United States              National Air and Radiation
Environmental Protection         Environmental Laboratory
Agency                1504 Avenue A             EPA 520/5-91 -013
Office of Radiation Programs        Montgomery, AL 36115-2601        December 1990


Radiation
Environmental
Data
Report 62
April-June 1990

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ENVIRONMENTAL



RADIATION



DATA
                   REPORT 62



                 April - June 1990
     United States Environmental Protection Agency




             Office of Radiation Programs

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                                             Preface
    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is compiled and distributed quarterly by the Office of Radiation
Programs' National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, and
contains data from the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS). Data from similar
networks operated by contributing States, Canada, Mexico, and the Pan American Health Organisation are
reported in the ERD when available.
    ERAMS was established in 1973 by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation
Programs (ORP). The ERAMS is comprised of nationwide sampling stations that provide air, surface and
drinking water, and milk samples from which environmental radiation levels are derived. The major emphasis
for ERAMS is upon identifying trends in the accumulation of long-lived radionuclides in the environment.
    Sampling  locations are selected to provide optimal population coverage while functioning  to monitor
fallout from nuclear devices and other forms of radioactive contamination of the environment. The radiation
analyses performed on these samples include gross alpha and gross beta levels, gamma analyses for fission
products, and  specific  analyses for uranium, plutonium, strontium, iodine, radium,  krypton, and tritium.
This monitoring effort also provides ancillary information on natural  background levels and on routine and
accidental releases into the environment from stationary sources.
    The radiochemical procedures used by the NAREL to analyse the  ERAMS samples are contained in
Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility Radiochemistry Procedures  Manual (EPA 520/5-84-006). Station
operation and sample collection are in accordance with procedures contained in the ERAMS Manual (EPA
620/5-84-007, 008, 009).
                                               111

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                    Environmental Radiation Data








                                    Contents




                                                                              Page



Data - Reporting Rationale and Procedure*                                           jz




Data - ERAMS                                                                  1




      Section I.   Ait Program                                                    1




                  1. Airborne Particulate* and Precipitation                           1




                  2. Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particnlates                   22




                  3. Krypton-85                                                  23




      Section II.   Water Program                                                  24




                  1. Surface Water                                                24




                 2. Drinking Water                                               29




      Section III.  External Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program                        33




      Section IV.  Milk Program                                                   34




                 1. Pasteurised Milk                                              34




                 2. Carbon-14 in Milk                                             41

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                        Environmental Radiation Data









                                       List  of Tables




Table                                                                                   Eage




 1      ERAMS Reporting Increments and Minimum Detectable Levels                         xi




 2      Gross Beta in Aiibotne Participates: April 1990                                       2




 3      Gross Beta in Airborne Participates: May 1990                                       4




 4      Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates: June 1990                                       6




 5      Gross Beta in Precipitation: January 1990                                            8




 6      Gross Beta in Precipitation: February 1990                                           10




 7      Gross Beta in Precipitation: March 1990                                             12




 8      Gross Beta in Precipitation: April 1990                                              14




 9      Gross Beta in Precipitation: May 1990                                               16




 10     Gross Beta in Precipitation: June  1990                                               18




 11     Tritium in Precipitation: April - June 1990                                           20




 12     Tritium in Surface Water: April - June 1990                                          25




 13     Surface Water Annual Gamma Analysis: April - June 1990                             27




 14     Tritium in Drinking Water: April - June 1990                                         30




 15     Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: April 1990                                         35




 16     Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: May 1990                                         37




 17     Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk: June  1990                                         39
                                              Vll

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                              DATA - Repotting Rationale and Procedures


     In  1973, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs established the
 Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) to provide continuous, accurate, and usable
 environmental radiation  data to the public.  For completeness, ERAMS data for all  specific radionuclide
 analyses are reported as the calculated results indicate, whether the numbers are negative, zero, or positive.

                                          Reporting Rationale

     Frequently, there is little or no radioactivity in environmental media. Thus, the results of laboratory
 analyses should statistically show a distribution of negative and positive numbers about ero.  A negative
 value  occurs when a previously determined  background value is subtracted from a sample value that  is
 less than that of the background. Prior to July  1975, ERAMS data were not reported numerically when
 the results were less than a specified  reporting level or minimum detectable level.  The present reporting
 procedure allows all the data to  be reported and evaluated statistically without an arbitrary cutoff of small
 or negative numbers. This approach will facilitate estimates of bias  in the nuclide analyses and will allow
 better evaluation of distributions and trends in environmental data.
     When reviewing the  data in this report, caution should be exercised  in the interpretation of individual
 negative values.  Obviously, a negative activity value has no physical significance. Such numbers, however,
 are significant when taken together with other observations that indicate that the true value of a distribution
 is near ero. When an average  of many measurements  produces  a result significantly less than sero, this
 indicates a bias in the measurement procedure.
     (1)  Reported Values

         Specific Analyses. All specific radionuclide analyses will be reported as the counting results indicate,
     whether the value is  negative, eio, or positive. All reported values are corrected for radioactive decay
     to the collection date.

         Gross Analyses.  The actual  value of gross radioactivity measurements will  be  reported unless
     the  value is below the minimum detectable level (MDL) at the 2
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                                       Table 1
ERAMS  Reporting Increments  and  Minimum Detectable Levels
                          for Radionuclide Analyses
Radionuclide
Gross Alpha
f Gross Beta
Tritium
Carbon-14
Krypton-85
tt Plutonium-238,239,240
f
t Uranium-234,235,238
Radium-226
Strontium-90
tt Strontium-89
tt Iodine-131
Iodine-129
Cesium-137
}t Barium-140
Potassium
Potassium-40
Media
Water
Air
Water
Precipitation

Water
Milk
Milk
Ambient Air
Air
Milk
Water
Air
Milk
Water
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Milk
Water
Water
Milk
Milk .
Water
Milk
Water
Milk
Water
Water
Reporting
Units
pCi/1
pCi/m"
PCi/1
nCi/ma
Reporting
Increments
1 pCi/1
0.01 pCi/m"
1 PCi/l
0.01 nCi/ma
Minimum
Detectable
Levels
2 pCi/1
0.01 pCi/m8
1 pCi/1
0.01 nCi/m3
(specific radiochemical analyses)
nCi/1
nCi/1
PCi/1
pCi/m
aCi/m8
PCi/l
PCi/l
aCi/m8
pCi/1
pCi/1
PCi/1
PCi/1
PCi/1
PCi/l
pCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
fCi/1
PCi/1
pCi/1
pCi/1
PCi/l
g/1
g/1
PCi/1
0.1 nCi/1
0.1 nCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/m8
0.1 aCi/m8
0.001 pCi/1
0.001 pCi/1
0.1 aCi/m8
0.001 pCi/1
0.001 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
IpCi/l
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 pCi/1
O.lfCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
1 pCi/1
0.1 g/1
0.1 g/1
1 pCi/1
0.2 nCi/1
0.2 nCi/1
IB pCi/1
2 pCi/m8
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.015 pCi
0.1 pCi/1
IpCi/l
1 pCi/1
5 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
0.4 pCi/1
0.4 fCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
10 pCi/1
0.12 g/1
0.12 g/1
100 pCi/1
  f The value of MDL for precipitation in terms of nCi/m2 would b dependent on precipitation (mm).
 ft This value of MDL for air in terms of PCi/m3 would be dependent on the air volume. Measurement by alpha spectroscopy
    that includes contributions of plutonium-239 and plutonium-240. MDL for all media given per sample.
  t This value of MDL for air in terms of pCi/m8 would be dependent on the air volume. MDL for all media given per sample.
 tt Activity as of the day of counting.
                                           XI

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                                                                                       DATA - EPA


                                  ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                            AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


     Section I. Ait Program

                                Airborne Partictilatc* and Precipitation

     Gross beta radioactivity measurements and certain specific analyses are performed on air participates
 and precipitation samples as indicator measurements in assessing the general (national) impact of all con-
 tributing sources on environmental levels of radiation.
     Airborne participates are collected continuously at field stations representing wide geographic coverage,
 including present and potential sources of environmental radioactivity. Sampling sites are located throughout
 the United States.
     Filters  (10-cm diameter synthetic fiber) from air samplers are changed twice weekly and field measure-
 ments are made with a G-M survey meter f  at 5 hours  and 29 hours after collection to allow for radon and
 thoron daughter product  decay. Field estimates are reported to appropriate EPA officials by telephone or
 mail depending on the activity levels found.
     The filters are sent to NAREL for more sensitive analyses in a low background beta counter.  Gamma
 scans are performed on all filters showing gross beta counts greater than 1 pCi/m8. The laboratory obtained
 values are usually lower than the field estimates due to the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides between
 the times of the two measurements.
    Precipitation samples are collected at those field stations collecting air filters.  These  samples  are also
 sent to NAREL  where  they are composited monthly for  gamma scans, tritium,  and gross beta  activity
 measurements. A composite of the March, April, and May precipitation samples is analysed for plutonium-
 238, -239, -240, and uranium-234, -235, and -238.
    A compilation of individual measurements is available from the National Air and  Radiation Environ-
 mental Laboratory, 1604 Avenue A, Montgomery, AL 36115-2601.

    Tables 2-4 contain the data in airborne participate samples for April - June 1990.  Tables 5-7  contain
the data in precipitation sample for January - March 1990.  Tables 8-10 contain the data in precipitation
sample for April - June 1990.   Table  11 contains the data for tritium in precipitation samples  for April -
June 1990 at the selected sites..
    The counts at five hours for the Montgomery, Alabama, station are performed on a low background beta counter.

                                                1

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                     Table 2
      Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
                     AprU1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CAtLOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT) HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FLtMIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
IA:IOWA CITY
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL : CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
ME: AUGUST A
MI: LANSING
MS: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
NDtBISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
If J: TRENTON
NVtLAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: HEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
HYrYAPHAHK
Number
of
Samples
5
9
9
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
3
6
6
8
9
8
8
8
6
9
7
9
8
9
9
3
8
7
4
7
5-Hour Field
Eitinate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m8)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.7 0.3 0.4
3.6 0.6 2.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.0 0.3
2.8 1.1 1.8
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.8 0.0 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.6 0.0 0.1
0.2 0.1 0.2
O.S 0.1 0.2
3.0 0.5 1.6
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.6 0.0 0.6
*
3.2 0.6 1.8
1.0 0.8 0.7
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.1 0.2
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.5 0.2 0.3
1.7 0.3 0.7
0.7 0.2 0.4
1.4 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
2.4 0.4 0.9
S.I 0.2 1.8
0.6 0.1 0.3
1.8 0.2 0.6
1.0 0.2 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.5 0.0 0.3
0.9 0.1 0.4
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.3 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m8)
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.04 0.02 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.09 0.01 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.02 0.03
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
* Instrumentation defective, no reading reported.

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                  Table 2 (continued)

        Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
                        April 1990
Location
OH: COLUMBUS
OHsPAINESVILLE
OH iTOLEOO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBORG
PA: PITTSBURGH
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC: BARM WELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TH:KHOXVILLE
TR: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
UTiSALT LAKE CITY
VAtLYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WA: SPOKANE
Hi! MAD ISDN
WV: CHARLESTON
WY: CHEYENNE
lumber
of
Samples
6
8
9
4
8
9
9
7
2
8
4
7
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
9
3
6-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Kin Avg
(pCi/m)
0.3 0.1 0.2
1.0 0.1 0.3
0.9 0.1 0.3
1.3 0.2 0.9
0.0 0.0 0.0
O.S O.i 0.3
0.3 0.3 0.3
0.5 0.0 0.2
0.1 0.0 0.1
0.8 0.1 0.4
1.4 0.6 0.9
1.9 0.1 0.8
0.9 0.2 0.4
0.7 0.2 0.4
2.4 0.0 0.9
1.1 0.1 O.B
0.7 0.2 0.3
0.7 0.1 0.3
1.0 0.4 0.6
1.5 0.3 0.8
0.5 0.0 0.3
1.0 0.4 0.7
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m8)
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.02 0.02
0 . 04 0 . 01 0 . 02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.02 0.03
Minimum Detectable
Minimum Detectable
JjlUlIt 1UJ. ILCIU ^aV*Al.*W"-^  ***. fr-*r*.fm~- -
Limit for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/m3.

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             Table 3
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
             May 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR : LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CA-.LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
IA:IOWA CITY
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IK: INDIANAPOLIS
KS:TOPEKA
KY: FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
HC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OR: COLUMBUS
Number
of
Sample!
7
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
8
8
8
9
7
8
9
7
9
S
5
9
9
6
9
9
8
8
8
7
9
9
9
4
9
9
4
8
5
5-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m3)
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 O.i O.S
3.8 0.3 2.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.3 0.1 0.1
2.7 1.1 1.9
0.3 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.6 0.1 0.2
0.9 0.8 0.9
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.3
2.1 0.0 0.7
3.3 0.6 1.3
0.5 0.3 0.4
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.6 0.0 0.3
1.8 0.1 0.6
0.7 0.0 0.3
1.5 0.3 0.6
1.1 0.1 0.4
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.8 0.4 0.8
2.9 0.6 1.5
0.5 0.1 0.2
1.5 0.2 0.5
0.9 0.2 0.4
0.1 0.0 0.1
1.0 0.1 0.4
0.7 0.1 0.4
0.1 0.1 0.1
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.2
NAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/n8)
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.02 0,01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.03
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.02 0.02

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                  Table 3 (continued)

        Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
                         May 1990
Location
OHtPAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PA: PITTSBURGH
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARIWELL
SC: COLOMBIA
SD: PIERRE
THrKHOXVILLE
TM:HASHTILLE
TXrAOSTIK
TX:EL PASO
OT:SALT LAKE CITY
VAtLYHCHBORG
WA:OLYMPIA
VA: SPOKANE
WlrHADISOK
WV: CHARLESTON
Bunber
of
Sa&pli
9
9
9
8
8
8
2
9
6
8
9
8
8
8
9
8
8
6
8
5-Hour Fild
Etiaat
Max Mln Avg
(pCi/m*)
0.8 0.1 0.3
0.6 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.4 0.1 0.2
0.3 0.3 0.3
0.4 0.1 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.8 0.1 0.4
1.4 0.3 0.7
1.6 0.2 O.S
0.7 0.2 0.4
0.6 0.2 0.3
0.7 0.1 0.3
1.8 0.4 1.0
0.6 0.0 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.8 0.2 0.4
1.2 0.2 0.5
0.5 0.0 0.2
HAREL Lab
Measurment
Max Mia Avg
(pCi/m8)
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.02 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.01
0.02 O.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.03 0.02 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
Minimum Detectable
Minimum Detectable
Limit for field estimates - 0.1 pCi/m .
Limit for laboratory measurement - 0.01 pCi/m3.

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             Table 4
Gross Beta in Airborne Participates
             June 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO:DEKVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FLiHIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
IA-.IOWA CITY
ID:BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN : INDIANAPOLIS
KS'.TOPEKA
KY : FRANKFORT
LA: NEW ORLEANS
ME: AUGUSTA
MI:LANSIHG
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO '.JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC : CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NE: LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY -.ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
Number
of
Sample*
7
9
7
9
9
8
8
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
7
9
8
3
E
9
8
8
8
9
7
8
9
8
9
8
8
4
9
9
2
9
7
5-Hour Field
Estimate
M&x Min Avg
(pCi/m8)
1.6 0.2 1.0
1.9 0.1 0.8
3.5 0.8 1.9
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.6 0.1 0.2
3.0 0.3 1.8
0.3 0.1 0.2
1.0 0.1 O.S
0.2 0.1 0.1
0.1 0.0 0.0
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.1 0.3
1.3 0.9 1.1
0.0 0.0 0.0
0.7 0.1 0.5
0.6 0.0 0.3
2.6 0.7 1.8
1.7 0.2 0.8
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.4 0.0 0.2
0.9 0.2 0.6
1.4 0.0 O.S
1.0 0.3 0.7
1.1 0.3 0.6
0.8 0.0 0.3
0.0 0.0 0.0
1.7 0.2 0.7
2.2 0.3 1.0
0.5 0.1 0.3
1.5 0.2 0.8
0.9 0.3 0.6
0.1 0.0 0.0
1.2 0.2 0.6
2.1 0.2 0.8
0.1 0.1 0.1
0/6 0.1 0.3
1.0 0.2 0.5
NAREL Lab
MeaBurment
Max Min Avg
(pCi/m8)
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.02
0.01 0,00 0.00
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.03 0.01 0.02
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.06 0.01 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.03
0.05 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.03 0.00 0.01
0.04 0.01 0.02
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.06 0.02 0.04
0.01 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.00 0.01
0.02 0.01 0.01
0.01 0.00 0.00
0.02 0.01 0,02

-------
                 Table 4 (continued)
        Gross Beta in Airborne Particulates
                       June 1990
Location
OH:PAIIESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PAtHARRISBORQ
PA PITTSBURGH
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC: BAR! WELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SD: PIERRE
TM:KMOXVILLE
TM:RASHVILLE
TX:ADSTIH
TI:EL PASO
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VAiLYKCHBURG
UA:OLYHPIA
WA: SPOKANE
MI: MADISON
VY: CHARLESTON
lumbar
of
Samples
9
8
9
8
9
7
r
i
9
4
9
9
9
9
8
8
9
8
8
r
6-Hour Field
Estimate
Max Min Avg

-------
          Table 5
Gross Beta in Precipitation
        January 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
C A '.BERKELEY
CT: HARTFORD
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
ID: BOISE
IL: CHICAGO
HO: JEFFERSON CITT
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
NJ: TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY -.ALBANY
WYrNEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NYsYAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH GAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK '.OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
PArMIDDLETOWJf
SC: COLUMBIA
TB :KNOX7ILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
Depth
(mm)
180.0
159.0
4.2
89.2
104.0
8.0
2.8
111.0
39.0
67.2
24.0
163.6
139.0
8,0
77.0
36.0
40.0
47.8
60.0
65.0
38.0
B1.2
40.0
36.0
64.0
117.2
92.0
79.2
130.6
130.6
Act . 20
(nCi/m2)
0.21 0.10
0.14 0.08
0.01 0.00
0.07 O.OB
0.23 0.06
0.00 0.00
0.03 0.00
0.07 0.06
0.12 0.02
0.13 0.04
0.02 0.01
0.08 0.06
0.14 0.06
0.00 0.00
0.06 0.03
0.18 0.03
0.07 0.02
0.08 0.03
0.14 0.03
0.16 0 . 04
0.11 0.03
0.10 0.03
0.01 0.01
0.03 0.02
0.06 0.03
0.12 O.OS
0.10 0.04
0.11 0.04
0.08 0.05
0.14 0.06
Specific
Gamma
Activity
ND
ND
RD
ND
XD
HD
HD
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
NA
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
m
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
D

-------
         Table 5 (continued)

    Gross Beta in Precipitation

             January 1990
Location
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
OTtSALT LAKE CITY
VA:LYNCHBURG
WA:OLTHPIA
WI: MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON
Depth
(mm)
18.0
5.0
10.8
74.0
475.2
30.8
62.0
Act. 2
-------
          Table 6
Gross Beta in Precipitation
        February 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OHrPAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PArHARRISBDRG
Depth
(mm)
170.4
109.0
57.0
15.6
116.0
166.6
31.2
35.0
20.6
14.6
69.6
85.0
7.6
48.0
155.0
142.0
60.0
3.0
61.4
7.0
115.0
30.0
98.0
57.0
42.0
100.0
78.0
14.0
143.6
12.4
Act. 2
-------
          Table 6  (continued)

    Gross Beta in Precipitation

             February 1990
Location
SC: COLUMBIA
TI:KIOXVILLE
TM:MASHVILLE
TXsAUSTII
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VA:LYICHBURG
WA:OLTHPIA
WI.'MADISOI
WV: CHARLESTON
Depth
(mm)
50.6
117.0
133.2
76.0
16.0
S2.4
151.0
6.0
51.0
Act. 2 = No Gamma Activity Detectable.
                   11

-------
          Tfeble?
Gross Beta in Precipitation
         March 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
HO: JEFFERSON CITT
MS : JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND. -BISMARCK
NJ: TRENTON
NT tALBANY
BY:NEH YORK CITY
NY .-NIAGARA FALLS
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH.-PAINESVILLE
OH .'TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR {PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURfi
Depth
(ma)
142.8
173.0
5.0
29.6
60.6
50.0
30.8
29.2
69.0
24.0
18.2
73.4
38.0
98.0
48.0
42.0
126.0
47.0
4.6
38.8
72.0
34.2
20.0
60.0
66.0
8.0
18.0
40.0
58.6
2.0
Act. 2
-------
         Table 7 (continued)

     Gross Beta in Precipitation

              March 1990
Location
SC: COLOMBIA
TN:KMOXVILLE
TIrlASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TXiEL PASO
UTiSALT LAKE CITT
VArLTHCHBURQ
VA:OLTNPIA
WI: MID ISDN
Depth
(mm)
34.6
105.0
82.0
62.0
12.0
39.0
47.6
63.8
01.6
Act . 2
-------
               8
Gross Beta in Precipitation
         AprU 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
FLt JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
ID:BDISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
HE: AUGUST A
HI: LANSING
HN: MINNEAPOLIS
HO: JEFFERSON CITT
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
KG '.WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NH: CONCORD
NJ: TRENTON
NK: SANTA FE
NT: ALBANY
NT: NEW YORK CITT
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NT : SYRACUSE
NT:YAPHANK
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH -.TOLEDO
Depth
(mm)
6S.6
153.0
4.0
5.2
12.6
105.0
64.2
127.6
B2.6
16.2
59.4
43.0
58.0
47.8
82.0
24.0
42.0
58.0
77.8
4.0
74.4
80.2
12.8
60.0
53.2
89.0
8.0
156.0
95.2
97.0
Act . 2
-------
            Table 8 (continued)

      Gross Beta in Precipitation
                  April 1990
Location
OR: PORTLAND
PA .-HARRISBORG
RI: PROVIDENCE
SCrBARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
TNrKNDXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TX:EL PASO
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VArLYNCHBURG
WA:OLYMPIA
WI: MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON
Depth
(ma)
42.0
58.8
42.0
79.0
32.2
55.0
62.0
26.0
6.0
22.0
62.0
90.0
33.2
32.0
Act . 2
-------
         Table 9
Gross Beta in Precipitation
         May 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FLtJACKSOXVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
ME -.AUGUSTA
HI: LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON

HD: BISMARCK
NH: CONCORD
NJ: TRENTON
NY (ALBANY
NY: HEW YORK CITY
NY (NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
Dpth
(nun)
92.0
99. 0
67.4
43. 8
141.0
149.0
26.0
81.4
9.0
51.0
18.6
173.4
142.4
89.0
77.4
92.0
6.0
118.0
105. 0
118.0

19.2
119.4
177,0
124.0
51.2
114.0
27.0
162.0
42,0
Act . 2o-
(nCi/m3)
0.10 0.04
0.18 0.06
0.03 0.03
0.04 0.02
0.24 0.08
0.34 0.09
0.06 0.01
0.06 0.04
0.01 0.00
0.03 0.02
O.OB 0.01
0.15 0.09
0.04 0.07
0.11 O.OB
0.16 O.OB
0.09 0.04
0.01 0.02
0.05 O.OS
0.16 0.06
0.13 0.08

0.03 0.01
0.39 0.08
0.31 0.10
0.15 0.07
0.06 0.03
0.13 0.06
0.02 0.01
0.40 0.10
0.01 0.02
Specific
Gamma
Activity
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
HD
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
214Bi:7 48%
ai*Pl>:4 60%
ND
ND
ND
SD
JfD
ID
HD
ID
HD
             16

-------
              Table 9 (continued)

         Gross Beta in Precipitation
                     May 1990
Location
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG

RI: PROVIDENCE
SCtBARNWELL
SC: COLOMBIA
TN:KNOXVILLE
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
UT:SALT LAKE CITY
VA:LTNCHBURG
WA:OLTHPIA
VI: MADISON
WV: CHARLESTON
Depth
(nun)
124.6
86.0
63.2
2.0

8.0
51.8
109.8
153.4
89.8
40.0
17.2
45.4
27.4
125.0
25.0
Act. 2
-------
         Table 10
Gross Beta in Precipitation
         June 1990
Location
XL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
FL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITT
MS: JACKSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NH: CONCORD
NJ:TRENTON
NV:LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OH: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINESVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
Depth
(mm)
43.0
36.0
6.0
7.0
131.0
32.4
124.4
23.0
8.0
11.2
61.2
119.0
61.8
182.0
70.0
42.0
34.0
57.0
77.0
88.2
43.4
24.0
21.0
45.2
58.0
24.0
122.0
89.0
71.0
54.0
Act. 2
-------
              Table 10  (continued)

         Gross Beta in Precipitation

                     June 1990
Location
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
TN: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
UT.'SALT LAKE CITY
VAtLYNCHBURG
WArOLYMPIA
WI: MADISON
W7: CHARLESTON
Depth
(mm)
39.6
19.6
22.0
7.4
34.2
40.0
18.4
81.0
86.2
96.0
11.4
Act. 2
-------
        Table 11
Tritium in Precipitation
     April - June 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA: BERKELEY
CO: DENVER
CT: HARTFORD
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: JACKSONVILLE
PL: MIAMI
HI: HONOLULU
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
LA: NEW ORLEANS
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: LANSING
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
1C: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
NH: CONCORD
IJ:TRENTOI
MM: SANTA FB
NT: LAS VEGAS
NY: ALBANY
NY: NEW YORK CITY
NY: NIAGARA FALLS
IT: SYRACUSE
NY:YAPHANK
OR: COLUMBUS
OH:PAINBSVILLE
OH: TOLEDO
OR: PORTLAND
PA:HARRISBURG
RI: PROVIDENCE
April 1990
nCi/1 2
-------
             Table 11 (continued)

           Tritium in Precipitation

                April - June 1990
Location
SCiBARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
THtKHOXVILLE
TH: NASHVILLE
TX: AUSTIN
TI:EL PASO
UT.-SALT LAKE CITT
VArLTICHBURG
WAtOLTMPIA
WI: MADISON
WT: CHARLESTON
April 1990
nCi/1 2
-------
                  Plutonium and Uranium in Airborne Particulars and Precipitation


    Environmental radiation levels of plutonium and uranium are determined by the analysis of semi-
annually composited samples (air  niters) collected from the continuously operating airborne participate
samplers.

    Concentration of the specific isotopes of plutonium-238, -239, and -240 and uranium-234, -235, and
-238 are determined by alpha spectroscopy following chemical separation.  The volume of air represented  by
the semiannual composite ranges from 25,000 to 40,000 cubic meters.

    Plutonium and uranium results are published when they become available.
                                               22

-------
                                             Krypton-85

    Krypton-85 is a long-lived noble gas with a half-life of 10.8 years. It is released into the atmosphere
by nuclear reactor operations, fuel reprocessing, weapons tests, and research and defense related activities.
Krypton-85 also occurs naturally in minor quantities primarily from the neutron capture of stable krypton-
84 as well as spontaneous fission and neutron-induced fission of uranium. Krypton-85 in the atmosphere
has been monitored to identify and establish baseline levels and long-term trends.
    Krypton-85 analysis began in January 1973 with sample collections and analyses being performed for 12
sampling locations. These locations were selected to provide atmospheric coverage of the United States with
considerations being given to the proximity to fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear reactors, and wide geographic
coverage.
    Dry compressed air samples, collected at each location, are purchased from commercial air suppliers and
shipped to the NAREL where the krypton-85 is cryogenicaUy separated and counted in a liquid scintillation
system.
    The last Kr-85 results were for 1976, 1977, and 1979. They were published in Environmental Radiation
Data:  Report 30.
                                                23

-------
                                                                                      DATA - EPA
                                 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                           AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)
    Section II. Water Program
    The ERAMS water program provides data on ambient radiation levels in the nation's rivers, streams,
and drinking water supplies.

                                           Surface Water

    Quarterly grab samples are taken downstream from operating or future nuclear facilities at 58 stations.

    Surface water samples are analyzed for tritium quarterly and specific gamma activity annually. Tritium
is a primary radioactive pollutant from nuclear power plants and weapons production activities.

    Tritium concentrations are determined by liquid scintillation counting of distilled samples.  Gamma
scans are performed annually to determine levels of gamma emitting radionuclides.

    Table 12 contains the data for  tritium concentrations for April - June 1990.   Table 13 contains the
surface water annual gamma results  for April - June 1990.
                                                 24

-------
        Table-12.
Tritium in Surface Water
     April - June 199Q
Location
AL:DECATUR
AL.-DOTHAN
ALiSCOTTSBORO
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA:CLAY STATION
CA: DIABLO CANTON
CA: EUREKA
CA:SAN ONOFRE
CO:PLATTEVILLE
CT:EAST HADDAM
CT:WATERFORD
FL: CRYSTAL RIVER
FL:FT. PIERCE
FL: HOMESTEAD
GA:BAXLEY
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID: BUHL
IL:E. HOLINE
IL: MORRIS
IL:ZION
KS:LEROY
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: PLYMOUTH
MD:CONOWINGO
MD:LUSBY
ME:WISCASSET
MI:BRID6MAN
MItCHARLEVOIX
MI: MONROE
MI: SOUTH HAVEN
MNsMONTICELLO
MN:RED WING
MS: PORT GIBSON
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC:SOUTHPORT
NE:RULO
NJ:BAYSIDE
Source
TENNESSEE RIVER
CHATTAHOOCHEE RIVER
TENNESSEE RIVER
ARKANSAS RIVER
FOLSOM S. CANAL
PACIFIC OCEAN
HUMBOLDT BAY
PACIFIC OCEAN
SOUTH PLATTE RIVER
CONNECTICUT RIVER
LONG ISLAND SOUND
GULF OF MEXICO
ATLANTIC OCEAN
BISCAYNE BAY
ALTAMAHA RIVER
CEDAR RIVER
SNAKE RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
ILLINOIS RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
NEOSHO RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CAPE COD BAY
SUSqUEHANNA RIVER
CHESAPEAKE BAY
MONTSEWAY BAY
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE MICHIGAN
LAKE ERIE
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
CATAWBA RIVER
ATLANTIC OCEAN
MISSOURI RIVER
DELAWARE RIVER
Data
Collectec
.04/03/90
04/11/90
04/04/90
04/16/90
, 04/15/90
06/15/90
04/26/90
05/17/90
04/09/90
04/09/90
04/09/90
04/09/90
04/03/90
04/13/90
04/11/90
04/03/90
04/04/90
04/12/90
04/02/90
OS/15/90
05/15/90
04/27/90
04/03/90
04/05/90
04/09/90
04/09/90
04/10/90
04/05/90
04/09/90
04/05/90
04/12/90
04/06/90
04/03/90
04/03/90
04/10/90
04/10/90
04/17/90
nCi/1 2
-------
             Table 12 (continued)
           Tritium in Surface Water
                April - June 1990
Location
MJ: OYSTER CREEK
HV: BOULDER CITT
NT: CHELSEA
HT:OSSININ6
NT:OSUEGO
OH: TOLEDO
OR:BRADWOOD
PA: DANVILLE
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PHILADELPHIA
SC:ALLENDALE
SC: BROAD RIVER
SC:HARTSVILLE
TN: DAISY
TN: KINGSTON
TX:MATAGORDA
VA:DOSWELL
VA: NEWPORT NEWS
VT:MONTPELIER
WA:NORTHPORT
WA: HIGHLAND
WI:TWO CREEKS
WI: VICTORY
WV: WHEELING
Source
OYSTER CREEK
COLORADO RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
LAKE ONTARIO
LAKE ERIE
COLUMBIA RIVER
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
SCHUYLKILL RIVER-BELMONT
SCHUYLKILL RIVER-QUEEN
DELAWARE RIVER
SAVANNAH RIVER
BROAD RIVER
LAKE ROBINSON
TENNESSEE RIVER
CLINCH RIVER
COLORADO RIVER
NORTH ANNA RIVER
JAMES RIVER
CONNECTICUT RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
OHIO RIVER
Dat
Collected
04/10/00
04/04/00
04/05/00
OS/00/00
OS/01/00
04/05/00
04/30/00
04/18/00
04/10/00
04/10/00
04/10/00
04/30/00
04/11/00
04/10/00
04/17/00
04/24/00
04/10/00
04/02/00
04/23/00
04/20/00
05/23/00
04/12/00
04/12/00
04/10/00
04/04/00
nCi/1 2
-------
                           Table 13
                        Surface Water
                Annual Gamma Analysis
                       April - June 1990
    Location
      Source
    Data
 Collected
     Gamma
   pCi/1 2
-------
              Table 13 (continued)

                 Surface Water
            Annual Gamma Analysis

                 April - June 1990
Location
NJ: OYSTER CREEK
KV: BOULDER CITY
NY: CHELSEA
NY:OSSININ6
NYrOSWEGO
OH: TOLEDO
ORrBRADWOOD
PA: DANVILLE
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PHILADELPHIA
SC:ALLENDALE
SC: BROAD RIVER
SC:HARTSVILLE
TN: DAISY
TN: KINGSTON
TX:MATA60RDA
VArDOSWELL
VA: NEWPORT NEWS
VT:VERNON
WA:NORTHPORT
WArRICHLAND
VI: TWO CREEKS
WI: VICTORY
WV: WHEELING
Sourea
OYSTER CREEK
COLORADO RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
HUDSON RIVER
LAKE ONTARIO
LAKE ERIE
COLUMBIA. RIVER
SUSQUEHANNA RIVER
SCHUYLKILL RIVER-BELMONT
SCHUYLKILL RIVER-QUEEN
DELAWARE RIVER-BAXTER
SAVANNAH RIVER
BROAD RIVER
LAKE ROBINSON
TENNESSEE RIVER
CLINCH RIVER
COLORADO RIVER
NORTH ANNA RIVER
JAMES RIVER
CONNECTICUT RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
COLUMBIA RIVER
LAKE MICHIGAN
MISSISSIPPI RIVER
OHIO RIVER
Data
Collected
04/19/90
04/04/90
04/05/90
OS/09/90
05/01/90
04/05/90
04/30/90
04/18/90
04/19/90
04/19/90
04/19/90
04/30/90
04/11/90
04/10/90
04/17/90
04/24/90
04/10/90
04/02/90
04/23/90
04/20/90
05/23/90
04/12/90
04/12/90
04/10/90
04/04/90
Gamma
pCi/1 2
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                                           Drinking Water

     This program monitors ambient radiation levels in drinking water at 78 sites. These data serve to assess
 trends and anomalies in concentrations, and to compare with standards set forth in the EPA "National
 Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations." These regulations provide for approval of supplies when
 the combined radium-226 and radium-228 levels do not exceed  5 pCi/1, when the gross alpha (excluding
 radon and uranium) levels do not exceed 15 pCi/1, when tritium levels do not exceed 20,000 pCi/1, when the
 strontium-90 levels do not exceed 8 pCi/1, and when the gross  beta levels do  not exceed 60 pCi/1.
     Grab samples are taken at the 78 sites which are either major population centers or selected nuclear
 facility environs.
    The analyses include (a) tritium on a quarterly basis; (b) gross alpha, gross beta, strontium-90, and
 gamma on annual composites;  (c) radium-226 if the gross alpha exceeds 2  pCi/1 and radium-228 if the
 radium-226 falls  between 3 and 5 pCi/1; (d) specific iodine-131 on one quarterly sample per year for each
 station; and (e) an annual composite for plutonium-238, -239,  and -240 and uranium-234, -235, and -238
 for stations that demonstrate gross alpha levels greater than 2 pCi/1.
    Tritium analyses are performed  by scintillation counting of the distilled  samples.  Gross beta and al-
pha are determined by evaporating an aliquot on a stainless steel planchet for counting.  Radium-226 is
determined by the standard emanation technique. Strontium-90 is determined by beta counting a strontium
carbonate precipitate isolated by ion exchange.
    Table 14 contains the data  in drinking water for April - June 1990.
                                              29

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         Table 14
Tritium in Drinking Water
      April - June 1990
Location
AK: FAIRBANKS
ALrDOTHAN
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
CA: BERKELEY
CA:LOS ANGELES
CO: DENVER
CO:PLATTEVILLE
CT: HARTFORD
DC: WASHINGTON
DE: DOVER
FL: MIAMI
PL: TAMP A
GArBAXLEY
GA: SAVANNAH
HI: HONOLULU
IA: CEDAR RAPIDS
ID: BOISE
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: MORRIS
IL:W. CHICAGO
KS:TOPEKA
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: LAWRENCE
MD: BALTIMORE
MD:CONOWINGO
ME: AUGUSTA
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN: MINNEAPOLIS
MN:RED WING
MO: JEFFERSON CITY
MS: JACKSON
MS: PORT GIBSON
MT: HELEN A
Date
Collected
04/10/90
04/11/90
04/30/90
04/16/90
04/03/90
04/04/90
04/09/90
04/04/90
04/02/90
04/02/90
04/09/90
04/09/90
04/11/90
04/11/90
04/18/90
04/20/90
04/02/90
04/05/90
04/09/90
04/02/90
04/02/90
04/02/90
04/09/90
04/04/90
04/02/90
04/05/90
04/19/90
04/25/90
04/16/90
04/19/90
04/20/90
04/02/90
04/03/90
04/10/90
04/03/90
nCi/1 2
-------
   Table 14 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
      April - June 1990
Location
NC: CHARLOTTE
NC: WILMINGTON
ND: BISMARCK
ME: LINCOLN
NH: CONCORD
NJ: TRENTON
NJrWARETOWN
NN: SANTA FE
NVrLAS VEGAS
NT: ALBANY
NT: NEW YORK CITY
NT: NIAGARA FALLS
NY: SYRACUSE
OH: CINCINNATI
OH: COLUMBUS
OH: EAST LIVERPOOL
OR:PAINESVILLE
OR: TOLEDO
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: COLUMBIA
PA:HARRISBURG
PA : P  DELPHIA-BAXTER
PA:P'DELPHIA-QUEEN
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA PITTSBURGH
PC .-CRISTOBAL
RI: PROVIDENCE
SC:BARNWELL
SC: COLUMBIA
SC:HARTSVILLE
SC: JENKINS VILLE
SC: SENECA
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TNtKNOXVILLE
Data
Collected
04/03/90
04/10/90
04/05/90
04/04/90
04/02/90
04/09/90
05/10/90
04/16/90
04/05/90
05/08/90
04/04/90
04/05/90
05/08/90
04/05/90
04/02/90
06/06/90
04/04/90
04/05/90
04/13/90
04/20/90
04/05/90
04/10/90
04/19/90
04/19/90
04/19/90
06/06/90
04/30/90
04/23/90
04/19/90
04/03/90
04/10/90
04/05/90
04/03/90
05/09/90
04/02/90
nCi/1 2
-------
   Table 14 (continued)
Tritium in Drinking Water
      April - June 1990
Location
TX: AUSTIN
VArDOSWBLL
VArLTHCHBURG
VA: VIRGIN 11 BEACH
VI: ST. THOMAS
WA: HIGHLAND
VA: SEATTLE
VI: GENOA CITY
WI: MADISON
Date
Collected
04/11/90
04/10/90
04/02/90
05/07/90
04/30/90
04/12/90
04/05/90
04/10/90
04/03/90
nCi/1 2
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                                                                                     DATA - EPA
                                 ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                           AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)


     Section HI. External Gamma Ambient Monitoring Program

     The external gamma monitoring program, which began in October 1978, provides a continuous measure-
ment of ambient gamma exposure rates, including cosmic, at selected sites throughout the continental United
States. Data from this program are used to evaluate fluctuations in natural background due to variations in
environmental conditions and to provide a means of monitoring any significant increases in ambient gamma
levels. The program consists of approximately 22 sites representing wide geographic coverage throughout the
country.'  Although exposure measurements at these few sites are not totally representative  of nationwide
exposures, they do indicate national trends.
    The  monitoring program utilises CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's). These dosimeters
are commercially available glass-bulb type dosimeters  with energy compensating shields.  A group of three
TLD's is  located at each station or site. Dosimeters are annealed by the station operator prior  to positioning
in the field. The dosimeters are returned  to NAREL for readout approximately every three months. Several
dosimeters are annealed by the station operator as controls and returned with the exposed field dosimeters
to correct for any exposures accumulated during shipment.
    Publication of EG AMP data has been temporarily suspended until problems with the data are resolved.
   Some of th* te. may not return dodmeter. each period d convex** the nuber of te. li.ted n^ v~y lightly.

                                              33

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                                                                                    DATA - EPA
                                ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION
                          AMBIENT MONITORING SYSTEM (ERAMS)
    Section IV. Milk Program

                                         Pasteurized Milk

    This is a cooperative program with the Dairy and Lipid Products Branch, Milk Sanitation Section, Food
and Drug Administration. Milk is a reliable indicator of the general population's intake of radionuchdes
since it is consumed fresh by a large segment of the population and can contain several of the ^logxcaUy
important radionuclide, that result from environmental release, from nuclear activities. A P"^^
of this program is to obtain reliable monitoring data relative to current radiomichde concentration,  and
determine any long-term trends.
    Monthly samples are collected at 65 sampling sites with one or more located in each state, Puerto Rico
and the Panama Canal Zone. The samples  are composited,  according to production, from the major milk
suppliers representing more than 80 percent of the milk consumed in a given population center.
    The samples are analyzed for gamma emitting nuclides, which include iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-
 137, and potassium. All samples  collected in July are analyzed for strontium-89 and strontium-90. Also,
 for 'the first  month of the three  quarters beginning  January, April and October,  10 regional composite
 samples of milk made up from the states within each of EPA's 10 regions are analyzed for strontium-89 and
 strontium-90.
     Iodine-131, barium-140, cesium-137, and potassium are determined by gamma spectral analysis. Stron-
 tium-89 and strontium-90 are determined by beta counting a total strontium precipitate that  has been
 chemically separated by ion exchange.
     Tables 15-17 contain the concentrations of radionuclides in pasteurized mUk for April - June 1990.  The
 last Strontium-90 and Strontium-89 in Milk results were published in Environmental Radiation Data: Report
 60.
                                                  34

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            Table 15
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
            April 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA:LOS AIGELES
CA: SACRAMENTO
CA:SAH FR1MCISCO
CT: HARTFORD
DE:WILNZH6TOI
FL: TAMPA
6A: ATLANTA
HI: HONOLULU
IA:DES MOINES
ID: IDAHO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
KS: WICHITA
KT: LOUISVILLE
LA: MEW ORLEANS
MA: BOSTON
MD: BALTIMORE
ME: PORTLAND
MI: DETROIT
MI: GRAND RAPIDS
MN:ST. PAUL
MO: KANSAS CITT
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS: JACKSON
NT: HELENA
NC: CHARLOTTE
ND:MINOT
NE: OMAHA
NJ:TRENTON
NM: ALBUQUERQUE
NT: BUFFALO
NT: NEW YORK CITT
NT: SYRACUSE
OH CINCINNATI
OH; CLEVELAND
Date
Collected
04/09/90
04/09/90
04/12/90
04/16/90
04/02/90
04/11/90
04/03/90
04/24/90
04/04/90
04/16/90
04/03/90
04/03/90
04/26/90
04/06/90
04/11/90
04/03/90
04/25/90
04/04/90
04/06/90
04/09/90
04/05/90
04/10/90
04/03/90
04/20/90
04/05/90
04/03/90
04/18/90
04/10/90
04/30/90
04/10/90
04/03/90
04/17/90
04/03/90
04/02/90
04/06/90
04/24/90
04/26/90
K
g/1 2
-------
                     Table 15 (continued)
             Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                           April 1990
Location
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
PR: SAN JOAN
SC: CHARLESTON
SD: RAPID CITY
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TNiKNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX:FT. WORTH
VA: NORFOLK
VT: BURLINGTON
WA: SEATTLE
WA: SPOKANE
WV: CHARLESTON
Data
Collected
04/16/00
04/10/90
04/04/90
04/27/90
04/19/90
04/10/90
04/03/90
04/09/90
04/02/90
04/16/90
04/09/90
04/27/90
04/24/90
04/02/90
04/15/90
04/24/90
K
g/1 2
-------
            Table 16
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
            May 1990
Location
1L:MOITGOMERT
AR: LITTLE ROCK
AZ: PHOENIX
CA:LOS ANGELES
CA: SACRAMENTO
CArSAN FRANCISCO
CO: DENVER
DE: WILMINGTON
FL: TAMPA
GA: ATLANTA
HI:HONOLDLD
IA:DES MOINES
ID: ID ABO FALLS
IL: CHICAGO
IN: INDIANAPOLIS
KS: WICHITA
KT:LOOISVILLE
LA: NEW ORLEANS
MA: BOSTON
MD: BALTIMORE
HE :P OUTLAID
MI: DETROIT
HI: GRAND RAPIDS
HO: ST. L00IS
HS: JACKSON
MT: HELENA
NC: CHARLOTTE
NB: OMAHA
NR: MANCHESTER
NJ:TRENTON
NM: ALBUQUERQUE
NT: LAS VEGAS
ITrBDFFALO
NT: NEW YORK CITT
NT: SYRACUSE
[ OH CINCINNATI
OR: CLEVELAND
Date
Collected
06/11/90
05/07/90
05/10/90
05/17/90
05/01/90
05/09/90
05/01/90
05/30/90
06/07/90
06/07/90
06/01/90
05/07/90
06/26/90
06/10/90
05/07/90
05/22/90
06/08/90
05/14/90
05/09/90
05/04/90
06/07/90
06/09/90
06/07/90
06/01/90
06/08/90
05/04/90
05/07/90
05/10/90
05/14/90
05/09/90
05/29/90
05/09/90
06/07/90
06/07/90
06/07/90
06/31/90
06/31/90
K
g/1 2
-------
                     Table 16 (continued)
             Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
                           May 1990
Location
OK: OKLAHOMA CITY
OR: PORTLAND
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
PR: SAN JUAN
SC: CHARLESTON
SD: RAPID CITY
TN: CHATTANOOGA
TH:KNOXVILLE
TN: MEMPHIS
TX: AUSTIN
TX:FT. WORTH
VA: NORFOLK
VT: BURLINGTON
WA: SEATTLE
WV: CHARLESTON
Date
Collected
05/14/90
OS/10/90
05/07/90
OS/07/90
05/26/90
OS/10/90
OS/08/90
05/02/90
05/07/90
05/07/90
05/24/90
05/01/90
OS/09/90
05/29/90
05/10/90
OS/04/90
05/16/90
K
g/1 2
-------
            Table 17
Radionuclides in Pasteurized Milk
            June 1990
Location
AL: MONTGOMERY
CA:SACR1MEITO
CA:SA|T FRAICISCO
CO:DEI?ER
CT: HARTFORD
FL: TAMPA
GA:ATUITA
HI:HOIOLDLU
IA:DES MOIIES
IL: CHICAGO
II:IIDIAIAPOLIS
KS: WICHITA
KT: LOUISVILLE
LA t REV ORLEAIS
MArBOSTOM
MD: BALTIMORE
MB:PORTLAMD
MI: DETROIT
MI:GRAID RAPIDS
MI: ST. PAUL
MO:KAISAS CITY
MO: ST. LOUIS
MS:JACKSOI
MT:HELEIA
C: CHARLOTTE
ID:MIIOT
IE: ON AHA
IH:MAICHESTER
IJ:TREITOI
IT: LAS YEGAS
IT:IEW YORK CITY
Y: SYRACUSE
OH:CIICIIIATI
OR:PORTLAID
PA: PHILADELPHIA
PA: PITTSBURGH
PC: CRISTOBAL
Date
Collected
06/08/90
06/05/00
06/06/00
06/01/90
06/05/90
06/18/90
06/11/90
06/06/90
06/06/90
06/07/90
06/04/90
06/19/90
06/06/90
06/07/90
06/06/90
06/01/90
06/07/90
06/06/90
06/04/90
06/04/90
06/24/90
06/06/90
06/07/90
06/08/90
06/12/90
06/26/90
06/07/90
06/18/90
06/08/90
06/13/90
06/04/90
06/06/90
06/28/90
06/04/90
06/04/90
06/06/90
06/22/90
K
g/1 2
-------
                    Table 17 (continued)

            Radioimclides in Pasteurized Milk
                           June 1990
Location
fcPRtSAI JUAI
SC: CHARLESTON
SD: RAPID CITY
TliCHATTAIOOGA
TI:KIOI?ILLE
Tl: MEMPHIS
TX:FT. WORTH
A:IORFOLK
T:BTOLIIGTOI
WA:SPOKAIE
Date
Collected
08/07/00
06/21/90
00/04/90
08/04/90
06/04/90
06/07/90
08/07/90
06/26/90
06/12/90
06/04/90
K
g/1 2
-------
                                          Carbon-14 " Milk

     Nine stations, chosen for wide geographical distribution, contribute milk sample, for annual analysis
of carbon-14. These samples are momtored for carbon-14 level, in the food chain resulting from nuclei
testing. The pasteumed milk ,, freeie-dried and the resulting powder i, pelleted for ease of combus o"
Analysis consists of combusting the samples and converting the  released carbon  dioxide through a ,erie* of
chemical conversions to beniene  and finally measured by liquid scintillation.

     The samples undergo three main steps in the chemical conversions to beniene prior to liquid scintillation
counting.  They include (1) combustion of the sample to carbon dioxide, (2) conversion of the carbon dioxide
to acetylene, and (3) trimerisations of the acetlyene to beniene. The last carbon-14 results were for samole.
collected during 1983-1986.  1982 and March-May 1987. They were published in Environmental Radiation
Data: Report 59.
                                              41          AUGAf*,AL(iaMS)SM

                                                          6U& GOVERNMENT ItlNTINC OFFICE: ltd  4U-MV2KM

-------
    Environmental Radiation Data (ERD) is published quarterly (January, April,  July, October) by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs.
    Requests for information concerning publication and distribution of ERD should be directed to:

                                        Charles M. Petko
                                       Office of the Director
                       National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                                         1504 Avenue A
                                Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601

    Requests for information concerning the operation of ERAMS should be directed to:

                                    Albert Smith, Acting Chief
                             Monitoring and  Analytical Services Branch
                       National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory
                                         1504 Avenue A
                                Montgomery, Alabama 36115-2601


                                             or to:


                                       Robert S. Dyer, Chief
                            Environmental Studies and Statistics Branch
                             Analysis and Support Division (ANR-461)
                              U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
                                       Waterside Mall East
                                        401  M Street, SW
                                     Washington, DC 20460


                                              ***

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