REDCo ENVIRONMENTAL

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                  RNAL
                COST EQUATIONS
                FOR INDUSTRIAL
                    BOILERS
                    by

            PEDCo Environmental,  Inc.
               11499 Chester Road
             Cincinnati, Ohio  45246
             CONTRACT NO. 68-02-3074
            Assignment 17 (PN 3400-Q)
              Project Officer

               John Pratapas
          Economic Analysis Branch
    U.S.  ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
RESEARCH  TRIANGLE PARK, NORTH CAROLINA  27711
               January 1980

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                         CONTENTS





                                                         Page



1.     Introduction                                       1-1



2.     Cost Equations                                     2-1



3.     Documentation of Annual Labor Requirements         3-1

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                      1.0  INTRODUCTION

     The  purpose  of this task was  to  modify certain bases used
to develop  costs  and subsequent equations in previous tasks and
to prepare  revised costs and cost equations.  After the comple-
tion  of background  work for the U.S. .Environmental Protection
Agency  (EPA)  in support of New Source Performance Standards for
industrial  boilers,  PEDCo Environmental,  Inc.,  has developed a
computerized  data base  system  for  estimating industrial boiler
costs.  This  system, known  as  the  Boiler Costing System (BCS),
was  developed  under  a  contract  with  the Department  of Energy
(DOE).  Boiler costs submitted during the course of the indus-
trial boiler work  for EPA have been compared with those obtained
by the  use  of the BCS,  and the original equations developed for
EPA  have  been revised  where  appropriate to  reflect  the  BCS
costs.  The equations  have  also been revised to allow for vari-
ous installation  scenarios» (in  addition  to the original single-
boiler, greenfield-installation  concept)  and  to  enable  esti-
mation  of costs for installation of multiple packaged oil-fired
boilers instead of a single, large,  field-erected unit.
     Section  2 presents modified cost equations for  six  basic
types of boilers,  cost equation modifiers for special installa-
tions,  and multipliers  for multiple  packaged-boiler  substi-
tution.  Section 3 presents the basic assumptions used to

                                1-1

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estimate  annual  labor costs in the  BCS  program,  which are com-



parable  to  those used in the  development of the original costs



for EPA.   Two cases  are  analyzed to delineate workers' activi-



ties and manpower requirements on a  per-shift basis.
                                 1-2

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                            SECTION 2

                         COST EQUATIONS


2.1  EQUATIONS

     The simplified  equations for estimating  industrial  boiler

costs are  based on the PEDCo/DOE BCS  program  and previous work
                                        «
for EPA*.  Capital and annual cost equations have been developed

for  various  types  of field-erected  and packaged  boilers that

fire  coal  or  oil.   Equations  for  all  of  the field-erected

boilers are based on the BCS program; equations for the packaged

units  are  based  on  information contained  in  the  footnoted

report.  Cost equations for packaged boilers cannot be developed

from  the BCS  program because it  was not  designed to estimate

costs for  boilers  with  a heat input less  than 100  x 106  Btu/h.

     Capital and annual  cost equations are based on an analysis

of the costs  of several different sizes of a given boiler type.

Capital  costs  are  divided into  three  components  and a specific

equation  has  been  developed for  each component.   The  capital

cost components are equipment, installation, and  indirect costs.

Annual cost  equations  were  originally  separated into variable

and  nonvariable costs.  Because these equations did  not allow

for  flexibility in  labor  and operating requirements,  the have


*  PEDCo  Environmental,  Inc.   Capital  and Operating  Costs  for
  Industrial Boilers.  Prepared under Contract 68-02-3074
  Assignment 7) for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
  Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.  June 1979.
                                2-1

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been expanded  to specify  seven  individual equations:  utilities
and  chemicals,  ash  disposal,  direct  labor,  supervision,  main-
tenance, replacement parts, and overhead.

2.2  SPECIAL CASE INSTALLATIONS
     Tables  1  through  6 present  equations for  estimating  the
cost of a single greenfield  boiler installation,  i.e.,  one in
which  the boiler,  boiler house,  and all  auxiliaries  are com-
pletely  new.   The process plant that  the  new boiler will serve
has  no  influence on  its cost.   It  should  be noted  that  the
equations  are  structured on  the  basis of  "best  fit"  to  the
individual  data  points;  therefore,  they should  not  be used
beyond the range  of the boiler size  indicated.
     In  two special  cases,  cost  equation modifiers  have been
developed  to permit  cost estimating  of field-erected boilers.
     The  first case  (Case C)  considers two  identical,  field-
erected,   greenfield  boiler   installations  being  constructed
simultaneously,   (i.e.,  a dual  unit  facility).   This effects
capital  cost savings through  shared equipment, reduced instal-
lation  costs,  and less  indirect costs.   Annual operating costs
are likewise reduced because the utilities  and  manpower require-
ments  are  shared.   Table  7   presents  Case  C  multipliers  for
field-erected coal-fired  and residual  oil-fired boilers.   Appli-
cation  of the  appropriate modifier will  enable calculation of
the approximate cost of a dual unit  facility.
                                2-2

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        TABLE 1.  COST EQUATIONS FOR COAL-FIRED, PACKAGED,  WATER-TUBE,
                          UNDERFEED-STOKER BOILERS
                        (15 x 106 to 60 x 106 Btu/h)
Capital costs: a'b
p - rjmpr*+-
Installation
T nrii y*of"t /"net c
Annual costs:3'
Utilities and
tiiemi ca i 3
nan disposal
UireCi laDur
Supervi sion
Mai ntenance
Replacement
parts
Overhead
fifi T3? n°*622 /*1»800\ 4 971:7 no-fiifl
53,219 Q°'6S (n'^°0) + 2882 Q0'7.96
dQ IfiR nft>fi*^ /ll.SOO.n. a?K
HU , 1OO y " t ,, J
CF r Q ^ -ll.SOOvn-Qx A ,ft..,
°-6°[CU^xlO-s)Q*3.690xlO^]( H 10"6
shifts x 2190
8760 * •*
*
.shifts x 2190v rq + 5.3 x 10§
1 8760 J L 99.29 - Q J
, shifts x 2190, rQ + 4.955 x 106 .
1 8760 ; L 99.23 - Q J
U7nt: v -ink r, - i a^a v ^nP^*s fiii^P-P^i • 002*
»• ' • H
0.3(direct labor) + 0.26(all labor and replacement parts)
a
  Costs in June 1978 dollars.

   Q - heat input rate, 106 Btu/h.
   H = heating value of coal, Btu/lb.
  CF = boiler capacity factor, decimal.
   A = ash content of coal, %.

  Does not include fuel costs.
                                     2-3

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   TABLE 2.  COST EQUATIONS FOR COAL-FIRED, FIELD-ERECTED, WATER-TUBE,
                         SPREADER STOKER BOILERS
                      (75 x 106 to 250 x 106 Btu/h)
Capital cost:a'b
Equipment
Installation
Indirect costs
Annual cost:3'
Utilities and
chemicals
Ash disposal
Direct labor
Supervision
Maintenance
Replacement
parts
Overhead
f Q \/Hv"ft.as
"(7.5963 x 10~8 Q) + 4.7611 x uf5/vll,800'
/ Q ' \/H»-o.as
"(8.9174 x 10"8 Q) + 5.5891 x in"*'"11'800'
/ Q \f H » -n-as
v - - 'Ml ftflfl'
(1.2739 x 10 7 Q) + 7.9845 x 10 5 il»BUU
CF (29,303 + 719.8 Q)
CF [(547,320 + 66,038 In ^)(j|p)°'9754] (0.36)
fshifts x 2190 ,f«Q« D« 5 ... Q9>
8760 ;^£Ui,ot'o • a.jDo v )
.shifts x 2190 W13C OOQ,
C 8760 JUJo.JOo;
, shifts x 2190v.--07 Of). n «-. 0?v
50,000 + 1000 Q
0.3 (direct labor) + 0.26 (all labor and replacement parts)
Costs in June 1978 dollars.

 Q = heat input, 106 Btu/h.
 H ~ heating value of coal, Btu/lb.
CF = capacity factor, decimal.
 A = ash content of coal, %.
Does not include fuel costs.
                                   2-4

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           TABLE 3.  COST EQUATIONS FOR FIELD-ERECTED,  WATER-TUBE
                        PULVERIZED COAL-FIRED BOILERS
                       (200 x 106 to 700 x 106 Btu/h)
Capital costs:a>b

  Equipment

  Installation

  Indirect costs
            .a,b
Annual costs:
  Utilities and
  chemicals
  Ash disposal


  Direct labor


  Supervision


  Maintenance
  Replacement
  parts

  Overhead
[4,926,066 - 0.00337 H2]

1,547,622.7 + 6740.026 Q - 0.0024133 H2

1,257,434.72 + 6271.316 Q - 0.00185721 H2
CF (189,430 + 1476.7 Q)
CF[(-641.08

                               Q)
                   >985 . 20,636,709,
          219°
              K-ltl62.910 + 256,604 In Q)
(180,429 + 405.4 Q)
0.3 (direct labor) + 0.26(all labor and replacement parts)
  Costs in June 1978 dollars.

b   Q = heat input, 106 Btu/h.
    H = heating value of coal, Btu/lb.
   CF = capacity factor, decimal.
    A = ash content of coal, %.

c Does not include fuel costs.
                                      2-5

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           TABLE 4.   COST EQUATIONS FOR PACKAGED FIRE-TUBE  BOILERS
                         (5 x 106 to 29 x 106 Btu/h)

Capital costs:3'
Equipment
Installation
Indirect costs

Residual
17,360 Qc
4324 Q +
2317 Q +
Fuel type

oil Distillate oil or natural
>• SS7
56177
29749 ,
15,981 QO'561
4261 Q + 56041
2256 Q + 28649

gas

Annual costs (all fuel types):3'
  Utilities and
  chemicals
  Direct labor
  Supervision
  Maintenance
  Replacement
  parts

  Overhead
 CF
„*£ (580 Q
3900)
                              2190
              } (105)30n)
                              2190
                                            > -f Q>
   (160° Q * 8000)'  1f
                                        15
                              2190
(708.7 Q + 4424)
0.3 (direct labor) + 0.26 (all  labor & replacement  parts)
  Costs in June 1978 dollars.

   Q = heat input, 106 Btu/h.
  CF = capacity factor, decimal.

  Does not include fuel costs.
                                     2-6

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    TABLE 5.   COST EQUATIONS FOR PACKAGED,  WATER-TUBE  BOILERS FIRING

                      (30 x 106 to 150 x 106 Btu/h)
             .a,b
Capital costs:

  Equipment

  Installation

  Indirect


Annual cost:3'

  Utilities and
  chemicals


  Direct labor



  Supervision


  Maintenance
Replacement
parts
           ^
Overhead
                                                   OteMlktt 0
15,925 QO-77S

54,833 QO-364

16,561 g
                                                             °*
                      (202 Q + 24,262)
 shifts x 2190
      8760
                                ) C-
                                                Q2
                  	-_]
(8.135 x 10 «  Q -  1.585  x  10 2)
                   shifts x 2190.
                        8760
                fl|M7,000  + 77,190)
                    7185
                    0.3 (direct labor) + 0.26 (all labor and replacement parts)
Costs in June 1978 dollars.

  Q = heat input, 106 Btu/h.
 CF = capacity factor, decimal.

Does not include fuel costs.
                                   2-7

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       TABLE 6.   COST EQUATIONS FOR FIELD-ERECTED,  WATER-TUBE  BOILERS
                       FIRING RESIDUAL OIL/NATURAL  GAS
                       (200 x 106 to 700 x 106 Btu/h)
Capital costs: a'b

  Equipment

  Installation

  Indirect costs
             3'
Annual costs:
  Utilities and
  chemicals
  Direct labor
  Supervision
  Maintenance
  Replacement
  parts

  Overhead.
1,024,258 + 8458 Q

579,895 + 5636 Q

515,189 + 4524 Q
CF (43,671.7 + 479.6 Q)
                (173'197 * 734
shifts x 2190.
- 8760 - '
                     9,n
                    ,250
                                               3.094 x 107
                <32'029 + 320'4
(50,000 + 250 Q)
0.3 (direct^ labor) + 0.26 (all labor and replacement parts)
  Costs in June 1978 dollars.

    Q = heat input, 106 Btu/h.
   CF = capacity factor, decimal.

  Does not include fuel costs.
                                      2-8

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    TABLE 7.   CASE C MULTIPLIERS FOR DETERMINING THE COST  OF  A DUAL-UNIT
    FACILITY FOR FIELD-ERECTED COAL-FIRED AND RESIDUAL OIL-FIRED BOILERS3
                      Cost equation
Multiplier
        Coal-fired boilers:
          Equipment and installation
          Indirect costs
          Utilities, chemicals, and ash disposal
          All labor, replacement parts, and overhead

        Residual oil-fired boilers:

          Equipment and installation
          Indirect costs
          Utilities and chemicals
          All labor, replacement parts, and overhead
   0.874
   0.628
   0.848
   0.767
   0.934
   0.672
   0.845
   0.799
a The  estimated cost  for one of  these boilers  is  determined by  modifying
  the cost equations for a single boiler.
                                     2-9

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     The  other  special case  (Case  E)considers the installation
of a single new field-erected boiler at an existing steam plant.
Existing  auxiliary equipment, fuel handling and storage systems,
buildings,  and  waste treatment  systems  can often be  shared or
modified  to permit use by  an additional  new boiler.  Installa-
tion  and indirect  costs  are  also  less than  for  a single-unit
greenfield  installation.   Reduced annual  operating requirements
result  from the use  of a  common manpower  pool.   Equipment and
system  sharing  reduces the cost of replacement parts.  Table 8
presents  Case  E  multipliers  for  field-erected  coal-fired and
residual  oil-fired  boilers.  The approximate capital  and annual
operating costs  for installation  of a  boiler at  an existing
facility  can be determined.

2.3  MULTIPLE PACKAGED WATER-TUBE BOILERS THAT FIRE RESIDUAL OIL/
     NATURAL GAS
     PEDCo  investigated the  cost  of  installing  multiple pack-
aged,  water-tube  boilers  that fire  residual oil/natural  gas
instead of  a single field-erected unit.  Multipliers were devel-
oped  to  estimate  the cost of  multiple  packaged  residual oil/
natural  gas boilers,  based  on the  cost of  one  unit  and the
                         i
number  of  units  required  to  equal the capacity  of one field-
erected unit.  Determination of  the annual costs for the multiple-
packaged-unit installation  entails  the use of the same equations
as those  used to calculate the  annual  costs of a field-erected
unit of equivalent  capacity.   The Case C and Case E multipliers
applicable  to field-erected annual  costs  also apply to multiple
packaged  water-tube boilers that fire residual oil/natural gas.
                                 2-10

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TABLE 8.  CASE  E MULTIPLIERS FOR DETERMINING THE COST OF  A  NEW FIELD-ERECTED
    COAL-FIRED  OR  OIL-FIRED BOILER  BEING  ADDED TO  AN EXISTING  STEAM PLANT
               Cost equation
Multiplier
     Coal-fired boilers:
          Equipment and installation
          Indirect costs
          Utilities, chemicals, and ash disposal
          All labor, replacement parts, and overhead

     Residual oil-fired boilers:
          Equipment and installation
          Indirect costs
          Utilities and chemicals
          All labor, replacement parts, and overhead
  0.835
  0.602
  1
  0.539
  0.937
  0.674
  1
  0.536
                                     2-11

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     The following multipliers are used to estimate the costs of
multiple packaged residual oil/gas boilers to replace one equiva-
lent  capacity  field-erected,  residual  oil/gas  boiler.   The
capital  cost multipliers  are applied  to  the cost  of  a single
package unit.
          Equipment and installation cost multiplier:
             M! = 0.76n + 0.263, where
             Mj  =  multiplier  for  equipment and   installation
                  equations
              n = number of packaged units

          Indirect cost multiplier:
             M2 = 0.551n + 0.181, where
             M2 = multiplier  for indirect costs
              n = number of packaged units

Based  on the  equations shown  above,  Table  9  shows an  example
case  of  cost  calculations  for the  installation  of  multiple
packaged boilers to replace a single field-erected boiler.
                                 2-12

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        TABLE 9.   CAPITAL COSTS OF INSTALLING  MULTIPLE  PACKAGED
         OIL-FIRED UNITS INSTEAD OF A SINGLE FIELD-ERECTED UNIT*
One packaged unit
(100 x 106 Btu/h)
Equipment $ 565,000
Installation 293,100
Subtotal 858,100
Indirect
costs 278,700
Total $1,136,800
four packaged units
[4 x (100 x 106 Btu/h)]
Mj = 3.303 $1,866,200
Mj = 3.303 968,100
2,834,300
M2 = 2.385 664,700
$3,499,000
per unit $ 874,800
One field-erected unit
(400 x 106 Btu/h)
$4,407,500
2,834,300
7,241,800
2,324,800
$9,566,600
Four 100 x 106 Btu/h packaged boilers instead of one 400 x  106  Btu
field-erected boiler.
                                   2-13

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                            SECTION 3
           DOCUMENTATION OF ANNUAL LABOR REQUIREMENTS

     The labor  requirements  reflected in the cost equations for
field-erected boilers (Section 2) are based on the PEDCo/DOE BCS
program,  whereas  manpower  requirements  for  packaged  boilers
reflect information contained in PEDCo.'.s June 1979 report (foot-
noted in Section 2).
     Modern  power plant  design  practice mandates  the  use  of
high-efficiency  boilers,  burners,  heat  exchangers,  and  any
justifiable  heat reclaim  systems.   Included are  such  items  as
economizers, blow-down heat exchangers, low excess-air controls,
combustion  and  flue gas monitors,  special high-efficiency bur-
ners,  larger condensate  return  systems,  and  increased insul-
ation.  All  of these require  direct and  maintenance  labor for
their continued, reliable operation.
     The  operation  and maintenance  (O&M)  costs developed  by
PEDCo  are  based largely on  the  practices observed during plant
inspections  of  utility plants   and  more  than  50  major  fuel
burning installations (MFBI's) across the nation.  During these
inspections  we  frequently discussed  operating  and  maintenance
costs with plant supervisors.  Visual inspections of the general
condition of the facility (boiler, auxiliaries and control
                                3-1

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equipment)  indicated  a  generally poor  maintenance  level  on
existing MFBI equipment.   Among  the items noted were inoperable
or marginally operable  equipment,  steam and  condensate  leaks,
deteriorated  insulation,  instrumentation  that  was  obviously out
of calibration,  as  high as  150 percent excessive  air  levels,
uninsulated  steam  and  condensate  lines,  condensate  being sent
directly to the drain, and so on.
     Some plants,  however, were exemplary  in their operational
and maintenance  procedures,  and costs  at these plants serve as
the basis for PEDCo O&M costs.   We  believe that  a  new  boiler
plant today would be better maintained and operated than most of
the  existing  plants.   The  economic  importance  of  efficient
operation  and scheduled  maintenance  cannot be overstated con-
sidering  the  price of  fuel  and  the increasing regulatory pres,-
sures for clean  operation.   Although this basis for O&M costing
may represent only the top 10 percent of existing boiler facili-
ties,  it would certainly be in error to base costs on the low or
even the  average O&M costs documented by many  facilities today.
     Table 10 lists the  annual  manpower  requirements developed
by PEDCo  for the six basic  boiler types  at various capacities.
                         »
Requirements are based on operating 24 hours per day, 7 days per
week.   The  labor force is established  on an annual average and
is not  discounted  for a unit's  capacity  factor.   If the  boiler
is shut  down for extended periods  or on  weekends  and personnel
can be reassigned to other jobs, the labor force can, of course,
                                3-2

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TABLE 10.  ANNUAL MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS FOR  SELECTED
                BOILER SIZES BY TYPE
Heat input, 106 Btu/h
Direct labor
Supervision
Maintenance
Heat input, 106 Btu/h
Direct labor
Supervision
Maintenance
Heat input, 106 Btu/h
Direct labor
Supervision
Maintenance
Heat input, 106 Btu/h
Direct labor
Supervision
Maintenance
Heat input, 106 Btu/h
Direct labor
Supervision
Maintenance
Heat input, 106 Btu/h
Direct labor
Supervision
Maintenance
Field-erected oil /gas units
200
12
3
3
400
18
4
5
500
20
4
6
600
23
4
7
700
26
4
8
Field-erected stoker units
75
9
4
3
100
10
4
4
150
13
4
4
200
17
4
6
250
20
4
8
Field-erected pulverized coal units
200
18
4
6
400
27
6
12
500
31
6
16
600
36
6
16
700
40
6
16
Packaged stoker units
15 30
5 6
2 2
2 2
60
7
4
4
Packaged oil /gas units
30
4
2
1
60
4
2
2
100
6
2
2
150
8
2
2
Packaged firetube oil/gas units
5
4
.5
15
4
2
1
29
4
2
1
                         3-3

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be  adjusted  accordingly.   If, however,  the load factor  is  low
simply because the boiler is not fired at capacity,  the manpower
requirements are not reduced.
     It must be emphasized that the labor requirements reflect a
new boiler in  a single-unit powerhouse.  If a boiler were being
installed  into an  existing powerhouse, the  labor  requirements
could be  significantly reduced.   Previous  analysis  of costs for
such  an installation  (Case E)  reveals that  the assumed labor
force  of  the  existing powerplant could be  utilized  (to  some
extent)  to operate and maintain the new boiler.   The analysis
showed  that  such  usage of labor would mean that the requirement
for  an incremental  labor force  (for  the  new boiler)  would be
about  half that for  a new boiler  in  an individual powerhouse.
The  per  shift breakdowns  of  job  functions  for  this  Case  E
scenario  become essentially half  the  allotments described pre-
viously.
     A breakdown  of the different duties performed by the labor
force is included to support the labor requirements developed by
PEDCo.   Two  cases  are  examined  in detail:  a field-erected,
pulverized-coal-fired  (PC)  boiler  with a heat input capacity of
400  x 10s Btu/h,  and  a  field-erected, spreader stoker boiler
with a heat input capacity of 200 x 106 Btu/h.
     The  PC  boiler  would require  labor for  the coal thawing/
unloading operations, coal pile/reclaim operations,  pulverizers/
feeders,  the  boiler  itself  (operators,   feedwater  treatment
system, and steam/condensate return systems),  bottom ash/fly ash
systems, and other auxiliary items.
                                3-4

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     On an average per-shift basis, 6.75 men are involved in the
direct labor  functions of the  PC unit.  Two  and three-fourths
men per  shift are assigned to  the  coal unloading,  reclaim,  and
in-plant  storage activities.   These  areas include  the thawing
operation, coal pile movement and reclaim, and monitoring of the
movement  of  coal into the bunkers  by  conveyors.   They may also
have to  monitor the feeders  and  pulverizer operation.  Two men
per  shift  are  assigned to  boiler  operation,   which includes
altering boiler  fuel and air feed rates at required load levels,
                                      •' <
operating the burner and pulverizer, steam temperature/pressure,
       .             i
sequencing  soot  blowers,  logging  boiler operations,  and per-
forming other associated functions.  Two men are  assigned to the
operation  of the  ash  handling system.   They  must periodically
monitor  the  removal of bottom  ash  to  the silo storage, as well
as  the clinker  breaker,  pneumatic  system/ and  silo dust sup-
pression  systems.   They also must perform such  auxiliary func-
tions such as monitoring feedwater treatment, deaerator, conden-
sate, and makeup water operations.
     It is somewhat inaccurate  to  "assign" these  laborers to any
given  jobs.   The coal  feed and ash handling system manpower may
rotate duties or incorporate their efforts to  solve any given
operational problem in this area at any given time.
     On  a PC  boiler with  a capacity  of 400  x  106  Btu/h,  for
example,  the per-shift  breakdown for  four shifts may be more
realistically shown below:
                                3-5

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Shift
1
2
3
4 (swing)
Coal handling
5
2
2
2
Boiler crew
2
2
2
2
Ash/Auxiliary
2
2
2
2
This manpower arrangement accounts for unloading the coal during
the  first  shift.   This  breakdown is  again an  annual  average
configuration;  coal  is not usually unloaded daily (once a week
is more likely).  On larger PC units (e.g., 700 x 106 Btu/h) the
coal unloading  operations will most probably require more man-
power  usage on  the first two shifts to, handle the coal quanti-
ties of the boiler.
     The direct labor manpower requirements  for a field-erected,
spreader  stoker boiler with  a  capacity of  200  x 106 Btu/h are
functionally  similar  to  those  for  the  pulverized coal-fired
boiler  just discussed, except  that  the manpower  level is re-
duced  to one  coal handler,  one  boiler  operator,   and  two and
one-fourth  ash  handler/auxiliary  system  operators.    In this
per-shift breakdown  two men  will  probably be required for cer-
tain  coal  handling  functions   (for  safety reasons),   and the
assignment  of  specific  duties  becomes more  difficult  to  iden-
tify.   The  operation of  the  stoker .itself  takes the place (to
some  extent) of  pulverizer operation  in  the previous example.
     Supervision  and maintenance  labor for the two  cases  are as
follows:

Supervisors
Mai ntenance
Field-erectd PC stoker
(400 x 106 Btu/h)
6
12
Field-erected stoker
(200 x 106 Btu/h)
4
6
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On  an average per-shift basis,  this  amounts to 1.5 supervisors
for the  PC unit and 1 for the spreader stoker boiler.  At least
one person is required per shift to be in responsible charge of
operations  at coal-fired units.  An  average of 1.5 supervisors
per shift is used for all of  the  large PC units, realistically
representing  two  supervisors  each  for  the  first  and  second
shifts and  one each on the third and fourth shifts.
     Maintenance  labor is that  labor  which  is utilized to pro-
vide  reliable,  safe  operation of the boiler, coal handling, and
other  auxiliary  systems.   It is  assumed that a  high  level of
maintenance will  be performed  during scheduled boiler outages.
The average annual maintenance  manpower  requirements listed in
Table  10  reflect these  occasionally high  maintenance levels.
     On   an annual  per-shift  basis   realistic utilization  of
maintenance labor  would  be  concentrated into  the first two
shifts.   For  example,  in a PC unit with  a capacity of 400 x 106
Btu/h the breakdown would be 4, 4, 2, and 2 for the four shifts,
respectively,  which  would  allow  the required   coal  handling
system maintenance and most of  the  scheduled maintenance to be
conducted during  daylight  hours.   This approach also allows for
procurement of parts  during normal  business hours, and makes
available  a concentration  of maintenance labor during the first
shift, concurrent with coal handling operations (which typically
include high-maintenance items).
     In  summary,  the  PEDCo  estimates include  a  labor  schedule
with sufficient manpower to perform more  than a minimal level of
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maintenance.  The application  of this schedule in many existing
plants would significantly reduce operating problems and thereby
increase productivity and profitability.  Also worthy of serious
consideration  is the  conservation  of  energy to  be  realized.
Although increased  routine  maintenance and modern boiler opera-
ting  practices,  such  as  flue  gas   and  combustion monitoring,
increase  manpower  requirements  above typical  historic levels,
such  practices also promote  efficient fuel usage.  This  is in
addition  to the  energy  saving subsystems and components incor-
porated in  the  new  boiler designs.
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