Prepublication issue for EPA libraries
              and State Solid Waste Management Agencies
                   A TECHNICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND

             ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE "WET PROCESSING

               SYSTEM FOR THE RECOVERY AND DISPOSAL

                      OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE"
    This final report (SW-109c) describes work performed for the
Federal solid waste management programs under contract No. 68-01-2211
          and is reproduced as received from the contractor


          Copies of this report will be available from the
               National Technical Information Service
                    U.S. Department of Commerce
                   Springfield, Virginia  22151
               U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

                               1975

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This report as submitted by the grantee or contractor has not been
technically reviewed by the U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency (EPA).
Publication does not signify that the contents  necessarily reflect the
views and policies of EPA, nor does mention of  commercial products
constitute endorsement or recommendation for use by the U.S.  Government.

An environmental protection publication (SW-109c) in the solid waste
management series.

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                     TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Figures                                         v

List of  Tables                                         vll

Acknowledgments                                         viii

Section

1.0  SUMMARY OF EVALUATION                              1
     1.1   Introduction                                 1
     1.2   Plant Performance                            1
     1.3   Technical Evaluation                         2
     1.4   Environmental Evaluation                     4
     1.5   Economic Evaluation                          6

2.0  INTRODUCTION                                       8
     2.1   Objectives of Study                          8
     2.2   History and Background                       9
     2.3   Process  Description                        10

3.0  OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY                            13

4.0  EVALUATION METHODS USED                           21
     4.1   Study Matrix Development                    21
     4.2   Sampling  Methods                           21
     4.3   Systems Concept and Network Analysis        23

5.0  RESULTS OF TECHNICAL EVALUATION                   28
     5.1   Introduction                                28
     5.2   Pulping and Separation Subsystem            28
     5.3   Dewatering and Incineration Subsystem       51
     5.4   Fiber Recovery System                       60
     5.5   Summary of Power Usage                      71
     5.6   Summary of Water Usage                      72
     5.7   Maintenance History Data                    80
     5.8   Recovered Material Characterization         87
     5.9   Material Balance of the Franklin Solid
             Waste Plant                               89
     5.10  Heat and Ash Content Data                   93

6.0  RESULTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE
       FRANKLIN SOLID WASTE PLANT                      96
     6.1   Introduction                                96
     6.2   Environmental Impact on Air Quality         96
                             iii

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     6.3   Environmental Impact on Water Quality       98
     6.4   Closed Loop Operation                      104
     6.5   Environmental Impact on Land               105
     6.6   Noise Pollution                            106
     6.7   Odor Within and Outside of Plant           108
     6.8   Bacteriological Data                       108

7.0  RESULTS OF ECONOMIC EVALUATION                   110
     7.1   Introduction                               110
     7.2   Approach to Developing the Economic Data   m
     7.3   Development of Non-Dollar Related Cost
             Factors from Franklin Experience         111
     7.4   Franklin Operating Experience - Actual
             35 T/D, Projected 50 T/D and
             Projected 150 T/D                        122
     7.5   Projection To 500 and 1000 T/D Size Plant  125

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                        LIST OF FIGURES

No.                                                    Page
 1   Flow Schematic of the Franklin Environmental
       Complex                                          12

 2   Pulping and Separation Subsystem                   14

 3   Dewatering and Incineration Subsystem              16

 4   Fiber Recovery System - Normal Mode                18

 5   Fiber Recovery System - Thickening Mode            20

 6   Study Matrix                                       22

 7   Schematic Diagram                                  23

 8   Mode/Branch Network                                24

 9   P&S System Boundary                                26

10   Material Balance Sheet - Pulping and
       Separation Subsystem                             29

11   Pulping and Separation Subsystem
       Stream Characterization                          35

12   Figure Deleted

13   Seasonal Variation of Refuse Composition           39

14   Whitewater Consumption - Pulping and
       Separation Subsystem                             47

15   Process Water Consumption - P&S Subsystem          48

16   Power Consumption - Hydrapulper                    49

17   Material Balance Sheet - Dewatering and
       Incineration Subsystem                           53

18   Dewatering and Incineration Subsystem -
       Stream Characterization Data                     57

19   Material Balance Sheet - Fiber Recovery System     61

20   Fiber Recovery System - Stream Characterization    65

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No.                                                    Page

21   Water Consumption - Fiber Recovery                 67

22   Whitewater and Process Water Consumption
       per Ton Refuse Input to Fiber Recovery           68

23   Power Consumption Data per Ton Refuse Input
       to Fiber Recovery                                69

24   Power Usage in the Franklin Plant                  73

25   Points of Whitewater and Process Water
       Usage in the Franklin Plant                      77

26   Whitewater Usage in the Franklin Plant             78

27   Whitewater per Ton of Refuse Input to the
       P&S Subsystem                                    79

28   Process Water per Ton Refuse Input to P&S
       Subsystem                                        81

29   Process Water Usage in the Franklin Plant          82

30   City Water Usage per Ton Input to D&I
       Subsystem                                        83

31   Material Balance Diagram of the Franklin
       Plant - Total                                    90

32   Material Balance Diagram of the Franklin
       Plant - One Ton Input                            92

33   Heat Balance Diagram of the Franklin Plant         95

34   Noise Levels Franklin Plant                       107
                            VI

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                       LIST OF TABLES

No.                                                   Page

 1   Refuse Composition Comparison Table               33

 2   Typical Composition of Solid Waste Categories
       Found in Input to the Franklin Solid
       Waste Plant                                     37

 3   Whitewater Characteristics                        42

 4   Process Water Characteristics                     45

 5   Power Usage of Equipment Items                    59

 6   Major Electrically Operated Equipment by System   74

 7   Maintenance History for Franklin Solid
       Waste Plant                                     84

 8   Ash Slurry                                        99

 9   Sewage Sump                                      100

10   Whitewater Sump                                  102

11   Whitewater Characteristics                       103

12   Operating Labor                                  114

13   Maintenance Material Cost Factors                118

14   Monthly Franklin Actual Operating Experience
       35 T/D x 750 T/M                               123

15   Monthly Franklin Projected Operating Experience
       50 T/D x 1,075 T/M                             124

16   Monthly Franklin Projected Operating Cost -
       150 T/D (Optimum) - 3225 T/M                   126

17   Monthly Franklin Facility Costs Projected to
       500 T/D - 10,750 T/M                           129

18   Monthly Franklin Facility Costs Projected to
       1,000 T/D - 21,500 T/M                         131

19   Economic Summary of Projected Franklin
       Type Facility                                  134

20    Economic Summary of Projected Franklin Plant
       with No Fiber Recovery and Using Rejects
       as a Fuel                                       ^35

                             vil

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                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This document presents the results of a study performed for
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid
Waste Management, by Systems Technology Corporation.  Mr.
Dave Arella was the initial technical monitor for the EPA.
Mrs. Yvonne Garbe and Mr. Fred Smith assumed technical
direction upon the departure of Mr. Arella.  Mr. Melvin C.
Eifert was the Project Engineer for Systems Technology
Corporation.
The performance of this study required the cooperation of
many individuals.  Without the help and interest of these
contributors, it would have been impossible to gather the
data reported herein.  The authors wish to acknowledge the
contributions of Mr. Dave Arella, Mrs. Yvonne Garbe and
Mr. Fred Smith of the U.S.EPA; Messrs. Howard Creelman,
Paul Marsh and Earl Blakely of Black-Clawson, Fibreclaim
Incorporated; and Mr. Bernard Eichholtz of the City of
Franklin, Ohio.  The authors further acknowledge the
contributions of Messrs. Wilbur Brooks, Anwar A. Ghazee,
and Michael J. Hoegler of Systems Technology Corporation.
                           viii

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1.0  SUMMARY OF EVALUATION

1.1  INTRODUCTION

This report presents the results of a study to perform a
technical, economic, and environmental evaluation of the
wet processing concept for the disposal of solid waste.
The facility of interest is the Franklin Solid Waste and
Fiber Recovery  Plant, located in Franklin, Ohio.  The
data derived and presented in this report is intended to
be used by engineers and administrators involved in problems
of solid waste disposal.

The facility as designed consists of three major systems;
Hydrasposal (containing the pulping, separation, dewatering
and incineration subsystems); Fiber Recovery; and Glass
Recovery.  This report presents the data for the Hydrasposal
and Fiber Recovery systems only.  A subsequent report will
present the Glass Recovery Evaluation.

1.2  PLANT PERFORMANCE

The Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber Recovery Plant has been
operational since May 1971, processing an average of 35 tons
per day at a throughput rate of approximately 7 tons per
hour.  During this time, the plant has never turned away
material from the tipping floor due to overload or equipment
failure.

The plant recovers magnetic materials, paper fiber, and
glass.   It is capable of recovering 94% of the incoming
magnetic fraction, and 48.9% of the input paper fraction.

With all systems except the glass plant operating, the
plant consumes 157 Kwh of power per ton of input refuse.
Of this, 21% is consumed by the hydrapulper, 71% by the
remaining portion of the separation, dewatering, and
incineration system, and 8% by the fiber recovery system.

When fiber recovery is not used, the facility can operate
in a closed loop mode which is water deficient (i.e., it
requires additional water for pulping and does not dis-
charge water that would require treatment by a wastewater
treatment plant).

With fiber recovery operational, the plant requires 3060
gallons of water/ton of input refuse for its operation.
The plant in turn sends 2500 gallons of Whitewater/ton of
input refuse for treatment to the adjacent wastewater
treatment plant.  At Franklin, 2300 gallons/ton of the
required water comes from the final clarified water of the

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adjacent wastewater treatment plant.  760 gallons/ton of city
water is also used for the operation of the plant.

Without the glass plant, approximately 20.4% of the refuse
stream by weight, requires landfilling.  The landfill material
includes the feed to the glass plant, the non-magnetic fraction,
and oversized rejects pulled from the solid waste input on
the tipping floor.  With the glass plant operating, 15%
by weight, requires landfilling.  The following paragraphs
will present more information about the technical, environ-
mental, and economic evaluations for each of the major
systems within the plant.

1.3  TECHNICAL EVALUATION

1.3.1  Pulping and Separation (P&S) Subsystem
The approximate composition of the raw solid waste at the
Franklin Plant follows:

                 Inerts                   3.4%
                 Non-Fiber Organics      37.0%
                 Glass                    8.5%
                 Magnetic Metals          9.8%
                 Non-Magnetic Metals      1.3%
                 Paper                   40.0%

An initial 7.5% (by weight) of the raw solid waste is
removed from the tipping floor as unprocessable materials.

In the first step of the pulping and separation sub-
system the solid waste is sent to the hydrapulper where
it is pulped and divided into a light and heavy stream.
The light fraction leaving the pulper reflects approximately
76.5% (by weight)  of the input refuse.  The heavy fraction
removed from the hydrapulper, is approximately 15.8% by
weight,  and passes by a magnetic belt which removes the
magnetic material from the non-magnetic material.

The light fraction from the hydrapulper goes to a liquid cyclone
where it is divided into another light fraction and a
heavy fraction.  The heavy fraction is the feed to the glass
plant and has a glass content of approximately 55%.  The
feed to the glass plant has a size distribution as follows:

               < 1/4"                  30.0%
          1/4"  <. 3/4"                  60.2%
               > 3/4"                   9.8%

The size distribution changes significantly depending upon

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   the condition of the pulper hammers between replacement.

   The light fraction from the cyclone is fed to the fiber
   recovery system.  Average fiber content in this stream is
   approximately 44%.  This stream has a solids content between
   1.5 and 4.1% and has an average heating value of 7700
   BTU/lb on a dry weight basis.  The fractional break-out of
   the input refuse from the pulping and separation system is
   as follows:
          Unprocessables
               7.5%                    Magnetic
                                       'Separation
                                         15.8%

 Raw    100%
Waste	
Input
                                                       To Fiber
                                                       Recovery
                                                          61%
                                            To Glass
                                              Plant
                                              15.2%
   More detailed technical information about the pulping and
   separation subsystem can be found in Section 5.2.

   1.3.2  Dewatering and Incineration (D&I)  Subsystem

   The D&I subsystem receives,  dewaters, and incinerates
   the unusable portion (reject)  from the fiber recovery system,
   or the entire process stream from the P & S subsystem.
   With fiber recovery operating, the rejects from fiber re-
   covery,  unrecovered residuals, are stored for dewatering
   and incineration.  If fiber recovery is not used, the
   stream from the cyclone is stored for dewatering and
   incineration.

   Dewatering is accomplished by  a two stage process.   The
   first state is a barrel thickener which reduces the moisture
   content to 80 - 82%, and the second step is a cone press which

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reduces the moisture content to 53 -  55%.  Wastewater
treatment sludge is introduced into the stream prior to
the cone press dewatering step.  The material is then
pneumatically conveyed to the reactor.  The material has
a heat value of 8600 BTU/lb on a dry weight basis and
3600 BTU/lb on an as-received basis.

1.3.3  Fiber Recovery System

The fiber recovery system receives the light fraction
from the cyclone in the pulping and separation subsystem
and recovers a portion of the usable fiber contained in
it.  This recovered fiber is used by an adjacent manufacturer
as a substitute for other paper sources in the manufacturing
of roofing felt.

The first step of the fiber recovery process screens all
particles greater than 1/16" from the stream.  The second
step pumps the fiber stream through centrifugal cleaners
where grit particles are removed.  The third step directs
the fiber stream to a run-down screen which removes
small fibers and water from the stream.  The rejects from
the first screening operation and the centrifugal cleaners
are stored prior to dewatering and incineration.

The slurrv containing the washed and recovered fiber has
a solids consistency of approximately 2.2%.  Approximately
48% of the fiber in the incoming waste is recovered.  The
recovered fiber is then dewatered through a barrel thickener
and cone press similar to that used in the dewatering and
incineration subsystem where the material moisture content
can be reduced from 97% to 55%.  The recovered fiber has a
heat content of approximately 7200 BTU/lb on a dry weight
basis, an oil and grease count of 2460 mg/1, and a
bacterial count as follows:
            Total Plate Count           427 X lo
            Fecal Coliform              1.3 X 10 /100ml

The average power consumed by the fiber recovery system
is 21.9 Kwh/ ton of input to fiber recovery.  The amount
of process water used per ton of material to the fiber
recovery system averages 1600 gallons.

1.4  ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION

1.4.1  Environmental Impact on Air Quality

The effect on air quality of the Franklin Solid Waste and
Fiber Recovery Plant can be determined by evaluating the
emissions from the fluidized bed incinerator.  Based on test
data performed by an independent lab in January, 1972, the
exhaust gases from the venturi scrubber contain a particulate

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loading of 6.11 Ib/hour (a grain loading of .019 G/SDCF),
SO, of less than 7 ppm, a NO  level of 125 ppm and a
moisture content of 34%.  These emissions comply with
current Ohio Air Pollution control regulations.  Section
6.2 of this report presents more detailed information
about the environmental impact on air quality.

1.4.2  Environmental Impact on Water Quality

The impact on water quality was assessed by evaluating
the influent and effluent flows from the solid waste plant.
At Franklin, liquid inputs to the solid waste plant con-
sist  of process water obtained from the chlorinated final
effluent from the adjacent wastewater treatment plant,
and city water obtained from the municipal water supply
of the City of Franklin.  A third input is the moisture
contained in the input refuse and sewage sludge.

There are three liquid outputs from the solid waste plant
which flow to the adjacent sewage treatment plant; (1) liquid
extracted by the dewatering and incineration subsystem;
(2) ash slurry from the venturi scrubber; and  (3) liquids
removed in the fiber recovery system.

The output from the venturi scrubber (ash water) does not
require biological treatment and only requires solids re-
moval.  The combined flows from the D & I subsystem is
approximately 4400 gal/ton input.  The BOD,, loading is
approximately 100 pounds BOD-/ton, which represents a
population equivalent of 600 people/ton.  The combined
suspended solid loading averages 160 pounds of suspended
solids/ton.  The effluent from fiber recovery contributes
81% of the suspended solids loading and 73% of the BOD5
loading of the effluents leaving the plant.

The plant has operated under a closed loop condition
(without fiber recovery).  Under this test condition,
62 gallons of water per ton of refuse processed is con-
sumed.  The conclusion drawn from this test was that the
plant can be operated on a closed loop basis without external
connection to a wastewater treatment plant.  More detailed
information on the environmental impact on water quality
can be found in section 6.4.

1.4.3  Environmental Impact on Land

 One of the original objectives of the Franklin Solid Waste
and Fiber Recovery Plant was to reduce the quantity of
material to be landfilled.  If it is assumed that the tipping
floor unprocessable material, the non-magnetic junk, and
the glass plant feed requires .landfilling, a savings of 71%
in landfill volume can be achieved with the operation of a

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Franklin type plant.  With the glass plant operational, a
savings of 76% in landfill volume can be achieved.

1.4.4  Noise Pollution

In the current design, the hydrapulper generates noise
levels up to 104 dBA.  Personnel involved in the pulper
operation are not required to be in the room during the
operation  of the equipment.  Hence, these personnel are
not exposed to noise levels exceeding OSHA standards.
Alternate designs are available that would isolate the
hydrapulper so that noise would be minimized.  Noise levels
outside the plant at 100 to 150 feet from the plant are
in the range of 50 to 60 dBA.

1.4.5  Odor Analysis

During normal operation of the plant, a slight garbage
odor is detectable outside near the tipping floor, and
within the plant.  However, this odor problem is minimal
and at 100 to 150 feet from the facility, there is little
or no detectable odor.  When the plant is accepting sewage
from the adjacent wastewater treatment plant, there is
a slight increase of sewage smell within the plant.

1.4.6  Bacteriological Analysis

By the nature of the material being handled, there is a
biological hazard present.  In the wet media the hazard
should be no worse than anything processed through a
sewage plant.  If fact, it would seem that the presents
of airborne contaminants would be less in a wet media than
it would be in any air classified system.

1.5  ECONOMIC EVALUATION

Economic data for all major subsystems within the plant
were developed.  This will enable the use of this information
for interested parties who may want to consider the use
of only some part of the Franklin plant.  Because of the
energy crisis, it is doubtful that any future plants based
on wet processing would incorporate an incinerator for the
disposal of the residuals.  Rather these residuals would
be used as fuel.  Hence, providing the data by subsystem,
the economic information will be of much greater value.

The base line economic data was developed for 35 ton/day (T/D)
processing, which was the average operating tonnage during
the period of the evaluation.  Using these data,  the economic
data was projected to 150 T/D which was the design capacity
for the Franklin plant.  The economic data was further
projected to 500 T/D and 1000 T/D plant sizes.   The economic data

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     further presents the effects of selling the rejects as a
     fuel rather than disposing of the material in the incinerator.
     The following two tables summarize the economic data presented
     in section 7.0
     FACILITY
COSTS
  Franklin
Projected To
  150 T/D
  Franklin
Projected To
  500 T/D
  Franklin
Projected To
  1,000 T/D
Income
Paper Fiber
Magnetic Metals
Sludge Disposal
Operating Expenses
Facility Expense
(20 yr. depr.)
NET COST
Operational Economic
$ 8.06/T
$ 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
512.21/T
$15.22/T
$ 9.34/T
$ 8.06/T
$ 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
512.21/T
$ 9.96/T
$10.46/T
$12.35/T $ 8.21/T
Summary of Projected Franklin
$ 8.06/T
$ 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
512.21/T
$ 9.32/T
5 9.73/T
$ 6.84/T
Type Facility*
     FACILITY
COSTS
  Franklin
Projected To
  150 T/D
  Franklin
Projected To
  500 T/D
  Franklin
Projected To
  1,000 T/D
Income
     Magnetic Metals
     Sludge Disposal
     Fuel
Operating Expenses

Facility Expenses
  (20 Year Depr.)

NET SAVINGS
5 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
510.71/T
514.86/T
511.28/T
$ 3.79/T
5 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
510.71/T
514.86/T
5 6.04/T
5 5.43/T
$ 2.40/T
5 1.75/T
510.71/T
514.86/T
5 5.50/T
5 5.05/T
 (5 0.21/T)
  $ 3.39/T
  5 4.13/T
Operational Economic Summary of Projected Franklin Plant with No
Fiber Recovery and Using Rejects as a Fuel*
*No tipping fee is included in the analysis.  Hence, the net
 operating cost can be compared directly to existing disposal costs,

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2.0  INTRODUCTION

2.1  OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The objective of this study was to perform a "Technical,
Economic, and Environmental Evaluation of the Wet Pro-
cessing Concept for the Disposal of Solid Waste."  The
subject facility was the Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber
Recovery Plant, located in Franklin, Ohio.  The following
sections describe the type of evaluations made in each of
the major categories.

The evaluations were performed over a nine (9)  month period,
(January 1, 1974 to September 30, 1974).  The evaluations
described below were made for each of the major systems
within the plant; i.e., weighing and receiving, pulping and
separation, dewatering, fluid bed reactor, and fiber re-
covery .

2.1.1  Technical Evaluation

The technical evaluation included:

     (1) a detailed operational description of the
         Franklin Plant
     (2) power and water consumption of each major system
     (3) stream characterizations
     (4) material balances among the major systems
     (5) equipment descriptions
     (6) equipment theory of operation
     (7) equipment operating efficiencies when
         determinable

The results of the technical evaluation are presented
in section 5.0.

2.1.2  Environmental Evaluation

The environmental evaluation included an analysis of the
potential pollution of the surrounding air, land, and water.
It also included an evaluation of the noise levels generated
in the plant and observations an odor and industrial hygiene.
Results of the environmental evaluation are presented in
section 6.0.

2.1.3  Economic Evaluation

The economic evaluation of the Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber
Recovery Plant included an evaluation  to determine the eco-
nomic viability of the technologies being used at Franklin.
The economic data developed present a measure of the economics
that would be experienced if any or all of the system used at
Franklin would be incorporated in a solid waste facility that

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would be constructed and operated in competition with other
disposal concepts.

The data gathered presents an economic evaluation of the
four (4) major systems of the plant.

    1. Weighing and Receiving
    2. Pulping, Separation and Dewatering
    3. Fluid Bed Reactor
    4. Fiber Recovery

The data is presented in non-dollar related terms so that it
can be readily used by all interested parties who may be con-
sidering the use of wet processing as a solid waste disposal
concept.  The results of the economic evaluation are present-
ed in section 7.0.

2.2  HISTORY AND BACKGROUND

2.2.1  Franklin Plant

The City of Franklin, Ohio, Solid Waste Disposal and Fiber
Recovery Plant (Franklin Plant) was constructed to provide
municipal refuse disposal facilities for the City of Franklin
and nearby communities.  The facility was constructed and
operated as part of an Environmental Protection Agency demon-
stration project grants #2G06-EC-00194-02 and 3-G06-EC-00194-
151 (formerly the Bureau of Solid Waste Management, U.S.
Public Health Service, ) (HEW) to evaluate a new system for
wet processing solid municipal waste.  The Franklin Plant be-
gan operation in May 1971.

The system was originally designed to reclaim ferrous metallics
and fibrous material from the solid waste, and to provide
for the ultimate disposal of the residual wastes that could
not be reclaimed.  Glass reclamation capability was added in
a Glass Recovery System plant modification which became
operational in late 1973.

The facility is owned by the City of Franklin; operated by
the Black Clawson Fibreclaim Company who developed the Hydra-
sposal/Fiber Recovery Process; the engineering firm for original
plant design was A. M. Kinney, Inc. of Cincinnati, Ohio;
and the Glass Container Manufacturers Institute (GCMI) was
responsible for the design of the Glass Recovery System.

The Franklin facility is located adjacent to a new regional
wastewater treatment plant constructed by the Miami Conservancy
District (MCD), Dayton, Ohio.  This plant was constructed to
treat wastewater from local municipalities and a number of
local paper mills.  Facility construction was completed and
operation began during the .summer of 1972.

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The close proximity of these two facilities makes it possible
for them to offer complementary service to each other.  For
example, the solid waste facility incinerates sludge from
the wastewater treatment plant, whereas the latter treats
wastewater from the solid waste plant.  So, the Franklin site
is unique for two reasons: It is the first plant to use wet
processing for the recycling and disposal of solid waste; and
because of the interrelationship between the Franklin Solid
Waste plant and the regional MCD wastewater facilities.

2.2.2  Contract

The contract for this study was awarded in September, 1973.
The initial effort (Phase I) was to devise the evaluation
procedures to be used to collect, analyze, and present the
technical evaluation of the Solid Waste and Fiber Recovery
Plant.  This phase of the effort required four (4) months to
complete and included a two week period for pilot testing the
technical evaluation concepts.

The nine (9) month technical economic, and environmental
evaluation began on January 7, 1974 and ended September 30,
1974.  During the beginning of the evaluation, the Glass Plant
was operational for only a small part of the first month of
the evaluation.  In the following months the operation of the
Glass Plant was periodic and eventually terminated.  It be-
came apparent in mid-year (1974) that the Glass Plant would
not be fully operational for the remainder of the nine (9)
month evaluation period.  It was concluded that additional
time would be required to evaluate the Glass Plant.  The
Glass Plant evaluation again commenced on November 5, 1974,
when the Glass Plant resumed full operation.

The Glass Plant data will be presented in a separate final
report.

2.3  PROCESS DESCRIPTION

2.3.1  Introduction

This study involved an environmental complex comprised of
two treatment centers; 1) the Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber
Recovery Plant (Franklin Plant,)  and 2) the Miami Conservancy
District's Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant (MCD).  Co-
ordination is utilized between the two centers for optimum
operation, however, the descriptions which follow will detail
the components and operation of the Franklin Plant - the sub-
ject of our evaluation.

2.3.2  Definition of Terms

To eliminate confusion arising in the following description
of the Franklin Plant operation, a definition of terms used
                           10

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within this section is presented:

Franklin Plant - Plant refers to the entire Franklin Waste
Treatment and Fiber Recovery Plant.

System - Refers to one of the three major divisions of the
plant, i.e. *Hydrasposal System, *Fibreclaim System, Glass
Recovery System.

Subsystem - Refers to a subdivision of a system i.e., the
Hydrasposal System can be subdivided into the pulping and
separation (P & S) subsystem and the dewatering and inciner-
ation (D & I)  subsystem.

Process Stream - Refers to the exiting, continuing stream
from one processing unit to the next.

Reject Stream - The stream exiting a processing unit which
contains the removed material.

Unit-Operation - Refers to any single equipment item or com-
bination of minor equipment items, i.e., Hydrapulper, Mag-
netic Separator, etc.

2.3.3  Plant Systems (See Figure 1)

The Franklin Plant is comprised of three major systems:
Hydrasposal, Fibreclaim, and Glass Recovery systems.
The Hydrasposal system is further subdivided into two sub-
systems; the pulping/separation  (P & S) and dewatering/
incineration (D & I).

The P & S subsystem is the receiving, pulping, and primary
separation subsystem.

The D & I subsystem dewaters and incinerates selected streams.

The Fiber Recovery System receives its input from the liquid
cyclone of the P & S subsystem and by selective screening and
water elutriation recovers the fiber contained within the
stream.

The Glass Recovery system will be described fully in a report
to be submitted as an evaluation of the Glass Recovery system.
*Hydrasposal and Fibreclaim are copyrighted trademarks for
the Black-Clawson Company,  Middletown, Ohio, for systems for
the disposal and separation ot solid wastes, and the recovery
of paper from the solid wastes respectively.
                           11

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                                                         FLOW SCHEMATIC OF THE FRANKLIN
                                                            ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEX
FIGURE 1. FLOW SCHEMATIC OF THE FRANKLIN ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEX.

-------
 3.0  OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY

 3.1  INTRODUCTION

 This  section presents a detailed operational description of
 the systems  and subsystems within The Franklin Plant.
 Figure 1  presents a flow schematic of the entire complex.
3.1.1  Pulping and Separation Subsystem Operation  (See Figure 2)

Incoming solid waste is received from packer trucks and private
haulers using personal vehicles.  The packer trucks are weighed
at the weigh station prior to (loaded weight) and after off-
loading their refuse (tare weight).  These vehicles are charged
$7.50 per ton for refuse processing.  The private vehicles are
charged $2.25 per load.

After weighing, the solid waste is off-loaded onto the tipping
floor, which is a shelter enclosed on three sides with an over-
head sprinkling system and interior lighting.  The solid waste
in the tipping floor area is moved about by the use of a front-
end loader (Bobcat).  The operator of the front-end loader also
works as the scale house operator.

The tipping floor operator picks out most large unprocessable
materials, which may consist of refrigerators, tires, spring
mattresses, tree trunks, spring steel, etc.  These non-pulp-
able materials are placed into a large compactor adjacent to
the tipping floor and are presently taken to a landfill.  Large
ferrous materials are placed in the ferrous metals bin.  The
solid waste is loaded onto the conveyor by the front-end loader.

The conveyor consists of an inclined, endless steel belt with
ridges to prevent the solid waste from sliding down the con-
veyor.  At the conveyor base is a sump for water drainage.

The conveyor feed rate is regulated by the hydrapulper motor
loading.  Presently, this is set at 300 amperes.  When the
motor load exceeds 300 amperes,  the conveyor stops feeding the
hydrapulper.   When the motor load drops below 300 amperes, the
conveyor again begins feeding the hydrapulper.

The refuse moving up the inclined conveyor falls into the
hydrapulper where it is mixed with Whitewater and macerated by
the rotor located at the base of the hydrapulper.  The rotation
of the rotor generates an internal flow in the hydrapulper and
blends the mixture.  Smaller non-friable materials, (mostly
cans and metals), are rejected by centrifugal force into the
junk remover located near the base.

The junk remover is a continuous steel belt with small buckets
which trap the non-friable materials.  The junk remover con-
veys the material up and into a junk washer.

                             13

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                                            SCALE
             FERROUS
             METALS
  'JUNK*
REMOVER
                     I
               ELECTROMAGNETIC
                  SEPARATOR
MAGNETIC JUNK
   JUNK BIN
     I
                                             I
                         TIPPING
                         FLOOR
                                             I
                                           CONVEYOR
                                             I
                                         HYDRAPULPER
          NON-MAGNETIC
            JUNK BIN
SOLD FOR SCRAP
                               LANDFILL
               UNPROCESSABLE
               TO COMPACTOR
                                                         I
                                                                        TO LAN OF ILL
                                                         LIQUID
                                                         CYCLONE
                                                                  SURGE TANK
   GRIT
DEWATERING
  SCREW
                                                                               TO FIBERCLAIM
                                                            GLASS
                                                          RECOVERY
                                                            PLANT
                    FIGURE 2  PULPING AND SEPARATION SUBSYSTEM
                                            14

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Originally the junk washer was used to clean the organic
material from the metals in this stream.  However, it was
found that the washing was not necessary.  The junk washer
is now used as a conveyor which takes the rejects to a con-
veyor belt, which moves these non-friables to the continuous
belted magnetic separator.

The magnetic separation takes place at the end of the separ-
ator conveyor.  The magnetics are picked up onto the magnetic
separator belt and dropped into the magnetics container.
These magnetics are combined with the magnetics recovered from
the glass plant and sold.  The non-magnetics fall from the
end of the separator conveyor into another container.  These
non-magnetics are either re-cycled to the hydrapulper or
landfilled.

The liquid waste slurry generated in the hydrapulper is re-
duced in size by the rotor until it can pass through a per-
forated plate located beneath the rotor in the base of the
hydrapulper.  This plate consists of holes one inch in diam-
eter. The liquid slurry which consists of fibers, glass, small
pieces of metal, ceramics, and much of the white and red metal
fraction is pumped from the hydrapulper by the dump pump into
the liquid cyclone.

The liquid cyclone separates the heavier materials consisting
of glass, small metal particles, organics, etc, from the light-
er fractions.  These heavy materials pass into a (grit) chamber
at the bottom of the liquid cyclone after which they are de-
watered and conveyed to the Glass Plant surge bin.  The excess*
water of this rejects stream is recycled to the hydrapulper.
The lighter fraction from the liquid cyclone consists of light,
fibrous materials, plastics, bits of aluminum foil, thread,
grit,and small bones, etc.  The cyclone process stream is then
directed either to the fiber recovery system via the selecti-
fier dilution tank or to the D & I subsystem.

3.1.2  Dewatering and Incineration Subsystem Operation (Figure '3)

Operation of the D & I subsystem is a singular mode; only the
sources of the input change.  The subsystem performs dewater-
ing and subsequent incineration of materials obtained from
three sources; (1) cyclone process stream of the P & S sub-
system, (2) sludge from the Miami Conservancy District's
Wastewater Treatment Plant (MCD), and (3) various streams as
determined by operational mode  (within the fiber recovery
system).

The process streams described above enter a surge tank.  This
outdoor tank is equipped with a bottom agitator to prevent
freezing and to keep the contents a uniform consistency.  The
surge tank  contents are pumped to the barrel thickeners at
200 to 600 gpm.
                            15

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   REJECTS TANK
        I
    SURGE CHEST
 BARREL THICKENER
    CONE PRESS
        1
  PNEUMATIC FEED
     MCD WASTE
  TREATMENT PLANT
                                               SLUDGE CHEST
FLUID
BED REACTOR
 VENTURISCRUBBER
        I
SCRUBBER SEPARATOR
                                        ASH SLURRY
J
                                      GASES TO STACK
         FIGURE 3 - DEWATERING AND INCINERATION SUBSYSTEM
                               16

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The barrel thickener is a dewatering unit consisting of
three square-pitch screws rotating within perforated
cylinders.  The dewatered material falls to a screw conveyor
which transports the process stream to a Rietz Cone Press
for further dewatering.

The cone press is a mechanical dewatering device consisting
of a rotating wheel and a screen.  The wheel rotates against
the opposing screen, pressing out water through the screen.
Process water is used for cleaning the screen.

From the cone press, the process stream is then conveyed to
the pneumatic feed via a rotary feed valve.  There is no feed
modulation at the pneumatic feed.  The rate of feed is deter-
mined by the feed rate to the barrel thickeners and the amount
of sludge added to the process stream.  The process stream
must contain approximately 30 percent solids to support
autogenous combustion in the fluid bed reactor.

The Dorr-Oliver Fluid Bed Reactor has a rated capacity of
1.0 x 10 BTU/min.  The bed diameter is 21 feet.  The minimum
calorific value of the fuel must be 3,000 BTU/lb. to operate
autogenously.  The bed temperature is maintained within a
range of 1200-1400?F, with a maximum free-board temperature
less than 1,800F.

The combustion products are passed through a venturi scrubber
for removal of particulate material.  The efficiency of the
venturi scrubber is very high with removal of 99 percent of
the particulates, allowing the unit to meet all Ohio and Federal
Air Quality standards.  The scrubber uses city water and oper-
ates with 7 inches of water pressure.  The effluent from the
venturi scrubber is pumped to the primary municipal clarifier
at the MCD facility.

3.1.3  Fiber Recovery System (Fibreclaim) Operation (Figure 4)

3.1.3.1  Normal Mode of Operation - Normal operation of the
fiber recovery system recovers fibers from the process stream
by selective screening and elutriation of the pulped refuse.
The input to the fiber recovery system is the process stream
from the liquid cyclone in the P & S subsystem.  This stream
enters the fiber recovery system via the selectifier dilution
tank.

In the selectifier dilution tank the cyclone process stream
is diluted by addition of Whitewater.  This dilution is re-
quired for efficient stream separation in the selectifier
screen.  The selectifier screen is a high volume rotary-type
pressure screen which rejects materials larger than 0.062
inches in diameter, and passes material less than 0.062 inches.
The selectifier reject stream is directed to the rejects tank,
and the process stream is directed to the cleaners supply tank.
                            17

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FROM PULPING
AND
SEPARATION SUBSYSTEM

1
SELECTIFIERTANK
DILUTION-
1
SELECTIFIER
1
CLEANERS SUPPLY TANK
1
CENTRIFUGAL CLEANERS
I
RUN DOWN SCREEN
|
BARREL THICKENER
*
CONE PRESS
1
FIBER DILUTION TANK

REJECTS
REJECTS

TO DEWATERING
AND
INCINERATION SUBSYSTEM
1 REJECTS \
^"\ TANK J
REJECTS




TO LOGAN LONG
FIGURE 4 - FIBER RECOVERY SYSTEM  NORMAL MODE
                   18

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From the cleaners supply tank the selectifier process  stream
enters the centrifugal cleaners for removal of grit, glass
and other small, dense particles.  Five centrifugal cleaners
are currently used  (16 available) and are plumbed for  parallel
operation to maintain optimum flow conditions necessary to
achieve the desired removal efficiency.  The centrifugal
cleaners process stream is directed to the rundown screens,
while the reject stream is directed to the selectifier re-
jects tank.

The rundown screens consist of four, 60 inch side hill screens
with a feed flow capacity of 600 gpm.  The screens are slotted,
0.020 inches wide, and are of non-clogging design.  The process
stream slurry from the centrifugal cleaners is received in an
adjacent overflow well, and this slurry then flows down over
the 0.020 inch slotted screens.  As the slurry falls over the
stationary screen, it is sprayed with process water.   The re-
jects are extracted by falling through the screens into the
Whitewater sump while the screen process stream  (recovered
fiber) falls into the stock sump.  The stock sump contents are
then directed to the screw thickener during normal operation.
The barrel thickener is similar to that in the dewatering and
incineration subsystem.  The thickener process stream  is trans-
ported by a screw conveyor to the cone press and the rejects
of both units are received in the Whitewater system.   The Rietz
Cone Press (similar to D & I subsystem) further dewaters the
recovered fiber.  The process stream is directed to the fiber
chest, and the rejects stream is directed to the Whitewater
sump.  The dewatered fiber is rediluted and pumped via pipe-
line to the Logan Long plant for use in asphalt shingles and
related products.

3.1.3.2  "Thickening" Mode of Operation

The fiber recovery system can also be operated in a "thickening"
mode when fiber is not being recovered.  As seen in Figure  5
the process stream by-passes the centrifugal cleaners, and
mechanical thickeners.  The selectifier reject stream  and the
rundown screen process stream are directed to the rejects tank,
and then pumped to the surge chest in the D & I subsystem.
This mode is utilized to increase the solids content of the
cyclone process stream.  The dewatering section of the D & I
subsystem operates more effectively using this pre-thickened
material.
                            19

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FROM PULPING
AND
INCINERATION
SUBSYSTEM
1
i
SELECTIFIER
DILUTION TANK
.
,
12-P SELECTIFIER
(
r_. ;
REJECTS


{THICKENING MODE

i i
1 CLEANERS SUPPLY TANK
1 1
, ,
r
1 1
I CENTRIFUGAL CLEANERS 1
1 1
,

 '
RUN DOWN SCREEN




i
> ^>

TO DE WATER ING
AND
INCINERATION
SUBSYSTEM
t
SURGE CHEST
t
REJECTS

FIGURE 5 - FIBER RECOVERY SYSTEM  THICKENING MODE
                      20

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4.0  EVALUATION METHODS USED

The paragraphs which follow describe the approaches de-
veloped for the data gathering and analysis used in the
evaluation of the Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber Recovery
System.  The evaluations made in this study were numerous
and extensive.  This section presents the overall effort and
discusses the methods that were used to accomplish the ob-
jectives of the study.

4.1  STUDY MATRIX DEVELOPMENT

To organize the principal areas of evaluation and to illustrate
the scope of the study, a study matrix was developed and is
presented in Figure 6. Along the horizontal coordinate, the
plant is divided into the Hydrasposal and Fibreclaim systems.
Each system is then divided into its unit processes.

The vertical coordinate is divided into three evaluation
categories.  Each category is then subdivided into its com-
ponent parameters, thus, establishing a matrix relating each
systems unit process and the proposed evaluation parameters.

However, all parameters to be considered in a major evaluation
area may not be required for each unit process.  To precisely
define and illustrate the scope of this study, a mark is placed
at the intersection of each process/parameter relationship
that was evaluated for this effort.  The matrix presented in
Figure 6 represents the entire evaluation as performed.

4.2  SAMPLING METHODS

The previous sections of this report (Section 2.0)  describe
the evaluations that were to be made and the techniques to be
used to obtain the required parameters for the evaluations.
Obtaining this data required that many streams within the
plant be sampled and analyzed.  Process streams were sampled
three to four times/day (depending upon total time plant was
operated for that day)  and composited for analysis.  Sampling
of the process streams other than the incoming refuse, was
greatly simplified due to the use of numerous holding tanks
throughout the plant.  The use of these continously-mixed tanks
as sample collection sites provided a more homogenous sample,
representing a longer time period, than a sample of the in-
coming process stream.

During the initial phase of the effort, all streams that re-
quired sampling were identified.   Some samples could not be
obtained as simply as just described, and required that samp-
ling valves be installed at several locations to draw the re-
quired samples.   "Dipper" samples were used for sampling from
the surge tanks, and valves on process lines were installed
and used to draw samples where accessibility was limited.
                            21

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    PLANT SYSTEMS
CO

M


I
<
5
^ -
                UNIT
                PROCESSES
    PARAMETERS
SE
CE
HY
H
PLANT
U
M

EH
    DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT-'
    THEORY OF OPERATION
    DESIGN VS OPERATING EXP. -
    MAINTENANCE HISTORY
    POWER REQUIREMENTS
    STREAM CHARACTERIZATION -
    MATERIAL BALANCE
    EFFICIENCY
    RECOVERED PROD. CHARACT.-
                                I  I I   I I  I  I  I  II
                                                          I  I   I  I I   I
<_>
M

O



8
    OPERATING
    MAINTEN. LABOR COSTS
    MAINTEN.
    REVENUES
    OTHER DISPOSAL METHOD
    LAND DISPOSAL
                                I  I  I  I I  I  I I  III
                                                          I   I  I  I  I  I
w

o
K
w
    AIR
    WATER
    LAND
    IM-PLANT NOISE
    ODOR
                      Figure  6  - Study Matrix
                                      22

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One of the major efforts  to be  performed  in  the  technical
evaluation was a mass balance of  the  plant.   This  balance
was performed on a daily  basis  and  composited weekly and
monthly.  This mass balance required  performing  flow measure-
ments of many streams within the  plant. These process stream
flow measurements were performed  using  a  variety of measuring
techniques.  Existing flow meters were  calibrated  and utilized.
Timers were installed on  pumps, and the pumps were calibrated
to determine flows.  Other schemes  to record flow  rates  were;
measuring the changes in  elevation  of the tanks  over a period
of time, and bucket and stop watch  techniques, etc.   These
approaches were used to provide the necessary flow measure-
ments without the expense of installing sophisticated flow
meters.

The analyses of the samples was performed by Systech personnel
in available space at the adjacent  Miami  Conservancy Waste-
water Treatment Plant Laboratory.   Systech personnel were
permanently located at this facility  for  the duration of the
sampling period.

4.3  SYSTEMS CONCEPT AND  NETWORK  ANALYSIS

The Franklin Solid Waste  and Fiber  Recovery  Plant  was designed
to process solid waste into several fractions for  reclama-
tion and/or disposal.  Essentially, it  is a  complex of many
systems, subsystems, and  unit operations  connected in series
and parallel combinations.  In  this sense, the plant can best
be analyzed by applying the "Systems  Approach" and analyzing
the input and output of each system,  subsystem,  and unit oper-
ation.  This section will demonstrate the systems  approach
and network analysis used in the  study of the Franklin
plant.

The numerous unit processes within  the plant required stream
definition to eliminate confusion in  their description and
analysis.  The following  schematic  illustrates the procedure
used for generating these stream  descriptions.
             SURGE TANK         / , \CYCLONE
             PROCESS STREAM      \        /PROCESS STREAM


                                            CYCLONE
                                            REJECTS STREAM



             FIGURE 7 - SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
                            23

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As mentioned earlier the material passing through the unit
operation is defined as a Process Stream while the material
extracted by this unit operation is defined as a Reject
Stream. This approach was used to develop the stream defini-
tions which are presented in Appendix E.

As shown in Figure 1, the plant is represented schematically
by a line diagram.  This schematic is divided into two major
systems by drawing a line around the unit operations con-
tained within each system.  This line is called the System
Boundary and is also shown in Figure 9 .  The lines crossing
the system boundary are the inputs and the outputs to the
system.  It is easy to see from this figure that any system,
subsystem, or unit operation can be easily investigated by
analyzing its inputs and outputs.  In Figure 1 all of the
inputs and outputs represent the material flow.  A similar
diagram could be prepared for showing cash flow, labor flow,
etc.

For purposes of analysis, the diagram shown in Figure 1
can be further simplified into a network represented by branches
and nodes.  In this context;

    - A branch is a portion of the system that connects
      any two unit operations,

    - A node is a terminal of a branch and would represent
      a unit operation.

Applying the Network Concept, the pulping and separation sub-
system is represented simply as follows:
                 FIGURE 8 - NODE/BRANCH NETWORK
                            24

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This network is greatly simplified and permits easy reference
to branches and nodes.  In this figure, nodes a, b, c, d, and
e, represent the hydrapulper, liquid cyclone, the magnetic
separator, surge tank, and the second liquid cyclone respect-
ively.  Branch 1 represents the incoming solid waste and water;
branch 2 represents the pumped hydrapulper process stream;
branch 3 represents the junk remover rejects stream; branch
6 represents the reclaimed ferrous material; and branches 5
and 10 represent cyclone reject streams that are sent to the
glass reclamation plant.

Basically, there are two types of unit operations represented
by nodes.  They are "flow-through units", such as the liquid
cyclones (b and e) and "storage units", such as surge tanks
(d).  It is significant to note that the plant is a relatively
simple network and that almost all of the unit operations can
be represented by three-branch nodes, with the exception of
surge tanks which are two-branch nodes.

It is known that under steady-state conditions, the summations
of the inputs and the outputs to a node can be equated to zero.
In this context, the inputs are considered positive and the
outputs are considered negative.  For example, the mass flow
rate (M)  for node "b" in the example illustrated above is
given by: M2 - (M4 + MS) =0

When steady state conditions do not exist, such as in the
surge tank represented as node "d" in the illustration above,
then the equation becomes: M. = Mg + M, x t.  Where M, is the

storage rate in the surge tank and t is time.

After reviewing the Franklin operation, it was determined
that all flows approximate steady state conditions and that
non-steady state conditions would not have to be considered.

Now, let us illustrate how this network analysis was of value
to the study.  Consider the problem of measuring tha amount
of junk removed from the hydrapulper.  Because of the process
setup, it is not possible to directly measure the weight of
this stream.  However,, by applying a mass balance to node
"c" (magnetic separator) we know, (See Nodal diagram above)

       mBranch 3 = mBranch 6 + mBranch 7
and the weights of branches 6 and 7 can be measured.  Thus,
knowing this data, it is possible to compute the amount of
junk removed.
                            25

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Although this example  is simple, the technique is applicable
to more complex  networks such as the entire plant, any of
the three major  systems, or some arbitrary system.

As another example,  consider the problem of characterizing
the incoming waste.  The schematic below represents a portion
of the hydrapulper  system:
                                      Arbitrary System
                                         Boundary
                                             Hydrapulper
                                             Liquid Cyclone #1
                                             Magnetic Separator
                                             Surge Chest
                                             Liquid Cyclone #2
                                        10
               FIGURE 9 -  p  & S  System Boundary
We know that data or  samples  can be gathered to characterize
the material streams  in  branches 5, 10, 6, 7, and 9.  There-
fore, an arbitrary  system boundary (which must be closed)  is
drawn through these branches  and branch 1.  In this arbitrary
system, we can  see  that  branch 1 is the only input.  The
others are all  outputs.   Thus, since the summation of the  in-
put must equal  the  summation  of the outputs:
       P  = C
       Cl   C5
'10
                            26

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In this case C is used as a general parameter such as
pounds, pounds per unit time, etc.  In addition, the
different fractions Cc + C,rt  C,  C_  and CQ also represent
                     D    j.u,  o,   /,      y

different material classification such as ferrous metals, grit,
slurry, etc.

The purpose of the above discussion was to demonstrate how
Network Analysis was used to study the plant.  The applica-
tion of this technique facilitated a detailed and rigorous
analysis.

It also provided a means of identifying the equipment and
piping for data collection.  Equipment and piping within the
plant were assigned node letters or branch numbers for testing
personnel.
                           27

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5.0  RESULTS OF TECHNICAL EVALUATION

5.1  INTRODUCTION

The following paragraphs in this section of the report
present the technical evaluation results of the study.
The data represents a compilation of many months data.
The equations derived and used to obtain some of the data
are not presented in the body of the report.  These equations,
as well as copies of the data sheets used to gather the data,
are presented in Appendix D to this report.  Analysis of
different streams, flow measurements, etc., are average
operating data.

The items covered in the technical evaluation include;
       (1) mass balances of
           (a) pulping and separation subsystem
           (b) dewatering and incineration subsystem
           (c) fiber recovery system
       (2) characteristics of individual streams within
           the plant
       (3) power and water usage data
       (4) material flow diagrams
       (5) descriptions of the physical appearance of
           individual process streams
       (6) comments on equipment effectiveness

To aid the clarity of this section, the raw material balance
data, periodic test data, and data collection methods and
sheets will be included in Appendix C of this report.

5.2  PULPING AND SEPARATION (P & S) SUBSYSTEM

The P & S subsystem pulps and separates the refuse into
several streams which are suitable for further processing.
This subsystem, in addition to reducing the particle size of
the refuse, provides for fluid transport of the pulped refuse
by addition of Whitewater.  The separation of the refuse into
various fractions in the P & S subsystem can be illustrated
by the following mass balance diagram (Figure 10}.

5.2.1 Material Balance Sheet for P & S Subsystem

For this discussion, the P & S subsystem includes the tipping
floor within its system boundary.  Thus, the material which
is unacceptable for processing is included on the balance
sheet (Figure 10)

The inputs to the P & S subsystem consist of all the refuse
delivered to the Franklin Solid Waste Plant and the water
needed to process it.  The Whitewater is added to provide a
                            28

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     INPUTS
        REFUSE
      123.4 T.
 PROCESS WATER
       1.33 T.
    WHITEWATER
       34.2 T.
                          4.7 T. RECYCLE
                           PULPING AND

                      SEPARATION SYBSYSTEM
OPERATING TIME

  24.2 HOURS
r                            OUTPUTS


                        NON MAGNETIC
                           REJECTS
                                               7.7 T.
                                               UNPROCESSED
                                               9.3 T.
                                               MAGNETIC JUNK
                                               11.8 T.
                     CYCLONE REJECT
                     STREAM  (GRIT)
                     18.8 T.
                                               CYCLONE PROCESS
                                                   STREAM
                                               108.5 T.
                                               CYCLONE REJECT
                                                  OVERFLOW
                                               7.5 T.
               Figure 10 - MATERIAL BALANCE SHEET**
                  PULPING & SEPARATION SUBSYSTEM

 *A11 values are on a dry weight basis except as noted.

**Figure represents actual operating data for an average week.
                                   29

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media for pulping and transporting the refuse.  The incoming
refuse, averaging about 29.4 percent moisture, is pulped to
an average consistency of 3.28 percent solids.  The con-
sistency of this stream can be varied by the operator by the
addition of more or less Whitewater.  The actual operating
range varies between 1.5 and 4.0 percent solids.  The amount
of Whitewater used in the P & S averages 4,890 gal/ton  of
refuse input to the system.

The other liquid input to the P & S subsystem is process
water (chlorinated final effluent from the wastewater treat-
ment plant).  The process water, which is relatively low in
solids, is used as cooling water for the hydrapulper oil
supply, and as elutriation water in the liquid cyclone.  The
quantity of process water used in the P&S subsystem varies from
990 to 2,700 gal/ton of refuse with an average usage of 1,630
gal/ton of input to the subsystem.  The weights given for
process water and Whitewater in Figure 101 represent the actual
weight of dry solids in the water added to the subsystem.

As indicated on the balance sheet, approximately 7-1/2 percent
or 10.25 mt./wk. (9.3 tons/wk) is unprocessed material.  This
category includes materials such as refrigerators, stoves,
large tree trunks, etc., which the hydrapulper cannot accept.

Tires can be processed, however, their retention time in the
pulper is much longer than normal retuse.  Because of
tires and other unprocessable materials are removed by hand
by the loader/scale house operator who watches for these
materials.  The remainder of the material is deposited on the
apron conveyor and fed to the hydrapulper.

Non-pulpable material introduced to the hydrapulper is sep-
arated by centrifugal force and removed by the junk remover.
These materials are further separated magnetically into
magnetic and nonmagnetic junk, listed as outputs on Figure 10.
These streams total 15.8 percent of the incoming refuse.

The nonmagnetic rejects have been recycled back to the head
of the plant on an intermittent basis during the course of
our study.  However, it was felt that the recycle of this
material should not be listed as an additional input to the
subsystem because during normal operation, the non-magnetic
rejects are landfilled.  The recycling of this nonmagnetic
material caused a gradual increase in the quantity of non-
magnetic rejects being collected, which introduced a slight
cumulative error in the study from a mass balance standpoint.
It should be noted that the nonmagnetic rejects are gradually
ground up by the pulper and removed by the cyclone.
                           30

-------
The cyclone reject stream contains the gritty material re-
moved from the pulped refuse slurry by the liquid cyclone.
As an output of the P & S subsystem it represents 15.2 per-
cent of the as-received refuse.  This gritty material is
the glass rich fraction of the refuse and is further pro-
cessed in the glass plant.

The cyclone process stream is the largest output of the
P & S subsystem, representing 87.9 percent (dry weight) of
the incoming refuse.  This output stream contains essentially
all the paper, rags, sheet plastic, small pieces of wood, and
food and garden wastes in the refuse.  This stream averages
3.28 percent solids with a range of 1.5 to 4.09 percent solids.
The consistency is regulated semiautomatically by the amperage
used by the hydrapulper motor.  The Whitewater feed is constant
and an increase in power used by the hydrapulper (>300 amperes)
stops the refuse feed to it by stopping the conveyor.  This
conveyor is now operated by an on-off control, whereas in the
past proportional speed control was used.

The cyclone rejects overflow is an output from the P & S sub-
system to the Whitewater system, and must be included to
achieve a representative mass balance.  The cyclone rejects
overflow consists of Whitewater, which is removed in the de-
watering of the cyclone rejects.  This Whitewater, because of
the overflow manifold arrangement, does not contain an appre-
ciable amount of gritty material.  This output from the P & S
subsystem was computed by measuring the overflow from the mani-
fold.  This measurement was made several times during each
operating day.  Continuous measurement of this parameter was
not possible and as a result this value is approximate.

5.2.2  Pulping and Separation Subsystem Stream Characteristics

The stream characteristics of the P & S subsystem were ob-
tained from daily composite samples of process streams which
were required to achieve the daily mass balances.  Additional
information was obtained from periodic tests which were per-
formed on the individual streams within the entire plant.
These data were used to develop characterizations of the
input refuse.

The input refuse was also characterized by hand sorting.
These hand sorts were performed at different times of the
year- to determine the seasonal variation in refuse com-
position.  All characterization and mass balance data are
included in Appendix C.  Characterizations of the junk re-
mover reject streams were performed on the magnetic and non-
magnetic rejects.
                            31

-------
Both the cyclone reject and cyclone process streams cross
subsystem boundaries.  Therefore, they were characterized
on the basis of being both an output to the P & S subsystem
as well as the input to an adjacent system/subsystem.

The average characterization data are presented in Figure 11.
This figure shows the characteristics of the input refuse
as well as the streams in the separation phase of the P & S
subsystem.  The outputs represent both the outputs of the
subsystems and the component parts of the input refuse.
For example, the amount of clear glass in the cyclone rejects
would for all practical purposes represent the clear glass
component of the input refuse.  Likewise, the fiber content
of the cyclone process stream would contain essentially all
the fiber in the input refuse.

The characteristics of the Whitewater and process water used
in the P & S subsystem are the same as the Whitewater and
process water characteristics used throughout the plant.  The
average characteristics of the Whitewater and process water
are given in section 5.2.3.6.

As is evident from the characterization data in Figure H
the majority of fiber, plastic and other combustible pro-
ducts are contained in the cyclone process stream.  Most of
the glass is contained in the liquid cyclone rejects stream.

The figure also presents a flow schematic of the P & S sub-
system.  The arrows indicate the direction of flow.  The
characteristics of the streams at each individual processing
point are shown.  The percentage values located on the lines
which connect unit processes indicate the percent of the input
refuse which flows along this line.  These percentage values
are on a percent dry solids basis and do not indicate actual
flow volumes.

The nongrindable magnetic and nonmagnetic materials are re-
moved by the junk remover and separated magnetically.  The
recovered nongrindable-magnetic material (junk remover mag-
netic rejects) is the only recovered product obtained from
the P & S subsystem.  This recovered magnetic material is
sold directly to a ferrous metal reprocessor without prior
detinning or other processing (shredding).

The input refuse to the P & S subsystem has been character-
ized by 18 hand sorts performed at three different sorting
periods during the year.  The average sort data is given in
Figure 13, and Table 1.  This table is included to
compare the composition of the solid waste at Franklin
to solid waste streams in other parts of the country.
As is evident from this table, the paper fraction of the solid
                            32

-------
                              Table 1 - Refuse Composition Comparison  Table
            Category
Franklin
Percent
Hempstead N,Y.*
   Percent
Johnson City**
  Percent
                                                                                       Nat. Avg.***
                                                                                         Percent
U)
W
      Paper
40.1
42.52
      Non-fiber organic
           Textiles
           Food
           Garden
      Plastics/rubber/leather
37.0
 39.43
                            3.14
                           10.93
                           20.80
                            4.56
45.5
31.8
                            1.3
                           25.9
                            1.9
                            2.7
37.8
Newspaper
Corrugated
Magazines
Strong Paper
Mixed Paper
Inert
Glass
Metals
Magnetic
Non-Magnetic
10.8
4.4
1.7
3.8
19.5
3.4
8.5
11.1
9.8
1.3
13.56
5.23
23.73
	
9.55
8.48
	
1.0 1.5
10.9 10.0
10.8
40.6
                       1.6
                      14.2
                      18.3
                       6.5
      * Average of 18 hand sorts

      ** Values from Municipal Refuse Disposal, Public Administration Service 1970, Interstate
         Printers and Publisher- Inc., Danville, Illinois.
      *** Values from Energy Conservation through "Improved Solid Waste Management," by
          Robert A. Lowe, Office of Solid Waste Management Programs U.S. EPA April 1974.

-------
    UNPROCESSABLE TIRES
        WHITE GOODS,
     INDUSTRIAL WASTE
   INPUT REFUSE

   AVERAGE VALVES
                                                MAGNETIC   \
                                                 SEPARATOR I
   WHITEWATER
     SYSTEM
INERT . . .
NON FIBRE .
ORGANIC
GLASS . .
MAGNETIC
METALS. .
NONMAGNETIC
METALS
NEWSPAPER .
CORRUGATED.
MAGAZINES .
STRONG PAPER
MIXED PAPER
. 3. US
.37.02

. 8.5?

. 9.8%

. 1.3%
.10. Q%
. U.US
. 1.7%
. 3.8?
.19-5?
                                                              6.2%
                  9.6%
                                                          CYCLONE PROCESS
                                                              STREAM
                     U0.2?
AVERAGE MOISTURE. . .29.U?   CYCLONE REJECTS
                                       -REJECTS COMPOSITION ON  A
                                            DRY WEIGHT BASIS
                                 TO
                             GLASS PLANT
                SIZE DISTRIBUTION
                 <  1/4"     30.0%
           1/4"   3/4"     60.2%
                 >  3/4"      9.8%
CLEAR GLASS	36.3?
AMBER GLASS	13.1?
GREEN GLASS	7.7?
MAGNETIC MATERIALS .... 8.6?
CERAMICS & STONES	10.0?
ALUMINUM	3.1%
PLASTICS & RUBBER	U.8?
WOOD & ORGANICS	3.9?
FINES	12.6?

DENSITY	1.19 gr/cc
MOISTURE	11,1?
VOLATILE
  MATTER	6.U?
NOTES:  1.  Percentage values shovn on lines  connecting  unit processes represent
            the percent input refuse on a dry weight basis.  These values are
            actual measures of input streams  and,  therefore, summation of these
            values might not equal input values.   The  differences are negligible
            in most cases.
        2.  Percentage values on individual stream characterization data represent
            the percent of that component in  the process stream.
        3.  Composition data should not be used with mass balances as composition
            data reflects average data.
                                         34

-------
 ^   Magnetic  Materials
       (Recovered  Product)

  Tin  Cans	65.0?
  Bottle  &  Jar Caps	2.1%
  Metal Ends  from  Paper
      & Metal Cans	0.1?
  Misc. Ferrous	19.2$
  Metal Cans  with
      Aluminum Tops	ll.lt?
  Organic Contaminants  .  .  .  1,6%
  Nonmagnetic Metals  .  .  .
               Nonmagnetic Materials

           Aluminum	lit. 3?
           Organics 	 , .17.9?
           Total Ferrous	, ,15il?
             Magnetic Ferrous .... ,0-1.'*?)
           Rocks & Inert	21,6?
           Glass	2lt.8?
           Copper & Brass	6.2?
  0.2?
 Moisture	3-9?
 Volatile  Solids	1.5U
 Magnetic Materials
.95.1
                    61.6?
            CYCLONE PROCESS
                    STREAM

         PROCESS STREAM COMPOSITION
         Fibre  .  .  .  . hh.0%
         Plastics.  .  . 10.3?
         Wood	5-2?
         Grit	3.1?
         Miscellaneous  7.6?
         Grass  &  Leaves 1.8?
         Fines  .... 28.0?

         Solids Content .  . . 3.3?
         Moisture Content  . .96.7?

         Heat Content . .  . .7700 BTU/#
         Ash Content	21.lt?
                         -TO D&I
                           OR
                       FIBER RECOVERY
                         FIGURE 11

PULPING AND SEPARATION SUBSYSTEM STREAM CHARACTERIZATION
                                 35

-------
waste is lower than that encountered in the two other cities
but higher than the national average.  This may be due in
part to the communities' limited number of offices and re-
lated high paper consumption businesses as well as the
presence of only a weekly newspaper.  Springboro  (also
serviced by the solid waste plant) has no newspaper.  This
table indicates that the Franklin refuse is not significant-
ly different than the national average composition.  Table 2
presents a description of the materials included  in each
category used in sorting the input refuse.  As is evident
from this list/ most of the nonmagnetic metals are aluminum.

Figure 13 presents the composition of the refuse  at Franklin
at different seasons of the year.  Based on this  data we can
make some general observations on the seasonal variation of
the refuse composition.  The amount of paper present in the
input increased from 32.9% to 49.4% from spring to winter.
At the same time, the non-fiber organics decreased from 44.2%
to 29.5%.  This is primarily due to a drop in the garden waste
during the winter months.  Additionally, there is a low demand
for recycled paper in this area, whereas this was not the case
during the initial months of the study.  The percentage of
inert, glass, and metal remained virtually the same for all
three time periods.

The moisture content appeared to be the lowest (17.7%) during
a cold week in February and the highest (38.3%) during a rainy
week in April.  The average moisture during this  period was
29.4%.

The test procedures used for the analysis of the  input re-
fuse are given in the Appendix.  The amounts of industrial
and domestic  (residential) refuse are not recorded on a routine
basis at the Franklin -Plant.

Summary data sheets and raw data used for determining average
characteristics of the streams in Figure 11 are given in the
Appendix (Section C).

In analyzing the data presented in Figure 11 it should be
noted that the actual percentages of magnetics and glass out-
puts of the P & S subsystem approximate the amounts found in
the input refuse.  For example, the sum of the amounts of
magnetic material in the junk remover magnetic rejects and
the magnetic materials in the cyclone rejects, is within 6.5%
of the average of magnetic material in the input  refuse as
determined by hand sorts.  This comparison of two separate
magnetic determinations gives an indication of the accuracy
of the methods used.
                              36

-------
  Table 2 - TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE CATEGORIES

     FOUND IN INPUT TO THE FRANKLIN SOLID WASTE PLANT
INERT

Rocks
Batteries
Dirt
Ceramics

NON-FIBER ORGANIC

Plastic Bags
Rubber
Clothing & Cloths

DIAPERS

Grass Clippings
Wood Products & Branches
Sanitary Napkins
Egg Cartons  (Plastic Foam)
Vegetable Peelings & Vegetable Food & Garden
Plastic Bottles

GLASS

Beer Bottles
Light Bulbs
Broken Glass
Deodorant Bottles (Mostly amber Glass)

MAGNETIC METALS

Lamp Shades
Coat Hangers
Cans
Mufflers
Leaf Car Springs

NON-MAGNETIC METALS

Beverage Cans
Food Cans
Aluminum Foil
Aluminum Pie Pans
Toothpaste Containers
Pop Tops From Cans
Mixed red and white Metals
                            37

-------
Table 2a - TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE CATEGORIES

     FOUND IN INPUT TO THE FRANKLIN SOLID WASTE PLANT


PAPER

Newspaper

Newsprint & Food Ads

Corrugated

Cardboard Boxes
Pizza Platters

Strong Paper

Both white & brown strong paper
Grocery & lunch bags (mostly brown bags)

Magazines

All Magazines

OTHER MIXED

Milk Cartons
Food Containers
Paper Towels
Napkins
Stationary
Medicine Cartons
Carbon Paper
Egg Cartons
Beer Cartons
                            38

-------
                           Figure  13  -  SEASONAL VARIATION  OF  REFUSE COMPOSITION


                                        FRANKLIN, OHIO*

                                           SORT DATES
          CATEGORY
U)
vo
Paoer
     Newspaper
     Corrugated
     Magazines
     Strong Paper
     Mixed Paper

Inert

Glass

Metals
     Magnetic
     Non-Magnetic

Non-fiber organics
4/10-4/18/74

33.8
9/17-9/23/74

37.34
                                                     12/16-12/   /74
                                                            49.4
Average

 40.1
6
2
1
3
19
2
9
10


.83
.5
.5
.86
.12
.5
.7
.7
10.05
.62
13
5
2
3
12
5
7
11


.48
.80
.17
.71
.18
.18
.94
.88
10.10
1.78
12
4
1
3
27
2
8
10


.1
.9
.3
.8
.3
.4
.0
.7
9.3
1.4
10.
4.
1.
3.
19.
3.
8.
11.


8
4
7
8
5
4
5
1
9.
1.








8
3
                               44.2
                     37.39
                    29.5
     37.0
                                                                         *Values  in  percent

-------
Another comparison can be drawn between the glass content
in the P & S outputs and the percentage of glass in the
input refuse.  The clear glass averages 37.4 percent, the
green glass 7.7 percent, and amber glass 13.1 percent of
the cyclone rejects stream.  These values sum to 58.2 per-
cent of the cyclone rejects stream which is 15.2 percent
of the input refuse.  From this it is evident that the glass
fraction in the input refuse is expected to be 8.8 percent,
based on the input to the glass plant.  Actual refuse sorts
indicate a glass fraction of 8.5 percent.

As a result of these comparisons, it can be safely stated
that the composition on the outputs of the P & S subsystem
can be extrapolated back to the components in the input
refuse.  This indeed was the procedure used in obtaining
the moisture content in the received refuse.  To obtain the
moisture content all the dry solids outputs to the subsystem
were summed up and subtracted from the wet weight of material
input to the pulper.  The difference between the dry outputs
and wet weight input is the moisture content of the refuse.


5.2.3  Description of Pulping and Separation Streams

5.2.3.1  Hydrapulper Junk Process Streams - The hydrapulper
junk process stream contains the non-pulpable or non-friable
materials removed from the hydrapulper by the junk remover.
This process stream typically contains bones, rubber materials,
metal cans, metallic materials, rocks, leather, small amounts
of plastic and fibrous matter, etc.  The material contained
in this process stream is saturated with water.  As it passes
from the junk remover to the magnetic belt separator much of
the water drains off.

5.2.3.2 Magnetic Separator/Magnetic Rejects - This material
contains the magnetic portion of the junk remover process
stream.  This magnetic material is combined with the magnetic
material recovered in the glass plant, and sold to a ferrous
metal reclaimer.  The magnetic rejects have a moisture con-
tent of 3.9% and a volatile solids content (organic content)
of 1.51%.  From visual inspections, the organic content
appears to be grass, fibrous, and plastic materials en-
trapped in the deformed magnetic materials.  The percentage
(by weight) of magnetic material In the magnetic rejects
varies between 95 to 98 percent.  This recovered product
consists primarily of balled metal cans, portions of spark
plugs, metal plates, muffler clamps, can and bottle tops,
tubing, and small amount of organic matter, aluminum and
glass.
                           40

-------
 5.2.3.3  Magnetic Separator/Non-Magnetic Rejects - This
 material  contains the non-magnetic portion of the junk re-
 mover process  stream.  This stream consists of water sat-
,urated metallic and non-metallic items still containing approxi-
 mately 11.4  percent magnetic materials.   A visual inspection
 of the non-magnetic reject stream indicates approximately 50
 percent by volume of the stream is organic matter.  Typical
 items found  in the organic fraction include: bones,  fibrous
 matter, rubber tubing, and rubber material.  Other com-
 ponents are  aluminum cans, stainless steel, rocks and glass.

 5.2.3.4  Cyclone Reject Stream - The cyclone reject stream
 contains  the heavy material removed from the hydrapulper
 process stream.  This stream is predominantly glass (57.1%)
 and it is the  input material for the glass plant.  The stream
 typically contains 11.1 percent water and 6.4 percent volatile
 solids (organic matter).  It is composed of the following
 types of  material: paper clips, aluminum, aluminum foil, bubble
 gum,  wire, rubber, stone,  and all types  of glass.  Most of the
 material  is  less than 1" diameter, and has a density of approxi-
 mately 1.19  g/cc (74.22 lb/ft3).  A typical particle size
 distribution is presented below.

        Particle Size             % By Weight
          <  1/4"                    30.0%
        1/4"  to 3/4"                 60.2%
          >  3/4"                     9.8%

 5.2.3.5  Cyclone Process Stream - The cyclone process stream
 contains  the lighter portion of the hydrapulper process stream
 and is the input to the Fiber Recovery System.   The cyclone
 process stream has an average total solids concentration of
 approximately  3.3% with a measured low of 1.5% and a measured
 high  of 4.1%.  The suspended solids concentration is approx-
 imately 2.4%.   The heat content of the cyclone process stream
 is 7700 BTU/lb on an oven dry basis.  On an "as received"
 basis the stream contains 97% moisture and will not support
 its own combustion.  A net heat input of 739 BTU/lb is re-
 quired to achieve combustion.  The ash content is 21.4% of
 the total solids content on a dry weight basis.

 The cyclone  process stream can be described as a dark, gray-
 ish brown liquid containing large amounts (*^500 ml/1) of
 settleable material.   The majority of solid material is
 fibrous matter, but pieces of plastics,  vegetable matter,
 small pieces of aluminum foil, paint flecks, straw,  etc. can
 be distinguished in the process stream.

 5.2.3.6  Whitewater and Process Water Characteristics - Table 3
    Whitewater  Characteristics, presents  the average para-
 meters for the Whitewater system.  The Whitewater is used in
 the hydrapulper to produce a refuse slurry, and is used as
 dilution  water in the Fiber Recovery System.
                             41

-------
Table 3 - WHITEWATER CHARACTERISTICS
PARAMETER
Water Temp.
Dissolved Oxygen
Turbidity Lab
Conductivity Lab
pH Lab
Alkalinity
Hardness
Chlorides
Sulfates
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Ammonia Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Total Phosphorus
C-BOD2
C-BOD5
C-BOD7
C-BOD10
C-BOD15
C-BOD20
TOC
COD
UNITS
Cent.
mg/1
JTU
Micro-MHO
S.U.
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
AVERAGE
VALUE
26.0
5.8
2460.0
2660.0
5.2
300.0
907.0
341.0
663.0
9450.0
5060.0
4390.0
19.0
2.0
58.5
1652.0
3225.0
3714.0
4267.0
4971.0
5493.0
2213.0
8860.0
                   42

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              WHITEWATER CHARACTERISTICS
Bacteriological Data

PARAMETER            UNITS

Fecal Coliform       #/100ml

Total Coliform       #/100ml

Total Plate Count    #/lml
AVERAGE
 VALUE

 1.3 X 10

 2.0 X 10

 2.8 X 10
8
Heavy Metal Data
PARAMETER
Cadmium
Manganese
Zinc
Nickel
Iron
Lead
Tin
Chromium
Copper
UNITS
yg/i
yg/i
wg/i
yg/i
yg/i
yg/i
yg/i
yg/i
yg/i
AVERAGE
VALUE
92.5
495.0
557.0
3990.0
3900.0
6225.0
190.0
700.0
11.4
                            43

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High quality water is not required for pulping the refuse.
The Whitewater is continuously recirculated to reduce the
water consumption.  During the recirculation of this white-
water the concentration of solids, dissolved metals, bacteria,
etc., reach equilibrium conditions.  By way of comparison,
the Whitewater (although not a waste stream) is similar in
strength to a concentrated industrial waste stream.  As in-
dicated previously, an average of 4890 gallons of Whitewater
is used per ton of refuse processed in the pulping and
separation subsystems.  The amount of Whitewater used to
process a ton of refuse is somewhat dependent upon the moisture
content of the refuse processed.  A lower moisture content
requires a larger amount of Whitewater to achieve the same con-
sistency.

The bacteriological data for the Whitewater listed in Table
 3 indicates a high degree of bacterial contamination.  The
use of this contaminated water for processing could present
potential health hazards if it were handled improperly.  Pre-
cautions used in the handling of Whitewater should be similar
to those used in the handling of sewage.

The data presented in Table 3 for the Whitewater system,
indicates that the Whitewater contains more than average
amounts of heavy metals  (see page 105).

Process water is the chlorinated final effluent of the Miami
Conservancy District's Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant.
The characteristics of the process water are given in Table 4.

The average values indicate that the effluent from the Franklin
Solid Waste Treatment Plant is of a high quality.  As seen in
the table, the average suspended solids are 51 mg/1 and the
average BOD,- is 18 mg/1.  It could be said that the suspended
solids material is largely inert and does not exhibit as much
oxygen demand as normal organic materials.  This indicates
that the percent of inerts in the suspended solids is
fairly high.  An average COD of 174 mg/1 with an average BOD~
of 18 mg/1 indicates that the material in the final effluent
is not subject to biological degradation as much as normal
domestic sewage.   This combined with the high dissolved solids
content, would seem to indicate that there was a chemical
demand in the waste that would not show up by consuming
dissolved oxygen in the BOD tests.  It should be noted that
nitrification is occuring in the treatment facility.  The
ammonia nitrogen is 2.3 mg/1 and the nitrate nitrogen is
5-1/4 mg/1; nitrification is significant.  The final effluent
could be considered to have a low nitrogen content.

5.2.3.7  Pulping and Separation Subsystem Water Requirements
As stated in the section, there are two inputs to the
                            44

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         Table  4  -  PROCESS WATER CHARACTERISTICS
PARAMETER       UNITS     MAXIMUM     MINIMUM      AVERAGE

Water Temp.     Cent.       28.1         6.3         20.5
Dissolved
  Oxygen        mg/1        11.4         5.1          8.2
Turbidity
  Lab           JTU         60.0         6.0         21.4
Conductivity    Micro-
  Lab            MHO      2173.0      1440.0       1603.9
pH Lab           S.U.        8.5         7.1          7.8
Alkalinity      mg/1       544.0       142.0        407.0
Hardness        mg/1       710.0       196.0        451.9
Chlorides       mg/1       224.0       162.0        193.0
Sulfates        mg/1       220.0        70.0        156.2
Total Solids    mg/1      1525.0      1037.0       1188.4
Dissolved
  Solids        mg/1      1449.0       987.0       1138.4
Suspended
  Solids        mg/1       121.0         1.0         51.0
Ammonia
  Nitrogen      mg/1        44.0         0.0          7.7
Organic
  Nitrogen      mg/1         3.1         0.1          2.3
Nitrate
  Nitrogen      mg/1        22.0         0.0          5.3
Total
  Phosphorus    mg/1         3.7         0.1          1.2
C-BOD2          mg/1       110.0         0.6          8.4
C-BOD5          mg/1       176.0         2.5         18.4
C-BOD7          mg/1       182.0         5.0         25.5
C-BOD10         mg/1       214.0         7.3         35.2
C-BOD15         mg/1       282.0         9.0         53.7
C-BOD20         mg/1       292.0        10.2         70.0
N-BOD5          mg/1         9.8         8.5          9.2
TOC             mg/1       140.0        25.0         50.9
COD             mg/1       431.0        70.0        174.3
                             45

-------
P & S subsystem in addition to the refuse.  These are the
process water, and the Whitewater.  The Whitewater is used
in the P & S subsystem as input to the pulper to form the
refuse slurry.  Process water is used to cool the oil
supply to the pulper and as elutriation water in the cyclone.
The total quantity of water used varies with the quantity
of refuse processed.  The amount of process water used
varies directly with operating time for the subsystem.
The amount of Whitewater used varies directly with operating
time and moisture content of the input refuse.

Figures 14- & 15  respectively gives the Whitewater and
processed water usage per time.  These figures also present
a plot of water usage/ton processed during the study period.

The quantity of Whitewater used in the P & S subsystem
averages 4,860 gallons/ton processed.  The amounts of
Whitewater used can be varied by the plant operator.  For
routine operating conditions the maximum and minimum amounts
of Whitewater used/ton of refuse processed are 7,340 and 2,680
gallons respectively.  Increased Whitewater usage results in
higher dilution of the refuse slurry produced.

The quantities of process' water used in the P & S subsystem
are a function of the operating time of the system.  The
quantity of process water used/ton of refuse processed
averages 1,630 gallons.  This volume was observed to vary
between 2,700 gallons/ton and 1,630 gallons/ton.


5.2.3.8  Power Requirements for the P & S Subsystem -
Figure 16 represents the kilowatt hours used by the hydrapulper
and the average kilowatt hours used by the hydrapulper
per ton refuse processed.  The average power usage by the
hydrapulper was 32.5 kilowatt hours per ton with a maximum
and minimum of 46.4 and 22.8 kwh/ton respectively.  The
variation in the kilowatt hours required per ton of refuse
processed can be attributed to several variables.  These
variables include:  the consistency of the input refuse;
the moisture content of the input refuse; and the condition
of the pulper rotor.  As the hammers on the pulper rotor
become dull, the time required to pulp the refuse increases,
as does the power required to pulp a ton of refuse.  No
estimates can be made regarding the consistency of the input
refuse, and the difficulty in pulping a given quantity of
refuse.

The power usage in the P & S subsystem is largely due to the
hydrapulper.  The hydrapulper is driven by a 300 horsepower
motor, and the oil pump supplying oil to the pulper motor has
a 1 horsepower pump.  These power requirements represent more
than all the other connected horsepower in the P & S subsystem.
                            46

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VD
 O
     1.3
     1.2
     1.1
     1.0
    .9
M



a    .8

3


g    .7




     . 6




     .5
                                                           TOTAL GALLONS/WEEK

                                                   	  AVERAGE GAL./TON/WEEK
                                i	i
                                                        i     i
         0   2
                                                                                                      O
                                                                                                      w

                                                                                                   8  s
6  |


   S
5



U
                                                                                                       -a
                                                                                                       o
                                                                                                       2
                                                                                                       O
                                                                                                        UJ
                              8    10     12    lU    16    18   20     22    2U    26     28     30

                                        TIME - WEEKS
                  FIGURE Ik  -  WHITEWATER  CONSUMPTION,  PULPING  &  SEPARATION  SUBSYSTEM

-------
oo
o
-I

X
I  3


CO
             CO
             fz
             o
             i_)
             <
                                                                     TOTAL GALLONS/WEEK


                                                                     AVER. GAL/TON/WEEK
                                                                                                  30
                                                                                                               25
                                                                                                                  8

                                                                                                                  o
                                                                                                               20 1
                                                                                                     o
                                                                                                     o
                                                                                                     w
                                                                                                     en
                                                                                                     en
                                                                                                                  o
                                                                                                               10
                                   6      8      10    12    lU    16    18    20    22   2k


                                FIGURE  15 - PROCESS WATER CONSUMPTION - P & S SUBSYSTEM
                                                                                   26
28    38

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               10
vo
             co
              O
1
    -  \
                                                                    TOTAL Kwh/TIME

                                                                    AVERAGE Kwh/TON/TIME
                                                                                                               55
                                                                                                               50
                                                                                                               UO
                                                                                                               20
                      8
                                         10   12   lU  16    18    20    22   2fc


                                                           TIME-WEEKS



                                            FIGURE 16 - POWER CONSUMPTION-HYDRAPULPER
26   28   30   32   3l   36  38
                                   I
                                                                                                               35  8
                                                                                                               30
                                                                                                               25

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The hydrapulper power consumption was recorded by a separate
kilowatt hour meter.  The major power usage items in the
P & S system are given as follows:

            ITEM               HORSEPOWER

     Conveyor                      10
     Hydrapulper                  301
     Junk Remover                  10
     Hydrapulper Dump Pump         30
     Junk Washer                    1
     Magnetic Separator             5
     Cyclone Recycle Pump          15
     Dewatering Screw for           2
      Glass Plant

Based on horsepower ratings the hydrapulper uses 81 percent
of the power in the P & S subsystem.

5.2.3.9  Efficiency of Equipment - As shown in the Study
Matrix (Figure6 )  the only unit processes within the P & S
subsystem that can be evaluated in terms of efficiency are
the magnetic separator and the liquid cyclone.

The magnetic separator is a rotating magnetic belt which
separates the junk remover reject stream according to magnetic
and non-magnetic items.  The magnetic separator removed 92.8
percent of the magnetic materials extracted from the
hydrapulper by the junk remover.  It should be noted that the
recovered magnetics were contaminated with other materials
because of mechanical attachments.  The contaminants amounted
to 4.2% of the magnetic reject stream.  The non-magnetic
rejects which were landfilled or recycled to the head of the
plant, contained about 11.4% magnetic material, as determined
by manual sorting.   There are two reasons for this high
percentage of magnetics in the non-magnetic bin:  (1) Some
magnetic items in the non-magnetic bin were too heavy to be
extracted by the separator, (2) The percentage of magnetics
in a particular mass of material was too low to be affected
by the magnetic belt.

The input to the liquid cyclone is the hydrapulper process
stream.  The cyclone separates the glass and gritty material
in the hydrapulper process stream from the fibrous matter.

The cyclone process stream was analyzed to determine the
amount of grit that was not removed by the process.  Based on
the results of grit analysis tests, it was determined that
the cyclone was 72% efficient in the removal of grit.  However,
hand sorts of the cyclone process stream indicated that all
the glass particles greater than 1/8" were being removed by
the cyclone.  This would indicate that the cyclone is effective
                            50

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in removing the usable glass particles and that only small
glass particles and other small grit escape the cyclone.
A fractional efficiency curve is not available for this
cyclone.  None is available from the manufacturer and we
did not develop one during the course of the study.
Development of a fractional efficiency curve would have
presented several problems and would involve a considerable
effort.  The amount of gritty material which is removed by
the cyclone is a variable and is dependent on several
factors.

(1)  The consistency  (percent solids) of the feed material
to the cyclone; e.g., the higher the consistency, the greater
the viscosity and the lower the removal efficiency of the
cyclone;

(2)  The specific gravity of the grit being removed; and

(3)  The grit particle's size and shape.

Black-Clawson claims that all materials greater than 40
mesh are being removed by the cyclone.  This is apparently
true from our observations of the material collected on a
200 mesh screen.  On this basis the cyclone can be said to
have 100% removal efficiency of grit particles greater than
40 mesh (0.0635 cm, 0.025 inches).  One exception to the
100% removal efficiency of that particle size is the
occasional appearance of shredded aluminum foil and aluminum
can tabs.   It is obvious that this material is greater than
40 mesh but its shape and specific gravity are such that
removal is not possible in the cyclone.  However, true grit
such as glass and rocks are effectively removed by the
cyclone.

5.3  DEWATERING and INCINERATION  (D & I) SUBSYSTEM

The D & I subsystem dewaters and incinerates the unuseable
portion (rejects) of the Fiber Recovery System, or the entire
process stream from the P & S subsystem.

When the fiber is not being recovered, the input to the D & I
subsystem is the cyclone process stream (directly) or the
partially dewatered cyclone process stream (via "thickening"
mode).  The Fiber Recovery reject streams, or the cyclone
process stream enter the surge chest, and are continuously
agitated within it.  The contents of the surge chest are
then fed to the barrel thickeners.  The barrel thickeners
(3 in parallel) partially dewater the surge chest process
stream.  The partially dewatered refuse slurry is then trans-
ported by the screw conveyor to the cone press where it is
further dewatered.  The rejects from the barrel thickeners
                             51

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(primarily liquid)  enter the Whitewater system; the rejects
from the cone press, because of the introduction of sewage
sludge between the barrel thickeners and the cone press, are
segregated and pumped to the Miami Conservancy District.  At
this point the material has been dewatered in the D & I sub-
system to a point where it can support its own combustion.
Thus, no auxilliary fuel is required for the incineration.
The cone press process stream is fed to a pneumatic feeder
which injects it into the bed of the fluid bed reactor.

The ashes and small sand particles that escape in the reactor
exhaust gases are removed by a Venturi type scrubber.  The
ash slurry, as it is called at this point, is pumped to the
Miami Conservancy District Wastewater Treatment Plant for
treatment.

5.3.1  Material Balance Sheet for Dewatering & Incineration
       Subsystem

The material balance given in Figure 17 indicates the inputs
and outputs to the D & I subsystem as well as the operating
time for that subsystem.  The values indicated on this balance
sheet represent the actual operating data for an average week.
These are average data and do not reflect the optimum operation
of the plant.  Optimum operation would have no material coming
directly from the P & S subsystem and all of the material enter-
ing the D & I subsystem would be rejects from the Fiber Recovery
System.

There are two major inputs to the D & I subsystem.  These are:
(1) the rejects from the Fiber Recovery System or,  (2) the
cyclone process stream from the P & S subsystem.  The latter
case occurs when the Fiber Recovery System is not operating.
In this instance, the cyclone process stream can be "thickened"
using some of the equipment in the Fiber Recovery System.

The inputs into the D & I subsystem are all the materials re-
quiring final disposal, and the city water that is required
for the scrubber operation.  As indicated on Figure 17 the
average input to the D & I subsystem is 74.5 tons per week.
Of this, 39 tons are from the P & S subsystem  (when Fiber
Recovery System is not operating)  representing 52.9% of the
average input, 2.4% consists of sewage sludge and skimmings,
and 33.3 tons or 44.7 percent from Fiber Recovery Operations.
A minimal amount of process water is used in the D & I sub-
system as cooling water for the bearings in the cone press.
This is considered negligible for the purposes of this mass
balance.
                             52

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   INPUT
                               OUTPUT
            Sludge
           1.80 T.
        CITY WATER
      181,800 Gal.
    FIBER RECOVERY
        REJECTS
           33.3 T.


 THICKENED CYCLONE
    PROCESS STREAM
           20.8 T.
   CYCLONE PROCESS
           STREAM
           18.6 T.
   1=74.5 T.
    DEWATERING AND

INCINERATION SUBSYSTEM
    OPERATING TIME

      16.4 HOURS
TO ATMOSPHERE
(PARTICULATE MATTER)
                                              49.69#/Wk.
                        ASH SLURRY TO MCD
                        40,300 gals.
                        1.84 T.
DEWATERING REJECTS
                        20.9 T.
              FIGURE 17 - MATERIAL BALANCE SHEET**
            DEWATERING AND INCINERATION SUBSYSTEM

*A11 values are on a dry weight basis.
                                 53

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The outputs to the D & I subsystem consist of the output
from the reactor to the atmosphere, the ash slurry to the
Miami Conservancy District, and the Whitewater which is
obtained from dewatering the refuse slurry.  This water
enters the Whitewater system and is reused.

A close comparison of the input tonnage and output tonnage
on the D & I subsystem material balance sheet would indi-
cate that the inputs are much greater than the outputs to
that subsystem.  This apparent discrepancy is due to the fact
that the input tonnage is uncombusted refuse, whereas the
output tonnage in the ash slurry is ash material.  The
balance of the mass is emitted as gases of combustion through
the stack.

As is evident from Figure 17 the dewatering rejects from the
barrel thickeners and the cone press account for 28% of the
input tonnage.  For the most part, this material is re-
introduced to the Whitewater system.  A quantity of less
than 33% of the liquid stream is removed from the sewage sump
and pumped to the Miami Conservancy District for treatment.
The City water used in the D & I subsystem is for the opera-
tion of the venturi scrubber.  No input solids are given for
this water because it is only used in the scrubber system and
then transported to the Wastewater Treatment Plant.  As a
result, the actual value of solids input from the City water
has not been included.

If the dewatering rejects are subtracted from the summation
of the inputs to the subsystem, the reactor input can be
calculated.  For an average week's operation, the reactor
input was 53.6 tons/week.  From this, 1.84 tons of ash
material was obtained.  This would imply an average ash con-
tent of 3.4 percent, which is very low.

Results of laboratory testing indicates an ash content of
approximately 10.8% (900c, 45 min).  There are several
possible reasons for this discrepancy:
     1) The laboratory methods for determining ash
content may not approximate the actual combustion process.

     2) The particulate emission tests were performed
prior to this study and this data may not be representative.

     3) There were difficulties experienced in determining
the total volume of ash slurry because of meter calibration
problems, pump leaks, etc.
                             54

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 It is the opinion of  the authors, that a  reasonable estimate
of  the ash content of the material  input  to  the  reactor  is
the range of  10  to 12 percent.

5.3.2  Dewatering and Incineration  Subsystem Stream
       Characteristics
                                                            
The stream characteristics for the  D  & I  subsystem for the
period of our study,  are given in Figure  18   These stream
characteristics  were  obtained by  (1)  daily composite  samples
of processed  streams,  and  (2) additional  periodic analyses
of the streams to obtain their individual characteristics.
The characteristics of the exhaust  gases  were obtained from
the final report published by Environmental  Sciences  Inc.
Like the stream  characterization sheet given for the  P & S
subsystem, this  system is arranged  in a flow type diagram.
The arrows connecting the processes indicate the direction
of flow of material in the system.  The percentage values
on the lines  or  arrows connecting the unit processes  show
the percent of input  refuse, on a dry weight basis which
flows along this route.  We can see from  Figure  18 that
58.9% of the  input refuse is disposed of  in  the  D & I sub-
system.  In the  dewatering phase of this  subsystem, 96.9%
of the water  and 30.8% of the solids  are  removed in the
combined dewatering of the barrel thickeners and cone press.
The cone press process stream has an  average total solids
content of 45%.  This  material has  a  sufficiently high heat
content to support its own combustion at  this point.  A lower
total solids  content  in the cone press process stream would
reduce the heat  given  off by the combustion  of this material.
The fuel value required for continuous operation of the fluid-
izied bed reactor is  approximately  3,000  BTU/lb.  The cone
press process stream,  on a weight basis averages approximately
3,600  BTU/lb. and, thus, is high enough  to  support its own
combustion.  As  is evident from the moisture content, the
material drawn from the surge chest is a  liquid  stream; it
is fed through the barrel thickeners and  increased to a total
solids content of 17.4% at which time it  appears to be a
fibrous solid.   This material is further  dewatered in the cone
press to 45% moisture.  This dryer  solid  still feels wet to
touch.

When this material is  incinerated an inert ash is formed.
The resulting ,ash slurry has a very low carbonaceous oxygen
demand.   Hence this stream does not require  biological treat-
ment.   During the period of our study, sewage sludge was
introduced in the screw conveyor between  the barrel thickener
and the cone press (sludge is not added to the surge chest).
This sludge averaged  4.6 percent solids and  had  a heat content
of 7,600 BTU  per pound on a dry weight basis.  The ash content
                            55

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                                SLUDGE FROM TREATMENT  PLANT
                                1.  Total Solids  14.63?
                                2.  Moisture Content  95-1*?
                                3.  Heat Content  (Dry)  7,600 BTU//i<
                                14.  Ash Content UU.5J5
                                    (1.145? of input dry weight)
       FROM FIBER

    RECOVERY SYSTEM

          27.05?
DIRECTLY TO
SURGE CHEST
      15.1*
       16.8*

 THICKENED
, 58.9?

UATJBTi'T
THICKENER



hi. 2%
1. TOTAL SOLIDS
1 " ' 'd. MUlBTUKi; 02.
17-72
REJECTS (WWS)
	 ^
i'
17.14?
65?


                                       1.  SUSPENDED SOLIDS  .UU?
                                       2.  TOTAL SOLIDS 1.1 Jt
                                       3.  MOISTURE 98.5*
        SURGE CHEST CONTENTS

   Percent Moisture 96.5$
   Total Solids 3-5*
   Heat Content (DRY) 7,380 BTU/#
   Ash Content 22?
   Grit Content 9.5?

   Total Coliform Count 165 x 10^/100 ml
   Fecal Coliform Count 10 x 10/100 ml
   Total Plate Count 100 x
                                          56

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                                                  EXHAUST GASES
                                                   l.Particulate Rate 6.11 #/Hr.
                                                   2.Moisture=3l*.l$
                                                            ppm
                                                               ppm
                                                   5.Grain Loading .019G/SDCF
                                                   6.Scrubber Eff. = 99%
    1.  Suspended Solids O.l2
    2.  Total Solids 0.52 (0.1*2 with no sludge)
    3.  Moisture 99.1*2

            REJECTS
            (MCD)
                    S02<7
                    NOV - 125
                      Jv
CONE 1
PRESS J
1*0.82

PNEUMATIC
CONVEYOR
1.  Total Solids -
2.  Moisture = 552
3-  Heat Content = 8,600
      BTU/# (DRY) and 3600
      BTU/# (AS-RCVD)
1*.  Ash Content = 2k.5%
Insignificant
Change with
Sludge injected
before Cone Press
1.52
ASH Slurry (MCD) ^
1. pH = 7.1*2
2. Total Solids = 1.
3. Dissolved Solids
1*. Suspended Solids
5- BODc = 18 ppm


1*55
= 0.13?!
= 1.3*

               FIGURE  18- DEWATERING AND INCINERATION SUBSYSTEM
                            STREAM CHARACTERIZATION DATA
                                       57

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is extremely high for sludge.  This is because the Miami
Conservancy Treatment Plant does not have grit removal prior
to primary clarification and as a result, all the suspended
gritty particles which would be removed in the grit removal
section of the treatment plant are removed in the primary
section and contained in the sludge.

5.3.3  Description of Dewatering and Incineration Streams

5.3.3.1  Thickener Rejects Stream - The thickener reject stream
is a grayish brown liquid containing a minor amount of settleable
black solids and fibrous matter.  The total solids content of
the thickener reject stream ranges from 0.8% to 1.5% and the
suspended solids content is approximately 0.4%.

5.3.3.2 Press Process Stream - As the material leaves the barrel
thickener, it enters the cone press for further dewatering.  The
process stream from the press consists of grayish brown fibrous
matter which contains visible amounts of grass, plastics, and
small pieces of glass, wood, and string material.

The heat content of this material on an over-dry basis is
8,050 BTU/lb.  The streams solid content varies from 36.6 to
49.5% solids.  The heat content of this material on an "as-
received" basis is 3,580 BTU/lb. and has an ash content of
24.5 percent.

5.3.3.3 Press Reject Stream - The press reject stream is a grey
brown liquid containing a minute amount of settleable black
material.  The stream has a suspended solids concentration of
0.1%, a total solids content of 0.5%, and a moisture content
of 99.4%.

5.3.4  Efficiency of Equipment in D&I Subsystem

As indicated on our Study Matrix, the only unit operation in
the D&I subsystem that has a meaningful efficiency
is the venturi scrubber.  The efficiency of this scrubber has
been determined by Environmental Sciences, Inc.  This efficiency
was determined by comparison of isokinetc samples taken on the
input and output to the venturi scrubber.  The average removal
efficiency of solid particulate matter was 99.0%

5.3.5  Power Requirements for the D&I Subsystem

Power data for this complete subsystem could not be obtained.
However, some general remarks can be made about the power con-
sumed in this section of the plant.  The D&I subsystem con-
tains the following power using equipment  (Table 5).
                            58

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          Table 5 - POWER USAGE  OF  EQUIPMENT  ITEMS

DEWATERING & INCINERATION
EQUIPMENT	            HORSEPOWER CONNECTED
Surge Chest Agitator                          50
Surge Chest Pump                              25
Barrel Thickeners                             45
Screw Conveyor                                 3
Whitewater Sump Pump                          15
Sludge Chest Agitator                         20
Sludge Pump                                   15
Cone Press                                    80
Sewage Sump Punp                              15
Screw Conveyor                                 3
Rotary Valve                                   2
Pneumatic Feed                                50
Reactor Blower                               500
Ash Pump                                      15
                            59

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As is evident from this list of major electrical equipment
the major power requirement is for the fluidizing air blower.
This one motor represents 60% of the installed horsepower in
the subsystem.  It is used to provide an air supply at
sufficient pressure and volume to fluidize the sand bed and
overcome the pressure drop (7.0 inches water) in the scrubber.
An additional 8% of the installed horsepower in the D & I
subsystem is used as supplemental equipment to the incinerator.
The dewatering phase of the D & I sybsystem accounts for
23.6% of the installed horsepower used in the subsystem.  A
total of 198 horsepower is installed in the dewatering section
of this subsystem.  The thickener process stream varies in
total solids from 12.0 to 24.4.

5.4  FIBER RECOVERY SYSTEM

The Fiber Recovery System receives the cyclone process stream
from the P & S subsystem and recovers a portion of the useable
fiber contained in it.  This recovered fiber is diluted with
process water and pumped to the Logan Long Company which uses
this material as a substitute for other paper sources in
manufacturing roofing felt.  The reject streams, materials
rejected in the recovery of the fiber, are from two sources:
the selectifier, and the centrifugal cleaners.  These materials
flow into the rejects tank in the Fiber Recovery System and
are then pumped to the surge chest in the D & I subsystem.
The Whitewater sump which contains rejects from the rundown
screen enters the Whitewater system.  A portion of this flow
is bled off to the Miami Conservancy Wastewater Treatment
Plant for treatment.

5.4.1  Material Balance Sheet for the Fiber Recovery System

The material balance for the Fiber Recovery System is given
in Figure 19.  This figure indicates three inputs to the Fiber
Recovery System and three outputs.  The major input to the
system is the cyclone process stream.  This input contains all
the fibrous materials that are recovered in the system.  The
Whitewater is an intermittent input to the system and it is
added to the selectifier dilution tank as needed.

The tonnage values given for the Whitewater and process water
represent actual dry solids input to the system contained in
the Whitewater and process water.  All values on Figure 19
are given on a dry weight basis.

In Figure 19 the 15.5 tons/week represents the total solids
output to Logan Long Company  and the 13.6 tons Fiber represents
the actual tonnage of fiber output, the suspended fiber
material.  The difference between these two values is the
                             60

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       INPUTS
                          OUTPUTS
   CYCLONE PROCESS
           66.4 T.
     27.7 T. Fiber
        WHITEWATER
            3.4 T.
     PROCESS WATER
           0.61 T.
FIBER RECOVERY

    SYSTEM
 OPERATING TIME
    16.1 HRS.
RECOVERED FIBER **
                     15.5 T TOTAL
                     13.6 T FIBER

                     FIBER RECOVERY
                        REJECTS
33.3 T.
                     FINE REJECTS TO
                     WHITEWATER SYSTEM
                     21.2 T.
           FIGURE 19 - BALANCE SHEET FOR FIBER  RECOVERY SYSTEM

 *A11 values are on a Dry Wt. Basis.  Figure represents actual
  operating data for an average week.

**Total tons includes dissolved solids in slurry.
                                   61

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dissolved solids contained in the fiber slurry.  As can be
seen in Figure 19, approximately 20 percent of the input
tonnage in the cyclone process stream is recovered as fiber.
Approximately 50% of the input tonnage to fiber recovery is
removed in the form of rejects.  This material requires final
disposal in the D & I subsystem.  The third output is the
fines rejects to the Whitewater system which consists of the
rejects from the rundown screen, the barrel thickener and the
cone press.  This tonnage represents 32% of the tons input
to the system.

The recovery of 13.6 tons fiber, or 20% of the tonnage input
to the Fiber Recovery System, does not indicate a recovery
rate for paper fiber.  The tonnage in the cyclone process
stream represents gross tons and not tons fiber input into
the system.  The fiber content in the cyclone process stream
was approximately 27.7 tons/week.  This would indicate a fiber
recovery rate of 49.1%.

5.4.2  Stream Characteristics of the Fiber Recovery System

The stream characteristics of the Fiber Recovery System are
given on Figure 20.  These stream characteristics were ob-
tained from daily composite samples of process streams which
were necessary to achieve the daily mass balances.  Addition-
al information was derived from periodic tests which were
performed on the individual streams within the entire plant.
Some of the stream characterization tests were performed by
the paper technology department of Miami University on the
fibrous content of the cyclone process stream and the quality
of the recovered fiber.  The input to the Fiber Recovery System
is the cyclone process stream.  The characterization data for
the cyclone process stream is given on the P & S subsystem
characterization sheet as well.  The characteristics of the
Whitewater and process water used in the Fiber Recovery System
are the same given in the P & S subsystem.

This characterization sheet is presented in the same manner as
the characterization sheets for the P & S and D & I subsystems
in that the arrows connecting unit processes indicate the
direction of the flow in the system and the percentage values
written on these connecting arrows indicate the percent of in-
put refuse which flows along that route.

The cyclone process stream based on handsort data contains
67.7% fiber, 12% plastics, 5.4% wood, 5% glass, .9% aluminum,
and 9% miscellaneous.  The heat content of this stream is
7,700 BTU/lb. on a dry weight basis.  On a wet basis the BTU
content is a -831 BTU/lb.  The negative heat content indicates
that the material would not support its own combustion.  This
                            62

-------
is obvious from the high moisture content of 96.7% con-
tained in the stream.  The cyclone process stream enters
the selectifier dilution tank where Whitewater is added to
reduce the consistency of the cyclone process stream if re-
quired.  The characteristics of the Whitewater are dis-
cussed in section 5.2.3.6.  The selectifier dilution tank
is agitated and a pump draws this material and feeds it to
the selectifier.  The selectifier is a rotating screen with
1/16" openings.  The selectifier is intended  to remove all
the plastics, string and other materials longer than 1/16"
in length or diameter.  As is evident from the Fiber Re-
covery stream characterization sheet, 42% of the solid
material is removed from the cyclone process stream by the
selectifier.  This represents the largest reject stream in
the Fiber Recovery System.

Following the selectifier, the material enters a cleaners
supply tank.  The material is removed from the cleaners
supply tank and fed to five centrifugal cleaners. Process
water is used at this point as elutriation water in these
cleaners.  Process water characteristics are given in section
5.2.3.6.  The cleaners serve to remove a portion of the
larger gritty material found in the selectifier process
stream.  This gritty material is the second reject stream
in the Fiber Recovery Process.  It is combined with the
selectifier reject stream in the rejects tank and pumped
to the surge chest for final disposal in the D & I sub-
system.  The centrifugal cleaners process stream is fed
directly to the rundown screen where material smaller than
approximately .020" is removed.  The rundown screens are
similar to Hydrasieves that are sometimes used in place of
primary treatment in wastewater treatment plants.  The re-
jects from the rundown screen enter the Whitewater system
where there is a large bleedoff at this point to the Miami
Conservancy District.  This bleedoff is necessary to keep
the percentage of fines and oil and grease materials low
in the Whitewater system.  This is necessary to achieve a
quality fiber usable by the Logan Long Company.  The run-
down screen process stream, is pumped to the barrel thicken-
er which is smaller but similar to the dewatering device
found in the D & I subsystem.  This screw thickener con-
centrates the process stream from the rundown screen to
15% solids from 2.2% solids.  Following the screw thicken-
er is a cone press similar to that used as the second step
in dewatering in the D & I"subsystem. 'This concentrates
the fiber stream to a solids concentration of approximately
45%.  This material is then diluted by either process water
or by a portion of the rundown screen process stream which
bypasses the dewatering section of the Fiber Recovery System.
                             63

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    CYCLONE

 PROCESS 53.!
    STREAM
                         1.  TOTAL SOLIDS 2.68?
                         2.  MOISTURE 97.!$
    22.1%
    REJECTS
    (SURGE CHEST)
1.  TOTAL SOLIDS
2.  MOISTURE 91%
3.  GRIT (DRY) 22%
  SELECTIFI
   DILUTION
     TANK
                     CENTRIFUGAL
                       CLEANERS
Total Solids 3.-3%
  Fibre 67-7$
  Plastic 12.0$
  Wood 5.k%
  Glass 5.0%
  Aluminum . 9%
Moisture Content 96.7$
Heat Content 7,700 BTU/# (DRY)
Ash Content 21.U$ (DRY)
Grit Content 9-**$ (DRY)
% >_1/16" l.lUjf (DRY)

Total Coliform 185 x 106/100 ml
Fecal Coliform 2 x 106/100 ml
Total Plate U3 x 106/ml
1.   TOTAL SOLIDS 1.92$
2.   MOISTURE 98.1$
3.   GRIT 10$
U.   % > 1/16"= .77$
                                                     1.  TOTAL SOLIDS 1.72$
                                                     2.  MOISTURE 98.3$
                                                     3.  GRIT CONTENT 10$
                                      64

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                       1.  TOTAL SOLIDS 0.9%
                       2.  MOISTURE 99-1?
     10.155
     REJECTS (WW)
     1. Total Solids .52$
        Moisture 99-5?
        pH 5-7
        Susp. Solids .U?
        Diss. Solids .12%
        BOD5 2.8UO ppm
        Tot&l P 20 ppm
        NH3-N 28 ppm
    3.9552
   REJECTS
   (WWS)
1. Total Solids 0.
2. Moisture 99-9%
                         .132%
                         REJECTS
                          (WWS)
            16.7?
  1.  TOTAL SOLIDS 2.2%
  2.  MOISTURE 96.8?
1.  TOTAL SOLIDS

2.  MOISTURE 85?
                                                    u.
         12.6?

         TOTAL SOLIDS 1*5?
         MOISTURE 55?
         HEAT CONTENT
         7,187 BTU/# (DRY)
         ASH CONTENT 10.2?
                                                     
                                               LOGAN LONG
                                              (RECOVERED FIBER)
                                       1.   OIL & GREASE 2,1460 mg/1
                                       2.   TOTAL PLATE  .U27 x 10^/ml
                                       3.   FECAL COLIFORM 1.3xlOb/100 ml
                                       1*.   AFTER DILUTION
                                           -TOTAL SOLIDS 3-91*?
                                           -MOISTURE 96.1?

FIGURE 20  - FIBER RECOVERY SYSTEM -  STREAM  CHARACTERIZATION
                                 65

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This material is made liquid again in the Fiber Dilution Tank
and pumped to the Logan Long Company.

5.4.3  Water Requirements for the Fiber Recovery System

As stated in Section 5.4.1, Material Balance Sheet for the
Fiber Recovery System, there are two additional inputs to the
Fiber Recovery System in addition to the cyclone process
stream.  These are the process water, and Whitewater.  The
Whitewater is used to dilute the cyclone process stream on
an as needed basis to reduce the consistency and allow easier
processing in the Fiber Recovery System.  The use of white-
water varies with the consistency of the Whitewater process
stream.  During the course of our study, the use of white-
water in the Fiber Recovery for dilution purposes has varied
from between 102 gallons to 4,700 gallons per ton input to
the Fiber Recovery System.  The average quantity of white-
water used for dilution purposes is 1,580 gallons per ton
input to the system.  Figure 21 represents a plot of the
total quantity of Whitewater used in the Fiber Recovery
System.  Figure 21 also presents the Whitewater used per ton
input to the system.

Process water is used,in two places in the Fiber Recovery
System.  The first of these is for elutriation water in the
centrifugal cleaners.  The second area is for spraying water
on the rundown screens.  The quantity of process water used
in the Fiber Recovery System varies directly with the operating
time of that system.  As a general rule, no process water is
used when the Fiber Recovery System is used in the thickening
mode of operation.  The amount of process water used per ton of
material input to the Fiber Recovery System varies from a minimum
of 1,000 gallons to a maximum of 2,370 gallons.  The average
quantity of process water used per ton input to the system is
1,600 gallons of process water.  The process water graphs are
given in Figure 22.

5.4.4  Power Requirements for the Fiber Recovery System

Figure 23 presents graphs of total kilowatt hour usage and
kilowatt hour usage/ton input to the Fiber Recovery System
during the study period.  The average kilowatt hours consumed
per ton input to the Fiber Recovery System is 21.9.  There are
no major power usage items in the Fiber Recovery System.  The
major power usage items in the Fiber Recovery System are as
follows:
                             66

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6
en
z,
3
i
360


320


280


2UO

200


160


120


 80

 UO


  0
                                                  _ GALLONS  WHITEWATER

                                                   GALLONS  PROCESS WATER
360


320


280


2UO

200


160


120


 80

 UO
CO
"0
M
O
O
w
en
CO

s
s
          02   U   68   10  12  14   16  18   20   22   2U   26 28  30 32  3U  36  38

                                         Time  - Weeks
                       FIGURE 21 - WATER  CONSUMPTIONS  - FIBER RECOVERY

-------
oo
   5.0

   U.5

S  u.o
x

|  3-5
B  , o
EH  J  v
                      EH
                      M
                      s
                      <
   2.5

   2.0



   1.0

   0.5
                                                           WHITEWATER/TON/TIME
                                                           PROCESS WATER/TON/TIME
35

30

25

20


15

10

 5

 0
                                                                                        t-3
                                                                                        O
                                                                                        a

                                                                                        o
                                                                                        I
                                    U   6   8  10  12  111  16  18 20  22  2U 26  28  30
                                                  TIME - WEEKS
                      FIGURE 22 - WHITEWATER  AND PROCESS WATER CONSUMPTION/TON REFUSE
                                   INPUT TO FIBER RECOVERY*
                  "Average Weekly Values

-------
                          5



                          U




                       *  3
o

H


X



*
en
vo
I2
                           0  2
                                                                       _ TOTAL Kwh/TIME

                                                                       _ Kwh/TON/TIME
                                                         30




                                                         25



                                                         20



                                                         15





                                                         10



                                                          5



                                                          0
8  10  12  lit
                                16 18  20  22 2U  26


                                 TIME - WEEKS
28  30  32  3*  36  38

                                                                                                      o
                                                                                                      s
                              FIGURE 23 - POWER CONSUMPTION DATA/TON REFUSE INPUT TO FIBER RECOVERY

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 FIBER RECOVERY  EQUIPMENT                HORSEPOWER

 Selectifier  Dilution  Tank  Agitator           10

 Selectifier  Dilution  Tank  Pump               40

 Selectifier                                 100

 Cleaner Supply  Pump                          75

 Rejects Tank Pump                            25

 Stock Sump Pump                             15

 Whitewater Sump Pump                         25

 Screw Thickener                             10

 Cone  Press                                   20

 Fiber Dilution  Tank Agitator                  5

 Fiber Pumps  to  Logan  Long                    30

 As  shown the majority of installed horsepower Fiber Recovery
 System is used  in  the purification of  the  fiber.  This represents
 83% of the 405  horsepower  present in the Fiber  Recovery System.
 Sixteen percent of the  horsepower used in  the Fiber Recovery
 System is used  for the  dewaterinq and  the  transport of the
 recovered fiber to the  Logan Long Company.

 5.4.5 Efficiency  of  Equipment  in the  Fiber Recovery System

 There are three unit  operations on which efficiencies can be
 determined in the  Fiber Recovery System; they are: the Selecti-
 fier;  centrifugal  cleaners, and rundown  screens.

 The selectifier's  function is to remove  all contaminating
 materials greater  than  1/16 of an inch in  diameter.  The re-
 moval efficiency of the selectifier can be  determined by measur-
 ing the amount  of  materials greater than 1/16 of an inch, that
 are removed  by  the selectifier.  The selectifier input and out-
 puts  were analyzed to determine the percentage  of material
 greater than 1/16  of  an inch in each stream.  The selectifier
 removal efficiency was  found to be 57.4%.   This may be con-
 sidered a low removal efficiency, however,  it should be noted
 that  a high  quality product is not required.

The centrifugal cleaners are designed to remove the dense gritty
material not removed by the liquid cyclone  in the P & S sub-
system.  The efficiency of the centrifugal cleaners was determined
                             70

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by grit analysis.  Based on these analyses the centrifugal
cleaners have a removal efficiency of 28.6%.  Although this
removal efficiency is low the glass and grit contamination
does not appear to have a great effect on the quality of the
fiber.  The glass and grit contaminants (durable particulates)
affect the strength properties of the fiber only when the size
of the durable particulates approach the sheet thickness.  The
rundown screens are designed to remove the bulk of the "fines"
in the centrifugal cleaner process stream.  The "fines" de-
tract slightly from the strength properties of the resultant
sheet, but do add to the sheet weight and thickness.  The
rundown screen efficiency for fines removal is 37.9%.

5.5  SUMMARY OF POWER USAGE

During the course of our study, the kilowatt hour consumption
was recorded for the hydrapulper, the Fiber Recovery System,
and the total plant.  The D & I and plant usage was determined
by subtracting the kilowatt hours consumed by the hydrapulper
in the Fiber Recovery System from the total plant usage.  Power
data was also obtained for the glass plant but these values
were backed out of the data on the following table.  Thus, this
table represents data for the Franklin plant without the glass
plant.

                  POWER USAGE BY SYSTEM

      SYSTEM         AV. K.W. HR/WK.       PERCENT OF TOTAL

1.  Total Plant       28,100                100%

2.  Pulping &
     Separation        5,420                 19.3%

3.  Fiber Recovery     1,410                  5.0%

4.  Dewatering &
     Incineration &
     Plant Usage      21,300                 75.7%

In looking at the average kilowatt hours per week and the per-
cent of the total kilowatt hours/week, it can be seen that the
Fiber Recovery System only accounted for 5% of the kilowatt
hours used.  This can be explained in that the Fiber Recovery
System only contains 25% of the connected horsepower used in
the entire plant and by the fact that the Fiber Recovery System
did not operate to the extent that the P & S and D & I sub-
system operated.  The hydrapulper consumed 19.3% of the total
kilowatt hours used in the plant and it represents 18.6% of
the connected horsepower on the plant, so this indicates a
fairly close correlation between the percent of power used for
                            71

-------
the percent of connected horsepower.  The amounts of power
used in the entire plant as well as the percentages can be
seen more easily by looking at the pie diagram in Figure 24
as well as the power consumption graphs for the total kilowatt
hours, kilowatt hours hydrapulper and kilowatt hours Fiber
Recovery System.  The tabular data used to plot these figures
and obtain percentages of power in the entire plant is in-
cluded in the Appendix of the report.

Table 6 lists the major electrically operated equipment by
system.  It also includes all the major power users by sub-
system.  The total connected horsepower in the plant is 1,617
horsepower.  This is composed of 374 horsepower in the P & S
subsystem, 838 horsepower in the D & I subsystem and 405
horsepower in the Fiber Recovery System.  This represents 23.1,
1.8, and 25% of the horsepower used per system respectively.
The major power user in the P & S subsystem is the hydrapulper.
This accounts for 85% of the horsepower in that subsystem.
The major horsepower requirement in the D & I subsystem is from
the fluidizing air blower serving the reactor.  This repre-
sents 59.7% of the horsepower used in the D & I subsystem or
31% of connected horsepower in the entire plant.

The kilowatt hours per ton used in processing the refuse can
be summarized as follows.  The average kilowatt hour per ton
used by the hydrapulper is 32.5.  The average kilowatt per ton
input to the Fiber Recovery System is 21.9 kilowatt hours per
ton.  If the total plant power usages is considered on the
basis of a ton input, its value has been determined to be an
average of 157 kilowatt hours/ton of refuse which is the input
to the P & S subsystem.  This figure would not include the un-
processable material which is landfilled.

5.6  SUMMARY OF WATER USAGE

There are three types of water used in the Franklin Solid
Waste Plant.  These are: Whitewater which is used for pulping
and transporting refuse materials; process water which is the
chlorinated final effluent of the Miami Conservancy Regional
Wastewater Treatment Plant, and City water, which is the
potable water supply for the City of Franklin.

The Whitewater is used to provide pulping and transport media
for the refuse and for dilution of the cyclone process stream
to achieve easier processing in the Fiber Recovery System.

Process water is used for elutriation water in the cyclones
and centrifugal cleaners and for other clean water uses in
the plant.
                            72

-------
      Pulping & Separation

              and
   Dewatering &
          Incineration
This Figure represents the actual electrical power usage
for a nine months period.
The Total Average K.W. Hour/Week = 28,100 kwh.
     FIGURE 24 - POWER USAGE IN THE FRANKLIN PLANT
                           73

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                         Table 6 -

       MAJOR ELECTRICALLY OPERATED EQUIPMENT BY SYSTEM

P&S SUBSYSTEM (23.1%)

Conveyor                               10 HP
Hydrapulper                           301 HP
Junk Remober                           10 HP
Hydrapulper Dump Pump                  30 HP
Junk Washer                             1 HP
Magnetic Separator                      5 HP
Cyclone Recycle Pump                   15 HP
Dewatering Screw                        2 HP
TOTAL                                 374 HP

D & I SUBSYSTEM (51.8%
Surge Chest Agitator                   50 HP
Surge Chest Pump                       25 HP
Barrel Thickeners                      45 HP
Screw Conveyor                          3 HP
Whitewater Sump Pump                   15 HP
Sludge Chest Agitator                  20 HP
Sludge Pump                            15 HP
Cone Press                             80 HP
Sewage Sump Pump                       15 HP
Screw Conveyor                          3 HP
Rotary Valve                            2 HP
Pneumatic Feed                         50 HP
Reactor Blower                        500 HP
Ash Pump                               15 HP
TOTAL                                 838 HP
FIBER RECOVERY SYSTEM (25.0%)
Selectifier Dilution Tank Agitator     10 HP
Selectifier Dilution Tank Pump         40 HP
Selectifier                           150 HP
Cleaners Supply Pump                   75 HP
Rejects Tank Pump                      25 HP
Stock Sump Pump                        15 HP
Whitewater Sump Pump                   25 HP
Screw Thickener                        10 HP
Cone Press                             20 HP
Fibre Dilution Tank Agitation           5 HP
Fibre Pumps to Logan Long              30 HP
TOTAL                                 405 HP

TOTAL PLANT                         1,617 HP
                               74

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The city water is used in the venturi scrubber serving
the fluidized bed reactor.

The areas of water usage in the plant are outlined on Figure
25.  This figure shows an area layout of the Franklin Solid
Haste Plant.

5.6.1  Whitewater Usage

Whitewater is added to the P & S subsystem by addition to the
hydrapulper to make a refuse slurry.  The Whitewater added to
the pulper is done at two places.  First, Whitewater is added
to the junk remover so that a countercurrent flow is es-
tablished, washing materials ejected from the pulper.  Second-
ly, cyclone recycle water is added via a 4" hose directly in-
to the hydrapulper.

Whitewater is used in the Fiber Recovery System as dilution
water in the selectifier dilution tank.  These are the only
two areas where Whitewater is used.  The Whitewater is re-
covered from the refuse and recovered fiber slurries in the
dewatering phase of the Rydrasposal and Fiber Recovery Systems.
Whitewater is also recovered from the rundown screens in the
Fiber Recovery System although a considerable portion of this
reject stream is pumped to the Miami Conservancy District for
treatment.

The quantities of Whitewater used in the Franklin Plant are
plotted on Figure 26.  The volume of Whitewater used in both
Hydrasposal and Fiber Recovery Systems are dependent upon the
quantity of material processed and the moisture content of the
input tonnage.  The Whitewater distribution in the plant is
given as follows:

                           Ave. Gal/wk.       Percent of Total

Total Whitewater Usage      926,000                100%
Pulping & Separation        815,000                 88%

Fiber Recovery System       111,000                 12%

The quantities of Whitewater used/ton of input material are
presented in Figures 27 and 21 for the Hydrasposal and Fiber
Recovery Systems respectively.  The amount of Whitewater used/
ton of input averages 4,891 and 1,580 gal/ton for the Hydra-
sposal and Fiber Recovery Systems respectively.

5.6.2  Process Water Usage

Process water is used in the P & S subsystem for elutriation
water in the cyclone and also to cool the oil supply for the
hydrapulper motor.
                             75

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                         HYDRASPOSAL SYSTEM
   (REFUSE)
    SCALE
TIPPING FLOOR
  CONVEYOR
      PULPING & SEPARATION SUBSYSTEM
     WHITEWATER
                                     METAL
                                  SEPARATOR
                                                            MAGS
              NON
MAGS
                                     TO SELECTIFIER OIL. TANK
                                     OR SURGE CHEST
                                   CYCLONE
   WHITEWATER
                   PROCESS WATER
                                      GRIT TO LANDFILL
PROCESS
 WATER
DEWATERING & INCINERATION SUBSYSTEM
         CONE

        PRESS
            SCREW

          THICKENER
SURGE

CHEST
                   FLUIDIZED
                      BED
                  INCINERATOR
                              SCRUBBER
                                               f
                                          CITY WATER
                                 76

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          LANDFILL
Magnetics
Non-Mags.
            FIBER
          RECOVERY
           REJECTS
                                         FIBER RECOVERY SYSTEM
                            WHITEWATER
                            PROCESS  WATER
i
                            SELECTIFIER
                             DILUTION
                               TANK
              SELECTIFIER
CENTRIFUGAL
 CLEANERS
CONE
PRESS



HYDRADENSER

                                                                RUNDOWN
                                                                 SCREEN
                               FIBER
                             DILUTION
                               TANK
                PROCESS WATER
                                                  LOGAN  LONG PAPER COMPANY
           TO ATMOSPHERE
                     FIGURE 25 - POINTS OF WHITEWATER AND
                                 PROCESS WATER USAGE IN THE
                                 FRANKLIN PLANT
                                        77

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           Pulping and Separation
                   88.0%
                                               \
                                   Fiber
                                   Recovery 12.0
This Figure represents the actual Whitewater usage in a
six months total.

The Total Average Gallons of Whitewater per week = 926,000
gallons.
  FIGURE 26 - WHITEWATER USAGE IN THE FRANKLIN PLANT
                           78

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c
o
EH
0)
P
H
(0
c
o
8000



7000



6000



5000


4000



3000



2000
P & S Subsystem
Average Weekly Values
                        10     14     18

                           Time - Weeks
            22
                                              26
30
        FIGURE 27 _ WHITEWATER USAGE PER TON OF REFUSE INPUT

                    TO THE P & S SUBSYSTEM
                              79

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The process water is used in the Fiber Recovery System as
elutriation water in the centrifugal cleaners and for the
sprays on the rundown screen.  Process water is also used to
dilute the recovered fiber before it is pumped to the Logan
Long Company.

A negligible amount of process water is used in the D & I
subsystem to wash the screen on the cone press.  This flow
averages 2 gpm which is not significant in the water balance.

The quantities of process water used in the Hydrasposal and
Fiber Recovery Systems are presented in Figures 28 and 22.
The volumes of process water used in each system is directly
dependent on the operating time for that system and the water
pressure available from the process water pump.  The process
water usage in the plant is given as follows:

                           Ave. Gal/Wk.        Percent of Total

Total Process Water Usage     405,100                100%

P & S                         269,200                 66.4%

Fiber Recovery System         125,000                 30.8%

Plant Usage                    10,900                  2.7%

The quantity given for plant usage consists primarily of the
amount required for cleaning the plant.

The quantities of process water used/ton of input material are
Presented in Figures 22 and 20 for the Hydrasposal and Fiber
Recovery Systems.  The amount of process water used/ton of
input averages 1,633 and 1,604 gal/ton respectively.

5.6.3  City Water Usage

City water is used only in the D & I subsystem as makeup water
for the venturi scrubber.  Potable water is not required for
scrubber operation but it is used because there is no cost for
this water supply.  The amount of city water used in the scrubber
averaged 2,557 gal/ton input to the D & I subsustern.  This data
is depicted in Figure 30.

5.7  MAINTENANCE HISTORY DATA

It should be noted that the Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber
Recovery Plant is a large pilot operation and represents the
first plant of its kind in the world.  As such, many equipment
modifications and changes would be incorporated in future plant
designs.  The Franklin Solid Waste Plant, although a pilot
operation, has been able to continuously process refuse with-
out interruption.
                             80

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00
                 o
                 rH


                 X
                 (U
                 4-1
                 M
                 (0
                 (U
                 (0
                 c
                 o
                 -u
                 O
40



35



30



25



20


15



10
                                       10     14      18     22
                                                 Time - Weeks
                                              26
 TOTAL

     GALLONS


 PROCESS H20

     PER TON
30
34
         2500



         2000


         1500



         1000



          500
38
                                                                                                 O
         O
         3
         ui
                       o
                       n
                       (0
                       CO
                       VI
                                                                                                 rt
                                                                                                 fl>
                                                                                                 n
                       o
                       3
                   FIGURE 28  -  PROCESS WATER PER TON REFUSE  INPUT TO P&S SUBSYSTEM

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                             Fiber Recovery

                                   31%
     Pulping & Separation
           Subsystem

             66%
                             Glass Plant and
                                 lant Maintenanc
This Figure represents actual process water usage for
a 23 week period.

The total gallons of process water/week = 391,000 Gallons
  FIGURE  29  - PROCESS WATER USAGE IN THE FRANKLIN PLANT
                           82

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   4500

   4000
e
  3500
\
5  3000

*  2500
H
<->  2000
CO
C
0
   1500

   1000

    500
             Data
              Not
           Recorded
                                   Average Weekly Values
                       10    14    18
                         Time - Weeks
                                           22
26
30
        FIGURE 30 - CITY WATER USAGE PER TON INPUT TO THE
                    D&I SUBSYSTEM
                              83

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The maintenance history for the Franklin Solid Waste Plant is
included in the Table 7.  The items on this table are arranged
in a general flow pattern.  The table is arranged by subsystem
or system.  The repair item is listed on the left, the frequency
of occurance, and then the average hours required for repair of
that item.

5.7.1  Hydrapulper Maintenance

Problems most often associated with the operation of the hydra-
pulper are the failure of the stator attaching bolt and the
hammer retaining bolts.  The rotor is located in the center of
the pulper and turns rotating the hammers.  The hammers beat
against the stator chopping up the refuse.  Both the stator and
the hammers are involved in pulping the refuse.  As a result
these parts require more maintenance than other parts within
the pulper.

                        TABLE 7

    MAINTENANCE HISTORY FOR FRANKLIN SOLID WASTE PLANT

           January 1, 1975 to September 31, 1975

List Maintenance                               Estimated.
Repair Work	              Frequency        Repair Time in hrs.

PULPING & SEPARATION

General Pulper Maintenance       4                      3.5
Pulper Stator Bolt              10                      2
Pulper Motor Bearings            1                  2 to 3 days*
Pulper Rotor                     5                      1.0
Plugging of Whitewater line
 to Pulper                       8                      1.5
Dump Pump                        5                      4.5
Junk Remover Cleaning           10                      1.75
Repair of Junk Remover Bucket    6                      1.0
Junk Washer                      1
Conveyor carrying Junk Remover   1
P.S.
Cyclone Plugging & Replacement
 of Cyclone Lining              15                       .75
Plugging of Process Water        2                       .5
Line to Cyclone
Cyclone Recycle Pump             1
Cyclone rejects dewatering       3                      1.75
Screw Jammed
Solid Waste Sump Pump #122       1
*scheduled maintenance downtime


                             84

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                         TABLE  7  (continued)
List Maintenance
Repair Work	
Frequency-
Estimated
Repair Time in hrs.
DEWATERING & INCINERATION

Brushes on the screw thickener
 motor                           1
Thickener basket shearing
 bolt                            1
Rotary Valve                     2
Clogging of sludge line          3
Press Motor                      1
Pneumatic Blower Motor           1

FIBER RECOVERY

Replacement of Whitewater
H20 Valve at Selectifier
Dilution Tank                    1
Selectifier Basket               1
Plugging of Selectifier reject
 line                            1
Cleaners Feed Pump               1
Brushes on the screw thickener   1
 motor
Recovered Fiber Pump             1
Whitewater Pump                  1
                        8
          .5

          .75
          I
          .5
                         .5
                        4

                         .3


                        2.5
At least twice a month it was necessary to do general maintenance
work on the pulper.  This involved cleaning the pulper by re-
moving unwanted tires, wires, and other unpulpable balls which
are formed by the action of the pulper.  These materials are
removed from the pulper by means of an overhead crane: and land-
filled.

The dump pump removes the refuse slurry from the base plate of
the pulper and pumps it to the cyclone.  Due to the abrasive
nature of this slurry, the impeller on the dump pump is worn
out quickly and needs to be replaced often.  Another problem
which has occasionally occured with the operation of this pump
is blockage due to quantities of fiber and rags and plastics.
These materials attach themselves to the impeller of the dump
pump and reduce the flow to the cyclone.  As a result of this,
the cyclone does not operate efficiently.

The cyclone has been observed to plug frequently.  This results
from a piece of wire or a metal strip clogging the grit dis-
charge portion of the cyclone.  The second problem associated
with the cyclone is the high wear which occurs due to the
                             85

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abrasive character of the glass being removed by the cyclone.
This results in the wearing out and tearing of the rubber
lining in the cyclone.  This causes inefficient operation of
the cyclone and as a result the rejects contain a high fiber
content and too much grit is contained in the cyclone process
stream.  This liner problem is close to solution and is mainly
a materials problem.  One problem with the transport of the
cyclone rejects to the glass plant is the overflow of the de-
watering screw carrying this material.  This screw was not de-
signed to handle the flow from the present cyclone.  It has
been replaced since the end of the study period with improved
results.

The junk remover frequently jams.  This is due to the spillage
of material off the bucket which accumulates and stops its
operation.  Additional damage is caused to the system when the
blockage shears off buckets from the chain. A second problem
with the junk remover is the accumulation of mud and other
settable materials in the bottom of the junk remover even with
the existing countercurrent flow of Whitewater in the junk re-
mover.

5.7.2  The Dewatering and Incineration Subsystem

The rotary valve feeds the cone press process stream into the
pneumatic line which carries this material to the reactor.
Blockages occur in the feed chute to the rotary valve as a
result of the air passing up through the feed chute. Plastics
have been blown out on the floor, and because of this the screw
conveyor connecting the cone press and the pneumatic feeder has
been covered.

Clogging of the sludge line occurred several times during the
study.  This is the result of a failure of the agitator in the
sludge chest.  This agitator was extremely difficult to repair
because the sludge chest had to be emptied before making re-
pairs.  Emptying of the sludge chest was difficult because of
the thick nature of the material at the bottom of the chest.

5.7.3  The Fiber Recovery System

One problem which occurred in this system during the course
of our study was the failure of the selectifier basket.  When
this failure occurred all of the subsequent process streams in
the Fiber Recovery System became contaminated as did the hold-
ing tank and the Logan Long Company.  This required four hours
to repair and only occurred once during the course of the study.
                              86

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5.8  RECOVERED MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION

The major recovered products at the Franklin Resource Re-
covery Center are magnetic metals, aluminum, glass, and fiber.
The discussion which follows includes product marketability,
identification, and utilization, of magnetic metal and fiber.

Marketability of these recovered resources is highly variable
depending upon quality and market supply and demand.  An allied
factor modifying marketability is the cost competition of virgin
raw material resources which these recovered resource products
are supplanting.  As the virgin raw materials increase in cost,
the recovered resources will gain inroads in these markets.
The current economic situation has caused dramatic downward
changes in demand and product prices, during the past six
months.  The data compiled for product prices and demand is
based on values obtained largely during the summer months of
1974, which vary widely from the current volatile conditions.
Overall, prices and demand for recovered products are very low
at this writing.  In the following sections identification,
marketability and uses for each recovered product are dis-
cussed in detail.

5.8.1  Ferrous

The magnetics recovery stream of the Franklin Plant consists
primarily of steel cans with smaller fractions consisting of
steel wire, bottle tops, bars, sheets, small household ap-
pliances, and miscellaneous castings.

Categorization of the input stream of the Franklin Plant has
shown that it consists of 9.8% of by weight of magnetic metals.
The junk remover and magnetic separator collect 9.6% of the
input by weight, and 95.8% of this reject stream is magnetic.
Therefore, of all available magnetics contained in the input
refuse, 93.8% of these are recovered.

A breakdown of the major categories in the magnetic recovery
fraction follows on a percent-by-weight of recovered pro-
ducts basis:

                   MAGNETIC MATERIALS

Tin Cans                             65.0%
Bottle & Jar Caps                     2.1%
Metal ends from Paper and
 Metal Cans                           0.4%
Miscellaneous Ferrous                19.2%
Metal Cans with Aluminum Tops        11.4%
Organic Contaminants                  1.6%
Nonmagnetic Metals                    0.2%
                             87

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Physical testing of the magnetic materials presented above
shows that the recovery stream contains the following:

     Moisture                        3.9%
     Volatile Solids                 1.51%
     Magnetic Materials             95.8%

Magnetic recovery is accomplished by a magnetic belt position-
ed above the stream carrying the mixed junks.  The product re-
covered has a high percent of impurities.  It is normally bi-
metallic and impurities in this context are tin, copper, zinc,
aluminum, chrome, steels, solder material and coated steel.
There is no special classification for this type of iron scrap.
Generally, it may be classified as a secondary grade scrap.

Marketability for this scrap grade is variable because of the
indefinite classification.  Currently, the recovered magnetics
are sold on the basis of prorated price for No. 2 bundles,
though not classified as No. 2 bundles.

The price for this scrap varies from $13 to $25 per ton when
demand is high.   This grade of scrap is normally the least
desirable of all other available scrap.

Armco Steel Company of Middletown, Ohio, was buying this scrap
iron for a price of $15 per ton in the early stages of the
Franklin Plant's operation.  This scrap was added to and melted
with scrap from other sources.  Later the GiHerman Iron and
Metal Company of St. Louis, MO., began purchasing the scrap
for use in its foundries and steel mills.

Because this scrap is high in tin content, it is not steel-
making-grade scrap.  It can be used in producing reinforcing
bars for construction, and to a limited extent, for structural
steel.  The uses of this scrap are limited because of the
impurities.  It is used in a small fraction of everything pro-
duced in a foundry or steel mill.  Conventional furnaces are
normally used for melting this material.  Removal of impurities
would upgrade the product enduse.

5.8.2  Fiber

The Fiber Recovery System of the Franklin Plant was originally
designed as an add-on capability for processing, rather than
incinerating, the cyclone process stream.  The fibrous fraction
of the process stream is currently used by the Logan Long
Company in the manufacture of asphalt saturated papers.  The
proximity of the plant and nature of the slurry allow ready
transpost via pipeline to the Logan Long Company.  The Logan
Long Company's normal stock consists of 45% mixed paper, 30%
corrugated paper, and 25% newspaper and wood stock.  The
properties needed in a fiber used for making roofing felt are
tensile strength, and absorptivity for kerosene.  The corrugated
                             88

-------
 component  adds  tensile  strength; newspaper   adds  absorptivity.
 The recovered paper  fiber of  the Franklin Plant has proven  to
 be a direct  substitute  for  the normal paper  stock used by the
 Logan Long Company.

 Marketing  the recovered fiber in this instance proved for-
 tunate  for both the  Franklin  Plant and the Logan  Long Company.
 Other markets exist  for the fiber as-produced, and within
 narrow  ranges withstanding major equipment modifications, the
 recovered  fiber stream  characteristics can be varied.  The
 output  of  the Recovery  System is presently "optimized" for
 Logan Long's requirements.  The recovery efficiency of the
 Fiber Recovery  System is 48.9% of the available fiber in the
 input.

 The recovered fiber  was examined for bacterial contamination
 and other  physical parameters.  The following data were collect-
 ed:
1.  Oil and Grease                   2460 mg/1

2.  Total Plate Count                427 x 106/ml
3.  Fecal Coliform                   1.3 x 106/100 ml

4.  After Dilution in
     Fiber Chest                     Total Solids 3.94%

                                     Moisture  96.1%

5.9  MATERIAL BALANCE OF THE FRANKLIN SOLID WASTE PLANT

During the first six months of our study, mass balances were
maintained on a daily basis for the entire plant as well as
the systems within it.  These data were averaged over this time
period and are presented in Figure 31 as a material balance
diagram.  These data represent the actual operating data for
this time period.

The average weekly operating time for the P & S Subsystem was
24.2 hours.  During the same period the operating time for the
Fiber Recovery System averaged 16.1 hours.  This difference in
operating times indicate that the Fiber Recovery System was not
operating on a full time basis.  The down time in the Fiber
Recovery System was largely due to the inability of the customer
to receive the recovered fiber.  As a result of the down time
in the Fiber Recovery System this material balance diagram does
not represent the optimum operation of the Franklin Solid Waste
Plant.  Optimum operation would entail Fiber Recovery operating
on a one to one basis with P & S subsystem.  This would elimin-
ate the cyclone process stream being diverted to the D & I
subsystem for disposal.  This change would have an effect on the
                             89

-------
vo
o
                  H-
                  vQ
                  C
                  n
               O  (D
               ft
               tr
               (D
               PI  ft
               y  n>
p.  01
3  H

TJ  CO
               ft 3
                I  O
               >-3 (D
               O
               ft O
               pj  H.
               H D
                  vQ
                  h
F
PROCESS WATER TO CYCLONE - IcK
RECYCLED TO HYORAPULPER
. . TONS
CYCLONE REJECT STR
' 186
MAGNETIC JUNK
MB TONS*
CITY
(GRIT) ,
TONS
IBI.800 GAL
WATER
NON- MAGNETIC JUNK
77 TONS A SLUDGE
UNPROCESSABLE JUNK DIREC
~T

CYCLONE. PROCESS. STR .,
IEFWX  MYOPASPOSAI A JOBS. TONS
I TON! (WETI * /HYORAPULPER\
J4500 GAL. , I SYSTEM )
_LSS_TONS* N '
f\f
OPERATION TIME 24 2 MRS
CYCLONE Rl
_L8_TONS
LY TO SURGE CHEST^
186 TONS
THICKENED
J9JLTONS
PROCESS I20JDOO GAL
WATER .! 	 TONS'
N 81,000 GAL
_5i_ TONS'
LOST WHEN USING
FIBERCLAIM TO THICK!
GLASS RECOVERY
SYSTEM
OPERATION TIME MDS


HYORASPOSAL B
(REACTOR SYSTEM)
OPERATION TIME l6* HRS
t '
333 TONS

FIBER RECOVERY
SYSTEM
OPERATION TIME >& ' MRS
N 36 TONS
FINE REJECTS
:JECTS OVERFLOW 2'2 TONS

WHITE WATER TO 81,000 GAL
FIBER RECOVERY 34 TQNS
WHITE WATER TO HYDRAPULPER I0IO.OOO GAL
34 Z TOM*
WHITE WATER TO MCD 2520OO GAL
I J03_TONS
\ \ ' V
WHITE WATER
SYSTEM
	  GREEN GLASS TONS




AJrt 
-------
 amount of  recovered  fiber  as well  as  the  operation  of  the
 D  &  I subsystem.  Operation of  the Fiber  Recovery System full
 time would mean  that all the input to the D  &  I  subsystem
 would be as  rejects  from the Fiber Recovery  Process.

 The  operation  in  the glass plant was  intermittant during
 this period  and  it could be safely said that when it did
 operate it was not operating under optimum conditions.   As
 a  result,  the  limited data collected  for  the glass  plant was
 omitted.

 From Figure  31, representing average  operating conditions,  it
 can  be seen  that  7.5% of the dry weight tonnage  input  to the
 Franklin Plant is unprocessable material  removed on the  tipping
 floor.  An additional 15.7% of  the input  refuse  is  removed  by
 the  junk remover.  Of this, 60% is recovered as  magnetic materials
 (9.5% of input refuse).  The liquid cyclone  removes 15.2% of
 the  input  tonnage and directs it to the glass  plant the  re-
 maining of the input refuse is  directed to the Fiber Recovery
 System when  it is operating.

 It should  be noted that a  high percentage  (8.3%) of the  input
 refuse is  contained  in the Whitewater which  flows to the Miami
 Conservancy  District Regional Wastewater Treatment  Plant and
 received biological  treatment the  useable  fiber  which  is re-
 covered and  pumped to the  Logan Long Company represents  12.6%
 of the input refuse.  Of this 11.0% is suspended fiber material.
Approximately 40.8%  of the input refuse is disposed of in the
 reactor.

 The  second material  balance diagram(Figure 32)indicates  the
breakdown  of the refuse using a one ton wet  weight  input.   Since
 the material is on a wet weight basis and  our  moisture content
was  29.4%, the actual dry weight input to  the  P  & S subsystem
was  .706 tons.  This diagram represents optimum  operation of
 the plant  in that none of  the cyclone process  stream is  direct-
 ly disposed of in the D &  I subsystem.

The  same percentages  of material are recovered in the P  & S
magnetic junk and the same percentages of material  are found in
the non-magnetic junk and unprocessable material in the  input
to the system.  The  only real change which comes with the optimum
operation of the plant is the operation of the Fiber Recovery
System.   It should be noted that the optimum operation of the
plant affects the following differences:

     1.   Increased fiber yield is obtained

     2.   The amount of Whitewater treated in the wastewater
         treatment plant is increased

     3.   The input to the D & I Subsystem is reduced,  and thus
         the reactor operation time, and quantities of city
         water, and ash slurry are reduced.


                             91

-------
\o
to
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Hi  H-

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0>  (D

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 (U
                ro

                 I
             H- PJ
 M h
 M H-
 PJ  0)
 3  -
 rt
 I  td
 O Di
 3  M
 (D  D)
    3
 4 O
 o  ro
 3
    O
 H H-
 3  01
'OiQ
 C  K
 ft ft
                                                          RECYCLED TO HYDRAPULPER
                                                                         .TONS
                                                                               CYCLONE REJECT STR (GRIT)
                                                          MAGNETIC JUNK
                                                       _,2fifl_TONS i i
                                             NON- MAGNETIC JUNK
                                               .044 TONS
                        UNPROCESSABLE JUNK
                            _flS2TONS
JQ&.TONS (DRY)'
_LQ_TONS (WET)*


     546 CAL
                                         JONT
                                                                                            J22_ TONS
                                                                                              CITY
                                                                                                                          GLASS RECOVERY

                                                                                                                              SYSTEM
                                                                                                                        RATION TIME
                                                                                                                                     - FLINT	TONS


                                                                                                                                     	 GREEN CiaSS     TOH9



                                                                                                                                     	AMBER GLASS	TONS


                                                                                                                                     	 ALUMINUM	TONS


                                                                                                                                     	 MAGNETIC METAL	TONS
                                                                                                                                                    LANOFILLEOJOZTONS
                                                                                 WATCR


                                                                                     SLUDGE
                                                                                                        TONS
                                         HYORASPOSAL  A

                                         /HYDRAPULPER\

                                         \   SYSTEM  J
                                                        8 mm 17 I

                                                 OPERATION TIME
                                                             DIRECTLY TO SURGE CHEST.,

                                                                     Q  TONS
                                                                                                     THICKENED
                                                                            CYCLONE PROCESS STR
                                                                                JSSTONS
                                                                                         HYORASPOSAL B

                                                                                        (REACTOR SYSTEM)
                                                                                                               9 irin 27 nc

                                                                                                        OPERATION TIME JI9
                                                                                                             .TONS
                                                                                                    PROCESS 009 C41

                                                                                                    WATER .3SI_TONSH
                                                                                                                                               ASH SLURRY
                                                                                                                                               TO MCO
                                                                                                                                              FINE REJECTS
                                                                                                                                                               .OO77  TONS
                                                                                                                                  SSi-fOHS
                                                                                                                                 RBER RECOVERY RESULTS
                                                                                          FIBER RECOVERY

                                                                                             SYSTEM




                                                                                            8mlnl7ic

                                                                                        RATION TIME  IM    HRS
                                                                                                  LOST  WHEN USING
                                                                                                  FIBERCLAIM TO THICKEN
                                                                                        CYCLONE REJECTS OVERFLOW
                                                                                              94*   TONS
                                                                                  WHITE WATER TO
                                                                                                        936  GAL
                                                                                  FIBER RECOVERY
                                                                                                     2222. TONS
                                                              WHITE WATER TO HYPRAPULPER
                                                                     WHITE WATER TO MCO
                                                                                              _JSfi.TONS

                                                                                                   2539 CAL
                                                                                                    059
                                                                                                       TONS
                                                                                                                                 FINE REJECTS
                                                                                                                                  189 TONS
                                                                                                                                                           RECOVERED FIBER
                                                                                                                                                              _J3_ TONS TOTAL

                                                                                                                                                              J2L_ TONS FIBER
                                                                                                              WHITE WATER

                                                                                                                 SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                                        ALL WEIGHTS ARE OVEN DRY BASS

                                                                                                                                                          EXCEPT THE REFUSE TONS (WET)

                                                                                                                                                          WHICH IS ON AS RECEIVED BASIS

-------
As is evident from this diagram the Fluid Bed Reactor only
operates 65% of the operating time of the other two systems.
This is because of: 1) the recovery and disposal of materials
which do not require input to the reactor and 2) the higher
dewatering and incineration capacity of the D & I subsystem.

5.10  HEAT AND ASH CONTENT DATA

The heat values of the recovered products and individual
streams within the Franklin Plant are of interest from the
standpoint of using these materials as a possible fuel source
and in determining a heat balance within the plant.  For this
reason the heat contents of individual streams have been de-
termined using standard bomb calorimetry techniques.  The heat
contents are reported on both an oven dry basis and a wet basis.
All reported heat contents are the "higher heating values" or
gross heats of combustion because the heat from condensation
of the water vapor resulting from the combustion of hydrogen
in the samples is included.  The following table presents
average heat contents for the streams listed.  The ash and
moisture contents are included for comparison.

                         Heat Content  Heat Content  Ash *
                Moisture  Dry Basis     Wet Basis    Content
Process Stream     %      BTU/#	   BTU/#	    %
Surge Chest P.S.
Sludge
Cyclone P.S.
Cyclone R.S.
Fiber Recovery
Press P.S.
97.3
91.4
97.0
11.1
59.1
7383
7636
7221
417
7187
D & I Press
  Process Stream
51.8
8600
- 807

- 241

- 785

252.7


+2337


+ 3600
22.3

44.7

23.4

93.6


10.2


24.5
The D & I Press Process Stream has a relatively high heat value.
This is due to a lower moisture content and thus a lower con-
centration of dissolved (noncombustible) salts,

The laboratory procedure used in determining the ash content
listed in the above table was the procedure outlined in the
"Thirteenth Edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of
Water-and Wastewater."  This procedure specifies test conditions
of 550 C for a time period long enough to obtain a constant
weight.  This procedure is not universally followed for ash
determinations of fuels.  As a result of the absence of a uniform
test procedure the above values could appear to be high for
processed solid waste due to variations in test methods.
*The ash content data is given on a dry weight basis.

                             93

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Analysis were conducted to determine the variation in ash
contents with variation in test condition the following re-
sults were obtained by analysis of the same sample of cone
press process stream at different test conditions.

     SAMPLE       TEMPERATURE     TIME     % ASH

       1             600C        20 min   18.1%

       2             800C        30 min   14.5%

       3             950C        45 min   10.8%

It is obvious from these results that a decrease in ash con-
tent occurs with increasing temp and time of heating.  This
table offers an explanation of apparent variations in ash
contents which have been reported by other investigators.
Figure 33 represents a heat balance for the Franklin Solid
Waste Plant.  This figure will give rough idea as to the
distribution of total heat value within the plant.  Assuming
that the unprocessable junk and the junk remover rejects have
no significant heating value then the heat content of the input
refuse can be calculated from the sum of the heat values given
for the cyclone process stream and the input refuse based on
these values the heat content of the input refuse is 9,022,000
BTU/Ton or 4,5111 BTU/#.  The outputs from the P & S subsystem,
the cyclone rejects and the cyclone process stream, contain
126,768 BTU/T processed and 8,896,000 BTU/T processed respec-
tively.  The cyclone rejects contains only 1.5% of the heat
content of the input refuse.  This low heat value is to be
expected because the purpose of this unit operation is to re-
move inert materials.  Indeed this verifies that most of the
material in this stream is inert matter and not combustible
material.  The total amount of material realistically available
for energy use is contained in the cyclone process stream.
On a practical basis, the cyclone rejects would not be used as
a source of heat because of their low heat value and high ash
contant.

If the Fiber Recovery System is operating, the amount of fiber
recovered per ton of refuse input is .195 tons.  This recovered
fiber has a BTU content of 7200 BTU/lb which is equivalent to
a heat output of 2,830,000 BTU/T processed.  If the Fiber
Recovery System operates the total BTU input to the D & I sub-
system is 6,314,000 BTU/T processed.  In the operation of the
Fiber Recovery System approximately 31% of the available heat
energy is removed in the recovered fiber.  It should be rioted
that 0.083 tons or 8.3% of the input tonnage to the system has
contained in the Whitewater flows to the Miami Conservancy
Treatment Plant.  The BTU lost in these 0.083 tons per ton
processed is approximately 714,000 BTU/T processed.
                             94

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                 Unprocessable Junk
                      .075 Tons
  Input Refuse

    1.0 Ton
u>
in
  P & S

Subsystem
                                            Junk Remover Rejects **.158 Tons
Cyclone 417 BTU/#
Rejects .152 Tons
Total BTU - 126,768
            Wastewater
          Treatment Plant
             .083  Tons
         Assume 4300 BTU/#
                              D &  I Subsystem
          Reactor  Input = 8000  BTU/#
       .35 Tons  =  5,600,000  Total  BTU
                                                       Or
White-
Water
System
^
k
C

j
              Sludge = 7636  BTU/#
                  .0145 Tons
              Total  BTU = 221,000
                                                                  Fiber
                                                                Recovery
                                                                 System
                                          I
                                      Fiber
                                        Recovery
                                          Rejects

                                      Total BTU
                                        6,093,000

                                      BTU/# 7250
                                                       Recovered Fiber
                                                         7187 BTU/#
                                                          .195 Tons
                                                       Total BTU =
                                                             2,803,000
                                                                              42 Tons
    *Dry  Weight  Basis/**Assume  No  Significant  Heating Value

                                FIGURE 33 - HEAT BALANCE DIAGRAM*

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6.0  RESULTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE FRANKLIN

     SOLID WASTE PLANT

6.1  INTRODUCTION

The major impact of the Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber
Recovery Plant is the beneficial effect that it produces
by reducing the land disposal of solid waste stream and a
sewage sludge stream and by the recovery of valuable
resources.  This of course must be weighed against the
environmental impact of the various streams resulting from
the operation of the plant.

The environmental impact of the Franklin Solid Waste and
Fiber Recovery Plant on air quality can best be character-
ized by the evaluation of the gaseous emissions from the
fluidized bed incinerator.  Three tests have been conducted
previously on this unit.  Section 5.2 will discuss these
tests results.

The environmental impact of this plant with respect to
water quality can be best accomplished by characterizing the
influent and effluent flows to the solid waste plant.  There
are two influent flows; 1) the City water which is used in
the operation of the scrubber and 2) the chlorinated effluent
from the Miami Conservancy Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant.
There are three effluent flows from the Solid Waste and Fiber
Recovery Plant.  These are:  1) the ash slurry which is the
scrubber effluent from the venturi scrubber serving the
fluidized bed reactor; 2) Whitewater from the fiber recovery
operation; 3) Whitewater which is the expressed liquid from
the thickener process stream removed in the cone press.

Finally an occupational safety and health evaluation was
conducted with respect to industrial hygiene and noise and
the results are presented in Sections 5.6,5.7, and 5.8.

6.2  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY

The effect on air quality from the Franklin Solid Waste and
Fiber Recovery Plant can be determined by evaluating the
emissions from the fluidized bed incinerator.  Three exhaust
gas emission tests were conducted by Environmental Sciences,
Inc.  The tests were conducted from December 28, 1971, to
January 1, 1972.

Although three tests were conducted, compliance determinations
can be made only on the basis of the last two tests.   This
is because no feed rate to the incinerator was determined in
the first emissions tests, and compliance determinations
are made on the basis of feed rate.  The Federal Standard
                             96

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for particulate matter which applies to new source performance
standards for incincerators states. .. "that no owner or operator
. . . shall discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere
of particulate matter which is in excess of 0.08 grains per
standard cubic foot (0.18 grams/NM^) corrected to 12 percent
C02 maximum two hour average".  The Federal Regulation also
states that, "all performance tests shall be conducted while
the affected facility is operating at or above the maximum
refuse charging rate at which such facility will be operated,
and the solid waste burned shall be representative of normal
operation and under such relevant conditions as the admin-
istrator shall specify".

The Ohio Standards, which are more strict than the Federal
Standards, specify an emission rate of not more than 0.10
pounds particulate emission for every 100 pounds of material
incinerated.  The Environmental Sciences report indicated
a feed rate of 80 pounds per minute or 4800 pounds per hour.
Therefore, the allowable emission rate for the fluidized
bed incinerator is 4.80 pounds per hour.  The calculated
particulate rate from the second and third emissions
tests are 6.90 and 4.70 pounds of particulate per hour.
However, the calculated particulate emission rate which
includes the condensable portion of the particulate matter
is no longer included in the emission rate for compliance
determinations for the Federal or State regulations. Therefore,
the dry particulate rate of 3.31 and 2.75 pounds per hour
should be used for compliance determination.   Based on these
emission rates the emissions from the fluidized bed incinerator
do comply with current Ohio Air Pollution control regulations.

For comparison with the Federal Standards, the particulate
emission rate is given in concentration values corrected to
12 percent CO,,  According to the Environmental Sciences
data the percent by volume of 2 on test 2 and 3 averaged
8.5% on a dry gas basis.  This value is used to correct to
12 percent CX^.  The correction is as follows:
The particulate concentration at 12 percent C02 =

         (0.043 GR/SDCF) (12% CO0)   =    .0607 GR/SDCF
                      8.5% C02

Since the particulate emission rate of .0607 grains per
standard dry cubic foot is less than 0.08 grains per standard
cubic foot the emissions from the fluidized bed incinerator
appear to meet the new source performance standards for
incinerators.

Although the emissions from the incinerator appear to meet
                            97

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all applicable standards, it should be noted that the tests
were not conducted at maximum rated capacity of the in-
cinerator and the test methods outlined both in the Federal
Register and the Ohio Air Pollution Control codes were not
followed in obtaining the sample.  Specifically, both
Federal and State regulations require the test to be conducted
at the maximum burning rate of the incinerator.  These tests
were conducted at the normal operating rate of the incinerator.
Also, both Federal and State stationary source testing procedures
for particulate matter on circular ducts specify that two sample
ports shall be used.  Only one sample port was used downstream
from the venturi scrubber.  This would not correspond to either
Federal or State regulations.  The isokinetic ratios for the
samples collected on test number 2 and 3 on the outlet to the
venturi scrubber are within acceptable present day standards
that the compliance with existing standards would be achieved
on the emission rate.

6.3  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON WATER QUALITY

The impact on water quality can be assessed by evaluating
the influent and effluent flows from the solid waste plant.
Liquid inputs to the solid waste plant consist mainly of
process water and city water.  The process water is obtained
from the chlorinated final effluent of the Miami Conservancy
Wastewater Treatment Plant.  City water is obtained from the
municipal water supply for the City of Franklin.  A third
input is the moisture contained in the input refuse and
sewage sludge.

There are three outputs from the solid waste plant which
flow to the adjacent sewage treatment plant, and one liquid
output (with recovered fiber) that is pumped to the Logan
Long Company.  The streams to the wastewater treatment plant
consist of; the flows from the sewage sump in the D & I
subsystem; The ash slurry from the venturi scrubber; and
the flow from the Whitewater sump in the fiber recovery system.
The primary characteristics of each stream are contained in
the following tables.

From the following table it is seen that the ash slurry
consists largely of biologically inert, well-oxidized,
suspended and dissolved solids.

This output stream  (ash slurry) is not affected by biological
treatment except for nutrient  (NH.,-N, PO*) utilization.  It
does not require biological treatment ana only sedimentation
or primary treatment for suspended solids removal is needed.

The sewage sump receives the expressed liquid from the
cone press.  This liquid contains a liquid portion of the
sludge as well as the liquid portion of the barrel thickener
                             98

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                    Table 8 - ASH SLURRY
Parameter

Flow
Water Temp.
PH FLD
Turbidity Lab
Conductivity Lab
PH Lab
Alkalinity
Hardness
Chlorides
Sulfates
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Ammonia Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
TOT PHOSPHORUS
C-BOD2
C-BOD5
C-BOD7
C-BOD10
C-BOD15
C-BOD20
TOC
COD
Units

MGD
Cent.

JTU
MICRO-MHO

mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
Average
 Value

   0.01
  31.00
   5.40
2841.36
2424.50
   8.28
 357.53
 957.84
 526.25
 662.15
8430.46
2826.46
5453.15
   3.03
   3.23
  27.42
   7.90
  18.22
  22.62
  27.60
  37.62
  45.37
  66.84
 356.84
                              99

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                 TABLE 9 - SEWAGE SUMP
Parameter

Flow
Water Temp.
PH FLD
Dissolved Oxygen
Turbidity Lab
Conductivity Lab
PH LAB
Alkalinity
Hardness
Chlorides
Sulfates
Total Solids
Dissolved Solids
Suspended Solids
Ammonia Nitrogen
Nitrate Nitrogen
Tot Phosphorus
C-BOD2
C-BOD5
C-BOD7
C-BOD10
C-BOD15
C-BOD20
TOC
COD
Units

MGD
Cent.

mg/1
JTU
MICRO-MHO

mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
mg/1
   Average
    Value
   0.
  13.
   4.
   4.
1819.
2777.
   5.
 422.
 950.
. 356.
 477.
7214.
3224.
2882.
  27.
   0.
  22.
1261.
2660.
2907.
3239.
3843.
4189.
1351.
6798.
0420
33
80
00
09
63
68
18
18
63
50
54
45
00
40
68
18
20
00
55
66
88
00
81
90
                             100

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process stream.  This stream is similar to the stream
obtained from the Whitewater sump in the fiber recovery
system.  This is understandable because the majority of
the liquid being removed from the barrel thickener process
stream consists of the Whitewater in the refuse slurry.
One difference between these two streams is that the white-
water sump which contains the water passing through the
slotted rundown screen is higher in suspended solids.  The
opening on these screens are .020 inch and as a result the
suspended solids is approximately 1.7 greater than that
ound in the sewage sump.  Since both the sewage sump flow
and the flow from the Whitewater sump contain quite a large
amount of Whitewater, the characteristics given in Table
for the Whitewater could be applied to both these flows.
Both the streams from the sewage and Whitewater sumps could
be considered to be the equivalent of concentrated industrial
waste streams.  Although their combined flows average 157,000
gallons per day, the BOD5 loading is 3,665 pounds of BOD5
per day, representing a population equivalent of 21,600
people.  Combined suspended solid loading from the sewage
and Whitewater sumps average 5,623 pounds suspended solids
per day.  Nutrient concentrations in these effluent streams
are not much higher than the normal range expected for do-
mestic wastewater.

lc should be noted that in considering the amounts of material
from each stream that the fiber recovery stream contributed
81 percent of the suspended solids and 73 percent of the BOD
of the streams effluent from the plant.

The two waste streams from the plant which require treatment
contain moderate amounts of heavy metals.  In a conventional
wastewater treatment plant these concentrations of heavy
metals would not greatly effect biological treatment processes
if sufficient dilution were provided in the wastewater treat-
ment plant.  Even if these two waste streams made up the major
flow to a small treatment facility, there is a strong possi-
bility that the bacteria in the secondary treatment processes
would become acclimated to the metal contents in the streams.
Composite samples were taken from the Whitewater system, a
fraction of which flows to the Miami Conservancy Wastewater
Treatment Plant.  The average analysis results from these
collected samples are given in the following table.

It should be noted that the analysis performed on the streams
from the solid waste plant are for total metals, and would
include the suspended as well as the dissolved materials.
Even so, these values are higher than those encountered in
normal domestic wastewater.
                            101

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               TABLE  10  - WHITEWATER SUMP

                                            Average
Parameter              Units                 Value

Flow                   MGD                  0.11
Water Temp.            Cent.               28.60
Dissolved Oxygen       mg/1                 7.60
Turbidity Lab          JTU               2436.89
Conductivity Lab       MICRO-MHO         2398.04
PH Lab                                      5.78
Alkalinity             mg/1               334.27
Hardness               mg/1               730.18
Chlorides              mg/1               343.04
Sulfates               mg/1               273.54
Total Solids           mg/1              7195.91
Dissolved Solids       mg/1              2822.90
Suspended Solids       mg/1              4795.00
Ammonia Nitrogen       mg/1                28.85
Nitrate Nitrogen       mg/1                 0.45
TOT Phosphorus         mg/1                20.01
C-BOD2                 mg/1              1556.78
C-BOD5                 mg/1              2840.00
C-BOD7                 mg/1              3525.42
C-BOD10                mg/1              3948.21
C-BOD15                mg/1              4608.26
C-BOD20                mg/1              5123.20
TOC                    mg/1              2271.94
COD                    mg/1              8954.30
                            102

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TABLE 11  WHITEWATER CHARACTERISTICS VS DOMESTIC SEWAGE
METAL
METAL
Cadmium
Manganese
Zinc
Nickel
Iron
Lead
Tin
Chromium
Copper
AVERAGE CONCENTRATION
WHITEWATER SYSTEM
92
495
557
3,990
3,990
6,225
190
700
11
.5 yg/1
.0 yg/1
.0 yg/1
.0 yg/1
.0 yg/1
.0 yg/1
.0 yg/1
.0 yg/1
. 4 mg/1
                                          AVERAGE CONCENTRATION
                                          NORMAL DOMESTIC SEWAGE

                                                 40 yg/1

                                                200 yg/1

                                                1.0 mg/1

                                              250.0 yg/1



                                              300.0 yg/1



                                              250.0 yg/1

                                              200.0 yg/1
  The metal concentrations  in the Whitewater system were very

  high compared to normal domestic sewage.  The heavy metal

  concentrations in the Whitewater system are compared with

  those expected in normal  domestic sewage in Table 11 above.

  It should be noted that the analyses performed on the streams

  from the solid waste plant are for total metals, and would

  include the suspended as  well as the dissolved materials.

  Even so, these values are approximately twice as high as

  those encountered in normal domestic wastewater.  This water

  is sent to the MCD for treatment and further removal following

  effluent stream analysis.
                               103

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6.4  CLOSED LOOP OPERATION

The Franklin Solid Waste Plant operates in conjuction with
the wastewater treatment plant by exchanging large volumes
of process water, Whitewater, and ash slurry water, and
by accepting sewage sludge for final disposal.  To test
the feasibility of operating a solid waste plant indepen-
dently of the wastewater treatment plant, a closed loop
test was conducted at the Franklin Solid Waste Plant from
Tuesday, October 30, to Friday, November 16, 1973.  These
tests were conducted to demonstrate the effects of total
water recycle in the operation of the Hydrasposal system
and to provide operating data which more closely approxi-
mated the conditions planned for the Hempstead, Long Island,
Solid Waste Plant.  Special attention was given to suspended
and dissolved solids, pH, acidity, and temperature conditions
in the Whitewater system and to the dewatering efficiency
of the thickener and cone press at higher solids concentrations.
The test conditions involved processing refuse at a high
rate for five day period separated by two days downtime,
(10 day test).  The Fiber Recovery System was shut down
throughout the test period and no sludge was disposed of
in The Dewatering and Incineration Subsystem.  No water was
sent to the wastewater treatment plant.  The only water input
to the solid waste plant was contained in the moisture con-
tent of the refuse and makeup water which was added at the
operators discretion to the Whitewater chest.  The output
of water from this system was the fluidized bed reactor.

The water obtained from the dewaterinq of the cvclone pro-
cess stream in the D&I subsystem was used for dilution
water in the hydrapulper during the closed loop operation.
A portion of the liquid expressed in the cone press was
filtered and used as elutriation water in the liquid cyclones.
The scrubber ash slurry and glass plant reject water were
kept separate from the water used in the Hydrasposal system
and pumped to the wastewater treatment plant.  The test was
maintained until equilibrium conditions were achieved,  (two
weeks).  The results of these closed loop tests are as follows;
1) the dissolved solids level reached equilibrium at 6 or 7
percent solids, 2) the solids content in the cone press pro-
cess stream averaged 50 percent, 3) the total solids content
in the Whitewater system during this time was recuced some-
what by bacterial action.  Apparently the Whitewater system
is aerobic and thus the aerobic bacteria help reduce the total
solids content.  The products of aerobic bacteria would be
CO, and water, and thus, would help remove dissolved organic

materials similar to what occurs in conventional activated
                           104

-------
sludge process.  The water used during this closed loop
period averaged 62 gallons per ton of refuse processed.
The conclusions of these closed loop tests were that the
solid waste plant could be operated on a closed loop basis
without external connection to wastewater treatment plants.
It should be noted that the Fiber Recovery System was not
operated during this test because it produces an excess of
water.  However, it has been postulated that a similar
closed loop operation could be utilized for the Fiber Re-
covery System.  In this case internal treatment would be
provided for solids and grease removal.

6.5  ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON LAND

The original objective of the Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber
Recovery Plant was to reduce the quantity of materials enter-
ing Franklin's landfill.  The purpose of this was to extend
the life of the existing landfill beyond the 3 or 4 years
which was its expected remaining life.  Without the Franklin
Solid Waste Plant the landfill would be required to accept
175.6 tons per week.  At 0.4 tons per cubic yard this would
require 439 cubic yards of landfill volume per week.  If it
is assumed that all the unprocessable material, nonmagnetic
junk, and cyclone rejects are landfilled, this would represent
an average quantity of 35.8 tons per week.  At an average
density of 0.6 tons per cubic yard this would occupy 59.7
cubic yards per week.  This represents an 86% savings in
landfill volume.

The nature of the nonmagnetic materials as well as the
cyclone rejects are such that higher compaction densities
could be achieved with less effort.  Land disposal of the
cyclone rejects from the glass plant is done at a close
proximity to the Franklin Solid Waste Plant.  A pit is
located just outside of the plant area which is used to land-
fill this material.  By visual inspection the major portion
of the material landfilled in this area is glass and small
metallic pieces.  The entire composition is similar to the
cyclone rejects in appearance.  Some fiber is present in
this material.

Nuisance conditions as a result of landfilling this material
are minimal.  Some flies were present in the warmer weather
and a slight unobjectionable odor is detectable.  The material
appears to be unsuitable for rodent burrowing.  Land cover
was not used and does not appear to be necessary.  The non-
processable junk and other nonmagnetic rejects from the pulp-
ing and separation subsystem are routinely deposited in a
compactor and landfilled.

At certain times the magnetic rejects have been recycled to
the head of the plant.  These materials are then further re-
duced in size in the pulper, removed in the cyclone, and
                           105

-------
landfilled when the glass plant is not operated.  Obviously
the recycling of the magnetic materials to the head of the
plant when the glass plant is not operating is a waste of
effort.

6.6  NOISE POLLUTION

Systech performed a noise survey of the plant during normal
operating conditions.  This survey was conducted to determine
if the area is in compliance with current Federal regulations.

The current regulations from the Occupational Safety and
Health Act gives the following permissible noise level ex-
posures.  This standard defines the duration of exposure per
day that an employee is permitted to the specified noise
levels  (dBA).  The existing standard states that when a noise
exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure
at different levels, then the maximum daily noise dose should
not exceed unity when the noise dose is computed by the follow-
ing equation:         C     C           C
         NOISE DOSE =  l  '   2  '         n
                      Tl    T2          Tm

C  indicates total time of exposure at a specified noise
level and T  indicates total time of exposure permitted at
that level."

Figure 34 illustrates the results of the noise survey at the
Franklin Plant.  As illustrated in this figure, the fiber re-
covery room is the only area where the noise level in the
plant is less than 90 dBA (except for areas immediately
adjacent to noise sources).   Hence, personnel can work in
the fiber recovery area full time and not be exposed to
levels exceeding Federal Standards.

The reactor room, hydrapulper room and the glass plant, all
have areas where the noise level exceeds 90 dBA.  The hydra-
pulper generates noise levels up to 104 dBA (adjacent to the
pulper).  The blower in the reactor area causes the noise
level in areas of this room to be greater than 90 dBA.  The
glass plant continously generates noise levels in the 93 to
95 dBA range.

Personnel involved in the operation of the reactor and hydra-
pulper are not required to be in the room during the operation
of this equipment.  Hence, these personnel are not exposed to
noise levels exceeding OSHA standards.  When personnel are
working in these areas, they are normally performing a mainte-
nance function and the equipment is not running.
                           106

-------
t
55 dBA g 100 ft  from Bldg.
t
TIPPING FLOOR
68

THICKENER ^

PRESS g

BLOWER a

jfc^ 	 ^
/ FLUID BED \
1 INCINERATOR I
L__ 
BLOWER I

O-
Z CO
O W
ZZ K 90
K CO
&
87
o
o
H
CO
M
<:
tisy I PULPKR )
(95) M
CYCLONE
(96)Q
93
93.
89
O
PRESS
88
f
CONVEYOR
JUNK
MOVER
w >
K &
05 O

MAGNETIC
SEPARATOR

OFFICE
72.
O

0,
1
91.5
1
O

93^5.
95
GLASS PLANT **

55 dBA @ 100 ft. from !
Note:
All readings in dB(A)
readings in ( )
taken on mezzanine
next to equipment
items.
SECOND FLOOR
*IS' 86 TO 88 dbA
                 Figure 3U   - NOISE LEVELS-FRANKLIN  PLANT
                                    107

-------
A new plant of this type could easily make provisions for
reducing the noise levels in the reactor room and the hydra-
pulper room.  This can be accomplished by placing the hydra-
pulper and the reactor blower in separate rooms thus isola-
ting them as noise sources.

It must be noted again that the project was conceived as
a demonstration project and as such much has been learned
about the operation and the changes that would need to be
made in order to achieve noise compliance.

6.7  ODOR WITHIN AND OUTSIDE OF PLANT

During normal operation of the plant (and when the plant is
not accepting sewage sludge for incineration), a slight gar-
bage odor is detected outside, near the tipping floor, and
within the plant.  However, even adjacent to the tipping
floor, the garbage odor problem is minimal.  Outside the
facility, 100 to 150 feet away, there is little or no de-
tectable odor.

Within the plant during normal operation, there is of course
a slight odor of raw garbage. To our personnel working at
the plant, this odor was not considered to be a significant
problem.

When the plant is accepting sludge from the Miami Conservancy
District Waste Water TreatmentPlant, there is a significant
sewage smell within the plant.  This smell is given off at
the injection nozzle at the screw conveyor, as well as from
the cone press rejects.  The water rejects from the press
are highly contaminated (see Section 4) with sewage material.
Also, the feed stock to the incinerator from the cone press
gives off the sewage odor.  This odor could be considered
by many as very undesirable, but to personnel working in the
wastewater treatment area, this odor is not a significant
problem.

6.8  BACTERIOLOGICAL DATA

Samples were taken of the cyclone process stream, the white-
water system, the surge chest process stream, and recovered
fiber.  They were analyzed for bacterial contamination.  The
results are given in the following table:
                             108

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STREAM

Cyclone
 Process
 Stream
TOTAL COLIFORM CT  FECAL COLIFORM CT  TOTAL PLATE CT

 1.85 X 108/100ml   2.0 X 108/100ml   4.3 X 107/ml
                    8
Whitewater  2.0 X 10 /100ml    1.3 X 10 /100ml   2.8 X 10 /ml

Surge Chest 1.65 X io8/100ml   ** X "VlOOml
 Process
Recovered
 Fiber
                                      1.0 X 108/ml


                                               11
                    1.35 X lOVlOOml  4.27 X
It is evident from this table that all the process streams
within the solid waste plant are highly contaminated and should
be handled as such.  Systech personnel working with this material
use rubber gloves and are provided with a change of clothing.
It is obvious (because of sprays and spillage) that air born
bacteria are present.  The sprays on the rundown screen in the
Fiber Recovery System use the final effluent of the regional
wastewater treatment plant.  This effluent is chlorinated but
airborn bacteria could be presentbecause of the sprays.  Further-
more, because of poor drainage in the floor drains bacterial
contamination is present.  The possibility of airborn bacteria
and respirable dust is evident because of leaks in the pneumatic
conveying system (rotary value)  and overhead conveyor in the
dewatering and incineration subsystem.  Additionally it should
be noted that the recovered fiber is heavily contaminated and
should be handled accordingly.
                           109

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7.0  RESULTS OF ECONOMIC EVALUATION

7.1  INTRODUCTION

The Franklin Solid Waste and Fiber Recovery Plant is a
special facility, designed to demonstrate the technique
of wet processing for the disposal of solid waste as well
as the recovery of some materials in the solid waste stream.
It must be remembered that the plant was designed and
constructed for demonstration purposes.  As such, it
enjoys many subsidies as well as extraordinary expenses
whether they are evident, hidden, or implied.  All of these
factors skew the economic results actually being experienced.

The real objective of this phase of the effort was to
develop a measure of the economics that would be experienced
if any or all of the systems used at Franklin were incorporated
in a solid waste facility that would be constructed and
operated in competition with other disposal concepts.  To
accomplish this objective, it is necessary to know the costs
associated with both the construction and the operation of
the major systems and subsystems.  It is not sufficient to
evaluate the economics of the total concept as it now exists
in Franklin.  The reason for this is that other plants may
not incorporate all three major systems used at Franklin.
Indeed, because of the energy crisis, it is doubtful that a
system identical to Franklin would ever again incorporate a
reactor system that disposes of the residual solid waste and
does not recover the heat generated in the process.

For these reasons, it was necessary to study the economics
associated with each of the major systems.  Four cost centers
were used in this study.  These are as follows:

     (1)  Weighing and Receiving;
     (2)  Pulping, Separation, Dewatering;
     (3)  Fluid Bed Reactor System; and
     (4)  Fiber Recovery System.

For clarity, the defined system includes the following unit
operations:

     (1)  Weighing and Receiving - Includes operation of the
          scale, scale house, Bobcat, and other activities
          on the tipping floor.

     (2)  Pulping, Separation, Dewatering - Includes the
          operation of the feed conveyor to the pulper, junk
          remover, magnetic separator, cyclones, barrel
          thickener, cone press, and pneumatic feed to the
          reactor.

     (3)  Fluid Bed Reactor System - Includes the operation
          of the blower, reactor, scrubbing equipment, and
          other miscellaneous equipment required by the reactor.
                          110

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     (4)  Fiber Recovery System - Includes the operation of
          the selectifier, cyclone, rundown screens, barrel
          thickener, cone press, and other miscellaneous
          equipment required in the fiber recovery system.

The data required to perform this economic evaluation was
derived from information from various sources, i.e., EPA,
Systech, A. M. Kinney, Black-Clawson, and the City of
Franklin.

7.2  APPROACH TO DEVELOPING THE ECONOMIC DATA

The basis of the economic analysis stems from the actual
operating experience being gained at Franklin.  The approach
used in developing the data incorporated the following
steps:

(1)  Collect data representative of the actual operating
     experience of Franklin and extend this data to reflect
     operating the plant at its design capacity (50 tons/day,
     8  hour operation).  The factors used to develop the
     Franklin operating experience include the following:

     (a) Revenues - metal and fiber sales, sludge disposal.

     (b) Operating Costs - operating labor, maintenance labor,
         operating supplies, building maintenance, maintenance
         materials, fuel costs, power consumption, material
         handling, land disposal, other expenses,  and waste-
         water treatment.

     (c) Facility Expense - amortization and interest.

(2)  Use this cost data to develop "non-dollar extensions of
     cost factors" for estimating costs for operating plants
     of 500 and 1,000 tons/day.

A cost  factor was used to express expenses and revenues in
scalable terms.  Where possible, non-dollar related cost.
factors were used to reflect the absolute cost or revenues
associated with an item.  These factors were developed for
expenses as well as revenues.  These factors were then used
to help study the economics for operating larger plants.

7.3  DEVELOPMENT OF NON-DOLLAR RELATED COST FACTORS FROM
     FRANKLIN EXPERIENCE

In order to have a complete understanding of all factors
comprising the Income and Expense for the operation of the
Franklin Plant and the projections to 500 and 1,000 tons/day,
the following sections describes the income and expense
categories used.  The following data presents the cost factors
for the Franklin Plant and projects these to the 500 and 1,000
tons/day Plants.
                           Ill

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7.3.1  Income

Incomes realized for the operation of the Franklin plant are
from three categories; metal sales, fiber sales, and sludge
disposal.  Monies received for the disposal of the solid
waste will not be considered as income.

Metal is recovered from several locations within the plant.
Large bulky recoverable metal is hand removed on the tipping
floor and placed into a recovered bin.  The largest metal
fraction is recovered from the magnetic separator.

Fiber is recovered from the fiber recovery system of the
plant.  Revenues are received from the Logan Long Company,
which uses this material in the manufacturing of roofing
materials.  Income from sludge disposal is received from
the Miami Conservancy. District, which operates the adjacent
wastewater treatment plant.  The derived income factors were
developed based on an average percentage input of 9.8 and
40 for the magnetic metals and paper content respectively.
The following table describes the steps used to develop
the revenue factors.
Income Source

Paper Fiber
Magnetic Metals
Sludge
Income Source

Paper Fiber
Magnetic Metals
Sludge
  Percent of Material
    In Input Stream

     40 percent
      9.8 percent
Tons Material
 Recovered/
 Ton Input

 .192 T/T
 .096 T/T
 .07  T/T
  Assumed
Market Val,
$/T (Ave)7"

 $42.00/T
 $25.00/T
 $25.00/T
             Percent
            Recovered

              48%*
              98%
 Income/
Ton Input

 $8.06/T
 $2.40/T
 $1.75/%
*Actual operating experience showed this value to be much
 smaller.  This was because of the large amount of time that
 fiber recovery was not operating.  The revenue factors
 shown are for optimum operation of the Franklin Plant.


Although the system at Franklin is currently disposing of
approximately 1 ton of sludge per day, it is capable of
disposing of approximately 3.5 ton of sludge per day
operating at 50 T/D.

The revenue factors derived can be used directly for any
larger Franklin type system assuming that the characteristics
of the input solid waste are approximately that as shown above,
                              112

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7.3.2  Operating Expense Items

The following categories were developed and used for
deriving the operating expenses of the Franklin Plant.

7.3.2.1  Operating Labor - This category defines the
personnel involved in the operation of the Franklin Plant
and also presents the projections for the operating labor
force for the 500 and 1,000 T/D plants.  The table on the
following page presents this data.

The total manhours (MH) required by each of the facilities
are:

                 Franklin 50 T/D    -  32 MH
                 Franklin 500 T/D   - 104 MH
                 Franklin 1,000 T/D - 152 MH

These manhours and appropriate rates can then be used to
project operating labor costs for each size facility.

As illustrated in Table 12, the operating personnel being
used for 35 T/D would also be able to operate the plant at
50 T/D.

7.3.2.2  Maintenance Labor - When the evaluation began, three
personnel were involved with the maintenance activities at
Franklin.  Modifications and changes in operating schedules
have effectively reduced this number to two personnel.  Hence,
the actual operating experience will reflect two maintenance
personnel.

Scaling of the maintenance labor for the pulping and separa-
tion subsystem to larger facilities is not a linear relation-
ship.  This results from the fact that a larger hydrapulper
is used and hence, the labor force required to maintain the
pulper does not increase significantly, but the throughput
of the pulper increases four (4) times.  Thus, the maintenance
labor cannot be scaled on a MH/T basis but should be scaled
on a manhour/operating hour basis.

Since the Reactor System and the Fiber Recovery Systems for
500 and 1,000 T/D plants are basically duplicates of the
Franklin facility and require only additional process lines,
these systems can be scaled on a MH/T basis.  The following
Table presents the development of the cost factors to be used
in projecting the costs for the three different sized systems.
Furthermore, it is estimated that the maintenance manhours
are distributed accordingly; 75 percent pulping and separation,
19 percent fiber recovery,  and 6 percent reactor.
                            113

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TABLE 12 - OPERATING LABOR

Supervision
Chief
Operator
Assistant
Operator
Weighmaster
General
Labor
Office
W&R



1


Franklin
35-50 T/D
P&S

1


3/4

Reactor


1/4



F.R.


3/4

1/4

W&R



2


(3 shift total)
500 T/D
P&S
1
3
1 3/4

1 1/2
2
Reactor


1/4



F.R.


1

1/2

(3 shift total)
1000 T/D
W&R



2


P&S
1
3
3 1/2

3
3
Reactor


1/2



F.R.


2

1


-------
                         35 T/D-50 T/D
                         Cost Factor
                     Manhours/D Cost Factor 500 T/D 1,000 T/D*
Pulping & Separation    12
Reactor                  1
Fiber Recovery           3
         2.46 MH/HR
          .03 MH/T
          .085 MH/T
          2.46
           .03
           .085
     4.92
      .03
      .085
The P&S cost factor was derived from the following equation.

  12 MH
  35 T   x 7.2 T/D (Ave.) = 2.46 MH/Operating Hr. of P&S

These cost factors were then used for projecting the costs
for the larger sized facilities.

7.3.2.3  Operating Supplies - This category reflects all the
costs for the operating supplies and includes all consummables
required to operate the plant.  This factor, by its nature
cannot be non-dollar related.  Franklin's operating experience
shows this to be approximately $.30/ton input (based on
35 T/D average).  Operating the facility at 50 T/D should not
require more operating costs and hence, the operating cost
per ton will be reduced.  The table below presents the
developed cost factors.
Weighing & Receiving
Pulping & Separation
Reactor
Fiber Recovery
 35 T/D
Operating
 Costs

 $.15/T
 $.15/T
 $.045/T
 $.045/T
Correction
Factor to
 50 T/D

    1
  35/50
  35/50
  35/50
50, 500,
1,000 T/D
Operating
  Cost
 Factors

 $.15
 $.11
 $.03
 $.03
These cost factors were then used for deriving the cost
for the larger sized facilities.

7.3.2.4  Building Maintenance - As implied, this category
reflects the costs for maintaining the building and premises
in an operational manner.

Basically, the building area requirements for a Franklin
system at 500 T/D would be approximately 1-1/2 times that
at Franklin; and three times the area of Franklin for a
1,000 T/D facility.  The building maintenance requirements
were projected on a per ton basis.  The following table
presents the cost factors for the larger facilities, based
on actual operating experience at Franklin.
*  Equipment required is twice that for the 500 T/D Plant.
                             115

-------
Weighing & Receiving
P&S Dewatering
Reactor
Fiber Recovery
  35 T/p
 Operating
Cost Factor

 $ .06/T
 $ .02/T
 $ .03/T
 $ .03/T
Correction
 Factor
To 50 T/D

  35/50
  35/50
  35/50
  35/50
50,500,1,000 T/D
   Operating
   Cost Factor

   $ .042/T
   $ .014/T
   $ .022/T
   $ .022/T
These cost factors were then used for estimating the cost
for the larger sized facilities.

7.3.2.5  Maintenance Materials - This expense category
reflects the costs for the purchase of the necessary replace-
ment parts and equipment to keep the plant operational.
It includes sub-contract work that may be required to maintain
or replace a piece of equipment.  It does not include the
labor costs experienced by the operating staff, i.e., the
labor cost for replacing a pump is reflected in the maintenance
labor cost.

The maintenance replacement parts cost for the hydrapulper
cannot be scaled linearly on a $/T basis for the larger
facilities.  The reason for this is that the wear factor
for a larger hydrapul-per is smaller than that of a smaller
hydrapulper.  Hence, replacement of worn parts would not be
required as often.  Therefore, for the purpose of projecting
the maintenance material cost for the P&S subsystem of
the plant, it was decided that the cost factor for tnis
section should be represented by $/operating hour.

The manufacturer estimates that the larger hydrapulper
lasts 1.6 times longer.  In addition, in going from a
smaller hydrapulper to a larger hydrapulper, the cost of
replacement parts for similar items would increase by a factor
of 2.25.  Therefore, the resulting scale factor used to
extrapolate the maintenance material expense from a 50 T/D
system to a 500 T/D system is 2.25/1.6 or 1.4.  In projecting
costs from a 500 to 1,000 T/D facility, the cost factor for
the P&S subsystem would be multiplied by two because the
P&S section is duplicated (2 process lines),

Since all size plants have identical equipment for the
Reactor System and the Fiber Recovery System, the material
maintenance items can be scaled on a $/D basis.

Table 13 presents the development of the cost factors for
the maintenance materials.  The cost factors developed in
this Table were then used for deriving the costs for the
larger sized facilities.
                           116

-------
7-.3.2.6  Fuel Costs - This category reflects the costs
for operating the front-end loader and for building heat.
It does not reflect any fuel costs for the reactor
because the bed temperature in the reactor is maintained
so that it can burn the rejects without the addition of
fuel.  During the time of our study, the front-end loader
consumed approximately 0.14 gallons/ton of gasoline and
the fuel oil for building heat was consumed at a rate of
.57 gallons/ton.  Hence, correcting for the 50 T/D operation,
the following lists the cost factors to be used for all
three sized facilities.
*Weighing and Receiving  (Bobcat)
 Pulping and Separation
 Reactor
 Fiber Recovery
        50, 500, 1,000 T/D

        .14 gallons/ton
        .24 gallons/ton
        .07 gallons/ton
        .09 gallons/ton
*The Bobcat would require additional fuel for moving more
 tonnage and hence, the cost factor for a 35 T/D and 50 T/D
 operation would be the same.

7.3.2.7  Power Consumption - This expense category reflects
the cost of power required to operate the equipment within
the plant.  During the study period, power consumption was
measured for the Total Plant, Fiber Recovery System, Hydra-
pulper, and the Glass Plant.  Since the Glass Plant data is
not included in this report, the power consumed by the Glass
Plant was subtracted from the total plant consumption.  The
hydrapulper and fiber recovery power consumption could be
obtained directly.  Thus, the power consumption of the
P & S subsystem could be calculated.  Using the installed
horsepower for the reactor and the remaining equipment along
with the data on their respective operating time, it was
determined that the reactor consumed approximately 1/2 of
the total power used in the p & s .subsystem minus the
Pulper.  Hence, the following Table was derived for the power
usage within the plant.
Separation, Dewatering
Pulper
Reactor
Fiber Recovery
   35 T/D
Cost Factor

 56.4 KWH/T
 28.7 KWH/T
 56.4 KWH/T
 11.2 KWH/T
50,500,1,000 T/D
   Cost Factor

  56.4 KWH/T
  28.7 KWH/T
  56.4 KWH/T
  11.2 KWH/T
Power costs are based on two factors, energy and demand.
Energy costs are computed using the total kilowatt-hours
consumed.  Demand costs are based on an average demand
(kilowatts) measured at the facility by the power company.
                           117

-------
                  TABLE 13 - MAINTENANCE MATERIAL COST FACTORS

















Weighing &
Receiving
Pulping &
Separation
Reactor
Fiber Recovery
CD
-P
in
o
u
Q to
"X O* O
EH S -P
H O
in -P id
 M (0 pL|
to
(1)
a
o



.57

25.70/HR
.75/T
.56/T
b
o
p
o
d
fa

c a
ox
H EH
-P
oo
0) in
to
U O
O -P
U

1

1
1
1
to
O
-P
O
id
b

c
o
H Q
-PV.
0 EH
0)
U 0
h 0
o m
o

.5

1.4
1
1
n
o
-p
u
id
h Q
X
C EH
O
H 0
P 0
O m
0)
M H
h 0
O (M
U

.385/T

35.98/HR
.75/T
.56/T
M
0
4J
0
at a
fc vs
EH
c
00
H 0
4J 0
0 rH
0)
H to
to O
O *H
u

.5

2
1
1




Q
^^
to EH
O
4JO
O 0
id o
h rH

4J M
0) O
OH
U

.192T

71.97/HR
.75/T
.56/T
*3.57/T X 7.2
                                     118

-------
The demand load at the Franklin Plant is approximately
800 kilowatts.  Because of the increase in the pulper size,
in a 500 T/D plant the demand will be approximately 2,000
kilowatts.  The demand for a 1,000 T/D plant will be the
same as for 500 T/D because the equipment is the same size
only the number of process lines change.  Hence, the demand
for a 500 T/D and 1,000 T/D plant will be approximately
2,000 kilowatts.  The costs for energy and demand for this
study were based on the rate schedule of the Cincinnati Gas
and Electric Company.

7.3.2.8  Metal Handling - This category reflects the costs
for removing the recovered metal from the operating area of
the plant and preparing the material for shipping, etc.
This cost factor was $.028/T and will be the same for all
facilities.

7.3.2.9  Land Disposal - The disposal of the unprocessable
material, the material issuing from the cyclone reject
stream, and the non-magnetic stream sorted by the magnetic
separator, requires land disposal.  This material is generated
according to the following factors, which will be used for
projecting the land disposal costs for the larger facilities.

                                   Cost Factor

Weighing & Receiving                  98.6 #/T
Pulping and Separation               281 #/T

7.3.2.10  Other Expenses - This expense category includes
all other expenses that are included in operating the plant.
They include insurance, plant security, taxes, etc.
Operating experience at Franklin showed this to be $.71/T.
The Table below shows an estimate of the breakout of this
cost factor by cost center.

                             35T/D-50T/D-500T/D-1,OOOT/D
                               Operating Cost Factor

Weighing and Receiving                $ .10/T
Pulping, Separation, Dewatering       $ .30/T
Reactor                               $ .20/T
Fiber Recovery                        $ .11/T
                                      $ .71/T
7.3.2.11  Wastewater Treatment - Wastewater treatment
services at Franklin are provided by Miami Conservancy
District Wastewater Treatment Plant at a cost of .41$/1,000
gallons sent to the plant.  The facility provides for the
treatment of water from the Hydrasposal system as well as
from fiber recovery.  It has been demonstrated (and discussed
in an earlier section) that the Hydrasposal system can
operate under a closed loop arrangement that essentially
would require the treatment of little or no wastewater.

                           119

-------
The Fiber Recovery liquid waste stream represents approxi-
mately 75% of the wastewater sent to the MCD Treatment
Facility by the Solid Waste Plant.  In a larger facility,
this stream would probably be treated by using an on-site
clarifier.  The solids would be incinerated in the reactor,
and some Whitewater would be bled into the reactor to permit
the addition of fresh water.  This approach or a similar
one would be used in a large plant because treatment costs
at a wastewater treatment plant would be prohibitive.  The
following table presents the non-dollar related cost factors
associated with the waste stream.

               Franklin Operating Experience

  Pulping, Separation, Dewatering
    BOD                                39# BOD/T
    SS                                 42# SS/T

  Reactor (Ash H_0)
    SS          *                      12.8# SS/T

  Fiber Recovery
    BOD                                106# BOD/T
    SS                                 181# SS/T

For the purpose of projecting the costs to 500 and 1,000
T/D, a rate of $0.25/T will be used.  This cost factor
approximation would assume a closed loop operation of the
Hydrasposal system and the treatment of the Fiber Recovery
Wastewater on site.  Depending upon the approach used and
the type of facility being designed (with or without a
reactor) this cost could increase significantly.  However,
for projecting the estimated costs for the larger facilities,
a rate of $0.25/T will be used.

7.3.3  Facility Expense

In order to develop a full economic evaluation, costs for
each of the different sized facilities must be determined
so that appropriate amortization and interest, depreciation
or other related facility expenses can be derived.  The
following table presents the total sub-system costs for each
of the three facilities.

                       Franklin
                      50T/D-1969     500T/D-1974   1,OOOT/D-1974

Weighing & Receiving  $  182,000     $ 1,103,000   $ 2,051,000
Pulp, Sep, Dewater    $  626,000     $ 4,289,000   $ 7,987,000
Fluid Bed Incinerator $  670,000     $ 3,291,000   $ 6,133,000
Fiber Recovery        $  509,000     $ 1,912,000   $ 3,551,000

TOTAL                 $1,987,000     $10,595,000   $19,722,0,00
                            120

-------
A table in Section 7.5.1 illustrates a comparison of
equipment requirements for the 50, 500, and 1,000 T/D
plant size.

7.3.3.1  Franklin Facility 35 Ton and 50 Ton/8-Hour Shift-
ISO Ton/21-Hour Shift - For the Franklin facility as it now
exists,it would be unrealistic to assign a facility
expense to its operation; because of its demonstration nature
and because of the limited tonnage being received.  The
plant, as such, cannot enjoy any economy of scale and
therefore, no facility charge will be considered in the
analysis.  Rather, the Franklin experience will be used
to gather operational exepnse data.  The capital investment
for the facility is presented in the Tables for use by the
reader is he so desires.  If this cost is assigned to the
operation of the plant, it should probably be prorated over
the entire plant capacity, i.e., 150 T/D.

7.3.3.2  Franklin Type Facility - 500 and 1,000 T/D - There
are many methods that can potentially be used to derive
facility costs.  Ownership of the facility is a major item
of consideration.  For purposes of developing facility costs
for the larger facilities, it will be assumed that the
facility will be owned by a municipality and that bonds
(8 percent) will be issued to finance the facility.  However,
there are several factors that must be considered in deriving
the facility expense cost.  The total cost of the facility
is not the amount of money that needs to be borrowed by the
issuance of bonds to cover the facility costs.  Factors such
as finance charges, a debt service fund, and a debt reserve
fund, (defined in the following table), cause the total
bond issue to be approximately 30 percent higher than the
actual cost of the facility.  Hence, a facility expense
to cover the Amortization and Interest (A & I) rate would
then have to be based on the value of the total bond issue.
For the purposes of this analysis (projecting operating
costs for the 500 and 1,000 T/D facility) an annual A & I
rate of 10 percent will be used (based on 20 year life of
major equipment and facility).  For the 500 and 1,000 T/D
facilities, the following Table will present these costs.


                        500 T/D               1,000 T/D

 Project Cost         10,595,000             19,722,000
*Total Bond Issue     13,508,000             25,145,000
 Annual A & I          1,350,000 ($10.45/T)   2,514,000  ($9.73/T)


    * Debt Service Fund - the amount of money that has to
      borrowed to make payments on the bond issue during
      the construction period (2 years).
                           121

-------
   * Debt Revenue Fund - money that is withheld and invested
     (8 percent) to make sure one payment on the bond issue
     can be made.  This reserve is held throughout the bond
     payment period to insure that the payments can be made
     on time.

   * Finance Charge - the amount of money charged by the
     agency preparing and issuing the bonds.
These three categories cause the total bond issue to be
approximately 30 percent higher than the actual facility
cost.

7.4  FRANKLIN OPERATING EXPERIENCE - ACTUAL 35 T/D, PROJECTED
     50 T/D AND PROJECTED 150 T/D

Table 14 presents a summary of the actual income and expense
for the Franklin plant operating at an average throughput of
35 T/D.  This table illustrates these costs as a function
of four (4) cost centers (Weighing and Receiving, Incinerator
and Fiber Recovery).  As illustrated, this facility is showing
an operating loss of approximately $4,40/ton, excluding a
facility expense cost.  Some interesting observations can be
drawn from the following table.
Weighing & Receiving
Pulping, Separation, &
 Dewatering
Fluid Bed Reactor
Fiber Recovery
  % of Total
Operating Costs

    10.6%
    54%
    18.5%
    16.9%
                                                 % of Total
                                                  Revenue
31%

11%
57.5%
The major point to be made is that Fiber Recovery provides
57.5 percent of the total revenue while only accounting for
16.9 percent of the total operating cost.  This most
certainly justifies a fiber recovery system if there is a
suitable customer and the market conditions are favorable.

Projecting these costs to 50 T/D (Table 15)  shows that the plant
without a facility expense charge, can operate at approxi-
mately a $0.26/T profit.  This figure was derived considering
optimum operation of the plant.  The large difference between
the two  (35 and 50 T/D) is that income shows a value of
9.08/T for the 50 T/D, an increase of 2.48/T based on actual
operation.  This increase is based on Fiber Recovery operating
full time.
                            122

-------
to
LJ
Total
Dollars
INCOME
Metal Sales $1,564
Fiber Sales 2,865
Sludge Disposal 537
$4,966
EXPENSES
1. Operating Labor
Chief Operator $ 860
All Others 2,580
2. Maintenance Labor 1,702
3. Operating Supplies 292
4. Building Maintenance 75
5. Maintenance
Materials 4,175
6. Fuel - Gasoline 53
Fuel Oil (Heat) 117
7. Power - Energy 1,799
Demand - 800 KW 1,500
8. Metal Handling 211
9. Land Disposal
10. Other Expenses 533
11. Wastewater Treatment 770
$14,667
INCOME & EXPENSE SUMMARY*
Income
Expenses
NET COST
Average Dump Fees
Operating Loss
Plant
$ Per Ton

S2.08/T
3.81/T
.71/T
S6.60/T


S1.14/T
3.43/T
2.26/T
.39/T
.10/T

5.55/T
.07/T
.15/T
2. 39/T
1.99/T
.28/T

.71/T
1.02/T
S19.50/T

$ 6.60/T
19.50/T
(12.90/T)
8.50/T
(4.40/T)
Weighing & Receiving Pulping, Separation
and Dewatering
Dollars $ Per Ton Dollars $ Per Ton

$1,564


$1,564 $2. 07/T


$860
$860 645
1,269
112 112
32 11

428 2,762
53
72
1,003
563
211
.
75 225
193
$1,560 $2. 07/T $7,926 S10.53/T






Reactor
Dollars $ Per Ton



537
$537 S.71/T



$215
113
34
16

564

21
664
937


150

STTTTT S3TST/T






Filer
Recovery
Dollars $ Per Ton


$2,065

527865



$860
320
34
16

421

24
132



83
577
52,467










S3.80/T

















S3.23/T






                    Docs  not  include  a  Facility expense Charge

-------
                                      TABLE 15  MONTHLY FRANKLIN PROJECTED OPERATING EXPERIENCE - 50T/D X X0.75T/H
ro
Total Plant
Dollars
INCOME
Metal Sales $2,236
Fiber Sales 6,761
Sludge Disposal 537
$97534
EXPENSES
1. Operating Labor
Chief Operator $ 860
All Others 2,580
2. Maintenance Labor 2,441
3. Operating Supplies 343
4. Building Maintenance 108
5. Maintenance
Materials 5,832
6. Fuel - Gasoline 75
Fuel Oil (Heat) 167
7. Power - Energy 2,570
Demand - 800 KW 1,500
8. Metal Handling 301
9. Land Disposal
10. Other Expenses 762
11. Wastewater Treatmentl, 101
$18,640
INCOME & EXPENSE SUMMARY*
Income
Expense
NET COST
Average Dump Fees
Operating Profit
$ Per Ton

$2.08/T
6.29/T
.71/T
$ 9 . 08/T


$ .80/T
2.40/T
2.27/r
.32/T
.10/T

5.42/T
.07/T
.15/T
2.39/T
1.39/T
.28/T

.71/T
1.02/T
$17. 32/T

$ 9. 08/T
17. 32/T
(8.24/T)
8.50/T
$ T26/T"
Weighing & Receiving Pulping, Separation
and Dewatering
Dollars S Per Ton Dollars $Per Ton

$2,236


$2,236 $2. 08/T


$ 860
$ 860 645
1,824
161 118
45 15

612 3,812
75
103
1,433
563
301

107 322
276
$1,860 S1.73/T $10,272 $9.55/T






Reactor
Dollars $Per Ton



$ 537
$ 537 $.71/T



$ 215
161
32
24

806

30
949
937


215

$3,369 S3.13/T






Filer
Recovery
Dollars $ Per Ton


$6,761

$6,761



$ 860
456
32
24

602

34
188



118
825
$3,139










$ 6.29/T

















S2.92/T






                     Does not include a Facility Expense Charge

-------
Table 16 presents the projected operating costs to 150 T/D
(the plants design capacity).  Without a facility expense
charge, Table 16 shows that the plant can operate at a
$2.36/T profit.  Again, this figure was derived considering
optimum operation of the plant.

7.5  PROJECTION TO 500 and 1,000 T/D SIZE PLANT

7.5.1  Introduction

Before presenting the estimated operating costs for a 500
and 1,000 T/D facility, some discussion about the facilities
is necessary.

Each of the two facilities will be three (3) shift operations,
with a 20 hour process time for the maximum capacity.
The 500 T/D facility would require approximately 1-1/2
times the building floor area that is currently used by the
Franklin Plant.  The table below illustrates the equipment
requirements for the larger facilities.


                    EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS


                    50 T/D Franklin - 7 Hr

                   1 Hydrapulper
                   1 Reactor
                   1 Dewatering Equipment
                   1 Fiber Recovery System


                        500 T/D - 20 HR

                   1 Hydrapulper (larger)
                   1 Reactor (larger)
                   4 Dewatering Equipment
                   3 Fiber Recovery Systems


                       1,000 T/D - 20 HR

                   2 Hydrapulpers
                   2 Reactors
                   8 Dewatering Equipment
                   6 Fiber Recovery Systems


The non-dollar related cost factors for projected facility
cost were presented in Sections 7.2 and 7.3.  These factors
are again identified on the operating cost tables presented
in this section.
                           125

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                                         TABLE  16  MONTHLY FRANKLIN PROJECTED OPERATING COST - 150T/D (OPTIMUM)-3225T/H.
to
en
               INCOME
                 Metal Sales
                 Fiber Sales
                 Sludge Disposal
EXPENSES
 1. Operating Labor
    Chief Operator
    All Others
 2. Maintenance Labor
 3. Operating Supplies
 4. Building Maintenance
 5. Maintenance Materials
 6. Fuel - Gasoline
      Fuel Oil (Heat)
 7. Power - Energy
          - Demand
 8. Metal Handling
 9. Land Disposal
10. Other Expenses
11. Wastewater Treatment
               INCOME & EXPtNSE SUMMARY*

                        Income
                        Expenses


                        NET COST
                    Average Dump Fees

                    Operating Profit
Total Plant
Dollars
$ 6.708 -
20,285 -
2,289 -
$29,282 -
$ 860
6,020
7,406
1,032
322
17,482
225
167
7,710
1,500
903
2,289
3,289
$49,205
$29,282
49,205
($19,923)
27,412
$ 7,489
SPer Ton
S2.08/T
6.29/T
.71/T
S9.08/T
$ .27/T
1.86/T
2. 27/T
.32/T
.10/T
5.42/T
.07/T
.05/T
2.39/T
.46/T
.28/T
.71/T
1.02/T
S15.22/T
S9.08/T
15.22/T
(6.14/T)
8 . 50/T
S2.36/T
Weighing & Receiving Pulping, Separation
and Dewatering
Dollars SPer Ton Dollars SPer Ton
$6,708


$6,708 S2.08/T
$860
$860 1,935
5,535
485 355
134 44
1,834 11,429
225
103
4,299
563
903
321 969
824
$3,859 S1.18/T $27,819 S8.61/T





Reactor
Dollars SPer Ton


$2,289
$2,289. $.71/T

$645
488
96
72
2,415

30
2,847
937

645

$8,175 S2.53/T





Fiber
Recovery
Dollars SPer Ton

$20,285

$20,285

$2,580
1,383
96
72
1,804

34
564


354
2,465
$9,352








S6.29/T













S2.90/T






-------
             Notes  for Tables  14,  15, and  16








Income Notes:



     1.  Fiber dollars based on 30% input in solid waste



     2.  Sludge disposal is provided at 1 T/D for $25./T






Expense Notes:



     1.  Chief operator labor rate is $7./hr including



         fringes



     2.  All other operators labor rate is $5./hr including



         fringes.



     3.  Gasoline is purchased at $ .50/gallon



     4.  Fuel oil is purchased at $ .40/gallon



     5.  Power costs are computed using Cincinnati Gas and




         Electric scale.



     6.  No cost for land disposal are being incurred at



         Franklin (disposal is on-site)



     7.  Wastewater Treatment is provided at a rate of .41C/1000



         gallon & 2500 gal/T being treated.






Average Dump Fee



     Includes Revenue from Private and Individual Haulers.
                            127

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The cost estimates do not reflect the cost of land.  This
value varies considerably (depending upon where the facility
is constructed) and hence, will not be considered in this
analysis.

All labor rates and other schedules for determining the
total category costs are presented in the notes for each
projected facility cost.

7.5.2  Estimated Cost for 500 T/D Franklin Type Facility

Table 17 presents an estimated cost summary for the operation
of a 500 T/D Franklin type facility.  The data presented
is for optimum operating condition.  The rates used for
labor and other non-dollar related cost factors used in
the development of this data have been presented in Sections
7.3.  Additional notes are presented on the page following
the table.

As illustrated in this table, income from recovered material
amount to $12.21/T.  Operating expenses are 9.96/T and the
facility expense is 10.46/T.  Hence, the net cost of the
operation is 8.21/T.

As indicated previously in this section, the possibility of
ever building another facility like this is very remote.
Hence, let us look at the possibility of selling the rejects
being consumed in the reactor as a fuel (material is removed
from premises by buyer of fuel).  A current value for this
material would be approximately $1.25 million BTU.  Assuming
an average BTU content of 7,200 BTU/# of the rejects as they
go to the reactor (on a dry basis) and a .21 T/T input factor
for the amount of potential fuel generated, the following
table can be developed.


     Ton/Month                  10,750 T
     Tons of Rejects             2,257 T
     #'s to Reactor              4,515,000 Ibs.
     Total BTU's                 4.515 x 106 x 7,200 = 3.25 x 1010
     Value of Fuel             $40,600.00/month or $3.78/T


Hence, the following summary can be derived for the operating
costs of a 500 T/D facility with fuel recovery.

     Income                    $12.21/T*
     Operating Expense         $ 7,75/T
     Facility Expense          $ 7.21/T
     Income on Fuel            $ 3.78/T
     Net Savings               $ 1.03/T
*Sludge can still be processed and disposed of in this system.

                            128

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                                    TABLE 17   MONTHLY FRANKLIN FACILITY COSTS PROJECTED TO 500T/D - 10750T/H
                                           Total Plant
to
vo
Weighing & Receiving  Pulping, Separation
                      and Dewatering
                                                                                                          Reactor
Fiber Recovery
Dollars
INCOME
Metal Sales $25,800
Fiber Sales 86,645
Sludge Disposal 18,812
$131,257
EXPENSES
1. Operating Labor
Supervision $ 1,290
Chief Operator 3,096
Office 1,376
All Others 6.020
2. Maintenance Labor 11,469
3. Operating Supplies 3,438
4. Building Maintenance 1,073
5. Maintenance
Materials 33,691
6. Fuel- Gasoline 752
Fuel Oil (Heat) 1,677
7. Power - Energy 23,931
Demand 3,338
B. Metal Handling 3,010
9. Land Disposal 3.059
10. Other Expenses 7,632
11. Wastewater Treatment 2,687
$107,239
FACILITY EXPENSE
Prefect Cost $10,595,000
Total Bond Issue 13,508,000
Monthly A&I (10%) 112,500
COST SUMMARY
Income
Expense
Facility Expense
NET COST
$ Per Ton

$ 2.40/T
8 . 06/T
1.75/T
$12.21/T


$ .12/T
.29/T
.13/T
.56/T
1.06/T
.32/T
.10/T

3. 13/T
.07/T
.15/T
2.22/T
.31/T
.28/T
.28/T
.71/T
.25/T
$ 9.96/T



S10.46/T

S12.21/T
(9.96/T)
(10.46/T)
($ 8.21/T)
Dollars $ Per Ton









$ 1,720

1,612
451

4,138
752




794
1,075

$ 10,542 $ .98/T

$1,103,000

$11,610 S1.09/T





Dollars

$25,800

$25,800


$ 1,290
3,096
1,376
2,795
5,289
1,182
150

15,471

1,032
13,337
1,252
3,010
2,265
3,225

$54,470

$4,289,000

$45,150





$ Per Ton Dollars



$18,812
$2.40/T $18,812





$ 215
1,612
322
236

8,062

301
8,839
2,086


2,150

$5. 06/T $23,823

$3,291,000

S4.24/T $34,615





$ Per Ton Dollars


$86,645
S1.75/T $86,645





$ 1,290
4,568
322
236

6,020

344
1,755



1,182
2,687
S2.21/T $18,404

$1,912,000

$3.24/T $20,102





$ Per Ton



$8. 06/T



















S1.71/T



S1.88/T






-------
As can be seen from this illustration, when the rejects
stream is sold as a fuel, the plant operates at a net
savings of $1.03/T as compared to a net cost of $8.21/T when
operating with the reactor.  It should be remembered that
there has been no charge for the disposal of refuse assigned
to these examples.

With the information presented in Table 17, the costs
associated with any one of the systems can be derived.  As
illustrated, the system becomes very economically attractive
when the rejects stream can be sold as a fuel.

7.5.3  Estimated Cost for 1,000 T/D Franklin Type Facility

Table 18 presents an estimated cost summary for the operation
of a 1,000 T/D Franklin type facility.  The data presented
is for optimum operating conditions.  Again, the application
rates for labor and other non-dollar related cost factors
used in the development of this data have been presented in
Section 7.3.  Additional Notes are presented on the page
following the table.  As illustrated in Table 18, income
from recovered materials and sludge disposal amount to $12.21/T.
Operating expenses are 9.32/T and-the facility expense is
$9.73/T.  Hence, the net cost of operation is $6.84/T.

Assuming the sale of the reject stream as a fuel, and the
removal of the reactor from the system, the net cost of
the operation is as follows:


     Income                   $12.21/T (Includes Sludge Disposal)
     Operating Expense         -7.21/T
     Facility Expense          -6.70/T
     Income on Fuel             3.78/T

     Net Savings              $ 2.08/T

Again, the use of the feed material to the reactor as a
supplemental fuel based on $1.25/1,000,000 BTU (7,200
BTU/# ave.), and income of $2.08/T can be derived.  As
illustrated in Table 18, the cost of the reactor system is
approximately 1/2 of the total facility cost.  Hence, the
main reason for the net income of $2.08/T is because of the
high cost of the reactor system.
7.5.4  Cost Summary
As illustrated in Table 14, the Franklin Solid Waste and
Fiber Recovery Plant, as it currently operates (average
35 T/D), has an operating loss of $4.40/T.  This cost figure
does not include an expense for the facility but does include
a dump fee  of $8.50/ton.
                           130

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                    TABLE 18   MONTHLY FRANKLIN FACILITY COSTS PROJECTED TO 1000T/D - 21500T/M
INCOME
  Metal Sales
  Fiber Sales
  Sludge Disposal

EXPENSES
 1. Operating Labor
    Supervision-?.50/hr
    Chief Operator-
           6,00/hr
    0fice-4.00/hr
    All Others-5.00/hr
 2. Maintenance Labor
           5.00/hr
 3. Operating Supplies
 4. Building Maintenance
 5. Maintenance
         Materials
 6. Fuel- Gasoline
     Fuel Oil (Heat)
 7. Power - Energy
     Demand
 8. Metal Handling
 9. Land Disposal
10. Other Expenses
11. Waste Water Treatment

FACILITY EXPENSE
  Project Costs
  Total Bond Issue
  Monthly Ail (10%)

COST SUMMARY
  Income
  Expense
  Facility Expense
    NET COST
Total
Dollars
$ 51,
173,
37,
$262,
/hr SI,
3,

hr
f
68
anc








2,
10.
22,
4,
e 2,
63,
1,
3,
47,
3,
6,
6,
15,
600
290
625
sis
290
096
064
320
940
880
150
240
505
354
601
338
020
120
265
tment 5,375
$200,558
$19
$25
$




,722,
,145,
209,




000
000
200




Plant Weighing & Receiving Pulping, Separation
and Dewatering
$ Per Ton Dollars $ Per Ton
S2.40/T
8 . 06/T
1.75/T
S12.21/T
$ . 06/T
.14/T
.10/T
.48/T $
1 . 06/T
.32/T
.10/T
2.94/T
.07/T
.15/T
2.21/T
.15/T
.28/T
.28/T
.71/T
.25/T
$ 9. 32/T $
$2,

$ 9.73/T
S12.21/T
(9. 32/T)
(9.73/T)
$(6.84/T)
Dollars
$51,600
$51,600
$ 1,290
3,096

1,

3,

4,
1.




1,
2,

15,
051,

$21,





720

225
903
128
505




589
150

220 $ .71
000

715 S1.01/T




2,
5,
10.
2,

30,

2,
26,
1,
6,
4,
6,
064
590
578
365
301
947

064
528
252
020
531
450
$103,076
$7,987,

$84,




000

710




Reactor Fiber
$ Per Ton Dollars
$37,625
S2.40/T $37,625

$
3,


16,


17,
2,


4,

430
225
645
473
125

602
582
086


300
S4.79/T $45,468
$6,133,

S3.94/T $65,




000

145




Recovery
$ Per Ton Dollars $ Per Ton
$173,
$173,

$ 2,
9,


12,


3,



2,
5,
S2.11/T $ 36,
$3,551,

S3.03/T $37,




290
290 $8. 06/T

580
137
645
473
040

688
491



365
375
794 $1.71/T
000

625 S1.75/T





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              Notes for Tables 17 and 18







Income:



     1.  Metal sales are based on 9.8% input and selling



         at $25./T



     2.  Fiber Sales are based on 40% input and selling



         at $42./T



     3.  Sludge is disposed of at a rate of .07 T/T input



         at $25./T





Expenses:



     1.  Operating Labor



         Supervision labor rate    - 7.50/hr including fringes



         Chief Operator            - 6.00/hr



         Office                    - 4.00/hr    "        "



         All Others                - 5.00/hr



     2.  Maintenance labor rate    - 5.00/hr    "        "



     3.  Gasoline costs computed at $ .50/gallon



     4.  Fuel oil costs computed at $ .40/gallon



     5.  Power costs were derived from Cincinnati Gas and



         Electric Power scale



     6.  Sanitary landfill costs were computed at $1.50/T
                            132

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Table 19 presents an economic summary of a Franklin type
plant projected to 150, 500, and 1,000 T/D.  As illustrated,
the net operating costs are $12.35 per ton for the 150 ton
per day facility; $8.21 per ton for the 500 ton per day;
and $6.84 per ton for the 1,000 ton per day plant.  These
numbers compare quite favorably with typical solid waste
disposal costs, such as those for incineration or landfill.
Incineration costs range from $10.00 to $15.00 per ton and
landfilling costs typically range from $3.00 to $10.00 per
ton.  The most significant effect can be seen to be the
important decrease in operating expense per ton in the
scaling up from 150 to 500 tons per day.

In contrast to Franklin type plant, Table 20 presents an
economic summary of a wet processing plant without fiber
recovery, but with the organic rejects sold as a fuel
product.  Projected to 150, 500, and 1,000 tons per day
the addition of fuel recovery results in a net cost of
21$ per ton at the 150 ton per day level, a net savings
of $3.39 per ton at the 500 ton level, and a net savings
of $4.13 per ton at the 1,000 ton per day level.  One
important difference between these two types of plants is
the $lp.71 per input ton for fuel as opposed to an $8.06
per input ton for recovered paper fiber.  Most important,
>owever, is the large decrease in the facility expense
charge resulting from the reduction in capital costs when
the fiber recovery equipment is removed from the total plant
capital costs.  In the data presented in Table 19 and 20,
no tipping fee is included in the analysis, hence the net
operating costs can be compared directly to existing dis-
posal costs with the following exception.  It should be
noted that for all these examples no charge is made for the
land on which the facility is to be established.  Individual
communities may readily approximate the cost of land locally
and add the appropriately amortized capital cost of the land
to the facility expense charge to obtain a specific projection
for their community.
                             133

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 TABLE 19 - Economic Summary of Projected Franklin Type Facility
      FACILITY
 COSTS
Franklin       Franklin
Projected To   Projected To
  150 T/D        500 T/D
               Franklin
               Projected To
                1000 T/D
 Income*
   Paper Fiber
   Magnetic Metals
   Sludge Disposal
 Operating Expenses    $15.22/T

 Facility Expense**
   (20 yr. depr.)        $9.34/T

 NET COST              $12.35/T
$8.06/T
$2.40/T
$1.75/T
S12.21/T
$8.06/T
$2.40/T
$1.75/T
$12.21/T
$8.06/T
$2.40/T
$1.75/T
512.21/T
                $9.96/T


               $10.46/T

                $8.21/T
                $9.32/T


                39.73/T

                $6.84/T
 *Based on Following Revenue Factors
    Magnetic Metals - 9.8% Input - Selling at $25.00/T
    Fiber - 40% Input - Selling at $42.00/T
    Sewage Sludge - Disposed of at a rate of .07T/T Input - $25.00/T

**Based on Following Facility Costs Projected to 1974 Prices
 Weighing & Receiving

 Pulping, Separation,
  and Dewatering

 Fluid Bed Reactor

 Fiber Recovery


 TOTAL PLANT COST
150T/D
$254,800
876,400
938,000
712,600
500T/D
1,103,000
4,289,000
3,291,000
1,912,000
1000T/D
$2,051,000
7,987,000
6,133,000
3,551,000
$2,781,800
$10,595,000   $19,722,000
                               134

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 TABLE 20 - Economic Summary of Projected Franklin Plan with
            No Fiber Recovery and Using Rejects as a Fuel.
       FACILITY
 COSTS
   Franklin
Projected To
  150 T/D
   Franklin
Projected To
   500 T/D
   Franklin
Projected To
  1,000 T/D
 Income*
   Magnetic Metals
   Sludge Disposal
   Fuel
 Operating Expenses

 Facility Expense**
  (20 Year Depr.)
$ 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
$10.71/T
S14.86/T
$11.28/T
$ 3.79/T
$ 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
$10.71/T
$14.86/T
$ 6.04/T
$ 5.43/T
$ 2.40/T
$ 1.75/T
$10.71/T
$14.86/T
$ 5.50/T
$ 5.05/T
 NET SAVINGS
 ($ 0.21/T)
   $ 3.39/T
 $ 4.13/T
 *Based on Following Revenue Factors
    Magnetic Metals - 9.8% Input - Selling at $25.00/T
    Sludge Disposal - Disposed of at a rate of .07T/T Input - $25/T
    Fuel - $1.25/1,000,000 BTU

**Based on following facility costs pr9Jected to 1974 prices.
                        150 T/D

 Weighing & Receiving  $ 254,800
 Pulping,  Separation
   and Dewatering

 TOTAL PLANT COST
   $ 876,400

  $1,131,200
   500 T/D

   $1,103,000


   $4,289,000

   $5,392,000
    1,000 T/D

    $2,051,000


    $7,987,000

   $10,038,000
                             135

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                  LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX                  TITLE                           PAGE


   A               EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS                  137

   B               PICTORIAL FLOW DIAGRAMS                 146

   C               MATERIAL BALANCE SHEETS AND
                   DATA COMPILATION  FORMS  (COMPILED
                   DAILY AND PRESENTED AS FOUR-WEEK
                   TOTALS)

   D               FORMS-DATA COMPILATION
                     1.  Special Tests - Lab Sheet
                     2.  Lab Sheet
                     3.  Daily Data Sheet
                     4.  Daily Calculation Sheet

   E               STREAM DEFINITIONS                      21
                     1.  Hydrasposal "A"
                     2.  Hydrasposal "B"
                     3.  Fiber-claim

   F               DATA-JUNK REMOVER MAGNETICS AND         205
                   NON-MAGNETIC REJECTS

   G               DATA-WATER CONSUMPTION                  207

   H               DATA-POWER AND WATER CONSUMPTION
                   DATA/TON REFUSE INPUT                   209

   I               TEST PROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS OF INPUT
                   REFUSE                                  211
                           136

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       APPENDIX  A
EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS
             137

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1.  CONVEYOR

    LOCATION:

MANUFACTURER:

 DESCRIPTION:
    CAPACITY:

    FUNCTION:
Conveyor pit in tipping floor area.

Webster Manufacturing Company

The conveyor consists of bins 60 inches wide,
3/8 inch thick, and 4 inches high on the sides.
An angular steel pusher bar is placed at every
fourth bin to prevent slippage of the solid
refuse.

Seven  (7) tons per hour; plus a 25% surge.

Moves processable refuse to the Hydrapulper.
2.  HYDRAPULPER

    LOCATION:

MANUFACTURER:

 DESCRIPTION:
    CAPACITY:
    FUNCTION:
Hydrasposal "A" Subsystem

Black-Clawson Corporation

The hydrapulper is 12 ft. in diameter with a
base-mounted rotor driven by a 300 h.p. motor.
A side-mounted junk remover removes metal,
tin cans, and other non-friable materials
from the hydrapulper.  Recycled water is mixed
with the incoming refuse, and by the cutting
action of the high speed rotor all pulpable
materials are macerated into a liquid slurry.

Design capacity is six (6) tons per hour of
incoming refuse.  The actual operating capacity
is seven (7) to eight (8) tons per hour.

Accomplishes size reduction of the incoming
solid waste and production of liquid slurry.
3.  DUMP PUMP

    LOCATION:  Base of Hydrapulper

MANUFACTURER:  Black-Clawson Corporation

 DESCRIPTION:  A Black-Clawson 5-inch BM, 500 gpm at 60
               feet tdh.

       DRIVE:  30 h.p./1200 rpm motor

    FUNCTION:  Pumps the liquid slurry to the liquid cyclone.
                                 138

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4.  JUNK REMOVER

    LOCATION:  Side of hydrapulper

MANUFACTURER:  Black-Clawson Corporation

 DESCRIPTION:  Chain-operated buckets which capture large,
               non-friable materials.

       DRIVE:  5 h.p./I800 rpm motor; conveyor speed of
               40 fpm.

    CAPACITY:  3000 pounds/hour; 60 cubic feet/hour

    FUNCTION:  Removes non-friables from the hydrapulper
               and conveys them to the junk washer.


5.  JUNK WASHER

    LOCATION:  Next to hydrapulper unit

MANUFACTURER:  Black-Clawson Corporation

 DESCRIPTION:  Rotating, continuous-type Ransohoff scrap washer.

       DRIVE:  1/2 h.p. with sycrogear; barrel speed 5 rpm

    CAPACITY:  3000 pounds/hour; 60 cubic feet/hour

    FUNCTION:  Originally designed with water sprays for
               washing slurry from the removed materials.
               Currently provides conveying action to magnetic
               sorter transport.
6.  MAGNETIC SEPARATOR

    LOCATION:  Hydrasposal "A" Subsystem: near junk washer output

MANUFACTURER:  Black-Clawson Corporation
 DESCRIPTION
The transport conveyor bringing materials from
the junk washer passes the materials under the
magnetic separator.  The transport conveyor
is a 24-inch wide rubber-belted conveyor with
cross flights on approximately 24-inch centers.
The belt turns at 200 fpm and is powered by a
3/4 h.p. motor.  The separator is electro-
magnetic with a 300 fpm face conveyor, rubber-
belted, with aluminum cross-flights and is
powered by a two (2) h.p. motor.
                                 139

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    FUNCTION:  Separation of magnetic and non-magnetic material
               is  accomplished by means of the electromagnetic
               conveyor  located just above the transport
               conveyor.   Magnetic materials are picked up
               by  the  separator and dumped into a 60-inch deep,
               drop-bottom hopper while the non-magnetics
               fall  from the end of the transport conveyor
               into  a  second hopper.


7.  LIQUID CYCLONE

    LOCATION:  Hydrasposal "A" Subsystem - next to junk washer

MANUFACTURER:  Black-Clawson Corporation

 DESCRIPTION:  A self-contained, ceramic-lined cyclone with
               automatically controlled (timed) dump valves.

    CAPACITY:  100 gpm with a pressure drop of 20 psi

    FUNCTION:  Removal of dense, coarse grit from the hydrapulper
               process stream.

8.  SELECTIFIER DILUTION TANK

    LOCATION:  Fiber Recovery System

 DESCRIPTION:  3/8 inch  thick steel sides x 1/4 inch thick
               steel bottom.  Tank diameter is 10 feet; tank
               height  is 7 feet.

    FUNCTION:  Receives  input from the liquid cyclone process  stream
               and dilution input from the Whitewater system.
               Provides  for the dilution of the liquid cyclone
               process stream prior to entering the selectifier.


9.  SELECTIFIER

    LOCATION:  Fiber Recovery System

MANUFACTURER:  Black-Clawson Corporation

 DESCRIPTION:  0.062-inch diameter pressure screen, with a
               ten (10)  h.p./I800 rpm motor drive.

    CAPACITY:  900 gpm with 0.6 percent input slurry.

    FUNCTION:  The input slurry is received from the selectifier dilution tank.
               The more coarse materials (greater than 0.062 inches in diameter)
               are screened out.  These reject materials are directed to the
               rejects  tank while the selectifier process stream is directed to
               the cleaners supply tank.


                                  140

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10.  CLEANERS SUPPLY TANK
     LOCATION:  Fiber Recovery System
  DESCRIPTION:
               3/8 inch steel sides x 1/4 inch steel base.
               Tank dimensions are eight  (8) feet wide x ten
               feet high.
                                                               (10)
11.  CENTRIFUGAL CLEANERS
    LOCATION:

MANUFACTURER:
                Fiber Recovery System

                Bauer Brothers - 16 units, #606-110P
 DESCRIPTION:  Bank of 16 units; presently 5 are connected
               in parallel operation to optimize removal
               efficiencies.

    CAPACITY:  1700 gpm

    FUNCTION:  Receives input from the Cleaner Supply Tank.
               Acts to separate the small, dense particles
               of grit and glass from the process streams.
                                                             The
                output of the cleaners enters the rundown screen
                units.  The reject stream enters the reject tank.
12.  RUNDOWN SCREENS
     LOCATION:

 MANUFACTURER:

  DESCRIPTION:




     CAPACITY:

     FUNCTION:
               Fiber Recovery System

               Bauer Brothers - 48" width

               .020 inch slotted screens of non-clogging
               design, with addition of spay headers to aid
               in fiber separation and prevent screen blockage,

               1500 gpm input flow

               Receives input from Centrifugal Cleaners
               Process Stream.  Provides for recovery of
               fiber in stream and removal of fines.  Ma-
               terial less than .020 inches in diameter
               passes through screens and enters Whitewater
               system.  Recovered fiber falls off end of
               screen into stock sump, to barrel thickener
               in Fiber Recovery System.
                                  141

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 13.  BARREL THICKENER - FIBER RECOVERY

     LOCATION:  Fiber Recovery System

 MANUFACTURER:  Black-Clawson Corporation

  DESCRIPTION:  2 barrels with 9-inch screws  for dewatering.

     CAPACITY:  Input flow 175 gpm
     FUNCTION:  Receives input from stock  sump of  rundown
                screens.  Dewaters the fibrous slurry to
                approximately 12 percent solids and discharges
                to the Rietz Cone Press.   The rejects enter
                the Whitewater system.
14.  RIETZ CONE PRESS

     LOCATION:  Fiber Recovery System

 MANUFACTURER:  Rietz Manufacturing Company - "V" press
                Model RVP - 36

  DESCRIPTION:  Press wheel diameter is three feet, driven
                by one (1)  20-h.p. and two (2) 5-h.p. motor.

     CAPACITY:  42 pounds of (oven-dry) solids per minute

     FUNCTION:  Receives input from the barrel thickener and
                further dewaters this material to approxi-
                mately 40 percent solids.
15.   FIBER DILUTION TANK
     LOCATION:

  DESCRIPTION:


     FUNCTION:
Fiber Recovery System  (outdoor)

Square steel outdoor tank next to Fiber Recovery
System.

Receives dewatered fiber from cone press and
with appropriate pumps provides for re-dilution
with non-dewatered fibers from stock sump.
The re-diluted fiber stock is then pumped
via pipeline to the Logan Long Company.
                                  142

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16.  REJECTS TANK

     LOCATION:  Fiber Recovery System (inside)
  DESCRIPTION
     FUNCTION:
                3/8" steel sidewalls and 1/4" steel bottom.
                Five (5) feet in diameter and Seven (7) feet
                high.

                Receives the reject streams from various
                units in the Fiber Recovery System.  The
                output is pumped to the surge chest for
                ultimate incineration.
17.   SURGE CHEST

     LOCATION

  DESCRIPTION
     FUNCTION
                Hydrasposal "B" Subsystem (large outdoor tank)

                60,000 gallon capacity, outdoor tank constructed
                of A 36 steel plats, commercial quality HRS.
                Field-welded, sandblasted and epoxy -painted.

                Receives Slurry from the liquid cyclone and
                rejects from the Fiber Recovery System
                prior to entering the Hydrasposal "B" Subsystem.
18.
BARREL THICKENER - HYDRASPOSAL "B"

                       "B" Subsystem
     LOCATION:

 MANUFACTURER:

  DESCRIPTION:



     CAPACITY:

     FUNCTION:
                Hydrasposal

                Black-Clawson Corporation

                Three barrels with three (3)  16 inch, inclined,
                diminishing pitch screws driven by individual
                15-h.p.  motors.

                350 gpm

                Receives input from surge chest and dewaters
                the slurry approximately 10 percent solids prior
                to entering the cone press.
                                 143

-------
19.  RIETZ CONE PRESS - HYDRASPOSAL  "B"

     LOCATION:  Hydrasposal "B" Subsystem

 MANUFACTURER:  Rietz Manufacturing  Company  -  "V"  press Model
                RVP 60.

  DESCRIPTION:  Press wheel diameter is  5  feet;  driven by
                one (1) 50-h.p. and  two  (2)  10-h.p.  motors.

     CAPACITY:  132 pounds  (oven-dry)  solids per minute.

     FUNCTION:  Receives input from  barrel thickeners and
                further dewaters the process stream  to
                approximately 40 percent solids.   The re-
                jects enter the Whitewater system.
20.  FLUID BED INCINERATOR
     LOCATION:

 MANUFACTURER:

  DESCRIPTION:
     CAPACITY:
     FUNCTION:
Hydrasposal "B" Subsystem  (separate reactor room)

Dorr-Oliver, Incorporated

The reactor is 21 ft.  in diameter,  of fluid-bed
design.  The reactor can sustain  autogenous
burn with a minimum input  calorific value of
3000 BTU/lb.  The input is a mixture of
fibrous material and municipal  sludge of
approximately 40% solids.   The  volatile solids
content on a dry weight basis is  approximately
90 percent.  The bed temperature  is maintained
at approximately 1500F.

132 pounds/minute of the mixture  described
above.  (approx.  1.0  x 106 BTU/min.)

Ultimate disposal by incineration of rejects
from Fiber Recovery System, pre-thickened
materials using the Fiber  Recovery System, or the
liquid cyclone process streeam.   The reactor is
also capable of incinerating liquid industrial
wastes.
21.  VENTURI SCRUBBER
     LOCATION:  Hydrasposal "B" Subsystem
 MANUFACTURER:

  DESCRIPTION:
Dorr-Oliver, Incorporated

Cools 71,800 cfm of combustion gases from 1570F to 182F by
introduction of 81.5 gpm of water.  Ash removal by discharging
30 gpm of water from the scrubber system.

                    144

-------
     FUNCTION:  Removes particulate matters  from combustion
                gases at approximately 99% effectiveness,
                using city water  in scrubber.
22.  WHITEWATER TANK - SMALLER, OUTDOOR

     LOCATION:  Outside, Southeast corner.
  DESCRIPTION:
     FUNCTION:
Constructed of A 36, commercial grade HRS, with
capacity of 10,000 gallons.  Field-welded and
sandblasted, epoxy-painted.

Receives input from Fiber Recovery System
dewatering section and pumps the Whitewater
to the common Whitewater system.
23.  WHITEWATER CHEST - LARGER, OUTDOOR

     LOCATION:  Next to surge chest at Southwest end of
                building

  DESCRIPTION:  Constructed of A 36, commercial grade HRS,
                with capacity of 30,000 gallons.

     FUNCTION:  Receives input from Hydrasposal "B" Subsystem,
                dewatering section, provides for storage and
                recycling of Whitewater to hydrapulper.
24.   SLUDGE CHEST

     LOCATION:  East ot large, Whitewater chest on South side
                of plant.

  DESCRIPTION:  Constructed of A 36, commercial grade HRS,
                with capacity of 46,000 gallons.

     FUNCTION:  Receives sludge from MCD and allows for
                uniform feed to Rietz Cone Press.
                                  145

-------
                      APPENDIX B
               PICTORIAL FLOW DIAGRAMS
This section presents a pictorial flow diagram with which
the reader can visualize the various equipments used in the
Franklin Plant.  Section 3, Operational Capability describes
the process flow and can be used to supplement this pictorial
presentation.
                             146

-------
(1)  Weighing Station and Apron
(2)  Tipping Floor
                      147

-------
(3)  Operator Using "Bobcat"  on Tipping
    Floor  to Move  Solid Waste to Conveyor
                         (4)  Exterior View of
                             Hydrapulper
                     148

-------
 (5)  Base  of  Hydrapulper Illustrating Motor/Drive System
(6)  Conveyor Feed Entering Hydrapulper
    (Interior View)
                      149

-------
(7)  Hydrapulper Interior Illustrating
    Macerated Solid Waste (not operating)
(8)  Side  View of  Upper Portion of Junk
    Remover  Illustrating Bucket Assembly.
    Portion  of Junk Washer Seen at Right.
                      150

-------
(9)  Close-up View of  Junk Remover Buckets
                         (10) Magnetic  Separator  -
                             Magnetics are  carried
                             to Bin  at Right while
                             Non-Magnetics  fall
                             into container on left
                     151

-------
(11)  Magnetic  Hopper - Magnetics bin is
     emptied into this container for
     subsequent transport to processor.
                         (12)  Liquid Cyclone
                     152

-------
   (13) Conveyor to
        Glass Plant
    (14) Barrel Thickeners in
        Dewatering and
        Incineration Susbystem
153

-------
                            (15)  Rietz  Cone  Press
                                 (Dewatering and
                                 Incineration Subsystem)
(16)  Pneumatic Feed (Dewatering and Incineration
     Subsystem)  to Fluid Bed Reactor
                       154

-------
(17)  Exterior View of Fluid Bed Reactor
     Tanks  at Left Are (L to R)  Surge
     Chest  and Sludge Chest
(18)  Venturi Scrubber (D & I Subsystem)
                       155

-------
(19) Control Panels for Pulping and Separation,
     and Dewatering and Incineration Subsystems,
(20)  Selectifier Dilution Tank
                        156

-------
(21)  Fiber Recovery System - Mezzanine
     Left - Barrel  Thickener
     Center Rear -  Selectifier
     Right - Centrifugal Cleaners Assembly
(22)  Cleaners Supply Tank
                      157

-------
(23) Rundown Screens Assembly
(24)  Rundown Screens - (Detail) - Operational
                       158

-------
(25) Fiber Thickening and Recovery
    Left - Cone Press
    Center Top - Overhead Conveyor
    Right - Screw Conveyor To Fiber Chest
           11LI.L,
          mm .. < y,  :-,
          mi
  -ilia*
V
        (26)  Control Panel 
            Fiber Recovery
                    159

-------
                     APPENDIX  C

               MATERIAL BALANCE SHEETS AND
                DATA COMPILATION FORMS
              (COMPILED DAILY AND PRESENTED AS
                     4-WEEK TOTALS)


APPENDIX                                        DATE
  C-l                                    7 JAN - 2 FEE, 1974
  C-2                                    4 FEE - 2 MAR, 1974
  C-3                                    4 MAR - 23 MAR, 1974
  C-4                                   25 MAR - 20 APR, 1974
  C-5                                   22 APR - 18 MAY, 1974
  C-6                                   20 MAY - 15 JUN, 1974
                           160

-------
   APPENDIX C-l






7 JAN - 2 FEE, 1974
        161

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-------
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-------
                             3  -
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-------
    APPENDIX C-2






4 FEE - 2 MAR, 1974
          167

-------
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-------
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-------
    APPENDIX C-3






4 MAR - 23 MAR,  1974
           173

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-------
    APPENDIX C-4






25 MAR - 20 APR, 1974
           179

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-------
      APPENDIX C-5







22 APR - 18 MAY, 1974
              184

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-------
    APPENDIX C-6






20 MAY - 15 JUN, 1974
           190

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/.17
                                                                   n.n
                                                     3.77
                                                      1.83
                                                                   3./J
                                                     /.ff
                                                                   5L.
                                                                    a.n
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l.fO
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                       l.ff
                                                     re

-------
T5atef
   Sim
                IttaHH
                      7B70L
        JTAIPUTJ
                                                  Src-no/J
                                            TOTAL
                             OUTPUTS
                                                    Tltlioutf
                                               :.- Parts
                                                                           ffunt.
                Mf i-C
                                                             (r d
            -91
                                                V3
                                              17-t/g
 /-.$
                                             ll.SC,
                                       3-10
                                              f-yj.  : ii
      37
                 s-H
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                                                              -Ct,
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   i-f
                                             IS.T4
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                                       ZffOO
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                                              53.34-
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14.33
           3-f6
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                 I8.T7
           30
         '8.30
               /y-vf
                                      2 i"
                                                     C-a-Z.
           zzse
  40.T
       58. 4-1
                                     O.Sfe
                SS.97
        f 00
1.1.4
      13
        IB.SI
                      15.
                                                     3-10
                                                              0.16
     /J
   7-VV
10. tl
                             11-19
                II. 10
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                                                     052
                      I6..CS
                                       S-w?
     /JO
  fj-f
     2.C.4
           13.0
        14
                      11. tl
                                ( Ofc
              4-7.
                fJ-JO
               iS-lo
                                     .tij
                                             ISMI
                                                     04-Z
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                      IS.C.O
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                                                     0.4^
     IL2L
                                     SSI
                                              L
                                                             0-42
                      n.98
21
                                     I-/00
                               Ift.OO
                                                     0.53
                7-or
         7.fiS
                                              fsJ
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                               70. B6
                                      I.S9
                                          . 76
                                               7..10
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                       /. 7
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-------
 MIC
     Cvctour
                                      Sfii
                                     .
                                 Ctrwia
                                 r
                                                          rs
                                                          VinrSri
                                                                Ttrn
0f Mi.
                  OflMT
                          . "."*_ Jttffl
                          (riy  (ntx)
                                                          (7.*)
      s.t9'-
       13
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                                        5.10
             Z 70
             0.43
                                                    2.6.1
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                   .14-
                  17. 4?
                             . $0
                    0.6,3
                   3.7S
      20.87
                                       8-1
                                  0.6,1
      I3.&3
      .10
               1  30
             3.
             0.63
                                                                 3.SI
              309
      13.4-2.
i.So
 15.12
                 6O
                                  0.1.3
                                 VffO
                   .84
           81.36
              34-
       9.33
      Z&.O0
3.13
n.io
Jf-S"
      IQ.Tfc
(.T4-
                   .17.
                        I2.C.Z
                  14-
                7.50
                                             O3/
                                                   /.7^
      1 Z.feO
 .10
                        li.03
       II.Z-T
                I.SO
                                                          0.13
                                                   /,so
                   .33
                  2C..I')
                            9.70
                                  O.C,O
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 I
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                                                          O.S7
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                                      26.40
                                  /.&/
                                                                ft.
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      n
                                              1 01.
                           460
                   20
                        IL.1O
                  ((..S3
               &.*(.
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               1C.
           15.39
                      O.&c
             1.0,1
             0.65"
                                       IZ
                                              J.Tt
                                       6. so
                                  ots
                          3 69
      zei?
     .35
                          11.31.
                     1.44
             8. co
             o.ss
             3.V9
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     1.14
       lot. at
                    3.iS
                   19 CO
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13
IkTHl
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                                                   75.4.
                                      194

-------

         *rr -r -
Ht \r*r n L,t** .14
.* <.i. fcV * r>.
3v6.o  X  -/w
              195
                                          . 7*.
                                             ^^
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            r To Crvx          -uf        ^
                    e\
     MM wr P /*..j.N

       /^^-y     y
                                                *BL

-------
      APPENDIX  D






      FORMS - DATA






1.   Special Tests - Lab Sheet




2.   Lab Sheet



3.   Daily Data Sheet




4.   Daily Calculation Sheet
             196

-------
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-------
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                                                200

-------
  APPENDIX  E






STREAMS DEFINITIONS




1.  Hydrasposal "A"




2.  Hydrasposal "B"




3.  Fiber Recovery
          201

-------
Appendix
                 Hydrasposal Sub-System A

                   Stream Definitions



Input - Total Refuse Wet Processed

Refuse Received.  The total amount of refuse deposited on the
  tipping floor.  This includes unprocessable refuse.

     Refuse Weighed - All refuse received and passed over
     the scale.

     Refuse Unweighed - All refuse received on a flat rate
     basis.

Tipping Floor Salable Junk Process Stream - Spring steel,
 white goods, etc.

Tipping Floor Unsalable Junk Process Stream - Tires, Bulky
 tree items, etc. (landfillable)

Tipping Floor Residual - Amount of refuse remaining on floor
 at end of operating day.

Net Tipping Floor Residual - This is equal to the Tipping
 Floor Residual initial - Tipping Floor Residual final.

Cyclone Process Stream - The process stream directed to the fiber
 recovery system from the cyclone.

Cyclone Rejects Stream (Grit) - That portion of the hydrapulper
 slurry process stream removed by the cyclones.

Hydrapulper Junk Process Stream - That portion of the tipping
 floor conveyor process stream removed by the junk remover
 in the hydrapulper.

Hydrasposal Magnetic Rejects - The magnetic portion of the
 solids in the hydrapulper junk process stream.

Hydrasposal Non-Magnetic Rejects - The non-magnetic portion
 of the solids in the hydrapulper junk process stream.
                             202

-------
               Hydrasposal Sub-System B

                  Stream Definitions
Waste Slurry Stream - Total stream directed for disposal by
 Incineration.  (Surge chest process stream).

     a) When Fiber Recovery System is operaating, this stream
        consists of the rejects tank process stream.

     b) When Fiber Recovery System is not operation, this
        stream consist of the cyclone process stream.

Sewage Sludge - Sewage sludge directed to the cone press from
 the wastewater plant.

Thickener Process Stream - Thickened output stream.

Thickener Reject Stream - Liquid expelled from the waste
 slurry stream by the thickener.

Cone Press Process Stream - Cone press output stream.

Cone Press Reject Stream - Liquid expelled from the thickener
 process stream by the cone press.

Scrubber Rejects Stream - The waste stream issuing from the
 scrubber (Ash Slurry).

Scrubber Venturi City Water - Input to the Venturi scrubber
 (City Water).
                             203

-------
                 Fiber Recovery System

                  Stream Definitions
Cyclone Process Stream - The process stream directed to the
 Fiber Recovery System from the Hydrasposal Sub-system A.

Selectifier Process Stream - That portion of the selectifier
 dilution tank process stream that is not removed by the
 selectifier screen.

Selectifier Rejects Stream - That portion of the selectifier
 dilution tank process stream that is removed by the
 selectifier screen.

Centrifugal Cleaner Process Stream - That protion of the
 selectifier process stream that is not removed by the
 centrifugal cleaners.

Centrifugal Cleaner Rejects Stream - That portion of the
 selectifier process stream removed by the centrifugal cleaners.

Reject Tank Process Stream - The combined selectifier rejects
 and centrifugal cleaner reject stream.  (At times this may
 also include the run down screen process stream).

Run Down Screen Process Stream - That portion of the centrifugal
 cleaner process stream which is not removed by the run down
 screen.

Run Down Screen Rejects, Stream - The portion of the centrifugal
 cleaner process stream removed by the run down screen.

Barrel Thickener Process Stream - The barrel thickener output
 stream.

Barrel Thickener Reject Stream - The liquid portion of the run
 down screen process stream which is removed by the barrel
 thickener.

Cone Press Process Stream - The cone press output stream.

Cone Press Reject Stream - The liquid portion of the barrel
 thickener process stream that is removed by the cone press.
                             204

-------
     APPENDIX  F






 JUNK REMOVER MAGNETIC




AND NON-MAGNETIC REJECTS
             205

-------
     TABLE
                                     JUNK REMOVER MAGNETIC AND NON MAGNETIC REJECTS
     MAGNETIC REJECTS DATA
10
o
ON
     Category                              Sample 1
     Tin Cans
     Bottle & Jar Caps
     Metal Ends from Paper/Metal Cans
     Misc. Ferrous Metal
     Metal Cans with Aluminum Tops
     Contaminants (wood, plastic, etc.)
     Non Magnetic Metals

         TOTALS                           120.8
     NON MAGNETIC REJECTS DATA
                        Sample 2
Pounds
75.6
4.1
0.5
23.0
14.2
3.4
	
Percent
62.6
3.4
0.4
19.0
11.8
2.8

Pounds
80
1.0
0.5
23
13
0.5
0.5
Percent
67.5
.84
.42
19.4
10.9
.42
.42
          100
          118.5
           99.9
                     Average

                     Percent
                      65.0
                       2.1
                       0.4
                      19.2
                      11.4
                       1.6
                       0.2

                      99.9
     Category
     Aluminum
     Organics
     Total Ferrous
       Magnetic Ferrous
     Rocks, Inert, Glass
       Rocks
       Glass
     Copper/Brass
  Sample 1
             Sample 2
Pounds
26.7
33.8
25.5
(21.0)
79.3
(41.3)
(38.0)
10.2
Percent
15.2
19.2
14.5
(11.9)
45.2
(23.5)
(21.6)
5.8
Pounds
11.7
14.1
15.0
(9.5)
44.8
(16.4)
(28.4)
6.5
Percen
12.7
15.3
16.3
(10.3)
48.6
(17.8)
(30.8)
7.1
                              Average

                              Percent
                               14.3
                               17.9
                               15.1
                              (11.4)
                               46.4
                              (21.6)
                              (24.8)
                                6.2
         TOTALS
175.5
99.9
92.1
100
99.9

-------
  APPENDIX  G
WATER CONSUMPTION
      207

-------
  WATER CONSUMPTION

ALL VALUES IN GALLONS

Heck
7 Jan
1< Jan
21 Jan
2E. Jan
4 Feb
11 Feb
IE Feb
25 Feb
4 Mar
11 Mar
IE. Mar
25 Mar
1 Apr
B Apr
15 Apr
21 Apr
29 Apr
6 May
13 May
2O May
2T May
3 June
1C June
TOTAL
HU.
Mij>.
Avg.
S
Process
H20 TOTAL
241,900
248,300
308,000
556,000
414.000
353.000
436.000
371.400
531.000
512,000
299,000
318,000
261,000
255,000
434,000
352.000
386.000
378.000
435,000
548,000
439,000
521,000
401,000
8.508.000
556,000
241,900
405,100
21
Process
H20-Fib. Rec
__ 	
	 
70,030
180,000
134,000
212.000
176.000
117.000
221.000
188.000
59.000
72.800
35.200
51.600
111,000
85,200
59.300
59,400
122,000
152,000
141,500
222,000
161,400
2.630.000
222,000
35,200
125,000
21
White H20
TOTAL
810,000
828,000
563,000
1,289,000
837.000
827,000
848.000
712,000
1.058.000
1.224.000
652,000
867 , 000
683,000
631,000
1,147,000
820,000
942,000
878,000
970,000
1,262.000
1.165,000
1.115,000
852,000
20,980,000
1,289,000
563,000
926,000
20
White H20
Hydra A
810,000
828,000
514,000
1,127,000
831.000
827.000
802,000
707,000
962.000
1,134,000
612,000
640,000
603,000
563,000
1,013,000
740,000
889,000
637.000
807,000
1,043,000
994,000
1,019,000
711,000
18.760,000
1,134,000
514,000
815,000
20
                                 Fiber Rec.
                                  49,000
                                 162,000
                                   6,000

                                  46,000
                                   5,300
                                  96.200
                                  89,600
                                  39,300
                                 227,000
                                  80,000
                                  67,600
                                 134,000
                                  79,600
                                  52,600
                                 241,000
                                 163,000
                                 219,000
                                 221,000
                                  96,000
                                 141,000

                               2.215,000

                                 241,000
                                   5,300
                                 111,000
                                   20
                                                Process Natei
                                                  Hydra A
  188,100
  351.500
  266.000

  284.050
  253,650
  336.300
  371.450
  220.400
  123,500
  200,450
  177,650
  313,500
  253.650
  236.550
  286,900
  270.750
  339,150
  288.800
  351.500
  253.650

5.817,800

  371,450
  123,500
  264.445
    22
         208

-------
         APPENDIX  H






POWER AND WATER CONSUMPTION




   DATA/TON REFUSE INPUT
              209

-------
     POWER AND WATER CONSUMPTION DMA/TON REFUSE INPUT
HYDRASPOSAL  *A*
                             FIBRE RECOVERY
                                                           HYDRA "B"
Average
gal v. w.
Meek Ton
7 Jan 5243
14 Jan 6320
21 Jan 4638
28 Jan SOOO
4 Feb 5690
11 Feb 5310
18 Feb 5270
25 Feb 4840
4 Mar 5190
11 Mar 7840
IB Mar 4510
25 Mar 4870
1 Apr 3960
8 Apr 4330
15 Apr SSSO
22 Apr 4380
29 Apr 3860
6 Nay 2680
13 May 3770
20 May 4600
27 May 5590
3 June 5300
10 June 3760
TOTAL 112,501
Max. 7840
Kin. 2680
Aver. 4891
N 23
Tons are pulper
inpur wet weight
WW- Whitewater
PV- Process Hater
CW- city Hater
weekly values
gal p.w. Kwh
Ton Ton
1476
1320
1790
1642
1910
1930
1960
1630
1910
2703
1706
989
1380
1440
1590
1600
1080
1270
1330
1570
1800
1930
1410
37,566
2703
989
1633
23





33.5
27.0
33.7
32.9
39.9
40.3
36.0
31.1
38.7
46.4
31.6
25.3
27.2
30.7
31.4
36.0
27.8
22.8
27.5
29.0
33.1
34. 5
30.4
746.8
46.4
22.8
32.5
23





"Average weekly values
gal w.w. gal p.w. Kwh
Ton Ton Ton


914
...
107
...
475
102
806
826
1040
3840
2530
1860
20SO
1420
1560
4720
1690
2350

906
1240
28.436
4720
102
1580
18
"Tons
input



...
	
1305
1260
2370
1490
1810
2250
1650
1730
1569
1233
1113
1420
1700
1520
1760
1162
1260
1630
1730
2096
1420
33.678
2370
1113
1604
21
are dry




_..

27.0
23.3
24.7
19.9
22.6
23.2
27.8
28.1
24.3
19.2
19.0
24.0
17.6
22.6
21.1
20.7
19.8
23.6
24.7
12.1
15.2
460.5
28.1
12.1
21.9
21
weight




Average weekly values
gal e.w.
Ton
.._

...
...
...



3100
3650
3070
3960
2580
2690
2340
1890
1800
1460
2300
2480
2490
2340
2200
38,350
3690
1460
2557
IS





                            210

-------
       APPENDIX  I






TEST PROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS




     OF INPUT REFUSE
             211

-------
TEST PROCEDURES FOR ANALYSIS OF INPUT REFUSE

The analysis of the input refuse involves the separation of

the refuse into various categories which can be used to

characterize the refuse.  Most of the past analyses of muni-

cipal solid waste were made to determine design criteria

for incinerators, sanitary landfills, or composting projects.

Each of these disposal methods requires different information,

so different separation categories were used for each system.

Criteria important to incineration design are calorific value,

moisture content, noncombustible content and components

whose combustion products are corrosive.  A typical classifi-

cation system may include the following categories:

     A.  Combustible
         Food Waste
         Garden waste
         Paper products
         Plastic, leather, rubber
         Textiles
         Wood Limbs, sawdust

     B.  Noncombustible
         Ferrous
         Non-ferrous
         Glass
         Ceramics
         Ash, earth, rocks

Criteria important to sanitary landfill design and operation

include the amount of decomposable organic matter and density

of the compacted refuse.  Components affecting the composting

of refuse include noncompostable materials, moisture and

chemical composition.

There are several classification systems that could be used
                             212

-------
to classify the refuse received at the Franklin Plant.  These

classification systems are given in the following tables.

Categories Specified by the National Survey of Community

Solid Waste Practices

    1.  General Paper wastes
    2.  Metallics, ferrous, nonferrous
    3.  Food
    4.  Yard
    5.  Wood
    6.  Glass
    7.  Plastic, rubber
    8.  Miscellaneous

Categories Specified by the Bureau of Solid Waste Management

    1.  Food wastes
    2.  Garden wastes
    3.  Paper products
    4.  Plastics, rubber and leather
    5.  Testiles
    6.  Wood
    7.  Metal products
    8.  Glass and ceramic products
    9.  Ash, rocks, and dirt

Categories Specified in "Municipal Refuse Disposal"

    1.  Cans
    2.  Bottles
    3.  Ferrous metals
    4.  Nonferrous metals
    5.  Rags
    6.  Paper
    7.  Plastic, leather, rubber
    8.  Wood, limbs, sawdust
    9.  Food wastes, grass clippings, leaves
   10.  Bricks, stones, dirt, ashes

Categories used by Black Clawson Company on Whole Refuse

    1.  Glass                    6.  Rags
    2.  Paper                    7.  Plastics, rubber
    3.  Ferrous metals           8.  Unclassified amount
    4.  Vegetation
    5.  Wood
 Municipal Refuse Disposal, Institute for Solid Wastes of
 American Public Works Assn, Interstate Printers and Publ,
 1970
                             213

-------
The classification system for the whole refuse received at

the Franklin facility should be directed toward the recover-

able materials in the refuse and produce results which will

be comparable to those achieved by other classification

systems.


Most of the above classification systems do not adequately

characterize the refuse for the Franklin Plant, therefore

the following classification system is proposed to better

fit the objectives of the Franklin Solid Waste Study.


Proposed Classification System for Input Refuse

    1.  Glass
    2.  Paper
    3.  Metals (magnetic and nonmagnetic)
    4.  Nonfiber organic materials
        (wood, food and garden, textiles, plastics)
    5.  Inert materials
        (dirt, rocks, ashes, ceramics)

The aluminum content of the refuse can be determined from

the aluminum fractions of the cyclone rejects and nonmagnetic

junk.


The composition of the input refuse will be determined by

hand sorting samples into the above categories.  Pieces of

refuse composed of materials from more than one category

which cannot be easily separated will be placed in the

category representing.the largest portion of the piece.

For example, a metal toy with plastic wheels consisting

largely of magnetic metal would be placed in that category.
                             214

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Relatively large samples are required of municipal solid


waste because of the extreme heterogenity and particle size


range.  Municipal Refuse Disposal  suggests that a minimum


sample size of 500 pounds be used as an initial sample.


However, more recent studies on solid waste sampling pro-

                                                2
cedures by the Bureau of Solid  Waste Management  have


indicated that a 200 pound sample is adequate.  At this


time, Systech proposes to use 200 pound samples.
The number of samples required to characterize the input


refuse is based on the precision and confidence level


desired.  If the percentage of a component of solid waste


is to have a given probability of being within a specified


range the number of samples required to obtain this degree


of confidence can be determined by  calculation using the


following formula:


                           s)
                         Ez
where z = normal standard deviate for the confidence interval


          desired


      s = estimated standard deviation (determined experi-


          mentally to be 0.1632)


      m = number of samples required


      $ = sensitivity defined as
          2 arcsin    /x - 2   arcsin  y x * A  where x is


          the average percentage and A is the precision required.
2Reference:  Sample Weights in Solid Waste Composition Studies
 Albert J. Klee and Dennis Corruth; Journal of Sanitary Engr.
 Div. ASCE Vol 96, NO. SA4, Aug 1970.
                              215

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The preceeding formula was used  for determining  the number

of samples required to obtain the percentage of  a  refuse

component with a 90% probability of being within a 1  5% range.


The estimated values of refuse components used for calculation

of the number of samples required are based on tests  made on

the Franklin refuse by the Black Clawson Company.  The

estimated composition of the Franklin solid waste  is  given

as follows:

                                     Percent Wet Weight

     1)  Glass                               10%

     2)  Paper                               35%

     3)  Magnetics                           10%

     4)  Non fiber organic materials         40%

     5)  Inert materials                    	5%

                                            100%

The number of samples required for a 90% probability  of being

within 5% of the correct value of the refuse component is

calculated as follows:
   Number of samples required
     for glass component      =

   Number of samples required _
     for paper component      ~
  (1.645)   (0.1632)
(.6435 -.7954)

  (1.645)   (0.1632J
(   1.2661 - 1.3694). ,
   Number of samples required _  |   (1.645)   (0.1632)
     for magnetic component      l(  0.6435 -   .07954
  Ed.|
 07
                                                     2
 =  3.12
 =  6.75
'-  3.12
   Number of samples required    _                  "]_
     for non fiber organic    =  |   (1.645)   (0.1632) K= 7
     component                   [(  1.0472 -  1.1593)J
                         04
                             216

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    Number of  samples required     1(1.645)   (0.1632)1 2 _
                                 =  ^0.4510  - 0.6435)J  " 194
 Seven samples  are required to establish  90  percent confidence

 in a 5 percent variation for all of the  above categories.

 The moisture content of the individual can  be determined

 by analysis of representative samples.


   U S GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1975 3)0-810 53
yol261
                               217

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