91ST CONGRESS \         QTTMATW           / DOCUMENT
 2d Session  f         SENATE           j No_ 9l_^
                THIRD REPORT
                     OF THE
                AND WELFARE
                     TO THE
                 IN COMPLIANCE WITH
                Public Law 90-148
         THE AIR QUALITY ACT OF  1967
                   MARCH 1070
      APRIL 27, 1970.—Ordered to he printed with illustrations

 42-348             WASHINGTON : 1970
    For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
              Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 25 cents


                 JENNINGS BANDOLPH, West Virginia, Chairman
STEPHEN M. YOUNG, Ohio              JOHN SHERMAN COOPER, Kentucky
EDMUND 6. MUSKIE, Maine              J. CALEB BOGOS, Delaware
B EVERETT JORDAN, North Carolina      HOWARD II. BAKER, JR., Tennessee
BIRCH BAYH. Indiana                  ROBERT J. ROLE, Kansas
JOSEPH M. MONTOYA, New Mexico         EDWARD J. C1URNEY, Florida
WILLIAM B. BPONG, JR., Virginia          ROBERT W. PACKWOOD, Oregon
                   RICHARD B. ROYCE, Ckitf Clirl; and Staff Director
             J. B. HCYETT, JR., Atsiitant Chitj Clirk and.iuatant Staff Director
                           BARRT MEYER, Counsel
                   BAILET GUARD, Aitiitant Chief Clerk (Minority)
                       Toil C. JORLING, Minority Cwiutl
                 and STEWART E. McCLCRE, Professional Staff Members,
                and WALTER PLANET, Department of Cmnmetct FeUnw
                   SENATE RESOLUTION 370

          Submitted by Mr. Randolph of West Virginia

                     IN THE SENATE OF  THE  UNITED STATES,
                                           Agreed to April 27, 1,970.
  Resolved, That  there be  printed, with  illustrations,  ns a Senate
document the third report of the Secretary of  Health, Education, and
Welfare,  entitled  "Progress  in  the Prevention  and Control of  Air
Pollution", submitted to the Congress in accordance with section 306,
Public Law 90-148, the Air Quality Act of 1967.  and  that there be
printed two thousand five hundred additional copies of such document
for the use of the Committee on Public Works.
  Attest:                                  FRANCIS  R.  VALEO,

                LETTER  OF  TRANSMITTAL
                                  Washington, March 13,1970.
President oj the Senate,
Speaker of the House,
Washington, D.C.
  GENTLEMEN: In accordance with section 306 of the Clean Air Act,
as amended, we are pleased to transmit our third report to the Congress
on Progress in the Prevention and Control oj Air Pollution,
  This report covers the calendar year ending December  31, 1969,
and reflects the status of our activities  as of that date. It describes
our progress during  1969 in carrying out the mandate the Congress
has given the  Department to provide leadership of the Nation's efforts
to acquire greater knowledge of air pollution and to bring it  under
effective control.
                                 ROBERT H. FINCH, Secretary.


  In accordance with section 306 of the Clean Air Act, as amended.
the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare submits an annual
report to the Congress on  progress under  the Act. This report is the
third such report.
  Section 306 reads as follows:

  SEC. 306. Not later than six  months after the effective date of this section and
not later than January  10 of each calendar year beginning after such date, the
Secretary shall report to the Congress on measures taken toward implementing
the purpose and intent of this Act including but not limited to (1) the progress
and problems associated with  control of automotive exhaust emissions and the
research efforts related thereto; (2) the development of air quality criteria and
recommended emission control requirements; (3) the status of enforcement actions
taken pursuant to this Act; (4) the status of State ambient air standards setting,
including such  plans for implementation and enforcement as have been devel-
oped; (5) the extent of development and expansion of air pollution monitoring
systems; (6) progress and problems related to development of new and improved
control techniques; (7) the development of  quantitative and qualitative instru-
mentation to monitor emissions and air quality;  (8) standards set or under con-
sideration pursuant to title II of this  Act; (9) the status of State, interstate, and
local pollution  control programs  established pursuant to and assisted  by this
Act; and (10)  the reports and recommendations made by the President's Air
Quality Advisory Board.

  This report  contains information on all of  the  areas of activity
mentioned in section 306,  though not  in the same order. The section
immediately preceding Chapter I explains how the report is organized.


Preface	     v
Summary						     ix
Organization of the report	     xi
  I.  Effects and Surveillance:
         A.  Air quality criteria.				      1
         B.  Health effects research	-,_     2
         C.  Economic effects research				     4
         D. Air quality monitoring	     5
         E. National air data bank			     9
         F. Air monitoring instrumentation development		     10
         Ci. Meteorological, chemical, and physical research	     11
         H. Research grants	     13
 II.  Control and Compliance:
         A. Air quality control regions	     14
         B. Public information and education		     20
         C. Assistance to State  and local control agencies		—     20
         D. Manpower development			     23
         E. Federal abatement activities		     24
         F. Control of air pollution at Federal facilties		     25
         G. Stationary source control technology research and  develop-
               ment					     2")
         H. National motor vehicle pollution control standards	     30
         I.  Mobile source control technology research and development- .     33
         J. Registration of motor vehicle fuel additives		     35
         K. Jet aircraft pollution control	     35
III.  Other Activities:
         A. Technical information	     37
         B. International activities		     37
         C. Advisory groups	     38



  The Clean Air Act,  as  amended,  authorizes the Department  of
Health, Education,  and Welfare to carry on a national program of air
pollution research,  control, and  training activities  in concert with
State and local governments. The past year has been one of marked
progress in this intergovernmental attack on the Nation's air pollu-
tion problem. Among  the accomplishments of the January 1968-
December 1969 period, the following  were particularly significant:
     • The machinery for regional control of air pollution was set  in
    motion in 25 air quality control regions. State governments have
    begun to adopt sulfur oxides and participate air quality stand-
     ards for these regions.
     • In accordance with the intent of the Clean Air Act,  there has
    been a very high degree of public participation in State hearings
     on air  quality standards for the air quality  control  regions.
     The quantity  and quality of citizen  involvement are unprece-
     dented in the history  of air pollution  control efforts.
     •With the beginning  of  the  1970  model year, more  stringent
    standards for the control of air pollution from new motor vehicles
     went into effect.  For the first time,  smoke standards  for new
     diesel-powered vehicles were placed in effect.
     • Research and development work on low-pollution engines for
     motor vehicles was initiated. The initial projects relate to the
     design of Rankine-cycle engines for passenger cars.
     • There was  a  continued expansion of State and local air  pollu-
     tion control activities; there were increases in State and  local
     expenditures, budgeted positions,  and air monitoring activities
     and further progress in adoption of laws and regulations.
   Figures 15 and 16 on pages 38  and 39 outline the recent budgetary
and manpower history of the program being conducted  under the
Clean Air Act.
     42-348*—70	2


   This report is organized in such a way as to coincide as closely as
possible  with the actual  structure of the National Air Pollution
Control Administration's program. For purposes of planning and budg-
eting, the program is divided into two broad categories of activities:
Effects and Surveillance, which encompasses those activities necessary
to meet the  Nation's need for improved  knowledge of  the nature,
magnitude, and effects of the problem of  air pollution; and Control
and  Compliance,  which  encompasses  those  activities  necessary  to
insure  timely development  and  application  of  techniques for  pre-
venting and  controlling air pollution. In  this report, most  activities
are reported under one of these categories.
   In section  306  of the  Clean Air  Act, information of ten specific
areas of activity is requested. In this  report, as in previous ones,  all
the requested information is  furnished; however,  it is not arranged in
precisely the  manner outlined in section 306.  The  following guide is
provided to assist the reader in finding information on any of the areas
of activity specifically mentioned in section 306:

                                SECTION 306

                                                               In this report
                                                        Chapter     Section
 1, Progress and problems associated with the control of automotive exhaust emissions
    and the research efforts related thereto	-			.--	II         H, I.I
 2. Development of air quality criteria and recommended emission control requirements. I         A
 3. Status of enforcement actions taken pursuant to this act	  II         E
 4. Status of State ambient air standards setting, including such plans for implementation
    and enforcement as have been developed	 II         A, 8
 5. Extent of development and expansion of air pollution monitoring systems	  I         D, E
 6. Progress and problems related to development of new and improved control tech-
    niques			 II         G, I
 7. Development of quantitative and qualitative instrumentation to monitor emissions
    and air quality..				 I         f
 g. Standards set or under consideration pursuant to title 11 of this act	 II         H
 9. Status of State, interstate, and local pollution control programs established pursuant
    to and assisted by this act					IE         C, 0
10. The reports and recommendations  made by the  President's Air Quality Advisory
    Board..	 Ill        C




  This  chapter covers those activities by which  the National  Air
Pollution Control Administration {NAPCA) seeks to define and docu-
ment the adverse effects of air pollution on public health and welfare
and the nature and magnitude of air pollution problems affecting the
Nation's communities. Effects of air pollution are identified through
research; in this regard, NAPCA's research efforts are divided into
two principal areas—studies  of the effects of air pollution on human
health and studies of economic effects, especially damage to materials
and vegetation. Knowledge derived from such research is summarized
in ah" quality criteria documents, which thereby define the health and
welfare  factors that State governments must take into  account in
setting air quality standards for air quality control regions. Data on
the nature and magnitude of  air pollution are derived from air quality
monitoring activities, including NAPCA's own monitoring activities
and those conducted by State and local agencies, and from studies of
air pollution sources.  Also  covered in this  chapter  are  NAPCA's
efforts to gain an improved understanding of the interactions between
air pollution and environmental factors. The totality of knowledge
derived  from effects and surveillance activities is a vital element in
evaluating the Nation's needs for prevention and control of air pollu-
tion and in  planning and carrying out programs capable of meeting
those needs.

A. To develop and publish air quality criteria documents  reflecting the
     latest available scientific knowledge of the health and welfare hazards
     of major air pollutants
  Air quality criteria documents summarize available scientific infor-
mation  on the extent to which individual air pollutants  or combina-
tions of  pollutants are hazardous to public health and welfare. Publica-
tion of air quality criteria is an integral part of implementation of the
Clean Air Act, as amended; under the Act, issuance of criteria and the
accompanying reports  on air pollution control techniques, is the signal
for State governments to begin the air quality standard-setting process
in air quality control regions.
  Initial drafts of air quality criteria  documents are prepared by
NAPCA staff members and/or consultants and contractors. Prior to
publication, the documents undergo an extensive review by the Na-
tional Air Quality Criteria  Advisory  Committee, chapter authors.
consultants, NAPCA staff members, and personnel of other Federal
agencies. In addition,  NAPCA has taken steps to involve both the
National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engi-
neering  in the air quality criteria development process.
  On February  11, 1969, NAPCA published the first  air quality
criteria  documents. These documents  deal with  two of the most
common types of air pollutants—sulfur oxides and particulate matter.
The  sulfur  oxides criteria document  reviews  and summarizes  the
results of over 300 studies and indicates that:  "Under the conditions


prevailing in areas where the studies were conducted, adverse health
effects were noticed when 24 hour average levels of sulfur  dioxide
exceeded 300 micrograras per cubic meter (0.11 parts per million) for
three to four days. Adverse health effects also were noted when the
annual  mean  level of sulfur dioxide  exceeded 115 micrograms per
cubic meter (0.04 parts per million). Visibility was reduced to about
five miles at sulfur dioxide levels of 285 micrograms per cubic meter
(0.10 parts per million); adverse effects on materials were observed
at an annual  mean of 345 micrograms per  cubic meter (0.12 parts
per million); and adverse effects on vegetation were observed at an
annual  mean  of  85 micrograms per  cubic meter  (0.03 parts  per
  The particulate matter criteria document reviews and summarizes
results of approximately 350 studies of the effects of particulate air
pollution and indicates that: "Under the conditions prevailing in areas
where the studies were conducted, adverse health effects were noted
when the annual mean level of particulate matter exceeded 80 micro-
grams per cubic meter; visibility was  reduced to about five miles at
concentrations  of  150 micrograms per  cubic meter; and adverse
effects on materials were observed at an annual mean exceeding 60
micrograms  per cubic meter."
  In early 1970, NAPCA plans to publish air quality criteria for carbon
monoxide, photochemical  oxidants, and hydrocarbons. Air  quality
criteria  for nitrogen oxides, lead, fluorides, and polynuclear  organic
compounds are scheduled for publication early in 1971.
  During the past year, NAPCA examined a number of other pollut-
ants with respect to their occurrence,  effects, measurement methods,
sources, and control technology. After reviewing the findings, NAPCA
established a tentative schedule for development of air quality  criteria
from 1972 to  1975. Although recognizing that significant scientific
evidence may become  available which would  make  it necessary to
change  the schedule NAPCA currently  intends to publish  criteria
for  odors  (including toxological and corrosion aspects of  hydrogen
sulfide), asbestos, hydrogen chlorides, beryllium, and chlorine  gas
in 1972. Scheduled for publication in 1973 are  criteria documents on
arsenic, nickel, and vanadium and their compounds. Criteria scheduled
for issuance  in  1974 will cover  barium, boron, chromium (including
chromic acid),  mercury, and selenium and  then* compounds.  Air
quality criteria for pesticides and radioactive substances are scheduled
for publication in 1975.
B. To identify and interpret the risk to fwalth resulting from exposure to
     the major air pollutants, singly or in combination
  Comprehensive knowledge of the effects of air pollution on public
health is a prerequisite to the development of air quality criteria  and
their use in establishment of meaningful air quality standards. NAPCA
conducts and supports a broad spectrum of health research activities.
including laboratory, clinical, and epidemiological studies to  expand
the quantity and improve the quality of the knowledge available.
  In the area of epidemiology, NAPCA has initiated a major new effort
to observe and measure, on a continuing basis, the health of the Na-
tion's population in relation to air pollution exposure. For this purpose,
a health effects surveillance network is being set up. Currently, the
network is in operation in Birmingham, Alabama, and Charlotte  and

Greensboro, North Carolina. Before the end of Fiscal 1970, operations
are scheduled to begin in three midwestern cities; selection of the cities
has not been made, as yet. Additional cities will be added to the net-
work in future years. The network  will cover not just cities with
chronically high levels of air pollution  but also cities with intermediate
and  low levels; this will permit comparison of  the state of persons'
health in relation to varying  degrees  of exposure to  air pollution.
Initially, cities are being selected on the basis of relative levels of
particulate matter and sulfur dioxide. Subsequent cities will represent
various geographic areas, as well as different climatological conditions,
and will also be selected on the basis of relative levels of photochemical
oxidants, trace metals, hydrocarbons,  and other significant pollutants.
Within each area, monitoring will be  conducted  in various sections of
both the central city  and suburbs. This monitoring will consist of
regular measurements of the levels of air pollutants plus continuous
observation of fluctuations in selected health characteristics.
   Laboratory studies,  in  which animals are exposed  to pollutants
under controlled conditions  are an extremely  useful  and  necessary
mechanism for determining  dose-response relationships. Knowledge
derived from such studies often leads  to more refined laboratory work
with animals,  to clinical studies on humans, and eventually  to numan
epidemiological studies designed to show the effects of air pollution
on a segment  of the general population. Epidemiological studies often
are focused on groups such as elderly people and infants and children
because they  may be especially sensitive to air pollution. Studies of
children are particularly useful because complicating variables, such
as smoking and occupational exposure, are not  involved.
   There are,  of  course, some persistent difficulties associated with
research on the health effects of air pollution. For example, researchers
have been unable to quantify the total human body burden of numer-
ous  trace metals in relation to the manner in which they gain access
to the body. Trace metals may enter the body not only from air but
also in foods  and drinking water;  moreover, metals present in food
and  water may come from polluted air. Air uptake may or may not
be significant  in relation to the quantities assimilated from the other
sources. Determining the adverse effects of exposure to very low levels
of pollutants over long  periods remains an urgent but difficult task, as
does the problem  of  measuring the  subtle initial  effects of such
exposure. Gaps in the arsenal of biological and medical research tools
pose still other difficulties.
   Nevertheless, during the  past few years,  there has  been  steady
progress in demonstrating that levels of air pollutants that occur in
many of the Nation's urban areas  may be having adverse effects on
human health and that  these effects  may  not  be limited  to  the
respiratory tract but may involve other body systems, as well. Over
the  past year, NAPCA has been  engaged in more  than  60 health
effects studies. A summary of some  of the more important projects
   Associations between nitrogen dioxide exposure and respiratory dis-
ease incidence were studied in two groups of elementary school children
living in areas of differing average  nitrogen dioxide  concentrations.
During the six-month period of the study, significantly more respira-
tory disease incidents were reported among children living in the area
of higher nitrogen dioxide levels. Although these data suggest an asso-

cialion between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and increased occurrence
of respiratory diseases, additional supporting data are needed to con-
firm  the  observations before  they can be accepted as completely
authentic. For this purpose, additional studies  are being undertaken
in the same area to compare the incidence and severity of respiratory
illness in  children from an area of high exposure with similar illness
in children receiving less exposure. Similar  studies  are being planned
in other locations, as well.
  In  cooperation  with the  American  Petroleum  Institute  and the
International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, NAPCA is study-
ing levels  of lead in  the  blood of individuals who live  adjacent to
heavily traveled highways and whose exposure to lead in motor vehicle
exhaust therefore is greater than that of other segments of the  popula-
tion.  The purpose of this study is  to determine whether  such people
have  significantly  higher levels of lead in their blood.  The first phase
of the study involved the collection of blood specimens from selected
individuals, as well as air quality data, in three  cities.  Laboratory
testing and analysis of these specimens are proceeding. In the second
phase, the study will be expanded  to include  collection of samples in
seven cities  representing  a wider  range of climatic  conditions  and
traffic situations.
  Studies of the effects  of  atmospheric levels of  trace metals have
suggested that there is a relationship between lead dustfall in residen-
tial areas  of  77 cities and cardiovascular mortality. This  observation
is based on preliminary data analysis; additional  confirming data must
Btill be collected. The same analysis showed that, contrary to previous
indication, there  appears to be no significant association  oetween
cardiovascular disease  and atmospheric levels of either cadmium or
  Ozone is a toxic  material which produces severe tissue damage when
inhaled in relatively small quantities. The types of damage produced
arc being  determined by studies in animals. One of these studies has
shown that in rabbits, cell division of  specific lung tissue is inhibited
for up to  two days following six hours' exposure to 1100 micrograms
per cubic meter.  Another study has provided evidence that exposure to
215 micrograms per cubic meter of ozone or 1000 micrograms per
cubic, meter of nitrogen dioxide increases an  animal's susceptibility
to infection with respiratory bacteria.
  Other research pursued during the year included further studies of
the effects of exposure to Nitrogen dioxide  on pulmonary tissue, the
effects of exposure to carbon monoxide on  behavior and  learning
ability in  primates, and the  carcinogcnicity of specific hydrocarbons
found in the atmosphere, as well as continued efforts to develop new
or increasingly  sensitive  techniques  for  detecting  and measuring
Ihe effects of air pollution on biological systems.
C. To identify  and quantify the economic  and  esthetic effects of air
  In establishing goals for the prevention and control of air pollution,
it generally is desirable  to  consider not just the  health hazards of
polluted  air  but also  its economic and esthetic  hazards,  including
damage to man-made materials,  injury to  vegetation, occurrence of
odors, and so on.  Insofar as possible,  data on these kinds  of effects
aro included, along with data on health effects,  in air quality criteria
documents. There are,  however, many gaps in currently  available

information on the quantitative relationship  between air pollution
levels and  specific economic  and esthetic effects. NAPCA conducts
and supports research aimed at filling these informational gaps.
  Though it generally is assumed that air pollution tends to depress
property values, there are few data to substantiate this assumption.
NAPCA now has completed an analysis of property values in relation
to air pollution  in  various neighborhoods in Washington, D.C,,
Kansas City, and St. Louis.  In each community, a comparison was
made of the selling prices of homes in neighborhoods with different
levels of sulfur oxides and participate pollution. Even after allowance
was made for other relevant factors, such as size of homes, proximity
to schools, and character of the neighborhood, it was found that homes
in the areas of higher air pollution levels generally sold for $300 to $500
less.  Further studies of this type are underway to determine whether
these initial results are realistic.
  Odors pose a peculiarly difficult  problem. They often  are hard to
tolerate, but their total effect  is difficult to measure. NAPCA cur-
rently is conducting and supporting various efforts to define odor prob-
lems in a more precise way. One project initiated during the past year
is a national evaluation of odor problems and an intensive study of
such problems in areas  selected on  the basis of the national  survey.
This project is being conducted under a NAPCA contract. In a subse-
quent phase of the project, effort will be focused on the development
of methods that  air pollution control  agencies can use in measuring
and evaluating odor problems.
  NAPCA is also working  on the  development of new and  im-
proved methods of conducting research on the economic effects of air
pollution. As an example, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service,
an assessment is  being  made of aerial photography techniques as a
means of determining the extent to which forests  are damaged by air
pollution. Aerial  photography would  reduce  the time required for
damage assessment  and increase the size  of areas  that could  be
covered. Preliminary  results of this study  have been  encouraging;
estimates  based  on  aerial photography have correlated  well  with
ground survey results.
D. To maintain surveillance of air qualify  through an integrated Federal-
      Stale-local air monitoring and emission data gathering system
  To determine the extent of people's exposure to air pollution and to
assess the impact of air pollution control measures, it is necessary to
have a continuum of data on air pollutant emissions and  air  quality.
Gathering  and evaluating these data are tasks that require  a joint
Federal-Statc-local effort. Accordingly, NAPCA is engaged not only
in operating its own air monitoring network  but also in supporting
State and local monitoring activities,
  NAPCA's own air monitoring activities include operation  of more
than  a thousand  air sampling devices at stations  scattered across the
entire Nation.  Figure  1  shows the  types  and numbers of devices
involved in this  operation.  Over the past year, a cutback has  been
made in operation of some of the relatively  unsophisticated sampling
devices, particularly with respect to measurement of sulfation  rate
(a crude index of sulfur oxides pollution),  dustfall,  and windblown
particulate matter; this cutback will continue. Also during the past
year, mechanized devices for measuring various gaseous pollutants
were placed in operation at 145 sites around the country. This expan-
     42-348"—70	3


 sion  of  NAFCA's  network reflects the  increasing  emphasis  being
 placed on gathering data on air pollutants which have been or will be
 the subjects of air quality criteria documents.
   State  and local governments have the primary responsibility for
 maintaining surveillance of air quality in their areas of jurisdiction.
 Establishment and  operation of air monitoring networks  are among
 tho  purposes for which program grant funds  provided by NAPCA
 (as discussed in 110  of this report)  can be used by State and local
 ngencies. As indicated in Figure 1, there was a continuing expansion
 of State and  locnl air monitoring activities during  the  past  year;
 this trend is expected to continue. NAPCA is placing increasing em-
 phasis on making use  of air quality data from State and local networks
 and on showing State and  local agencies how to make maximum use
 of their own data.
   Figures 2 and 3  provide additional information on the scope of
 Federnl-Stji to-local  air monitoring activities.   Figure 2  shows  the
 numbers of high-volume (Hi-Vol)  participate  sampling stations in
 operation on a State-by-State basis. Figure  3 provides corresponding
 information on  automatic  instruments  for  sampling and  analyzing
 jrnseous  pollutants.
                         EMISSION STUDIES

   NAPCA's air  pollutant emission studies range from those  relating
 to specific  industrial  processes to assessments  of total  emissions of
 one  or more air pollutants  in a single urban area or throughout the

State end local

Gases: Sulfation rate..
Settleable (dustfall)
Wi ndblown (sticky tap*) 	

Nitrogen dioxide 	
Sulfur dioxide

Suspended (Hi-vol) 	 --
Membrsna filter

SoiFirt£ (spot tope)
Automatic: •


Oxidauts ......
Sulfur dioxide . . 	 - 	


• 467




June by June
1969 1970

271 ...
262 ...
395 ...
515 ...
153 ...

16 ...
83 ...
367 ...

--.. - - •







by June

 * Powered collection devices that accumulate simples consecutively or Intermittently for subsequent laboratory
analysis.                 .  .  ,
 > Total of all gas mechanized measuring devices.
 3 Contiguously optulmj sam|ilci-analy«r devices that produce results directly in numerical and/or visual form.


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  An industrial source study  indicates abatement needs, provides
information to guide  the development of control technology, and
supplies basic data for estimating interrelationships between  air pol-
lutant emissions and air quality. During the past year NAPCA com-
pleted a study on the chlorine emission from the chlor-alkali industry.
Studies on sulfur  emissions from the pulp and  paper industry, and
fluoride emissions from phosphate fertilizer industry are  underway.
  Emission surveys of specific areas provide basic information needed
in planning and conducting air pollution  control  programs.  By the
end  of 1969, NAPCA  had completed emission inventories for 46 of
the first 57 metropolitan areas identified for designation as air quality
control regions. In many  of these areas, there had been no previous
emission inventory.
  Estimates  of total national  emissions  of  sulfur oxides,  nitrogen
oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons,  and total particulates are
made annually. The most recent estimates are presented in Figure 4.
Estimates  for  1967-68 will be  available early in  1970.  There is  an
inevitable time lag in  development of such estimates because of the
necessity of  compiling  and analyzing  a great deal of  data from a
variety of sources.

                  FIG. 4.-ESTIMATES, NATIONWIDE EMISSIONS. 1966
                          (Millions of tons pir year]

                         Carbon           Hydro-   Nitrogen     Sulfur
    Source                monoxide Participates   carbons    oxides    oxides1     Total
Fuel combustion in stationary sources.
Industrial processes 	
Solid waste disposal

Forest fires 	













  t For the year 1967.
  * Negligible.
  Note: Nitrogen oxides expressed as nitrogen dioxide and sulfur oxides expressed as sulfur dioxide.

E.  To facilitate access to, and  the me of, air quality data through the
  development and operation of a national air data bank
  In  the mid-1960's, NAPCA began setting up  a national  air data
bank and, for this  purpose, developed the SAROAD  (Storage and
Retrieval of Air Data)  System. SAROAD  is designed to  store data
from  NAPCA's  and State and  local air monitoring networks in a
standard format so that data from  all these sources can  be readily
  Approximately 20 percent of all the air quality data  from Federal,
State, and local  monitoring stations currently is  stored in the bank.
NAPCA is working toward having  all  current and past air quality
data  incorporated  into  the  bank.  To help  those  State and local
agencies which do not already have a data handling system,  NAPCA
is  providing  technical  assistance in  implementing the  SAROAD
  Data  from SAROAD are  used: to appraise ambient air quality
thereby delineating the need for air quality criteria, to assist in the


evaluation  of  air quality standards and  implementation plans, to
assess control strategies and to aid in basic air pollution reserach. Once
the data have been validated and processed in the bank, they can be
made available in a number of statistical forms not only to NAPCA
components and other Federal agencies, but also to State, local,  and
regional agencies, universities,  research organizations,  and private
/'. To develop and evaluate new and improved techniques and instrumen-
    tation for sampling and analysis of pollutants in the ambient air
    and in effluent streams from air pollution sources
  NAPCA conducts  and supports research to help needs for the
development and use of more accurate and less costly instrumentation
for measuring pollutants in the ambient air and in effluent streams
from air pollution sources. In addition NAPCA is engaged in  efforts
to promote the standardization of analytical techniques, so that data
from one community can be readily compared with that from another.
During the past year, NAPCA made significant progress in this work
area.  A discussion  of some of the more important  developments
  Sulfur compounds.—A prototype instrument  has been assembled
which  has  the capability of identifying and measuring malodorous
sulfur compounds in the parts-per-billion range; such compounds are
characteristic  of kraft pulp mill  emissions.  The collateral ability of
this same instrument to measure low levels of hydrogen sulfide and
sulfur  tlioxide  with  absolute specificity is  significant,  especially in
areas where these two pollutants coexist.  Field testing of the  device
will be undertaken  in  1970  under  a joint government-industry
  Extremely sensitive devices,  such  as the one described  above, are
a necessary tool in  air pollution control. But reliable, less expensive
devices for the measurement of sulfur dioxide also are needed.  One
such device,  an  electrochemical sensor,  is being  tested for stack
sampling use. Plans are underway  to modify the device  slightly so
that it would have the capability of measuring ambient sulfur oxides
pollution levels. If produced commercially, this device would be in a
price range which would make  it attractive for general  use.
  Nitrogen oxides.—Existing methods for measuring the oxides of
nitrogen are among the least satisfactory in the air pollution control
field. During the past year, NAPCA identified  two unique approaches
to measuring nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide. These approaches will
be  further explored  in  1970; construction and  testing  of prototype
models  are planned.
  Ozone.—A prototype instrument  designed to  monitor ozone more
accurately  currently is undergoing rigorous field testing. In addition,
laboratory work is progressing on more sophisticated ozone monitoring
devices which would be of particular benefit to large control agencies
and researchers investigating the effects of this  air pollutant.
  Hydrocarbons.—A prototype  instrument is being constructed  that
will have the capability of simultaneously measuring  carbon mon-
oxide,  total hydrocarbons,  and methane. Such an instrument would
be  extremely  valuable to control agencies operating continuous air
monitoring stations.
  Particulates.—Construction of a measuring device capable of provid-
ing informfttion on the ambient  levels of particulates within a few


minutes after the sample is taken is nearing completion. Currently,
there is no particulate measuring device capable of supplying real-
time data within such a short time. A device such as this one would
be of particular value during air pollution emergency conditions.
  Standard methods of analysis.—There are more than 200 laboratories
throughout the country involved in analyzing air samples; they include
facilities operated by governmental agencies, universities, and private
firms. The methods employed in analyzing air samples generally vary
from one laboratory  to  another.  Although the degree of accuracy
achieved by  these laboratories is  high, data generated by  differing
methods  of analysis cannot be readily  compared. To help solve this
problem, NAPCA, with assistance from the Jntersociety Committee
on Manual of Methods of Ambient Sampling and Analysis, represent-
ing seven well known scientific organizations, is promoting the stand-
ardization of laboratory methods of analysis. Particular emphasis is
being placed on analytical methods applicable to those pollutants
which are or will be the subjects of air quality criteria.
  It is expected that standard  methods of  analysis for sulfur oxides,
particulates and oxidants  will be proposed by mid-1970.  Over 90
percent of the Nation's  laboratories performing routine analysis  of
air samples have indicated their intent to test the proposed standard
G. To  define  the important atmospheric processes,  including meteoro-
     logical and chemical processes,  that alter  or  are altered  by  air
  Detailed knowledge of the  ways in which pollutants alter and  are
altered by atmospheric process is a vital element in any rational effort
to deal with the problem of air pollution. Over the past several years,
there has been a substantial growth of  such knowledge;  nevertheless,
much remains to be learned. NAPCA's activities in this area include a
continuing research for missing pieces of knowledge, as well as efforts
to make practical use of the knowledge  already available.


  In NAPCA's meteorology program, which is conducted by personnel
on assignment from the Environmental Science Services Administra-
tion of the Department of Commerce, great emphasis is placed on the
development  and  evaluation  of  techniques for  predicting  the  air
 Eollutant concentrations likely to occur as a result of various  meteoro-
 )gical conditions and emission rates and patterns. The basic mechanism
for making such prediction is a diffusion model, which mathematically
simulates the diffusion and transport of pollutants in the air. Such a
model can be used, for example, to predict the impact of new sources
of air pollution in an area, or of reductions in emissions from the sources
already in existence. Thus, diffusion modeling is extremely  useful in
the development of plans for implementation of air quality standards
in air quality control regions.
  Though a  single  diffusion model may be applicable and  useful in
more than one community, no single model is applicable to all sets
of circumstances. For  example, different models  are needed to pre-
dict short-term and  long-term pollutant  concentrations.  For this
reason, NAPCA and other organizations  engaged in meteorological
research and  development are continually working with a variety of


diffusion models. Over the past year NAPCA has made continued
progress in refining and validating such models and in fostering their
application by air pollution control agencies.
  To help meet the need for means of predicting pollutant concentra-
tions over periods as long as seasons and years, NAPCA is developing
what is termed a "climatological model." Such a model would have a
variety of uses.  It could, for example,  permit comparison of the air
pollution potential of  various communities.  Of  more practical im-
portance, it would permit forecasting of the  extent to which future
growth of a community  or the application of air pollution  control
measures  could  be expected to alter  long-term average pollutant
concentrations. An air pollution climatology atlas is being completed
which will describe, among other things, the frequency of meteorologi-
cal  conditions conducive to the occurrence of episodes of high air
pollution levels in the 48 contiguous States.
  In addition to work on  diffusion models  and their application,
NAPCA's meteorology program includes efforts  to develop new and
improved tools for measuring meteorological factors. There is a par-
ticular need for improved means of measuring vertical differences in
wind and temperature patterns. NAPCA  is developing a variety of
new techniques  and is employing  and testing  approaches  such  as
instrumented helicopter soundings and lidar (laser-radar). Work now
in progress includes field testing of a device  (a radiometric  thermo-
sonde)  for making remote measurements of vertical temperature
profiles and an acoustical echo-sounding instrument to provide vertical
profiles of wind speed and direction and atmospheric turbulence.

                    CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS

  In addition to being subject to the influence of  meteorological
factors, air  pollutants also are  affected by  chemical and physical
processes that take place in the atmosphere. One of the most significant
of these processes is the photochemical reaction, in which hydrocarbons
and  nitrogen oxides  interact in the presence of sunlight and form
oxidants, otherwise known  as photochemical smog.
  The photochemical reaction is quite complex, involving interactions
among a rather large number of chemical compounds. Through labora-
tory and field studies, NAPCA scientists are engaged in a continuing
effort  to  gain  an improved understanding  of  the  photochemical
process, so that means of reducing photochemical smog can be devised
and  evaluated. As an example,  it is known that some hydrocarbons
arc more reactive than others;  that is, they are more likely to get
involved in  the photochemical process. This  information is of great
value in determining, for example, whether, and to what extent, fuel
modification  would contribute to reduction of  photochemical smog
levels. An investigation currently in progress on another aspect of the
photochemical process has indicated that consideration must be given
to the ratio of hydrocarbons to nitrogen oxides in the air in formulating
schemes for  the control of photochemical smog.
  A  study of the ultimate fate of nitric oxide in the atmosphere has
suggested that there may be other reasons for  controlling nitrogen
oxides emissions,  quite apart from their role  in photochemical smog
formation. Recent work in NAPCA laboratories has shown that nitric
oxide in the air  is rapidly  transformed to nitric acid, at least some


of which probably ends up in the form of nitrate aerosol  (find par-
ticles) ; thus, nitrogen oxides can be converted to a form in which they
can be brought down to the earth's surface by rain or snow. The use
of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers also introduces nitrates into soil and
surface waters. There is some scientific evidence that this increasing
entry of nitrates into the environment could have long-term adverse
effects on ecological systems and human health. Though the occurrence
and significance of such effects remain to be documented, the knowl-
edge already available underscores the need for close attention to the
total impact of air pollutants on the environment.
  NAPCA also is supporting research  on the fate of carbon  monoxide
in the atmosphere,  Jt  is apparent that some mechanism,  probably
natural, is operating to remove this noxious gas from the biosphere;
otherwise,  the enormous quantities discharged into the air, mainly
from motor vehicles, would have far-reaching effects on man. Never-
theless,  almost no information on what actually happens  to carbon
monoxide is now available. The research NAPCA is now supporting
is intended to fill this gap.

H. To provide grant support of research projects related to the National
      Air  Pollution  Control Administration's program objectives
  Through awarding of research grants, primarily for research work
at colleges anil universities, NAPCA  supports efforts to expand the
frontiers of scientific  knowledge  relating to various aspects of air
pollution.  Most research grant projects are in the  Effects  and Sur-
veillance category of NAPCA's program; i.e., they contribute mainly
to defining the nature,  magnitude, and effects of air pollution.
  In  Fiscal  1969, there were  221  active  research grant projects
supported  by NAPCA through  awards  amounting to some $7.3
million. A breakdown of these projects by subject matter area follows:
1. Air pollution effects on human health			    27
2. Agricultural effects of air pollution		_		    28
3. Analysis and  physicochemical studies	    58
4. Development of analytical techniques		    28
5. Meteorology							    16
6. Identification and control of pollution sources		    50
7. Other					    14
  More specifically, projects  active  in  Fiscal 1069  included efforts
to characterize atmospheric processes affecting diffusion of air pollutants
and to gain improved knowledge of the chemical and physical processes
involved in the production and/or decay or removal of pollutants in the
atmosphere; epidemiological,  clinical, and laboratory studies of the
relationship of air pollution to morbidity and mortality  associated
with  diseases  such as  emphysema, chronic bronchitis,  asthma,  and
lung cancer; studies of the effects of  air pollution on  plants at the
macroscopic, cellular,  and molecular  level and of effects on plastics,
metals,  textiles, rubber, and other materials; basic  studies on  com-
bustion processes  and their emissions; efforts to develop more precise
estimates  of the  economic impact of  air pollution; studies  of  urban
planning and land use patterns in relation to air quality management;
and studies of organizational aspects of air pollution control  programs.


   Tliis chapter covers  NAPCA's research  and  development  and
regulatory activities. These activities have two basic purposes: First,
to insure  the application of available techniques, where necessary, to
prevent and control air pollution, and, second, to identify and help
meet needs for new or improved techniques. Under the Clean Air Act,
as amended, control of air pollution from stationary sources is primarily
a responsibility of State and local governments; the Federal Govern-
ment, specifically the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
has a corresponding responsibility with respect to  mobile sources. In
addition, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare conducts
and  supports research and  development on control techniques  for
stationary and  mobile sources and provides financial  and technical
assistance to help State and local agencies meet their responsibilities.
The  private sector also is expected to  assume a substantial share of
the responsibility for dealing with both of  the broad classes of air
pollution sources.
A. To insure that air pollution problems  are attacked on a regional basis
    through the adoption  and implementation of air quality standards
    for quality control regions.
  The Clean Air Act, as amended in November 1967, set up an inter-
governmental system for dealing  with air pollution problems  on a
regional basis. Over the past year, there has been marked progress in
putting the system into  operation and thus taking  important  steps
toward attainment of wholesome air in some of the  Nation's largest
metropolitan areas.
  To provide a geographic basis for regional control  of air pollution.
the Clean Air Act calls on the Secretary of Health, Education, and
Welfare to designate  air quality control regions  and calls on State
governments to  adopt and implement  air quality standards  for the
regions. States are expected to take such steps with respect to each
type of air pollutant for which the Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare  issues an air quality criteria document  and a report on
control techniques.
  As of December 31, 1969, a total of 25 air quality control regions
had been officially designated, and consultations with State and local
officials, required prior to official designation, had  been held  with
respect to seven other areas. Evaluation of technical information
relating to designation of regions in 18 other areas was either under-
way or completed. At least 57 air quality control regions are scheduled
to be designated by the end of Fiscal 1970. Figure  5 shows the status
of activities in these 57 areas as  of December 31, 1969.

          INITIAL S7




  In  all likelihood, additional  air  quality  control  regions will be
designated either during Fiscal  1970 or afterward. Governors of all
States have been invited to request designation of regions in any areas
which were not included among the first 57. NAPCA is preparing and
will soon publish a Manual for the Development of Proposals for Air
Quality  Control Regions  to assist States in preparing such requests.
  On February 11, 1969, air quality criteria documents and reports
on .control  techniques for sulfur oxides and particulatc air pollutants
were  issued.  Thus, the signal was  given for States to  begin the air
quality  standard-setting process in  the six air quality control regions
that had been designated by  that  time.  In  regions designated after
February 11, the standard-setting  timetable runs from the date of
designation.  Figure 6  shows the schedule for standard-setting  and
development of implementation  plans for those regions already desig-
nated. Schedules for adoption  of  air quality standards  for  sulfur
oxides and participate  matter for  other  air quality control regions
will depend, of course, on designation dates. From the date of designa-
tion, the State or States involved have 90 days to signify their  intent
to set standards,  180 days to  adopt the standards, and another 180
days to adopt a plan for implementation of the standards.
  As  shown  in Figure  6  sulfur oxides  and participate  air quality
standards for all or parts of seven air quality  control regions had been
received as of December 31. In those instances where such standards
were overdue, the States involved have officially indicated that certain
technical-legal problems would have to be resolved before  the stand-
ards could be submitted.  It is expected  that these problems will be
resolved in the very near future.

                                                                FIGURE 6.—STATUS OF AIR QUALITY CONTROL REGIONS
                                                                                                          Letter or intent
                                             Consultation    Designation  State
                                                                      Public hearings
                                                               Dated  scheduled/held
                                                                                                                                                                   Due     Submitted
 Washington, D.C	July  31,1968  Aug. 22,1968   Oct   1,1968

                                            Sept. 30,1968   Nov. 20,1968
New York City	_	 Aug. 30,1958
 Chicago		Sept.28,1968  Oct.  21,1968   Dee.  4,1968

 Philadelphia	Oct.   4,1968  Oct. 23,1968  Dec. 17,1968

 Penv**r-f -	.---Nov.   9,1968  Nov. 26,1969  Jan.  15,1969
 LosAngeles	 Nov. 23,1968  Dec. 10,1968  Jan  291969
 StLouis		 Dec. 21,1968  Jan. 14,1969  Apr  11,1969
 Boston		"Dec! "24," 1963"
 Cincinnati	jan.  10,1969
                                          Jan.  17,1969
                                          Jan.  27,1969
Apr.  12,1969
May   2,1969
 San Francisco	Jan.  10,1969  Jan.  31.1969  May   1,1969
 Cleveland		  Feb.  12,1969  Feb.  26,19S9  May  23,1969
 Pittsburgh		do	 Feb.  27,1969  May   1,1969
 Buffalo   		do	 Feb.  28,1959 .     do
 KansasCity			Mar.  26,1969  Apr.  11,1969  July  19,1969
Detroit		Oct. 16,1969  Nov.  3,1969  Dec.  17,1969
      lirc----«--,V--	 May  7'1969  May 23,1959  Aug.  16,1969
      d-Springfield	Apr. 16,1969  Apr. 29,1959  Oct   31969
Indianapolis	 May 23,1969  June 10,1969  Sept  18,1969
Minneapolis-Si Paul	 May  7,1969  May  21,1969  Aug.  16,1969
Milwaukee	July  8,1969  July  21.1969  Sept.18.1969
Providence		July 12,1969  July  29.1969  Dec.  6,1969

Seattle-Tacoma	July 23,1969  Au&   5,1969  OcL  25,1969
Louisville	Oct   7,1969  OcL  17,1969  Dec.  6,1969

Dayton	Oct   2,1969  Oct  16,1969  Dec.  17,1969
Phoenix	Oct  11,1969  Oct  21,1969	
 Virginia		May  12,1969
 Maryland	do	
 District of Columbia.		do_	
 New York	do	
 New Jersey		do	
 Connecticut		..do__	
 Illinois		do	
 Indiana		_	do	
 Pennsylvania			do..	
 New Jersey	do	
 Delaware		do	
 Colorado			do	
 California	do	
 Missouri		 July  10,1969
 Illinois  	  do
 Massachusetts..            July  11,1969
 Ohio	  	July  31,1969
 Indiana			do	
 Kentucky	 do,
 California	        July 30,1969
 Ohio	 	...- Aug. 21,1969
 Pennsylvania	  .    July 30,1969
 New York	 . .        do
 Missouri		Oct.  17,1969
 Kansas	>.do ,.
 Michigan		 Mar. 17,1970
 Maryland	 Nov. 14,1959
Connecticut		Jan.   2,1970
 Massachusetts	  _             do
 Indiana			Dec. 17,1969
Minnesota	 Nov. 14,1969
Wisconsin			Dec. 17,1969
Rhode Island..		  Mar.  6,1970
Massachusetts	      do
Washington	....Jan. 23,1970  Nov. 17,1969
Kentucky			  Mar.   6,1970  Dec. 15,1969
Indiana..		do	Dec. 12,1969 _
Ohio			M»r. 17,1970	
  May   8,1969
.  May  12,1969
.  Mar.  11,1969
.  May  10,1969
  Apr.  11,1969
.  May   9,1969
	do. _
  Mar.  12,1969
  May  10,1969
  Mar. 21,1969
  May  7,1969
  May 6,1969
  June 17,1969
  May 20,1969
 Aug. 21,1969
 June 10,1969
  May 13,1969
 July 29,1969
Sept.  30,1969.
 July 14,1969		
 Oct. 1, 1969		
 Oct. 24. 1969	
 May 13, 14, 15, 1969  .
 Sept. 22, 1969	
 Aug. 12, 19,1969	
 Aug. 5, 1969.	
July 21; Sept. 26,1969
Sept. 10,1969 .
Sept.   2,1969.	
Sept. 26, 1969...
Oct. 15, 1969...
Sept. 17; Nov. 19. 1969.
 Nov. 12, 1969	
Aug. 12. 1969  .
 Nov. 25, 1969	
Dec. 17,1969	
Oct. 28,1969..	
Dec. 2.I969-.	
Sept. 17; Nov. 19,1969_.
Jan. 20, 1970  ,
Sept. 9,1969	
Aug. 19,20, 1969	
Jan. 21, 1970....
                                                                                                               Oct.  10,1969
                                                                                                               Oct.  3.1969
                                                                                                               Nov.  24,1969
                                                                                                               Oct.  21.1969
                                                                                                               Sept.  9,1969
                                                                                                               Oct  17,1969
                                                                     Mar. 12.1970..-.
                                                                     Feb. 9, 16, 1970.
                                                                     Jan. 27, 1970
                                                                                                                             Dec. 12, 1969.
-.-. Nov. 10,1969
.-.	do..	
-.-	do	
....Jan.   6,1970
	do..    ..
	Jan.  7,1970
.... Jan.  27,1970
	do	,.
....  Jan.  26,1970
....  Feb.  17,1970
....  Jan. 26, 1970
 ...  Apr.  15,1970
.... Sept. 14,1970
...  May 13,1970
... June 30,19/0
	do...  _..
... June 15,1970
... May  13,1970
... June 15,1970
... Sept  2,1970
...July  22,1970
._. Sept  2,1970

Ill'Sept. li.'lW
                                                                                                                                                                       OcL  13,1969
                                                                                                               Nov.  7,1969
                                                                                                               Nov. 19,1969
                                                                                                               Oct.  30,1959
                                                                                                               Nov.  7,1969
                                                                                                               Nov.  3,1969
                                                                                                               Nov. 10,1969
                                                                                                               Nov.  3,1969
                                                                                                               Oct.  30,1969
                                                                                                               Oct.  23,1969
                                                                                                                                                                        Nov.   3,1969


Dallas-Ft Worth 	
San Antonio. 	
Birmingham 	 .. ..



	 Oct 28,1969
	 	 Oct 29,1969
	 Oct 30,1969
	 Dec. 9,1969

	 	 Aug. 13,1969

	 Dec. 9.1969

Nov. 10, 1969
Nov. 12,1969
Nov. 14, 1969
Dec. 17,1969 .
Dec. 19,1969

Aug. 27, 1969

Dec. 18,1969

Designation State
	 do. .
	 Ohio 	 	 .
Dec. 6.1969 Ohio 	
West Virginia 	

Letter of intent Standards
Due Dated scheduled/held Due Submitted

Mar. 6, 1970 Sept 2 1970
	 „ do_ do

  No later than 180 days after the due date of air quality standards,
States are expected to have developed and adopted plans for imple-
mentation of  the standards.  An implementation  plan ordinarily
will include emission control regulations and a timetable for achieving
compliance  with  the  regulations, provisions for surveillance  of air
quality and emissions, and, among other things,  plans  for curtailing
pollutant emissions, when  necessary, to prevent  imminent  and  sub-
stantial endangerment of public health. Like the air quality standards,
the implementation plans  must be submitted to the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare for review.
  This entire  process will be repeated each time  that air  quality
criteria documents are issued. The current schedule for issuance of
such  documents is described  in  section IA of  this report.  Together
with  the air quality  criteria  document for a pollutant or  group of
pollutants,  a report on control  techniques applicable  to sources of
that  pollutant is issued.  Then  the  standard-setting  timetable,  as
outlined above, will begin  to run. Figure 7  depicts the entire process.


                                             ITATtS ACT TO CONTROL
                                             AIR POLLUTION IN ACCORDANCE
                                             WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS
                                             AND PLANS FOR IMPLEMENTATION.

    To  assist  States  in  taking the steps expected  of them, NAPCA
 issued Guidelines for the  Development of Air Quality Standards and
 Implementation Plans  in  May  1969.  The Guidelines document ex-
 plained  the  intent  of  the Clean Air Act, with respect to regional
 control efforts, and suggested how States  could most effectively play
 their  role in carrying out  the Act. To  provide  further  assistance,
 NAPCA has planned  a series of workshops on the development of
 implementation plans. The first such worksnop was held in December


B.  To furnish the public  information on the nature and effects oj air
      pollution and  to encourage public involvement in  air pollution
      control efforts
   The Clean Air Act,  as amended, specifically requires that States
hold  public  hearings prior to adopting air quality standards for air
quality control regions. The purpose of such hearings is to insure that
citizens  and organizations who  will be affected  by the air  quality
standards have an opportunity to participate in the standard-setting
process.  To help insure broad and well informed participation in such
hearings, NAPCA  furnishes all  interested parties  its analyses  of
proposed air quality standards in exactly the same way that such
analyses are given  to State  or  local  agencies. NAPCA also  assists
groups such as the  National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease
Association and other health-oriented  groups,  the League  of Women
Voters, labor unions, the  Conservation Foundation, and other orga-
nizations involved in promoting informed participation in air pollution
control efforts. In addition, NAPCA has produced a variety of audio-
visual and printed materials aimed at encouraging public involvement
in decisions on air quality standards.
  In hearings held thus far, there has been a high degree of construc-
tive citizen  participation; indeed, the quantity and quality of citizen
involvement have been unprecedented in the history of the Nation's
air pollution control activities. In a number of instances, expressions
of public interest have resulted in reconsideration of  proposed air
quality standards and adoption of improved standards.
  In addition to those  activities directed specifically at encouraging
informed participation in public hearings, NAPCA has continued its
national  program of  air pollution information and education activities.
This  program involves  publication and  distribution  of  materials
prepared by NAPCA personnel  and reprints  of  articles from  other
sources,  responses to inquiries, preparation and distribution of radio
and  television  public-service  announcements, assistance to  news
media, and speeches and other  presentations before technical and
general audiences. The volume of public inquiries received by NAPCA
has doubled in the past  year. During this same  period, NAPCA
has assisted  numerous writers and  editors in preparing articles for
publication  in magazines  ranging from Life to the Mining Congress
Journal and has assisted  in the preparation of motion picture docu-
mentaries by groups such as the  National Tuberculosis and Respira-
tory Disease Association,  and WKYC-TV in Cleveland.
C. To assist State, local, and regional agencies  in  preventing and con-
     trolling air pollution by furnishing them financial and technical
  Over the  past six years,  more than 200 State,  local,  and regional
agencies  have received Federal grants  to  assist them in developing
or establishing new  air pollution control programs or improving  or
maintaining existing programs. Budgets of the 191 agencies receiving
Federal grant support at the beginning of Fiscal 1970  amounted  to
slightly more than $51 million, of which $30 million were non-Federal
funds. The amount of non-Federal funds was almost $7 million above
the preceding year's  total, reflecting the stimulatory effect  of Federal
matching grants. The 191 agencies receiving support at the beginning
of Fiscal ia70 included 24  that had not previously received  grants.


In  keeping with  the  provisions  of the Clean Air Act, as amended,
increasing emphasis is being placed on support of air pollution control
agencies serving areas that already are or are likely to be included in
air quality control regions. Approximately half of  the program grant
funds made available  during the  past year went to local and regional
agencies serving such areas; this does not indlude funds awarded to
State agencies, whose activities will, of course, have a direct relation-
ship to control of air pollution in air quality control regions.
  Figure 8 shows the growth of State,  local, and regional  control
agency budgets since 1961; it should be noted that Federal grant funds
first became available in Fiscal 1965. There has been parallel growth
in staffing of air  pollution  control agencies,  as indicated in section
IID of  this report, and in State and  local air monitoring activities,
as indicated in section ID. There  has been a significant increase in
adoption of  State air pollution control laws and  regulations  during
the past three years,  as indicated in Figure 9; during  1969, at least
18 States either adopted new air pollution control laws or made  signifi-
cant changes in existing laws. Though precise  data  on adoption of
local laws and  regulations  are not available, it  is clear that such
activity  also is accelerating. Another  index of progress at the State
and local levels is the creation of neAv  air pollution control programs.
Of  the  first  83 control agency development  projects  supported by
NAPCA, 85 percent  resulted in  adoption of legal authority  for  the
grantee agencies to prevent  and  control  air pollution,  thus enabling
the agencies to proceed with establishment of control  programs.
      Figure 8.  Budgets of State, local, end Regional Air Pollution
                •Control Agencies
        _  »«)*
         * Humber of agencies. Total for 1961 represents all agencies ia
           existence at that time.  Totals for subsequent years represent
           •11 agencies receiving Federal grant support*

                    FIG. 9.-STATE LAWS AND REGULATIONS

                [Number of States enacting laws and regulations in specified years)
                               1951-62   1963-64   1965-66   1967-68     Total
Initial law enacted. 	
First regulation adopted
Type of regulation:
Fuel burning 	
Open burning
Ambient standards..
Visible emissions
Industrial process 	
Sulfur oxides 	



3 9
1 1
1 2
1 4




    Total	      24       3      21      93      141

  While there has been great growth in air pollution control programs,
there are still large gaps to be filled. Of the 55 State and territorial
programs being supported under the grants program, only six (Dela-
ware, Maryland,  hew Jersey, Washington, District of Columbia, and
the Virgin  Islands) have reached an annual per  capita expenditure
of 25 cents. Only 23, including  the six  above, are spending as much
as 10 cents per capita. These figures include Federal and State funds.
The situation with respect to local and regional programs is somewhat
better. Sixty-four of the 144 grantee agencies, or 44 percent, are spend-
ing 40 cents or more per capita. The median per capita expenditure
for local and regional agencies is 35.7 cents. Forty-one are spending
more than 50  cents,  while 13 are spending  more than 75 cents per
capita for their air pollution control programs.
  In addition to  providing financial support, NAPCA can and does
provide technical assistance to  air pollution control agencies.  Over
the past year, NAPCA  assisted  60 State, regional, and local  agencies
by providing detailed reviews of, and comments on, the technical and
legal aspects of proposed air pollution control laws and emission con-
trol regulations. Testimony was given by NAPCA staff members at
public hearings on 12 agencies'  proposed air pollution control codes
and emission regulations. NAPCA also can  and does make  detailed
evaluations of existing  control  programs and provide assistance in
evaluating  specific air pollution problems  and working out  ways of
dealing  with them.
  In  1969, NAPCA began decentralizing  its  program  assistance
activities, so that personnel assisting State, local, and regional agen-
cies will be more accessible to  the agencies and more familiar with
the problems the agencies have. Many of the NAPCA staff members
engaged in program assistance activities already are stationed in the
various  regional offices of the Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare. This Decentralization process will continue and be completed
in 1970.

D.  To assist State, local, and regional agencies in recruiting and training
      personnel for work in air pollution control programs
  As of mid-1969,  State and local air pollution  control agencies had
a total of approximately 2,840 full-time positions on their staff rosters.
This total represents an almost three-fold increase over the preceding
seven years. Figure 10 depicts this growth  trend—a trend which will
have to continue if State and local governments are to be able to cope
with air pollution in all the places where it threatens public health and
       Figure .10.  Growth in Budgeted Position for State and Local Agencies,
 §  J.CC9
            LOCAL MANPOWER
                               45      M
  NAPCA seeks to enlarge the pool of professional personnel qualified
for positions in air pollution control agencies by supporting graduate
level programs at academic institutions. Programs at 30 institutions
currently are receiving NAPCA support; while most of them are in
engineering,  there  also are programs in the biological  and medical
sciences. In addition, students who are candidates for graduate degrees
in air pollution-related  fields  can be supported through NAPCA's
fellowship program.
  NAPCA also is supporting specialist training programs at six insti-
tutions.  These include both graduate and undergraduate programs.
They range from training for administrators of air pollution control
programs to  training of  technicians; increasing  emphasis is being
placed on technician training.
  Figure 11 shows the number of individuals who have received train-
ing during the past seven years through NAPCA's support of academic
programs and fellowships.


Fiscal year
1963... .


.... 204







   To help meet the training needs of personnel already employed by
Federal, State, and local agencies, NAPCA conducts short courses in
various administrative and  technical aspects of air pollution control.
Courses are  conducted both at NAPCA's Technical  Center in the
Research Triangle Park in North Carolina and at other places around
the country. The courses are  designed and presented  by NAPCA
staff  members in collaboration with  State  and  local air  pollution
control officials, college and university faculty members, aim experts
from  the  private sector. Of the more  than 8,000  registrants in such
courses during the past seven years, about 80 percent have been from
governmental agencies. The number of courses  offered and annual
enrollment in them have been rising. Nearly 30 courses currently are
offered; they cover air pollution control engineering, air monitoring
enforcement, emission measurement, legal and administrative aspects
of air  pollution  control,  and other areas. Enrollment  reached  about
2,100 during Fiscal 1969.
E. To take Federal action, where appropriate, for the purpose of abating
     interstate and in tractate air pollution, problems
  The Clean Air Act, as amended, authorizes the Secretary of Health,
Education, and Welfare to take action to abate interstate air pollution
problems either on his o\vn initiative or on official request from a State.
Abatement  action also may be undertaken to deal with intrastate
problems, but only on request.
  Abatement activities during the past year have  included two inter-
state air pollution abatement conferences. Court action to resolve one
case, and  follow-up on recommendations made in several other cases.
  The first interstate abatement proceeding initiated under the Clean
Air Act concerned odors from a rendering plant in Bishop, Maryland.
This proceeding was initiated at the request of the State of Delaware.
Because the problem could not be resolved by other means, the Depart-
ment of Justice was asked to bring suit against the Bishop Processing
Company, operator of the rendering plant. To settle the suit, the com-
pany  signed a consent decree providing for shutdown  of the plant if
odors were again detected in Delaware. In March 1969, the court was
asked to order closing of the plant. The court held that additional evi-
dence of the occurrence of odors would have to be  submitted. Finally,
after such evidence had been submitted, the court  issued an injunction
due to take effect February  16,  1970. This decision is being contested
by the company.
  On request from the State  of West Virginia, an abatement conference
was held in July 1969 to  consider ways of dealing with  air pollution


arising from the Ohio Edison Company's electric generating plant in
Knox IWnship, Ohio, and affecting  the area of New Cumberland,
West Virginia, fho conference recommendations call for abatement of
the problem no Inter than December 31, 1970. In addition, the State
officials who participated in the conference recommended that designa-
tion of an air  quality control  region in the area be  expedited. In
response  to this recommendation, the  Stoubenville-Weirton-Wheeling
air quality control region was designated on December 6, 1969.
  An abatement conference dealing with interstate  air pollution in
the area of Parkersburg, West Virginia-Marietta, Ohio, was reconvened
in October 1969. The conference was first convened in March 1967
and was  reconvened to permit  the  participants to present new data
relating to air pollution in  the area. It is anticipated that  abatement
recommendations will be •made  early in 1970.
  NAPCA is monitoring the progress being made toward compliance
with recommendations made for dealing with the other air pollution
problems that have  been the subject  of abatement conferences.  The
areas involved are  the National Capital area, New York-northern
New Jersey, Kansas City  (Missouri and Kansas), Shoreham-Ticon-
deroga (Vermont-New York),  Ix>wiston-Clarkston  (Idaho-Washing-
ton), Garrison, Montana  (intrustate),  and  Ironton-Ashland-Hunt-
ington (Ohio-Kentucky-West Virginia). In all  areas, some progress
has  been made. In  the National Capital, New  York-northern New
Jersey, and  Kansas City areas, air quality control regions have been
F.  To  assist  Federal  departments  and  ayencies  in preventing  and
      controlling air pollution  arising jrom their  activities and  to
      monitor the progress  of their  ejjoris
  Each of the departments and agencies of the Executive Branch  of
the Federal  Government is responsible for preventing and controlling
air pollution arising from its facilities. In accordance with Executive
Order  11282 and Bureau of the Budget Circular A-78, each one has
prepared a  five-year plan  for carrying out this responsibility. Five-
year plans for this activity were first  submitted to the Bureau of the
Budget  in  July 1967 and have  been  revised, as  necessary,  each
subsequent year, NAPCA provides technical assistance to  the Bureau
of the Budget and to the various departments and agencies.
   Over the  past year, there has been continued progress  in reducing
air  pollution from  Federal  facilities, particularly in the  National
Capital area. Progress reports submitted by the various departments
and agencies in July 1969 indicated that 528 remedial actions had  been
taken at 425 installations during the preceding 12 months. An analysis
of  data  furnished by  the  departments and  agencies indicated  that
abatement projects underway or completed involve an  expenditure of
approximately $36  million.  A much more detailed report on this
activity  is furnished the Congress annually under section lll(b)  of
the Clean Air Act, as amended.
G. To define needs for new  or improved control techniques for stationary
      sources of air pollution and to participate in developing and demon-
      strating such techniques.
   Stationary sources of air pollution include electric generating plants,
space  heating systems, industrial operations, incinerators, and so on.


Techniques are available for dealing with many of the air pollution
problems arising from such sources, but for some of the most significant
of these problems, adequate technology is lacking, NAPCA's research
and development activities  are intended  to  pinpoint the gaps in
technology and to help the Nation  fill them. But NAPCA cannot and
does not  expect  to  accomplish  this solely through its own efforts.
Substantial emphasis is placed on encouraging the private sector to
expand its own research and development activities and to participate
in NAPCA's program, particularly by sharing the cost of demonstrat-
ing promising new air pollution control techniques. In  addition, the
fullest possible use is being  made of the expertise of several other
Federal agencies, including the Bureau of Mines of the Department of
the Interior, the Environmental Science Services  Administration of
the Department of Commerce, the Atomic Energy Commission, the
Federal Power Commission, and others.

                         SULFUK  OXIDES

  A major share of NAPCA's effort has been devoted to promoting the
development and demonstration of techniques for preventing  and
controlling sulfur oxides pollution.  NAPCA's most recent projections
of future  sulfur  oxides emissions, based  on the most comprehensive
appraisal made thus far, indicate that this  problem is growing faster
than was indicated by previous estimates. There  is a widening gap
between  the  rising trend of sulfur  oxides emissions and the Nation's
technological capability for bringing the problem under control, partly
because the total national investment in research and development on
this problem has  not been sufficient to  support all  the potentially
fruitful work that could have been undertaken in the  past few years.
  Of particular importance is the need for practical techniques appli-
cable  to  electric  generating  plants,  which accounted for  about 18
million of  the 31.2  million tons of sulfur oxides emitted in 1967.
Electric generating plants are expected to emit about 43 million tons
of sulfur  oxides by 1980 if no control measures are taken. Even with
rapid  application of  the control techniques now under development
in NAPCA and industry programs, it is  unlikely that sulfur dioxide
emissions  in  1980  will be reduced even to the 1968 level.  The rapid
growth of the electric utility industry (from 300,000 megawatts in 1969
to an anticipated 600,000 megawatts by 1980)  and slower-than-pre-
dicted  growth of nuclear electric generating capacity are compounding
the problem. Processes must be developed that can  be applied not
only to electric plants already in existence but also to  the many large
(more  than 500 megawatts) new plants now being planned or built.
  There are  two general approaches to the control of  sulfur oxides
pollution arising from fviel combustion—removal of sulfur oxides from
stack  gas before the effluent escapes into the  air and use  of low-
sulfur  fuels. Stack gas  cleaning processes may involve recovery of a
by-product, such as  elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid, or of material
that can  only be discarded. Fuels may be naturally low in sulfur or
treated to remove a portion of their sulfur content.


  Processes involving the use of limestone to react with sulfur oxides
are  the most likely to be ready for application to electric generating


plants in the near future. There are two types of limestone processes-
dry and wet. In the dry limestone process, injection of limestone into
the boiler results in the  formation of sulfurous particles that can be
removed from  the stack gas by electrostatic precipitators or  other
particulate control  equipment.  This process is expected to remove
about 50 to 60 percent of the sulfur oxides. In the wet limestone process,
limestone is injected either into the boiler or into stack gas scrubbers,
and  the scrubbers  remove the sulfurous material. This process is
expected to remove about 90 percent of  the sulfur oxidos; in addition,
it would remove virtually all the particulate matter, thereby making
the use of precipitators unnecessary. The limestone processes would be
applicable to existing, as well as new, electric generating plants.
  NAPCA has been conducting and supporting research and develop-
ment work on limestone processes for the past five years. Equipment
to demonstrate and evaluate the dry limestone process has been in-
stalled at a Tennessee Valley Authority plant in Kentucky and testing
has begun. Experience thus far suggests that this process will  prove
commercially feasible and involve only moderate  cost. The testing
program will not be completed until mid-1971. At that time, NAPCA
intends to begin tests of the wet limestone process at the same  plant.
Both of the limestone processes yield a non-usable waste product: for
this reason, they are referred to as throw-away processes.
  A wide variety of  stack gas  desulfurization processes that  would
permit recovery of a sulfur-containing by-product is being developed,
either under  NAPCA's auspices or in the private sector. These proc-
esses  generally are expected to be more  efficient than the throw-away
processes, insofar as sulfur oxides control is concerned, and less costly.
NAPCA's most advanced  work in this  area involves development of
the molten  carbonate  process, in which  treatment of stack  gases
results in recovery of elemental sulfur. Data  from work  done thus
far on this process are being evaluated to provide a basis for a decision
on whether to  proceed to pilot-scale testing. NAPCA also  is actively
exploring the possibility of participating, together with private firms,
in demonstrations of  privately developed stack gas desulfurization
processes that have reached or are approaching advanced stages of
                      FUEL DESULFUUIZATION

   Removal of  sulfur from  fuels before they arc burned can  make only
a limited contribution to solving the Nation's sulfur oxides pollution
problem. Techniques have been developed  for removing sulfur from
residual fuel oil, a low-grade fuel used by electric utilities. Very little
residual fuel oil is produced in the United States; most of what is
used  in this country is imported. A number  of companies are building
fuel oil desulfurization plants to process imported fuel and thus supply
low-sulfur oil  to electric utilities, but the high cost of transporting
residual fuel oil by land limits its economical use to areas  accessible
by water. Electric utilities currently use  only  about one-tenth as
much fuel oil as coal.
   Much  of  the Nation's  coal has a relatively high sulfur content.
Through coal-cleaning techniques, some of the sulfur can be removed
from coal,  but generally  not  enough  can be removed to produce
coal which, from the standpoint of abatement  of sulfur oxides pollu-
tion, would  be of sufficiently low sulfur content. Nevertheless, coal-


cleaning techniques can  remove enough sulfur to enhance the  use-
fulness  of the dry limestone process discussed above,  and for  this
reason,  NAPCA is supporting research in this area.
  Over  the  past three years, NAPCA has been supporting surveys
conducted by the Bureau of Mines, the Illinois Geological Survey and
private  firms to  obtain detailed information on the forms of sulfur in
coal and the degree of sulfur removal that can be achieved through
conventional coal-cleaning techniques. Thus far, tests have been made
of coals from 250 mines that  supply coal to electric utilities.  The
testing  has indicated that coal  from 17 percent of the mines can be
easily cleaned to a level of one percent sulfur and that  coal from an
additional 35 percent of the mines can be easily cleaned to a level of
1.5 percent  sulfur. Thus, these tests have  indicated that the  best
available coal cleaning techniques have the potential of cleaning more
than 50 percent  of the coal samples tested to  a level of 1.5 percent or
less sulfur.
  NAPCA also is supporting work that could lead to  construction of
a  prototype coal-cleaning plant.  The  plant would  be sufficiently
flexible  to  permit testing of  various coal-cleaning  techniques  and
evaluation of their effect on coal from various sources.  A contract has
been awarded for the development of a  design of such a plant;  the
design is due to  be completed by mid-1970.


  NAPCA's interest in  new combustion processes stems  from  the
possibility that some of them may provide improved opportunities for
control  of sulfur oxides pollution. One such  process is  fluidized-bed
combustion, which involves burning coal or oil in a dense fluidized-
bed of inert material. Combustion takes place within a temperature
range that is quite suitable for reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide,
thus enhancing the usefulness of limestone processes for  sulfur oxides
control.  Fluidized-bed combustion  also  offers  a variety of other
benefits, including higher heat transfer rates, lower capital costs, and,
possibly, lower nitrogen oxides emissions.
  NAPCA's research and development program relating to fluidized
bed  combustion  includes laboratory and pilot-scale studies being
conducted by the Argonne National Laboratory, the Bureau of Mines,
and  private contractors.  In addition, NAPCA has entered into a
US/Great Britain State Agreement to exchange technical information
on fluidized-bed  combustion. If fluidized-bed combustion is  proved
technically  feasible and  its potential for control of  sulfur oxides
pollution can be verified, NAPCA efforts in this area are likely to be

  Nitrogen oxides emissions from stationary  sources,  mainly electric
generating and space heating plants,  amounted to 7.9 million tons in
1966. Formation of nitrogen oxides is highly dependent on flame tem-
perature and oxygen concentration. Efforts to deal with the problem
are centered on  developing combustion processes which  minimize the
formation of nitrogen oxides and techniques  for removal of the pol-
lutant after it has been formed. Combustion process modifications
may prove  relatively easy  to  achieve,  but  they may  also reduce


combustion efficiency. Removal of nitrogen oxides poses a much more
difficult problem.  Some  basic  approaches for  removal of nitrogen
oxides from stack gas have been identified, but none has been developed
sufficiently to apply to a pilot-scale or commercial-scale operation.
These approaches include catalytic decompostion, catalytic reduction,
absorption on solids, and caustic scrubbing.
  NAPCA currently is supporting a comprehensive study of the nitro-
gen oxides problem. The immediate objectives of this study  are to
define the nature and extent of nitrogen oxides emissions from station-
ary sources in the United States, assess current technology for control
of nitrogen  oxides, with emphasis on combustion process modifica-
tions, and pave the way for preparation of a research and development
plan. This study is due to be completed early in 1970.

                        INDUSTRY STUDIES

  NAPCA has  initiated a series of studies on air pollution problems in
various industries. These studies are designed to identify gaps in cur-
rent technology for controlling air pollution and thus indicate needs
for research and development. A secondary, but very important, ob-
jective  is to encourage the industries involved to join  NAPCA in
undertaking and supporting the needed research and development.
  Studies were begun in Fiscal 1968 in the primary non-ferrous (cop-
per, lead,  and zinc) smelting industry and the integrated iron and steel
industry.  They were completed in mid-1969, except for a modification
of the iron-and-steel-industry study to include an in-depth study of
the coking  industry.  NAPCA is currently  reviewing the results of
these studies.
  In Fiscal 1969, studies were initiated in five industries, three by
contract (the pulp and paper, iron foundry, and sulfuric acid manu-
facturing) , one by cost sharing with an industrial trade association (the
graphic arts industry), and one by NAPCA internally (the secondary
metals  industry).
  A study in the primary aluminum industry will be initiated in Fiscal
1970, and studies of the phosphate fertilizer, cement, and petroleum
industries are planned for initiation in Fiscal 1971.

                       COMBUSTION STUDIES

  NAPCA has undertaken a study  of  intermediate-size combustion
units, including boilers, space heaters,  and other units used in indus-
trial and commercial  operations, which usually  emit their effluents
near ground level in or near densely populated areas. Their study will
define the air  pollution potential of such intermediate-size sources,
the  applicability  of existing control methods, and needs  for new
technology.  Also  included  in the study will be cost-effectiveness
evaluations of existing control methods, such as fuel  substitution,
combustion zone modifications, and limestone injection. A research
and development program  then will be formulated for providing
needed new  technology to improve or replace  methods that are not
economical or effective.
   NAPCA's work on  control of air pollution from  small and inter-
mediate-size combustion units also  include  evaluation  of possible
 emissions control by chemical additions to, and changes in the com-


position of, distillate  and residual fuel oils and by modification  of
burner designs and  combustion processes. At  the completion of the
present phase of the study, more than 200 patented  additives and
100  known compounds will have been tested  for their effect on air
pollution emissions.  Tests so far indicate that additives produce both
positive and negative effects on emissions of hydrocarbons. In recog-
nition of the fact that the additives,  themselves, represent a possible
source of pollutants, the participate combustion products are being
analyzed for metals  such as lead, barium and manganese.
   Results  of  tests  on residential  oil-fired  furnaces have  indicated
that emissions can be reduced by adjustment to the optimum air-fuel
ratio and that design criteria used by oil furnace manufacturers  in
production  of combustion  chambers  should  be revised to provide
sufficient  combustion residence  time  in  the furnace  to  complete
oxidation of the fuel. Tests on a number of inexpensive, commercially
manufactured combustion-improving  devices  for  oil-fired  furnaces
have identified  one  flame-retention device  that produces extremely
low air pollutant emissions and high furnace operating efficiency.


   Residential, commercial, and  industrial  waste generation,  which
now exceeds 350 million tons per year, is increasing at an annual rate
of four percent. An increasing portion, already more than half, of this
total  is collected by local agencies for disposal. As these trends con-
tinue upward, and as available landfill areas decrease, local authorities
are faced with critical waste disposal problems. To the limited extent
that municipal incinerators now exist, inadequate basic design and
lack of pollutant emission controls often result in serious air pollution
   To define present and future municipal incineration  air pollution
problems, causes, and feasible solutions, two broad studies  are now
in their final stages.  One study is assessing the extent of present and
future air  pollution emissions from  municipal incineration and  all
technically and  economically feasible means of emission reduction.
The other  study is  assessing present and  future  refuse quantities,
compositions, and combustion factors and the potential of combining
boiler and  nower generation technology with  incineration to  utilize
refuse as a low-sulfur fuel for central power stations.
   NAPCA is continuing work on incinerator emission sampling tech-
niques,  evaluation  of low-cost  pit incinerators, and evaluation  of
potential emissions resulting from the rapidly increasing plastic content
of municipal refuse.  All of NAPCA's work relating to incineration is
coordinated with that  of the Bureau of Solid Waste Management  of
the Environmental Control Administration.
//. To establish and, as necessary, to  revise national standards jor the
      control of air pollution from new motor vehicles and to insure com-
      pliance with existing standards
   Automobiles,  primarily  passenger  cars, are by  far the Nation's
largest source of carbon monoxide, and they are a major source  of
hydrocarbons  and nitrogen oxides, the two types of air pollutants
most involved in the formation of photochemical smog. To deal with
the motor vehicle pollution problem, the Department of Health, Educa-
tion,  and  Welfare is authorized to establish  and  enforce  national


standards applicable to new motor vehicles at the time of their original
  National standards applicable to carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon
emissions from new passenger cars and  light trucks first went into
effect in the  1968 model year. Tighter restrictions went into effect
at the  beginning of the  1970 model  yenr. Figure 12  compares the
revised standards with  those  that had been in effect in the  1968-69
model years. As shown in Figure 12, an additional reduction ol hydro-
carbon emissions will be required in the  1971 model  year as a result
of the  application of standards providing for limitations on hydro-
carbon evaporation from automobile fuel tanks and carburetors.


Hydrocarbons .
Carbon monoxide..,
Crankcasa Hydrocarbons.
Evaporat on Hydrocar-
bons .
Carbon monoxide...
Grams per
1968 national standards
Grams per
reduction «
1970 national standards
Grams per
reduction <
1971 national standards
Grams per
reduction '
85. «
  > Vehicles with a gross weight ot 6,000 pounds or less.
  > Tested according to Federal LDV lest procedures.
  » At 2,600 mill*.
  4 Percent reduction below 1963 emissions.
  * No standard in eft eel; number represents uncontrolled envisions.

   On January 1,  1970, national standards applicable  to heavy-duty
 motor vehicles will go into effect for the first time. Figure 13 shows the
 standards that will be applicable to new, gasoline-fueled, heavy-duty
 vehicles. New diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles also ^yill be affected.
 They will have to be equipped to comply with limitations on smoke

Carbon monoxide 	
CiMkcastblowby: Hydrocarbons 	

1963 model*
grams per
vehicle mile
6, 5

1970 national standards
grams per
vehicle mile
  i Vehicle with a gross vehicle weight greater lh*n 6.0CO pounds.
  > Tested accord ng to Federal HDV test procedures.

   Though the standards already established will reverse the upward
 trend in total  emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons from
 motor vehicles, this effect will be relatively short-lived. The number of
 motor vehicles in use in the Nation is increasing; so is the use made of
 each  one. In another decade, these trends will more  than offset the
 effect of the national standards established thus far.  Then, total
 emissions of carbon monoxide  and hydrocarbons will again begin to


  To prevent this from happening, further tightening of the standards
will be necessary; in addition, standards will have to be set for motor
vehicle pollutants not already covered, such as nitrogen oxides and
particulate matter. Accordingly, NAPCA is in the process of establish-
ing long-term emission reduction goals, as well as intermediate goals to
be reached by the mid-1970's.
  In regard to compliance with the motor  vehicle emission standards,
two  significant problem  areas have  been identified on the  basis of
experience to date:
  First, the current  program for determining whether new  motor
vehicles will comply with applicable standards rests  mainly on testing
of phototype vehicles  in advance of actual production. Typically, the
prototypes meet the standards, often by a substantial margin. On the
basis of prototype testing, manufacturers are entitled to receive certifi-
cates which are valid for at least one year and which carry with them a
presumption that production vehicles which are of  substantially the
same construction  as prototypes will  perform like the prototypes,
insofar as air pollution control is concerned. There is evidence, however,
that this is not  entirely  true, but rather, that air  pollution control
systems installed in mass-produced vehicles often lose some of their
effectiveness more rapidly  than prototype systems do. Evidence of
such deterioration has come from testing of more than 4,000 cars by
the California Air Resources Board and limited testing conducted by
NAPCA in the Los Angeles and Detroit areas. NAPCA has  initiated
additional testing in other urban areas. In the meantime, consideration
is being given to various ways of obtaining greater assurance that the
air pollution control capabilities demonstrated by prototype systems
will be matched by assemblyline products.
  The second significant  problem  involves importation of  motor
vehicles not equipped to meet applicable national  standards for air
pollution control. The national standards established under the Clean
Air Act can be and are applied to imported, as well as American-made,
vehicles. For the most part, imported cars  are equipped to comply
with the standards. Under the law, however, cars are not subject to
the standards if they are not being  imported for sale or resale  or if
they are not new, i.e., title to them  was transferred to the  ultimate
purchaser before their entry into the country. These exemptions permit
returning  tourists  and military personnel to  import non-conforming
cars  legally. In addition, an unknown, but undoubtedly significant,
number of cars is brought in illegally. Though it is difficult to identify
such violations, some  were  identified during the past year and prose-
cution was initiated.  A massive enforcement program would be
necessary, however, to stop all illegal entries; even then, non-con-
forming cars still could be imported legally  under  existing  law. An
amendment to the  Clean Air Act will be necessary  to deal with this
                     CALIFORNIA STANDARDS

  The Clean Air Act prohibits State governments  from adopting or
enforcing  air pollution control standards applicable to new  motor
vehicles, but  it permits the Secretary of Health, Education, and
Welfare to  waive this prohibition under certain  circumstances.  A
State may obtain  such  a  waiver if it had  adopted motor vehicle
emission standards (other than crankcase standards) prior to March


30, 1966, and if compelling and extraordinary conditions in the State
require standards more stringent than the national standards. Cali-
fornia is the only State which meets both criteria.
  In September 1968, California requested a waiver to permit enforce-
ment of a series  of increasingly stringent emission standards in the
1970-74 and later model years. A waiver applicable  to 1968-69 model
year standards had been granted previously. Public hearings on the
request were held March 4-6,  1969. Testimony was presented by
State officials, representatives of automobile manufacturers, and other
interested parties. Following examination of the hearing  record, the
Secretary granted a waiver applicable to the omission standards shown
in Figure  14.

           FIGURE 14.—Ca1ifornia vehicle emission standards
  I. Gasoline-powered motor vehicles under 6,001 pounds manufacturer's maxi-
mum gross vehicle weight having an engine displacement of 50 cubic inches or
Exhaust emissions:
    1. 1971 model year	 2.2 grams per mile hydrocarbons.
                              23 grams per mile carbon monoxide.
                              4 grams per mile oxides of nitrogen.
    2. 1972 and 1973 model years. 1.5 grams per mile hydrocarbons.
                              23 grams per mile carbon monoxide.
                              3 grams per mile oxides of nitrogen,
    3. 1974 and later model years, 1.5 grams per mile hydrocarbons.
                              23 grams per mile carbon monoxide.
                               1.3 grams per mile oxides of nitrogen.
  II. Gasoline-powered truck-tractor or bus over C,001 pounds, manufacturer's
gross vehicle weight:
Exhaust emissions:
    1972 and later model years	180 p.p.m. of hydrocarbons.
                               1 percent carbon monoxide.
/. To insure the  development and demonstration oj new  or improved
     techniques for  reducing motor  vehicle pollution,  including  the
     development and  demonstration of low-pollution engines
   NAPCA conducts and supports research and development relating
to the  prevention and control of air pollution from motor vehicles.
This  activity  includes research on fuels, investigation  of emission
control techniques applicable to the internal combustion  engine, and
developmental studies of other types of engines suitable for use in
motor vein les. NAPCAJs work in tnese areas is intended  to stimulate
and supplement research and  development by organizations  in the
private sector. In addition,  it provides knowledge  needed to comply
with  the statutory requirement that "technological feasibility and
economic  costs"  be  taken  into account  in  the   establishment  of
national standards for motor vehicle pollution control.
   In collaboration with the  National Aeronautics and Space Admin-
istration (NASA), NAPCA is investigating high temperature resistant
materials  and coating  for  application  in the development  of an
exhaust  manifold  reactor   that  would  permit  high-temperature
oxidation  of hydrocarbons  and carbon  monoxide. Various metallic
and ceramic materials are to be tested for their ability to withstand
the high temperatures  necessary for such oxidation; testing is scheduled
to begin in mid-1970.
   Two projects  are underway to test the feasibility of  exhaust gas
recirculation systems  for controlling nitrogen  oxides emissions. In


one of the projects, the performance of the system  is being tested
under normal driving conditions. In the other, its durability is being
evaluated at NAPCA's laboratory facilities.
  The feasibility of three techniques for controlling particulate emis-
sions, including lead, from  motor vehicles is being investigated.  One
of the techniques  is sonic agglomeration;  a small sound  generator
induces particles in the exhaust gas stream to form clumps which can
be trapped and thus prevented from escaping into the  air. The  second
is thermal precipitation, by which hot particles are attracted to a cool
surface. The third  is molten carbonate scrubbing; a chemical reaction
removes  particles from  the exhaust gas stream.  The scrubbing tech-
niques may also reduce nitrogen oxides emissions. If the studies now
in progress suggest that such techniques are practical, development
and demonstration of the necessary hardware would follow.
  NAPCA is continuing to  participate in  motor vehicle  pollution-
related research projects sponsored by the Coordinating Research
Council.  NAPCA  participates  in those projects which are deemed
relevant  to its program objectives; currently,  it is participating  in
about 20 projects. Among them are studies of adverse effects of  carbon
monoxide, fate of  carbon monoxide in  the  atmosphere, relationship
of fuel composition and volatility exhaust emissions, diesel  odors,
urban driving patterns,  and surveillance, inspection, and maintenance
procedures for minimizing motor vehicle emissions. NAPCA is inde-
pendently conducting and  supporting additional studies in some  of
these areas.
  In the  area of fuels research, NAPCA is supporting  research  by the
Bureau of Mines on fuel volatility in relation to hydrocarbon evapora-
tion. The objective is to identify gasoline mixtures that would have
low-evaporation characteristics but still be acceptable from the stand-
point of price and  performance. The advantage of this approach—or
any other fuel change—is that it would reduce hydrocarbon emissions
from all  motor vehicles, regardless of whether  they were subject  to
pollution control standards.
  The feasibility of using liquid natural gas (LNG) as a motor  vehicle
fuel also is being investigated. Through the cooperation of the General
Services  Administration, 12  cars have been equipped to use LNG.
Emissions are being measured every 4,000 miles. This project will
be completed in 1970. Though  LNG probably is not suitable for
routine use in family cars, it may well be  practical  for use in  fleet
operations. In many urban areas, motor vehicle fleets account for  as
much as  10 percent of the total motor vehicle population.
  In the area of diesel emissions, NAPCA is conducting  tests  of a
privately developed catalytic reactor designed to reduce diesel odors.
Also being investigated is the reactor's effect  on  gaseous emissions
from diesel engines.
  In addition to work on air pollution control  techniques applicable
to the internal combustion engine, NAPCA has begun moving toward
the development and demonstration of unconventional, low-pollution
engines. Two projects relating to the design and  development  of a
Rankine-cycle engine for use in passenger cars were initiated  during
the past year. One of the projects is intended to produce a conceptual
design of a Rankine-cycle engine comparable  to  the internal com-
bustion engine insofar as performance, weight, and price are concerned.
The other project  is a study  of the combustion characteristics of the
heat-generating  portion of a Rankine-cycle engine.  Rankine-cycle


engines can be designed to operate on water vapor (steam) or vapor
arising from other fluids. The steam car is, of course, the best known
example of an automobile powered by a Rankine-cycle engine.
  No matter what engines and fuels are in use, the impact of motor
vehicle pollution can be reduced through proper highway design and
traffic handling. In collaboration with the Bureau of the Public Roads
of the Department of Transportation and  the  City of New York,
NAPCA is engaged in an effort to identify highway configurations that
will offer the greatest possibility of minimizing exposure to air pollution
from motor vehicles.
  Finally, in keeping with its role as the lead agency in the Federal
government's air pollution reseafch and development efforts, NAPCA
has been working on the development of a five-year plan for Federal
efforts relating to motor vehicle pollution control.  This plan will en-
compass all  Federal activities in this problem area and will serve to
place the  total Federal effort in perspective with  non-governmental
activities. Private sector efforts are particularly important. If the pri-
vate sector engages in productive research  and development in the
area of motor vehicle pollution control, the  Federal effort can be re-
duced to some extent. The five-year plan being developed by NAPCA
will include work on both the internal combustion engine and alterna-
tive systems, hardware and fuels, instrumentation, and environmental
J. To  develop and implement procedures jor the registration  of
     additives, with initial emphasis on motor vehicle fuel additives
  Many fuels used in transportation and heating contain chemical addi-
tives which improve combustion or alter the physical properties of the
fuel or other characteristics important to the fuel user. Such addi-
tives may enter the atmosphere either through evaporation or as a re-
sult of the  combustion  process. The Clean Air  Act,  as  amended,
authorizes the Secretary to require registration of any additive used in
a fuel  which  is sold in interstate commerce.  Proposed regulations
requiring registration of additives used in gasoline have been prepared
by NAPCA and reviewed by an industry liaison committee. On July
30, 1969, the proposed  regulations were published in the Federal
  A number of the comments received from fuel and additive manu-
facturers and  trade associations included objections  to some  of  the
requirements proposed  as part of the registration procedure. The
issues raised by these parties are under consideration. Final regulations,
incorporating any changes made in response to the comments,  will be
published as soon as the issues have been resolved. Gasoline  additives
would  have to be registered within six months of the publication of
the final regulations.
K. To encourage  the application oj the best available control techniques
     Jor dealing with air pollution from jet aircraft
  Aircraft are not among the Nation's largest sources of air pollution,
but they are one of the most conspicious. This is particularly  true of
jet aircraft,  which leave  trails of smoke behind them as they fly into
and out of the Nation's airports and as they warm up their engines
and taxi to and from terminals.
  Like smoke from most other sources, that emitted by jet engines
can be controlled. Jet  engine manufacturers have  developed new,


almost smokeless combustors. Starting in February 1970, such com-
bustors will be built into new jet engines. The new combustors also
can be installed in engines already in use. Early next spring, smokeless
combustors will be  available in sufficient quantities to permit large-
scale replacement of present combustors.
  In August 1969,  after an investigation of this problem, NAPCA
invited the Nation's commercial airlines and major engine manufac-
turers to a meeting to discuss installation of the smokeless combustors
in existing  engines.  NAPCA suggested that each such engine, at the
time of its  next major  overhaul, be equipped with a smokeless cpm-
bustor.  If such a schedule were to  be followed, most JT-8D engines
(the type most commonly used in domestic planes) would be smokeless
by mid-1972.
  The major  commercial airlines  were represented  at  the meeting
by the Air Transport Association.  In response to the timetable pro-
posed by NAPCA, the airline representatives suggested one that would
achieve the same result, but not until 1975.
  NAPCA  plans to continue its efforts  to  persuade the airlines to
attack the  problem more promptly on a voluntary basis. If these
efforts prove fruitless,  statutory authority to set  standards will  be
sought, as  indicated in the January 1969  report to the Congress,
entitled Nature and Control of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions.
  Smoke (particulate matter) is not the  only type of air pollutants
emitted by  aircraft. They also emit various types of gaseous pollutants,
including hydrocarbons, carbon  monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. To
the extent  that the new smokeless combustors burn fuel  more effi-
ciently, their use may serve to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monox-
ide emissions. But  further attention  will have to be given to this
aspect of the problem.

              Chapter III. OTHER ACTIVITIES

  This chapter covers NAPCA's involvement in compilation and dis-
semination of technical information and in cooperative activites with
other nations and with international organizations. Also covered in
this  chapter  are the activities of advisory  groups established under
section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended.
A. To compile  and disseminate  technical information on the nature,
      effects, and control of air pollution
  NAPCA is a central source of technical information on all aspects
of air pollution and its prevention and control. On request, informa-
tion  is made available to State and  local agencies, scientists and
engineers, and  others interested in air pollution  control,  including
NAPCA's own staff. Approximately 1,300  requests for  technical in-
formation were  received during the past year. NAPCA's  responses
were in forms such as abstracts of published papers, references to the
scientific and technical literature, or excerpts of published materials.
  To maintain  an up-to-date store of technical information, NAPCA
has about 1,000 scientific  and technical journals screened. About 400
are published in English, the others in various other languages. Perti-
nent articles  and abstracts are microfilmed and stored in a data bank.
By the end of 1969, there were about  12,400  articles and reports in
the data bank. New items are  being added at a rate of about 1,000
per month.
  NAPCA also supports  and  participates  in the preparation and
distribution of  a monthly compilation of abstracts of scientific and
technical literature. This  publication is mailed each month to about
1,500 individuals and organizations.
B, To encourage and participate in a continuing international exchange
      of information on air pollution and, where appropriate, to support
      research in foreign countries
  NAPCA's  international program was begun primarily as a means
of promoting and coordinating United States involvement in inter-
national  activities in the field of ah*  pollution  control, and it has
continued to serve this purpose. To an increasing extent,  NAPCA
itself is participating in the air pollution-related  activities of various
international organizations. NAPCA's international program is pred-
icated on  the  philosophy that  all Nations, whether  fully  indus-
trialized or just beginning to develop, can benefit from  a continuing
exchange of ideas and information on ways of dealing with the problem
of air pollution, which, in  a real sense, is a global problem. NAPCA's
international activities include  collaboration with the World Health
Organization (WHO) on the establishment of an International Refer-
ence Center for Air Pollution; representation on the World Meteoro-
logical Organization  (WMO)  Working  Group   on Atomospheric
Pollution and Atmospheric Chemistry; cooperation with the Economic
Commission  of Europe in planning a Seminar on Desulfurization of


Fuels and Combustion Gases to be held in 1970; discussions with repre-
sentatives of the Commission of the European Communities on  the
feasibility of its becoming the instrument for testing and inspecting
European-produced automobiles to determine whether they conform
with U.S. standards  and regulations; and provision of staff support
to the International Joini, Commission (United States and Canada)
in air  pollution studies  of  the  Detroit, Michigan-Windsor, Ontario
and Port Huron, Michigan-Sarnia, Ontario areas.
   Under Public Law 480, NAPCA is supporting the research projects
in Poland, Yugoslavia,  and Israel.  NAPCA also is involved in  ex-
changes of information or personnel and/or collaborative research with
Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, France, and Great Britain,
C, To enlist the advice and assistance oj non-Federal experts and other
    interested and informed citizens
   More than a dozen advisory groups have been established under
section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended. Their areas of interest
range from that of the President's Air Quality Advisory Board, which
is concerned  with the full spectrum of activities conducted under  the
Act, to the more  specialized concerns  of various technical advisory
   The President's Air Quality Advisory Board met three times during
the past year and gave particular attention to the problem of motor
vehicle pollution. The Board called for an accelerated effort to  bring
this proolem under control. It recommended  steps  such as  a  coor-
dinated Federal research and development effort and Federal purchase
of low-emission motor  vehicles and fuels  with low air  pollution
   Technical advisory committees established in previous years con-
tinued their activities in  the areas of air quality criteria development,
preparation of reports on air pollution control techniques, manpower
development, air  pollution  control  agency development, research
grants, and  fuel additives.  New committees began working  with
NAPCA during the past year in areas such as motor vehicle research
and development,  air pollution  chemistry and physics, and meteorol-
   Also in operation  are a  number  of industry  liaison  committees
set up to  promote exchanges of information and/or  to facilitate the
conduct of NAPCA studies of industrial air pollution problems.  Such
committees currently are active in regard to the paper pulp, iron found-
ry, iron-and-steel, primary smelter, and organic solvents industries.

                           (In millions of dollars)

                                       Fiscal yiir—
                            1966       1967      1968       1961       1970
Authorization .....................      30.4      46.0     109.0      185.0      134.3
ftSvU*::.: ......... : ......      ».o      »s      M2      iw.?       95.1
Appropriation .........................      26-6      40.0      64.2      tt.7 ..............



                            BUDGET AND MANPOWER INFORMATION

                                     [Dollars in thousands)
Fiscal year—
Positions >
Program subcaleooiy.
E Heels and surveillance 	
Control and compliance . .
Bud?el activity:
1. Abatement and control:
(a) Grants
(b) Direct operations . .
2. Research, development and
(b) Direct operations
3. Manpower training:
(a) Grants
(b) Direct operations
4. Program direction and manage-
men' services 	 	
Total . .


Amount a Positions'
9 017
21, 557

1970 (estimated)
Amount: Positions '
55, 662
7, C8!
80, 174
2?, 702 ...
20,138 ..
20, 940
3,156 ..

67, 161
94, 132
25, 175
10, 019
1 Numbers of positions authorized.
 1 Amounts obligated.
* Amounts available for obligation tor the President s budget,