed 30 ppm (eight-hour value) and 120 ppm (one-hour
      value).  It might be possible  by means of relatively limited studies
      to obtain results on which detailed medical  recommendations might be
      based as was done in the case  of sulphur dioxide." - Translated from
      Swedish.
 652.  Gilinskiy, V.A., Chapek, A.V., Kozlova,  A.G.,  Kulikova,  N.M.,
      and Loshak, A.Ya.:  The effect of low concentrations of carbon
      monoxide on man in pressurized cabins of passenger planes.  In:
      ParLn, V.V. (editor):  Aviation and Space Medicine.  Translation,
      NASA, Washington, D. C., Dec. 1964.  NASA TT F-228, pp.  113-115.

      The results of the investigations reported in this paper showed
      that 3 hours' exposure to carbon monoxide ( starting with 0.01 mg/
      liter or more), both under experimental conditions (ground and
      .pressure-chamber at 2400 m) and during actual flight had adverse

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     effects on the functioning of  several organs and systems, namely:
     higher nervous activity;  functions of the visual and vestibular
     analyzers; metabolic processes;  cardiovascular  system; muscular
     strength; tissue respiration and leukopoiesis.
             On the basis of the physiological-sanitary data obtained
     and the results of laboratory  tests, it is  suggested that the
     maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in pressurized
     passenger airplane cabins be 0.01 mg/liter.  -   From Text
            l

653, Gofmekler,  V.A.:  The problem of sanitary protection of atmospheric
     air within the framework of the Council of Mutual Economic Aid.
     Gigiena i Sanitaria 29:104-106 (May) 196^.       Published and
     Transl. for USDHEW, PBS and WSF,  Washington, D.  C.,  by the Israel
     Program for Scientific Translation,  1965.   TO 65-50023/5.

     This paper discusses tie program planning meeting of the Council
     of Mutual Economic Aid.  Among studies proposed for 196^-1965,
     is the investigation of the iuaximal allowable concentrations for
     20 combinations of substances in the atmospheric air, which
     includes carbon monoxide.  The combination of SOg and CO will be
     investigated by scientists in Bulgaria.  Development of new methods
     of investigation of atmospheric contamination are contemplated.
     Along with the development of chemical methods of investigation,
     greater attention will be paid to physico-chemical methods.   The
     possibility of determination of CO by spectrophotometric methods
     is being studied in Czechoslovakia.  Development of new automatic
     instruments for the registration of atmospheric contaminants is
     planned in the German Democratic Republic and in Poland.   New
     methods of sample  collection are developed in the U.S.S.R.   -
     AGC
654.  Goldsmith,  J.R. :   Some implications or ambient air quality standards.
     Arch. Environ. Health k: 151-167 (Feb.)
     The impetus to set air pollution standards for California arose because
     of the recognition that the improvement -  or even maintenance  - in
     the quality of the air in California depended upon  control methods
     for motor vehicle emissions.  The law,  which in addition to
     calling for public hearings and for revision of standards from tiiae to
     time,  states that ''standards shall be  so  developed as  to reflect
     the relationship between the intensity  and composition  of air
     pollution and the health,  illness,  including irritation to the senses,
     and death of human beings,  as well as damage to vegetation and
     interference with visibility."  Author  discasses standards in  other
     fields and compares industrial threshold limits,  with maximal  air
     pollution values, and the alert stages  for toxic air  pollutants in
     the Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control District.  The
     community air pollution standarda in the U.S.S.R. are also
     reviewed.  Available facts and determination of whether or not
     standards could be set for, i.e., the group of photochemical
     oxidants, oxides of sulfur, and carbon  monoxide are also considered.

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      Because of the aany sources for carbon monoxide exposure it was
      decided that only 5% of hemoglobin inactivation "by community air
      pollution would become the basis for standards.   Available data on
      reaction between hemoglobin and carbon monoxide were  used to derive
      the standards - 30 ppm for 8 hours or 120 ppm for one hour.   Because
      the basis of this effect is an interference with physiological
      function, the standard by definition is  at the "serious"level.  The
      30 ppm standard averaged over 8 hours has often been  exceeded in
      Los Angeles.  In the Appendix the policy of the California Standards
      for ambient air quality are discussed in detail.  - AGO.


655.  Goldsmith,  J.R,:   QTne body burden and air quality standards.   Arch.
      Environ.  Health 8:39-U3 (Jan.)  1964.

      Available work indicates the value of the concept of the body
      burden in setting air quality standards.  So  far,  the concept has
      been used in the air quality standards for carbon monoxide.  Its
      use for lead exposures is anticipated and it  should be of value
      for other substances.   In addition,  the body burden is valuable
      because of its relevance to exposures not only to elementary
      substances auch as lead and arsenic,  but also to  complex Bubsljances
      such as chlorinated hydrocarbons.   Much additional research is. needed
      in this area.   -  Author's Sum.
 656.  Gruber,  C.W.:   APM-3 Recommended standard methods for continuing
      air monitoring for gaseous contaminants.  TR-2, Air Pollution
      Measurements Committee.   J.  APCA 15:313  (July) 1965.

      The purpose of Manual APM-3 is  to provide a guide which will help
      increase the uniformity between various  surveys, and thereby increase
      the useability of the data by others.  Manual APM-3 will include
      procedures for the following gases:  APM-3*2--Sulfur Dioxide,,
      APM-3-3--Hydrogen Sulfide; APM-3. l4—0xidants and Ozone; APH-3.5--
      Oxides of Nitrogen; APM-3.6--Carbon Monoxide; APM-3•?--Fluorides;
      APM-3.8— Ifydrocarbons;  APM-3.9"-Aldehydes.
            It is hoped by utilizing Standard Methods for Continuous
      Monitoring of the Atmosphere air quality data will become more mean-
      ingful as monitoring is being carried  on by a multitude of governmental
      agencies research organizations and industry.  It is hoped that by
      standardizing monitoring  methods, the  path to air quality atanda1"^
      setting  will be made smoother.   It is  also hoped that by utilizing
      standard monitoring methods our knowledge of what's in the air will
      be broadened and made more useful to the researchers who are searching
      out the  affects of air pollution upon  man and materials.  -  Author's
      Sum. Modified.
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657.  Bass,  G.C.:   The automobile as a source of air pollution.   Trans.
      Soc. Agr.  Engrs* U:1^2-1^3, 1961.

      Although touch intensive study has been done on the smog situation
      in Los Angeles the phenomenon is still defined in terms of gross
      effects.  Among the  effects are those of eye irritation, aerosol
      formation, ozone formation, and damage to vegetation.   A less well-
      known  fact about automotive air pollution is that the  concentrations
      of carbon monoxide in the atmospheres of poorly ventilated cities
      are approaching levels at which public health agencies are beginning
      to be  concerned about the physiological effects.  For  all  practical
      purposes,  automotive vehicles are the only significant source of
      atmospheric carbon monoxide.  Although the principal point of
      emission from a motor vehicle is the tail-pipe, there  is also some
      emission from the crankcase vent,  and from the carburetor  and fuel
      tank.   Since any scheme to artificially ventilate the  air  involves
      moving millions of tons by weight of air, other control methods
      have to be sought.  Last year Los Angeles County adopted a rule
      requiring the gradual reduction of olefins in gasoline but the
      benefits are both controversial and costly to the car  owner.
      Deceleration cut-off devices are available and, after  further study,
      were foundto be more effective than was thought earlier.   Any
      radical change in engine design appears to be some years off.
      Major attention is now focused on the development of afterburners
      for the exhaust system, the 2 types being the catalytic scheme and
      the direct-flame afterburner.  Many companies have such devices
      under development but the price, and cost of upkeep, are still
      indefinite.  However, a device to control crankcase vent losses is
      available and inexpensive, and a method of reducing the emissions
      of oxides of nitrogen has recently been announced.  On Dec. 4,
      1959,  .the State Dept. Public Health of Calif, adopted  standards of
      air quality and standards for motor-vehicle exhaust emissions.   The
      1960 legislature passed a new smog bill which provided for the
      establishment of a 13-man State Motor Vehicle Poll. Control Board.
      The bill states that after 1 year from the date on which the Board
      has certified 2 or more motor-vehicle pollution-control devices,
      ell new cars sold in Calif, shall be equipped with such devices.
      The application of devices to used motor vehicles is a local  option
      and a longer period of compliance is provided*  -  APCA 5086


658.  Xambertsen, C.J., and Baseom, W.:   The Permissible Level of Carbon
      Monoxide in Inspired Air  Univ. Calif. Scripps Inst. Oceanography,
      Dec. 29, 1953-  DDC  AD 28055.

      The possibility that compressed air breathed by underwater swimmers
      may contain small amounts of carbon monoxide which could conceivably
      be injurious, led to a series of letters in which Dr.  C. J. Lambertsen,
      M.D.,  of the University of Pennsylvania Medical School answered and
      discussed a series of questions on the subject suggested by Bascom.
      The Henderson results at one atmosphere are compared with  those given
      in U.S. Bureau of Standards Technical Paper 212 and the wording of
                                   277

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      Mine Safety Appliance Co.  literature has been 'borrowed for the first
      paragraph.   Dr.  Lambertsen points out that this extrapolation beyond
      direct measurement is "probably the only information -we will have to
      go on for the next few years."   Dr. Lambertsen  also states,  "I do not
      want to be  held  to the absolute values in the tables (graphs) but
      suspect the relative changes will occur as predicted." -   Authors'
      Abst.
 659. McCabe,  L.C.:   Atmospheric pollution.   Indust.  Eng.  Chem. 47:KXLA-
      102A (June)  1955-

      The Los  Angeles County Air Pollution Control Board recently asked
      a medical and scientific group to set maximum limits at which
      pollution levels might be dangerous to  public health.  Limits
      were established for oxides  of nitrogen,  ozone,  sulfur dioxide,
      and carbon monoxide,  based on judgment  and experience.       5
      Instruments  are now installed at several  stations  for  continuous
      measurement  of these k pollutants and also total oxidant, total
      hydrocarbons,  and  wind speed and direction. Standard plant boxes,
      each containing a  variety of smog-sensitive plants,  are kept  at
      12 stations  for the detection of crop damaging  gases;  continuous
      high-volume  filters are used to collect ether-soluble  aerosole
      and radioactive materials.   It is estimated that some 1^,000  tons
      of combustible rubbish are disposed of  daily by burning, two
      thirds of it in single chamber incinerators.  The  incineration of
      this material releases to the air aerosols, aldehydes, oxides of
      nitrogen, and organic acids  which contribute to reduced
      visibility,  eye irritation,  plant damage,  and general  discomfort.
      There are more than 1,500,000 single chamber incinerators in  use
      in homes and conmw»ro.-i.a.1 Ae-haMlsbments  in the county,  and they
      can not  be controlled by practicable engineering refinements.
      Hence, they  will be prohibited in unincorporated areas after
      June 30, when weekly collection of combustible  rubbish is
      established.  Incorporated areas (^5 in Los Angeles  County) have
      been asked to expand private or public  collection  service to
      pewnit the prohibition of this type of  incinerator by July  1,
      After June 30, new regulations will apply to open  burning.  -
      APCA 390


659a. MacKenzie, V.G.:  Conservation of the Air Resources:  A National
      Challenge.   USDHEW,  PHS,  Div.  Air Poll., Washington, D.C.,
      Jan. 1965.

      The Chief of the Div. of Air Poll, has  the following to say in
      regard to the adoption of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1965:
      it became possible for the Federal Government to take  still
      further  steps toward dealing with air pollution problems that
      cannot be satisfactorily resolved at local and  State levels.
      The most important of these  .stepa involves the  establishment  and
      enforcement  of national standards for the  control  of air
      pollution from new motor vehicles.


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           The proposed Federal  standards, which are  similar to but
     somewhat more  stringent than those now in effect  in the State of
     California, will require  significant reductions in emissions of
     hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, two of the principal types of
     air pollutants discharged through motor vehicle exhaust tailpipes,
     as well as 100 percent control of hydrocarbon emissions from
     the crankcase.  To comply with the standards, tailpipe emissions
     from new gasoline-powered vehicles with engines of 1^0 or more
     cubic  inches cylinder displacement, which includes essentially
     all American-made cars and light trucks, must not exceed an
     average of 275 parts per  million of hydrocarbons  and 1.5
     percent by volume of carbon  monoxide over a vehicle life of
     100,000 miles.  For engines  of less than 1^0 cubic inches
     displacement,  primarily those used in small imported cars, the
     proposed average limitations are 375 parts per million of
     hydrocarbons and 2.0 percent carbon monoxide.  By comparison
     with the proposed standards, tailpipe emissions from models now
     in use range upward from  about 800 parts per million of
     hydrocarbons and 3«5 percent carbon monoxide. - From Text


660. Maga,  J.A., and Hass, G.C.:  The development of motor vehicle
     exhaust emission standards in California.  J. APCA 10:393-396 a»d
     klk (Oct.) 1960.

     The motor vehicle exhaust standards adopted by the California State
     Dept.  of Public Health included hydrocarbon monoxide.  The standards
     represent a 1st attempt to set vehicular emission standards as a
     basis  for control legislation.  Judgments and decisions were of
     necessity made on the basis  of present knowledge  of the smog
     problem.  The  calculation of allowable vehicle exhaust emissions
     includes the following elements:  (1) Evaluation  of the current
     levels of air  quality experienced on days of meteorological
     conditions unfavorable to the dispersal of pollutants.  (2)
     Determination  of the total vehicle exhaust emissions and the
     average concentration of  pollutants in vehicle exhaust.  (3)
     Determination  of the total emissions of air pollutants from all
     sources.  (4)  Extrapolation  of the emissions data to 1970.  (5)
     Description of the quantitative relationships between air pollution
     effects and atmospheric pollutant concentrations.  (6)  Calculation
     of the necessary reduction in pollutant emissions to maintain the
     desired air quality of days  of meteorological conditions unfavorable
     to pollution dispersal.   (7) Application of these reduction factors
     to the average exhaust contaminant concentrations.  The law
     provided for periodic revision of the standards when new information
     becomes available.  The goal of the vehicle exhaust standards were:
     Oxidant index—0.15 PPm.  for 1 hour (average value as determined
     by the potassium iodide method).  Carbon monoxide—30 ppm. for 8
     hours  or 120 ppm. for 1 hour.  -  APCA 3^71
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661.  Maga, J.A.,  and Goldsmith,  J.R.:   Standards for air quality in
      California.   J. APCA 10:1*53-^55,  W>7 (Dec.) 1960.

      The interest in air quality standards has been an outgrowth of the
      air pollution problem in California.  Although the most serious
      problem is found in Los Angeles,  air pollution levels sufficient to
      cause eye irritation, vegetation damage,  and reduced visibility have
      been experienced in the larger metropolitan regions of the State.
      It is hoped that air quality standards adopted by the California
      State Dept.  of Public Health will be of value in the State's attack
      on air pollution and promote studies and research needed to refine
      and extend the standards.  Standards can only be guides and not a
      substitute for Jmowledge and good judgment.  As in the case for
      other standards, those for air quality are not precise figures below
      which there is complete safety and above which there is certain
      illness and death.  They can sometimes be exceeded without injury to
      an individual.  The air standards that have been adopted will have
      to be used intelligently with the appreciation of their limitations
      as well as their application.  -  APCA 3^70


 662. Middleton, J.T., and Middleton, B.C.:   Air pollution and California's
      state control program.   Proc. Amer.  Petrol.  Inst.   3^36-6^2,  1962.

      Our limited resource is unwittingly being destroyed by man's activities.
      The destruction of air appears to be correlated with the extent and
      nature of fuel utilization to meet the energy demands of contemporary
      society.  An increasing knowledge of the causes and nature of air
      pollution has resulted in changing concepts of control.   The state of
      California,  which in 19^-7 authorized the regulation of stationary
      sources of atmospheric contamination by local government bodies,  is
      now directly engaged in a program to control mobile sources of con-
      tamination through the creation in 1960 of the State Motor Vehicle
      Pollution Control Board.  Air-quality standards developed by the
      state define both the acceptable  air quality and the needed reduction
      in motor vehicular emissions.  While the present program will ensure
      an improved air quality and thereby reduce damage to health and
      property, long-range conservation of air will be dependent upon a
      continuing evaluation of society's fuel utilization,   means of
      transportation, and metropolitan  area planning and development.
      -Authors' abst.


 663. Pace, H.:  Limits of Tolerance for Carbon Monoxide Under Working
      Conditions and in Emergency  Procedures Aboard Ship.  Naval Med. Res.
      Inst.,  Nat. Naval Med.  Center, Bethesda, Md., Ki6-l/All/NMKL-12ij-,
      June 12, 1945.

      This report is made  in  response to a request  from BuShips for
      information regarding the limits of tolerance of exposure to various
      concentrations of carbon monoxide.  The limits  set  forth herein
      pertain only to non-flying personnel, and must not be applied in
      other situations where  lowered atmospheric oxygen tensions may also
      be encountered.

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            Recent work at the Naval Medical Research Institute has led
     to the development of a general equation for the expression of the
     rate of accumulation of carbon monoxide in the blood in terms of the
     factors important to the process.  The equation described in this
     paper has been tested under a wide variety of conditions and found
     to hold veil experimentally and in practice.  -  Author's Abst.
 664. Ryazanov, V.A., Alekseeva, M.V., and Senderikhina, D.Ya.:  Methods
     for the collection and  study of air samples in the control of a
     atmosphere cleanliness  in inhabited localities.  In:  Levine,
     B.S.  (translator) and Ryazanov, V.A. (editor):  Limits of
     Allowable Concentrations of Atmospheric Pollutants.  U. S. Office
     of Technical  Services,  Washington, D. C., Book 1, 1952, pp. 89-
     100.  OTS 59-21173-

     Methods of sampling  and sampling devices are  described.  The
     sensitivity of the methods recommended for the determination of
     maximal single concentrations, for the determination of average
     2k hours' concentrations using the intermittent method of sample
     collecting, and sensitivity of the methods recommended for use
     with  samples  of continuous 2k hours' aspiration are illustrated
     in three tables.  This  information presented  indicates that the
     2k hours' aspiration method is applicable to  8 ingredients only;
     carbon monoxide and  oxides of nitrogen are best determined by
     the method of intermittent aspiration.  Furthermore, an analysis
     of the data presented in the Table indicates  that the aspiration
     rate  for the  ingredients listed ranges between 10 - $000 I/hourj
     the total volume  ranges between 2kO - 12 000  liters.  Thus,
     the tests are so  arranged as to make them sufficiently sensitive
     for the determination of average 2k hours' concentrations, since
     the tests are from 2-8 times as sensitive as required for the
     determination of  the limits of allowable concentrations.
     Author-AGC
665.  Ryazanov, A.V.: New data on maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants
     in the air in  the U.S.S.R. In:  Diamond Jubilee Internat. Clean Air Con-
     ference, London, Oct. 1959.  National Society for Clean Air, London, I960,
     pp. 175-176.

     The author points out that the actions of poisonous agents on the human
     body become inoperative below a definite limit of concentration.  This
     being so, it is only necessary to reduce air pollutants to below the limit
     at which they  become harmful.  Russian investigators have set out to deter-
     mine these limits by conducting experiments on animals, by comparing the
     changes in human beings living in polluted areas with those living in
     clean areas, and by carefully controlled laboratory experiments with human
     subjects.  The most rewarding of the results from the last type of experi-
     ment have been obtained by demonstrating the reaction of the bioelectric
     impulses in the brain to quantities of pollutants undetectable by the
     nose.  When fixing maximum concentrations the effects on vegetation,
     materials and  atmospheric clarity are taken into account.  Also of great

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     importance are (1) defensive reactions of the body (showing that condi-
     tion are not at the optimum,) (2) that any stimulant is undesirable if
     it operates against a person's free-will,  (3) the maximum permissible
     concentration should be set by reference to the most sensitive index.
     On the basis of these considerations a tentative table of maximum concentra-
     tions for 30 pollutants has been produced and is appended to the paper.
     - Author's Sum.
666. Ryazanov, V.A.:  Sensory physiology as basis for air quality standards.
     The approach used in the Soviet Union.  Arch. Environ. Health 5:W30-49*)-
     (Nov.) 1962.

     Two types of quantitative indexes for degree of atmospheric air pollution
     are used in U.S.S.R., namely:  Maximum Allowable Concentrations for
     Exposures at any one time and average diurnal concentrations.
            The first index is used for considering that degree of prevention
     of atmospheric pollution which might cause reflextive reaction of the
     receptors of the respiratory organs  including' the nose upon a single.
     exposure.  The second standard is for the purpose of considering pre-
     vention of chronic resorptive action of toxic substances on long-term
     exposure.  This report is limited to the study of reflective action,
     which is the basis for establishing the M.A.C. for a single exposure.  -
     Author's Sum.
667. Ryazanov, V.A.:  New data on limits of allowable atmospheric air
     pollutants.  In:  Levine, B.S. (editor and translator):   U.S.S.R.
     Literature on Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases.  A
     Survey.  Vol. 9, 19&, pp. 1-8, CFSTI-TT-6V11574,  U.S.  Dept. of
     Commerce, Springfield, Va.

     This is a review of papers presented at the Meetings of the
     Committee on Sanitary Air Protection in 1959 and 1960.   The air
     pollution standards under discussion and the conclusion reached are
     not to be considered as final.  The aim and purpose of the Committee
     is to stimulate research.  In the section on carbon monoxide the
     papers by L.S. Gorsheleva, and T.M. Shul'ga, are discussed.
     Animals exposed for six hours to air containing 20-30 mg/rn^ of CO
     disturbed the conditioned reflexes activity.  The Committee adopted .
     1/10 of this concentration, or 2 mg/m? as the MAC average for 24
     hours, or three times the average of 24-hour concentration as the
     maximal allowable single concentration of CO.
            The paper by Shul'ga discusses the previously adopted limit
     of concentration of 6 mg/m3 of CO in accordance with the
     definition of a maximal single concentration.  The electroencepholo-
     graphic method which is considered to be most sensitive was used.
     Results show that 20 mg/m3 CO had no effect on the reflex reaction
     of brain biocurrents either directly or through the formation of
     conditioned electrocardial reflexes.  Tested on humans,  the maximal
     allowable single concentration for CO as accepted by the Committee,
     when inhaled for a brief period of time, had no effect on the
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     human organism.  The Committee in regard to Shul'ga's recommendations
     lowered the average 2i4~hour concentration limit to 1 mg/m3,
     retaining the previously adopted 6 mg/m3 value as the limit of
     allowable single CO concentration.  -  AGC


668. The safety limits of hazardous materials.   Safety Maintenance, Dec. -I960,
     pp. 37-39.

     The threshold limit values for 1960 which were adopted at the Twenty-
     Second Annual Meeting of the American Conference of Governmental
     Industrial Hygienists, Rochester, N. Y., April 1960, are listed.
           The recommended values for gases and vapors are based on the  best
     available information from industrial experiences and from experimental
     studies.  These values are reviewed annually. - AGC


 569. Shulga, T.M. :  New data substantiating maximum permissible concentration  of carbon
     monoxide in the atmospheric air.  Gigiena i Sanitaria 26:3-9 (March)  1961.   In:
     Levine, B.S.  (editor and translator):   U.S.S.R. Literature on Air Pollution and
     Related Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.   Vol. 9,  196^-,  pp. 73-80, CFSTI-TT-6l|-
            U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va,
     The study was devised to test experimentally the maximum permissible concentrations
     of carbon monoxide gas in the atmospheric air accepted by the USSR,  namely,
     6 mg./m.  as the maximum one-time concentration and 2 mg./m. ' as the daily average
     concentration.  The results obtained indicate that carbon monoxide gas at a
     concentration of 20 mg./m. 3 does not produce any reflex action on the electric
     activity of the brain.  A continuous 24-hour poisoning for a  period  of 75 days,
     with carbon monoxide at a concentration of 2 mg./m. 3,  has produced in white  rats
     some insignificant shifts of motor chronaxy, a fall in the porphyrin metabolism
     rate, and some reversible changes in individual nerve cells of the cerebrum.  The
     maximum one-time concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air should
     remain at its accepted level of 6 mg./m. 3, but the daily average concentration
     should be decreased to 1 mg./m. 3.  The standard sanitary protection  zone of  100 m.
     around brickworks is insufficient and should be increased to  500 m.   -  APCA 3818


670.  Shulga, T.M. :  Data to substantiate the maximum permissible daily
     average concentration of carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air.
     Gigena i Sanitaria 30:3-6 (April) 1965.

     The work was aimed at obtaining experimental data to substantiate
     the existing standard value of the daily average concentration of
     carbon monoxide in the atmospheric air at the level of 1.0 mg/m3.
     2k- hour poisoning of albino rats with carbon monoxide gas at
     average concentrations of 2.65 and 1.13 mg/m3 was carried out for
     a period of 2-1/2 months.  The investigations performed showed that
     carbon monoxide at an average concentration of 1.13 mg/m3 produced
     no changes in the. motor chronaxy, the porphyrin metabolism and had
     no effect on the functioning of the blood forming systems.
     Consequently, the existing dally average maximum permissible
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      concentration  of carbon monoxide  in the  atmospheric air at a level
      of 1.0 mg/m3 is  experimentally substantiated.   -   Author's Abst.


671.  Stern, A.C. :   Summary of existing air pollution standards.  J. APCA
      14:5-15  (Jan.)
     This paper summarizes the existing air pollution standards of the
     United States, Europe and the U.S.S.R.


 672. stern, A.C.:  Basis for criteria and standards.  J. APCA 15:281-283
     (June) 1965.

     Much of the data needed for the development of air quality criteria
     do not exist and must yet "be developed, and when criteria are developed,
     they will  not have about them an air of finality.  It, therefore,
     would be unwise to defer the adoption of emission standards needed
     now, by postponing such action until air quality criteria and standards
     become more generally available.


 673. Stern, A.C. :  Emission standards in air pollution.  Araer. J. Pub.
     Health 55:1075-1081 (July) 1965.

     A discussion of emission standards to be employed in dealing with air
     pollution  is presented.  It is urged that standards be developed for
     real situations, which relate both single and multiple sources to the
     community's air quality standards.  The one proposed in this paper is
     limited to gases and fine particles.


 674. Truhaut, R. :  Danger Thresholds.  European Conference on Air Pollution,
     held June  2^-July 1, 19&4-, Strasbourg, Prance, Covncil of Europe.

     This paper presented at this Internationa]. Conference discusses the
     following  items:
             Nature of the risks of immediate toxicity, of relatively long-
     term toxicity and risks of inducing malignant proliferation.
             The methodology of assessing risks by laboratory experiments
     on animals and observations on  subjects exposed to pollution, and
     how to establish danger thresholds.
             Practical conclusions possible in the light of present
     toxicologies! knowledge and economic and social factors.
             Resolution of the 2nd International Symposium on Maximum
     Allowable  Concentrations of Toxic Substances in Industry are contained
     in the Appendix, as well as  difinitions  and the initiation of an
     agreed international list on values.
                                     284

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675.  Vol'fson, Z.G,:  Limits of allowable concentration of carbon
     monoxide in atmospr-.aric air.  In:  Leviuc. B.S.  (translator) and
     Ryazanov, V.A.  (editor):  limits of Allowable  Concentrations of
     Atmospheric Pollutants.  U.  S. Office  of Technical Services,
     Washington, D.  C., Book 1, 1952, pp. 56-6^.  OTS 59-21173.

     The U.S.S.R. literature on studies concerning  CO in  the atmosphere
     is reviewed' in this paper.   Based.on clinical  and experimental
     evidence 20-30 mg/m3 of CO are considered maximum levels at  which
     disturbances in the central  nervous system are noticeable.   The
     recommendation for the adoption of standards was made after
     thorough study of results of investigation and experiments.  The
     population surveyed consisted of children, aged,  sick, and
     generally feeble persons.  Following recommendations were made:
     The maximal allowable limit  of average daily CO  concentrations
     in the city atmosphere  is not to be above 2 mg/m3.   Maximal
     single concentration of CO in the atmospheric  air must not exceed
     6 mg/nP.  -  AGC


 676. Zimmer,  C.E.,  and Larsen, R.I.:  Calculating air quality and its
     control.  J. APCA 15:565"572 (Dec.) 1965.

     Air quality is shown as a function of  averaging  times of five
     minutes to one year for carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitric oxide,
     nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, oxidant, and  sulfur dioxide  in
     Chicago, Cincinnati, Los  Angeles, Hew  Orleans, Philadelphia, San
     Francisco, and Washington, D. C.  Concentrations are approximately
     lognormally distributed for  all pollutants in  all cities for all
     averaging times*  Maximum concentration is inversely proportional
     to  averaging  to an exponent. The exponent is  a  function of  the
      standard geometric deviation.  General air quality and control
     parameters are derived and shown for one example, nitrogen oxides
     in  Washington, D. C.   These  values are compared  to one air quality
      standard.  -   Authors' Abst.
 INSTRUMENTS AND TECHNIQUES


 677. Anderson, T., and Dahlstrom, H.:   A clinical method for the
      determination of carbon monoxide in air.  Sc. Tools (Stockholm)
      5:9-H (April) 1958.

      An objective method for determining the concentration of carbon
      monoxide in aitf in the range 1-100 ppm. using indicator tubes
      according to Shepherd is described.  The sample is passed at a
      constant flow rate through the indicator tube mounted in the
      optical path of a Benkman Model-B spectrophotometer and the time
      required to obtain a certain extinction value is neafctued.  This
      time is a function of the CO concentration in the sample.  The
      sensitivity of the method is very high and corresponds to an error
      of the order of 1-6$ in the range investigated.  In addition, it

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     has several considerable advantages over earlier methods.  Once
     a calibration curve has teen obtained, the method is absolute and
     requires no standard gas mixtures.  It is completely independent
     of the existing lighting conditions as well as of the investigator's
     color sense.  It is easily adapted to different ranges of carbon
     monoxide concentrations.  Finally, a relatively small quantity of
     sarxfple gas is required even at very low CO concentrations.
     APCA 2UB
678.  Auckland Air Pollution Research Committee.  Sixth Annual Rep. 1965.
     P.O. Box 2225, Auckland, New Zealand, 42 pp.

     Three years of the planned five year survey are summarized in
     this Sixth Annual Report.  The main task of the Committee has
     been the study of the meteorological and topographical conditions,
     the survey of air pollution in the metropolitan area of Auckland
     and air pollution emanating from motor vehicles.  New and modern
     equipment and measuring methods have been employed and in
     particular with regard to CO, a non-dispersive infra-red CO
     analyser (sensitized to CO) was made available.  The first attempt
     to measure air pollution from motor vehicles was made in summer
     1962/63.  No further measurements were undertaken until this
     device was obtained late in 1964.  This instrument was modified
     by the addition of a 6-point potentiometric recorder, so that
     the timing mechanism of the recorder operated four solenoids in
     sequence, allowing samples to be obtained from four different
     locations at one minute intervals.  The remaining two points of
     the recorder were used for recording wind speed and direction,
     and provision was made for the sampling lines to each sampling
     point to be flushed continuously with the air being sampled.
     This allowed a continuous recording to be made of the CO levels
     at four different locations at the site under investigation.  The
     maximum CO concentration recorded was 42 ppm during a morning
     traffic peak and the average two hour value in which this peak
     was included was 24 ppm.  Following sampling method was used:  A
     5 litre sample of air was obtained by allowing this amount of water
     to drain slowly from a polythene container over a period of an
     hour.  The air collected above the water was analyzed using a
     Drager gas detection.  -  AGC
 679. Ayen, R.J., and Ng, Yu-Sim:  Catalytic reduction of nitric oxide
     by  carbon monoxide.  Internat. J. Air & Water Poll. 10:1-13
     (Jan.) 1966.

     Rate data for the catalytic reduction of HO and CO were
     obtained using a flow reactor operated differentially at
     atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 160,200,220 and
     240* C. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide partial pressures
     were varied from 0.005 to 0.05 atm using helium as a diluent
     to bring the total gas flow to 2000cc/min.  A dual site
                                     286

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     mechanism was postulated for the reaction in which the rate
     determining step was a surface reaction between adjacently
     adsorbed CO and NO molecules.  From the data, rate and adsorption
     constants were evaluated for the corresponding rate expression.
     This expression is of practical use in the design of a catalytic
     converter to remove oxides of nitrogen from automotive exhaust
     gases and other exhaust streams. - Authors' Abst.


680. Ayer, H.E., and Saltzman,  B.E.:   Rotes on interferences by oxides
     of nitrogen with estimations of carbon monoxide in air "by the UBS
     indicating tubes.  Amer. Indust. lyg. Ass. J. 20:337-339 (Aug.)
     -1959.

     Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide interference with carbon
     monoxide estimations by the UBS indicating tube were investigated.
     Both oxides were found to interfere seriously, the nitrogen
     dioxide to a great extent.  Nitrogen dioxide interference can be
     eliminated and nitric oxide interference considerably reduced by
     using a U-tube with solid potassium permanganate In the upatreaa
     leg and Ascarlte in the downstream leg.  The U-tube is flushed with
     the contaminated air, using the rubber bulb, and then connected
     ahead of the indicating tefce.  The field determination of carbon
     monoxide is then made in the usual way.  No interference may be
     expected from concentrations of nitrogen oxides up to 15$ of that
     of carbon monoxide.  If an NBS tube estimation without the U-tube
     does not give a color lighter than one made with the tube, then
     nitrogen dioxide can be presumed to be within its threshold limit
     of 5 PPm.  The degree of interference eliminated by the tentative
     method reported here was sufficient for immediate needa.  -
     APCA 2732


681 o Bangert, F.:  Measurement equipment for CO by application of the DrSger-
     CO-Messers Model E.  Dr^ger-Hefte Heft 236:5176-5179.,  1959-

     This paper describes the Dr&ger CO measuring device in use for the
     last 30 years.  The analysis of carbon monoxide content in oxidized
     gas mixtures up to concentrations of 0,001 Vol.-$ is based on the
     heat tone brought about in the mixture to be investigated.  Author
     describes the difference between the Dtra'ger Model T and E the nev
     model, which is a fully automatic CO measurement and alert instrument
     for continuous operation.   This model equipped with a special recording
     instrument with compensation amplifier, is able to register the CO-
     content far below the maximum allowable concentration to about 0.0003
     Vol.-$.  This instrument can also be equipped with a maximum transmitter
     which enables it to give optical and acoustical warning signals when
     a certain CO content is reached, or to activate automatically the
     operation of ventilators.   -  AGC
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682. Bryan, R.J.:  Instrumentation for an ambient air animal exposure project.
     J. APCA 13:25^-265 (June) 1963.

     The design of facilities, including ambient air room ventilation and
     control room air purification systems, has been discussed in connection
     with a project for the evaluation of biological effects on animals from
     automobile related air pollution.  The selection of air monitoring
     instruments, including the evaluation of two new instruments, and the
     air sampling system design for this project has also been treated.
            In the design of facilities the most important problem encountered
     was that of existing limitations on air purification systems.  The
     experimental design concept used in this project called for no alteration
     of the breathing air provided to control animals except for the removal
     of air contaminants.  It was not possible to provide such a system in
     which removal of carbon monoxide, lower molecular weight hydrocarbons,
     and nitric oxide, could be accomplished effectively.  Operating experience
     to date, however, indicates that the air purification system selected
     does remove ozone, higher molecular weight hydrocarbons,  nitrogen dioxide,
     and filterable black aerosols quite effectively.  -   Author's Sun.


 683. Burrell, G.A.:  The Use of Mice and Birds for Detecting Carbon Monoxide
     after Mine Fires and Explosions.  U.S. Bureau of Mines Tech. Paper
     #11,  1914,  15 PP.

     Bureau of  Mines is carefully studying methods to be employed with
     greatest efficiency for exploring mines containing smoke or suffocating
     or poisonous gases.  The use of mice and birds is, in the author's
     opinion, superior to chemical tests for CO in that the tests are
     quickly made without requiring technical experience, and that such
     tests are  sufficiently accurate.  Because the rate at which chemical
     changes occur in mice and birds is by far greater than it is in man,
     symptoms of poisoning are much earlier manifested.  A mouse weighing
     one-half ounce consumes about 15 times as much oxygen as one-half
     ounce of the human body would consume during the same time.  One
     investigator observed that with 0.1$ CO in the air about two hours
     elapsed before giddiness, etc. began to appear in a ?na» at rest, and
     according  to an analysis of the blood, exposure for another half hour
     would have sufficed to produce practical disablement.  A mouse
     became giddy within 10 minutes.  Experiments similar to those performed
     with mice  were performed with birds, for the reason that mice may be
     slow responding to the presence, in the mine air, of such small
     percentages of CO, which would cause distress to a man at work.  The
     relative susceptibilities of mice and canaries to CO is shown in a
     table.
            The properties of CO and its physiological effect on man are
     also described.  -  AGC
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684.  Campbell,  O.F.,  and Fennels,  N.E. :   CO boiler and fluidized-bed
      steam superheater on Sinclair Refining Company's new fluid unit at
      the Houston Refinery.  Trans. ASMS 77:927-938 (Aug.) 1955.

      The combination CO boiler and respray steam superheater allows for
      maximum flexibility of operation of a fluid unit to produce more
      and better products and provides maximum conservation of fuel.
      In addition it prevents carbon monoxide,  hydrocarbons and
      maladorous gases from escaping to the atmosphere,  and it
      conditions the flue gases for subsequent removal of particulate
      matter.
             Over 300,000 pound/hour of 700 psig.  saturated steam are
      produced by the oil industry's first direct- fired unit to recover
      both the sensible heat and the heat of combustion from the high-
      temperature regenerator- exit flue gas.  The heat of combustion of
      the regenerator-exit flue gas is derived from  its CO content.
      Saturated steam produced in the boiler is superheated to 750° F.
      in industry's first fluidized-bed respray steam superheater.
      APCA
 685.  Carbon Monoxide Indicator.  Progress Reports Ho.  18 and 19.
      Kbllaman Instrument Corp., ELmhurst, W.Y.,  May 21,  195^ >  3 PP-*
      U figures.  DDC AD 3^066.

      This report describes the progress in the development of a carbon
      monoxide indicator of the thermometric type.  The major portion of
      the work during this period was the continuation of the
      construction of the final instrument.  The various  components
      previously constructed were combined into a compact arrangement,
      which included the flow-rate-control and pressure-control elements,
      the humidifier, the alumina hydrocarbon filter,  and the reaction-
      tube holder.  -  Authors' Abst.


 686.  Carey, G.C.R. , Phair, J.J., Shephard, R.J., and Thomson,  M.L. :   Portable
      carbon monoxide uptake apparatus.  A.M.A.  Arch  ladust.  Health, 16, 225 -231
      (Sept. ) 1957.
      This paper describes a portable apparatus developed for the 195&
      pollution survey and subsequent modifications that permit the more
      accurate determination of pulmonary diffusing capacity.   The
      apparatus gives approximate values for both functional residual ca-
      pacity and carbon monoxide uptake.  The limits of accuracy are  de-
      fined on theoretical grounds, and is adequate to follow variations in
      the physiological state of a given patient, provided that tidal volume
      and respiratory rate are carefully controlled during the test.  APCA


687.  Chemical Watchbirds.  Indust. Eng. Chem.  45:17A-l8A (March) 1953«

      The development of carbon-monoxiae aud sulfur-dioxide  detecr&urs,
      in the form of silica gel impregnated with color indicating complexes,

                                    289

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     is  discussed.  Vanadate -impregnated gels detect sulfur-dioxide
     concentrations up to 120 ppm by changes from bright yellow to dark
     green, while potassium periodate detects concentrations up to 675
     ppm as the gel changes from white to pink.  Although little is
     known about the reaction itself, quantitative measurements are
     determined by reference to standard colors.  -  LC


688.  Chinn,  H.I.:  A Method for the Determination of Carbon Monoxide in
      Alveolar Mr, Together with  a Correlation  of Values Thus  Obtained
      with Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations  in Blood.  Aviation Medicine
      Randolph AEB, Texas, April 5,  19^4, 9  pp.   DDC AD 135575.
      A simple method has been devised for the determination of carbon
      in alveolar air.  An excellent correlation has been shown between
      the alveolar carbon monoxide content and the carboxyhemoglobin
      concentration in blood.   This procedure possesses the following
      advantages:  ease of operation,  rapidity of analysis,  omission of
      blood samples, use of untrained persomel,  avoidance of an solutions,
      and compactness of apparatus.  Its disadvantages lies in the necessity
      for subject co-operation so that determination," cannot be made on
      unconscious or dead persons.  Replacemjent of oxyhemoglobin by
      carboxyhemoglobin cannot be demonstrated by oxiineter measurement.   -
      Author's Abst.


 689. Chipman, J.C., and Mass sy,  M.T. :   Proportional sampling system for
      the collection of an integrated auto exhaust gas sample.   J.  APCA
      10:60-68 (Feb.) 1960.

      The proportional sailing system continuously meters and accumulates
      a constant percentage of the exhaust gas.  The electronic and
      analytical evaluation studies indicate that the  system is reliable
      within the desired over-all accuracy of 90$ and  responds to the
      normal engine transient  operating conditions throughout the test
      run.  The system eliminates the need of tedious  nanual integration
      of individual operating  conditions.   Over-a.ll evaluation of the
      exhaust gas emissions from a test run is obtained from 1 sample.
      Limitations are not imposed on the number of analyses that can be
      performed or the techniques employed,  The accumulated sample can
      be used as a representative automotive gas source for many research
      experiments such as exhaust gas composition studies, reaction kinetics,
      plant fumigation, and eye irritation studies. -  APCA 3397


690.  Ciuhandu,  G;   Photometric determination of carbon monoxide in the  air.
      Fresenius Zeitschrift fur Analytische Chemie   155:321-327,  1957.

      A photometric process of CO determination based  on  gas absorption  in an
      alkaline silver compound solution of the p-sulfonamide-benzoate is
      discussed in this paper.   The silver compound is being reduced to  metallic
      silver which remains in  colloidal distribution.   The extinction of the
      silversol is being measured and is proportional,  according to working

                                     290

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     prescriptions, in the area of 0.001-0.5$ CO.  By wavelenghts below 500 mu.
     there is a considerable increase in the extinction.  For this reason
     incasurements are made during short periods of light.  With a ZEISS •-
     filter S42 the incasurement sensitivity is about doubled.  The method
     of CO determination is described in detail. -Author's abst. translated AGO


691.  Cotes, J.E.:  An inter-laboratory study of the estimation of carbon
     monoxide.  Ann, Occupat. Hyg. (London) 5:217-219 (Oet.-Eec.) 1962.

     The author has been concerned with standardization of the measurement
     of pulmonary diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide by a single breath.
     From the;" instrumental point of view this requires the analysis of 2
     gas mixtures, each containing helium and carbon monoxide.  The accura-
     cy of the resulting diffusing capacity depends on the accuracy of analysis
     of ratios of helium and CO concentrations in the 2 cylinders.  Three
     test gas mixtures of known composition were decanted into smaller
     cylinders and then distributed in pairs to 21 laboratories where
     measurements of pulmonary diffusing capacity were being carried out.
     Complete results were received on 3 such pairs from 11 laboratories;
     these results were used to provide an estimate of the reproducibility
     and absolute accuracy of the measurement of carbon monoxide.  For com-
     parison, corresponding figures for helium were used for which the
     concentrations were higher*  Helium is, in many ways, easier to analyze.
     Most of the laboratories from which results were obtained were staffed
     on a part-time basis under the supervision of a physician interested
     in the assessment of pulmonary function and not by physicists or chemists
     who might have been expected to have a more critical approach to the
     analysis.  The range of results for each master cylinder has been
     described as a percentage of the mean concentration.  For CO the range
     is 8.6-12.6$j the corresponding range for helium is 3.5-4.0$.  Thus the
     scatter for CO is nearly 3 times that for helium.  The results of the
     trial demonstrated that among physiological laboratories analyzing
     helium and CO, the reproducibility of individual estimates is rela-
     tively good.  However, whereas there is little Variation between labora-
     tories in the analysis of helium concentrations and concentration ratios,
     there is considerable variation for CO and a tendency for laboratories
     to report consistently high or low ratios on successive occasions.
     These differences are reflected in the diffusing capacities which
     can be calculated from the data. - APCA 5351.


 692. Dunham, A.R.:  A simple carbon monoxide testing device.  Gas Age
     Record 7^:1^5-146 (Aug.) 1934.

     A new combustion tester, a simple hand-operated means for drawing
     gases over color change test papers to detect carbon monoxide is
     discussed in this paper.  Author states that this is an improvement
     over the commonly used Orsat apparatus to give rapid test results.
     - AGC
                                     291

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693. Evaluation of Detectors for Carbon Monoxide.  U.S. Navy Toxicology
     Unit, National Naval Med. Center, Bethesda, Md., 19&, W>C AD 436828.

     Seven (?) detection tube devices (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) for carbon
     monoxide were evaluated and six hundred (600) determinations were
     made using 467 detector tubes.  Detector A is strictly a "safe-
     unsafe" indicator for CO and cannot be compared to the other
     "quantitative" detectors B, C, D, E, F, and G.  It is compact, meets
     the manufacturer's specifications, and appears satisfactory for
     its intended use.  Crew acceptance was in the following decreasing
     order of popularity:  Detector B (most popular), Detector E, Detector
     D, and Detectors C, F, and G.  In general, it should be pointed out
     that none of these tubes are intended to replace accurate laboratory
     analyses.  At best, they are intended to give an approximation of
     the carbon monoxide concentration so that a rapid judgment can be
     made as to the potential health hazard and as to the precautionary
     measures that should be taken.  All direct-reading tube detectors
     are subjective tests and depend on the man's ability to read
     instructions, ability to match colors or estimate length of stain,
     patience in checking instrument, and on his patience in taking a
     2nd or 3rd pump stroke if indicated.  Greater reliability can be
     obtained from all detectors if (1) sample flow rate and leakage
     rate are checked routinely and (2) only fresh detector tubes are
     used.  -  Authors' Sum.


694. Extremely Sensitive Carbon Monoxide Indicator Developed by Bureau
     Chemists.  National Bureau of Standards Tech. News Bull. No. 354,
     1946, 73 PP.

     A colorimetric gel that will detect and estimate less than 1 part
     of carbon monoxide in 5OO million parts of air, a sensitivity more
     than 100 times greater than tliat of former chemical indicators, has
     been announced.  It will detect 0.001 percent by volume in less
     than 1 minute and determine physiologically significant amounts,
     0.01 to 0.4 percent, in approximately .1 minute at ground level.
     It is possible to diagnose carbon monor-ide poisoning by analyzing
     exhaled air instead of taking a blood sample.  The indicating
     material, yellow in color, is a silica gel impregnated with a
     complex silico-raolybdate compound and catalysed by means of
     palladium in the form of the sulfate.  It turns various shades of
     green and bluish green on exposure to carbon monoxide.  The color
     response is a function of time by concentration of carbon monoxide.
     The indicator gel is sealed la a small, glass 5 inches long and the
     diameter of a pencil, with protecting layers of pure silica! gel
     in each end of the tube.  To mke a test, the ends of the tube are
     broken off and the tube inserted in an ordinary 2-ounce rubber
     aspirator bulb equipped with a rate-controlling valve.  The air is
     drawn through the tube by squeezing the bulb once, and any color
     that develops is compared with a set of standard chips.  For air-
     craft, table giving correction factors for altitude are provided.
     The tubes may be modified to detect other reeteclng gases and vapors,
               many organic vapors.  -  BMB 1504

                                   292

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695.  F<h, W.L.:  Automobile exhaust control devices.  J. APCA 13:33-
     35 and 39 (Jan.) 1963.

     The nature of control devices depends on legislation set up "by the
     California Motor Vehicle Control Board.  The chemical requirements
     or emission standards for exhaust gases are:  not over 1.5$ by
     vol.  carbon monoxide and 375 ppm. hydrocarbons.  For crankcase
     blowby gases, hydrocarbon emissions are limited to OJL5$ of the
     fuel  supplied to the carburetor.  These values reflect approximately
     80$ reduction of^hydrocarbon emissions and 60$ reduction of CO
     emissions.  Specified criteria  for life and safety devices, effect
     upon  engine and vehicle performance, odor, noise, toxic, or noxious
     contaminants, the effect of these criteria, the degree, and the
     type  of pollution required are  discussed.  -  APCA 5185


696.  Gofmekler, V.A.:  The problem of sanitary protection of atmospheric
     air within the  framework of the Council of Mutual Economic Aid.
     Gigiena  i Sanitaria 29:10^-106  (May) 196^.       Published and
      Trsasl,for USBHEW,r PHS and USF, Washington,  lu  C», by the Israel
     Program  for Scientific Translation, 1965.  TT b5-50023/5.

     This  paper discusses the program planning meeting of the Council
     of Mutual Economic  Aid.  Among  studies proposed for 1964-1965,
     is the investigation of the maximal allowable concentrations for
     20 combinations of  substances in the atmospheric air, which
     includes carbon monoxide.  The  combination of S02 and CO will "be
     investigated by scientists in Bulgaria.  Development of new methods
     of investigation of atmospheric contamination are contemplated.
     Along with the  development of chemical methods of investigation,
     greater  attention will be paid  to physico-chemical methods.  The
     possibility of  determination of CO by spectrophotometric methods
     is being studied in Czechoslovakia.  Development of new automatic
     instruments for the registration of atmospheric contaminants is
     planned  in the  German Democratic Eepublic and in Poland.  New
     methods  of sample collection are developed in the U.S.S.R.
     AGC


 697. Grant, G.A., Katz,  M., and Haines, R.L.:  A modified iodine pentoxide method
     for the determination of carbon monoxide.  Canadian J.  Technology 29:^3,  1951-

     The iodine pentoxide method for the estimation of carbon monoxide has been
     impsoved by refinements in the design of the apparatus and by the spectro-
     photometric estimation of the liberated iodine.   The improved apparatus
     and methods are demonstrated by estimating the carbon monoxide concentra-
     tion  in 10 known mixtures of carbon monoxide and nitrogen,  ranging
     in concentration from 0.09 to 0.0007$ carbon monoxide.  - Authors' abst.
                                     293

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698.  Greig, J.D. :   A comparison of carbon monoxide detectors having different
      colorimetrlc principles under underground conditions.   J.  Mine Vent.
      Soc. (S. Africa) 10:77-85 (April) 1957-

      The performance of 3 different types of carbon monoxide detectors
      was checked over a range of temperature,  humidity,  and pressure,
      covering underground operating conditions.  All 3 types were found
      to be satisfactory in the absence of other interfering gases.  The effects
      of other gases on the detectors was then investigated.   Of the gases
      tested, only nitrogen oxides showed serious interference.   In concen-
      trations of nitrogen oxides of the order of 0.003$ and higher,  indi-
      cator gels depending on the reduction of a yellow silico-molybdate
      complex are affected to a large extent while those based on the
      production of iodine from iodine pentoxide or the reduction of a
      palladesulfite were affected to a much lesser degree.   APCA -
 699. Hagen, D.F., and Holiday, G.W.:  The effects of engine operating
      and design variables on exhaust emission.   SAE Paper U86C.   Presented
      at the Combined National Automobile and Production Meetings of the
      SAE, March 12-16, 1962, pp. 1*1.

      To determine the influence of engine variables on the composition
      of exhaust gas, engine dynamometer tests were conducted on single
      and multi- cylinder reciprocating engines.   The following engine
      variables were investigated:  air-fuel ratio, power output, engine
      speed, spark timing, exhaust back pressure, valve overlap,  combustion
      chamber deposits, and intake manifold pressure.
             Hydrocarbon concentrations were found to be considerably
      affected by changes in air-fuel ratio, spark timing, intake manifold
      pressure, and combustion chamber deposits.  Somewhat less change in
      hydrocarbon concentration was obtained by varying valve overlap and
      engine speed.  Changes in engine power output and exhaust back pressure
      had little effect on hydrocarbon concentrations.
             Carbon monoxide concentrations were principally affected by
      changes in the air- fuel ratio.  No other variables affected carbon
      monoxide concentration except where air-fuel ratio was indirectly
      influenced.
             The influence of changes in the variables on hydrocarbon and
      carbon monoxide emissions in pounds per hour was also determined.
             Vehicles were tested on the road and chassis dynamometer to
      investigate the effect of air- fuel ratio,  spark timing,  and valve
      overlap on hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide concentrations.
      Carburetion leaning, spark timing retardation and reduction of
      valve overlap produced concentration reductions in line with those
      predicted from engine dynamometer studies.  -  Authors'  Abst.

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700.  Hellmann,  C.S.:   Initial Survey of Published Work in the Field of
     Carbon Monoxide  or Other Diatomic Molecular Gases with Particular
     Reference to Possible Sensing Systems.   Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc.,
     Calif., Sept. 25,  19&L, 75 PP- DDC AD 277157.

     The provision of a carbon monoxide sensor as a novel and necessary
     new item of research equipment is discussed.  Primary emphasis is
     placed on possible means of achieving a practical sensor design;
     appendices include the basic derivations and terminology peculiar
     to the fields of chemical and molecular physics, with accent on
     molecular spectrography.
            Bio-physical aspects and other possible uses are noted.  A
     complete table of constants as a possible design basis is included
     in the main text and amplified in the appendices.  -  Author's Abst.

 701. Hochheiser, S., Storlazzi, &i., and Basbagiil, Y/.J.:  Use of a mobile
     laboratory in air pollution studies. Amer.  Indust. Hyg. A.  J. 26x77-83
     (Jan.-Feb.) 1965.

     Measurements  of gaseous and particulate  atmospheric pollutants and
     meteorological conditions are performed using sampling and analytical
     equipment contained in a combination air sampling-analysis laboratory.
     The mobile unit consists of a semi-trailer  containing automatic  con-
     tinuous air monitoring equipment, manual air sampling equipment as
     well as laboratory instruments and utilities.  It was designed to provide
     comprehensive information on air quality,  evaluate manual and auto-
     matic instrumental methods of air analysis using atmospheric samples
     and to demonstrate the technology available pertaining to the measure-
     ment of air pollution.  The unit is operated at a strategic urban loca-
     tion for about 4 to 6 weeks, where atmospheric sulfur dioxide, nitrogen
     dioxide, oxidants, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons,
     wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, and solar radiation
     are determined using automatic monitoring equipment.  Suspended at-
     mospheric particulates are determined using a sequential sampler and
     a 24-hour sampler.  Short-term manual samples are collected 4 times
     daily for analysis of sulfur dioxide,  nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide,  oxi-
     dants , carbon monoxide and aldehydes  using a variety of sampling and
     analytical methods for each specific pollutant.  The meteorological data
     obtained are compared with observations made at the airport weather
     bureau stations.  The results obtained  by simultaneous determination
     of a specific pollutant using a variety of manual and instrumental
     methods are compared.  Diurnal variation among pollutant levels and
     meteorology is determined.
             These studies  were conducted by the USPHS,  Division of Air
     Pollution, Technical Assistance Branch with  the participation of State
     and local  air pollution control agencies primarily to fill the need for
     more information on community air pollution and methods of measure-
     ment.  - Authors' abstract

                                   295

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702.  Huber,  E.W.:   CO-formation in motor vehicle engines.   Automobil-
      technische Zeitschrift (ATZ)  62:320-325 (Dec.)  1960.

      A study of whether and -under  what conditions the CO-formation of
      an engine can "be reduced is discussed in this paper.   Although the
      same CO-content is obtained with a good mixture with the same
      air ratio is  as with a bad mixture,  the fuel portion in the mixture
      and thus the  CO-content can be reduced considerably with a good
      mixture.  A partial-load operation is possible  with a complete
      fuel consumption which reduces the CO-content to about one-tenth
      of that of the customary throttle control.   By  improving the
      mixing equipment and the course of combustion,  the operating condi-
      tions,  possible on the test stand,  might also be realized in
      industry.
             Tests  with a compression-ignition engine with diesel fuel
      and with a gasoline operation in the case of excess of fuel,  as
      well as with  an HSU Wankel engine are reported.   - Author's Abst.
      translated-AGC
703.  Johnson,  B.L.,  and Strong,  A.A.:  The  Design of an Automatic Control
      System for Laboratory Produced Automobile Exhaust Concentrations.
      Presented at the 58th APCA Annual Meeting, June 20-24, 1965, Toronto,
      Canada.

      A control system for regulation iof  the carbon monoxide concentrations
      in diluted laboratory produced automobile exhaust is  described.
      The system samples one complete cycle  of the cyclic diluted automobile
      exhaust,  integrates this value,  and passes the  integrated sample to
      a carbon monoxide analyzer. Correction system  then effects carbon
      monoxide concentration changes through use of motor driven needle
      valves.  -  Authors' Abst.
 704. Kattwinkel, R.:  Determination of carbon monoxide with iodine
      pentoxide.  Glilckauf. 77:22-23, 194l.

      An improvement on the apparatus of Winter and Braukmann is
      described in which the gas is passed through the iodine pentoxide
      instead of over it, and an aluminum-block oven is substituted for
      the oil bath.  A tube of WCTo steel is used in place of a quartz
      combustion tube for holding the copper oxide.  -  BMB 1^37


 705. Katz,  S.H., Reynolds, D.A., Frevert, H.W,, and Bloomfield, J. J.;
      A Carbon Monoxide Recorder and Alarm.  USBM TP355, 1926, pp. 35.

      The apparatus  described has been developed to analyze and record
      automatically  carbon monoxide when present in very low concentrations,
      especially that in the atmospheres of vehicular tunnels.  It is
      based  on the thermoelectric effect produced in differential
      thermocouples when air containing CO is passed through a catalyst
         hopcalite surrounding the hot junctions of the thermocouples.


                                  296

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    Cells holding hopcalite catalyst with differential couples of 6,
    12, 2k, 1»8, and 96 pairs of couples were made.  Tbeae were placed
    in a constant-temperature environment, usually saturated steam, and
    the couples were connected electrically with a recording potentio-
    meter.
           A complete unit CO recorder included a motor-driven "blower
    for the gases, a gas cleaner and purifier of sulphuric acid,
    caustic soda material, activated charcoal, filters of absorbent
    cotton, and fused calcium chloride drier, a flow meter arranged to
    maintain a constant rate of flow of gas through the cell, and copper
    coils  for  "bringing the gases to the temperature of the cell
    environment "before entering the cell.  After passing through the
    cell the gases were wasted through a guard of fused calcium chloride
    to prevent entrance of water vapor.  The recording potentiometer
    included mechanism for closing an electric circuit to ring a
    warning bell or operate signals as long as the CO exceeds a
    predetermined concentration.
           This method of CO analysis is the most accurate and sensitive
    yet devised for small concentrations of CO in air.  A sensitivity
    of 1 part  per million is readily attained.  -  Authors' Sum.
706. Klein,  W.J. :   Detection of carbon monoxide by H. T. A. gas-leak
     indicator.   Het Gas 63:73-75,
     The essential parts of this apparatus are  a spongy  disk, an elastic
     membrane,  a disk of filter paper,  a cover  with a small hole flanked
     by two lintiform protuberances,  the whole  assembled in the order
     named in a threaded ring and a flask containing a solution of
     palladium chloride in a mixture of water and acetone.  The cover
     is the same color as this solution.  The tints of the two
     protuberances correspond to those  taken by the solution in contact
     with an atmosphere containing 0.05 and 0.1 percent  CO, respectively.
     The part of the filter paper opposite the  hole in the cover is
     moistened with the solution of palladium chloride.   The apparatus
     is then exposed to the atmosphere  under suspicion.   The tint of
     the filter paper when compared with the colors of the cover and the
     two protuberances gives an indication of the CO content of the
     atmosphere.  Comparison of the results with those obtained with
     the Drager instrument is satisfactory.  The shape of the two
     protuberances somewhat hinders comparison  of the tints.  The
     possibility of juxtaposition of the colors would have been prefer-
     able.  The prospectus accompanying the apparatus indicates a CO
     tolerance a little too high for the worker.   The reagent is
     guaranteed only for 4 months.   Aging does  not have  any visible
     effect,  and the user is advised to renew the reagent periodically.
     -  BMB
                                   297

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707. Korth,  w.;  Dynamic irradiation chamber tests of automotive exhaust.
     PHS No. 999-AP-5 U.S.D.H.E.W., PHS,  Div.  of Air Pollution, Cincinnati,
     Ohio.  (HOv.) 1963 - 54 pages.

     As part of  an intensive study by government and private agencies the
     U. 8.  PHS has built an irradiation chamber facility for investigation
     of irradiated auto exhaust under mixing conditions  similar to those
     in the atmosphere.  The facility consists of a programed continuous-
     cycling chassis dynamometer,  an exhaust Silution-air purification system,
     2 irradiation chambers, and exposure facilities for evaluation of
     bacteria kill, plant damage,  and various  effects on small animals.
     Of the 3 variables studied during the 1st test series,  the exhaust
     concentration at the start of irradiatios appeared  to produce -the
     most significant effects.   Fuel composition had a lesser influence.
     Very little difference was noted in  the effects produced at Z different
     average irradiation times,  -  APCA 6065


 708. Lamb, A.B., and Larson, A.T.:  The rapid determination  of carbon
     monoxide in air.  J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 41:1908-1921  (July-Dec.) 1919.

     The necessity for an accurate and rapid method for  the  analysis of
     dilute carbon monoxide air mixtures  in the study of gas mask absorbents
     for carbon monoxide has been explained.
            Two thermometric methods answering this requirement have been
     described.   In the first method the  gas mixture is  passed over a
     platinum wire heated to redness and  the carbon monoxide is partially
     burned in contact with it.  The gas  mixture is then freed of carbon
     monoxide by passing through heated copper oxide and is  brought back
     in a thermostat over another identical platinum wire heated by the
     same electric current.  The first wire is the hotter because of the
     combustion which occurs on it—and the resultant relative change in
     the resistance of the two wires serves as a measure of  the concentration
     of the carbon monoxide.  In the second method the mixture is passed
     through a plantinized, plantinum catalyst when the  carbon monoxide is
     completely burnt.  The temperature rise is measured by  a thermoelement
     and indicates the concentrations of  the carbon monoxide.
            Both methods are rapid.  The  latter is particularly accurate,
     easy to install and to operate.  With reasonable precautions the activity
     of its catalyst remains constant so  that machines have  been in constant
     satisfactory operation for many weeks at  a time. Being very nearly
     instantaneous these methods are particularly useful for continuous
     analysis of a changing gas mixture.   Attempts to apply  them to the
     analysis of flue and combustion gases are already under way.
     Authors' Sum.
                                   298

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709- Lastochkin, P.N.:  A new method and apparatus for the determination
     of carbon monoxide in the air.  Gigiena i Ilpidemlologiya, No. 1,
     pp. 9-12, 1928.  In:  Levine, B.S. (editor and translator):
     U.S.S.R. Literature on Air Pollution and Related Occupational
     Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol. 1, 1960, pp. 124.3-147, CFSTI-TT-60-
     210^9, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va.

     A method and apparatus for the determination of CO in the air in
     general and in the air of industrial premises in particular are
     described in detail.  The method and apparatus are based on the
     property of a mixture of metals known as hopcalite (Mn02, CuO,
     and AggO) to catalytically oxidize CO contained in the air to
     The author states that any of the determination procedures described
     in the:text including conversion of the thermocouple and expansion
     plate effects into sound or light waves can "be used for any CO
     concentration,  Hopcalite of higher catalytic activity increases
     the sensitivity of the apparatus.  -  AGC


710. Lindsley, C.H., and Yce, J.H.:  Acidimetric method for determination
     of carbon monoxide in air.  Anal. Chem. 21:513-515 (April) 1949.

     An acidimetric method for the determination of low concentration
     of carbon monoxide in air is described,  The monoxide is oxidized,
     resulting dioxide absorbed in an excess of barium hydroxide solution,
     and excess alkali measured by titration with a standard solution
     of oxalic acid.  Appreciable error may be introduced by the use of
     phenolphthalein as indicator (color change at pH 7«8 to 8.0),  oving
     to action of acid on the finely divided barium carbonate suspension.
     The magnitude of this error vas determined by using thymolphthalein
     (color change at pH 9-0)i allowance is made by a correction of
     + 0.001$.  Comparison with values of the iodine pentoxide method
     and with known values for samples supplied by national Bureau of
     Standards showed results accurate within 0.001$.  -  Authors' Abst.
711.  Lodge, J.P., Jr., Frank, E.R., and Huitt,  B,A.:   Studies  on a
     Simple Carbon Dioxide Analyzer.  Presented at the 55th APCA Annual
     Meeting, Chicago, 111., May 20-24,  1962.

     Studies have been continued on a device to determine atmospheric
     carbon dioxide by measuring the pH of an aerated suspension of
     calcium carbonate.  Experiments have been made to determine the
     limiting sensitivity, the reproducibility, and the temperature
     coefficient of ,the system.  The air of the studies is to  develop
     an instrument competitive with the more accurate non-dispereive
     infra-red analyzers.  The possibility of using very low cost
     recorders has also been explored in order to produce the  least
     expensive possible instrument.  -  Authors1 Abst.
                                 299

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712. Lbhner, K., toiler,  H.,  Luther,  H.,  and Ihrig,  H.:   Carbon monoxide
     content of the exhaust gases of automobile combustion engines.
     Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift (ATZ) 62:311-320 (Dec.) I960.

     After a description of the testing installation of a continuous CO
     analysis on the basis of infrared absorption,  the results of tests
     with regard to CO content in the exhaust of a diesel engine for
     motor vehicles and of four Otto engines are given.   In addition to
     data from stationary tests of characteristics,  the study reports
     on the behavior at accelleration and decelleration,  and at long-
     distance travel during a driving test.  The scattering ranges of
     the test data and the related variation of the CO emission of a
     normal engine are given,   -  Authors' Abst. translated-AGC


713. Lysyj, I,, Zarembo,  J.E.,  and Hanley, A.:   Eapid method for
     determination of small amounts of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures.
     Anal. Chem. 31:902-904 (my} 1959.

     The determination of small amounts of carbon monoxide in gas
     mixtures has great industrial importance.   Because of its high
  x  toxicity, traces must be determined  in many industrial processes,
     mine atmospheres, and exhaust gases.   A rapid and simple method
     for the determination of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures converts
     carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide by using decomposed sliver
     permanganate as a catalyst.  The carbon dioxide formed is
     absorbed in an Ascarlte tube and determined gravimetrically.  , With
     500 ml. gas samples, concentrations  of carbon monoxide In the
     order of 0.1 to 1.5$ can be determined* By increasing the sample
     size the lover limits of this method can be extended.   The method
     is well suited to working conditions encountered in  a plant control
     laboratory.  -  APCA
714. Middleton, J.T. :  Criteria for certification of motor vehicle
     pollution control devices in California.  J. APCA 13:78-80 (Feb.)
     1963.

     The motor vehicle control act stipulates that motor vehicle
     emission shall be controlled for those sources which the State
     has established standards.  The certification of devices to
     control motor vehicle pollution emissions has been made possible
     through the adoption by the Jfotor Vehicle Pollution Control Board
     criteria and test procedures.  It is estimated that crankcase
     emission control systems are installed on approximately 10$ of the
     State's 8 million motor vehicles and effect a  2-1/2^ reduction in
     hydrocarbon emissions.  Criteria for crankcase emission control
     systems and exhaust emission control are discussed.  -  APCA 5*4-99
                                   300

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    715.  MLnchin,  L.T.:   Detection of carbon monoxide or town gas in air.
         Gas J. 251:100-105, 191*7.

         Methods are dealt with involving palladium cciqpcunds, particularly
         the new Ministry of Supply method, which uses silica gel impregnated
         with the yellow potassium pallo-sulfite, and a similar type developed
         in America, which uses palladium-molybdenum complex on silica gel.
         A description is given of a new double-aspirator testing device,
         which can -conveniently tie used with either the palladium paper or
         the M. of S. tube.  -  BMB 1546


716.Molshov,  L.A.,  and Demidov,  A.V.:   Determination of carbon monoxide in the air
    by means of an indicator tube.  Laboratornoe Delo,  Vol. 3t  No. 1,  pp. 48-50,
    1957.  in:  Levine,  B.S. (editor and translator):   U.S.S.R. Literature on Air
    Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases.  A Survey.  Vol.  1,  1960, pp.  165-
    167,  CFSTI-TT-60-21049, U.S. Dept. of Commerce,  Springfield,  Va.


         Many methods have been proposed for the determination of carbon
         monoxide  in the air.   Nearly all are based on the reducing property
         of CO.  The method based on  the reduction of palladium salts,
         producing a blackening of the solution and of the filter paper
         saturated with the palladium salt solution is the one used most
         frequently.  Many of  the palladium salt reduction methods have
         shortcomings such as  low sensitivity,  require relatively large
         volumes of air for analysis, their indicators lack stability, the
         time needed for the color developing is too long, etc.
                The method described  in this paper is rapid, the reagents
         employed  are stable,  and the reaction-color develops in a short
         time. The principle  of  the  method is  the reduction of palladium
         sulfate by CO.  Control  tests established that palladium sulfate
         is reduced more rapidly  than any other palladium salt.  Ammonium
         sulfate,  one of the coaiponents of the  indicator, stabilizes it,
         and ammonium raolybdate increases the sensitivity of the reagent.
         Silica-gel is  used as the indicator base.  The final product is
         introduced into a glass  indicator tube and the air aspirated
         through it in  a given voluiae.  -  Authors' Introduction


    717. Moore, H.E., and  Schwartz, K.G.:  Development of Alarm, carbon monoxide,
         Automatic,E23(U)  Chemical Corps, Chem. & Radiol. Lab., Army Chemical
         Center, Md., Aug, 9,  1955, 32 pp.  DDC AD 720?8.

         The object of  this work  was  to develop an automatic carbon monoxide
         alarm meeting  the revised military characteristics as approved by
         CCTC item 2296.   The  E23 carbon monoxide alarm was developed based
         on the Hopcalite principle.   It is 18-1/4 inches high, 11 inches
         wide, and 12-1/4  inches  deep and weighes 40-1/2 pounds.  The alarm
         responds  to 200 p.p.m. of CO in approximately 65  seconds, giving both
         an audible and visual alarm. Higher concentrations are detected in
         a  shorter time.   The  instrument will indicate on  a meter the presence


                                        301

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     of concentrations under 200 p.p.m.,  but is not set to give an alarm
     with these possible background concentrations.  The E23 carbon monoxide
     alarm (appendix) is satisfactory for military purposes.  It is port-
     able and operates off 2^-volts  a.c.  or d.c. and 110-volts a.c.  It
     is capable of operation under cold weather conditions and is
     sufficiently shock-mounted to withstand moderate rough handling,
     such as transport in a truck or jeep over rough terrain.   The
     instrument must be given proper maintenance,  including periodic
     changes of catalyst and replacement  of brushes in the blower motor,
     to insure reliable operation (appendix).  -  Authors'  Abst.


718, New techniques  for carbon monoxide detection.  Gas World l62:lf91-
     492 (Oct. 30) 1965.

     For some years, the "CO-test" pallado-sulphite silica gel tube has
     been used for this purpose.  This tube contains a yellow column of
     granules with a white protective column on each side.  If a known
     column of air (usually 120 cc) is passed through this column^ any
     CO present will form a dark ring in the yellow column; from the
     thickness of the ring the amount of CO present can be deduced.
     At a low rate of flow it is conficed to the place where it enters.
     A special aspirator is therefore necessary.  For the past 17
     years Combustion Instruments, Ltd.,  have been producing a double
     aspirator (Minchin pattern) which successfully performed this
     function.  The  double aspirator has been superseded now by a
     much simpler and cheaper device.  The operation of the 'Combist1
     involves allowing a weight-loaded piston to descend, drawing in
     the sample through the CO-test tube.  A small orifice at the top
     of the cylinder controls the rate of flow, so that each complete
     stroke of the piston occupies about 2 minutes.  Prn^H amounts of
     other gases (except H^S) do not interfere.  If it is desired to
     exclude the effect of HgS another variant known as ' KJCO-CO-test'
     can be supplied which contains a lead acetate filter to remove it.
     Large amounts of hydrogen or unsaturated hydrocarbons (5 to 10
     times greater than CO) cause serious masking:  the whole column
     tends to darken, making it difficult to measure the band caused
     by the CO.


719. Oppenheim, U.P.:  Experimental Verification of Theoretical Relations
     Between Total Gas Absorptivities and Total Gas Emissivities for CO.
     Guggenheim Jet  Propulsion Center, Calif. Inst. of Technol.,  Pasadena,
     Oct. 195S, 14 pp., 4 Fig.  DEC AD SS&S&?.

     An experimental study was carried out for the purpose of verifying
     theoretical predictions concerning the relations between total
     absorptivities  and total emissivities for transparent gases.  The
     experimental conditions were designed in such a way as to permit a
     direct check of theoretical relations derived for (a) non-overlapping
     dispersion lines and (b) spectral lines with sufficient pressure
     broadening to permit neglect of the rotational fine structure.  A
     comparison between the emissivities derived from absorptivity

                                     302

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      measurements and emissivities calculated from the spectroscopic
      constants of CO shows good agreement  (within 20$ for most of the
      temperature range).
             The apparatus for the measurement of total gas absorptivities
      is described.  Results for total absorptivities of carbon monoxide
      measured at temperatures between 300  and 500°K are given and total
      emissivities were calculated in the temperature range of 300 to
      1600°K.  The range of total gas pressure is 0 to 515 psia.   -
      Author's Abst.
719a  Optico-Acoustic Gas Analyzers of Carbon Monoxide, Carbon Dioxide
      and Methane, OA^QQJ OA22Q9* ^2309.  Description and Instructions
      For Assembling and Operation, No 22o"6-2292 IM.  Translated from
      Russian by JPRS.  February 1965.  U.S. Dept. of Commerce
      CFSTI-TT-30309.

      This is a translation of a set of instructions concerning gas
      analyzers which are stationary, automatic-recording instruments
      and are designed for continuous measurement of CO, C02,  and
      methane.
 720. Fennels, N.E.:  CO boiler pays off in fuel savings and produces zero CO.
      ASME Annual Meeting Paper No. 56-A198, Mech.  E.ig.  79:590 (June) 1957-


      The CO boiler was developed to effect substantial fuel savings through
      the combustion of the carbon, monoxide content of catalytic cracking
      unit regenerator flue gases.  The ability of the CO boiler to burn the
      regenerator flue gas to zero CO makes it an effective air pollution
      control device in areas where local conditions require limitations
      on emission CO to the atmosphere.  Operation of the first CO boiler
      at Sinclair Refining Company's Houston refinery lias Leen successful,
      resulting in complete combustion of CO to CC^ and effecting substantial
      fuel savings.  Approximately 180 million Btu/hr. are recovered from
      the sensible heat of the carbon monoxide gas, and llj-0 million Btu/hr.
      from the combustion of the carbon monoxide for a total waste heat re-
      covery of 320 million Btu/hr. - APCA l4ll.


 721. Procedures and Analytical Methods  for Determining Toxic Gases Produced
      by Synthetic tfeterials.  Procedures  for Slash-Ignition and Self-
      Ignition Temperature Determinations.   United States Testing Company,
      Inc., Hoboken, N.J.,  Dec. 1963,  b$ pp. DDC  AD 297^57-

      Equipment, procedures and analytical  methods for determining the
      nature  and concentration of toxic  gases produced when synthetic
      materials are  subjected to  flammability tests  are  described.   A
      method  for flash-ignition temperature determination is given.   The
      necessary equipment and a procedure  for determining the  self-
      ignition temperature of heat resistant material is described.   -
      Authors1 Abst.

                                      303

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722,  Reid, R.S., Mingle, J.G., and Paul, W.H.:  Oxides of nitrogen  from
     air added in exhaust ports.  Presented at Automotive Eng. Congress,
     Detroit, Mich., Jan. 1966, ASE Paper No. 660115-

     This paper presents the results of a study made to examine
     quantitatively the oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust of an internal
     combustion engine installed in a passenger car.  The effects of
     adding secondary air in exhaust ports, with both a rich and lean
     carburetor, and for steady-state conditions, are reported.  The
     addition of secondary air at the exhaust ports of an automotive
     engine is one method employed to reduce the exhaust concentrations
     of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons, major contributions to
     atmospheric air pollution.  Experimental setup and procedures are
     explained.  -  Authors' Abst.


 723. Serruys, M, :  Noxious materials in exhaust gases of automobiles.
      Chimie et Industrie 82:663-675 (ifov. ) 1959.

     The author  studies the nature and importance of atmospheric pollution
     particularly by exhaust gases from combustion engines and Diesel
      engines, under all "working conditions" .
            He then deals with methods used for reducing the amount of
     unburnt gases and comes to the conclusion that the use of a device
      (such as the !'M. S." regulator for example) which improves the
      conditions of combustion inside the motor is preferable to any
     other solution.  -  Author's Abst.


 724. Serruys, M. :  New advances in cleaning automotive exhaust gases.
      Rev. Pollution Atmospheric (APPA) 5:171-192, 1963.
      The toxicity of automotive air pollutants (CO and CgHjj^.) are discussed
      in this paper.   The author, who  stresses the importance of reducing
      the CO content  primarily because of its effect on health, describes
      following control methods for the reduction of CO:  Oxydation of
      exhaust gases after leaving the  engine, and the improvement of
      combustion inside the engine.
             By certain adjustments in the  carburetor, using a MSH-Dg
      respectively -D3,  and implement  in the exhaust pipe of the engine
      named but not described, allegedly, achieves considerable reduction
      of CO- and CrH^-contents in the exhaust gases.  By this process
      the health effect and economic benefit (saving of fuel) are both
      accomplished.
             A review of results of experiments with engines with and
      without MSH- implements type DO show the values for CO in percentages
      and CgHjj^ in ppm.   According to  these statistics CO- values of
      engines with the MSH-D2- instrument are considerably lower than
      those without the MSE-D2- instrument. There io also a decrease of
      the CgHj^-values of engines with the  MSH-Dg- instrument, but not
      as clearly shown as the CO-values.  Although the equipment mentioned
      above means an  additional load for the engine the CO contents are

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     less than 0.2% and the C,-H,L-contents  are "below 250.  -  Translation
     from Abstract in German-AGC
725.  Smith.  A.M., and Struck, J.H.: A simplified method for character-
     izing a motor vehicle's exhaust emissions.  3.i\PCA 11:251-253 and
     258  (May) 1961

     An absolute technique has been developed for characterizing the exhaust
     emissions of an automobile as operated through a complete traffic cycle.
     The technique involves  the collection of all of the exhaust gases in an
     evacuated plastic bag.  Subsequent measurements of the  composition and
     volume of this total sample can be accomplished using any available
     laboratory measuring technique.
             Plastic bags of  Mylar film were shown to result in no change in
     hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, or carbon dioxide concentrations for one
     hour after bag filling.  Plastic bags  made of polyethylene are considered
     usable  if measurements are made immediately after filling the bag.
             The inherent accuracy,  utility, and simplicity of  this technique
     will eliminate many of  the current measurement problems now plaguing
     those involved in evaluating automobile exhaust emissions.  -  Authors'
     Sum.


 726. anith,  R., Rose, A.H., Jr.,  and Kruse,  R.E.: An auto-exhaust proportional
     sampler.  Internat. J. Air & Water Poll. Q:kZf-bkO (Sept.) 1964.

     The development of an instrument to obtain a proportional sample of
     auto exhaust  gas is described.  The proportional sampler is a servo
     device, which controls the flow of exhaust gas in the sampling line
     to maintain it at a fixed percentage  of the carburetor air flow
     rate.   The  flow rates in carburetor and sample line are measured
     continuously  by means of laminar-flow elements and associated
     pressure-difference transducers.  She proportional sampler is used
     in a vehicle  on the road to provide a representative sample of
     exhaust gas,  which is then analyzed to  obtain mole-fraction
     measurements  of various air contaminants in the vehicle exhaust.
     The total volume of air entering the  carburetor is also measured.
     The values  for total air volume entering the carburetor and mole
     fraction  of contaminants are used to  calculate the emission rates
     in pounds of  each air contaminant emitted per vehicle mile traveled.
     -   Authors' Abst.
 727. Sourirajan,  S., and Accomazzo, M.A*:  The application of the
      copper oxide alumina catalyst for air pollution control.  Canadian
      J.  Chem.  Eng.  (Ottawa) 39:88-93 (April) 1961.

      The copper oxide alumina catalyst developed in this program of
      investigations has been found to be efficient  for the continuous
      and simultaneous removal of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide present

                                    305

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     in auto exhaust gases.  The catalyst showed no deterioration in
     performance even after 100 hours of continuous service in conjunction
     with exhaust gases from an auto engine run on leaded gasoline fuel.
     Instantaneous catalyst temperatures of the order of 900°C. have been
     encountered in this work with no deleterious effect on the subse-
     quent effectiveness of the catalyst.  By proper choice of the
     converter design, the heat liberated during the reaction can be
     advantageously used to maintain the full effectiveness of the
     catalyst under all conditions of engine operation encountered in
     normal practice.  Aside from the experiments with the auto exhaust
     gases reported, the copper oxide alumina catalyst developed in
     this work has possible application in any air pollution control
     device concerned with the removal of hydrocarbons and carbon
     monoxide present in low concentrations by oxidation.  -  APCA 37C4


 728 • Stern, A.C.:  Prospects for exhaust control by engine modification.
     J. APGA 13:91-92 (Feb.) 1963.

     Of the three paths to the prevention of the emission of combustibles
     from motor vehicle exhaust, two seem to be mere stopgaps.  Improving
     the performance of the conventional rich-mixture engine by
     gadgeteering the carburetor and the distributor is self-limiting in
     its possibilities for emission reduction by the fact that even when
     improved there is insufficient air to burn the fuel supplied.  To
     use afterburners is to admit failure in engine design.  Only the
     path of designing conroleteness of combustion into the engine itself
     has long term attractiveness as a means for control.  -  Author's
     Conclusion.

                                                                  j
729. Sweeney, M.P.:  Exhaust control devices. J. APCA 15:13-18 (Jan.)
     1965.

     Author summarizes the latest current developments in the area of
     exhaust control devices, briefly reviews procedures developed and
     used, and reports leading up to approval.  The effort of the State
     of California has resulted in approving device systems for application
     to l^O cubic inch displacement and larger passenger automobiles and
     pickup trucks.  The California law has been activated for new cars
     and these vim. be mandatory for 1966 models.  -  AGC


730. league, M.C.:  The determination of carbon monoxide in air contaminated
     with motor exhaust gas.  J. Indust. & Eng. Chein,  12:96^-968 (Oct.)
     1920.

     The iodine pentoxide method for determining low concentrations of
     carbon monoxide has been investigated with reference to its use with
     dilute motor exhaust gas.  The type of apparatus heretofore used was
     found to give appreciably high results owing to the presence of
     amounts of unburned gasoline.  A new iodine pentoxide apparatus
     (Type II) has therefore been developed.  All of the interfering

                                    306

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    gases are first removed at the temperature of liquid air.  This
    method has been found quite satisfactory for determining carbon
    monoxide in malI quantities in the presence of gasoline vapor.
           A portable iodine pentoxide apparatus has been designed which
    should permit a determination to be made in 15 minutes vith an
    accuracy of from 0.003 to 0.005 Per cent carbon monoxide (0.3 to
    0.5 part in 10,000).  -  Author's Sum.
731. Van Slyke,  D.D. :   Studies of acidosis.   II.  A method for the deter-
     mination of carbon dioxide and carbonates in solution.  J. Biol.  Chem.
     30:347-368, 1917.

     A simple one piece apparatus is described for  determination of the
     carbon dioxide or  carbonate content of  water solutions.   It has been
     designed especially for anlaysis of 1 cc.  samples  of blood plasma,
     but is applicable  to water solutions in general  as well as to the
     determination of dissolved gases other  than  carbon dioxide.
            The  entire  analysis is performed at room  temperature, requires
     about 3 minutes, and without especial precautions  is capable of
     accuracy to within 1 per cent of the amount  determined.
            A micro-apparatus designed on a  similar principle  is described.
     With it the carbon dioxide content of 0.2 cc.  of plasma can be deter-
     mined with  an accuracy of 1 volume per  cent. - Author's Sum.


732. Van Slyke,  D.D. :   Gasometric determination of  the  oxygen  and
     hemoglobin  of blood.  J. Biol.  Chem.  33:127-132, 1918.
     The apparatus described by Van Slyke  in J. Biol. Chem. 30:
     1917,  for determining the carbonic acid content of plasma may be
     used with equal facility  for determining the oxygen content and the
     oxygen-binding capacity (hemoglobin)  of blood.  The oxygen is set
     free from combination with hemoglobin within the apparatus by
     addition of ferricyanide,  is extracted  in a Toricellian vacuum,
     and measured at atmospheric pressure, a few minutes sufficing for
     an accurate determination.  -  Author *s Sum.
             t

733. Vylomov, V. S. :  Indicator for carbon  monoxide.  Zavodskaya Lab. Ik:
     1134-1135,
     In the compact,  portable detector described,  the  carbon monoxide
     contained in a sample of air is caused to react with hopcalite, the
     heat of the reaction causing a rise in temperature,  which is measured
     with a number of thermocouples connected in series.  The device can
     also be used to  give approximate quantitative determinations.
     BMB 1589
                                     307

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734. Yarrow, T.J., Jr.:  Chronic carbon monoxide, poisoning,  With^repo^t of
                                                        • /
an illustrative case.  New York Med. J.  71:^96-^98 (AprilJ 1900.

Author states that due to the  similarity of chronic CO poisoning
with various other conditions  it is probable that many cases of
this toxaemia escapes recognition.  The  object of this paper is to
call attention to this danger  and to emphasize the use of the spect-
roscope in cases of obscure affections.  Several chemical test
methods are reviewed, however  it is emphasized that the delicacy of
the spectroscope surpasses those chemical tests.  -  AGC
SAMPLING AND NETWORK OPERATIONS
735.  Mr Monitors Swing into Action.   Cheia. Eng. 69:52,5^ (Feb. 5)

     San Francisco's new atmosphere monitoring station at Union Sq.. opens
     a major nationwide study of how  auto exhaust gases may be affecting
     people's health in urban areas.   Gas analyzer stations in 6 cities
     will operate continuously, gathering data on air pollution for study that
     may determine extent of health hazard from auto exhaust.  Data
     contributed by the San Francisco monitor will be supplemented by
     similar data from new stations at Cincinnati, Chicago, Philadelphia, New
     Orleans, and Washingtn, D. C. as well as from older stations at Los
     Angeles and Detroit.  While the  entire instrument assembly was custom
     built to USPHS specification, the carbon monoxide analyzer and the
     hydrocarbon detector incorporate new ideas.  Other analyzer features
     are discussed in detail.  -APCA
736.  A^ekseyeva, M,U. , and  Khrustalcva,,  V&,?  A  r '- idv of automatic
     exhaust oases. Gigiena i Sanitaria  25s 10-14,  1960.  Ing
     Levine, B.S,, (translator and editor)?  U.3.S.R.  Literature
     on Air Pollution and  Related Occupatjoncl  Diseases.   A
     Survey.   U.S. Dept. of Commerce  CTS 62-11103, Washington,
     D.C., Vol.  7, 1962, pp. 279-283.
                                                            ;
     Authors investigated  the organic substances  in the atmospheric
     air in sidewalks during heavy automobile traffic.  Quantitative
     determinations were mada of formaldehyde,  acrolein,  ketones,
     unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and also of the total
     amounts of  carbon and carbon monoxide.  Samples were collected
     by the vacuum method  into special  pipettes of 0.5-1,11 capacity
     at a distance of 0.5m from the exhaust pipes  of small "Volga",
     ZIL -110  and "Pobeda" types of automobiles burning high
     octane gasoline- GA2  -51 trucks burning low  octane gasoline,
     and ZIL buses burning Diesel oil.   Results of more than 100
     analyses  are listed.   Data listed  in the tables point to the
     need for  systematic sanitary inspection of automobiles and
     examination of city air for concentrations of carbon monoxide
     and other organic substances.  -AGC.
                                 308

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737. Basbagill, W.J., and Dallas, J.L.:  Air Quality in Boston, Mass.
     Nov.-Dec. 1963.  U.S. DHEtf; PHS, Div. of Mr Pollution, Cincinnati,
     Ohio, Nov. 1964.

     Measurements were made using the IR analyzer in TAB'S Mobile lab.
     Hourly average concentrations ranged from 1.0 to B.k ppm CO*
     Relationship of CO to wind speed and time of day are listed.  -
     LEPS


 738» Cambier, R., and Marcy, F.: On  the composition of the air In the streets
     of  Paris.  Compt. rend., Acad.  Sc. 186:918-921, 1928.

     A further contribution on  the content of carbon monoxide of the air of
     the streets of Paris.  It was found usually to be below 1 part in 100,000
     and to rise at the highest to 50  parts per 100,000 (a single observation).
     The amount rose to 10 parts in  the most frequented streets and in partic-
     ular at points where the traffic  is held up by police control and the
     engines of motors are left running.  Despite the immense increase of
     motor  traffic in Paris, the amount of CO- in the air was found hardly to
     exceed the  amount fixed by Albert Levy in 1877, namely, 32 parts per
     100,000,  the largest amount found being 60 parts per 100,000 at a point
     where 2,600 vehicles were passing per hour.  - BMB 397


 739. Carbon monoxide on the highway.   Scientific American 212:52-57
     (May) 1965.

     Reported in this review is a study by A. J. Kaagen-Smit and T.W.
     Latham who  investigated concentrations of CO encountered during
     eight  trips along the commuter  route between Pasadena and Los Angeles
     during peak traffic hours, CO levels near the drives were recorded.
     The concentration of CO fumes are found to be such as to present a
     possible danger, to the health and driving abilities of the commuter.
     Normally Los Angeles air contains 10 to 12 parts of carbon monoxide
     per million parts of air.  According to the California State
     Department  of Health, 30 ppm is an "adverse" level and 30 ppm for
     eight hours or 120 ppm for one  hour is a "serious level of pollution."
     The level measured by the  two investigators was 37 PPmj ia slow and
     heavy  traffic the average  was 5^  ppm> with peaks as high as 120 ppm.
     The level dropped rapidly  on less traveled streets but rose again
     at  stop  signals.  According to  Haagen-Smit, two hours in bad traffic
     would bfUng the CO concentration  in a commuter's hemoglobin to the
     "serious" level.  Studies  of the  effect of CO on a person's alertness
     and driving skill are recommended.  Automobile exhaust-control
     devices,  mandatory in California  beginning with 1966 models, are
     expected to significantly  lower the incidence of smog in general
     -as  well  as  the CO level in particular.  -  AGC
                                    309

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740. Castrop, V.J., Stephens, J.F., and Patty,  F.A. :  A comparison of
     carbon monoxide concentrations in Detroit and Los Angeles.  Araer.
     Indust. Hyg. Ass. Quart. 16:225-229 (Sept.) 1955-

     Sampling at 5 feet at>ove street level from an automobile while moving
     in traffic gave peak values in Detroit of 80, 40, and 50 ppm in
     traffic subjectively assessed as heavy, medium, and light, respectively.
     Mean values for the same traffic categories vere 28. 9> 12.3? and 6.9 ppm.
     Data collected in Sept., 1952 and Oct., 1953.  Similar sampling in
     Los Angeles gave peak values of 160, 85, and 60 ppm for heavy, medium,
     and light traffic.  Mean values vere 58.0, 27-5, and 11.8 ppm.
     Sampler only described as "a carbon monoxide indicator", with a
     double scale microammeter reading 0-100 ppm tuid 0-1000 ppm.
            The levels are not significantly higher than those reported
     Toy investigators in 1926 (Philadelphia) and 1928 (Chicago) in spite
     of the increase in traffic density.  This is attributed to increased
     engine efficiency, and lower CO output per vehicle mile.
            CO determinations were also made at about 150 feet above
     main thoroughfares in the two cities.  Detroit range 0.5-3-0 ppm,
     mean 2.0 ppm.  Los Angeles range 1-15 PPm> mean 6.0 ppm.  -  LEPS
741. Chipman, J.C., and Mas say, M.T. :  Proportional sampling system for
     the collection of an integrated auto exhaust gas sample.  J. APCA
     10:60-68 (Feb.) 1960.

     The proportional sampling system continuously meters and accumulates
     a constant percentage of the exhaust gas.  The electronic and
     analytical evaluation studies indicate that the system is reliable
     within the desired over-all accuracy of 90$ and responds to the
     normal, engine transient operating conditions throughout the test
     run.  The system eliminates the need of tedious manual integration
     of individual operating conditions.  Over-all evaluation of the
     exhaust gas emissions from a test run is obtained from 1 sample.
     Limitations are not imposed on the number of analyses that can be
     performed or the techniques employed.  The accumulated sample can
     be used as a representative automotive gas source for many research
     experiments such as exhaust gas composition studies, reaction ^kinetics,
     plant fumigation, and eye irritation studies.  -  APCA 3397


742. The Clean Air Quarterly.  State of California, Department of Public
     Health, Bureau of Air Sanitation Vol. 9, No. 1, March 1965.   >

     This report summarizes data collected throughout tha State of
     California for the 4th Quarter 1964.  Carbon monoxide is measured
     continuously at 17 stations by IE methods.  Highest readings were
     encountered in Los Angeles and Sacramento in September 1964.  Levels
     exceeded the State's ''Serious" level of 30 ppm for 8 hours.  Levels
     in 4th quarter range from 17 PPm to 57 PPra for highest hourly
     concentration.  Nine volumes of this exhibit have been published and
     are available from the State of California.  -  LEPS
                                   310

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     Conlee, G.J., Kenline, P.A.,  Cummins, R.L., and Konopinski,  V.J.:
     Motor vehicle exhaust studies at three  selected sites. Arch.
     Environ. Health, in press.

     Air quality was studied in relation to  motor vehicle densities  at
     three selected sites:  The Summer Tunnel between Boston  and  East
     Boston, Massachusetts; the International Peace  Bridge across the
     upper Niagara River between Fort Erie,  Ontario,  and Buffalo, New
     York; and Laidlaw Avenue near the Air Pollution Research Facility
     in Cincinnati, Ohio,
           Pollutant concentrations and meteorological findings are  pre-
     sented for each site.  Concentrations of pollutants known to be
     associated with auto exhaust  were greater at sites of higher
     traffic density.
           A comparison of particulate pollution levels at the Summer
     Tunnel operated as a one-way  tube in 1963 with  the tunnel carrying
     two-way traffic in 19&1, indicates a definite decrease in pollutant
     levels.
           Other pollutants were assumed to  be dispersed in air in the
     same way as carbon monoxide in determining the  contribution  by
     motor vehicles to ambient air for the Summer Tunnel.  Auto exhaust
     appears to be a prime contributor (greater than 50$) for carbon
     monoxide, aliphatic aldehydes, benzene-soluble particulate,  and
     oxides of nitrogen.  Lead, benzo(g, h,  i)pyrene, and coronene may
     also be assumed to be important pollutants from auto exhaust, but
     they do not meet the requirements for contribution calculations.
     -  Authors' Abst.
744. Continuous Air Monitoring Program.  U.S. DHEW, PHS, Div. Air Poll.,
     Cincinnati, Ohio, 1962, pp>. 9.

     The participating stations that implement the Continuous Air Monitoring
     Program are established and operated on a cooperative basis by Federal,
     State,  and local agencies,  The Div. of Mr Poll., U.S. Public Health
     Service.  The Program provides continuous measurements of 7 important
     air pollutants:  carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen
     dioxide, ozone, total oxidants, and total hydrocarbons.  These
     substances were selected from among the many which contaminate the air
     because they are economically and biologically significant to man
     and because the techniques for their analysis are advanced enough to
     ensure  that the measurements will be valid.  In addition to continuous
     monitoring of gases,  the stations have other equipment such as particulate
     samplers and instruments for recording meteorological data and radio-
     activity levels.  In  the initial phase of the Program, monitoring stations
     are being operated in 8 cities:  Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Los
     Angeles, Hew Orleans, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington, D. C.
     Some of the instruments used for recording are briefly discussed.
     Record-keeping and data analysis are highly automated through the use
     of strip chart recorders on each analyzers a punch tape recorder
     to translate the curve  (analog) on the strip chart into numbers
     (digits) that can be  used in machine computation; a programmer to
     actuate a mechanism to punch out the digital tape in a binary decimal

                                   311

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      code;  punched tapes,  and their corresponding strip charts,  to "be sent
      each week to the Taft Eng.  Center to "be processed so that the
      computer can provide  statistical  summaries  of air pollution levels,
      an inportant aid to an understanding of urban air pollution.  -APCA 4763


 745.  Continuous Air Monitoring Program in Cincinnati,  1962-63.  U.S.  DOT,
      PHS, Div.  Air Poll.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio, 1965.

      This report  which was compiled by the Air Quality Section of  the Labora-
      tory of Engineering and Physical  Sciences, Robert A. Taft Sanitary
      Engineering  Center, presents the  results of  the operation of  the Public
      Health Service Continuous Air  Monitoring Program  (CAMP) in Cincinnati,
      Ohio,  during 1962 and 1963.  Data on atmospheric  levels of sulfur  dioxide,
      nitric oxide,  nitrogen dioxide, total oxidants, total hydrocarbons, and
      carbon monoxide,  are  analyzed  and discussed.  The data are tabulated as
      hourly,  daily, and  monthly mean concentrations.   Background information
      about  Cincinnati and  description  of the instrumentation are included.  -
      APCA 65-38


 746.  Davies,  G.M.,  Jones,  J.G., and Warner, C.G.:  A continuously  recording
      atmospheric  carbon  monoxide monitoring system with fully automatic
      alarms in a  blast furnace area.  British J.  Indnst. Med. 22:270-278
      (Oct.) 1965.

      A continuously recording  cavbon monoxide monitoring  system with  fully
      automatic  alarms is described  for use in blast furnace areas.  The
      equipment  comprised the Mines  Safety Appliances Model 200 infra-red
      analyser,  pumping system, recorder, extension meter, and alarm unit.
             Use of the apparatus showed that concentrations of carbon
      monoxide in  the  blast furnace  area studied were mostly in the  range
      of 0 to ^9 p.p.m.   Readings of 200 p.p.m. and over generally  indicated
      that some  abnormal  and potentially dangerous incident had occurred.
      Examples of  such incidents are given.
             A visual  alarm was set  at  200 p.p.m., a level at which work
      could  safely continue for a limited period, and an auditory alarm
      at 500 p.p.m., at which level  immediate action was necessary.  The
      theoretical  reasons for selecting these levels are discussed, and
      practical  results are quoted to ccnrirE. their suitability.
      Authors' Ahst.
747. Gruber, C.W.:  APM-3 Recommended standard methods for continuing
     air monitoring for gaseous contaminants.  TR-2,  Air Pollution
     Measurements Committee.  J. APCA 15:313 (July) 1965.

     The purpose of Manual APM-3 is to provide a guide which will help
     increase the uniformity between various surveys, and thereby increase
     the useability of the data by others.  Manual APM-3 will include
     procedures for the following gases:  APM-3.2--Sulfur Dioxidej
     APM-3.3--Hydrogen Sulfidej APM-3 A--Oxidants and Ozone; APM-3.5—
                                     312

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     Oxides of Nitrogen; APM-3.6—Carbon Monoxide; APM-3.7--Fluorides;
     APM-3.8—Hydrocarbons; APM-3.9--Aldehydes.
            It is hoped by utilizing Standard Methods for Continuous
     Monitoring of the Atmosphere air quality data will become more mean-
     ingful as monitoring is "being carried on by a multitude of governmental
     agencies research organizations and industry.  It is hoped that by
     standardizing monitoring methods, the path to air quality standard
     setting will be made smoother.  It is also hoped that by utilizing
     standard monitoring methods our knowledge of what's in the air will
     be broadened and made more useful to the researchers who are searching
     out the affects of air pollution upon man and materials.  -  Author's
     Sum. Modified.
748.  Hocker, A. J.:  Atmospheric Contaminant Variations by Day of Week
     Summer 1960 and Winter 1961.  Los Angeles County Air Pollution Control
     District, January 1963.

     The peak values for 8 continuous stations were ranked by concentration
     for the summer (July,. Aug., Sept.) of 1960 and winter (Jan., Feb.,
     March).  Tuesday was highest in summer, Sunday generally lowest.
     Tuesday was also highest in winter, with Wednesday lowest (last 3
     days very close).  Morning peaks generally higher than evening.
     Peak summer value was 18 ppm.  Winter values much higher with 12
     station days above 18 ppm.  (Maximum winter about 24 ppm.).  -  LEPS


 749. Jutze, G.A., and Tabor, E.G.:  The continuous air monitoring program.
     J. APCA 13:278-280 (June)1963.

     As required by recent legislation, the Public Health Service has
     extended its program of investigations of the role of auto exhaust in
     air pollution.  One phase of this program is a study, in major
     American cities, of the concentrations of various gaseous air pollutants
     that may be related to auto exhaust.
           Each station is equipped with seven automatic continuous
     analyzers for the measurement of S02» N02i NO, CO, total oxidants, total
     hydrocarbons, and ozone.
           It may be possible to select contaminants that would serve as
     general indices for several pollutants related to the same general
     sources, by a statistical analysis of the interrelationships between
     the various pollutants measured. - From Text - A6C


     I«ynn, D.A., and McMullen, T.B.:  Air pollution in six major U.S. cities
     as measured by the Continuous Air Monitoring Program.  J. APCA
     16:186-190 (April) 1966.

     Data obtained by the Continuous Air Monitoring Program (CAMP) in six
     cities during two years are summarized.  Six gaseous pollutants
     (S02, NO, N02, Total Oxidant, Total Hydrocarbon, and CO) were monitored
     in Cincinnati, Chicago, New Orleans, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and
                                     313

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     Washington, B.C. during 1962 and 1963.  The data serve as a basis  for
     describing several contrasts and similarities in the nature of air
     pollution experienced in six cities, which represent a broad geographical
     and climatological range of urban environments.  Specific topics
     covered are:  typical pollutant levels, patterns of'daily and seasonal
     variations, and unusual phenomena such as atmospheric stagnation periods
     and photochemical smog formation. - Authors' Abst.


750. National Air Sampling ffetwork.  Air Quality Data, 19&"2.  U.S. DHEW,
     PHS, Div. of Air Poll., Cincinnati,  Ohio, August 19^3, 50 pp.

     This report contains summaries of air quality data for particulate
     and gaseous pollutants obtained from samples collected by stations
     of the National Air Sampling Network during 1962.  Included also
     are data obtained by the analysis of selected particulate samples
     collected during the period of 1958-1961.  For the first time data
     from State Air Sampling Networks are included in the National Air
     Sampling Network report, with data for this 1962 report being
     provided by Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana,  Texas,  and Washi^igton.
     The extensive tables of data (pages 3-50) give information1on
     suspended particulate matter (urban and nonurban),  benzene-soluble
     organic matter (urban and nonurban), radioactivity, nitrates,
     sulfates, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, maganese,
     molybdenum, nickel, tin, titanium,  vanadium,  zinc,  nitrogen dioxide,
     and sulfur dioxide.  -  APCA 62-366


751. Byazanov, V.A., Alekseeva, M.V., and Senderikhina,  D.Ya.:  Methods for
     the collection and study of air samples in the control of a atmospheric
     cleanliness in inhabited localities.  In: Levine, B.S. (translator) and
     Eyazanov, V.A. (editor):  Limits of Allowable Concentrations of
     Atmospheric Pollutants.  Book 1, 1952, pp. 89-100,  CFSTI-TT-59-21173,
     U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Springfield, Va.


     Methods of sampling and sampling devices are described,  The
     sensitivity of the methods recommended for the determination of
     maximal single concentrations, for the determination of average
     2k hours' concentrations using the intermittent method of sample
     collecting, and sensitivity of the methods recommended for use
     with samples of continuous 2k hours' aspiration are illustrated
     in three tables.  This information presented indicates that the'
     2k hours' aspiration method is applicable to 8 ingredients only;
     carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen are best determined by
     the method of intermittent aspiration.  Furthermore, an analysis
     of the data presented in the Table indicates that the aspiration
     rate for the ingredients listed ranges between 10 - 5000 I/hour;
     the total volume ranges between 2^0 - 12 000 liters.  Thus,
     the tests are so arranged as to make them sufficiently sensitive
     for the determination of average 2k hours' concentrations, since
     the tests are from 2-8 times as sensitive as required  for the
     determination of the limits of allowable concentrations.  -
     Author-AGC

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751a.  Sakabe, H., Soda/ R., Matsumura, Y., Honma, K., and Hbzaki, K.
      Air pollution study at heavy traffic road..  Bun. Nat. Inst.
      Indust. Health (Japan) 4:72-76, 1960.

      Carbon monoxide determinations vere made "by means of Kitigawa
      colorimetric tubes at the center of a heavy traffic Y
      intersection in Tokyo on March 3 and hf 1960.  Samples were
      collected every hour from 8 through 11 A.M., 2 P.M. and every
      hour from 3 to 7 P.M. on "both days omitting the 11 o'clock
      sample on March 4.  Concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 10.0 ppm
      on March 3 with a mean of 5.0 ppm.  On March k, the range was
      from U.8 to 20.2 ppm with a mean of 12.2 ppm.  -  PHS-RG 5676


 752.  Sharrah>  J»S.:   The significance of instantaneous peak concen-
      trations in air pollution.   J.  APCA 2:3-^ (July)
      In customary measurements of air pollution, samples are taken
      continuously for 20 minutes or longer.  An average value thus
      obtained is suitable for many purposes, but brief peak
      concentrations are missed.  These peak concentrations are
      important from the standpoints of health, effects of irritant
      gases, annoyance from particulate matter, effect on vegetation,
      and the soiling, corrosive, and deteriorating effects of air
      pollution.  Examples are given of peak concentrations of sulfur
      dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide,  which were not
      detected by continuous sampling, but were plainly shown by short-
      time sampling, and were noticeable by odor or otherwise and were
      the occasion for congplaints.  Concentrations of five ppm. of sulfur
      dioxide, 175 ppm. of hydrogen sulfide, and 4 50 ppm. of carbon
      monoxide for short periods were thus detected.  An example of the
      effect of peak concentrations is the darkening of paint by hydrogen
      sulfide.  -  APCA 373


 753.  Stern,  A.C.:  Data gathering and monitoring equipment in air
      pollution control  programs.  Amer. J. Public Health 53:1972-1981
      (Dec.)  1963.

      This  paper is limited  in its coverage to the kind  of data gathered
      in greatest quantity by monitoring equipment in air pollution
      programs,  namely,  pollutant concentrations.  The body of gas
      monitored for pollutant concentrations may variously be a gas
      stream  being discharged to the  ambient air; a synthetic
      atmosphere used for  research purposes; or  the aaibient air—the
      principal,  distinction  among them being the range of concentrations
      measured.   Generally,  high concentrations  are monitored in
      effluent  gas streams;  moderate  concentrations in synthetic
      research  atmospheres;  and low concentrations in the ambient air.
      This  distinction is, in turn, reflected  in the sensitivity
      required  of instruments for these several  applications.  The
      most  common method of  monitoring an  effluent gas stream by
      continuous instrumental means is to  measure its opacity to the

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      transmission of a beam of light.   Closed-circuit television
      monitoring of the effluent gas stream is  now available  for
      plant operation control.   Targe particles are not monitored by
      light transmission across the gas stream  carrying them.   Recently
      a continuous instrumental monitor for these  particles has been
      introduced in Germany and another in England.  There is as yet
      no substantial American experience with either of these
      monitors.   In studying synthetic  atmospheres the type of
      monitoring equipment and data gathering required varies mainly
      with project duration.  Tn 1 long-time study of  exposure of
      citrus trees, by the University of California (Riverside)
      research group, to atmospheres from  which certain pollutants
      have been removed, the monitoring data are digitalized  and
      recorded in form for automatic computation.   In  studies of
      ambient air the methods developed for handling data are cited
      in the project by the Los Angeles County  APCD and by the
      Continuous Air Monitoring Program of the  USPHS.  The future is
      likely to see more telemetering of air quality data by  both
      wire and radio linkage.  And in the  Continuous Air  Monitoring
      Program there will probably be a  more direct linkage between
      the sensing instrument and the computer.   Also for  pollutants
      which are at less than detectable level for  a greater percentage
      of the time, instruments will probably be build  to  rapidly
      respond to, and submit, significant  levels but to curtail the
      transmission of insignificant data.   There is a  need for
      monitoring systems for air quality for rural areas  with which
      urban concentrations may be compared.  Also  there is a  need to
      develop instruments to monitor the ambient air for  pollutants
      we do not no« "know how to monitor.   -  APCA  6093
SOURCES
      Aircraft Cabins,  Submarines and Others
754.  Alvis,  H.J.,  and Tanner,  C.W.:   Carbon monoxide toxicity in  sub-
      marine  operations.   Arch,  Indust.  Hyg. & Occupat. Med. 6:kOk-kQ6
      (Mbv.)  1952.

      A case  of mass carbon monoxide poisoning in a  subrnarine is reported.
      Men engaged in active work were  the  first to 'be affected.  First
      symptoms noted were headaches, and as condition progressed nausea,
      vomiting  and headaches so oovere  that sedation was  required.   CO
      concentration was found to bs 0.01$  with CC>2 level at  2% at  about
      the same time.  Exposure lasted  approximately  10 hours.  The
      condition was diagnosed and proper treatment instituted when it
      became  apparent that the entire  ship's crew was involved.  Authors
      assume  that in comparing the  symptoms reported with  the table  in
      McParland's work:  Human Factors in  Air Transport Design/ N.t.
      McGraw-Hill,  1946,  Chap.  6, that all aboard (with one  exception)
      had probably a carboxyhemoglobin saturation between  10 and 20$,
      several 20 to 30$ saturation, and  a  few may have had as high a
      saturation as 30 to 40$.   -  AGC

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  755,  Aviation Toxicology.   An introduction to the  Subject  and a Handbook
       of Data.  The Blakiston Co.,  New York,  Toronto,  1953, pp.  120.

       This handbook on aviation toxicology provides toxicity  data on
       chemicals of special  interest in aviation.
              CO is the only toxic gas for which allowable concentration
       limits have been generally prescribed in aviation.  The allowable
       limit of concentration for CO set by military and civilian agencies
       of different countries vary somewhat.  The  average limit is one part
       in 20,000 parts of air (ik b) for civil airplanes in  the U.S.  In
       moderate altitudes carbon monoxide does not have any  ill effects.
       Author points out, however,  that careful laboratory tests have
       shown that vision is  somewhat impaired at,  or even below,  this
       concentration.  The concentration of carboxyhemoglobin  in the
       blood stream at high altitude,  and the general properties and
       occurrence of CO are  discussed in this book.   There are diagrams
       showing time-concentration curves of CO toxicity.  -  AGC
755a.   Beard, R.R., and Pribram,  K. :   Effects of toxic agents and
       environmental factors on human behavior.   Department of Defense,
       Armed Forces Epidem. Board,  Washington,  D.C.,  Feb.  19^,
       No.
       Dynamic exposure  chambers have been constructed in which an air
       flow of tip to 100 liters per minute can "be maintained.   Carbon
       monoxide has been metered to the chambers under continuous  monitoring,
       to expose rats to concentrations from 100 to 1,000 p. p.m.   Rats were
       trained to various operant behavior schedules.   Conditioned behavior
       during 10 minutes of each hour for long periods gave unstable
       response patterns.  Continuous observation for  periods  of 1-1/2
       hours showed rapid reduction of response rate and disturbance of
       the "grain" of behavior with CO concentrations  of 500 p. p.m. and
       higher; at 250 p. p.m. perceptible disturbance of response pattern
       became apparent within an hour.  A response -attenuation ratio taking
       into account the normal behavior of an animal on the day of exposure
       to CO as well as preceding control periods was  devised.   Equipment
       for trials of the effect of CO on discrimination capacities in humans
       has been developed.  Methods for detailed .analysis of behavior
       patterns by computer techniques are being perfected. -  Authors'
       Abst.
 755b.  Birren, J.E., Fisher,  M.B.,  Vollmer^j.p., and King, B.G.:  Effects
       of anoxia on performance at several simulated altitudes.  J. Exp.
       Psycholog. 36:35-^9 (Feb.) 1964.

       This paper reports the results of a series of tests  on human Ss
       exposed to simulated altitudes in a low pressure  chamber.  These
       tests were made not to determine  possible bases for  personnel  selection
       but to provide limited performance norms for subsequent  studies of
       variables superimposed on anoxia, e.g.,  carbon monoxide.  The  purpose
                                     317

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      of the present investigation is similar to that of many other studies
      employing sensorimotor tests,  that is, to appraise the efficiency
      of personnel under an environmental stress.


 756.  Gerard, P.:   Engineer Design Test of Howitzer,  Light,  Self Propelled,
      105-MM, XM 104.  Aberdeen Proving Ground,  Md, May 1963, DEC-AD I<-05791.

      The engine exhaust is discharged directly into  the vehicle during
      amphibious operations.  Although the vehicle is completely open,
      operating personnel may still inhale relatively large amounts of
      carbon monoxide.  A ;;CO'' concentration in excess of 0.1$ was
      recorded at the right rear personnel seat.  It  was necessary to
      install extra piping to direct the exhaust gases out of the inclosure
      during these tests.  Consideration should be given to modifying the
      present exhaust configuration for deep water fording.   A CO level of
      0.01$ is accepted; however, any degree of contamination,  no matter
      how slight,  has adverse affects on military personnel operating
      efficiency.   -  Author's Abst.


 757.  Gilinskiy, V.A., Chapek, A.V., Kozlova,  A.G., Kulikova,  N.M.,  and
      A. Ya. Loshak:  The effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide
      on man in pressurized cabins of passenger planes.   In:   Parin,  V.V,
      (editor) Aviation and Space Medicine,  Moscow, 1963.   NASA Technical
      Translation TT-F-228.

                  . Pressure-chamber experiments were  performed on 82 persons
      to study the effect of low concentrations of carbon monoxide.   Also,
      30 flights on IL-18, AN-10, and TU-104 planes were made during
      which 185 members of the crew and passengers were examined and 3^7
      air samples were obtained in the cabins.  The results of the
      investigations showed that 3 hours' exposure to carbon monoxide
      (starting with 0.01 lag/liter or more),  both under experimental
      conditions (ground and pressure-chamber at 2400 m) and during actual
      flight had adverse effects on the functioning of several organs and
      systems, namely:  (a)  Higher nervous activity; (b)  Functions of the
      visual and vestibular analyzers; (c) Metabolic  processes;  (d)  Cardio-
      vascular system; (e) Muscular strength;  (f) Tissue respiration and;
      (g) Leukopoiesis.  On the basis of the physiological-sanitary data
      obtained and the results of laboratory tests, it is suggested that
      the maximum permissible concentration of carbon monoxide in
      pressurized passenger airplane cabins be 0.01 rag/liter.   -  Authors'
      Abst.


758.  Helm,  J.W.:   The toxicity of carbon monoxide at high altitudes. J
      Aviation Med. 10:211-215 (Dec.) 1939.

      Author states that accurate quantitative data on the behavior of
      carbon monoxide at reduced atmgpnecic pressures and on permissible
      concentrations in aircraft compartments at heights is hardly
      available in the literature.  There is also a scarity of information

                                     318

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     on the tolerance of CO at high altitudes.  The purpose of this  study
     is investigation of the toxicity of  CO at reduced barometric pressure.
     Theoretical calculations based on physico-chemical laws governing
     the combination of CO-fOg with hemoglobin are expressed algebraically
     by equations;  Author concludes that concentrations of CO which are
     innocous at prescribed levels are dangerous at even moderate altitudes
     and it is most imperative that no trace of this gas should be
     permitted to exist in airplane compartments.  -  AGC


 759.Lanion, H.J.:   Report on Carbon Monoxide Contamination Caused by the
     Weapon System of the M6o Tank.  First Report on OTAC Project No.
     IT-5172,  Aberdeen Proving Ground,  Md., March I960,  20 pp.  DDC AD
     231*022.
                                      i
     The weapons of the M60 tank were fired independently and in an all-
     weapons condition to determine the resulting carbon monoxide
     concentrations.  The basic tank condition was hatches closed,  turret
     ventilator off, and tank engine off.  For those firings vliicli
     produced hazardous concentrations further tank conditions were
     investigated.  These conditions were hatches closed,  turret ventilator
     operating, and tank engine induction air from either the engine
     compartment or crew compartment.  Unsafe conditions exist in the
     tank  for certain firing conditions when the turret ventilator is not
     used.  All weapon combinations could be made safe by using the turret
     ventilator.  It is recommended that, when firing the weapon system,
     the tank be judged safe for occupancy only when the turret ventilator
     is used.  -  Author's Abst.


760.  Lent2, E.C.:  Human factors in "cause undetermined" accidents.
     Aerospace Med. 36:21^-222 (March) 1965.

     USAF  aircraft accidents over a four-year period that remain categorized
     as cause undetermined indicate that the man-machine complex tends to
     fail  during the stressful phases of flight.  Loss of control and high
     speed impact are factors common to many of this series.   Man's
     limitations and specifically his ability to maintain orientation -
     i.e., disorientation - are major problems in the operation of high
     performance aircraft.  Aircraft performance has advanced to the
     place where exploration of the operational perimeters of the craft
     is reserved for the test pilot.  Experienced combat pilots may
     still be novices with respect to the vagarities of the aircraft he
     flies.  Safety of flight is enhanced by the division of duties with
     a qualified co-pilot.
            Loss of control due to impaired consciousness attributable to
     carbon monoxide from refueling operations has been raised as a
     possibility.  There are two instances in this series of loss of
     control associated with refueling operations.  Turbine engines
     are efficient oxidizers of fuel.  This combined vith distances and
     dilution seriously compromises the hypothesis that the cockpit of a
     plane could accumulate disabling amounts of carbon monoxide from air
     refueling operations.  -  Author's Abst. Modified

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 761. Nichols,  G.,  Jr.,  and  Kinsey,  J.L. :   Carbon  monoxide  as  a habitability
     factor  in prolonged submarine  submergence.   U.S.  Naval Medical Research
     Laboratory, New London,  Conn.,  Report No. 223,  (April 16) 1953.

     Toxic cone, of  CO  accumulate when  there  is unrestricted  smoking in
     sealed  spaces,  such as a submarine during a  prolonged submergence.
     23 volunteers on Operation  Hideout were  exposed to CO levels  of
     approx.  100 or  more ppra  for continuous period of  6 days,  following
     a period of 12  days' exposure  to CO  cone, between 50  and 100  ppm
     and period of unknown  length during  which this  cone,  accumulated;
     6 day period  was followed by 4  days  of exposure to CO cone, varying
     from 25  to 100  ppm.  Comparing  6 day period  of  exposure  to 100 ppm
     with 6  day period  immediately following  return  to outboard ventilation,
     subjective complaints  as ms. by number of headaches were significant
     at 10%  level.  Significant  amts. of  hb were  saturated with CO;  in
     only 2  cases, however, was  this considered to be  in range where
     subjective complaints  occur, and in  each of  these 2 there were no
     symptoms. CO-blood saturation  dropped rapidly  (1 day) upon return
     to outboard ventilation. - Kett.


 762.schulte,  J.H.:  The medical aspects of closed cabin atmosphere control.  Military
     Med. 126:40-48  (Jan.) 1961.

     One  hundred and eight  healthy adult males between the ages of 17 and 37 years were
     exposed, in an operating  nuclear submarine,  to an atmosphere with an average
     consistency of 19.1% oxygen, 1.04$ carbon dioxide, 1$ hydrogen, kk ppm carbon
     monoxide,  15 ppm freon-12 and approximately 7856 nitrogen continuously for 72 days.
     The  atmosphere occasionally contained small amounts of ammonia, chlorine and
     aromatic  hydrocarbons.   Presumably other contaminants were also present in trace
     amounts.
            The physiological and metabolic evaluations which were studied during the
     72 days exposure consisted of the general health, vital signs, blood cell
     determinations, exercise tolerance, caloric requirements, and dietary habits.
     Using these criteria,  no changes occurred which are attributable to exposure to the
     existing  atmosphere and  no harmful effects were elicited either during or shortly
     following the exposure.  -  Author's Sum.


763.  schulte,  J.H.:   Sealed environment in relation  to health and  61sp**&
     Arch. Environ.  Health  8:438-^52 (March) 19&.             ana  dlsease-

     The  general health aspects  of life in a  sealed environment are related
     primarily to  habitability and atmospheric control.  The control of
     the  atmosphere  involves:  (a) sone neons to provide the continual
     addition  of oxygen in  sufficient quantity to  support life and
     preserve  health, and (b) methods to  effect the  continuous removal
     of carbon dioxide,  carbon monoxide,  and other atmospheric contaminants
     to prevent them from gradually  increasing to  concentrations which
     could produce illness.   The babltability of a sealed environment is
     maintained within  a  comfortable and  healthful range by the addition
     or removal of heat and water vapor.
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           Most  of the  experience gained in the problems related to
    health and disease  during prolonged existence in a sealed environment
    has been obtained from the operations of nuclear-powered submarines.
    These  submarine cruises have demonstrated the number,  type,  and
    amount of atmospheric contaminants which are produced by man and
    his equipment within the sealed environment.
           The progress that has been made in rjacilyzing the  atmospheric
    content  of a sealed environment has been reiterated.  A  number of
    the atmospheric constituents have been discussed in greater  detail
    in regard to their  source, effects upon health,  and methods  of
    control.  The need  for control of temperature and humidity and for
    protection from radiation has also been included in the  discussion.
    These  needs  and methods for controlling the atmospheric  constituents,
    temperature, humidity, and radiation exposure in a sealed environment
    have been projected to the future space vehicle.   -  Author's Sum.


764.  SLusher, G.R.:  Analysis of Engine Exhaust  System Failures in General
     Aviation Aircraft.   Technical Report FAA-ADS-29, Federal Aviation
     Agency,  Sept. 19&-, 18 pp.

     A study and an analysis were made of the recordr. on engine exhaust
     system  malfunctions in the single engine type general aviation
   ,  aircraft from the time period of 1958 through 1962 to determine
     the extent  of the inflight hazards involving carbon monoxide
     poisoning,  fire, power loss, etc.
             The  results disclosed approximately  50 percent of the
     exhaust system failures occurred in the exhaust gas-to-air heat
     exchanger,  20 percent in  the stacks or manifolds, and 20 percent
     internal to the muffler  (baffles and diffusers).
             Nineteen illnesses and twelve fatalities out of 3^ reported
     incidents of  exhaust  gases in the cabin were documented.  Fourteen
     fires and 70  incidents of partial engine povrer loss or complete
     power failure were also reported.  Analysis disclosed that the
     exhaust systems of newer  aircraft fail at a markedly higher rate
     than the exhaust systems  of older aircraft.  -  Author's Abst.


 765. Smith,  P.K.:  Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations in Personnel After
     Flying  P-40-N Aircraft.   School of Aviation Medicare, Randolph AFB,
     Texas,  May  5, 19*5,  3 PP-  EDO  AD 121708.

     Measurements  were made of the Carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in
     eighteen pilots after flying fourteen different P-kO-N aircraft.
     The concentrations of carooxyhemoglobin varied from zero to eight
     per cent of the total hemoglobin.   It is concluded that the
     concentrations of  Carboxyhemoglobin found were probably not high
     enough  to interfere  with flying efficiency. -  Author'u /bet.
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766. SSpeert, H. :  Noxious vapors in aircraft cabins.  Occupat. Med. 2:101-
     115 (Aug.)
     Author describes specific cause factors responsible for impairment
     of efficiency of flying personnel and the relationship between such
     impairment and accident causation case histories of aircraft accidents
     in which the presence of noxious gases or vapors played a part are
     presented.  CO is, from a toxicological point of view, the most
     important constituent of the exhaust mixture.  The maximum allowable
     concentration of CO in Army Air Force aircraft cabins is 0.005'^-
     All new aircraft models must meet this specification.  Some aircrafte
     with exhaust heaters are equipped with a signal assembly which
     activates a red light on the pilot's instrument panel when the
     concentration of CO in the atmoaphere reaches 0*005 per cent.  CO
     content of the blood of pilots before and after flights is being
     measured to obtain a control value.  It is of importance to obtain
     control value before flight, especially for smokers, in whom the
     blood CO level may normally be as high as seven to eight per cent of
     saturation.  CO is a tissue asphyxant producing anoxia, effecting
     the most sensitive central nervous system first.  Acute severe
     exposure results in rapid onset of unconsciousness; in less severe
     cases, great individual variation in symptoms is encountered.  Even
     small amounts of CO in the blood cause significant visual impairment
     of special importance to aviators.  For example a blood saturation
     of only 10$ CO at an altitude of 6,000 feet can cause deterioration
     of visual discrimination to a level corresponding to an altitude of
     12,500 feet.  Hazards of exposure to CO increases with altitude.
     Minimal degrees of anoxia resulting from altitude, combined with the
     slight anoxia produced by only small amounts of circulating CO,  each
     alone harmless, may together produce moderately severe symptoms of
     anoxia.  These relationships have been established by theory and
     experiment.  -  AGC


767.  Stembridge, V.A., and Otoldbaum, L.R. :  The role of the Armed Forces
     Institute of Pathology in tissue toxicity study.  Aviation Med,
     Symposium, Hov. 1957, PP- 5-8 «

     During the period from May 1957 through Oct. 1957, 269 determinations
     for CO have been accomplished at the Armed Forces Institute of
     Pathology utilizing a new method for obtaining a specimen.  Of
     those 110 determinations for carbon monoxide on post-mortem tissues,
     11 (10$) showed an elevation above 10 percent saturation.  None of
     these 11 cases were considered a sudden death and in all there was
     evidence that the individual died primarily due to fire.
            Post-mortem CO determinations are done in aircraft accident
     victims for two basic reasons:  First, to determine whether carbon
     monoxide was present in the cockpit environment prior to impact
     (due to such factors as in-flight fires, ejchaust fumes or improper
     venting of other combustion products) and second, to determine
     whether or not an individual was alive following an impact associated
     with fire. -  From Text-AGC
                                    322

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767a. Vollmer, E.P., King, B.G., Fisher, M.B., and Birren, J.E.:   The
      Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Three Types of Performance, at
      Simulated Altitudes of 10,000 and 15,500 Feet.  HMRI Res. Project
      X-417, Report No. 7, Feb. 27, 19^5, and J. Exp. Psychol. 36:8^-251,

      Measurements of the critical flicker frequency threshold, body sway,
      and the red visual field were made on subjects before, during and
      after low pressure chamber runs.  Twenty subjects with 12 to 22 per
      cent blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) took part in runs at 15,500
      feet, and six subjects with 5 to 10 per cent COHb vere tested at
      10,000 feet.  Control runs were made at the same altitudes with the
      same subjects.
             There was a significant impairment of performance at altitude,
      both under conditions of anoxia alone and anoxia after exposure to
      carbon monoxide (CO) as compared with performance at sea level.
             There was no statistically significant difference between
      the mean scores of the tests during anoxia alone and during anoxia
      following administration of CO.  Furthermore,  the time-performance
      curves  for group means during the hour at altitude are nearly
      coincident under the two conditions.
             All the mean values for performance of each of the three tests
      at altitude are within one standard deviation of the sea level mean.
      (More than one-half of the scores for individual performance in the
      two  series may therefore be expected to fall -within the range of
      performance of normal subjects at sea level.)
              Individual responses were variable and without correlation
      with the percentage of increment or of total COHb in the blood.
              Three  of the subjects who started the experiments showed
      symptoms of impending collapse at 15,500 feet without CO.  One of
      these had successfully completed his corresponding CO run;  the
      other two did not participate in CO runs.
              Five subjects showed symptoms of impending collapse at altitude
      (one at 10,000, four at 15,500 feet) after they had breathed mixtures
      containing CO.  -  Authors' Sum.


  768. White,  J.J,:   Carbon monoxide and its relation to aircraft*  U.S.
      Naval Med. Bull.  30:151-165  (April) 1932.

      Carbon monoxide,  a product of incomplete combustion, is present in
      the exhaust gas of all types of airplanes.  In some types of planes,
      depending on  type of exhaust leads, fuselage, etc., this gas is
      carried back  to the cockpits of the plane in  sufficient concentration
      to result in  as much as 15 per  cent saturation of the blood of the
      pilot and otoer occupants of the plane.
              Although the highest  saturation  of blood obtained during the
      investigation (15 per cent) is not sufficient to render a person
      unconscious,  or to  be a direct cause of a crash, it is known that
      the absorption of even minute amounts of carbon monoxide is highly
      undesirable,  due  to the probable  adverse effect on the efficiency of
      the pilot*
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            The fact that exposure to a low concentration over a long
     period is more harmful than a brief exposure to a very high concen-
     tration, increases the importance of eliminating all traces of carbon
     monoxide.
            Comparatively simple and inexpensive modification of the
     exhaust leads has eliminated carbon monoxide from the area where it
     is absorbed by the pilot or other occupants of the plane.  -  Author's
     Sum.


769. Wilks,  S.S,:  Preliminary Studies on Light-Induced Carbon Monoxide
     in Closed Environments.  USAF School of Aviation Med., Brooks AF
     Base, Tex., Sept. 1963, CFSTI AD-U20946.

     This paper presents experimental data concerning the effects of
     solar light upon certain classes of organic substances which may
     be components of the sealed environment of space vehicles.  Many
     materials such as organic plastics, pigments, insulating material,
     etc., will, when exposed to light in the presence of oxygen, liberate
     a number of toxic end products such as carbon monoxide, aldehydes,
     acids,  and certain hydrocarbons.  In a sealed environment these
     agents  may, unless removed, reach levels toxic to human beings
     during  a long sojourn in a. sealed system.  Therefore, along with
     products that may result from thermal and electrical activity
     (motors, generators, etc.) these products may constitute a
     considerable hazard in sealed environments.  -  Author's Abst.


 770. Wilks,  S.S.:  Toxic photooxidation products in closed environments.
     Aerospace Med. 3^:838-8^1  (Sept.) 1963.

     The  evidence of carbon monoxide production from the action of
     light and oxygen on many classes of organic substances and compounds
     indicates the necessity for adequate protection of susceptible
     materials from the ravages of the combination of light and oxygen
     in  small, sealed environments designed for human occupancy.
     Materials to be used in spacecraft should be thoroughly tested for
     their stability to effects of radiation.  Materials within the
     vehicle should, as far as possible, be shielded from certain
     components of the spectrum.  Appropriate methods for CO elimination
     should  be a permanent installation.  -  Author's Conclusion
      Diesel Engines
 771. Ash, S.H.,  and Naus,  L.L.:   Use of diesel engines  in tunnels.   Bureau
      of Mines Info. Cir.  Ho.  7222,  1$&2,  26 pp.

      In diesel-engine operations when the exhaust  gases contain carbon
      monoxide in the amount of 0.01 percent and carbon  dioxide  to 0.3
      percent, visibility in a tunnel in which the  diesel is  used is poor


                                     324

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     and the aldehydes and other irritants are obnoxious after a
     relatively short exposure.  In general, the irritants, such as
     aldehydes,  odors, and smoke follow the trend of the toxic gases,
     but under improper maintenance they are conspicuously present at
     all stages of operation.  Proper mechanical condition at all times
     is necessary for a diesel engine to insure against its exhaust
     containing dangerous concentrations of noxious gases.
            The investigation shows the value of field study of diesel
     locomotives in actual operation, and it was observations so obtained
     that indicated the amount of carbon monoxide in the exhaust gas as
     a yardstick for the control of atmospheric conditions.  The control
     of noxious gases in the general air when diesel locomotives are
     being used should be based upon a carbon monoxide control value of
     10 to 20 p. p. m.  -  BMB
772. Berger, L.B., Elliott, M.A., Hbltz, J.C., and Schrenk, H.H. :  Diesel
     Engines Underground.  U.S. Bureau of Mines Kept. Investigations
     Ho. 3508, 19UO, ^8 pp.; No. 35^1, 1940, 18 pp.

     These reports and the Investigations upon which they are based are
     in regard to the factors that must be considered if diesel engines
     are to be used safely underground.  Two four- stroke-cycle diesel
     engines,  one of maximum rated speed of 1,^00 r. p. m. and kk b. h. p.
     and the other of 2,600 r. p. m. and 7 b« a- p., were used in the
     experiments.  Both were in good mechanical condition and each was
     mounted on  a power unit.  Exhaust-gas samples were taken and required
     analyses  run to determine the factors of interest to the investigators.
            Exhaust-gas analysis was made for carbon dioxide, carbon
     monoxide, oxygen, hydrogen, and methane; these data then were
     correlated  with fuel -air ratio.  It was shown that the concentration
     of these  constituents is governed by the fuel-air ratio and varies
     as does the relation of fuel to intake air.  -  BMB 1*83
773«  Bus fumes acquitted:  Hew York Transit Commission finds no dangerous
      concentration of carbon monoxide.   Transit J.  80:44l, 1936.
      Although the belief is widespread that dangerous  concentrations of
      carbon monoxide are often present in buses  and on the streets where
      they operate, this idea is erroneous t  according to the findings of
      the engineering department of the New  York  Transit Commission,  In
      gr"n the time buses have been  running, no case fatality has been
      reported as due to carbon monoxide.  The offensive aldehydes give
      rise to complaints of bus fumes.   The  highest  concentration of
      carbon monoxide found on a bus was 2 parts  per 10,000 and this was
      found while the bus was standing. -  BMB 6^3
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Cartigny, S.t and Degueldre, G. :  Gleaning of exhaust from dlesel
engines,  Institut d' Hygiene des Mines, Hasselt, Bulletin des
Documentation techn. Hb. 33, July 21, 1957.
The method employed for the cleaning of exhaust gases from diesel
engines used to operate tractors during the day, and the Oxicat-Houdry
installation used for this purpose are described in this paper.  A
generation of 28 PS was attached to the tractor which, by employing
resistance altered the load of the diesel engine.  The conditions
(humidity content, temperature) of the volume of air drawn in by
the engine and the conditions and composition of the exhaust,
particularly its CO, CO,,, and 0% contents were investigated.  - A3C


Elliott, M.A., Nebel, G.J., and Rounds, F.G. :  The composition of
exhaust gases from diesel, gasoline, and propane-powered motor
coaches.  J. APCA 5:103-108 (Aug.) 1955.

Exhaust-gas samples were obtained from diesel, gasoline and
propane-powered motor coaches of similar passenger capacity under
idling, accelerating, cruising, and decelerating conditions.  The
samples were analyzed for carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen,
formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons.  In addition the exhaust gas flow
rates were measured to permit calculation of the emission rate for
each constituent at each driving condition.  Based on a typical
city driving pattern, it was concluded:  (1) carbon monoxide
emission from the diesel coaches was only a small fraction of that
from the gasoline and propane coaches, and (2) the differences
observed in the emission of oxides of nitrogen, formaldehyde, and
hydrocarbons by the three coach types were relatively small.  Wo
one coach type discharged either the greatest or least amounts of
all of these three constituents.  -  APCA
The exhaust  from a new hybrid diesel/gasoline engine.  Chem. Week..
Dec. 20, 1965, p. 29.

An injector  system rather than a carburetor injects fuel to the
combustion chamber in this new type of engine, which was developed
by the Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nuernberg, A.G.  (MAN), Munich,
West Germany.  Low carbon monoxide content at idle, namely
0.12$ compared to 10 to 12$ for conventional gasoline engines,
is a primary advantage of this new design.  Other advantages are
low fuel consumption and multifuel capability.  A number of firms
in West Germany are at present testing this new engine designed
primarily for military vehicles.  Although it can be used in
automobiles, it may be too costly at present for acceptance by
auto makers.  -  AGO
                               326

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777.  Holt z,  J.C.,  and Elliott, M.A. :  The significance of diesel exhaust-
      gas analysis.  Trans. Amer. Soc. Mech. Eng. 63: 97-105,
      The significance of data on the combustion processes in the diesel
      engine is discussed.   Two diesel engines in good mechanical
      condition were tested;  exhaust-gas samples were taken and analyzed
      for oxygen,  carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, nitrogen, aldehydes,
      and oxides of nitrogen.
            Among  the topics discussed are:  The relation of exhaust-
      gas composition to fuel-air ratio; the relation of exhaust-gas
      composition  to combustion performance; the products of incomplete
      combustion and the significance of these factors in the light of
      safe diesel  operation.
             The products of incomplete combustion in diesel engines
      are carbon monoxide,  aldehydes, free carbon, hydrogen, and
      methane.   Two processes of combustion occur simultaneously.   These
      are direct oxidation and destructive combustion.  If the reactions
      in the direct-oxidation process are chilled before oxidation is
      complete, carbon monoxide, aldehydes, and organic acids will be
      present in the exhaust gases.  Increase in concentration of CO and
      aldehydes at low fuel-air ratios indicates that chilling is more
      pronounced at these ratios.  -  BMB
 778. Maurin,  Gen.,  and KLing, A.:  The pollution of air by diesel engines.
      Rev. petrol.,  No. .768, pp. ^9-55, 1938.

      CO content in diesel exhaust gases is very low.  The amount of smoke
      and its odor are less at full load than under part load.  Uriburned
      solids and liquids/ in the form of lubricating oil, organic acids,
      aldehydes, and oxides of sulfur, are always present in the exhaust.
      Purification by means of a water bath and cyclone-type separator
      in series can eliminate 79 percent of the solids and liquids,  the
      other 21 percent being removed with an activated carbon filter.
      Addition of NaPCOq or Ca(OH)p to the water bath is recommended.  -
      BMB 647


 779. Report  on diesel smoke.   Information Report No.  2.  (Vehicular Ex-
      haust Committee,  Chairman:  Jensen. D.A.)J. APCA 13:290-291
      (June) 1963.

      The purpose of this report is to present a summary of* factors that in-
      fluence the production of exhaust smoke in diesel engines.  Also pro-
      vided is information relating to known methods for reducing or elimina-
      ting diesel smoke.  It is, in effect, a report on the current state of the
      art in the area of diesel smoke and is intended to be used as a supple-
      ment to the results of the laboratory research being carried on to deter-
      mine the chemical composition of diesel engine exhaust.
              Included in this report are discussions of diesel fuel properties,
      engine adjustment and maintenance procedures, engine operation and


                                   327

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     driver procedures, and features of engine devices.  All of these items
     have an important bearing on the smoke properties of diesel engines
     installed in motor vehicles. - Author's Introduction


 780. Schrenk, H.H., and Berger, L.B. :   Composition of diesel engine
     exhaust gas.  Amer. J. Pub. Health 31:669-681,
     Exhaust-gas composition from two diesel engines in good mechanical
     condition was determined at various speeds and power output.   The
     exhaust-gas constituents were CO,  N oxides,  COg,  aldehydes,  soot,
     Og, N2, HgO vapors, and in some instances H and CH^ or other
     hydrocarbons.  Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,  and oxides of
     nitrogen were found in quantities harmful to "breathe,  and, in many
     instances, very objectionable amounts of aldehydes and smoke were
     produced.
            The production of carbon monoxide and smoke,  as well as
     aldehydes, can be largely controlled by the proper adjustment of
     fuel-air ratio without a significant loss of power output.
     BMB
     Garages and Workshops
781. Audere, A.K.  Carbon monoxide air pollution in  shops testing machine
     and tractor motors.  Gigiena i Sanitaria 2^:79-80, 1959.  In: Levine,
     B.S. (editor and translator):  U.S.S.R.  Literature on Air Pollution
     and Related Occupational Mseases.  A Survey.   Vol. 5, 1961, pp.
     CFSTI-TT-61-11149,  U.S.  Dept. of Commerce,  Springfield, Va.

     Nine shops  of machine and tractor stations were inspected during
     the years 1956 and 1957-  Result of the analysis of air samples
     taken  during testing of different kind of engines showed a
     relatively  high concentration of carbon monoxide.  It was
     recommended that forced draft ventilation are to be installed in
     the premises, to reduce the carbon monoxide concentration  to the
     limit  of tolerance.  - AGC.
 782.  Austen,  F.K.:   The medical grand rounds.  Massachusetts General
      Hospital.   Amer. Pract. 13:171-185, 1962.

      Among the  cases discussed is one concerning a medical problem caused
      by CO, in  connection with the construction of a garage under the
      Boston Common.  The physiological and chemical reactions of oxygen
      and CO as  they  become bound to hemoglobin are described.  The rules
      of how CO  and hemoglobin  combine are summarized in a simple equation.
      The severity of the symptoms of anoxia from CO poisoning as compared
      with anemia are explained.  -  AGC
                                     328

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 783. Barrett, H.M.:  Carbon monoxide  poisoning.   Canadian J.  Pub.  Health
     25:430-438,  1934.

     Carbon monoxide accounts  for more  human deaths  annually  than  all other
     gaseous poisons combined.   Its occurrence is almost universal,  resulting
     as  it does  from incomplete  combustion.   Industrially carbon monoxide occurs
     in  high concentration in  smelters, being a major hazard  in steel plants.
     It  is to be guarded against in mines  after an explosion  or blasting
     operations.   In the home  it is the responsible  factor in coal gas poison-
     ings due to faulty heating  appliances.   The automobile produces the gas  in
     large quantities  and it  is  present in varying quantities in public garages.
     A car with  the motor idling in a closed single  garage produces  sufficient
     of  the gas  to render the  air dangerous  in from five to ten minutes.  It
      is  one of the most insidious poisons  known as it is odourless (except in the
     nearly pure form  when it  possesses a  faint garlic odour) and  produces no
      irritating  symptoms.  For these  reasons a knowledge of its mode of action
     and methods of determining its presence are of  paramount importance. -
     Author's Introduction


781j..  Berger, L.B., Elliott, M.A., Holtz, J.C., and Schrenk, H.H.:   KLesel
     Engines Underground.  U.S.  Bureau  of  Mines Kept. Investigations
      No. 3508, 19to, 48 pp.;  No. 35^1,  19^ 18 pp.

     These reports and the investigations  upon •which, they are based  are
     in  regard to the  factors  that must."be considered if dlesel engines
     are to be used safely underground.  Two four-stroke-cycle  dlesel
     engines, one of maximum rated speed of  lij-000 r.  p.  m.  and  kk b.g.p.
     and the other of  2,600 r.p.  m. and 7 b.h. p., vere  used  in the
     experiments.  Both were in  good  mechanical  condition  and each was
     mounted on a power unit.  Exhaust-gas samples were  taken and required
     analyses run to determine the factors of interest to  the investigators.
             Exhaust-gas  analysis was made for carbon dioxide,  carbon
     monoxide, oxygen,  hydrogen,  and  methane;  these  data then were
     correlated with fuel-air ratio.  It was shown that  the concentration
     of  these constituents is governed by the fuel-air ratio  and varies
     as  does the  relation of fuel to  intake  air.   -   BMB ^83


 785. Bloomfield,  B.D.:   Lift trucks raise  carbon monoxide  level.  Arch.
     Indust. Health (Occupat.  Health  News  Sect.) 15:172-173 (Feb.) 1957-

     A serious carbon  monoxide health hazard was caused by misapplication
     of  propane  gas-powered lift trucks at a new cold storage plant.  The
     new lift trucks were properly serviced  and were believed to be  in
     first-class operating condition.  In  a  large storage  room  maintained
     at  -10*F, two employees were slightly affected  and the operator lost
     consciousness for about k$  minutes.  The freezer room air  was found
     to  contain  kQQ ppin carbon monoxide but  the actual exposure may  have
     been higher. An  electric lift truck  was substituted for the  gas-
     powered truck.  -  Author's Abst.
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786.  Brumbaugh, I.V., and Jones, G.W.:  Carbon monoxide in the products
      of conibustion from natural gas burners.  Technologic Papers of the
      Bureau of Standards 16:431-450, 1921-1922.

      Many natural-gas appliances are notoriously inefficient.  Solid top
      stoves -with low set burners and grid top stoves with low set burners
      consume two to eight times as much gas as stoves with raised burners
      and grid tops.  On account of the liberation of carbon monoxide, a
      poisonous gas, with the products of combustion when the flame
      is improperly aerated it is not practical to place burners at the
      distance from ustensils where the maximum effecie&cy is obtained.
      Burners of the "star" type should be placed about 1 inch, the "slot"
      burner about 3/4 inch, and the "disc" type about 1-1/4 inches from
      utensil.
              From the many tests for carbon monoxide made with five different
      burners and different types of flames at rates of consumption of 6.0
      and 8.0 cubic feet per hour (6480 and 8640 Btu per hour), the maximum
      rate of liberation of carbon monoxide was found to be 0.25 cubic foot
      per houi and was obtained with a very soft flame and a close position
      of utensil which caused the flame to "float" and extend up the side
      of utensil.  It is not a dangerous rate unless one works directly
      over the burner, or several burners are in use at the same time for
      several hours, or the room is unventilated.
              No carbon monoxide was found where the blue inner cone of the
      flame was not allowed to touch the utensil.  A yellow flame will
      produce carbon monoxide at a rate much greater than a blue flame when
      the utensil is so close to the burner as to cause a floating flame.
            A natural gas flame was found to be smothered from deficiency
      of oxygen when  the content of the atmosphere had been diminished to
      about 15.5 per  cent.  When one considers the natural ventilation which
      takes place through the windows and doors it would seem that the danger
      from carbon monoxide poisoning with natural gas top burners is quite
      remote. - Authors' Abst.


 787. Burrell,  G. A., and Gauger, A. ¥.:  Vitiation  of garage  air by automobile
      exhaust gases.  USBMEP  216, 1919, 12pp.

      Experiments were made in a garage with an automobile whose engine was
      run at various  speeds.  Only information  regarding poisoning  due to
      carbon monoxide is given.  IJye  smarting and eye watering and  illness
      were experienced.  Although aldehydes  are not  mentioned, it is quite
      probable  that these were responsible for  at least a part of the effects.
      -BMB 393


 788.  Commins, B.T., Waller, R.E., and Lawther, P.J.:  Air pollution in
      diesel bus garages.  British J. Indust. Med. 14:232-239  (Oct.) 1957.

      Air pollution in 2 London Transport diesel bus garages has been
      studied.  Results of  determinations of smoke,  polycyclic
      hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, aldehydes,  carbon monoxide, and
      sulfur dioxide  are given.  These results  are compared with analyses

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     of the outside air.  Despite large differences in the concentrations
     of smoke inside and outside each garage only small differences in
     the amounts of 3;l|-benzpyrene were noted.  Concentrations of nitrogen
     dioxide and aldehydes did not approach the threshold limit values
     for 8-hour shift exposures adopted by the American Conference of
     Governmental Industrial Hygienists in 1956.  The carbon monoxide
     concentrations were negligible; there was no evidence of abnormal
     concentrations of  sulfur dioxide.  The significance of these
     findings is discussed.  Work on the problem of air pollution by
     motor vehicles is  continuing.  -  APCA
789. Environmental Instrument Package for a Civil Defense Saelter.  Thomas
     A. Edison Research Laboratory, West Orange, H. J., May 1964, 182 pp.
     DDC AD
     A study of instrumentation  for monitoring the environment within a
     civil  defense  survival  shelter was made.  The study plan traced
     hazardous conditions  from the origin of the offending gases and
     vapors through man's  physiological tolerance and effect to the
     required degree of detection instrumentation.  Listed are the
     contaminants and conditions which might be expected, the allowable
     maximum concentrations  for  a typical shelter period, and design
     ranges for suitable instruments.  Detection methods available, in
     commercial instrumentation  are reviewed and analyzed within the
     framework of shelter  requirements.  Representative sample devices
     employing the  most promising techniques were obtained for test.
     An overall evaluation based on accuracy, reliability, ease of
     operation, cost, adequacy of instruction material, and general
     suitability for shelter use is tabulated.  A list of manufacturers
     arranged by product,  allows nonrestrictive selection of a source
     for any or all instrumentation requirements.  Individual specifications
     are drawn for  each of three sizes of shelter packages.  Recommendations
     for new instruments and improvements to available devices are made.
     -  Authors' Abst.
790.  Gilbert,  G.J.,  and Glaser,  G.H.:   Neurologic manifestations of
      chronic carbon monoxide poisoning.  New England J. Med. 261:1217
      1220 (Dec. 10)  1959•

      A detailed case history is given of a patient  suffering from
      chronic  carbon monoxide poisoning.   The condition was verified
      by the finding of a significantly-elevated blood  carbon monoxide
      level.  A detailed occupational history was obtained indicating
      that the patient had been a policeman for 18 years.  His  first
      few "spells" had occurred four years before hospital admission in
      1958 at the age of 50 while he was assigned to directing  heavy
      automobile traffic.  Fearing that his job was  too strenuous, he
      had requested transfer to the police garage and had  served as a
      mechanic there for the past three years.  It was  often necessary
      to run the motors of the police cars in the garage,  particularly
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     in the repair of police radios which required a running motor for
     their operation.  The garage doors were usually left open "but were
     closed often after March to keep out the sun.   The time of  closing
     of the garage doors corresponded to the period of exacerbation of
     the patient's symptomatology.  The patient had anorexia,  weight
     loss, a fluctuating organic mental syndrome,  and recurrent  episodes
     of loss of consciousness, each attack preceded "by a period  of
     dizziness and ataxia.  After the patient had discontinued his
     work, serial electroencephalograms showed progressive clearing
     of focal and paroxysmal abnormalities,  correlated with clinical
     improvement.  It is noted in the text—and commented editorially,
     in the same journal, pp. 1248-12^9—that unless the occupational
     history is carefully taken, the different diagnoses can be
     difficult.  The patient under discussion had received anticonvulsant
     therapy for 2-1/2 years previous to the correct diagnosis.   It is
     noted in the editorial also that there were a few more attacks
     which were always associated with driving a farm tractor.   It was
     found that the patient had a habit of walking behind the  tractor
     where the exhaust was on a level of about his head.   When this
     occupation was also discontinued he recovered fully,  and the
     diagnosis was confirmed.  -  APCA 3185
 791. Hall, D.A., Miller, F.A., Biley, E.G., and Scherberger, R.F.:
     Evaluation of the carbon monoxide hazard from indoor use of
     propane-fueled fork lift trucks.  Amer. Indust. Hyg. Ass. Quart.
     18:355-359 (Dec.) 1957-

     Carbon monoxide concentrations within industrial buildings can be
     reduced by using electric fork lift trucks, general ventilation,
     local exhaust, catalytic units, or by substituting propane for
     gasoline.  As far as the carbon monoxide hazard is concerned,
     propane-fueled trucks offer a compromise between gasoline-fueled
     and electric-powered trucks.  A well-tuned prdpane-buraing engine
     should discharge less than 0.1$ of carbon monoxide at the exhaust
     outlet as compared with 1.5$ in the exhaust gas from a well-tuned
     gasoline-fueled engine and 6 to f% from an engine not properly
     tuned (a more common case).  -  APCA 1635
792. Henderson, Y., and Haggard, H.W.:  Health hazard from automobile
     exhaust gas in city streets, garages and repair shops.  The vertical
     exhaust as a practical measure of amelioration.  J. AM 81:385-
     391 (Aug. 4) 1923.

     The air in city streets where there is considerable traffic is
     found to be contaminated with automobile exhaust gas to a degree
     in excess of proper and well established health standards*  The
     amount of visible smoke is not an index of carbon monoxid content.
            The conditions in garages and repair shops are, as a rule,
     extremely unhealthful.  Many mechanics and drivers suffer almost
     daily partial asphyxiation with headache and other sequelae.
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     Fatal aspbyxiations in private garages are fairly common occurrences
     in the winter.
            The conditions in the  streets of American cities can "be
     largely ameliorated by the use of the vertical exhaust on omnibuses,
     trucks,: taxi cabs,  and private cars with tops.  Cars without tops
     are now negligible in numbers in cities.
            The horizontal exhaust now generally used mixes the gas
     throughout the respiratory zone of street air in a layer only
     about 10 feet deep.  It  thus  dissipates the heat of the gas and
     prevents it from rising  out of the street.  The vertical exhaust,
     on the contrary,  starts  the hot gas upward with comparatively
     little.admixture of air, and  its heat carries it on up out of the
     street.
            With the horizontal exhaust the entire air of the garage
     is rapidly mixed with exhaust gas.  Adequate ventilation of
     garages is at present virtually not feasible.  With the vertical
     exhaust, the heat of the gas  holds it against the ceiling with
     comparatively little admixture of air, and the gas therefore readily
     finds its way out through any ventilator in the roof.  -  Authors'
     Conclusion


793. McBay,  A.J.: Carbon monoxide poisoning.  New England J. Med.
     272:252-253 (Feb. 4) 1965 <

     Medicolegal problems in regard to death by carbon monoxide are dis-
     cussed.  Author states that the most puzzling cases are those produced
     by motor-vehicle exhaust fumes.  About half of the fatal poisonings in
     the U.S. are attributed to CO,  and many chronic sublethal poisonings
     by this gas are unrecognized.  Exhaust of the gasoline engine may pro-
     duce up to 7% CO.  Exhaust of an automobile will saturate the interior
     of a small garage in 15  to 30 minutes with a lethal amount of CO.   The
     affinity of CO for hemoglobin is 200-300 times greater than that of
     oxygen.  Fatal poisoning