WATER POLLUTION CONTROL RESEARCH SERIES • 12090 ECS 02/71
  State of the Art of
  Textile Waste  Treatment
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY . WATER QUALITY
OFFICE

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             Water Pollution Control Research Series

     The Water Pollution Control Research Reports describe
the results and progress in the control and abatement of
pollution in our Nation's waters.  They provide a central
source of information on the research, development, and
demonstration activities in the Water Quality Office, in the
Environmental Protection Agency, through in-house research
and grants and contracts with Federal, State, and local agencies,
research institutions, and industrial organizations.

     Inquiries pertaining to Water Pollution Control Research
Reports should be directed to the Head, Project Reports System,
Water Quality Office, Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, D. C. 20242.

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                  STATE OF THE ART OF

                TEXTILE WASTE TREATMENT
                A STUDY CONDUCTED FOR


                 WATER QUALITY OFFICE

         ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                          BY
                DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILES

                 CLEMSON UNIVERSITY

           CLEMSON,  SOUTH CAROLINA 29631
         INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION CONTROL BRANCH
                 GRANT NO. 12090 ECS
                     FEBRUARY,  1971
For sale \>y the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C. 20402 - Price $2.50
                      Stock Number 5501-0090

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                           EPA REVIEW NOTICE

This report has been reviewed and approved  for publication by the Water Quality
Office of the Environmental Protection Agency. Approval does not signify that the
contents necessarily reflect the views or policies of the EPA,  nor does mention of
trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for
use.
                                    it

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                                 ABSTRACT
A study has been made of waste treatment methods and practices used in the textile
industry.  Information was obtained from people working in the textile processing
industry, designing waste treatment plants, and enforcing state and federal regula-
tions on waters discharged to streams and natural reservoirs.  To supplement this
information the literature was reviewed and an annotated bibliography prepared
using  relevant articles.

The report contains sections on the following:  characteristics of textile waste,
waste treatment techniques, treatment methods in use, effects of textile wastes on
receiving waters, the cost of waste treatment operations, and state and federal
regulations governing discharge waters.

Areas of needed research are recommended to improve waste  treatment methods
currently practiced by the textile industry.

The report  is designed to give the reader an insight into the problems facing the
textile industry, solutions presently available, and references for further reading.

The annotated bibliography  contains references on synthetic fiber manufacturing
wastes,  detergent waste treatment,  instrumentation, plant design,  water treatment
for plant use as well as articles pertaining specifically to textile waste treatment.

This report was submitted in fulfillment of Grant project 12090 ECS between the
Federal Water Quality Administration and Clemson University

Key Words: Textiles, Wastewater Treatment,  Industrial Wastes, Cost Comparisons.
                                     • • •
                                     in

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ABSTRACT	     "'

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS	       I
    Areas of Needed Research	 .	       I
          Desizing	       I
          Removal of Dyes from Textile Waste	       I
          Electrolytic Treatment of Textile Waste	       2
          Space Requirements of Waste Treatment Plants	       4
          Reverse Osmosis	       4
          Sludge Handling and Disposal	       5
          Water Reuse	       5
          In-Piant Changes	       5
          Total Carbon Analysis	       6
          Mixing of Textile and Domestic Waste	       6
          The Use of Pilot Plant and Laboratory Data for	
              Plant Design	       7
          Formation of a Cooperative Pollution Abatement	
              Organization for the Textile Industry	       7

INTRODUCTION	       9

THE CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXTILE EFFLUENTS	       19
    Cotton	       19
    Wool	      25
    Synthetics	      34
    Rayon	      37
    Acetate	      37
    Nylon	      38
    Polyester	      39
    Acrylics and Modacrylics	      40
    Wet Processing  Wastes of Synthetic Fibers	      41
    Special Finishing  	      45
    Characterization of Textile Effluents Summary	      46

REVIEW OF WASTE  TREATMENT TECHNIQUES	      47
    Introduction	-	      47
    Preliminary Treatment	      47
    Secondary Treatment	      50
    Ponds and Lagoons	      53
    Activated Sludge	      54
    Trickling Filters	      57
    Sludge  Disposal 	      59
    Tertiary Treatment	      59
    Waste Treatment Techniques Summary	      62

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Contents - Continued
TREATMENT OF TEXTILE EFFLUENTS	       65
    Pollution Survey	       65
    Waste Reduction Through In-Plant Measures  	       67
    Reduction of Wastewater Volume	       °7
    Reduction of Process Chemicals 	       °°
    Recovery and Reuse of Process Chemicals	       68
    Process Modifications  	       69
    Substitution of Chemica Is	 .       7°
    Good Housekeeping   	       71
    Discharge of Textile Wastes to Municipal Sewers	       71
    Plant-Owned Facilities	       73
    Secondary Treatment	       74
    Tertiary Treatment	       75
    Sludge Disposal  	       76
    Cotton Wastes	       76
    In-Plant Measures	       ?6
    Treatment Efficiencies	       78
    Wool Wastes   	       79
    Synthetic Wastes  	       81
    Dyei ng Wastes  	       85
    Treatment of Textile Effluents Summary	       86

COST OF TREATMENT PROCESSES	       8?
    Biological Treatment	       8?
    Comparison of Costs  	       8?
    Chemical Treatment  	       95

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  	       99

LITERATURE CITED (BIBLIOGRAPHY)  	      101

APPENDIX A	      115
    Water Pollution Control Legislation 	      H5
    Introduction	      115
    Federal Legislation	      115
    State Legislation  	      120
        New England  	      120
           Connecticut	      120
           Massachusetts	      136
           Rhode Island	      147

                                       vi

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 Contents - Continued
             Middle Atlantic States  . . . . ........................
                  New Jersey  . .................................
                  New York ...................................
                  Pennsylvania  .................................    n d/
             _.   _   . '                                              loo
             The  Southeast   ....................................
                  Alabama   ....................................
                  Georgia  ............................... .....     20?
                  North Carol ina  ........................... ....     215
                  South Carol ina  ................ . ........ . .....     229
                  Tennessee ....................................     239
                  Virginia .....................................     249
     Conclusions  ..............................................     25A

 LITERATURE  CITED  ...........................................     356

 APPENDIX B  ................................................     263
     Annotated Bibliography ....................................     263
         General Textile Waste Treatment ........................     264
         Cotton Waste Treatment  ................................     283
         Wool Waste Treatment  .................................     288
         Man-Made Fiber Waste Treatment  .......................     294
         Dye Waste Treatment  ................. .................
         Detergent Waste Treatment  	
         Water Treatment for Use   	
         Instrumentation and  Plant Design for Waste Treatment  	     332

APPENDIX C  	     ...
                                                                     341
     Agencies Contributing Information for This Report
         Textile and Chemical Manufacturers
         Engineers  ............................................     «, o
         Instrument Manufacturers ...............................
         State Agencies  .......................................
         Schoo|s  ..... - ........................................
         Federal Agencies  ............................... . .....     oil
APPENDIX D
    Effects of Finishing Plant Wastes Upon Water Quality
                                      * *
                                     VII

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                                 LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE                                                                  PAGE

    I.    Consumption of Textile Fibers in the  United States
            (Textile  Organon, 40, 191,  1969)	        3
    2.    A Comparison of the GNP and Population Growth
            in the United States 1930-70.   Federal Reserve
            Bulletin, 55, A68 (1969)  	       10
    3.    Production of Plastics and Resin Materials
            in the United States	        II
    4.    Surface-active Agents Produced  in the United States	       12
    5.    Structures of Some Commercial Polymers Used
            by the Textile Industry	       14
    6.    Process Flow Sheet for Cotton Goods	       20
    7.    Wool and Worsted Fabric Manufacturing  	       27
    8.    Wool and Worsted Finishing Operations	       28
    9.    Typical  Processing of 100 Percent Synthetic Fabric	       35
    10.    Typical  Processing of Blended Fabrics 	       36
    II.    Activated Sludge Plant	       55
    12.    Trickling Filter Plant	       58
    13.    Cotton Waste Processing Flow Chart	       76
    14.    Wool Waste Processing Flow Chart	       79
    15.    Synthetic Textile Finishing Waste Treatment
            Flow Chart	       81
    \6j.    Trickling Filter (Option I) Construction Costs	       87
    17.    Trickling Filter (Option 2) Construction Costs (Ref.  146)	       88
    18.    Trickling Filter (Option 3) Construction Costs	       89
    19.    Activated Sludge (Option I) Construction Costs	       90
   20.    Activated Sludge (Option 2) Construction Cost	       91
   2 I.    Activated Sludge (Option 3) Construction cost	       92
   22.    Aerated Lagoon Construction Costs	       93
   23.    Costs as a  Function of Plant Size -  Tertiary Waste	
            Water Treatment - Granular Activated Carbon	       97
                                       VIII

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                               LIST OF TABLES

TABLE

    I.    Chemicals Present in Cotton Dyebaths	       22
    II.    Pollution Effect of Cotton Processing
          Wastes	       23
   III.    Characteristics of Cotton Processing Wet
          Wastes  	       24
   IV.    Projected Gross Wasteload and Wastewater volume
          for Cotton Finishing Wastes for Selected Years,
          1970-1982	       25
    V.    Chemicals Present in Wool Dyebaths	       29
   VI.    Pollutional Loads of Wool Wet Processes  	       31
  VII.    Characteristics of Wool  Processing Wastes  	       32
  Vlll.    Projected Gross Wasteload and Wastewater Volume	
          for Woolen Finishing Wastes for Selected Years,
          1970-1982	,	       33
   IX.    BOD  Loadings of Polyester Dye Carriers	       40
    X.    Pollutional Load of Synthetic Wet Fiber
          Processes	       42
   XI.    Significant Pollutants in Synthetic Fiber
          Wet Processing	       43
  XII.    Projected Gross Wasteload and Waterwaste Volume
          For Synthetic  Fiber Finishing Wastes for Selected
          Years 1970-1892  	       44
  XIII.    Chemicals for Neutralization	       48
  XIV.    Chlorine Equivalent Required for  Disinfection  	       49
  XV.    Aeration Modifications  In Activated Sludge
          Processes	       56
  XVI.    Tertiary Treatment Processes: Removal Efficiencies
          and Estimated Costs	       60
 XVII.    Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Commonly Used Sizing
          Compounds  	       77
XVIII.    Treatment Removal Efficiencies	       78
  XIX.    Removal  Efficiencies of Treatment Techniques
          used in Wool Waste Treatment	       82
  XX.    Biochemical Oxygen Demand Reduction Potentials
          of Synthetic Textile  Fiber Process Modifications	       83
  XXI.    Removal  Efficiencies of Treatment Methods Used
          for Synthetic Fiber Wet Processing Wastes 	       84
 XXII.    Economics of Carbon Adsorption for Municipal Waste	       95
   Al.    Fresh Waters Classification and Standards  of
          Water Quality	      A23

                                      ix

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 TABLE

   All.    Coastal and Marine Waters and Standards of
           Water Quality  	      A28
  AMI.    Fresh Water Classifications and Water Quality
           Criteria  	      A34
  AIV.    Salt  Water Classifications and  Water Quality
           Criteria  	      A38
   AV.    Classification and Standard of  Quality for New
           Jersey State Surface Waters	      A44
  AVI.    Classes and Standards for Fresh Waters	      A58
  AVII.    Classes and Standards for Salt Waters  	      A64
 AVIII.    Special Classifications and Standards  	      A68
  AIX.    Water Uses of Pennsylvania Streams   	      A73
   AX.    Specific Water  Quality Criteria for  Pennsylvania
           Streams  	      A 75
  AXI.    Water Use Classifications and Their  Specific
           Water Quality Criteria  	      A8I
  AXIL    General Criteria For All Water in the State
           of Georgia	      A94
 AXI1I.    Specific Criteria for Classified Water Usage in
           the State of Georgia	      A95
 AXIV.    Fresh Surface Water Classification and
           Standards of Water Quality Applied  Thereto  	     AI02
  AXV.    Tidal Salt Water Classifications and  the
           Standard of Water Quality Applied Thereto	      A110
AXVI.     Established Classes for Fresh Surface
           Waters  and the Standards of Quality and
           Purity Which Shall be Applied  Thereto	      AII6
AXVII.    Established Classes for Tidal Salt  Waters
           and the Standards  of Quality and Purity
           Which Shall be  Applied Thereto	     AI2I
AXVIII.    Criteria of Water Conditions  	     AI28
 AXIX.    Major Water Class Designations  	     AI36
  AXX.    Subclasses to Complement  Major  Water
           Class Designations   	     AI37
    Dl.    Effects  of Finishing Plant Waste Upon
           Water Quality	       D2
                                      x

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                 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
Areas of Needed Research

Desizing

Research is needed which will decrease significantly the waste load from desizing
operations.  This may be accomplished by recovering the size from the waste stream
for reuse or developing more rapid treatment methods for size removal.

The waste water from a desizing operation constitutes one of the biggest BOD loads
on the treatment plant (1).   If the sizing  polymer is biodegradable, as is starch, the
treatment plant has to have available sufficient volume capacity for the retention
and oxidation of the  waste.  However, if the sizing material  is not biodegradable,
such as polyvinyl alcohol or carboxymethyl cellulose, (2) the system will not de-
grade these polymers and may  not remove them from the waste stream.

The alternative methods of removing soluble refractory polymers from waste streams
are by physical or chemical  treatment.  Pangle  has received a patent (3) for the
removal of textile chemicals from wastewater by treating the waste with calcium
oxide and carbon dioxide.  This method could be applied to CMC removal.  In this
case the crosslinking of polymer chains by salt bridges would cause their precipita-
tion and eventual removal.  Other multivalent cations would be used and might be
more effective.  The problem is more complex with polyvinyl alcohol, which is a
neutral polymer.  Its removal might be accomplished by absorption (4) or molecular
filtration, but either of these methods will require laboratory work to prove their
applicability.  Since the use of this polymer is increasing each year, a research
effort is needed to determine its eventual fate in the waste  streams.

One method of removing desizing chemicals from the waste stream is to use sizing
polymers that can be recovered and reused.  If new sizes are developed that can be
applied and  recovered from solvent systems, the  size load on the waste stream would
be eliminated.  Some of the major polymer manufacturing companies are looking at
this, but no commercial use  is presently underway.  Other  properties could be built
into the sizing chemicals to  increase their usefulness - dyeability, permanent press,
and soil resistance.  By  taking a broad view of the possibilities available to the
sizing  operation many changes are discernible in textile finishing.

Removal of Dyes from Textile Waste

Research is needed which will demonstrate the effective and economical removal of
color from textile waste streams.

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The removal of dyes from textile waste streams is important because their contami-
nation is visible. The approximate quantity of dye waste produced per year may be
estimated from the curves in Figure I which show that 10 billion Ibs. of fibers are
currently processed by the textile industry per year.   Although some fabrics are not
dyed, others  receive as  much as 6 percent dye.  If we use 1% dye as a conservative
average, 100 million pounds of dye are consumed by  the American textile industry
per year. As about 10 percent of this ends up in the  waste stream, 10 million
pounds of dye per year must be treated by textile waste treatment plants.  Treat-
ment methods that have  been used for dye containing waste streams are in most
cases biological. Whether or not this method of treatment is the most suitable is
debatable and is the  basis for much needed research.

Recent studies have shown that biological treatment methods can degrade selected
dyes (5), but the degradation products may be  more toxic than the dyes themselves.
Other reported data (2)  show several dye systems to be resistant to degradation.  No
doubt the high standards placed on commercial dyes to resist many chemical environ-
ments such as washing and fading suggest that most of them will either be resistant
to biological degradation or require carefully controlled conditions for microbial
treatment.  Better and less sensitive methods of dye removal may be accomplished
by physical or chemical  treatment.  These include  polymer coagulation (6), cation
ion precipitation (7),  carbon adsorption (8), ion exchange(9),  and high  energy
radiation (10).  The cost of these methods may  be more than that of conventional
biological treatment systems, but the fact that some are in commercial operation
(8) shows that they are practical.

Research that is needed  will establish parameters for  the effective and economical
operation of chemical treatment and show clearly how it can complement existing
biological treatment plants.  The analytical procedures used in the research pre-
fects will be  important because BOD tests will not  measure refractory chemicals.
The fact that dyes can be degraded to objectionable, colorless toxic moieties (5)  is
more reason for the use  of extensive analytical procedures in the evaluation of any
treatment method.  Gas chromatographic, mass spectral, total  carbon and infrared
analyses, or other quantitative methods should be used to show the presence of trace
amounts of materials  in  treated waste streams.

Electrolytic Treatment of Textile Waste

Electrolytic methods of  waste treatment must be examined more closely as a means
of removing the refractory chemicals present in the textile waste streams today.

A patent was recently issued (II) for a system which will remove color from a textile
waste stream  by electrolysis.  It was claimed that hypochlorite generated during
electrolysis degrades dyestuffs.  One disadvantage noted was the  requirement of
sufficient chloride ion concentration for suitable conductivity and hypochlorite
production.

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               Cotton
to
O
CM
w
C
0
•H
H
o
•H
-P
CO
G
O
u
XI
•H
EM
               Man-made Fibers
     1950
1955
1960
1965
1970
          Figure 1.  Consumption of Textile Fibers  in  the
                    United States (Textile Organon, 40, 191
                    1969) .

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The process is attractive for other applications such as reducible metals removal and
electrodialytic separations.  Additional work  is  needed to determine how to optimize
the process and lower the power consumption.  For the process to have the greatest
chance of success it should be incorporated in an overall treatment plan for use on
waste streams requiring special treatment such as dye waste,  refractory  chemicals,
or chromium  containing effluents.

Space  Requirements of Waste Treatment Plants

Research is needed to reduce significantly  the space required for biological treat-
ment systems.

Space  required for modern biological waste treatment plants  is large (12).  The
obvious reason for this is the retention time necessary for biological degradation
of industrial  effluents.  Although space has not been a limiting factor in the South,
it has been limiting in highly populated areas of the North.  The time is not very
far away when we will not be able to refer to a  waste treatment plant as being
"As big as a  City" (12).

Reverse Osmosis
Reverse osmosis deserves more research attention to establish its applicability to the
treatment of textile waste.  The fact that water can be produced which would be
suitable for reuse makes the process attractive.  Any research study should also
propose an effective method to dispose of the waste concentrate which will be a
by-product of this type of treatment.

The textile industry uses a  large amount of salt, ionic dyes, inorganic catalyst,
detergents and bleaching agents that add to the dissolved solids concentration of
the waste water.  Some of these electrolytes are nutrients which are partially re-
moved by conventional biological treatment plants; however, most of them pass
into the receiving stream.  As industry grows the concentration of dissolved solids
in natural waters will increase unless corrective measures are taken.  Initial action
has been taken by some local government agencies  in specifying maximum allow-
able  dissolved soild concentrations in wastewaters.  The  next step will be enforce-
ment and constant re-evaluation of regulations to be sure that suitable limits have
been determined.  The changes in regulations will come about as the population
density changes and the industrial community increases in size.

One  of the more effective methods which have been recently developed for elec-
trolyte removal is reverse osmosis (13).  The process utilizes the lower permeabil-
ity of solvated ions (non-electrolytes can also be removed) across polymer mem-

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branes to remove them from a water solution.  In most cases reverse osmosis has
been applied to water treatment in areas where natural water supplies were contam-
inated or highly saline.   The initial studies show the process to be an expensive
method of purifying water for human consumption; however, in industrial water
treatment where the level of treatment required may be  lower,  the process could
be more economical.

Sludge Handling and Disposal

Research is needed to develop effective and economical methods for ultimate dis-
posal  of concentrated waste  materials removed from wastewaters.  Attention should
be given to recovery and reuse of chemicals, both to minimize production costs and
to reduce disposal problems.  Ultimate disposal of waste concentrates must be made
in ways which do not  cause more pollution problems.

Existing biological waste treatment plants processing textile finishing wastes have a
real problem  of handling excess sludges.  In the past land fills and spreading on the
soil have been the most  common methods of disposal.  These are becoming expen-
sive and can  result In water pollution.  Seepage from land fills can pollute ground
water or surface water.   If drainage from fields on which sludge has been spread
goes directly to streams, heavy rains can wash the sludge  into these surface waters.
Better methods of dewatering and disposing of these sludges are needed.  Incinera-
tion is a possibility, but air pollution problems should be considered.

Water Reuse

When requirements for quality of wastewater discharges  approach  requirements for
process water, it becomes feasible to  consider water renovation and reuse within
the mill.  Some physical-chemical methods result in high  quality  water.  Use of
such treatment methods  or tertiary treatment after conventional processes may well
be economical in some cases.  The philosophy of closing the  loop and entirely
eliminating effluents seems to be gaining ground, possibly as a response to periodic
tightening of regulations.

In-Plant Changes

Mention has been made  of process changes which have reduced BOD of wastewater.
Deliberate efforts are needed to minimize water consumption per unit of  production.
Not only is a savings in water costs possible, but also a reduction in the hydraulic
load to the waste treatment facility may allow for smaller units requiring less capi-
tal and operating costs.  Employees need to know about the costs  involved in water
supply and waste disposal. Mill management must also recognize these costs as part
of production expenses, and encourage, from the top, the good housekeeping prac-
tices and water savings  which reduce  the costs of waste  treatment and disposal.

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Total Carbon Analysis

To get an accurate measure of the organic compounds present in a waste stream, a
total  carbon analysis  of the waste stream is useful.  A BOD test will only measure
biological oxidation.  It gives no indication of the presence of nondegradable ma-
terials.  The  BOD test is useful in designing aeration capacity for biological treat-
ment  plants,  but it gives no indication of refractory organic compounds in treated
effluents.  Carbon analysis  is not affected by toxicity, source and acclimation of
seeding organisms,  dilution water, and other chemical interferences which can
cause problems with the BOD determination. Automated equipment is available to
measure continuously and record carbon content in wastes or process streams where
continuous control becomes important (14).  Even with standard equipment data
from carbon analyses  are available within an hour after sample collection compared
to five days for BOD  determinations.

Mixing of Textile and Domestic Waste

A research committee of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
has published a list of textile chemicals which gives the 5 day BOD of each chemi-
cal (2).  Out of 300 products, almost 40% had less than a  10% 5 day BOD by
weight of chemical and may be considered relatively resistant to biodegradation.

The use of synthetic fibers,  polymers, and finishes by the textile  industry is in-
creasing at a rapid rate.  Since many of these products are resistant to biological
degradation,  a careful study of their removal from wastewaters is essential so that
effective  waste treatment methods are chosen.  Both State and Federal regulations
will increase as the industrial community grows and the water supply is reused more
often. Although mixing of domestic wastes with textile wastes has led to success-
ful treatment in the past (15),  the increasing inertness of textile effluents may  pre-
vent this general approach in the future.

Two important considerations for the construction of a waste treatment plant are the
cost and availability  of land.  As waste chemicals become  harder to degrade bio-
logically, longer retention times will be needed for their degradation  in the treat-
ment plant.   Plant size, therefore,  is dependent on the character of the  waste stream.
Chemicals that are resistant to biodegradation may  be removed from the stream by
adsorption on the sludge formed by biological degradation.   In some cases this
method of removal will be satisfactory, but more data is needed to substantiate the
effectiveness of adsorption on sludge as a  removal  process.

In the future, waste streams from different processing operations will have  to be
isolated and treated by either physical, chemical,  or biological methods,  or by
combinations of these methods.  The choice  of treatment will depend on  the com-
position of the waste stream.  Effluent through a single pipe can no longer simply
be "turned over" to the pollution control engineer for him to  "take care of."

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The Use of Pilot Plant and Laboratory Data for Plant Design

One of the hardest problems the engineer faces is designing a full scale plant from
plant laboratory data.  To design plant scale  lagoons, aerators, clarifiers, filters,
etc., requires appropriate "scale-up"  factors and often experience with the spe-
cific waste stream.

It is therefore recommended that the study be undertaken to correlate the existing
information on such things as  a  coefficients (relative rates of oxygen transfer to
waste and water), and  3  coefficients (aerator spacing correction), so that more
economical waste treatment plant design will be possible with less guesswork.  This
may be a difficult undertaking, but it  is very important to waste treatment plant
design. The  cost of a waste treatment plant  may be the factor which determines
whether or not a textile plant can continue to operate.  It is  therefore very  import-
ant that the most economical construction  be chosen.

Any data that guides  the engineer to the most accurate specifications of equipment
and layout will result in an eventual savings to the industry which is installing  the
waste treatment plant.  One approach to this research would  be to design treatment
plants with flexibility enough to take care of future changes in production.   An
example of this is the use of concrete trickling filters for a specific textile waste
containing starch when the textile  industry is changing from the biodegradable
starch to the  relatively inert polyvinyl alcohol.  Treatment plant design must be
done with a consideration for these changes, or a financial loss will result when
existing treatment facilities become unuseable.

Formation of a Cooperative Pollution Abatement Organization
for the Textile Industry	

There is a need for an industry organization to cooperatively  explore treatment
process and other pollution control  improvements.  A real need and opportunity ex-
ist for a textile-related organization comparable to the  National Council for Air
and Stream Improvement affiliated with the pulp and paper industry.  This organi-
zation could  explore  possible improvements in pollution abatement for the textile
industry as a  whole.

Such an organization could have several functions:

         In-house research and development
         Pilot Plant studies
         Research support at universities or foundations
         Public relations
         Information  collection, storage,  and retrieval

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The organization should be free enough to effectively pursue problems of greatest
significance/ yet insulated enough from competition between firms so that it would
function effectively.  Support would probably come from contributions from member
firms with some agreement on the ratio of support to membership.  Open disclosure
should be  encouraged where applicable,, but there should be some advantages to the
supporting firms, else there is  little likelihood of support.  Actual structure and ad-
ministration could  best be formulated by exchange of ideas through ATM I  or one of
its committees.

The organization should have a small full time staff and should seriously consider
the experience of the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement as an ex-
ample of the advantages and problems resulting from such cooperative action.

Since most mills do not have a specialist in waste treatment,  there is a very real
likelihood that even though information may already be available for the solution
of problems, local personnel may have no contact with the information or its source.
A cooperative organization could compile, abstract, and distribute the available
information. It could also serve as a  search agency when specific information  is
requested  by one of the members.

Such an organization could advance pollution abatement considerably at minimal
cost.  Pilot plant studies which have general applicability could be run at one  lo-
cation rather than  repeated by several firms.  Cooperative support of research and
development should return more information to each member firm at  less cost than
individual effort.
                                      8

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                               INTRODUCTION

The public knowledge of the potential threat that pollution poses to our environment
has made us aware that some changes must be made if we are to continue to enjoy
our environment.  Since the harm any specific case of pollution may cause is  de-
pendent on the total pollution, we must first look at this to put the problem in its
proper perspective.  An idea of the total potential pollution may be gained from
the curve  shown in Figure 2, where the Gross National Product and population are
plotted from 1930 to the present time.  While population has almost doubled over
the past 40 years the GNP has increased by a factor of 10 to 20, depending on
the inflationary yardstick chosen.  Since GNP is the combined measure of goods and
services both of which can contribute to pollution, it should be proportional to the
total industrial waste effluent that needs treatment.  One estimate is that 1/4 of the
total available run-off water is being used  today by all industry and in fifty years
the water  usage will equal the available run-off water.

As of 1968 approximately  14.3 trillion gallons of water are discharged by the U. S.
industry each year (16).  The textile mill products industry discharged about 461
billion gallons or 1% of the total.   The major water users are:
Metal & Metal Products
Chemical & Allied Products
Paper & Allied Products
Petroleum & Coal Products
Food & Kindred Products
Textiles Mill Products
Rubber & Plastics
Other
Total
7,841 Billion Gals/yr
7,820 "
6,599 "
7,220 "
1,405 "
1,127 "
1,106 "
2,438 "
35,556
22.1%
22.0%
18.6%
20.3%
4.0%
3.2%
3. 1%
6.7%
100.0%
There are approximately 4 million employees working in textile related jobs.  Of
these,  nearly 1 million may be considered textile employees working for 700 mills
with an annual  sales of 21 billion dollars (16).

Another very important factor to consider as far as the textile industry is concerned
is the rate at which this growing waste stream is changing in composition.  Some
evidence for this is seen in the data reported in Figures 3 and 4.  New detergents
and resins which are introduced onto the textile market are generally accompanied by
a new or different effluent.  A waste stream that may have  once been  homogeneous and
biodegradable can become heterogeneous and inert.   It is evident that we must have
waste treatment plants with built in flexibility so  they can accommodate future pro-
duction changes.  This is hard to do when the industrial waste stream is treated by a
municipal treatment plant.  In some cases the mixing of industrial and municipal
 * Includes the  SIC Industry Group Numbers 221-223, 225-229, and Industry Numbers
 2823 and 2824.

-------
w
rH
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    900
    800
    700
    600
    500
    400
    300
    200
    100
                                                             a
                                                             o
                                                        200
                                                        100  o
      1930
                  1940
1950
1960
1970
     Figure 2. A Comparison  of the GNP and Population
               Growth  in  the United States 1930-70.
               Federal Reserve Bulletin, 55, A68  (1969)
                              10

-------
    14
CQ
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c
    12
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     3  •
     1950
                   1955
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1970
      Figure  4.  Surface-active Agents Produced in the United
                 States.  United States Tariff  Commission
                 Reports  on Synthetic Organic  Chemicals (1950-
                 1967) .

                                12

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waste streams may very well produce a waste which is less suited for either biologi-
cal or chemical treatment.  This raises the question,  Should industrial waste be
treated  by municipalities or by the plants themselves?  No obvious answer exists,
but any product or service that causes pollution should pay for its equitable share of
restoring the water to a desirable condition.

A better insight into some of the questions that have been raised may be obtained if
we look at changes that  have occurred in the textile  industry over the past twenty
years and see how these  changes will affect waste treatment  methods.

Fibers

In 1950 the major fiber consumed on the American market was cotton.  If man-made
cellulosic fibers are  not  included, the quantity of man-made fibers produced at this
time was hardly significant.  This  is illustrated by the curves shown  in Figure  1.

The lint from textile manufacturing and finishing is a noticeable part of the sus-
pended  solids in textile waste.   In the case of  natural fibers  biological  degradation
will occur when the  fiber is retained with the sludge  in the treatment plant.   This is
not true for most synthetic fibers as they are comparatively inert.  The buildup of
synthetic fibers in a  treatment plant using mechanical aeration can cause damage to
pumps and aerators unless special precautions are taken to see that the fibers are re-
moved from the waste stream before it enters the plant.   This is  generally done by
screening the waste stream as it enters the treatment plant.   In some cases this is a
difficult operation because a screen system fine enough to remove fibers 15  microns
in diameter may easily clog or  remove suspended solids  that are suitable for biolog-
ical treatment.

The example just described shows in a visible way how an industrial  waste stream
has changed over the past 20 years.

Sizing

The principal slashing polymer  used before 1960 was starch.  This natural polymer
of glucose is easily degraded biologically and should present no problem to the
conventional waste treatment plant other than  BOD loading.

The development of many synthetic fibers in the 1950's and their use in blended
fabrics created the need  for new sizes which were more compatible with the hydro-
phobic fibers.  Some of those which were developed and are  still in  use are poly-
vinyl  alcohol  (PVA), carboxymethyl cellulose  (CMC), and  polyacrylic acid.  The
structures of these polymers are shown in Figure 5.  Of these three materials poly-
vinyl  alcohol and carboxymethyl cellulose are  the most widely used. The total
sizing materials entering waste  streams today can be estimated from the fiber con-
                                      13

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 -CH0-CH-CH0-CH-
    2 ,     2 j
      OH     OH


Polyvinyl Alcohol
 -CH0-CH-CH0-CH-
    2      2 i
C02H
             C02H
 Polyacrylic Acid
                               CH2OCH2CO H     OCH CO H
                               Carboxymethyl Cellulose
                                   -CH2CH=CHCH2CH2
                                                   H-
                                    Butadiene-styrene
 -CH0-CH-CH0-CH-
    2 I .    2 I
      OCOCH3 OCOCH3
  Polyvinyl Acetate
                                     Polyethylene
      0       O
      t        I
•R-NH-C-O-R-O-C-NH-R-


    Polyurethane
                                     -CH0-CH-CH0-CH-
                                        2 |     2 |
                                          CO2Et  CO2Et


                                      Ethyl  Acrylate
Figure 5.  Structures of Some Commercial Polymers
            used by the Textile Industry.
                             14

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sumption in Figure 1.  If an average size concentration of 10% is assumed to be
present on woven fabrics, which constitute 70% to 80% of the fabrics produced,
approximately 400 million Ibs.  of size per year are  currently entering textile fin-
ishing waste streams.  This constitutes one of the major BOD  loads on waste treat-
ment plants in the case of starch (1).

Since PVA and CMC are resistant to biological degradation  (2), we would  not ex-
pect conventional treatment methods to alter their chemical structure.  While the
polymer may be partially removed from the waste water by adsorption on the sludge
it is questionable whether this is an effective method of treatment.  This brings up
a point about the use of BOD analysis for industrial waste and suggests  as  others
have (17) that, organic carbons analysis would be more indicative of organic con-
taminants.

Scouring

The change in scouring which has possibly received the most  attention since 1950
was the conversion to biodegradable detergents (18).  Today  most of the detergents
are at  least partially biodegradable so that foaming tendencies can be destroyed by
microbial action.  The increasing use of detergents is illustrated in Figure 4.

An  important factor to consider today is the impact  that solvents, which are used in
scouring  operations (19), will have  on pollution. Several solvents such as  mineral
spirits, chlorobenzenes and perchloroethylene have been used to aid in the removal
of oil born stains  from synthetic fibers (20).  Some of the solvents are inert to bio-
logical treatment (2) and may not be removed from  a waste stream by the conven-
tional waste treatment plant.  More research is needed to develop effective methods
of removing volatile chemicals from waste streams without contributing to the prob-
lem of air pollution.

A few of the major chemical  manufacturers are now offering solvent processes to the
textile industry for scouring where little water is used (21).   In these cases non-
flammable chlorinated solvents are used and the projected solvent recovery  is be-
tween  90% and 97%.  If a  93% recovery value is assumed and we apply it to a
continuous finishing range running 70 yards a minute, we can visualize that nearly
one ton of solvent per day per range will reach the  atmosphere or waste stream.
Chemical methods of treatment may be required.  These could pay for part  of their
operation by recovering valuable solvent for reuse.   When treatment methods are
able to recover expensive chemicals from a waste stream,  new production processes
may be developed that would have been previously  considered too expensive.

Mercerizing

The original purpose of mercerization was to improve the luster of cotton fibers.
                                      15

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Today the treatment of a cotton containing fabric with a caustic solution  is as
much for improving the dyeability and absorption characteristics of the fabric as
anything else.  Since man-made fibers are not mercerized,  the use of the process
will depend on the quantity of cotton fibers reaching the finishing plant.

A significant decrease in caustic consumption is obtained when caustic recovery
units are installed in the finishing plant.  Several studies (17 22) have been made
which document the improved efficiency of treatment plant  operation when the
caustic loading is decreased.  The obvious advantages of this process accounts for
its use by most finishing plants.

If the fiber consumption shown in Figure 1 continues to change at its present rate,
the percentage of fabrics receiving caustic treatments will decrease considerably in
the next ten years.

Bleaching

This is one textile finishing operation which has shown an improvement over the
past twenty years as far as water pollution is concerned.   In 1950 the mafor bleach-
ing agent used was sodium hypochlorite (23); today it is hydrogen peroxide.  Hydro-
gen peroxide decomposes to water and oxygen and leaves no dissolved solids or ob-
jectionable residues behind.  In fact  it can raise the waste  stream's dissolved oxy-
gen concentration which is desirable in many cases.

Solvent systems for bleaching are being examined by academic institutions (24) and
chemical manufacturers (21).  To be economical these processes will require effi-
cient solvent recovery operations.  With the use of suitable solvents a combined
scouring and bleaching operation could be developed that would use very little
water.  A change in wastewater volume such as this could drastically affect the
operation of a conventional biological treatment plant.  Waste treatment  plants
must be designed  with built-in flexibility where process changes are anticipated.

Dyeing

This is a second only to chemical finishing in the changes that occur each year.
Not only have approximately forty new fibers appeared on the market  in the past
twenty years, but new dyes  for these fibers are developed each year.   The "Textile
Chemist and Colorist" (25) lists twenty-six new dyes for 1969 alone, and  this is by
no means a complete listing.  The market demands better performance each  year.
Dyes have to be more resistant to ozone, nitric oxides, light,  hydrolysis and other
degradative environments to capture a valuable portion of the commerical market.
It is not surprising that studies on the biological  degradation of dyestuffs yield nega-
tive results when  the dyes themselves are designed to resist this type of treatment.
The high color value or absorptivity needed for a commercial dye is not an advan-
                                      16

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tage when that dye ends up In a waste stream.  Although some dyes are biologically
degradable (26), most that are present in waste water are objectionable for their
coloration.  To effectively remove dyes from textile waste effluents, non-biological
processes will  have to be used in many instances.  Dyes are fust too refractory to
undergo degradation in the time required for conventional waste  treatment.  Initial
studies using chemical treatment methods (8) look good, but more research is needed
to establish clearly the parameters for chemical treatment.

The auxiliary chemicals used in aqueous dyeing can also present  a problem to bio-
logical processes.  Carriers such as methyl naphthalene, chlorobenzenes, biphenyl,
orthophenyl  phenol, and benzyl alcohol are used to speed up the dyeing process.
When the dyeing operation is completed, these chemicals are discharged  to the
sewer.  Some are biodegradable; others are  not.  Even though the nonbiodegrad-
able chemicals may be absorbed by the sludge in an activated sludge process, the
problem is not alleviated if the sludge is not handled  properly for ultimate disposal
to prevent further contamination.

Finishing

A treatment of a fabric that modifies its physical or chemical  properties may be
classified as finishing.   Today there are finishes that are commonplace which were
either nonexistent or not in significant use twenty years ago.   Examples are perma-
nent press finishes, oil repellents,  soil release agents, low crock polymers, abrasion
resistant polymers, fire retardants, lamination polymers, germicide and fungicide
chemicals, to mention a few.  The curve in  Figure 3  illustrates  the increase  in
production of these polymers and resins which are used by the textile industry.  A
small number of these materials are biodegradable; most are not.

The polymers used for textile finishing are generally supplied to  the finishing plant
as emulsions.  This is done because of the ease of handling and cost of manufactur-
ing.  Most polymer emulsions are sensitive to pH, salt or agitation and may coagu-
late when they enter waste streams.  The sewer lines may then become clogged with
inert materials which have to be removed by hand.  Although the bulk of the poly-
mer emulsion can be coagulated and  removed in a treatment plant, some of it re-
mains emulsified and is not removed by biological treatment.   For complete removal
of the polymer emulsion, chemical treatment is sometimes necessary.  However, this
is an additional step which in itself could replace much of the need for biological
treatment.  Several polymers which are used commercially are shown in Figure 5.

Most of the finishes used for wash and wear  and permanent press  fabrics are manu-
factured from urea, formaldehyde, melamine and glyoxal compounds.   Some of these
products are readily degradable by microbial action; others are not (2).  The  formal-
dehyde derivatives can react with themselves or other chemicals in the waste stream
to form  insoluble  products that may be removed by sedimentation.
                                      17

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A class of finishing chemical that has come  into prominence is recent years is fire
retardants.   These chemicals have received attention because of the growing con-
cern over the flammability of textile fabrics.  Most of the commerical fire retardant
finishes are  phosphorous and nitrogen containing compounds (27).  Two examples are
triaziridyl phosphine oxide  (APO) and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chlo-
ride (THPC). APO, a chemisterolant (28),  could present a serious problem if it got
into a  natural stream.  The chemical reactivity of APO would facilitate  its hydroly-
sis in a waste stream and prevent the parent compound from reaching the discharge
water of a treatment plant.  Whether or not these initial hydrolysis products are
toxic or harmful is not known.   This points  to the increasing need for the charac-
terization of industrial waste.

The newest finishes to appear on the market are soil release materials (29).  These
chemicals are applied to fabrics to aid in the removal of dirt and oil born stains.
Some are acrylate and methacrylate copolymers containing free carboxyl groups.
Most are resistant to biological treatment.   Either physical or chemical methods
may be required for their effective removal  from wastewater.

The many changes discussed above show that considerable discretion  must be  used
in designing a waste treatment plant for the textile  industry.
                                      18

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               THE CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXTILE EFFLUENTS
A number of mechanical operations have to be performed to convert textile fibers
into fabrics.  The fibers must be combined  into yarns and then the yarns into fab-
rics.  After the fabrics are manufactured, they are subjected to several wet pro-
cesses collectively known as finishing, and it is in these finishing operations that
the major waste effluents are produced.  To get more  insight into the characteristics
of the waste from these finishing operations we will discuss each one in some detail.

Cotton
The consumption of cotton fibers by textile mills in the United States exceeds that
of any other single  fiber; however, the total synthetic fiber poundage consumed by
the textile industry is greater than that of cotton as seen in Figure 1.

The operations required to produce a piece of finished cotton fabric are shown in
the flow diagram of Figure 6; in any given mill, either the weaving or knitting
route will be utilized, not both.   For a more detailed explanation of cotton pro-
cessing, refer to the American Cotton  Handbook (30).

Slashing is the first process in which liquid treatment is involved.  In this process,
the warp yarns are coated with "sizing" in order togive them tensile strength  to
withstand the  pressures exerted on them during the weaving operation.

Such  substances as starch, starch substitutes, polyvinyl alcohol,  carboxy methyl
cellulose, gelatin glue and gums have been used as size agents.  The source of pol-
lution in this  process results from the cleaning of slasher boxes, rolls, and make up
kettles.  The volume is therefore usually low; however, the BOD can be quite high,
especially if starch is used (2).

The operation of desizing removes the  substance applied to the yarns in the slashing
operation, by hydrolyzing the size into a soluble form.  There are two methods of
desizing - acid desizing and enzyme desizing.

In acid desizing, the fabric is soaked in a solution of sulphuric acid, at room tem-
perature, for 4 to 12 hours (31),  and then washed out.  In enzyme desizing,  cou-
plex organic compounds produced from natural products or malt extracts are used to
solubilize the size.  The bath is maintained at a temperature of 130° -  180°  F.
and a pH of 6-7.7, for a period  of 4-8 hours. Due to the unstable  nature of  these
organic compounds, the whole bath must be discarded after each batch.  After the
size has been  solubilized, the fabric is rinsed clean.  Desizing contributes the lar-
gest BOD of all cotton finishing processes - about 45 percent (32).
                                       19

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                   Raw Cotton
-Quilling^-
    f.
 Warping




 Slashing


    I
'Weaving



    T .
 Singeing
 Desizing



•Scouring



    I
 Bleaching
Mercerizing
'Dyeing  &

 Printing
 Finishing
                   0   .
                   Opening


                   Picking
                   Carding.


                      I
                   Drawing
                   c --
                   Spinning
Winding
               Combing
-^Dyeing  -  Skein,

   Package &  Beam
               Mercerizing
                    .
             -^Knitting



               Bleaching


                  I
               Dyeing &

               Printing


                  I
               Finishing-^
 Figure  6.   Process  Flow Sheet for Cotton Goods
                       20

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Scouring follows desizing.  In this process, the cotton wax and other non-cellulosic
components of the cotton are removed by hot alkaline detergents or soap solutions.
In most modern plants, scouring is done in conjunction with desizing  rather than as
separate operation.  Caustic soda and soda ash along with soaps and synthetic de-
tergents and inorganic reagents are used to remove the non-cellulosic impurities.
The bath is characterized by a  pH of 10 to 13 and temperatures of 250°  F. (31).
Although the strength of alkali in the beginning of the operation is between 1 per-
cent and 5 percent,  the waste liquor will have a 0.3 percent alkaline concentra-
tion,  the rest being taken out of solution by the cotton fibers.  As  in the desizing
operation, the scouring process is a  batch operation requiring the fabric to remain
in the kier for a period of from 2-12 hours.  Scouring is the second  largest BOD
contributing process in the finishing of cotton textiles - about 31 percent  (32).
Following the "boil-off", the goods are rinsed with hot and cold water to  remove
residual alkali.

Bleaching, the next process, removes the natural yellowish coloring of the cotton
fiber and renders it white.  The three bleaches most commonly used for cotton are
sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chlorite.  In  hypochlorite
bleaching, the fabric is rinsed,  saturated with a weak solution of sulfuric  or hydro-
chloric acid, rinsed again,  and then passed through the hypochlorite for a period of
up to 24 hours (31).  The process is  done at room temperature with a  pH range of
9 to  11.  When bleaching with sodium chlorite,  acetic acid is used in place of
sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, the temperature of the bath is hot  (180° -  185°  F.^
and the  pH is 3.5-5.5.   Hydrogen peroxide is used for continuous bleaching.  This
process calls for a washer, with a 140°  - 175°  F. temperature, saturation with
caustic soda at 175° - 180° F., passage through  the peroxide at  195°  F., and a
final rinse.  The pH range used in hydrogen peroxide bleaching is 9 to 10  (31).  The
final rinse may contain an antichlor, sodium bisulfite or sulfuric acid, to remove
residual chlorin from the fabric.  The bleaching process contributes the lowest BOD
for cotton finishing  (32).

The mercerization process was originally developed to give increased luster to cot-
ton fabrics.  Today it is still used for that purpose, but more importantly to impart
increased dye affinity and tensile strength to the fabric.  It is estimated that only
30 percent of all  cotton fabrics are now mercerized, and with the increasing use of
cotton-polyester blends,  less will probably be done in the future (33). The process
uses a 15 to 30 percent solution of sodium hydroxide at room temperature for 1/2 to
3 minutes (34).  The fabric is then rinsed in an acid wash to neutralize the fabric
and washed in water and then dried. The effluent  from this process is alkaline and
high in dissolved solids,  but low in BOD  (33).

After mercerizing, the goods are sent to the dye house or color shop.  In the dye
house they are dyed either in small volumes on batch process machines, or on con-
tinuous dyeing ranges in large volumes.   There are five important classes of dyes
used on cotton fabrics: vat, developed,  naphthol, sulphur, direct, and aniline
                                       21

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black.

The dyeing process is carried out in an aqueous bath with  pH variations of 6 to 12,
and temperature variations from room temperature to boiling (35).  Table I  lists
the various chemicals present in the baths used in cotton dyeing.

                                    TABLE I

                 CHEMICALS PRESENT IN COTTON DYEBATHS

Dye Type

Aniline                  Aniline hydrochloride, sodium ferrocyanide,
Black                    sodium chlorite, pigment, soap.

Developed               Dye, penetrant, sodium cloride, sodium nitrate,
                         hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid, developer (beta
                         naphthol), soap or sulfated soap or fatty alcohol.

Direct                   Dye, sodium carbonate, sodium chloride,  and
                         wetting agent or soluble oil or sodium sulfate.

Naphthol                Dye, caustic soda,  soluble oil, alcohol, soap,
                         soda ash, sodium chloride, base,  sodium nitrate,
                         sodium nitrite, sodium acetate.

Sulfur                   Dye, sodium sulfide, sodium carbonate,
                         sodium chloride.

Vat                      Dye, caustic soda,  sodium hydrosulfite, soluable oil,
                         gelatine, perborate or hydrogen peroxide.
Source:   (Ref. 36, p.  482)
In the color shop,  the goods are printed with colored designs or patterns.  The usual
method  is by roller machines (32).  The color is imparted to the fabric from the rolls
which contain the  printing paste.  This paste contains dye,  thickener, hygroscopic
substances,  dyeing assistants, water, and other chemicals.   The pollutional load
from the color shop comes mainly from  the wash-down rinses used  to clean the
equipment in the shop and the cloth rinsings.  The pollutional load is rather low in
both volume and BOD  (32).  When a mill does both printing and dyeing, the BOD
contribution of the combined processes is 17 percent, and the total  BOD load comes
from the process chemicals used (32).
                                       22

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                     Table II. Pollution Effect of Cotton Processing Wastes
                                  Wastes (p.p.m.)
  Process
                     pH
      Slashing,  sizing
        yarn*	  7.0-9.5
f^j    Desizing	  	
00    Kiering	—   10-13
      Scouring	  	
      Bleaching  (range)——  8.5-9.6
      Mercerizing	•—  5.5-9.5
      Dyeing:
        Aniline  Black	  	
        Basic	  6.0-7.5
        Developed Colors	    5-10
        Direct	  6.5-7.6
        Naphthol	—    5-10
        Sulfur	    8-10
        Vats	    5-10
B.O.D.
                              620-2,500
                            1,700-5,200
                              680-2,900
                               50-110
                               90-1,700
                               45-65

                               40-55
                              100-200
                               75-200
                              220-600
                               15-675
                               11-1,800
                              125-1,500
Total Solids
           8,500-22,600
          16,000-32,000
           7,600-17,400

           2,300-14,400
             600-1,900
            t
             600-1,200
             500-800
           2,900-8,200
           2,200-14,000
           4,500-10,700
           4,200-14,100
           1,700-7,400
lions Waste
r 1,000 Ibs.
goods

60-940
300-1,100
310-1,700
2,300-5,100
300-14,900
27,900-36,950
15,000-23,000
18,000-36,000
8,900-25,000
1,700-6,400
2,300-16,800
2,900-25,600
1,000-20,000
Pounds
B.O.D.
per 1,000
Ibs . goods
0.5-5.0
14.8-16.1
1.5-17.5
1.36-3.02
5.0-14.8
10.5-13.5
5-10
15-50
15-20
1.3-11.7
2-5
2-250
12-30
                                                                                                 Pounds
                                                                                              Total Solids
                                                                                                per 1,000
                                                                                               Ibs. goods
                                              47-67
                                              66-70
                                              19-47

                                              38-290
                                             185-450

                                             100-200
                                             150-250
                                             325-650
                                              25-250
                                             200-650
                                             300-1,200
                                             150-250
*Cloth Weaving Mill Waste. (Composite of all waste connected with each process.)
 Reference 37, p8

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Table  II lists the range of pollutlonal  loads of the various cotton textile wet-pro-
cessing operations.  The ranges have been compiled from the values given by sev-
eral authors in different studies.  Wide variance in the values of each process is
caused by the following:   the problems of representative sampling in a highly vari-
able waste stream; the several methods of technology available, for example,  batch
vs. continuous processing; the interchangeability of process  chemicals, for exam-
ple, hypochlorite vs.  peroxide in bleaching; and the wide variety of cotton fabrics
manufactured.  Any particular cotton processing mill should be producing effluents
with values falling within the ranges listed in Table  II.

Each process  produces a waste with different characteristics. Table III  character-
izes the wastes from cotton wet processing.

                                   TABLE III

           CHARACTERISTICS OF COTTON PROCESSING WET WASTES

Process                  Significant Pollutants

Desizing                 High BOD, neutral  pH, high total solids

Scouring                 High BOD, high alkalinity,  high  total solids,
                         high temperature

Bleaching                High BOD, alkaline pH, high solids

Mercerizing              Low BOD, alkaline pH, low solids

Dyeing and              High BOD, high solids, neutral to
   Printing                alkaline pH
Source:   (Ref. 33,  p.  83)
In treating 1000 pounds of cotton fabric, a composite waste stream has the follow-
ing characteristics: pH of 8 to 11; the color either a gray or that of the predom-
inant dye used;  the BOD, total solids and suspended solids with concentrations of
200  to 600  p.p.m.,  1,000 to 1,600  p.p.m.  and 30 to 50 p.p.m., respectively.
These wastes will be contained in a volume of 30,000  to 93,000 gallons (37).

Based on estimates of product mix; that is, the amount of 100 percent cotton fabrics
and cotton-synthetic blends; and the degree of technology mix;  that is, the number
of modern plants and out-of-date plants; and the projected growth rate of the cot-
                                       24

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ton finishing industry for the next twelve years, the Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration has predicted a gross wasteload and wastewater volume for selected
years in this period.  Table IV lists these estimates for BOD, suspended solids, tot-
al dissolved solids and volume of wastewater for  1970, 1971, 1972,  1977 and 1982.

                                  TABLE IV

         PROJECTED GROSS WASTELOAD AND WASTEWATER VOLUME
         FOR COTTON FINISHING WASTES FOR SELECTED YEARS,
         1970-1982

Year     BOD   ,      Suspended       Total Dis-            Volume
                       Solids           solved Solids          (Billion
                           (Million  Pounds)                  Gallons)

1970     529            165            497                    99

1971      528            164           496                   100.1

1972     526            163            495                   100.1

1977     516            160           494                   102.3

1982     502            154           483                   105.6


Source:   (Ref.  33,  p.  62)
The reason for the gradual decrease of the gross pollutional  load in the coming
years is based on these assumptions: new machinery, which  tends to produce less
pollution per unit of cloth, due to water reuse and counter current flow designs,
will continue to be purchased; trends  in process modification, new chemical manu-
facture and better housekeeping will continue and a larger percentage of the wastes
will be treated due to increased efficiency of treatment facilities and increased
pressure by State, local, and Federal  agencies (33).

Wool

Wool  fiber consumption is the smallest of the three groups, and the trend seems to
be toward less demand in the future on a percentage basis (39).  Wool fibers are
processed into two fabric types:  woolen fabrics and worsted fabrics - the latter
being used for expensive garments. Figure 7 outlines the operations that take
place in woolen and worsted fabric manufacturing.  The American Wool  Handbook
                                      25

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(40) gives a detailed account- of each of these fiber and fabric manufacturing oper-
ations.  Figure 8 is a process flow chart of wool and worsted fabric finishing opera-
tions.  As in cotton textile production,  either knitting or weaving will be done at a
particular mill,  not both.

Scouring is the first wet process that wool fibers receive.  This process removes all
the natural and acquired impurities from the woolen fibers.

There are two methods  of wool scouring  - detergent scouring and solvent scouring.
In the United States, the detergent scouring process is used almost exclusively (40).
There are two types of  detergent scouring - the soap-alkali process and the neutral
detergent scouring process.  In the soap-alkali process, a soap or synthetic deter-
gent and a mild alkali  such as sodium carbonate or soda ash is added to a bath at  a
pH of 9.5 to 10.5 and heated to temperatures of 130   F.  This process consumes a
volume of 8,000 to 12,000 gallons (40) of water per 1000 pounds of wool fiber. In
the neutral detergent process, non-ionic detergents of the ethylene oxide condensate
class are added to water at a pH of 6.5  to 7.5 and a temperature of  135° to  160°
F. (40).

The process is carried out in a series of four open bowls called "scouring train".
The first  two bowls contain the detergent or soap and  alkali and perform the scour.
The last two bowls serve to rinse the fibers clean.  For every pound of scoured wool-
en fiber one and one-half pounds of waste impurities are produced (32); therefore,
wool scouring produces one of the strongest industrial  wastes in terms of BOD (33).
This process contributes 55 to 75 percent of the total BOD load in wool finishing.

Depending on whether  the fabric  is classified as woolen or worsted, the remaining
wet processes will vary.  The burrpicking and  carbonizing step is done to remove
any vegetable matter remaining in the wool  after scouring.  If the wool is to be
stock dyed, it is done prior to dyeing; if the wool is to be piece dyed, the fabric
is carbonized prior to dyeing.

Due to the popularity of multi-colored fabrics, stock  dyeing is used more often to-
day than Is piece good dyeing (33).  The two classes of dyes used on wool fiber are
acid dyes and metalized dyes.  Table V lists the chemicals found in the woolen
fiber dyebaths.
                                    26

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Woolen System
       Worsted System
 Raw Wool
 Fiber Selection


    I.
 Sorting & Blending    . -


    T                t
 Scouring          Stock Dye
        Raw Wool



           T
        Fiber Selection
             .
        Scouring
 n
 Drying




 Burrpicking/

 Carbonizing



     I.
 Dusting -
 Stock Dye




 Drying



     I
 Mixing & Oiling


     \ f

 Carding
 Knitting-
                   Roving^-
                   Spinning


                       u
                   Wine
ing-
        n
       ••Drying





        Dusting
        Mixing & Oiling
        Card
    ing
        Gilling



           T
        Combing




        Pin Drafting
Quilling
       .Weaving Preparation



           T
        Weaving
 Figure  7. Wool and Worsted  Fabric Manufacturing
                      27

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                Burling & Mending
                        I
                    Tackling
                        T
                    Fulling
                        T
                    Washing
                        T
                    Felting
                        I
                    Carbonizing— i
                        I
                    Dusting
                    Piece Dye
                    Bleaching
                        I
                    Finishing
Figure 8.  Wool and Worsted Finishing Operations
                         28

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                                    TABLE V

                   CHEMICALS PRESENT IN WOOL DYEBATHS

Dye Type                Chemicals Present

Acid Dyes               Dye, sulfuric or acetic acid or
                         ammonium sulfate and Glauber Salt

Metalized Dyes          Dye, acetic or sulfuric acid or
                         ammonium sulfate
Source:   (Ref.  41,  p. 332).
In the dyeing of wool fibers it is impossible to fix definite formulas.  The dye,
grade of wool,  and the type of dyeing machine will alter the formulation (42).  In
the acid dyeing baths the temperature of the solution will vary from  140°  to 212°
F.  In the metalized dyeing the average final temperature is  185° F.  The pH var-
ies depending on the amount of residual alkali left in the wool fibers after the
scouring process (31).  The volume of waste water generated  by dyeing, either
stock or piece goods  is large and  highly colored. Many of the chemicals used for
wool dyeing are toxic (33). The BOD load is contributed by the  process chemicals
used, and the contribution of wool dyeing to the mill's total BOD load is  1 to 5
percent (32).

Although the mixing and oiling step does not contribute directly to the water waste
volume, the oil finds its way into the waste stream through  the washing after fulling
operation.  The percentage contribution to total BOD load  of this process varies
with the type of oil used.  The traditional oiling agent is olive oil, which produces
a high  BOD that could contribute 10 percent of the total BOD load (32); however,
there is a trend toward the use of non-ionic emulsifiers in oiling,  that greatly re-
duces the BOD  contribution in this area (40).

Fulling  is another operation that does not directly contribute  to the waste stream,
until the process chemicals are washed out of the  fabric in the wash after fulling
operation  (32).  There are two common methods of fulling,  alkali fulling and acid
fulling.  In the former case, soap or synthetic  detergent, soda ash, and sequester-
ing agents are used in the fulling solution.  In acid fulling, the fabric  is impregna-
ted with an aqueous solution of sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and minor a-
mounts of metallic catalysts (chromium, copper and cobalt).  In either case, the
water is heated to a temperature of 90° to 100°  F.  (32)0  Acid fulling is always
followed by alkali fulling.
                                       29

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 Following the fulling operation,  the goods are washed to remove the fulling chemi-
 cals mentioned above and the carding oil described in the mixing and oiling discus-
 sion.  It is estimated that from 10 to 25 percent of the fulled cloth's weight is com-
 posed of process chemicals that will be washed out in this process and wasted (32).
 Due to this large amount of waste,  wool washing after fulling is the second largest
 source of BOD,  contributing from 20 to 35 percent of the total  (33).  The usual
 procedure in this process Is to subject the fulled cloth to  two soapings, two warm
 rinses, and one cold rinse.  In the first soaping, nothing is added to the water, the
 soaping action takes place when  agitation of the fabric causes the soap or synthetic
 detergent to  produce suds, thus washing the fabric.  In the second soaping, a 2 per-
 cent solution of soap or synthetic detergent  is used.  The warm water rinsings are
 done at  100° to 110° F.7 while the cold rinse is done below 100°  F. (32).  This
 process consumes from 40,000 to  100,000 gallons of water for each 1000 pounds of
 wool fabric (33).  Analyses show that wool,  once thoroughly washed, will  produce
 little or  no BOD of itself on being rewashed  (32).

 After the dusting process, which  follows carbonizing the  fabric or stock of fibers,
 the acids used in carbonizing  must be removed.  In order to accomplish this, the
 wool is rinsed to remove the bulk of the acid.  Following the rinse,  the wool is
 neutralized by a low concentration solution of sodium carbonate.  After this neu-
 tralization bath  the fabric is rinsed again. Since sulfuric acid and soda ash have
 little or  no BOD, this process contributes less than 1 percent of the total  BOD load
 (33).

 Wool is bleached if white fabric  or very light shades of colored  cloth are required;
 however, the amount of wool  fabric bleached is rather small (33). There are three
 methods  of bleaching wool - with sulphur dioxide,  with hydrogen peroxide,  and
with the  optical brighteners.  With hydrogen peroxide and sulfur dioxide  bleaching
 the BOD contribution is usually less than one-half of a  percent; optical brighten-
 ers, which use organic compounds, contribute about 1 percent of the total BOD
 (33).

 In the processing of woolen fibers, five sources of pollutional load exist - scouring,
dyeing, washing after fulling, neutralizing after carbonizing, and bleaching with
 optical brighteners.  Table VI  contains average values  of the pollution load of
each of these processes, and Table VII  lists the significant  pollutants from each
 process.
                                       30

-------
        Table VI.  Pollutional Loads of Wool Wet Processes.
                                    B.O.D.
        Process        pH        p.p.m.       lbs/1,000    Total Solids     Volume
                                             Ibs.  cloth     p.p.m.        (gallons)

        Scouring   9.0-10.4   30,000-40,000   104.5-221.4  1,129-64,448    5,500-12,000

        Dyeing      4.8-8.0       380-2,200      9.0-34.3   3,855-8,315     1,900-2,680
CO
""       Washing     7.3-10.3    4,000-11,455      31-94     4,830-19,267   40,000-100,000

        Neutral-   1.9-9.0        28            1.7-2.1    1,241-4,830    12,500-15,700
         ization

        Bleaching    6.0          390             1.4          908           300-2,680
        Source:  Ref.  32,  p.  60; Ref.  33, p.  20; Ref.  43, p.  386; Ref.  44, p.  37.

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                                   TABLE VII
              CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOL  PROCESSING WASTES

 Process                  Significant Pollutants

 Scouring                 High BOD, high grease content, high alkalinity,
                         turbid brown color and a temperature of
                         115° to 125°  F.

 Dyeing                  Acid pH, highly colored, relatively high in BOD
                         and possibly toxic

 Washing                 High BOD, high oil content and temperatures of
                         110° to 150°  F.
Source:   (Ref. 33, p. 13).
In Table VI,  the pollutional load values vary greatly due to different methods of
accomplishing the same process; for example,  dyeing can use either acetic acid or
ammonium sulfate as a dye assistant, the  latter having a lower BOD loading.  Var-
iance in volume is caused by differences  between batch and continuous processes.
In the pH values, the large variance in neutralization is due to the fact that the
first soapings1 function is to  remove residual acid from the fabric; whereds, the
second soaping adds alkali to the bath.  For scouring, washing and neutralizing,
the values are for the entire process, not separate bowls.

In treating  1000 pounds of scoured wool,  the total wasteload will contain  1000
pounds of grease, suet, and  dirt, plus up to 500  pounds of process chemicals (de-
tergents, alkali, softeners, etc.) (32).  This wasteload is broken down into 250
pounds of BOD, 188 pounds  of alkalinity, and 40.5 pounds of acidity  (45).  The
volume of water used will range from 55,725 to 133,060 gallons (32,45).  A com-
posite waste stream produced by the finishing of wool fibers would have the follow-
ing pollutional loadings: pH-9.0 to 10.5;  BOD and total solids concentrations of
432 to 1200 p0p.m. and 6,470  p.p.m. respectively (44,45,46).  The effluent will
have a brown colloidal color, tinged with the  most used dye color (32).

As in cotton finishing, the Federal Water Pollution Control  Administration has es-
timated the gross wasteload, in pounds of BOD, and the wastewater volume for the
selected  years in the period  1970-1982.  These estimates are based on the  following
factors: (33)
                                      32

-------
           1.   anticipated growth rate of the wool finishing industry

           2.   the assumptions that the industry will continue to purchase
               processing machinery and process chemicals that tend to
               produce a lower pollutional load  per unit of fabric processed

           3.   treatment facilities will achieve more efficient pollution
               load removal

           4.   increased pressure by Federal, State and local regulatory
               agencies concerning pollution

The Administration's estimates are contained in Table VIII.


                                  TABLE VIII


         PROJECTED GROSS WASTELOAD AND WASTEWATER VOLUME
Year
1970
1971
1972
1977
1982
FOR WOOLEN FINISHING WASTES
1970-1982
BOD
(Million Ibs.)
133.0
133.2
133.2
134.2
136.0
FOR SELECTED YEARS,
Volume
(Billion Gals.)
28.35
28.40
28.40
28.6
29.0
Source:   (Ref. 33, p. 22).
Unlike cotton, the total waste discharges of wool are expected to increase slightly
in the twelve year period.  Although no reason is given for this increase,  a reason-
able conclusion would be that it is impossible to foresee any major process changes
in wool finishing.
                                      33

-------
 Synthetics

 In this category of textile fibers there are two broad classifications:  cellulosic and
 non-cellulosic fibers.  The  two major cellulosic fibers are rayon and cellulose ace-
 tate.  The major non-cellulosic fibers are nylon, polyester, acrylics and modacryl-
 ics.  There are other fibers  in both classes, but at present they are not consumed in
 as large a volume as the six fibers mentioned above.  The largest volume of synthet-
 ic fibers consumed by textile  mills comes from the non-cellulosic fibers (39); and
 the trend is toward an even greater demand in the future, particularly for polyester
 fibers (47).  Synthetic fibers can be converted into  fabrics in one of two ways.
 Continuous filament yarns can be used to manufacture 100 percent synthetic fab-
 rics,  or staple yarns can be used to produce fabrics  that are blends of man-made
 fibers or man-made and natural  fibers.   In Figure 9  a process flow chart shows the
 operations required to produce a 100 percent synthetic fabric; Figure 10 shows the
 processes required for the production of  blended fabrics.  Blended fabrics are pro-
 cessed according to the natural  fiber component of the yarn (32).  As in cotton and
 wool  processing, the yarns are either woven or knitted,  not both.

 For a more detailed description  of synthetic fiber manufacture, processing, and
 blending,  refer to Man-Made Fibers  (48), Man-Made Fibers-Science and Technol-
 ogy  (49),  and the Man-Made Fiber Fact Book (50).

 The first process in which synthetic fibers are subjected to an  aqueous treatment is
 stock dyeing, unless the fabric is to be piece dyed.  When stock dyeing is used, the
 liquid waste  discharge will  vary from about 8 to 15  times the weight  of the fibers
 dyed  (51). A more detailed explanation of synthetic fiber dyeing will be given in
 the discussion on individual fibers.

 Due to the low moisture regain of the synthetics, static electricity is a problem
 during processing.  To minimize this problem, anti-static oils are applied to the
 yarns, which also serve as lubricants and sizing compounds.  Those compounds com-
 monly used are:  polyvinyl alcohol, styrene-base resins,  polyalkylen glycols, gela-
 tin, polyacrylic acid, and polyvinyl acetate  (52).  These compounds become a
source of water pollution  when they are  removed from the fabrics during scouring
 (32).

 Since the manufacture of  synthetic fibers can be well controlled, chemical impuri-
ties are relatively absent  in these fibers; therefore,  only  light scouring and little or
 no bleaching are required prior to dyeing; and if synthetics are bleached, the pro-
cess is not normally a source of organic or suspended solids pollution; however, the
 process will generate dissolved solids if chlorine bleaches are used (33).

 Each of the synthetic fibers  is processed  in varying sequences of operations; there-
fore,  each major synthetic fiber must be examined individually.
                                       34

-------
   Dyeing^	



     T
   Knitting^-
   Bleaching-^-
                   Fiber Manufacture


                           I
                        Winding
  ,     •
— Scouring -


      T
  Heat Setting


      T
-^•Dyeing ^ -


      I
                        ..I
                       Finishing
                     •Warping —



                        I
                     Dyeing



                        I
                     Slashing-



                        I
                     •Weaving



                        T
                     Desizing
Figure 9. Typical Processing of 100 Percent Synthetic

          Fabric.
                           35

-------
Fiber Manufacturing

        T
  Tow Converter	>

        I
     Picking-^	
Worsteds-
Processes
-Woolen  Weaving •<-
 Processes
 Knitting «
                     Blending
     •Carding-
        .1
                      Spinning^-
     •Winding
^Woolen
 Finishing
 Operations
                                    Dyeing
->-Combed  Cotton
  Processes
-^•Cotton Weaving-
   Processes
                    Knitting
                    Cottony-
                    Finishing
                    Operations
 Figure 10.  Typical Processing of Blended Fabrics
                         36

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In finishing rayon, scouring and dyeing are usually done concurrently in a single
bath.  A solution of soluble oil and synthetic detergent is  used for the scouring ac-
tion.  The  same dyes as are used  in cotton dyeing can be applied to rayon; however,
lower temperatures  (180° - 200° F.), retarding agents, and lower concentrations
of electrolytes are used to effect exhaustion of color (35).  The main reason for dye-
ing and scouring rayon in the same bath is that very little  rayon is bleached, due  to
the degradation of the fiber by the oxidizing agents used in bleaching (31).  A typ-
ical rayon  scour and dye bath will contain the antistatic-lubricant used for weaving
purposes and the soluble oil and synthetic detergent used in scouring (52). The av-
erage  BOD in this bath is 2,832 p.p.m.  of which 50 to 60 percent was contributed
by the anti-static compounds, 30 to 40 percent was due to the soluble oil, and  10
to 20 percent was caused by the synthetic detergent (32).

After the scour and dye bath, rayon is subjected to a salt  bath to remove residual
scouring material and to assure fastness of the dyestuff. The bath contains a syn-
thetic detergent and salt solution which is subsequently rinsed from the  fabric.
Practically all the  BOD of this discharge  is  due to residual scour and dye bath so-
lution left in the fabric.  The waste discharge has an average BOD of 58 p.p.m.
and a salt  content of 4,000 to 12,000 p.p.m. (32).

If scouring and dyeing are the only finishing processes given rayon fabrics, the two
baths will  produce  an equalized effluent of 1445 p.p.m.  BOD  and 2,000 to 6,000
p.p.m.  salt  contained in approximately 5000 gallons of water for each 1000 pounds
of fabric processed (52).
 Acetate
 The usual  procedure for processing acetate fabrics is as follows:  a preliminary de-
 sizing action, if necessary; a scour and dye bath or scour and bleach bath, depend-
 ing on whether colored or white fabric is desired; and two rinsings. The anti-static
 compounds are solubilized by diastatic or proteolytfc enzymes prior to scouring
 (52).  Soap or a synthetic detergent is used for scouring, and dyeing is done  by dis-
 persed dyes,  dispersed developed dyes, acid and naphthol dyes (53).

 Because dispersed dyes have very low solubility in water, they are applied as a
 fine dispersion of the dye.  Sulfonated oil, aliphatic esters, and softeners are ap-
 plied to each class of dye at a concentration of  0.02 pounds per pound of fiber to
 facilitate dyeing (53).  When the fiber is swelled, the dye solution penetrates into
 the fiber.  The rinses following dyeing remove the swelling agent, and  as the fiber
 unswells, the dye solution is encased in the fiber (53).

 If the bleaching is required, mild oxidizing agents such as peroxide bleaches and
                                        37

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chlorine can be used.  Usually a 3 percent solution of hydrogen peroxide is used as
the bleaching agent (54).

The wastes from the scour and dye bath averaged 2000 p.p.m, and 50 pounds of
BOD for each  1000 pounds of acetate fabric.  The  bath contained the anti-static-
lubricant desizing wastes, which contributed 40-50 percent of the BOD  load; the
sulfonated oil swelling agent, which accounted for 30-40 percent of the BOD load;
the aliphatic ester swelling agent, which amounted to 10 to 20 percent of the BOD
discharged, and the softener which had negligible  BOD content.  The two rinses
had a fairly low BOD content, resulting from residual chemicals remaining in the
cloth from the scour and dye bath0  These  three processes produce a  composite waste
of 666 p. p.m. of BOD for each 1000 pounds processed; the volume of water requir-
ed to treat this amount of cloth averages 9000 gallons (52).

If bleaching is substituted for dyeing, the  BOD  of the discharge of the scouring  and
bleaching bath is  approximately 750 p.p.m.  (52).  The equilization of this bath
with the discharges from the two rinsings will average 250 p.p.m. and 15-20pounds
of BOD in 9000 gallons of wastewater for the processing of 1000 pounds  of cloth.

Nylon

The usual procedure involved in nylon finishing is scouring, two rinses,  dyeing and
another rinse.  Nylon differs from other synthetics  in that approximately 1 percent
of the fiber dissolves when scoured.  Nylon fibers can be dyed by every class of
dye.  When nylon is used in blended fabrics,  the choice of dye usually depends on
the other fiber component of the blend  (52).

Soap and soda ash are used  in the scouring process. When wasted, the bath con-
tains the following BOD producing compounds - the anti-static compound, soaps,
and fatty esters (from the dissolving fiber components) (32).  The typical nylon
scour bath averages 1360 p.p.m. and 34 pounds of BOD for each 1000 pounds of
cloth processed.  The substances present in the bath contributed the  following per-
centage to the total BOD of the bath: anti-static-sizing compound (40-50 per-
cent),  soap (40-50 percent), and fatty esters  (10-20 percent)  (52).

When nylon is dyed,  sulfonated oils are used as dye dispersants.  These dye dispers-
ants contribute practically all of the process's BOD7  which amounts  to an average
of 600 p.p.m. and 15 pounds for each 1000 pounds of cloth dyed.

The two rinses between the  scouring and dyeing processes and the rinse following
dyeing are low in BOD, which is caused by scouring  and dyeing process chemicals
that remained on the fabric.  If the wastes from these five processes  are  equalized,
scouring and dyeing 1000 pounds of nylon  fabric results in a waste stream which
will average 346  p.p.m. and 43.2 pounds of BOD  in 15,000 gallons of waste wa-
                                       38

-------
ter (52).  The BOD contribution of the scouring process is roughly 80 percent, the
remaining BOD being contributed by the dyeing process (32).

Polyester

Polyester fabric finishing Is usually carried out in the following order: scour,  rinse,
dye, and scour again.   If blended  fabrics are being processed, there  is usually a
second dyeing before the final scour.   A non-ionic synthetic detergent is used for
scouring.

Polyester may be  dyed in several different ways. Conventional dyeing temperatures
(room temperature to boiling) may  be used, but carriers are needed to take the dye
into the fiber.  A second method eliminates the carriers, but high temperatures
(250° F.) and pressures (50 psi) are required to get desirable results.  Another
method of polyester dyeing is thermosal dyeing, in which the fabric is coated with
the dyestuff and cured on the fabric in an oven.  Carriers used in polyester dyeing
are: ortho-pheny I phenol, biphenyl, benzyl alcohol, methyl  naphthalene, and
chloro-benzenes.  To use these carriers at conventional temperatures, high concen-
trations of from 0.06 to 0.4 pounds of carrier to one pound of fiber are required
(55).

The polyester scour wastes average 500-800 p.p.m. of BOD.  The processing of
1000 pounds of polyester fabric will produce  15.5 pounds of BOD of which 90 per-
cent is contributed by the anti-static compounds used for lubrication  and sizing
(32).

Because of the high concentrations at which they are used and the inherent high
rate of BOD, the emulsifying and dissolving agents used in polyester  dyeing will
produce high BOD loads.  Table IX lists the BOD loads in p.p.m. and pounds of
BOD for some carriers used in polyester dyeing.
                                       39

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                                   TABLE IX


                BOD LOADINGS OF POLYESTER DYE CARRIERS

Carrier                                       BOD
                                       p.p.m.       Ibs./IOOO ibs.  of cloth

Ortho-phenylphenol                     6,000                180

Benzoic Acid                           27,000               810

Salicylic Acid                          24,000               720

Phenylmethyl carbinol                   19,000               570

Monochlorobenzene                        480                 14


Source:   (Ref. 32, p. 38).
At the present time ortho-phenylphenol is one of the most widely used dye carriers.
Chlorobenzenes find  limited use because their toxic vapors cause health problems
(52).  The two rinses of polyester finishing are usually low in BOD as the result of
chemicals held in the cloth after scouring and dyeing.  The processing of polyester
uses an average of 15,000 gallons of water (32).

AeryMcs and ModacryI ics

Although these two fiber - types have different physical and chemical properties,
they are both subject to the same finishing techniques and can be discussed to-
gether.

The most prevalent methods of dyeing these two fibers are with acid dyes using ca-
tionlc dyeing assistants, and with basic dyes  using anionic assistants (56). The
amount of carriers used in the bath  ranges from 0.02 to 0.1  pound of chemical per
pound of fiber dyed (32).

The waste from the first scour averages 2190 p.p.m.  and 660 pounds of BOD per
1000 pounds of processed fiber.  The chemical components of the bath are the anti-
static compound, which accounts for 30-50 percent of the BOD, and the soaps used
to accomplish this process.  The rinse following the first scour contains the soap and
lubricant solution held  over from the scouring process and is usually low in BOD
(32).
                                      40

-------
When using acid dyes, the dye baths average  175 p.p.m. and 5.3 pounds of BOD
per 1000 pounds of fabric, the total BOD load coming from the dye carriers.

The final scour averages 668 p.p.m. and 20 pounds of BOD for 1000 pounds of
cloth (52).  This final scour is accomplished with synthetic detergents and pine oil,
which together contribute  practically all the BOD.  Again, the  subsequent rinse
washes out held over solution and is relatively low  in BOD.

The equalized discharges will have a  BOD of 575 p.p.m. and 120.9 pounds in a
volume of 25,000 gallons of wastewater for each 1000 pounds of acrylic and moda-
crylic fabric  processed.

Wet  Processing Wastes of Synthetic Fibers

Unlike wool and cotton, synthetic fibers of the same type can have different physi-
cal and chemical properties.,  The  producers of man-made fibers are continually
producing variations of existing fibers and totally new fibers to meet existing or
anticipated needs.  As a result of all  this research and development work, the
techniques used in finishing synthetic textile fibers are largely dictated by the
fiber manufacturer.  For these reasons, the processing of synthetic fibers can pro-
duce a variable wasteload depending  on the particular fiber type used,  the  manu-
facturer's suggested method of processing, and the particular process chemicals
used. Table  X lists the pollutional loads and waste water volume generated in
processing the five synthetic  fibers discussed above.  Table XI  lists the significant
pollutants found in the waste water resulting from these same processes.
                                       41

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Table X.  Pollutional Load of Synthetic Wet Fiber Processes.
                                     B.O.D.
Total Solids
Suspended

Process


Scour
Scour &
Dy_e
Dye
Salt
Bath
Final
Scour

Special




Fiber


Nylon
Acrylic/
Modacrylic
Polyester
Rayon
Acetate
Nylon
Acrylic/
Modacrylic
Polyester
Rayon
Acrylic/
Modacrylic
Polyester


Nylon
Acrylic/


p_H


10.4
9.7
8.5
9.3
8.4
1.5-
3.7
6.8
7.1






p. p.m.


1360
2190
500-
800
2832
2000
368
175-
2000
4SU —
27,000
58
668
650





Ibs./lOOO
Ibs. of cloth

30-40
45-90
15-25
50-70
40-60
5-20
2-40
0-3
10-25
15-25

i r>
fift


p. p.m.


1882
1874
3334
1778
641
833-
1968
4890
1191






Ibs./lOOO
Ibs. of cloth

30-50
12-20
25-35
25-39
20-34
6-9
on 9 nn
20-200
4-12
10-50
3 i no
3-100
*5 i nn
^-1 on
1-1 nn
Solids
Ibs./lOOO
Ibs. of cloth

20-40
25-50
5-15
0-3
1-20
2-42
5-20
2-6
3-7
3-50
3-50
3-50
0 Kf)
3-50


Volume in jjal
per 1000 Ibs.
of cloth
6,000-8,000
6,000-8,000
3,000-5,000
2,000-4,000
4 ,000-6,000
2,000-4,000
2,000-4,000
500-1,500
8,000-10,000
2,000-4,000
500-1 500
3 000-5 000
4 000 6 000
5 000-7 000
i .ono-3.000
Sources: Ref. 32, p64; Ref. 33, p 101; Ref. 52, p 16.

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                                   TABLE XI
      SIGNIFICANT POLLUTANTS IN SYNTHETIC FIBER WET PROCESSING
Fiber

Rayon
Acetate
Nylon
Acrylic/
Modacrylic
Process

Scour & Dye


Scour & Bleach


Salt bath


Scour & Dye



Scour & Bleach


Scour



Developed Dis-
persed Dye

Bleach


Dye
                 Thermosol
                 Dyeing

                 Bleach

                 Scour

                 Thermosol
                 Dyeing
      Liquid Waste  Pollutant

Oil, dye, synthetic detergent,  and
anti-static lubricants

Synthetic  detergent, and hydrogen
peroxide

Synthetic  detergent, chloride
or sulfate

Anti-static lubricants, dye, sulfonated
oils, synthetic detergent, esters, and
softeners

Synthetic  detergent, hydrogen
peroxide or chlorine

Anti-static lubricants, soap,
tetrasodium pyrophosphate, soda,
and fatty esters.

Dye,  NaNO2, Hydrochloric acid,
veloper, and sulfonated oils

Peracetic  Acid
Dye, formic acid, wetting agent,
aromatic amines, retarding agent,
and sulphates

Acid
Chlorite

Synthetic detergent and pine oil

Acid
                                      43

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TABLE XI  Continued
                 Dyeing with            Chlorobenzenes, hot water, and dye;
                 carriers                or pheny I methyl carbinol, dye, and
                                        hot water; or  ortho-phenylphenol
                                        and dye

                 Scour                  Anti-static lubricants, chlorite or
                                        hypochlorite, and non-ionic
                                        synthetic detergents

                 High temperature        Dye and hot water
                 & pressure dyeing

                 Bleach                 Chlorite, NaNG>2, acetic acid,
                                        oxalic acid, nitric acid, bisulfite,
                                        proprietary bleaches
Source:  (Ref. 33, p. 93)
The Federal Water Pollution Control Administration has projected the gross waste-
load expected to be produced by the synthetic textile finishing industry for the next
twelve year period.  These projections are based on the projected growth rate  of the
industry and on  estimates of increased waste treatment and reduction of wastes per
unit of operation (33).  These projected figures are given in Table XII for 1970,
1971, 1972,  1977 and 1982.

                                  TABLE XII


      PROJECTED GROSS WASTELOAD AND WATERWASTE VOLUME FOR
      SYNTHETIC FIBER FINISHING WASTES FOR SELECTED YEARS 1970-1982

Year     BOD       Suspended         Total Dissolved          Volume
                    Solids             Solids	       (Billion Gals.)
                          (Million Pounds)

1970     288            291                  584                   28
1971     301            304                 608                   29
1972     314            316                 633                   30
1977     375            379                 760                   36
1982     409            412                 827                   39

Source:   (Ref, 33, p. 102).

                                     44

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As noted in the introductory remarks of this section, the synthetic fibers are gaining
a large portion of the total textile fiber market.  The rather high growth rate antic-
ipated (47) accounts for such high waste load predictions.

Special Finishing

In the  past, special finishing was used to  impart a smooth appearance and the de-
sired stiffness to the fabric. Today, in addition to the above two purposes, fabrics
are finished in order to obtain several  other desirable properties.  Among the prop-
erties desired are flame retardancy, water repellency, water proofing,  mildew
proofing,  oil repel lency,  and the  latest two convenience items, soil release and
wash and wear.

The list of chemicals used for special  finishing is rather long and will not be cov-
ered here.  The American Association  of Textile Chemists and Colorists has pre-
pared a list of the 5-day BOD values  for all  textile chemicals (2).  This list enum-
erates  the uses of each chemical, and  the ones used in finishing can be examined to
see how much BOD they would contribute to the final wasteload.

At present there hasn't been any extensive research into the pollutional effects and
loads produced  by these processes; however, it is estimated that this process con-
tributes 5 to 15 percent of the total plant BOD for all three fiber groups (33).
Tables  II  and X list some values given by authors for special finishing of cotton
and synthetic fibers; however, these values reflect a particular mill's discharge and
may not indicate a true average value.   The major reason for the scarcity of re-
search data on this subject is probably that not all goods receive the same degree of
special finishing,  and that some, such as wash and wear rain coats, may receive
several types of special finishing.
                                        45

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            CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXTILE EFFLUENTS SUMMARY
 From examining Tables II, IV, and X, it can be concluded that each of the three
 textile finishing groups produces a highly variable wasteload.  The constant intro-
 duction of new fibers, finishes, chemicals, processes, machinery and techniques
 and an ever-changing consumer demand for different styles and colors of fabric are
 the principal causes of this variation.

 The wastes from a textile  finishing mill come from two sources: the natural impuri-
 ties present in the fibers and the process chemicals used.   In synthetic fibers, only
 the process chemicals are the source of pollution as  they are relatively free of
 chemical  impurities.   In the  processing of cotton and wool wastes,  the  natural im-
 purities are the  largest source of pollution, and are  contained  in a highly  concen-
 trated effluent.

 Wool finishing wastes have high BOD  loads, high solid concentrations, and a high
 grease  content that arises from the scouring process.  The wool wastes are  usually
 considered the strongest textile wet wastes per gallon of process water used.  The
 Federal Water Pollution Control Administration's predictions of future wool wet
waste discharges (Table VIII) call for  a slight  increase in total BOD discharge;
 however,  due to wool's low demand,  these wastes will be the lowest for the indus-
 try.  Although its waste is not as strong as  that from the wool industry,  due mainly
to the absence of grease,  the cotton finishing industry produces the largest volume
 of wet  wastes.  Cotton textile wastes can have high color content. The Federal
Water  Pollution  Control Administration's gross wasteload projections are for a slight
decrease in cotton waste discharges in the  coming years (Table IV).

 The synthetic fiber  finishing wastes are lower in volume and concentration than the
 natural fiber wastes per gallon of water used.   The synthetic fiber market's rapid
growth has indicated that  on a total volume basis, these wastes will be  the largest
 for the industry in a short  period of time  (Table XII). One significant difference
between synthetic fiber wastes and natural  fiber wastes is the presence  of toxic ma-
terials  in the waste  stream when dye carriers are used for synthetic dyeing.
                                       46

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                 REVIEW OF WASTE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES
Introduction
Waste water treatment processes may be categorized into groups which differ main-
ly by the number of operations performed on the waste streams: preliminary treat-
ment, which is used to remove grit and solid material; primary treatment, which
removes settleable and floatable solids; secondary treatment, which removes bio-
degradable organic matter; and tertiary treatment, which is used to remove materials
that are resistant to secondary treatment.  In addition to these conventional treatment
processes are the newly developed chemical and physical treatment methods which
may replace any or all of the above processes.

Preliminary and  Primary Treatment

Preliminary treatment includes equalization,  neutralization, and possibly disinfection
of the waste stream,  although this may be done at the end of the treatment  process.
Segregation of different streams is performed for several reasons, among them being
these: the presence of toxic compounds that could upset the balance of bacterial
growth in biological treatment; or the possibility of wastes such as  storm drainage,
sanitary and housekeeping wastes that require no pretreatment, being  included with
the industrial effluent that must be pretreated; and temperature differences  which
must also be equalized before further treatment.

Equalization or mixing of different wastes is used to insure that the variations and
shock loadings are not introduced to the secondary treatment process.   Variations
in loading are eliminated by mixing highly concentrated waste with very dilute
waste.  The differences in production  such as batch processing and the possibility
of variation in the work week require  equalization of waste streams to  insure that
the secondary treatment system,  if biological, will not be damaged.  If waste
streams are not carefully controlled, lagoons used for equalization can become  od-
oriferous and objectionable  to the surrounding community.  For this reason,  modern
installations provide aeration of the mixed effluent, to reduce the  possibility of
odor formation and at the same time lower the pollutional  load as measured by five
day BOD tests (57).

Neutralization will be necessary if the biological processes reach a pH higher than
10 (43).  Direct  discharge of acidic and alkaline waste can cause corrosion of pipes
and sewer facilities.  State  regulations limit the range of pH allowable for  dis-
charge - to stream effluent.  Table XIII lists some of the chemicals commonly used
for neutralization.
                                    47

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                                 TABLE XI11
Acid Wastes
      Lime Slurries
      Limestone
      Soda Ash
      Caustic Soda
      Ammonia
      Waste Alkali
                     CHEMICALS FOR NEUTRALIZATION
Alkaline Wastes
Sulfuric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Carbon Dioxide
Flue Gas
Sulphur
Waste Acid
Source:  (Ref. 58, p. 34).
These chemicals can be added in either a batch process, or by automatic acid or
alkaline dosing units.

Disinfection of waste waters may be required before discharging treated effluent to
streams. This can be accomplished before primary treatment or as the final treat-
ment step.  When disinfectant is added before primary treatment it may have two
effects: it  may destroy some wastes that are toxic to the microbes in the'secondary
stage; secondly, it may prevent septic f!ox, pathogenic organisms, and undesirable
algae from  reaching the receiving stream.   When the disinfectant  is added as the
final treatment step, it is done for this second effect.  Chemicals  commonly used
for disinfecting waste waters include  chlorine and several of its derivatives —
chlorinated lime, high test hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Table
XIV lists ranges of chlorine required for treatment of municipal waste waters.
                                    48

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                                  TABLE XIV

            CHLORINE EQUIVALENT REQUIRED FOR DISINFECTION

Status of Effluent                              mg./l Required

Raw Sewage                                         6-12
Septic                                              12-25
Settled Sewage                                      5-10
Septic                                              12-40
Chemical Precipitation                               3-6
Trickling Filter, Normal                             3-5
Trickling Filter, Poor                                5-10
Activated Sludge, Normal                            2-4
Activated Sludge, Poor                              3-8
Sand Filter, Normal                                 1-3
Sand Filter, Poor                                    3-5
Source:  (Ref. 59,  p. 86).
State regulations usually require the higher quantity dosage associated with the
poor effluent category,  rather than the normal effluent category; for example, raw
sewage  is required to receive 12-25 mg./l.  rather than 6-12 mg./l.

Screening (60,61,62) is used to remove the relatively large floating or suspended
particles such as fibers,  undissolved chemicals, dirt and grit from the effluent be-
fore further treatment.   There are three general classifications of screens: coarse -
with openings of 1.5 to  6 inches; intermediate - with 0.25 to 1.5 inch interstices;
and fine screens with less than 0.25 inch openings.  Screening media include equal-
ly spaced bars,  woven wire, slotted or perforated plates.  The solids that collect on
the screens can be removed manually, mechanically,  or by back-washing with wa-
ter,  steam, or air.  Where a continuous discharge takes place, the latter two pro-
cedures are best.  The screens are placed at the head  of the drain pipes or another
easily accessible place and function as the effluent is discharged through them. The
paper and pulp, food processing, and  steel industries are experimenting with vibrat-
ing screens, which may  accomplish a higher degree of solids removal than conven-
tional screens.

Sedimentation (63,64) uses the force of gravity to remove settleable solids from
waste waters.  The effluent is discharged to  sedimentation tanks and detained there
for a period long enough for sedimentation (65).  Detention over a long period of
time will cause scum and sludge  build-up along with  odoriferous conditions.   Dif-
                                      49

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ferent tanks, including Imhoff tanks,  can be used for sedimentation.  The deciding
factors are land space and sludge disposal requirements.   In general the settleable
solids are deposited on the bottom of the tank where they form a watery sludge,
which is mechanically removed and disposed of.  (The disposal of sludge shall be
covered  in a separate topic.) The tanks are covered  containers which can accom-
plish both sedimentation and sludge digestion by anaerobic bacteria in the same
vessel.   Thus they have a decided advantage over open tanks  and separate sludge
disposal  systems in small areas.

Flotation is another method of solids-liquid separation.  This can be done by employ-
ing flocculation and dissolved-air flotation.

Flocculation (66,67)  utilizes chemical precipitation to cause  separation.   It can
be used to  increase the rate of sedimentation and flotation by dissolved-air pro-
cesses, or as a  separate settleable solids reduction technique.  The principle of the
process  is to add organic and/or inorganic chemicals  (depending on the waste
characteristics  of the  effluent) to the waste waters.  The solids in the waste
collide with the coagulants, and the two are held together by molecular forces,
thus increasing particle size.  The resulting bulky gelatinous particles known as
floe are  removed by either sedimentation or floatation and possibly by a final
filtering step.

The flotation process most commonly employed in waste treatment is that of dis-
solved-air  flotation.  Fine air bubbles, less than 100  microns in diameter, are in-
troduced to the effluent, where  due to surface interactions they become attached
to the solid particles.  As the air bubbles decrease the density of the  solids, the
separation  takes place at the surface of the effluent,  rather than at the bottom of
the settling basin.

Secondary  Treatment

Two treatment methods used to reduce the organic load of textile effluents are
chemical separation and biological oxidation.

Chemical separation uses the action of chemical absorption or bonding to separate
the dissolved contaminants from textile effluents.  An advantage of this type of treat-
ment  is flexibility.  When process chemicals are changed, the chemical coagulants
can also  be altered to handle the change in effluent composition.   Common coagulants
used in textile  effluent applications are these:  lime,  sulphuric acid, ferrous sulphate,
ferric sulphate, aluminum sulphate, ferric chloride,  calcium chloride and ferric alum.

By this method  of treatment  the wastes are stored  in a lagoon or settling basin
for the   proper removal of solids.   The effluent  is then pumped  to rapid-mix
basins where  coagulants are added  by automatic control  devices.  This  rapid

                                      50

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mixing causes flocculation and sedimentation to occur.  After the floe is removed
from the surface or settled to the bottom of the  basin, the liquid is drawn off and dis-
charged.

This treatment method for municipal wastes reduces BOD on the average of 45-50
percent and color 80-90 percent (68).  The process,  however, is not as economical
as biological methods of secondary treatment.   Chemical treatment methods require
skilled technicians to assure that the proper chemicals are added in the proper
dosages to the varying effluent.

Biological oxidation (69,70) utilizes microorganisms  to degrade the organic mater-
ial in the waste stream.

There are two methods of biological treatment,  classified according to oxygen
requirements—aerobic and anaerobic.  The first method uses microorganisms and
free oxygen dissolved in the effluent to convert the wastes to more microorganisms
plus energy  needed for this existence.  The microorganisms use the waste as food to
develop and multiply; the same process that occurs naturally in streams and rivers.
The microbes use the oxygen and convert the waste to carbon dioxide and water; a
typical  reaction with a  carbohydrate would be:

                   C6  H|2  O6  +  602  -*• 6CO2  +  H2O

Another type of organism is  used in the anaerobic digestion process.  This process
occurs without free oxygen available to the microbes.  Bacteria ultimately convert
most of the waste to methane and carbon dioxide; a typical reaction  is:

                   C6  H|2   06 •*•  3CH4 +  3C02

Generally, aerobic digestion is preferred for two  main  reasons.  The products of
aerobic  digestion are in a higher state of oxidation and anaerobic digestion can
produce odoriferous hydrogen sulfide when sulfate or sulfides are present in the
waste stream.

In biological processes,  there are four process variables: BOD loading, oxygen and
temperature requirements, and degree of mixing.  In  conjunction with these are
five environmental variables:  pH,  nutrients, salts, toxic load,  and variations in
environment.

The BOD is a measure of the amount  of organic  matter in the waste, expressed in
terms of the pounds of oxygen required for aerobic decomposition of the waste.
                                      51

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Oxygen requirements are given as pounds of oxygen per pound of biodegradable
waste (generally referred to as BOD).  The oxygen supplied must sustain a dissolved
oxygen level of 0.5 to 1.0 milligrams per liter to insure adequate aerobic condi-
tions; however, too much dissolved oxygen can encourage the growth of undesira-
ble species (71).

Depending on the type of biological process being used, temperature requirements
vary.  For trickling filters,  a  consistent temperature of 85° F. is important for op-
timum results (57);  if the temperature  is lowered  or raised, efficiency is adversely
affected.   This feature makes  ft difficult for trickling filters to operate at an opti-
mum during the hot summer periods and cold winter days.  Some activated sludges
have been able to operate efficiently at 115° F.  (71).  With the activated sludge
process, increases of temperature in the range of 50°  F. to 115° F. afford a num-
ber of advantages: at higher temperatures, a fixed quantity of microorganisms can
treat more BOD at the same time; flocculation and sedimentation are enhanced;
less sludge is produced for a given BOD loading;  sludge is less sensitive to adverse
BOD loadings (71).  The degree of mixing microbes and waste water can have a
substantial effect on process performance.  These higher efficiencies are achieved
through more effective use of  existing  volume or creation of more surface area.

As stated  earlier, the biological processes can not operate effectively at a pH
above 10. The accepted range of pH  values for biological methods  is 6.5 to 9;
microorganisms can be acclimated to perform well at any point within these limits,
and will adjust to slight changes of pH over time;  however,  rapid changes in pH
can retard their activity (71).  High rate trickling filters are capable of operating
at pH of  10.5 and activated sludge at pH 10 as an upper limit (57);  however, any
variation  from these  limits once the bacteria become acclimated, will cause  lower-
ing of process efficiency.

Biological growth requires several elements to sustain itself.  The list includes car-
bon, hydrogen,  oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and trace elements of iron,
calcium,  magnesium, manganese,  zinc, boron, potassium and cobalt.  Natural
waters contain sufficient trace elements, but sometimes lack nitrogen and phos-
phorus.  These two nutrients can be added in two ways.  Good results have been
obtained in municipal treatment plants when domestic sewage  which  is high in
phosphorus and nitrogen is mixed with  textile wastes that are deficient these two
elements (72).  Also a mixing  tank can be used in which ammonium  phosphate is
added to insure that the effluent contains nitrogen to carbon ratios of 1:20 or 1:10
and phosphorus to carbon ratios of 1:100 (43).  If the process water has been chem-
ically  pretreated to remove hardness and other inorganic compounds (73, 74), a
number of trace elements may  also need to be added to the effluent before it is fed
to the secondary process.

Salt present in the effluent will affect  biological  activity.   It is therefore desira-


                                       52

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ble to limit salt concentrations to less than 10,000 milligrams per liter (71).  This
may be a problem in some dye manufacturing operations but is not a problem with
most textile waste streams.

Metal ions, phenolics, sulfides, cyanides and formaldehyde can be treated by ac-
climated cultures successfully, provided the concentrations are carefully control-
led.  For such control segregation and equalization would  be required before bio-
logical treatment.  Phenolics and  formaldehyde are treatable in concentrations up
to 1,000 milligrams per liter;  sulfides and cyanides have been treated at concen-
trations less than 100 milligrams per liter, and  metal ions present no problems when
concentrations are 10 milligrams per liter or less (71).  While the  limiting  concen-
trations given represent safe concentrations in most cases,  complex waste streams
may have toxic properties attributable to synergistic effects of specific mixtures.

Although microorganisms readily acclimate themselves to different environments,
rapid pH changes or temperature movements of more than 5° F. per hour (71) are
deleterious.  Abnormal changes in BOD  loading can cause  adverse effects  if there
is not enough dissolved oxygen to  handle the peak food supply.

There are four common biological  treatment processes:  stabilization ponds, aerated
lagoons, activated sludge, and trickling filters.

Ponds and Lagoons

The stabilization pond is a basin 3 to 5  feet deep.  The oxygen necessary for the
biological process is supplied from the algae and surface aeration.  To achieve high
BOD reductions,  the BOD  loadings must be kept low, usually 4 to 10 pounds of
BOD per acre-foot per day (71).   Process efficiency varies with the season, as sun-
light and temperature affect the growth of algae.  The effluent is high in suspended
solids and requires sedimentation before final discharge if this is to be the  final
treatment step.  Liquid detention in stabilization ponds varies from 4 to 20 days de-
pending on BOD loadings (71).  The primary consideration  with this process is the
availability of a large area and remote  location for the ponds.  A large area is
needed for the large volume of waste, and a remote  location may be necessary due
to the  production of odors from the ponds in the summer season.

Aerated  lagoons are similar in construction to stabilization ponds with the  addition
of mechanical aeration, which drastically increases  the efficiency of the lagoon.
The aerated lagoon has a depth of 15-18 feet, and the area requirements are about
one-fifteenth of that of the stabilized ponds.  The amount of oxygen required for
efficient treatment is about 1 pound per pound of BOD (71).  The aerated lagoon
uses aerobic microbes and algae to perform the  biological oxidation.  The  detention
time for this process is 3 to 10 days, depending on the  amount of oxygen supplied
(43).   Due to the large volume being treated at any  time, shock loadings usually
                                       53

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have much less effect on the system.

Activated Sludge

Activated sludge process involves mixing incoming waste water with biologically
active sludge or suspensions of microorganisms.  This mixture is aerated with com-
pressed air or mechanical aerators   for the desired length of time and then transfer-
red into another tank where the activated sludge is separated by sedimentation. The
isolated sludge is disposed of or returned to the process if needed.  The treated ef-
fluent, which  is relatively  clear and odor free, with low BOD, low bacteria and
suspended solids content, is then discharged to the receiving streams.   Figure 11  is
a schematic diagram of an activated sludge  treatment plant.

The extended aeration type of activated sludge operation is designed for low BOD
loadings,  requires large quantities of oxygen,  has detention times of 1 to 5 days,
and produces the smallest amount of excess  biological solids.  The  BOD loading
parameters are  0.03 to  1.8 pounds  BOD per pound of mixed liquor suspended solids
(M. L.S.S.) per day. Oxygen requirements are  1.3 to 1.8 pounds per pound of BOD.
The sludge waste, consisting of some waste  particles and dead bacteria, will be 0.1
to 0.2 pounds per pound of BOD removed.   The M. L. S. S. concentration usually
maintained varies from 5,000 to 7,000 milligrams per  liter.  Due to long retention
times and  capacity of M. L. S. S.  limits, the process is limited by the space avail-
able for operation ponds.  Final BOD  reduction with this method can be in excess
of 95 percent, under ideal  operating conditions (71).

Another activated sludge process called the conventional activated sludge tech-
nique is the most widely used for domestic sewage because of its simplicity.  It af-
fords a good BOD removal rate (90 percent).  The BOD loadings required are  0.3
to 1.2 pounds of BOD per pound of M. L. S. S.  per day; the oxygen requirements are
0.7 to 1.2 pounds per pound of BOD.   The waste solids produced are around 0.35
to 0.55 pounds per pound of BOD removed.  The M. L.S.S.  concentrations are held
at 2,000 to 4,000 milligrams per liter, and detention times run from 6 to  12 hours,
depending on organic waste loadings (71).

A third activated sludge process called the  high-rate process uses the least amount
of space,  requires the least oxygen, and has the lowest retention time.  Because of
these advantages it also produces the most excess biological solids and has the  low-
est BOD reduction rate  (50-70 percent).  The BOD loadings varies from 1.5 to 4.0
pounds of  BOD  per pound of M. L. S. S. per day;  oxygen supply ranges from 0.45 to
0.65 pounds per pound of BOD.  The sludge produced from this process is about
0.65 to 0.85 pounds of solids per pound of BOD  removed.   The detention time  with
this process is about  2 hours.  M. L. S. S.  concentrations should be held to about
1,000 milligrams per liter (71).

There are  eight modifications of each  activated sludge process which come about
                                       54

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Oi
              Inffluent
                                           Activated



                                     Sludge          Recirculation
                                         B
                     Solids  Disposal





              A.  Preliminary Treatment



              B.  Primary Treatment
                                                    Effluent Recirculaticn
                                                 r
111111111
                     ~i
                                                                                Effluent
                                                  Aeration Supply

             Sludge Disposal
          C. Aeration Tank




          D. Secondary Settling
                                Figure  11  Activated  Sludge Plant.

-------
 through different aeration techniques.  They are summarized in Table XV.
                                   TABLE XV
        AERATION MODIFICATIONS IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES
 Process Name

 Hays Process


 Dual Aeration


 Stage Aeration


 Step Aeration


 Tapered Aeration


 Contact Stabilization
Extended Aeration
Aeration Ditch

Mixed System
Source:   (Ref. 37, p. 93).
                  Modification

 Incorporates a sedimentation stage between two
 periods of aeration.

Air is admitted at the bottom of the aeration
tank and near the effluent surface.

The first stage is an activated sludge tank,
and the second stage is a trickling filter.

Return sludge is added to the mixed liquor at a
number of points in the aeration tank.

Air addition rate is inversely proportional to
distance of effluent from entrance.

Biological floe is contacted with effluent for
only 1/2 to 1 1/2 hours.  Separated floe is
then reaerated.  Used for effluents with a low
soluble organic load.

Extended aeration activated sludge  is followed
by long term  (8 or more hours)  aeration.

Combines sedimentation with mixed reactor
and plug-flow reactor.
Each of the above modifications has been used to increase aeration time and thus
further remove BOD.  Most of these modifications came about as a result of trying
to increase process efficiency without increasing space requirements.

Another alteration of the activated sludge process is known as endogenous respira-
tion.  In this process the effluent is discharged into an aeration lagoon and seeded
                                      56

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with activated sludge.  The resultant mixture is aerated until most of the organic
wastes have been oxidized.  This eliminates the  need for extensive sludge disposal
and has been shown capable of oxidizing 60 pounds of organics in 1000 cubic feet
of aeration lagoon  (75).

Trickling Filters

Trickling filters or  percolating beds (76,  77) contact the waste stream with the mi-
crobes and air  by flowing the waste stream over a bed of rocks or synthetic  media.
Figure 12 schematically  depicts a trickling filter installation.

The filter is usually a cylindrical tank packed with the filter medium (stone, coke,
or synthetic material such as plastic) in such  a way as to insure the presence of
voids between  the media  pieces.  The effluent flows onto the filter media by means
of a rotating arm that distributes the waste  load uniformly over the circular  bed.
The effluent trickles through the filter and  over a slime of bacteria that adheres to
the filter media. As bacteria die, they fall off the filter and are removed from the
effluent during the secondary settling stage.

Trickling filters may be classified by filter  media composition or  method of effluent
application onto the filter.

Filter media may be composed of rock or synthetic material.  Stone, clinkers and
coke are used for rock filters.  The hydraulic loading of rock filters is usually  10  to
40 million gallons per acre per day; the BOD loadings are from 0.015 to 3.0 pounds
BOD per cubic yard of media per day.  The rock filters are  10 to 50 feet deep, re-
quiring large land areas for settling and recirculation which is usually on a  ratio of
1:1 or 10:1 raw waste to treated effluent (71).

The relatively  new synthetic filter media have several advantages over the rock fil-
ter types.  They are lighter than rock and can be stacked 30 feet high (78). The
surface area per unit of volume is controlled when the media is manufactured so
that more space for bacterial attachment  is  provided.   The hydraulic loading can be
as high as 200  to 400 million gallons per acre per day, and BOD  loadings of 5 to  10
pounds per cubic yard per day (71) can be obtained.

The rate  of effluent addition to the filter media may  be standard or high rate load-
ing.  The difference is that the standard rate addition is intermittent loading periods
of five minutes or less;  whereas, high-rate  types are continuously fed the waste
stream by means of a variable recirculation system.   The standard rate filter has a
hydraulic loading of 4 million gallons per day per acre, organic loads of 15 pounds
of BOD per acre-foot per day, and intermittent releasing of dead bacteria.  The
sludge from the process  is a black, highly oxidized product containing light fine
particles and a highly nitrified effluent with less than 20 milligrams  of BOD per
                                       57

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Oi
00
                                        B
             Influent

                                                  Sludge Recirculation
                                Solids Disposal
             A.  Preliminary Treatment


             B.  Primary Treatment
                     Effluent
      Sludge Disposal




C. Trickling Filter


D. Secondary Settling
                              Figure 12  Trickling Filter  Plant.

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liter.  The effluent is usually discharged after one pass through the filter.  The cor-
responding  hydraulic load, organic load,  and sludge discharge rate of the high-
rate type are, respectively:  10-30 million gallons per day per acre,  30 pounds of
BOD per acre-foot per day,  and continuous.  The sludge produced in the secondary
settling tank is brown in color and not fully oxidized; the effluent is not fully ni-
trified and has a BOD of 30 or more milligrams per liter (59).  Recirculating the
effluent makes the final  discharge as good as  it is with the standard rate; however,
the efficiency is lowered appreciably.

The term single-stage trickling filter refers to the process of passing the effluent
through one trickling filter and then to a secondary settling tank.  Two stage treat-
ment refers to the passing of  the effluent from primary settling through two trickling
filters  in series before the secondary settling stage.  With single stage treatment,
BOD removal is about 50-75 percent.  The two stage method  has a higher rate of
BOD reduction (71) and  is more costly than the activated sludge method (43).

SJudge Disposal

The biological treatment techniques produce sludge which ultimately must be dis-
posed of.  The simplest type  of operation uses drying beds or sand filters on which
the sludge is spread; the sand particles  collect the solid matter while passing the
water to an  underdrain.  The solid wastes can be incinerated, used for fertilizer,
used as sanitary land fill, or buried  in deep wells (79, 80).  Care must be taken to
avoid odorproblems in hot weather.   A second method of sludge disposal  is digestion
by anaerobic bacteria (81, 82,  83).  The by-products of this  method include the
following:  humus, used as fertilizer; sludge liquor that is recirculated in the sec-
ondary system to assure  its purity before discharge; and decomposition gases.  One
research firm suggests the use of these gases as low grade fuel gas (59).  A third
method is vacuum filtration (84, 85).  In this process, the sludge is passed under  a
vacuum pump which removes the solid content of the sludge and allows the water to
pass through a discharge or recirculation drain.  Finally, the sludge can be sent to
an incinerator where the solids content of the sludge is burned (86, 87, 88, 89).

Tertiary Treatment

At present this category  of waste treatment is mostly in an experimental stage at
industrial and domestic effluent treatment plants.   However,  these methods do bear
discussion, for in the future legal standards concerning  the quality of discharges
will be raised to values exceeding the limits of conventional waste treatment
methods.

Tertiary treatment processes may be  classified into two broad groups:  those that re-
move organics and those that remove inorganics from the effluent.  Examples of or-
ganic removal processes  are absorption, foam separation, and chemical oxidation.
                                       59

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 Following are the  inorganic removal processes:  anaerobic denitrification, algae
 harvesting,  ion exchange, electrodialysis, solvent extraction, reverse osmosis,
 freezing, ammonia stripping, and distillation.  Table XVI lists some of these pro-
 cesses,  their removal efficiencies, and estimated costs.
                                  TABLE XVI
       TERTIARY TREATMENT PROCESSES:   REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES AND
                              ESTIMATED COSTS

Process                  Substance                 Efficiency     Costs
                         Removed                  (percent)      fc/1000 gal.)

Anaerobic
  Denitrification          nitrate-nitrogen             80-95           2-3
Algae  Harvesting         nitrate-nitrogen             50-90           2-4
Ammonia Stripping        ammonia-nitrogen           80-95           1-3
Ion Exchange             nitrogen-phosphorus         80-92          17-25
Electrodialysis            dissolved solids             10-40          25-75
Carbon Absorption        organic  material             90-98           4-8
Reverse Osmosis          dissolved solids             65-95          25-40
Distillation               dissolved solids             90-98          40-100
Foam Separation          surface-active-agent        	           1-2
Source:  (Ref.  90,  p. 97).

Adsorption (91, 92, 93) uses highly adsorptive materials to partition waste impuri-
ties from waste  streams.   At present the most economical, efficient, and widely
used absorbent is activated carbon. The carbon may be used as a batch or contin-
uous process.  In the batch process the entire bed of carbon is regenerated at one
time.  In the continuous process a moving bed is divided into  a number of trays
which are moved countercurrently through the tank by chain drive.  When the tray
loses its absorptive capacity,  it is removed from the system and regenerated.  Re-
generation is accomplished by steam or incineration.

Foam separation (94, 95, 96) can be used when surface active agents are present in
the waste water.  In this process,  compressed air is passed through the waste waters
and a foam rich in surface active agents is produced.  Removal of foam,  normally
by mechanical methods, accounts for eighty-five percent removal of the synthetic
detergents present (90).
                                      60

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 Chemical oxidation (37,90) decreases the biological  oxygen demand of the waste
 stream.  In this way residual BOD in the effluent will not deplete the  total dissolved
 oxygen content of the stream.  Chemicals used are ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and
 manganese perchlorate,  chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, potassium persulfate, sodium
 peroxide.

 Anaerobic denitrification (98,99) is used to remove nitrates (which are not degrad-
 ed by the microbes of trickling filters and activated sludge) from waste water.  An
 organic chemical such as methanol,  ethanol, acetone or acetic acid is added as a
 carbon source to the effluent, which is then subjected to anaerobic digestion.  The
 nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, which are released to the
 atmosphere as gas.  The  treated effluent is withdrawn after several days retention
 time and aerated without producing any waste products that require disposal (90).

 Algae harvesting (100) is a method of biologically removing nitrogen and phospho-
 rus compounds from the effluent. The effluent is deposited in shallow earthen ponds,
 where the algae convert the above compounds into cell tissue.   The  algae is then
 removed from the waste stream.

 Ion exchange resins (9,  10)  can be added to the effluent to remove inorganic ions
 such as salts, nitrates, and  phosphates. The cations are exchanged for hydronium
 ions,  and the onions are exchanged for hydroxide  ions.

 Electrodialysis  (102, 10)  is another type of ion separation.  It uses an electrical
 potential rather than  ion exchange to perform its function.  The effluent is sub-
 jected to an  electric potential which separates the waste into positive  and  negative
 components.  The positive components are attracted to a negative membrane, and
 the negative components are attracted to a positive membrane,  leaving a relatively
 pure solution between the membranes.  Usually recirculation is required to get a
 high degree of dissolved  solids removal.

 Solvent extraction (57) is accomplished by  the addition of an immiscible solvent  to
 the waste water.  The  liquids are mixed together with high speed agitation and then
 separated.   Organic impurities are removed from the water and transferred to the
 solvent.  To date, very little research is available on the efficiency or cost of this
 process.

 A  new technique used for water purification and suggested by DuPont (104) for in-
 dustrial waste water recovery is the reverse osmosis process (29,  105).  Wastes are
 removed from the effluent by use of a semipermeable membrane, usually constructed
 of cellulose acetate or hollow nylon fibers and subjected to  350-600 pounds per
square inch pressure, which  is much in excess of the osmotic pressure of the solu-
tion.  This causes the passage of water from an area of greater concentration to a
solution of lower concentration.  The solvent,  in this  case water, is  passed through
                                      61

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the membrane, while the impurities are collected at the membrane's surface.  Since
reverse osmosis can remove up to 95 percent of the dissolved solids content, it looks
promising even though it is presently expensive,  as shown in Table XV.

There exist two physical methods of obtaining very pure waste water-freezing and
distillation.  Both produce an almost pure waste  free second phase from a high pol-
lutional liquid phase.  In  freezing (57) the pure  water collects as ice crystals on
the surface of the waste water, while the impure compounds remain in solution.
When ice crystals are removed and thawed, the water is very pure. Distillation
(106,  107) separates the wastes from the water through a liquid-vapor conversion.
The water is converted to steam, leaving non volatile waste behind.  When it is
condensed back to liquid form, it is very pure.

Ammonia stripping (108, 109) is a method of removing  nitrogen from waste water.
At a pH of 9 or more, ammonia is liberated as a  gas by stripping towers.  The process
required 400 cubic feet of air per gallon of waste water in order to achieve high
efficiency (90).
                   WASTE TREATMENT TECHNIQUE SUMMARY

Due to the variations in textile effluents from process to process, and from hour to
hour, it would seem almost necessary to have some sort of preliminary treatment at
most plant sites.  This is especially true where the effluent  is being discharged to a
municipal sewer to avoid shock loadings to the treatment plant.  Neutralization
and equalization have been proved beneficial  if the firm has its own secondary bio-
logical treatment plant.

Primary settling  is also advantageous to biological treatment, not only because it
removes solids that would take a long time for the bacteria  to digest, but also be-
cause it avoids clogging of drain lines and flooding of tanks.. Sedimentation and
screening can also have economic advantages in that usable fibers may be recov-
ered.

In secondary treatment of municipal waste the  biological processes have  proved to
be more efficient and lower in cost than the chemical precipitation methods.  As
for the use  of trickling filters or activated sludge, it is hard to determine what
criterion has been used to  choose between the  two processes.  Trickling filters re-
quire more  area than activated sludges and are more expensive to build;but they
are generally easier to operate, have lower operating costs (flow is by gravity
rather than pumping), and are more resistant to some  types of shock loading.
Activated sludge is  generally more economical for removing greater than 90% BOD.
Chemical treatment can be more economical for removing total organic loading when
the waste stream is only partially biodegradable.

                                      62

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At present, very little tertiary treatment is done at textile mills.  One reason is
the added expense; another is that conventional treatment can reduce the effluent
to standards of 80-85% removal of oxygen demanding contaminants.  However, in
the future this type of treatment will become necessary to remove the many non-
biodegradable chemicals in the industrial waste stream.
                                     63

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                       TREATMENT OF TEXTILE EFFLUENTS

 The disposal of textile water wastes may be accomplished by two methods which are
 acceptable to state agencies.  The first method is to discharge them to municipal
 sewer systems.  The second method would be treatment of the wastes in a plant-
 owned facility and discharge to a receiving stream.  Discharge of untreated wastes
 to a stream or other body of water is not acceptable.

 Methods commonly used to neutralize effluents,  to remove  suspended solids, and to
 oxidize organic substances in effluents were described earlier.   In this section,
 these methods of waste treatment and their application to textile wastes will be
 discussed in order to determine the methods best suited for particular textile water
 wastes.

 In order to determine the most practical and economical waste treatment scheme
 available to a particular mill,  the composition and volume of the mill's effluent
 must be known.  This is accomplished by analyzing the mill's wet processing oper-
 ations.

 Pollution Survey by Analyzing  Effluents

 Chemical and biological characteristics of a waste stream are commonly determined
 by monitoring the  stream over a period of time long enough to establish the average
 composition and typical variations.

 Pollution  Survey by Analyzing  Wet Processing Operation

A simplified waste survey technique for the textile industry has been suggested by
 three New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission consultants (32).
 Their suggestions are incorporated into this section.

 Their technique  requires the evaluation of four waste producing variables.  These
 variables  are:

          I.  Pounds of fabric passed through each process
          2. Water consumption for all  processes
          3. Pounds of chemicals used in each process
          4. Pollution contribution of the impurities removed from
             the fabrics, and the process chemicals used in production

 They recommend that the survey be limited to processes that use  over 5 percent of the
 total poundage processed; for those processes that use  less than 5 percent,  only the
 volume of water consumed is required, since these generally produce negligible
 contribution to the impurities in the stream.

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As mentioned in the  previous chapter,  the total waste load from textile processing
is contributed by two sources  - the natural  impurities removed from the fiber and
the process chemicals used in removing these natural impurities and in finishing the
fabric.  Therefore, the total waste load can be calculated by adding  together the
waste load of the process chemicals and the waste load due to the natural impuri-
ties.

The BOD load of process chemicals can be determined by examining the American
Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists1 BOD list of textile chemicals (2), or
by conducting BOD tests on those process chemicals which are not contained in this
listing.   In the list the BOD's are given as percentages; the results of a BOD test
are given in milligrams per liter or parts per million.  Dividing by the factor 10,000
converts milligrams per liter or parts per million to percentage values (2).  These
figures can be converted into pounds of BOD by the following formula (32):

      BOD  (Pounds) = pounds of chemical used x BOD percentage
                                        100

The pounds of chemical used can be determined either by examination of process
formulae or by an inventory survey.  The total BOD load produced by the process
chemicals may then be calculated by adding all the process chemical BOD contri-
butions  together.

In  order to calculate the waste loadings of the impurities and  chemicals, samples
are taken of the baths and rinses used in the scouring, desizing and bleaching, dye-
ing and finishing processes.  These samples are analyzed to determine the weight of
the impurities produced; process formulae will indicate the amount of chemicals that
will also be present in these baths.   The samples are tested to determine their COD,
TOC, BOD,  pH,  and alkalinity value.  Other tests may also be necessary.

The concentration in terms of parts per million of milligrams per liter  of the natural
impurities and the process chemicals can be calculated by the following formula
(32):

      Concentration  (p.p.m.) = pounds used    	  x  120,000
                                total gal.  discharged

The total gallons discharged is considered to be the total water consumption for the
survey period.  This  factor can easily be determined from water meter readings or
process  formulae.

The BOD contribution in parts per million or milligram per liter of the impurities
and the process chemicals can be calculated by the following formula (32):
                                       66

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      BOD (p.p.m.)  = Concentration  (p.p.m.)  x BOD  percentage
                                                       100

After evaluating four factors and making the necessary calculations, a picture of
the waste composition  and volume of the plant's effluent is obtained. Once this is
done, the analyst will be able to select the most economical and practical waste
reduction scheme based on the requirements imposed by the  regulatory agencies.

Waste Reduction Through In-Plant Measures

After successfully completing a pollution survey, the analyst should determine if the
waste load generated by the  plant can be reduced.   Significant reductions in the
waste load could  lead  to the elimination of costly treatment facilities and process-
es.  Six in-plant measures can be checked to see if the waste load can be reduced:
reduction of wastewater volume, reduction of process chemicals,  recovery and re-
use of process chemicals, process modifications, substitution of process chemicals,
and good housekeeping.

Deduction of Wastewater Volume

The first in-plant measure is the reduction of waste water volume. The main ad-
vantages of this procedure are reduction in water purchasing costs and the concen-
trating of the effluents in a smaller volume of water.  The two procedures most com-
monly used to achieve  this  reduction are counter flow processing and water reuse
techniques.

In counter flow processing, the water flows through the process in the direction op-
posite to movement of  fabric. This scheme can be employed in operations that work
on the continuous flow principle, for example,  the  rinses following bleaching  of
cotton and the scouring train in wool processing. By the time the fabric  reaches the
last unit,  it should contain the least amount of  natural impurities and/or  process
chemicals.  Fresh water is used to remove this small amount  of waste material and
then, containing this small amount of waste,  it is advanced  to the preceding unit
and used to rinse fabric containing a larger quantity of waste matter.  The process
is contained until the water is finally used in the first unit of the process.  At this
point the water may be discharged or used to make up the process bath (110).

Another way of reducing the  volume of waste water is to use the same water several
times before discharging it.   This scheme can be used for batch processes, where the
contents of one bath can not  be forwarded to a  preceding bath.  Process water can
be reused in the same process or in other processes.   For example, waters used to
rinse fabrics after dyeing can be used to make up a new dye solution, or  merceriz-
ing wash waters can be used to prepare scour, chlorine bleach, and "wetting-out"
baths (57).  When process water is reused it is usually circulated through filtering
or settling devices to remove impurities from the water.


                                      6?

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When reusing process water or employing counterflow processing, care must be tak-
en to assure that any substances that could affect the ensuing textile processes are
effectively removed.  Fluorescent brighteners in concentrations as low as  0.5 mil-
ligrams per liter, some finishing agents, and salt compounds can leave residues on
the fabric which will lead to undesirable results during further processing  (111).

Reduction of Process Chemicals

It has been estimated that over 90 percent of the pollution load of textile wastes is
contributed by the process chemicals  (112).  Therefore,  reducing the amount of
chemicals used in textile processes will lead to lower pollutional loads.  Another
benefit of reducing the amount of process chemicals is the consequent lowering of
production costs.

Very often a  large margin of safety is used in textile mill operations to eliminate
the need for reprocessing.  As this condition prevails only 1  to 5 percent of the
time (32), it  is possible to reduce this margin without impairing the quality of pro-
duction. Careful study of the various textile processes should be undertaken in or-
der to  reduce  the over-all  quantity of process chemicals to the minimum necessary
to ensure the required results.  Through such studies it may be possible to reduce
the amount of process chemicals usually used in washing, dyeing, etc., by one-
fifth to one-half, thereby reducing the pollutional load on the order of 30 percent
(32).

Recovery and  Reuse of Process Chemicals

The reduced pollutional  loads and production cost savings mentioned in the previous
section can also be realized by recovering and  reusing process chemicals instead of
wasting them when the process is finished.

The two areas in which this action has proved most favorable are the recovery of
caustic soda in cotton processing and the wool grease  recovered  in wool scouring.
Caustic soda  is recovered from the mercerizing and scouring  processes; consequently
it contains the natural impurities removed by the cotton  which can be removed by
dialysis or centrifuging and evaporation.  In dialysis (115), the caustic solution is
filtered to remove the insoluble  natural impurities and then dialyzed to remove the
soluble ones.  In the other recovery technique,  the solution  is subjected to a cen-
trifuging operation which removes the  impurities and then subjected to a series of
evaporators that concentrate  the solution (110).

In the wool scouring, the wool grease  can be recovered  by the acid cracking pro-
cess, centrifuging,  or by solvent extraction.  In the acid cracking process, the
scouring liquor is acidified with sulfuric acid and well mixed until the grease sepa-
rates from the water and  is then  recovered by pressure filtering (116).   In the cen-

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 trifuging process, the liquors from the first scouring bowl are subjected to high
 speed centrifugal separation which removes a high proportion of the grease from the
 water (45).  Solvents such as aviation gasoline, naphtha, trichlorethylene, ben-
 zene, and carbon tetrachloride are used in solvent scouring of wool to remove the
 wool grease in a non-aqueous medium.

 In the early 1950's  efforts were made to recover dyes and accessory chemicals by
 adsorption on fuller's earth and activated bauxite followed by solvent extraction,
 but at that  time were found to be impractical and unprofitable (117).

 Process Modifications

 The changing of processes and material flow procedures is another way of elimina-
 ting unnecessary wastes.   Continuous operations generally require smaller space,use
 less water and process chemicals; the consequences of the last two advantages have
 already been discussed.  Whenever possible, separate operations  should be combin-
 ed,  such  as scouring and  dyeing  in the finishing of synthetic fibers (51), and the
 desizing and scouring of cotton  fibers (113).  Another method of process change  is
 to substitute standing baths and rinses for running ones,  thus conserving water and
 concentrating the wasteload in the bottom of the process unit (57).

 One drastic process modification is not to discharge the effluent at all, but to
 pump the process liquor to a storage tank where it is stored and saved for reuse in
 the make up of the next similar bath (68).  Akin to this  modification is the use of
 heat exchanges to transfer the high temperature of some effluents to incoming pro-
 cess water,  thereby conserving water heating costs and reducing  the possibility of
 thermal pollution (118).

 Another process modification is the use of solvent  processing.  Although the scour-
 ing of wool  by the solvent method has been done for a long time, large scale scour-
 ing and desizing  of cotton and the dyeing and finishing of all types of fibers
 has been predicted for the future (119,  120, 121).  When expounding the virtues of
 this new type of processing, the authors  place as much emphasis on the consequent
 reduction of water pollution, due to the  fact those solvent systems mentioned use
 little or no water, as on the efficiencies of the  process. Besides accomplishing de-
 sizing  dyeing and finishing in shorter time than by conventional aqueous systems
 (119),  the new non-aqueous systems reduce the  pollutional load.  They do this by
 collecting the soluble natural impurities  as an oily semi-solid at the solvent puri-
 fication stills, rather than discharging them to waste, and by eliminating the highly
alkaline and soap-laden effluent from cotton scouring and desizing and reducing
the fresh water requirements from 15 gallons to 1/2 of a gallon (120).   If all of the
solvent is not recovered, however, a  more serious  air or water pollution problem
may result.
                                       69

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Substitution of Chemicals

One method of reducing the BOD load of the mill  is to substitute low BOD process
chemicals for  ones that have high BOD values.  By again consulting the BOD list of
textile chemicals (2),  the analyst can determine which low BOD chemicals can be
exchanged for those with a high value of BOD.

Three classical examples of process chemical substitution exist in the textile indus-
try - the substitution of synthetic warp sizes (1 to 3 percent BOD) for starch (50
percent BOD) and gelating (100 percent BOD)  in cotton slashing operations;  the
substitution of ammonium sulphate,  chloride, or mineral acids (0 percent BOD) for
acetic acid (33 to 62 percent BOD), and low BOD synthetic detergents (0 to 22 per-
cent BOD) for soaps (140 percent BOD) (32).  In wool processing,  the traditional
carding oil, olive oil,  which has a 100 percent BOD value, has been replaced in
some mills by  mineral oils with nonionic emulsifiers that have a 20 percent BOD
value (32).  Again the mill must be sure that the low BOD chemicals are not more
harmful than high BOD chemicals.

Other possible chemical substitutions have been suggested. The use of sulfuric acid
in place of soap in wool fulling operations has been suggested by one group of re-
searchers.  Not only does sulfuric acid have no BOD, but when used in conjunction
with synthetic detergent washing, the combined waste is  highly acidic instead of
highly alkaline (32).   The substitution of steam ranges for the oxidation of dyes in
place of dichromate-acetic acid baths,  the use of  low BOD dispersing, emulsifying
and leveling agents in  place of their high BOD counterparts in dyeing will decrease
BOD loadings  (51).

The substitution of low BOD process chemicals for  high BOD ones has two draw-
backs.  One is the  increased cost usually associated with these products (32).  The
other drawback is that  while these chemicals have  low five-day BOD values, little
is  known about their long term effects on aquatic life and waste treatment costs
downstream (57).   Careful study of the ultimate decomposition of these chemicals
should be undertaken before they are indiscriminately substituted  for high BOD
compounds.

The substitution of synthetic detergents for soap presented treatment problems for
textile wastes  in the early 1960's.   The typical synthetic detergent used prior to
July 1965 was the alkyl benzene sulfonate surfactant type, commonly referred to
as ABS.  This synthetic detergent exerted no BOD  (0 percent) on the receiving
stream (18), but was non-biodegradable and therefore passed  into the receiving
stream unaltered.  The  presence of ABS  in streams gives rise to foaming conditions
(122) which were objectionable and hard to  remove. Soap, on the other hand, is
thoroughly  decomposed by biological treatment (123).  Since  June 30, 1965, the
detergent industry has switched to the production of biodegradable synthetic deter-
gent of the linear alkylare sulfonate type, commonly known as LAS.  These com-
                                      70

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pounds are converted to new biological cell tissue by aerobic oxidation and remov-
ed from the effluent by settling tanks (124). The additional BOD exerted by using
biodegradable detergents is  only five percent over loads exerted by wastes contain-
ing non-biodegradable synthetic detergents (18). For the  most part,  textile surface
active agents are of the "soft" or biodegradable type (122), thereby eliminating a
major waste treatment problem.

Good Housekeeping

Another method of reducing thepollutional load of a mill  and concurrently reduc-
ing production  costs is good housekeeping.  One method of good  housekeeping is to
maintain close  control over  the mill's operations, in order to avoid accidental spil-
lages of process chemical baths and the preparation of too large a batch, the excess
of which might be wasted.   If accidental spillages of toxic chemicals occur, a good
housekeeping practice is to  dilute the spillage sufficiently to prevent shock loads
from reaching the treatment facility (57).  If the possibilities of picking up dirt,
grease, rust, etc.,  from the floor and the machinery are eliminated,  less washing
and less processing  of the fabrics are required (32).

A plant can be engineered for minimum losses through spillage, breakage, etc.,  by
the incorporation of retaining walls, splashboards, and sills, but  effective house-
keeping depends on the efforts,  cooperation, and support  of the operating personnel
to implement these  procedures to the fullest extent possible in order to reduce the
mill's pollutional load (68).  It has been estimated that conscientious good house-
keeping practices can eliminate from 5 to 10 percent of the total  pollutional load
of a textile mill.

By instituting a number of these  in-plant pollutional load  reduction techniques, a
textile  mill can reduce its effluent BOD considerably.  Many state regulations require
75 percent or better BOD removal.  Although the in-plant reduction procedures  do
not provide the required reduction percentage, they should still be employed as
they reduce the waste  load  to its lowest level,  provide the waste analyst with
information he  needs to select the most practical and economic waste treatment
scheme, and, as a bonus, lead to reduced production costs.

Discharge of Textile Wastes to Municipal Sewers

The simplest and sometimes  most economical method of treating a textile waste is
to discharge it  too municipal treatment facility (37, 112,   128).    If  the afore-
mentioned in-plant reduction  guidelines  have  been followed properly,  the
                                       71

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mill's waste may be clean enough or  low enough in volume to be treated by the
municipal plant at  little or no extra cost; and even if preliminary or primary treat-
ment is required, the cost to the mill will be much less than if a complete treatment
facility was required  (129).  A permit issued by the sewer authority is usually re-
quired for this privilege,  which allows the authority  the power to collect sewage
service charges.  These service  charges are usually based on  the volume  of waste
water discharged to the municipal facility,  the volume of water consumed by the
mill, the BOD output of the mill, or that portion of the extra costs involved in
providing for the treatment of the textile effluent (57, 130).

In cases where a municipal  facility exists and a textile firm wishes to connect to it,
the existing plant may have to be expanded to handle the increased  load, or the
authority may place limits on the firm's discharges  to the sewer.  When the munici-
pal plant is of the activated sludge type, the addition of trickling  filters ahead  of
the aeration units is one method  of enlarging the capacity; for trickling filter plants
extra trickling filters or a chemical coagulation process can be added to the exist-
ing plant (37).  The authority may set limits on the rate of flow and the temperature
of the effluents discharged to their facilities.  Other restrictions that may be im-
posed by the municipal plant are the  neutralization of highly acidic or highly alka-
line wastes, the reduction of toxic materials to very  low concentrations, and the
limiting of the concentrations of BOD and suspended  solids.  Exact values for these
limits vary from one municipality to the other, depending on local conditions and
the size, standards, and desired  uses  of the receiving watercourse  (37).  Therefore,
unless the effluents produced by  the mill do not meet these restrictions, equaliza-
tion and/or preliminary treatment will be required  in order to prevent the introduct-
ion of shock loadings to the system.   If both textile mills and municipalities are  lo-
cated in an area in which there are no treatment facilities, and if  the industrial
waste stream can be treated by the municipality, a foint venture into the construct-
ion of a facility for combined treatment of the wastes is more economical and feasi-
ble than the construction  of two  separate facilities (37).

Another economic advantage in constructing a combined facility is that through
Section 8 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the municipality is able to
receive construction grants from the Federal  and State Governments.  This typically
amounts to 30 percent of the costs, leaving both the  city and the plant responsible
for only 70 percent of the costs  (112).

There are three advantages to treating textile wastes  in combination with domestic
sewage  (37).  The first advantage of combined treatment is the economy of the op-
eration.  It reduces the capital outlays associated with waste treatment by provid-
ing a more economical operation and eliminating  administrative costs.  The second
advantage  is that combined treatment enhances the biological waste  treatment pro-
cesses, because domestic  sewage contains the bacteriological nutrients (phosphorus

-------
and nitrogen) which may be absent in textile wastes.  Finally, in combined treat-
ment, the dilution of the textile wastes by domestic sewage weakens the concentra-
tion of the former, thus increasing process efficiency and preventing shock loads of
toxic  materials from killing the bacteria in the treatment plant.

Although the ratio of domestic sewage to textile wastes has no appreciable effect on
the treatability of the wastes, a minimum of 7 parts of domestic sewage to 100 parts
of textile waste is necessary to insure that the proper amounts of nutrients  are sup-
plied  to the bacteria in the system (131, 132).  The plant must also remember that
when  it depends on municipal waste treatment it is subject to their regulations and
cost.

Plant  Owned Facilities

If there is no possibility of discharging  its effluents to a municipal sewer,  the mill
must construct its own waste treatment facilities, which would include preliminary,
primary, secondary, and possibly  tertiary treatment.  In releasing its effluents to a
municipal facility, a mill may also be obligated to install its own preliminary or
primary treatment facilities.

For textile wastes the three preliminary steps  used to ensure proper treatment of ef-
fluents whether by municipal or plant-owned  systems are segregation, equalization,
and neutralization.   These systems were presented earlier and have obvious advan-
tages.

Textile wastes vary  tremendously  due to the different processes, the variety of
process chemicals used, and the inconsistent rate of discharge flow. Therefore, it
may be desirable to make the waste as uniform as possible to assure proper operation
of the treatment system.  Equalization of the  wastes accomplishes this objective by
mixing and storing the effluent in ponds or basins.   One approach is to use three
basins or ponds on a fill-and-draw three-cycle system.  With this arrangement one
basin is receiving raw wastes, the second is thoroughly mixing the effluent, and the
third  is supplying effluent to the treatment system (128).  The reason for suggesting
this procedure is that textile waste liquors were found to have density variations
caused by the variations in temperature and composition of the effluents.  These
variations cause low density,  high-temperature liquids to lie near the surface and
pass through gravity flow tanks quickly, while the high-density  low-temperature
liquids settle to the bottom and  remain in the tank for longer periods of time, there-
by negating the advantages of equalization.

The mixed liquors discharged  from textile processing mills are generally alkaline
and may require neutralization.   Neutralization to pH  7, however, is not neces-
sary;  the amount of pH adjustment needed depends on which biological treatment
process is being used.  If chemical coagulation is used instead of biological oxida-
                                        73

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tion, the pH adjustment will depend on the stream standard.  The chemical agents
for neutralization are sulfuric acid and carbon dioxide (134).  The sulphuric acid is
usually added to the effluent by automatic dosing units.   Carbon dioxide can be
added in two ways.  First, carbon dioxide produced during aerobic biological oxi-
dation (44) is suitable  for alkali neutralization.  Secondly, flue gas can be a source
of carbon dioxide for neutralizing.  The alkaline wastes flow down a steel tower
through which carbon dioxide gas, burned as fuel, rises  causing the neutralization
to take place in the tower (115,  135).  This method must be  preceded by a screen-
ing and sedimentation  operation to remove solid matter (136), and an antifoaming
agent must be added when surface-active  agents are contained in the liquor (134).
Neutralization is likely to be most effective if the strong alkaline liquors are sep-
arated from the rest of the waste and neutralized in a segregated basin (136).

Screening and sedimentation are the two types of primary treatment used for textile
wastes.  Screening is necessary in order to remove solid wastes such as lint,  fibers,
grit, and dirt from the  effluent.  If allowed to remain in the waste stream, the sol-
ids would clog sewers, cause interference in subsequent  treatment processes, and
even end up in the receiving stream.

Stationary  screens, if not properly maintained, will clog drains and cause stoppages
and backups.  Two developments to combat this nuisance have been used in textile
facilities.   One is the  use of fine mesh vibrating screens (129); the other is  a Swed-
ish process in which a current of liquid, which flows away from the filtering screen,
catches up the solid matter, then is fractionated and returned to the system  (128).
Sedimentation is  important for removing suspended settleable solids from the  efflu-
ent, but it can not eliminate the dissolved and non-settleable impurities which
comprise the major proportion of the pollutional load present in most textile  efflu-
ents.  When biological  oxidation is used as secondary treatment, some solids can be
removed after treatment along with the sludge from the process (111,  117).

Secondary  Treatment

Every state water pollution control agency requires this type of treatment for dis-
charge of effluent to their state's waters.  Secondary treatment involves the  oxida-
tion of organic  matter by aeration, chemical, or biological methods or a combina-
tion of each.

When wastes are stored and held in equalization and sedimentation basins, they may
become subject to anaerobic decomposition which tends to produce fecal  odors (37).
By maintaining  a pH's  high enough to prevent the loss of mercaptans, etc.,  in con-
junction with aeration,  this condition can be alleviated. Another reason for aera-
tion is that the  wastes may contain easily  oxidizeable organic and inorganic mat-
ter, which can  be oxidized by the air supplied to the wastes. Whether or not this
is the most economical  place to aerate must be determined from pilot studies.
                                       74

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Aeration can also be used as a post or "polishing" treatment on treated effluents to
produce a final effluent that has a higher degree of clarity  than obtained by the bi-
ological treatment alone (37).

Chemical  coagulation has been used to reduce the  BOD load of strong textile wastes
by 30 to 50 percent (128).  In wool processing chemical coagulation has been used
extensively, and is considered a necessary pretreatment step for the removal of un-
recovered wool grease from wool scouring effluents prior to biological treatment
(33, 136).   This process has been suggested as a method for  removing toxic synthet-
ic fiber dye wastes from the effluent prior to using  biological treatment.  In cotton
wastes treatment, chemical coagulation has been used to reduce the load on subse-
quent biological treatment processes or as a "polishing" process on treated effluents
(37).  Research has shown that alum (aluminum sulfate) gives good coagulation of
solids when used near a pH of 7 (136).

Three methods of biological treatment are used on textile wastes—anaerobic
decomposition, mechanically induced aeration, and natural aeration.

Anaerobic decomposition can be used with wastes of high BOD concentration (2000
p.p.m. and up) (32).  This would mean that the equalized effluents of any textile
waste mill would be  less effectively treated by anaerobic processes. Anaerobic
digestion could be used on the segregated and highly concentrated wastes from the
wash after fulling in wool processing wastes (138).  In this connection it is usually
used as a pretreatment step prior to aerobic processing (136).

The two most widely used  biological treatment methods involving aeration are the
activated sludge and trickling filters.  Both processes can treat soluble  BOD very
effectively  if the pH is adjusted to the acceptable  limits, temperature is held fairly
constant, the organic matter is biodegradable, toxic elements are absent or within
tolerance  limits, and the proper dosage of nutrients is present (32).

The most popular biological system used for treating textile  wastes is the activated
sludge extended aeration process (112, 127).  If this process  is properly used and
maintained,a major portion of the process chemicals in use  today can be effective-
ly treated (112).

Tertiary Treatment

At the present time,  tertiary treatment is not extensively done  at many  plant-owned
facilities.  The main reason probably is that conventional secondary treatment is all
that is required by the state regulatory agencies for the discharge  of effluents to
stream in their states.  Carbon adsorption has  recently been introduced  to the textile
industry (8). Polishing lagoons following secondary treatment are sometimes referred
to as tertiary treatment.

                                       75

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Sludge  Disposal

In most of the treatment methods described above, the process of waste water puri-
fication produces sludges  or solid wastes that must be disposed of.  Sludge from
chemical  coagulation can be dewatered,  dried, buried,  or used as land fill.  These
disposal methods may be used with sludge from biological processes or it may be
further  degraded in an anaerobic sludge digester (37).

Cotton  Wastes

 Figure  13 is a recommended waste treatment flow chart for the cotton textile finishing
industry (33).  The wastes from the individual processes should be discharged to an
equalization basin or its equivalent.  This step is considered a necessity because  of
the variability of the wastes, the need for biological processes to receive consistent
effluents, and the restrictions imposed by the municipal authorities.  From equal-
ization  and holding, the effluents may be discharged to the treatment  facility, be
it municipal, plant-owned and treating only textile wastes, or plant-owned and
treating combined wastes.

In-Plant Measures

For cotton processing,  a mill that effectively employs in-plant measures may reduce
by as much as 70 percent  the total BOD load expected to be produced if these
measures are not taken (32).

The BOD  load of desizing can be reduced by 40 to 90 percent depending on the de-
gree of  sizing process chemical substitution (32). If a low BOD synthetic size re-
places starch or gelatin completely, a 33 1/3 percent total mill  BOD load reduction
can be achieved (139).  Table XVII lists the six most commonly used sizing com-
pounds and their BOD values in parts per million and pounds per 1000 pounds of
cloth.

The two most widely used  synthetic sizing compounds are polyvinyl alcohol and
carboxymethyl cellulose (140).   If  these two starch substitutes are used to  replace
starch in printing pastes, a 5 to 20 percent reduction of the mill's total BOD could
be attained depending on  the volume of goods printed (139).  Before low BOD
chemicals are used to replace high BOD chemicals consideration must be given to
the effects the new chemicals will have on the waste treatment plant and  receiving
stream.

The reuse  of weak dye rinses, the storage and  reuse of dye and mercerizing baths,
and counterflow washing can reduce the water consumption in cotton processing by
30 to 40 percent (139).
                                      76

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Desizing
              Scouring
                 T
Bleaching
                Heat
              Recovery
      Mercerizing     Dyeing

           v            v
        Caustic        Heat
       Recovery      Recovery
Finishing
                   Equalization, Holding and Clarification
   Municipal
   Treatment
 Sludge Handling
                                       I
                                       T
                                         .
                                  Screening
                                      *
                                 Biological
                                 Treatment
                                 1. Lagoons
                                 2. Activated
                                     Sludge
                                 3. Trickling
                                     Filters
                                 4. Oxidation
                                    . Ponds
Tertiary —
Treatment
                                                  I
                                              •>>Water
                                                Reuse
                                                                     Domestic
                                                                      Sewage
                                  ~~*  r~^
                                    Chemical
                                   Treatment
                                  Coagulation
                                     Carbon
                                   Adsorption
                                  Receiving Stream
                                                                  t
Figure 13. Cotton Waste  Processing Flow Chart.

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                                  TABLE XVII
           BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND OF COMMONLY USED
                            SIZING  COMPOUNDS

                                             BOD
Compound                       p.p.m.                  Ibs./lOOO Ibs. of cloth

Corn Starch                     810,000                       477.0
British Gum                     690,000                       690.0
Methylcellulose                   1,600                         1.6
Carboxymethol-cellulose          10,000                         9.0
Poly vinyl Alcohol                  1,600                         1.6
Polystyrene                       12,000                         1.2
Source:  (Ref. 30, p.  550; Ref.  68,  p.  920; Ref.  114,  p.  171).


Treatment Efficiencies

In 1967, approximately 35 percent of cotton effluents were  discharged to municipal
sewers; this figure is expected to reach 40 percent by 1972 (33).  The prolonged
aeration form of the activated sludge process (141), a two stage activated sludge
process,  a two stage trickling filter process (142), and a high rate trickling filter
followed by an activated sludge process (36) have all been used with combinations
of domestic sewage and textile wastes to reduce BOD over 90 percent.  Table XVIII
lists the removal efficiencies of various treatment processes  used on cotton water
wastes.

The values in Table XVIII reflect the use of any auxiliary units normally associa-
ted with the process; for  example, the trickling filter and activated sludge effici-
encies cited required primary sedimentation and effluent circulation (33).

The activated sludge process with extended aeration times and a higher concentra-
tion of mixed liquor suspended solids  than produced by the conventional method,
consistently produces BOD reductions of 90 percent or better (33).  The single-stage
trickling filter process cannot reach the removal efficiencies of conventional acti-
vated sludge and is therefore expected to be used less in the future.

Polishing ponds have been used in treating cotton wastes. The most economical
method  is to simply store  the treated effluent in an oxidation pond after it has been
subjected to secondary treatment.  Polishing ponds may reduce the effluent's  pollu-
tional load an extra 50 percent; for example, from 90 to 95  percent total BOD
removed (33).

                                      78

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                                 TABLE XVIII
                     TREATMENT REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES
                     "REMOVAL EFFICIENCY (PERCENT)

Removal Method               BOD             Suspended      Total Dissolved
                                                  Solids             Solids

Screening                      0-15               5-20              0
Sedimentation                  5-15              15-60              0
Chemical Coagulation          25-60              30-90              0-50
Trickling Filter                40-85              80-90              0-30
Activated Sludge              70-95              85-90              0-40
Lagoon                        30-80              30-80              0-40
Aerated Lagoon                50-95              50-95              0-40
Source: (Ref. 33, p.  66).


Wool Wastes

Figure  14  is a representation of the waste treatment flow chart for wool processing
wastes. The  only effluents in wool processing that would require segregation are
the wool scour liquors, which produce 30 percent of the mill's total  BOD (143).
Two reasons for segregating wool scouring liquors are to reduce the high organic
load on secondary biological treatment facilities or to recover wool  grease, which
is a major source  of high quality lanolin (144).  However, wool scour  liquors can
be discharged to equalization basins along with the three other wool waste produ-
cing processes.

There are  three methods of degreasing wool scour  liquors: acid or salt  cracking,
centrifuging, and solvent extraction.  Centrifuging may be used  by itself to recover
25 to 40 percent of the grease from the scour liquor or may be used on high grease
content liquors as a pretreatment step for salt or acid cracking (116).  In the acid
cracking process sulfuric acid is added to settled scour  liquor and the mixture is
aerated, allowed to stand overnight, and the resultant  "magna" is either scooped
off the surface or passed  through the sludge disposal drain.  This  process is used on
scour liquors  containing synthetic detergents.  It removes about 65 percent of the
grease from the effluent (116).  The salt cracking process makes use  of calcium
chloride addition to soap and alkali scour liquors.  At present the wool grease,
soap, and alkali are precipitated as an emulsion from the liquor, thus  making re-
covery of wool grease by this method uneconomical  (145).  Solvent degreasing uses
                                       79

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Seoul



:ing Stc
Dye:
— ^-Suint
Recovery
— ^-Degreasing
« II
* 1
Grease
Recovery
Dck Wash
.ng Aft
Full



ling Neutrc
:er Af1
.ing Carboi



alize
ter
lizing




                   Equilization & Holding

                             I
                         Fine Mesh
                         Screening
     Flotation &
      Skimming
      Chemical
     Coagulation
       Sludge
    Concentration
           1 —
Effluent-
                            I
                                           ^— ^—~ ___  --
                                                       ~i
                                    Sedimentation-
                                          \ '
                                      Activated
                                       Sludge —
                                      Treatment
                                      Trickling
                                      Filtration
                                      1
Lagoons
 Lagoons or Sand Bed Treated Discharge
Figure 14  Wool Waste Processing Flow Chart.

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two separate alcohol extraction procedures.  Methanol is used to remove suet salts
from the fibers and ethanol or a mixture of isopropanol and methanol  is used for re-
moval of grease.  The grease is then recovered by evaporation (32).  However, this
process  does not remove the inert vegetable matter contained in raw wool fiber
(45).  Suet recovery is not often practiced, although total plant BOD reductions of
45-50 percent are possible if both suet and grease are removed from the scour liquors
(32).

Because most wool processing  mills are located adjacent to or within  population
centers, such as the  New England and Middle Atlantic Regions of the United  States,
it has been traditional  for them to dispose of their waste to municipal sewers.  It
has been estimated that 60 percent of the effluents from wool manufacturing were
discharged to municipal sewers in 1967.   By  1980 it is expected that 80 percent of
the woolen mills in the country will  use municipal treatment (33).

Equalization of wool process effluents, whether discharged to municipal or plant
owned facilities, is a necessity  as most of the processes are batch operations.  Wool
also has a high settleable solids content,  composed mostly of grease, inert dirt, and
small fibers. These solids should be  removed as efficiently as possible in order to
assure proper functioning of chemical and biological oxidation processes (136).

En the past, wool wastes were treated at plant owned facilities by chemical precip-
itation with grease recovery.  Today, the activated sludge process using extended
aeration and pH adjustment will reduce BOD load about 90 percent (33).

Table XIX lists the pollution reduction percentages of the various treatment tech-
niques used for wool wastes. The figures  cited for activated  sludge, trickling fil-
ter, and lagoons are for systems that make use of degreasing  either by recovery or
chemical coagulation prior to treatment.

Synthetic Wastes

Figure 15 is a waste treatment flow chart for synthetic fiber finishing wastes.   These
are free from fiber impurities except for the small amount of  nylon which is decom-
posed during the scouring of that fiber (32);  therefore, any waste reduction program
must deal with reducing the BOD  load of the process chemicals.  The substitution of
low BOD process chemicals for ones with high BOD values can reduce the  total
BOD load of a mill by 35 percent (51).

In general, the wastes produced by synthetic fiber wet processing have a lower pol-
lution potential than those of natural fiber effluents.  The greatest pollutional load
in synthetic fiber processing is generated by  the dyeing of polyester and acrylic fi-
bers.  The problem is associated with the special dyeing assistants used with these
two fibers.  These "carriers" give rise to  three sources of pollution: odor,  toxicity,
and high BOD (33).

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Chemical  Scour
  Prep.
Dye    Bleach    Scour    Heat    Special
                         Setting
                  Equilization and Holding
                              I
                          Screening

* 1
Plain Chem
Sedimentation Prepa

1
Activated Trie
Sludge Fil

* •
Lagooning
\

' *
ical Flotation
ration

1
cling Oxidation
ter Pond
r
                             To
                         Watercourse
Figure 15 Synthetic Textile Finishing Waste Treatment
            Flow Chart.

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                                 TABLE XIX
             REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES OF TECHNIQUES USED IN
                         WOOL WASTE TREATMENT
Treatment
Method

Grease Recovery:
   Acid Cracking
   Centrifuge
   Evaporation
   Screening
   Sedimentation
   Flotation
   Chemical Coagulation;
     Ca CI2
   Lime and Ca G2
   CO2- CaCI2
   Alum
   Copperas
   H2SO4 and Alum
   Urea and Alum
   H2SO4 and  FeCI2
   Fe S04
Activated Sludge
Trickling Filter
Lagoons
Removal
  BOD
 20-30
 20-30
 95
  0-10
 30-50
 30-50

 40-70
     60
  15-25
 20-56
 20
 21-83
 32-65
 59-84
 50-80
 85-90
 80-85
   0-85
Efficiency
 Grease
 40-50
 25-45
     95
      0
 80-90
 95-98
     97
   0-15
   0-10
   0-10
Suspended Solids
   (Percentage)
     0-50
    40-50

       20
    50-65
    50-65

    80-95
    80-95
    80-95
    90-95
    90-95
    30-70
Source:   (Ref. 33, p.  26).
 Table XX outlines the relative BOD load reduction potentials of various process
 modifications used in treating synthetic fiber wastes.

 In order to realize these potential BOD reductions, the following sequential proce-
 dure must be employed.  First, scouring must precede or be concurrent with dyeing
 or  bleaching; final scouring or the salt bath must follow dyeing,  and special fin-
 ishing  if applied must follow all other processing (33).

 Either  biological oxidation or chemical precipitation can be the principal BOO re-
 duction treatment for synthetic fiber processing mill wastes (32).  Segregation or

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chemical pretreatment may be required to treat the toxic chemicals used in poly-
ester and acylic dyeing before biological treatment.

In 1967, it was estimated that half of the total synthetic fiber processing effluents
were discharged to municipal sewers. By 1972, it is estimated that 55 percent of
these effluents will be discharged to municipal sewer systems (33).

It is common procedure in treating synthetic fiber wastes to adjust the pH of the
waste stream prior to chemical coagulation in order to reduce the requirement of
costly coagulation chemicals (33).  As synthetic fiber processing wastes have  low
concentrations of suspended solids,  sedimentation may be eliminated or  replaced by
fine screening (III).

                                  TABLE XX
        BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND REDUCTION POTENTIALS OF
             SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FIBER PROCESS MODIFICATIONS
Process
Scour:
      Continuous Machines

Scour and Dye:
      Continuous Machines

Scour and Bleach:
      Continuous Machines

Dye:

Dye:
      High temperature
      pressure machine

Bleach:
      Continuous Machines

Final Scour:
      Continuous Machines

Special Finishing
 Fiber


 Nylon, Acrylic
  and Polyester

 Rayon and
   Acetate

 Rayon and
   Acetate

 Nylon, Acrylic

 Polyester
 Nylon, Acrylic
      Polyester
 Acrylic and Polyester

All fibers
(optional)
BOD Reduction
   (percent)


   10-15


   10-15


   10-15

 Depends on dye



    80


   5-10


   10-20


 Depends on finish
Source: (Ref. 33, p. 103).

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Table XXI  lists the BOD removal efficiencies of treatment processes used for syn-
thetic fiber processing waters.

                                  TABLE XXI
         REMOVAL EFFICIENCIES OF TREATMENT METHODS USED FOR
                  SYNTHETIC FIBER WET PROCESSING WASTES

                                                Removal of Efficiency (Percent)
Treatment Method                        BOD            S. S.        T.D.S.
Screening                               0-5             5-20          0
Sedimentation                           5-15           15-60          0
Chemical Precipitation                  25-60           30-90          0-50
Trickling Filter                         40-85           80-90          0-30
Activated Sludge                       70-95           85-95          0-40
Lagoon                                30-80           30-80          0-40
Aerated  Lagoon                         50-95           50-95          0-40
Source:  (Ref.  33, p. 105).
Due to the fact that synthetic fiber processing wastes contain only the chemicals
used in finishing, reuse of process chemicals would probably be practiced if eco-
nomically feasible methods of recovery were developed.

Dyeing Wastes

Wastes from the dyeing of textile fibers present a particular problem to the  indus-
try. As mentioned previously, some dyestuffs,  for example, sulphur dyes, are toxic
in themselves, or, as in the case of polyester dyestuffs, require the use of toxic as-
sistants, emulsifiers,  and leveling agents.  These chemicals, however, can be ef-
fectively treated  by segregation or chemical coagulation.  The real difficulty  lies
in the color imparted to receiving streams by dyestuff residues. Although most dyes
have low BOD values they add organic carbon and color to the water which is
objectionable to the public for aesthetic reasons (112, 145).  In the late 1950's,
research studies of color removal from textile effluent streams showed that the trick-
ling filter and activated sludge processes could remove effectively 84 and 93 per-
cent of the color  in textile effluents (8), and chemical coagulation of cotton dye
wastes averaged 80 to 91 percent removal of color (68).  The color of today's new,
improved and virtually non-destructible dyes can only be reduced by 50 to  85 per-
cent (112).  Therefore, if public authorities insist on clear water,  improved methods

                                     85

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 of removing the residual organic dyestuffs from textile effluents must be developed.
 Methods that have been used include carbon absorption (8) and chemical coagulation
 (68).  Another suggested method of reducing color from dyehouse wastes is to subject
 the wastes to sunlight (5).  In the last case the time requirements would make the
 process unattractive for most dyes.

                TREATMENT OF TEXTILE EFFLUENTS SUMMARY

 Due to the variations inherent in textile water wastes, a survey should be made of
 all  the mill's wet processes to determine as exactly as possible the composition and
 volume of its effluents.  A simplified survey method which can be used for textile
 processing involves studying the production  records, water consumption, and on-
 weight-of-fabric formulations to determine the amount of goods processed in each
 operation, the  amount of process chemicals  used in each operation, and the water
 consumption for the entire processing operation.  With this  data three simple cal-
 culations can be made to determine the BOD load in both pounds and parts per mil-
 lion and the concentration of each process chemical in the  effluent.  The information
 obtained in this survey will often be sufficient for treatment plant design, in the
 absence of a complete waste profile  developed by long term sampling of all waste
 streams.

 The BOD load of textile fiber processing wastes can be reduced significantly by in-
 plant measures: reduction of waste-water volume,  reduction in process chemical
 use, reuse of process chemicals, process modifications, substitution of process
 chemicals, and good housekeeping.  BOD loads have  been  reduced by as much as
 75 percent in cotton processing, by 30 to 70 percent in wool, and up to 40 percent
 in synthetic wastes through successful implementation  of these measures (112).

 The treatment of textile wastes involves equalization,neutralization, removal of
 suspended solids, and oxidation of organic solids.  The first two operations can be
 accomplished during the preliminary and primary treatment.

 When possible, textile wastes may be discharged to municipal sewer systems.  This
 procedure is more economical than the construction of plant owned facilities, and
 is sometimes more efficient in terms of pollution reduction than plant-owned facil-
 * i •
 ities.

 When in-plant  treatment is required, physical  and chemical methods and activated
sludge systems have been found capable of reducing BOD loads to the limits requir-
 ed by state regulatory agencies. The extended aeration activated sludge process is
the  most often used biological system.

Chemical pretreatment, coagulation, or segregation must be performed on the
wastes prior to  secondary biological treatment  if the wastes contain toxic materials.
 Wool wastes must be chemically pretreated or subject  to a grease  recovery opera-
tion prior to discharge to secondary treatment facilities.

                                      86

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                       COST OF TREATMENT PROCESSES

Biological Treatment

The cost of construction and operation is hard to estimate in our rapidly changing
economy.   However, some guide-lines must be established if we are to compare
waste treatment methods.  For biological treatment of textile waste we can look  at
some of the data reported  by Farrow, Hirth and Judkins (146).

They reported on the construction cost for plants using each of the three methods of
secondary treatment: trickling filters, activated sludge, and mechanically aerated
lagoons.  Waste water flowrates ranged  from 250,000 to 6,000,000 gallons per day.
At a given flowrate the plant construction cost was determined for three representa-
tive BOD  concentrations:  300, 450 and 700 p.p.m.

The construction costs for  the trickling filter and activated sludge treatment plants
were developed with the aid of U. S. Public Health Service Publication No.  1229
(147).  Although this report was based on domestic waste treatment facilities, fac-
tors such as population equivalent, waste volumes, overflow rates and organic load-
ing were taken into consideration in adjusting the cost figures  to conform to textile
waste treatment practices.

Construction  estimates for treatment  using mechanically aerated lagoons are based
on several  recent confidential engineering studies for actual facilities handling 1.4
million gallons per day.

All of the construction cost data, based on a 1968 dollar,  are shown in Figures 16
through 22.  The costs include a factor of 20% for overhead, but  exclude the cost
of the necessary land.

Three different options are referred to in Figure 16-22.  Option I  is conventional
process with tapered aeration and consist of a primary sedimentation tank, an aeration
unit and a  secondary sedimentation tank in series.  Sludge is returned to the aeration
unit from the secondary sedimentation tank to achieve the desired  biological growth
conditions. A six-hour retnetion time is typical for the aeration tank. Compressed
air in decreasing amounts  is introduced at various points along the length of the
aeration unit.  Option 2 replaces the primary sedimentation tank  and sludge digestion
with a three-day holding pond and sludge lagoons respectively.  Option 3 replaces
the primary sedimentation tank in Option I with a three-day holding pond.

Comparison of Costs

Mechanically aerated  lagoons are considerably cheaper to construct than trickling
filters or activated sludge units, regardless of flowrate or  BOD concentration.  It

                                       87

-------
       3.0
en
4->
(0
o
U
o o
O PS
3 O
M -H
-P rH
W H
C -H
O S
       2.5
       2.0
      1.5
      1.0
      0.5
BOD  = 700
                   1.0      2.0      3.0       4.0       5.0      6.0

                               Flowrate  (MGD)
      Figure  16.  Trickling Filter  (Option 1) Construction Costs
                  (Ref.  146)

-------
     3.0
     2.5
     2.0
w
•u -x
w to

  o
    1.5
    1.0
    0.5
      0
1.0
                                               BOD =  700  ppm
2.0      3.0      4.0


   Flowrate (MGD)
                                                     5.0       6.0
    Figure 17. Trickling Filter  (Option  2) Construction Costs

               (Ref. 146)

-------
     3.0
     2.5
     2.0
to
-P -s
(o en
O H
G H
O O
O G
D O
H -H
-P H
O) H
G -H
o s
O ~
     1.5
     1.0
     0.5
       0
                                                BOD =700 ppm
                 1.0       2.0      3.0      4.0       5.0       6.0


                             Flowrate )MGD)
    Figure  18.  Trickling Filter (Option 3) Construction Costs

                (Ref.  146) .
                                90

-------
CO
4J —,
W W

ss
                            Flowrate  (MGD
    Figure  19.  Activated  Sludge  (Option  1) Construction Costs

               (Ref.  146)
                              91

-------
3.0
2.5
2.0
in ^-.
-P to
u SH
o a

  H
S O
O Q
•H
4J
o a
3 O
t| m_j
rl "I
-P H
W rH
1.5
1.0
0.5
                                         BOD  =  700
             1.0       2.0      3.0       4.0      5.0      6.0


                         Flowrate  (MGD)
Figure 20. Activated Sludge (Option  2)  Construction Costs
            (Ref.  146) .
                            92

-------
     3.0
     2.5  '
     2.0
t! «
S n
o m
O H
„ H

is
1.5
     1.0
     0.5
       0          1.0       2.0       3.0      4.0      5.0      6.0



                             Flowrate  (MGD)
    Figure  21. Activated Sludge  (Option 3) Construction Costs

                (Ref. 146).

-------
      .60
      .50
      ,40
en
-P ^
w en
o n
CJ (C
O O
0 C
3 O
M -H
4J H
OJ rH
C -H
O g
CJ —
      ,30
      ,20
     .10
       0
1.0      2.0       3.0      4.0

            Flowrate (MGD)
5.0
6.0
     Figure 22. Aerated Lagoon Construction Costs
                 (Ref. 146).
                                94

-------
  should be emphasized,  however, that the selection of any treatment method should
  be based on treatability studies followed by a pilot plant study using the same waste
  at flowrates and BOD concentrations expected to be produced by the plant.

  Textile plants in or near cities may choose to have their waste handled along with
  domestic sewage in the city treatment system.  Such treatment systems usually em-
  ploy either trickling filters or activated sludge units. Cooperating with a city has
  the advantage of reducing capital outlay, since cities can apply for federal funds
  to expand their sewage treatment facilities.  The textile plant would then be billed
  by the city on the plant's proportional  contribution in waste flowrate or BOD to the
  total treatment load.

  The choice between activated sludge or trickling filters depends on the waste flow-
  rate,  operating cost,  and the availability of  qualified plant personnel.  According
  to Public Health Service Publication No.  1229 (147), activated sludge construct-
  ion is cheaper at flows below 750,000 gallons per day.  But at higher capacities,
  the construction cost advantage favors trickling filters.  Operating costs are usually
  higher for activated sludge plants than for trickling filters because of aeration ex-  .
  penses and additional pumping costs.  Although activated sludge units may yield
 slightly higher BOD reductions than trickling filters, the process is quite sensitive
 to shock  loads,  and operational problems are  not uncommon.  Any biological pro-
 cess needs biodegradable chemicals for food and protection from  toxic chemicals
 and shock loading.  The best method for waste treatment will depend on the avail-
 able space and the particular waste stream in addition to the construction cost.

 Chemical Treatment

 The data  for cost estimation of chemical treatment of textile waste is very limited as
 this treatment method  has not been used except in rare cases. We do know that
 Water prepared by chemical means for plant use costs anywhere from five to twenty
 cents per 1,000 gallons depending on the quality of the source water available.
 No doubt this rising cost and the ungrading of effluent standards will make chemi-
 cal treatment for water reuse much  more attractive.  A Summary Report on Advanc-
 ed Waste  Treatment (148) gives a cost estimation of five to  eight cents per 1,000
 gallons of water treated for alum, lime, and polyelectrolyte  chemicals.  This seems
 like a  low estimate, but even if the cost is higher it is worth consideration.

More data has been published on carbon absorption, and we have previously re-
ferred to its use in one textile plant.  To provide a more general idea of carbon
adsorption cost the following Table XXII and Figure 23 are  presented.  This data
was prepared by M. W. Kellogg Company for the Robert A.  Taft Water Research
Center using a municipal waste stream having  a total COD  of 60 mg./l. influent
and 9.5 mg./l. effluent.  This  data is not taken from a textile waste stream, but
the reader should get a better feel for the cost of this type treatment from the data
shown.  For more information the following references are given (4,8,92).


                                      95

-------
                                           TABLE XXII
                  ECONOMICS OF CARBON ADSORPTION FOR MUNICIPAL WASTES
Plant Size
Contactor Type   «
Velocity, GPM/ft
Contact Time, Min.
Carbon Particle Size, Mesh
Regeneration Loss, %
Carbon Capacity,  Ib. COD/lb C
Vessel Size
Number of Vessels
Number of Trains

Investment, $M
     Concrete
     Absorbers
     Tanks
     Pumps
     Special Equipment
     Piping
     Conveyors
Total Major Material

Plant Investment
     Carbon @26
-------
          TABLE XXII  -  Continued
Operating Costs,
                               Gal.
vO
    Make-up Carbon @ 26(/lb.
    Power @ l
-------
   20.0
   10.0
en
£
O
•H
•H

S
§
cn
-p
-H
ft
(0
O
                                                        100
    1.0 -
                                               (ti
                                               O

                                               o
                                               o
                                               o
                                                         10
                                               -P
                                               w
                                               O
                                               u
                                                            •rH
                                                            -p
                                                            (C
                                                            4J
                                                            o
                                                            EH
                                                      100
                    Plant Capacity,  MGD
 Figure 23
Costs as a Function  of Plant Size - Tertiary
Waste Water Treatment - Granular Activated Carbon
Municipal Waste   (Ref. 4)

-------
 If increased use of chemical methods for waste treatment lowers their cost, they
 could have several advantages over their sensitive biological counterparts.  Any-
 one who is paying the price for installation of a waste treatment plant would do
 well to look at chemical methods and water reuse.
                          ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
 The investigators would like to express their appreciation to several people who
 have made contributions to this report.

 Several textile mills were visited and were very cooperative in offering data and
 suggestions for needed improvements in textile waste treatments.  Without their
 help the report would have less value.

 Over 17 state agencies concerned with the regulations affecting textile waste
 water treatment were also visited.  They offered many helpful suggestions for
 treatment  improvements.  Information obtained from them is included in the
 report.

 Many engineering firms that design waste treatment plants offered their suggest-
 ions for research that would improve textile waste treatment.

 A list of agencies and plants visited is included in Appendix C.

 Finally, appreciation is expressed for the cooperation and financial support of
 the Industrial Pollution Control Branch of the Federal Water Quality
Administration.
                                     99

-------
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                                    101

-------
Bibliography -  Continued

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                                    102

-------
  Bibliography  - Continued

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 35.   Ibid., p.  373.

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                                    103

-------
 Bibliography -  Continued

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                                     104

-------
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                                     105

-------
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                                    106

-------
 Bibliography  -  Continued

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 84.   Flood,  J.  E.  et al.   "Filtration Practice Today",  Chem. Eng.  73,
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85.   Tiller,  F. M.  "Filtration Theory Today", Chem. Eng. 73,  13:151.  (1966).

86.   Albertson, O. E.    "Low Cost Combustion of Sewage Sludge",
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87.   John,  W. H., Ott, R.  and O. E. Albertson.    "Fluid and Sewage Sludge
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88.   Owen, Mark.  "Sludge Incineration",  Jour. Sanitary Eng. Div. Proc.
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                                     10?

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 90.   Eliassen, R. and G. Tchobanoglous.   "Advanced Treatment",
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 91.   Isaac,  P. C.   "Principles of Waste - Water Treatment",
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 92.   United States Department of the Interior.   "Appraisal of Grandular
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 93.   Weber, W. J. Jr. and J.  C. Morris.   "Kinetics of Absorption in
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 94.   Eldits, I. A.   "Foam Fractionation for Removal of Soluable Organic
       Material from Waste Water",  Jour.  Water Pollution Control Federation 33,
       9:914-931.   (1961).                                                 ~~

 95.   Grieves, R. B.  "The Foam Separation Process",  Brit.  Chem.  Eng. J3_,
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 96.   Lemlick, R.   "Absorptive Bubble  Separation Methods-Foam Fractionation
       and Allied  Techniques",   Ind.  and Eng. Chem. 60,  10:16.   (1968).

 97.   Sebastian,  F.  P. and Cardinal,  P. J.   "Solid Waste Disposal",
       Chem. Eng. 75,  10:112-117.   (1968).

 98.   McCarty,  P.  L.   "Feasibility of the Denitrification Process for Removal
       of Nitrate Nitrogen from Agricultural Drainage Waters",  Report to the
       San Joaguin District California State Dept.  of Water ResouTces.  (1966).

 99.   Bogan, R. H.   "The  Use of Algae in Removing Nutrients from Domestic
       Sewage",   Transactions  1960 Seminar.  Division of Water Supply and
       Water  Pollution Control  AEC TR W61-3;  104-147.   (1961).

100.   Oswald, W. J., Crosby, D. G. and C.  G. Golucke.   "Removal of
       Pesticides and Algae  Growth Potential from San Joaquin Valley Drainage
       Waters. 'A Feasibility Study'",  Report to the  San Joaquin District
       California State Dept. of Water Resources.   (1964).
                                    108

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jiibjiography  -  Continued

 101.    Pollio, F. X. and R. Kunin.  "Tertiary Treatment of Municipal
        Sewage Effluents",  Environ. Sci. and Tech. 2:54,   (1968).

 102.    Kelman, S.   "A Study of the Electrodialysis of Organic Compounds",
        M.S.  Thesis Illinois Institute of Technology, Urbana, III.   (1967).

 103.    Marson, H. W.  "Electrolytic  Sewage Treatment-the Modern Process",
        Water Pollutional Control 66; 109.   (1967).

 104.    Anonymous   "Better Water Through Reverse Osmosis",
        DuPont Innovation  I,  1:1-3.   (1969).

 105.    Cooke, W. P.   "Hallow Fiber  Permeators in Industrial Waste Stream
        Separations",  Desolination, 7:  31-46.   (1969).

 106.    Hengstebeck, R.  J.   Distillation:  Principles and Design Procedures.
        New York: Reinhold Pub. Co.    (1961).                          "

107.    O'Connor, B. Dobbs, R. A., Villiers, R.  V. and R. B. Dean.
        "Laboratory Disstillation of Municipal Wastes Effluents",
        Jour. Water Pollution Control Federation.  39,  10: R25.   (1967).

108.    Gulp,  G.  and A. Slekta.   "Nitrogen Removal from Sewage",
        Final Progress Rpt.  USPHS Demonstration  Plant Grant 86-01.   (1966).

109.    Eliassen, R. and G.  Tchobanoglous, G.   "Chemical Processing of
        Waste  Water for Nutrient Removal", Jour. Water Pollution Control
        Federation 40,  8:R171.  (1968).

110.    D.  Geyer, J. C. and W. A. Perry.   Textile Waste Treatment and
        Recovery.   Baltimore:  Fleet-Mcginley,   Inc.  (1938).

111.    Little, A.  H.   "Treatment of Textile Waste  Liquors",
        Journ.  Society Dyers and Colourists 83,  7:268.   (1967).

112.    Masselli, J. W. and N. W. Masselli.  "For Better  Pollution Control",
        Text. Indust.  ]33,  6:65.   (1969).

113.    Souther, R. H.    "A Tool That Makes Dyeing Easier",
        Text. Indust.  117,   12:124.  (1953).
                                    109

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Bibliography  -  Continued

114.   Ganapati,  S. V.   "Some Observations on In-Plant Process Control for
       Abatement of Pollution Load of Textile Wastes",
       Environmental Health 8,  3: 169.   (1966).

115.   Steele,  W. R.  "Application of Flue Gas to Dispose of Caustic Textile
       Wastes",  Proc. 3rd Southern Municipal and Industrial Waste Conference.
       (1954).

116.   Anderson, C. A.   "Wool Grease Recovery and Effluent Treatment",
       Textile J. of Australia 40,  4:11.   (1965).

117.   Thornton, H. A. & J. R. Moore.   "Absorbents in Waste Water Treatment
       Dye Absorption and Recovery Studies",
       Sewage  and Industrial Wastes  23_ 4:497.   (1951).

118.   Meyer,  J. A.  "Waste  Heat Recovery for the Finishing Plant",
       Textile Bulletin 89   No. 6 p. 58.  (1963).

119.   Anonymous   "Will Solvent  Dyeing Solve Water Pollution Problems",
       Atlantic  News  5  #3  p. 1.   (1969).

120.   Ritter, R. E.   "Organic Solvents in Preparation and Finishing",
       Textile Chemist & Colorist  1_.   234.   (May 8, 1969).

121.   Souther,  G. P.  "Textile's Water Pollution Woes Can Be Resolved by
       Solvents",   Am. Textile Reptr. 84   9:11.   (1970).

122.   Booman,  K. A., Dupre J. and Lashen,  E. S.   "Biodegradable
       Surfactants for the Textile Industry", Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 56, p. 82,
       (1967).                                                 —

123.   Sawyer,  C.  N.  "The Effects of Synthetic Detergents on Sewage
       Treatment Processes", Sewage and Industrial Waste, 30  p.  757.   (1958).

124.   Masselli, J. W. and  N.  W. Masselli.   "Cotton  Processing and Stream
       Pollution",  Textile Industries  125, #8   p. 120.  (1961).

125.   Ibid.  p. 121.

126.   Snyder,  D. W.   "A  Practical Approach to Textile Pollution Abatement
       and Waste Treatment",  Am. Dyestuff Reptr., 41, 23.  (Nov.  10, 1952).
                                    no

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Bibliography -  Continued

127.    Pinault, R.  W.   "Textile Water Pollution Cleanup Picks Up Speed",
        Textile World  117,   11:52.  (1967).

128.    Lumb, C.   "Pollution by Textile Effluents in the Mersey Basin",
        Shirley Institute Pamphlet No.  92,  Manchester, England;
        The Cotton, Silk and Man-Made Fibers Research Association.  (1966).

129.    Slade, F. H.   "Process Water and Textile Effluent Problems Part 2"7
        Textile Manufacturer.  94,  3:89.  (1968).

130.    Morton,  T.  H.  "Water for the Dyer",  J. Society Dyers and Colourists
        83,  5:177-184.   (1967).

131.    Jones, E. L, Alspaugh, T. A. and Stokes, H. B.   "Aerobic Treatment
        of Textile Mill Waste",  Journal Water  Pollution Control Federation  34,
        5:495.   (1966).                                                  ~~

132.    Gibson,  F.  M. and J. H.  Wiedeman.   "Treatment of Mixed Sewage and
        Textile Finishing Wastes on Trickling Filters and Activated Sludge",
        Proceedings 17th Ind. Waste Conference, Vol.  110,  Purdue Univ.  Engr.
        Ext. Div.   (1962).

133.    Little, A. H.   "Stratification in Sedimentation Tanks",  Shirley  Institute
        Pamphlet No.  92,  Manchester England:  The Cotton,  Silk and Man-Made
        Fibers Research Association.  (1966).

134.    Summers, T. H.   "Effluent Problems and Their Treatment in the Textile
        Industry",  J.  Society Dyers and Colourists 83, 9:373.   (1967).

135.    Franklin, J. S., K.  Barnes and A. H. Little.   "Textile Effluent Treatment
       with Flue Gases",  International Dyer,  142,  Sept.,  427.  (1969).

136.    Little, A. H.   "The Treatment and  Control of Bleaching and Dyeing
       Wastes",  Water Pollution Control  68   No. 2, p. 178.   (1969).

137.    Kennedy, J. G.   "Effluent Plant Development",   International Dyer, 143,
        1:47.  (1970).

138.   Grishina, E. E.   "The Purification of Waste Water from Washing Wool by
       Means of Anerobic Fermentation", Vodos.  iSanit  Teckhn.  ]£,  p. 24.
       (1964).
                                    Ill

-------
Bibliography  -  Continued

139.   Masselli,  N. W.  and M. G.  Barford.  "Pollution Sources in Cotton
       Processing in Two New England Textile Mills",   Boston:  New England
       Interstate Water Pollution  Control Commission.   (1952).

140.   John J. Porter.   "The Changing Nature of Textile Processing and Waste
       Treatment Technology",  Textile Chem ist and Colorists, 2, p.  336.   (1970).

141.   Jones, Jr.,  L.  L.  "Technical Aspects of Pollution Abatement Textile
       Mill Report",  Am.  Assoc. of Tex. Chem.  and Colorists  Symposium
       February  1969.

142.   Anonymous.    "Recirculation at Sewage Works to Deal with Kiering  Cotton
       Liquors",  Water Pollution Abstracts, 41_,  p.  1633.   (1968).

143.   United States Public Health Service.   "An Industrial Waste Guide to the
       Wool  Processing Industry",   #438 Washington: U. S. Government Printing
       Office.   (1955).

144.   Goodie,  S.  T.  "Lanolin Nee Wool Grease",  The American Oil
       Chemical  Society,  February  1963.

145.   Nemerow, N. L.  and T. A.  Doby.   "Color Removal in Water Waste
       Treatment Plants,"  Sewage  and Industrial Waste, 30, p. 1160.  (1958).

146.   Farrow, J. C., L. J. Hirth and J. F.  Judkins, Jr.   "Estimating
       Construction Costs of Waste Water Treatment  Systems",
       Textile Chemist and  Colorist, 2_,  3:63,   (1970).

147.   Public  Health Service Publication No. 1229.   "Modern Sewage Treatment
       Plants",  U.  S. Department of Health Education and Welfare,
       Washington,  D. C.   (1964).

148.   United States Department of Interior.   "Summary Report Advanced Waste
       Treatment",   FWPCA Publication No. WP-20-AWTR-19,  p. 20.  (1968).
                                    112

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        STATE OF THE ART OF




     TEXTILE WASTE TREATMENT






           APPENDIX






      A STUDY CONDUCTED FOR




       WATER QUALITY OFFICE




ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

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                                    APPENDIX A
                    WATER POLLUTION CONTROL LEGISLATION
  Introduction
 Individual states have always had the right to control and prevent pollution of waters
 within their boundaries.  The Federal Government  limits its involvement to pollution
 of coastal, interstate, and international waters.  Even in these areas it gets involved
 only when the states request assistance or fail to  handle the problems themselves.

 For this paper,  only the laws of the twelve states in which a major portion of tex-
 tile waste producers are located shall be studied. These twelve are:  Connecticut,
 Massachusetts,  Rhode Island, New Jersey,  New  York, Pennsylvania, Alabama,
 Georgia,  North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.   The pollution
 control  laws, water quality standards, degree of  treatment required,  and the
 penalties for violation of the laws wi II be presented.

 Federal  Legislation

 In 1948, the Congress of the United States passed the "Water Pollution Control Act"
 (Al).  This legislation marked the Federal Government's first serious involvement
 in water pollution control.  Two previous  legislative acts, "The  Rivers and Harbors
 Act of 1899" and "The Oil Pollution Act of 1924" concerned only the  pollution of
 coastal and navigable waters.

 The original version of the 1948 Act  has been revised and amended over the past
 twelve years. The original Act was  intended to exist for five years,   in 1956, the
 Act,  extensively revised, became known as "The  Federal Water Pollution Control
 Act (33  United States Code 466)" (A2). It was further amended in 1961 (A3),  in
 1965 by the "Water Quality Act (A4),  and again in  1966 by the "Clean Water Re-
 storation Act" (A5).  Another 1966 amendment (A6)  transferred the duties,  functions
 and authority of the  Act from the Department of Health, Education and Welfare to
 the Department of the Interior.  These duties were again transferred on December 2,
 1970, to the Environmental Protection Agency.

 The purpose of the legislation has been "to enhance  the quality and value of our
water resources and to establish a national policy  for the prevention,  control and
abatement of water pollution" (A4).  In entering the field of pollution control, the
 Congress has declared as  its policy:
                                      115

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                                      (Federal)

    to recognize, preserve, and protect the primary responsibilities and
    rights of the  States in preventing and controlling water pollution,  to
    support and aid technical research relating to the prevention and con-
    trol of water pollution, and to provide Federal technical services and
    financial aid to State and Interstate agencies and to municipalities in
    connection with the prevention and control of water pollution. (A2)

 The Act has  established two Federal agencies that are to be concerned with water
 pollution prevention and control.  The  1956 amendments created the Federal Water
 Pollution Control Advisory Board composed often members, including  the Secretary
 of the Interior, or his designee, who shall act as chairman.  The Board "shall ad-
 vise, consult with and make recommendations to  the Secretary on matters of policy
 relating to the activities and functions of the Secretary under this Act".  (A2) The
 other Federal agency was created  by the "Water  Quality Act" in 1965. This agen-
 cy, formerly known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,  under the
 authority of the Secretary of the Interior is now the Water Quality Office of the
 Environmental Protection Agency.

 Section 3 of  this  Act provides for joint investigations by the Federal Water Pollution
 Control Administration,  State water pollution control agencies, interstate agencies,
 municipalities and industries to prepare or develop comprehensive programs for
 eliminating or reducing the pollution of, and improving the sanitary condition of
 interstate waters. This section also allows for the payment of a grant not to exceed
 fifty percent  of the administrative expenses of a planning agency for a period of less
 than three  years, if the planning agency provides for adequate representation of the
 State, interstate  or local interests and provides an effective, comprehensive water
 quality control and pollution abatement plan for  the area.

 Section 4 of  the Act encourages: cooperative activities by the States for the pre-
 vention and control of water pollution; the enactment of uniform State laws relating
 to water pollution prevention and control; and compacts between States for the pre-
 vention and control of water pollution.

 The Secretary of  the Interior, through Section 5,  is to conduct, through the Federal
 Water Pollution Control Administration and in cooperation with public and private
agencies and institutions, research,  investigations, experiments, demonstrations,
and studies relating to the causes, control and prevention of water pollution.  The
 Secretary shall also collect and make available through publications the results and
 other information of such research, investigations, experiments, demonstrations and
studies; make grants-in-aid to public or private agencies for such research,  inves-
 tigations, experiments, demonstrations and studies.  This Section of the Act also
gives him the authority to conduct investigations, research and surveys concerning
any specific problem of water pollution  confronting any State, interstate agency,
                                      116

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                                    (Federal)

 community, or industrial plant,  if requested to do so by the State water pollution
 control agency.

 Section 6 of the Act provides for a Federal grant-in-aids for the  research, studies,
 demonstrations and experiments mentioned in Section 5.  These grants-in-aid are of
 two types. The  first are those available to any State,  interstate, municipal  or in-
 termunicipal agency for the purpose of assisting in the development of any project
 which will demonstrate:

       a new or improved method of controlling the discharge into any waters
       of untreated or inadequately treated sewage or other wastes from sew-
       ers or an advanced waste treatment and  water  purification  methods (in-
       cluding the temporary use of new or improved  chemical additives which
       provide substantial immediate improvement to  existing treatment pro-
       cesses) or  new or improved methods of joint treatment systems for muni-
       cipal and  industrial  wastes.  (A5)

 The other  type is a grant to persons for research for the prevention of pollution of
 waters by  industrial waste  treatment.  The grant to public agencies cannot exceed
 seventy-five percent of the estimated cost, while the industrial grants cannot ex-
 ceed seventy percent of the estimated cost or one million dollars, whichever
 amount is smaller.

 Both type grants  are subject to the Secretary of the Interior's determination that
 the project will serve a useful  purpose in the development or demonstration of a
 new or improved  method of treating wastes or preventing pollution (A5).

 The Secretary of the  Interior is empowered, through  Sections 7 and 8, to grant
 Federal funds to  State, interstate,  municipal or intermunicipal agencies. The
 Section 7 grants-in-aid are to  assist these public agencies in establishing and main-
 taining adequate measures for the prevention and  control of water pollution.  In
 order to receive  these funds, the agencies must submit a plan for  the prevention and
 control of water  pollution  in the particular drainage  area and this plan must meet
with the Secretary's approval.   In Section 8, the  Secretary is authorized to grant
 Federal funds to  public agencies for the construction or alteration of water waste
treatment and disposal facilities; provided that such facilities are approved by the
 State water pollution control agency.

 Section 10 of the Act requires the establishment of water quality  criteria for all the
streams in  the country and  it sets forth the procedure  involved in bringing the Feder-
al Government into pollution abatement litigation.   Subsection "c"  of this section,
which was incorporated into the Federal Water Pollution Control Act by  the "Water
Quality Act", deals with the setting of water quality criteria for all  interstate and
navigable waters.  The Act specifies that these criteria  "shall take into considera-
                                        117

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                                    (Federal)

tion their use and value for public water supplies, propagation of fish and wildlife,
recreational purposes and agricultural, industrial and other legitimate uses"  (A4).
The States were given until June 30, 1967 to file a letter of intent with the  Federal
Water Pollution Control Administration which contained a  list of water quality cri-
teria applicable to the waters of the State and a plan for the implementation and
enforcement of these water quality standards.  If approved, these standards and the
plan for their enforcement would become the recognized standards for the waters of
the State.   The  Federal Water Pollution Control  Administration had turned down
some States' plans, but encouraged those whose standards were rejected to resubmit
plans of their own.  This subsection gives the Secretary of the Interior the right to
promulgate standards of water quality for any State which  fails to do so, within a
reasonable period of time, after holding a public meeting  with the water  pollution
control agency of the States  concerned and the Federal Water Pollution Control
Administration (A4).  Virginia is the only "Textile State" which still has not sub-
mitted standards acceptable to the  Federal Water Pollution Control  Administration,
but its Water Control Board is in the  process of resubmitting new standards (A7).

Subsections "d"  through "k"  set forth the procedures required for the Secretary of
the Interior to follow in order to seek the abatement  of pollution.  If the  Secretary
receives a  report, survey or study that leads him to believe that any interstate or
navigable waters are being polluted, by the discharge  of untreated  or improperly
treated effluents,  which endangers the health or welfare of any persons; or if he is
requested by the Governor, State water pollution control agency, governing body
of a municipality or the Secretary of State (in the case of  pollution of international
water) to help abate a source of pollution, he is to proceed in the following man-
ner.  In  the case of a discharge that endangers the health  or welfare of any  persons
in a foreign country,  the Secretary shall  give formal  notification to the State water
pollution control agency of the State in which the discharge originates to secure
immediate  abatement of the discharge; and he shall call for a conference  between
the appropriate foreign water pollution control agency, State water pollution con-
trol agency and  the alleged polluter  in order to secure permanent abatement  of such
pollution (A5).  In the case  of a discharge that endangers the health or welfare of
any persons in a State other than the State in which the discharge takes place, the
Secretary shall give formal notification of the existence of such pollution to  the
State water pollution control agency in the State in which  the discharge takes
place, and call  a  conference of the State water pollution control agencies,  of the
State filing the request for abatement and the State in which the  discharge takes
place and any interested parties, including the alleged polluter (A2).   In the case
of a discharge that endangers the health or welfare of only persons in the  State in
which the discharge takes place, the Secretary shall  give formal  notification of the
existence of such pollution to the  State water pollution control agency.  He  shall
not call  for a conference unless requested to do so by the Governor or  State water
pollution control agency (A3).
                                      118

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                                    (Federal)
 After  the conference, if the Secretary does not think that satisfactory abatement
 is taking  place, he shall recommend to the appropriate State water pollution control
 agency the taking of remedial action.  The Secretary is to allow a period of six
 months for such remedial action to take place (A2).  If the pollution is not yet abat-
 ed after this period, the Secretary shall call a public meeting before a five-man
 Hearing Board, appointed by him.  The Board will  make recommendations to the
 Secretary, and he shall send to  the guilty person the findings of the Board and re-
 commend  means of abatement.   The Secretary is to allow a period of six months for
 such recommendations to be put into effect.  If at the end of this period, the pollu-
 tion is not abated, the Secretary can call upon "the Attorney General of the Unit-
 ed States  to secure abatement of the pollution"  (A2).

 Any person required to appear at any hearing called by the Secretary of the Inter-
 ior,  and whose discharges are alleged  to be causing or contributing to water pollu-
 tion, must file with the Secretary a report furnishing such information as  "to the
 character, kind and quantity of such discharges and the  use of facilities or other
 means to prevent or reduce such discharges"  (A5).   If such person fails to file the
above report within the time specified by the Secretary, he shall be fined one hun-
dred dollars each day he fails to file such report.  The fine shall  be recoverable in
a civil suit to the  United States  (A5).
                                      119

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 State Legislation

 The  Federal Government has granted the right of preventing and controlling water
 pollution to the individual States.  Therefore, in order to determine the exact legal
 wastewater treatment and disposal requirements applicable to the effluents produced
 in a particular region of the  country, a thorough study of the water pollution laws,
 disposal  requirements and stream standards in the States located in  that region is a
 necessity.

 The  textile industry  is concentrated  in several States located in three particular
 regions of the United States: the New England area, the  Middle Atlantic area,
 and  the Southeastern area.  The legal aspects regarding water pollution within
 each particular state will be discussed.

 New England

 In New England, the textile wet processing industries are concentrated in Connect-
 icut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island.  There are some firms located in the other
 three New England States, but these are small in size and number.   These States
 and  New York belong to the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Com-
 mission.   This Commission was set up in an effort to  prevent and control pollution in
 the interstate waters of New England.  The Commission does not have authority to
 involve itself  in the  operations of the individual State pollution control agencies
 (A8).

 The  laws of the three "Textile States" will be discussed individually in the  follow-
 ing order:  Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island.  Due to the fact that all
 three are members of the New England Interstate Water Pollution Administration,
 their stream standards are similar.

 Connecticut

 In 1965 the governor of Connecticut formed a Clean Water Task Force to propose a
 new  water quality act.  The recommendations of this Task Force were presented to
 the legislature and in 1967 the Clean Water Act was adopted (A9). The new law
was designed to accomplish three basic  objectives.   First,  it gives  financial assist-
 ance to municipalities and industry in the construction of pollution abatement facil-
 ities; Second,  it  provides the authority required by the Water Resources Commission
 to control and abate all the sources of water pollution in Connecticut;  and Third,
 it authorizes the Water  Resources Commission to set water quality standards to com-
 ply with  Federal law and to make the communities of the State eligible for addi-
 tional  Federal grants.  Taking up these  three elements in somewhat greater detail,
 the law proposed:
                                       120

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                                   (Connecticut)

 (1)  The establishment of a program to assist municipalities to finance a greatly
 accelerated program of sewage treatment by providing a grant of thirty percent of
 the cost of constructing the necessary plant and appurtenant facilities.  Authoriza-
 tion of $150 million in State bonds  is included in the act to make funding available
 for such grants and to advance Federal grants.  Since  many towns have already in-
 curred considerable expense in constructing pollution  abatement facilities prior to
 enactment of Public  Act 57r the State will annually grant thirty percent of the
 principal amount of the bond or note indebtedness still outstanding in each of these
 communities which come due each year.

 (2)  Removal of  State sales and use  tax, State business taxes, local property taxes
 on, and provision for accelerated depreciation of structures and equipment used to
 treat industrial wastes is included to help industry and commerce to carry out their
 responsibilities in this area.

 (3)  Improvement of existing law and addition of new sections to the law to make
 possible more effective control of all forms of water pollution; and

 (4) Additions to appropriations and facilities of the Water Resources Commission to
 enable this body to cope effectively with the  numerous,  persistent and complex
 problems associated with water pollution control.  In addition to increased monies
 from  the State general fund,  provision has been  included to make one-half of one
 percent of the $150 million bond authorization or $750 thousand available for ad-
 ministration of the clean up program.  This  has permitted immediate implementation
 of the act following signing into law on May 1,  1967 without waiting for general
 fund  monies to become available,  and it will also allow the hiring of special con-
 sultant engineering services as  needed; and it permits rapid expansion and con-
 traction of Staff  in line with  changing needs.

 The following gives a detail description of Public Act No. 577 the  Clean Water
 Act of 1967:

 AN ACT CONCERNING THE ELIMINATION OF
 POLLUTION OF THE WATERS OF THE STATE

 Section 1.   It is  found and declared that the pollution of the waters of the state is
 inimical to the public health, safety and welfare of the inhabitants of the state, is
a public nuisance and is harmful to wildlife, fish and aquatic life and impairs do-
 mestic, agricultural,  industrial, recreational and other legitimate beneficial uses
of water, and that the use of public funds and  the  granting of tax exemptions for
the  purpose of controlling and eliminating such pollution is a public  use and pur-
pose for which public monies  may be expended and tax exemptions granted,  and
                                     131

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                                  (Connecticut)

the necessity and public interest for the enactment of this act and the elimination
of pollution is hereby declared as a matter of legislative determination.

Section 2,  As used in this act:  "Commission" means the water resources commis-
sion;  "waters"  means all  tidal waters,  harbors, estuaries, rivers, brooks, water-
courses,  waterways, wells, springs, lakes, ponds,  marshes, drainage systems,  and
all  other surface or underground streams, bodies or accumulations of water, natural
or artificial, public or  private, which are contained within, flow through or border
upon this state or any portion thereof;  "Wastes" means sewage or any substance,
liquid, gaseous, solid or radioactive, which may pollute or tend to pollute any of
the waters of the state;  "pollution" means harmful thermal effect or the contamina-
tion or rendering unclean or impure of any waters of the state by reason of any
wastes or other material discharged or deposited therein by any public or private
sewer or otherwise so as directly or indirectly to come in contact with any waters;
"rendering unclean or impure" means any alteration of the  physical, chemical or
biological properties of any of the waters of  the state, including, but not limited to,
change in odor,  color,  turbidity or taste; "harmful thermal effect"  means any sig-
nificant change  in the temperature of any waters resulting from a discharge therein,
the magnitude of which temperature change does or Is likely to render such waters
harmful, detrimental or injurious to public health,  safety or welfare, or to  domes-
tic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational or other legitimate benefi-
cial uses, or to livestock, wild animals, birds, fish or other aquatic life;  "person"
means any individual,  partnership, association, firm, corporation or other entity,
except a municipality,  and includes any officer or governing or managing body of
any partnership, association,  firm or corporation;  "community pollution problem"
means the existence of  pollution  which, in  the sole discretion of the commission,
can best  be abated  by the action of a municipality; "municipality" means  any
metropolitan district, town, consolidated town and city,  consolidated town and
borough, city, borough, village, fire and sewer district, sewer district and each
municipal organization  having authority to levy and collect taxes or make charges
for  its authorized function;  "discharge" means the emission of any water, sub-
stance or material into the waters of the state, whether or not such substance  causes
pollution;  "pollution abatement facility"  means treatment works which are used in
the treatment of waters, including the necessary  intercepting sewers, outfall sew-
ers, pumping, power and  other equipment, and their appurtenances, and includes
any extensions, improvements, remodeling, additions and alterations  thereof;
"disposal system" means a system for disposing of or eliminating wastes, either by
surface or underground methods,  and includes sewage systems,  pollution abatement
facilities, disposal wells and other systems;  "federal water pollution control act"
means the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 33 U. S.C.  section 466 et seq.,
including amendments thereto and regulations thereunder;  "order to abate pollution"
includes  an order to abate existing pollution  or to prevent reasonably anticipated
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 sources of pollution.

 Section 3.   The commission shall have the following powers and duties: (a) To
 exercise general supervision of the administration and enforcement of this act;
 (b) to develop comprehensive programs for the  prevention, control and abatement
 of new or existing pollution of the waters of the state;  (c) to advise,  consult and
 cooperate with other agencies of the state, the federal government,  other states
 and interstate agencies and with affected groups, political subdivisions and indus-
 tries in furtherance of the purposes of this act;  (d)  to submit plans for the  preven-
 tion and control of water pollution and to render reports and accounts to the United
 States secretary of the interior, the federal water pollution control administration
 and to any other federal officer or agency on such forms containing such informa-
 tion as the said secretary and the federal water pollution control administration, or
 any other federal officer or agency, may reasonably require, in order to qualify the
 state and its municipalities for grants from the United States government;  (e) to
 encourage, participate in or conduct studies, investigations, research and demon-
 strations, and collect and disseminate information, relating to water  pollution and
 the causes, prevention, control and abatement thereof;  (f)  to  issue, modify or  re-
 voke orders prohibiting or abating pollution of the waters of the state,  or requiring
 the construction, modification,  extension or alteration of pollution abatement facil-
 ities or any parts thereof, or adopting such other remedial measures as are necessary
 to  prevent, control or abate pollution;  (g) to hold  such  hearings as  may be requir-
 ed  under the provisions of this act, for which  it shall have the power to issue notic-
 es by certified mail, administer oaths, take testimony and subpoena witnesses and
 evidence;  (h) to require the submission of plans, specifications and  other necessary
 data for,  and inspect the construction of,  pollution abatement facilities and dispos-
 al systems in connection with the issuance of such permits or approvals as may be
 required by this act; (i)  to issue,  continue in effect, revoke, modify or deny per-
 mits,  under such conditions as it may  prescribe,  for the discharge of any water,
 substance or material into the waters of the state, or  orders for or approval of the
 installation, modification or operation of pollution abatement facilities;  (j)  to  re-
 quire proper maintenance and operation of disposal systems;  (k)  to exercise all
 incidental powers necessary to carry out the purposes of this act.

 Section 4.  The  commission may require any person or municipality to maintain
 such records relating to pollution,  possible  pollution or the operation of pollution
 abatement facilities as it deems necessary to carry out the provisions of this act.
 The commission or any authorized representative thereof shall have  access to such
 records, and may examine and copy any such records or memoranda pertaining there-
 to,  or shall  be furnished copies of such records on request. Such representative shall
 have the power to enter upon any public or private property, at reasonable times, to
secure such  information and the owner, managing agent or occupant of any such  prop-
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                                  (Connecticut)

erty shall permit such entry;  provided any information relating to secret processes
or methods of manufacture or production ascertained or discovered by the commis-
sion or its agents during, or as a result of, any inspection, investigation, hearing
or otherwise,  shall not  be disclosed and shall be kept confidential.

Section 5.  (a)  The commission shall adopt, and may thereafter amend, standards
of water quality applicable to the various waters of the state or  portions thereof.
Such standards shall be consistent with the federal water pollution control act and
shall be for the purpose of qualifying the state and its municipalities for available
federal grants and for the purpose of providing  clear and objective public policy
statements of a general  program to improve the water resources of the state; pro-
vided no standard of water quality adopted shall plan for, encourage or permit any
wastes to be discharged into any of the waters of the state without having first re-
ceived the treatment available and necessary for the elimination of pollution.  Such
standards of quality shall: (1) Apply to interstate waters or portions thereof within
the state;  (2)  apply to such other waters within the state as the commission may
determine is necessary;   (3)  protect the public health and welfare and promote the
economic development  of the state; (4) preserve and enhance the quality of state
waters for present and prospective future use for public water supplies, propagation
of fish and aquatic life  and wildlife, recreational purposes and agricultural, in-
dustrial and other legitimate uses;  (5)  be consistent with health standards as es-
tablished by the state department of health,   (b)  Prior to adopting, amending or
repealing standards of water quality, the commission shall conduct a public hearing.
Notice of such hearing  specifying the waters for which standards are sought to be
adopted, amended or repealed and the  time,  date, and place of such hearing shall
be published at least twice during the thirty-day period preceding the date of the
hearing in a newspaper  having a general circulation in the area  affected and shall
be given by certified mail to the chief executive officer of each municipality in
such area.  Prior to the hearing the commission shall make available to  any inter-
ested person any  information it has as to the water which is the subject of the hear-
ing and the standards under consideration, and  shall  afford to any interested person
the opportunity to submit to the commission any written material.  At the hearing,
any person shall have the right to make a written or oral presentation.  A full tran-
script or recording of each hearing shall be made and kept available in  the com-
mission's files, (c)  The commission shall establish the effective date of the adop-
tion, amendment or repeal of standards of water quality.   Notice of such adoption,
amendment or repeal shall be published in the Connecticut Law Journal upon ac-
ceptance thereof by the federal government,  (d)  The commission shall  monitor the
quality of the  subject waters to demonstrate the results of its program to abate
pollution.

Section 6.  No person  or municipality shall cause pollution of any of the waters of
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 the state or maintain a discharge of any treated or untreated wastes in violation of
 any provision of this act.

 Section 7.   If the commission finds that any municipality is causing pollution of
 the waters of the state, or that a community pollution problem exists, or that pollu-
 tion by a  municipality or a community pollution problem can reasonably be antici-
 pated in the  future,  the  commission shall issue to  the municipality an order to abate
 pollution.  If a community pollution problem exists in, or if pollution is caused by,
 a municipality geographically located all or partly within the territorial limits of
 another municipality,  the commission shall,  after giving due regard to regional
 factors, determine which municipality shall be ordered to abate the pollution or
 shall,  after giving due regard to regional factors,  issue an order to two or more
 municipalities |ointly to provide the facilities necessary to abate the pollution.
 Such order shall include a time schedule for action by the municipality or munici-
 palities, as the case may be,  which may require,  but is not limited to,  the follow-
 ing steps to be  taken by such municipality or municipalities: (a)  Submission of an
 engineering  report outlining the problem and recommended solution therefor for ap-
 proval  by  the commission;  (b) submission of contract plans and specifications  for
 approval by  the commission;  (c)  arrangement of financing;  (d)  acceptance of
 state and federal construction grants; (e) advertisement for construction bids; (f)
 start of construction;  (g) placing in operation.

 Section 8.   If the commission finds that any person prior to the effective date of
 this act has caused pollution of any of the waters of the state, which pollution re-
 curs or  continues after said date,  the commission shall  issue an order to abate pol-
 lution to such person.  The order shall include a time schedule for the accomplish-
 ment of the necessary steps leading to the abatement of the pollution.  This section
 shall not apply  to any person who is subject  to the provisions of Section 9 of this
 act.

 Section 9.  (a)  No person shall, after the effective date of this act,  initiate, cre-
 ate or originate any new  discharge of water, substance or material  into the waters
 of the state without first obtaining a permit for such discharge from the commission.
Application for such permit shall be on a form prescribed by the commission may
 therein  require.

 (b) If,  upon receipt of an application for a permit as required in subsection (a),
the commission finds that such  discharge would not cause pollution of any of the
waters of the state, it shall issue a permit for such  discharge.  If the commission
finds that such discharge would cause pollution  of any of the waters of the state,
 '!• shall  require the applicant to submit plans and specifications of a proposed sys-
tem to treat such discharge.  If the commission finds that the proposed  system
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                                  (Connecticut)

to treat such discharge does not protect the waters of the state from pollution,  it
shall promptly notify the applicant that its application is denied and the reasons
therefor.   If any applicant, after having  submitted plans and specifications pursuant
to the provisions of this section for a proposed system to treat such discharge,  is de-
nied a permit by the commission,  such applicant shall have the right to a hearing
and an appeal therefrom in the same  manner as provided for in Sections 15 and 16
of this act.

(c) The permits issued pursuant to this section shall be for a period of five years,
except that any such permit shall  be  subject to the provisions of Section 10 of this
act.  Such permit:  (1) Shall  specify the manner, nature and volume of discharge;
(2) shall  require proper operation and maintenance of any pollution abatement fa-
cility required by such permit;  (3) may be renewable for like periods  in accordance
with procedures and requirements  established by the commission; and  (4)  shall be
subject to such other requirements and restrictions as the commission deems neces-
sary to comply fully with the purposes of  this act.

(d) If the commission finds that any person has, after the effective date of the state
without a permit as required in subsection (1) hereof, or in violation of such a per-
mit, it shall, notwithstanding any request for a hearing pursuant to Section 15 of
this act or the pendency of an appeal therefrom, request the attorney general  to
bring an action  in the superior court  for Hartford County to enjoin such discharge
by such person until he has received a permit from the commission  or has complied
with a permit which the commission has issued pursuant to this section.  Any such
action brought by the attorney general  shall have precedence  in the order of trial
as provided in section 52-191  of the general statutes.

Section 10.   The commission shall periodically  investigate and review those sources
of discharge which are  operating pursuant to any order,  permit, directive or deci-
sion of the commission issued before or  after the effective date of this act and, if it
determines that there has been any substantial change in  the manner, nature or vol-
ume of such discharge which will  cause or threaten pollution to any of the waters of
the state, or if it finds that the system treating such discharge, or  the operation
thereof, no longer insures or adequately protects against  pollution of the waters of
the state, the commission shall issue an order to abate such pollution to such person
or municipality.  Such  order shall include a time schedule for the  accomplishment
of the  necessary steps leading to the abatement of the pollution.

Section 11.   If the commission finds  that any person is maintaining any facility or
condition which reasonably can be expected to create a source of  pollution to the
waters of  the state, it shall issue an order to such person  maintaining such facility
or condition to take the necessary steps to correct such potential source of pollution.
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                                   (Connecticut-)

  Any person who receives an order pursuant to this section shall  have the right to a
  hearing and an appeal  in the same manner as is provided in sections 15 anid 16 of
  this act.  If the commission finds that the recipient of any such order fails to com-
  ply therewith, it shall  request the attorney general to bring an  action in the super-
  ior court for Hartford County to enjoin such  person from maintaining such potential
  source of pollution to the waters of the state.  All actions brought by the attorney
  general pursuant to the provisions of  this section shall have precedence in the order
  of trial as provided in section 52-191 of the  general statutes.

  Section 12.   Whenever the commission issues an order to abate pollution to any
  person pursuant to the  provisions of section 8 or 10 of this act, and the commission
  finds that such person is not the owner of the land from which such source of pollu-
  tion emanates, the commission may  issue a  like order to the owner of such land or
 shall send a certified copy of such order,  by certified  mail, return receipt request-
 ed, to the owner at his last-known post-office address.  When the commission issues
 an order to an owner, the owner and  the person causing such pollution shall be
 jointly and severally responsible.  Any owner to whom an order is issued or who re-
 ceives a certified copy of an order pursuant to this section shall be entitled to all
 notices of, and rights to participate in, any  proceedings before  or orders of the
 commission and to such  hearing and rights of  appeal as are provided for in sections
 15 and 16 of this act.

 Section 13.  When the commission issues an order to any person  to abate pollution,
 it may  cause a certified copy thereof  to be filed on the land records in  the town
 wherein the  land is  located, and such order shall constitute a  notice to the  owner's
 heirs, successors and assigns.  When the order has been fully complied with, the
 commission shall issue a certificate showing such compliance,  which certificate the
 commission shall cause  to be recorded on the  land records in the town wherein the
 order was previously recorded.

 Section 14.  If any person or municipality fails to comply with any order to abate
 pollution,  or any part thereof,  issued  pursuant to the provisions of sections 7,  8,  10
 or 12 of this  act, and no request for a  hearing on such order or appeal therefrom is
 pending and  the time for making such  request or taking such appeal  has expired, the
 commission shall request the attorney general  to bring an action  in the superior
 court for Hartford County to enjoin such person or municipality from maintaining
 such pollution and to comply fully with such order or any part thereof.  All actions
 brought by the attorney general pursuant to the  provisions of this section shall have
 precedence in the order  of trial as provided in section 52-191 of the general
 statutes.

Section 15.   Each order  to abate pollution issued under section 7, 8 or 10 of this act
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                                  (Connecticut)

shall be sent by certified  mail, return receipt requested,  to the subject of such or-
der and shall be deemed issued upon deposit in the mail.  Any person or municipal-
ity aggrieved by any such order may, within thirty days from the date such order is
sent,  request a hearing before the commission.  After such hearing, the commission
shall consider the facts presented to it by the person or municipality, including, but
not limited to, technological feasibility, shall consider the rebuttal or other evi-
dence presented to or by  it, and shall then  revise  and resubmit the order to the per-
son or municipality, or inform the person or municipality  that the previous order has
been affirmed and remains in effect.  The request  for a hearing as provided for in
this section shall be a  condition precedent to the taking of an appeal by the person
or municipality under the provisions of section 16  of this act.  The commission may,
after the hearing provided for in this section, or at any time after the issuance of
its order,  modify such  order by agreement or extend the time schedule therefor if it
deems such modification or extension advisable  or necessary, and any such modifi-
cation or extension shall be deemed to be a revision of an existing order and shall
not constitute a new order. There shall  be  no hearing subsequent to or any appeal
from any such modification or extension.

Section 16.  Any person or municipality aggrieved by any order of the commission
to abate pollution may, after a hearing by the commission as provided for  in section
15 of this  act, appeal  from the final determination of the commission based on such
hearing to the superior court for Hartford County within fifteen days after  the  issu-
ance of such final  determination.  Such  final determination shall be sent by certi-
fied mail, return receipt requested,  and shall be deemed  issued upon deposit in the
mail.  Such appeal shall have precedence in the order of trial  as provided in sec-
tion 52-192 of the general statutes.   All appeals taken pursuant to this section shall
be based solely upon the record of the hearing required in section 15 of this act.
The court  shall determine whether the commission  acted arbitrarily, unreasonably or
contrary to law.  If upon  any such appeal,  any  question of law is raised which any
party claims should be reviewed by the supreme  court, the superior court judge shall
forthwith transmit a certificate  of his decision,  including therein such question of
law, together with a proper finding of fact,  to the chief justice of the supreme
court  who shall thereupon call a special session of said court for the purpose of an
immediate hearing upon the questions of law so  certified.  The chief justice of the
supreme court may make such orders as will  expedite said appeal, including orders
specifying the manner  in which the record on appeal may be prepared.

Section 17.   Any person or municipality which knowingly violates any provision of
this act shall forfeit to the state a sum not to exceed one  thousand dollars, to be
fixed by the court,  for each offense.  Each  violation shall be a separate and dis-
tinct offense and,  in case of a continuing violation, each day's continuance there-
of shall be deemed to be a separate and  distinct offense.  The attorney general,
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                                   (Connecticut)

 upon complaint of the commission, shall institute a civil action to recover such
 forfeiture.

 Section 18.  The commission shall make a grant to any municipality which, after
 the effective date of this act, constructs, rebuilds, expands or acquires a pollution
 abatement facility.   In the case of a municipality which, on said date, is  in the
 process of constructing,  rebuilding, expanding or acquiring  such a facility, such
 grant shall apply only to that part of the facility constructed,  rebuilt, expanded or
 acquired after said date. The grants under this section shall be subject to the fol-
 lowing conditions:   (1)  No  grant shall be made  for any pollution abatement facil-
 ity unless such  facility,  and  the plans and specifications therefor, are approved by
 the commission, and such facility is constructed in accordance with a time sched-
 ule of the commission, and subject to such requirements as the commission shall  im-
 pose.  If the commission requires that the facility be approved by the  federal water
 pollution  control administration,  such grant shall be conditioned upon the munici-
 pality complying with all of  the requirements of said water pollution control admin-
 istration;  (2)   no grant shall be made until the municipality has agreed to  pay that
 part of the total cost  of the facility which is in excess of the applicable state and
 federal grants;  (3)  the grant to each municipality shall equal  thirty percent of the
 cost of such facility,  which cost shall be that cost which the federal water pollution
 control administration uses or would use in making a federal  grant, except that where
 the commission  has approved  plans for a facility exceeding the requirements of the
 federal act, the grant shall be thirty  percent of the actual cost;  (4)  the  state grant
 under this section shall be paid to the municipality in partial payments similar to
 the time schedule that such payments are or would be provided to the  municipality
 by the federal water pollution control administration;  (5) no grant shall  be made
 unless the municipality assures the commission of the proper and efficient operation
 and  maintenance of the pollution abatement facility after construction;  (6)  no
 grant shall be made unless the municipality has filed properly executed forms and
 applications prescribed by the commission;  (7)  any municipality receiving state or
 federal grants for pollution abatement facilities shall keep separate accounts by
 project for the receipt and disposal of such eligible project funds.

 Section 19.  The commission may  provide a grant  of thirty percent to a municipality
 for the cost of those projects which it determines to be essential to a storm and san-
 itary sewer separation program when  it finds that such project is primarily for the
 separation of storm and sanitary sewage and will eliminate a substantial source of
 pollution.  The  cost of the project used to determine the state grant in this section
 shall not include any cost for  the acquisition  of land or  any rights or interests
 therein.

Section 20.  If federal funds are not available to the municipality at the time of its
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                                  (Connecticut)

scheduled construction of a pollution abatement facility,  the commission shall ad-
vance to such municipality, in addition to the state contribution provided for in
section  18,  that sum of money which would equal the amount of the federal grant,
provided the municipality shall agree that  any federal contribution thereafter made
for the project shall be forwarded to the state as reimbursement for the funds ex-
pended under this section.  Prior to advancing the federal share, the commission
shall require the municipality to agree in  its  project contract with the commission
to do all that is necessary to quality for the federal grant. The  municipality shall
also agree to pay over to the commission any installment of a grant received from
the federal water pollution control  administration on which the state has made an
advance  under this  section.  Said monies received from the municipality shall be
deposited in a sinking fund which is hereby established for payment of the debt
service costs of bonds issued under section  25 of this act.

Section 21.   If federal funds for contract plans and specifications for the construct-
ion of a pollution abatement facility are not  available to the municipality at the
time of its scheduled planning, the commission shall advance to such municipality
a sum equal  to seven per cent of the estimated construction cost, said amount to be
used by the  municipality for the purpose of preparing  contract plans and specifica-
tions; provided any remaining balance of the seven per cent advanced under the
section shall be applied to the cost of construction  of the  facility.  The funds ad-
vanced to the municipality under this section shall  be considered a part of the total
amount of the state grant provided for in section 18 of this act.   Such facility shall
be constructed in accordance with a schedule of the commission and shall be in
conformance with an engineering report approved by the commission.  Before ap-
proving the  engineering report required in  this section, and in section 7 of this act,
and as may be required under section 10 of this act, the commission shall, among
other factors, give due regard to whether such report  is in conformance with its
applicable guidelines, whether such report makes adequate recommendations con-
cerning all existing and anticipated community discharges, whether such report
conforms with existing planning studies and whether satisfactory considerations have
been given to all regional problems outlined  to the engineer in pre-report confer-
ence with the commission.

Section 22.   If federal funds for an engineering report are not available, and the
schedule of  the commission as provided for in section  7 of this act requires that a
municipality prepare such a report before July 1, 1968, and the commission finds
that the charter of such municipality does not authorize a reasonable method for
providing the  required funds to proceed on such a report in time to accomplish its
completion as scheduled,  the commission may advance funds to such municipality in
the amount necessary to provide such report,  said funds to be used by the munici-
pality for the  purpose of preparing such report.  Any funds advanced to the munici-
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                                   (Connecticut)

 polity under this section shall be considered a part of the total amount of the state
 grant provided for in section 18 of this act.

 Section 23.  The commission of agriculture and natural resources is designated as
 the officer of the state to manage, administer and control funds appropriated by the
 general assembly or authorized by the state bond  commission to carry out the provi-
 sions of this act. All grants made pursuant to this act shall be made only with the
 advice and consent of the commissioner and no grant shall be made under this act if
 such grant,  together with all grants awarded prior thereto, exceeds the amount of
 funds available therefor.

 Section 24.  The water resources commission is designated as the administrative
 agency of the state,  acting with the advice and consent of the commissioner of ag-
 riculture and natural resources, to apply for and accept any funds or other aid and
 to cooperate and enter into contracts and agreements with the  federal government
 relating to the planning, developing, maintaining and enforcing of the program to
 provide clean water and pollution abatement of the waters of the state, or for any
 other related purpose which the congress of the United States has authorized or may
 authorize.  The commission, with the advice and  consent of the commissioner of
 agriculture and natural resources, is authorized in the name of the state to make such
 applications, sign such documents, give such assurances and do such other things as
 are necessary to obtain such aid from or cooperate with the United States or any a-
 gency thereof.  The commission may, with the advice and consent of the  commis-
 sioner of agriculture  and natural resources, enter  into contracts and agreements
 and cooperate with any other state agency, municipality,  person or other state
 when the same is necessary to carry  out the provisions of this act.  Such contracts
 shall  be subject to the approval of the attorney general as to form.

 Section 25.   (a)  The state bond commission is empowered to authorize the issuance
 of bonds of the state in one or more series in an aggregate principal amount not ex-
 ceeding one  hundred  fifty million dollars. The proceeds of the sale of said bonds
 shall be used for the making of advances and grants under sections 18 to 22,  inclu-
 sive,  and 35 of this act and for the payment of expenses  incurred by the department
 of agriculture and natural resources in carrying out the provisions of this act which
 are not otherwise provided for from the state general fund.  Not more than one-half
 of one per cent of said proceeds shall be used for the payment of such expenses.
 Said bonds shall be issued in accordance with section 3-20 of the general statutes
 and the full faith and credit of the state  are pledged for the payment of the princi-
 pal of and interest on said bonds as the same become due.

(b) All of said bonds  shall be payable at such place or places as may be determined
by the treasurer pursuant to section 3-19 of the general statutes and shall bear such
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                                  (Connecticut)

date or dates, mature at such time or times not exceeding twenty years from their
respective dates, bear interest at such rate or different or varying rates and payable
at such time or times,  be in such denominations, be in such form with or without
interest coupons attached, carry such registration and transfer privileges, be pay-
able in such medium of payment and be subject  to such terms of redemption with  or
without premium as, irrespective of the provisions of section 3-20 of the general
statutes, may be provided in the determination authorizing the same or fixed in ac-
cordance  therewith.  Notwithstanding the provisions of said section 3-20, any of
said bonds may be sold to the United States or any agency or instrumentality thereof
in such manner and-on such terms as may be provided in the determination authoriz-
ing the same or fixed in accordance therewith.

Section 26. Any town may, by ordinance, establish a special taxing district for the
purpose of defraying, by taxes levied solely upon properties within such district,
any of the costs of acquisition or construction of a sewerage system in accordance
with the provisions of chapter 103 of the general statutes.  Such special taxes shall
be based upon annual budget appropriations and estimates of receipts from special
benefit assessments and use charges levied with respect to such system approved by
such town for the special taxing district in the manner required for the adopting of
the annual budgets of such town and shall be included but shown separately in  the
annual tax levies of such town.  Such town may, from time to time, by ordinance,
alter the boundaries of such special taxing district.  To meet any costs of acquisi-
tion or construction, including planning,  of any such sewerage system the town may
issue its general or special obligation bonds in accordance with  the laws applicable
thereto, the principal and interest on which shall be paid from the budgets of such
special  taxing district.  For the purposes of this  section "town"  means town, con-
solidated town and city and consolidated town and borough.

Section 27. Subsection (51) of section  12-81 of the 1965 supplement to the general
statutes is re pea led and the following is substituted in lieu thereof:

(Any structure, building,  machinery or other equipment after July  1, 1965, con-
structed, installed and used primarily for the purpose of eliminating industrial
waste, or pollution of waters as defined in section 25-19.  A certification by the
water resources commission that such structure, building, machinery or other equip-
ment is approved for the elimination of industrial waste or for water pollution con-
trol shall require the assessors of the town where such property is located to exempt
such property from taxation.   This exemption shall not apply to any water company
as defined by section  16-1.)  Structures and equipment acquired after July 1,
1965, for  the treatment of industrial waste before the discharge thereof into any
waters of the state or  into any sewerage system emptying into such waters, the  pri-
mary purpose of which is the reduction, control  or elimination of pollution of such
                                      132

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                                   (Connecticut)

 waters, certified as approved for such purpose by the water resources commission.
 For the purpose of this subsection  "industrial waste" means any harmful thermal
 effect or any liquid,  gaseous or solid substance or combination thereof resulting
 from any process  of industry, manufacture, trade or business,  or from the develop-
 ment  or recovery of any natural resource.

 Section 28.  Section  12-412 of the general statutes is amended by adding subdivi-
 sion (u) as follows:   Sales of and the storage, use or other consumption of tangible
 personal property acquired for incorporation into facilities for the treatment of in-
 dustrial waste before the discharge thereof into any waters of  the state or into any
 sewerage system emptying into such waters,  the primary purpose of which is the re-
 duction, control or elimination of pollution of such waters, certified as approved
 for such purpose by the water resources commission. For the purposes of this sub-
 division "industrial waste" means any harmful thermal effect  or any liquid, gaseous
 or solid substance or combination thereof resulting from any process of industry,
 manufacture, trade or business or from the development or recovery of any natural
 resource.

 Section 29.  There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by chapter
 208 of the general statutes in any income year an amount equal to the  product of
 the tax rate imposed by section 12-214 of the 1965 supplement to the general stat-
 utes for such income year multiplied by the amount of expenditures paid or incurred
 during such income year for the construction, rebuilding, acquisition or expansion
 of pollution abatement facilities, including the planning thereof, provided (a) such
 credit shall be allowed only with respect to pollution  abatement facilities approved
 as such by the water resources commission, the construction, rebuilding,  acquisition
 or expansion of which was commenced after January 1, 1967;  (b)  the  net income
 for such income year and succeeding income years shall be  computed without any
 deductions for such expenditures or for depreciation of such facilities,  except to
 the extent the cost or other basis of such facilities may be attributable  to factors
 other than such expenditures or in case a credit is allowable pursuant to this section
 for only a part of such expenditures, any deduction allowable  under the federal in-
 ternal  revenue code for such expenditures or for depreciation of such facilities shall
 be proportionately reduced in computing net income for the income year and all
 succeeding income years; and  (c) upon the sale or other disposition of such facilities
 in any income year the gain or loss on such sale or other disposition shall be  the
 gain or loss which would have resulted  if the cost  or other basis of such facilities
 had been reduced by straight line depreciation based on the useful  life  of such fa-
cilities, except that, if such sale or other disposition occurs within three years af-
 ter the date such facilities were placed in operation, the  basis of such facilities for
the purpose of determining gain or loss shall be zero.
                                      133

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                                 (Connecticut)

Section 30.  In determining gross income subject to tax under chapter 213 of the
general statutes a taxpayer at its election may either deduct expenditures made or
incurred for the construction,  rebuilding, acquisition or expansion of pollution
abatement facilities,  including the planning thereof, in the income year in which
such expenditures were paid or incurred, or amortize such expenditures over a per-
iod of not more than five taxable years commencing with the year in which such
expenditures were paid or incurred, by deducting an equal portion thereof in each
income  year during  such period, provided no such deduction shall be allowed with
respect  to expenditures made or incurred for pollution abatement facilities not ap-
proved as such by the water resources commission, or the construction, rebuilding,
acquisition or expansion of which was commenced prior to January 1, 1967.

Section 31.  There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by chapter
211 of the general statutes in any tax year an amount equal to the product of the
tax rate imposed by section  12-258 of the 1965 supplement to the general statutes
for such tax year multiplied by the amount of expenditures paid or incurred during
such tax year for the construction, rebuilding, acquisition or expansion of pollution
abatement facilities,  including the planning thereof, provided such credit shall be
allowed only with respect to pollution abatement facilities approved as such by the
water resources commission, the construction,  rebuilding, acquisition or  expansion
of which was commenced after January 1, 1967.

Section 32.  There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by chapter
212 of the general statutes in any tax year an amount equal to the product of the
tax rate imposed by section  12-264 of the general statutes for such tax year multi-
plied by the amount of expenditures paid or incurred during such tax year for the
construction, rebuilding, acquisition or expansion of pollution abatement facilities,
including the planning thereof,  provided such  credit shall be allowed only with re-
spect to pollution abatement facilities approved as such by the  water resources com-
mission, the construction, rebuilding, acquisition or expansion of which  was com-
menced after January 1,  1967.

Section 33.  Section 25-3a of the  1965 supplement to the general statutes is re-
pealed and the following is substituted in lieu  thereof:

In all cases wherein the water resources commission  is required to hold hearings,
public or otherwise, on any matter within its jurisdiction, said commission may hold
such hearing sitting as a body  or may designate a subcommittee consisting of not
fewer than  three members of said commission, or may designate a member of the
commission or a member of its  staff to act as a  hearing examiner, said subcommittee
or hearing examiner to hold such hearing, at the time and place designated by said
commission.  When  the'commission designates a  subcommittee  to hold the hearing,

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                                  (Connecticut)

 one member of said subcommittee shall be designated as chairman.  The subcommit-
 tee designated to hold such hearing shall be known as the hearing subcommittee.
 The hearing subcommittee chairman for any hearing before the subcommittee, or
 any member of the commission for any hearing before the commission,  or the hear-
 ing examiner, may  issue subpoenas, administer oaths and cause the attendance of
 witnesses and the production of evidence and testimony in any proceeding pending
 before it.   The subcommittee  or the hearing examiner shall, after each hearing, file
 with the commission a report including a finding of fact and recommendations.  Af-
 ter considering the report of the subcommittee or the hearing examiner and the tes-
 timony of the hearing, the commission shall issue such order or permit as is appli-
 cable to the particular proceeding.

 Section 34.  All  order, directives or decisions of the water resources commission
 which are  in existence on the effective date of this act shall continue  in force until
 rescinded, amended or repealed by the commission.

 Section 35.  The commission shall make a grant  to any municipality which,  prior to
 the effective date of this act, constructed, rebuilt, acquired or expanded a pollu-
 tion abatement facility,  which grant shall  be  thirty per cent of the principal amount
 of bond or note obligations of such municipality, issued to finance such construct-
 ion, rebuilding, acquisition or expansion and outstanding on said date, exclusive
 of all  interest costs and for which grant application is made on an application pre-
 scribed by  the  commission.  Such grant shall be  paid in equal annual instalments at
 least thirty days prior to the date the municipality is obligated to make payment on
 such bonds or notes, provided  any grant under this section shall be reduced by any
 amount payable to such municipality under the provisions of section 18 of this act
 for the same construction, rebuilding,  acquisition or expansion project, such re-
 duction to be prorated over the period  remaining for the payment of such bonds or
notes.
Section 36.  Sections 25-19 to 25-24, inclusive, of the general statutes, as amend-
ed, are repealed.

Section 37.  This act shall take effect from its passage.
                                     135

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Massachusetts

In Massachusetts, the "Clean Waters Act"  is the statute that provides for the con-
trol of water pollution.  It was first passed in 1966 and amended in 1967, 1968 and
1969.

The Act establishes a Water Pollution Control Division in the Department of Natural
Resources under the authority of the Water Resources Commission.  The Division is
given the duty and responsibility to enhance the quality and value of the waters
and to establish programs for the prevention,  control and abatement of water pollu-
tion in the Commonwealth.

In order to carry out its duty and responsibility, the Division has the following pow-
ers:  to encourage the adoption and execution by users of the waters of the Common-
wealth, of plans for the prevention, control and abatement  of water pollution; to
cooperate with the federal government, inter-state,  or other states' agencies in
matters related to water quality control;  to receive and dispense such funds as may
become available to it for the prevention,  control and abatement of water pollu-
tion;  to conduct a program of study and research and  demonstration, either by it-
self or in cooperation with other agencies, relating to new and improved methods of
pollution abatement  or water quality control; to adopt standards of water quality for
the waters of the Commonwealth and a plan for the implementation and enforcement
of such standards; to examine periodically the quality of waters in the Common-
wealth; to prepare and keep current comprehensive plans for the abatement of ex-
isting pollution and the prevention of further pollution;  to arrange for personnel to
instruct employees of water pollution control  facilities in the latest and most effi-
cient methods of water pollution control and the latest developments in the opera-
tion and maintenance of waste treatment facilities; to adopt, amend or repeal after
proper hearing from time to time, rules and regulations necessary for the  proper ad-
ministration of the laws concerning water pollution and water quality  control in the
Commonwealth; to require submission of reports and plans of treatment facility con-
struction or improvement; to inspect treatment facilities for compliance with plans
and permit conditions;  and to use whatever methods it considers best and most ex-
pedient to remove any  spillage, seepage or filtration  of oil  into waters of the
Commonwealth (A 10).

Before any person, municipality or special  district can treat or discharge sewage
and/or industrial wastes; or construct facilities for the same purpose,  he  must ob-
tain a  permit from the Director of the Division of Water Pollution Control, and such
permit shall be issued subject to such conditions as the Director "may  deem neces-
sary to insure compliance with the standards established for  the waters affected".
Any person owning,  operating or building a water pollution abatement facility must
allow for inspection  of such facility by agents of the Division,  and allow the in-
spection of records and papers pertaining to the operation of a disposal system or
treatment works, providing such inspection does not allow access to confidential
                                      136

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                                 (Massachusetts)

 Information such as secret formulas and economics of operation (A10).

 For violation of permit regulations, for failure to allow inspection, and for causing
 or contributing to conditions which contravene the standards adopted by the Divi-
 sion of Water  Pollution Control, the accused party must appear before the Division's
 "Regulatory Review Board" and answer the charges brought against him (Al 1).  If
 this Board finds him guilty of the charges, he shall be fined one hundred dollars for
 each separate  offense. Each day of violation shall be considered a separate offense
 (A 10).  The Director of the Division is also empowered to issue such orders or take
 such actions as he determines appropriate under the circumstances,  to assure that
 the matter complained of shall  be corrected; however, such actions and orders shall
 be subject to  |ud?cial  review (A 10).

 The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has enacted four classifications and compiled
 water  quality criteria  within each class for both fresh  (Table Al) and salt (Table All)
 waters.
                  TABLE Al.  FRESH WATERS CLASSIFICATION
                  AND STANDARDS OF WATER QUALITY

 Class A:  Waters designated for use as public water supplies.  Character uniformly
          excellent.

                              Standards of Quality

     Item                                    Water Quality Criteria

 1.   Dissolved  oxygen.             Not less than 75% of saturation during at least
                                   16 hours of any 24-hour period and not less
                                   than 5 mg./l. at any time,

2.   Sludge deposits-solid refuse-    None allowable.
     floating  solids-oil-grease-
     scum.

3.   Color and  turbidity.            None other than of natural origin.

4.   Coliform bacteria per           Not to exceed an average value  of 50 during
     100 ml.                        anX monthly sampling period.
                                     137

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Table Al  (Cont'd.)

5.   Taste and odor.

6.   pH.

7.   Allowable temperature
     increase.

8.   Chemical constituents
9.   Radioactivity.
  (Massachusetts)

     None other than of natural origin.

     As naturally occurs.

     None other than of natural origin.
     None in concentrations or combinations which
     would be harmful or offensive to humans, or
     harmful to animal,  or aquatic life.

     None other than that  occurring from natural
     phenomena.
Class B:    Suitable for bathing and recreational purposes including water contact
           sports.  Acceptable for public water supply with appropriate treatment.
           Suitable for agricultural, and certain industrial cooling and process uses;
           excellent fish and wildlife habitat; excellent aesthetic value.
     Item
!„   Dissolved oxygen.
2.   Sludge deposits-solid refuse-
     floating  solids-oils-grease
     scum.

30   Color and turbidity.
4.  Coliform bacteria per
    100ml.
5.  Taste and odor.
Standards of Quality

               Water Quality Criteria

     Not less than 75% of saturation during at
     least 16 hours of any 24-hour period and not
     less than 5 mg./l. at any time.

     None allowable.
     None in such concentrations that would impair
     any usages specifically assigned  to this class.

     Not to exceed an average value of  1,000
     during any monthly sampling period  nor 2,400
     in more than 20% of samples examined during
     such period.

     None in such concentrations that would impair
     any usages specifically assigned  to this class
     and none that would cause taste  and odor in
     edible fish.
                                      138

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 Table Al  (Cont'd.)

  6. PH.

  7. Allowable temperature
     increase.
  8.  Chemical constituents.
  9.  Radioactivity.
10.  Total phosphate.


11.  Ammonia.


12.  Phenols.
(Massachusetts)

   6.5 -8.0.

   None except where the increase will not ex-
   ceed the recommended limit on the most sen-
   sitive receiving water use and in no case ex-
   ceed 83  F in warm water fisheries and 68° F
   in cold water fisheries,  or in any case raise
   the normal temperature of the receiving water
   more than 4° F.

   None in concentrations or combinations which
   would be harmful or offensive to human, or
   harmful to animal or aquatic  life or any water
   use specifically assigned to this class.

   None in concentrations or combinations which
  would be harmful  to human,  animal, or aquatic
   life for the appropriate water use.  None in
  such concentrations which would result in
  radio-nuclide concentrations in aquatic life
  which exceed the recommended limits for
  consumption by humans.

  Not to exceed an average of 0.05 mg./l. as
  P during any monthly sampling period.

  Not to exceed an average of 0.5 mg./l.  as
  N during any monthly sampling period.

  Shall not exceed .001  mg./l. at any time.
Class C:   Suitable for recreational boating; habitat for wildlife and common food
          and game fishes indigenous to the region; certain industrial cooling and
          process uses; under some conditions acceptable for public water supply with
          appropriate treatment.  Suitable  for irrigation of crops used for con-
          sumption after cooking.  Good aesthetic value.
    Item
                             Standards of Quality
           Water Quality Criteria
                                     139

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Table A1 (Cont'd.)
(Massachusetts)
 1.   Dissolved oxygen.
 2.   Sludge deposits-so I id
      refuse-floating solids-
      oi Is-grease-scum.

 3.   Color and turbidity.
 4.   Col (form bacteria.
 5.    Taste and odor.
 6.    PH.

 7.    Allowable temperature
      increase.
 8.   Chemical constituents.
 9.   Radioactivity.
   Not less than 5 mg./l. during at least  16
   hours of any 24-hour period nor less than
   3 mg./l. at any time.  For seasonal cold
   water fisheries at least 5 mg./l. must be
   maintained.

   None allowable except those amounts that may
   result from the discharge from waste treatment
   facilities providing appropriate treatment.

   None allowable in such concentrations  that
   would impair any  usages specifically
   assigned to this class.

   None in such concentrations that would impair
   any usages specifically assigned to this  class.

   None in such concentrations that would impair
   any usages specifically assigned to this  class,
   and none that would cause taste and odor to
   edible fish.

   6.0-8.5.

   None except where the increase will not ex-
   ceed  the recommended limits on the most sen-
   sitive receiving water use and  in no case ex-
   ceed  83° F in warm water fisheries, and 68°  F
   in cold water fisheries, or  in any case raise
   the normal temperature of the receiving water
   more  than  4° F.

   None in concentrations or  combinations which
   would be harmful or offensive to human, or
   harmful to animal  or aquatic life or any water
   use specifically assigned to this class.

   None in concentrations or  combinations which
   would be harmful to human, animal,  or aqua-
   tic life  for the appropriate  water use.   None
   in such  concentrations which would result in
   radio-nuclide concentrations in aquatic life
                                     140

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 Table Al  (Cont'd.)
 10.   Total phosphate.


 11.   Ammonia.


 12.   Phenols.
                                (Massachusetts)

                                   which exceed the recommended limits for
                                   consumption by humans.

                                   Not to exceed an average of 0.05 mg./l.
                                   as P during any monthly sampling period.

                                   Not to exceed an average of 1.0 mg./l.
                                   as N during any monthly sampling period.

                                   Not to exceed an average of 0.002 mg./l
                                   at any time.
Class D:   Suitable for aesthetic enjoyment, power, navigation, and certain in-
           dustrial cooling and process uses.  Class D waters will be assigned only
           where a higher water use class cannot be attained after all appropriate.
           waste treatment methods are utilized.

                              Standards of Quality

      |tem                                   Specifications

                                   Not less than 2 mg./l. at any time.
1.  Dissolved oxygen.

2.  Sludge deposits-solid
    refuse-floating solids-
    oils-grease-scum.
3.   Color and turbidity.



4.   Coliform bacteria.


5.   Taste and odor.


6.   pH.
None allowable except those amounts that
may result from the discharge from waste
treatment facilities providing appropriate
treatment.

None in such concentrations that would im-
pair any usages specifically assigned to this
class.

None in such concentrations that would impair
any usages specifically assigned to this class.

None in such concentrations that would impair
any usages specifically assigned to this class.

6.0-9.0.
                                     141

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 Table Al  (Cont'd.)

 7.   Allowable temperature
     increase.
8.   Chemical constituents.
9.   Radioactivity.
  (Massachusetts)

     None except where the increase will not ex-
     ceed the recommended limits on the most sen-
     sitive receiving water use and in no case
     exceed 90° F.

     None in concentrations or combinations which
     would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic
     life for the designated water use.

     None in such concentrations or combinations
     which would be harmful to human, animal or
     aquatic  life for the designated water use.
     None in such concentrations which will result
     in radio-nuclide concentrations  in aquatic life
     which exceed the recommended  limits for con-
     sumption by humans.
Source: A12,  p. 2-7.
                 TABLE All.  COASTAL AND MARINE WATERS
                 AND STANDARDS OF WATER QUALITY

Class SA:  Suitable for any high quality water use including bathing and water
          contact sports.  Suitable for approved shellfish areas.
     Item

1.   Dissolved oxygen.

2.   Sludge deposits-solid
     refuse-floating solids-
     oil-grease-scum.

3.   Color and turbidity.
Standards of Quality

               Water Quality Criteria

     Not less than 6.5 mg./l. at any time.

     None allowable.
     None in such concentrations that will impair
     any usages specifically assigned to this
     class.
                                    142

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 Table All  (Cont'd.)
(Massachusetts)
  4.   Coliform bacteria per
       100ml.
  5.   Taste and odor.

  6.   PH.

  7.   Allowable temperature
       increase.
  8.    Chemical constituents.
  9.   Radioactivity.
10.   Total phosphate.
      Ammonia.
   Not to exceed a median value of 70 and not
   more than  10% of the samples shall ordinarily
   exceed 230 during any monthly sampling
   period.

   None allowable.

   6.8 — 8.5.

   None except where the increase will not ex-
   ceed the recommended limits on  the most
   sensitive water use.

   None in concentrations or combinations which
   would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic
   life or which would make the waters unsafe or
   unsuitable for fish or shellfish or their propa-
  gation, impair the  palatability of same, or
   impair the waters for any other uses.

   None in  concentrations or combinations which
  would be harmful to human, animal or aquatic
   life for the designated water use.  None in
  such concentrations which would result in radi-
  nuclide concentrations in aquatic life which
  exceed the recommended limits for consump-
  tion by humans.

  Not to exceed an average of 0.07 mg./l. as
  P during any monthly sampling period.

  Not to exceed an average of 0.2 mg./l.  as
  N during any monthly sampling period.
Class SB:  Suitable for bathing and recreational purposes including water contact
          sports; industrial cooling; excellent fish habitat; good aesthetic value;
          and suitable for certain shellfisheries with depuration.
          (Restricted Shellfish Areas).
                              Standards of Quality
      Item
            Water Quality Criteria
                                      143

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 Table All  (Cont'd)

 1.   Dissolved oxygen.
(Massachusetts)

   Not less than 5.0 mg./l. at any time.
 2.   Sludge deposits-solid refuse-    None allowable.
     floating solids-oils-grease-
     scum.
 3.   Color and turbidity.
 4.   Coliform bacteria per
     100ml.
 5.   Taste and odor.
 6.   PH.

 7.   Allowable temperature
     increase.
8.   Chemical constituents.
 9.   Radioactivity.
10.   Total phosphate.
   None in such concentrations that would impair
   any usages specifically assigned to this class.

   Not to exceed a median value of 700 and not
   more than 2,300 in more than 10% of the sam-
   ples during any monthly sampling period.

   None in such concentrations that would impair
   any usages specifically assigned to this class
   and none that would cause taste and odor in
   edible fish or shellfish.

   6.8 -8.5.

   None except where the increase will not
   exceed the recommended limits on the most
   sensitive water use.

   None in concentrations or combinations which
   would be harmful to human, animal or aquatic
   life or which would make the waters unsafe or
   unsuitable for fish or shellfish or their propa-
   gation, impair the palatability of same, or
   impair the water for any other usage.

   None in concentrations or combinations which
   would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic
   life for the appropriate water use.  None in
   such concentrations which would result in
   radio-nuclide concentrations in aquatic life
   which exceed the recommended limits for
   consumption  by humans.

   Not to exceed an average of 0.07 mg./l,, as
   P during any monthly sampling period.

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Table All (Cont'd.)

11.   Ammonia.
                          (Massachusetts)

                             Not to exceed an average of 0.2 mg./l. as
                             N during any monthly sampling period.
Class SC:   Suitable for aesthetic enjoyment; for recreational boating; habitat for
            wildlife and common food and game fishes indigenous to the region;
            industrial cooling and process uses.
 1.
Item

Dissolved oxygen.
 2.   Sludge deposits-solid
      refuse-float ing solids-
      oils-grease-scum.

 3.   Color and turbidity.
 4.   Coliform bacteria.
 5.   Taste and odor.
 6.   pH.

 7.   Allowable temperature
     increase.
8.   Chemical constituents.
Standards of Quality

               Water Quality Criteria

     Not less than 5 mg/1. during at least 16 hours
     of any 24-hour period or less  than 3 mg./l. at
     any time.

     None except that amount that may result from
     the discharge from a waste treatment facility
     providing appropriate treatment.

     None in such concentrations that would  impair
     any usages specifically assigned to this class.

     None in such concentrations that would  impair
     any usages specifically assigned to this class.

     None in such concentrations that would  impair
     any usages specifically assigned to this class
     and none that would cause taste and odor in
     edible fish or shellfish.

     6.5 -8.5.

     None except where the increase will not ex-
     ceed the recommended  limits on the most
     sensitive water use.

     None in concentrations or combinations which
     would be harmful to human, animal or aquatic
     life or which would make the waters unsafe or
     unsuitable for fish or shellfish or their propa-
     gation,  impair the portability of same,  or
     impair the water for any other usage.
                                     145

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 Table All  (Cont'd.)             (Massachusetts)

  9.   Radioactivity.                None in such concentrations which would be
                                   harmful to human, animal or aquatic life for
                                   the designated water use.  None in such con-
                                   centrations which would  result in radio-nu-
                                   clide concentrations in aquatic life which ex-
                                   ceed the recommended limits for consumption
                                   by humans.

 10.   Total phosphate.              Not to exceed an average of 0.07 mg./l.  as
                                   P during any monthly sampling period.

 11.   Ammonia.                    Not to exceed an average of 1.0 mg./l. as
                                   N during any monthly sampling period.
Source:  A12. p.  9-12
The Division of Water Pollution Control requires that the wastes discharged to fresh
waters in the Commonwealth receive secondary treatment with disinfection or its in-
dustrial waste treatment equivalent,  except when a higher degree of treatment is
required to meet water quality standards.  Disinfection may be discontinued during
the period of October 1 to May  1, at the discretion of the Division.  In the period
May 2 to September 30, the disinfection requirements are to be "equivalent to a
free and combined chlorine residual of at least 1.0 milligram per liter after 15 min-
utes contact time during peak hourly flow or maximum rate of pumpage "  (A12).
For coastal and marine waters the appropriate  treatment is that degree of treatment
with disinfection required for the receiving waters to meet their assigned classifi-
cation and water quality standards.  As in fresh water disinfection,  the Division
may grant permission to discontinue chlorination during the period of  October  1 to
May 1. The required dosage of free and combined chlorine is the same as that re-
quired of effluents discharged to fresh waters (A 12).

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts exempts from  local property taxes any equip-
ment or facility installed for the purpose of abating or preventing pollution of any
waters of the Commonwealth.  The Commonwealth also allows for the  accelerated
depreciation of capital investments used in  approved waste treatment facilities on
state corporate taxes (A 13).

In Massachusetts, the textile industry is well spread throughout the state with a


                                      146

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                                  (Massachusetts)

  large concentration in New Bedford.  The firm sizes vary from small to very large.
  At present there has been no extensive research on textile water waste problems in
  Massachusetts;  however, a recent article in a trade journal relates  the closing of
  two Massachusetts wool scouring mills as a result of a tough new stand against pol-
  lution by the Division of Water Pollution (A 14).  Both  firms have had to close be-
  cause their effluent discharges contravened the established standards of the receiv-
  ing streams, and they could not afford the expense of building pre-treatment facil-
  ities.  Although firms located in large cities and towns probably discharge their ef-
  fluents to municipal treatment facilities;  firms which have previously been dumping
  untreated or slightly treated effluents in the  Commonwealth waters  may find that
  they too will have to close  down or build expensive treatment facilities.

  Rhode Island

  The control of water pollution in the State of Rhode Island is governed by the
  "Water Pollution Laws, Title 46, Chapter 12 of  1956"  as amended in 1958, 1963
 and 1966.  The  laws create a five member advisory Water Pollution  Board, which
 has the function of assisting the State Department of Health which the laws desig-
 nate as the state water pollution control agency.

 The Board's only function is to advise the  Department of Health on matters concern-
 ing water pollution, when asked to do so by the  Department.  The Department  has
 nine board  powers it can exercise.  They are: advise,  consult and cooperate with
 federal and other state agencies in matters that relate to the control  of pollution;
 accept and administer loans and grants;  conduct studies, investigations, research
 and demonstrations concerning water pollution problems; collect and disseminate
 information from aforementioned studies, investigations, research and demonstra-
 tions to persons requiring technical assistance in  water waste disposal projects;
 adopt, modify and repeal water classifications and standards; require the submission
 of plans for the  construction of new,  or the modification of existing waste treatment
 facilities and inspect such construction;  consult the advisory board; and make,  a-
 mend and revoke pollution control rules and regulations (A13).

 The state  requires permits for the operation, construction or renovation of a waste
 treatment facility. This permit  must be obtained from the Director of the Rhode Is-
 land Department of Public Health. The  Department has  a rule that prohibits the
 approval of a permit for an  individual waste treatment facility, "if a public sani-
 tary sewer is reasonably accessible" to the premises (A 15).

 The Department  of Health requires a minimum B.O. D. and suspended solids removal
of 85 percent (by weight) unless dilution requirements demand higher removals.
Where dilution requirements  are more than sufficient in estuarine waters, primary


                                      147

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                                  (Rhode Island)

treatment may be employed (A16).

The state also requires the disinfection of all waste effluents, that may contain or-
ganisms that could influence public health conditions, by chlorination.  The De-
partment of Health requires one milligram per liter of chlorine added after 15 min-
utes detention time to secondary treatment facilities and two milligrams per liter of
chlorine for primary plants after the 15 minutes detention.

For the violation of permit regulations,  for causing pollution or failure to treat ef-
fluents in the proper manner, the  "Water Pollution Laws" of Rhode Island penalize
such persons a fine of five hundred dollars and/or 30 days in jail for each separate
offense.  The Department of Health is to consider each day of continued violation
as a separate offense  (A13).

The State of Rhode Island has instituted a set of classifications and water quality
criteria for each classification  for both fresh (Table AMI) and salt (Table AIV)
Water.
                TABLE AIM.  FRESH WATER CLASSIFICATIONS
                AND WATER QUALITY CRITERIA	

Class A:  Suitable for water supply and all other water uses; character uniformly
          excellent.  Waters in use for drinking water supply may be subject to
          restricted use by state and local authorities.

                           Standards of Water Quality

1.   Dissolved oxygen.             75% saturation, 16 hours/day
                                   5 mg./l. at any time.

2.   Sludge deposits-solid refuse-    None allowable.
     floating solids,  oils, and
     grease-scum.

3.   Color and turbidity.            None other than of natural origin.

4.   Col if or m bacteria per 100 ml.   Not to exceed a median of 100 per 100 ml.
                                   nor more than 500 in more than 10% of
                                   samples collected.
                                      148

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 Table AMI  (Cont'd.)

 5.   Taste and odor.

 6.   pH.

 7.   Allowable temperature
     increase.

 8.   Chemical constituents.
(Rhode Island)

  None other than of natural origin.

  As naturally occurs.

  None other than of natural origin.
  None  in such concentrations or combinations
  which would be harmful to human,  animal, or
  aquatic life.  The limits prescribed by the
  United States Public Health Service are to be
  used as a guideline.
 Class B:   Suitable for bathing, other recreational purposes, agricultural uses, in-
           dustrial processes and cooling; excellent fish and wildlife habitat; good
           aesthetic value; acceptable for public water supply with appropriate
           treatment.
                           Standards of Water Quality
 1.   Dissolved oxygen.
2.   Sludge deposits-solid
     refuse-floating solids, oils,
     and grease-scum.

3.   Color and turbidity.
 75% saturation, 16 hours/day
 5 mg./l.  at any time.

 None allowable.
 None in such concentrations that would impair
 any usages specifically assigned to this class.
4.   Coliform bacteria per 100 ml.   Not to exceed a median of 1,000 per 100 ml.
                                   nor more than 27400 in  more than 20% of
                                   samples collected.
5.   Taste and odor.
6.  pH.
 None in such concentrations that would impair
 any usages specifically assigned to this Class
 nor cause  taste and odor in edible fish.

 6.5 -8.0.
                                      149

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Table All I  (Cont'd.)              (Rhode Island)

7.   Allowable temperature         Only such increases that will not impair any
     increase,                      usages specifically assigned to this Class.  The
                                   temperature increase shall not raise the temper-
                                   ature of the receiving  waters above 68° F for
                                   waters supporting cold water fisheries and 83° F
                                   for waters supporting a warm water fishery.   In
                                   no case shall the temperature of the receiving
                                   water be raised more than 4° F.

8.   Chemical constituents.         None in such concentrations or combinations
                                   which would be harmful to human,  animal or
                                   aquatic life.  For public drinking water sup-
                                   plies, the limits prescribed by the United
                                   States Public Health Service are to be used  as
                                   a guideline. In areas  where fisheries are the
                                   governing considerations and approved  limits
                                   have not been established, bioassays shall be
                                   performed as required by the Department of
                                   Health.
Class C:  Suitable for fish and wildlife habitat; recreational boating, and industri-
          al processes and cooling; under some conditions acceptable for public
          water supply with appropriate treatment; good aesthetic value.

                           Standards of Water Quality

1.   Dissolved oxygen.              5 mg./l., 16 hours/day;  not  less than 3 mg./l.
                                   at any time.   For cold water fishery not less
                                   than 5 mg./l. at any time.

2.   Sludge deposits-solid           None shall be allowed except for such small
     refuse,  floating solids,oils,     amounts that may result from the discharge of
     and grease-scum.               appropriately treated sewage or industrial
                                   waste effluents.

3.   Color and turbidity.            None in such concentrations that would impair
                                   any usages specifically assigned to this class.

4.   Coliform bacteria               None in such concentrations that would impair
     per 100 ml.                    any usages specifically assigned to this class.
                                      150

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  Table All I  (Cont'd.)

  5.   Taste and odor.



  6.   pH.

  7.   Allowable temperature
      increase.
 8.   Chemical constituents.
(Rhode Island)

  None in such concentrations that would impair
  any usages specifically assigned  to this Class
  nor cause taste and odor in edible fish.

  6.0-8.5.

  Only such increases that will  not impair any
  usages specifically assigned to this Class.  The
  temperature increase shall not raise the tem-
  perature of the receiving  waters above 68° F
  for waters supporting cold water fisheries and
  83° F for waters supporting a warm  water fish-
  ery.  In no case shall the temperature of the
  receiving water be raised more than 4°  F.

  None in  such concentrations or combinations
 which would be harmful to human, animal  or
 aquatic life.   For public drinking water sup-
 plies, the limits prescribed by the United
 States Public  Health  service are to be used as
 a guideline.  In areas where fisheries are the
 governing considerations and approved limits
 have not been established, bio-assays shall be
 performed as required by the Department of
 Health.
 Class D:   Suitable for navigation, power, certain industrial processes and cooling,
           and migration of fish; good aesthetic value.  This class will be assigned
           only where a higher water use class cannot be attained after all appro-
           priate waste treatment methods are utilized.
                           Standards of Water Quality
 1.   Dissolved oxygen.
2.   Sludge deposits-solid
     refuse-floating solids, oils,
     and grease-scum.
3.   Color and turbidity.
A minimum of 2 mg./l. at any time.

None shall be allowed except for such small
amounts that may result from the  discharge of
appropriately treated sewage or industrial
waste effluents.

None in such concentrations that would impair
any usages specifically assigned to this Class.
                                       151

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Table All I  (Cont'd.)             (Rhode Island)

4.   Coliform bacteria per TOO ml.   None in such concentrations that would impair
                                   any usages specifically assigned to this Class.

5.   Taste and odor.                 None in such concentrations that would impair
                                   any usages specifically assigned to this Class.

6.   pH.                           6.0-9.0.

7.   Allowable temperature          None except where the increase will not ex-
     increase,                       ceed the recommended  limits on the most sen-
                                   sitive water use and in  no case exceed 90° F.

8.   Chemical  constituents.          None in such concentrations or combinations
                                   which would be harmful to human, animal or
                                   aquatic life.
Class E:   Waters falling below the standards of quality of Class D shall receive
          this classification and considered  to be a nuisance and unsuitable for
          most uses.
Source:   A17  p.  2-6
                 TABLE AIV.  SALT WATER CLASSIFICATIONS
                 AND WATER QUALITY CRITERIA	

Class SA:  Suitable for all sea water uses including shellfish harvesting for direct
          human consumption (approved shellfish areas),  bathing, and other
          water contact sports.

                              Standards of  Quality

1.   Dissolved oxygen.             Not less than  6.0 mg./l. at any time.

2.   Sludge deposits-solid refuse-   None allowable.
     floating solids, oil, grease,
     scum.
                                      152

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  Table A1V (Cont'd.)

  3.   Color and turbidity.
  4.  Coliform bacteria per
      100ml.
 5.   Odor.

 6.   PH.

 7.   Allowable temperature
      increase.
 8.   Chemical constituents.
 9.   Radioactivity.
     (Rhode Island)

       None in such concentrations that will impair
       any usages specifically assigned to this Class.

       Not to exceed a median MPN of 70 and not
       more than 10% of the samples shall ordinarily
       exceed an MPN of 230 for a 5-tube decimal
       dilution of 330 for a 3-tube decimal dilution.
       Samples shall be taken during periods when the
       most unfavorable hydrographic and  pollution
       conditions prevail.

       None allowable.

      6.8 - 8.5.

      None except where the increase will not ex-
      ceed the recommended  limits for the most
      sensitive water use.

      None in concentrations or combinations
      which would be harmful to human, animal,  or
      aquatic life or which would make the waters
      unsafe or unsuitable for fish or shellfish or
      their propagation,  impair the portability of
      same, or impair the waters for any other uses.

      None in concentrations or combinations which
     would be harmful to human, animal or aquatic
      life.
Class SB:  Suitable for bathing, other recreational purposes,  industrial cooling and
           shellfish harvesting for human consumption after depuration (restricted
           shellfish area);  excellent fish and wildlife habitat; good aesthetic value.
1.   Dissolved oxygen.

2.   Sludge deposits-solid
     refuse,  floating solids-
     oils, grease,scum.
Standards of Quality

     Not less than 5.0 mg./l. at any time.

     None allowable.
                                      153

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 Table AIV (Cont'd.)

 3.   Color and turbidity.
4.   Coliform bacteria per
     100ml.
5.   Taste and odor.
6.   PH.

7.   Allowable temperature
     increase.
8.   Chemical constituents.
9.   Radioactivity.
    (Rhode Island)

     None in such concentrations that would impair
     any usages specifically assigned to this class.

     Not to exceed a median value of 700/100 ml.
     and not more than 27300 in  more than 10 per-
     cent of the samples.  Samples should be taken
     during periods when the most unfavorable hy-
     drographic and pollution conditions prevail.

     None in such concentrations that would impair
     any usages specifically assigned to this Class
     and none that would cause taste and odor in
     edible fish or shellfish.

     6.8 -8.5.

     None except where the  increase will not ex-
     ceed the recommended limits on the most sen-
     sitive water use assigned to  this class.

     None in concentrations or combinations which
     would be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic
     life or which would make the waters unsafe or
     unsuitable for fish or shellfish or their propa-
     gation, or impair the water  for any other
     usage assigned to this class.

     None in concentrations or combinations which
     would be harmful to human, animal  or aquatic
     life.
Class SC: Suitable for fish, shellfish, and wildlife habitat; suitable for recreational
          boating, and industrial cooling; good aesthetic value.
1.   Dissolved oxygen.
Standards of Quality

     Not less than 5 mg./l. during at least 16
     hours of any 24 hour period nor less than
     3 mg./l. at any time.
2.   Sludge deposits-solid refuse,    None except that amount that may result from
                                      154

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   Table AIV  (Cont'd.)
(Rhode Island)
   2.   (Cont'd.) f loaf ing sol ids-
       oils,.grease, scum.

   3.   Color and turbidity.
  4.   Coif form bacteria.
  5.   Taste and odor.
  6.   pH.

  7.   Allowable temperature
      increase.
 8.   Chemical constituents.
 9.  Radioactivity.
  the discharge from a waste treatment facility
  providing appropriate  treatment.

  None in such concentrations that would impair
  any usages specifically assigned to this class.

  None in such concentrations that would impair
  any usages specifically assigned to this class.

  None  in such concentrations that would impair
 any usages specifically assigned to this class
 and none that would cause taste and odor in
 edible fish or shellfish.

 6.5 -8.5.

 None  except where the increase will not ex-
 ceed the recommended  limits on the most sen-
 sitive  water use assigned to this class.

 None  in concentrations or combinations which
 would  be harmful to human, animal, or aquatic
 life or which would make the waters unsafe or
 unsuitable for fish or shellfish or their propaga-
 tion, or impair the  water for any other usage
 assigned to this class.

 None in concentrations or combinations which
would be harmful to human, animal or aquatic
 I* r
 ife.
 Class SD:  Suitable for navigation, industrial cooling and migration of fish; good
           aesthetic value.  This class will be assigned only where a higher water
           use class cannot be attained after appropriate waste treatment methods
           are utilized.

                              Standards of Quality

 1.   Dissolved oxygen.              Not less than 2 mg./l. at any time.

2.   Sludge deposits-solid refuse,    None except that amount that may  result from
                                       155

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 Table AIV (Conr'd.)

 2.   (Cont'd.) floating solids,
     oils, grease, scum.

 3.   Color and turbidity.
4.   Coliform bacteria.
5.   Taste and odor.
6.   pH.

7.   Allowable temperature
     increase.
8.   Chemical constituents.
9.   Radioactivity.
(Rhode Island)

  the discharge from a waste treatment facility
  providing appropriate treatment.

  None in such concentrations that would impair
  any usages specifically assigned to this class.

  None in such concentrations that would impair
  any usages specifically assigned to this class.

  None in such concentrations that would impair
  any usages specifically assigned to this class
  and none that would cause taste and odor in
  edible fish or shellfish.

  6.5 -8.5.

  None except where the increase will not ex-
  ceed the recommended limits on the most
  sensitive water use.

  None in concentrations or combinations which
  would be harmful to human, animal,  or aquatic
  life or which would make the waters unsafe or
  unsuitable for fish or shellfish or their propa-
  gation, impair the palatability of same, or im-
  pair the water for any other usage.

  None in concentrations or combinations which
  would be harmful to human, animal or aquatic
  life.
Class SE:  Water falling below the standards of quality of Class SD shall receive
          this classification and considered to be a nuisance and unsuitable for
          most uses.
Source:  (A17, p. 9-12)
                                       156

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                                   (Rhode Island)

  In Rhode Island,  the textile industry is located throughout the state with a particu-
  lar concentration in the towns of Woonsocket, Providence and West Warwick.
  Most of the firms are located  in towns of moderate or large size.  The size of firms
  varies  from very  large to small.   No extensive study is available on the textile
  water waste problems of the state; however, due to the Department of Health's
  regulation  prohibiting private treatment plants if sewers exist that are easily
  accessible, a reasonable conclusion would be that the mills use municipal sewage
 systems to dispose of their liquid wastes.
 Middle Atlantic States

 Three states (New Jersey, New York,  and Pennsylvania) in the Middle Atlantic
 region have large concentrations of textile water waste producing firms.  New York
 belongs to the New England Interstate  Water Pollution Control Commission and has
 adopted standards consistent with those of the Commission.  There is little similarity
 in the standards of these three states.  The laws of these three states are presented
 in the following order: New Jersey, New York,  and Pennsylvania.

 New Jersey

 Chapter 210, Public Law 1899 as amended governs water pollution control efforts in
 the State of New  Jersey.  Chapter 12 of Title 58  of the Revised Statutes of New
 Jersey empowers the State Department  of Health with complete control of effluent
 discharge to state waters, setting of stream standards, classification of streams, is-
 suance of disposal discharge permits and inspection of treatment facilities (A18).

 Once a permit has been issued, any violation of its conditions of issuance or failure
 to comply to state effluent standards can result in  fines ranging from $100 to $2,500
 per day depending on the seriousness of the violation.  Court injunctions are usual-
 ly the first form of state sanction in New Jersey.  When pollution is first discovered,
 the person or municipality guilty of the condition  is served an  injunction to cease
 Polluting practices.  If the party fails to comply with the injunction, then the State
 Attorney General  is empowered to  impose said fines.

 The Department of Health employs civil and sanitary engineers who can be used as
 consultants to municipalities and industrial  firms for guidance, direction and infor-
 mation.  The State also allows for exemption from all real and personal property
 taxes equipment and facilities used for  water pollution control  provided they do not
 lead to the recovery of by-products sold to  obtain  profits.

The waterways  in New Jersey are divided into three broad groups;  non-tidal fresh


                                      157

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                                  (New Jersey)

water,  tidal surface waters, and coastal waters.  Within each group are a number
of classifications - three for fresh surface water (F. W.)/ three for tidal waters
(T.W.), and two for the coastal waters (C.W.).  Table AV lists the Classification
and Standards Quality for the State of New Jersey.
          TABLE AV.  CLASSIFICATION AND STANDARD OF QUALITY
          FOR NEW JERSEY STATE SURFACE WATERS
Class F.W.-l
      Definition:
      Criteria:
Class F.W.-2
      Definition:
2.
      Criteria:

      Conditions
               Fresh surface waters designated by authorized state agencies
               as being set aside for posterity to represent the  natural aqua-
               tic environment and its associated biota.
               These waters shall be maintained, as to quality, in their
               natural state.
               Fresh surface waters approved as sources of public potable
               water supply.  These waters are to be suitable for public
               potable water supply after such treatment as shall be re-
               quired  by the State Department of Health.  These waters
               shall be suitable also for all recreational purposes includ-
               ing fishing,  the propagation and migration of native fish
               species desired for angling and other fish and aquatic life
               necessary thereto as well as any other reasonable uses.
     Floating solids, settable solids,
     oil, grease, artificial coloring
     matter and turbidity.
Toxic or deleterious substances
(including mineral acids,  caustic
alkali,  cyanides, heavy metals,
carbon dioxide, ammonia  or
ammonium compounds, chlorine,
etc.
             Allowable Limits

-  None of which are noticeable  in the
   water or are deposited along the shore
   or on the aquatic substrata in quantities
   detrimental to the natural biota.

-  None of which would effect humans or
   be detrimental  to the natural aquatic
   biota.
                                      158

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 Table AV (Cont'd)
                                   (New Jersey)
 3.   Odor and taste producing
     substances.
 4.   PH.
5.   Dissolved oxygen.
6.   Thermal discharges
                                           None of which are offensive to humans,
                                           detrimental to the aquatic biota or cap-
                                           able of producing offensive tastes and/
                                           or odors in water supplies and fauna us-
                                           ed for human consumption.

                                           Between 6.5 and 8.5 unless  naturally
                                           outside thereof.

                                           Not less than 5.0 p.p.m for trout
                                           waters; otherwise 4.0  p.p.m.

                                           None of which detrimentally affect the
                                           natural aquatic biota, or reasonable
                                           anticipated reuse of the  waters.
Class F.W.3
1.
2.
      Definition:

      Criteria:

      Conditions
                    Fresh surface waters suitable for all purposes provided for under
                    Class F.W.-2 except public potable water supply.
     Floating solids, settleable solids,
     oil, grease,  and turbidity.
    Toxic or deleterious substances
    (including mineral acids, caustic
    alkali, cyanides, heavy metals,
    carbon dioxide,  ammonia or
    ammonium compounds, chlorine,
    etc.
3.  Color, odor and taste producing
    substances.
                                                     Allowable Limits

                                           None of which are noticeable  in the
                                           water or are deposited along the shore
                                           or on the aquatic substrata in quanti-
                                           ties detrimental to the natural  biota.

                                           None of which would affect  humans or
                                           be detrimental to the natural aquatic
                                           biota.
                                          None of which are offensive to humans,
                                          detrimental to the aquatic biota or cap-
                                          able of producing offensive tastes and/
                                          or odors in fauna used for human
                                          consumption.
                                     159

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 Table AV  (Cont'd.)
(New Jersey)
 4.   pH.
 5.   Dissolved oxygen.
 6.   Thermal discharges.
      -  Between 6.5 and 8.5 unless naturally
         outside thereof.

      -  Not less than 5.0 p.p.m. for trout
         waters; otherwise 4.0 p.p.m.

      -  None of which detrimentally affect the
         natural aquatic biota, or reasonable
         anticipated reuse of the waters.
 Class T.W.-l

     Definition:   Tidal surface waters suitable for all recreational purposes,  as a
                  source  of public potable water supply where permitted,  and,
                  where shellfishing is permitted, to be suitable for such purposes.
     Criteria:
     Conditions

 1.   Floating solids, setfleable solids,
     oil, grease, sleek and turbidity.
2.   Toxic or deleterious substances
     (including mineral acids, caustic
     alkali, cyanides, heavy metals,
     carbon dioxide, ammonia or
     ammonium compounds,  chlorine,
     etc.).

3.   Color, odor and taste producing
     substances.
4.   pH.
5.   Dissolved oxygen.
                   Allowable Limits

         None of which are noticeable in the
         water or are deposited along the shore
         or on the aquatic substrata  in quanti-
         ties detrimental to the natural biota.

         None of which would affect humans or
         be detrimental to the natural  aquatic
         biota.
      -  None of which are offensive to humans,
         detrimental to the aquatic biota or cap-
         able  of producing offensive tastes and/
         or odors in water supplies and fauna
         used  for human consumption.

      -  Between 6.5 and 8.5 unless naturally
         outside thereof.

      -  Not less than 50% of saturation.
                                      160

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 Table AV (Cont'd.)

 6.  Thermal discharges.



 7.  Coliform bacteria.
                (New Jersey)
                      -  None of which detrimentally affectthe
                         natural aquatic biota, or reasonably
                         anticipated reuse of the waters.

                      -  The median MPN value in shellfish
                         growing areas shall not be in excess of
                         70 per lOOmilliliters.
 ClassT.W.-2

     Definition:
     Criteria:
     Conditions
Tidal surface waters having  limited recreational value and ordi-
narily not acceptable for bathing but suitable for fish survival
although perhaps not suitable for fish propagation.  These waters
shall not be an odor nuisance and shall not cause damage to
pleasure craft having occasion to traverse the waters.
 1.   Floating solids, oil and grease.
2.   Toxic and deleterious substances.
3.   Taste and odor-producing
     substances.
4.   pH.


5.   Dissolved oxygen.

6.   Thermal discharges.
                                   Allowable Limits

                      -  None of which are noticeable in the
                         water or contribute to the formation of
                         sludge along the shores.

                      -  None in such concentrations as to
                         cause fish mortality or inhibit their
                         natural migration.

                      -  None, either alone or in combination,
                         which are offensive or that would pro-
                         duce offensive tastes and/or odors  in
                         fauna used for human consumption.

                      -  Between 6.5 and 8.5 unless naturally
                         outside thereof.

                      -  Not less than 50% saturation.

                      -  None which detrimentally affect
                         reasonable anticipated reuse of the
                         waters.
                                      161

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 Table AV  (Cont'd.)
                (New Jersey)
ClassT.W.-3
     Definition:
     Criteria:
     Conditions
Tidal surface waters used primarily for navigation, not recrea-
tion.  These waters, although not expected to be used for fish-
ing, shall provide for fish survival.  These waters shall not be
an odor nuisance and shall not cause damage to pleasure craft
traversing them.
1.   Floating solids, settleable solids,
     oil and grease.
2.   Toxic and deleterious substances.
3.   Taste and odor producing
     substances.
4.   pH.
5.   Dissolved oxygen.
                                    Allowable Limits

                          None of which are noticeable in the
                          water or contribute to the formation of
                          sludge deposits along the shores.

                          None in such concentrations as to
                          cause fish mortality or inhibit their
                          natural  migration.

                          None of which shall be offensive or
                          that would detrimentally affect finfish,
                          shellfish or other aquatic life in higher
                          quality  waters.

                          Between 6.5 and 8.5 unless naturally
                          outside  thereof.

                          Not less than 30% of saturation or
                          3.0 p.p.m., whichever  is less.
Class C.W.-l

     Definition:
    Criteria:

    Conditions
Atlantic Ocean waters within 1500 feet from mean low tide or to
a depth of 15 feet, whichever is more distant from the mean low
tide line, and expected to be suitable for all recreational pur-
poses including fishing, the propagation and migration of native
fish species desired for angling and other fish and aquatic  life
necessary thereto as well as any other reasonable use.
                                   Allowable Limits
                                      162

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  Table AV (Cont'd.)
(New Jersey)
  1.   Floating solids, settleable solids,    -  None of which are noticeable in the
      oil, grease and turbidity.
         water or contribute to the formation of
         sludge deposits along the shores.
 2.   Toxic and deleterious substances.    -  None of which would affect humans or
                                            be detrimental to the natural aquatic
                                            biota.
 3.   Color,  taste and odor producing
      substances.
 4.   pH.


 5.   Dissolved oxygen.

 6.   Thermal discharges.
      -  None of which are offensive to humans,
         capable of producing offensive tastes
         and/or  odors in fauna used for human
         consumption.

      -  Between 6.5 and 8.5 unless naturally
         outside  thereof.

      -  Not less than 50% saturation.

      -  None which detrimentally affect the
         natural  aquatic biota.
 ClassC.W.-2

     Definition:   Atlantic Ocean waters out to the three (3) mile  limit,  expected
                  to be suitable for all recreational uses,  including those in
                  Class C.W.-1, except bathing.
     Criteria:

     Conditions
 1.   Floating solids, settleable solids,
     oil, grease and turbidity.
                  Allowable Limits

     -  None of which are noticeable in the
        water or contribute to the formation of
        sludge deposits along the shores.
2.   Toxic and deleterious substances.    -  None of which would affect humans or
3.   Color.
        be detrimental to the natural aquatic
        biota.

     -   None which would impair  the quality
        of C.W.-1 water or be detrimental to
        aquatic biota.
                                      163

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 Table AV  (Cont'd.)              (New Jersey)

 4.   Taste and odor  producing            -  None of which are offensive to humans,
     substances.                            or capable of producing tastes and/or
                                           odors in fauna used for human con-
                                           sumption.

 5.   Dissolved oxygen.                  -  Not  less than 50% saturation.

 6.   Thermal discharges                  -  None which detrimentally affect the
                                           natural aquatic biota.
Source:   A19
There are seven river basins in New Jersey; the Delaware,  Hackensack,  Passaic,
Wallkill, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and the  Hudson River Basin including Arthur Kill
and its tributaries.   The Department of Health has set up specific "regulations con-
cerning treatment of waste waters, domestic and industrial,  separately or in combi-
nation"  for the  first six areas.  The regulations for the seventh are still under con-
sideration, due  to its being affected by New  York state waters a joint  resolution
will probably be passed.

The Department of Health's engineers use the above criteria to classify the state's
streams.  When  the classification of a basin's surface waters is complete, the De-
partment studies the waters' present condition, and based on the desired conditions
passes the specific regulations for the particular basin.  Each of the six basins that
have specific regulations have been passed by the state legislature as separate bills.
Two provisions are the same for each bill:

      1)   "It is recognized, especially in connection with some industrial
           wastes, that the pollution load  imposed upon the waters of the
           basin cannot be evaluated fully exclusively by the biochemical
           oxygen demand test;  therefore,  each industrial waste problem
           shall  be considered individually and treatment shall be required
           as needed to effect compliance  with the Water Quality Standards
           established for the  various classifications of waters in the basin.

      2)   Treatment standards set by these regulations are the minimum
           acceptable for the  basin.  Treatment more intense than that
           specified  herein above shall be  provided whenever it is deter-
           mined by  the State Department of Health that such treatment
           is necessary."   (A 19)
                                       164

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                                  (New Jersey)

 The specific regulations covering treatment of waste waters discharged to the
 Delaware River Basin are:

       "Henceforth, industrial wastes (separately or in combination with
       domestic wastes), prior to discharge into waters of the Delaware
       River Basin classified as F.W.-2,  F.W.-3,  T.W.-l  and T.W.-2,
       shall be treated to a degree providing,  a* a minimum, ninety per-
       cent (90%) of reduction of biochemical oxygen demand at all
       times and such further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand as
       may be necessary to maintain the receiving  waters, after reasonable
       effluent dispersion, as specified in the regulations entitled 'Regu-
       lations  Concerning Classification of the Surface Waters of the Del-
      aware River Basin, Being Waters of the State of New Jersey1, ef-
      fective  July 28,  1967;  it is an objective of this regulation that
      the biochemical oxygen demand of effluents discharged shall not
      exceed  twenty-five (25) parts per million."  (A20)

The specific regulations of the waste water treatment required for surface waters in
the Hackensack River Basin are:

      "Henceforth, industrial wastes (separately or in combination with
      domestic wastes), prior to discharge into waters of the Hackensack
      River Basin, classified as F.W.-2,  F.W.-3 or T.W.-l shall be
      treated to a degree providing,  as a minimum, ninety  percent (90%)
      of reduction of biochemical oxygen demand at ail times and such
      further reduction  in biochemical oxygen demand as may be necessary
      to maintain water in the River after dispersion of treated industrial
      waste effluents as specified in the rules and regulations entitled
      'Regulations Concerning Classification of the Surface Waters of the
      Hackensack River Basin1, effective March 1, 1966;  it is the ob-
      jective of this regulation that the biochemical oxygen demand of
      effluents discharged shall not exceed twenty-five (25) parts per
      million.

      Henceforth, industrial wastes prior  to discharge  into waters of the
      Hackensack River  Basin classified as T.W.-2 or T.W.-3, shall be
     treated to a degree providing, as a  minimum, eighty percent (80%)
     of reduction of biochemical  oxygen demand at all times and such
     further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand as may be neces-
     sary in order to maintain the waters of the river of a quality as spec-
     ified by the  rules and regulations entitled 'Classification of the
     Surface Waters of the Hackensack River Basin', effective March 1,
     '966; it  is the objective of this regulation that the biochemical
                                     165

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                                  (New Jersey)

      ox/gen demand of effluents discharged shall not exceed 50 parrs
      per million."  (A21)

The Passaic River Basin and Newark Bay are governed by the following regulations:

      "Henceforth, industrial wastes (separately or in combination), prior
      to discharge into the waters of the Passaic River Basin, classified as
      F. W.-2, or F.W.-3, shall be treated to a degree providing, as a
      minimum, ninety percent (90%) of reduction of biochemical oxygen
      demand at all times and such further reduction  in the biochemical
      oxygen demand as  may be necessary  to maintain water in the river
      after dispersion of  treated industrial  waste effluents as specified in
      the rules and regulations entitled  'Regulations Concerning Classifi-
      cation of the Surface Waters  of the Passaic River Basin1,  effective
      September 11, 1966; it is the objective of this  regulation that the
      biochemical oxygen demand of effluents discharged shall not exceed
      twenty-five (25) parts per million.

      Henceforth, industrial wastes (separately or in  combination with do-
      mestic wastes),  prior to discharge into the waters of  the Passaic River
      Basin, classified as T.W.-2 or T0W.-3, shall be treated to a degree
      providing, as a minimum, eighty percent (80%) of reduction of bio-
      chemical oxygen demand at all times, and such further reduction of
      biochemical oxygen demand as may be necessary in order to maintain
      the waters of the River of a quality as specified by the rules and regu-
      lations entitled  'Classification of the Surface  Waters of the Passaic
      River Basin1,  effective September 11, 1966; it is the objective of this
      regulation that the biochemical oxygen demand of effluents discharged
      shall not  exceed fifty (50) parts per million."   (A22)

The following regulations apply to the Raritan River Basin, including Raritan Bay:

      "Henceforth, industrial wastes (separately or in combination with do-
      mestic wastes),  prior to discharge into waters of the  Raritan River Basin,
      classified as F.W.-2 or F.W.-3, shall be treated to a degree  providing
      as a minimum, ninety percent (90%)  of reduction of  biochemical oxygen
      demand at all times and such  further  reduction  in biochemical oxygen
      demand as may be  necessary to maintain water  in the river after disper-
      sion of treated industrial waste effluents as specified in the rules and
      regulations entitled 'Classification of the Surface Waters of the Raritan
      River Basin including Raritan  Bay1, effective April 15, 1965.
                                      166

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                                   (New Jersey)

       Henceforth,  industrial wastes prior to discharge into waters of the
       Raritan River Basin,  classified as T.W.-1, shall be treated to a
       degree providing, as a minimum, eighty percent (80%) of reduct-
       ion of biochemical oxygen demand at all times and such further re-
       duction of biochemical oxygen demand as may be necessary in order
       to maintain the waters of the river of a quality as specified by the
       rules and regulations entitled 'Classification of the Surface Waters
       of the Raritan River Basin  including Raritan Bay1, effective
       April  15,  1965."  (A23)

 The Wallkill River Basin is  covered by the following regulation:

       "Henceforth,  industrial wastes (separately or in combination with
       domestic wastes), prior to  discharge into waters of the Wallkill River
       Basin, classified as F. W.-2 or F.W.-3, shall be treated to a degree
       providing, as a  minimum,  ninety-five percent (95%) of reduction of
       biochemicaFoxygen demand at all  times and such further reduction
       in biochemical oxygen demand as may be necessary to maintain the
       receiving waters, after reasonable effluent dispersion, as specified
       in the  rules and  regulations entitled  'Regulations Concerning Clas-
      sification of the Surface Waters of the Wallkill River Basin1, effect-
       ive July 28,  1967; it  is an objective of this regulation that the bio-
      chemical oxygen demand of effluents discharged shall not exceed
      fifteen (15) parts per  million."  (A24)

New Jersey is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean and her east coast is considered as
the Atlantic Coastal Plain - here are its discharge regulations:

      "Henceforth,  industrial wastes (individually or combined with do-
      mestic waste), prior to discharge  into waters of the Atlantic Coastal
      Plain, classified as F.W.-2,  F.W.-3, or T.W.-l, shall  be treated
      to a degree providing, as a minimum, ninety-five percent (95%) of
      reduction of biochemical" oxygen demand at all times and such further
      reduction in biochemical oxygen demand as may be necessary to main-
      tain receiving waters,  after reasonable effluent dispersion, as specified
      in the rules and regulations entitled  'Regulations Concerning Classifi-
      cation of the Surface Waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain1, effective
      May 24,  1967; it  is an objective of this regulation that the biochemical
      oxygen  demand of effluents  discharged shall not exceed fifteen  (15)
      parts per million.

      Henceforth, industrial  wastes prior to discharge into waters of the


                                     16?

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                                  (New Jersey)

      Atlantic Coastal Plain, classified as C.W.-1 and C.W. -2, shall be
      treated to a degree providing, as a_ minimum,  eighty-five percent
      (85%) of reduction of biochemical  oxygen demand at all times and
      such further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand as may be
      necessary in order to maintain the receiving waters  in a quality as
      specified by the rules and regulations entitled  'Classification of the
      Surface Waters of  the Atlantic Coastal Plain1,  effective May  24,
      1967." (A25)

The bulk of New Jersey's Textile Industry is located  in the highly industrialized
northeastern section of Newark, Paterson, Passaic, Hackensack, Elizabeth City
and Jersey City.  Most are small (100  employees or less) and use municipal sewers
for discharge of effluent. Due to the highly concentrated industry in this area, it
is hard to isolate textile  wastes, which would lessen the possibility of fines and
penalties being administered to individual firms. However, with New Jersey's
stipulation for a fixed amount of both percentage removal by weight and volume
(parts per million) of B.O. D.  allowed in the final effluent, increased control  of
final discharges will become necessary.   It might be well worth their while for New
Jersey firms to investigate if pretreatment or full treatment on their effluents will
reduce the pollutional load on receiving streams.  With tax incentives, they maybe
able to reduce their sewerage charges  and also perform a value service to humanity.

New York

Article 12 of the State Public Health Law is the legislative act that controls water
pollution in New York State.  The  public policy of New York as declared by this
act is:

      "to maintain reasonable standards of purity of the waters of the state
      consistent with public health and public enjoyment thereof, the prop-
      agation and protection of fish and wildlife, including birds, mammals
      and other terrestrial and aquatic life, and the industrial development
      of the  state, and to that end  require the use of all known available
      and reasonable methods to prevent and control  the pollution of the
      waters of the state"  (A26).

As of 1961,  the duties, powers, authority and functions of water pollution control
are vested in the  Water Resources Commission under the authority of the  State  De-
partment of  Health.   Under this article, the Commissioner of the Department of
Health is authorized to:  hold public hearings with respect to alleged violations of
the pollution control  laws; make, modify or cancel  orders requiring the discontin-
uance of the discharge of wastes into state waters and specifying the conditions and
                                      168

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                                    (New York)

  time within which such discontinuance must be accomplished; cause to be instituted
  in a court of competent furisdiction proceedings to compel compliance with the
  provisions of the article or his orders;  issue, continue, deny, revoke or modify
  permits for the discharge of wastes,  or the installation or operation of disposal sys-
  tems; and perform such other acts as he may deem necessary and proper to carry out
  the duties prescribed to him by the article (A26).

  The Water Resources Commission has the duty and responsibility to: adopt, amend
  or cancel such administrative rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out
  the provisions of the Article; encourage voluntary cooperation by all persons in pre-
  venting the abating pollution of state waters; encourage the formulation and execu-
  tion of plans by cooperative groups or  associations of municipalities, industries,
 etc., who are or may be the sources of pollution in the same waters, for the preven-
 tion and abatement of pollution;  cooperate with the appropriate agencies of the
  United States or other states,  or interstate commissions in respect to pollution con-
 trol matters; conduct studies and  research with respect to pollution abatement or
 control problems; prepare and develop a general comprehensive plan for the abate-
 ment of  existing pollution and the prevention of new pollution; serve as the agency
 of the state for the receipt of moneys from the federal government, public  or private
 agencies and to expend said moneys for the  purpose of pollution control; require the
 submission of plans for disposal system construction or reconstruction and to inspect
 the construction for compliance with approved  plans,  esiablish water classification
 standards; and establish a water quality surveillance network to meet the needs of
 the state (A26).

 The Article has two broad statements of prohibition.  It is unlawful for any person
 to discharge, directly or indirectly,  into the waters of the  state organic or inorgan-
 ic matter "that shall cause or contribute to a condition  in contravention of the
 standards adopted by the Water Resources Commission  (A).  It is also unlawful for
 any person to make or use a new outlet for the disposal of wastes to waters  of the
 State, to operate  or construct disposal systems,  or to modify the  content of the
 wastes discharged through permitted outlets, without a valid permit (A26).

 For the discharge  of all waste effluents, except sanitary sewage, to State waters,
efficient removal  (75 - 95 percent) of 5-day B. O. D.  and suspended solids is re-
quired (A27).  When plans are submitted to the water resources  board for construct-
 ion of new, or renovation of existing treatment  facilities,  a description of the waste
characteristics and components is required.  The biologists in the Conservation De-
partment study each description individually and if it is felt that any of the compo-
nents would have a detrimental  effect on the receiving stream's biota, then the
concentration of such components  in the waste stream must be limited to the amounts
prescribed by such individual study (A28).
                                      169

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                                   (New York)

The State of New York offers two types of tax advantages as incentives for indus-
trial firms to construct their own waste treatment facilities.  An  income deduction
from the State Corporate Income Tax, during the year money is spent, of the cost of
wastewater treatment facilities; and an  exemption from local taxes and special ad
valorem levies for said facilities (A29).  These tax advantages are applicable to the
following industrial waste water facilities.

       "(1)   facilities from  a point immediately preceding the treatment,
             neutralization  or stabilization device or devices to the point
             of discharge to the waters of the State, or to a municipal
             sewer system;

        (2)   facilities whose primary purpose is  pollution abatement even
             though they may salvage marketable materials;

        (3)   pretreatment devices which produce an effluent that  is in
             conformance with a municipal sewer use ordinance;

        (4)   for purposes of State Corporate Income  Tax deductions,
             facilities and pretreatment devices, the construction, re-
             construction, erection or  improvement of which is  initiated
             on or after January 1, 1965,  and only for expenditures paid
             or incurred prior to January 1, 1972.

        (5)   for purposes of Real Property Tax exemptions, facilities and
             pretreatment devices which were constructed or reconstructed
             subsequent to May 12, 1965 and prior to March 31, 1972.
             (A30).

The following  facilities are ineligible for tax advantages:

       "(1)   facilities that rely solely upon dilution, dispersion or assim-
             ilation of pollutants in the receiving waters;

        (2)   holding tanks or similar structures unless followed by treatment,
             neutralization  or stabilization;

        (3)   facilities whose primary purposes are salvage of materials
             which are usable in the manufacturing process or are marketable;

        (4)   collection systems including pumping and transmitting facilities
             preceding the point of treatment, neutralization or stabilization.
             (A30)"


                                      170

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                                    (New York)

  In order to benefit from these tax deductions, the eligible facilities must possess a
  certificate compliance.  These certificates of compliance are issued by the Depart-
  ment of Health, after the inspection of said facilities proves they are  in compliance
  with the provisions of Article 12, the  State Sanitary Code, and regulations, permits
  or orders issued by the Commissioner of the Department of Health.  In the case of
 pretreatment facilities, the department requires confirmation from the chief admin-
  istrator of the municipal system to which the industrial effluent  is discharged to de-
 termine that such facilities were  installed  pursuant to his approval and that such
 facilities are producing an effluent which  is in conformance with the municipal
 sewer use ordinance (A30).

 For the  violation of any provision of Article 12, the discharge of wastes that con-
 travene the standards established  by any waters of the state, violation of permit
 regulations, or the improper operation and maintenance of an approved treatment
 facility, a person will be served an order  to appear at a  public hearing before the
 Commissioner of the Department of Health  to answer the  charges brought against
 him.  Based on the evidence of such hearing, the Commissioner will give written
 notice to the  alleged  violator requiring that the matters complained of be corrected.
 In the case of a violation that constitutes danger to the health of the people, the
 Commissioner is authorized to compel the correction of such violation immediately
 (A26).

 For refusing to appear at  the above mentioned hearing, or refusing to comply with
 the written notice  from the Commissioner,  the Attorney General of the State is em-
 powered to take the alleged violator into a court to face legal proceedings.  If
 convicted, said person shall be guilty of misdemeanor and be fined not less than
 one hundred dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars and/or imprisoned for a
 term of not more than  one year for each separate violation.  Each day of continued
 violation shall constitute  a separate violation (A26).  If the alleged violator also
 possesses a certificate of compliance for tax deduction incentives, the  certificate
 of compliance shall be revoked (A30).

 The State of New York has an  elaborate set of stream classifications and standards.
 Table AVI lists the fresh water standards, Table  AVII the  salt water classifications,
and Table AVIII is a compilation of special standards.
                                      171

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                                  (New York)

          TABLE AVI.   CLASSES AND STANDARDS FOR FRESH WATERS
Class AA
      Best Usage of Waters:  Source of water supply for drinking, culinary or
           food processing purposes and any other usages.

      Conditions Related  to Best Usage:   The waters,  if subjected to approved
           disinfection treatment,  with additional treatment if necessary to
           remove naturally present impurities, meet or will meet U. S.  Public
           Health Service drinking water standards and are or will be consider-
           ed safe and satisfactory for  drinking water purposes.
                               Quality Standards
           Items
1.   Floating solids, settleable solids;
     oil; sludge deposits; tastes or
     odor producing substances.

2.   Sewage or wastes effluents.
3.  pH.

4.  Dissolved oxygen.
5.  Toxic wastes, deleterious
    substances, colored or other
    wastes or heated liquids.
           Specifications
6.  Organisms of coliform group.
None attributable to sewage, indus-
trial wastes or other wastes.
None which are not effectively
disinfected.

Range between 6.5 and 8.5.

For trout waters,  not less than 5.0
parts per million; for non-trout waters,
not less than 4.0 parts per million.

None alone or in combination with
other substances or wastes in sufficient
amounts or at  such temperatures as to
be injurious to fish life, make the wa-
ters unsafe or  unsuitable as a source of
water supply for drinking, culinary or
food processing purposes or impair the
waters for any other best usage as de-
termined for the specific waters which
are assigned to this class.

Monthly median coliform value shall
                                      172

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Table AVI  (Cont'd)
(New York)
60   (Cont'd.)  Organisms of
     coliform group.
        not exceed 50/100 ml. from a mini-
        mum of five examinations and not more
        than 20 percent of the samples shall
        exceed a coliform value of 240/100
        ml.
NOTE 1: In determining the safety or suitability of waters in this class for use as a
          source of water supply for drinking, culinary or food processing purposes
          after approved treatment, the Water Pollution Control  Board will be
          guided by the standards specified in the latest edition of Public Health
          Service Drinking Water Standards published by the  United States  Public
          Health Service.

NOTE 2:  With reference to certain toxic substances as affecting fish life,  the es-
          tablishment of any single numerical standard for waters of New York
          State would be too restrictive.  There are many waters, which because
          of poor buffering capacity and composition will require special study to
          determine safe concentrations of toxic substances.   However, based on
          non-trout waters of approximately median alkalinity (80 p.p.m.) or
          above for the state, in which groups most of the waters near industrial
          areas in this state will fall,  and without considering increased or de-
          creased toxicity  from  possible combinations, the following may be con-
          sidered as safe stream concentrations for certain substances to comply
          with the above standard for this type of water.  Waters of lower alkalin-
          ity must be specially considered since the toxic effect of most pollutants
          will be greatly increased.
          Ammonia or Ammonium
             Compounds

          Cyanide
          Ferro-or  Ferricyanide
          Copper
          Zinc
        Not greater than 2.0 parts per million
        (NH3) at pH of 8.0 or above.

        Not greater than 0.1 part per million
        (CN).

        Not greater than 0.4 parts per million
        (Fe(CN)6).

        Not greater than 0.2 parts per million
        (CU).

        Not greater than 0.3 parts per million
        (Zn).
                                      173

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 Table AVI  (Cont'd.)
           Cadmium
(New York)

        Not greater than 0.3 parts per million
        (Cd).
 Class A
      Best Usage of Waters:  Source of water supply for drinking, culinary or food
           processing purposes  and any other usages.

      Conditions Related to Best Usage:  The waters,  if subjected to approved
           treatment equal to coagulation,  sedimentation, filtration and disinfect-
           ion, with additional treatment if necessary to reduce naturally present
           impurities,  meet or  will meet U.  S. Public Health Service drinking
           water standards and are or will be considered safe and satisfactory for
           drinking water purposes.
                                Quality Standards
           Items
                   Specifications
1.
     Floating solids; settleable solids;
     sludge deposits.
2.   Sewage or waste effluents.
3.   Odor producing substances con-
     tained in sewage, industrial
     wastes or other wastes.
4.   Phenolic compounds.


5.   PH.

6.   Dissolved oxygen.
        None which are readily visible and at-
        tributable to sewage, industrial wastes
        or other wastes or which deleteriously
        increase the amounts of these constitu-
        ents in receiving waters after opportun-
        ity for reasonable dilution and mixture
        with the wastes discharged thereto.

        None which are not effectively
        disinfected.

        The waters after opportunity  for reason-
        able dilution and mixture  with the wastes
        discharged thereto shall not have an in-
        creased threshold odor number greater
        than 8, due to such added wastes.

        Not greater than 5  parts per  billion
        (Phenol).

        Range between 6.5 and 8.5.

        For trout waters,  not less  than 5.0 parts
                                      174

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Table AVI (Cont'd.)
                              (New York)
6.
7.
(Cont'd.)  Dissolved
  oxygen.

Toxic wastes, oil, deleterious
substances, colored or other
wastes or heated  liquids.
                                          per million; for non-trout waters, not
                                          less than 4.0 parts per million.

                                          None alone or in  combination with
                                          other substances or wastes  in sufficient
                                          amounts or at such temperatures as to
                                          be injurious to fish life, make the
                                          waters unsafe or unsuitable as a source
                                          of water supply for drinking, culinary
                                          or food processing purposes or impair
                                          the waters for any other best usage as
                                          determined for the specific waters
                                          which are assigned to this  class.

                                          Monthly median coliform value shall
                                          not exceed 5000/100 ml. from a mini-
                                          mum of five examinations and not more
                                          than 20 percent of the samples shall
                                          exceed a coliform value of 20,000/ml.

Note:  Refer to Notes 1 and 2 under Class AA, which are also applicable to Class A
       standards.
8.   Organisms of Coliform group.
Class B
      Best Usage of Waters:  Bathing and any other usages except as source of
          water supply for drinking, culinary or food processing purposes.
                               Quality Standards
          Items
1.
Floating solids; settleable solids;
sludge deposits.
                                                 Specifications
                                          None which are readily visible and
                                          attributable to sewage, industrial
                                          wastes or other wastes or which dele-
                                          teriously increase the amounts of these
                                          constituents in receiving waters after
                                          opportunity for reasonable dilution and
                                          mixture with the wastes discharged
                                          thereto.
                                      175

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Table AVI (Cont'd.)

2.   Sewage or wastes effluents.


3.   PH.

4.   Dissolved oxygen.
                               (New York)
5.
Toxic wastes, oil, deleterious
substances, colored or other
wastes or heated liquids.
                                           None which are not effectively
                                           disinfected.

                                           Range between 6.5 and 8.5.

                                           For trout waters, not less than 5.0
                                           parts per million; for non-trout waters,
                                           not less than 4.0 parts per million.

                                           None alone or in combination with
                                           other substances or wastes in sufficient
                                           amounts or at such  temperatures as to
                                           be injurious to fish life, make the wa-
                                           ters unsafe or unsuitable for bathing or
                                           impair the waters for any other best
                                           usage as determined for the specific
                                           waters which are assigned for this class.

                                           Monthly median coliform value shall
                                           not exceed 2400/100 ml. from a mini-
                                           mum  of five examinations and not more
                                           than  20 percent of  the  samples shall
                                           exceed a coliform value of 5000/100 ml.

Note:  Refer to Note 2 under Class AA, which is also applicable to Class B standards.

Class C

     Best Usage of Water:  Fishing and any other usages except for bathing as source
         of water supply for drinking, culinary or food  processing purposes.
6.  Organisms of coliform group.
                               Quality Standards
         Items
                                                 Specifications
1.
Floating solids; settleable solids;
sludge deposits.
                                           None which are readily visible and at-
                                           tributable to sewage,  industrial wastes
                                           or other wastes or which deleteriously
                                           increase the amounts of these constitu-
                                           ents in  receiving waters after opportunity
                                           for reasonable dilution and mixture with
                                           the wastes discharged thereto.
                                      176

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Table AVI (Cont'd.)
                                  (New York)
2.   pH.

3.   Dissolved oxygen.
4.
                                           Range between 6.5 and 8.5

                                           For trout waters,  not less than 5.0
                                           parts per million; for non-trout waters,
                                           not less than 4.0 parts per million.

                                           None alone or in combination with
                                           other substances or wastes in sufficient
                                           amounts or at such temperatures as to
                                           be injurious to fish life or impair the
                                           waters for any  other best usage as de-
                                           termined for the specific waters which
                                           are assigned to this class.

Note:   Refer to Note 2 under Class AA, which is also applicable to Class C
        standards.
Toxic wastes, oil, deleterious
substances,  colored or other
wastes, or heated liquids.
Class D
      Best Usage of Waters:  Agricultural or source of industrial cooling or process
          water supply and any other except for fishing, bathing or as source of
          water supply for drinking, culinary or food processing purposes.

      Conditions Related to Best  Usage:  The waters will be suitable for fish sur-
          vival; the waters without treatment and except for natural impurities
          which may be present  will be satisfactory for agricultural usages or for
          industrial process cooling water; and with special treatment as may be
          needed under each particular circumstance, will be satisfactory for
          other industrial processes.
                                Quality Standards
           Items
                                                     Specifications
1.
     Floating solids, settleable solids;
    sludge deposits.
                                       None which are readily visible and at-
                                       tributable to sewage,  industrial wastes
                                       or other wastes  or which deleteriously
                                       increase the amounts of these constitu-
                                       ents in  receiving waters after opportu-
                                       nity for reasonable dilution and mix-
                                       ture with the wastes discharged thereto.
                                       177

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 Table AVI (Cont'd.)

 2.   PH.

 3.   Dissolved oxygen.

 4.   Toxic wastes, oil, deleterious
     substances, colored  or other
     wastes, or heated liquids.
(New York)

        Range between 6.0 and 9.5.

        Not less than 3.0 parts per million.

        None alone or  in combinations with
        other substances or wastes in sufficient
        amounts or at such temperatures as to
        prevent fish survival or impair the wa-
        ters for agricultural purposes or any
        other best usage as determined for the
        specific waters which are assigned to
        this class.
Note:   Refer to Note 2 under Class AA, which is also applicable to Class D
        standards.
Source:   A31  p.  504-507
          TABLE AVII.   CLASSES AND STANDARDS FOR SALT WATERS
Class SA
      Best Usage of Waters:  Shellfishing for market purposes and any other usages.

                               Quality Standards
          Items

1.   Floating solids; settleable solids;
     oil; sludge deposits.

2.   Garbage, cinders,  ashes, oils,
     sludge or other refuse.
3.  Sewage or waste effluents.
                  Specifications

        None attributable to sewage, industri-
        al wastes or other wastes.

        None in any waters of the marine dis-
        trict as defined by State Conservation
        Law.

        None which are not effectively
        disinfected.
                                      178

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Table AVII  (Cont'd.)
(New York)
4.   Dissolved oxygen.

5.   Toxic wastes, deleterious
     substances, colored or
     other wastes or  heated
     liquids.
6.   Organisms of coliform group.
        Not less than 5.0 parts per million.

        None alone or in combination with
        other substances or wastes in sufficient
        amounts or at such  temperatures as to
        be injurious to edible fish or shellfish
        or the culture or propagation  thereof,
        or which in any manner shall  adversely
        affect the flavor,  color,  odor or sani-
        tary condition thereof or  impair the wa-
        ters  for  any other best usage as deter-
        mined for the specific waters  which
        are assigned  to this class.

        Median MPN not to exceed 70/100 ml.
        in any series of samples representative
        of waters in the shellfish growing area.
Class SB
      Best Usage of Waters:   Bathing and any other usages except shellfishing for
           market purposes.
                                Quality Standards
           Items
1.   Floating solids; settleable solids;
     oil; sludge deposits.

2.   Garbage, cinders, ashes, oils,
     sludge or other refuse.
3.   Sewage or waste effluents .
4.   Dissolved oxygen.

5.   Toxic wastes, deleterious
     substances, colored or other
                   Specifications
        None attributable to sewage, industrial
        wastes or other wastes.

        None in any waters  of the marine dis-
        trict as defined by State Conservation
        Law.

        None which are not effectively
        disinfected.

        Not less than 5.0 parts per million.

        None alone or  in combination with
        other substances or wastes  in sufficient
                                      179

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Table AVII  (Cont'd.)
                              (New York)
5.   (Cont'd.) wastes or heated
     liquids.
                                      amounts or at such temperatures as to
                                      be injurious to edible fish or shellfish
                                      or the culture or propagation thereof,
                                      or which in any manner shall adversely
                                      affect the flavor, color,  odor or sani-
                                      tary condition thereof; and otherwise
                                      none in sufficient amounts to make the
                                      waters unsafe or  unsuitable for bathing
                                      or impair the waters for any other best
                                      usage as determined for the specific
                                      waters which are assigned for this class.
Class SC
1.
      Best Usage of Waters:   Fishing and any other usages except bathing or shell-
           fishing for market purposes.
                                Quality Standards
           Items
Floating solids; settleable solids;
sludge deposits.
2.   Garbage,  cinders, ashes,  oils,
     sludge or other refuse.
3.   Dissolved oxygen.

4.   Toxic wastes, oil,  deleterious
     substances, colored or other
     wastes or heated liquids.
                                                 Specifications
None which are readily visible and at-
tributable to sewage, industrial wastes
or other wastes or which deleteriously
increase the amounts of these constitu-
ents in receiving waters after opportu-
nity for reasonable dilution and mix-
ture with the wastes discharged thereto.

None in any waters of the marine dis-
trict as defined by  State Conservation
Law.

Not less than 5.0 parts per million.

None atone or  in combination with
other substances or wastes in sufficient
amounts or at such  temperatures as to
be injurious to  edible fish or shellfish,
or the culture or propagation thereof,
or which in any manner shall adversely
                                       180

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 Table AVII (Cont'd.)

 4.   (Cont'd.)
                                   (New York)
                                           affect the flavor, color, odor or sani-
                                           tary condition thereof or impair the
                                           waters for any other best usage as de-
                                           termined for the specific waters which
                                           are assigned to this class.
Class SD
1.
2.
4.
      Best Usage of Waters:   Any usages except fishing, bathing, or shellfishing
           for market purposes.
                                Quality Standards
           Items
     Floating solids; settleable solids;
     sludge deposits.
     Garbage,  cinders, ashes,  oils,
     sludge or other refuse.
     Dissolved oxygen.

     Toxic wastes, oil,  deleterious
     substances, colored or other wastes.
                                                      Specifications
 None which are readily visible and at-
 tributable to sewage,  industrial wastes
 or other wastes or which deleteriously
 increase the amounts of these constitu-
 ents in  receiving waters after opportu-
 nity for reasonable dilution and mix-
 ture with the wastes discharged thereto.

 None in any waters of the marine dis-
 trict as defined by State Conservation
 Law.

 Not less than 3.0 parts per million.

 None alone or in combination with
other substances or wastes  in sufficient
amounts to prevent survival of fish life
or impair the waters for any other best
usage as determined for the specific
waters which are  assigned to this class.
Source:   A31  p. 507-510
                                      181

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                                   (New York)


         TABLE AVIII.   SPECIAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS

Class AA  -  Special Waters

      Best Usage of Waters:  Any usage except for disposal of sewage,
          industrial waste or other waste.

                               Quality Standards

          Items                                      Specifications

1.   Floating solids, settleable solids,       None attributable to sewage,  industri-
     oil, sludge deposits, toxic wastes,      al wastes or other wastes.
     deleterious substances, colored or
     other wastes or heated liquids.

2.   Sewage or waste effluents.              None into waters of this class.


Class A -  Special  (International Boundary Waters)

      Best Usage of Waters:  Source of domestic water supply (when subjected
          to approved treatment equal  to coagulation, sedimentation,  filtra-
          tion and disinfection, with additional treatment if necessary to meet
          U.  S.  Public  Health Service drinking water standards) or industrial
          water supply, navigation, fish and wildlife, bathing,  recreation,
          agriculture and other riparian activities.

                               Quality Standards

          Items                                      Specifications

1.   Floating solids; settleable solids;        None which are readily visible and
     sludge deposits.                        attributable to sewage, industrial
                                           wastes or other wastes or which dele-
                                           teriously increase the  amounts of these
                                           constituents in receiving waters after
                                           opportunity for reasonable dilution and
                                           mixture with the wastes discharged
                                           thereto.
                                      182

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Table AVI 11  (Cont'd.)

2.   Sewage or waste effluents.
 3.   Odor producing substances
     contained in sewage,
     industrial wastes or other
     wastes.
 4.   Phenolic compounds.


 5.   PH.

 6.   Dissolved oxygen.

 7.   Toxic wastes, oil, deleterious
     substances, colored or other
     wastes or heated liquids.
                                   (New York)
None which are not effectively
disinfected.

The waters after opportunity for reason-
able dilution and mixture with the
wastes discharged thereto shall not have
an increased threshold odor number
greater than 8, due to such added
wastes.

Not greater than 5 parts per billion
(Phenol).

Range  between 6.7 and 8.5.

Not less than 4.0 parts per million.

None alone or  in combination with
other substances or wastes in sufficient
amounts or at such temperatures as to
adversely  affect the usages recognized
for this class of waters.
Class
      Best Usage of Waters:   Fishing and any other usages except bathing or
           shellfishing for market purposes.
                                Quality Standards
           Items
1.   Floating solids; settleable solids;
     sludge deposits.
2.   Garbage,  cinders, ashes,  oils,
     sludge, or other refuse.
                                                     Specifications
                                          None which are readily visible and at-
                                          tributable to sewage, industrial wastes,
                                          or other wastes or which deleterious!/
                                          increase  the amounts of these constitu-
                                          ents in receiving waters after opportu-
                                          nity for reasonable  dilution and mixture
                                          with the  wastes discharged thereto.

                                          None in  any waters of the marine dis-
                                          trict as defined by  State  Conservation
                                          Law.
                                        183

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Table AVIII  (Cont'd.)

3.   Sewage or waste effluents.
4.   Dissolved oxygen.
                              (New York)
5.   Toxic wastes, oil, deleterious
     substances, colored or other
     wastes or heated liquids.
                                       Effective disinfection if required by
                                       International Sanitation Commission.

                                       An average of not less than 50 percent
                                       saturation during any week of the year,
                                       but not less than 3.0 parts per million
                                       at any time.

                                       None alone or in combination with
                                       other substances or wastes  in sufficient
                                       amounts to be injurious to  edible fish
                                       and shellfish  or the culture or propaga-
                                       tion  thereof,  or which shall in any
                                       manner affect the flavor,  color,  odor,
                                       or sanitary condition of such fish or
                                       shellfish so as to injuriously affect the
                                       sale  thereof,  or which shall cause any
                                       injury to the  public  and private shell -
                                       fisheries of this state; and  otherwise
                                       none  in sufficient amounts to impair the
                                       waters for any other best usage as de-
                                       termined for the specific waters which
                                       are assigned to this class.
Class II
      Best Usage of Waters:   All waters not primarily for recreational purposes,
          shellfish culture or the development of fish life.
                                Quality Standards
           Items
1.
Floating solids,  settleable solids;
sludge deposits.
                                                 Specifications
None which are readily visible and at-
tributable to sewage,  industrial wastes
or other wastes or which deleteriously
increase  the amounts of these constitu-
ents in receiving waters after opportun-
ity for reasonable dilution and mixture
with the  wastes discharged thereto.
                                       184

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  Table AVIII  (Cont'd.)
(New York)
  2.   Garbage, cinders, ashes, oils,
       sludge, or ofher refuse.
  3.   Dissolved oxygen.
  4.   Toxic wastes,  oil, deleterious
      substances, colored or other
      wastes.
        None in any waters of the marine dis-
        trict as defined by  State Conservation
        Law.

        An average of not less than 30 percent
        saturation during  any  week of the year
        provided such saturation levels insure
        adequate oxygen  to support fish and
        shellfish life at all  times.

        None alone or in  combination with
        other substances or wastes in sufficient
        amounts to  be injurious to edible fish
        and shellfish, or the culture or propa-
        gation thereof, or which shall in any
        manner affect the  flavor, color, odor,
        or sanitary condition of such fish or
        shellfish so  as to injuriously affect the
        sale thereof, or which shall cause any
        injury to the public  and private sheII-
        fisheries of  this state.
 Source:  A31, p. 511-520
 These special classes are to be applied to certain drainage areas or particular bodies
 of water in the state.   Class AA-Special is applied to Lake Champlain and the up-
 Per  Hudson River drainage basin.  There  are no textile dyeing and finishing firms
 near the Lake.  There are a few textile dyeing and finishing plants located in the
 latter area; however,  they are located in large towns which probably means they use
 the  municipal sewer system.

 Classes I and  II refer to the waters in and around New York City.  There is a large
 concentration of small to medium textile  plants in this area, along with a large  pop-
 ulation and various other industries.  These waters are used for the disposal of treat-
 ed effluents from New York City's municipal sewer system.

Class A-Special (International Boundary Waters) is applied to those state waters
which border on the Dominion of Canada. While no textile dyeing and finishing
Plants are located on or near the waters so classified,  the  Water Resources Commis-
sion's list of industries producing waste effluents that reduce the dissolved oxygen
                                       185

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                                  (New York)

 content of these waters "unreasonably" includes wool scouring (A31).

 The textile dyeing and finishing industry in New York is spread throughout the
 state with  a large concentration in the Metropolitan New York City area.  The
 size varies from large to small.  Most of the large firms are outside the  New York
 City area but located in large towns, while the bulk of small  firms are located in
 New York City.

 Pennsylvania

 The "Clean Streams Law" first passed in  1937,  and constantly amended,  is the water
 pollution control statute of the Commonwealth  of Pennsylvania.  The agency which
 is empowered to enforce this law's provisions is the Sanitary Water Board, a divi-
 sion of the Pennsylvania Department of Health.

 The objectives of the act are to prevent the direct discharge of sewage and indus-
 trial waste into the streams of the Commonwealth; including those on its borders,
 and "to restore to a clean state every stream in Pennsylvania that  is  now polluted."
 The Sanitary Water Board has two broad powers; the issuance of discharge permits
 and the setting of treatment standards. Any municipality or person (legal defini-
 tion) that has an effluent to discharge, must make written application to the De-
 partment of Health for a permit.  Before  the permit is issued, the Sanitary Water
 Board has the right to inspect the treatment plant and set standards of treatment.
 Pennsylvania  law states that any person or municipality which produces a water
 waste and discharges this waste to another person or municipality for the purpose of
 treatment is also responsible for purchasing such a permit.

 The penalties imposed for creating pollution, failure to comply with the conditions
 of an  issued permit or failure to provide adequate treatment to wastes are $100-
 $5,000 fine or imprisonment for one year or both.  The $100 fine applies to first
 offenders,  while the $5,000 fine and  imprisonment term are for previously convicted
 offenders if they have not abated pollution practices within two years of first con-
 viction.

 The Sanitary Water Board demands at  least secondary treatment for all industrial
wastes that are bio-degradeable and non-bio-degradeable wastes must receive an
 equivalent of secondary treatment.  The  Board  further defines secondary  treatment
as:

           "that treatment that will reduce the  organic waste  load, as
           measured by the biochemical oxygen demand test by at least
           85% during the period May 1  to October 31 and  by at least
                                       186

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                                  (Pennsylvania)

           75% during the remainder of the year based on a five consecu-
           tive day average of values; will  remove practically all of the
           suspended solids; will provide effective disinfection to control
           disease producing organisms; will provide satisfactory disposal
           of sludge; and will reduce the quantities of oils/ acids, alkalis,
           toxic, taste and odor producing substances, color, and other
           substances inimical to the public interest to levels that will not
           pollute the receiving stream. "  (A32)

 Pennsylvania's standards have been approved by the Federal Water Pollution Con-
 trol Administration.

 The Commonwealth has set up a complex system of stream classifications.  There is
 a list of "Water Uses" and a  list of "Specific Water Quality Criteria" that are used
 to designate stream standards in the Commonwealth.  The twelve sewer basins of
 Pennsylvania are divided into zones.  These zones in some  cases pertain to the en-
 tire Pennsylvania flow of a creek or stream while in other cases such as the  Dela-
 ware,  Schuylkill, Susquehanna  and Monongahela Rivers, the zones are bounded by
 county,  state or municipal lines and confluence of tributaries.   Table AIX lists the
 "Water Uses" specifications and Table AX  lists the specific "Water Quality Cri-
 teria."
                  TABLE AIX.   WATER USES OF PA. STREAMS

 1.0  Aquatic Life

           1.1   Cold Water Fishes - Maintenance and propagation of the family
                Salmonidae and fish food organisms.

           1.2   Warm Water Fishes - Maintenance and propagation of fish food
                organisms and all families of fishes except Salmonidae.

           1.3   Migratory Fishes - Passage,  maintenance and propagation of
                anadromous and catadromous fishes, and other fishes which ascend
                to flowing waters to complete their life cycle.

           1.4   Trout (Stocking Only) - Warm water fishes and trout stocking.

2.0  Water Supply

          2.1   Domestic Water Supply - Use by humans after conventional treat-
                                      18?

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Table AIX (Cont'd.)             (Pennsylvania)

2.0  Water Supply  (Cont'd.)

                ment,  for drinking, culinary and other purposes.

          2.2  Industrial Water Supply - Use by industry for inclusion into
                products, for processing and for cooling.

          2.3  Livestock Water Supply - Use by livestock and poultry for
                drinking and cleansing.

          2.4  Wildlife Water Supply - Use for waterfowl habitat and by wildlife
                for drinking and cleansing.

          2.5  Irrigation Water Supply - Used to supplement precipitation for
                growing of crops.

3.0  Recreation

          3.1  Boating - Power boating, sailboating, canoeing and rowing for
                recreational purposes.

          3.2  Fishing - Use of the water for the taking of fish by legal methods.

          3.3  Water  Contact  Sport - Use of the water for swimming and related
                activities.

          3.4  Natural Area - Use of the water as an esthetic setting to
                recreational pursuits.

          3.5  Conservation Area - Waters used within and suitable for the main-
                tenance of an area  now or in the future to be kept in a relatively
                primitive condition.

4.0  Other

          4.1  Power  - Use of the water energy to generate power.

          4.2  Navigation - Use of the water for the commercial transfer and
                transport of persons, animals and goods.

          4.3  Treated Waste Assimilation  - Use of the water for the assimilation
                and transport of treated waste waters.

Source: A33

                                      188

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                                (Pennsylvania)

      TABLE  AX.   SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PA.  STREAMS

A.    PH

          A]  -  Not less than 6.0; not to exceed 8.5

          A2 -  Not less than 6.5; not to exceed 8.5

          A3 -  Not less than 7.0; not to exceed 9.0

B.    Dissolved Oxygen

          B]  -  Minimum daily average 6.0 mg./l.; no value less than
                 5.0mg./l.

          82  -  Minimum daily average 5.0 mg./l.; no value less than
                 4.0 mg./l.

          63  -  Minimum daily average not less than 5.0 mg./l., except during
                 the period 4/1 to 6/15 and 9/16 to 12/31, not less than
                 6.5 mg./l.

          64  -  Minimum daily average not less than 3.5 mg./l., except
                 during the period 4/1 to 6/15 and 9/16 to 12/31, not
                 less than 6.5 mg./l.

          65  -  Minimum daily average not less than 3.5 mg./l., except
                 during period  4/1 to  6/15 and 9/16 to 12/31, not less
                 than 6.5 mg./l.

          B0  -  No value less than 7.0 mg./l.

          67  -  For lakes,  ponds and impoundments only, no value less than
                 4.0 mg./l. in the epilimnion.

          BQ  -  For lakes,  ponds and impoundments only, no value less than
                 5.0 mg./l. at any point.

C.  Iron

          C|  -  Total iron, not to exceed 1.5 mg./l.
                                     189

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Table AX  (Cont'd.)              (Pennsylvania)

          Co  -  Dissolved iron, not to exceed 0.3 mg./l.

D.    Temperature

          Dj  -  Not to be increased by more than 5   F above natural
                 temperature nor to be increased above 58  F.

          D2  -  Not to exceed 5  F rise above ambient temperature or a
                 maximum of 87  F,  whichever is less; not to be changed by
                 more than 2° F during any one hour period.

          D3  -  Not to exceed 5° F rise above natural temperature or a
                 maximum of 86° F,  whichever is less; not to be changed by
                 more than 2° F during any one hour period.

          D4  -  Not to exceed 93°  F; not to be  changed  by more than 2° F
                 during any one hour period.

E.    Dissolved Solids -  Not to exceed 500 mg./l. as a monthly average value;
                 not to exceed 750 mg./l. at any time.

F.    Bacteria (Coliforms/100ml. of water)

          F]   -  For the period 5/19 to 9/15 of any year, not to exceed
                 1,000/100 ml. as an arithmetic average  value; not to exceed
                 1,000/100 ml. in more than two consecutive samples; not to
                 exceed 2,400/100 ml.  in more than one  sample.
                 For the period 9/16 to 5/1 4 of any year, not to exceed
                 5,000/100 ml. as a monthly average value; nor to exceed
                 this number in more than 20% of the samples collected during
                 any month; nor to exceed 2,000/100 ml. in more than 5% of
                 the samples.

          ?2   ~  Not to exceed 5,000/100 ml. as a monthly average value;
                 nor to exceed this number in more than 20% of the samples
                 collected during any month;  nor to exceed  20,000/100 ml.
                 in more than 5% of the samples.

          F3   -  Not to exceed 5,000/100 ml. as a monthly geometric mean.
                                     190

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Table AX (Cont'd.)              (Pennsylvania)

G.   Turbidity

          G] -  Not to exceed 30 units during the period 5/30 to 9/15,
                 nor to exceed a monthly mean of 40 units or a maximum
                 of 150 units during the remainder of the year.

          G2 -  Maximum monthly mean 40 units, maximum value not to
                 exceed 150 units.

H.    Threshold Odor Number -  Not to exceed 24 at 60° C.

I.    Alkalinity -  Not less than 20 mg./I.

J.    M. B.A.S.  (Methylene Blue Active Substance)

          J ]  -  Not to exceed 0.5 mg./l.

          J2  -  Not to exceed 1.0 mg./l.

K.    Total Manganese  -  Not to exceed 1.0 mg./l.

L.    Fluoride -  Not to exceed 1.0 mg./l.

M.    Cyanide -  Not to exceed 0.025 mg./l.

N.    Sulfate -  Not to exceed 250 mg./l. or natural  levels, whichever is greater.

O.    Chlorides

          O] -  Not to exceed  150 mg./l.

          O2 -  Not to exceed 250 mg./l.

P.    Phosphate  (total soluable as PO4)

          Pi   -  Not to exceed 0.10 mg./l. or natural levels, whichever is
                 greater.

          P2  -  Not to exceed 0.30 mg./l. or natural levels, whichever is
                 greater.

          P3  -  Not to exceed 0.40 mg./l. or natural levels, whichever is
                greater.

                                   191

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Table AX  (Cont'd.)             (Pennsylvania)

Q.   Phenol  - Not to exceed .005 mg./I.

R.    Color  - Not to exceed 50 units.

5.    Copper

           $1   -  Not to exceed 0.02 mg./l.

           $2  -  Not to exceed 0.10 mg./l.

T.    Zinc  -  Not to exceed 0.05 mg./l.


Source:   A22

At the present time, Pennsylvania does not extend grants to industrial firms for re-
search or offer tax exemptions on treatment  facilities.  Therefore, firms should try
to locate near municipal facilities or expect to finance their own abatement pro-
grams completely.

In Pennsylvania, the textile  industry is centered in the east, particularly the south-
east metropolitan area of  Philadelphia; Allentown,  Scranton and Reading areas.
Most of the firms are small (less than  100 employees) and discharge to municipal
sewer systems; however, there are a number of large firms that do exist outside these
large population areas and who must  supply  their own treatment facilities.  This fact
plus the overworked conditions of the municipal sewers, which could lead to au-
thorities refusing to handle industrial  waste  loads,  encourages the  Pennsylvania
Textile  Industry to study their situation carefully.

Due to the complicated system of stream classification, two firms located on the
same river, but in different zones, may find completely different requirements to
satisfy.  For example, a firm on the Delaware River up stream from Philadelphia
may be able to use moderately efficient secondary treatment to render the effluent
acceptable to stream standards being the  only industrial disposer in the area where
the flow volume is large.   On the other hand, a firm downstream from Philadelphia
would have to take extra care to reduce his effluent due  to the wide variety and
large volumes of the City's sewage and industrial waste load.

The Southeast

This portion of the United States has  become, since the 1950's, the textile manu-
facturing center of the country. There are six states in this area in which a large
                                       192

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                                 (Southeast)

 number of textile water waste producing firms are located.  These States are:
 Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia.  No
 formal interstate compact exists between these states. Alabama, Georgia and Ten-
 nessee have similar classification systems,  as do  North and  South Carolina.  Vir-
 ginia is still  attempting to receive  Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration
 approval  for its standards.  The laws of the States in this region will be discussed  in
 the following order:  Alabama,  Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennes-
 see and Virginia.

 Alabama

 The  "Alabama Water Pollution Control Act" of 1965 controls water pollution in the
 state.  The purpose of this act is stated as:

      "The improvement and conservation of ground and surface waters of the
      State of Alabama is of utmost importance.  The existing water conditions
      of the  state and the right  of municipalities, industries and individuals to
      the reasonable use of such waters so  as to promote the continued growth
      and development of the state, in industry,  agriculture,  health, recrea-
      tion and conservation of natural resources is recognized."  (A34)

 The Act created a fourteen-member Water  Improvement Commission,  which is the
 only state agency with legal  responsibilities with respect to water pollution; how-
 ever, the Commission's authority does not extend to other aspects of water resources.
 Of the fourteen members appointed to the Commission, one  must come from each of
 the six industrial categories specified by law.  One of these categories is the  Tex-
 Hle  Industry  (A35).  The Commission is given eight broad powers; they are: to in-
 vestigate  and study all problems concerned with improvement and conservation of
 fte state's waters; to develop programs pertaining to the  treatment and disposal of
 sewage and industrial wastes; to propose remedial measures for the abatement of
 Pollution; insofar as practical means are available, to advise industries and muni-
 cipalities with respect to the control of pollution; to establish stream standards in
 relation to their best usage as shall  be in the public interest; to receive and exam-
 ine plans  and applications for permits to treat and dispose of sewage and industrial
 wastes; to investigate the discharge of pollution being made under a permit; and to
 issue orders directing abatement of  pollution within a  reasonable specified  time.

 The Alabama Water Improvement Commission requires  the possession of a permit for
 the discharge  of wastes to surface or ground waters in  the state.  Any person propos-
 ing to discharge wastes to said waters must  apply to the Commission for a permit and
submit such basic information as general description of the proposed operation, the
characteristics of the effluents to be discharged, and any other information the
                                       193

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                                    (Alabama)

 Commission deems necessary.  In Alabama, permits are of a permanent nature and
 are not subject to renewal, although they may be revoked or amended for justifiable
 cause.

 For violation of permit regulations or causing pollution or operating treatment facil-
 ities in a manner that threatens potential pollution, a person may be fined not less
 than one hundred dollars nor more than ten thousand dollars, with each day of con-
 tinued violation considered a separate offense (A34).  The Commission is also given
 the authority to recover damages for the destruction of wildlife,  aquatic life, fish
 or marine life caused by pollution of state  waters  (A35).

 The Commission requires that:

      "all industrial wastes likely to contain bacteria harmful to humans shall
      receive a minimum of secondary treatment or the equivalent thereof, and
      if necessary, disinfection before being discharged to waters of the state
      used as sources of public water supply,  for the harvesting of oysters or
      customarily used by the public for swimming and other whole body water-
      contact sports (A36). "

 Some industrial waste discharges  in Alabama are exempt from this provision of the
 law because these discharges do not contravene the water quality standards of their
 receiving waters.  However, they will require "a  minimum of secondary treatment
 or its equivalent at such time as plants existing at the time of exclusion must be en-
 larged or  become inadequate for  any reason"  (A35).

 The Commission defines secondary treatment of industrial  wastes as "a process or
 group of processes capable of removing virtually all floating and  settleable solids
 and reduction of 5-day B.O. D.  and suspended solids to the minimum extent possible
 within limits of practicability and technology but  not  less than 75 percent"  (A36).
 For those  industrial wastes  "in which B.O. D. and suspended solids are not involved,
 objectionable constituents  shall be controlled, removed or reduced to the maximum
 degree attainable within the limits of practicability and technology" (A36).  The
 equivalent of secondary treatment is defined as "control and restriction, generally
 through in-plant measures or storage and regulation of discharge, of waste constitu-
 ents capable of producing pollutional effects to a  degree  comparable to that obtain-
 ed through applicable secondary  treatment processes"  (A36).

 The Commission has designated seven water use classifications and specific water
 quality criteria for each class (Table AXI).  These standards have been approved,
with the exceptions of dissolved  oxygen and temperature for fish  and aquatic life
 and bacteriological criteria for recreational and potable water supply waters (A35)
                                       194

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                                   (Alabama)

by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration.
               TABLE  AXI.  WATER USE CLASSIFICATIONS AND
               THEIR SPECIFIC WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

                            PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY

Best Usage of Waters:  Source of water supply for drinking or food-processing
      purposes.

Conditions Related to Best Usage:  The waters, if subjected to treatment approved
      by the State Department of Public Health equal to coagulation,  sedimenta-
      tion,  filtration and disinfection, with additional  treatment if necessary to
      remove naturally present impurities and meet the  "Public Health Service
      Drinking Water Standards"  will be  considered safe for drinking or food-
      processing purposes.
1.
Items

Sewage,  industrial wastes,
or other wastes.
2.    PH.
3.    Temperature.
Specifications

None which are not effectively treated or
controlled in accordance with Section V
of these criteria.

Sewage, industrial waste or other wastes
shall not cause the pH to deviate  more
than one unit from the normal or natural
pH nor be less than 6.0, nor greater
than 8.5.

The ambient temperature of receiving
waters, in degrees Fahrenheit, after
reasonable mixing, shall not be increased
by more than 10 percent by the addition
of domestic, industrial or other wastes
nor shall these wastes cause the tempera-
ture of the receiving waters to exceed 90
degrees Fahrenheit, except that the tem-
perature may be as high  as 93 degrees
Fahrenheit  for not more  than eight hours
                                     195

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Table AXI (Cont'd.)

3.    Temperature  (Cont'd.)
(Alabama)
4.    Dissolved oxygen.
      Toxic substances; color-
      producing substances;
      heated liquids; or other
      deleterious substances
      attributable to sewage,
      industrial wastes or
      other wastes.
      Taste- and odor-producing
      substances attributable to
      sewage,  industrial wastes,
      or other wastes.
      Bacteria.
     during any twenty-four hour period.

     With respect to cooling water discharges
     only, the ambient temperature of receiv-
     ing waters shall not be increased by more
     than  10 degrees Fahrenheit by the dis-
     charge of such cooling waters, after rea-
     sonable mixing; nor shall the discharge of
     such cooling waters, after reasonable  mix-
     ing, cause the temperature of the receiv-
     ing waters to exceed 93 degrees  Fahren-
     heit.

     Sewage, industrial waste or other wastes
     shall not cause the dissolved oxygen to be
     less than 4.0 parts per million as measured
     at a depth of five feet in waters  ten feet
     or greater  in depth and at mid-depth in
     waters less than ten feet in depth.

     Only such amounts, whether alone or in
     combination with other substances, and
     only such temperatures as will not render
     the waters unsafe or unsuitable as a source
     of water supply for drinking or food-pro-
     cessing purposes, or injurious to  fish,
     wildlife and aquatic life,  or adversely
     affect the aesthetic value of waters for
     any use under this classification.

     Only such amounts, whether alone or in
     combination with other substances or
     wastes, as will not, cause taste and odor
     difficulties in water supplies which can-
     not be corrected by treatment as specified
     under "Conditions Related to Best Usage",
     or impair the portability  of fish.

     In the event there are discharges of sew-
     age, or other wastes likely to contain
     bacteria harmful to humans, to waters
     within the watershed above the point  of
                                       196

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 Table AXI  (Cont'd.)
                             (Alabama)
 7.     Bacteria  (Cont'd,)                taking water for purposes of public water
                                        supply or waters for food-process ing pur-
                                        poses, after conventional treatment, the
                                        following bacteriological criteria  are to
                                        apply:  bacteria of the fecal coliform
                                        group not to exceed 5,000 per 100 milli-
                                        liters (either most probable number of
                                        mlllipore filter count) as a monthly aver-
                                        age value; nor exceed this number in more
                                        than 20 percent of the samples examined
                                        during any month; nor exceed 20,000 per
                                        mi 11 Hirers in more than 5  percent of the
                                        samples examined during one month.

 NOTE NO.  1:   In determining the safety or suitability of waters for use as  sources
                 of water supply for drinking or food-processing purposes after ap-
                 proved treatment, the Commission will be  guided by the physical
                 and chemical standards specified  in the latest  edition of the "Pub-
                 lic Health Service Drinking Water Standards."

           SWIMMING AND OTHER WHOLE BODY-CONTACT SPORTS

 Best Usage of Waters:  Swimming and other whole body water-contact sports.

 Conditions Related to Best Usage:  The waters, under proper sanitary supervision by
      the controlling health authorities, will meet accepted standards of water
      quality for outdoor swimming places and will  be considered  satisfactory for
      swimming  and other whole body water-contact sports.  The quality of waters
      will also be suitable for the propagation of fish, wildlife  and aquatic  life.
      The quality of salt waters and estuarine waters to which this classification
      is assigned will be suitable for the propagation and harvesting of shrimp and
      crabs.
2.
      Items

      Sewage,  industrial wastes,
      or other wastes.
PH.
Specifications

None which are not effectively treated or
controlled in accordance with Section  V
of these criteria.

Sewage,  industrial wastes or other wastes
shall not cause the pH to deviate more
than one unit from the normal or natural
                                      197

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Table AXI  (Cont'd.)
(Alabama)
2.    pH  (Cont'd.)
3.    Temperature.
4.    Dissolved oxygen.
5.    Toxic substances; color-
      producing substances;
      odor-producing substances;
      or other deleterious sub-
      stances attributable to
      sewage,  industrial wastes
     pH nor be less than 6.0 nor greater than
     8.5.   For estuarine waters and salt waters
     to which this classification is assigned
     wastes as described herein shall not cause
     the pH to deviate more than one unit from
     the normal or natural pH nor be less than
     6.5 nor greater than 8.5.

     The ambient temperature of receiving wa-
     ters,  in degrees Fahrenheit, after reason-
     able mixing,  shall not be increased by
     more  than 10 percent by the addition of
     domestic,  industrial or other wastes nor
     shall  these wastes cause the temperature
     of the receiving waters to exceed 90 de-
     grees  Fahrenheit, except that the tem-
     perature may be as high as 93 degrees
     Fahrenheit for not more than eight hours
     during any twenty-four hour period. With
     respect to cooling water discharges only,
     the ambient  temperature of receiving wa-
     ters shall not be increased by more than
     10 degrees Fahrenheit by the discharge of
     such cooling waters,  after reasonable
     mixing; nor shall  the discharge  of such
     cooling waters, after reasonable mixing,
     cause the temperature of the receiving
     waters to exceed  93 degrees Fahrenheit.

     Sewage,  industrial wastes or other wastes
     shall  not cause  the dissolved oxygen to be
     less than 4.0 parts per million as measured
     at a depth of five feet In waters ten feet
     or greater in depth and at mid-depth in
     waters less than ten feet in depth.

     Only  such amounts, whether alone or in
     combination with other substances or
     wastes, as will  not: render the  water un-
     safe or unsuitable for swimming and water-
     contact sports; be injurious to fish, wild-
     life and aquatic life  or, where  applicable,
                                       198

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 Table AXI  (Cont'd.)               (Alabama)

 5.    (Cont'd.)                         shrimp and crabs; impair the portability
       or other wastes.                   of fish, or,  where applicable, shrimp and
                                        crabs;  impair the waters for any other us-
                                        age established for this classification or
                                        unreasonably affect the aesthetic value of
                                        waters for any use under this classifica-
                                        tion.

 6.    Bacteria.                         Waters in the immediate vicinity  of dis-
                                        charges of sewage or other wastes likely
                                        to contain bacteria harmful to humans,
                                        regardless of the degree of treatment af-
                                        forded  these waters are not considered
                                        acceptable for swimm;ng or other whole
                                        body water-contact sports. In the event
                                        there are discharges of sewage or other
                                        wastes  likely to contain bacteria  harmful
                                        to humans to waters within the watershed
                                        above the point of use  for swimming and
                                        other whole  body water-contact sports,
                                        the following bacteriological criteria are
                                        to apply: bacteria of the fecal coliform
                                        group not to exceed 1,000 per 100 milli-
                                        liters (either most probable number of
                                        millipore filter count) as a monthly aver-
                                        age value during the months of May
                                        through September, nor exceed this value
                                        in any two consecutive samples collected
                                        during these  months.  In the event a sani-
                                        tary survey reveals no discharges of sew-
                                        age or other  wastes likely to contain  bac-
                                        teria  harmful to humans within the water-
                                        shed above the point of use for swimming
                                        and other whole body water-contact
                                        sports,  these bacteriological criteria,  at
                                        the discretion of the Commission  may not
                                        apply.

NOTE NO. 2:  In assigning this classification to waters intended for swimming and
                water_contact sports, the Commission will take into consideration
                the relative proximity of discharges of wastes and will recognize
                the potential hazards involved in locating swimming areas close
                                      199

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Table AX I  (Cont'd.)
(Alabama)
Note No. 2 (Cont'd.)  to waste discharges.  The Commission will  not assign this
                classification to waters, the bacterial quality of which is depend-
                ent upon adequate disinfection of waste and where the interruption
                of such treatment would render the water unsafe for bathing.

                           SHELLFISH HARVESTING

Best Usage of Waters:   Propagation and harvesting of shellfish for sale or use as a
      food product.

Conditions Related to Best Usage:   Waters will meet the sanitary and bacteriologi-
      cal standards included in the latest edition of the National Shellfish Sanita-
      tion Program Manual of Operations, Sanitation of Shellfish Growing Areas;
      published by the Public Health Service, U.  S. Department of Health, Edu-
      cation and Welfare, and the requirements of the State Department of Public
      Health.  The waters will also be a quality suitable for the propagation of
      fish and other aquatic life, including  shrimp and crabs.
      Items

1.    Sewage,  industrial wastes
      or other wastes.
      pH.
      Temperature.
     Specifications

     None which are not effectively treated in
     accordance with  Section V of these cri-
     teria.

     Sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes
     shall not cause the pH to deviate more
     than one unit from the normal or natural
     pH nor be  less than 6.5 nor greater than
     8.5.

     The ambient temperature of receiving wa-
     ters, in degrees Fahrenheit, after reason-
     able mixing, shall not be increased by
     more than  10 percent by the addition of
     domestic,  industrial or other wastes nor
     shall these wastes cause the temperature
     of the receiving waters to exceed 90 de-
     grees Fahrenheit,  except that the temper-
     ature may  be as high as 93 degrees Fah-
     renheit  for not more than eight hours dur-
     ing any twenty-four hour period.
                                      200

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 Table AXI  (Cont'd.)

 3.    Temperature (Conf'd.)
4.    Dissolved oxygen.
5.    Toxic substances
      attributable to sewage,
      industrial waste or
      other wastes.
      Color, taste and odor-
      producing substances and
      other deleterious substances
      attributable to sewage,
      industrial wastes or
      other wastes.
      Bacteria.
(Alabama)

     With respect to cooling water discharges
     only, the ambient temperature of receiv-
     ing waters shall not be increased by more
     than  10 degrees Fahrenheit by the dis-
     charge of such cooling waters, after rea-
     sonable mixing; nor shall the discharge of
     such cooling waters, after reasonable  mix-
     ing cause the temperature of the receiving
     waters to exceed 93 degrees Fahrenheit.

     Sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes
     shall  not cause the dissolved oxygen to be
     less than 4.0 parts per million as measured
     at a depth  of five feet in waters ten feet
     or greater in depth and at mid-depth in
    waters less than ten feet in depth.

     Only such amounts, whether alone or  in
    combination with other substances, as  will
    not: be injurious to fish and aquatic  life
     including shrimp and crabs; affect the
    marketability of fish and shellfish, includ-
    ing shrimp and  crabs; exceed one-tenth of
    the 48-hour median tolerance limit for
    fish, aquatic life or shellfish, including
    shrimp and  crabs.

    Only such amounts,  whether alone or in
    combination with other substances, as will
    not:  be injurious to fish and shellfish,  in-
    cluding shrimp and crabs;  adversely affect
    marketability or palatability of fish and
    shellfish, including shrimp and crabs; un-
    reasonably affect the aesthetic value of
    waters for any use under this classification.

    Not to exceed the limits specified in the
    latest  edition of the  National  Shellfish
    Sanitation Program Manual of Operations,
    Sanitation of Shellfish Growing Areas,
    published by the Public Health Service,
    U.S. Dept.  of Health, Education and
    Welfare.
                                      201

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Table AXI (Cont'd.)
                             (Alabama)

                        FISH AND WILDLIFE
Best Usage of Waters:   Fishing, propagation of fish, aquatic life and wildlife and
                any other usage except for swimming and water-contact sports or
                as a source of water supply for drinking or food-processing pur-
                poses .

Conditions Related to Best Usage:  The waters will be suitable for fish aquatic life
                and wildlife propagation.  The quality of salt and estuarine waters
                to which this classification is assigned will also be suitable for the
                propagation of shrimp and crabs.
1.
Items

Sewage, industrial wastes
or other wastes.
2.    pH.
3.    Temperature.
Specifications

None which are not effectively treated in
accordance with Section V of these cri-
teria.

Sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes
shall not cause the pH to deviate more
than one unit from the normal or natural
pH nor be less than 6.0 nor greater than
8.5.  For salt waters and estuarine waters
to which this classification is assigned
wastes as herein described  shall not cause
the pH to deviate  more than  one unit from
the normal or natural pH nor be less than
6.5 nor greater than 8.5.

The ambient temperature of receiving wa-
ters, in degrees Fahrenheit,  after reason-
able mixing, shall  not be increased by
more than 10 percent by the  addition of
domestic industrial or other wastes nor
shall these wastes  cause the temperature
of the receiving waters to exceed 90 de-
grees Fahrenheit,  except that the temper-
ature may be as high as 93 degrees Fah-
renheit for not  more than eight hours dur-
ing any twenty-four hour period.

With respect to cooling water discharges
                                       202

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 Table AX1  (Cont'd.)

 3.    Temperature  (Cont'd.)
                              (Alabama)
4.    Dissolved oxygen.
5.
Toxic substances
attributable to sewage,
industrial wastes or
other wastes.
6.
Taste, odor and color-
producing substances
attributable to sewage,
industrial waste and
other wastes.
 only, the ambient temperature of receiv-
 ing waters shall not be increased by more
 than 10 degrees Fahrenheit by the dis-
 charge of such cooling waters, after rea-
 sonable mixing; nor shall the discharge of
 such cooling waters, after reasonable  mix-
 ing, cause the temperature of the receiv-
 ing waters to exceed 93 degrees Fahrenheit.

 Sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes
 shall not cause the dissolved oxygen to be
 less than 4.0 parts per million as measured
 at a depth of five feet in water ten feet or
 greater in depth and at mid-depth in wat-
 ers less than ten feet in depth.

 Only such amounts, whether alone or  in
 combination with other substances, as will
 not:  be injurious to fish and aquatic life
 including shrimp and crabs in estuarine or
 salt waters or the propagation thereof; not
 to exceed one-tenth of the 48 hour median
 tolerance limit for fish and aquatic life
 including shrimp and crabs in salt and  es-
 tuarine waters except that other limiting
 concentrations may be used when factual-
 ly justified and approved by the Commis-
 sion.

 Only such amounts, whether alone or  in
 combination with other substances as will
 not be injurious to fish and aquatic life
 including shrimp and crabs in estuarine
 and salt waters or adversely affect the
 propagation thereof; impair the palatabil-
 ity or marketability  of fish and wildlife or
shrimp and crabs in estuarine and salt wa-
 ters;  unreasonably affect the aesthetic
value of waters for any  use under this
classification.
                                       203

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Table AXI  (Cont'd.)
               AGRICULTURAL AND  INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY

Best Usage of Waters:  Agricultural irrigation, livestock watering,  industrial cool-
                ing and process water supplies, fish survival and any other usage,
                except fishing, bathing,  recreational activities including water-
                contact sports or as source of water supply for drinking or food-
                processing purposes.

Conditions Related to Best Usage:  The waters, except for natural impurities which
                may be present therein, will  be suitable for agricultural irrigation,
                and livestock watering,  industrial cooling waters and fish survival.
                The waters will be usable after special treatment, as may be need-
                ed under each particular  circumstance, for industrial process water
                supplies. The waters will also be suitable for other uses for which
                waters of lower quality will  be satisfactory.
      Items

1.    Sewage,  industrial wastes
      or other wastes.
      PH.
      Temperature.
Specifications

None which are not effectively treated or
controlled in accordance with Section V
of these criteria.

Sewage, industrial waste or other wastes
shall not cause the pH to deviate more
than one unit from the normal or natural
pH nor be less than 6.0 nor greater than
8.5.

The ambient temperature of receiving wa-
ters, in degrees Fahrenheit, after reason-
able mixing, shall not be increased by
more than 10 percent by the addition of
domestic, industrial  or other wastes nor
shall these wastes cause the temperature
of the receiving waters to exceed 90 de-
grees Fahrenheit, except that the temper-
ature may be as high as 93 degrees Fah-
renheit for not  more  than eight hours dur-
ing any twenty-four  hour period.

With respect to cooling water discharges
only, the ambient temperature of receiv-
                                      204

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 Table AXI  (Cont'd.)

 3.     Temperature  (Cont'd.)
                              (Alabama)
 4.     Dissolved Oxygen.
5.    Color,  odor-and taste-
      producing substances,
      and other deleterious
      substances,  including
      chemical compounds,
      attributable to sewage,
      industrial wastes and
      other wastes.
                                  ing waters shall not be increased by more
                                  than 10 degrees Fahrenheit by the discharge
                                  of such cooling waters, after reasonable
                                  mixing; nor  shall the discharge of such
                                  cooling waters, after reasonable  mixing,
                                  cause the temperature of the receiving
                                  waters to exceed 93 degrees Fahrenheit.

                                  Sewage, industrial waste or other wastes
                                  shall not cause the dissolved oxygen to be
                                  less than 2.0 parts per million as measured
                                  at a depth of five feet in waters ten feet
                                  or greater in depth and at mid-depth in
                                  waters less than ten feet in depth.

                                  Only such amounts as will not render the
                                  waters unsuitable for agricultural irriga-
                                  tion, livestock watering,  industrial cool-
                                  ing,  industrial  process water supply and
                                  fish survival.
                                 NAVIGATION
 Best Usage of Waters:   Navigation.

 Conditions Related to Best Usage:  Waters will be of a quality suitable for naviga-
                 tion and any other uses except agricultural irrigation, livestock
                 watering,  industrial cooling, industrial process, water supply,
                 fish and wildlife propagation, recreational activities including
                 swimming and skiing, or source  of water supply for drinking or
                 food-process ing purposes.
1.
Items.

Sewage, industrial wastes or
other wastes.
2.    pH.
Specifications

None which are not effectively treated or
controlled to the best practicable degree.

Sewage, industrial wastes or other wastes
shall not cause the  normal or natural pH
                                      205

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Table AXI (Cont'd.)

2.    pH (Cont'd.)
3.    Dissolved oxygen.
4.    Odor-producing substances.
(Alabama)
     to be lower than 5.0 nor greater than
     9.5.

     Sufficient to prevent the development of
     an offensive condition.

     Only in such amounts as will  not create
     an offensive condition.
                      TREATED WASTE TRANSPORTATION

Best Usage of Waters:  Transportation of sewage,  industrial wastes or other wastes
                which have received the best practicable treatment or control.

Conditions Related to Best Usage:   This category includes those watercourses in
                which natural flow is intermittent and nonexistent during droughts
                and which must, of necessity, serve as points of disposal of muni-
                cipal sewage, now and in the future, and of wastes from existing
                industries.  Wastes discharged to these streams must receive the
                best practicable treatment or control.
      Items

1.    Sewage, industrial wastes
      and other wastes.
     Spec if i cat i ons

     None which are not treated or controlled
     to the best practicable degree.
Source:   A36,  p. 7-20
These criteria are to be applied to waters which have the dppropriate best-use clas-
sification.   In addition to these specific criteria, the Commission has set the follow-
ing minimum conditions which are applicable to all state waters:

      "State waters shall be free  from substances attributable to sewage,
      industrial wastes or other wastes that will  settle to form bottom deposits
      which are unsightly, putrescent or interfere directly or indirectly with
      any classified water use	or in amounts sufficient to be unsightly or
      interfere directly or indirectly with any classified water use.. .or in
      concentrations or combinations which are  toxic or harmful to human,
      animal or aquatic life"  (A36).
                                       206

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                                    (Alabama)

 In Alabama, the textile industry is scattered throughout the state, with no particu-
 larly heavy concentrations in any one area.  Officials in Alabama's Water Improve-
 ment Commission feel that the state's textile industries have made outstanding pro-
 gress in waste treatment (A35).  They claim that all  major  mills have either finished
 or are in the final stages of having completed construction  on treatment facilities.
 In Alabama, there is an equal division between joint municipal and  industrial sys-
 tems and separate industrial projects.

 Georgia

 In July 1964, the "Georgia Water Quality Control Act" was passed by the General
 Assembly of that state.  It has had several revisions in  1965 and 1966, but remains
 unchanged since the latter date.  In the act, Georgia has declared as its  policy
 "that the water resources of the state shall be utilized prudently to the maximum
 benefit of the people in order to restore and maintain a  reasonable degree of purity
 in the waters of the state".

 This act also created a Division for Georgia Water Quality Control within the De-
 partment  of Health; and provided for the setting up of a nine-man State Water Qual-
 ity Control Board to operate the division and administer the functions granted to it
 by the Act.  In its operation, the Board has light broad  powers: to conduct research,
 in order to determine the value of advanced or new waste treatment processes; to
 enter into agreements and  compacts, with both the Federal  and other state govern-
 ments;  to survey state waters,  in order to assure pollution is being abated  and pos-
 sibly change a stream's classification; administer and enforce the "Water Quality
 Control Act" and any other statutes that may be legislated and approved by the
 General Assembly; to adopt rules and regulations for its conduct of meetings,  sub-
 mission of permit applications, etc.; to make any investigations and inspections
 that it feels necessary to the abatement of pollution;  to establish  water quality
 standards, and to issue  orders to prevent a person or municipality  found to be pol-
 luting  state waters from continuing said pollution practices. The  Board is  also given
 the power to award grants both from the Federal Water  Pollution Control Adminis-
 tration and the State Budget to counties and municipalities  and to render any firm,
 county or municipality  laboratory assistance, water quality data, technical and le-
 gal advice, etc.

 The  "Water Quality Control Act" makes it unlawful  "to  use any waters of the state
 for the disposal of sewage,  industrial wastes, or other wastes", unless they have
 been rendered by secondary treatment (conventional biological treatment processes)
to a  degree consistent with  the conditions of an issued permit,  classification appli-
cable to the receiving stream and the rules and regulations  of the Board.
                                      20?

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                                    (Georgia)

 The State of Georgia also defines exactly what the Board is to consider as pollution:

       "'Pollution1  means any alteration of the physical, chemical, or bio-
       logical properties of the waters of this state, including change of tem-
       perature, taste, or odor of the waters,  or the addition of any liquid,
       solid, radioactive, gaseous, or other substances to the waters or the
       removal of such substances from the waters,  which will render or is
       likely to render the waters harmful to the public health, safety, or
       welfare, or harmful or substantially less useful for domestic, munici-
       pal,  industrial,  agricultural, recreational, or other lawful uses, or
       for animals,  birds, or aquatic life." (A37)

 If the  Board finds a person or  municipality to be causing pollution or a threat of
 pollution, it has the right to issue, through the superior court  of the county in which
 the violation takes place, an injunction order to cease and desist polluting practic-
 es.  If a party is found guilty of violating any provision of the Act or does not obey
 a court injunction order, said party "shall be guilty of a misdemeanor" and is
 therefore to be punished as provided by  law.  "Each day of continued violation af-
 ter conviction shall constitute a separate offense."

 There are six  "Water Use Classifications"  which have been  developed by the
 Georgia Water Quality Control Board.  These are:  (a) drinking water supplies,
 (b) recreation,  (c) fishing, propagation of fish,  shellfish, game and other aquatic
 life,  (d)  agricultural,  (e) industrial, and  (f) navigation.

 The State Board of  Water Quality Control  has promulgated two sets of criteria:
 "General Criteria for All Waters"  (Table AXII), and "Specific Criteria for Classi-
 fied Water Usage"  (Table AXII I).  The Board, after surveying  the state's waters,
 classifies a  stream according to its use, the streams are classified  in decreasing or-
 der of quality; that is  the best streams are classified as drinking water supplies,
 while the lowest quality are reserved for navigation.  The "General  Criteria" must
 be met by all the waters of the state; however, the stream's  classification determines
 what "Specific Criteria" it must meet.  Georgia's standards  were approved by the
 Federal Water Pollution  Control Administration on  July  19,  1967.
               TABLE AXII.   GENERAL CRITERIA FOR ALL WATER
               	IN THE STATE OF GEORGIA

(a)   All waters shall be free from materials associated with municipal or domestic
                                       208

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 Table AXII  (Cont'd.)                (Georgia)

       sewage,  industrial waste or any other waste which will settle to form
       sludge deposits that become putrescent,  unsightly or otherwise  ob-
       jectionable.

 (b)   All waters shall be free from oil, scum and floating debris associated
       with  municipal or domestic sewage, industrial waste or other discharges
       in  amounts sufficient to be unsightly or to interfere with legitimate
       water uses.

 (c)   All waters shall be free from material related to municipal, industrial
       or  other discharges which produce turbidity, color, odor or other
       objectionable conditions which interfere with  legitimate water  uses.

 (d)   All waters shall be free from toxic, corrosive, acidic and caustic
       substances discharged from municipalities, industries or other sources
       in amounts, concentrations or combinations which are harmful to humans,
       animals or aquatic  life.

 (e)    The maximum permissible concentration of radio-nuclides in the water
       of the state must conform to the limits which are cited  in Chapter 270,
      5-20,  "Control of Radio-active Materials", of the Rules and  Regula-
      tions of the Georgia Department of Public Health.
Source:   A38
        TABLE AXII I.  SPECIFIC CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFIED WATER USAGE
        	IN THE STATE OF GEORGIA     	

1.    Drinking Water Supplies

      (a)    Those waters approved by the Georgia Department of Public
            Health  and requiring only approved disinfection and meeting
            the requirements of the latest edition of "Public Health Serv-
            ice Drinking Water Standards";  or waters approved by the
            Georgia Department of Public Health for human consumption
            and food processing or for any other use requiring water of a
            lower quality.

Bacteria                               Fecal coliform not to exceed a mean of
                                      50 per 100 mill Miters (MPN) based on at
                                      209

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TableAXIII  (Cont'd.)              (Georgia)

Bacteria (Cont'd.)                     least four samples taken over a 30 day
                                       period and not to exceed 200 per 100
                                       milliliters in more than five percent (5%)
                                       of the samples in any 90 day period.

Floating solids, settleable solids,        None associated with any waste  discharge.
sludge deposits or any taste, odor
or odor producing substances.

Sewage; industrial or other waste        None.

      (b)    Those  raw water supplies requiring approved treatment  to meet the
            requirements of the Georgia Department of Public Health and  the
            latest  edition of "Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards"
            or which are approved by the Georgia Department of Public Health
            for human consumption and food processing; or for any  other use re-
            quiring water of a lower quality.

Bacteria                               Fecal coliform not to exceed a mean of
                                       5,000 per 100 milliliters  (MPN)  based on
                                       at least four samples taken over a 30 day
                                       period and not to exceed 20,000 per 100
                                       milliliters in more than five percent (5%)
                                       of the samples taken in any 90 day period.

Dissolved oxygen                       Not less than 4.0 milligrams per liter at
                                       any time; a minimum of 5.0 milligrams
                                       per liter at all times for waters designated
                                       as trout streams by the State Game and
                                       Fish Commission.

pH                                     Within the range of 6.0 - 8.5.

Temperature                            Not to exceed 93.2  F  (34.0 C) at any
                                       time and not to be increased more than
                                       10°F above intake temperature.  In
                                       streams designated as trout waters by the
                                       State Game and  Fish Commission, there
                                       shall be no elevation or depression of
                                       natural stream temperatures.

      No material  or substance  in such concentration that, after  treatment,
                                      210

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 Table AXIII (Cont'd.)
                                    (Georgia)
 Dissolved oxygen
       would exceed the requirements of the Georgia Department of
       Public Health and the latest edition of "Public Health Service
       Drinking Water Standards."

 2.    Recreation  -  Genera! recreation activities such as water skiing, boating
            and swimming, or for any other use requiring water of a lower quality.
            These criteria are not to be interpreted as condoning water contact
            sports in proximity to sewage or industrial waste discharges regardless
            of treatment requirements imposed  on such waters.

 Bacteria                                Fecal cofiform not to exceed a mean of
                                        1,000 per 100 milliliters (MPN) based on
                                        at least four samples taken over a 30 day
                                        period, and not to exceed 4,000 per 100
                                        milliliters in more than five percent (5%)
                                        of samples taken in any 90 day period.

                                        Not less than 4.0  milligrams per  liter ex-
                                        cept that those streams designated as trout
                                        waters by the State Game and Fish  Com-
                                        mission must have  a minimum of 5.0 milli-
                                        grams per liter at all times.

                                        Within the range of 6.0 to 8.5.

                                        None in concentrations that would  harm
                                        man,  fish and game or other beneficial
                                        aquatic life.

                                        Not to exceed 93.2°F (34.0°C)  at any
                                        time and not to be increased more than
                                        10°F above intake temperature.   In
                                        streams designated as trout waters by the
                                        State  Game and Fish Commission, there
                                        shall be no elevation or depression of
                                        natural  stream temperatures.

3.    Fishing, propagation of fish, shellfish, game and other aquatic life; or  any
            other use requiring water of a lower quality.
PH

Toxic wastes and other deleterious
materials.
Temperature
Dissolved oxygen
                                       A minimum of 5.0 milligrams per liter at
                                       all times for streams designated as trout
                                      211

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TableAXIII  (Cont'd.)
                             (Georgia)
Dissolved oxygen  (Cont'd.)
Bacteria
Bacteria (Applicable only to
shellfish to be commercially
harvested)
Temperature
Toxic wastes and other
deleterious materials
                                 waters by the State Game and Fish Com-
                                 mission; a minimum of 4.0 milligrams per
                                 liter at all times for waters supporting warm
                                 water species of fish.

                                 Within the range of 6.0 to 8.5.

                                 Fecal coliform not to exceed a mean of
                                 5,000 per 100 milIIliters (MPN) based  on
                                 at least four  samples taken over a 30 day
                                 period and not to exceed 20,000 per 100
                                 milliliters in more than five percent (5%)
                                 of the samples in any 90 day period.

                                 Total Coliform group not to exceed a med-
                                 ian MPN of 70 per 100 milliliters, and
                                 not more than 10 percent (10%) of the
                                 samples shall exceed an MPN  of 230 per
                                 100 milliliters for a 5-tube decimal dilu-
                                 tion test (or 330 per 100 milliliters where
                                 a 3-tube decimal dilution is used) in those
                                 areas most probably exposed to fecal con-
                                 tamination during the most unfavorable
                                 hydrographic and pollution conditions.

                                 Not to exceed 93.2°F (34.0°C) at any
                                 time and not to be increased more than
                                 10°F above  intake temperature. In
                                 streams designated as trout waters by the
                                 State Game and Fish Commission, there
                                 shall be no elevation or depression of
                                 natural stream temperatures.

                                 None in concentrations that would harm
                                 man, fish and game or other beneficial
                                 aquatic life.
4.
Agricultural -  For general agricultural uses such as stock watering and irri-
      gating; or for any other use requiring water of a lower quality.
Bacteria
                                 Fecal coliform not to exceed a mean of
                                 10,000 per 100 milliliters (MPN) based on
                                      212

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  Table AX HI  (Cont'd.)              (Georgia)

  Bacteria (Cont'd.)                     at least four samples taken over a 30 day
                                        period and not to exceed 40,000 per TOO
                                        mill Miters in more than five percent (5%)
                                        of the samples in any 90 day period.

  Dissolved oxygen                       A daily average of 3.0 milligrams per li-
                                        ter and  no less than 2.5 milligrams per
                                        liter at  any  time.

  pH                                    Within the range of 6.0 to 8.5.

 Temperature                            Not to exceed 93.2°F (34.0°C) at any
                                        time and not to be increased more than
                                        10°F above  intake temperature.

 Toxic substances and other               None in concentrations or amounts that
 deleterious materials                    would interfere with or adversely affect
                                        uses for  general agricultural  purposes or
                                        would prevent fish  survival.

 5.      Industrial - For processing and cooling water with or without special  treat-
              ment; or for any other use requiring water of a  lower quality.

 Dissolved oxygen                        A daily average of 3.0 milligrams  per
                                        liter and not less than 2.5 milligrams per
                                        liter at any time.

 pH                                     With in the range of 6.0 to 8.5.

 Toxic substances and other               None in concentrations that would pre-
 deleterious materials                     vent fish survival or interfere with  legiti-
                                        mate and beneficial industrial uses.

 Temperature                             Not to exceed  93.2°F (34.0°C) at any
                                       time and not  to be increased more than
                                        10°F above intake temperature.

6.     Navigation - To provide for commercial ship traffic and protection of seamen
             or crews.

Bacteria                                Feca\ coliform not to exceed a mean of
                                       10,000 per 100 milliliters (MPN) based on
                                       at least four samples taken over a 30 day
                                       period and not to exceed 40,000 per 100
                                       milliliters in more than five percent (5%)

                                     213

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 TableAXIM  (Cont'd.)              (Georgia)

 Bacteria  (Cont'd.)                      of the samples in any 90 day period.

 Dissolved oxygen                        A daily average of 3.0 milligrams per
                                        liter and  not less than 2.5 milligrams per
                                        liter at any time.

 pH                                     Within the range of 6.0 to 8.5.

 Toxic substances,                        None in concentrations or amounts that
 deleterious materials                     would damage vessels, prevent fish sur-
                                        vival or otherwise interfere with commer-
                                        cial navigation.

 Temperature                             Not to exceed 93.2°F (34.0°C) at any
                                        time and  not to be  increased more than
                                        10 F above intake temperature.

 Source:  A3 8
In Georgia, the textile industry is well distributed throughout the state with a con-
centration of carpet manufacturers in the Dalton area.  According to a recent (1966)
Georgia Institute of Technology survey (A39),  only eight of the forty-eight mills
use their own treatment facilities and seven used no treatment at all, while the rest
disposed their effluents to city sewers.  Due to Georgia's requirement of at least
secondary treatment for all wastes, it is likely those seven have now some form of
treatment, either municipal or their own.  When petitioning the Water Quality
Control Board for a permit to treat industrial wastes, besides the engineering dia-
grams, etc., the plans must also include the following information:  type of indus-
try; kind and quantity of finished product; amount of waste and sources; quantity of
unpolluted waste water, such as cooling water and provision for separation from
other discharges; description of waste including chemical analysis,  amount and kinds
of chemicals used in process; proposed solution to the problem; cost estimates (opera-
tion and maintenance);  proficiency and number of personnel needed to assure satis-
factory operation and maintenance,  and sufficient charts, tables, calculations, ba-
sis of design data and graphs to make the report readily understandable.  This is re-
quired so that when pollution problems exist, the Board can check to see where the
load is coming from.  Another reason is to enable the Board to lend its assistance  to
firms of a like nature who wish to locate in Georgia.   The State also exempts from
ad valorem and poll taxes any equipment used solely for the control of water
pollution.
                                       214

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 North Carolina

 The "North Carolina Water and Air Resources Act" was passed in 1967.   This act is
 the state's water and air pollution control act.   It provides for the establishment of
 a 13  member Board of Water and Air Resources with an auxiliary  9 member Advisory
 Board,  one each for water and air pollution problems.  The act also provides for the
 establishment of water quality standards and the classification of the state's surface
 waters according to usage.  The act empowers the Board to: issue permits for sewage
 and industrial waste disposal; set water quality standards for each watershed, and to
 modify these from time to time as the  Board sees fit; to conduct hearings;  and to pro-
 vide  for the granting of Federal and State funds to municipalities.  The Board has
 empowered itself to lend municipalities,  counties and firms trained engineers and
 chemists to assist in the  design, operation and maintenance of waste treatment fa-
 cilities.  The Board's technicians are  also available to assist in special studies to
 determine degree and  type of treatment required for a specific effluent.

 In the Act, the General Assembly  of North Carolina declares as public policy  "to
 provide for the conservation of water  and air resources	to achieve and to main-
 tain for the citizens of the state a  total environment of superior quality."

 The Board of Water and  Air Resources has the responsibility of enforcing compliance
 to the standards it has set for the various  streams in the state.   In order to fulfill
 this obligation, the  Board requires sewage plants and individually owned treatment
 facilities to have a discharge permit and  to allow regular routine inspection of its
 sites  by Board engineers and inspectors.   If a  person or municipality  is found to be
 violating conditions of a permit, causing pollution, or violating any provision of
 the Water and Air Resources Act,  he shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be
 liable to a penalty of  not less than one hundred dollars ($100.00) nor more than one
 thousand dollars ($1,000.00) for each violation, depending on  the seriousness of the
 violation. Willful violation can be adjudged  by the court as a separate violation for
 each  day of violation.

 The State of North Carolina requires that all  wastes receive the degree of treatment
 that may be necessary to prevent violation of the assigned classification of the re-
 ceiving stream.  The minimum degree  of treatment specified by the Board of Water
and Air Resources  is secondary treatment  (A40).

 There are two broad classifications of  North Carolina waters:  fresh surface and ti-
dal salt waters (defined as "all tidal waters which are so designated by the Board of
Water and Air Resources and which generally  have a natural chloride ion content in
excess of 500 parts per million" (A41).  Table I lists the "Fresh Surface Water Clas-
sifications and Standards of Water  Quality Applied Thereto",  and Table II lists the
 "Tidal Salt Water Classifications and Standards of Water Quality  Applied  Thereto."
These standards have been approved by the Federal Water Pollution Control Admin-
 istration.


                                     215

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                                (North Carolina)
             TABLE AXIV.   FRESH SURFACE WATER CLASSIFICATION
             AND STANDARDS OF WATER QUALITY APPLIED THERETO
 Class A-l:
 1.
2.
3.
      Best Usage of Waters:   Source of water supply for drinking, culinary or food
                 processing purposes or any other usage requiring water of lower
                 quality.

      Conditions Related to Best Usage:   The waters, if subjected to approved
                 treatment equal to coagulation, sedimentation,  filtration and
                 disinfection, with additional treatment if necessary to remove
                 naturally  present  impurities will meet the "Public Health
                 Service Drinking  Water Standards" and will be considered safe
                 for drinking, culinary or food-process ing purposes.
                Quality Standards for Class A-ll Waters:
      Items
 Floating solids; settleable
 solids; sludge deposits.
Sewage, industrial or
other wastes.
Odor-producing substances
contained in sewage,
industrial or other
wastes.
Specifications

Only such amounts attributable to sew-
age,  industrial wastes or other wastes as
will not,  after reasonable opportunity for
dilution and mixture of same with the re-
ceiving waters, make the waters unsafe or
unsuitable as a source of water supply for
drinking,  culinary or food-process ing
purposes,  injurious to fish and wildlife, or
impair the waters for any other best usage
established for this class.

None which are not effectively treated to
the satisfaction of the Board and in ac-
cordance  with the requirements of the
State Board of  Health.

Only such amounts, whether alone or in
combination with other  substances or
wastes, as will not, after reasonable op-
portunity  for dilution  and mixture of same
with the receiving waters,  cause taste and
odor difficulties in water supplies which
                                    216

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 Table AXIV (Cont'd.)
                          (North Carolina)
3.    Odor-producing  (Cont'd.)
      substances...
4.    Phenolic compounds
5.    PH
8.
      Total hardness
      Dissolved oxygen
Toxic wastes; oils;
deleterious substances;
colored or other wastes
9.    Organisms of coliform group
      Temperature
 cannot be corrected by treatment as spe-
 cified under "Conditions Related to Best
 Usage", impair the portability of fish,
 or have a deleterious effect upon any best
 usage established for waters of this  class.

 Not greater than 3.0 parts per billion
 (phenols).

 Shall be normal for the waters  In the area,
 which generally range between 6.0 and
 8.5 except that swamp waters may have a
 low of 4.3.

 Not greater than 100 parts per million
 as CaCO3.

 Not less than 5.0 parts per million  for
 trout  producing waters; not less than 4.0
 parts  per million for non-trout waters ex-
 cept that swamp waters may have a  mini-
 mum of 3.0 parts  per million.

 Only such amounts, whether alone or in
 combination with other substances or
 wastes as will not render the waters unsafe
 or unsuitable as a source of water supply
 for drinking, culinary or food-processing
 purposes, injurious to fish and wildlife  or
 adversely affect the portability of  same,
 or impair the waters for any other best
 usage established  for this class.

 Not to exceed 5,000/100 mi 11 Miters as a
 monthly average value (either M. P. N.  or
 M. F.  count); nor  exceed this number in
 more than 20% of the samples examined
during any one month;  nor exceed 20,000/
 100 mil I Miters in more than five percent
 (5%) of such samples.

 Not to exceed 7°F above the ambient
                                    217

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Table AXIV (Cont'd.)

10.   Temperature  (Cont'd.)
                          (North Carolina)
 11.   Radioactive substances
1,
2.
                                  stream or water temperature and in no
                                  case to exceed 95°F.  The temperature of
                                  trout producing waters shall not exceed
                                  70°F due to the discharge of heated
                                  liquids.

                                  Gross beta activity (in the known absence
                                  of Strontium-90 and alpha emitters) not to
                                  exceed 1,000 picocuries per liter.
      Conditions Related to Best Usage:   This class is intended primarily for waters
                having water sheds which are uninhabited and otherwise  protected
                as required by the State  Board of Health and which require only
                approved disinfection, with additional treatment when necessary
                to remove naturally present impurities,  in order to meet the "Pub-
                lic Health Service Drinking Water Standards" and will be consi-
                dered safe for drinking,  culinary, and food-process ing purposes.

                Quality Standards for Class A-l Waters:

      Items                             Specifications
Floating solids; settleable
solids; sludge deposits; taste
or odor-producing substances

Sewage; industrial or other
wastes

Toxic wastes; oils; deleterious
substances; colored or other
wastes.

Organisms of coliform group
5.    Radioactive substances
None attributable to sewage,  industrial
wastes or other wastes.
None.
                                        None.
Not to exceed 50/100 milliliters (either
M. P. N. or M. F. count) as a monthly
average value.

Gross beta activity (in the known absence
of Strontium-90 and alpha emitters) not to
exceed  1,000 picocuries per liter at any
time.
                                  218

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Table AXIV  (Cont'd.)          (North Carolina)

NOTE 1:  In determining the safety or suitability of waters in this class for use as a
           source of water supply for drinking, culinary or food-processing purposes
           after approved disinfection, the Board will be guided by the physical,
           chemical and bacteriological standards specified in the 1962 edition of
           the "Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards" and the require-
           ments of the State Board of Health as  set forth in Section 5, "Protection
           of Unfiltered Public Water Supplies", of the Rules and Regulations Pro-
           viding for the Protection of Public Water Supplies  as adopted  October 6,
           1960 and amended May 9,  1962, August 26, 1965 and October  12, 1967.

Class A-ll:

      Best Usage of Waters:   Source of water supply for drinking, culinary or food-
                processing purposes and any other best usage requiring waters of
                lower quality.

NOTE 1:  In determining the safety or suitability of waters in this class for use as a
           source of water supply for drinking, culinary, or food-processing purposes
           after approved treatment; the Board will be guided by the physical, chem-
           ical and bacteriological standards specified in the 1962 edition of the
           "Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards."

NOTE 2:  It is recognized that certain toxic substances will seriously affect fish
           life; however, the establishment of a  single numerical standard for
           North Carolina waters would be too restrictive.  In view of this and
           since there  are many waters which, because of poor buffering capacity
           and composition will require special consideration, limiting values for
           such toxic materials will  be established on the basis of the characteris-
           tics of the particular waters under consideration.
Class B:
      Best Usage of Waters:   Bathing and any other usage except as source of
                water supply for drinking, culinary or food-processing purposes.

      Conditions Related to Best Usage:   The waters,  under proper sanitary super-
                vision by  the controlling health authorities, will  meet accepted
                standards  of water quality for outdoor bathing places and will be
                considered safe and satisfactory for bathing purposes.  Also,
                suitable for other uses requiring waters of lower quality.
                                      219

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Table AXIV  (Cont'd.)
                          (North Carolina)
                Quality Standards for Class B Waters:
      Items
 1.
Floating solids; settleable
solids; sludge deposits
2.
Sewage, industrial or
other wastes
3.    Phenolic compounds


4.    PH
5.    Dissolved oxygen
6.    Toxic wastes; oils;
      deleterious substances;
      colored or other wastes
Specifications

Only such amounts attributable to sew-
age,  industrial wastes or other wastes as
will not,  after reasonable opportunity for
dilution and mixture of same with the re-
ceiving waters, make the waters  unsafe or
unsuitable for bathing, injurious  to fish
and wildlife, or impair the waters for any
other best usage established for this class.

None which are not effectively treated to
the satisfaction of the Board.  In  determin-
ing the degree  of treatment required for
such waste when discharged into  waters to
be used for bathing, the Board will take
into consideration the quantity and qual-
ity of the sewage and wastes involved and
the proximity of such discharges to the
waters of  this class.

Not to exceed  3.0 parts per billion
(phenols).

Shall be normal for the waters in  the area,
which generally range between 6.0 and
8.5, except that swamp waters may have
a low of 4.3.

Not less than 5.0 parts per million for
trout producing waters; and not less than
4.0 parts  per million for non-trout waters,
except that swamp waters may have a
minimum of 3.0 parts per million.

Only such amounts, whether alone or in
combination with other substances or
wastes as  will  not render the waters un-
safe or unsuitable for bathing, injurious
to fish and wildlife or adversely affect the
                                      220

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 Table AXIV (Cont'd.)          (North Carolina)

 6.    Toxic wastes, etc.                 palatability of same, or impair the waters
         (Cont'd.)                       for any other best usage established for
                                        this class.

 7.    Organisms of coliform group        Fecal coliform not to exceed an average
      (Applicable only during the        of 200/100 milliliters  (either M. P. N. or
      months of May through             M. F. count) based on at least five conse-
      September)                       cutive samples examined during any 30-
                                        day period and not to exceed 400/100
                                        milliliters in more than twenty percent
                                        (20%) of the samples,  examined during
                                        any 30-day period.

8.    Temperature                       Not to exceed 7 F above the ambient
                                        stream or water temperature,  and  in no
                                        case  to exceed 9^F.  The temperature of
                                        trout producing waters shall not exceed
                                        70 F due to  the discharge of heated
                                        liquids.

NOTE 1: Refer to Note 2, under Class A-ll.

NOTE 2: In assigning this classification to waters  intended for bathing, the Board
          will  take  into consideration the relative proximity of sources of pollution
          and will  recognize the potential hazards involved in locating swimming
          areas close to sources of pollution and will not assign this classification
          to waters,  the bacterial quality of which is  dependent solely upon ade-
          quate disinfection,  and where the interruption of such treatment would
          render the water unsafe for bathing.

Class C:

      Best Usage  of Waters:  Fishing and any other usage except for bathing or as a
                source of water supply for drinking, culinary or food-process ing
                purposes.

      Conditions  Related to Best Usage:  The waters will be suitable for fish and
                wildlife propagation; also, suitable for other uses requiring waters
                of lower quality.
                                      221

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 Table AXIV  (Cont'd.)
(North Carolina)
                Quality Standards for Class C Waters:
      Items
 1.    Floating solids; settleable
      solids; sludge deposits
2.    pH
3.    Dissolved oxygen
4.    Toxic wastes; oils;
      deleterious substances;
      colored or other wastes
5.    Organisms of coliform group
      (Applicable only to waters
      designated  by the Board for
      irrigation "of fruits and
      vegetables.)
6.    Temperature
        Specifications

        Only such amounts attributable to sew-
        age, industrial wastes or other wastes as
        will not, after reasonable opportunity for
        dilution and mixture of same with the re-
        ceiving waters, make the waters unsafe or
        unsuitable for fish and wildlife, or impair
        the waters for any other best usage estab-
        lished for this class.

        Shall be normal for the waters in the area,
        which generally range between 6.0 and
        8.5, except that swamp waters may have
        a low of 4.3.

        Not less than 5.0 parts per million for
        trout producing waters; not less than 4.0
        parts per million for non-trout waters,
        except that swamp waters may have a
        minimum of 3.0 parts per million.

        Only such amounts, whether alone or in
        combination with other substances or
        wastes as will not render the waters inju-
        rious to fish and wildlife or adversely af-
        fect the portability of same, or impair
        the waters for any other best usage estab-
        lished for this class.

        Not to exceed an average of 5,000/100
        milliliters (either M.P.N. or M. F. count)
        based on at least five consecutive samples
        examined during any 30-day period and
        not to exceed 20,000/100 milliliters in
        any sample during such period.

        Not to exceed 7°F above the ambient
        stream or water temperature and in no
        case to exceed 95°F.  The temperature of
                                      222

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 Table AXIV  (Cont'd.)

 6.    Temperature (Cont'd.)
                          (North Carolina)
                                  trout producing waters shall not exceed
                                  70  F due to the discharge of heated
                                  liquids.
 NOTE  1:  Refer to Note 2, under Class A-ll.

 Class D:

      Best Usage of Waters:   Agriculture, industrial cooling and process water sup-
                ply, fish survival,  navigation and any other usage, except fishing,
                bathing, or as a source of water supply for drinking, culinary or
                food-processing purposes.

      Conditions Related to Best Usage:  The waters without treatment and except
                for natural impurities which may be present therein will be suitable
                for agricultural uses and will permit fish survival.  The waters will
                also be useable after special treatment by the user as may be need-
                ed under each particular circumstance for industrial purposes, in-
                cluding cooling and process waters.
                 Quality Standards for Class D Waters:
      Items
1.
Floating solids; settleable
solids; sludge deposits
2.    pH
3.    Dissolved oxygen

4.    Toxic wastes; oils-
      deleterious substances;
      colored or other wastes
Specifications

Only such amounts attributable to sewage,
industrial wastes or other wastes as will
not, after reasonable opportunity for dilu-
tion and mixture of same with the  receiv-
ing waters render the waters unsuitable for
agriculture, industrial cooling purposes
and fish survival,  or cause an offensive
condition.

Shall be normal for the waters in the area,
which generally shall range between 6.0
and 8.5, except that swamp waters may
have a low of 4.3.

Not less than 3.0  parts per million.

Only such amounts attributable to sewage,
industrial wastes or other wastes as will
not render the waters unsuitable for agri-
                                      223

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Table AXIV (Cont'd.)          (North Carolina)

4.    Toxic wastes, etc.                 culture/ industrial cooling purposes, navi-
      (Cont'd.)                         gation, and fish survival, or cause offen-
                                       sive conditions.

5.    Organisms of coliform group       Not to exceed an average of 5,000/100
      (Applicable  only to waters         milliliters (either M. P. N. or M. F. count)
      designated by the Board for        based on at least five consecutive samples
      irrigation of fruits and             examined during any 30-day period and
      vegetables.)                      not to exceed 20,000/100 milliliters in
                                       any sample examined during such period.

6.    Temperature                      Not to exceed 7°F above the ambient
                                       stream or water temperature, and in no
                                       case  to exceed 95 F.

NOTE 1:  Refer to Note  2, under Class A-lt.


Source:  A42
             TABLE AXV.  TIDAL SALT WATER CLASSIFICATIONS
         AND THE STANDARD OF WATER QUALITY APPLIED THERETO

Class SA:

      Best Usage of Waters:   Shellfishing for market purposes and any other usage
                requiring waters of lower quality.

      Conditions Related to Best Usage:  Waters will meet the  sanitary and bac-
                teriological standards given in the 1965 revision of the "National
                Shellfish Sanitation Program Manual of Operations: Part I, Sani-
                tation of Shellfish Growing Areas", recommended  by the Public
                Health Service and will be considered safe and suitable for shell-
                fish culture.

                Quality Standards for Class SA Waters:

      Items                            Specifications

1.    Floating solids; settleable         None attributable to  sewage,  industrial
      solids; sludge deposits             wastes or other wastes.
                                      224

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Table AXV (Cont'd.)
(North Carolina)
2.    Sewage, industrial or
      other wastes
3.    PH

4.    Dissolved oxygen
5.    Toxic wastes; oils;
      deleterious substances;
      colored or other wastes
6.    Organisms of coliform group
7.    Temperature
        None which are not effectively treated to
        the satisfaction of the Board and in accord-
        ance with the requirements of the State
        Board of Health.

        Range between 6.8 and 8.5.

        Not less than 4.0 parts per million,  ex-
        cept that swamp waters may have a mini-
        mum of 3.0 parts per million.

        Only such amounts, whether alone or in
        combination with other substances or
        wastes as will not make the waters unsafe
        or unsuitable for fish and shellfish or their
        propagation, impair the palatability of
        same, or impair the waters for any other
        best usage established for this class.

        Total coliform group not to exceed a med-
        ian M.P.N. of 70/100 milliliters and not
        more than  10% of the samples shall ex-
        ceed an M.P.N. of 230/100 milliliters for
        a 5-tube decimal dilution test (or 330/100
        milliliters where a 3-tube decimal dilu-
        tion is used) in those areas most probably
        exposed to fecal contamination during the
        most unfavorable hydrographic and pollu-
        tion conditions.

        Not to exceed 7 F above the ambient
        stream or water temperature and in no
        case to exceed 95°F.
NOTE 1: Refer to Note 2,  under Class A-ll.

Class SB:

      Best Usage of Waters:   Bathing,  and any other usage except shellfishing for
                market purposes.

      Conditions Related to  Best Usage:  The waters,  under proper sanitary super-
                                      225

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Table AXV (Cont'd.)
                          (North Carolina)
Class SB
  (cont'd)
 1.
2.
5.
6.
           vision by the controlling health authorities, will meet accepted
           sanitary standards of water quality for outdoor bathing places and
           will be considered safe and satisfactory for bathing purposes.

           Quality Standards for Class SB Waters:
      Items
Floating solids; settleable
solids; sludge deposits

Sewage, industrial or
other wastes
3.    pH
4.    Dissolved oxygen
Toxic wastes; oils;
deleterious substances;
colored or other wastes
Organisms of coliform group
(Applicable only during
months of May through
September)
Specifications

None attributable to sewage, industrial
wastes or other wastes.

None which are not effectively treated to
the satisfaction of the Board.  In deter-
mining the degree of treatment required
for such wastes when discharged into wa-
ters to be used for bathing,  the Board will
take into consideration  the quantity and
quality of the sewage and wastes involved
and the proximity of such discharges to the
waters in this class.

Shall  be  normal for the  waters in the area,
which generally range between 6.0 and
8.5, except that swamp waters may have
a low of  4.3.

Not less  than 4.0 parts  per million, ex-
cept that swamp waters  may have a mini-
mum of 3.0 parts per million.

Only such amounts, whether alone or in
combination with other  substances or wastes
as will not make the waters  unsafe or un-
suitable for bathing, injurious to fish or
shellfish, or adversely affect thepalatabil-
ity of same, or impair the waters for any
other best usage established for this class.

Fecal  coliform not to exceed an average
of 200/100 milliliters (either M. P.N.  or
M. F.  count) based  on at least five con-
secutive  samples examined during any
                                      226

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 Table AXV  (Cont'd.)
                               (North  Carolina)
 6.    Organisms of col iform
       (Cont'd.)
                                       30-day period and not to exceed 400/100
                                       milliliters in more than twenty percent
                                       (20%) of the samples examined during any
                                       30-day period.
                                        Not to exceed 7°F above the ambient
                                        stream or water temperature,  and in no
7.    Temperature

                                       case to exceed 95°F.

NOTE 1: Refer to Note 2, under Class B.

NOTE 2: Refer, to Note 2, under Class A-ll.

Class SC:

      Best Usage of Waters:   Fishing,and any other usage except bathing or shell-
                fishing for market purposes.

      Conditions Related to Best Usage:  The waters will be suitable for fishing and
                fish propagation.  Also, suitable for other uses requiring waters of
                lower quality.
       Items
                Quality Standards for Class SC Waters:

                                       Specifications
 1.
      Floating solids; settleable solids;
      sludge deposits
2.    pH
Only such amounts attributable to sewage,
industrial wastes or other wastes as will
not, after reasonable opportunity for dilu-
tion and mixture of same with the receiv-
ing waters, make the waters unsafe or un-
suitable for fish, shellfish and wildlife,  or
impair the waters for any other best usage
established for this class.

Shall be normal for the waters in the area,
which generally range between 6.0 and
8.5, except that swamp waters may have
a minimum of 4.3.
3.    Dissolved oxygen
                                      Not less than 4.0 parts per million
                                      cept that swamp waters may have
                                , ex-
                               a mini-
                                      22?

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 Table AXV (Cont'd.)
(North Carolina)
3.    Dissolved oxygen  (cont'd.)        mum of 3.0 parts per million.
4.    Toxic wastes; oils;
      deleterious substances;
      colored or other wastes
5.    Organisms of coliform group
      (Applicable only to waters
      designated by the Board for
      irrigation of fruits and
      vegetables)
6.    Temperature
        Only such amounts, whether alone or in
        combination with other substances or
        wastes as will not render the waters inju-
        rious to fish and shellfish,  adversely affect
        the palatability of same, or impair the
        waters for any other best usage established
        for this class,

        Not to exceed an average  of 5,000/100
        milliliters (either M. P. N. or M. F. count)
        based on  at least five consecutive samples
        examined during any 30-day period, and
        not to exceed 20,000/100 milliliters in
        any sample examined during such period.

        Not to exceed 7°F above the ambient
        stream or water  temperature, and in no
        case to exceed 95°F.
NOTE 1: Refer to  Note 2, under Class A-ll.
Source:   A42
North Carolina provides for rapid amortization of industrial waste treatment works,
permitting write-off in five years and, in addition, exempts industrial waste treat-
ment facilities from personal property and local ad valorem taxes forever.  (A43)

In North Carolina,  the textile industry is concentrated in the central portion of the
state.  No extensive studies concerning textile waste treatment in this state are
available.  Some large textile operations such as American Enka Corporation in
Enka (A44) and Burlington's Cooleemee Plant  (A45) have erected their own treat-
ment plants in order for their wastes to be allowed  discharge in local streams.  In
towns such as Greensboro and Kannapolis  (A46), there is a mixing of both domestic
sewage and industrial waste.
                                     228

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 South Carolina

 The "South Carolina Pollution Control Law"  first passed in 1950 and amended in
 1962,  1965 and again in 1969, governs air and water pollution in the State.  In
 passing this  law, the General Assembly of South Carolina  has declared:

       "to be the public policy of the State that reasonable standards of
       purity of the waters of the State be maintained, consistent with
       public health, the public enjoyment of such waters, the propaga-
       tion and protection of fish, shellfish and wildlife, the operation of
       existing industries and the future industrial development of the State
       with a reasonable balance of consideration of the public welfare  and,
       to that end,  that the use of reasonable methods to prevent and control
       pollution of the waters be required."  (A47)

 The law created within the State Health  Department a ten-member Pollution Control
 Authority of South  Carolina. The Authority is empowered  to:  establish stream use
 classifications and  water quality standards; safeguard the waters of the state from
 pollution; make, revoke, or modify orders requiring the discontinuance of the dis-
 charge of sewage,  industrial  or other wastes into any waters of the state; institute
 legal proceedings to compel compliance with the provisions of this Law; issue,
 continue  in effect or deny permits for waste disposal or for the installation or oper-
 ation of disposal systems; conduct such investigations as it deems advisable  and
 necessary; cooperate with the federal government and other state governments in
 respect to pollution control matters;  conduct  research with respect to pollution
 abatement or control problems; serve as the agency of the state for the receipt of
 moneys from the federal government or other public or private agencies  and expand
 them for pollution control research or otherwise; and to perform such other and fur-
 ther acts as may be necessary to carry out effectively the duties and responsibilities
 of the Authority prescribed  by this  law.

 The Authority requires the possession of a permit for the discharge of sewage,  indus-
trial or other wastes to streams of the state; and also, for the construction,  opera-
tion or improvement of new or existing water waste treatment facilities.  Any person
 or municipality found guilty of violating this provision of the law, any other provi-
sion of the law or in any way contributing to the pollution of South Carolina rivers
and streams,  is  "guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction shall be fined not
 less than five hundred  dollars, nor more than five thousand  dollars, or be imprisoned
for not more  than two years, or both  " (A48) with each day's violation to be con-
sidered a separate offense.  In addition,

      "Any person who discharges organic or inorganic matter  into the waters
      of this State	to the extent that the fish, shellfish, aquatic animals,
      wildlife or plant life  indigenous to  or dependent upon the receiving
                                      229

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                                (South Carolina)

      waters are damaged or destroyed shall be liable to the state for a
      penalty equal  to the value of the damage caused, which shall be
      recovered in a suit brought by the state  in its own name or in the
      name of the Authority.

      The amount  of any judgment for damages recovered, less cost/shall
      be remitted  to the agency,  commission,  department or political sub-
      division of the state that has jurisdiction over the fish, shellfish,
      aquatic animals, wildlife or plant life damaged or destroyed." (A48)

 In classifying the waters of South Carolina, the Pollution Control Authority has es-
 tablished classes for  both the fresh surface waters  of the state  (Table AXVI)  and its
 tidal salt waters (Table AXVII).
      TABLE AXVI.   ESTABLISHED CLASSES FOR FRESH SURFACE WATERS
                     AND THE STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND PURITY
      	WHICH SHALL BE APPLIED THERETO	

Class AA

      Waters meeting S. C. State Board of Health requirements as suitable for
      use for domestic and food processing purposes with disinfection  as only
      treatment required. Suitable also for uses requiring waters of lesser
      quality.

                     Quality Standards for Class AA Waters

      Items                            Specifications

1.    Sewage or waste effluents.         None.

2.    Dissolved oxygen.                 Not less than 5 mg./l.

3.    Toxic wastes, deleterious          None in amounts to exceed limitations set
      substances, colored or             forth in the latest edition of U.S. Public
      other wastes.                     Health Service Drinking Water Standards.

4.    Fecal coliform.                   Not to exceed 20/100 ml. as a monthly
                                       arithmetic average.

5.    Temperature.                     Not to exceed 93.2°F at any time, after
                                     230

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 Table AXVI  (Cont'd.)           (South Carolina)

 5.    Temperature (cont'd.)             adequate mixing of heated and normal
                                       water, as the result of the discharge of
                                       heated liquids, nor shall the water tem-
                                       perature in a zone of adequate mixing be
                                       more than 10°F greater than that of water
                                       unaffected  by the heated discharge.
                                       PROVIDED: That hydraulic conditions at
                                       the point of discharge are arranged so
                                       that there is an unheated zone for fish
                                       passage between the point of discharge
                                       and the zone of adequate mixing.
 6.    pH.
 Class A
Range between 6.0 and 8.0 except that
swamp waters may range from pH 5.0 to
PH  8.0.
      Waters meeting S.  C. State Board of Health requirements as suitable
      for use as swimming waters.   Suitable also for other uses requiring
      waters of lesser quality.

                      Quality Standards for Class A Waters

      Items                            Specifications

 1.    Fecal Coliform.                   Not to exceed a geometric mean of
                                       200/100 ml.  nor shall more than 10% of
                                       the total samples during any 30 day
                                       period exceed 400/100 ml.

2.    Phenolic compounds.              Not greater than 1 microgram per liter,
                                       unless caused by natural conditions.

3.    pH.                              Range between 6.0 and 8.0 except that
                                       swamp waters may range from pH 5.0 to
                                       pH 8.0.

4.    Dissolved oxygen.                 Not less than 5 mg./l., except that
                                       swamp waters may have a low of
                                       2.5 mg./l.
                                     231

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 Table AXVI  (Cont'd.)           (South Carolina)

 5.    Temperature.                     Not to exceed 93.2°F at any time, after
                                       adequate mixing of heated and normal
                                       water, as the result of the discharge of
                                       heated liquids,  nor shall  the water tem-
                                       perature in a zone of adequate mixing be
                                       more than IO°F greater than that of water
                                       unaffected  by the heated discharge.
                                       PROVIDED: That hydraulic conditions at
                                       the point of discharge are arranged so that
                                       there  is an  unheated zone for fish passage
                                       between the point of discharge and the
                                       zone of adequate mixing.

 Class B

      Waters suitable for domestic supply after complete treatment  in accord-
      ance with requirements of the S. C. State Board of Health.   Suitable
      also for uses requiring water of lesser quality.

                      Quality Standards for Class B Waters

      Items                             Specifications

 1.    Fecal  coliform.                   Not to exceed 2000/100 ml. as a monthly
                                       arithmetic average.

 2.    pH.                              Range between 6.0 and 8.0, except  that
                                       swamp waters may range from pH 5.0 to
                                       pHS.O.

 3.    Dissolved oxygen.                 Not less than 4.0 mg./l. except that
                                       swamp waters may have a low of
                                       2.5 mg./l.

 4.    Phenolic compounds.              Not greater than 1 microgram per liter
                                       unless caused by natural conditions.

5.    Temperature.                     Not to exceed 93.2°F at any time, after
                                       adequate mixing of heated and normal
                                       water, as the result of the discharge  of
                                       heated liquids,  nor shall the water tem-
                                       perature in a zone of adequate mixing be
                                     232

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Table AXVI  (Cont'd.)

5.    Temperature (conrd.)
                                (South Carolina)
                                       more than 10°F greater than that of water
                                       unaffected by the heated discharge.
                                       PROVIDED:   That hydraulic conditions at
                                       the point of discharge are arranged so that
                                       there is an unheated zone for fish passage
                                       between the point of discharge and the
                                       zone of adequate mixing.
Class C
1.
      Waters suitable for propagation of fish, industrial and agricultural
      uses and other uses requiring water of lesser quality.

                      Quality Standards for Class C Waters

                                       Specifications

                                       Range between 6.0 and 8.5, except that
                                       swamp waters may range between 5.0
                                       and 8.5.
2.    Dissolved oxygen.
      Temperature.
                                      Not less than 4 mg./l., except that
                                      swamp waters may have a low of 2.5
                                      mg./l.

                                      Not to exceed 93.2°F at any time,  after
                                      adequate mixing of heated and normal
                                      water, as the result of the discharge of
                                      heated liquids, nor shall the water tem-
                                      perature  in a zone of adequate mixing be
                                      more than 10 F greater than that of water
                                      unaffected  by the heated discharge.
                                      PROVIDED: That hydraulic conditions at
                                      the point of discharge are arranged so that
                                      there is an  unheated zone for fish passage
                                      between the point of discharge and the
                                      zone of adequate mixing.
                                    233

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Table AXVI  (Cont'd.)           (South Carolina)


Class Ca

      Waters suitable for fish survival*, industrial and agricultural uses and
      other uses requiring water of lesser quality.

                     Quality  Standards for Class CQ Waters

      Items                            Specifications

1.    pH.                              Range between 6.0 and 8.5, except that
                                       swamp waters may range between 5.0
                                       and 8.5.

2.    Dissolved  oxygen.                 Not  less than 3.0 mg./l., except that
                                       swamp waters may have a low of
                                       2.5 mg./l.

3.    Temperature.                     Not  to exceed 93.2°F at any time, after
                                       adequate mixing of heated and normal
                                       water, as the result  of the discharge of
                                       heated liquids, nor shall the water tem-
                                       perature in a zone of adequate mixing
                                       be more than  10 F greater than that of
                                       water unaffected by the  heated discharge.
                                       PROVIDED: That hydraulic conditions at
                                       the point of discharge are arranged so
                                       that  there  is an unheated zone for fish
                                       passage between the point of discharge
                                       and the zone of adequate mixing.

*    "Fish Survival"  as used in this standard means the continued existence of
      individual fish normally indigenous to waters of this type.

      To apply only to streams receiving waste prior to May 4, 1950, and not
      to be applied to streams with a 7 day once in 10 years occurrence flow
      of more than 22.5 mgd.
Source:   A49, p. 5-8
                                      234

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                                (South Carolina)
      TABLE AXVII.   ESTABLISHED CLASSES FOR TIDAL SALT WATERS
                      AND THE STANDARDS OF QUALITY AND PURITY
                      WHICH SHALL BE APPLIED THERETO
 Class SA
 1.


2.


3.

4.
5.


6.
      Wafers suitable for she 11 fish ing for market purposes and any other usages.
      Suitable also for uses requiring water of lesser quality.
      Items
Garbage, cinders, ashes,  oils,
sludge or other refuse.

Sewage or waste effluents.
Dissolved oxygen.

Toxic wastes,
deleterious substances,
colored or other wastes.
Quality Standards for Class SA  Waters

                 Specifications

                 None.
Organisms of coliform group.
PH.
                 None which are not effectively
                 disinfected.

                 Not  less than 5.0 mg./I.

                 None alone or in combination with other
                 substances or wastes in sufficient amounts
                 as to be injurious to edible fish or shell-
                 fish or the culture or propagation thereof,
                 or which  in any manner shall adversely
                 affect the flavor,  color, odor, or sanitary
                 condition thereof or impair the waters for
                 any other best usage as determined for the
                 specific waters which are assigned to this
                 class.

                 Shall meet U. S. Public  Health Service
                 Standards   (1965 Revision).

                 Shall not vary more than 3/10 of a pH
                 unit above or below that of effluent-free
                 waters in the same geographical area hav-
                 ing a similar total salinity, alkalinity and
                 temperature.
                                      235

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Table AXVII (Cont'd.)
                          (South Carolina)
7.    Temperature.
Class SB
                                  Fall, winter, spring, no more than 4°F
                                  above natural.  Summer,  no more than
                                  1.5°F above natural.
1.


2.


3.

4.
      Waters suitable For bathing and any other usages except shellfishing for
      market purposes.  Suitable also for uses requiring water of less quality.
      Items
                 Quality Standards for Class SB Waters

                                  Specifications
Garbage, cinders, ashes, oils,     None.
sludge or other refuse.
Sewage or waste effluents.
Dissolved oxygen.

Toxic wastes,
deleterious substances,
colored or other wastes.
      Fecal coliform.
      PH.
None which are not effectively
disinfected.

Not less than 5.0 mg./l.

None alone or  in combination with other
substances or wastes in sufficient amounts
as to be  injurious to edible fish or the
culture or propagation thereof, or which
in any manner shall adversely affect the
flavor, color, odor or sanitary condition
thereof;  to make the waters unsafe or un-
suitable  for bathing or impair the waters
for any other best usage as determined for
the specific waters which  are assigned to
this class.

Not to exceed a geometric mean of
200/100 ml. nor shall more than  10% of
the samples in any 30 day period exceed
400/100 ml.

Shall not vary more than one-half of a pH
unit above or below that of effluent-free
waters in the same geographical area hav-
ing a similar total salinity, alkalinity,
                                      236

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 Table AXVII  (Cont'd.)

 6.    PH  (Cont'd.)


 7.    Temperature.



 Class  SC
                          (South Carolina)
                                  and temperature,  but not lower than
                                  6.75 or above 8.5.

                                  Fall, winter, spring, no more than 4°F
                                  above natural.  Summer, no more than
                                  1.5 F above natural.
 1.
      Waters suitable for crabbing,  commercial fishing and any other usages
      except bathing or other shellfishing for market purposes.  Suitable also
      for uses requiring water of lesser quality.
                       Quality Standards for Class SC Waters
       Items
Garbage, cinders, ashes, oils,
sludge or other refuse.
2.    Dissolved oxygen.

3.    Toxic wastes, oils,
      deleterious substances,
      colored or other wastes.
4.    Temperature.
5.    pH.
 Specifications

 None.


 Not less than 4.0 mg./l.

 None alone or in combination with other
 substances or wastes in sufficient amounts
 as to be  injurious to edible fish or the
 culture or propagation thereof, or which
 in any manner shall adversely affect the
 flavor, color, odor, or sanitary condition
 of fish or impair the waters for any other
 best usage as determined for the specific
waters which are assigned to this class.

 Fall, winter,  spring,  no  more than 4°F
above natural.  Summer, no more than
 1.5°F above natural.

Shall not vary more than one pH unit
above or below that of effluent-free wa-
ters  in  the same geographical area having
a similar total salinity, alkalinity and
temperature but not lower than 6.75  or
above 8.5.
Source:   A50, p.  1-3
                                       237

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                                 (South Carolina)

Together with these standards for water quality and purity, South Carolina has a
number of general rules which apply to all the waters of the state.  They have been
established  to  "maintain  in the waters of South Carolina a water quality sufficient
for the  survival and general well-being of fish and other aquatic life during periods
of migration and passage" (A51).

These rules  require all bio-degradable waste, prior to discharge to state streams, to
receive a minimum of secondary treatment, and all  other wastes an equivalent degree
of treatment. Another  provision of the special  rules section is that waters which are
subject to effluent discharges and are of a different classificafion than waters into
which they  flow, will carry a classification supplemented by the following stipula-
tion:  "The  quality of any waters receiving sewage, industrial wastes or other waste
discharges shall be such that no  impairment of the best usage of waters in any other
class shall occur by reason of such sewage, or industrial waste discharge"  (A51).
The general rules also state that "the waters of the  state shall at all times be free
from:

      1.  Substances attributable to sewage, industrial waste, or other
          waste that will settle to form sludge deposits that are unsightly,
          putrescent or odorous to such degree as to create a nuisance,  or
          that interfere directly or indirectly with  water uses;

      2.  Floating debris, oil, grease,  scum, and other floating materials
          attributable  to sewage, industrial waste, or other waste  in
          amounts sufficient to be unsightly to such a degre as to create a
          nuisance, or that  interefere directly or indirectly with water
          uses;

      3.  Materials attributable to sewage, industrial waste, or other
          waste which  produce taste, odor, or change the existing color
          or other physical and chemical  conditions in the receiving
          stream to such  a degree as to create a  nuisance, or that  inter-
          fere directly or indirectly with  water uses; and

      4.  High-temperature, toxic, corrosive or  other deleterious sub-
          stances attributable to sewage,  industrial waste,  or other
          wastes in concentrations or combinations which interfere di-
          rectly or indirectly with water uses,  or which are harmful to
          human, animal, plant or aquatic  life"  (A51).

The State of South Carolina exempts from property taxes any facilities used  for
pollution control.
                                       238

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                                 (South Carolina)

 The Textile Industry is well spread across South Carolina, with a particularly
 heavy concentration in the vicinity of Greenville.  In a comprehensive study on
 water use, waste treatment and water pollution in South Carolina manufacturing
 plants, the Water Resources Research  Institute of Clemson University (A52) studied
 the seventy-one textile dyeing and finishing plants  in the state.  They found that
 twenty-two firms dispose of their water waste to city sewers, this is particularly
 true in Greenville and other large cities.  Thirty-eight plants provide some form of
 treatment before final discharge into streams.  They found eleven firms that were at
 that time (1967) not treating their wastes before direct discharge to streams  (A52).
 A list of these firms compiled by the South Carolina Pollution Control Authority,
 and sent to the above mentioned research organization, showed that nine of the
 firms were actively engaged in planning to provide for the necessary treatment of
 their wastes.

 Tennessee

 The "Tennessee Stream Pollution Control Law"   is that state's statute governing the
 control of water pollution.  It was first passed in 1945 and has had several minor
 revisions,  Under the law, the Stream Pollution Control Board was created and in-
 stituted as an agency of the State  Board of Health.  This Pollution Control Board
 consists of seven members and has  the  following powers:  to exercise general super-
 vision over the administration and enforcement of all laws relating to pollution of
 the waters of the state;  conduct experiments, investigations and research to discov-
 er methods of preventing pollution; receive and  expend any monies whic,h it may be
 allored;  issue general orders and adopt rules and regulations for the means of con-
 trolling pollution;  conduct stream surveys; set, modify and change stream use clas-
 sifications and water quality standards; enter into agreements with the federal and
 other state governments to control pollution; and review applications for permits,
 issue new permits,  or modify and revoke existing ones.

 For permission to collect, treat and dispose of sewage or industrial wastes in Ten-
 nessee, a person or municipality must  obtain a permit; a permit  is also needed for
 the right to renovate in any manner existing waste treatment facilities.  Each per-
 mit issued will stipulate both the conditions under which the discharge may take
 place and the time during which such  discharge may be  permitted.  The owners of
 Permits must submit reports and records of their operation as deemed necessary by
 the Public  Health  Department and allow such inspections and investigations  as the
 Pollution Control Board deems necessary.  If the conditions of the permit are found
 to have been violated, the facility will be given 30 days to take corrective action
before the  permit is revoked  (A53).

 If a person or municipality is responsible for causing pollution,  they will be requir-


                                       239

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                                   (Tennessee)

ed to appear at a hearing before the Pollution Control Board and answer the charges
against them.  If four or more members of the Board decide that the person is caus-
ing pollution,  it has the authority to:

           "Issue., .special orders (stating generally the nature of condi-
           tions to  be  corrected) directing particular persons responsible
           for pollution to do or accomplish one or more or all of the fol-
           lowing:   1) conduct experiments, investigations and research
           in order to  discover methods and means for controlling pollu-
           tion; 2) prepare and submit for the approval of the board
           plans and specifications for streams, facilities, methods and
           means for controlling pollution;  and 3) secure such operating
           results toward the control of pollution as the board may pre-
           scribe."  (A54).

If this pollution is adjudged by the Board as constituting "great  danger to public
health,., .the  Board shall  immediately issue peremptory orders requiring such oper-
ating results toward the control  of pollution as the Board may prescribe" (A54).

If after the issuance of special or peremptory orders, the person  served continues to
cause pollution; or if a person operates a treatment facility without permit; or re-
fuses to furnish information,  plans or other data, as the Board may require, shall be
liable  to penalty.   The penalty  prescribed under law is a fine of not less than fifty
dollars, nor more than five hundred  dollars for each violation; and each day of con-
tinued violation may constitute  a separate offense and may subject the system or es-
tablishment to abatement as a nuisance (A54).

The Pollution Control  Board of Tennessee has adopted a list of five general consider-
ations  and seven water-use classifications with a set  of criteria for each class
(Table AXVIII) "as  a guide in determining the  permissible conditions of waters with
respect to pollution and the prevention or corrective measures required to control
pollution  in various waters or in different sections of the same waters  (A55).  These
standards and considerations are set  on the assumption that:

           "all discharges of sewage,  industrial waste, and other wastes
           will receive the best practicable treatment (secondary or the
           equivalent) or control according to the policy and procedure
           of the Tennessee Stream Pollution Control Board.   A degree of
           treatment greater than secondary when necessary  to protect the
           water uses will be required for selected sewage and wastes
           discharges." (A55)
                                      240

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                                  (Tennessee)

The general considerations are:

     "1.  Waters have many uses which in the public interest are
          reasonable and necessary.  Such uses include: Sources
          of water supply for domestic  and industrial purposes;
          propagation and maintenance of fish and other desirable
          aquatic life; recreational boating and fishing; the final
          disposal of municipal sewage and industrial waste follow-
          ing adequate treatment;  stock watering and irrigation;
          navigation; generation of power; and the enjoyment of
          scenic and esthetic qualities of the waters.

      2.  The rigid application of uniform water quality Is not de-
          sirable or reasonable  because of the varying uses of such
          waters.   The assimilative capacity of a stream for sewage
          and waste varies  depending  upon various factors includ-
          ing the following:  volume of flow, depth of channel, the
          presence of falls or rapids, rate of flow, temperature, nat-
          ural characteristics and the nature of the stream.  Also the
          relative importance assigned  to each use will  differ for dif-
          ferent waters and sections of waters throughout the stream.

      3.  To permit reasonable  and necessary uses of the waters  of
          the State, existing pollution  should be corrected as rapidly
          as practical and future pollution controlled by treatment
          plants or other measures.

          There is an economical balance between the cost of sewage
          and waste treatment and the  benefits received and within
          permissible limits the  dilution factor and the assimilative
          capacity of surface water should be utilized.  Waste recov-
          ery, control of rates and dispersion of waste Into the streams,
          and control of rates and characteristics of flow of waters in
          the stream where adequate, will be considered to be a means
          of correction.

      4.   Sewage,  industrial wastes, or other wastes, as defined in the
          Stream Pollution Control Code, shall not be discharged into
          or adjacent to streams or other surface waters  in such quan-
          tity and of such character or  under such conditions  of dis-
          charge in relation to the receiving waters as will result in
          visual or olfactory nuisances, undue interference to other
                                      241

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                                  (Tennessee)

          reasonable and necessary uses of the water, or appreciable
          damage to the natural processes of self-purification.   In re-
          lation to the various qualities and the specific uses of the
          receiving waters,  no  sewage, industrial wastes, or other
          wastes discharged  shall be  responsible for conditions that
          fail to meet the criteria of water quality outlined below.
          Bypassing or accidental spills will not be tolerated.

          The criteria of water  quality are considered as guides  in
          applying the water quality objectives in order to insure
          reasonable and necessary uses of the waters of the State.
          In order to protect the public health and maintain the
          water suitable for  other reasonable and necessary uses;
          to provide for future development; to allow proper sharing
          of available water resources; and to meet the needs of
          particular situations additional criteria will be set."  (A55)
              TABLE AXVI1I.   CRITERIA OF WATER CONDITIONS

1.   Domestic Raw Water Supply

    (a)   Dissolved Oyxgen - There shall always be sufficient dissolved oxygen
          present  to prevent odors of decomposition and other offensive conditions.

    (b)   pH - The pH value shall  lie within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 and shall not
          fluctuate more than 1.0 unit in this range over a period  of 24 hours.

    (c)   Hardness or Mineral Compounds - There shall be no substances added to
          the waters that will  increase the  hardness or mineral content of the wa-
          ters to such an extent to  appreciably  impair the usefulness of the water
          as a source of domestic water supply.

    (d)   Total  Dissolved Solids - The  total dissolved solids shall at no time
          exceed  500 mg./I.

    (e)   Solids,  Floating Materials and Deposits - There shall be  no distinctly
          visible solids, scum, foam, oily sleek, or the formation  of slimes, bot-
          tom deposits or sludge banks  of such size or character as may impair the
          usefulness of the water as a source of domestic  water supply.

    (f)    Turbidity or Color - There shall be no turbidity or color  added in amounts


                                      242

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 Table AXVIII  (Cont'd.)           (Tennessee)

           or characteristics that can not be reduced to acceptable
           concentrations by conventional water treatment processes.

     (g)   Temperature - The temperature of the water shall  not exceed
           93  F and the maximum rate of change shall not exceed 3 F
           per hour.  In no case shall the maximum temperature rise be
           more than 10 F above the stream temperature which shall be
           measured at an upstream control point.

     (h)   Microbiological  Coliform - Coliform group shall not exceed
           10,000 per 100 ml. as a monthly average value (either MPN
           or MF count); nor exceed this number in more than 20  per-
           cent of the samples examined during any month; nor exceed
           20,000 per 100 ml. in more than five  percent of such samples.
           These values may be exceeded provided the organisms are
           known to be of nonfecal origin.  No disease producing  bac-
           teria or other ob|ectionable organisms shall be added to sur-
           face waters which will result  in the contamination of said
           waters to such an extent as to render the water unsuitable
           as sources of domestic water supply after conventional water
           treatment.

     (i)    Taste or Odor - There shall be no substances added which
           will result in taste or odor that prevent the production of
           potable water by conventional water treatment processes.

     (j)    Toxic Substances - There shall be no toxic substances added
           to the waters that will produce toxic conditions that material-
           ly affect man or animals or impair the  safety of a conventionally
           treated water supply.

     (k)    Other Pollutants  - Other pollutants shall not be added to the
           water in quantities  that may be detrimental to public health
           or impair the usefulness of the water as a source of domestic
           water supply.

2.   Industrial Water Supply

     (a)    Dissolved  Oxygen - There shall always be sufficient dissolved
           oxygen present to prevent odors of decomposition and other
           offensive conditions.
                                      243

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Table AXVIII (Cont'd.)           (Tennessee)

     (b)   pH - The pH value shall lie within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 and shall
          not fluctuate more  than 1.0 unit in this range over a period of 24 hours.

     (c)   Hardness or Mineral Compounds - There shall be no substances added
          to the waters that will increase the hardness or mineral content of the
          waters to such an extent as to appreciably impair the usefulness of the
          water as a source of industrial water supply.

     (d)   Total Dissolved Solids - The total dissolved solids shall at  no time
          exceed 500 mg./l.

     (e)   Solids, Floating Materials and Deposits - There shall be no distinctly
          visible solids, scum,  foam, oily sleek,  or the formation of slimes,
          bottom deposits or sludge banks of such size or character as may impair
          the usefulness of  the water as  a source of industrial water supply.

     (f)   Turbidity or Color - There shall be no turbidity or color added in
          amounts of characteristics that can not be reduced to acceptable
          concentrations by conventional water treatment processes.

     (g)   Temperature - The  temperature of the water shall not exceed 93°F
          and the maximum rate of change shall not exceed 3°F per  hour.  In  no
          case shall the maximum temperature rise be more than 10°F above the
          stream temperature which shall be measured at an upstream control
          point.

     (h)   Taste or Odor - There shall be no substances added that will result in
          taste  or odor that would prevent the use of the water for industrial
          processing.

     (i)   Toxic Substances - There shall be no substances added to the waters
          that may produce toxic conditions that will adversely affect the water
          for industrial processing.

     (j)   Other Pollutants  -  Other pollutants shall  not be added to the  waters in
          quantities that may adversely  affect the water for industrial processing.

3.   Fish and Aquatic Life

     (a)   Dissolved Oxygen - The dissolved oxygen shall be maintained at 5.0
          mg./l. except in limited sections of the stream receiving treated efflu-
          ents.  In these limited sections, a minimum of 3.0 mg./l. dissolved
                                       244

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 Table AXVIII  (Cont'd.)            (Tennessee)

     (a)    oxygen shall be allowed.  The dissolved oxygen content shall be meas-
           ured at mid-depth in waters having a total depth of greater than ten (10)
           feet.  A minimum dissolved oxygen content of 6.0 mg./l. shall be
           maintained in recognized trout streams.

     (b)    pH - The pH value shall lie within the range of 6.5 and 8.5 and shall
           not fluctuate more than 1.0 unit in this range over a period of 24 hours.

     (c)    Solids, Floating Materials and Deposits - There  shall be no distinctly
           visible solids, scum,  foam, oily sleek, or the formation of slimes, bottom
           deposits or sludge banks of such  size or character that may be detrimental
           to fish and aquatic life.

    (d)    Turbidity or Color - There shall  be no turbidity or color added  in such
          amounts or of such character that will materially affect fish and aquatic
           life.

    (e)   Temperature - The temperature of the water shall not exceed 93°F and
          the maximum rate of change shall not exceed 3°F per hour.  The maxi-
          mum  temperature of recognized trout streams shall  not exceed 68°F.
          In  no case shall the maximum temperature rise be more than  10°F above
          the stream temperature which shall be measured at an upstream control
          point.

    (f)     Taste or Odor - There shall be no substances added that will impart un-
          palatable flavor to fish or result  in noticeable offensive odors in the
          vicinity of the  water or otherwise interfere with fish or aquatic  life.

    (g)    Toxic Substances - There shall  be no substances added to the waters that
          will produce toxic conditions that affect fish or aquatic life.

    (h)     Other Pollutants - Other pollutants shall not be added to the waters that
         will be  detrimental to  fish or aquatic life.

.  Recreation

   (a)    Dissolved Oxygen - There shall always be sufficient dissolved oxygen
         present  to prevent odors of decomposition and other offensive conditions.

   (b)    pH - The pH value shall lie within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 and shall not
         fluctuate more than 1.0 unit in this range over a period of 24 hours.
                                     245

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Table AXVIII  (Cont'd.)           (Tennessee)

     (c)    Solids, Floating Materials, and Deposits - There shall be no distinctly
           visible solids, scum,  foam, oily sleek, or the formation of slimes, bot-
           tom deposits or sludge banks of such size or character that may be det-
           rimental to recreation.

     (d)    Turbidity or Color - There shall be no turbidity or color added in such
           amounts  or character that will result in an objectionable appearance to
           the water.

     (e)    Temperature - The temperature of the water shall not exceed  93°F and
           the maximum rate of change shall not exceed 3°F per hour.   In no case
           shall  the maximum temperature rise more than 10°F above the stream
           temperature which shall be measured at an upstream control point.

     (f)    Microbiological Coliform - The fecal coliform group shall not exceed
           5,000 per  100 milliliters as a monthly average value nor exceed this
           number in more than 20 percent of the samples examined during any
           month; nor exceed 20,000 per  100 milliliters in more than five percent
           of such samples.  In those waters that are physically suitable and avail-
           able to the  public for water-contact recreation the fecal coliform con-
           centration shall not exceed 1,000 per 100 milliliters in any two conse-
           cutive samples collected during the  months of May through September.
           Water areas near outfalls  of domestic sewage treatment plants are  not
           considered suitable for water-contact recreation.

     (g)    Taste or  Odor - There shall be  no substances added that will result in
           objectionable taste or odor.

     (h)    Toxic  Substances - There  shall  be no substances added to the water that
           will produce toxic conditions that affect man or animal.

     (i)    Other Pollutants  - Other  pollutants shall not be added to the  water in
           quantities which  may have a detrimental effect on recreation.

5.   Irrigation

     (a)    Dissolved Oxygen - There shall always be  sufficient dissolved oxygen
           present to prevent odors of decomposition and other offensive  conditions.

     (b)    pH  -  The pH value shall lie within the range of 6.0 to 9.0 and shall not
           fluctuate more than  1.0 unit in this range over a period of 24 hours.
                                      246

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Table AXVIH (Cont'd.)            (Tennessee)

     (c)    Hardness or Mineral Compounds - There shall be no substances added to
           the water that will increase the mineral content to such an extent as to
           impair its use for irrigation.

     (d)    Solids, Floating Materials and  Deposits - There shall be no distinctly
           visible solids,  scum, foam, oily sleek, or the formation of slimes, bot-
           tom deposits or sludge banks of such size or character as may impair the
           usefulness of the water for irrigation purposes.

     (e)    Temperature - The  temperature of the water shall not be raised or low-
           ered to such an extent as to interfere with  its use for irrigation purposes.

     (f)    Toxic Substances - There shall be no substances added to the water that
           will produce toxic  conditions that will affect the water for irrigation.

     (g)    Other Pollutants -  Other pollutants shall not be added to the water  in
           quantities which may be detrimental to the waters used for irrigation.

6.   Livestock Watering and Wildlife

     (a)    Dissolved Oxygen - There shall always be sufficient dissolved oxygen
           present to prevent odors of decomposition and other offensive conditions.

     (b)    pH - The pH value shall lie within the range  of 6.0 to 9.0 and shall not
           fluctuate more than 1.0 unit in this range over  a period of 24-hours.

     (c)    Hardness or Mineral Compounds - There shall be no substances added to
          water that will increase the mineral content to  such an extent as to  im-
           pair its use for livestock watering and wildlife.

     (d)   Solids, Floating Materials and Deposits - There shall be no distinctly
          visible solids, scum, foam,  oily sleek, or the formation of slimes,
          bottom deposits or sludge banks of such size or character as to interfere
          with livestock watering and wildlife.

     (e)   Temperature - The temperature of the water shall not be raised  or low-
          ered to such an extent as to interfere with its use for livestock watering
          and wildlife.

     (f)    Toxic Substances -  There shall be no substances added to water that will
          produce toxic conditions that will affect the water for  livestock watering
          and wildlife.
                                      247

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Table AXVill  (Cont'd.)           (Tennessee)

     (g)   Other Pollutants - Other pollutants shall not be added to the water in
          quantities which may be detrimental to the water for livestock watering
          and wildlife.

7.   Navigation

     (a)   Dissolved Oxygen - There  shall always be sufficient dissolved  oxygen
          present to prevent odors of decomposition and other offensive conditions.

     (b)   Hardness or Mineral Compounds - There shall  be no substances added to
          the water that will  increase the mineral content to such an extent as to
          impair its use for navigation.

     (c)   Solids, Floating Materials  and Deposits - There shall be no distinctly
          visible solids, scum, foam, oily sleek, or the formation of slimes,
          bottom deposits or sludge banks of such size or character as to  interfere
          with navigation.

     (d)   Temperature - The temperature of the water shall not be raised or low-
          ered to such an extent as to interfere with its  use for navigation purposes.

     (e)   Toxic Substances - There shall be no substances added to water that will
          produce toxic conditions that  will affect the water for navigation.

     (f)   Other Pollutants - Other pollutants shall not be added to the water in
          quantities which may be detrimental to the waters used for navigation.

DEFINITIONS

     1.    Conventional Water Treatment -  Conventional water treatment as refer-
          red to in the criteria denotes coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and
          chlorination.

     2.    Mixing Zone - Mixing zone refers to that section  of flowing stream or
          impounded waters necessary for effluents to  become dispersed.  The mix-
          ing zone necessary in each particular case shall be defined by the
          Tennessee Stream Pollution Control Board.
Source:  A55,  p.  2-6
                                      248

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                                   (Tennessee)

 These standards were accepted by the Federal Water Pollution Control Administra-
 tion in February 1968.

 In Tennessee the Textile Industry is located mostly in the eastern part of the state,
 With a scattering of mills in the central and western  parts.  Most of the firms are
 located  in towns and municipalities which probably provide them with sewage
 systems.  No indepth study of Tennessee and the textile water waste problem has
 been undertaken.

 Virginia

 The  "Virginia State Water Control Law" as amended by the 1968 General Assembly
 governs water pollution in the state.  The philosophy of the State concerning water
 Pollution is that existing pollution  is to be reduced and potential pollution prevent-
 ed through control  measures.  The law establishes a five-member State Water Con-
 trol Board that is completely independent of all other state agencies.  The law em-
 powers the agency  to: establish water quality standards; maintain those standards;
 issue special orders and compel  compliance, through  the Enforcement Division, to
 those standards and special orders.   The Virginia State Board of Health retains the
 Power of issuing sewage discharge permits and consults and advises waste treatment
 facility owners (municipal and industrial) on the appropriate treatment required for
 Discharge of their effluent to state streams.

 For violation of permit regulations,  causing pollution, or violation of any provision
 of the  "Water Control Law", a person or municipality is liable to an injunctive
 action by the court, to cease polluting practices or fines up to $500  for each sepa-
 rate offense (A).

 At present,  the stream standards of the Virginia Water Control  Board do not satisfy
 the Federal  Water Pollution Control Administration's  requirements (A56).  The
 General  Assembly of the State has taken action in revising  the old law (first passed
 'n 1946) and the Water Control Board has proposed new standards.  While these new
standards are not yet in effect, they were at the time of writing this report on the
 Governor's desk awaiting his signature.

 The streams  of Virginia will be subject to a two-fold  classification,  each stream  is
to be assigned a major class and subclass designation. As a minimum, all  waters of
the State  will be satisfactory for fishing  and secondary contact recreation.  Table
AXlX  lists  the  "Major Class"  designations to be applied to Virginia waters;
 Table AXX  lists the "Subclasses to Complement Major Water Class Designations. "
                                      249

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            TABLE AXIX.  MAJOR WATER CLASS DESIGNATIONS
Class
III


IV

V

VI
                    Description

Open Ocean (Seaside of Land Mass).

Estuarine (Tidal Water - Coastal Zone to Fall Line).

Free Flowing Streams   (Coastal Zone and Piedmont Zone to the
     Crest of the Mountains).

Mountainous Zone.

Put and Take Trout Waters.

Natural  Trout Waters.
                                 Standards

Dissolved Oxygen
Class
1
II
III
IV
V
VI
Minimum
5.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
Daily Average
- -
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
pH
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
6.0-8.5
Temperature F
Rise above Natural
4.0 (Sept. -May)
1.5 (June-Aug.)
4.0 (Sept. -May)
1.5 (June-Aug.)
5
5
—
—
Maximum
—
—
90
87
70
70
Source:   A57 : 8
                                   250

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                                   (Virginia)

              TABLE AXX.   SUBCLASSES TO COMPLEMENT MAJOR
              	WATER CLASS DESIGNATIONS	

                                  Subclass A

 Description:  Waters generally satisfactory for use as public or municipal water
              supply, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and
              aquatic life and other beneficial uses.

 Standard:     Coliform organisms -  Monthly average value not more than
              5,000/100 milliliters. (M. P.N. or M. F. count).  Not more than
              5,000 MPN/100 milliliters In more than 20 percent of the samples
              in any month.  Not more than 20,000/100 milliliters in more than
              5 percent of such samples.  Fecal coliforms (multiple-tube fermen-
              tation or M. F. count) not to exceed a log mean of 1,000/100 milli-
              liters. Not to equal or exceed 2,000/100 milliliters in more than
              10 percent of the samples.

                                  Subclass  B

Description:  Waters generally satisfactory for use as public or municipal water
             supply, primary contact recreation (prolonged intimate contact;
             considerable risk of ingestion),  propagation of fish and other aquatic
              life, and other beneficial uses.

Standard:    Coliform  organisms - Monthly average not more than 2,400/100
             milliliters. (M.P.N. orM.F. count).  Not more than 2,400/100
             milliliters in more than 20 percent of the samples in any month.
             Not applicable during, or immediately following periods of rain-
             fall.  Fecal coliforms  (multiple-tube fermentation or M.F. count)
             within a 30-day period not to exceed a log mean of 200/100 ml.
             Not more than 10 percent of the samples within a 30-day period
             will exceed 400/100 milliliters.

                                  Subclass C

Description:  Waters satisfactory for use as public or municipal water supply
             requiring disinfection  only.

Standard:    Coliform  organisms - Not to exceed 100/100 milliliters (M. P. N.  or
             M.F.  count) at any time. No floating or settleable solids,  sludge de-
             posits, taste or odor producing substances directly attributable to  sew-
                                    251

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Table AXX  (Cont'd.)               (Virginia)

Standard:    age,  industrial wastes or other wastes.

                                   Supplement

In open ocean or estuarine waters in the specific areas where leased  private or
public shellfish beds are present, the following supplement to Subclasses A or B
will be applied:
              Not more than 70/100 mi Hi liters of coliform organisms.
              Not more than 10 percent of the samples ordinarily greater
              than 230/100 mill filters (5-tube decimal dilution), or
              330/100 mi 11 Miters (3-tube decimal dilution).  Not to be
              so contaminated by radionuclides,  pesticides,  herbicides
              or fecal  material so that consumption of the shellfish might
              be hazardous.
Source:   A57,  p. 8-9
Two other provisions which relate to all Virginia state waters are:

             "All waters within this state shall at all times be free from
             all substances attributable to sewage,  industrial wastes, or
             other wastes in concentrations or combinations which con-
             travene established standards or interfere directly or  indi-
             rectly with  beneficial uses of such waters; except that  lim-
             ited zones will be permitted for the mixture of treated sew-
             age,  treated industrial wastes, and other waste effluents
             with receiving waters.  The boundaries of mixing zones will
             be determined on a case by case basis.  However, these
             zones shall  generally occupy as small an area and length  as
             possible, and shall not prevent free passage of fish or cause
             fish mortality.

             In lakes and impoundments the temperature of the epilimnion,
             in those areas where important organisms are most likely to be
             adversely affected, shall not be raised more than  3°F above
             that which existed before the addition of heat  of artificial
             origin.  The increase is to be based on the monthly average
             of the maximum  daily temperature.  Unless a special  study
             shows that a discharge of heated effluent into the hypolim-
                                      252

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                                    (Virginia)

              nion (or pumping water from the hypolimnion for discharging
              back into the same water body) will not produce adverse ef-
              fects, such practice  shall not be approved.  Maximum tem-
              peratures consistent with the standards established for waters
              immediately above and below the lake or impoundment will
              be established for these waters. "   (A58)

 The State requires conventional  secondary treatment or its equivalent on sewage and
 industrial waste before discharge into its streams.   With this degree of treatment,
 the Water Control Board expects to reduce the volume  of B.O.D.-5 and suspended
 solids discharged, to be  between 50 and 100 milligrams per liter, depending on the
 classification and quality standards of the receiving stream.  Materials such as:
 copper,  chromium, chlorinated hydrocarbons, phenolic chemicals, toxic materials
 and water-insoluble organic chemicals  must be eliminated from any waste discharges.
 Color will have to be  eliminated, if  it  causes a nuisance in the receiving stream
 (A56).

 The State grants a five year accelerated amortization of waste treatment or control
 facilities installed for compliance with  State Water Control Law.

 The Textile  Industry in Virginia is well  scattered over the southern portion of the
 state.  For the,most part,  the individual firms are  located in  large towns, which
Would probably have sewage facilities.  As to date, there has been no extensive
study  of Virginia's Textile Industry's water needs and waste treatment problems.
                                    253

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                                CONCLUSIONS
Each state has established a set of stream standards, which the water pollution
control agency of that state is empowered to enforce.  The standards applied to a
particular stream or portion thereof will  determine the degree of treatment required
for effluents that are to be discharged into it.  A firm located  on a stream designat-
ed as a source of drinking water supply will have to treat Its effluents more effect-
ively than one  located on a stream used  only as a source of industrial water  supply.
The first  firm would be required to effect higher BOD, dissolved solids and sludge
removal than the latter firm.

The stream standards that affect the textile industry the most are: pH, the processes
of dyeing,  bleaching and adding of certain finishes require aqueous baths of vary-
ing alkaline and acid content, therefore, some form of neutralization would be a
must to ensure discharges within the range  required by stream standards; tempera-
ture,  the textile industry uses large amounts of water for dyeing and finishing which
are heated above 100  F. and such temperatures would contravene any state's stand-
ards; color, the dyeing process produces an effluent that imparts an unsightly color
to receiving streams;  sludge deposits, textile wastes contain inorganic chemicals,
bits of fiber and trash that could  settle to the bottom of the stream causing object-
ionable conditions; dissolved oxygen, the  organic chemicals used in dyeing and
finishing are usually high in BOD, which would lead to the depletion of the stream's
dissolved oxygen content;  and lastly, toxic materials, a number of chemical finish-
es and dyes contain chromium and phenolic compounds which are toxic to the aqua-
tic biota.

Each textile water waste producing firm  should become familiar with the standards
established for  the stream into which it is discharging  its effluents.  These firms
would also benefit by working closely with the state water pollution  control  agency
in the event that if standards on treatment requirements are to be changed, they can
make the necessary adjustments in the shortest  possible time and with the minimum
of expense.

Textile firms cannot receive grants-in-aid from the  Federal or State governments for
the construction or renovation of waste treatment facilities,  because the Federal
and State grants-in-aid are restricted to municipalities and other political subdivi-
sions.  Therefore, they must finance  their own waste disposal projects.  If this
course of action is economically unfeasible, the firm may be able to negotiate with
the local sewer authority.   Such authority would be able to receive grants-in-aid
up to thirty percent of the construction cost, through Section 8 of the Federal Water
Pollution Control Act.  The firm could offer to pay  for a percentage  of the remain-
ing costs, thus providing a treatment facility for both the domestic and industrial
wastes at a cost to each party that would be less than for the construction of two
separate facilities.
                                      254

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The only financial aid available to the industry from the Federal government is for
the researching of means to prevent water pollution by industrial wastes and State
tax incentives.  The Federal research funds can only be used for that purpose; how-
ever firms or textile research groups receiving such grants  could transfer an equal
amount from research funds to treatment facility construction funds.  The tax incen-
tives are usually in the form of exemptions and accelerated depreciation; however,
all States do not offer such incentives.
                                     255

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                              LITERATURE CITED
Al    Unifed States Congress.  "Water Pollution Control Act".  The Statutes at
          Large of the United States of America.  Vol. 62, Part 1.  Washington
          D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office.  1948; United States Congress.
          "Water  Pollution Control Act,  Amendments  of 1952". The Statutes at
          Large of the United States of America.  Vol. 66.  Washington, D.C.:
          U.  S. Government Printing Office. 1952.

A2    United States Congress.  "Water Pollution Control Act, Amendments of 1956".
          The Statutes at Large of the United States of America.  Vol. 70.  Wash-
          ington,  D.C.:  U. S.  Government Printing  Office.  1956.

A3    United States Congress.  "Water Pollution Control Act, Amendments of 1961".
          The Statutes at Large of the United States of America.  Vol. 75.  Wash-
          ington,  D.C.:  U. S.  Government Printing  Office.  1961.

A4    United States Congress.  "Water Quality Act of  1965".  The Statutes at large
          of the United States of America.   Vol. 79.  Washington, D.C.:  U. S.
          Government Printing Office.   1965.

A5    United States Congress.  "Clean Water Restoration Act of 1966".  The Statutes
          at Large of the United States of America. Vol. 80.  Washington,  D.C.:
          U.  S. Government Printing Office. T966.

A6    United States Congress.  "Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1966".  The  Statutes
          at Large of the United States of America. Vol. 80.  Washington,  D.C.:
          U.  S. Government Printing Office. 1966.

A7    Leatherland,  L. C.  Private Communication.  Assistant Director, Pollution
          Abatement Division of Industrial Wastes.  Virginia Water Control Board.
          Richmond, Va.  1970.

A8    Knox, J. C.  "Pollution Control of New England Interstate Waters".
          Am. Dye. Rept. 47, 14:  P 477.   1958

A9    Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources.  "Connecticut's  Clean
          Water Act of 1967". Public Act.  No. 57,  State  Office Building,
          Hartford, Connecticut.  1967.

A10  Division of Water Pollution Control. Massachusetts Clean Waters Act.
          Boston:  Water Resources  Commission, Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
          Pub. No. 5003.   1970.
                                    256

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Al 1     Division of Water Pollution Control.  "Rules for the Conduct of Adjudica-
            tor/ Proceedings". Rules and Regulations of the Division of Water Pol-
            lution Control.  Boston:  Water Resources Commission, Commonwealth
            of Massachusetts,.  Pub.  No. 2001.  1968.

A12     Division of Water Pollution Control.  Water Quality Standards.  Boston:
            Water Resources Commission  Commonwealth of Massachusetts.   1967.

A13     Anonymous.  "State Regulations".   Chem. Eng. 75, 10:25-48.  1968.

A14     Anonymous.  "Close-Downs Hit Six More Textile Plants; Pollution Control a
            Factor".  Am. Textile Reptr.  84, 9: 19.  1970.

A15     Division of Water Pollution Control.  "Chapter SD 2.8".  Rules and Regula-
            tions Establishing  Minimum Standards Relating to Location, Design,
            Construction and Maintenance of Individual Sewage Disposal Systems.
            Providence,  R. I.: Department of Health, State of Rhode Island.  1967.

A16     Klazer, P. M.  Private Communication.  Principal Sanitary Engineer,
            Division of Water Supply and  Pollution Control. Rhode Island Depart-
            ment of Health.  Providence,  R.  I.

A17     Division of Water Pollution Control.  Standards of Quality for Classifica-
            tion of Waters of the State.  Providence, R. I.: Department of Health,
            State of Rhode Island.   1967.

A18     New Jersey State Department of Health.  "Statutes  of the  New Jersey
            Division of Clean Water".  Circular 213, Third Edition.  Trenton, N.J.
            N. J. State  Dept. of Health.   1967.

A19     New Jersey State Department of Health.  "Regulations Establishing Certain
            Classification to be Assigned to the Waters of This State and Standards
            of Quality to be Maintained in Waters So Classified. " WP-D9.
            Trenton, N.  J.: N. J.  State  Dept. of Health.   1969.

A20     New Jersey State Department of Health.  Regulations Concerning Treatment
            of Wastewaters,  Domestic and Industrial, Separately or in Combination,
            Discharged into the Waters of  the Delaware River Basin"  Trenton, N.J.;
            N. J. State  Dept. of Health.   1967.

A21     New Jersey State Department of Health.  Regulations Concerning Treatment
            of Wastewaters,  Domestic and Industrial, Separately or in Combination,
            Discharged into the Waters of  the Hackensack River Basin.  Trenton,
            N. J. :  N.  J. State Dept.  of Health.  1967.
                                    257

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A22   New Jersey State Department of Health.  Regulations Concerning Treatment
           of Wastewaterf Domestic, and Industrial, Separately or in Combination,
           Discharged Into the Waters of the Passaic River Basin Including Newark
           Bay.  Trenton, N. J.:  N. J.  State Dept. of Health. 1967.

A23   New Jersey State Department of Health.  Regulations Concerning Treatment
           of Wastewaters, Domestic and  Industrial, Separately or in Combination,
           Discharged into the Waters of the Raritan River Basin Including Raritaii
           Bay.  Trenton, N. J.:  N. J.  State Dept. of Health. 1967

A24   New Jersey State Department of Health.  Regulations Concerning Treatment
           of Wastewaters, Domestic and  Industrial, Separately or in Combination/
           Discharged into the Waters of the Wallkill River Basin. Trenton, N.J.:
           N. J. State Dept. of Health.  1967.

A25   New Jersey State Department of Health.  Regulations Concerning Treatment
           of Wastewaters, Domestic and  Industrial, Separately or in Combina-
           tion, Discharged  in the Waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.  Trenton,
           N. J.: N. J. State Dept. of Health.   1966.

A26   New York Department of Health.  Public  Health Law Article 12, Water
           Pollution Control. Albany, N. Y.:  New York Department of Health.
           T96JT

A27   Black, H. H.  Planning Industrial Waste Treatment.  Albany, N.Y.:
           New York Department of Health.  1969.

A28   Stevens, D. B.   Private Communication.  Director, Bureau of Water Qual-
           ity Management.   New York Department of Health, Albany, N.Y.
           1970.

A29   Division of Pure Waters.  New York's  Tax Incentive  Program.  Albany,
           N. Y.:  New York Department of Health.  1965.

A30   New York Department of Health.  "Industrial Waste Treatment Facilities:
           Certification for Tax Purposes".  Administrative Rules and Regulations
           of Title 10 of the Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regula-
           tions of the State of New York.  Albany, N.  Y.:   New York Depart-
           ment of Health.  1967.

A31   Water Resources Commission. Classifications and Standards of Quality and
           Purity for Waters of New York State.  Albany, N.  Y.: New York
           Department of Health.  1968.
                                    258

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A32    Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board.  "House Bill No. 1353.  Session of
            1969".  Harrisburg, Pa.: Dept. of Health.  1969.

A33    Pennsylvania Sanitary Water Board.  Rules and Regulations of the Sanitary
           Water Board.  Harrisburg,  Pa.: Dept. of Health.  1967.

A34    Alabama Water Improvement Commission.  "Alabama Water Pollution Con-
           trol  Act".  Acts of Alabama  1965. Montgomery, Ala.: Water Im-
            provement Commission.  1965.

A35    Crokett, J.  L.  "Legislation and  Pollution Abatement.  State Water Pollu-
           tion Control Programs - Alabama". Proc. AATCC Symposium on Water
            Pollution Control in the Textile Industry.  Research Triangle Park, N.C.
            1969.

A36    Alabama Water Improvement Commission.  Water Quality Criteria.
            Montgomery, Ala.: Water Improvement Commission.  1967.

A37    Georgia Water Quality Control Board.  "Georgia Water Quality Control
           Act." Act. No. 810  (H.B. 730). Atlanta, Ga.:  State Dept. of
            Health.  1966.

A38    Georgia Water Quality Control Board.  "Chapter 730".  Rules of the
            Georgia Water Quality Control Board.  Atlanta, Ga.:  State Dept.  of
            Health.  1969.

A39    Hyden, W. L., Becknell,  D. F.  and T. E.  Elders.  "Survey of the Nature
            and Magnitude of the Water  Research Needs of the Textile Industry of
            Georgia". Water Resources  Center WRC-0366.  Georgia Institute of
            Technology, Atlanta, Ga.   1966.

A40    Board of Water and Air Resources.  Laws of North Carolina Relating to
            Water and Air Resources.  Raleigh, N.  C.:  N. C.  Dept.  of Water
            and Air Resources.  1968.

A41    Private Communication.  D. L, Coburn.  Member of North Carolina Board
            of Water and Air Resources.   1970.

A42    Board of Water and Air Resources.  Classifications and Water Quality Stand-
            ards Applicable to the Surface Waters of North Carolina.  Raleigh,
            N.  C.:  N. C.  Dept.  of Water and Air Resources.  1968.

A43    Rickles, R.   "State Assistance to Industry for Waste Treatment Facilities".
            Chem. Eng. 72, 20: 136.  1965.
                                    259

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A44   Hill, B.  V.  "What the Mills Are Doing to Control Water Pollution -
            American Enka".  Proc. AATCC Symposium on Water Pollution Control
            in the Textile Industry. Research Triangle Park, N. C.  1969.

A45   Anonymous.  "Burlington Invests $3/4 million to Treat Wastes at Cooleemee".
            Textile World 117, 11: 63.   1967.

A46   Lauria, D. T. and C. A. Willis.  "Treatment Studies of Combined Textile
            and  Domestic Wastes".  Proc. 19th Industrial Waste Conference.
            Purdue Univ. Engineering Extension Service.  1964; Brown, J. L.
            "What We Did About Waste Treatment".  Textile Industries 124, 6:
            78-81.  1960.

A47   South Carolina Pollution Control Authority. "Chapter  70-102". South
            Carolina Pollution Control Law.  Columbia, S. C.: South Carolina
            State Board of Health.  1969.

A48   South Carolina Pollution Control Authority. "Chapter  70-116". South
            Carolina Pollution Control Law.  Columbia, S.C.: South Carolina
            State Board of Health.  1969.

A49   South Carolina Pollution Control Authority. "Section  III".  Water Classi-
            fications - Standards System for the State  of South Carolina.  Columbia,
            S. C.:  South Carolina State Board of Health.  1967.

A50   South Carolina Pollution Control Authority. "Section  IV".  Water Classi-
            fications - Standards System for the State  of South Carolina,  Columbia,
            S. C.:  South Carolina State Board of Health.  1967.

A51   South Carolina Pollution Control Authority. "Section  II".  Water Classifi-
            cation - Standards System for the State of South Carolina!  Columbia,
            S. C.:  South Carolina State Board of Health.  1967.

A52   Water Use, Waste Treatment, Water Pollution  and  Related Economic Data
            on South Carolina Manufacturing Plants.  J. M. Stepp, Clemson  Uni-
            versity Resources Research Institute, Clemson, S.  C.  Report No. 8.
            1968.

A53   Tennessee  Stream Pollution Control  Board.  "Permits to Discharge Sewage,
            industrial Wastes or Other Waste".  General Regulations of the Ten-
            nessee Stream Pollution Control Board!  Nashville, Tenn.: Dept.  of
            Public Health, State of Tennessee.
                                     260

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A54    Tennessee Stream Pollution Control Board.  Tennessee Stream  Pollution
            Control  Law.  Nashville,  Tenn.: Dept. of Public  Health,  State of
            Tennessee.

A55    Tennessee Pollution Control Board.  General Water Quality Criteria for the
            Definition and Control of Pollution in the Waters of Tennessee.
            Nashville, Tenn.: Dept. of Public  Health,  State of Tennessee.  1967.

A56    Private Communication.   L. C.  Leatherland, 1970.

A57    Virginia State Water Control Board.  Rules with Specific Application Based
            on Climate, Geographical Area or Uses.  Excerpt of Revised Standards,
            1970.

A58    Virginia State Water Control Board.  "Rules with General State Wide
            Application".  Excerpt of Revised Standards,  1970.
                                     261

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                                 APPENDIX B


                         ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY


To supplement the report, an annotated  bibliography has been prepared.  Most of
the references come from the last six years as it was felt this information would be
of the greatest use to  the reader.  As an additional aid the abstracted articles are
grouped into eight different sections:

           1.    General Textile  Waste  Treatment

          2.    Cotton Waste Treatment

          3.    Wool Waste Treatment

          4.    Man-Made Fiber Waste Treatment
                                                                     i
          5.    Dye Waste Treatment -

          6.    Detergent Waste Treatment

          7.    Water Treatment for Use

          8.    Instrumentation and Plant Design for Waste Treatment

While most of the reported articles come under one of the above designations, some
can be classed into more than one grouping.  The reader is directed to peruse other
sections if specific information is  not listed under a particular heading.
                                     263

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                    GENERAL TEXTILE WASTE  TREATMENT
A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE OF 1968 ON WASTE-WATER AND WATER
POLLUTION  CONTROL, C. M. Weiss and others;  J.  Water Pollution Control
Fed., 41:873-1254,  (June 1969).

         Literature on analytical methods, wastewater treatment, water
         pollution, and industrial wastes is reviewed.  Of particular
         interest is the literature review of tannery,  textile, and wool
         scouring wastes.

POLLUTION  CONTROL: EVERYONE TO BLAME, T. A. Alspaugh (Cone
Mills Corp.);  Modern Textiles Mag. 50: 21, 23-24,(Nov.  1969).

         The  author reviews the general problem of pollution and empha-
         sizes the need for fundamental research in ecology, chemistry,
         the effect of pollutants, and other areas. He discusses the use
         of solvents in sizing, desizing, dyeing, and finishing, and the
         effects of biodegradability and biochemical oxygen demand on
         water treatment.

ABSTRACTS OF 1969  ASME/AIChE POLLUTION CONFERENCE.  PART 2,
Am.  Dyestuff Reptr. 58:31-34,  (Aug. 1969).

         Eight papers on  various phases of water pollution control are
         summarized.

CLEANER STREAMS,  LOWER COSTS, Textile Inds.  133: 138, 142, 144,
153,  (Mar.  1969).

         By 1977, the net waste discharge by the cotton finishing industry
         is expected to be  half the 1963 level as a result of shifts to new
         processes in  finishing plants.  Some of the changes that have
         already been made in desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerizing,
         and  dyeing are  outlined along with factors influencing the waste
         load and waste  treatment costs.

POLLUTION  CONTROL  EFFORTS:  TELL THE WORLD ABOUT IT, Textile
Inds. 133:71-73,  (June 1969).

         Proceedings  of a symposium on pollution control sponsored jointly
         by the AATCC  and the Departments of Commerce and Interior
         are summarized. 36 experts from industry and government spoke
                                    264

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         on various aspects of the subjects, describing methods of treat-
         ing wastes efficiently,  reporting cost cutting technological
         developments, and emphasizing the need for greater participation.

FEATURE REPORT:  POLLUTION  PROBLEMS, Am.  Dyestuff Reptr. 58: 11-29, 31,
(July 1969).

         This report includes 5 articles, some of which are abstracted
         individually, and summaries of some papers given at the 1969
         ASME/AIChE Conference on Stream Pollution Abatement.

USE OF WATER AND DISPOSAL OF EFFLUENT FROM UNDERTAKINGS IN THE
TEXTILE  INDUSTRY.  CONFERENCE OF THE INSTITUTE  FOR INDUSTRIAL
WATER AND AIR PURIFICATION (Cologne),  November 21,  HELD AT FRANK-
FURT/MAIN, Dittrich.  Z. ges.  Textilind.  71, No. 2: 127-128, (1969),(German)
Through World Textile Abstr. 1:  1333,  (1969).

         Abstracts of the following are given: (1) Practical experience of
         the Institute for Water and Air Purification in water and effluent
         problems in textile mills,  by H. Fathmann:  (2) Advantages and
         disadvantages of a combined chemical/biological effluent treat-
         ment  in the textile industry, by H.  Jung: (3) Possibilities for  the
         reuse of used water in the factory, by H. Riemer; (4) Costs and
         fees for the removal of  effluent, by W. Gassier (the use of a pri-
         vate treatment and disposal unit is compared in cost with the use
         of public sewage systems).

WATER POLLUTION CONTROL IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY, Textile chemist &
Colorist  1:  171-187,  (Mar.  1969).

         The following papers, delivered at the AATCC symposium on water
         pollution control, are published:  (1) Better management of water
         resources is a must if future heeds are to be met,  by K.  L. Kollar
         (U. S. Dept. of Commerce),  p. 171-173:  (2) Federal assistance
        available to companies  establishing pollution control programs, by
        W. J. Lacy and A. Cywin (Fed. Water Pollution Control Admin.),
         p. 173-176, (3) Treating wastes in a water short area, by D. M.
        Wells and H. M. Clay, p. 176-179, (4) Research on treatment of
        dye wastes, by D. L. Michelsen (Va. Polytechnic Inst.), p. 179-
         181,  (5) Water quality management in  Virginia,  by A.  H.  Paess-
         ler (Va. Water Control  Board), p.  181-184,  (6) Availability of
        quality water is important in picking a plant site, by T.  A. Fridy
         (Lockwood Greene Engineers),  p.  185-187.
                                    265

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WATER POLLUTION CONTROL IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY, Textile Chemist &
Colorist 1:  142-157, (Mar.  1969).

         Highlights are given of papers presented at a 2-day symposium
         sponsored by AATCC's Stream Sanitation Technology Committee
         in cooperation with the U. S. Departments of Commerce and
         Interior, held March  1969 in Washington,  D.C.: (1) Industry
         has a poor public image, by R. W. Armstrong; (2) No credit
         where credit's due, by D. Byrd; (3) (Seven separate papers)
         What the mills are doing  to control water pollution, by B.  V.
         Hill (Am.  Enka Corp.), W.  I. English (Burlington Inds.),
         J. L.  Brown, Jr. (Cannon Mills), A. L. Smith (Chatham Mfg.
         Co.), T.  A. Alspaugh (Cone Mills),  J. C. Pangle,  Jr. (Dan
         River Mills), M. Bright,  Jr.  (M. Lowenstein & Sons).

MORE PROGRESS NEEDED  IN WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, T.  A.
Alspaugh (Cone Mills Corp.), Am. Textile Reptr. 83: 32-33 (April 1969).

         Proceedings of an AATCC symposium on water pollution control
         in the textile industry are summarized.  The symposium brought
         together members of the industry and government officials to
         discuss and review progress made in water  pollution control  to
         date and to examine future goals.

POLLUTION CONTROL: INTERVIEW, W. I. English (Burlington Inds.),
Modern Textiles Mag. 50:21-23,  (Nov.  1969).

         The techniques being  used for treatment of industrial wastes at
         Burlington Industries are discussed, and the urgent need for
         more  research on the problem of water purification by chemical
         and biological methods is stressed.

TEXTILE EFFLUENT TREATMENT WITH FLUE GASES,  J. S. Franklin, K. Barnes,
and A. H. Little; Intern.  Dyer 142: 427-432,  (Sept. 1969).

         The treatment of waste caustic mercerizing liquors, in a textile
         factory,  utilizing the acidic fractions of boiler flue  gases is
         described.  A description of the effluent is given and alternative
         treatment methods  are briefly reviewed.  Laboratory work and
         an indication of the calculations leading to the plant design are
         included and the installed plant is described.   Some operational
         and performance data are provided, together with an indication
         of the calculations leading to the plant design are included and
         the installed plant is described.
                                     266

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TEXTILE WASTES—A BIBLIOGRAPHY, C. D. Livengood; Water Resources Research
lnst.f N.  C. State Univ., P.O.  Box 5006, Raleigh, N.C.  27607,  (Feb. 1969).

        Abstracts of literature references relative to textile wastes as
        stream pollutants and published no earlier than  1954 are given.
        Abstracts from Chemical Abstracts,  Textile  Technology Digest,
        Shirley Institute Abstracts,  and Water Pollution Abstracts through
        June 1968 are included.  The bibliography  is keyword coded and
        indexed and the abstracts are listed alphabetically  by author's
        last name.

FOR BETTER POLLUTION CONTROL,  J. W.  Masselli and N. W. Masselli
(Wesleyan Univ.), Textile Inds. 133:65-69,  (June 1969).

        This is the report of an interview with two chemists at the Wesleyan
        University's Industrial Waste Laboratory on  the problem of stream
        pollution in the textile industry.  Various effluent treatment pro-
        cesses are discussed, and steps in a  pollution control  program are
        outlined. Cooperation among industry, government,  and the
        public is urged.

METHODS FOR PROCESSING RESIDUES  OBTAINED IN  THE PURIFICATION OF
TEXTILE EFFLUENTS, J. Rouba; Tech. Wlok. 18, No. 3: 91-95,  (1969), (Polish)
Through World Textile Abstr. 1:3220,  (1969).

        Physical chemical characteristics of sludges obtained in the
        purification of textile effluents are outlined and methods of
        processing are  discussed.

STUDY OF FILTRATION OF  POST-COAGULATION DEPOSITS FROM TEXTILE
MILL EFFLUENT, J. Rouba; Przelad Wlok. 23, No.  6:301-304, (1969) (Polish)
Through World Textile Abstr. 1: 6143,  (1969).

        Effluent from the cotton and wool industries has been investigated.

REVIEW OF  THE LITERATURE OF  1967 ON WASTE-WATER AND WATER POLLUTION
CONTROL,  C. M. Weiss and others; J, Water Pollution Control Fed. 40: 897-1219,
(June 1968).

        Literature relating to wool and wool  scouring wastes, cotton and
        blends wastes,  and synthetic fibers wastes.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND WATER CONSERVATION, Intern. Dyer 140: 617,
(Nov. 1968).
                                    26?

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        The following papers presented at the Shirley Institute Conference
        on Effluent Treatment and Water Conservation are summarized:
        (1) Treatment of textile wastes in pilot plants, by H.  S.  Gardner
        (Shirley Inst.); (2) Activated sludge treatment for waste purifica-
        tion,  by J. R. Simpson (Univ. of Newcastle); (3)  Water  Conser-
        vation and future prospects for industrial supplies,  by D.  H.  New-
        some  (Water Resources Board); (4) Water usage in textile processes,
        by A.  H.  Little (Shirley lnst.).

POSSIBILITIES OF BIOLOGICAL PURIFICATION OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT
TOGETHER WITH URBAN SEWAGE, J. Debula and A.  Nalberczynski; Przeglad
Wlok. 22, No. 3: 151-154 (1968), (Polish) Through Shirley Inst. 48: 3591 (1968).

        The Biofloc, Turofloc and  'contact stabilization1 methods are
        discussed.

AN ANALYSIS OF TEXTILE WATER WASTES AND A PROCEDURAL FORMAT FOR
SOLVING EFFLUENT PROBLEMS,  R. D.  Elliott; MS Thesis, N. C. State School of
Textiles, Raleigh, N. C. (1968).

WATER REQUIREMENTS IN THE TEXTILE  INDUSTRY, L.  Erbert; Deut. Textiltech.
18, No. 6: 375-380, (1968), (German) Through Shirley Inst. 48: 3715,  (1968).

        Tables of water consumption are  given for the dyeing and
        finishing of stockings and  for finishing processes in the wool
        and silk Industry, and  in the finishing of nonwovens.

THE INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION  OF WATER,  I. THE PROBLEM FACING THE TEX-
TILE INDUSTRY IN FRANCE, Kamblock,  G.; Industrie Text., (France), 963,  825,
(1967); Shirley Inst. Abs., 48,  4163, (1968).

II.  PURIFICATION TREATMENTS,  Industrie Text., (France), 964, 67, (1968);
Shirley Inst. 48, 4163, (1968).

III. PURIFICATION TREATMENTS,  Industrie Text., ( France), 969, 448,  (1968);
Shirley Inst., 48, 4163, (1968).

        A review of textile wastes problems in France and the methods
        of handling them.

RECLAIMING TEXTILE WASTE WATERS, Pangle, James C.,  Jr. (Dan  River Mills,
Inc.), U. S. 3, 419, 493  (CL.  210-44),  (31  Dec.  1968), Appl. 22 Dec. 1966;
5pp.
                                    268

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         Textile mill waste waters contg. dyes, wetting and scouring
         agents, caustic soda, and other textile chemicals are reclaimed
         by the addn. of CaO and CO2.  CaO is added to adsorb impu-
         rities followed by settling out as sludge.  A gas contg. CO2and
         air aerates the CaO treatment effluent to produce a foam which
         is removed, broken, and recycled to the waste water.  The ef-
         fluent from the foam treatment is held in a  quiescent zone, al-
         lowing CC>2 to escape and CaCC*} to ppt.  resulting in reclaimed
         water characterized by a pH of 7-7.5, approx. 30 ppm. Ca,  a
         very low BOD, and a low degree of hardness.  The sludge and
         pptd. CaCO are  burned to provide CaO and CO2 that are re-
         cycled to the  process.

PROCESS WATER AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH TEXTILE EFFLUENT,
F. H. Slade; Textile Mfr., 94, p. 14-18, (1968).

         Trade effluents contain organic and inorganic substances, and
         the  problems in various sections of industry must be assessed indi-
         vidually to ensure treatment which does not contravene the
         (British) Public Health Acts or the Rivers (Pollution) Acts.
         Modern methods and equipment are discussed in this article.

EFFLUENT  PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTION, J. J. Priestley; Chem. Process
(London) 14,  No. 7: 8-11, (1968) Through Chem. Abstr. 69, No. 16:  61398,
(1968).

         After a brief description of the legislation regarding discharge
         of trade wastes into public sewers and rivers, the need for a
         full  survey of discharges from all production units including
         oxidation towers, activated sludge and percolating filters,
         alkaline textile wastes, acid effluent, steel pickling effluent,
         and coagulation and sedimentation of suspended solids is
         discussed.
METHODS FOR PURIFYING TEXTILE EFFLUENTS, J. Rouba; Tech. Wlok.  17,
No.  6: 188-190, (1968), (Polish) Through Shirley  Inst.  48: 4495, (1968).

         Mechanical, chemical, physico-chemical,  and biological
         methods for the treatment of industrial wastes are discussed
         briefly.  In order to reduce the quantity of  industrial effluent
         discharged into reservoirs,  the reuse in technological processes
         of water with a low degree of impurities (a  'closed-circuit1
         system) is considered.
                                     269

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NOTES ON THE REUSE OF WASTE LIQUORS IN THE PRODUCTION OF TEXTILES,
T. Sedzikowski and W. Dobrowolski; Przeglad Wlok. 22,  No. 8: 434-436, (1968),
(Polish) Through World Textile Abstr.  1: 1956,  1969.

        The reuse of waste liquors carried away into sewage systems
        of textile mills was studied in order to relieve the shortage
        of water supplies, and also to comply with  general require-
        ments regarding the economy of water.  General results of
        studies carried out at the Textile Research  Institute at Lodz
        are presented with the authors' opinions and suggestions for
        further work on the topic.

PROCESS WATER AND TEXTILE EFFLUENT PROBLEMS, PART 2., Slade, F. H.;
Textile Mfr., 94, p.  89-93 and 99, (1968).

        Biological treatment of effluent, oxygen transfer, continuous
        sludge removal, flocculation, difficult wastes, and the
        Lubeck process are considered.

PROCESS WATER AND TEXTILE EFFLUENT PROBLEMS, PARTS,  Slade, F. H.;
Textile Mfr. 94: 276-281,  (July 1968).

        Methods of treatment of  dyeing and finishing effluent are
        described with Joshua Wardle Ltd. (dyes and finishers) as an
        illustrative example.  Effluent treatment plant instrumentation
        is discussed in terms of pH control and flow control and measure-
        ment equipment.  Traditional methods  of drying sludge (in  lagoons)
        and incineration methods and equipment are considered.

PROCESS WATER AND TEXTILE EFFLUENT PROBLEMS, PART 3, Slade, F.  H.
Textile Mfr. 94: 224-227,  230, (June 1968).

        Features of plastic filter media, equipment and techniques for
        treating wool scouring effluent, calcium chloride treatment,
        and neutralization by boiler flue gases are  discussed  in this
        part.  1.  ref.

PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER FROM THE SCOURING OF FABRICS, Antipova,
P. S.   (VNII VODGEO, Moscow, USSR),  Tekst. Prom. (Moscow),  (1968), 28  (6),
73, (Russian).

        Waste water from the "Red Rose" hosiery mill contained  260-400
        mg./l. anionic and 400-1000 mg./l.  nonionic compds.  Ca alum-
        inate was used for the treatment and was preprd. in the waste
                                     2?0

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         waters from 50-100 mg./l. A12(504)3  (based on the Al) and
         1000 mg./l. milk of lime (based on active CaO).   If the quan-
         tity of anionic compds.  was 2= that of the nonionics, then Ca
         aluminate removed 94-6% of anionics and 55-65% nonionics.
         An addnl. treatment by flotation was not required.

SEDIMENTATION TANKS AND  CLARIFIERS,  A.  H.  Little;  Paper Maker:
94, 96, 98, 100-102,  (Sept. 1967), Through  Shirley Inst. 48: 449,  1968.

         Studies in relation to textile trade  effluents are described.

ACCELERATED CLARIFICATION OF EFFLUENT, M. R. Tixerant  (Water Eng. Ltd.)
Intern. Dyer  137: 577-579,  (Apr.  1967).

         In the Water Engineering Ltd. settling tank sludge settlement is much
         accelerated and more compact in its settled form over a greatly re-
         duced area.  Mechanical  clearing  of the  sludge is dispensed with.
         Features and action of the WEL tank are described and illustrated
         with diagrams.

TEXTILE MILL PRODUCTS.  Vol. 3.  THE COST OF CLEAN WATER, U. S.  Dept.
of the Interior, Federal Water Pollution Control Admin., (Sept. 1967), Industrial
Waste Profiles No. 4.

         This volume contains detailed information on processes and
         wastes, gross waste quantities, waste  reduction practices, and
         cost information in wool textile weaving and finishing and in
         cotton and synthetic textile finishing.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTEENTH SOUTHERN WATER RESOURCES AND
POLLUTION  CONTROL CONFERENCE,  Dept. of Civil Eng., Duke Univ.,
Durham,  N. C.  (1967).

         These conferences are sponsored jointly by Duke University,
         North Carolina State College,  and the University of North
         Carolina.  Included in the proceedings are two papers of specific
         textile  interest:  (1) Reuse of plant effluent as process water, by
         W. J. Day, p. 75-80;  and (2)  Separation and analysis of color-
         producing agents in water and wastewater and nonionic exchange
         resins, by T. F. Walser, p. 81-86. A symposium, by State, on
         Water resources problems and research needs in the Southeast  is
         also included.
                                    271

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PLASTICS IN WASTE TREATMENT.  PART 2., M.  W. Askew; Process Biochem.  1,
No. 1:31-34, (1967) Through Chem. Abstr.  66, No. 14:58697, (1967).

         Pilot-plant studies on textile and resin wastes are noted briefly in
         a general report on the treatment of effluent. A two-stage treatment
         over Flocor resulted in 58.0-64.2%  BOD removal for textile wastes;
         for synthetic resins,  phenol removal after one stage was 95%.

PLASTICS IN WASTE TREATMENT, Askew, M. W.: Process Biochem.,  1,
p. 483-486 and 492, 1966; 2, p. 31-34, (1967).

         The author discusses the standards for trade effluent imposed and
         expected in Europe, Canada and U. S. A.  As a result of these
         higher standards new methods of treatment have been devised using
         polyvinyl chloride corrugated-sheeting units which can be used in
         place of established biological filtration media, where cost, space
         and technical problems make the use of activated-sludge tanks and
         other conventional methods impracticable.  The characteristics of
         Flocor medium and its advantages over conventional filter media
         are described and examples are given of its use to treat waste waters
         from distilleries,  breweries fruit and vegetable processing, and
         textile plants.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF TEXTILE  EFFLUENTS,  A. I. Biggs (Confed. of
Brit. Ind.), Chem. &  Ind., No. 37: 1536-1538, (Sept. 1967).

         The author reviews the research which has been carried out in the
         field of biological treatment of textile effluents without attempt-
         ing to deal with the  problems of harnessing these results to practi-
         cal use at individual works.

WATER POLLUTION AND WASTE CONTROL IN THE TEXTILE  INDUSTRY,
P. Brannock (N.  C. State  Univ.), Textile Forum 25: 10-13, (Dec. 1967 -
Jan. 1968).

         The treatment and disposal of textile effluents in North Carolina
         are briefly surveyed  under the following headings:  Evaluation
         of the pollution problem; Sources and types of textile  process
         wastes;  Characteristics and effects of pollution;  Determination
         of a course of action; and Reduction of wastes by in-plant process
         control.
                                     272

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 SIMPLIFIED CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER FROM TEXTILE FACTORIES
 WITH CLARIFYING, FLOCCULATING,  AND PRECIPITATING AGENTS,
 Dietrich,  K. R.; Text.-PRAX., 22, (2), p.  126-127, (1967), (German).

         Mixtures of electrolytes containing Al^,  Fe^  , Fe"1"*, Si^", and
         Ca   are more effective flocculating agents than those containing only
         Fe   cations.  Applied to textile plant sewage at < 50 mg./l., the
         mixtures drastically reduce the organic matter, ppt. or absorb dyes
         and P compounds,  and improve the drying of the sludge; the effects
         are largely independent of pH.

 WATER RESOURCES GUIDE FOR TEXTILES, T.  E. Elders; Master's Thesis, Georgia
 Inst. of Technol., Atlanta, Ga., (1967), 102  p.

         Suggestions, data, and general  directions to assist the textile
         industry in solving water problems are  discussed under the follow-
         ing headings: legal stipulations, water supply, water purification,
         waste water treatment, and in-plant modification.

 EXPERIENCE IN DECONTAMINATION OF EFFLUENTS FROM THE  RODNIKOVSKY
 SPINNING MILL,   Krasovskii,  L. V.: Gig. Sanit., 32,  (7), p.  98-99, (1967),
 (Russian).

        A table is given showing the change in color,  ph, suspended solids,
         BOD, etc., produced by a purification plant involving said traps,
         settling basins, and aero-tanks.  The coli-index required chlorina-
         tion and a graph of residual Cl vs. dosage is included.  Promising
        redns. of coli-index and no. of colonies were obtained with irradn.
        by using a  low-pressure Ar-Hg lamp.

 MECHANICAL TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT,  Krasovskii, L.  V.; Tekstil. Prom., 27,
 (10,  p. 61-62,  (1967), (Russian).

         The use of screens, sand traps, and settling tanks in the treatment
        of textile-processing effluent  containing fibre, bits of fabric,
         insoluble particles of dye, and chemical auxiliaries is discussed.

TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTE LIQUORS,  A. H. Little (Shirley Inst.), J. Soc.
Dyers Colourists 83: 268-273, (July 1967).

        The character of textile waste liquors,  the estimation of organic
         load in waste liquors, treatment methods, water reuse, and
        analytical effluent tests are examined in this paper.
                                    273

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THE USE OF WEAK-ACID CATIONIC AGENTS TO REMOVE ZINC FROM HIGHLY
MINERALIZED WASTE WATERS, V. K. Marinich, N.  L. Shevchenko, and O. V.
Flrsova; Khim. Volok, No. 2: 63-65, (1967), (Russian) Through Shirley Inst. 47:
2485, (1967).

         Zinc compounds can be almost completely removed from waste
         waters with the aid of weak-acid cationic agents KB-4 and
         KB-4P-2. On average, the consumption of agents normally
         used in effluent purification (soda, caustic soda) is reduced by
         30%, the method is less cumbersome  in application, and less
         equipment and plant is required.  The method is suitable for the
         removal of zinc from highly mineralized effluent from viscose
         cord and staple fiber production.

TEXTILE WATER POLLUTION CLEANUP PICKS UP SPEED, Pinault, R. W.;
Textile World, 117,  p.  52-66,  (1967).

        The problem of textile  water pollution and what government
         regulations mean to the textile manufacturer are examined.
         Factors to be considered in the selection of an effluent treat-
         ment system are discussed and case studies of the waste treat-
         ment plants now in use at five different textile mills are cited.

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS  ON  THE HORIZON OF FERRUGINOUS
ACCUMULATION OF NORTHWESTERN MESHCHERA SOILS, V.  S. Shishova and
V. T. Dodolina; Kokl.  TSKhA  No0 124:85-93,  (1967) Through  Chem. Abstr. 68:
8312, 1968.

         Laboratory experiments were carried  out to determine the effect
         on soil samples of wastewaters from a textile factory and a phar-
         maceutical plant that  contain large amounts of inorganic salts
         and that are used for spray irrigation.  It was  found that the alka-
         line wastewaters reduced  the acidity of ferruginous soil samples
         and did not cause leaching of the iron; in humus soils, the amounts
         of alkaline earth elements and organic substances were reduced.

PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY,  C. Strugaru and
G. Cristescu; Industrie Textile  18, No.  12: 743-746, (1967), (Rumanian) Through
Shirley Inst. 48:994, 1968.

         Problems of the treatment of textile effluent prior to its discharge
         into a  municipal drainage system are discussed.
                                    274

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 EFFLUENT PROBLEMS AND THEIR TREATMENT IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY,
 T. H.  Summers (Nalfloc Ltd.)/ J. Soc. Dyers Colourists 83: 373-379, (Sept. 1967).

         Textile effluent problems and treatment in the U. K. are discussed
         under the following headings:  legislative progression,  textile
         industry effluents, determination of effluent characteristics,
         methods for resolving effluent problems, principles of treatment,
         neutralization of effluents, synthetic detergents, color, bleachery
         wastes, and future trends.

 WATER AND EFFLUENTS, R. W. Moncrieff; Textile Mfr. 93: 11-13, (Jan.  1967).

         Lectures presented at a half-day symposium by the London Region
         of the Soc.  of Dyers & Colourists on Nov. 4,  1966 are summarized:
         (1)  Water for the dyehouse, by T.  H. Morton
         (2)  Water usage  in rinsing, by G.  J.  Parish
         (3)  Surface active agents in processes and effluents,
             by W. V. Barnes and S. Dobson
         (4)  Treatment of effluents, by A.  H. Little

 TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF THE SLUDGE IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENTS,
 Vogel, W.; Milliand Textilber., 48, (8), p. 950-954,  (1967), (German).

         Sludge from textile effluent has a high water content, and before
         disposal  must be treated to separate this water.   Equipment for
         various methods of sludge treatment is reviewed.  The methods include
         rotting and stabilizing, static and dynamic water separation,
         drying, combustion,  and conversion to compost.

WATER POLLUTION:  CHALLENGE TO INDUSTRIAL LEADERSHIP, L. L. Jones, Jr.
 (Canton Textiles Inc.), Textile Bull. 92: 68-69,  (Mar.  1966).

         Industrial responsibility for effective pollution control is emphasized.

 ELECTRIC FLOTATION OF SUSPENDED PARTICLES WITH THE USE OF FLOTATION
REAGENTS, B. M. Matov; Elektron. Obrab. Mater., Akad. Nauk Mold. SSR No. 3:
80-82, (1966), (Russian).

        Waste water from a silk production  plant has been clarified by
        flotation of suspended particles in an electric field.  Various
        flotation reagents were  used; optimum conditions were obtained
        with 0.4 g/l of ferric chloride.
                                    275

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PRESENT STATUS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE-WATER TREATMENT INSTALLATIONS,
G,  Pais, R.  Mitroiu, and H. Weinberg; Hidrotch.  Gospodarirea Apelor Meterol.
11, No. 3: 149-155, (1966), (Rumanian).

        Figures for silk and wool industries are included in analytical
        data (pH values, total suspensions, and organic matter) on waste
        waters from various industries,,  Methods of waste water treatment
        are also discussed.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY WARS ON STREAM WASTE POLLUTION: AN STN INDUSTRY
SURVEY, Allen, F.: Southern Textile News, 22,  p.  1, 2, 10, 11,  (Aug. 1966).

        Textile industry efforts to combat stream waste pollution are
        illustrated with specific examples.

BIOLOGICAL WASTE TREATMENT SYSTEMS, Dravo Corp., Water & Waste
Treatment  Dept., 1  Oliver Plaza,  Pittsburgh, Pa.  15222, (1969), 12 p.

        Features of various Dravo biological waste treatment systems are
        described,  and textile applications are indicated.

PROCEEDINGS OF THE  FIFTEENTH SOUTHERN WATER RESOURCES AND
POLLUTION CONTROL CONFERENCE, Dept. of Civil Eng., N. C. State Univ.,
Raleigh, N. C.  (1966).

        These conferences are sponsored jointly by Duke University,
        North  Carolina State University, and the University of North
        Carolina.  Included in the proceedings are two papers of
        specific textile interest:   (1) Applicability of optimization
        techniques to textile mill waste treatment, by J. M. DeBruhl
        and C.  Smallwood, Jr., p. 63-80;   (2) Recoverable warp sizes,
        by R. N.  Berrierand H. Y. Jennings, p. 81-83.

SYMPOSIUM ON WASTE-DISPOSAL PROBLEMS OF SOUTHERN MILLS,
Am. Dyestuff Reptr., 44(12), p.  279-400, (1966).

        Papers on Relation of Federal stream pollution to laws and industry;
        Cotton slashing with synthetic compounds as means toward pollution
        abatement; Bleaching and dyehouse waste studies; Textile waste
        treatment in Texas;  Biological treatment of mixture  of highly alka-
        line textile-mill waste and sewage; Classification of streams in
        Georgia;  South Carolina and North Carolina; Pollution control
        by recovery of caustic soda.
                                    276

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 VERSATILE ION EXCHANGE RESINS CAN SOLVE POLLUTION PROBLEMS,
 Am. Textile Reptr., 80, p. 19, 21 and 61, (1966), (Farbenfabriken Bayer AG.).

         This paper reports on the treatment of raw textile waters using
         ion exchange resins.  It considers economy of equipment
         installation in new or remodeled plants.

 WATER AND EFFLUENTS, Intern. Dyer 136: 916-917, (Dec.  1966).

         Summaries are given of the following papers presented at the
         half-day symposium by the London Region of the Soc. of Dyers &
         Colourists on  Nov. 4,  1966:
         (1) Water for the dyehouse, by T. H. Morton
         (2) Water usage  in rinsing, by G. J. Parish
         (3) Surface-active agents  in processes and effluents, by
            W. V. Barnes and  S.  Dobson
         (4) Treatment of effluents, by A. H. Little

 PURIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, Asendorf,  Erich.;  Chemikerztg., 90,
 (16),  p. 573-578,  (1966), (German).

         Thumbnail descriptions of processes for the following wastes
         are given:  aldehydes,  acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, amines,
         bisulfite,  H2S, HCN,  chromic acid, tanning wastes, fibrous
         materials,  F compounds,  carbon dust, dairy wastes, oil and
         petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, phenols, starch manufg.,
         acids, metal  ions, textiles, clay, and sugar.

 IN-PLANT PROCESS CONTROL FOR ABATEMENT OF POLLUTION LOAD OF
 TEXTILE WASTES, Ganapati,  S. V.; Environ. Health  (India), 8 (3), p. 169-173,
 (1966).

         The redn. of waste production procedures at a textile mill is
         discussed.  It  is possible to reduce the vol. and strength of the
         waste by recovery of certain salvageable substances.  It is also
         possible to recover much  waste heat during the processes.  A
         significant quantity of pollution results from the waste of the
         sizing process. This can  be reduced by utilizing chemicals with
         a lower BOD such as synthetic sizing agents which produce wastes
         with a much lower BOD than those from natural sizing agents.

THE PURIFICATION OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT, Hamburger, B.;  Text! I-Praxis, 21,
(1), p. 39-41,  (1966),  (German).
                                    277

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        A short survey of physical,  chemical and biological methods is
        made.

 ACID PROTECTION AND  EFFLUENT TREATMENT IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY,
W.  Heynemann and H.  J. Bradke; Spinner Weber Textilveredlung 84, No. 8:
850-857, (1966), (German) Through  Shirley Inst. 46: 5243, (1966).

        Special treatments to prevent attack by acid on floors of workshops
        are described; films of polyisobutylene offer short-term protection
        but bitumen or acid-resistant tiles are needed for permanent pro-
        tection. A short survey of small-scale effluent treatment tanks is
        given.

THE STATE OF THE ART OF WATER USE AND WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE  TEXTILE
INDUSTRY (1950-1966), L. D.  Jones and  W. L. Hyden; Georgia Inst. of Technol.,
Water Resources  Center, Atlanta,  Ga., 30332, (June 1966), 61 p., WRC-0166.

        This report provides a comprehensive listing and a general review
        of the technical literature of textile mill processes related to  liquid
        waste production,  treatment, and  disposal.  It covers  the period from
        1950 to 1966.  Processes related to the  manufacture of cotton, wool,
        silk,  flax, and manmade fiber products are discussed.  Problems such
        as excessive color  in plant effluents, the effects of synthetic deter-
        gents on waste treatment, and waste-heat recovery are high-lighted.
        Special emphasis is placed on problems which are in need of accel-
        erated research effort.

WATER AND EFFLUENT. PART 4, M. Kehren; Z.  ges.,  Textil-lnd. 68, No. 8:
602-606, (1966), (German) Through  Shirley Inst. 46: 4976, (1966).

        This supplementary article publishes recent statistics on the
        consumption of water by industries in Germany,  and the most
        recent news of surface active agents which are biologically
        degradable.  Four  recent publications on fatty-acid sugar esters
        are summarized.

WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN MODERN TEXTILE OPERATIONS, Kuisel, H. F.;
Oesterr.-Abwasser-Rundsch., LL, (5), p. 80-84, (1966),  (German).

        Utilization of Lake Constance as a drinking water reservoir, and
        an agreement between Austria, Germany, and Switzerland place
        limitations on waste water into the lake to:  suspended solids < 0.3,
        org. solvents and extractable matter by petroleum ether  
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         matter,  and temp.  < 30  .  Activated sludge is poisoned by
         chemicals used in the textile industry (phenol, urea-formaldehyde
         or mineral oils) as these are liberated in biol. treatment.  Collect-
         ion and  mixing of all effluents  of a textile plant is a partial solution
         to this problem, having excess  Cl decolorizing dyes In soln.   The
         temp, can be controlled by a heat exchanger, which also results in
         a fuel savings.  The water  is clarified and treated by activated
         sludge,  to be used as an org. fertilizer.  High pH and BOD are
         reduced by aeration for 48 hours; hard detergents are to be ex-
         cluded either by legislation or  voluntarily.  Phenol  is to be re-
         moved in the  plant by ion exchange, and may be recovered.
         Examples are  given of treatment in various textile plants.

ELECTRIC FLOTATION OF SUSPENDED PARTICLES WITH THE USE OF FLOTATION
REAGENTS,  Matov, B. M.; Elektron. Obrab.  Mater., Akad.  Nauk. Mold. SSR, (3)
p. 80-82,  (1966), (Russian).

         Waste water from a silk production plant has been clarified by
         flotation of suspended particles in an electric field.  Various
         flotation reagents were used; Optimum conditions were obtained
         with 0.4 g/l  of ferric chloride.

WATER IN THE SERVICE OF INDUSTRY, Streatfield, E. L.;  Chemistry and
Industry, Vol 14, p. 569, (1966).

         A general survey on textile and other  industrial wastes.

QUESTIONS ON WASTE WATERS FROM THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY,  F.  Taresay,
Wass.  Boden 18:276-280, (1966) Through Water  Pollution Abstr. 40: 1712,
(Oct.  1967).

         Textile industry waste waters containing acids, alkalies, dyes,
         and fibers have a high oxygen demand, and therefore require
         preliminary treatment. Details are given of laboratory and
         pilot-plant experiments which have to be carried out by the
         textile industry in planning the  treatment necessary before the
         waste waters can be discharged  to the municipal  sewer to reduce
         the pollution  load.

THE BOD OF TEXTILE CH EMICALS: UPDATED LIST -  1966, Am. Dyestuff Reprr.,
55, p. 685-688, (1966), RA58 Stream Sanitation  Techno!., AATCC Committee.

         The list gives  (1) name of chemical, (2) 5-day BOD %,
         (3) references, (4) chemical composition and use.


                                     279

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE FOURTEENTH SOUTHERN WATER RESOURCES AND
POLLUTION CONTROL CONFERENCE,  Dept.  of Environmental Sciences & Eng.,
Univ of N. C., Chapel Hill, N.  C.  (1965).

        These conferences are sponsored jointly by Duke University,
        North Carolina State University, and the University of North
        Carolina.  Included in the proceedings is one paper of specific
        textile interest:  Developing patterns for efficient water utiliza-
        tion:  textiles, by C. A. Willis,  p.  100-104.

TEXTILE EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL  (Papers read at a conference at
the Shirley Institute  on Nov. 17,  1965).  Cotton,  Silk & Man-Made Fibres Research
Assoc., Shirley Inst.,  Didsbury, Manchester 20, England,  1966.

        Contents: (1) Planning for trade-effluent disposal, by
        P. C. G. Isaac, p. 9-34;  (2) Treatment of waste waters from
        the textile  industry, by A. B. Wheatland, p. 35-39 (14 refs);
        (3) Pollution by textile effluents in the Mersey basin, by C. Lumb,
        p. 60-76;  (4) Stratification in sedimentation tanks, by
        A.  H. Little, p. 77-92.

TEXTILE EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL.  THE COTTON AND MAN-
MADE FIBRES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, Shirley Inst. Pamph., 1966, No.  92,
92 pp 20s;  At  a conference at the Shirley Institute, Manchester, (November 1965).

        The following papers were  read:  (1) Planning for trade-effluent
        disposal, Isaac,  P. C. G.;  (2) Treatment of waste waters from
        the textile  industry, Wheatland,  A. B.;  (3)  Pollution by textile
        effluents in the Mersey basin, C. Lumb;  (4)  Stratification in
        sedimentation tanks, A.  H. Little.

A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE POLLUTION IN  SOUTH
CAROLINA, Hann,  R. W., Jr. and F. D. Callcott: Industrial Waste Conf.
 (Purdue),  20, p. 538-550, (1965).

        This study discusses the major industries (the textile industry is the
        largest) using the waters of South Carolina.  Their processes are
        examined and the location and magnitude of their waste discharges
        noted.  The scope  of the various  industries in relationship to their
        waste discharges as compared to one another and to the domestic
        population is calculated.  7 references.

TEXTILE MILL  EFFLUENT  CONTROL, Lawton,  E.; Textile Forum,  23, p.  8-14,
47-57,  (1965).
                                    280

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         The varied character of textile wastes, waste recovery systems,
         analysis of waste waters, and methods of waste treatment are
         described.

THE EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON SOIL FILTRATION,  H.  Reploh and
H.  Kustermann; Arch. Hyg.  Bakteriol.  149,  No. 7/8:627-635, (1965),  (German)
Through J. Textile Inst. Abstr. 57: W624,  1966.

         Soil filtration of sewage was found to be effected, detrimentally,
         by textile-mill effluent.  Tests showed that the highly alkaline
         effluent reduced the filtering speed of the soil by dissolving humus
         substances,  but that this could be overcome by neutralizing the
         effluent with sulfuric acid.

WASTE DISPOSAL BY TEXTILE PLANTS, A.  L. Smith (Chatham Mfg. Co.),
J. Water Pollution Control Fed. 37: 1607-1613,  (Nov. 1965).

         Sources of wastes and general methods of removal are discussed,
         followed by two examples:  (1) how a multifiber woolen mill
         solved a problem in solids removal and in incomplete treatment,
         and (2)  how a plant processing synthetic fibers made good use of
         aeration for handling sludge.

TREATMENT STUDIES OF COMBINED TEXTILE AND DOMESTIC  WASTES,
Lauria, D. T. and C.  A. Willis; Proc. 19th Ind.  Waste Conf., Purdue  Univ.,
Engng. Extn. Ser. 117,  p. 45-58,  (1964).

         At Valdese, N. C., more than 80 percent of the total waste flow
         consists of waste waters from the dyeing and finishing operations
         at textile mills.  The existing sewage works are overloaded and,
         since the effluents are discharged to a creek flowing into a lake
         used for recreational and water-supply purposes,  it was decided
         to carry out pilot-plant experiments to obtain data for the  design
         of a new plant for biological treatment of combined domestic
         sewage and textile waste waters.  The method of treatment chosen
         was a low-load ing completely-mixed process, and results showed
         that reductions in BOD of 90 percent could be obtained with BOD
         loadings of at least 2 Ib. of BOD per Ib. of sludge per day. The
         proposed new plant,  which will have a capacity of 3.2 m.g.d., will
         comprise facilities for screening and grit removal, lagoons with me-
         chanical surface aerators, sedimentation tanks, facilities for chlori-
         nation of effluents, and a solid-bowl centrifuge for thickening excess
         sludge before disposal as landfill.
                                    281

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APPLICATION OF THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN ELECTRODE TO THE TREATMENT
OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES,  Mathews, L.  A.; Proc. S. Munic. Ind. Waste Conf.,
13, p. 89-96, (1964).

         Determination of oxygen up-take and respiration by aerated sludges
         of textile and dyeing wastes treated by the activated  sludge process
         is discussed.

HYGIENIC ASPECTS OF THE TREATMENT OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY WASTE WATERS
CONTAINING CHROMIUM SALTS, USED FOR IRRIGATION, Sedova, G. P.;
J. Hyg. Epidem. Microbiol. Immun., 8,  p.  281, (1964);  and  Zentbl.  Bakt.
Parasitkde, I, 200, Ref., p. 407,  1965.

         Details are given of experiments carried out  on the treatment of
         textile industry waste waters containing chromium salts for use in
         Irrigation. Results showed that trivalent and hexavalent chromium,
         present in clay soil in amounts of 0.1 mg.  per  100 g.  of soil, had no
         adverse effects on  the nitrification  process.  Irrigation with undiluted
         waste waters containing chromium inhibited the formation of nitrate-
         nitrogen  in the soil but had a growth-promoting effect on plants such
         as cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes.   When using waste waters contain-
         ing chromium for irrigation, the waste water must be diluted, so that
         the chromium content does not exceed 0.5 mg. per litre and the amount
         of irrigation should not exceed  2000 m  per ha.

THE ECONOMICS OF BASE METAL RECOVERY BY ION EXCHANGE, A. B.
Mindler (Permutit  Co., Paramus, N. J.), Met. Soc.  Conf.  24, 851-8, discussion
858-0,  (1963).

         Data are presented to demonstrate that industry producing base
         metals may profit by ion exchange,  esp. where the metal concn.
         is low.  The examples are taken from the textile industry in which
         5000 tons Cu and Zn, as oxides, are recovered each  year from
        waste solns.  Costs are given for the Zn circuit, but the costs
         should be similar for a Cu circuit.  Also a  new process (abiperm)
         is described for recovering Na from sulfite pulp waste liquors.
                                    282

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                         COTTON WASTE TREATMENT
PROCESS FOR SIZING TEXTILES AND THE DISPOSITION OF SIZING WASTES
THEREFROM, Bode,  H.  E.; U.S. P. 3,093,504.

         By allowing starch to react with alkali metal phosphates under
         prescribed conditions, involving heating in a semi-dry state, it
         is claimed that reagents can be produced which develop colloidal
         properties suitable for sizing cotton warp at a relatively higher
         viscosity than that required with the parent starches.  As a result,
         only about half the usual  weight of size is required and only half
         the usual weight of size solids appear in the desizing liquor, thus
         reducing the pollution load,  fn addition, desizing can be carried
         out simply by heating  in water, with no resultant degradation of
         the basic starch molecule, and the desizing liquor can be used as
         make-up liquor for further desizing; alternatively, it can  be treated
         to recover the starch solids by precipitation with a material, such as
         barium hydroxide or lime, which will supply a cation to neutralize
         the charge on the anionic starch polymer; after removal of the pre-
         cipitated starch phosphate by centrifuging, filtration,  or sedimen-
         tation, the  effluent is substantially free from B.O. D. attributable
         to the starch size.

WASTE TREATMENT  STUDIES AT CLUETT,  PEABODY AND COMPANY FINISH-
ING PLANT, R.  H.  Southern; Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 58: 13-16, (July 1969).

         Data on pollution effects  of textile processing wastes,  effects on
         modified extended contact bio-aeration, and effects of in-plant
         mercerizing caustic recovery are given.  The results of trials with
         caustic soda recovery units are discussed.

KINETICS OF REMOVAL OF STARCH IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS,
Banerji,  S.  K.,  B. B. Ewing, R. S. Englebrecht, and R.  E. Speece; J. Water
Pollution Control Fed.,  40, (2), Part  1, p. 161-173, (1968).

         A laboratory-scale study of the kinetics of starch removal  in
         activated sludge systems revealed that first-order kinetics
         prevail during the initial aeration period, with  the removal-
         rate constant dependent on food-to-microorganism ratio rather
         than on  initial sludge concentration.  Removal of total chemical
         oxygen demand follows zero-order kinetics and  depends on initial
         mixed liquor suspended solids.  The effect of temperature on both
         removal rates is significant.  In aerobic systems, further break-

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        down of starch breakdown products occurs inside microbial cells.
        Anaerobiosis has no effect on starch degradation under good mix-
        ing conditions,  but greatly retards total COD and total  carbo-
        hydrate removals.

MECHANISM OF STARCH REMOVAL IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS,
Banerji, S. K.7  B.  B. Ewing, R. S. Englebrecht, and R.  E. Speece; J. Water
Pollution Control Fed.,  40, p.  16-29, (1968).

        A laboratory experiment on the removal of starch from textile
        desizing processes is reported. An explanation of the mechanisms
        involved in removal of potato starch by activated sludge is offered.

EFFECT OF THE QUANTITY OF WATER USED IN FABRIC BLEACHING ON THE
DEGREE OF WHITENESS ATTAINED AND ON THE CONTENT OF IMPURITIES IN
EFFLUENT, H. Jakubowica; Tech.  Wlok.  17, No. 10:316-318,  (1968), (Polish)
Through Shirley  Inst. 48: 5705,  (1968).

        Experimental work on the  bleaching of cotton fabrics and viscose
        in rope form on Kleinewefers,  Benteler, and  QL-1 equipment is
        reported.

COMBINED TREATMENT OF COTTON MILL AND DAIRY WASTES WITH SEWAGE,
Petru A.; Water Waste  Treat., 11,  (12), p.  532-533,  (1968).

        The combined treatment of cotton mill and dairy wastes with
        sewage was evaluated by treating synthetic sewage made from
        dried milk and textile wastes from an operating cotton mill.
        The wastes were tested manometrically.  These manometric tests
        were followed by tests in a laboratory model, two-stage  activated
        sludge  plant.  The combined waste could be effectively treated.
        Shock loading of alkaline  pH was adequately handled.  S   17,
        Cr 1.68 (as K2Cr2O4), and Cu  (as CuSO4) 41 mg./l.  were
        without effect.  Retention times of one hour in the primary and
        three hours in the secondary stage yielded acceptable results,

USES OF CAUSTIC  SODA RECOVERED FROM THE MERCERIZATION PROCESS
IN THE TEXTILE  INDUSTRY, D. F. Becknell; Master's Thesis, Georgia Inst. of
Technol.,  Atlanta,  Ga.  (1967).

        Recovery and  reuse of sodium hydroxide from the mercerization of
        cotton  textiles have been  investigated for the purposes of economy
        and reduction of water pollution.
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THE TREATMENT OF KIER LIQUOR IN A MIXTURE WITH SEWAGE, K. A. Deigh-
ton; Water Pollution Control 66, No. 5: 484-491, (1967) Through Shirley Inst. 48:
177, 1968.

         It has been established that Greenfield (Lancastershire) sewage
         containing kier liquor and other trade effluents can be successfully
         purified by two-stage treatment using a partial-treatment activated-
         sludge plant followed by biological filtration.   While no set of con-
         ditions  ensured a 30:20 effluent at all times, departures from this
         were generally slight. On average, during the later stage of the
         experiment, effluents were within the 30:20 standard.

RECIRCULATION AT SEWAGE WORKS TO DEAL WITH KIER COTTON LIQUOR,
Munic.  Engng.,  Lond.  144:2317, (1967) Through Water Pollution Abstr. 41:
1633, Sept. 1968.

         An illustrated description is given of new sewage works under
         construction that are designed to treat a dry-weather flow of
         0.75 m.g.d., including 0.1 m.g.d. of cotton kiering waste-
         waters.   Treatment is by biological filtration with 1.1 recircu-
         lation of effluent and results are given of pilot-plant experiments
         showing reductions in biological and chemical  oxygen demand
         obtained with single and alternating double filtration.  With al-
         ternating double filtration and 1.1 recirculation, a biological
         oxygen demand reduction of 95.7% was achieved.

SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY IN  THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY,  C.  S.  Carrique
and L.  U. Jauregul; U.  Proc. 21st Ind. Waste Conf., Purdue Univ., Engng, Extn.
Ser. No.  121:861-868, (1966) Through Water Pollution Abstr. 40: 1891,
Nov. 1967.

         The Castelar textile mill  in Buenos Aires, Argentina, has provided
         a treatment plant for coagulation  of the waste waters with aluminum
         sulfate,  followed by chlorination  before discharge to a storm drain.
         Since the waste water from the cotton mercerizing process is very
         alkaline, it was decided  to segregate  it for recovery of sodium
         hydroxide; the waste water is filtered  to remove fine colloidal
         matter and is then evaporated in a double-effect system to produce
         colorless concentrated sodium hydroxide. Diagrams of the recovery
         system are included and the costs  are estimated.
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IN-PLANT PROCESS CONTROL FOR ABATEMENT OF POLLUTION LOAD OF
TEXTILE WASTES, S. V. Ganapati; Environ. Health 87 No. 3: 169-173, (1966)
Through Chem. Abstr.  66, No. 6: 21985,  1967.

        Reduction in the volume and strength of textile mill waste by
        recovery of certain salvageable substances (and also recovery of
        waste heat) is discussed.  A particular aspect mentioned is the
        reduction of sizing waste; this can be effected by using synthetic
        sizing agents which produce wastes with a much lower BOD than
        those from natural sizing agents.

WASTE LIQUORS FROM THE MERCERIZATION OF COTTON FABRICS AND
LIMITING  OF WASTE WATER ALKALINITY, Jaromir Nosek; Vodni Hospodarstvi
16 (7), 288-91,  (1966),  (Czech).

        In the mercerization process, the consumption of mercerization
        caustic  depends mainly on the humidity of the fabric  entering and
        leaving the mercerization machine.  To reduce the caustic con-
        sumption, increased wringing by the machine and use of waste
        liquor for the dissoln. of the fresh caustic are suggested.

TREATMENT OF  WASTES FROM COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY, Rao, V. Rama;
Technology (Sindrr), Spec.  Issur. 3, (4),  p. 56-58,  (1966).

        The vol. of waste water discharged from 87 cotton textile mills at
        Ahmedabad (India) varies between 10,000 and 3,000,000 gal./day.
        Waste waters are chiefly from bleach and dyehouse and contain
        fibrous and suspended solids.  Owing to great variations in the
        characteristics of the waste water,  it was not appropriate to mix
        it directly with sewage.  Modified pretreatment methods of waste
        treatment in each plant were worked out,  which consists of coagu-
        lation by lime and gypsum followed sedimentation and filtration
        through a gypsum filter.

BIOLOGICAL PURIFICATION OF PRODUCTION EFFLUENTS FROM COTTON
BLEACHING, Zawadzki, Jerzy; Biul.  Inst. Wlok., 177  (2), p.  1-5, (1965),
(Polish).

        Investigations were made on a lab. scale on the possibility of
        purifying waste waters from cotton bleaching for further utilization.
        Purifications were  carried  out by the activated sludge method.   To
        ensure the  development of microorganisms, 1 g. K, P, and  N (in
        form of NH3)/m.3 of effluents.   It was impossible to det. on the
        lab. scale  the optimum amt. of air needed for decreasing 5-day
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         BOD in effluents.  The purified waste waters could be reused for
         rinsing raw cotton after bleaching.

UNIQUE TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR CHEMICAL COTTON WASTES,  B. W. Dick-
erson (Hercules Powder Co., Wilmington, Del.),  Proc.  Ind. Water Waste Conf.
5th, Dallas, (1965), 397-427.

         Processing of cotton I inters consists essentially of cooking with a
         caustic liquor, washing, bleaching, packaging, and passing the
         purified product through a regular paper machine.  Three methods
         of handling the wastes were investigated: evapn., burning, and
         recausticization for recovery of caustic soda; the Zimmerman pro-
         cess; and  biol. oxidn.  The  last method appeared to be the  most
         feasible.   Batch aeration studies showed that with proper diln.,
         pH adjustment, and nutrient addn.,  the composite waste was
         amenable to such treatment under aerobic conditions.  Semipilot-
         plant studies showed that good  purification of the waste may be
         obtained with an aeration period of  16-24 hours.  Based upon the
         data obtained in these studies,  a pilot-plant operation was  devised.
         After months of operation, sufficient data was accumulated for
         design criteria to be developed.  The full scale plant design
         developed is described and also shown pictorially.
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                         WOOL WASTE TREATMENT
THE CENTRIFUGAL RECOVERY OF WOOL GREASE, Wool Sci. Rev.  No. 37:
23-36, (Oct. 1969).

        Various aspects of the centrifugal method are discussed in this paper
        and a procedure is given for achieving maximum profitability.  The
        topics covered are:  structure of the wool scour liquor, general prin-
        ciples of recovery, primary separation,  the secondary centrifuge,
        the purifier centrifuge, and scouring and centrifuging procedures for
        maximum grease recovery. The economics of wool grease recovery
        and the future demand for wool grease are also covered.

NEW ZEALAND WOOL SCOURING LIQUORS-TREATMENT AND POTASSIUM
RECOVERY, J.  L.  Hoare, R.  G.  Stewart, and B. J.  Sweetman; N. Z. J. Sci. 12,
No. 2:237-251,  (1969) Through World Textile Abstr. 1: 5694, (1969).

        Some results are given of the effect of acidification on a series of
        nonionic detergent stabilized  New Zealand wool scouring liquors.
        By treatment with sulfuric acid to pH 3.5 the emulsion is cracked
        but phase separation is generally poor.  The potassium contents of
        67 samples of 48s Romney Crossbred wool were determined and two
        methods of recovering potassium from wool washings were examined
        on a laboratory scale. At present the most satisfactory way of treat-
        ing effluent from wool scouring is in admixture with domestic wastes
        in a conventional treatment plant.

WATER POLLUTION:  SPECIFIC  POLLUTION BY GREASY WOOLS, B. Koussens;
Bulletin Trimestriel. Centre Textile de Controle et de Recherche Scientifique
No. 74: 236-245,   1968, (French) Through World Textile Abstr. 1: 848, (1969).

        The effluents from the scouring of several types of greasy merino and
        crossbred fleece wools and Mazamet skinwool were analyzed  for
        matter in suspension, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen
        demand, and organic matter content,  the last three  being determined
        after being decanted for 2 hrs. Soap-soda and detergent scours were
        compared.

PURIFICATION OF EFFLUENT FROM WOOL SCOURING MILLS, Y.  Y. Lur'e and
P. S.  Antipova: Tekstil, Prom. 28, No. 2:  13-14, (1968), (Russian) Through Shir-
ley Inst. 48: 2244,  (1968).

        A chemical method for the removal of anionic synthetic detergents
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        from wool scouring wastes which contain too high a concentration
        for discharge into a municipal sewage works is described.  It in-
        volves the use of potassium aluminate or other sorbents which act
        in alkaline medium; in the experimental work this was used to re-
        move dodecylbenzenesulfonate from the effluent.

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOL-SCOURING WASTE,
Ogawa, Hiroshi; Horikawa, Kunihiko; Yasuda, Makoto; Kagami, Tsunejiro
(Kanagawa-ken Kogyo Hokoku), (1968),  (21), 35-45,  (Japanese).

        Coagulation and subsequent activated sludge treatment for wool
        scouring waste was investigated.  Gravitational sedimentation was
        effective for inorg. substances but not for oily org. substances.
        Acid sedimentation by ^$04 reduced S.S.<  6000  in 70-80%
        efficiently at pH 3-4. After the acid sedimentation, B.O. D. and
        C.O. D.  were reduced to 400-5600 and 146-1630 ppm., followed
        by neutralization with Ca(OH)2- Grease recovery was investigated
        regarding solvent  (ClCr^Ch^CI, CCI^  C$2/ n-hexane, and pe-
        troleum ether) extn. and centrifugal  method.  After the chem. treat-
        ment B.O.D. and CO. D. were reduced to 900-1500 and 400-800 ppm.
        resp.   In final activated sludge treatment C.O.D. 75% and > 1-2 hrs.
        B. O. D.  75% elimination was achieved.  After over-all treatment
        B.O.D. and C.O. D. were reduced to 15-70 and 60-120 ppm., resp.,
        and the transparency   >30 cm.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER FROM WOOL WASHING PLANTS
WITHOUT CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENT,  A. Petru. Vod.  Hospod.  17: 108-109,
1967,  (Czech),  (English summary) Through Water Pollution Abstr. 41:878 (May 1968}

        Previous experiments have shown that wool washing waste waters
        could be treated biologically in admixture with sewage after pre-
        liminary chemical treatment, and further experiments have now
        been carried out to investigate the possibility of omitting the chem-
        ical treatment.  The results showed, however, that satisfactory treat-
        ment could be achieved only by a two-stage biological  process,
        treating a mixture of 1 part of waste water to 80 parts of sewage.

ACID METHOD FOR ADDITIONAL DECREASING OF WASTE WATERS OF WOOL-
WASHING PLANTS, Radvinskii, M. V.; Martynova, A. P. (USSR).  Vodosnabzh,
Kanaliz. Gidrotekh. Sooruzh.  Mezhved.  Resppub. Nauch.-Tekh.  Sb.  1967, No.  5,
87-7  (Russian)  From Ref. Zh., Khim.  (1968), Abstr. No. 121497.

        Waste waters contain  significant amt. of wool fat after flotation
        and sepn. About 60-70% of the indicated  ^$04 content is spent
                                    289

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        for alky, neutralization of waste waters and only 30-40% for
        acidification to pH 3.5.  Before releasing the degreased waste
        waters Into the effluent system,  they can be neutralized by
        partial combination with alk.  rinsing waters of the last vats.
        Acid demulsification  of predild. waste waters at 40-50° resulted
        in favorable wool fat pptn.  process.

EFFLUENTS AND BYPRODUCTS, R.  E. F. Gardner,  F. Hunter and P.  Ramsden
(City of Bradford Sewage Dept.); J. Bradford Textile  Soc: 89-95, (1967-1968).

        The three authors give separate accounts of the water supply,
        water pollution,  and  sewage purification in  Bradford in relation
        to the  high concentration of the wool scouring industry there.

EXPERIENCES WITH PLANTS TREATING  WASTE WATERS FROM THE WOOL
INDUSTRY, Lebedev, M., and Agalova, V.; Vodosnab. sanit. Tekh.,  (1967),
No. 4, 34-37.

        Details are given of experiences in the treatment of wool industry
        waste waters at a mechanical-biological plant in Ulan-Ude,
        U.S.S.R.   The plant, which has been  operated  successfully for
        two years,  provides two-stage biochemical treatment, and the
        sludge is used as manure.

FINANCIAL RETURN FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE PR E-TREATMENT, Reich, J. S.;
Proc.  22nd Industrial Waste Conference,  Purdue Univ., Extension Service,
Vol. 129,  p. 92, (1967).

        Article discusses problems encountered with wool waste in the
        city of Philadelphia.  Several wool fulling and  scouring plant
        discharges  to the city's biological  treatment plans have caused
        problems.   It was found that fibers were being lost that could be
        recovered at a profit.  The  plants made changes in their waste
        screening  procedures and recovered this valuable material.

INVESTIGATIONS  INTO THE CENTRIFUGING OF WOOL-SCOURING LIQUORS
FOR WOOL-GREASE RECOVERY.  I.  THE PRIMARY CENTRIFUGE, Anderson,
C. A., and G. F. Wood; J. Text. Inst., 57, p. T55-T64,  (1966).

        Experiments were carried out using an  Alfa-Laval  sludge-discharge
        centrifuge, type FVK4, to determine the effect of various factors
        on grease  recovery.  In general  the centrifuge was inefficient at
          settings that gave very low or very high cone, of grease in the
                                    290

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         product, the optimal cone, being 15+/-5%; procedure is described
         for adjusting the centrifuge for optimal production,

EQUIPMENT FOR WASHING AND DECREASING WOOL, Spinner Weber  Textil-
veredlung 84,  No. 5: 533-534,  (1966), (German) Through Shirley Inst. 46: 3359,
(1966).

         A method due  to the Stiftelsen Svensk Textilforskning gives wool
         a rhythmical shaking in the liquor which should not cause felting.
         Two others methods are described in which  the wool is sprayed
         with aqueous detergent solution.  A variation of the CSIRO method
         is for the  treatment of lumpy wool without causing further felting.

WATER POLLUTION, Lab.  Essais Chambre Comm. Magamet  No. 2:  16-22, (1965),
(French)  Through J. Textile Inst. Abstr. 57: W625,  (1966).

         Results are reported from a simple installation of two decanting tanks
         for treating effluent in a Magamet de-wooling plant where water  is
          supplied  from a stream that is also the outlet for effluent.

CARPET MANUFACTURING EFFLUENTS AND THEIR TREATMENT,  Evers, D.:
J. Proc.  Inst.  Sew. Purif., Part 5, p.  464-470,  (1966).

         Carpet processing effluent is divided into categories - effluent
         from (1) scouring of raw wool  and yarn,  (2) dyeing, (3) sizing,
         (4) latex ing, (5) moth-and mildew-proofing.  If a firm discharges
         all these effluents, the smaller volumes of effluent from latexing
         and proofing will be lost in the larger volumes from scouring and
         dyeing.  If only dyeing and latexing are carried out, acid dye
         liquors will precipitate latex and clog sewers.

FIT WASTE WATER TREATMENT TO INDUSTRIAL PROCESS,  Nebolsine,  R. and
Donovan, E. J.; Plant  Engineering, Vol.  20, p.  140, (1966).

         Discusses  the treatment of wool along with  other wastes.

PRESENT STATUS OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE-WATER TREATMENT INSTALLATIONS,
Pais, G.; R. Mitroiu, and  H. Weinberg;  Hidroteh.   Gospodarirea Apelor  Meteo-
rol., II,  (3), p.  149-155, (1966), (Rumanian).

         Figures for silk and wool industries are included in analytical
         data (pH values, total suspensions, and  organic matter) on
         waste waters from various industries.  Methods of waste water
         treatment are also discussed.
                                    291

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PHYSICAl/CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WOOLEN MILL EFFLUENT AND
PURIFICATION TRIALS,  M. Rusanovschi, E. Iliescu, and B. Zilberstein;
Industrie Textile 17, No. 3: 160-164, (1966), (Rumanian) Through Shirley Inst.
46: 3503,  (1966).

        Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the waste waters from
        woolen mills have been investigated and an attempt has been
        made to establish a purification technique which will treat the
        effluent to such an extent that final purification may be carried
        out at the domestic sewage plant.  Two purification techniques
        are suggested: chemical coagulation and absorption.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WOOL SPINNING WASTES, Tanaka, M.,
Dazai, M.,  and Ono,  H.;  Hakko Kogaku Zasshi  (Japan), 42, 5, 306, (1964):
Chem.  Abs., 64,  19181,  (1966).

        Article covers work on the mophilic methane fermentation of wool
        spinning waste.  The  digested liquor was mixed with the dye liquor
        and backwash water and treated in an activated sludge plant.

METHOD FOR DISPOSAL OF  INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER, Yoshikara, A.,
Yoshikara, T.,  Okada,  K.  and Sakaguchi,  S.; U. S.  Patent 3, 163,598; Jour.
Textile Inst.  Abs., 57, 626,   (1966).

        Authors covered the treatment of wool wastes with wood, charcoal
        or the like, then treatment with zinc compounds (cheap by-prod-
        ucts of industrial processes).

DEVELOPMENT TRIALS OF PLANT FOR THE CONTINUOUS PURIFICATION
OF SOLVENT-EXTRACTED WOOL GREASE, J.  Brach; Ann. Sci. Textiles Beiges
No.  4: 65-85, (1965), (French) Through J.  Textile Inst. Abstr.  57: W243,  (1966).

        Plant for the continuous treatment of solvent-extracted wool
        grease by the De Smet Neumi process is described.  The ex-
        tracted grease is mixed with hexane, alcohol, water,  and
        soda.  After decanting into three phases,  treatment with al-
        cohol and water removes any traces of soaps from the upper
        phase, the solvent is distilled from the grease, and the hexane
        and alcohol are collected.  Alcohol  is recovered by water from
        the hexane, which is then available for reuse.  Data of the
        properties of the purified grease and of the operation of the
        plant are reported.
                                    292

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TREATMENT OF WOOL SCOURING LIQUORS, E. W. Clark and G.  F. Kitchen
(to Woolcombers Ltd. and Westbrook Lanolin Co.), BP 1 029 114, (May 1965),
Appl. Apr. 21, 1964.

        The invention covers a method for removing detergents from the
        waste liquor to facilitate recovery of wool grease and produce
        a purer effluent for disposal  in public sewage systems.

EFFLUENT CONTROL IN THE CARPET INDUSTRY, Evers, D.; Textile Inst. Ind. 3,
p. 237-240, (1965).

        The characteristics of effluents resulting from scouring,  dyeing,
        sizing, latexing, mothproofing, and mildewproofing are discussed.

DISPOSAL OF WOOL SCOURING RINSINGS, Y. Yajima, N.  Todo, T.  Oda,
and G. Fujiwara  (to Kanematsu Woolen Mills  Ltd. and Takuma Boiler  Mfg. Co.
Ltd.), BP 1 128 921,  Oct.  2,  1968, Appl. (Japan)  (Oct. 1964).

        The scouring effluent is separated into coagulated matter or
        sludge and waste water suitable for discharge into public drainage
        and the sludge is treated further to recover wool fat and fertilizer
        by means of solvent treatment.

THE PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER FROM WASHING WOOL BY MEANS OF
ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION, E. E. Grishina; Vodosnabzh.  i  Sanit. Tekhn.,
(1964),  (12), 24-7,  (Russian).

        The construction and working of a pilot plant for purifying the
        waste water from washing wool by filtration and anaerobic
        fermentation is described.  The method makes possible a decrease
        of the pH to 8.3,  the abs. B. O. D. to 25-30 mg./l/ and a com-
        plete  elimination of the wool fat. The NO3" and NO2~  content of
        the purified waste  water was 31  and 0.1 mg./l., resp.

RECOVERY OF FIBROUS MATERIAL FROM WASTE WATERS OF THE PAPER,
CARDBOARD AND CELLULOSE INDUSTRY, H.  Sommer, H. Bestian,  and D.
Bergmann (to Farbwerke Hoechst AG), USP 3 399 110, Aug. 27,  1968, Appl.
(Germany), (Mar.  1964).

        The process consists of adding to  the waste water a nitrogenous
        product obtained by the condensation of urea and a 1,  2-alky-
        lene-imine or oligomer.
                                   293

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                    MAN-MADE FIBER WASTE TREATMENT
PILOT WASTE WATER STUDY GIVES ENCOURAGING INDICATIONS,
R. S.  Sahlie and C. E.  Steinmerz (Fiber Inds. ,  Inc.).  Modern Textiles Mag, 50:
26-28  (Nov. 1969).

         Early results are reported from operation of a pilot plant designed
         to discover the most efficient methods for treating effluent from
         polyester fiber manufacture for reuse.

THERMAL DECONTAMINATION OF WASTE WATER FROM THE PRODUCTION
OF ANID (nylon 66) FIBERS,  Bernadiner, M. N.  Shurygin, A.  P.; Esilevish,
G. S.; Lepakhin, I. A.; Baskova, N. K.; Kazanskii, A. A. (USSR).
Khim Volokna (I960), (4), 67-70 (Russian).
        The concn. of H2N(CH2) 6NH2(I) in the waste effluents of a
        nylon 66  plant near Kiev is  <,0.2 wt.  %. The amt. allowed
        by Soviet  law of this toxic compound is ^O-Ol mg./l.  in water
        and 0.001 mg./l. in the air.  Hot effluents are sprayed into the
        top section of a cyclone furnace directly into the flame jets of
        burning natural gas-air mixts.  The combustion of I  is nearly 100%.

PURIFICATION OF SEWAGE FROM CELLULOSE FIBER PRODUCTION,  Kaeding,
Joachim; Erdtel, Lothar; Oehme, Rudolf.  (German)  (East) 627  267 (Cl. C 02c),
(05Jun. 1968),  Appl. lOJul.  1967.

        The title process is carried out by mixing alk., cellulose-
        production sewage with some of the acid sewage, followed by
        flocculation, sedimentation, aeration, and biol.  purification
        steps.  Thus,  heavily loaded alk. sewage and part of the  less
        heavily loaded acid sewage are put in  settling tanks for 2 hrs.
        and then measured together into a  3rd tank in a suitable ratio
        to give pH 2.5-3.0, whereupon a and 3 -cellulose are pptd.
        with some adsorbed Zn compds.  The acid liquor from the  latter
        settling vessel is mixed with excess acid sewage from the begin-
        ning of the process and neutralized with chalk or NaOh to
        pH 8-9, whereupon Zn salts are pptd.  Nutrients are added,
        e.g.  N and P salts, and the sewage is put into another settling
        tank for 1  hr. and then into an activated-sludge, biodegradation
        vessel for 4 hrs. where the residual Y -cellulose is degraded.
                                     294

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SCHEME FOR THE REMOVAL OF ZINC IONS FROM EFFLUENT BY CATION
EXCHANGERS IN A FLUIDIZED BED,  Khfm-voiok.  (USSR), 6, p.  65,  1967;
Shirley Inst., 48,  450  (1968).

        Discusses an ion exchange method of zinc recovery from viscose
        fiber production using a sodium type cation exchanger.  The viscose
        production waste waters were  not screened or settled but put directly
        through the two ion exchange columns.  After this treatment, the
        zinc was  reduced to 0.01 mg./l.

BIOCHEMICAL CLARIFICATION OF WASTE WATERS CONTAINING
CAPROLACTUM,  Kulakov, E. A., et. al.; Tr.  Vses., Nauch-lssled. Inst.
Vodosnabzhenii, Inst. Gidrogeol.  (USSR), 14, 18 (1966); Chem. Abs., 68,
15914, (1968).

        A discussion of biological purification of caprolactum containing
        waters.  It can be treated in two ways:  (a) using 5 mg/l of phos-
        phorus providing the  BOD is less than 500 mg/l., and  (b) the
        addition of municipal waste water.  The same biological process
        can be  used for either.

^FLUENT TREATMENT IN THE  MANUFACTURE  AND PROCESSING OF MAN-
MADE FIBERS, F. Rub.; Chemiefasern 18, No. 7: 524-526 (1968).  (German)
trough Shirley Inst.  48: 3776, (1968).

        The author describes a clarification plant (a Lubecker tank), a
        biological treatment system, and the Cyclator and its use in
        flocculation.

VISCOSE WASTE-PROFILE OF A SUCCESSFUL POLLUTION CONTROL
PROGRAMME, Woodruff,  P. H.; Moore, W. J.;  Sitman, W. D.; and Omohundro,
G. A.; Wat. Sewage Wks. (1968),  115, 441-450.

       An illustrated  description  is given of the plant constructed to treat
       cellophane manufacture waste waters. On the basis of extensive
        laboratory and pilot-plant studies, results of which are tabulated,
       the contact-stabilization process was selected; preliminary neutral-
       ization  of the  waste waters and addition  of nutrients are necessary.
       The limited data available on the performance of the plant indicate
       that reductions in BOD  and COD of 80 and 75-85 percent, respect-
       ively, can be  achieved.
                                   295

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RECOVERY OF ZING  FROM VISCOSE RAYON WASTE, Chakrabarty, R.  N.;
Saxene, K. L.; Chattopadhya, S.  N. (CPHERI Field Centre, Kanpur,  India).
Environ.Health India,   (1967), 9(4), 296-305.
                              (
        Chem. pptn.  was much superior to ion exchange for the removal
        of Zn.  A typical flow diagram contains 2 flocculators; the pH is
        increased to 6 in the 1st one with CaO and to 9 in the 2nd with
        NaOH.  The sludge from the 1st flocculation is discarded, while
        that from the 2nd is treated with H2SO4 and the recovered Zn is
        reused in the rayon process.

RECOVERY OF ZINC  FROM SPINNING BATH WASTE OF A VISCOSE RAYON
FACTORY BY ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS, Bhakuni, T. S.; and Bopardikar, M.V.,
Envir. Hlth, India,  (1967), 9, 327-338.

        An ion-exchange laboratory process  for the recovery of zinc from
        spinning bath solution in a viscose rayon factory is described, in
        which the zinc is adsorbed on a polystyrene-based sulphonic cation-
        exchange resin in hydrogen or sodium form and eluted with dilute
        sulphuric acid.  Percentage recoveries of over 90 percent were
        obtained.

INDUSTRIAL  EFFLUENT REUSE, Day, W. J.; Southern Engineer, Vol. 85, 56,
(1967).

        Author discusses the reuse of water from Fortrel polyester fiber
        production.  The author describes a  new plant to be built where
        water reuse will be necessary and economically feasible.  Pilot
        work was carried out at the extended-aeration activated sludge
        disposal  facilities of a similar type plant.  Plans call for the use
        of a plastic media trickling filter preceding the activated sludge
        portion to reduce the cost of the mechanical aerators.  This was
        followed by:  polishing ponds, algae removal screens, and acti-
        vated carbon (to remove organic matter).  The recovered water
        was  to be used mainly as cooling water make-up.  This will re-
        quire a continuous blow-down to control inorganic solids.

THE PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER IN THE PRODUCTION OF POLYAMIDE-
FIBER, Kaeding, J.; Fortschr. Wasserchem. Ihrer Grenzgeb., 5, p. 258-283,
(1967), (German).

        Water from the production of polyamide fibers by the steeping
        and  direct spinning processes was contaminated with org. sub-
        stances, such as e -aminocaprolacram oligomers,  products, and
                                    296

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                                                                2
         detergents.  Further knowledge concerning the amt. (55-7 m.  /ton)
         and kinds of impurities and how they can be treated was sought.
         Lab scale tests were carried out on a 2-stage biol.  treatment follow-
         ed by flocculation.  Holding times of 6-8 hours sufficed for  the de-
         compn., which was effected with more certainty and greater capaci-
         ty at 30   than at 20  . The  lactam N was consumed by the  micro-
         organisms, so that only phosphates had to be added for microbial
         decompn. Substances not easily biodegradable were removed from
         the waste water by adsorption with coagulants (Al2(SO4)3.18H2O;
         FeCl3.6H2O; FeSO4-7H2O; CaO) and the decompn. capacity
         was then approx.  that of lactam-contg. water.

PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATERS FROM THE VISCOSE RAYON INDUSTRY,
Kulakov, E. A.; and  I. N. Myasnikov; Zh. Vses. Khim. Obshchest., 12,  (6)7
p. 638-644, (1967).

         The purification of waste waters obtained from production of viscose
         silk (900 m./ton),vhcose reinforced staple (500 m. 3/t°n)/ vis-
         cose cord (700 m. Vton), and cellophane (750 m.  3/ton)  is de-
         scribed.  Sep. processes are suggested for removing all impurities,
         including acidity  4-8.5 meq./l.,  pH 2.5-2.8, CS2 20-100,  H2S  5-25,
         Zn 20-75, suspended material 120-470, dry residue 2700-6500, and
         calcined residue 2200-3500 mg./l.

FUNCTION OF SEDIMENTATION TANKS IN SEMI-INDUSTRIAL PLANT FOR
EFFLUENT PURIFICATION, Malikov, V.  A.; Khim. Volok., (3), p.  64-66,
(1967),  (Russian).

         Experimental work on the use of vertical and horizontal settling
         tanks in the  purification of viscose-production effluent is re-
         ported.  The vertical tanks are shown to have three times the
         capacity of the horizontal tanks in achieving the same  degree of
         purification  but the problem of removal of the sediment is more
         complex.

EXTRACTION OF ZINC FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATERS, Shrylev, L.  D.
and Mokruslun,  S.  G.; Zuhr. Priklad.  Khim.   (USSR) 40, 72 (1967);  Chem. Abs.,
66, 79391,  (1967).

         Removal of zinc by successive treatment with solutions  of Na2SO4,
         FeSO4, and  NaOH  is discussed.  The final separation  of zinc was
         carried out by flotation.
                                    297

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ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT OF SOME ORGANIC WASTES, Wheatlcmd,
A. B.; Proc. 22nd Ind. Waste Conf., Purdue Univ.  Extention Service, Vol. 129,
p. 983, (1967).

         Discusses laboratory work on the activated sludge treatment of
         synthetic fibers waste.  The work was carried out in three stages:
         (a) Neutralization and precipitation followed by activated sludge
         treatment,  (b) activated sludge treatment alone without pretreat-
         ment, and (c) mixing the cooling waters, the waste material, and
         domestic waste-water for treatment with activated sludge.  Carried
         out on nylon,  terylene  and polyacrylie-dyeing wastes.

SEWAGE TREATMENT IN VISCOSE FIBRE PRODUCTION, Economic Commission
for Europe.  Water Poll/Econ/Working Paper 25, (1966).

         At a meeting of experts for the study of economic aspects of water
         pollution control problems the characteristics of waste waters from
         the manufacture of viscose rayon fibres were outlined.  These com-
         prise acidic and alkaline streams which when mixed result in an
         acidic solution in which ct and  3 celluloses are regenerated and
         may be settled after flucculation.  The efficiency of flocculation
         is influenced by temperature and concentration of sulphuric acid
         and sodium sulphate; sedimentation improves at higher tempera-
         tures but is adversely affected by the presence of gas bubbles and
         by changes in atmospheric pressure.

ZINC RECOVERY FROM VISCOSE RAYON  EFFLUENT. Aston, R. S.; Ont. Ind.
Waste Conf., Proc.  No. 13, p.  215-230, (1966).

         The recovery of Zn,  in the form of ZnSO4, by ion exchange was
         successfully applied to  the treatment of effluent liquors from a
         viscose rayon  plant.  The resin used was Permutit Q, a cation
         exchanger of the sulfonated polystyrene type, operating  in the
         H cycle and regenerated with H2SO4-

REMOVAL OF ZINC FROM WASTE WATERS FROM VISCOSE FIBER PRODUCTION,
Fishman, G.  I.; Mater. Soveshch.  Molodykh Spets. Vses. Nauch. Issled. Vodos-
nabzh.  Kanaliz. Gidrotekh.  Sooryzhennii Inzh.  Gidrogeol. Ochistka Stochn.
Bod., Moscow, p.  9-15, (1966),  (Russian).

         A soda-sulfate method  is  recommended for  local clarification of
         coned.  Zn-contg.  waste waters if complete Zn removal  is nec-
         essary;  if the  latter is not required, a  soda method is recommended
         and regeneration of the Zn  is not expedient.   In the soda-sulfate
                                    29S

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        xmethod a  Na2Co3  soln. is added to the waste waters to pH 4-4,5;
         after blowing with  CO2 in a degasifier the pH  is brought to 8.5-9.5.
         The  Zn3SO3(OH)4 formed is pptd. in vertical  settling tanks.  Then
         the waste  waters are subjected to final Zn removal with Na2S  fol-
         lowed  by filtration on sand filters (Filtration rate 5 m./hr.).

COMPOSITION AND CLARIFICATION OF WASTE WATERS FROM A SYNTHETIC
FACTORY, Gantsmakher, Z.; Dokl.  Neftekhim.  Sekts., Bashkir, Respub. Provl.
Vses. KhimObshchest.,  2,  p. 143-145, (1966),  (Russian).

         Before  discharging  into  the river the clarified waste waters pass
         through 2-step biol. ponds.  The indexes of waste waters dis-
         charged from the clarifying equipment and of the river water 1  km.
         below  the discharge point are: BOD 4.12, 6.03;  Oxidizability  9.4,
         8.24; caprolactam  concn. 0.9, 0.16; dissolved  0 11.39, 7.37gm./
         I/, resp.

ELECTROLYTIC  REMOVAL OF COPPER FROM WASH WATERS FROM THE
PRODUCTION OF  RAYON  BY THE CUPRAMMONIUM PROCESS, Haake, G.
Neue Huette, II, (5),  p. 272-278, (1966), (German).

         Effects of  copper concentration,  sulphuric acid  concentration,
         and temperature have been investigated.

COMPOSITION AND PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER FROM CAPROLACTAM
PRODUCTION,  R.  A. Kiseleva  and M. S. Dudkin; Khim. Prom. 42 (10), 743-5
(1966), (Russian).

         The waste  analysts revealed that  the aq.-acid layer contained
         55% and the alk. waste water 43% of the total  amt. of dicar-
         boxylic acids. Two methods were developed for the purifica-
         tion of alk. wastes. The 1st (giving no pos. results) involved
         the use of adsorbent carbons:  type A, iodized KAD, and milled
         KAD.  In the 2nd,  the alk. waste water was treated with coned.
         H2SO4 in amnts. allowing the clarified  soln. to attain the acid-
         ity of 0.3N H2SO4.  The soln.  was then biol.  purified or distd.
         with steam (removal of monocarboxylic acids and traces of cyclo-
         hexanol),  and as result a soln. was obtained appropriate for yeast
         production.

CHOICE  OF THE TYPE OF MIXING UNIT FOR PURIFICATION OF VISCOSE-
PRODUCTION WASTE WATERS,  MaPkov, V. A.; Khim.  Volok., (5), p. 57-59,
(1966),  (Russian).
                                   299

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        The design of mixing chambers for the combination of milk of
        lime and effluent is discussed.

PURIFICATION OF EFFLUENTS FROM THE MANUFACTURE OF VISCOSE,
V. S. Morgenshtern  Ya. Z. Sorokin Yu.  E. Matuskov and V.  A. Mal'kov
(Branch All-Union Res.  Inst. Fibers, Leningrad).  Khfm. Volokna (1966), (1),
44-7,  (Russian).

        Pilot plant expts. were carried out in order to det. the best
        method of pptg. Zn from viscose effluents and of removing
        the suspended particles.  For effluents from rayon fiber manuf.,
        lime was the best pptg. agent.  Complete pptn. of Zn takes
        place at pH 9.5-10.5.  Subsequent 2-step sedimentation gives
        a high degree of effluent purification.  When the recovery of
        Zn from the effluent is recommended, e.g.  in the manuf. of
        rayon cord fibers or reinforced textile rayon fibers, pptn. of
        Zn with calcined soda and  then with  Na2S  is preferred.  The
        Zn is recovered from the sedimented ppt. by treatment with
        H2SO4  in a yield of about 90%.

CLARIFICATION OF SEWAGE FROM SYNTHETIC FIBER FACTORIES WITH THE
AID OF SINGLE-CELL ALGAE, Palamar-Mordvintseva, G. M.;  V.  K. Marinich,
V. V. Grabovs'ka, and S.  M. Neigauz; Ukr.  Botan. Zh., 23, (5),  p. 56-61,
(1966), (Ukrain).

        Expts.were conducted in  open basins to confirm data obtained
        under lab. conditions on the possibility of cultivating  Chlorella
        algae on sewage from synthetic fiber  production for the purpose of
        clarifying the sewage.  Growth and development  of algae and clar-
        ification of sewage were more rapid under natural conditions than
        in the lab.  The main clarification was completed in 1 day in the
        presence of algae.  A 3-day cultivation of the algae removed Zn,
        H2$,  S, and sulfides (100%) and C$2  (60%), and decreased    =
        BOD  by 92.5%.

USE OF SEWAGE FROM HYDRAULIC ASH  REMOVAL FROM POWER PLANTS FOR
NEUTRALIZATION AND FINAL CLARIFICATION OF SEWAGE FROM VISCOSE
FIBER PRODUCTION,  Pleshakov,  V. D. and Matsrev, A.  I.; Tr. Novocherk.
Politekhn. Inst. (USSR), 157, 29 (1964); Chem.  Abs., 65, 3551,  (1966).

        The author studied the use of an ash waste from a  power  plant to
        neutralize and clarify waste from a synthetic fiber operation.
                                    300

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 VISCOSE RAYON WASTES AND ZINC RECOVERY THEREFROM, Saxena, K.  L.,
 and R. N. Chakrabarty; Technology (Sindri),  Spec. Issur. 3 (4), p. 29-33, (1966).

         To avoid fouling and choking the sewers, acidic and alk. wastes
         are sepd.  Most of the Zn in the spent spinning soln.  can be re-
         covered by neutralization, thus reducing the toxicity of the wastes.

 VISCOSE RAYON FACTORY WASTES AND THEIR TREATMENT, Sharda, C. P.
 and K. Manivannan; Technology (Sindri),  Spec. Issur. 3 (4), p. 58-60, (1966)

         The process of viscose  rayon manuf. is briefly described.  The
         effluents from the  factory are classified as alkali,  viscose, acid
         sulfide, and sanitary.  The combined waste treatment may be
         difficult and sep.  treatment is recommended,  The process adopted
         includes neutralization and settlement, incineration, neutralization
         with  lime or limestone and trickling filter.  The addnl. problem of
         Zn removal from viscose tire cord factory is mentioned.

 AERATION, SETTLING,  AND CHLORINATION OF THE COMBINED WASTE
 FROM A VISCOSE FIBER PLANT,  Sinev, O. P.; Tr. Novocherk.  Politekh.  Inst.,
 162, p. 33-43,  (1966), (Russian).

         Treatment of waste waters in an aerator with  an air rate of
         10-10.4 m.  /m.   waste water reduced the C$2 concn. from
         41.6-82.3 to  5.2-9.0 mg./l.,  and H2S from 13.7-26 to
         1.45-3.1 mg./l.  Combined pptn. of suspended solids at pH,>10
         ensured not only intensive floccule formation and pptn. of
         hydrocellulose but also better conditions for extn.  of Zn (OH)2.
         Chlorination was most effective for a supplementary clarification
         after lime treatment and removal of suspended solids.   The Cl
         absorbability of the waste waters after lime treatment, settling,
         and filtering through a sand filter was 46-73 mg./l.  Residual
         CS2 and  H2S concns.  in the waste waters at Cl2 doses equal  to
         Cl  absorbability were  5.3-12.9 and 0-7.1 mg./l., resp.  A pre-
         liminary aeration of the waste waters at pH 3 considerably reduced
         Cl  absorbability,

REMOVAL OF ZINC FROM SEWAGE, Skylev, T.  D.;  Zhur. Priklad.  Khim.
(USSR), 39,  544 (1966), Chem.  Abs., 65,  1950,  (1966).

         A study of zinc removal that found that in an acid  solution
         Na2$  treatment to excess, then FeSO^ to excess would pre-
         cipitate the zinc.  If the waste was alkaline,  then adjust to
         acid before adding  Na2S.  The precipitate was then filtered
         to concentrate the  zinc.

                                    301

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COMBINED CLARIFICATION OF WASTE WATERS AND VENTILATION EXHAUSTS
IN VISCOSE FIBER PRODUCTION, Zakharina, S. B.; Mater. Soveshch. Molodykh
Spets.  Vses.  Nauch.-lssled. Inst. Vodosnabzh., Kanaliz., Gidrotekh. Sooruzh-
emii Inzh.  Gidrogeol., p. 79-83, (1966),  (Russian).

         A process for clarification of waste waters and ventilation exhausts
         was developed.  The latter,  contg.  H2S, enter a hollow steel
         scrubber wet with a soln. of calcined soda (30-75 g./l.)«  The
         purified gases contg.  <, 20 mg.  H2$/m.   are released  into the atm.
         Waste waters contg. ZnSO4 and 1^504 entered a mixer where the
         pH is brought to 4-5 with a soda-sulfide  soln.  To remove CO2
         formed the waste waters are passed to a packed degasification column
         to which air is fed (0.2 m./sec. ).  ZnS  is removed, dehydrated in a
         vacuum filter, and calcined in the presence of atm.  O (Sulfatizing
         calcination furnace) to obtain
APPLICATION OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVATED-
SLUDGE TREATMENT TO THE TREATMENT OF WASTE WATERS FROM
"CHEMLON" MANUFACTURE,  Zekeova, Z. N.; - Pr. vysk.  Ust. vodohospod.,
Bratislava, (1966)  No.  40 78 pp.

         Investigations  were carried out on the waste waters from the pro-
         cessing of 6-caprolactam to produce polyamide fibres of the
         "chemlon" type, and data are reported on the sources, volume,
         and composition of the  waste waters (excluding cooling water,
         which  is not treated) and on the parameters required for design
         of an activated-sludge  plant to treat the waste waters, including
         optimal loading and detention period, concentration of activated
         sludge, nutrient requirements and intensity of aeration.  Activated
         sludge from municipal sewage was acclimated satisfactorily to treat
         waste waters containing up to 600 mg. of caprolactam per litre but
         above  this level the sludge developed undesirable properties.
         During the process there was a loss of nitrogen which increased
         with increasing concentrations of waste waters and with higher
         loadings, reaching a maximum of 56.7 percent; the loss of nitro-
         gen decreased with higher concentrations of phosphate and was
         completely negligible with a nitrogen-phosphorus ratio of 2. 1.

AN INDUSTRIAL WASTE GUIDE TO THE SYNTHETIC TEXTILE INDUSTRY.
AATCC Comm.  on Stream Sanitation Technol. Prepared in cooperation with the
National Technical Task Comm.  on Industrial Wastes.   U. S. Public Health Serv.,
Wash.  (1965).

         This guide describes problems involved in the treatment of wastes


                                    302

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         from the synthetic textile industry and offers general treating
         methods.

CHIEF PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL OXIDATION OF SEWAGE FROM
CELLULOSE PRODUCTION IN AERATION TANKS, M. A.  Evilevlch; Tr. Vses.
Nauch.-lssled. Inst.  Tsellyul.-Bum. Prom. No. 51, 43-62  (1965),  (Russian).

         In the load range 118-542 mg./g.-day the concn.  of activated
         sludge had no effect on the rate and effectiveness of clarifica-
         tion.   A decrease in the sewage temp, to 10-13° also had no
         effect on these factors.  To ensure a steady performance of equip-
         ment  under low temp, conditions prolonged adaptation of micro-
         organisms is  necessary. The oxidative capacity of an aeration
         tank is directly proportional to the amt. of air used (in  the range
         28-64 m./m.   tank vol.).  Aeration tanks oerform efficiently
         at oxidative capacities of 1500-1600 g./m.  /day for sewage from
         sulfite pulp production and  1000-1200 g./m.3/day for sulfate pulp
         sewage.  In  planning, oxidative capacities of 1200 and 800 g./m.
         /day and aeration time of  >,5 hrs. are  recommended.  The air
         consumption is calcd. by the formula D = 1.430 C/KH, where OC
         is the oxidative capacity, K is the air consumption coeff., and H
         is the depth  of immersion of the aerator.  The effective dose of
         activated sludge is detd.ensuring a load on the sludge of 400-500
         in the summer and 200-50 mg./g.-day in the winter. The concn.
         of activated sludge was  >, 3 g./l.   The consumption of biogenic
         elements was caled. from the ratio 5-day BOD: N:P= 100: 4:1.

THE PURIFICATION OF VISCOSE-CONTAINING WASTES  BY THE ACTIVATED
SLUDGE PROCESS, Kaeding,  J.; and L. Erdtel; Fortschr. Wasserchem. Ihrer
Grenzgeb., 3,  p. 212-216, (1965),  (German).

         Neutralization and pptn.  of dissolved org. material in cellulose
         waste water  leaves behind about 500 population-equivs. (5-day
         BOD)/ton.  Preliminary expts. show that it  is possible to reduce
         this 90% by further biol. treatment.

USE OF CLARIFIERS WITH A FLUIDIZED/SEDIMENT FOR PURIFICATION OF
SEWAGE FROM VISCOSE FIBER PRODUCTION, V. A. Mal'kov; Sanit. Tekhn.,
Dokl. k Nauchn.  Konf. Molodykh Uchenykh Stroitelei, 1st, Sb., Leningrad
(1965),  77-88  (Russian).

         A slit-type clarifier with a removal sediment condenser  exhibited
         several advantages over All-Union Sci.-Res.  Inst.  Hydrotech.
         and Sanit.-Tech. Works clarifiers and diffusers.  The clarifier
                                    303

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        performed best at a rate of 1.4 mm./sec.  in the fluidized layer
        zone and a % suction of 25-40%.  Residual concns. of suspended
        solids and Zn in the clarified sewage were 40-73 and 3.2-6.0
        mg./l., resp. Clarification was 86-94% and 84-91% for suspend-
        ed solids and -Zn, resp.

USE OF CONTACT CLARIFIERS FOR THOROUGH  CLARIFICATION OF SEWAGE
FROM VISCOSE  PRODUCTION CONTAINING SUSPENDED MATERIAL AND
ZINC, Yu. E. Matuskov; Sanit. Tekh., Kokl.  Nauch. Konf. Leningrad.
Inzh.-Stroit.  lnst.7 23rd,  Leningrad (1965), 90-3 (Russian).

        The specific amt.  of sewage formed in various productions is:
        viscose rayon 700-1500; cord 300-700; staple 300-500 m.3/t°n
        of product.  The indexes of the total waste waters of the plant
        are:  Zn^lO-lOO, CS22-40,  H2S 2-45,  suspended solids
        50-300,  Na2SO4 1000-7000, chem.  0 demand 60-250,
        5-day BOD 30-150, solid residue 1000-10,000, calcined
        residue 500-8000 mg./l.,  and pH 1.5-12.0.  A method for
        removing Zn"*^" with the aid of lime (at pH 9.0-10.5) was
        developed.  A pilot app. consisted of a mixer, clarifiers,
        and settling tanks.

PILOT STATION  FOR THE  PURIFICATION OF THE RESIDUAL WATER IN THE
PULP, PAPER, AND ARTIFICIAL FIBER  INDUSTRIES, Stanescu, N. and V.  Sirbu;
Celuloza Hirtie,  14, (1), p. 27-30, (1965), (Rumanian).

        A pilot station for the purification of the residual water in the
        pulp, paper, and artificial fiber industries in Roumania is des-
        cribed.  The purification is first  performed phys.-chem. (neu-
        tralization, coagulation, decantation) and then biol. (strong
        agitating with compressed air, biofiltration).

DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE IN BIOLOGICAL PURIFICATION  OF WASTE WATER,
M. Thonke and W.  Dittmann; Fortschr.  Wasserchem. Ihre Grenzgeb 4: 272-277,
(1966),  (German) Through Chm. Abstr.  67,  No. 8: 36195, 1967.

        Dimethylformamide, present in the waste water from acrylic
        fiber production,  is relatively quickly degraded by an activated
        sludge treatment and provides a source of carbon and nitrogen.
                                    304

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                          DYE WASTE TREATMENT
ACTIVATED CARBON RECLAIMS TEXTILE INDUSTRY'S WASTE WATERS,
Environmental Sci. & Technol. 3:314-315, (Apr. 1969).

         Eighty percent of the process waters for dyeing and rinsing operations
         can be reused by effluent treatment with carbon reactivation in
         Calgon's Filtrasorb waste water reclamation system.
                                                              I
WILL SOLVENT DYEING SOLVE WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM?, Atlantic News
5: 1, 3,  (Nov. 1969).

         A solvent dyeing system together with efficient recovery of solvent
         is a solution to the problem of water pollution from the discharge
         of dye wastes into streams.

THE  TREATMENT AND CONTROL OF BLEACHING AND DYEING WASTES,
A. H.  Little; Water Pollution Control 68, No.  2: 178-189, (1969) Through World
Textile Abstr. 1:2640, (1969).

         The composition of typical textile waste liquors is described.
         Neutralization of alkaline kier liquor with sulfuric acid or
         with flue gases is  discussed.  Sedimentation may not always be
         necessary. Biological treatment in experimental activated
         sludge plants of bleaching and dyeing liquor is described.
         There was no pronounced difference in the performance of
         mechanical aeration and diffused air plants.

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT FOR DYEING WASTE WATERS, Effluent Water
Treatment J.  8: 355,  (1968) Through Water Pollution Abstr. 42: 820,  Apr.  1969.

         An activated sludge plant which treats waste waters from the
         dyeing of synthetic yarn and wool at the mills of John Shaw and
         Sons Ltd., is described. The 2 aeration tanks, which can be run
         in series of in parallel, are equipped  with Cavitair surface aera-
         tors. The waste water is treated to comply with the Royal Com-
         mission standards specified by the Yorkshire House and Hull  River
         Authority, and the effluent is discharged to the  river Colder.

WATER:  A PROBLEM AND A PROMISE, Monsanto Mag.  48:  10-13, (Oct. 1968).

         This article is an account of how Monsanto Biodize Systems is
         providing a practical, low-cost approach to reducing water
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         pollution at Cold Springs Bleacher/, a Pennsylvania plant
         involved in several cotton finishing operations.  The process is
         based on the biological oxidation of organic pollutants.

THE CENTRAL WASTE-TREATMENT PLANT OF THE PETROCHEMICAL AND DYE
MANUFACTURE WORKS OF BAYER,  A. G., AT DORMAGEN, Jubermann, O.,
and Krause, G.; Chemie-lngr.-Tech,,  (1968), No.  6, 288-291.

         Details are given of the operation and efficiency of the waste
         treatment plant of Bayer, A. G., in Dormagen, Germany,
         where the waste waters from the chemical and petrochemical
         industry are treated biologically,  using ejector aeration which
         through maintaining a favourable oxygen supply has proved
         satisfactory.

WATER FOR THE DYER.  PART 1., T. H.  Morton (Courtaulds Ltd.), Textile J.
Australia 43: 16-19, (Nov.  1968).

         The present and estimated future use of water in England and
         Wales is compared with available resources.  The changes In
         procurement of water and disposal of effluent implied in recent
         legislation are discussed, particularly as they are likely to affect
         the dyeing industry. The quality of water for use in the dyeworks
         is discussed in terms of dissolved and suspended impurities; and the
         methods available for the control of the  effects on the dyeing pro-
         cess of ionic solutes, residual hardness,  heavy metals, and bicar-
         bonate are summarized.

WATER FOR THE DYER,  PART 2., T. H.  Morton (Courtaulds Ltd.), Textile J.
Australia 43: 40-44, 52, 54, 60, (Dec. 1968).

         In this part,  the author covers  the quality of water  for use in dye-
         works, technical effects of water solids, and effluents from dyeworks
         in relation to water policy in Great Britain. The overall purpose of
         this paper is to show that the water supply can no longer be taken
         for granted and that dyeworks should carefully consider their use and
         disposal of this decreasing resource.

ENERGY-INDUCED CHANGES IN AN AZO DYESTUFF WASTE,  A. I. Mytelka
(Ritter Pfaudler Corp.) and R. Manganelli (Rutgers Univ), J. Water Pollution Con-
trol Fed. 40, No. 2,  Part 1; 260-268,  (Feb. 1968).

         Sterilization of water and wastewater by means of radiation is based
         on energy-induced changes in  the waste and the effect of these
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         changes on subsequent biological oxidation.  The  industrial waste
         selected for testing was an azo dyestuff mother liquor with low
         biodegradability and intense color.  The ionizing  radiation source
         was cobalt-60 gamma rays.  Parameters investigated include total
         organic carbon (TOC),  COD, BOD, dye concentration, color,
         solids, and pH.  Results show a decrease in the above variables,
         and a waste more amenable to biological oxidation as radiation
         dosages increased.

DISPOSAL OF DYE AND FINISHING HOUSE WASTES AND SIMILAR MATERIALS,
E. C. Oden; Water Sewage Works  114: 367-368, 1967.  Through Water Pollution
Abstr. 41: 1504, (Aug.  1968).

         The author discusses the design and operation of systems for the
         disposal of dyeworks waste waters.  His recommendations include
         the use of a holding tank with a retention period long enough for
         fibers to be removed from the liquid surface and the construction
         of covered trenches filled with limestone and sand to receive
         waste waters before discharge to surface water.

RECOVERY OF  HEAT FROM LIQUID EFFLUENT IN DYEHOUSES, F.  O. E.
Schwenkler, Spinner Weber Textilveredlung 86, No.  8:705, (1968),  (German)
Through Shirley Inst. 48: 4497, (1968).

         It  is estimated that half the  heat energy in hot dyeing liquors can
         be recovered: the heat exchanger is shown diagrammatically.

THE QUANTITY AND COMPOSITION OF WASTE WATER  FROM A HOSIERY
MILL, Spivakova,  O.  M.; Neimark. G.  I.; Krasnoborod'ko, I.  G. (Leningrad
Inzh.-Stroit. Inst., Leningrad, USSR), Tekst. Prom (Moscow),  (1968), 28(6), 71-2,
(Russian).

        Waste waters were analyzed from a large knitting and hosiery mill
         in Leningrad where scouring, bleaching, and dyeing is done;
         11,000 m.3  of waste water/24 hrs. is discharged into the city
        sewers from this mill.  It is recommended that waste water should
        be decolorized, purified from surface-active materials to a certain
         level,  and then be dild. with city sewage and treated by aeration
        on city's sewage plant.

PRELIMINARY WORK FOR A JOINT SEWAGE-TREATMENT PLANT FOR THE
DYEWORKS OF BAYER A. G. AND  THE WUPPERVERBAND, Weber, H. H.  and
Mersch. F.  Chemie-lngr-Tech.,  (1968), No. 6, 272-274.
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         Following extensive pilot-plant experiments to find the most
         efficient treatment for the waste waters of Bayer's chemical works
         which contain a heavy load of organic substances, it was decided
         that these waste waters should receive full biological treatment in
         the joint sewage-treatment plant of the Wupperverband.   Those
         containing weak acids will be discharged to the  North Sea together
         with the effluents from a titanium works.  The waste waters from
         both industries containing  inorganic substances should first be suf-
         ficiently diluted with cooling or rain water before they are dis-
         charged to the Rhine.

POLAROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF NITRO COMPOUNDS  IN WASTE
WATERS  FROM THE ANILINE DYE  INDUSTRY, Zaitsev,  P.  M.;  Krasnosel'skii,
V. N.; Dichenskii, V. I. (USSR), Zavod. Lab.,  (1968)34(8), 940-1, (Russian).

         This method is particularly applicable to waste waters contg.
         p-nitrophenetole, o- and p-nitroanisole, and aminonitrocresoL
         Into a 15 ml. flask, place 1-30-g. sample of waste water,
         15 ml. MeOH, a definite vol. of ION NaOH, 0.5 ml.  of 0.5%
         gelatin  soln., and  H2O to mark.  Stir, remove dissolved O, and
         analyze in a polarograph.  The  El/2 = 0.75-0.80 v. indicates
         the content of nitroanisoles and nitrophenetoles and the  El/2 =
         0.98-1.05 v. the content of nitrophenols.  In the anal,  of waste
         waters from the production of aminocresol contg. up to 1 g./l.  of
         3-nitro-4-cresol the error does not exceed 4%.

PERFORMANCE  OF PLASTIC FILTER MEDIA IN INDUSTRIAL AND DOMESTIC
WASTE TREATMENT, Chipperfield, P. N. J.; J. Water Pollution Control Fed.,
39, p. 1860-1874, (1967).

         In Great Britain, a plastic medium for packing trickling filters
         has been developed and tested with domestic and industrial wastes,
         including textile dyeing and finishing wastes. The  medium (Flocor),
         consisting of alternate plain and corrugated sheets of polyvinyl
         chloride, is said to be inexpensive and efficient.

TREATMENT OF  INDUSTRIAL WASTE.  VI.  TREATMENT OF SULFUR  DYE WASTE,
4.  Ichikawa, Kunisuka;  Maeda, Yoshimichi (Himeji Inst. Technol., Himeji, Ja-
pan), Himep Kogyo Daigaku Kenkyu Hokoku, (1967), 20A 91-6 (Japan).

         The waste stack gas,  contg.  10% CO2, was successfully used to
         neutralize the alk. S dye waste. It  is necessary to remove Na2S
         by oxidn. provided the waste contains considerable amts. of
         Na2S.  After the neutralization, the waste can be clarified either
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         by the addn of FeSO4 or the electrolytic treatment applying
         1-10 v.d.c.   Though the electrolytic treatment is efficient and
         economical,  further investigation on the electrode problems is
         required.

CLARIFICATION  OF WASTE WATER CONTAINING DYES.  III.   PRECIPITATION
OF DIRECT DYES AND ACID DYES BY IRON SALTS, Hda, H.,  and Endo,  M.;
Rep. Govt chem. ind. Res. Inst., Tokyo, (1967), 62, 134-138; J. appl.  Chem.
Abstr.,  1968, 18, i.333.

         Studies on the treatment of dyeworks waste waters by coagulation
         with iron salts showed that treatment with 80 p.p.m.  ferric iron,
         as ferric chloride, removed 96 percent of the direct dyes and 60
         percent of the acid dyes from a  100 p.p.m.  solution; addition of
         sodium sulphate reduced the removal of direct dyes slightly and
         hindered the removal of acid dyes.  Treatment with ferrous sul-
         phate, with adjustment of the pH value to about 10,  removed 92
         percent of the direct dyes and 36 percent of the acid dyes; again
         the removal of the dyes was adversely affected by addition of
         sodium sulphate and  sodium carbonate.

PRECIPITATION OF DIRECT DYES AND ACID DYES BY IRON SALTS, H. lida and
M.  Endo (Govt. Chem. Ind. Research Inst., Tokyo); Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi 70:
403-404,  (1967).

         In order  to obtain basic data for the clarification of industrial
         waste water containing dye,  18  direct dyes and six acid dyes
         were precipitated from each aqueous solution by the addition
         of ferric chloride or ferrous sulfate, and the amounts  of precip-
         itated dyes were determined.  From the results it was found that
         ferric chloride and ferrous sulfate were excellent for  the precip-
         itation of direct dye,  but were not useful for acid dye.   It was
         difficult to precipitate acid dyes from their aqueous solution
         containing  sodium sulfate by the above method.

TREATMENT OF SULFUR DYE WASTE WATERS, V. OXIDATION  OF SODIUM
SULFIDE BY OXYGEN, Maeda, Yoshimichi; Nishiumi Yoshio; Ichikawa,  Kunisuke
(Himeji  Tech.  Coll., Himeji, Japan); Kogyo Yosui, (1967), No.  106, 60-7 (Japan).
                                  _o
         Aq.  solns.  of 3.3-12.8 X 10  M Na2$  were used as samples of
         sulfur dye waste water.  A sample soln. (327 ml.) was placed in
         a modified  Ziegelmeyer's vessel (1958) and agitated at 500 rpm.
         under 1.  atm. 0.  The oxidn.  rate of  Na2$ by 0 was observed at
         20°  without or with existence of various materials such as 12 sul-
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         fur dyes, 2 sulfur vat dyes, 8 vat dyes,  CuSO4, CoSO4,  FeSC>4,
         pyrocatechol, sulfate  lignin,  and treated mud of town sewage.
         Among these materials, sulfur dyes,  sulfur vat dyes, sulfates ex-
         cept FeSC>4, pyrocatechol, and some vat dyes such as Threne
         Briliant Blue 4G and Threne Khaki GG accelerated greatly the
         oxidn. of Na2S in a concn. of 0.5-1 g./l.  Oxidn. products
         were salts of $2  ,  SC>3  , and mainly  $203  .  The treated
         mud and sulfate  lignin were also good accelerators for the oxidn.
         of
RADIATION TREATMENT OF AN INDUSTRIAL WASTE, Mytelka, Alan I.;
Manganelli, Raymond M.  (AeroChem Res. Lab., Inc.,  Princeton, N. J.);  Purdue
Univ., Eng. Bull., Ext. Ser.,  (1967), No.  129  (Pt.  2), 1025-43.

         Current biol.  waste treatment methods are often unsatisfactory
         because many  effluents are refractory to biol. oxidn.  This is a
         study of radiation-induced changes in an industrial waste and
         the effect of these changes on the biol.  degradation of the waste.
         An azo dye mother liquor was selected.  Under conditions of the
         investigation chm. 0 demand (C.O. D.) of the waste was reduced
         61%, total org.  C 43%, and for all practical purposes no dye re-
         mained.  The waste also became  more amenable to biol. oxidn.
         with the redn. of the COD/BOD ratio from 54 to 2.2.

EFFLUENTS FROM DYEING AND FINISHING BATHS,  Peyron, E.; Teintex, 32,
(6), p. 419, 421-422, and 425, (1967), (French).

         The treatments of dyeing and sizing effluents used in the textile
         industry were discussed. The autoneutralization,  pH regulation,
         flocculation, decolorization by C and decantation processes in-
         volved were described.  The various effluents were combined in
         an equilization bath provided with a surface skimming device and
         an aeration system by  compressed air.  Flocculation is carried out
         by  Al2(SO4)3 and  Na silicate in a special tank.  CaCl2  used
         for decolorization is distributed automatically and  is controlled by
         a galvanometric device.

FOR LYMAN:  A $2 MILLION POLLUTION SOLUTION, F. Rigsbee; Textile
Bull. 93:49-50, (Feb.  1967).

         The industrial  waste treatment plant at Lyman Printing and
         Finishing Co.  is described.

POLAROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF  TRIAZINE AZO DYES, Shkorbatova,


                                    310

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 T. L. and L. D. Pegusova; Zh. Anal.  Khim., 22, (6), p. 918-923,  (1967),
 (Russian).

         The polarographic behavior of some triazine azo dyes and amino
         azo dyes in certain universal  buffer solutions (Britton-Robinson)
         was studied.  One of the dyes, Violet 4K,  contained Cu and one
         Cl in the triazine group, all the other belong to the dichlorotriazine
         dyes. All dyes give polarographic waves in the pH range 2-10.  The
         height of all polarographic waves of all  dyes studied is linearly pro-
         portional to the concentration of the substance determined.  The above
         properties can be used for the polarographic determination of dyes in
         stationary waters and sewage.  The absence of a second wave on the
         polarograms proves that the active dyes are present in sewage in a
         hydrolyzed state. The accuracy of the method was studied by adding
         known amounts of dyes.    The relative error is +/- 2.85%.

 ACTIVATED SLUDGE TREATMENT OF SOME ORGANIC WASTES, Wheatland,
 A.  B.  (Water Pollut., Res. Lab.,  Stevenage, Engl.);  Purdue Univ., Eng. Bull.,
 Ext. Serv. (1967),  No. 129  (Pt.  2), 983-1008 (English).

         Activated sludge can be used to treat waste waters from a variety
         of industries if conditions are provided for the microorganism to
         become acclimatized to  the wastes. Waste waters contg. poten-
         tially toxic or inhibitory org. substances which are only slowly
         degraded by microorganisms even after a period  of adaptation may
         require diln.  If domestic sewage  is used as a diluent,  it may
         facilitate treatment by providing nutrients and required trace
         elements.  Activated sludge becomes acclimated to waste waters
         from the production and  dyeing of synthetic fibers more rapidly
         when the proportion of waste water in the sewage is increased in
         stages.  A period of about a month should be allowed for acclima-
         tization.   Increase in temp, can be beneficial but performance at
         30°  is not greatly superior to that at 20°.  Waste water from a  dye-
         house and from the manuf. of synthetic rubber can be treated in the
         absence of domestic sewage.  Color in the dyehouse effluent required
         coagulation with alum followed by settling for removal.  Partial puri-
         fication of the waste water from a dairy  products factory is possible
         by contact stabilization  providing bulking  of the activated sludge can
         be prevented.

 AERATED LAGOON HANDLES 10-MILLION BPD.,  Textile World 116:  86-87,
(Feb. 1966).

         The aerated lagoon of Springs Cotton Mills' Grace Bleachery is
         briefly described.


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METHODS FOR REMOVING SULFUR DYES FROM WASTES FROM THE DYEING
PLANT OF THE V. I.  LENIN BAKIN TEXTILE WORKS, Akhmedov.  K. M. and
I.  M.  Garibov; Tekh. Progress, (5), p. 41-43, (1966),  (Russian).

         Experiments were made with wastes containing 600 mg./l.  sulfur
         dyes.  A  10%  H2SO4 solution (250-750 mg./l./) and 0.1%
         solution of polyacrylamide  (2mg./l.)  were added to the sewage,
         stirred 2 minutes, and left to settle for 0.5 hr.  The residual con-
         centration of sulfur dyes was 0-100 mg./l.

CARPET MANUFACTURING EFFLUENTS AND  THEIR TREATMENT, D.  Evers;
J.  Proc.  Inst.  Sewage Purif. Part 5: 464-470, (1966) Through Shirley Inst. 46:
5941,  (1966).

         Carpet  processing effluent is divided into categories - effluent
         from (1) scouring of raw wool and yarn,  (2) dyeing,  (3) sizing,
         (4) latexing, (5) moth-and mildew-proofing.   If a firm  dis-
         charges all these effluents, the smaller volumes of effluent from
         latexing and proofing will be lost in the  larger volumes  from
         scouring and dyeing,  if only dyeing and latexing are carried out,
         acid dye liquors will precipitate latex and clog the sewers.
         Acidity in dye  liquor could be used to reduce  the acid needed in
         treatment of fatty scouring effluent, but  the increased volume of
         liquor to be treated would be uneconomic to process as scouring
         liquor.  The scouring liquors have a high biological oxygen de-
         mand; dyeing liquors can be put to better use as diluents for the
         outflow from the grease cracking plant.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT  SOLVES DYEWORKS  EFFLUENT  PROBLEMS,  Felstead,
J.  E,;  Wat. Waste Treat. J., 11, p. 127-129, (1966).

         A description is given of the development of treatment facilities
         for waste waters from the textile dyeing  and finishing plant, which
         involved preliminary chemical analyses of a considerable number
         of minor effluents and laboratory-scale trials on composite effluents.
         The waste waters were formerly passed over alumina ferric blocks and
         settled before discharge, but the effluent failed to comply with the
         standards laid down by the Trent River Authority.  The waste waters
         from the 2 mills, in nature mainly organic, but also containing low
         concentrations  of a variety of other compounds such as inorganic
         salts and bases, are not pumped first to a holding tank,  and then to
         2 activated-sludge tanks fitted with Simcar aerators.

MILL SUPPLY WATER IN FINISHING, H.  Gunther; Spinner Weber Textilveredlung


                                    312

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84, No.  8:858-863; No.  11: 1255-1258, (1966), (German) Through Shirley Inst.
46: 6653, (1966).

         The required purity levels and test methods are summarized.
         Corrective measures and normal volume requirements in finishing
         are specified.

A DYER'S "OPERATION CLEANUP", S. M. Suchecki; Textile Inds.  130: 113-126,
136, 185  (June 1966).

         Waste treatment and water pollution control are discussed and the
         program of Northern Dyeing Co. is described.

PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATER FROM DYEING AND FINISHING OPERATIONS,
VasiPev, G. V.  (USSR), Tekst.  Prom. (Moscow), (1966), 26(7), 52-4,  (Russian).

         Waste water of heterogeneous compn.  (suspended matter 150-250,
         dry substance 1000-1500, COD (Chem. 0 demand) 250-1200,
         BOD, 100-400, synthetic detergent 30-130, Cr. 0.1-0.5  mg./l.)
         from dyeing and finishing operations is purified by aeration in acti-
         vated sludge.  For the biol. purification, the H2O is treated with
         Cl2 or  O3.

PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATERS FROM DYEING AND FINISHING FACTORIES,
Vasil'ev, G. V.; Tekstil. Prom., 26, (7),  p. 52-54,  (1966),  (Russian).

         Problems associated with the ever-increasing use of new dyes,
         synthetic surface-active agents which  cause excessive foaming,
         and of finishing agents such as dodecylbenzene-sulphonate,
         certain cationic agents,  and Karbozolin which can be oxidized
         biochemically to only a small extent and are toxic to microflora
         used in effluent purification, are discussed.

TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES, Wagner, H.  O. and Souther, R. H.;
Southern  Engineer,  Vol. 84, p. 37, (1966).

         Description of the Canton, Georgia waste treatment plant which
         handles waste consisting of 52% domestic sewage and 39% textile
         dyeing and finishing wastes and 9% hospital wastes.

CLARIFICATION OF WASTE WATERS FROM PRODUCTION OF ACTIVE
TRIAZINEDYES, Zakhorzhevskaya, A. G.; Vodosnabzh. Kanaliz. Gidrotekh.
Sooruzh.  Mezhved. Resp. Nauch.  Sb., (1), p. 37-46, (1966), (Russian).
                                    313

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        A flow sheet is proposed.  After concn., the waste waters enter
        the cathode space of an electrolytic bath where they are reduced
        for 12-14 hrs. at c.d.  8 amp./dm.  .  Dyes and org.  impurities are
        decompn. products are pptd.; the waste water loses its color.
        NaOH formed by electrolysis is recovered.

DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDE IONS AND 2, 4-DIN1TROCHLOROBENZENE
IN SEWAGE FROM SULFUR DYE PRODUCTION, Khr. Popov.  Khim. Ind.  (Sofia)
37(5), 164-8, (1965), (Bulg.).

        In the absence of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (I), Cl~  is detd. by
        dilg. a 5-10 ml. sample with distd. H2O, a sufficient amt. of
        0. IN AgNOs is added for the complete pptn.  of chlorides, sul-
        fides, polysulfides,  sulfites,  and thiosulfates, plus 2-3 ml. excess,
        an amt. of HNO3 is added equal to 0.5 the vol. of the  test soln.,
        glass beads are added,  and the mixt. is boiled for 4-5 min.  If the
        soln. is not  completely colorless, 20-30 ml. dil. HNO3 (1:2) is
        added, and  the soln. re-boiled.  After cooling to room temp, the
        soln. is filtered to remove AgCl, and  the ppt.  is washed to a neg.
        Ag reaction with very dil. (0.02-0.05N) HNO3.  The filtrate and
        wash waters are combined, and the detn. is completed by using
        Folhards method, where the excess  AgNOS  is titrated with 0. IN
        NH4SCN, using FeNH4 (SO4)2 as indicator to a rose-red color.
        Where I is present total Cl~ is detd.  by boiling the sample with
        8% NaOH in order  to transform molecular Cl  in I  to  Cl", and
        the analyses completed as  above.  A sep. analysis for Cl~ without
        this  transformation give Cl "content without the mol. Cl from  I,
        and  the amt. of I can therefore be calcd. by difference.

ACTIVATED-SLUDGE TREATMENT  OF TEXTILE AND DYEING MILLS WASTE,
Kashiwaya, M.;  Proc.  2nd Intern. Conf. Water Pollution Research, Tokyo,  2,
p. 63-84,  (1965).

        In the region  of Ichinomiya, Besai, and Kosogawa, Aichi Pre-
        fecture,  Japan, waste waters from  129 factories processing,  dyeing
        and  finishing textiles have caused serious pollution of the Nikko
        River. The  author reports  pilot-scale studies, with tabulated and
        graphical results, which showed that the waste waters could be
        treated effectively by a conventional activated-sludge or contact-
        stabilization process.

DISPOSAL OF EFFLUENT, D. W. Hill (Shirley Inst.),  Textile Weekly 65 (2):
841-842,  (Nov.  1965).
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         The activated sludge method of biological treatment of disposing
         of dyeing and finishing wastes, as applied by the Shirley Institute,
         is outlined.  Mention is also made of the use of water-conserving
         washing procedures to reduce both the amount of water used and
         the volume of effluent.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT IN DYEWORKS, Shirley Inst. Intern.  Dyer 134: 871-873,
(Dec. 1965).

         A brief review of the work reported  by  the Shirley Institute in
         leaflets and at the open-days of the Cotton, Silk & Man-Made
         Fibres Research Assoc.  on effluent treatment studies.

RESEARCH ON METHODS FOR THE DECOLORIZATION OF DYEWORKS WASTE
WATERS DISCHARGED INTO RIVERS,   Weiner,  L; Munteanu, A.; lancu, A.;
Gafiteanu, M.; Negoescu, V.; and Malacca, I.; Trib.  CEBEDEAU, (1965), 18,
440-445.

         Pilot-scale studies have been carried out on the treatment of waste
         waters from a factory manufacturing dyes in Romania.  It is now
         concluded that the waste waters should be equalized for a period
         of 24 hours and oily products should be removed in a separator be-
         fore the physico-chemical treatment.  Best results are obtained by
         treatment with 1.5-3 g  of ferrous sulphate per litre followed by
         neutralization with 0.5-1 g of lime  per litre, and sedimentation
         in a sludge-  blanket tank with a surface loading of 0.5 m^ per
         m^ hour.  The sludge produced has a moisture content of 99 percent
        which can be reduced by 80 percent in 5 days by a sand filter.
        After sedimentation, the best treatment was found to be filtration
        of effluent through active carbon at a rate of 5 m per hour (the
        cycle  lasting 50 hours before regeneration of the carbon by heat-
         ing anaerobically at 600°-700° C). This treatment not only de-
        colorized the waste waters completely and reduced the oxygen
        demand by 80 percent, but also reduced the toxicity.  Biological
        treatment of the settled waste waters was not effective owing to
        the low content of biologically-degradable organic material.
         To reduce the costs of treatment it is recommended that the dif-
        ferent types of waste water should be segregated.
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                       DETERGENT WASTE TREATMENT
EVALUATION OF DETERGENT PERFORMANCE, DISCUSSED, R. W. Moncrieff,
Textile Weekly 69(1):  128-129, (Jan. 1969).

         This is a brief report of a conference on surface active substances
         in which 199 papers were presented.  The search for a standard
         method  of testing bio-degradability is the principle subject of
         this article.

USE OF AZURE A INSTEAD OF METHYLENE BLUE FOR DETERMINATION OF
ANIONICDETERGENTS IN DRINKING AND SURFACE WATERS, Den Tonkelaar,
W. A. M.; Bergshoeff, G.  (Res. Inst. Public  Health Eng., TNO, Delft, Neth.),
Water Res.,  (1969), 3(1), 31-8 (English).

         The methylene blue routine method, which is widely used for
         anionic detergents, is rather time-consuming and displays hardly
         satisfactory sensitivity for drinking water as well as pos.  inter-
         ferences by several substances.  The Azure A method developed
         by van Steveninck and Riemersma (1966) proved to be more rapid,
         more sensitive,  and more selective for detergents in drinking and
         surface  waters.

DETERGENTS AND TREATMENTS OF CONTAMINATED WATERS, Argiero, L. and
Paggi, A.;  Hlth. Phys., (1968),  14, 581-592.

         Studies  were made of the effect of surface-active agents on the
         treatment of waters contaminated with radioactivity, both by
         coagulation and by ion-flotation methods.  Results are given
         for various cationic and anionic detergents and data are pre-
         sented showing the effect of changes in pH value and in the
         electrostatic charge on suspended particles.  In the ion-
         flotation method,  a relation was found between the pH value,
         intrinsic viscosity, and efficiency of removal of caesium-137.

WATER POLLUTION AND  SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS WHICH CAN BE BIO-
DEGRADED, Revol, Louis (Fac. Med. Pharm.  Lyon, Lyson, Fr.), Ses Parfums,
(1968),  11(57), 35-46, (French).

         The article reviews basic detergent chemistry and structure,
         forms and effects of pollution, chem.  and test of biodegradation,
         and synthesis of biodegradable detergents.
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KNITTERS GUIDE TO BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS, Knitted Outerwear Times
37:31-36,  (Mar.  1968).

         The table lists trade names, manufacturers, properties, and applications.

DETERGENT DEGRADABILITY, H. M.  Lewis; Textile Forum 26: 15-39,
(Feb.-Mar.  1968).

         The problem of water pollution by bacterial resistant surfactants
         in detergent compositions, particularly alkylbenzene sulfonates,
         is discussed,  and the development and chemistry of biodegrada-
         ble linear alkylbenzene sulfonates and surfactants derived from
         secondary alcohols are reviewed. Methods of evaluating sur-
         factant biodegradability are also covered.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER FROM THE PRODUCTION OF
ORGANICS, CONTAINING SURFACTANTS, AND DISPOSAL OF THE RESULT-
ING EXCESS SLUDGE,  Pitter,  P.; Chudoba, J. and Palaty, J.;  Sb. Vys. Sk.
chem.-technol.  Praze, Technol.Vod., (1968), 14, 27-46,  (English).

         Tabulated and graphical results are given of experiments  on
         biological treatment of waste waters from the  manufacture of
         organic chemicals; the waste water had BOD and COD values
         of  1000 and 2000 mg.  per litre, respectively, and contained
         21.5 mg.  of anionic surface-active materials  per litre of which
         39.5 percent were  not degradable.  It was found that the waste
         waters could be treated by the activated-sludge process at an
         average loading of 940 g. of BOD per m  day and a detention
         period of 25.6 hours, when average reductions in COD and  BOD
         of 55 and 85 percent,respectively, were obtained.  If the effluent
         from the aeration tank was coagulated with alum, greater removal
         of the dispersed bacterial floe was achieved and the overall  re-
         movals of COD and BOD were increased to 70 and 95 percent,
         respectively.

WATER AND WASTE WATER, M. Kehren; Z.  ges. Textil-lnd. 69,  No.  12:
937-942,  (1967),  (German) Through Shirley Inst. 48: 173, 1968.

         This article relates specifically to consumption figures and recent
         legislation in W. Germany.  There are notes on the poisoning of
         river life by detergents.

MICROBIAL OXIDATION ON SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS, Ray C. Allred and
R. L. Huddleston (Continental Oil Co., Ponca City, Okla.), Southwest Water
                                    317

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Works J.  49(2),  26-8,  30,  (1967).

         The degradability was detd.  on 14 surfactants by using river water
         and activated sludge in shake flasks and semi and continuous cir-
         culation.  Branched chain structures are less susceptible to biol.
         attack than straight chain materials.  The presence of a phenoxy
         group in the mol. will  significantly retard biol.  oxidn.

SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS IN  TEXTILE PROCESSES AND THEIR EFFECT ON
EFFLUENTS, Barnes, W.  V,, and Dobson, S.  J.; Soc. Dyers Colour.,  (1967),
83, 313-320.

         The widespread uses of surface-active agents in  the textile
         industry, their biodegradability in relation to their chemical
         structure, and the difficulties which they cause  at sewage works
         and in rivers are described and discussed.  The necessary use of
         non-ionic detergents, which cause a  great  degree  of pollution
         as a result  of their resistance to degradation, is  considered and
         their future improvement  is mentioned.

BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS  FOR THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY, K. A.  Booman,
J. Dupre and E.  S.  Lashen  (Rohm & Haas Co.), Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 56: p. 82-88,
(Jan. 1967).

         Test methods, biodegradability of anionic surfactants and of
         nonionic surfactants, field test results,  and impact of government
         action are  discussed.

BIODEGRADABILITY AND TREATABILITY OF  ALKYL PHENOL ETHOXYLATES:
A CLASS OF NONIONIC SURFACTANTS,  Lashen, E. S.; Booman, K. A. (Rohm
and Haas Co. Res. Lab.,  Spring House, Pa.),  Water Sewage Works,  (1967),  114
(Nov.),  155-63,  (English).

         In an activated sludge  plant  having 3 aerators in parallel,
         removal  of OPEjQ (Triton X-100), a nonionic surfactant, was
         > 90% at added influent  concns.  of 5 and  10 ppm., as shown by the
         Co-(SCN)2 test of Crabb and Persinger (1964) and by loss of
         foaming and surface tension  depressant activity.  Concns. of
         OPEiQ  in the effluent  from the test units were only slightly
         higher than in that from a control unit receiving the normal
         OPE]Q  concn. of 4.5 ppm.  There was no  problem with foaming
         in the aerators and no redn.  in efficiency of treatment.  Accli-
         mation was more rapid  in the field test than in the lab. tests and
         more rapid in a continuous lab. unit than in a semicontinuous unit.
                                     318

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         Degradation of OPEjQ  also occurs readily in river water.

BIODEGRADABLE NONIONIC SURFACTANTS IN TEXTILE WET PROCESSING,
B. B. Rein (Continental Oil Co.), Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 56: 909-915, (Nov. 1967).

         The purpose of this article is to show,  in tests widely accepted
         by the textile industry, that biodegradable surfactants are at
         least as efficient, and, in many instances, more efficient than
         the current nonbiodegradable surfactants.

BIODEGRADATION OF SURFACTANT  BENZENE RINGS,  Swisher, Robert D.
(Inorg. Chem.  Div., Monsanto Co.,  St. Louis, Mo.),  Ind. Chim.  Beige, (1967),
32 (Spec. No.), 719-22.

         A linear alky Ibenzenesulfonate (I) was prepd. by a Iky lotion of
         benzene with a-dodecane to give a mixt.  of  2-, 3-, 4-,  5-,
         and 6-phenyldodecane, which was then sulfonated and converted
         to the  Na salt.  Detergent concns. were detd. by a modified
         methylene blue test.  Benzene and derivs.  were  detd. from ab-
         sorption intensities at 180,  200, and 256 m with river water in
         the reference cell.  Plots of methylene blue response over periods
         of 10-20 days, and uv spectra  at 0, 10 and 44 days are given.
         Based on the progressive disappearance of the peak at 223 m it is
         concluded that the benzene  ring of the I structure is destroyed
         during the biodegradation process.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS AS AN ANSWER TO A
WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM,  E. C.  Steinle (Union Carbide Corp.),  Am. Dye-
stuff Reptr. 56:  P386-P390, (May 1967).

         Wastes, waste disposal, types of pollution, and surfactant pollu-
         tion are discussed briefly, biodegradability (what it is, how it  is
         measured) and the characteristics of commercially available bio-
         degradable surfactants are examined in detail.

UNION CARBIDE'S BIODEGRADABLE SURFACTANTS FIGHT  POLLUTION,
Am.  Textile Reptr., 80,  (25), p. 60,  (1966).

         Union Carbide's biodegradable surfactants for the textile industry
         are discussed in relation to water pollution.

BIODEGRADATION TESTING OF TYPICAL SURFACTANTS IN INDUSTRIAL
USAGE,  Richard A.  Conway and Gene T. Waggy (Union Carbide Corp.,
S. Charleston,W. Va.), Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 55 (16), 607-614, (1966).
                                   319

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         Susceptibility of surfactants to bacterial oxidn. in industrial
         waste water treatment plants and surface waters can be monitored
         by simple screening tests, such as shake-culture,  activated sludge,
         and river die-away.  Detailed comparisons of linear secondary-ale.
         ethoxamers with alkylphenol-based surfactants were made by several
         test procedures.  The linear secondary-ale, ethoxylates were effi-
         ciently biodegraded under a  range of environmental conditions,
         while the alkylphenol materials have not as yet been demonstrated
         to meet these degradation standards.

RELATIONSHIP AMONG "EMULSION" TYPE, DETERGENCY, AND FOAM,
W.  R.  Kelly (Allied Chem.  Corp.), J. Am.  Oil Chemists Soc. 43:  358-363,
(June 1966).

         Three test methods were developed to show the measurably close
         relationship existing among detergency, foam, and the indication
         of the type of "emulsion" naturally inclined to form.  Visual
         recognition of the state of the emulsion makes it possible to assess
         the system as to its comparative detergent capabilities and  its foam-
         ing proclivities. Guided steps can then be taken for improvements.
         The methods have been used  with success in formulating alkaline
         cleaning mixtures.

FOAM TEST METHOD, W. R. Kelly and P. F. Borza (Allied Chem. Corp.),
J. Am.  Oil Chemists Soc. 43: 364-365,  (June  1966).

         This method measures the height of foam developed by
         pouring.   The action is intermittent, time  being a Noted
         strictly for foam decay, as well as for foam generation.

SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS-THEIR INFLUENCE UPON  Fe-BINDING COMPLEXES
OF NATURAL WATERS,  Fred Kent and Frank F. Hooper  (Univ. Museums Annex,
Ann Arbor, Mich.),  Science 153 (3735),  526-7, (1966),  (English).

         Most of the org. exts. prepd. from Michigan lakes and streams
         exhibited Fe-binding capacity, land increased the growth  rate
         of Chamydomonas reinhardi.   Histidine, tyrosine, and aspartic
         and glutamic acids were abundant in these exts.   Samples col-
         lected from the Huron River on 19 April 1965 failed to show the
         reaction; analysis indicated the presence of anionic detergents.
         In samples failing to bind Fe, alkylbenzenesulfonates were
         bound to the amino acids.

THE ORIGIN,  BEHAVIOR AND REMOVAL OF PHOSPHATES FROM SURFACE


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 WATER AND WASTE WATER.  PART 2., M. Kehren; A. ges. Textil-lnd. 68,
 No. 10: 782-788,  (1966),  (German)  Through Shirley Inst. 46: 5938, (1966).

         This review gives details of electrolytic phosphate precipitation
         techniques referred to in Part 1. Other techniques, notably pre-
         cipitation with aluminum sulfate, are surveyed. There is a review
         of the analytical methods used for phosphate determination.  The
         methods are  (1)  Molybdenum Blue method  and (2) paper-chro-
         matographic separations.

 CHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF WASTE WATERS FROM SYNTHETIC ANION
 SURFACE-ACTIVE SUBSTANCES,  Yu. Yu Lur'e and P. S. Antipova; Vodosnabzh.
 Sanit.  Tekh.,  (1966),  (11), 18-20,  (Russian).

         The method introduces into waste waters contg. synthetic suf-
         factangs, grease, impurities, and the K salt of various org. acids,
         as well as sorbents which keep up their properties at high pH values,
         such as Ca(A102)2/  MgO, and calcined or semicalcined dolomote.
         It was found possible to obtain the necessary amt. of efficient ab-
         sorbent by introducing AIC^ or A^SO^, MgO,  or dolomite as
         well as a certain amt. of milk of lime  (pH  12-12.4) directly into
         the water being purified.

 DEGRADABLE POLLUTANTS-STUDY OF THE NEW DETERGENTS,  McGauhey,
 Percy, H.; Klein,  Stephen A.  (Univ.  of California, Berkeley, Calif.), Advan.
 Water  Pollut. Res., Proc. Int.  Conf.,  3rd,  (1966),  (Pub.  1967),  1, 353-74.

         Pilot plant studies of the degradable detergent LAS (linear
         a Iky late sulfonate) indicated that secondary sewage treatment was
         necessary if frothing was to be precluded.  Monitoring studies of
         2  treating plants during the changeover from ABS (alkylbenzene-
         sulfonate) to LAS confirmed the pilot plant studies that a high
         degree of waste treatment was still required to prevent frothing
         of the receiving water.

RAPID  METHOD  TO TEST/SOAPS SYNDETS,  B. M.  Milwidsky and S. Holtzmann;
Soap Chem. Specialties 42: 83-86, 154-158,  (May 1966).

         The two-phase titration method described permits easy, fast,  and
         accurate determination of anionic detergents, both soap and sym-
         thetic, and ready differentiation between the two in mixtures.

REMOVAL  OF DETERGENTS FROM WATER,   Odom,  James J.; Shumaker, Thomas
P.; Bloomquist,  Paul R.  (Reichhold Chemicals,  Inc.),  S. African 6706, 339,
27 Feb. 1968,  U.  S. Appl.,  (02  Nov. 1966).
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        Removal of both alkylbenzenesulfonate (hard) detergents and linear
        alkyl sulfonate (soft) detergents from waste water systems is accom-
        plished by treating the waters with a water-sol., cationic, amine-
        contg. synthetic resin.  The amine-contg. resinous removal agents
        react with the detergents to produce insol. reaction products which
        can be readily removed from the water by conventional  clarification
        means such as filtration, settling, and decantation.  Amine-aldehyde
        resins contg.  reactive amine groups are preferred such as polyamine-
        modifled urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins.  A
        principle advantage of the resins is that both hard and soft detergents
        are removed through their use.

A SIMPLIFIED  TECHNIQUE FOR ROUTINE ANALYSIS OF ANIONIC DETERGENTS
IN WATER AND WASTE-WATER,  J. F.  Panowitz  and C.  E. Renn, J.  Water Pollu-
tion Control Fed. 38: 636-640,  (Apr. 1966).

REMOVAL OF ALKYLBENZENESULFONATES  (ABS)  FROM WATER, Jer-Yu
Shange (to Sun Oil Co.), U. S. 3,247,103, (Cl. 210-21), (April 19,  1966),
Appl. Dec. 3, 1962.

        In this process, water contg. ABS is mixed with an immiscible
        org.  liquid.  The ABS collects at the interface between the
        immiscible liquids with the sulfonate portion in the water and
        the org. portion in the org. liquid  phase.  ABS was coned, at
        the interface  and scpd.  from the water phase by one of several
        convenient methods, thus reducing the ABS concn. of the water.

FOAMING OF SOLUTIONS OF SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS, M. G. Shikher,
Z. P. Ezhova, N.  P.  Belova, and L. A. Rybina; Tekstil.  Prom.  26, No.  7:
55-57,  (1966),  (Russian) Through Shirley Inst. 46: 4864,  (1966).

        To characterize the foaming capacity of a solution of a  surface
        active agent, an index determined from the area bounded the
        curve obtained by plotting relative foam-height against time
        has been used.  Values of this index have been obtained for a
        number of surface  active agents, with and without foam suppres-
        sors, and it is shown that,  in some  cases,  foaming can be reduced
        by mixing two surface active agents.

AN AUTOMATIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ANIONIC SURFACE-
ACTIVE MATERIAL IN WATER,  A. Sodergren; Analyst 91: 113-118, (Feb. 1966)
Through Shirley Inst.   46: 2195,  (1966).

        An automatic version of the Methylene Blue procedure for deter-


                                    322

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         mining alkylbenzenesulfonates in fresh and saline waters, by means
         of the Technicon AutoAnalyser, is described.

 DISPOSAL OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS, B. A. Southgate; Specialties 2(12),  29-32
 (1966).

         For the activated-sludge process, settled sewage is treated in tanks.
         This process suffers from under-aeration and is sensitive to anything
         that reduces the concn. of O in soln.  Detergents and many indus-
         trial effluents contg. substances such as phenol, oils,  and cyanides
         have a deleterious effect on  O absorption and bacterial action.
         Changes in the type of detergents have become necessary. However,
         the new detergents are biodegradable only under aerobic conditions.
         They interfere with anaerobic fermentation and are as undegrad-
         able as the "hard" surfactants originally used.  Industrial wastes
         must be closely controlled as to biodegradability.  Some effluents
         may require sep.  and special treatment.

 IDENTIFICATION AND ESTIMATION  OF LAS  (linear Alkylate sulfonates) IN
WATERS AND EFFLUENTS, R. D. Swisher (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, Mo.),
J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 43(3), 137-40,  (1966).

         A sample contg. about 1 mg. of methylene blue active substance
         (Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Waste Water,
         New York: Am.  Publ. Health Assoc., 1960,  llth ed., p. 245-51)
         and 150 ml. of the methylene blue reagent are shaken with 50 ml.
         CHCI3,  the CHCI3 and emulsion layer is forced through a 2-cm.
         bed of glass wool in a 2-cm.  diam.  tube,  the CHCIs layer is
         sepd., the original aq.  mixt.  is again extd. with 50 ml. of CHCIs,
         the  combined CHCI3  layers are evapd., and the residue is desul-
         fonated and gas chromatographed.  Gas chromatographs of samples
         and effluent to which 0.5  ppm.  LAS has  been added are presented
         and interpreted.

FOAM—AN APPLICATIONAL PROBLEM,  H.  E. Tschakert.  Tenside 3:
317-322, (Sept.  1966);359-365, (Oct. 1966); 388-394, (Nov. 1966); (German),
English translation in Tenside 3: 49-52,  (Sept. 1966); 59-62, (Oct. 1966);
67-70,  (Nov. 1966).

         Part 1 discusses foam formation and its breakdown, as well as
         methods of determining foam.  Part 2 deals with further methods
         of foam determination and contains examples of the practical
         utilization of foam characteristics of surface active substances,
        soaps, and active detergent blends.   Part 3 discusses the biodeg-
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        radation of surfactants.

EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON THE BIOCHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF WASTE
WATERS, S. V. Yakovlev, Yu. M. Laskov, T. A. Karyukhina, Yu. V. Voronov,
and M. S. Lebedovskii, (V. V. Kibyshev Inst.  of Architecture Eng.,  Moscow),
Izv.  Nyssh.  Ucheb. Zaved., Stroit. Arkhitekh, 9(8), 124-32,  (1966), (Russian).

        The surfactants OP-7, OP-10, and B-A which are polyethylene
        glycol derivs. of the  mixt. of long chain mono- and dialkyl-
        phenols, and nonionic or cationic surfactants, resp., can be biol.
        degraded in wastes if their concn. does not exceed 20 mg./l.
        Compound 101, a long-chain quaternary alkylamidomethylpyrid-
        inium salt, should not be allowed in waste drainage systems.

BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS FOR THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY,  R. L.  Huddleston
(Continental Oil Co.), Am. Dyestuff Reptr. 55: P52-P54,  (Jan. 1966).

        Although biodegradable detergents by their very nature must  have
        a BOD, studies indicated that straight chain alcohol nonionic
        products should not noticeably affect total BOD requirements of
        textile plant effluent waters.

KNIT GOODS FINISHERS AND BIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS,  R.  H. Beau-
mont (W. F. Fancourt Co.), Knitting Ind. 85: 10,  39,  (Nov.  1965).

        If waste goes through a treatment system,  the new detergents are
        desirable;  if not, it may be better to keep biodegradability to a
        minimum.

REMOVAL OF NONBIODEGRADABLE DETERGENTS FROM SEWAGE, Herbert N.
Dunning, Maurice M. Kreevoy, and James M.  White (to General Mills, Inc.),
U. S. 3,215,622 (Cl. 210-21), (Nov.  1965), Appl. April 26, 1961 and
Nov. 2, 1965,  8 pp.

        Nonbiodegradable detergent residues are removed from sewage
        with 90-98% efficiency if the sewage is acidified, stirred with
        kerosene contg. a long-chain, water-insol. secondary amine,
        and the org. phase is stripped.  The sepd. org. phase is scrubbed
        with caustic to recover reuseable material.  Ca(OH) , NaOH,
        Ba(OH)  are all suitable caustic strippers for regeneration of
        the amone.

WATER AND WASTE WATER.  PART 2.,   M. Kehren, Z. ges. Textil-lnd. 67,
No.  10:807-811 (1965),  (German) Through Shirley Inst. 45: 5681,  (1965).
                                    324

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         This article supplements information on the biodegradability
         of detergents and surface active agents given in abstr.

RATES OF DECOMPOSITION IN NATURAL WATERS  OF SOME SYNTHETIC
DETERGENTS AND SURFACE-ACTIVE SUBSTANCES, V. P. Kaplin, N. G.  Fe-
senko, A. I.  Fomina, and L. S.  Zhuravieva;  Nauch.  Tr., Akad. Kommunal.
Khoz.  No. 37, 97-110,  (1965), (Russian).

         Synthetic detergents of the alkyl sulfate type decomp. in natural
         waters relatively quickly (48-480 hrs.); alkylsulfonates decomp.
         more slowly 10-50 days), and alkylarenesulfonates extremely
         slowly (30-90 days).  The decompn. time is greatly affected by
         the initial concn. of detergents.  The decompn. time is longer
         at higher initial  concn.  Abs.  quantity of decompd.  detergent
         increases also with increased initial concn.  Decompn. of syn-
         thetic surface-active substances is affected by thechem. structure:
         e.g. dodecyibenzenesulfonate with straight alkyl side chain de-
         comp.  2-3 times more quickly than the same prepn. with a
         branched alkyl side chain.

INFLUENCE OF DETERGENTS ON WATER ALGAE, D. Matulova;  Sb. Vysoke
Skoly Chem.-Technol. Praze, Technol.  Vody 8(2),  251-301, (1965),  (English).

         The effect of detergents, made  in Czechoslovakia, on water
         algae was tested.  Chlamydomonas gelatinosa was more sensitive
         than Scenedesmus abundans and Ch lore I la saccharophila.  Un-
         favorable effects were observed with 9 mg./l. of alkylsulfates,
         7mg./l. of alkylbenzenesulfonates,  0.1 mg./l. of cetylpyrid-
         inium bromide, 25  mg./l. of diisobutylnaphthalenesulfonate,
         and  5 mg./l. of non-ionic surfactant (cetyloeyl ale. + 20 mols.
         ethylene oxide).  The lethal concns.  were 111, 70, 2, 200, and
         200 mg./l., resp.

SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS IN WASTE WATERS. VIII. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
MOLECULAR  STRUCTURE  AND THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ANION-ACTIVE SUR-
FACTANTS TO BIOCHEMICAL OXIDATION (summary of the results), P. Pitter;
Sb.  Vysoke Skoly Chem.-Technol.  Praze, Technol. Vody 8(2), 13-39,  (1965).

         Branched alkyl chains reduce the decompn.  of alkylarenesulfo-
         nates and alkyl sulfates by activated sludge.   Some iso-alkyl
         sulfates are biol. - not fully oxidized, being probably resistant
         to total biol.  hydrolysis.  Sulfated N-(hydrpxyalkyl)  amides of
         high-mol.-wt. fatty acids and sulfated low-mol.-wt. polyethylene
         glycol  n-alkyl ethers (sulfated nonionic surfactants) are biol.
                                    325

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        easily oxidized. Alkanesulfonates with straight alkyl chains are
        readily biol.  degraded.  The behavior of n-alkyl touenesulfonates
        is similar to that of n-alkyl benzenesulfonates. Both are utilized
        less as a source of  org. C by microorganisms than n-alkyl sulfates.
        The studies made possible a classification into 3 classes:  (1) Soft
        surfactants easily biodegradable, n-alkyl sulfates, n-alkane sul-
        fonates, sulfated low- mole.-wt.  polyethylene glycol n-alkyl
        ethers, sulfated N- (hydroxyalkyl) amides of high-mol. -wt. fatty
        acids and  others;  (2) semihard surfactants biol. slowly or semi-
        degradable, n-alky! benzenesulfonates, n-alkyl toluenesulfonates
        and mixts. of soft and hard surfactants, and their admissible concn.
        for sewage treatment must  be detd. expt.;  (3) hard surfactants
        hardly degradable, isoalkylarenesulfonates, and isoalkyl sulfates.

THE BIODEGRADABILITY OF TEXTILE AUXILIARIES,  Salquain, J.;  Teintex,  30,
(4),  p. 233-259,  (1965),  (French).

        This study of  the behaviour of most classes of surface-active
        agents in  biological effluent purification also includes notes
        on current legislation in Europe.

A PROCEDURE AND STANDARDS FOR  THE DETERMINATION OF THE BIODE-
GRADABILITY OF  ALKYLBENZENESULFONATE AND LINEAR ALKYLATE SUL-
FONATE, C. M. Snow, et. al.; J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc.  42(11), 986-93,
(1965).

         The  procedure designed is based on screening by the simple
         "Shake flask  method"  (A)  and  as a confirming phase, the more
        complex and  tedious semicontinuous activated sludge procedure
         (B).  According to the standard established, a 90% biodegrada-
        bility in A is adequate; a value of 80-90% biodegradability  in
        A requires detn. by B.   A result below 80% indicates not ade-
         quately biodegradable.

ACCURACY AND  PRECISION OF LABORATORY AND FIELD METHODS FOR THE
DETERMINATION  OF DETERGENTS IN  WATER,  C.  H. Wayman and A. T. Miesch,
(U. S. Geol. Surv., Denver, Colo.),  Water Resources Res.  1(4), 471-6,  (1965).

         The results obtained by using the 2 field methods and the lab.
         method currently employed for the detn. of both the branched-
         chain and straight-chain alkylbenzenesulfonates in water are
         recorded and evaluated on the basis of accuracy and precision.
         Field method (1) employs a modified methylene blue technique,
         and field  method (2) employs the dye Toluidine Blue O as the
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         complexing agent.  The lab. method (3) employs methylene blue
         as the complexing agent.  Method (2) showed relatively large and
         statistically significant amrs. of neg.  bias that varies with the
         concn. level with both types of detergent.  The precision of method
         (2) was slightly poorer than  that of method (1), and considerably
         poorer than that of method (3).

REMOVAL OF ANIONIC SURFACTANTS FROM LIQUIDS,   Irving M. Abrams
(to Diamond Alkali Co.),  U. S. 3,232,867 (Cl.  210-37),  Feb.  1,  1966, Appl
(Aug. 1963),  Continuation-in-part of U. S. 3,123,553.

         The removal of alkylbenzenesulfonates (!) in amts. of 1-10 pom.
         is accomplished by  passing the  liquid through a weak-base anion-
         exchange resin in the acid-salt form,  II.   II has a greater capacity
         for absorbing I and  other detergent anions than did a resin in the
         free or hydroxide form. The absorbed I can be quant, recovered
         by elution with aqueous alkali.  In the treatment of sewage effluent
         by this process, it is necessary to first clarify the effluent before
         anion-exchange treatment.  Numerous resins are available for this
         use.  A resin like Duolite A-7 was found to absorb about four times
         as much  I per g.  as did activated C.
                                     327

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                         WATER TREATMENT FOR USE
INDUSTRIAL WATER AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE FINISHING OF
KNITTED GOODS, H. Gunter.  Wirkerel-u.  Strickerei-Tech. 18, No.  10:
531-538  (1968).  (German)  Through World Textile Abstr. 1:847 (1969).

        Methods used for expressing the hardness of process feed water
        in Germany, France, and the U.  K. are explained. The effects
        of hardness and the  presence of iron, manganese, and copper
        salts or organic impurities in bleaching, scouring, and dyeing
        are discussed.  Tables give some maximum permissible concen-
        trations for the different processes.  Methods of water condi-
        tioning and water requirements for different types of knitted
        goods are considered briefly.

WATER TREATMENT IN TEXTILE MILLS, R. Oncellet.   Textil-Praxis 24,  No. 2:
104-108  (1969).  (German)  Through World Textile Abstr. 1:1604 (1969).

        Water treatment equipment by the firm of Hager and Elsasser is
        described and illustrated.  The sections of the article deal briefly
        with filtration of suspended matter, removal of iron and manga-
        nese, deacidification, softening and desalination, treatment with
        special  phosphates,  and degasification.

PREPARATION OF PROCESS WATER FOR THE TEXTILE  INDUSTRY,   F. Rub.
Chemiefasern 19, No. 1:58-61 (1969).  (German)  Through World Abstr. 1: 1332
(1969).

        This article deals in particular with the application of  ion-
        exchangers for the purification of textile process water.  These
        are used where comparatively small volumes of water of a very
        high degree of purity  are required.  Boiler feed water for small
        rapid steam raising equipment is a case  in point.  Ion-exchange
        equipment by eight  West German manufacturers is described and
        illustrated.  There is a short comment on test equipment for the
        continuous monitoring of water quality.

IMPROVED WATER QUALITY,  R. J. Mattson and V. J. Tomsic  (E. I. du  Pont de
Nemours & Co.).  Chem. Eng. Progr. 65:62-68  (Jan.  1969).

        The authors state  that the technology and equipment for providing
        water of improved quality from specific brackish water  sources are
        available. They  describe a new separator,  the Permasep permeator,
                                    328

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         which, using nylon hollow fibers in a reverse osmosis operation,
         promises to be a novel approach in upgrading water for process
         and municipal use.  The results of field tests are reported.

 PROCESS WATER AND TEXTILE EFFLUENT PROBLEMS.  PART 2., F. H. Slade.
 Textile Mfg. 94: 89-93, 99 (Mar.  1968).

         Biological treatment of effluent, oxygen transfer,  continuous
         sludge removal, flocculation, difficult wastes, and the
         Lubeck process are considered.

 MANGANESE IN  PROCESS WATER OF THE TEXTILE  INDUSTRY. R. S.  Ingols.
 Tribune CEBEDEAU 20:271-272 (1966). (French)  Through Chem. Abstr. 66,
 No. 6: 19673 (1967).

         Hazards arising in textile  plants from the presence, usually
         seasonal, of manganese in surface water used as a  water supply
         are discussed.  Accumulated deposits of manganese oxides in
         heat exchangers and distribution systems can be released by
         pressure surges and result in staining of white cloth and  in
         shade changes in some dyes.  Five methods of treating the
         water supply are suggested.

 TREATMENT OF PROCESS WATER,  WITH REFERENCE TO SPECIAL PHOSPHATES,
 L. Mattes.  Spinner Weber Textilveredlung 85, No. 2; 120-122  (1967).  (German)
 Through Shirley Inst. 47: 1571  (1967).

         The suppression of lime deposits by metal phosphates and the
         solubilization of iron by silica-phosphate (Siliphos) are
         discussed.

WATER FOR THE DYER,  T.  H.  Morton  (Courtaulds Ltd.).   J. Soc. Dyers Colour-
 ists 83: 177-184  (May 1967).

         The present and estimated  future use of water in England and
         Wales is compared with available resources.  The quality of
         water for  use in the dyeworks is discussed in terms  of dissolved
         and suspended impurities; and the methods available for  the con-
         trol of the effects on the dyeing process of ionic solutes, residual
         hardness,  heavy metals, and bicarbonate are summarized.  The
         problems of disposal of dyeworks1 effluent are also considered.

TREATMENT OF  PROCESS WATER,  F.  Rub.  Chemiefasern 17, No. 2: 140-146
(1967). (German)  Through Shirley Inst. 47: 1281  (1967).
                                    329

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         Filtration and softening plant by German manufacturers is
         reviewed.

INDUSTRIAL WATER SOFTENING,  S. H. Qasim.  Pakistan Textile J., 18,
P. 27-30,  (1967).

         Commercial methods of conditioning boiler water via the lime
         soda, ion exchange and metaphosphate processes are discussed.
         The article includes a brief description of methods generally
         used in softening process water especially in the textile industry.

IMPORTANCE OF PH CONTROL IN THE AUTOMATION OF A WATER SOFTEN-
ING PLANT,  E. Wedlich. Textil-Praxis 22, No. 8: 586-590  (1967).  (German)
Through Shirley Inst. 47: 449 (1967).

         It is demonstrated the equipment for the rapid removal of carbon-
         ate hardness can be automated.  The system described has three
         reactors and a pH controller which regulates the addition of milk
         of lime (calcium hydroxide).  The control  equipment is by
         Polymetron AG.

THE ORGANIZATION AND PROBLEMS OF A COMMERCIAL WATER AND
EFFLUENT UNDERTAKING.  PART 2. ION-EXCHANGERS  IN WATER TREAT-
MENT,  J. Wilhelm.  Spinner Weber Textilveredlung 85, No. 2: 122-123 (1967).
(German) Through Shirley Inst. 47:  1572  (1967).

         This article contains a list of names of useful ion-exchangers pro-
         duced in Europe and America.

PROCESS WATER FOR THE TEXTILE  INDUSTRY, W. Pree. Melliand Textilber. 47,
No.  1:89-92  (1966).  (German) Through Shirley Inst. 46: 1132 (1966).

         This brief survey of the necessity of water  treatment and possible
         methods covers deacidification, iron and manganese removal,
         softening, and partial and full  de-salting.

REMOVAL OF IRON AND MANGANESE FROM RAW WATER SUPPLIES,
R. L.  Reed (Betz Labs.).  Betz Indicator 35: 2-7 (Mar. 1966).

         These impurities can be removed from water by several different
         processes and combinations of processes. Careful study is required
         to select a method most suitable to any individual case.
                                    330

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WATER TREATMENT WITH PHOSPHATES, R. Wagerle and J. A.  Benckiser.
Textil-Prax?s21, No.  1:36-39 (1966).  (German) Through Shirley Inst. 46:  1375
(1966).

        The phosphate inoculation of water feed systems is discussed:
        this prevents lime deposits and inhibits corrosion.  Boiler feed
        water is prepared or adjusted by phosphate additions.

WATER TREATMENT DATA:  A HANDBOOK FOR CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS
IN INDUSTRY,  W.  M. T.  Body and G.  S. Solt.  Hutchinson & Co. Ltd., London.
1965. 60 p. Available from Chemical Rubber Co., 2310 Superior Ave., Cleveland
14, Ohio.

        Contents:  General and engineering data,  Properties of solutions,
        Chemical and process data,  Costs.
                                   331

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      INSTRUMENTATION AND PLANT DESIGN FOR WASTE TREATMENT
CLEANING OUR ENVIRONMENT:  THE CHEMICAL BASIS FOR ACTION,
ACS Subcomm. on Environmental Improvement-, Am. Chem. Soc. Special Issues
Sales,  1155 16th St. N. W., Washington, D. C.  20036.  (1969).

        Although this report does not contain specific information on
        textile waste control it does contain valuable material  on solid
        waste control, air pollution, and water pollution in general.

POLLUTION CONTROL DIRECTORY,  Environmental Sci. & Technol. 3:
951-1130,  (Oct. 1969).

        This directory is divided into the following sections:
        (a) Advertised product directory;  (b)  Professional consulting
        services;  (c)  Products, services, and supplies;  (d) Events
        calendar; (e) Trade names; (f)  Books and authors;
        (g) Company directory.

THE TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES,  E. B. Besselievre (Forrest & Cotton,
Inc.),  McGraw-Hill, New York,  (1969).

        Introduction;  Selecting an engineer; The problems - the require-
        ments;  The information - the data - the characteristics; The
        study;  The design;  Construction and the operation; Conventional
        and unconventional methods of treatment of industrial wastes; The
        role of the federal government in water pollution and its wastes;
        Ordinances and regulations; Designing economy into industrial
        wastes treatment; Sludge;  Coagulants and aids;  Incentives to
        industry;  Renovation of industrial waste effluents for reuse.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION INSTRUMENTATION,   R. L.  Chapman, ed.
(Instrument Soc.  of America),  Instrument Soc. of America, 530 William  Penn
Place, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15219,  (1969).

        This book contains selected papers from symposia presented under
        the auspices of the Analysis Instrumentation Division of the In-
        strument Society of America.  The following may be of some tex-
        tile interest:  (1) Instrumentation for monitormg air pollutants, by
        A. P. Altshuller; (2) Meterological instrumentation for air pollu-
        tion applications, by H. E. Cramer; (3) Calibration of SO2 moni-
        toring instruments, by T. A. Gray and E.R. Kuczynski; (4)  The
        future of instrumentation in water pollution control, by J. H.
                                    332

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         McDermott,  D.  G. Ballinger, and W. T. Sayers;  (5) Tofal
         organic carbon analysis and its relationship to biochemical and
         chemical oxygen demand, by R.  H. Jones;  (6) A stink in the
         ear: noise, by H. C. Roberts.

 ECONOMICS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT,  W. W. Eckenfelder, Jr. and
 D. L  Ford;Chem. Eng. 76: 109-118,  (Aug. 1969).

         Treatment processes and related capital costs for wastewater
         treatment from process  industries are discussed. Mathematical
         models of various processes as well as an optimization approach
         to wastewater treatment,  based on volume flow and effluent
         quality,  are  included.

 BOOK OF ASTM STANDARDS.  PART 23.  WATER: ATMOSPHERIC ANALYSIS,
 Am. Soc. for Testing & Materials, 1916 Race St., Phila.,  Pa., 19103,  (Oct. 1968).

 DIRECTORY OF GOVERNMENT PERSONNEL IN WATER SUPPLY AND POLLUTION
 CONTROL, Water & Wastes Eng. 5: 34-42, (Jan. 1968).

         Names, addresses, and officers of the federal, state, and interstate
         agencies governing the various aspects of water supply and pollution
         control are listed.

 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - A COMPLETE GUIDE TO POLLUTION
 CONTROL, Chem. Eng. 75,  No. 22,  (Oct. 1968).

         This special  issue contains information on governmental control
         activities, state air and waters laws, how to organize a control
         program, the technology of abatement,  100 types of equipment,
         900 equipment suppliers, and 300 technical bulletins. The major
         sections are  classified under the headings  (1)  The  challenge of
         pollution control, p. 13-52;  (2)  Water pollution control, p. 73-
         117;  (3) Air pollution control, p. 141-169,  refs.

WATER AND ITS PROBLEMS,  G. Digout, Teintex 33,  No.  3: 155-167, (1968),
 (French)  Through Shirley Inst. 48: 2515,  (1968).

         The organization of water conservancy  boards in France is explain-
         ed.  A National Water Committee has been formed.  Purification
         of water effluent from dyeworks is discussed in general terms.
         Specific problems of sulfides and detergents are referred to.
                                    333

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SOLUTION TO WATER POLLUTION SEEN IN JOINT ACTION,  T. M.  Forbes,
Am.  Textile Reptr. 82: 25, 49-507  (Aug. 1968).

        The author defines the six major types of water pollution that are
        covered by statutory laws and administrative regulations and he
        suggests that industry, through knowledge of the law and with the
        help and guidance of public government agencies, can eventually
        improve the quality of water before and after use.

INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT MANAGEMENT, R. N. Rickles and R. W.
Okey (Resources Engineering Assoc.), Water & Wastes Eng.  5: 14-18,  (Sept. 1968).

        This paper covers  the following areas of waste treatment:
        (a) Organization of a corporate waste treatment program;
        (b) Organization of an industrial waste treatment project;
        (c) Design of operable industrial waste treatment facilities;
        (d) Design of biological waste treatment facilities based on
             contacting modes other than completely mixed systems.

COST OF  CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER,
R. Smith  (Cincinnati Water Research Lab.),  J. Water Pollution Control  Fee. 40:
1546-1574,  (Sept.  1968).

        Most of the information in this comprehensive article is in  the form
        of tables  (9)  and  figures  (29).

THE  POLLUTION PROBLEM,  J. M. Stepp and H.  H.  Macaulay  (Clemson Univer-
sity), American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research,  1200 17th  St., N.  W.
Washington, D. C., 20036,  (Oct. 1968).

        Contents:  (1) Introduction;  (2) Economic nature of the problem;
        (3) Some possible side effects of pollution control;  (4)  Criteria
        for classifying various kinds of pollution;  (5) Trends in  pollution
        control in the U.  S.;  (6)  Economic effects of various kinds of
        pollution controls; (7) Philosophy of pollution control.

AUTOMATIC LIQUID  SAMPLER,  No. Hants Eng.  Co. Brit. Hosiery J.  22:
23, 24, (Mar.  1967).

        This is a description of a mechanically operated liquid sampler
        for obtaining samples of dyeing effluent and contaminated water.

SUMMARY OF  INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT CONCEPTS AND PRACTICES,
Betz Labs.,  Betz Indicator 36:  2-8,  (July 1967);  2-8  (Aug.  1967).
                                     334

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         This summary was prepared for those who are not actively involved
         in waste treatment or closely associated with the control of indus-
         trial waste water, but who seek basic information regarding current
         concepts and practices.

THEORY OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF TRADE WASTES,  W.  W.  Eckenfelder,
Jr., J. Water Pollution Control Fed.  39: 240-250,  (Feb. 1967).

A REDUCED-SCALE METHOD  FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE DI-CHROMATE
VALUE  (Chemical  Oxygen Demand) OF SEWAGE AND TRADE EFFLUENTS,
Fearn,  R, J., W. H.  Hetherington, S. M. Jaeckel, and C. D. Ward;  J.  Soc.
Dyers Colourists, 83,  p. 146-151,  (1967).

         A description is given of a convenient and reliable analytical
         method for the determination  of the dichromate value of sewage
         and trade  effluents.  The method is more rapid than existing macro-
         scale procedures and  is sufficiently analytically accurate  and
         reproducible for the calculation of trade-waste treatment  charges.
         Oxidation with potassium dichromate  is  carried out in boiling 50%
         (vol./vol.)  sulfuric acid, with a total reagent volume of 30 ml.

DESIGN OF AERATED SYSTEMS FOR INDUSTRIAL WASTE TREATMENT, J. L.
Mancini and E. L.  Barnhart (Hydrosciences, Inc.), J. Water Pollution Control
Fed. 39: 978-986,  (June 1967).

         A laboratory method which can be used  to evaluate and compare
         activated  sludge, aerobic  digestion, and aerated lagoons  is sug-
         gested as an  aid in planning a waste treatment system.

REMOVAL OF FORMALDEHYDE FROM WASTE WATERS,  Schmitz, Paul, Karl H.
Krueger, Hans Havekoss, and Fritz  Steinfatt;  Farbenfabriken Bayer A.-G. Ger.
P. 1, 244, 144  (Cl.  C07c),  (July 1967),  Appl. Jan. 30, 1964; 3 pages.

         Acidified  (pH 4) waste waters from resin manufacturers are freed
         of HCHO  by adding MeOH and heating.  One 1. of waste water
         contg.  HCHO 4,  H2SO4 12,  HCC^H  15%, and other org. and
         inorg. compounds was treated with 50 ml. MeOH  and heated.
         During heating, another 150 ml.  of MeOH was added and the
         vapors were removed through a small column.   The residual waste
         water contained 0.005% HCHO and  had substantially less toxic-
         ity to Esc her ic hia col? and Daphnia pulex.

BIOCHEMICAL DECOMPOSITION  OF ANILINE  AND SOME OF ITS DERIVA-
TIVES,   Stasiak,  Miroslaw; Gax, Woda, Tech. Sanit.,  41, (8),  (1967), (Polish).
                                   335

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         PhNH2/  m- and p-NH2CoH4OH,  p-NH2C6H4CHO, m- and
         p-NH2C6H4NO2/  o-NH2C0H4-CI, and  p-NH2C6H4SO3H
         were subjected to bfochem. decompn. controlled by detn of concn.
         of the initial compds.  O, NH3, and NO2.  Harmful effect of
         some compds. was studied by detn. of B.O.D. The highest rate
         of decompn. was observed In PhNH2 and p-amino-benzaldehyde.
         The decompn. of amino-phenols was much slower, and nitroani-
         lines, chloro-aniline, and sulfanilic acid were not decompd. under
         the exptl. conditions.  Nitroanilines and sulfanilic acid inhibited
         the self-purification of anilines.

CELANESE DEEP WELL DISPOSAL PRACTICES,  Veir,  Byron B.;  Ind., Water
Waste Conf., Proc.7  7th, Austin,  Tex., p. 111-25 - 111-36,  (1967).

         Plant waste characteristics, lab. testing of wastes, selection of a
         waste disposal system, and waste treatment are discussed.  The
         treatment system consists of a waste neutralization tank, a gravity
         settling tank, filter feed pumps, Anthrafilt bed filters, cartridge
         filters, and a high-pressure injection pump.  A 200-ft. blanket of
         highly permeable sand strata  located at a depth of approx. 3500 ft.
         is suitable for deep well waste disposal.  Results of the study indi-
         cate that deep well disposal is feasible for the plant.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE OF  1966 ON WASTE-WATER AND WATER POLLU-
TION CONTROL,  C. M. Weiss and others; J. Water Pollution Control Fed.  39:
689-749,  (May 1967); 867-945,  (June 1967);  1049-1154  (July 1967).

         Includes: Analytical methods, textile wastes.

COORDINATED EFFORT IS REQUIRED TO SOLVE PROBLEMS OF POLLUTION,
M. A.  Wright; Am. Textile Reptr. 81:29-31,  (Jan.  1967).

         Action by business and by government on air  and water pollution
         are discussed.

1966 BOOK OF ASTM STANDARDS.  PART 23.  INDUSTRIAL WATER:  ATMOS-
PHERIC ANALYSIS,  Am. Soc.  for Testing and Materials,  1916 Race St., Phila-
delphia,  Pa., 19103,  (1966).

         ASTM standards relating to industrial water,  industrial waste
         water,  and atmospheric analysis are included.

EFFLUENT ANALYSIS, Proc. Soc. Anal. Chem. 3, No. 2:21-23, (1966)
Through Shirley Inst.  46: 2194,   (1966).
                                    336

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         Summaries of the following papers are presented: Examples of the
         use of empirical methods in the analysis of complicated effluents,
         by F.  G.  Broughall;  Determination of some inorganic  constitu-
         ents of trade effluents, by N. T. Wilkinson; Determination of
         organic matter in sewage and trade wastes and some observations
         of the determination of cyanide, by S. H. Jenkins.

 INDUSTRIAL WATER  RE-USE,  Chem.  Eng. News 44: 90-100, (Mar. 1966).

         Industrial  water re-use methods, particularly through cooling,
         are discussed.

 INTERNATIONAL  TRADE FAIR ON EFFLUENT TECHNOLOGY  IN MUNICH,
 Chemiefaserm 16, No. 12:  986-992,  (1966),   (German).  Through Shirley Inst.
 47:238,  (1967).

         This is an  illustrated commentary on an exhibition of both full-
         treatment  installations and individual  items of equipment.

 CHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATERS,
 W.  Ballnus; Wasser, Luft, Betr. 8:  201-204,  1964,  (German),  (1966).

         Precipitation processes for the treatment of effluent from a
         paper and ceramic-producing industry   and a textile plant
         are described.  The textile waste waters are effectively puri-
         fied by a combination of ferrous sulfate and calcium hydroxide
         or by aluminum  sulfate. Costs of chemicals are quoted.

 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS, N. Blakebrough;
 Intern. Dyer 135:909, 911,  (June 1966).

         The Lubeck process is described.

AUTOMATIC SAMPLING OF SEWAGE AND EFFLUENTS, J. Dean; Instrum.  Eng.
4, No. 6: 124-128,  (1966) Through Shirley Inst. 46: 6655, (1966).

         The author discusses types of sampling  (non-proportional and
         proportional), automatic samplers of the pump type and of the
         scoop type,  bottling mechanisms, and  portable samplers.

WATER FROM SEWAGE EFFLUENT, Eden, G.  E.; Truesdale, G.  A.;  Wyatt, K.L.
and Stennett, G. V.;  Chemistry and Industry,  Vol.  14,  No. 36, p. 1517, (1966).

         Covers water reuse for cooling as researched by the British Water


                                    337

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         Pollution Research Laboratory.

INDUSTRIAL MEASURES FOR THE PURIFICATION OF AIR AND WATER,
M.  Kehren; Textilveredlung  lf No.  5: 219-227, (1966), (German) Through Shirley
Inst. 46:3501,  (1966).

         The large-scale developments and the plant at Farbwerke Hoechst
         are described. Mechanical diltration and electrostatic precipita-
         tion are used  in air cleaners,  A pilot-scale water treatment plant
         has been used to develop a full-scale effluent and water plant
         dealing with 24,000 rrT per day.

SOLUBLE ORGANIC CHEMICAL WASTES:  CONTROL, TREATMENT, DISPOSAL,
Manufacturing Chemists Assoc., 1825 Connecticut Ave. N.W., Washington, D. C.
20009,  (April 1966).

         This manual discusses the water  pollution aspects of soluble
         organic chemical wastes and their control, treatment and
         disposal.

RECENT DEVELOPMENTS  IN THE FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
PROGRAM, S. Megregian;  (Federal Water Pollution Control Admin.), Am. Dye-
stuff Reptr.  55:  P573-576,  (July 1966).

PROCEEDINGS  OF THE 21st INDUSTRIAL WASTE CONFERENCE, (May  1966),
PARTS 1  AND 2,  Sponsored by Purdue Univ.,  Lafayette, Ind. n. d.  1017 p.

         (1) Biological treatment of waste water from  synthetic resin
         manufacture,  by K. G. Singleton (CIBA (A.R.L.) Ltd.),
         p. 62-71; (2) Mechanism of starch removal in activated sludge
         process, by S. K. Banerji,  B. B. Ewing, R. S. Engelbrecht, and
         R. E.  Speece, p. 84-102;  (3)  Sodium hydroxide recovery in the
         textile industry, by C. S. Carrique and  L. U. Jaurequi  (Univ.  of
         Buenos Aires), p. 861-868; (4) Utilization of resistant proteins
         (e. g.  keratine) by activated sludge, by G. J. Capestany (Muni-
         cipality of Metropolitan Seattle) and D. A. Carlson (Univ. of
         Washington),  p. 943-952.

TECHNICAL BASES FOR ASSESSING THE STRENGTH, CHARGES FOR TREAT-
MENT AND BIOLOGICAL TREATABILITY OF TRADE WASTES,  J. R.  Simpson;
J. Appl. Chem.  16:272-280,  (Sept. 1966).

         The Public Health Act  1961 in Gt. Britain empowers a local or
         sewage authority  to recover any additional expense incurred or
                                   338

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         likely to be incurred  in connection with the reception or disposal
         of trade effluents.  This paper discusses technical bases for asses-
         sing these charges.

WATER:  INDUSTRY CHALLENGE—TODAY,  S.  M. Suchecki; Textile Inds.
130: 180-110, (June 1966).

         The  need for industry to conserve water, use It sensibly, and use
         it again after suitable treatment is discussed. Dumping of un-
         treated waste or insufficiently treated waste into streams can no
         longer be tolerated.

WASTE WATER AND  ITS PURIFICATION WITH REFERENCE TO METHODS OF
BIOLOGICAL DISINTEGRATION,  J. Wilhel; Spinner Weber Textilveredlung 84,
N :  145-150, (1966), (German)  Through Shirley Inst. 46:  1957,  (1966).

STANDARD METHODS FOR THE EXAMINATION OF WATER AND WASTE-WATER,
INCLUDING BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND SLUDGES,  12th ed.  Prepared and pub-
lished jointly by American Public Health Assoc.,  American Water Works Assoc.,
and Water Pollution Control  Fed., American Public  Health Assoc.,  Inc., 1790
Broadway, New York, N. Y.  10019,  (1965).

WATER AND WASTE WATER.  PART 1., M.  Kehren, Z. ges. Text! I-Industrie 67,
No.  5:361-364,   (1965),  (German) Through Shirley Inst.  45: 4518,  (1965).

         The natural cycle of water is discussed.  Purification methods
         are summarized.

POLLUTION CONTROL 1965, R.  Rrckles; Noves Development Corp., Pearl
River, N. Y., (1965) 207 p., Chemical Process Monograph No. 10.

         Contents:  Water treatment, Water renovation, Sewage disposal,
         Biodegradable detergents,  Solids disposal, Air pollution, Radio-
         active waste treatment. The book discusses proven and proposed
         schemes for solving pollution problems.

WASTE RECOVERY AND POLLUTION  ABATEMENT, R. N.  Rickles (Dorr-Oliver,
Inc.),  Chem. Eng.   72:  133-152, (Sept. 1965).

         Many waste-recovery methods have been proposed and then refected
         because it is cheaper to dump the wastes (thereby  polluting the
         streams and air) than  to process them. These recovery processes
         will  make good economic sense, however, when anti-pollution
         regulations prohibit dumping.
                                   339

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EFFLUENT PURIFICATION WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO PHOSPHATE
ELIMINATION,  K. Wuhrmann;  SVF Fachorgan Textilver. 20, No. 7:432-441,
(1965),  (German)  Through Shirley Inst. 45: 4520,  (1965).

        Nitrogen and phosphorus are both part of the nutrient matter for
        microphyte organisms which multiply rapidly in effluent liquor.
        Methods for clearing nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing solu-
        tes  from the effluent are described,  and the records of one plant
        are discussed.

CLARIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES BY ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION,
Nevzorov, M. I., Vopr. Sovrem. Strait,  i Arkhitekt Sb (USSR), 380,  (1964).

        This work covers  both the themophilic and mesophilic phases.
        The mesophilic fermentation was  indicated to be  best.
        Experiments found 25 days would reduce the B. O. D.  by 90%.
                                   340

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                                 APPENDIX  C









Included in this appendix are listings of Textile Manufacturers and  Finishers,




Engineering Firms,  Instrument Manufacturers,  State Agencies, Schools, and




Federal Agencies that contributed information for the preparation of this




report.
                                      341

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                 TEXTILE AND CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS
Abney Mills
Airco Chemicals & Plastics
American Viscose Corp.
BASF Corp.
Burlington Industries, Inc.
Calgon Corp.
Cannon Mills Co.
Celanese Corp.
Collins & Aikman Corp.
Cone Mills Corp.
Cranston Print Works Co.
Crown-Metro, Inc.
Deering Milliken, Inc.
Dow Badische Co.
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.
Fiber Industries, Inc.
Gaston County Machine Works
Graniteville Co.
Greenwood Mills
Jenkins Wright Co.
Kendall Co., The
Los Angeles Piece Dye Works
M. Lowenstein & Sons
M and T Chemicals
Mohasco Industries, Inc.
National Dye & Finishing Corp.
PPG Industries
Palmetto Chemical Corp.
C. H. Patrick & Co., Inc.
Quaker Chemical Co.
Reeves Brothers Inc.
Riegel Textile Corp.
Rohm & Haas Co.
Sandoz Incorporated
Springs Mills
Standard Gil of California
J. P. Stevens & Co., Inc.
Synalloy Corp.
Tex Fi Industries
Union Carbide Corp.
United Piece Dye Works
United Merchants & Mfgs., Inc.
West Point Pepperell, Inc.
Westvaco Chemical Co.
Whitestone Chem. Corp.
                                342

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                               ENGINEERS
Beeson Engineering Co.
Bechtel Corp.
Delta Engr. &  Surveyors, Inc.
Enwright  Assoc.
Eskridge  & Long Construction Co.
Froehling & Robertson
    Testing Laboratory
Floyd & Davis  Engineers, Inc.
From Corp. Industrial Div.
General  Engineering Service, Inc.
Harlee-Quattlebaum Engrs.
    and  Contractors
Harwood-Beebe Co., The
Lockwood-Greene Engineers, Inc.
Metcalf & Eddy, Engineers
Charles T. Main, Inc.
Palmer & Mallard Assoc.
Piatt & Davis Engr.
Piedmont Engrs.  & Architects
Robert and Co.  Associates
J. L.  Rogers Engr. Co., Inc.
J. E.  Sirrine Co.
Wiedemen & Singleton Engineers
Williams Engrs. Inc.
                      INSTRUMENT  MANUFACTURERS
Automated Environmental Systems
Beckman Instruments, Inc.
Corning
Ionics, Inc.
Perkin-Elmer Corp.
Preiser Scientific,  Inc.
Scientific Products
Union Carbide Corp.
Will Scientific, Inc.
                                   343

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                            STATE AGENCIES
Alabama
California
Connecticut
Florida
Georgia
Massachusetts
Missouri
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Texas
Virginia
                              SCHOOLS VISITED
Duke University
    Durham, N. C.

Georgia Tech
    Atlanta, Ga.

N.  C.  State University
    Raleigh, N. C.

Philadelphia College of Textiles
    & Science
    Philadelphia, Pa.
                 Purdue University
                     Lafayette, Ind.

                 Textile Research  Institute
                     Princeton, N.  J.

                 Tulane University
                     New Orleans,  La.
                           FEDERAL AGENCIES
                   Federal Water Quality Administration
                                  344

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                                 APPENDIX D
                   EFFECTS OF FINISHING PLANT WASTES
                           UPON WATER QUALITY
To get an idea of the waste load on several streams in the Southeast data taken
from state agencies for the year 1969 is reported in Table XXIII.   The analyses
were made on samples taken above and below plant outfalls.  In  some cases a
significant amount of domestic waste may be included as part of the textile
waste, but this should not detract from the value of the analysis since this is
a common practice in  many situations.  No distinction is made in the type of
treatment the waste  may have received before discharge.  The data is reported
as a qualitative reference for what was occurring in 1969.
                                     345

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                               TABLE PI


                  EFFECTS OF FINISHING PLANT WASTES
Plant A

Parameter

Dissolved oxygen (D. O.)
Biochemical Oxygen Den
Coliform Bacteria (MPN)
PH
Alkalinity
Color

Plant B

D.O.
BOD
MPN
PH
Alkalinity
Color

Plant C

D.O.
BOD
MPN
PH
Alkalinity
Color

Plant D

DO
BOD
MPN
PH
Alkalinity
Color
UPON WATER QUALITY
Water
Above Plant
0.) 6.5
Demand (BOD) 2.0
PN) 33.0
6.5
18
100
4.0
2.0
6.9
30
75
4.0
5.0
6.8
20
50
5.0
10
6.8
20
20
Analyses
Below Plant
5.0
5.0
1000
6.6
20
200
1.0
5.0
7.0
40
200
2.5
500
7.7
110
150
3.0
250
11.0
500
70
                                   346

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 TABLE Pi    (Continued)

 Plant E

 DO                                               6.5           6.0
 BOD                                              3.0           6.0
 MPN                                            490            650
 pH                                               6.7           7.3
 Alkalinity                                        20             50
 Color                                            20             100

 Plant F

 DO                                               9.0           5.0
 BOD                                              1-2           5.0
 MPN                                            500            1500
 pH                                               6.8           7.5
 Alkalinity                                        15             70
 Color                                             5             100

 Plant G

 DO                                               6.5           6.4
 BOD                                              5.0           10.0
 MPN
 pH                                               6.8           4.0
Alkalinity                                        20             0
 Color                                            20             100
 Conductance                               40  mhos/cm           1000

 Plant  H

 DO                                               6.0           5.0
 BOD                                             10.0           25
 MPN
pH                                               6.7           7.5
Alkalinity                                        15             150
 Color                                            15             100
Conductance                                      25             900
                                  347

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TABLE PI     (Continued)






Plant I




DO                                               5-°          i

BOD                                             10-°          25
MPN                                                .
PH                                                6'°

Alkalinity                                        25            Zj
Color                                            25            50

Conductance                                      80             I7°
                                   348

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             Number
                             Subject Fu-ld & Group
                             05D
                                               SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS
                                                     INPUT TRANSACTION FORM
     Organization
        Department of Textiles;  Clemson University;
        Clemson, South Carolina   29631
     Title
        State of the Art of  Textile Waste Treatment
i Q Authors)
Porter,
John J.
16

21
Project Designation
12090 ECS
/Vote
 22
     Citation
     Descriptors (Starred First)

      ^Textiles, -^Wastewater Treatment,  ^Industrial Wastes, -HCost Comparisons
    Identifiers (Starred First)
 27
   Abstract  ^ study has been made of waste treatment methods and practices used in the
   Textile industry.  Information was obtained from people working in the textile
   processing industry,  designing waste treatment plants, and enforcing  state and
   federal regulations on waters discharged to streams and natural reservoirs.   To
   supplement this information the literature was reviewed and an annotated bibliography
   prepared using relevant  articles.  The report contains sections on the following:
   characteristics of textile waste, waste treatment techniques, treatment methods in
   use, effects of textile  wastes on receiving waters, the cost of waste treatment
   operations, and state and  federal regulations governing discharge waters.  Areas
   of needed research are recommended to improve waste treatment methods currently
   practiced by the textile industry.  The report is designed to give the reader
   an insight into the problems facing the textile industry, solutions presently
   available, and references  for further reading.  The annotated bibliography contains
   references on synthetic  fiber manufacturing wastes, detergent waste treatment,
   instrumentation, plant design, water treatment for plant use as well as articles
   pertaining specifically  to textile waste treatment.  This report was submitted
   in fulfillment of Grant  project 12090 ECS between the Federal Water Quality
   Administration and Clemson University.
I lis tractor
Dr.  John J.  Porter
                             Institution
                                     Clemson University
YVRM02 (REV JULY t»6»»
WRSI C
                                              SEND TO! WATER RESOURCES SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION CENTER
                                                     U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                                                     WASHINGTON. D. C. 2024O
                                                                              * CPO: 19«9-35»-339

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