United States            Office of             Occupational Heal;
nvinjiironntal Protection        Administration           and Safety Staff
Agency
1440 - Occupational Health
        and Safety Manual

1986 Edition

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CHECKLIST OF EPA TRANSMITTALS
TITLE
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL  1986 EDITION
When kept current, this checklist permits the user to see at a glance which transmittals have been filed.
SERIES
NUMBER
1440























DATE
3/18/86























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EPA Perm 1315-4 (Rv. 7-73)
PREVIOUS EDITION! ARE OBSOLETE.

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                           CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS
CHAPTER                                                      CHAPTER
TITLES                                                       NUMBERS

POLICY AND RESPONSIBILITIES 	     1
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION 	     2
ACCIDENT AND ILLNESS INVESTIGATION, REPORTING AND
  RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS 	     3
INSPECTIONS AND CORRECTION OF UNHEALTHFUL OF  UNSAFE
  WORKING CONDITIONS 	     4
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEES 	     5
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS 	v.     6
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING 	     7
LABORATORY USE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES 	     8
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RESPONSES 	     9
EPA DIVING SAFETY POLICY 	    10

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                    CHAPTER 1 - POLICY AND RESPONSIBILITIES

                              Table of Contents

PARAGRAPH                                                       PARAGRAPH
 TITLES                                                          NUMBERS

Pu rpose 	  1
Policy	  2
References  	  3
Definitions	  4
Applicability ...	  5
Background  	  6
Responsibilities 	  7

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                      CHAPTER 1 -  POLICY AND RESPONSIBILITIES


1.  PURPOSE.  This Manual  establishes  policy,  responsibilities, and
procedures for the conduct of the  Agency's  Occupational Health and Safety
programs.

2.  POLICY.  It is the policy of the Environmental Protection Agency to
administer its programs in a manner that will  assure its employees places
and conditions of employment free  from recognized hazards which are
likely to cause death or serious harm.

3.  REFERENCES.

    a.  Section 7902(c), Title 5,  United States  Code.

    b.  Occupational Safety and Health Act  of  1970, Sections  6, 19, and 24.

    c.  Executive Order 12196,  Occupational Safety and  Health Programs
        for Federal Employees.

    d.  29 CFR 1960, Basic Program Elements for  Federal Employee  Occu-
        pational Safety and Health Programs.

    e.  OMB Circular A-ll (Sections 13.2(f) and  13.5(f)).

    f.  EPA Conduct and Discipline Order.

    g.  EPA Training and Development Manual.

4.  DEFINITIONS.

    a.  Designated Agency Occupational Health  and Safety  Official.   The
term Designated Agency Occupational Health  and Safety  Official  means  the
senior management official who, as required by E.O.  12196,  is designated
as responsible for the management  of the occupational  health  and  safety
programs within the EPA.  This Official is  the Assistant  Administrator
for Administration and Resources Management.

    b.  Agency Occupational Health and Safety  Officer.  The term  AQSflCy
Occupational Health and safety Officer means  the person who manages the
occupational health and safety programs at  an  organizational  level  below
the Assistant Administrator for Administration and Resources Management.
This Officer is the Director, Occupational  Health and  Safety Staff, under
the supervision of the Director, Office of  Administration.

    c.  Occupational Health and Safety Designee.  The term Occupational
Health and Safety Designee means a person who has been officially ap-
pointed by the OfflceMn-Charge of a Reporting Unit,  Establishment, or


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 Workplace to be responsible to him or her  for  managing the occupational
 health and safety programs at that location.

     d.  Officer-in-Charge of a Reporting Unit,  an Establishment, or a
 Workplace"!  The terms Officer-in-Charge of  a Reporting Unit, an Establish-
 ment, or a Workplace means the senior official  at each Agency location
 designated as a Reporting Unit, Establishment,  or Workplace in Chapter
 3 of this Manual.

     e.  Occupational  Health and Safety Manager/Specialist.  The term Oc-
 cupational Health and Safety Manager/Specialist means a person who meets
 the Office of Personnel  Management  standards,  which include but are not
 limited to these  occupations:

     Safety Manager/Specialist,  6S-018
     Safety Engineer,  GS-803
     Fire Protection  Engineer,  GS 804
     Industrial  Hygienist,  GS-690
     Fire Protection  Specialist/Marshal, GS-081
     Health Physicist,  GS-1306
     Occupational  Medicine Physician,  GS-602
     Occupational  Health  Nurse,  GS-610
     Air Safety  Investigation Officer, GS-1815
     Aviation  Safety  Specialist, GS-1825
     Chemist,  GS-1320
     Highway Safety Manager,  GS-2125

 or equally qualified  military,  agency, or non-government personnel as
 determined by the Director,  Occupational Health and Safety Staff.

     f.   Laboratory Health  Officers.   Laboratory Health Officers are
 laboratory-based  personnel who  nave expertise in health effects and
 chemical hazards  related to  laboratory operations.  Laboratory
 Health  Officers are officially  appointed by the Officer-in-Charge
 and  support and functionally report to the Occupational Health and
 Safety  Designee for that Reporting Unit, Establishment or Workplace.

     g.  Occupational Health and Safety Inspector.  The term Occupational
 Health  and Safety Inspector means an  Occupational Health and/or Safety
 Manager/Specialist (as defined  in 4.e. above) with additional  experience
 and/or  training in health  and safety  hazard recognition and evaluation.

    h.  Representatives of Management.  The term representatives of manage-
 ment means a supervisor or management official  as defined in the applicable
 labor-management regulations program covering the affected employees.

    i.  Reporting Unit.  The term Reporting Unit means a facility where
Agency business is conducted and may include laboratories and field
 offices and other subordinate facilities that report to the primary


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 facility.  A Reporting Unit  as  used  in this Manual refers to the Head-
 quarters complex,  all  Regions,  the Environmental Research Centers and
 Laboratories, and  other field units  designated by the Director, Occupational
 Health and Safety  Staff,  in  Chapter  3 of this Manual.

     j.  Establishment.  The  term  Establishment means a single physical
 location where EPA programs  are conducted and which receives occupational
 health and safety  management support from a higher level of management,
 which may be located at a different  facility.  Establishment as used
 in this Manual  refers  to  regional laboratories and field offices, national
 programs at the Assistant Administrator level and other entities as
 designated by the  Director,  Occupational Health and Safety Staff, in
 Chapter 3 of this  Manual.

     k.  Workplace.   The term Workplace means a physical location where
 the agency's work  or operations are  performed.  A Workplace as used 1n
 this Manual  refers  to  a satellite field unit or a distinctly separate
 activity located within an Establishment but which shares In the occupa-
 tional  health and  safety  programs at the Establishment.

     1.  Imminent Danger.   The term Imminent danger means any conditions
 or practices in any EPA Reporting Unit, Establishment, Workplace or at any
 EPA field site  that could reasonably be expected to cause death or
 serious physical harm  either Immediately or before the danger could be
 eliminated through  normal  administrative procedures.

     m.   Serious.  The  word "serious" when used 1n this Manual with
 "hazard,"  "violation"  or  "condition" means a hazard, violation or
 condition which  has  a  substantial  probability of causing death or
 significant  physical harm.

     n.   Occupational Health  and Safety Committee.  The term occupational
 health  and safety committee  means a committee that meets the requirements
 of  Chapter 5 of  this Manual.

     o.   Recordable  Occupational Injuries or Illnesses.  The term recordable
occupational  injuries  or  11 messes means any occupational injuries or ill-
 nesses which  result  in:

         1)   Occupationally caused deaths regardless of the time between
 injury  and  death, or the  length of illness;

         2)   Nonfatal occupational  illnesses; or

         3)   Nonfatal occupational  injuries which Involve one or more of
the  following:  days away  from work or medical treatment.
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    p.  EPA Reportable Occupational Accidents and Illnesses.   The term
EPA report able accidents and Illnesses means any and all  job-connected
Incidents involving Agency personnel, property, or operations  which
result in personal injury, illness, fire, potential  claims against the
Government, or property damage of $100.00 or more, or to  any  incident
having the potential to cause death or serious injury.

    q.  Recognized Hazard.  A source of danger which could cause physical
harm or toxic effects in humans which has been identified by  printed or
written data and for which control measures have been recommended or
established.

5.  APPLICABILITY.

    a.  Executive Order 12196, 29 CFR 1960, and the provisions of this
Manual apply to all EPA employees at all  operational levels.

    b.  EPA employees who work in facilities of private employers are
covered by the Agency's occupational health and safety  programs.  EPA
employees may be withdrawn from private sector facilities if  safe and
healthful working conditions cannot be assured by the use of  adminis-
trative controls and personal protective equipment.

    c.  Executive Order 12196, 29 CFR 1960, and the provisions of this
Manual do not apply to employees or to the working conditions  of employees
of EPA contractors, regardless of whether the contractor  employees perform
their duties in EPA owned or leased facilities, with EPA  equipment,  or
together with EPA personnel.  Protection of employees of  EPA  contractors
is assured under the other provisions of the Occupational Safety and
Health Act of 1970.

6.  BACKGROUND.  Section 1-201 of Executive Order 12196 requires the EPA
Administrator to establish and operate an occupational  health  and safety
 Brogram in accordance with Section 19 of the Occupational Safety and
 ealth Act of 1970 and with the basic program elements  issued  by the
Secretary of Labor in 29 CFR 1960.  The Administrator,  after  consulta-
tion with Agency employees or their representatives, may  request that
the Secretary of Labor approve alternate occupational health  and safety
program elements which are consistent with the Agency's mission, size,
and organization.

To comply with Section 19 of the Occupational Safety and  Health Act  of
1970,  Executive Order 12196, and 29 CFR 1960, the Administrator shall:

    a.  Designate an Agency Occupational  Health and Safety Official
at the Assistant Administrator level to manage and administer the
Agency's  occupational  health and safety programs and to represent his
or her Interest and support.
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL
    b.  Comply with all standards issued under Section  6  of  the  Act,
except when the Secretary of Labor has approved alternate Agency
standards.

    c.  Assure prompt abatement of unsafe or unhealthful  working condi-
tions or develop abatement plans and interim steps  to protect  employees
when these conditions cannot be promptly corrected.

    d.  Establish procedures to assure that employees who file reports
of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions or who  participate in other
occupational health and safety program activities are not subject to
restraint, interference, coercion, discrimination or reprisal.

    e.  Assure that periodic inspections are performed  at all  Agency
facilities by personnel having the equipment and competence  to recognize
hazards, and that employee representatives accompany inspectors'  during
the inspections.

    f.  Assure response to employee reports of hazardous  conditions  and
require inspections within 24 hours for imminent dangers, 3  working
days for potential  serious conditions, and 20 working days for other
conditions.  Assure the right to anonymity of those making the reports.

    g.  Operate an occupational health and safety management information
system to provide sufficient data to identify unsafe and  unhealthful
working conditions, and to establish program priorities.

    h.  Provide occupational health and safety training for  top  manage-
ment officials, supervisors, occupational  health and safety  specialists,
occupational health and safety inspectors, collateral duty health and
safety personnel, occupational  health and safety committee members,
employee representatives, and other employees.

    i.  Submit an annual report to the Secretary of Labor on the Agency's
occupational health and safety programs.  This report will include infor-
mation on the Agency's self evaluation programs of  the  previous  Calendar
Year and objectives for the current year.

    j.  Authorize safety and health program personnel to  utilize such
expertise from whatever source available, including but not  limited  to
other agencies, professional groups, consultants, universities,  labor
organizations, and safety and health committees.

6.  RESPONSIBILITIES.

    a.  Program Management.

        1)  Administrator.  The Administrator is responsible for the develop-
ment, implementation, and evaluation of the Agency's occupational health


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 and  safety programs in accordance with the requirements of Section 19 of
 the  Act, Executive Order 12196, and the basic program elements in 29 CFR
 1960, or approved alternate program elements.

        2)  Assistant Administrator for Administration and Resources
 Management*  The Assistant Administrator for Administration and Resources
 Management as the Designated Agency Occupational Health and Safety
 Official, through the Director, Office of Administration, is responsible
 for  establishing Agency occupational  health and safety policies, programs,
 standards, goals, objectives, and priorities, and for establishing an
 organization, including the designation of safety and health officials
 at appropriate levels, with adequate budget and staff to implement the
 occupational  health and safety programs at all EPA operational  levels.

        3)  Director, Occupational Health and Safety Staff.  The Director,
 Occupational  Health and Safety Staff, under the supervision of the
 Director, Office of Administration, is responsible for developing Agency
 occupational  health and safety policies, programs, standards, goals and
 objectives, for evaluating the effectiveness of the Agency's occupational
 health and safety programs at all operationa-1  levels, and for providing
 technical support to the Agency's Occupational Health and Safety programs.

    b.  Programs Implementation.

        1)  Assistant Administrators, Regional Administrators and Laboratory
 Directors.  The Assistant Administrators and Regional Administrators and
 Laboratory Directors and others designated as Officers-In-Charge of
 Reporting Units are responsible for implementing the Agency's Occupational
 Health and Safety Programs at the Reporting Unit and at all Establishments
 and Workplaces  within their area of jurisdiction.

        2)  Occupational  Health and Safety Designees.  The Occupational
 Health and safety uesignees at all  operational levels are responsible
 for assisting the Officers-in-Charge  of their Reporting Units,  Establish-
ments, or Workplaces in managing,  developing,  organizing,  directing,  and
evaluating the.occupational health and safety  programs, and for coordinating
 illness and injury reporting and recordkeeping requirements;  analyzing
accidents and injuries for prevention and  control;  and providing technical
advice to management officials in  the implementation of program policy
and standards.

        3)  Laboratory Health  Officers.  Laboratory Health Officers  are
responsible for providing advice and  guidance  on occupational  health-
 related matters  affecting the Reporting Unit,  Establishment or  Workplace;
and for otherwise providing assistance to  the  Occupational  Health  and
Safety Designee in developing, organizing,  directing, and  evaluating  the
occupational  health  elements of the occupational  health and safety
 programs on the local  level.
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    c.  General.

        1)  Supervisors*  Supervisors are responsible,  to the extent  of
their authority, for the health and safety of their employees and for
furnishing them employment and a place of employment which are free from
recognized hazards that are likely to cause death or serious  harm.  They
shall comply with the Agency's occupational health and  safety standards
and with all rules, regulations, and orders issued by the Agency with
respect to the occupational health and safety programs  and shall enforce
correct work practices.

         2)  Employees.  Employees shall comply with the Agency's occupa-
tional health and safety standards, rules, regulations, and orders which
are applicable to their own actions and conduct.  Employees shall also use
the safety equipment, personal protective equipment, and other health
and safety devices, and shall follow the procedures, provided or as directed,
that the Agency deems necessary for their protection.
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                CHAPTER 2 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
                            PRU(jRAM ADMINISTRATION

                              Table of Contents

PARAGRAPH                                                    PARAGAPH
  TITLES                                                      NUMBERS

General	1
Program Resources	2
Dissemination of Occupational Health and Safety
   Program Informat 1 on	3
Liaison with General Services Administration and
   Other Federal Agencies	4
Al legations of Reprisal	5
Field Federal Safety and Health Councils	7
Evaluation of Occupational  Health and Safety Performance	8

        APPENDIX 2A - PROCEDURES FOR REPORTING ALLEGED RESTRAINT,
                      INTERFERENCE, COERCION, DISCRIMINATION OR
                      REPRISAL FOR PARTICIPATING IN THE AGENCY'S
                      OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY ACTIVITIES

        APPENDIX 2B - EXAMPLES OF JOB PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

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              CHAPTER 2 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
                          PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION
I.   GENERAL,  The Agency Designated Occupational  Health and  Safer;  Official
shal 1  assure that occupational health and safety  officials  ar<; established
at each appropriate Agency level with sufficient  authority  and responsibility
to assure:

     a.  That qualified, competent personnel  are  available  to manage  the
Agency's Occupational Health and Safety program.

     b.  That funds for necessary health and  safety equipment., materials,
training, and medical monitoring are available.

     c.  That employees are made aware of the Agency's occupational health
and  safety programs through dissemination of  information on  Agency stand-
ards,  programs, employee rights and responsibilities, and the AcMcy's
procedures for responding to reports by employees of unsafe or unhealth-
ful  working conditions.

     d.  That a person at each Agency Reporting Unit is appointed to
represent EPA management in the resolution of conflicts that, may exist
between EPA and GSA and other Federal agencies regarding Federal build-
ings,  leased space, products purchased or supplied, and other reauirements
affecting Agency employees' health and safety.

     e.  That procedures are established to assure that no EPA employee
is subject to restraint, interference, coercion,  discrimination or
reprisal for filing a report of unsafe and unhealthful working conditions
or for other participation in the Agency's occupational health and
safety activities.

     f.  That the program is evaluated to determine the effectiveness of
the  occupational health and safety programs.

     g.  That active participation in Field Federal Safety and Haalth
Councils is supported to facilitate the exchange of ideas and information
about  occupational health and safety with other Federal agencies.

     h.  That the performance evaluations of supervisory employees, or
other  appropriate management officials, measure their performance  in
nieetlng the requirements of the Agency's occupational hcalti and safety
Programs, consistent with their assigned responsibilities and authority.

2.   PROGRAM RESOURCES.  The Officers-in-Charge of Reporting Unit.-;  shall
ensure that their budget submissions include appropriate funds  
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 Appropriate funds and other resources for administering  the  occupational
 health and safety program shall provide for,  but  not  be  limited to:

      a.  Sufficient personnel  to implement and  administer the  program
 at all levels,  and necessary administrative costs  such as training,
 travel, and personal  protective equipment;

      b.  Abatement of unsafe or unhealthful working conditions related
 to Agency operations  or facilities;

      c.  Safety and health sampling,  testing, and  diagnostic and analyti-
 cal  tools, and  equipment,  including  laboratory  analyses;

      d.  Any necessary contracts to  identify, analyze, or evaluate unsafe
 or unhealthful  working conditions  and operations;

      e.  Program motivation and  promotion  material such  as publications
 posters,  or films;

      f.  Technical  information,  documents,  books,  standards, codes, perio-
 dicals, and publications;  and

      g.  Occupational  medical  monitoring for employees.

 3.   DISSEMINATION  OF  OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM INFORMATION.

      a.  Officers-in-Charge  of Reporting Units  shall promote employee
 awareness  of the Agency's  occupational health and  safety programs
 through:

          1.  Providing  copies of Executive Order 12196, 29 CFR 1960, and
 the Agency's occupational  health and  safety program to all  employees
 upon  request.  Also, copies  of Agency  standards and other applicable
 occupational health and safety standards shall be  available to all
 employees  for review upon  request.

         2.  Posting in a  conspicuous place at each Agency location infor-
 mation  regarding provisions  of the Act, Executive Order 12196,  29 CFR 1960,
 and the Agency's occupational health and safety programs.

         3.  Posting a copy  of the Agency's policy poster in a  conspicuous
 place at each Agency location.

         4.  Bringing  occupational health and safety matters  to the
attention  of employees through existing inhouse publications  and  memo-
 randa, e.g., newsletters, bulletins,  or handbooks.

     b.  Officers-in-Charge are encouraged to purchase health and safety
promotional items such as posters, booklets, pamphlets, and  audiovisual


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materials from commercial and Governmental sources which produce  these
items.  The following list of potential sources is furnished for  informa-
tion only.  It does not include all commercial sources marketing  occupa-
tional health and safety promotional materials and nust not be considered
as mandatory sources of supply.

         1.  National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue,  Chicago,
Illinois 60611?

         2.  National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park,
CAiincy, Massachusetts  02269;

         3.  Dray Publications, Inc., Deerfield Massachusetts  01342;

         4.  Charming L.  Bete, Co., Inc., 200 State Street, South Deerfield,
Massachusetts  01373;

         5.  U.S. Department of Labor, Office of Information,  OSHA,
200 Constitution Avenue,  N.W., Washington, D.C.  20210;

         6.  General Services Administration, National Archives and
Records Service, National Audiovisual Center, Washington, D,C,  20210;

         7.  American Medical Association, Department of Occupational
Health, Division of Scientific Activities, 535 Dearborn Street, Chicago.
Illinois  60610;

         8.  Local Fire Departments;

         9.  Local Municipal Offices of Public Safety;

        10.  Local Law Enforcement Agencies;

        11.  Local Safety Councils;

        12.  State, County, and Local Health and Safety Officials; and

        13.  Local chapters of The American Red Cross, and The American
Heart Association.
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                                                                   J.O/OD


 4.  LIAISON WITH GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION  AND  OTHER  FEDERAL
 AGENCIES.The Officers-in-Charge of Reporting  Units  shall  appoint a
 representative to coordinate with GSA and other Federal  agencies  to
 assure that Agency standards are met for buildings  and  facilities,
 product safety and other safety and health services.  This  coordination
 will include but not be limited to:

      a.  Building and Facility Health and Safety.

          (1)  Assuring that GSA furnishes a pre-occupancy inspection
 of any Federally owned or leased space offered for  EPA  occupancy;

          (2)  Providing space that meets any EPA  special health and
 safety requirements;

          (3)  Assuring that any repair,  renovation, or  alteration of
 owned  or  leased  space  be planned and  controlled to  reduce or  eliminate
 any hazardous  exposure to EPA employees;  and

          (4)  Requesting an Investigation of employee reports of unsafe
 or unhealthful conditions  within GSA's  scope of responsibility, and
 monitoring  the abatement  of any conditions  found.

     b.   Product Safety.

          (i)  Ensuring that items  procured  for use  by the Agency's
 employees are designed and  manufactured  to  meet applicable health and
 safety  standards.

          (2)  Ensuring that all  hazardous materials procured  for use
 by the Agency's employees are  labeled, packaged, and shipped  so as
 to alert  users to their flammability, toxicity, compatability, first
 aid procedures and normal and  emergency  handling and disposal procedures.

          (3)  Assuring that  the  safety rescue and personal  protective
 equipment available for purchase meets the Agency's occupational health
 and safety specifications and  standards  and  are approved by NIOSH.

          (4)  Requesting Material Safety  Data Sheets on all  hazardous
materials purchased for use  by EPA  employees either from Federal
 supply sources or private suppliers.

     c.  Safety and Health Services.

         (1)  Keeping abreast  of the health  and safety services and
 equipment available for use by EPA  from other Federal  sources.
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          (2)  Assuring that an "Occupant Emergency Plan"  is  prepared
for all  EPA facilities in accordance with GSA guidelines  contained  in
41  CFR 101.

          (3)  Coordinating with GSA on a maintenance program for  GSA
niotorpool  vehicles assigned to the Agency to assure the health  and
safety of  EPA employees utilizing the vehicles.

          (4)  Maintaining contact with NIOSH to obtain hazard alerts, and
to  keep  current  on the technical services, training materials,  and  train-
Ing programs  available that can be utilized by Agency employees.

5.   ALLEGATIONS  OF REPRISAL.

      a.  Employee Rights.  Employees are afforded certain rights  under
Section  19 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act,  Executive  Order
12196, and 29 CFR 1960.  These rights are:

          (1)  To report and request inspections of unsafe or unhealthful
Corking  conditions to appropriate officials (See special  procedures in
Chapter  4  of  this Manual);

          (2)  Official time and reimbursement of travel and other costs
Incurred to participate in the Agency's occupational health and safety
Programs and  in  Field Federal Safety and Health Council activities;

          (3)  Access to copies of Agency standards, injury and  illness
statistics, and  procedures;

          (4)  To review and comment on Agency standards,  policies,  and
Guidelines;

          (5)  To appeal to the Office of Federal Agency Program,  OSHA on
Disagreements over the final disposition of reports of unsafe or unhealth-
ful  working conditions;

          (6)  To request anonymity when reporting unsafe or unhealthful
Corking  conditions or requesting an inspection for these conditions; and

          (7)  To decline to perform assigned tasks because of a  reason-
jjble belief that the task poses imminent risk of death or serious bodily
^arm along with  a reasonable belief that there is not time to go through
the normal hazard reporting and abatement procedures outlined in Chapter 4
f  this  Manual.

      b.  Agency  Responsibilities.  EPA must assure that no employee is
|ubject  to restraint, Interference, coercion, discrimination or  reprisal
ror filing a  report of an unsafe or unhealthful working condition, or
ther occupational health and safety activities identified in Executive


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 Order 12196 and 29 CFR 1960.   To assure EPA  employees  of their rights,
 the procedures outlined in Appendix  2-1  will  be  followed when a  report
 of alleged restraint, interference,  coercion,  discrimination or  reprisal
 is received from an employee.

 6.  EVALUATION OF THE AGENCY'S OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAMS.

      a.   General.  Executive Order 12196 and  29 CFR 1960.78 requires each
 Agency to establish a program  for evaluating  the effectiveness of its  own
 occupational  health and safety programs, and  to submit an annual summary
 of this  self-evaluation activity  to  the  Secretary of Labor.  This self-
 evaluation program must include a qualitative  assessment of the  extent
 to which the  Agency's Reporting Units have developed and implemented
 their occupational  health  and  safety  programs  in accordance with Executive
 Order 12196,  29 CFR 1960,  and  the requirements of this Manual.

      b.   EPA's  Evaluation  Program.

          (1)   The Occupational  Health and Safety Staff shall evaluate
 the occupational  health  and safety programs at each Agency Reporting Unit.
 These evaluations  shall  be conducted  in  accordance with the criteria and
 guidelines contained  in  the EPA Occupational Health and Safety Program
 Management Evaluation Guidelines.  The evaluations shall include:

               (a)   A  complete  and  extensive biennial evaluation  of all
 elements of the Agency's occupational  health and safety programs at Report-
 ing Units  where no  hazardous work  is  performed, e.g., office occupancies.

               (b)   A  complete  and  extensive annual evaluation of all elements
 of  the Agency's occupational health and safety programs where hazardous tasks
 are performed,  e.g.,  laboratories.

          (2)  The Occupational   Health  and Safety Staff shall conduct special
 studies  and evaluations  of limited areas as deemed necessary by the Director,
 e.g., laboratories  handling toxic  and/or carcinogenic substances, and hazardous
waste site and  spill  operations.

 7.  FIELD FEDERAL SAFETY AND HEALTH COUNCILS (FFSHC).

     a.  General.  Executive Order 12196 requires that the Secretary of
Labor facilitate the  exchange  of occupational health and safety  ideas
and information throughout the Government.   Consistent with this requirement,
the Secretary of Labor sponsors existing FFSHC's and will  establish new
Councils  as necessary.

     b.  Objectives of FFSHC's.  The basic  objectives of the FFSHC are
the exchange of occupational  health and safety ideas and information to
reduce the incidence, severity  and cost of  occupational accidents,
injuries, and  illnesses in the  Federal community.  FFSHC's will  act on


                                  2-6

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                             1440
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 behalf of the Secretary of Labor In carrying out these  functions In
 their respective geographic areas:

          (1)  To act as a clearinghouse for Information and data on
 occupational accidents, Injuries, and Illnesses  and  their  prevent-
 ion.

          (2)  To plan, organize, and conduct field council meetings
 or programs which will give technical advice and Information on occupa-
 tional health and safety to participating agency representatives and
 employee organizations.

          (3)  To promote Improvement of occupational health and safety
 programs and organizations 1n each Federal  agency represented or par-
 ticipating 1n council  activities.

          (4)  To promote coordination,  cooperation,  and sharing of
 resources and expertise to aid agencies with Inadequate or limited
 resources,  e.g., field councils may organize and conduct training
 Programs for occupational  health and safety program  personnel, and
 employee representatives;  coordinate and promote programs  for In-
 spections;  or,  on request, conduct Inspections and evaluations of  the
 agencies' health and safety programs.

          (5)  To provide Federal  Executive  Boards, Federal Executive
 Associations, labor union  organizations and other employee representa-
 tives with  Information on  the administrative and technical aspects of
        and  safety programs.

          (6) To evaluate  the health and safety  problems peculiar  to
       conditions and facilitate solutions through council  activities.

          (7) To develop a cooperative  relationship  with local com-
"Ujnlty leaders  by Informing them of the functions and objectives of
the council  and by asking  them for support  and participation in
council  meetings and activities.

      c.   Agency Participation in  FFSHC.

          (1) The EPA  supports and encourages Its employees to par-
*1cipate 1n  the FFSHC  meetings and programs.

          (2) The Off1cers-1n-Charge of Reporting Units, and Establish-
J^nts, shall ensure that EPA is officially  represented  at  appropriate
hJ?SHC's  In their geographical  areas where they exist and are reasonably
Accessible.
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          (3)  The Officers-in-Charge of Reporting Units, and Establish-
 ments, shall appoint a minimum of one management employee and one non-
 management employee, and alternates dependent on the size and needs of
 each  unit, as representatives to FFSHC.  These representatives shall  be
 selected  from the following employee categories:

              (a)  Management

                       Occupational health and safety program personnel
                       Line management officials

              (b)  Non-Management

                   1)  Representatives of exclusive bargaining units
                   2)  Other recognized employee organizations
                   3)  Employees recommended by the occupational  health
 and safety committee

          (4)  Appointments may be made to FFSHC's through a memorandum
 by the Officers-in-Charge of the Reporting Unit to the Chairperson of
 the Council.  A copy of this memorandum should be sent to the Director,
 Occupational Health and Safety Staff (PM-273), Washington, D.C.
 20460.

          (5)  EPA will allow participation in FFSHC during official duty
 hours, and the Reporting Unit, Establishment or Workplace will reimburse
 travel and other costs incurred to participate in these council programs
 and activities.

          (6)  The Director, Occupational  Health and Safety Staff, will
 furnish current  lists of FFSHC's to Occupational Health and Safety
 Designees as these lists are issued by the Department of Labor.

          (7)  The Occupational Health and Safety Staff will assess the
 adequacy of FFSHC participation during scheduled program evaluations,
 through field visits, and through annual  narrative reports and health
 and safety committee minutes.  The Occupational Health and Safety Staff
will provide assistance and advice upon request.

8.  EVALUATION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PERFORMANCE.

     a.  General.  29 CFR 1960.11 requires the Agency head to ensure  that
the performance  evaluation of management  officials in charge of Agency
Reporting Units, supervisory employees, or other appropriate management
officials, measures that employee's performance in meeting the requirements
of the Agency's  occupational health and safety programs, consistent with
their assigned responsibilities and authority.  This requirement shall
take into consideraton any applicable regulations of the Office of
Personnel  Management or other appropriate authority.


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                                                                      3
                                                                       /18/86
     b.  EPA's Program for Evaluation  of  Management  and Supervisory
Personnel .  Management and supervisory personnel will  be evaluated annually
on their occupational  health  and  safety performance  as a part  of their
annual  performance evaluation.  The performance  standards of managers
and supervisors should have performance criteria defining expected perfor-
mance in providing a  safe and healthful workplace  for  the employees
under their supervision.   Appendix 2-2 contains  examples of occupational
health and safety job performance criteria  for managers and supervisors.
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    APPENDIX 2-A -- PROCEDURES FOR  REPORTING  ALLEGED RESTRAINT,
                    INTERFERENCE,  COERCION, DISCRIMINATION OR
                    REPRISAL FOR PARTICIPATING  IN THE AGENCY'S
                    OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  PROGRAMS.

     Any Agency employee who believes  they are  being subjected to restraint,
interference, coercion, discrimination, or reprisal for  exercising their
rights under the Occupational  Safety and Health Act of 1970, Executive
Order 12196, 29 CFR I960 or any of  the Agency's published occupational
health and safety policies and procedures should follow  the outlined
procedures to seek relief and  a resolution of the matter.

Employee Rights.  Employees are afforded these  rights under Section 19.
uccupational safety and Health Act  of  1970, Executive Order 12196, and
29 CFR 1960:

    0     To report and request inspections of  unsafe or unhealthful
          working conditions to appropriate officials.

    0     Official time and reimbursement of  travel and  other  costs
          incurred to participate in the Agency's occupational health
          and safety programs  and in Field Federal  Safety and  Health
          Council activities.

    0     Access to copies of  Agency standards, injury and illness
          statistics, and procedures.

    0     To review and comment on Agency standards, policies, and
          guidelines.

    0     To appeal to the Office of Federal  Agency Programs,  Occupational
          Safety and Health Administation, U.S. Department of Labor,  on
          disagreements over the final  disposition  of  reports  of unsafe
          or unhealthful working conditions.

    0     To request anonymity when reporting unsafe or  unhealthful
          working conditions or requesting an inspection for these
          conditions.

    0     To decline to perform assigned tasks  because of a reasonable
          belief that the task poses imminent risk  of death or serious
          bodily harm along with a reasonable belief that there  is  not
          time to go through the normal hazard  reporting and abatement
          procedures of the Agency.
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY  MANUAL                 1440
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Procedures.   Employees may  file a  report either orally or in writing
using these  avenues:

    0     A  grievance through the  Agency's Grievance Procedures contained
          in EPA  Order 3110.8.

    0     Report  any alleged violation to the Director, Occupational
          Health  and Safety Staff.  The Director shall:

               Assure the  employee anonymity if requested.

               Investigate the allegation if within the Staff's
               capabilities, or

               Refer the complaint to the Inspector General's
               Office for  investigation.

    0     File  a  complaint  with the Office of Personnel Management,
          Merit Systems  Protection Board, under PL 95-454, Section 202,
          Civil Service  Reform  Act of 1978.

    0     File a  complaint  with  the Inspector General's Office direct by
          calling (FTS)  382-4977 or toll free 800/424-4000, under the
          Inspector General Act  of 1978.

    The Director,  Occupational  Health and Safety Staff shall:

    0     Keep the appropriate  occupational health and safety committees
          advised  of Agency activity and determinations regarding these
          allegations.

    0     Provide  appropriate occupational health and safety committees
          with copies of reprisal  investigation findings.

    0     Provide  the Secretary  of Labor with copies of any reprisal
          investigation  findings.

    0     Provide  the exclusive  bargaining representative with a copy of
          the investigation findings.

    0     Provide  the employee with a copy of the investigation findings.
                                 2-A-2

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                               1440
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           APPENDIX 2-B  EXAMPLES  OF JOB PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
 Applicability:   Assistant Administrators, Regional Administrators,
                 Office of General  Counsel,  Inspector General,
                 Associate Administrators, Heads of Offices
                 (Headquarters)

 These officials  must  assure:

 1.  That funds  are available  for necessary  health and safety equipment,
     materials,  training,  and  medical  monitoring.

 2.  That qualified,  competent personnel  are appointed to manage the
     occupational  health and safety program  in their area of jursidiction.

 3.  That a person 1s  appointed  to  represent them in the resolution of
     conflicts that, may exist  between  EPA and GSA and other Federal agencies
     regarding Federal  buildings,  leased  space, products purchased or
     supplied.

 4.  That no EPA  employee  under  their  area of jurisdiction 1s subject to
     restraint,  interference,  coercion, discrimination or reprisal for
     filing a report  of unsafe and  unhealthful working conditions or for
     other participation in the  Agency's  occupational health and safety
     activities.

 5.  That employees are aware  of the Agency's occupational health and
     safety programs through dissemination of Information on Agency standards,
     programs, employee rights and  responsibilities, and the Agency's
     procedures  for responding to  reports of unsafe or unhealthful working
     conditions.

 6.  That active  participation in  Field Federal Safety and Health Councils
     1s  supported  to  facilitate  the exchange of Ideas and Information
     about occupational  health and  safety with other Federal agencies.

 ?.  That the program  in their area of jurisdiction 1s evaluated to determine
     its effectiveness.

 .  That the performance  evaluations  of  supervisors and managers under
     their area of jurisdiction  measures  their performance 1n meeting the
     requirements  of the Agency's  occupational health and safety programs,
     consistent with their assigned responsibilities and authority.

Critical  Job Element

 (The criteria for health  and  safety performance may be placed  under the
 Critical  job element  which covers  the use and development of personnel


                                   2-B-l

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                H40
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Objective:

Effectively manage the personnel  and  financial  resources  of  the  program/
region.

Performance Criteria:

     Outstanding:   Evaluation of  the  occupational  health  and safety
program management strongly supports  the firm and  clear written  and  oral
implementation of  the Agency's occupational  health and safety programs
to protect  employees and that this expectation is  included in all  successive
performance standards of managers and  supervisors  under their direction.

     Satisfactory:  Evaluation of the  occupational  health and safety
program management has clearly established,  through successive performance
standards and by written and oral examples,  the support and  implementation
of the Agency's occupational health and  safety programs and  the  awareness
that supervisors are responsible  for  the health and safety of employees
under their direction.

     Unsatisfactory:  Evaluation  of the  occupational  health  and  safety
program management establishes that the  first level  supervisors  are
unsure as to the relative importance  of  employee health and  safety in
conducting  program/regional operations or do not feel  responsible  for
the employees under their jurisdiction.

Applicability:  Supervisors

Supervisors  must  assure:

1.  That employees  under their supervision  are  provided  the  necessary
    health and  safety  equipment,  materials,  training, and medical monitoring
    applicable  to the  jobs  they  perform.

2.  That employees  under  their supervision  are  aware of  their rights and
    that they are not  subject to  restraint,  interference, coercion,
    discrimination  or  reprisal for filing a  report of unsafe or unhealthful
    working  conditions  or of  other participation  in the  Agency's  occupational
    health and  safety  programs.

3.  That employees  under  their supervision  are  aware of  the Agency's
    occupational health and safety programs, standards,  guidelines,  and
    procedures  how  to  report  unsafe or unhealthful conditions and that
    they fully  understand their  occupational health and  safety responsi-
    bilities and that  failure to  assume these  responsibilities may  be
    cause for disciplinary  action.
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Critical Job Element

(The criteria for health and safety performance  may  be  placed  under  the
critical job element which covers  the  use  and  development  of personnel
and other resources or any other compatible  critical  job element.)

Objective:

To assure that all  employees under their supervision comply with  all
occupational health and safety standards,  rules, regulations,  and orders
issued by the Agency.

Performance Criteria:

    Outstanding;  Occupational health  and  safety program evaluation
shows clearly that  the supervisor  understands  his/her responsibility  for
the health and safety of employees under his/her supervision by surveying
the needs of employees for training, medical monitoring, materials,  and
personal protection equipment and  provides the necessary items to the
employees applicable to the jobs they  perform.  Supervisor strongly
supports and enforces safe work practices  and  initiates disciplinary
actions if needed.

    Satisfactory;  Occupational health and safety program  evaluation
shows that the supervisor understands  responsibility for the health  and
safety of employees under his/her supervision  and has provided the minimum
training, medical monitoring, materials, and personal protective  equipment
applicable to the jobs they perform and enforces these  requirements
through initiating disciplinary actions if needed.

    Unsatisfactory;  The supervisor is unsure  of his/her occupational
health ana safety responsibility and that  he/he  is responsible for the
health and safety of the employees he/she supervises.  The minimum health
and safety training, medical monitoring, materials,  and protective equipment
are not provided nor is safe work  practices  enforced.


NOTE:  These examples are not intended as  mandatory  wording.   They are
       only examples.  Each Reporting  Unit,  Establishment  and  Workplace
       may develop occupational 'health and safety performance  standards
       consistent with their needs.
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL
                                                 1440
                                                 3/18/86
        CHAPTER 3 - ACCIDENT AND ILLNESS  INVESTIGATION,  REPORTING
                      AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS

                            Table of Contents
PARAGRAPH
  TITLES
General	,
Identification of Reporting Units .  	
Accident and Illness Investigation  	  ,
Accident and Illness Recording and Reporting   .  .  .
Agency Annual Reports	,
Access to Records by the Secretary of Labor .  .  .  ,
Utilization and Location of Records  and Reports  .  ,
Retention of Records  .	
Incidence and Severity Rates and Cost of Accidents
  and Illnesses ... 	
     APPENDIX 3A -
     APPENDIX 3B -
     APPENDIX 3C -

     APPENDIX 3D -


     APPENDIX 3E -

     APPENDIX 3F -

     APPENDIX 3G -
                                          PARAGRAPH
                                           NUMBERS

                                              1
                                              2
                                              3
                                              4
                                              5
                                              6
                                              7
                                              8
REPORTING UNITS
ACCIDENT/ILLNESS INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES
SUPERVISOR'S REPORT OF ACCIDENT/ILLNESS
(EPA FORM 1440-9)
LOG AND SUMMARY OF FEDERAL OCCUPATIONAL
INJURIES AND ILLNESSES, OSHA RECORDABLE,
FORM 200
LOG OF FEDERAL OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND
ILLNESSES, EPA REPORTABLE
ANNUAL SUMMARY OF FEDERAL OCCUPATIONAL
INJURIES AND ILLNESSES, OSHA FORM 102-F
FLOW CHART DEPICTING OSHA RECORDABLE
CRITERIA

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY MANUAL                                 1440
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         CHAPTER  3 - ACCIDENT AND ILLNESS INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING
                       AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS


 1.  GENERAL.  Section  24 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act  of
 1970, and Section 1-201 (j) of Executive Order 12196 require EPA to establish
 and maintain an  effective occupational health and safety management
 Information system. Regulations for the program are contained in 29 CFR
 I960, Subpart I.  The  purpose of this Chapter is to establish uniform
 requirements for collecting and compiling occupational health and safety
 accident and illness data for the Agency s Management Information System.
 This information will  be used by the Agency to  (a) identify unsafe and
 unhealthful  working conditions, and (b) to establish occupational health
 and safety program priorities.  Additionally, since comprehensive accident
 and illness  investigations and analyses are necessary to an effective
 management Information system, procedures and policies for their Implement
 tation are also  included.

 2.  IDENTIFICATION OF  REPORTING UNITS.  EPA is  required to provide to the
 Department of Labor the  names and addresses of each of the Reporting Units
 covered by its occupational health and safety records program.  Appendix
 3-A lists EPA's  Reporting Units and their sub-units.

 3.  ACCIDENT AND ILLNESS INVESTIGATION.  The investigation of an accident
 or illness 1s necessary  to prevent similar occurrences.  Investigation
 should not attempt to  prove gjilt or innocence.  Rather its purpose should
 be to ascertain  the existence of hazards by identifying the elements and
 sources which caused the accident or illness.   Additionally, proper inves-
 tigation should  result in the identification of any corrective measures
     h may be required.
All  Information  or evidence  uncovered during an accident or illness Inves-
tigation  that would be of benefit to EPA in developing a new occupational
health and  safety  standard or  In modifying an existing standard iust be
Deported  prompt lyu  to the Headquarters Occupational Health and Safety
Staff.  While all  accidents  and illnesses are to be investigated, including
Accidents involving only property damage, the scope of the investigation
depends on  the seriousness of  the accident.

      a.   Objectives of an Accident or Illness Investigation.  The objectives
   an accident or  illness investigation are to:           ~~

          (1)  Determine the  existence of any hazards or contributing
^actors involved,  and make recomma'ndatlons for eliminating the hazards.

          (2)  Determine 1f any unsafe or unhealthful behavior or condition
**as  Involved, and  make recommendations for eliminating the unsafe or
Unhealthful condition or behavior involved.
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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
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      b.  Determination of Accident  or Illness Causes.  The cause of  an
 accident or illness is any behavior,  condition,  act, or  negligence without
 which the accident or illness  would not  have happened.   One of the primary
 reasons for accident or illness investigation is to  determine the causal
 factors involved so corrective actions can  be initiated.

      The cause of an accident  or illness is normally a combination of
 simultaneous or sequential  circumstances without  any of  which the accident
 or illness could not have happened.

      The investigator should look for and identify correctly all accident
 and illness  causes to ensure better analysis and  provide the basis for
 realistic corrective action.

      c.   Responsibilities for  an Accident or Illness Investigation.
 Accident or  illness  investigations  require  a search for  all factors
 involved in  the accident  or illness.  Every factor mist  be found, evaluated
 and considered  in  order to  determine  what actually occurred and why.
 Failure to gather and consider all  factors  could  allow recurrent accidents
 or illnesses  from  the same  cause.

          (1)  Supervisor.   When the supervisor is advised that an accident
 or illness has  occurred,  he/she should:

               (a)   Investigate promptly.

               (b)  Determine what happened and how it happened.

               (c)  Determine the results.

              (d)  Determine what immediate corrective action to take.

              (e)  Notify the  Occupational Health and Safety Designee and
 request  assistance from the Designee  and others  if needed.

          (2)  Occupational  Health and Safety Designee.   When the Designee
 is  advised that  an accident or illness has  occurred, he/she should:

              (a)  Conduct  an  Investigation promptly.

              (b)  Collect  and weigh  all facts,  and justify the conclusions
reached by the evidence.

              (c)  Determine familiarity by the employee with equipment
and procedures involved.

              (d)  Determine the conditions or situations relative to the
cause of the accident or illness.
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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY MANUAL                                   ,Qf
                                                                    3/18/86

               (e)   Determine 1f the accident or Illness was caused by a
 physical  hazard or by  an unsafe act.

               (f)   Assign one or  more persons to Investigate major lost
 time accidents  or  Illnesses.

               (g)   Be  objective and Independent from the Individuals or
 programs  involved  1n the accident or Illness.

      d.   Procedures for  Conducting an Investigation.  The Occupational
 Health and Safety  Deslgnee should follow these procedures 1n all accident
 and, 1n  most cases, Illness Investigations:

          (1) Arrive at  the scene promptly and obtain facts quickly and
 accurately.

          (2) Promptly assess existing hazards to others at the scene
 and, as appropriate, evacuate the area and/or seek professional assistance
 to secure the premises from further such occurrences.

          (3) Evidence at the scene of an accident must be preserved until
 the Investigation  1s completed, except to the extent necessary to protect
 employees and the  public.

          (4) Get  statements from all witnesses.

          (5) Interview  the Injured person(s) as soon as possible.

          (6) Obtain physical evidence.  Get measurements  and photograph
the scene.

          (7) Record all evidence relating to the accident or Illness.

          (8) Recommend  hazard elimination, change 1n standard operating
Procedures, or  training  revision.

      Appendix 3-B  1s a detailed outline of accident or  Illness  Investigation
Procedures.

      e.   Distribution of Investigation Reports.  Copies of accident  or
Illness Investigation reports shall be distributed as follows:

          (1) The  supervisor shall:

              (a)   Provide a copy of his/her Investigation to the  local
Occupational Health and  Safety Deslgnee.

              (b)   Provide a copy to the employee(s) Involved.
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
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              (c)  Keep a copy for his/her file.

          (2)  The Occupational Health and Safety  Designee  shall:

              (a)  Provide a copy to the Officer-in-Charge  of the Reporting
Unit.

              (b)  Provide a copy to the Headquarters Occupational Health
and Safety Staff.

              (c)  Provide a copy to the local  occupational  health and
safety committee.

              (d)  Provide a copy to the exclusive  employee representative,
if appropriate and requested.

              (e)  Keep a copy for his/her file.

     Investigation reports shall  be made available  to the  Secretary  of
Labor or  his/her authorized representative on request.

4.  ACCIDENT AND ILLNESS RECORDING AND REPORTING.  The  accurate and
complete  recording and reporting of accidents and illnesses are essential
to effective investigations.

    The reasons for recording and reporting accidents  and  illnesses  are
to notify management that a mishap has occurred;  to record  essential
information that will help identify causes, point to corrective action,
indicate trends, and provide a basis for future occupational health  and
safety program planning; and to permit an evaluation of the progress
being made in the prevention of accidents and illnesses.

    a.  Reporting Forms.  The following forms are used  by  EPA for  main-
taining occupational health and safety accident and illness records  and
for preparing Agency reports and reports required by the Department  of
Labor.

        (1)  EPA Form 1440-9, "Supervisor's Report  of Accident/Illness"
(See Appendix 3-C).  This is the basic document for reporting all job-
related accidents and illnesses.

        (2)  OSHA Form 100-F, "Log of Federal Occupational  Injuries  and
Illnesses" (See Appendix 3-D).  This is the basic document  used for
compiling data under the Occupational Health and  Safety Act.

        (3)  OSHA Form 102-F, "Annual Summary of  Federal Occupational
Injuries and Illnesses" (See Appendix 3-F).  This form is  to be used for
annual report submissions by EPA Reporting Units  to Headquarters.   (The
Headquarters Occupational Health and Safety Staff will  prepare  and submit


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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
                                                                  3/18/86

an annual  summary for the Agency to the Department of Labor.)  A copy
of each Reporting unit's report  should be posted at its headquarters  and
all sub-units covered by the  report for 30 days no later than 45 days
after the beginning of the Calendar Year.

    b.  Reporting Requirements.  EPA requires that employees report all
job-connected accidents and illnesses to their  supervisor.  A job-connected
accident or illness 1s any incident involving Agency personnel, property,
or operations which results in  personal injury  or  illness, vehicle
collision, fire, a potential  claim against the  Government, or property
damage of $100.00 or more, or any  incident having  the potential to cause
death, serious injury or illness.

        (1)  Reporting Procedures.  Procedures  for the  reporting and
distribution of Information on accident or illness incidents by the
employee,  the supervisor, the Personnel Office  and the  Reporting Unit
Occupational Health and Safety Designee follow:

            (a)  The employee shall:

                 1_  Report immediately  any job-connected  incidents to
his/her supervisor.

                   Furnish accurate  and  sufficient  Information  regarding
the circumstances of the incident  to enable  the supervisor  to  complete
EPA Form 1440-9.

                 3_  Complete CA-1,  1f an  occupational  injury  is  involved.

                 4_  Complete CA-2,  if an  occupational  illness  is involved.

            (b)  The supervisor shall:

                 1_  Investigate all  job-connected incidents within two
working days and complete EPA Form 1440-9,  Supervisor's Report of
Accident/Illness.

                 2_  Distribute copies of  EPA Form 1440-9 as follows:

                    a  Original  (white) to EPA, Occupational  Health  and
Safety Staff (PM-2737, Washington,  D.  C.  20460.

                    b^  Furnish the employee  a copy (goldenrod).

                    c_  Retain a copy (pink)  for his/her file.

                    A_  Furnish the Personnel Office  or Employee Compensation
 oordlnator with a copy  (green)  along with the original CA-1 or CA-2 1f an
  cupatlonal Injury or Illness is  Involved.
                                   3-5

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY STAFF MANUAL                         1440
                                                                    3/18/86

                   e_  Furnish a copy (canary) to the local  Occupational
 Health and Safety  Designee  along with a copy of the CA-1  or CA-2 i f an
 occupational  injury or illness is involved.

              (c)   The Personnel Office or Workers'  Compensation Coordinator
 shall:

                   ]_  Review the EPA Form 1440-9 and CA-1  or CA-2 if an
 occupational  injury or illness is involved.

                     Contact the employee and explain his/her rights and
 benefits  under the Federal Employees Compensation Act.

                   2  If  an OSHA recordable injury or illness is involved,
 forward the original CA-1 or CA-2 to the Office of  Workers'  Compensation,
 U.S.  Department of Labor, and file a copy in the employee's  official
 personnel  file, or

                   4  If  no OSHA recordable injury or illness is involved,
 file  the original  C~A-1 or CA-2 in the  employee's official  personnel  file.

              (d)   The Occupational Health and Safety Designee shall:

                  ]_ Assign a control  number for the case.

                   Prepare a file.

                   3_ Enter information regarding the indicent on the
 Reporting Unit log  (a separate OSHA Form 100-F may  be used).   See Appendix
 3-E.

                   4  If the incident is  recordable  under OSHA cirteria
 enter the information on  the OSHA Form 100-F log.   See  Appendix 3-D.

                   Proceed with the  investigation of  the incident within
 five working days  of receipt of EPA Form 1440-9 for routine  incidents and
 on receipt of verbal, telephone,  or written information pertaining  to
 the reporting of a serious incident as defined in the following  section.

                    Document the findings  and distribute  copies as
 follows:

                     a Original  to the  EPA,  Occupational  Health and
Safety Staff, (PM-273T, Washington,  D. C. 20460.

                     .b Copy to the Officer-in-Charge of the Reporting
Unit,  and Establishment or Workplace if  these  sub-units are  involved.

                      Copy to the Chairperson, Occupational  Health and
Safety Committee.

                                   3-6

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
                                                                    3/18/86

                   d_  Copy to the exclusive representative,  1f  appropriate
 and requested.

                   e.  Retain a copy for his/her official  file.

          (2)  Reporting of Serious Incidents.  The supervisor and/or local
 Occupational Health and Safety Deslgnee nust report serious  Incidents to
 the Headquarters Occupational Health and Safety Staff by  telephone  or
 facsimile copy within 48 hours of occurrence.  A serious  incident involves:

              (a)  An accident or illness resulting in death.

              (b)  A disabling Injury Involving the loss  of  use of  a prin-
 cipal part of the body or total disability.

              (c)  A single incident which requires the hospitalizatlon
 of five or more employees, regardless of cause or severity;

              (d)  An incident stemming from EPA operations  involving
 non-EPA personnel which requires hospitalIzation of five  or  more persons
 or results 1n a fatality;

              (e)  Damage which exceeds $10,000.00 to EPA leased or owned
 roperty or to non-EPA property arising from EPA operations.

              (f)  Reports of Incidents which require Immediate reporting
 must contain:

                   ]_  Name(s) of person(s) Involved.

                   Z_  Date and time of Incident.

                   3^  Apparent cause of the incident.

                   4_  Location and brief circumstances.

                   5^  Name(s) and address(es) of the next of kin 1f a
fatality 1s Involved.

                   j5  Type and extent of property damage.

                   2.  Present status (what has been and what remains to
be done).

                   J3  Personal contacts and telephone numbers for addi-
tional information.

     c.  Record or I	    	r__T__r__r
  A requires that a record or log of OSHA recordable occupational injuries


                                   3-7
c.  Record or Log of Federal  Occupational  Injuries and Illnesses.
                             of OSHA recordable

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                   3/18/86
 and illnesses must be maintained at each Reporting  Unit  identified by
 the Agency  in Appendix 3-A.  An OSHA recordable occupational  injury or
 illness involves:
          (1)  All work-related injuries and illnesses  that  result  in death
 regardless of the time between injury and death or  the length of the illness.
          (2)  An injury or illness which results in one  or  more of the
 following:
              (a)  Loss of consciousness,
              (b)  Restriction of work or motion,
              (c)  Transfer to another job,
              (d)  Days away from work,
              (e)  Restricted work activity, or
              (f)  Medical  treatment beyond First Aid.
     Appendix 3-G is a Flow Chart Depecting OSHA accident/illness  recording
 criteria.
     d.  Related Reports.   In addition to the submission of EPA Form 1440-9,
 the supervisor is responsible for other reports required under regulations.
 These include:
         (1)  State and local police reports regarding motor vehicle
 accidents;
         (2)  SF-91, Report of Motor Vehicle Accident;
         (3)  SF-91, Investigation Report of Motor  Vehicle  Accident;
         (4)  Coast Guard Form CG-3865, Boating Accident Report; and
         (5)  NTSB Form 6120.1, Pilot-Operator Aircraft  Accident Report.
 5-.  AGENCY ANNUAL REPORTS.   EPA requires two annual reports on a Calendar
 Year basis.  These reports  are:
     a.  Annual  Summary of Federal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses.
         (1)  Each EPA Reporting Unit shall  compile an annual summary of
the occupational Injuries and illnesses that have occurred  at its  head-
quarters and all of its sub-units during the past Calendar  Year.
                                   3-8

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
                                                                   3/18/86

         (2)  The summary  shall  be based on the OSHA recordable record
or log of occupational  injuries  and  illnesses.  The Headquarters Occupa-
tional Health and Safety Staff will  provide Reporting Units with copies
of OSHA Form 102-F for  this purpose.

         (3)  Each Reporting Unit shall  post  a  copy of their annual
summary report for 30 days not later than 45  calendar days after the
close of the Calendar Year at its headquarters  and at each of  its sub-units.

         (4)  The Headquarters Occupational Health and Safety  Staff shall
consolidate annual summaries from EPA  Reporting Units and furnish the
Department of Labor with a consolidated  report to meet its reporting
deadline after the close of the  Calendar Year.  Copies of this consolidated
report will be furnished to all  Reporting Units.

     b.  Annual  Narrative  Report.

         (1)  Each EPA  Reporting Unit  shall  be  required  to submit  a  narra-
tive report describing  its occupational  health  and safety program for the
previous Calendar Year  by  February 15  of each year.

         (2)  The Headquarters Occupational  Health and Safety  Staff  shall
furnish guidelines for  this report to  each Reporting  Unit  based on Depart-
ment of Labor requirements.

         (3)  The Headquarters Occupational  Health  and Safety  Staff  will
providse a consolidated Agency annual  narrative report to the  Department
of Labor by April 1st of each year.  The consolidated report  shall  include
a summary of the Agency's  evaluation of  its  occupational health and  safety
programs.  Each Reporting  Unit will  be furnished a  copy  of this report.

6.  ACCESS TO RECORDS BY THE SECRETARY OF  LABOR.  The records  generated
by the requirements of  this Chapter shall  be available  and accessible to
the Secretary of Labor  or  his/her authorized representative(s).

7.  UTILIZATION AND LOCATION OF  RECORDS  AND  REPORTS.  Occupational  injury
and illness information must be  made available  to employees and their
representatives with the basic information necessary  to assure they  can
actively participate in EPA's safety and health programs.  Occupational
health and safety inspectors also nust have  access  to accident and illness
records to better carry out their duties.

The official  records may be maintained at the Reporting Unit  headquarters.
Copies of the reports generated  by these records must be provided to the
Establishment(s) and Workplace(s) under administrative  control of the
Reporting Unit.
                                  3-9

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                               1440
                                                                    3/18/86

 8.  RETENTION OF RECORDS.   The  records and  reports required to be main-
 tained under the provisions of  this  Chapter shall be  retained by each
 Reporting Unit for five years following the  end of the Calendar Year to
 which they relate.  These  records  may be  stored at a Federal Records
 Retention Center which  has  reasonable access.  Records required by Agency
 and OSHA standards shall be retained in accordance with those standards.

 9.  INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY  RATES,  AND COST OF ACCIDENTS AND ILLNESSES.
 The determination of the incidence rate,  number of lost work days, and
 the cost of accidents and illnesses  should be periodically made.  These
 data should be provided to  Agency  managers  and supervisors to keep them
 informed of the progress or problems of the  program.  The Director,
 Occupational  Health and Safety  Staff, will provide an annual report to
 each Reporting Unit on  their incidence and severity rates.

      a.   Incidence and  Severity Rates.  The  incidence rate is the number
 of injuries and illnesses or lost  work days  per 100 full-time employees.

      Incidence rates are calculated  as follows:

          Number of recordable injuries/illnesses x 200,000
                     Total employee hours worked
                 (during a month, a quarter or a Calendar Year)

     The lost work day rates or severity rates are calculated as follows:

         Number  of lost work days x 200,000
            Total employee hours worked

     b.  Accident/Illness Cost Data.  The indirect cost of Injuries and
illnesses is a matter of concern and is a strong argument for maintaining
safe and healthful conditions and work practices.  A conservative estimate
of Indirect costs over direct costs 1s 4 to 1.

         (1)  The factors involved 1n direct costs are:

              (a)  Reimbursement of medical benefits to the Department
of Labor.

              (b)  Reimbursement of compensation benefits to the Depart-
ment of Labor.

              (c)  Payment of costs to the Department of Labor for the
administrative costs of the program.
                                   3-10

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                               ]/18/86
         (2)  The factors  involved  in  indirect  costs  are:
              (a)  Continuation of  pay for the  injured  employee.
              (b)  Time lost  from work by  the injured employee.
              (c)  Time lost  by fellow workers:
                   1_  Time lost by  the supervisor  during  the  investigation
and reporting.
                   J2  Time lost by  other employees providing  statements
to investigators and observing  the  incidents.
                   3  Time lost by  management and clerical  personnel
while providing assTstance in the investigating and reporting period.
              (d)  Cost of repairing damage to equipment and/or facilities.
              (e)  Cost of training a  substitute or new employee.
              (f)  Economic loss to employee's  family.
              (g)  Cost of damage to non-government property.
     Although these indirect costs are real, they are difficult to demon-
strate to management as being a part of the overall costs of  an accident
or illness.  However, management should be apprised  of these factors
that affect the overall costs of accidents and illnesses.
                                    3-11

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           APPENDIX
                                                                 ORTING UHITS
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
	OOP Workplace

I. REGIONAL ORGANIZATION

o Regional Office
  Region 1
  JFK Federal Bldg.
  Boston, MA  02203

  oo Regl onal Laboratory
     Region 1
     60 Hestview St.
     Lexington,  MA 02173

o Regional Office
  Region 2
  26 Federal Plaza
  New York, NY  10007

  oo Regl onal Laboratory
     Region 2
     Uoodbrldge Ave.
     Edison,  NJ   03837

     ooo Environmental Response Team
         Hoodbridge Ave.
         Edison,  NJ 08837

     ooo Oil  A Haz. Materials
         Spill Branch
         Uoodbrldge Ave.
         Edison,  NJ  08837

    ooo Storm/Combined Sewer Section
         Woodbridge Ave.
         Edison,  NJ  08837
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     ooo Workplace
o Regl onal Administrator
  Region I
  oo 01 rector,  Envi romental
     Services Division
o Regional Adnin1strator
  Region 2
  oo 01 rector, Envi ronmental
     Services Division
     ooo Oh1ef, n v1ronmenta1
        Response Section
    ooo  Chief, 011
         Materials Spill Branch
     ooo Chief, Storm & Combined
        Sewer Section
                                                            3-A-l
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility
Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational Health &
Safety Responsibility
Occupational Health &
Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
                      Occupational Health &
                      Safety Designee -
                      Establishment
                      Occupational Health &
                      Safety Designee -
                      Reporting Unit
                      Occupational Health &
                      Safety Designee -
                      Establishment
                      Occupational Health &
                      Safety Designee -
                      Workplace
I

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o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo San Juan Field Office
o Regional Office
  Region 3
  Curtis Bldg., 6th & Walnut
  Philadelphia, PA  19106

  oo Annapolis Field Office
     839 Bestgate Rd.
     Annapolis, MD  21401

  oo Wheeling Field Office
     303 Methodist Bldg.
     Wheeling, WV  26003

o Regional Office
  Region 4
  345 Courtland St., NE
  Atlanta, GA  30308

o Regional Office
  Region 5
  230 S. Dearborn St.
  Chicago, IL  60604

  oo Regional Laboratory
     Region 5
     536 S. Clark St.
     Chicago, IL  60609

  o  Eastern District Office
     25089 Center Ridge Rd.
     West Lake,  OH   44145
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo Director,  San Juan
                                     o Regional Administrator
                                       Region 3
                                       oo Director,  Annapolis
                                          Field Office
                                       oo Director,  Wheeling
                                          Field Office
                                     o Regional  Administrator
                                       Region 4
                                     o Regional Administrator
                                       Region 5
                                       oo Di rector, Environmental
                                          Services Division
                                        oo Director, Eastern Di strict        "
                                          Office
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational Health &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Establishment

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
                                                       Occupational Health
                                                       & Safety Designee -
                                                       Establishment

                                                       Occupational Health
                                                       8 Safety Designee -
                                                       Establishment

                                                       Occupational Health
                                                       & Safety Designee -
                                                       Reporting Unit
                                                       Occupational Health
                                                       & Safety Designee -
                                                       Reporting Unit
                                                       Occupational Health
                                                       & Safety Designee -
                                                       Establishment
                                                        Occupational Health
                                                        &  Safety Designee -
                                                        Establishment
                                                  00 O

                                                  OO

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  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

o Regional Office
  Region 6
  1201 Elm St.
  Dallas, TX  75270

  oo Houston Branch
     Environmental Services Di.v.
     6608 Horrwood Dr.
     Houston, TX  77074

o Regional Office
  Region 7
  726 Minnesota Ave-
  Kansas City, KS  66101

  oo Regional Laboratory
     Region 7
     25 Funston Rd.
     Kansas City, KS  66115

c> Regional Office
  Region 8
  One Denver Place
  999 18th St.
  Denver, CO  80202-2413

  oo Technical Investigations Br.
     37 dg. 53, OFC
     Denver, CO  80225

  oo Montana Operations Office
     Helena, MT

o Regional Office
  Region 9
  215 Fremont St.
  San Francisco,  CA  94105
OfficeMn-Charge of:
o Reporting \Jnit
   oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

o  Regional Administrator
   Region 6
   oo Direct or, Environmental
     Services Division
 o Regional Administrator
  Region 7
   oo Director, Environmental
     Services Division
 o Regional Administrator
  Region 8
   oo Di rector, Environmental
     Services Division
  oo Chief, Montana Operations
     Office

 o Regional Administrator
  Region 9
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational Health &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
                      Occupational Health
                      & Safety Designee -
                      Establishment
                      Occupational Health
                      & Safety Designee -
                      Reporting Unit
                      Occupational Health
                      & Safety Designee -
                      Establishment
                      Occupational Health
                       Safety Designee -
                      Reporting Unit
                      Occupational Health
                      & Safety Designee -
                      Establishment
                       Occupational Health
                       & Safety Designee -
                       Reporting Unit
B
a
                                                 K-1 it*
                                                 CO O
                          CO
                          CTi
                        3-A-3

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o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
	OOP Workplace

o Regional Office
  Region 10
  1200 6th Ave.
  Seattle, WA  98101

  oo Regional Laboratory
     Region 10
     P. 0. Box 549
     Manchester, WA  98353

  oo Oregon Operations Office
     533 S. W. Fifth  Ave.
     Yeon Bldg., 2nd  Floor
     Portland, OR  97204

  oo Idaho Operations Office
     422 West Washington  St.
     Boise,  ID  83702

  oo Washington Operations Office
     13400 Northrup Way,  Suite 3
     Bellevue, WA 98004

  oo Alaska  Operations Office
     Room #535, Federal Bldg.
     701 C St.
     Anchorage, AL  99513

II.  HEADQUARTERS ORGANIZATION

o Headquarters Complex
  (Includes Waterside and Crystal
   Malls and the Marfair  Bldg.)
  401 M St.,  SW
  Washington, DC  20460
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

o Regional Administrator
  Region 10
  oo Di rector,  Environmental
     Services Division
  oo Director,  Oregon Operations
     Office
  oo Director, Idaho Operations
     Office
  oo Director, Washington Operations
     Office
  oo Di rector, Alaska Operations
     Office
  Occupational
 Health A Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility
Occupational  Health
4 Safety Manager -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational  Health  &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee  -
Reporting Unit
                       Occupational Health
                       &  Safety Designee -
                       Establishment
                                 Occupational Health
                                 & Safety Manager -
                                 Reporting Unit
                                                 OJ h
                                                                                  coc
                                                                                  oo
                                                              A-4

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o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo Office of the Administrator
     401 M Street, SM
     Washington, D.C.   20460

     ooo Associate Administrator
         for International Activities
         401 M Street,  SW
         Washington, D.C.  20460

     ooo Associate Administrator
         for Regional Operations
         401 M Street,  SW
         Washington, D.C.  20460

  oo Assistant Administrator for
     Administration  ft Resources Mgmt.
     401 H Street, SW
     Washington, D.C.   20460

     ooo Office of Administration
         401 M Street,  SW
         Washington, D.C.  20460

     ooo Office of Comptroller
         401 M Street,  SW
         Washington, O.C.  204(50

     ooo Office of Information
         Resources Management
         401 M Street,  SW
         Washington, O.C.  20460
     ooo Office of human Resources Mgnrt,
         401 M Street,  SW
         Washington,  D.C.  20460
Off1cer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     ooo Workplace
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational Health
S Safety Manager-
Reporting Unit
     ooo Associate Administrator
         for International  Activities
     ooo Associate Administrator
         for Regional  Operations
  oo Assistant Administrator
     for Administration ft
     Resources Management
Occupational Health
& Safety Manager-
Reporting Unit
     ooo Director, t)f fice of
         Administration
     ooo Director, Office of
         Comptroller
     ooo Director, Office of
         Information Resources Mgmt.
     ooo i rector, Office of Huma
         Resources Mgmt.
                                                            3-A-5
     Facility
Occupational Health &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee-
Establishment

Occupational Health
4 Safety Designee-
Workplace
Occupational Health
& Safety Designee-
Establlshment
                      Occupational Wealth
                      & Safety  Designee-
                      Workplace
                                                                                to 
                                                                                \ *.
                                                                                M 
                                                                                CO O

                                                                                CO

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o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo Office of Asst.  Administrator
     for Enforcement  4 Compliance
     Monitoring
     401 M Street, SW
     Washington, O.C.  20460

  oo Office of General Counsel
     401 M St., SW
     Washington, DC  20460

  oo Office of Asst Administrator
     for Policy, Planning, &
     Evaluation
     401 M St., SW
     Washington, DC  20460

     ooo Office of Policy  Analysis
         401 M St., SW
         Washington,  DC  20460

     ooo Office of Standards and
         Regulations
         401 M St., SW
         Washington,  DC  20460

     ooo Office of Management
         Systems and  Evaluation
         401 M St., SW
         Washington,  DC  20460

  oo Office of Asst Administrator
     for External Affairs
     401 M St., SW
     Washington, DC  20460
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
	ooo Workplace

  oo Assistant Administrator
     for Enforcement and
     Compliance Monitoring
  oo Di rector, Office of
     General Counsel
  oo Assistant Administrator
     for Policy, Planning, &
     Evaluation
     ooo Director, Office of
         Policy Analysis
     ooo Director, Office of
         Standards and
         Regulations
     ooo Director, Office of
         Management Systems &
         Evaluation
  oo Assistant Administrator for
     External Affairs
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational  Health
and Safety Manager -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational  Health &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee  -
Establishment
                       Occupational Health
                       fi  Safety Designee -
                       Workplace
                       Occupational Health
                       & Safety Designee -
                       Establishment
                        Ul
                        \
                        H
                        CO
                        \
                        03
                                                             3-A-6

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o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

     ooo Office of Private and
         Public Sector Liaison
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC  20460

     ooo Office of Congressional
         Liaison
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC  20460
         OffTcer-in-Charge of:
         o Reporting Unit
            oo Establishment
               ooo Horkplace

               ooo Director,  Office  of
                   Private and Public
                   Sector Liaison
               ooo Director, Office  of
                   Congressional Liaison
     ooo Office of Federal Activities
         401 M Street, SW
         Washington, O.C.  20460

  oo Office of Inspector General
     401 H Street, SW
     Washington, D.C.  20460
     ooo Office of Audit
         401 M Street, SW
         Washington, D.C.
20460
     ooo Office of Investigations
         401 M Street, SW
         Washington, D.C.  20460

     ooo Office of Management and
         Technical Assessment
         401 M Street, SW
         Washington, O.C.  20460

  oo Office of Asst Administrator
     for Watar
     401 M Street, SW
     Washington, D.C.  20460
               ooo Director,  Office  of
                   Federal Activities
            oo  Director,  Office of
                Inspector  General
               ooo Director, Office  of
                   Audit
               ooo Director, Office of
                   Investigations
               ooo Director, Office  of
                   Management and
                   Technical Assessment
            oo Di rector,  Office  of
               Assistant  Adminstrator
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility
Occupational Health
* Safety Manager-
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational  Health  &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Workplace
B
Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Workplace

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Establishment

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Workplace
                       Occupational Health
                       & Safety Designee -
                       Establishment
                                                                                         00 O

                                                                                         OO
                                                                                         a\
                                                             3-A-7

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o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
	OOP Workplace

     ooo Office of Water Enforcement
         & Permits
         401  M Street,  SW
         Washington,  D.C.  20460

     ooo Office of Water Regulations
         and Standards
         401  M Street,  SW
         Washington,  D.C.  20460

     ooo Office of Marine and
         Estuarine Protection
         401  M Street,  SW
         Washington,  D.C.  20460

     ooo Office of Marine and
         Estuarine Protection
         401  M Street,  SW
         Washington,  D.C.  20460

     ooo Office of Municipal
         Pollution Control
         401  M Street,  SW
         Washington,  D.C.  20460

     ooo Office of Groundwater
         Pollution
         401  M Street,  SW
         Washington.  D.C.   20460

     ooo Office of Drinking Water
         401  M Street,  SW
         Washington,  D.C.  20460
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
	ooo Workplace

     ooo Director, Office of
         Water Enforcement &
         Permits
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Manager  -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational  Health  &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee  -
Workplace
     ooo Director,  Office of Water
         Regulations A Standards
     ooo Director,  Office of Marine
         and Estuarine Protection
     ooo Director,  Office of Marine
         and Estuarine Protection
     ooo Di rector,  Office of
         Municipal  Pollution  Control
     ooo Director,  Office of Ground-
         water Pollution
     ooo Director,  Office of
         Drinking Water
                                                            3-A-8
                                                                               CO
                                                                               CO O

                                                                               CO

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o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo Office of Asst Administrator
     for Solid Waste and Emergency
     Response
     401 M St.,  SW
     Washington, DC  20460

     ooo Office of Waste Programs
         Enforcement
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC   20460

     ooo Office of Solid Waste
         401 M St.,  SW
         Washington, DC   20460

     ooo Office  of Emergency md
         Remedial Response
         401 M St.,  SW
         Washington, DC   20460

     oeo Office  of Underground
         Storage Tanks
         401 M St.,  SW
         Washington, DC   20460

 oo  Office  of Asst  Administrator
     for Air and Radiation
     401-M St.,  SW
     Washington, DC  20460

     ooo Office  of Air Quality
         Planning and Standard*
         401 M St.,  SW
         Washington, DC   2DA60
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     ooo Workplace

  oo Asst Administrator for
     OSWER
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
 Program Management
  Responsibility

 Occupational Health
 & Safety Manager -
 Reporting Unit
     ooo Director,  Office of
         Waste 'Programs Enforcement
     ooo Director, Office of Solid
         Waste
     ooo Director,  Office of
         Emergency  and Remedial
         Response


     ooo Director, Office of Under-
         ground Storage Tanks
  oo Asst Administrator for
     Air and Radiation
     ooo Director, Office of
         Air Quality  Planning
         and Standards
                                                            3-A-9
Occupational Health
ft Safety Manager -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational  Health &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
and Safety Designee -
Workplace
                       Occupational  Health
                       and Safety  Designee
                       Establishment
                       Occupational Health
                       and Safety  Designee
                       Workplace
Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Establishment
                       Occupational  Health
                       & Safety
                       Workpla;e
                       UJ
                                                                              oo o
                                                                                                                   03
                                                                                                                   CTi

-------
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

     ooo Office of Mobile Sources
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC  20460

     ooo Office of Radiation Programs
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC  20460
oo Office of Asst Administrator      oo
   for Pesticides & Toxic Substances
   401 M St., SW
   Washington, DC  20460

   ooo Office of Pesticide Programs
       401 M St., SW
       Washington, DC  20460

   ooo Office of Toxic Substances
       401 M St., SW
       Washington, DC  20460

   ooo Office of Compliance Monitoring
       401 M St., SW
       Washington, DC  20460
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     ooo Workplace

     ooo Director, Office of
         Mobile Sources
                                                                     Occupational
                                                                    Health & Safety
                                                                   Program Management
                                                                     Responsibility

                                                                   Occupational Health
                                                                   & Safety Manager -
                                                                   Reporting Unit
     ooo Director, Office of
         Radiation Programs
                                          Assistant Administrator for
                                          OPTS
                                          ooo Director,  Office of
                                              Pesticide  Programs
                                          ooo Director,  Office  of
                                              Toxic Substances
                                          ooo Director,  Office of
                                              Compliance Monitoring
  oo Office of Asst Administrator
     for Research and Development
     401 M St., SW
     Washington, DC  20460

     ooo Office of Acid Deposition,
         Environmental Monitoring &
         Quality Assurance
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC   20460
   oo Assistant Administrator for
     Research and Development
      ooo Director, Office of Acid      "
         Deposition, Environmental
         Monitoring  & Quality Assurance
                                                               A-10
     Facility
Occupational  Health  &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Workplace
                                                       Occupational Health
                                                       & Safety Designee -
                                                       Establishment
                                                        Occupational Health
                                                        & Safety Designee -
                                                        Workplace
                                                                                          Occupational Health
                                                                                          & Safety Designee -
                                                                                          Establi shment
                                                                                          Occupational Health
                                                                                          & Safety Designee -
                                                                                          Workplace
                          U)
                                                                                 00 O

                                                                                 00
                                                                                 en

-------
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

     ooo Office of Environmental
         Engineering and Technology
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC  20460
Qff1cer-1n-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     ooo Workplace

     ooo Director, Office of
         Env. Engineering
         & Technology
  Occupational
 Health  Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational Health
A Safety Manager -
Reporting Unit
     ooo Office of Environmental
         Processes A Effects Research
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC  20460

     ooo Office of Health Research
         401 M St., SW
         Washington, DC  20460

o Chemical & Biological Investi-
  gations Branch
  Bldg. 402, ARC East
  Beltsville, MD  20705

  oo Northwest Biological Investi-
     gations Station
     3320 Orchard Ave.
     Corvallls, OR  97330

o Toxicant Analysis Center
  NSTL, Bldg. 1105
  Bay St. Louis, MS  39529

o Environmental Research Center
  26 W. St. Clair St.
  Cincinnati, OH  45268

  oo Office of Administration
     26 W. St. Clair St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268
     ooo Director, Office of
         Env. Processes 4
         Effects Research
     ooo Director, Office of
         Health Research
o Chief, Chemical & Biological    Occupational Health
  Investigations Branch          & Safety  Designee -
                                 Reporting Unit
  oo Chief, Northwest Biological
     Investigations Station
o Chief, Toxicant Analysis Center
o Senior Official
  Research and Development
  oo Director, Office of
     Administration
Occupational  Health
& Safety Manager -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational  Health &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Workplace
                       Occupational Health
                       & Safety Designee -
                       Reporting Unit
                       Occupational Health
                       A Safety Designee -
                       Establishment
                       Occupational Health
                       4 Safety Designee -
                       Reporting Unit
                       Occupational Health
                       & Safety Designee -
                       Establishment
                                                                               00
                        CO
                        a\
                                                           3-A-ll

-------
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo Environmental Monitoring
     & Support Lab-Cinn.
     26 W. St. Clair St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

  oo Center for Envi ronmental
     Research Information
     26 W. St. Clair St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

  oo Environmental Criteria &
     Assessment Office
     26 W. St. Clair St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

  oo Industrial Environmental
     Research Lab-Cinn.
     5555 Ridge Ave.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

  oo Municipal Environmental
     Research Lab-Cinn.
     26 W. St. Clair St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

  oo Health Effects Research
     Laboratory-Cinn.
     26 W. St. Clair St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

  oo National Training & Operational
     Technology Center
     26 W. St. Clair St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
	OOP Workplace

  oo Di rector,  EMSL-Ci nn.
oo Di rector,  CERI-Cinn.
oo Di rector,  ECAO-Cinn.
oo Di rector,  lERL-Cinn.
oo Director,  MERL-Cinn.
oo Director,  HERL-Cinn.
oo Di rector,  NTOTC
                                Occupational
                               Health & Safety
                              Program Management
                                Responsibility

                              Occupational Health
                              & Safety Manager  -
                              Reporting Unit
                                                         Facility
                                                     Occupational Health &
                                                     Safety Responsibility

                                                     Occupational Health
                                                     & Safety Designee -
                                                     Establishment
a
                                                                              a
                                                                              I
                                                                              en
                                                                             00 O

                                                                             00
                       A-12

-------
o Reporting unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo Technical  Support Division
     5555 Ridge Ave.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

 o Environmental Research Lab
  Research Triangle Park,
    NC  27711

  oo Office  of  Administration and
     Resources  Management
     Research Triangle Park,
       NC  27711

  oo Environmental Monitoring and
     Systems Lab-RTP
     Research Triangle Park,
       NC  27711

  oo Health Effects Research
     Laboratory-RTF
     Research Triangle ?ark,
       NC  27711

  oo Atmospheric Sciences Research
     Laboratory-RTF
     Research Triangle Park,
       NC  27711

  oo A1r and Energy Research Lab
     Research Triangle Park,
       NC  27711

  oo Deputy Assistant Adira"ni.>trator
     for A1r Quality Planning &
     Standards-RTP
     Durham, NC  27711
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

  oo Director, Technical
     Support Division
o Senior Official
  Research and Development
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational Health
& Safety Manager  -
Reporting Unit

Occupational Health
4 Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
  oo Director, Office of Admini-
     stration and Resources
     Management
  oo 01 rector, EMSL-RTP
  oo Director, 4OL-RTP
  oo Di rector, ASRL-RTP
  oo Di rector, AERL-RTP
  oo Deputy Assistant Administrator
     for Air Quality Planning &
     Standards-RTP
     Durham, NC  27711

                       3-A-13
     Facility
Occupational Healih  &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Establishment

Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Establishment
                                              0:0
                                              OC
                                              O\

-------
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

o Environmental Monitoring Systems
  Laboratory-Las Vegas
  P. 0. Box 15027
  Las Vegas, NV  89114

  oo Vint Hill Farms Station
     EPIC
     P. 0. box 1587
     Uarrenton, VA  22186
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

o Director, EMSL-Las Vegas
  oo Chief, Vint Hill Farms
     Station-EPIC
     ooo Office of Radiation Programs
         P. 0. Box 18416
         Las Vegas, NV  89114

     ooo EPA Financial Management
         Division-Las Vegas
         Accounting Operations Office
         P. 0. Box 18418
         Las Vegas, NV  89114

     ooo Office of Civil Rights
         Area Office of Civil Rights
         P. 0. Box 15037
         Las Vegas, NV  89114

     ooo Personnel Management Office-
         Las Vegas
         P. 0. Box 18417
         Las Vegas, NV  89114

     ooo Region 9 Laboratory
         P. 0. Box 15027
         Las Vegas, NV  89114
     ooo Di rector, ORP
     ooo Financial Management
         Officer
     ooo Area Di rector
     ooo Director of Personnel
         Management
      ooo Senior Chemist
  Occupational
 Health 4 Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Director -
Reporting Unit
     Facility
Occupational  Health  &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Establishment
                       Occupational Health
                       & Safety Designee -
                       Workplace
                                                                               oo
                                                                                                                   oo
                                                                                                                   Cf\

-------
) Reporting
  oo Establishment
     OOP Vlorkplace

o Env1 ronmental Research Lab
  Sabine Island
  Gulf Breeze, FL  32561

o Robert S. Kerr Environmental
  Research Laboratory
  P. 0. Box 1198
  Ada, OK  74820

  oo Ada Branch, ES Division
     Region 6, P. 0. Box 1198
     Ada, OK  74820

o Environmental Research Lab
  College Station Rd.
  Athens, GA  30613

  oo Region 4, ES Division
     College Station Rd.
     Athens, 6A  30613

o Environmental Research Lab
  6201 Congdon Blvd.
  Duluth, VK  30605

  oo Large Lakes Research Station
     P. 0. Box 500
     Grosse He, MI  48138

  oo Ecological Research Station
     P. 0. 500
     Monti cello, MM  55362

  oo Newton Fish Toxicology Station
     3411 Church St.
     Cincinnati, OH  45268

-------
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

o Environmental Research Lab
  South Ferry Rd.
  Narragansett, RI  02882

  oo CERL Marine Division
     Marine Sciences Center
     Newport, OR  97365

o Environmental Research Lab
  200 S.W. 35th St.
  Corvallis, OR  97330

  oo Western Fish Toxicology Lab
     1350 S.E. Goodnight Ave.
     Corvallis, OR  97330

o National Enforcement Investi-
  gation Center
  Bldg. 53, Box 25227
  Denver, CO  80225

o Motor Vehicle Emissions
  Laboratory Facility
  2565 Plymouth Rd.
  Ann Arbor, MI  48105

o Eastern Environmental Radiation
  Facility
  1890 Federal Dr.
  Montgomery, AL  26109
Officer-in-Charge of:
o Reporting Unit
  oo Establishment
     OOP Workplace

o Director, Environmental
  Research Lab
  Occupational
 Health & Safety
Program Management
  Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
  oo Director,  CERL  Marine  Division
o Director,  Environmental  Research Lab
  oo Chief, CERL Freshwater Tox.  Br.
o Director, NEIC
NEIC Occupational
Health & Safety
Designee - Reporting
Unit
o Chief, Administrative Section  Occupational Health
                                & Safety Manager -
                                Reporting Unit
o Director, Eastern Environ.
  Radiation Facility
     Facility
Occupational  Health  &
Safety Responsibility

Occupational  Health
& Safety Designee -
Reporting Unit
Occupational Health
& Safety Designee -
Establishment

NEIC Occupational
Health & Safety
Designee - Reporting
Unit

Occupational Health
& Safety Manager -
Reporting Unit
                                                                                                                   u>
                                                                                                                   OO
                                                                                                                   \
                                                                                                                   CO

-------
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                  3/18/86
         APPENDIX 3-B  - ACCIDENT/ILLNESS  INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES
 1.  Prepare log for all  EPA  Reportable  accident,  injuries, and illnesses.
 2.  Enter all  accidents, injuries, and  illnesses  reports; number these
     consecutively.   This becomes  the Control Number.
 3.  Prepare a  log for OSHA recordable accidents/illnesses.
 4.  Transfer OSHA recordable accident/illness  from the EPA Reportable
     log to the OSHA recordable  log using Control  Number.
 5.  Prepare a  separate file  for each OSHA  recordable  accident/illness.
 6.  Report immediately to OHSS
     a.  A fatality.
     b.  A disabling injury
         (1) Involving loss of use of  principal  part  of the body,
         (2) Total disability, or
         (3) Five or more employees  injured in  a single accident
             requiring hospitalization.
     c.  Property damage exceeding $10,000.00.
     d.  An injury requiring  medical attention  or a fatality  to non-
         EPA personnel or $10,000.00 damage to  non-EPA property.
 7.  Priority of Accident Investigation
     a.  OSHA recordable.
     b.  EPA reportable.
     c.  all other incident,  i.e.  property, near misses,  etc.
 8.  Accident Investigation - Within five working days after  receipt  of
     EPA Form 1440-9, Supervisor's Report  of Accident/Illness.
     a.  Interview the employee who had  the accident;
         (1) Put the employee at ease.
         (2) Conduct the interview at  the  scene of the incident  if
             possible.
                                  3-B-l

-------
 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
                                                                    3/18/86
          (3) Ask  for the employee's  version  of the incident.
          (4) Ask  any necessary questions  (what,  when, where, but  not
              why).
          (5) Repeat the employee's story  - correct any misunderstandings.
          (6)  Close the interview on a positive  note - prevention.
      b.   Interview  witnesses  or persons familiar with the  circumstances
          (use the same  techniques as with employees).
      c.   Re-enact the Incident only when  absolutely necessary.
  9.   Accident Investigation Report (not accident report) should include:
      a.   Name of the employee.
      b.   Employee's  occupation.
      c.   When and where did it  happen.
      d.   What  inflicted the injury or damage.
      e.   Who  had the most control of what Inflicted the injury or damage.
      f.   What  happened.
      g.   What  things  caused the accident
          (1)   Immediate.
          (2)  Basic.
     h.   How can the  Incident be kept from happening again.
10.  Review accident/Illness reports  with  the Occupational  Health and
     Safety Committee.
                                  3-B-2

-------
Occupational Health and Safety Manual
                                                                                         o/
                                                                                      3/18/So
                                            15
                APPENDIX 3-C -  SUPERVISORS  REPORT  OF ACCIDENT/ILLNESS
                                                      OF ACCIDCNTALLNttt
         Alb 1
            OMUMIKX* *Mh end Siftty Swtf
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-------
                                   APPENDIX 3-D - LOG AND SUMMARY         VPATIONAL INJURIES AND ILLNESSES
      ! t*n Sutatu

  Lo) ndSiiiiim ot OccupMioiMl

ta


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                                                                                                                                                   'J\

-------


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-------
                            APtENDIX g ~ EM. MPOR1ABLE 0    tKHKL INJURIES MID ILLNES'
    EBA. requires that all Job-related
    accidents be reported.


                                                                        **
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-------
  Occupational Health and Safety Manual
                   1440 IN 15

                   3/18/86
     APPENDIX 3-F - ANNTAL SW.ARY OF FEDERAL OCCUPATIONAL
                INJURIES AND ILLKESSES
                           U.S. Dprtmn1 ol Ubor
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                       3-F-l

-------
                                                                                              1440 TS  15
                                                                                              3/18/86
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                                               3-F-2

-------
      OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL
                                                         1440
                                                         3/18/86
                         APPENDIX 3-6 - FLOW CHART DEPICTING
                               OSHA RECORDING CRITERIA
                                        If a case
                                         Note:  A case mist involve a
                                         death, or a diagnosed illness,
                                         or an injury to an employee.
Results from a
work  accident
or from an ex-
posure in the
work  environ-
ment  and is
                                                            Does not result
                                                            from a work
                                                            accident or
                                                            from an exposure
                                                            in the work
                                                            envi ronment
    death
diagnosed
 illness
An injury which
   involves
                                   Loss  of
                                 work days
                               Medical  treatment
                               (other than
                               first aid)


None of
these
             Then case oust be recorded
                                                      Then case is not
                                                      to  be recorded
                                         3-G-l

-------
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                  3/18/86

           CHAPTER  4 - INSPECTIONS AND ABATEMENT OF UNHEALTHFUL
                       OR  UNSAFE WORKING CONDITIONS
                           Table  of Contents
PARAGRAPH                                                     PARAGRAPH
 TITLES                                                        NUMBERS

General 	        1
Responsibilities  	        2
General Requirements 	        3
Formal Inspections 	        4
Formal Evaluations 	        5
Informal Inspections 	        6
Walk-Through Inspections 	        7
Inspection Documentation	        8
Reports on Unhealthful  or Unsafe Working Conditions  	        9
Correction of Unhealthful  or Unsafe Working Conditions  	       10
Imminent Danger	       11


FIGURE                                                           FIGURE
TITLES                                                           NUMBERS

Health and Safety Inspection Checklist	        4-1
Report on Unsafe or Unhealthful  Conditions 	        4-2

-------
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                               3/18/86


           CHAPTER 4 - INSPECTIONS  AND ABATEMENT OF UNHEALTHFUL
                       OR UNSAFE  WORKING  CONDITIONS


1.  GENERAL.  Executive Order 12196 provides  that the head of each  agency
shall give prompt attention to reports  by- employees  or  others of  unhealthful
or unsafe working conditions; shall  assure periodic  inspections of  agency
workplaces by personnel with sufficient  technical  competence  to  recognize
unhealthful or unsafe working conditions; and shall  assure prompt abatement
of unhealthful or unsafe working conditions.

2.  RESPONSIBILITIES.

     a.  The Agency Designated Occupational Health and  Safety Official
is responsible for assuring that formal  health and  safety  inspections
are conducted at all EPA workplaces.

     b.  The Director, Occupational Health and Safety Staff,  is  responsible
for the performance of formal health'and safety inspections at all  EPA
workplaces or for approving plans developed by, locations which  elect to
perform their own formal inspections.   The Director is  also responsible for
the review of all formal health and safety inspection reports and acts  as
the designee of the EPA Designated Occupational Health  and Safety Official
*or the review and coordination of abatement plans.   The Director is
 esponsihle for making assessments and  determinations as may  be  required
to meet the Agency's  need to conduct self-evaluations of its  Occupational
Health and Safety programs.

     c.  Assistant Administrators, the General Counsel, the Inspector
General, Associate Administrators, Regional Administrators,  and  Staff
Office Directors are  responsible for assuring that informal  health and
safety inspections are conducted at workplaces under their jurisdiction
and, should  they elect to make their own  formal inspection,  for assuring
that plans for inspections are approved  by the director, Occupational
Health and Safety Staff.  They are also  responsible for taking direct
action to correct unhealthful or unsafe  working conditions brought r.o
their  attention  by  following the procedures  outlined in paragraph 10 of
this Chapter.

     d.  Employees  or employee  representatives may submit reports of
unhealthful and  unsafe working conditions  to the Director, Occupational
Health and Safety Staff, or  to  the Designated Agency Occupational Health
and Safety Official  by following the procedures specified in paragraph  9
of this Chapter.

     e.  Regional Safety Managers, Laboratory Safety Managers, Facilities
Safety Managers, and/or  local Occupational Health and Safety Designers
are  responsible  to  the Officer-in-Charge for the  implementation  and
performance of local  health  and safety programs.
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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                                1440
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 3.  GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.

      a.   Inspectors.   Executive Order  12196  requires  that each Agency
 utilize  as  inspectors  personnel with sufficient technical competence to
 recognize unsafe or unhealthful working  conditions in the workplace.
 The qualifications  of  each  inspector shall he reviewed and approved in
 accordance  with EPA Order  1440.5, Qualifications and Training Require-
 ments  for OHS  Program  Personnel.

          (1)  Health and safety inspections  shall be made by a safety
 and health  specialist  approved as above.

          (2)  Inspectors will be granted unlimited access to areas to be
 inspected unless  the area contains information classified in the interest
 of national  security.   Inspectors will have  unlimited access to those areas
 but will  be  escorted at all times by personnel who have been cleared for
 access to confidential  information.

          (3)  Under normal  circumstances, advance notice of formal health
 and safety  inspections will be given.

          (4)   During the course of the inspection,  the inspector should
 consult with employees concerning matters of occupational health and
 safety to the  extent that the inspector deems necessary for the conduct
 of  an  effective and thorough inspection.  Employees must be afforded the
 opportunity  to bring to the attention of the inspector any unhealthful
 or  unsafe working conditions which  they have reason to believe exist in
 the workplace.

          (5)   Inspectors shall comply with all health and safety rules
 and  practices  at the establishment  being inspected, and wear and use
 appropriate  protective clothing and equipment when necessary.

          (6)   The conduct of inspections should be  such as to preclude
 unreasonable disruption of the operations of the establishment.

          (7)   At the conclusion of  an inspection,  the inspector shall
 confer with  the Officer-in-Charge of the Reporting Unit or his or her
 representative and an appropriate representative of the employees of the
 establishment, and  informally advise them of any unhealthful or unsafe
 working conditions disclosed by the inspection.  During the conference,
 the Of f icer-in-Charge of the Reporting Unit and the employee representative
 should be afforded an opportunity to bring to the  attention of the inspector
 pertinent information regarding conditions in the workplace'which might
effect his or her recommendations..  (The closing conference is designed
 to provide a description of deficiencies and a discussion of possible
corrective actions.)

          (8)   Inspectors shall be in charge of the inspections and the
questioning  of persons.  A representative of the Officer-in-C'narge of
the Reporting Unit and a representative of the employees shall be given

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                                  1440
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  n opportunity  to  accompany  the inspector during the physical inspection
 of any workplace,  both to aid  the  inspector and to provide more detailed
 knowledge about the existing or potential unhealthful or unsafe working
 condition.   The members of an  establishment's  health and safety committee
 may act as  representatives for  the purposes of this paragraph, if the
 committee and the  Of f icer-i n-Charge  of  the Reporting Unit so agree.

          (9)  Inspectors  are authorized to deny the right of accompaniment
 to any person whose participation  interferes with a fair and orderly
 inspection.

 4.  FORMAL  INSPECTIONS.  A formal  health and safety inspection is an in-
 depth  evaluation of every aspect of  program operations and facilities,
 aimed  at assessing the effectiveness of the local health and safety program,
 identifying  hazards and recommending corrective actions.  A formal health
 and safety  inspection shall  be  conducted at each workplace, including
 offices,  at  least  once annually.  For workplaces where there is an increased
 risk of accident,  injury, or illness due to the nature of the work being
 performed,  inspections should be conducted more frequently, as determined
 by the Director, Occupational Health and Safety Staff.

 5.  FORMAL EVALUATIONS.   The Occupational Health and Safety Staff has
 developed a  program of laboratory and facility evaluations to determine
 the effectiveness  of the  occupational health and safety programs and
 the quality  of  the facilities.   These evaluations may be completed in
 onjunction  with the annual  formal inspections and will be conducted by
 me Occupational Health and  Safety Staff or designee appointed by the
 Director, Occupational  Health and Safety Staff.

 6.   INFORMAL  INSPECTIONS.  An Informal  inspection shall be performed on
 an  unscheduled, frequent  basis  by the Facility Safety Designee, Regional
 Health and Safety  Designee,  Laboratory Health Officer, Supervisory Manage-
 ment,  or  members of  a  health and safety committee.  EPA Form 1440-2,
 Health and Safety  Inspection Checklist, Figure 4-1, may be utilized to
 note health  and safety deficiencies  identified during the inspection, or
 a  report  in  memo form  may  be used to record discrepancies.  The affected
 supervisor should  receive  copies of  all inspection reports.

 7.  WALK-THROUGH INSPECTIONS.   A walk-through  inspection is similar to an
informal  inspection  except that the only documentation required is a list
Of  identified deficiencies for  which corrective action is needed.  This
recordkeeping is intended only  for internal  purposes to identify items
wnich  appear repeatedly.   For example, if blocked fire exits were noted
repeatedly during  walk-through  inspections,  then a more formal approach
to  achieving  correction  is indicated.

Tne walk-through concept encourages a more frequent review of the
facility  and  operational  conditions  without the need for documentation
and formal reporting.

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                1440
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8.  INSPECTION DOCUMENTATION.

     a.  Formal Inspection.  The results of a formal  Inspection  shall be
documented in a comprehensive  health  and safety  inspection  report.  This
report shall be transmitted by the inspector to  the Officer-in-Charge of
the Reporting Unit, who will  submit a copy  to the  Director,  Occupational
Health and Safety Staff.  Correction  of unhealthful or jnsafe  working
conditions identified by means of a  formal  inspection  shall  be accomplished
in accordance with paragraph 10 of this Chapter.

     b.  Informal Inspection.   The results  of an informal inspection
should be documented either by a memorandum or a completed  EPA Form 1440-2
transmitted by the inspector or member of a health and  safety  committee
conducting the inspection to the Of ficer-in-Charge.   The  individual(s)
making the inspection should also make a report  to the  Health  and  Safety
Commi ttee.

     c.  Walk-through Inspection.  A  1 og or file of identified deficiencies
shall  be kept in sufficient detail  to show  the hazard  items  and  locations.


9.  REPORTS OF UNHEALTHFUL OR  UNSAFE  WORKING CONDITIONS.

     a.  Reports by Employee or Employee Representative.  Any  employee or
representative of employees who believes that an unhealthful  or  unsafe
working condition exists in any workplace shall  report  the  condition,
orally or in writing, to the supervisor within whose  organizational
jurisdiction the alleged unhealthful  or unsafe working condition exists.
EPA Form 1440-6, Figure 4-2, may be used to report an alleged unhealthful
or unsafe working condition and to provide  written notification  to the
OHS Designee.  The supervisor should  respond immediately  to a report  of
an alleged unhealthful  or unsafe working condition, notifying the OHS
Designee regardless of whether the condition was reported orally or in
writing, informing the employee or representative  of  employees as  to  what
action he or she is taking or intends to take.  If abatement of  the
alleged unhealthful or unsafe  condition is  beyond  the capability of the
supervisor, he or she should immediately contact his  or her superior  or
the Officer-in-Charge of the Reporting Unit for  resolution  of the problem.
Any such report should be reduced to writing, should  set forth with
reasonable particularity the grounds  for the report,  and  should  be signed
by the employee or representative of  employees.   In  case of imminent
danger situations, employees should make reports first by telephone and
then in writing as soon thereafter as practicable.

The Director, Occupational Health and Safety Staff, shall review the
report.  He or she will assure response to such  reports of hazardous
conditions and require inspections immediately or  within 24 hours for
imminent dangers, three working days  for potential serious conditions and
20 working days for other conditions.

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY MANUAL                                 1440
                                                                     3/18/86

The employee or representative of  employees can request an inspection
of the workplace where the condition  is  alleged to exist  by giving a
report of the alleged  condition  to the Director, Occupational Health dnd
Safety Staff.

     h.  Appeal to Agency Designated  Occupational Health  and Safety Official.
If an employee or a representative of the  employee is not satisfied with
the review conducted,  he or she  may directly  request  the  intervention of
the Agency Designated  Occupational Health  and  Safety  Official and/or the
Assistant Secretary of Labor,  Occupational  Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA).

     c.  Right of Anonymity.  All  employees have  the  right  to anonymity
when making these reports.  The  Designated Occupational Health and Safety
Official or the Di rector. Occupational  Health  and Safety  Staff, may  find
it necessary to confer with the  originator of  the report  if  it is apparent
that further assistance is needed  to  determine more  accurately the  location
or type of conditions  noted.

     d.  Employee Rights.  No employee  will be subjected  to restraint,  inter-
ference, coercion, discrimination  or  reprisal  for filing  a  report of an
unsafe condition or for participation in Agency Occupational Safety  and
Health Program activities.  (See Chapter 2, Appendix 2-A.)

     e.  Scope.  Inspections initiated  pursuant to  this paragraph  are
not limited to matters referred  to in the report  of  an  alleged  unhealthful
or unsafe working condition.  Before or during any  inspection  of  a  workplace,
any employee or representative of  employees may notify  the  health and
safety inspector of any other unhealthful or unsafe working condition
believed to exist in the workplace.

     f.  Determinations.

         (1)   If the Director, Occupational Health  and Safety  Staff,
determines that there are no reasonable grounds to  believe  an  unhealthful
or unsafe working condition exists, or  if an inspection  is  nade on the
basis of a report alleging such condition but no such condition  is  determined
to exist, the  employee or  representative of the employees who filed the
report shall be so notified in writing.  The employee or representative
of employees shall be given an opportunity for a final  review of such
determination  by the Director, Occupational Health  and Safety Staff, and
may appeal to  the Agency Designated Occupational  Health  and Safety Official,
pursuant to paragraph 9.c. above.

         (2)   The Director, Occupational Health and Safety Staff, may
also utilize an appropriate health and  safety committee  created pursuant
to Chapter 5 of  this Manual to determine whether an  unhealthful or  unsafe
working condition exists,  but should ensure that the identify of the person
inaking the  report will be  protected.

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                  1440
                                                                       3/18/86

      g.  Unresolved Reports.  Any employee  or  representative of  employees
 who files a report alleging an unhealthful  or  unsafe  working condition,
 and who is dissatisfied with the final  disposition  by the  Agency, may
 contact in writing the Office of Federal  Agency  Safety Programs, U.S.
 Department of Labor (with a copy to the Designated  Occupational  Health
 and Safety Official*), describing in detail  the  processing of  his or her
 report and setting forth his or her objections thereto.  The Agency shall
 notify each such person of his or her right  to contact OSHA upon final
 disposition of his or her report.  The  Office  of  Federal Agency  Safety
 Programs may request the Agency to submit the  report  of  its investigation,
 and may arrange for an inspection of the  alleged  unhealthful or  unsafe
 working condition if necessary.  Files  on such reports will be maintained
 intact for five years following the end of the calendar year to  which
 they relate, by the Di rector,  Occupational Health and Safety Staff, so
 that the Secretary of Labor or an authorized representative will have
 reasonable access to them.

 10.  CORRECTION OF UNHEALTHFUL OR UNSAFE  WORKING  CONDITIONS.

      a.  The Officers-in-Charge of the  Reporting  Units are responsible
 for the correction of unhealthful  and unsafe working  conditions.

      b.  The Officer-in-Charge of the Reporting Unit  shall immediately
 submit an abatement plan to the Director, Occupational Health  and
 Safety Staff,  if in his  or her judgment th.e abatement  of an unhealthful
 or unsafe working condition will  not be possible  within 30 working days.
 Such a plan  must contain an explanation of the circumstances of  the
 delay  in abatement,  a proposed timetable  for the  abatement, and  a summary
 of steps being  taken  in  the interim to  protect employees from  the unsafe
 or unhealthful  working condition.   Any  changes in an  abatement plan will
 require the  submission of a new plan  1n accordance  with the provisions
 of this paragraph.

     c.   The Officer-in-Charge of the Reporting Unit  shall keep  the
 Health  and Safety  Committee Chairperson of the establishment or  report-
.ing unit informed  as  to  action being taken to  correct unhealthful or unsafe
 working conditions.   The committee  shall  include  this  information in the
 minutes of regular ireetings.

     d.  The procedures  to determine that corrective  action has  been
 taken  should include  relnspection.   If  upon reinspection,  it appears
 that the correction was  not made,  or was  not carried  out in accordance
 with an  abatement  plan submitted  pursuant to subparagraph  lOb, the
 Director,  Occupational Health  and Safety  Staff, will  inform the  Agency
 Designated Occupational  Health  and  Safety Official  of  the  failure to
 accomplish the  abatement plan.

     *   This copy  to  the Designated Occupational  Health and Safety
         Official  is not  mandatory.   The employee  may  file  a report with
                                   4-6

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                1440
                                                                   3/18/86

        OSHA, following approved OSHA  procedures,  and be assured of
        annonymity.  Information on these procedures  is posted  in  all
        EPA locations.

11.  IMMINENT DANGER.  Whenever and as soon as  it  is  concluded, on the
basis of an inspection, that a danger  exists  which could reasonably  be
expected to cause death or serious physical harm,  the Inspector shall
immediately Inform the  affected employees and Officer-in-Charge of the
Reporting Unit of the danger.   The Officer-in-Charge, or a  represent-
ative, shall undertake  immediate abatement and  the withdrawal of employ-
ees who are not necessary for abatement of the  dangerous condition.   In
the event that the Officer-in-Charge needs assistance to undertake full
abatement, the Director, Occupational  Health  and Safety Staff,  shall
assist 1n the abatement effort.
                                  4-7

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                                                                                                               3/18/86
                                       HEALTH  AND SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST
 [INSPECTION CONDUCTED BY
               TITLE
                                                                     DATE
  NAME/NUMBER OF BUILDING INSPECTED (I/., ttpmrmle lorn let *ch building)
                                                                                               REPORTING UNIT
  PART I.  PHYSICAL CONDITIONS (Check neh ippllcftUtturn)
                       ITEM
                                                   SAT    UN5AT
                                                                                       ITEM
                                                                                                                   SAT
                                                                                                                          UNSAT
   I. MOUSEKECPINC AND SANITATION
                                                                   II. ELECTRICAL ANO ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT
   2. NON-HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE
                                                                   It. WATER (*ntt-typhon tnd etoit-conntelion*)
   J. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STORAGE
                                                                   JO. ELECTRIC *L (lutes, grounding, tic.)
   4. MATERIALI HANDLING EQUIPMENT
                                                                   21. COMPRESSED CAS CYLINDERS
   f. AISLES AND WALKWAYS
                                                                   22. STRUCTURAL CONDITION OF BUILDING
    . LADDERS ANO STAIRS
                                                                   21. PARKINS AREA
   7. FLOORS. PLATFORMS AND RAILINGS
                                                                   24. MOTOR VEHICLES
   S. EGRESS
                                                                   26. PORTABLE TOOLS
   . LIGHTING
                                                                   2*. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT
  10. VENTILATION
                                                                   27. HAZARDOUS WARNIN6S 3ISNS
  II. FLAMMABLE OR NOXIOUS DUST OR VAPORS
                                                                   2S. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS (fir. fluid, tolidt)
  12. HAZARDOUS BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
                                                                   It. OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE
  II. FIRE DETECTION DEVICES
                                                                   SO. MEDICAL SERVICES. INCLUDING FIRST AID
  14. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM
                                                                   SI. PROVISIONS FOR HANDICAPPED
  IS. FIRE SUPPRESSION (Including xfinfu/t/Wt)
                      32, OTHER
  |. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
  17. MACHINE GUARDS AND SAFETY DEVICES
  PART II.  PROCEDURES AND INSTRUCTIONS (Check ,,ch ypllcmbl,
 fS. MATERIALS HANDLING
                                                                  43. FIELD OPERATIONS. OTHER
 34. MOTOR VEHICi. E OPERATION
                                                                   46. SAFETY COMMITTEE ACTIVITY
 3*. BUILDING MAINTENANCE
                                                                  47. FEDERAL SAFETY COUNCIL  PARTICIPATION
 ). EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
 37. USE OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ANO
      EQUIPMENT
                     41. EMPLOYEE REPRESENTATION IN
                          SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM
                                                                   40. JOB ORIENTATION
 31. HAZARD MONITORING EQUIPMENT
      (carbon monixld*. rjtdiftlon, tc.)
                     SO. JOB TRAINING. INCLUDING SAFETY
                          ANO HEALTH
 ae.  FACILITY SELF-PROTECTION PLAN
 40. LABORATORY OPERATIONS
                     St. SAFETY PROMOTIONAL AND
                          MOTIVATIONAL ACTIVITIES
 41. BOATING OPERATIONS
                                                                  S2. PERIODIC PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS
[jj.  DI.VING OPERATIONS
                                                                  S3. OTHER
 43. AVI ATION OPERATIONS
 44. CRAFTS ANO SHOPS OPERATIONS
 REMARKS(Contlnu* on bmck It n*t*ttry) (NOTE: U*t EPA Farm 1440-6  to rfocmcflf in d*til tfch unhttlthlul or un/ condition)
 EPA Form 1440-2 (Rt. 5-77)
PREVIOUS EDITION MA v BE USED UNTIL SUPPLY IS  EXHAUSTED

      T'iqure 4-1

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     OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL
                                                               1440
                                                              3/18/86
      EPA
                UNfTED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
                           WASHINGTON. DC 20460

EMPLOYEE REPORT OF UNSAFE OR UNHEALTHFUL CONDITION
  (0:
                                                   FROM:
                                                   Telephone
  Brief 0*eription of Unsafe or Unheatthful Condition:
  Exact Location:
  Safety and Haalth Standard Violated (H known)
 Recommendation To Correct the Condition
 Signature
                                                           Data
 Re*ponte to Employee
   ^nature
I
 EPA Form 1440-6 (Rev. 0-84) Previous edition is obsolete.       Diaribuutn


                                 Figure 4-2
                                                                    Supmntor

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                1440
                                                                    3/18/86

          CHAPTER 5 - OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH  AND  SAFETY COMMITTEES

                            Table of Contents
PARAGRAPH                                                   PARAGRAPH
JTITLES                                                      NUMBERS

General	  1
Occupational Health and Safety Committee Organization and
   Functions	  2
Types of Commi ttees	  3
Committee Membershi p	  4
Responsibilities and Duties	  5
Occupational Health and Safety Committee Meeting	  6
Minutes of the Occupational Health and Safety Committee	7
Occupational Health and Safety Committee Policy  and
   Procedures	  8

     APPENDIX 5-A  - Suggested Policy and Procedures  for the
                     Administrative Control of an Executive
                     Occupational  Health and Safety Committee

     APPENDIX 5-B  - Suggested Policy and Procedures  for the
                     Administrative Control of an Operational
                     Occupational  Health and Safety Committee

     APPENDIX 5-C  - Suggested Policy and Procedures  for the
                     Administrative Control of a Specicalized
                     Occupational  Health and Safety Committee

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
                                                                   3/18/86

          CHAPTER 5 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEES

1.  GENERAL.  Under Executive Order  12196,  Section 1-301, the EPA may,
if it chooses, establish OSHA certified occupational health and safety
committees which meet the minimum requirements  of the Secretary of
Labor as described in 29 CFR  1960.36.  The  EPA  declined to establish
OSHA certified committees choosing  rather to retain  its existing
committee structure.  This declination was  based upon EPA's feeling that
its existing committee structure adequately provides for  effective
representation of all Agency  employees and  in no way diminishes the
Agency's goal of providing its  employees with places and  conditions of
employment free from recognized  hazards which are likely  to cause death
or serious harm.  Therefore,  reorganization of  existing Agency  occupa-
tional health and safety committees  is not  required.

EPA requires that an Occupational Health  and Safety  Committee  be established
at each Agency Reporting Unit and Establishment that effectively represents
all employees.  Each EPA Reporting Unit  and Establishment may  individually
determine (through negotiation  with  the exclusive bargaining representative,
if appropriate) the type and composition  of its ocupational  health  and
safety committee(s) consitent with  its size and mission and the requirements
of this Chapter.

2.   OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  COMMITTEE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS.
The occupational health and safety committee is the  medium for achiev-
Ing the participation of employees in the Agency's  occupational health
and safety programs.  A well-organized, balanced health  and  safety
committee will have the diversified knowledge of all job operations and
activities at its location.  Committees  should  be  advisory not policy-
making groups.  Committees should ascertain the facts  and make recommen-
dations so management can make  intelligent  policy  decisions  in the  area
of health and safety matters affecting employees.   Agency health  and
safety committees shall be:

    a.  Effectively supported by management;

    b.  Given specific tasks to accomplish  not  general  topics  for
consideration;

    c.  Include personnel from the program areas which committee decisions
     affect;

    d.  Provide effective  representation of all employees; and

    e.  Include a cross-section of experts  who have Intimate knowledge
Of pertinent work conditions and practices.

The occupational health and safety committees shall  be kept as small as
possible consistent with these  requirements.


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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                   ,oe
                                                                    3/1.0/06

 3.  TYPES OF COMMITTEES.  The requirements  for an  occupational health
 and safety committee at each Agency Reporting Unit and Establishment
 shall be fulfilled by establishing an operational  committee  alone or in
 combination with one or both of the types of committees listed below,
 depending on the need.

     a.  Executive Committee.  An executive  occupational  health and  safety
 committee includes key managers of the Reporting Unit  or  Establishment
 who have maximum knowledge of policy and procedures.   The Officer-in-Charge
 of the Reporting Unit or Establishment or a  principal  deputy should be a
 member.

     b.  Operational  Committee.   An operational  occupational  health  and
 safety committee consists  of personnel  from  the programs  or offices
 which the committee's recommendations will  affect.  Members  of this
 committee should have access to the Executive Committee,  1f appropriate.
 This can be accomplished by  appointing the  chairperson of the operational
 committee as  a  member of the executive committee.

     c.  Specialized  Committee.   This committee consists of personnel
 from a program  or programs that are Involved  in particularly hazardous
 operations that require emphasis on health and safety  practices peculiar
 to that  operation.

 4.  COMMITTEE MEMBERSHIP.

     a.  Membership of occupational  health and safety committees shall
 be determined individually by the  Off1cer-1n-Charge of each Reporting
 Unit and Establishment,  through  negotiation with the exclusive bar-
 gaining  representative,  if appropriate.

 EPA  requires  that  operational occupational health  and  safety committees
 shall  be  managed in  such a way  as  to assure effective  representation of
 all  employees.   However, an  equal  membership  of management and non-manage-
 ment employees  is not mandatory.   There are several ways to select and
 appoint  occupational  health  and safety  committee members.

         (1)  The Off1cer-1n-Charge may select and appoint in writing
 the  committee members from a  list  of  nominees  developed by the Occcupa-
 tional Health and Safety Designee at the Reporting Unit or Establishment.
 (The Occupational Health and Safety Designee  should develop the list of
 names  from suggestions received from program supervisors and, if appropriate,
 the exclusive bargaining representative.)

        (2)  An election may be held and members elected from designated
 program areas or functions and  officially appointed in writing by the
Officer-1n-Charge.
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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                               1440
                                                                    3/18/86

         (3)  A combination  of 1 and 2 above 1s possible with official
 designation being made 1n writing  by the Off1cer-1n-Charge.

         (4)  Members may be appointed by the Officer-in-Charge from
 among employees who volunteer to serve  on the occupational health and
 safety committee.

     b.  Occupational health and safety  committee members shall serve
 overlapping terms.   These terms may be of one, one and one-half, or
 two years  duration  depending on the requirements of the Reporting
 Unit or Establishment.

     c.  The committee chairperson  should be nominated from among the
 committee's membership  and  elected by the committee members.

     d.  The Occupational Health and Safety Designee should attend committee
 meetings as technical  advisor but should not be an official member of
 the occupational  health and safety committee and should not chair the
 committee.   The role of the Occupational Health and Safety Designee is
 to assist  the committee 1n  developing and implementing Ideas and to
 effectively utilize  the committee members' experience, knowledge, and
 talents in  the health and safety program at the Reporting Unit or
 Establishment.

 (NOTE:  OHSS strongly  recommends that the occupational health and safety
 committee chairperson be nominated and elected by the committee members.
 If management appoints  a management representative as chairperson, it
 negates  the Intent of providing employees an opportunity to fully
 participate 1n the Agency's Occupational Health and Safety Programs.
 The Occupational Health and Safety Designee is also a representative of
 management.   If  the  Designee serves as committee chairperson, any
 recommendations made  by the committee and signed by the Designee as
 chairperson carries  no  more weight or significance than if the Designee
had made the  recommendation.  The Designee serving as chairperson loses
 at least 50 percent  of  the  effectiveness of the committee members'
expertise 1n managing the occupational  halth and safety programs at the
Reporting Unit  or Establishment.)

 5.  RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES.

    a.  Agency Responsibilities.  The EPA shall make available to occupa-
tional health and safety committees all  information relevant and necessary
to effectively  perform  their duties.  The information shall Include but
is not be limited to:

         (1)  The Agency's occupational  health and safety policies and
programs;
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 OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
                                                                    3/18/86

         (2)   The human and financial resources available to implement
 the  program;

         (3)   Material Safety Data Sheets; and

         (4)   Data on accidents, injuries, illnesses,  epidemiological,
 and  employee  exposure monitoring; and

         (5)   Reports on inspection, reprisal investigations, abatement
 plans, NIOSH  hazard evaluations, and internal  and external  occupational
 health and safety program evaluations.

 The  Agency shall provide all occupational health and  safety committee
 members  appropriate training as required in Chapter 7 of this Manual.

     b.  Occupational Health and Safety Committee Duties.  The occupational
 health and safety committees are an integral part of  the Agency's effort
 to insure the effective implementation of Its  occupational  health and
 safety   programs at all its Reporting Units and Establishments.   Duties
 of the committees should include some or all of the following:

         (1)  Assist the Occupational Health and Safety Designee at the
 Reporting Unit or Establishment under its jurisdiction and make  recommen-
 dations  to the Of ficer-in-Charge on the operation of  the program.;

         (2)  Monitor findings and reports of Inspections to confirm
 that appropriate corrective measures are implemented;

         (3)  Participate in inspections when requested by the Qfficer-
 1n-Charge or when the committee deems it necessary to effectively monitor
 the Agency's inspection procedures;

         (4)  Review internal and external evaluation reports of the
 occupational  health and safety program at the Reporting Unit or Establish-
 ment and make recommendations for changes or improvement In the program;

         (5)  Review and recommend changes, as  appropriate, to procedures
 for  handling  health and safety suggestions and recommendations of -the
committee and from employees;

         (6)  Review and comment on standards proposed by the Agency,
Reporting Unit, or Establishment;

         (7)  Monitor and recommend changes, as required, in the level  of
resources allocated and spent on the health and safety program at the
Reporting Unit or Establishment;

        (8)  Review responses to reports of hazardous conditions, safety
and health program deficiencies, and allegations of reprisal;


                                   5-4

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL


        (9)  Recommend  changes or  additions to improve protective
clothing and equipment  used by employees  at the Reporting Unit or
Establishment;  and

       (10)  Promote health and  safety  training for  members  of the
committee and other employees.

6.  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE MEETING.  Each  occupational
health and safety committee shall  establish a  regular schedule of meet-
ings.  Special  meetings shall  be called when critical health and safety
problems arise.

    a.  Frequency of Meetings.

        (1)  Executive  Committee - An  executive occupational health  and
safety committee shall  meet quarterly  but not  less than  semi-annually,
and at other times as necessary  to assist the  Officer-in-Charge with the
resolution of a health  and safety  management or policy recommendation
issue.

        (2)  Operational Committee - An operational  occupational  health
and safety committee shall meet  monthly but not less than quarterly.
Special meetings may be called by  any  member,  the Officer-in-Charge,
or the Occupatinal Health and  Safety Deslgnee  when critical  health
and safety problems arise.

        (3)  Specialized Committee - A specialized occupational  health
and safety committee should meet at least quarterly, and at  other times
as necessary to assist the program managers  1n carrying  out  their health
and safety responsibilities.

    b.  Preparation and Procedures for Meetings.   To assure  the maximum
utilization of committee members'  time and effort, sustain their  Interest
and commitment, minimize the time necessary  to monitor the  business  of
the committee, clarify  the content and objectives of each business item,
and follow through on projects to assure completion  without  undue delay,
the following procedures are recommended:

        (1)  The Occupational  Health and Safety Designee shall:

             (a)  Prepare an agenda for the  approval of  the  committee
chairperson no  later than  five working days  prior to the scheduled meeting;

             (b)  Prepare a notice of  the meeting and deliver to each
member along with a copy of the minutes  of the last meeting and the
agenda for the next meeting;
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              (c)   Develop  a  brief description or explanation of each
 proposed business item prior to the  meeting,  including  the  objective
 of the item;

              (d)   Assign  a title and a  control  number for all items
 accepted as  health and safety committee business; and

              (e)   Establish  a log and enter each accepted health and
 safety business item,  showing the target date for completion and in-
 terim dates  for accomplishment  of intermediate  steps, if appropriate.

         (2)   The  Chairperson of  the  Committee shall:

              (a)   Establish  a good meeting program;

                    1_   Call the  meeting to order;

                    2_   Call  for  approval or revision of the minutes of
 the previous  meeting;

                   _3    Request the members to sign the attendance sheet;

                     Call for  reports on assignments;

                   5.  Request suggestions and discussion of work that
 needs  to  be done  (members should be encouraged to come forward with ideas
 and suggestions);

                   6_  Formally   accept or reject all items  as health
 and safety committee business;

                   ]_  Assign responsibility for each item to a specific
 member or members  of the committee;  and

                   J3   Limit the meeting of the committee to one hour.

 7.  MINUTES OF THE OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH  AND SAFETY COMMITTEE.  The Occupa-
tional Health and Safety Designee should assure that pertinent points of
the meeting are documented.  The minutes of the meeting  shall  be prepared
 in memorandum form, approved, and signed by the Committee Chairperson.
The minutes should contain:

    a.  A clear identification of the organizational unit;

    b.  The name and title of each  member  present;  and

    c.  The substance of discussions  of health and safety items, including
any specific remedial actions recommended.
                                   5-6

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A copy of the minutes  of each meeting  of  the  occupational health  and
safety committees shall be forwarded to the Director,  Occupational  Health
and Safety Staff, (PM-273),  Washington, D.C.  20460,  within  20  working
days following the meeting.   A  copy of the minutes shall  be furnished  to
each committee member  and the Officer-in-Charge.   The  minutes  shall  be
made available to any  employee  upon request.
8.  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY COMMITTEE  POLICY  AND PROCEDURES.  The
Occupational Health and Safety  Designee,  with the assistance of  the com-
mittee, should develop a written policy and procedures for  the adminis-
trative control of committee activities.   See Appendix 5-A,5-B,  and 5-C
as examples.  These procedures  should  include:
    a.  The scope and purpose of the committee's  activities;
    b.  The extent of  its authority;
    c.  Frequency of meetings;
    d.  The date, time and place of meetings;
    e.  The order of business;
    f. 'Records to be  kept;  and
    g.  Attendance requirements.
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            APPENDIX 5-A -  SUGGESTED POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR

                                                         "
                 (JCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE

Name and Objective

The name of this Committee is  (Reporting Unit or Establishment), Executive
Occupational  Health and Safety Committee.

The objectives of the Committee are to recommend approval  of proposed
health and safety program policy,  procedures, guidelines,  and training
programs to the Officer-in-Charge.

The principle means for accomplishing  these objectives  shall be to hold
meetings to review proposed program policy,  procedures,  guidelines, and
training programs and recommend to the Officer-in-Charge the adoption,
Implementation, or revision of the proposals.

Membership

The Executive Occupational Health and  Safety Committee  shall consist  of
members from the following areas, appointed by  the Off1cer-1n-Charge  for
a period of (one, one and one-half or  two  years.)

     o  The deputy of the Off1cer-1n-Charge;

     o  The program director delegated the health  and safety  program
responsibility;

     o  Program directors or their deputies (especially from areas with
serious health and safety factors);

     o  The chairperson of the Operational Occupational Health and Safety
Committee;

     o  Employee  representatlve(s); and

     o  The Occupational Health and Safety Designee (non-voting).

Members of the committee should select*and elect from the membership, a
Chairperson and (other officers necessary for conducting committee business)
at their first meeting each Calendar Year.  (Three, fours, five,  six,
etc, (a majority of the members of the committee,  I.e., a committee of 5 -
3 1s a majority; a committee  of 6  - 4; a  committee of 7 - 4; a committee
of 8 - 5; a committee of 9 - 5; etc.)) of the members present shall
constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.
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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL
 Record of Meetings

 After each meeting of the committee,  the  minutes shall be prepared in
 memorandum form,  containing:

      o  A clear identification  of  the organizational unit;

      o  The name  and  title of each member present; and

      o  The substance of  discussions  of health and safety recommendations
 including any  specific actions  recommended.

 A copy of the  minutes of  each meeting of  the Executive Occupational Health
 and Safety Committee  shall be forwarded to the Director,  Occupational
 Health and Safety  Staff,  (PM-273), Washington, D.C. 20460, by the
 Occupational Health and Safety  Deslgnee within 20 working days following
 the meeting.   A copy  of the minutes of each meeting shall be forwarded to
 the Off1cer-1n-Charge and each  Committee member.  Copies  of the minutes
 will be made available to employees upon  request.

 Vacancy

 Should a vacancy occur on the committee through resignation, transfer of
 responsibilities to a different program, office or location, or other
 cause,  the Off1cer-1n-Charge shall appoint another employee to fill the
 vacancy.   A vacancy of an officer of the committee should be filled by a
 majority vote  of the  quorum of  committee members present.

 Meetings

 The (Reporting Unit, Establishment name), Executive Occupational Health
 and  Safety Committee shall meet at least quarterly, (specific day and
 time), and at  other times necessary to assist the Off1cer-in-Charge with
 resolution of management or policy recommendation issues.

 Duties and Responsibilities

 Chairperson - The chairperson shall:

     o  Direct the activities of the committee in accordance with
established procedures, providing leadership and coordination of all
 committee  activities.

     o  Be empowered to appoint special sub-committees as they become
necessary on the recommendation of committee members.

     o  Furnish each member of the committee with a list  of their
 responsibilities and duties.
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     o  Keep the Off1cer-1n-Charge advised  of  progress or lack of progress
in the management of the occupational  health and safety  program.

Other officers elected by the committee shall:

Assist the chairperson of the committee 1n directing the activities  of
the committee, and 1n the absence of the chairperson fulfill  his/her
responsibilities and dultes.

General Duties

The (Reporting Unit, Establishment name), Executive Occupational  Health
and Safety Committee shall:

     o  Provide the Off1cer-1n-Charge  to whom they report,  with:

        .  A continuing appraisal of the health and safety  program efforts;

        .  Recommendations on the developments and coordination of the
occupational health and safety programs; and

        .  Recommendations of health and safety policy.
                                  5-A-3

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           APPENDIX 5-B - SUGGESTED POLICY AND  PROCEDURES FOR THE
           ADMINISTRATIVE1 CONTROL OF AN OPERATIONAL  OCCUPATIONAL"
                        HEALTH Aito SAFEtV  COMMITTEE"	

 Name and Objective

 The name of this committee 1s (name of Reporting Unit or Establishment).
 Operational Occupational  Health and Safety Commfttefe1.	~"

 The objectives of the committee are to advise  and  assist (name  of Reporting
 Unit or Establishment) management officials with respect to their responsi-
 bilities under the Agency's Occupational  Health and Safety programs.

 The principle means for accomplishing these objectives shall be to hold
 meetings to:

      o  Discuss accident/illness incidents;

      o  Review  reports of  unsafe or unhealthful working conditions;

      o  Seek  solutions to  these problems;  and

      o  Upon  request,  participate  1n  inspections,

 Membership

 The Operational Occupational  Health and Safety Committee shall  be managed
 to  assure the effective representation of  all employees.  The Committee
 shall  consist of  a  representative  from each of the  following areas,
 elected  or  appointed,  for a period  of  (one, one and one-half or two years).

      o  Officer-1n-Charge  and Staff Offices

     o   Management or  Administrative Division

     o   Employee  representative(s)

     o   Program Offices (one  representative from each area)

     o   Representative(s) from any  other interested or affected employees
housed in the same building.

Members  of  the Operational Occupational Health and Safety Committee should
nominate and elect from the committee membership  a  chairperson  and (other
officers necessary for effective committee business) at their first
meeting each calendar year.  (Three, four, five,  etc.)  (a majority of
committee members would be a committee of 5 - 3;  6-4;  7 - 4;  8 - 5;
"> - 5; etc.) of the members present shall  constitute a  quorum for the
transaction of business.
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 Record of Meetings

 After each meeting  of the committee, the  minutes should be prepared in
 memorandum for,  containing:

      o  A clear identification  of  the  organizational unit;

      o  The name and  title of each member present; and

      o  The substance of  discussions of health and safety problems,
 including any  specific  remedial actions recommended.

 A  copy of the  minutes of  each meeting  of  the Operational Occupational
 Health and Safety Committee shall be forwarded to the Director, Occupational
 Health and Safety Staff,  (PM-273), Washington, DC 20460, by the Occupational
 Health and Safety Designee within 20 working days following the meeting.
 A  copy of the  minutes of  each meeting  shall be furnished to the Officer-
 1n-Charge and  to each committee member.  The minutes shall be made
 available to any employee upon  request.

 Vacancy

 Should a vacancy occur  on the committee through resignation,  transfer of
 responsibilities to a different program or office, or other cause, the
 vacancy  shall  be filled by holding an  election or appointing a new repre-
 sentative from the same program area represented by the vacancy.  A
 vacancy  of an  officer of the committee shall be filled by a majority vote
 of the quorum  of committee members present.

 The  committee  may, by a two-thirds vote of a quorum of members present,
 declare any elective or appointive office vacant subject to the approval
 of the Officer-in-Charge, on the failure of its incumbent, from inability
 or otherwise,  to attend committee meetings, or to perform the duties of
 the  office.

Meetings

The  (name of Reporting Unit or Establishment). Operational Occupational
Health and Safety Committee,  shall  meet at least monthly, (specific day
and time), and at other times necessary to assist (name of Reporting Unit
or Establishment) management  officials  with the resolution of reports of
unsafe or unhealthful working conditions or imminent danger situations.

Duties and Responsibilities

Chairperson - The chairperson shall:

     o  Direct the activities of the committee in accordance with established
procedures, providing leadership and coordination of all activities;


                                  5-B-2

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     o  Be empowered to appoint sub-committees  as  they  become  necessary
on recommendations of committee members;

     o  Furnish each committee member with  a  list  of  their  responsibilities
and duties.

     o  Acknowledge reports of unsafe or unhealthful  working conditions
from employees and others, and keep  them informed  of  progress  or  lack of
progress in the resolution of the matter.

Other officers elected by the committee shall assist  the  chairperson  of
the committee in directing the activities of  the committee,  and in the
absence of the chairperson fulfill his/her  responsibilities  and duties.

General Duties

The (name of Reporting Unit or Establishment).  Operational  Occupational
Health and Safety Committee, shall:

     o  Participate in inspections when requested  by  the Of ficer-i n-Charge
or when the committee deems it necessary to effectively monitor the
Agency's Inspection procedures;

     o  Monitor findings and reports of inspections to confirm that
appropriate corrective measures are  implemented;

     o  Review and comment on standards proposed, by the Agency, Reporting
Unit or Establishment;

     o  Review internal and external evaluation reports of the occupational
health and safety program and make recommendations for changes or
improvements in the program;

     o  Monitor and recommend changes, as required, in the level  of
resources allocated and spent on the health and safety program;

     o  Review responses to reports of hazardous conditions, safety and
health program deficiencies, and allegations  of reprisal;

     o  Review and recommend changes or additions  to improve protective
clothing and equipment used by employees; and

     o  Promote health and safety training for committee members and
other employees.
                                  5-B-3

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             APPENDIX 5-C - SUGGESTED POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR
                THE ADMINISTRATIVE  CONTROL OF A SPECIALIZED
                ""OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY COMMITTEE

 Name and Objective

 The title of this committee is  (name of Reporting Unit or Establishment),
 (Toxic Substances. Radiation, Pesticides, etc.]. Occupational Health and
 Safety Committee.

 The objectives of the committee are to promote safety and health awareness
 connected with the special  hazards, disseminate information on methods of
 control, and stimulate discussions of common problems and seek solutions.
 The (name of committee)  shall  be  managed to assure effective representation
 of affected employees.   The committee shall consist of representatives
 from each program area with like  special hazards, a supervisor or
 supervisors and  employee representative, if appropriate.  Members of the
 committee should elect from their membership a Chairperson and (other
 officials necessary)  at  their  first meeting each Calendar Year.  A majority
 of the members  present shall constitute a quorum for transaction of
 business.

 Record of Meetings

 After each meeting  of the committee, the minutes shall be prepared in
 memorandum form,  containing:

      o A clear  identification of  the organizational unit;

      o The name  and  title of  each member present; and

      o The substance of discussions of health and safety items.

 A  copy of the minutes of the meeting shall  be forwarded to the Director,
 Occupational Health and  Safety Staff (PM-273), by the Occupational Health
 and Safety Designee within 20  working days following the meeting.  A copy
 Of the minutes of each meeting shall be forwarded to the Officer-in-Charge,
 each  member of the committee and the chairperson of other occupational
 health and safety committees.  Copies of the minutes shall be made
 available to employees upon request.

 Vacancy

 Should a  vacancy  occur on  the  committee for any cause, the vacancy shall
 be filled by either appointment or election.  A vacancy of an officer of
 the committee shall be filled  by  a majority vote of the quorum of committee
members present.


                                   5-C-l

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Meetings

The (name of committee). Specialized Occupational  Health and Safety
Committee shall meet (monthly, semi-monthly,  quarterly,  etc.),  (specific
day and time), and at other times necessary to assist program managers  in
carrying out their health and safety responsibilities.

Duties

The committee shall:

     o  Review and advise management on the development  for standard
operating procedures.

     o  Review and recommend specialized personal  protective equipment
and clothing for the unique hazards  of the  work.

     o  Recommend and promote training for  committee members and other
employees for the unique hazards  of  the work.
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                                                                     3/J.O/OO


           CHAPTER 6 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS

                            Table of Contents
PARAGRAPH                                                 PARAGRAPH
 TITLES                                                   NUMBERS

General 	   1
Background	   2
Definitions 	   3
Alternate Standards .	   4
Other Federal Agency Standards. 	   5
Standards Application	   6
       APPENDIX A - CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS
       APPENDIX B - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF AN OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
                      AND SAFETY STANDARD

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           CHAPTER 6 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY  STANDARDS


1.   GENERAL.  Executive Order 12196 and 29 CFR  1960.16 requires  the
Agency to comply with all occupational  health and  safety  standards issued
under Section 6 of the Occupational Safety and  Health  Act of  1970, or
with alternate standards issued by the Agency after  consultation with
employees or their representatives and approved by the Secretary of
Labor.  The Agency may prescribe and enforce more  stringent standards
than the Section 6 standards if required to protect  the health  and safety
of its employees.

2.   BACKGROUND.  The overall authority for the  promulgation of  occupational
health and safety standards issued under the Occupational Health and
Safety Act rests with the Secretary of Labor as defined in Section 6.
Section 19 of the Act requires that the EPA adopt  and  comply  with health
and  safety standards consistent with those promulgated by the Secretary
of Labor.  The EPA Administrator has adopted the occupational health  and
safety standards contained in 29 CFR 1910 as initial Agency  s: i-dards.
(Appendix 6-A 1s a listing of all current OSHA, EPA and other Federal
health and safety standards and guidelines.)

3.  DEFINITIONS.

     a.  Standard i s an occupational safety and  health  standard  which
requires conditions, or the adoption or use of  one or  more practices,
means, methods, operations, or processes, reasonably necessary  or appro-
priate to provide safe and/or healthful employment and place  of employment.

   b.  Affected employees means employees who would be affected by  the
grant or denial of a variance, limitation, variation,  tolerance, or
exemption, or anyone of their authorized  representatives, such  as their
collective bargaining agent.

   c.  Alternate standard is a standard adopted or necessary  for applica-
tion
to working conditions of Agency employees because no OSHA standard exists
that will provide adequate protection for their health and safety.

   d.  Emergency standard is a standard pronulgated when 1:1-5  determined
a condition exists that exposes workers to grave danger  from toxic agents,
or physical harm, or from new hazards requiring immediate regulatory
control.

4.  ALTERNATE STANDARDS.  The Administrator may develop  and apply alternate
standards H 6sHA standards or if other standards do not provide a suffi-
cient level of protection necessary to assure the health and safety of
Agency employees.  The EPA Occupational Health  and Safety Staff shall:
                                   6-1

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     a.  Provide an opportunity  for written comment by all affected or
 interested Agency  employees.

     b.  Provide for an opportunity for written comment by affected employees
 of one or more Federal  Agencies located in the same facility.

     c.  Keep appropriate exclusive bargaining representatives informed
 of the proposed development of  alternate standards.

     d.  Notify the Secretary of Labor regarding the development of an
 alternate standard and  request approval of the Secretary.  The request
 for approval  shall contain:

         (1)  A statement of why  the Agency wants to adopt an alternate
 standard;

         (2)  A description of the alternate standard;

         (3) An  explanation of how the alternate standard provides equiva-
 lent  or greater protection for affected Agency employees;

         (4) A description of the interim protective measures that will
 be  provided Agency  employees until a decision is received from the Secretary
 of  Labor; and

         (5) A summary of the written comments, if any, from interested
 employees, employee representatives and others.

 Alternate standards should be based on research,  demonstrations, and
 other  factors which includes the latest  scientific data,  feasibility and
 experience with  the Occupational Safety and Health Act and other laws.
 General requirements for an occupational  health  and safety standard are
 in Appendix 6-B.

Any interested Agency employee may file a written request for the promul-
 gation, modification, or revocation of an  occupational health and safety
 standard with the Director,  Occupational  Health and Safety Staff, (PM-273),
401 M Street, SW, Washington,  D. C. 20460.   The  request  should include
 or be accompanied  by the proposed standard desired and a statement of
the reasons and intended effect.

 5.  OTHER FEDERAL AGENCY STANDARDS. In addition to the OSHA and EPA
standards there are standards  affecting  occupational  health and safety
 issued by other Federal Agencies,  for example,

    a.  Federal Aviation Administration

    b.  U.S. Department of Energy
                                   6-2

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     c.   General  Services Administration

     d.   U.S.  Department  of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration

     e.   U.S.  Department  of Transportation

 Where EPA  employees  and  employees of other Federal agencies engage in
 joint operations and/or  primarily report to work or carry out operations
 in the  same  facility or  work  activity, any alternate standards adopted
 by the  host Agency which are  more protective shall govern.

 If the  standards of  other Federal Agencies conflict with OSHA standards,
 joint efforts between the Agencies involved and the Secretary of Labor
 shall be undertaken  to resolve the conflicts.  Until conflicts are resolved,
EPA employees shall  comply with the more protective of the standards.

 6.  STANDARDS APPLICATION. The effective use of occupational health and
 safety  standards is  directly  related to the understanding of the meaning,
 intent,  and  application  of the standard.  Factors necessary for the
 effective  use of standards are:
  
     a.   Accessibility of all  standards;

     b.   An understanding of the scope, intent, and meaning of the require-
 ments of the  standard;

     c.   Correct  application of the requirements of the standard to the
 wprk situation;  and

     d.   Enforcement  of standards in all areas of application with a
 uniform interpretation of their intent.

 The Headquarters Occupational Health and Safety Staff shall take the
 following  steps  to provide all employees who use occupational health and
 safety  standards with a  clear understanding of their intent and application.

     a.   Develop  and  distribute to all users an interpretation and clarifi-
 cation  of  the intent and application of any standard which may be misunder-
 stood.

     b.   Distribute directives that explain policy matters and background
 information dealing  with particular standards.

     c.   Develop  a comprehensive collection of standards and distribute
 them to all field users  with  an explanation of how to find and apply the
 various sections.

     d.   Present  classes, seminars, and briefing sessions  to Headquarters
 and Field  Units  on the substance, intent, and application of the standards.


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    e.  Develop, distribute and brief Headquarters  and Field Units  on
guidelines for implementing the standards.

    f.  Encourage field offices to communicate  with the Headquarters
Occupational Health and Safety Staff on standards  or the development  of
standards.  This communication will  enable  the  Occupational  Health  and
Safety Staff to understand any problems that may  evolve during the
application of a standard.

    g.  Advise all Field Units and offices  that standards  will be enforced
in all areas of application with a uniform  interpretation  of their  intent.
                                   6-4

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL
                                                   ]34
     APPENDIX 6-A - CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS

The  following list of laws, standards  and issuances that impact occupa-
tional health and safety includes those most  generally used to implement
an effective program.  Other references,  guidelines and textbooks are
available and should be used as necessary.

Laws and Executive Orders

PL 91-596       Occupational Safety and Health Act  of  1970
EO 12196        Occupational Safety and Health Programs for Federal
                  Employees

Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standards and Regulations
29 CFR 1910
29 CFR 1926
29 CFR 1960
General  Industry  Standards
Construction Standards
Basic Program Elements  for  Federal Employee Occupational
  Safety and Health  Programs
Environmental Protection Agency Directives
1440
'1440.2

1440,3
1440.4

1440.5

1440.6

FPA Guidelines
Occupational  Health and Safety  Manual
Order - Health  and Safety  Requirements  for Employees
        Engaged in Field Activities
Order - Respiratory Protection
Order - Health  and Safety  Training Requirements  for Mine
        Safety
Order - Qualifications and Training Requirements  for
        Occupational  Health and Safety  Program Personnel
Order - Occupant Restraint Systems
     Respiratory Protection Program Management
     Chemical Protective Clothing
     Eye Protection Program
nther Agency Directives that Impact Occupational  Health and Safety
1000.9
1000.18
3100.1

3100.3
3120.1
3140
3180.1
Order - Policy on Smoking in EPA-Occupied  Buildings
Order - Transportation of Hazardous  Materials
Order - Uniforms, Protective Clothing  and  Protective
        Equipment
Order - Authorization of Performance of Hazardous  Duty
Order - Conduct and Discipline
Training and Development Manual
Order - Federal Employees Compensation Program
                                  6-A-l

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 OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH  AND  SAFETY MANUAL

 CURRENT  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS (CONT.)
                           1440
                            3/18/86
 Other Federal Agency Standards and Regulations that Impact  Occupational
 Health and  Safety
 U.S.  Department  of Transportation - Transportation of Hazardous
   Materials, 49 CFR 100-177

 U.S.  Department  of Energy - 10 CFR 0-199

 U.S.  Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health  Administration,
   30  CFR 48

 Consensus Standards Organizations

 OSHA  used standards developed by these organizations  as  a  source  for
 their standards.  Complete copies of the standards  developed by these
 organizations and referenced in the OSHA standards  may be  obtained from
 the organizations listed.  OSHA standards are not  necessarily based on
 the latest revision of a standard.  Copies of the latest revision of
 standards and also handbooks on the standards may  be  obtained from the
 organizations listed.
Consensus Standards Organization

American Conference of Governmental
  Industrial Hygienists (AC6IH)
1014 Broadway
Cincinnati, Ohio  45202

American National  Standards  Institute
  (ANSI)
1430 Broadway
New York, N. Y.   10018
OSHA Standards

Subpart G - Occupational  Health
  and Environmental Control
Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous
  Substances

Subpart D - Walking-Working Surfaces
Subpart F - Powered Platforms, Man-
  lifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work
  Platforms
Subpart G - Occupational  Health and
  Environmental Controls
Subpart H - Hazardous Materials
Subpart I - Personal Protective
  Equipment
Subpart J - General Environmental
  Controls
Subpart M - Compressed Gas and
  Compressed Air Equipment
Subpart N - Materials Handling and
                                                              and Machine
  Storage
Subpart 0 - Machinery
  Guarding
Subpart P - Hand and Portable Powered
  Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment
Subpart Q - Welding, Cutting, and
  Brazing
                                6-A-2

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH  AND  SAFETY MANUAL

 CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY

 Consensus Standards  Organization

 American National  Standards Institute
   (ANSI) (Cont.)
 American Petroleum  Institute
 1801 K Street,  NW
 Washington,  DC   20006

 America! Society of Agricultural
   Engineers
 2950 Niles Road
 p.  0.  Box 229
 St.  Joseph,  MI   49085

 American Society and Heating,
   Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning
   Engineeis, Inc. (ASHRAE)
 345 East 47th Street
 New  York, NY  10017

 American Society of Mechanical
  Engineers, Inc.
 United Engineering Center
 345  East 47th Street
 New  York, NY  10018
                 STANDARDS  (CONT.)

                   OSHA Standards
                                             1440
                                             3/18/86
Conpressed Gas Assn.
500 Fifth Ave.
New York, NY  10036
Inc.
Crane Manufacturers Assn.
  of America, Inc.
I Thomas Circle, NW
Washington, DC  20005

Factory Mutual Engineering Corp,
p  0. Box 688
Norwood, MA  02062

pertllizer Institute
1015 18th Street, NW
Washington, DC  20046
                   Subpart  R  -  Special  Industries
                   Subpart  Z  -  Toxic  and Hazardous
                     Substances

                   Subpart  H  -  Hazardous Materials
                   Subpart  Q  -  Welding, Cutting, and
                     Brazing

                   Subpart  J  -  General  Environmental
                     Controls
                   Subpart N  - Materials Handling and
                     Storage
                   Subpart H - Hazardous Materials
                   Subpart 0 - Machinery and Machinery
                     Guarding
                   Subpart R - Special  Industries
Subpart H - Hazardous Materials
Subpart M - Compressed Gas  and
  Compressed A1 r Equipment
Subpart Q - Welding,  Cutting,
  and Brazing

Subpart N - Materials Handling and
  Storage
                   Subpart D - Walking-Working Surfaces
                   Subpart H - Hazardous Materials
                                 6-A-3

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 OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL

 CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS  (CONT.)

                                         OSHA  Standards
                                                                  1440
                                                                  3/18/86
Consensus Standards Organization

Institute of Markers of Explosives
420 Lexington Ave.
New York, NY  10017

National Association of Plumbing
  and Mechanical  Officials
5032 Alhambra Ave.
Los Angeles, CA  90032

National Board of Boiler and
  Pressure Vessel Inspectors
1155 North High Street
Columbus, OH  43201

National Fire Protection Assn.
  (NFPA)
470 Atlantic Ave.
Boston, MA  02210
National Plant Food Institute
1700 K Street, NW
Washington, DC  20006

Rubber Manufacturers Assn.
444 Madison Ave.
New York, NY  10022

Society of Automotive Engineers
485 Lexington Ave.
New York, NY  10017

Underwriters Laboratories,  Inc.
  (UL)
207 E.  Ohio Street
Chicago, IL  60611
                                         Subpart  R  -  Special  Industries
                                         Subpart  J  - General Environmental
                                           Controls
                                         Subpart H  - Hazardous Materials
Subpart E - Means of Egress
Subpart G - Occupational  Health  and
  Environmental  Control
Subpart H - Hazardous Materials
Subpart M - Compressed Gas and
  Compressed Air Equipment
Subpart Q - Welding, Cutting,  and
  Brazing
Subpart R - Special  Industries

Subpart H - Hazardous Materials
                                        Subpart Q
                                          Brazing
                                        Subpart N
                                          Storage
                                        Subpart D
                                        Subpart H
                                        Subpart R
          - Welding,  Cutting,  and
          - Materials Handling and
            Walking-Working Surfaces
            Hazardous Materials
            Special  Industries
                                  6-A-4

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         APPENDIX 6-B  - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF AN OCCUPATIONAL
                        HEALTH  AND  SAFETY  STANDARDS
These are the general  requirements  of  an occupational  health  and safety
standard that should be considered  and used, if  applicable, when developing
a standard.
 1.  Purpose
 2.  References
 3.  Definitions
 4.  Responsibilities
 5.  Handling and Storage Requirements
 6.  Processes
 7.  Methods of Conpliance
     a.  Engineering controls
     b.  Administrative controls
     c.  Personal protective equipment
 8.  Caution Signs and Labels
 9.  Housekeeping
10.  Record keeping
11.  Medical Examinations
     a.  General
     b.  Pre-empl cyme nt/Pre-pl a cement
     c.  Frequency of examinations
     d.  Termination of employment
12.  Medical Records
     a.  Maintenance
     b.  Access
13.  Monitoring
     a.  Method(s) of measurement
     b.  Maximum allowable exposure
14.  Training Requirements
                                  6-B-l

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        CHAPTER 7 - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING

                          Table of Contents
PARAGRAPH                                                    PARAGRAPH
 TITLES                                                       NUMBERS
General	1
Responsibl 11 ti es	2
Training Requi rements	3
Tra1 nlng As s 1 stance	4
Available Training Sources	5

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        CHAPTER 7 - OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY TRAINING
1.  GENERAL.  Executive Order 12196 requires  that  the head of each Agency
shall  provide health and safety  training  for  top management officials,
supervisory employees,  employees responsible  for conducting inspections,
health and safety specialist, collateral  duty health and safety personnel,
members of occupational health and safety committees, employee  represent-
atives, and other employees.   EPA considers health and safety training
an essential part of every Agency program for protecting the health and
safety of its employees.

2.  RESPONSIBILITIES.

    a.  The Agency Designated Occupational Health  and Safety Official
shall  assure that health and  safety training  is provided for all Agency
employees in accordance with  Executive Order  12196,  29 CFR I960, and
the. provisions of this  Manual.

    b.  The Director, Occupational Health and Safety Staff,  shall
coordinate the Agency's occupational  health and safety training pro-
grams, developing or recommending specific training  courses  designed
to Instruct Agency personnel  1n  the Identification and control  of
occupational illnesses and Injuries,  provide  technical  assistance  and
evaluate the effectiveness of health  and  safety training program impleT
mentation.

    c.  Off1cers-1n-Charge of Reporting Units shall  assure  that the
Agency's occupational health  and safety training programs are  fully
implemented at the Reporting  Unit and at  all  Establishments  and Work-
places under their organizational jurisdiction.

3.  TRAINING REQUIREMENTS.

    a.  Top Management Officials.  Top management  officials  shall
receive training In occupational health and  safety which will  enable
them to manage the occupational  health and safety  programs  in  their
areas  of jurisdiction.   This  training shall  include  as  a minimum:

        (1)  Management responsibilities  and the requirements  of
Section 19 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act,  Executive Order
12196, and 29 CFR 1960;

        (2)  EPA's Occupational  Health and Safety  Programs,  and

        (3)  Employee rights  and responsibilities.
                                     7-1

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                         1440
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     b.  Supervisors.   Supervisors  shall  receive introductory and
 specialized occupational  health and  safety  training to enable them
 to manage the occupational  health  and safety programs within their
 work unit to assure the safe and healthful  work practices of their
 employees.  This  training  shall  include  as  a minimum instruction in
 the follcwi ng areas:

         (1)   Supervisors  responsibility  for providing and maintain-
 ing safe and healthful  working  conditions for employees;

         (2)   EPA's  Occupational  Health and  Safety Programs;

         (3)   Requirements of Section 19  of  the Occupational Safety
 and Health Act, Executive Order 12196, and  29 CFR 1960;

         (4)   Applicable health  and safety standards;

         (5)   Agency procedures  for reporting and investigating acci-
 dents,  illnesses, hazards, and  allegations  of reprisal;

         (6)   Recognition, evaluation and control of health and safety
 hazards;

         (7)   Supervisors responsibility  for employee discipline relating
 to  occupational health and safety contained in the EPA Order,  Conduct
 and Discipline; and

         (8)   Employee rights  and responsibilities.

    c.  Occupational Health and Safety Program Personnel.

         (1)   Health and Safety Specialist.  EPA shall  provide sufficient
training to health and the safety specialist,  through  formal  courses,
 laboratory experiences and field study,  to enable them to meet present
and future needs of the Agency's occupational  health and safety  programs.
Training shall include as a minimum instruction in the following areas:

             a)  Occupational health  and  safety program development
and management;

             b)  Hazard recognition,  evaluation, and control;

             c)  Occupational health  and  safety standards;

             d)  The Agency's occupational  health  and  safety  programs;
                                   7-2

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              e)   Safe  Design of equipment and facilities;
              f)   Accident  and  illness data analysis; and
              g)   Packaging, marking, labeling, transportation, and disposal
 of hazardous  materials and substances.
         (2)   Health  and  Safety Inspectors.  EPA shall provide Health
 and Safety Inspectors  sufficient additional training to enable them
 to recognize  and  evaluate  health and safety hazards, and suggest general
 control  procedures.  Training shall include as a minimum instruction
 in the following  areas:
              a)   Appropriate health and safety standards;
              b)   Use of  appropriate evaluation equipment and procedures;
              c)   Hazard  recognition, evaluation, and control procedures;
 and
              d)   Preparation of reports and documentation.
         (3)   Collateral  Duty Health and Safety Personnel.  EPA shall
 provide  training  for collateral duty health and safety program personnel
 commensurate  with the scope of their assigned responslbHties.  Training
 shall Include as  a minimum Instruction 1n the following areas:
              a)  The Agency's occupational health and safety programs;
              b)  Section 19 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act,
 Executive Order 12196, 29 CFR 1960;
              c)  EPA's reporting and recordkeeplng procedures;
              d)  Evaluation and control  of hazards;
              e)  Agency  procedures for reporting and Investigation of
 employee allegations or  reprisals for exercising rights under EO 12196
 and 29 CFR 1960;
              f)  Recognition of hazardous conditions and environments;
              g)  Identification and use of occupational health and
safety standards;  and
              h)  Packaging, marking, labeling, transportation and
disposal  of hazardous materials and substances.
                                  7-3

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 OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                  1440
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         (4)   Health and Safety Committee Members.   Health  and  safety
 committee  members shall be provided training commensurate  with their
 assigned duties.  This training shall  include as  a minimum orientation
 in  the  following areas:

              a)  The Agency's occupational  health and safety  programs;

              b)  Requirements of Section 19 of the Occupational  Safety
 and Health Act, Executive Order 12196, and 29 CFR 1960;

              c)  Agency procedures for reporting  and  investigating
 employee allegations of reprisals for exercising  rights  under EO 12196
 and 29 CFR 1960.

              d)  Identification and use of occupational  health and
 safety standards; and

              e)  Duties of the occupational health and safety  committee.

         (5)   Employee Representatives.  EPA shall  provide  occupational
 health and safety training for Agency  employees who are  representatives
 of  employee groups,  such as labor organizations which are  recognized
 by  the Agency.  This training will enable such groups to function appro-
 priately to ensure safe and healthful  working conditions.   (Nothing in
 this paragraph shall be construed to alter training provisions provided
 by law,. Executive Order, or collective bargaining  arrangements.)  This
 training shall include as a minimum orientation in the following areas:

              a)  Duties of the occupational health and safety  committee;

              b)  Identification and use of occupational  health and
 safety standards;

              c)  Requirements of Section 19 of the Occupational  Safety
 and Health Act, Executive Order 12196, and 29 CFR  1960;  and

             d)  The Agency's occupational  health and safety  programs

        (6)  Employees.  EPA shall provide employees  health and  safety
training appropriate to the work they  perform. This  training shall
 include as  a minimum instruction in the following  areas:

             a)  The Agency's occupational  health and safety  programs;

             b)  Employee rights and responsibilities, and as  appropriately;
                                 7-4

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                            1440
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             c)  Specialized  job health and safety training, e.g.,
                 1)  Toxic and  hazardous  substances;
                 2)  CPR and  First  Aid;
                 3)  Use, handling,  storage, disposal and transportation of
hazardous materials and substances;
                 4)  Personal protective  equipment  and clothing;
                 5)  Fire prevention,  protection, and emergency procedures;
                 6)  Materials  handling and storage;
                 7)  Machinery  and  machine guarding;
                 8)  Specifications for accident  prevention signs  and tags;
                 9)  Ventilation;
                10)  Ionizing and  non-ionizing radiation;
                11)  Motor vehicle  accident prevention and  operator  education;
                12)  Water safety,  which  includes diving and boating;
                13)  General  laboratory safety;
                14)  Office safety;
                15)  Safety in underground and surface  mines and on
mine property; and
                16)  Aircraft Safety.
4.  TRAINING ASSISTANCE.  The implementation  of the training requirements
of this Chapter are not complicated or resource intensive.   There are many
sources of low or no cost health and safety training available.  The
occupational health and safety training assistance that the Department of
Labor (DOL) and the National  Institute of Occupational  Safety and Health
(NIOSH) are required to provide other Federal  Agencies  is defined in 29
CFR 1960.60.  EPA shall use this occupational  health and safety training
assistance from DOL and NIOSH where appropriate to meet the Agency's
occupational health and safety  training needs  and responsibilities.   EPA
shall provide Its employees the specialized training required by the unique
charcteristies of its work.
                                  7-5

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL
     a.  Department of Labor.

         (1)  The DOL will  provide occupational  health  and  safety  training
 assistance in the following areas upon  request  by the  Agency head and with
 reimbursement.

              a)   Orientation for the Designated Agency Occupational Health
 and Safety Official;  and

              b)   Resident  and field  training  courses to meet selected
 training needs of occupational  health and safety specialists, occupational
 health and safety inspectors,  and collateral  duty occupational health
 and safety personnel.

         (2)  The DOL will  develop, in cooperation with the Office of
 Personnel  Management,  guidelines  and will provide materials for occupational
 health and safety training programs  for  high-level managers, supervisors,
 members  of committees, and  employee  representatives.

     b.   National  Institute  for  Occupational Safety and Health.  NIOSHwill
 provide  EPA,  upon request  and with reimbursement, training materials, and
 it  will  conduct  training programs  on occupational health-related subjects.

     c.   Occupational Health and Safety Staff.  The Occupational Health
 and Safety Staff (OHSS) continually  evalutes  both Government and commercial
 training programs  for applicability to Agency needs.  It also has training
 programs available for use  by field units in  the following areas.

         (1)   Motion picture films on laboratory, office, eye, fire, and
 electrical  safety,  respiratory  protection and first aid.

         (2)   Slide-audio tape training programs on laboratory, office,
 off-the-job and  field safety, safety inspections, and compressed gases.

         (3)   Training manuals with audio-visuals for persons involved in field
 activities  and for  senior managers and supervisors.

         (4)  A self-instruction correspondence course,  which it administers,
 for  occupational   health and safety program personnel.

        OHSS should be contacted for information on  training resources.

 5.  AVAILABLE TRAINING SOURCES.  The following is a list of training
 sources and is provided as  information to Officers-in-Charge.  This
 list does  not include all  training sources.   Officers-in-Charge are
encouraged to research other locally  available training sources in the
occupational  health and safety field.  The EPA Office  of Occupational
Health and Safety will  assist in the  evaluation of training sources
upon request.


                                   7-6

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                   3/18/86

    a.  National Safety Council,  444 North  Michigan Avenue, Chicago,
Illinois  60611

    b.  International Safety Academy, 10575 Katy  Freeway, P.O.  Box  19600,
Houston, Texas  77024

    c.  International Loss Control  Institute,  P.O. Box  345, Loganville,
Georgia  30249

    d.  University of Southern California,  The Safety Center, University
Park, Los Angeles, California  90007

    e.  National Fire Protection  Association,  Batterymarch Park, Quincy,
Massachusetts  02269

    f.  National Institute for Occupational  Safety and  Health,  Division
of Training and Manpower Development, 4676  Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati,
Ohio  45226

    g.  DOL, Occupational  Safety  and Health  Administration, OSHA Training
Institute, 1555 Times Drive,  Des  Plaines, Illinois  60018

    h.  Local Fire Departments

    1.  Local safety councils

    j.  Local law enforcement agencies

    k.  Local universities  and community colleges

    1.  State,  County, and local  health and  safety officials
                                   7-7

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              CHAPTER  8  -  LABORATORY USE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES

                            Table of Contents
PARAGRAPH                                                   PARAGRAPH
 TITLES                                                      NUMBERS
Policy and Responsibilities  	 1
Health and Safety Program Requirements  	 2
Work Practice and Engineering  Controls  	 3
Additional Requirements for  Animal  Experimentation
  Involving Toxi c Substances	 4
Situations Requiring Special Consideration	 5

     Appendix 8-A.  Toxic Substances-List
     Appendix 8-B.  Safety Plan
     Appendix 8-C.  Periodic Health Assessment
     Appendix 8-D.  Primary  Containment Equipment
     Appendix 8-E.  Secondary  Containment Facilities  for Higher
                      Risk Situations
     Appendix 8-F.  Packaging, Marking, Labeling, and Shipping of
                      Toxic  Substances  Used by Laboratories

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                  3/18/86

              CHAPTER 8 - LABORATORY USE  OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES


1.  POLICY AND RESPONSIBILITIES.

    a.  Purpose.  This Chapter establishes  policy,  responsibilities, and
procedures for the conduct of the Agency  occupational health and safety
program for the laboratory use of toxic substances.

    b.  Policy.  The EPA 1s committed  to  providing  safe and healthful
working conditions in laboratories where  toxic  substances  are used.

    c.  Background.  Section 19 of the Occupational  Safety and Health
Act, Executive Order 12196, 29 CFR 1960 and this EPA Occupational Health
and Safety Manual  requires the EPA to  provide safe  and healthful working
conditions for its employees.  The EPA is responding to this  requirement
with this Chapter, which 1s an adaptation of the Department of Health and
Human Services, formerly the Department of  Health,  Education  and Welfare,
"Guidelines for the Laboratory Use of  Chemical  Substances  Posing a
Potential Occupational Carcinogenic Risk, Revised Draft,"  March 1930.
An Interagency subcommittee, which included an  EPA  representative, developed
the Guidelines.  The control measures  given in  the  Guidelines  consist  of
the laboratory work practices and engineering controls necessary to
protect laboratory workers from exposure to carcinogenic  (or  other  highly
toxic) substances.  In addition,  the Guidelines provide alternative
control measures which are less demanding for  low  risk  situations and
more demanding for high risk situations.

        (1)  Basis of Guidelines.  The Guidelines  are based  on  the
assumption that any exposure to a chemical  carcinogen,  regardless of how
small, carries some risk.  While complete elimination of  exposures  is  the
ideal  objective, this 1s not obtainable in  every case.  However, the
potential for exposures must be reduced to  the  lowest practicable level.

The application of these Guidelines to a  specific laboratory  activity
must be based on the judgment of the  supervisor who is  responsible  for
the safety of his  or her laboratory operations. No set. of guidelines  can
be applied uniformly to every situation.   It is imperative,  Vnsro^ore,
that the supervisor assess those variables  peculiar to each  planned
activity 1n establishing appropriate  safeguards.  Variables  that  require
specific attention Include (1) quantity of  the  toxic substance  to be
used,  (11) physical and chemical properties of  the  agent,  (iii) toxicity
and (1v) the type of experimental procedures in which the  too'c substances
will be used.

        (2)  Substances Considered Toxic.  Appendix 8-A  presents  the
substances considered toxic for this Occupational Health  and Safety  Manual.
It consists of separate parts for substances exhibiting chronic (a  list)
and acute (selection criteria) toxicity.  The  ultimate  criteria for


                                   8-1

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  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                    3/18/86

  classifying a substance toxic for this  Manual  is  whether the substance
  poses a high risk of impairing the health of  laboratory employees.
  Since persons in addition to the Director,  Occupational Health and  Safety
  Staff (OHSS), may be making this determination,  the Manual  includes the
  sources of the lists and selection criteria comprising Appendix 8-A for
  reference.  The lists,  which may be added to  locally, will  be updated by
 the Director, OHSS,  at  least annually,  and  will  include OSHA's list of
 carcinogens upon publication.

     d.  Responsibilities.

         (1)  Program Management.

              (a)  Administrator.   The Administrator is responsible for
 developing, implementing,  and  evaluating  the Agency's occupational health
 and safety programs  for the laboratory  use  of  toxic substances in accordance
 with the requirements of Section  19 of  the  Occupational Safety and health
 Act, Executive  Order 12196,  and  the basic program elements  in 29 CFR
 1960,  or approved  alternate  program elements.

              (b)   Assistant  Administrator for Administration and Resources
 Management.  The Assistant Administrator  for Administration and Resources
 Management, as  the Designated Agency  Occupational Health and Safety Official,
 is  responsible  for establishing Agency  occupational health and safety
 policies,  programs,  standards, goals, objectives, and priorities, and for
 establishing  an organization, including the designation of safety and
 health  officials at  appropriate  levels, with adequate budget and staff to
 implement  occupational health and safety programs for the laboratory use
 of  toxic  substances  at  all EPA operational  levels.

              (c)   Director. Occupational Health and Safety Staff (OHSS).
 The Director, OHSS,  under the supervision of the Director, Office of
 Administration, is responsible for:  developing Agency occupational  health
 and safety  policies, programs, standards, goals, objectives; evaluating
 the effectiveness  of the Agency's occupational health and safety programs
 for the  laboratory use of toxic substances  at all operational  levels; and
 providing technical support to the Agency's occupational  health and  safety
 programs for the laboratory use of  toxic substances.   The Director,  OHSS,
 is  the top  technical  advisor for EPA on health and safety for  laboratory
 use of toxic substances.

        (2)  Program Implementation.

             (a)  Officers-in-Charge  (OICs) of Reporting  Units,  Establish-
ments and Workplaces.  The OICs are responsible for the implementation
of  the Agency s occupational health and safety programs  for the laboratory
use of toxic substances  at their Reporting Unit, Establishment  or Workplace.
The QIC is  charged with assuring that any laboratory  supervisor using
toxic substances is qualified by training or experience,  has the equipment


                                   8-2

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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                   3/18/86

 and facilities  to handle the  materials safely, and proposes a use which
 is safe to all  concerned.   The QIC  is  responsible for assuring the
 completion of semiannual  program reviews and audits.

              (b)   Safety Committee  (SC).  The SC is responsible for aiding
 and advising the  QIC on employee health and safety matters and policies
 and procedures  for the Agency occupational health and safety program for
 handling toxic  substances in the laboratory.  (See EPA Occupational Health
 and Safety Manual,  Chapter  5, paragraph 6.b. for a detailed description
 of the SC's health  and safety responsibilities.)  SC's should review and
 approve Safety  Plans prepared by each  supervisor and forward them to the
 Occupational  Health  and Safety Designee.  The SC should also advise the
 QIC on specific programs  for Health Surveillance.

 (The Safety Committee  should include, or have access to, individuals who
 possess expertise 1n chemistry, toxicology, medicine,  engineering and
 laboratory safety.)

              (c)  Occupational Health and Safety Designees (OHSD's).  The
 OHSD's  at  all operational levels are responsible for assisting the Officers-
 1n-Charge  of  their Reporting Units, Establishments, or Workplaces in:
 managing,  developing,  organizing, directing, and evaluating the occupational
 health  and safety programs  and Injury  reporting and record-keeping
 requirements; analyzing accidents and Injuries for prevention and control;
 and providing technical  advice to management officials-1n the implementation
 of  program policy and  standards.

 OHSD's  must have  either background and training in recognizing, evaluating,
 and  controlling hazards from laboratory use of toxic substances or access
 to  this expertise.   OHSD's must maintain Inventory records for substances
 considered  toxic  for this Manual.

              (d)  Laboratory Health Officers.  Laboratory Health Officers
 are  responsible for  providing technical support to the OHSD.  (Laboratory
 Health Officers are  laboratory-based personnel who have expertise in the
 health  effects and chemical  hazards related to laboratory operations;
 they  are officially  appointed by the Off1cer-1n-Charge;  and they functionally
 report to the OHSD.)

             (e)  Supervisor.

The Supervisor has the primary responsibility for:

                  l_  Selecting work practices and engineering controls for
handling toxic substances;

                  2  Preparing a Safety Plan prior to use of toxic
substances.  (See /Tppendix 8-B for details  of the Safety Plan.);
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                  3_  Submitting the Safety Plan to the Safety  Committee
 for  their  review and approval;

                    Making copies of the approved Safety Plan available
 to program and support staff;

                  J5  Assuring that the program and support staff (including
 maintenance and housekeeping personnel) are instructed and trained  in  the
 laboratory practices and engineering controls required to ensure safety
 and  in  planned procedures for dealing with accidents  involving toxic
 substances, and are informed of the potential hazards associated with  the
 proposed use of toxic substances;

                  j>  Supervising the safety performance of the staff to
 ensure  that the required laboratory practices and engineering  controls
 are  employed;

                  ]_  Arranging for immediate medical  attention and
 reporting  to the OHSD any accident that results in a_ inoculation of toxic
 substances through cutaneous penetration,  b_ingestion of toxic substances,
 probable inhalation of toxic substances, or d_ any incident causing
 overt exposure to personnel or danger of environmental contamination  by
toxic substances;

                  IB  Cooperating in the occupational  medical surveillance
 program;

                  2  Assisting the OHSD in investigating accidents;

                 10^  Investigating and reporting in writing to the  OHSD
any  problem pertaining to operation and implementation of laboratory
practices and engineering controls; and

                 Jl_  Correcting work errors and conditions that may result
in the  release of toxic substances.

             (f)  Employees.  Each employee is responsible for complying
with the health and safety program for the laboratory use of toxic
substances established by this Manual.  Each employee shall report  to
his/her supervisor or the OHSD any unsafe  condition and all facts pertaining
to accidents which resulted in employee exposure to toxic substances.

             (g)  Other Responsibilities.   The individuals specified
above and other individuals have responsibilities for this program  which
are described in relevant sections of the  balance of  this Chapter.

2.  HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS.

    a.  Safety Manual.   The QIC must ensure that the  safety program


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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                  /8


covering the laboratories within his/her Reporting Unit,  Establishment,
or Workplace is documented by a safety manual.   The QIC must make  the
Safety Manual available for distribution,  provide  a copy  to  each employee
using toxic substances, and forward an information copy to the Hi rector,
OHSS.

    b.  Safety Plan.  The Supervisor mist prepare, and obtain approval
of, a Safety Plan (Appendix 8-B) before using a toxic  substance.   The
Laboratory Safety Committee, or similar group set up for  this purpose,
must review the Safety Plan and forward it to the OHSD with  comments.
The OHSD and the QIC must approve the Safety Plan before  the toxin
substance can be used.  The OHSD must maintain the Safety Nan on  file
and make it available for distribution, provide a copy to each employee
using the toxic substance, and forward an information  copy to the  Director,
OHSS.  The supervisor may prepare, and obtain prior approval of,  generic
safety plans to cover groups of toxic substances v/hio.h yos<:  si-n^o.1.'
occupational hazards.

    c.  Audit.  The 0 1C must ensure that semi-annual program reviews,
including inspections, of the health and safety program  for laboratory
use of toxic substances are conducted by persons with appropriate background
and training, and that any deficiencies are corrected  as  soon as  oossible
(or immediately if the deficiency is an imminent hazard).  The GIG must
forward a copy of the program review and abatement actions to t>c> Director,
OHSS, for review.  The Director, OHSS, may conduct independent audits.

    d.  Accident Reporting.  The OHSD must coordinate  the reporting of
any accident involving exposure (inoculation, ingestion,  denrwl contact,
Inhalation) to a toxic substance in accordance with the  procedures detailed
In Chapter 3 of the Occupational Health and Safety Manual.  In addition,
the OHSD must forward a copy of this type of accident  report to the
employee's medical record (see 2.g.(3)).

    e.  Training.  The QIC must ensure that all employees , be-7o-p using
toxic substances In the laboratory, receive a minimum" of 2A :*.'<  of
training on the safe handling of toxic substances ir the  1,'ht.rc  ry
(followed by 4 hour refresher courses annually) and r'eceiv-? : ^.- v  ig
specific to the hazards (Including emergencies) of a specific operation
before conducting that operation.  The OHSD must  obtain the approval of
the Director, OHSS, for the initial 24 hour and annual 4 hour courses and
must Issue a certificate to employees upon completion of  the
The training courses must be supplemented by on-the-job training.  The
QIC must ensure that the supervisor, OHSD, or other persons ii;jj> i fied by
training and experience will periodically apprise Ubor;:to^/  .-> other
involved workers, for example, those Involved in housyk^e-^'n:} oi- mintenance
work, about (1) the possible sources of exposure, [Z] aivers*: t1. tth
effects (Including chronic effects such as cancer) associated with
exposure, (3) work practice and engineering controls in use and being
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 planned to limit exposure,  (4)  environmental and medical monitoring
 procedures used to check  on control  procedures  and on the health status
 of ermloyees,  and (5)  their responsibilities for following proper work
 practices to help protect their health  and  provide for  the safety of
 themselves and fellow  employees.  The trainers  should also explain:  the
 types and functions of monitoring equipment, such as personal samplers,
 so that each employee  understands his or her part in environmental
 monitoring;  medical  monitoring  procedures,  especially any unusual procedures
 such a sputum  cytology or biologic monitoring of metabolites in the urine;
 and the benefits to workers of  participating in these environmental and
 medical  monitoring procedures.

 The OHSD must  keep the Safety Plan,  safety  data sheets, and other
 appropriate  written  information describing  the  relevant toxic, physical,
 and chemical properties of  toxic substances used or stored in the
 laboratory,  in  a file  that  is continuously  and  readily  available to
 employees.

 In  addition, the OIC must ensure that employees identified to respond to
 emergencies  involving  toxic substances receive  additional  training,
 repeated at  least annually, which includes  directing general evacuation,
 decontamination  of uncontrolled releases of toxic substances, maintaining
 a  respirator program at least equivalent to 29 CFR 1910.134, using other
 personal  protective equipment, and first aid and CPR.

     f.   Emergency Procedures.  The OHSD must develop procedures to protect
 personnel  in case of emergencies involving toxic substances  in the
 laboratory.  The emergency  procedures should include:   notifying emergency
 and  other affected personnel; designating the containment  area; decon-
 tamination procedures;  a  general evacuation plan; local emergency
 departments and  local  Poison Control  Centers' locations, phone numbers,
 and  contacts; and should  be conspicuously posted and tested with drills
 at least semi-annually.

     g.  Medical  Surveillance.

         (1)  Pre-assignment Health Assessment.   The OIC must ensure that
 a baseline health assessment is  provided to all  employees  who work  with
 toxic substances or who are assigned duties in work areas where toxic
 substances are regularly used.  These health assessments are to be  provided
 under the EPA Medical Monitoring Guidelines and mist be included in
 position descriptions for new assignments.   The OIC,  after consultation
withan occupational physician, the OHSD, and the medical monitoring
coordinator, must also determine the  necessity  of providing  pre-assignment
 health assessments for employees who may be assigned duties  in work areas
where small quantities of  toxic  substances  are  infrequently  used.

The  purpose of this pre-assignment assessment is to establish a baseline
health record and if evidence of predisposing conditions is  found,  to


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 inform and  counsel  the  employee concerning the inadvisability of working
 in areas where toxic substances are used.  The pre-assignment assessment
 will  include a work history, a medical history, and a physical examination,.
 which includes customary  laboratory studies and agent-specific studies
 when  appropriate.

         (2)  Periodic Health Assessments.  The QIC must ensure that periodic
 health assessments  are  provided to all employees who work with toxic
 substances  or who  are assigned duties  in work areas where toxic substances
 are regularly used. The  periodicity and content of these assessments
 must  be determined  by the QIC after consultation with an occupational
 physician,  the OHSD, the  medical monitoring coordinator, and the supervisor.

 The assessments will  include an updating of the employee's work and
 medical  histories,  including occurrences of any accidental  exposures
 previously  unreported.  The following  information nust be included in the
 employee's  medical  record:  names of toxic substances to which the
 employees may have  been exposed, Information on the probability, frequency,
 and extent  of exposures,  and any environmental measurements relating to
 toxic substances that may have been made.  The periodic health assessment
 may also include a  physical examination, biochemical or other surveillance
 of  body  fluids,  and an  evaluation of pertinent functional systems of the
 body.   (See Appendix 8-C.)  The medical monitoring coordinator at each
 location 1s responsible for requesting and helping to schedule examinations
 and,  assisted  by the OHSD, must furnish to employees, prior to each
 examination,  exposure and environmental monitoring data as specified
 above  for Inclusion in  their medical  records.

         (3)   Records.   The records must be maintained In the local custody
 of  the examining physician.  Access must be limited to the custodian or
 duly  appointed  officials.  A copy of these records may be maintained 1n
 the Agency  Occupational  Health and Safety Office.  These must be maintained
 in  locked cabinets  with access limited to the Director or to authorized
 personnel.

 Upon  an  employee's  death, retirement,  resignation, or other termination of
 Government  service, the records must be forwarded to the U.S. Office of
 Personnel Management or Public Health Service Commissioned Officer, Department
of  Personnel, for inclusion with the Official Personnel Records and the
 custody  thereof will fall to the custodian of such records.

Medical  Information about an applicant, employee or annuitant must not be
made available  to the public.   (See EPA Medical Monitoring Program Guide-
lines, established by the OHSS, for details of the Medical  Monitoring
Program  recording requirements.)

3.  WORK PRACTICE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS.  The work practice and
engineering controls specified in this section must be used by all
 laboratories  in which work involving toxic substances is carried out


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                                                                   3/18/86

regularly.  Paragraph 5 of this Chapter describes work practice and
engineering controls for situations  where  either more or  less stringent
safeguards should be considered in providing  protection to the laboratory
worker.

    a.  Chemical  Control  Procedures.

        (1)  "Cradle-to-Grave"
purchase requisitions for toxic substances.   The QIC, after consulting
the OHSD, may add to the list  of toxic substances presented in Appendix
8-A for his/her reporting unit.  The OHSD  subsequently monitors and records
the receipt, transport, storage, use (including a list of personnel
authorized to use) and disposal of the toxic  substances.  The OHSD must
update the inventory at lease  semi-annual ly.   Also, the OHSD must obtain,
maintain, and distribute safety data sheets and other information needed
to use toxic substances safely.  The OHSD  may request technical support
from the Director, OHSS, in obtaining this information.

        (2)  Storage Inventory and Identification.  Stock quantities of
toxic substances must be stored in a specific area  that  is secured at all
times.  The storage area must  be posted with  a sign bearing the legend:
CAUTION-TOXIC SUBSTANCE Authorized Persons Only.  Supervisors must maintain
inventory records of stock quantities of toxic substances they are
individually responsible for and imst provide copies to  the OHSD.  The
inventory records must include the quantities of toxic substances acquired
and dates of aquisition and disposition.   Storage  vessels containing
stock quantities must be labeled: CAUTION-TOXIC SUBSTANCE.  Additional
storage precautions may be required  for  compounds having other properties,
such as flammability, radioactivity, etc.

        (3)  Working Quantities.  Quantities  of toxic substances  present
in the work area must not exceed the amounts  required for use in  one
week.  This does not include amounts stored in a  specific toxic substance
storage area or cabinet that is located within the  laboratory work area.
Storage vessels containing working quantities must  be labeled:  CAUTION-
TOXIC SUBSTANCE.

        (4)  Decontamination.   Contaminated materials must either be
decontaminated by procedures that decompose the toxic substance to  produce
a safe product or be removed for subsequent disposal.  Toxic  substances
which have spilled out of a primary  container so  as to constitute a hazard
must be inactivated in situ or nust  be  absorbed  by  appropriate means  for
subsequent disposal.  Adequacy of clean-up must be  tested using,  for
instance, wipe-test or fluorescence  tests.

        (5)  Laboratory Transport.   Storage  vessels containing toxic
substances must be placed first in an unbreakable outer  container before
being transported to laboratory work areas using  good transfer practices.
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Plastic coated glass bottles  with  polypropylene caps, which can satisfy a
4-foot drop test,  are currently available which can  serve  as  both the
storage vessel and the unbreakable outer  container combined.  Contaminated
materials which are transferred from work areas to disposal areas must
first be placed in a closed plastic bag or  other suitable  impermeable and
sealed primary container.   The  primary  container mist  be placed  in a
durable outer container before  being transported.  The outer  container
must be labeled with both the name of  the toxic substance  and the warning:
CAUTION-TOXIC SUBSTANCE.

        (6)  Packaging and Shipping.  Toxic substances must be packaged
to withstand shocks, pressure changes,  and  any other conditions which
might cause leakage of contents incident  to ordinary handling during
transportation.  Shipments must be in  accordance with  Department of
Transportation (DOT) regulations and EPA  Order 1000.18, Transportation of
Hazardous Materials.  (See Appendix 8-F  for specific packaging and shipping
guidance reference.)

        (7)  Disposal.  Prior to the start  of any  laboratory  activity
involving a toxic substance,  plans for the  handling  and ultimate disposal
of contaminated wastes and surplus amounts  of the  toxic  substance  iiust
be completed.  The supervisor and OHSD should jointly  determine  the best
methods available that are in compliance with Federal,  State  and local
codes and ordinances.

    b.  Operational Practices.

        (1)  Work Area Identification.  Entrances  to all work areas,
where toxic substances are being used  or stored,  inist  be  posted  with
signs bearing the  legend:  "CAUTION -  TOXIC SUBSTANCE  - Authorised Persons
Only," followed by name of supervisor.

        (2)  Access Control.  Work areas, where toxic  substances are
being used or stored, must be entered  only  by persons  authorized by  the
supervisor.  Access doors  to work  areas must be kept closed wniie
experiments involving toxic substances are  in progress.

        (3)  Work Surfaces.  All work  surfaces (bench  tops,   hood floors,
etc.) on which toxic substances are used must be  covered  with stainless
steel or plastic trays, dry absorbent plastic backed paper or other
impervious material.  The  protective surfaces trust be  examined  for possible
contamination  immediately  after each procedure involving toxic substances
has been completed.  Contaminated  surfaces  must  be decontaminated or
disposed of as appropriate.

        (4)  Use of Analytical  Instrumentation.   Vapors n^ aerosols
produced by analytical instruments, when used with toxic  substances, must
be captured through  local  exhaust  ventilation at the site of th^ir
production.  The instruments may be placed entirely within  laboratory


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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND  SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                   3/18/86

 fume hood if this  will not  impair hood performance ("i.e., toward the back
 and raised on legs to minimize turbulence of inflowing air).  When a sample
 is removed from the analytical instrument, it should be placed in a
 tightly stoppered  sample tube  or otherwise safeguarded from contaminating
 the laboratory.  In the  event that the analytical equipment becomes
 contaminated,  it trust be labeled "CAUTION - TOXIC SUBSTANCE" until it has
 been completely  decontaminated.  This operational practice applies to
 analytical equipment even when only  infrequently used for toxic substances.

         (5)   Use of Primary Containment Equipment.  Procedures involving
 volatile toxic substances and those  involving solid or liquid toxic
 substances that  may result in the generation of aerosols must be conducted
 in a laboratory  fume  hood, a glove box, or other containment equipment
 approved  for toxic  substances by the OHSD.  (Personnel  protection factors
 for Class II biological  safety cabinets have not yet been established;
 however,  when  installed  with total  exhaust, these devices are currently
 acceptable for procedures involving  toxic substances.)   Examples of
 aerosol  producing  procedures are:  the opening of closed vessels, transfer
 operations,  weighing,  preparation of feed mixtures and  the application,
 injection  or  intubation  of a toxic substance into experimental animals.
 Tissue  culture and  other biological  procedures involving small quantities
 of  toxic  substances may  be conducted in a Class II  Type A or B biological
 safety  cabinet.  The  selection and use of a Class II biological safety
 cabinet for  procedures involving toxic substances must  be a joint decision
 of  the  supervisor  and the OHSD.  Primary containment equipment used for
 containment  of toxic substances must display a label  bearing the legend:
 CAUTION - TOXIC  SUBSTANCE.  All bidding documents and installation plans
 for  primary containment equipment must be reviewed by the Facilities
 Engineering  and Real Property Management Branch prior to procurement.
 (See Appendix 8-D for additional  information on primary containment
 equipment.)

         (6)  Protection of Vacuum Lines.  Each vacuum service, including
 water aspirators, must be protected with an absorbent or liquid trap and
 a High Efficiency Particulate Aerosal (HEPA) filter to  prevent entry of
 any separate vacuum pump  or  other device place  in a laboratory fume hood
 approved for toxic  substances must be used.

    c.  Personal Protective  Equipment.

        (1)  Protective Clothing.  Protective clothing  such as a fully
fastened laboratory coat  or  a disposable jumpsuit must  be worn in any
work area  in which  toxic substances are being used.  Clean clothing must
be provided weekly  and must  not be  worn outside the work  area.  Clothing
 contaminated by toxic substances must be decontaminated or disposed of
 immediately after an obvious  exposure.  Contaminated  clothing must not be
sent to the laundry until decontaminated.  (See 3.a.(4) for decontamination
procedure.)  Gloves which are appropriate to the specific situation must
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 OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                   3/18/86

 be used when  handling toxic substances.  Disposable gloves  must  be  discarded
 after each  use  and immediately after known contact with a toxic  substance.
 Acquisition of  protective clothing and equipment must be 1n accordance
 with  EPA  Order  3100.1, Uniforms, Protective Clothing and Protective Equipment.

        (2)   Eye Protection.  Devices to provide appropriate eye protection
 must  be worn  In any laboratory work and should meet ANSI Z87.1,"Practice
 for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection" and the
 requirements  in EPA's Eye Protection Program Guideline.

        (3)   Use of Respirators as Personal Protective Devices.   A
 respirator  use  program nust be provided for emergency and maintenance
 personnel who enter areas where a potential for inhalation  exposure to a
 toxic substance is present.  This program nust meet the requirements  of
 the OSHA  General Industry Standards for respiratory protection as detailed
 in 29 CFR 1910.134.  The respirators must be certified in accordance  with
 the requirements of the National Institute for Occupational Safety  and
 Health (NIOSH)  under the provisions of 30 CFR Part 11.  The selection and
 use of respirators must be approved by the OHSD.

    d.  Work Practices.

        (1)  Housekeeping.  General housekeeping procedures which suppress
 the formation of aerosols, such as the use of a wet mop or a vacuum
 cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter to remove particulates, must be used.

 Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited because of the hazard of
 aerosol formation.  Training of personnel in appropriate cleaning techniques
 to avoid  or minimize exposure 1s the responsibility of the supervisor.
 In those  instances where the toxic substance or contaminated material 1s
 spilled,  special procedures developed for the Individual compounds  must
 be followed.  (See 2.b.)

        (2)  Eating, Drinking and Smoking.  There nust be no eating,
drinking,  smoking, chewing of gum or tobacco, application of cosmetics or
 storage of utensils, food or food containers in any laboratory area.

        (3)  Pipetting.  Mechanical pipetting aids must be used  for all
pipetting procedures.  Oral pipetting is prohibited.

        (4)  Personal Hygiene.  All personnel must wash hands Immediately
after completion of any procedures 1n which toxic substances have been
used.  Immediately after an obvious exposure to toxic substances, personnel
must wash or  shower the affected area.

    e.  Facility Recommendations.

        (1)  Handwashinq Facility.  A handwashlng facility must be available
within the work area.(This need not be a facility used exclusively  for


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 OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH  AND  SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
                                                                   3/18/86

 handwashing.)   The use of liquid soap is recommended.  In new facilities,
 foot or elbow  operated faucets should be provided.

         (2)  Shower  Facility.  A shower facility, other than emergency
 drench  showers, must be  located in the building in which toxic substances
 are  used.  The  shower facility must be available at all times.

         (3)  Eye Wash Facility.  An emergency eye wash facility must be
 located  in each laboratory.  It should be designed to wash both eyes at
 the  same time with a continuous stream of potable water.

         (4)  Exhaust Air from Primary Containment Equipment.  The exhaust
 air  from glove  boxes must be treated by filtration, reaction, absorption,
 adsorption, electrostatic precipitation or incineration.  The need for,
 and  type of, treatment for other primary containment equipment, including
 laboratory fume hoods and biological  safety cabinets, must be determined
 by the OSHD in  consultation with the supervisor.  Exhaust air treatment
 systems  that remove toxic substances  from the exhaust air by collection
 mechanisms such as filtration,  absorption and adsorption nust be serviced
 in a manner that avoids direct  contact with the collection medium.
 (Trained maintenance employees may remove the spent collection medium
 using a  bag in-bag out collection system or using appropriate personal
 protective clothing  and equipment.)  All exhaust air from primary
 containment equipment must be discharged by roof mounted blowers to the
 outdoors so that it  is dispersed clear of occupied buildings and air intakes.

         (5)  Exhaust Ventilation.  A  mechanical  exhaust ventilation system
 must be  provided for controlling laboratory room air movement.  The
 movement of air must be from areas of lower contamination potential to
 areas of higher contamination potential (i.e. from entry corridors to the
 laboratory).  All  air from laboratories must be exhausted outdoors and
 not  recirculated.   However,  non-contaminated air within individual
 laboratories may be reconditioned.  The exhaust air from laboratory areas
 must be  discharged outdoors in  a way  that entry into a building's air
 supply is minimized.  Exhaust air from laboratory areas which is not
 derived  from primary containment equipment can be discharged to the
 outdoors without being treated.

4.  ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR  ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION INVOLVING TOXIC
SUBSTANCES.  The work practice  and engineering controls specified in
paragraph 3 apply  to animal  experimentation when toxic substances are
used.  Additionally,  animal  care  personnel  must wear a completely closed
jumpsuit or a complete clothing change and laboratory-issue shoes or
booties, head cover and gloves.   Clean clothing must be provided daily.
Animal  care personnel engaged in procedures where exposure to airborne
particulates contaminated with  toxic  substances could occur must use
appropriate respiratory protection.  The selection and use of an appropriate
respirator  must be approved  by  the OHSD.  The face mask or respirator
must not be worn outside the animal room.   Used filters must be disposed


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of and the respirator housing must  be decontaminated daily, and the
respirator nust be stored in a  clean  location.   Personnel  required to
wear a respirator must shower after completion of procedures that may
result in the creation of airborne  contamination in the  animal room.

Experimental animals must be housed in  cage systems that confine feed,
feces, urine and bedding within the enclosure.   When using a volatile
toxic substance the cage will be appropriately sealed or ventilated to
prevent evolution of contaminants.  Alternative  animal housing methods
must be approved by the OHSD.

The Safety Plan prepared for animal studies must include descriptions of
the proposed animal housing methods,  safeguards  appropriate for dose
preparation and challenge procedures,  procedures for bulk  storage  and
disbursement of test material,  waste  management  practices, and personnel
protection requirements.  An operations manual  nust be prepared for
facilities in which large-scale animal  studies and inhalation challenge
studies are conducted.  Equipment use procedures for all inhalation
challenge studies must be described in  detail.

All animal use nust comply with the Animal Welfare Act,  Public Law 89-544,
1966, amended in 1970 and 1976  (P.L.  91-579 and  P.L. 94-279) and must
conform with the Guide for the  Care and Use  of Laboratory  Animals,  DHEW
No. 78-23, revised 1978 or succeeding editions.

5.  SITUATIONS REQUIRING SPECIAL CONSIDERATION.   The purpose  of  this
section is generally to describe situations involving toxic substances
where either more or less stringent safeguards  might be  considered in
providing protection to the laboratory  worker.   (No specific definitions
for such situations can be provided;  an attempt  to do  so would  be
misleading.)  Any modification  to the laboratory practices and engineering
controls described in paragraph 3 should be  carefully  considered  and
reviewed by the supervisor, the OHSD, and the SC.

The hazard in working with toxic substances  is  a function  of  the  exposure
potential and the toxicity.  The risk of exposure to a toxic  substance  is
related, among other things, to the quantity  and physical  properties  of
material used and the nature,  frequency, and  complexity  of the experimental
procedure.  There is a greater risk of exposure when working with 100
milligrams of material than with 1 microgram  of material.   Similarly  the
potential for exposure is greater during blending,  preparation  of  dry
feed mixture or the manipulation of powders than during  the preparation
of aliquots of stock solutions.  The  toxicity and carcinogenic potency
are also important factors 1n the selection  of  safeguards. For  example,
experimental data suggests that the carcinogenic potency  of aflatoxin
81 is magnitudes greater than that of chloroform.
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      a.  Low Risk Situations.   Infrequent  use  of  small  quantities of
 toxic substances presents a low risk situation.   An  infrequent  or
 incidental user can be described as  a person who  uses only a  small quantity
 of material on an infrequent basis.   Such  users may  include  individuals
 involved in microbial  or tissue culture  test procedures, persons using
 small quantities of chloroform for the inactivatipn  of  microorganisms,
 and the users of o-tolidine (3,3'  -Dimethylbenzidine) test papers.

 Safety during these operations can normally be achieved by strict adherence
 to good laboratory practice.   The  laboratory worker  must not eat, drink,
 smoke,  chew gum or tobacco,  apply  cosmetics or store food in  areas where
 the toxic substances are used  or stored.   Hands should  be washed following
 the completion of a procedure  1n which toxic substances are used.  The
 laboratory workers should develop  the habit of keeping  hands away from
 mouth,  nose,  eyes, and face.   A fully fastened laboratory coat  and gloves
 should  be worn  when handling toxic substances.  Mechanical pipetting
 aids  must be used for  all  pipetting  procedures.   Laboratory workers
.should  receive  periodic  laboratory safety training.

The preparation of dilute solutions  or the  removal of small amounts of a
toxic substance from stock quantities  should always  be  performed within a
 laboratory  fume hood or  glove  box.   The work surfaces of the hood should
be  covered  with stainless  steel  or plastic trays, dry absorbent plastic
backed  paper or other  impervious material.

Stock quantities  of toxic substances  should be the minimum quantity
required  for  efficient use; the  primary container should be stored in an
unbreakable outer  container.  Plastic coated glass bottles with poly-
propylene caps,  which  can  satisfy  a  4-foot drop test, may be used in lieu
of  both containers.  The outer container should be labeled with a sign
bearing the  legend:  CAUTION - TOXIC  SUBSTANCE.  The stock quantities
should be maintained in a secured and posted storage area when not is use.
Requirements  for  decontamination and  disposal  specified in paragraph 3
apply to this category of user.

     b.  Higher Risk Situations.   More stringent safeguards may be
required for certain research investigations that present higher risk
situations than those subject to the  general requirements.  More stringent
requirements may also be required for research activities that involve
highly potent toxic substances.  The  toxic substances and laboratory
activities for which additional controls will  be  required must be determined
on a case by case  basis by the QIC in consultation with the SC and OHSD.

Work practice and engineering controls that may be required to augment
the general requirements include:  additional  or more frequent changes of
protective clothing, increased showering frequency,  shower facility and
change room requirements, use of primary containment devices, work area
access control, impervious floors for easy decontamination and monitoring
for environmental  contamination  resulting from certain  laboratory activities.


                                   8-14

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Personnel may be required in some instances  to  wear  full  protective
clothing such as pants and shirts or jumpsuits,  shoes,  or boots  and  head
covers and to shower after each exit from the work area.

Laboratory activities that involve high  risk procedures with a known
potent toxic substance may be restricted  to  either a glove box or  other
completely closed containment system. Work  areas may be required  to be
separated by a controlled access area from areas  that are open to
unrestricted traffic flow.  This controlled  access area may be an  anteroom,
a change room, an air lock or any other door arrangement  that  separates
the laboratory from areas of unrestricted traffic flow.  A specially designed
"Containment Area" consisting of a Special Handling  Room with  adjoining
laboratory work area, change rooms,  shower and  toilet facilities and an
air lock may be required for the highest  risk situations.  (See Appendix
8-E - Secondary Containment Facilities for Higher Risk Situations.)

Environmental monitoring may be required  in  work  areas  where the potential
of exposure to a known potent toxic substance is  great.  An example  of
such an area might be a dry feed mixing operation where a large  amount of
the toxic substance is being handled in  an activity  that can produce
significant amounts of aerosol.

Additional controls for the safe use of  a particular compound nust be
specifically Identified in the Safety Plan (Appendix 8-B) for its  use.
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                 APPENDIX  A  - TOXIC SUBSTANCES LIST
Chronic - This will  be a listing of  established  carcinogenic agents.
          The Carcinogen Assessment  Group  (CAG)  listing will be used
          for the first list.

Acute   -This will  be a listing of  chemicals  meeting the  following
          criteria:
                              ACUTE TOXICITY
Dosage Method	Type of Measure	Value  of Toxicity

Oral                           LD50                Up  to and  including
                                                      50 mg/kg

Inhalation                     LC50                Up  to and  including
                                                      0.2  mg/1  (200 mg/m3)

Dermal                         LD50                Up  to and  including
	200  mg/kg	

Adapted from 40 CFR 162.

A list of 927 substances meeting the above criteria was generated by...   .
searching the current NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects  of Chemical  Substances
(RTECS).  (If you would like copies of the proposed initial  lists,  contact
the Industrial Hygiene Programs Manager at FTS 382-3640.)
                                  8-A-l

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                         APPENDIX B  -  SAFETY PLAN
Assistance in preparing the safety plan  can  be  obtained from
OHSD 	located in Room	of Building
or  by  telephoning	
USE CATEGORY
    Regular User	           Infrequent  User	
REVIEW
    Safety Committee Chairperson	
APPROVALS
    Supervisor	
    OHSD                    	
    QIC                     	
    SUPERVISOR	
    Laboratory or Branch	.
    Building                	
    Room                    	
    Phone	
nATE OF PHONE PREPARATION   	
TOXIC SUBSTANCE
    Name	CAS No.
         Synonyms  	
    Safety Data Sheet Available   Yes	  No
    Location of Use	   _
    Type of Use     	
    Location of Storage 	
                                  8-B-l

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 Inventory Data

     Date Toxic Substance Ordered or Synthesized 	

     Quantity 	

     Period of Use
 HAZARD ASSESSMENT  (toxic  and  pharmacologic effects,  reactivity, stability
                     f 1 ammabi 11 ty,  and operational  concerns  - weighing,
                     mixing,  etc.):
MONITORING PROCEDURES  (If required by the OHSD)

   Medical surveillance procedures for evidence of personal exposure:
Personnel monitoring procedures:
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    Surveillance  procedures  for environmental contamination
 nECONTAHINATION AND DISPOSAL

    Decontamination Procedures  (contaminated:  surfaces, materials,
                               instruments, equipment, etc.):
   Disposal Procedures (wastes and unused stock):
FMFRGENCY PROCEDURES

   In event of overt personnel exposure (inhalation, ingestion,
                                         inoculation):
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    In  event of environmental contamination (spill):
PERSONNEL POTENTIALLY EXPOSED TO TOXIC SUBSTANCE

   Personnel Authorized to Use Toxic Substance

       1.  	

       2.  	

       3.  	

       4.

       5.  	

   Other Personnel Assigned to Locations Where Toxic Substance is Used

       1.  	

       2.  	

       3.  	

       4.  	

       5.  	


ALTERNATIVE WORK PRACTICE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS

   (Describe alternative controls not specified in this Manual for
    the Laboratory Use of Toxic Substances.  Indicate controls specified
    in the Manual for which proposed alternative controls will serve
    as substitute methods.)
                                 8-B-4

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SAFE PRACTICES FOR ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION

    Personnel Protective Equipment (gloves,  respirator,  approved  clothing,
                                    booties, goggles,  etc.)-
    Animal Care and Housing Requirements (containment cages,  exposure
                                          procedures, bedding change, dose
                                          preparation,  cage cleaning, waste
                                          handling methods):
Facility Operational Procedures (access control,  traffic patterns,  de-
                                 contamination procedures,  waste manage-
                                 ment,  species isolation requirements):
APPROPRIATE LITERATURE CITATIONS
                                  8-B-5

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                    APPENDIX C  - PERIODIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
                       (ADAPTED FROM  DHHS GUIDELINES)

The nature of a program for providing periodic  health  assessments is
complicated by several factors.  Among these are (1) many  laboratory workers
handle a variety of toxic substances  so that the medical surveillance should
ideally seek evidence of adverse effects from all these  substances,
(2) some toxic substances cause cancer but have little or  no toxlcity other
than the production of neoplasms, and most tumors do not become  evident
until many years (often 20-30) after  the initiating events.

Medical monitoring will, therefore,  sometimes for necessity  and  more often
for efficiency, usually concentrate on events likely to  precede  overt
evidence of serious health effects such as tumorigenesis.  For example,
some carcinogens, such as dimethylnitrosamine,  have high acute toxicity,
especially to the liver, and evidence of such actute toxlcity  can be obtained
within a few hours or days following  exposure.   Some tumors, such as those
liver cells, usually detectable by clinical tests. Others,  e.g., angiosarcomas
induced by such substances as vinyl  chloride, will often cause detectable
cell changes in nearby tissue as the probable result  of  space  occupation.
It should be noted that detection of  such toxic changes  does not necessarily
presage tumor development, but should nevertheless precipitate the institution
if corrective work practices and improved engineering  controls.   The
occupational physician, to be effective, must have relevant  information
such as mode and mechanism of toxic  action, freqeuncy  and  severity of
exposure, and exposure concentration, if known.  Some  of this  information
will be available in individual safety data sheets.  However,  this information
should be supplemented by the supervisor when appropriate.

Biologic monitoring will sometimes be a useful  method  of detecting exposure
and perhaps, of estimating the degree of exposure.  Biologic monitoring
usually involves the analysis of body fluid or excreta  (usually  urine,
sometimes blood, rarely expired air)  for the toxic substance or a
blotransformation product.  An example is the detection  of reaction products
of biphenyl amines in the urines of persons absorbing benzidine or its
derivatives.  Even 1f exposure cannot be quantitated,  as is  sometimes  the
case, the mere detection of the metabolite, if  its presence is specific to
the individual toxic substance or class, is sufficient to indicate the need
for corrective action.

In some cases, especially with some less well known carcinogens, those in
the research laboratory will be better informed on possible biologic
monitoring procedures than will the occupational  physician.    In  such cases,
the investigators should discuss the possibilities with the occupational
physician.  It may also be that specialized analytical  procedures  and
equipment will be needed for some of this monitoring,  procedures and
equipment that may not be available to the  medical laboratory but  when are

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available in the research laboratory.  The Investigators  should  undertake
such monitoring procedures themselves only with prior approval  by  and
participation of the occupational  physician.   This  is to  ensure  that
appropriate precautions will be taken;  such as (1)  precautions  necessary to
data interpretation, such as standard corrections  for dilution of  urine,
(2) precautions for the individual,  such as assurance that Invasive
procedures will not be used, and (3) precautions for  the  Individual's
privacy, such as maintenance of appropriate security  for  Individual  records.
                                  8-C-2

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                    APPENDIX D -  PRIMARY CONTAINMENT EQUIPMENT


1.   PURPOSE.  The purpose of primary containment equipment  is  to protect
the  laboratory worker from exposure to vapors  or aerosols of hazardous
materials that may be released by procedures performed  within  the  equipment.
Primary containment equipment that is properly designed, located,  maintained,
and  operated can prevent or minimize the escape of hazardous materials
from the equipment into the laboratory.  The laboratory fume hood, the
glove  box, and the biological safety cabinet are the principal primary
containment equipment upon which laboratory workers depend  for their
protection while working with toxic substances.

2.   LABORATORY FUME HOOD.  The laboratory fume hood (a  Class I device)
js the primary hazard control device that laboratory workers depend  upon
for  their protection while working with toxic  or other  hazardous materials.
If designed, installed, operated, and maintained properly,  the laboratory
fume hood will  provide personnel with a high degree of  protection  and allow
the  user to safely work with a wide range of potentially  hazardous
materials.

     a.  Hood Function.  The purpose of a laboratory fume  hood is  to
prevent or minimize the escape of contaminants from the hood into  the
laboratory.  This is accomplished by drawing air past the  operator through
the  zone of contaminant generation, and into the hood.

     b.  Conditions Affecting Hood Performance.  The ability  of  a  laboratory
hood to control contaminants generated in the hood will depend on  many
factors.  Of prime concern are the control velocity at the hood  face,  air
movement in the room, turbulence within the hood working  space,  and  hood
location.  It is the proper selection and control of these factors as  a
group  that determines the performance of the hood from the  standpoint  of
hazard control.

         (1)  Face Velocity.  Air flow rates,  to provide  protection from
operations performed in the hood, must provide positive control  of air
movement against competing influences.  Control velocities  required at
the face of the hood range from 80 FPM for "ideal" laboratory  conditions
to 100 FPM for "good" conditions.  (See Appendix 3-D,  subparagraph -2.c.)

         (2)  Operator Effect.  The operator standing in  front of  the
hood ray effect the air flow patterns.  The "eddies" formed around the
operator can carry contaminants from the hood to the operator's  breathing
zone.  Proper use of make-up air at the hood face, with emphasis on
filling the void or minimizing the low pressure area in front  of the
operator, is necessary for optimum hood performance.
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          (3)  Air Movement In the Laboratory.  Air movement within  the
 laboratory  affects the performance of hoods and is influenced by hood
 location  and room air supply systems.  Hood locations must be away  from
 doors,  operable windows, and pedestrian traffic.  Air from these sources
 can  attain  velocities several times greater than the hood face velocity,
 creating  potential fro dragout or displacement of contaminated air  from
 the  hood.   Ceiling and wall diffusers for distribution of make-up air are
 also serious potential sources of interference.  Air from such outlets
 should  either  be controlled to assist in the performance of the hood  ir
 directed  so that the energy is lost before entering the zone of influence.
 Experience  indicates that air from make-up systems should not exceed
 25 FPM  in the  hood face  areas (measured with hood exhaust "off").  Air
 drawn from  adjacent areas (by the hood exhaust system) must enter in  a
 manner  that does not create excessive turbulence.

          (4)  Hood Turbulence.   Upon  entering the  hood,  the air is  drawn
 past  equipment and sources of contamination toward the exhaust slots.
 Much of the air within the hood is in a  turbulent  state.  At air-flows
 greater than needed to provide a good vector and contain the contaminant,
 the resulting turbulence  can  be excessive causing  a "rolling effect"  in
 the hood chamber.   This  increases the potential for greater mixing  of
 contaminated air and  room air at  the  hood face. Often,  a combination of
 poor hood arrangement and interior turbulence will result in loss of
 contaminated air to the room.

         (5)  Hood Location.   Location of a hood at the end of room or
bay,  where the operator is  essentially the only one who  enters the  zone
 of influence, is the  most desirable.   In any arrangement, pedestrian
traffic past fume  hoods should  be minimized.  Hood location parameters
are detailed in subparagraph  2.c.

     c.   Hood Location  Classification.

"Ideal"  (1)  End  of  room or  bay, no  nearby doors  or windows.

         (2)  Essentially no  pedestrian  traffic, other than hood  operator.

         (3)  All  of  the  required laboratory hood  make-up air drawn or
              induced to  enhance  over-all  hood performance.  For  example,
              a properly  designed and located perforated ceiling section
              or well designed  auxiliary  air hood  plenum.

         (4)  No other  grilles  or diffusers exist  that produce air  at
              measurable  velocities in the hood area.
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 "Good"   (1)  Not on a main aisle,  no  nearby doors or windows.

          (2)  Minimum traffic other than hood  operator.

          (3)  Have air supplied to  lab so  velocity from diffusers or
               grilles does not exceed  25 FPM in  vicinity of hood.

 "Poor"   (1)  Any one or more of the above conditions are not met.

      d.  Additional Specifications  and Procedures.  Additional specification
 and performance evaluation procedures  for  laboratory fume hoods can be
 found in:

          (1)  EPA Laboratory Fume Hood Specifications and Performance
 Testing Requirements, available from the EPA of  Occupational Health and
 Safety Staff.

          (2)  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Facilities Safety
 Handbook, Amendment No. 1, available from  the  EPA Facilities Engineering
 and Real Property Management Branch.

 3.  CLASS II BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINET.

 The Class II biological safety cabinet is  a primary containment device
 designed to protect the laboratory  work  as well  as the laboratory worker.

      a.   Cabinet Function.  The Class  II biological safety cabinet provides
 a  blanket of clean air over the work,  contains air contaminants in the
 work area,  and conveys the contaminated air away from the operator.
 It accomplishes these functions by  combining recirculation with filtration
 and exhaust.  HEPA filtered air descends over  the work surface and splits
 at the center.   A portion of the downflow  air  exist through a front air
 intake grille,  and the balance exits through a rear air exhaust grille.

 The downflow air is reunified under the  work surface and forced up through
 a  rear or side positive pressure plenum to the unit's top.  Type A (30%)
 or Type  B (70%) of this air is filtered  and exhausted and the balance is
 filtered and forced down to blanket the work.   The make-up air (30% Type A
 or 70% Type B)  enters from the room through the  front intake grille and
 sweeps by and protects the operator.  Total exhaust Class II biological
 safety cabinets which have recently become available presumably provide
 high personnel  protection factors.

      b.   Conditions Affecting Cabinet  Performance.  The conditions that
 affect cabinet  performance are essentially the same as the conditions
 that affect laboratory hood performance which  were presented  in detail
 jn 2.b.  above.   The operator effect can  be particularly pronounced since
 the operator's  arms interfere with  the reciroilating downflow air  vector.
                                   8-D-3

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      c.  Additional Specifications and Procedures.   The Occupational
 Health  and Safety Staff is developing standards for these cabinets using
 the EPA  laboratory hood standard as a model.  Meanwhile, equipment
 descriptions,  recommended specifications and certification procedures  can
 be  found in the following documents:

         (1)   Laboratory Safety Monograph,  A Supplement to the NIH
 Guidelines for Recombinant DNA Research.  U.S.  Department of Health and
 Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health,
 January  1979.

         (2)   National Sanitation Foundation Standard No. 49.  National
 Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1976.

 4.   GLOVE BOX.

      a.  The Glove Box, or Class III  cabinet, is a totally enclosed
 ventilated cabinet of gastight construction.  Operations within this
 equipment are  conducted through attached rubber gloves.  When in use,  the
 equipment is maintained under negative air  pressure of at least 0.5 inches
 water gauge.   A small volume of supply air, to prevent contamination
 build-up, is drawn into the equipment through a HEPA filter and the
 exhaust  air is treated to prevent the discharge of contaminants in to the
 environment.  This equipment provides the highest  level of personnel  and
 environmental  protection.

      b.   The Glove Box is generally recommended for the isolation of
 procedures involving stock quantities of concentrated toxic substances.
 Worker protection can be compromised  by puncture of the gloves or accidents
 creating positive pressure.   Flammable solvents should not be used in
 this  equipment unless a careful evaluation  has been made to determine
 that concentrations will  not reach explosive levels.  When the use is
 determined safe, these materials should only be introduced into the glove
 box in closed, non breakable containers. These materials should not  be
 stored in the  glove box.   Flammable gas should not be piped to this
equipment.

The Class III cabinet is also described in  paragraph 3.b.(5) of this
Chapter  of the Manual.
                                  8-0-4

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             APPENDIX E - SECONDARY CONTAINMENT FACILITIES FOR
                          HIGHER  RISK STIUATIONS

1.  PURPOSE.  The-purpose of  secondary containment facilities is to
provide the additional  engineering controls  for  "higher  risk situations",
as defined in paragraph 5.b.  of Chapter  8 of this Manual, in order to
give added protection against spread  of  toxic  contamination into other
building areas 1n the event of accidental release of toxic substance
within the containment area.   The major  components of  secondary containment
facilities are described in this  Appendix.

2.  SPECIAL HANDLING ROOM. The  "Special Handling Room"  nust be an enclosed
space dedicated for use with  the  "higher risk  situations."  this room is
not to be used for other than "higher risk  situations" unless  rigorous
decontamination 1s performed. Effluent  air  from any glove box and fume
hood located in the "Special  Handling Room"  nust pass  through  a solvent
resistant HEPA filter and an  activated carbon  adsorber.   No water service
will be permitted in this room.   All  liquid  wastes will  be absorbed  and
then removed as solid wastes. This Room must  be maintained under negative
air pressure in relation to all  adjoining  areas  within the  "Containment
Area."

3.  LABORATORY WORK AREA.  A  laboratory  work  area  adjoining the Special
Handling Room must be Included in the "Containment Area." This laboratory
work area will be used for moderate risk laboratory  operations and may
be used conventional or lower risk laboratory  operations when  it is  not
being used in conjunction with the Special  Handling  Room for higher  risk
situations.

4.  CHANGE ROOMS AND SHOVIER FACILITIES.  Dirty and clean rooms and shower-
out facilities must be provided  adjacent to  the  "Special Handling Room."
Duplicate facilities, for each sex, are  encouraged.   However,  for a  small
"Special Handling Room," one  set  of change/shower  facilities will be
acceptable 1f the entering and exiting doors are electrically  Interlocked.

5.  TOILET ROOM.  A toilet room with  water  closet, lavatory, and manual
internal lock is  required within the "Containment  Area."

6.  AIR LOCK.  The conveyance of  all  material  and  personnel between  the
Containment Area  and the building corridor nust be conducted  through an
airtight vestibule.  Containment  area must  be  maintained under negative
pressure in  relation to the corridor and adjoining building  areas.   The
change room and shower facility can serve  as the air lock.
                                  8-E-l

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         APPENDIX.F -  PACKAGING. MARKING. LABELING  AND SHIPPING
                      OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES USED BY LABORATORIES

1.  GENERAL PROVISIONS.  These procedures apply to substances considered
toxic for this Manual  (identified  in Appendix 8-A) which are shipped
between laboratories or the  field.  Applicable laboratories include any
EPA laboratory or private laboratory under  contract with EPA to handle
these toxic substances.

     a.  Most of the toxic substances  identified in Appendix 8-A are not
materials specifically identified  in the Department of Transportation (DOT)
Hazardous Material  Table (49 CFR 172.101).  Any material listed in the
DOT Table should be transported  according to the table or according to
applicable DOT packaging exemptions  (e.g.,  a Poison B, n.o.s. can be
packed in Labelmaster, Inc.'s package  #38,  or Dow Chemical Co.'s Imbiber
Pack for shipment by Unied Parcel  Service).  Substances that are judged
to be environmental samples  should be  shipped according to EPA national
guidance (Compliance with Department of Transportation Regulations in the
Shipment of Environmental  Laboratory Samples, memorandum by water media
DAAs, available from Occupational  Health and Safety Staff).

     b.  Toxic substances may be transported by rented or common carrier,
truck, bus, railroad,  and by Federal Express Corporation*  (air  cargo);
but they may not be transported  by any other common carrier air transport
or even by "cargo only" aircraft other than Federal Express  at  this  time.

     c.  If toxic substances are transported by any type of government-
owned vehicle, including aircraft, DOT regulations  are  not applicable.
However, EPA personnel must  still  use  the packaging procedures  described
below.

2.  PRELIMINARY STEPS.  The following  procedures  should be followed  before
toxic substances are shipped:

     a.  Place a sufficient quantity of  the toxic substance  in  glass
and/or polyethylene containers to  determine whether it  will  react  with or
substantially reduce the effectiveness of  the  container.

     b.  Pack toxic substances according to "Packaging, Marking, and
Labeling Requirements  for Toxic  Substances  Used by Laboratories."
   These procedures are designed to enable shipment by entitles like
   Federal Express and should not be construed as an endorsement by
   EPA of a particular commercial carrier.
                                 8-F-l

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 3.  PACKAGING. MARKING AND LABELING REQUIREMENTS  FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES
     USEF

      a.  Place the toxic substance 1n a 16-ounce* or smaller  glass  or
 polyethylene container with nonmetallic,  teflon-lined screw cap.  Allow
 sufficient ullage (approximately  10% by volume) so  container  is not  liquid
 full at 130F.  If an air space in the  innermost  container cannot be
 tolerated in order to maintain sample integrity,  place  it within a  second
 container which provides the required ullage.  If collecting a solid
 material,  the container plus contents must  not exceed one pound net weight.

      b.  For toxic substances  which  are samples taken in the field, attach
 properly completed sample Identification  tag to sample  container.

      c.  Seal  the toxic substance  container and place 1n two-mil-thick (or
 thicker) Polyethylene bag,  one container  per bag.   Plastic coated glass
 bottles with  polypropylene  caps, which  can satisfy a four-foot drop test,
 are currently  available which  can  serve as  both the container and
 polyethylene  bag.   (Labels  and/or  tags  should be  positioned to enable
 them to be read.)

      d.   Place sealed bag  or plastic bottle Inside a metal can with
 Incombustible,  absorbent, cushioning material (e.g., vermiculite, coarse
 grade to minimize  dust), one bag or  plastic coated bottle per can.
 Pressure-close  the can  and  use clips, nylon reinforced tape, or other
 positive means  to  hold  the  lid  securely, tightly, and effectively.

      e.  Mark and label this can as Indicated in  3.h. below.

      f.  Place  one or more  metal cans (or single  one-gallon bottle*)
 surrounded with incombustible packaging material  for stability during
 transport, Into a strong outside container, such  a fiberboard box.

     g.  Mark and label the outside container and complete shipping papers
 (if  required) as described  in 3.h. below.
*  Larger capacity containers, up to one gallon,  may be used to toxic
substances with a flash point of 73F or higher.   In this case,  such
should be marked on the outside container (carton,  etc.) but only a
single (one gallon or less) bottle may be packed  in an outside container.
Ten percent ullage and requirements 2, 5, 6,  and  7  below must also be
followed.  On the shipping papers (if required) state that "flash point
is 73F or higher.
                                  8-F-2

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     h.  Marking and labeling.   Use  abbreviations only where specified
for DOT listed hazardous materials.  Place  the  following information on
strong outside container,  either hand  printed or in label form:

                      (Laboratory name and  address)

          Toxic Substance, Not  regulated  by DOT  (chemical name):

                          EPA  Laboratory  Sample

"THIS SIDE UP" or "THIS END UP" should also be  marked on the top of the
outside container,  and upward  pointing arrows should  be  placed  on all
four sides of the exterior container.

     i.  Shipping Papers.   Shipping  papers  are  not  required for toxic
substances which are not DOT listed  hazardous materials.  Regulations for
shipping papers for DOT listed hazardous  materials  are presented in
49 CFR 172.200-204.
                                  8-F-3

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                CHAPTER 9 - HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RESPONSES

                            Table of Contents

PARAGRAPH                                              PARAGRAPH
 TITLES                                                 NUMBERS

Policy and Responsibilities 	  I
Program Requirements	  2
Work Practices Requirements	!!.'.*!  3


                 APPENDIX A - SAMPLE SAFETY PLAN


                     APPENDIX B - REFERENCES

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                CHAPTER 9 - HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RESPONSE
 I.  POLICY AND RESPONSIBILITY.

     a.  Purpose.  This chapter establishes pel fey and requlrements,
and assigns responsibilities tor the Agency occupational  health and
safety program for EPA employees engaged In hazardous substances responses
 (herein referred to as responses).

     b.  Pol Icy.  The EPA  Is committed to providing safe and healthful
working conditions for EPA employees engaged In responses.

     c.  Background.  EPA Occupational Health and Safety Manual
Chapter 6, Executive Order 12196 and 29 CFR 1960.12 require the EPA
to adopt supplementary standards for application to working conditions
for which there exTsts no appropriate OSHA standard.  The EPA fulfills
this requirement for working conditions at responses by Implementing
this chapter.  This chapter was originally envisioned as an adaptation of
the "Safety Manual for Hazardous Waste Site Investigations" which was
drafted by ERA'S National Enforcement Investigation Center  (NEIC) and
further developed by the NEIC, the Hazardous Waste Enforcement Task
Force, and the Occupational Health and Safety Staff (OHSS).  This
chapter establishes the agency's program but leaves EPA program offices
to prepare detailed guidance and procedures.

     d.  Discussion.  Response personnel must deal with the risk of
Incurring Illness or Injury while conducting responses.  They cannot
anticipate every hazard, so they must take precautions to prevent
Illness or Injury to themselves, other workers, and the public.

Since response personnel cannot eliminate risk, they must reduce It
to the lowest feasible level.  No set of rules can be uniformly applied
to every situation.  The On-Scene Coordinator or Superfund Coordinator
(OSC/SFC) must judiciously apply the requirements of this manual chapter
at each response site (herein referred to as site.) The OSC/SFC must
assess those variables peculiar to each response In order to establish
appropriate safeguards.

     e.  Responsibilities..

     <'>   Assistant Administrators (AA)r Regional Administrators (RA),
Laboratory Directors and others designated as OffIcers-ln-Charge (OlCs)
are responsible for:

          (a)  Implementing the requirements of this chapter for responses
conducted by employees of their reporting unit, and all establishments
and workplaces within their area of jurisdiction.
                                   9-1

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           (b)  assuring that any OSC/SFC  conducting a  response, and other
 involved programs and support staff,  are  qualified by  training or experience,
 have the equipment to conduct the response  safely, and  plan a response
 which is safe to all concerned.

           (c)  assuring the completion of annual  program evaluations.
 (See Paragraph  2.b.  of this Chapter.)

      (2)  Safety Committee.  The QIC  will  establish a  specialized Response
 Safety Committee, consisting of  EPA employees who do perform on-site
 activities,  that is  consistent with Chapter 5 of  this Manual.

           (a)  aiding  and  advising the OIC  on policies and requirements
 for the reporting unit's  occupational  health and  safety program for
 responses; and

           (b)  reviewing site-specific or  generic Safety Plans (See 2.a.)
 prepared by  OSCs/SFCs  and  forwarding them to the OHS Designee.  The
 Response Safety  Committee  does not have approval  authority.

      (3) Occupational Health  and Safety Designee (OHS Designee).  The
 OHS Designee:

           (a)  is  responsible  to the OIC for developing, organizing,
 directing, and evaluating the  occupational health and safety program for
 responses; and

           (b)  is  responsible  for coordinating accident reporting, record-
 keeping  and often the medical monitoring program.  (See Chapter 1, Para-
 graph 3, of  this Manual for a  detailed description of the OHS Designee1s
 occupational  health and safety responsibilities.)

 OHS  Designees must either have background and training in recognizing,
 evaluating, and controlling hazards at responses or have access to this
 expertise.

     (4)  On-Scene Coordinator or Superfund Coordinator (OSC/SFC).  The
OSC/SFC 1s responsible for:

          (a) selecting the level of personnel  protection needed for
use at a response and assuring that the necessary personal  protective
equipment is available before EPA employees are allowed to work on-site;
                                   9-2

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           (b)  selecting safe work practices and other controls at
 responses;

           (c)  preparing site specific or generic safety plans and
 any  needed detailed procedures;  (See Paragraph 2.a. of this Chapter
 for  requirements, and Appendix A for a Sample Safety Plan.)

           (d)  submitting site specific safety plans to the Response Safety
 Committee  for  Its review; submitting the generic safety plan to the Safety
 Committee  for  Its review well In advance of emergency responses;

           (e)  making copies of the approved safety plan available to
 all  affected program and supporting EPA personnel and provide copies to
 those employees participating In specific responses;

           (f)  assuring that EPA employees are trained and certified In
 the  work practices required to ensure safety, and are Informed of the
 hazards associated with the response before they are allowed to work
 on-slte (In compliance with EPA Order 1440.2, Paragraph 9);

           (g)  assuring that EPA employees are Included In the EPA
 Occupational Medical Monitoring Program and have undergone a baseline
 medical examination before they are allowed to work on-slte (In compliance
 with EPA Order 1440.2, Paragraph 12);

           (h)  designating, If support Is needed, one member of the response
 team as the Site Safety Officer, and assuring that that person fulfills
 all  responsibilities necessary for safe operations;

           (I)  supervising the safety performance of the staff to ensure
 that the required work practices are used;

           (j)  arranging for Immediate medical attention for any Incident
 that results  In Injury or overt exposure of personnel to hazardous
 substances, and reporting the Incident to the OHS Deslgnee;

           (k)  assisting the OHS Deslgnee In  Investigating accidents;

           (I)  Investigating, and reporting In writing to the OHS Deslgnee,
 any  problem pertaining to operation and Implementation of safe work
 practices;

           (m)  correcting work errors and conditions that may result  In  Injury
or exposure to hazardous substances;

           (n)  assuring safe and healthful working conditions for all  EPA
 employees at the response; and
                                   9-3

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           (o)   Informing non-EPA employees of the hazards and appropriate
 measures  to assure safe  and healthful working conditions for these
 employees.

      (5)   Site  Safety Officer.  The Site Safety Officer, If one Is designated,
 Is responsible  for Implementing the Safety Plan at the site.

      (6)   Employees.  Employees are responsible for:

           (a)   complying with the occupational health and safety program
 established by  this  chapter for responses;

           (b)   reporting to their supervisors, or the Site Safety Officer,
 any  unsafe condition and all facts pertaining to Incidents which resulted
 In employee Injury or exposure to hazardous substances;

           (c)   reading and understanding the site-specific or generic
 Safety Plan;

           (d)   carrying out responses In accordance with the site-specific
or generic Safety Plan; and

           (e)   participating In the medical monitoring program when this
 Is a  formal condition of employment.  (Employees are afforded certain rights
 such  as requesting Inspections of working conditions and commenting on
Agency safety standards.  See Chapter 2, Paragraph 5, of this manual for
a detailed description of employee rights.)

      (8)  Director, Occupational Health and Safety Staff.  Under the
supervision of  the Director, Office of Administration, the Director,
Occupational Health and Safety Staff, Is responsible for:

           (a)   reviewing and coordinating the occupational health and safety
programs developed by OICs for responses for consistency with this chapter
 (See  I.e. (I).);

          (b)  evaluating responses for compliance with Agency policy and
requirements;

          (c)   Informing responsible EPA officials of any problem areas;

          (d)   providing technical  support;

          (e)   approving safety training courses; and

          (f)   establishing medical monitoring program requirements.
                                   9-4

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL


The Director, OHSS, Is the top technical  advisor  for EPA on occupational
health and safety Issues for responses.

2.  PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

     a.  Site-Specific and Generic Safety Plans.   The OSC/SFC must
prepare and obtain approval  of a site-specific  or generic safety plan
(See Appendix A for a sample).  Only one generic  safety  plan, prepared  In
advance and reviewed annually, Is needed for all  emergency  responses.
The Response Safety Committee must review the safety plans  and  forward
them to the OHS Deslgnee with comments.   The OHS  Deslgnee and the QIC
must approve the safety plans.  The OHS Deslgnee  must maintain  the  safety
plans on file and available for distribution and  forward  Information
copies to the Director, OHSS.  The OHS Deslgnee must keep the safety
plans, and other Information describing the hazards of  responses  In a
file that Is readily available to employees.

     b.  Evaluation.  The QIC must ensure that annual  program evaluations,
Including on-slte Inspections, of the occupational health and safety
program for responses are conducted by persons with appropriate background
and training, and that any deficiencies are corrected  as soon as  possible
(or Immediately If the deficiency Is an Imminent  hazard).   The  QIC must
forward a copy of the evaluation and abatement actions  to the Director,
OHSS, for review.  The Director, OHSS, may conduct Independent  evaluations.

     c.  Ace I dent Report Ing.  The OHS Deslgnee must coordinate  the
reporting of any Incident Involving Injury or exposure to a hazardous
substance In accordance with the procedures detailed  In Chapter 3 of  this
manual,

     d.  Training.  The QIC must ensure that alI  employees receive a
minimum of 24 hours of occupational health and safety  training  and
rece!ve training by three days of field experiences with an experienced
employee before conducting responses.  The OHS Deslgnee must Issue a
certificate to employees upon completion of the courses and field
experiences.  EPA Order 1440.2, "Health and Safety Requirements for
Emplyees Engaged  In  Field Activities",  provides detailed training
requirements.

     e.  Emergency Procedures.  The OSC/SFC must  develop procedures
^o protect personnel  In case of emergencies at the site.  The  procedures
should Include notifying emergency  and other affected personnel and the
locations and telephone number of the nearest emergency medical facility,
ambulance service, fire department, police department and Poison Control
Center.  The locations and telephone numbers of these emergency support
groups should be compiled In advance, If possible, of a response or
        at an early stage of a response.
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      f.  Medical  Monitoring.   All  EPA  employees working on site at a
 response mist be included in  the EPA medical  monitoring program.
 In addition, EPA employees  must  have undergone a baseline medical
 examination which provides  a  base  to measure  adverse health effects of
 response activities and indicates  that these  employees are physically
 capable of using physically demanding  personal protective equipment.
 EPA. Order 1440.2  "Health  and  Safety Requirements for Employees Engaged
 in Field Activities"  provides medical  monitoring objectives and require-
 ments;  EPA Medical  Monitoring Guidelines provides detailed requirements
 of the program.

 3.   WORK PRACTICES  REQUIREMENTS

 The work practices  specified  in  this section  rust be used by all personnel
 at  responses.

      a.   Personnel  Practices.

          (1)  Protective Clothing.  Protective clothing mist be worn by
 all  personnel while on  a response unless sufficient data have been acquired
 to  enable  the OSC/SFC to make  an informed judgement that protective
 clothing is not needed.  In the absence of clear indications that work
 can proceed  safely  without  protective  clothing, required items includes
 chemically resistant pants, jacket, boots, gloves,  and hard hat or head
 cover, and may include  a fully encapsulating  chemical protective suit.
 Acquisition of protective clothing and equipment must be in accordance
 with EPA Order 3100.1,  Uniforms, Protective Clothing and Protective
 Equipment.

          (2)  Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment. A respiratory
 protective equipment use program must  be provided for response personnel
 who enter  inhalation hazard areas.   The program rrust meet the requirements
 of  the OSHA standard for respiratory protection, 29 CFR 1910.134, and
 EPA Order 1440.3  "Respiratory Protection."  OHSS has provided additional
 guidance in the "Respiratory Protection Program Guideline," available
 from OHSS.

         (3)  Heat Stress.  The OSC/SFC must  establish a work/rest sche-
 dule to compensate for increased heat  stress caused by wearing protective
 clothing in hot weather.  Employees must maintain this work/rest schedule
 and replace perspired water and salt.

         (4)  Eye Protection.   Devices to provide appropriate eye protection
 must be worn on any response while in  the contamination and decontamination
 zones (See Paragraph 3.b.(a) of this Chapter.) and  mist meet the require-
ments of EPA's Eye Protection Program  Guidelines.
                                   9-6

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      (5)  Forbidden Practices.  The following practices  are  forbidden on
 sites in  the  contamination and decontamination zones (See 3.b.(a)):

           (a)  Smoking, eating, drinking, chewing gum or tobacco;
 applying  cosmetics; storing utensils, food, or food containers.

           (b)  Ignition of flammable liquids within, on, or  through
 improvised heating devices (barrels, etc.) or space heaters.

           (c)  Approach or entry into areas or spaces where  toxic
 or explosive  concentrations of gases or dust may exist without wearing
 proper equipment to enable safe entry.

           (d)  Conduct of on-site operations without off-site backup
 personnel.  (The OSC/SFC may waive the requirement for off-site backup
 personnel for sites which have been repeatedly entered without harm  or
 present minimal hazards.)

      (6)  Emergency Procedures.  All personnel nust initially flush  the
 affected area with a copious amount of water immediately after obvious
 contact with a hazardous substance.

      (7)  Personal Hygiene.  All personnel, except for observers and
 others designated by the OSC/SFC, must shower before entering clean
 areas after having been in contaminated areas.  If it is not feasible to
 have  shower facilities available, such as for some emergency responses,
 personnel nust avoid contaminating the comnunity after leaving the site
 and shower at their first opportunity.

      b.  Operational  Practices.

         (1)  Information Review and Reconnaissance.  The safety plan for
 a  response must be based upon a thorough evaluation of existing data and
 a  site reconnaissance (See "Waste Disposal Site Hazard Assessment Manual,"
 available from NEIC.) and should include a site map.  The information
may reveal chemical hazards such as incompatible chemicals,  toxic gases,
explosives, etc.  Similarly, a perimeter inspection, aerial  imagery, and
 an on-site reconnaissance, may reveal safety hazards.  Response personnel
yfill  be able to specify more appropriate safety precautions  as they  get
closer to, and measure, hazardous substances in air, runoff, groundwater,
soil, spilled material, barrels, etc.

      (2)  Protection Levels.  The OSC/SFC must determine the level
Of protection which is appropriate for each response.

      (3)  Zones.  Two or more zones must be established, clearly
delineated, and posted at a site.
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           (a)   Decontamination Zone.   A  zone must be established for
 decontamination of  equipment  and  personnel, and access control, just
 outside the area of  suspected  contamination.  At least one employee
 wll I  remain In this  zone to:

                J_ Assist In emergency  removal of personnel from the site
 In the event of accident or Injury.  The backup must have readily available
 protective  clothing,  breathing apparatus and first aid equipment.

                2_ Assist In moving equipment, samples, and supplies.

                ^ Provide communication  to emergency units.

                 Assist In decontamination or removal of contaminated
 clothing  frcm  the Individuals  emerging from the contaminated area.

                jj As  appropriate, prevent entry of unauthorized persons
 to the site while operations are  underway.

                6^ Provide other assistance as necessary, but with the
 primary objective of  facilitating safe transfer of personnel and equipment
 to and  from the affected  area.

          (b)   Contamination Zone(s).  The area(s) which contain, or are
 suspected of containing,  hazardous substances must be clearly delineated
 and posted.  The OSC/SFC may establish more than one contamination zone
 for areas of different  levels  of hazard.  Only persons authorized by the
 OSC/SFC may  enter a contamination zone.

      (4)  Radioactivity,  Exploslvlty, and Oxygen Deficiency.  All sites
 must  be checked  for radioactivity, exploslvlty, and oxygen deficiency
 during first entry unless OSC/SFC has  Information to determine that
 these checks are unnecessary.    Normal  background radioactivity Is
 approximately 0.01 to 0.02 mR/hr.  Detecting levels of activity signifi-
 cantly greater  than normal background  Is cause for a very careful survey
 of the entire site;  If  levels approaching 2 mR/hr are encountered, the
 advice of a  competent health physicist must be sought before continuing
 operations on the site.   (EPA's Office of Air and Radiation has radiation
 specialists  In  each  Region as well as staff at HQ, EER-Montgomery and
 ORD-Las Vegas.)

 If exploslvlty readings greater than 10$ of the Lower Explosive Limit
 (LED  are detected,  very careful survey of the area must be made.  Readings
approaching  or exceeding 25$ LEL are cause for Immediately withdrawing
 personnel and notifying emergency, fire, and explosion units.  The Project
 Leader must be consulted before continuing operations.  Oxygen levels
must be 19.5$ or greater.
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     (5)  Buddy System.  A minimum  of two employees, in constant
comnunication* with each other,  are required  to  perform any work in
contaminated zones.

     (6)  Sampling Procedures.   Sampling procedures must  minimize the
risk of personnel  exposure to hazardous  materials  during  sampling,
packaging, shipping, unpacking,  and analysis  in  the laboratory.  Sampling
procedures must also minimize the risk of exposure of others to spilled
or residual waste materials.   Disposable sampling  equipment should be
used whenever possible.

     (7)  Sample Handling in  Laboratories.  Samples of  runoff,  ambient
air, or groundwater from a site or  possibly affected areas may  be moved
directly Into laboratories and  handled with normal safety precautions
unless the OSC/SFC determines that  special handling is appropriate.
Samples of liquid or solid substances  removed from containers  or obviously
contaminated spill areas must be assumed to be toxic substances and
handled in compliance with Chapter  8 of  this  Manual.

     (8)  Respiratory Protective Equipment Selection.  The OSC/SFC must
select respirators which are appropriate for  the inhalation hazards  of
the responses.

     (9)  Sampling Equipment.   Sampling  equipment  used  on a  response
should be disposable if possible.   Sampling instruments  and other non-disposal
equipment should be kept clean with disposable protective covers.   Scoops,
sampling tubes, and similar devices should be buried on-site,  or placed
in plastic bags for disposal  or later  decontamination.

    (10)  Decontamination of Equipment.  Equipment should be decontaminated
prior to leaving the site whenever  possible.   Equipment  which  cannot be
decontaminated at the site must be  double  bagged and transported to
another area for eventual decontamination.   When possible, verify  complete-
ness of decontamination with sniffers,  swipe  tests, or  other appropriate
tests.

     (11)  Packaging and Shipping.   Hazardous substances must  be  packaged to
withstand shocks, pressure changes, and  any other  conditions which  might
cause the leakage of contents incident to ordinary handling during
transporation.  Shipments of hazardous  substances  must  be in accordance
with DOT regulations.   (See Appendix B  of  this Chapter for guidance.)
* Radio contact must be maintained when visual contact cannot be maintained,


                                   9-9

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     (12)  Leaving the Site.  Procedures for leaving the suspect contami-
nated area must be planned before entry.  Provision must be made for:
decontamination and safe packaging of protective clothing; burial  or
safe packaging of disposable gear; handling of samples and preparation
of samples for shipment; transfer of equipment, gear, and samples from
the "contaminated" area to the "clean" area; etc.  Sequences wilI  depend
on several variables  such as self-contained breathing apparatus
Inside or outside of protective clothing  but must be worked out In
advance.

     (13)  Site Monitoring Equipment.  Use direct reading Instruments
(such as portable combustible gas and oxygen meters, photo Ion IzatIon
meters, gas chronatographs, Infrared spectrometers, radiation survey
meters, and colorImetrlc detector tubes) for Immediate evaluation of
potential hazards.  The OSC/SFC must be aware of the limitation of these
Instruments for characterizing the hazards substances at the sites.
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                         APPENDIX A - SAMPLE SAFETY PLAN
Assistance In preparing the safety plan can be obtained from the OHS

Deslgnee	located In Roan	of Building	or

by telephoning 	.
REVIEW
     Response Safety Committee Chairperson

APPROVALS
     OSC/SFC
     OHS Deslgnee

     QIC


PROJECT LEADER

     Branch

     Building

     Room

     Phone

DATE OF PLAN PREPARATION
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESPONSE

Site Name                         Site No.
HAZARDOUS/SUBSTANCES (known or suspected, contaminated media
                      or In storage container, etc,):
                                   A-1

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HAZARD ASSESSMENT (toxic effects, reactivity, stability, flammabl11ty,
                  and operational hazards with sampling, decontaminating,  etc.):
MONITORING PROCEDURES (If required by the Project Leader)

     Monitoring the site for Identity and concentration of contamination
     In alI  media:
     Medical  monitoring  procedures  for evidence of  personnel  exposure:
     Personnel  monitoring  procedures:
                                   A-2

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 DECONTAMINATION  AND DISPOSAL

     DecentamInation Procedures (contaminated:  personnel surfaces,
                                 materials,  Instruments, equipment, etc):
     Disposal Procedures  (contaminated equipment, supplies, disposable,
                          washwater):
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

     In event of overt personnel  exposure (skin contact, Inhalation,
                                           Ingest Ion):
     In  event  of  personnel  Injury:
                                  A-3

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      In  event of  potentfal  or actual  fire or explosion:
      In  event  of  potential  or  actual  Ionizing radiation  exposure:
      In  event  of environmental  accident  (spread  of  contamination
     outside sites):
EMERGENCY SERVICES  (complete here or  have  separate  11st_ _avaj IabIe on-s 1 te)

               LocatIon                               Telephone

Emergency Medical Facility
Ambulance Service
                                   A-4

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               Location                              Telephone

Fire Department
Police Department
Poison Control  Center
PERSONNEL POTENTIALLY EXPOSED TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

     Personnel  Authorized to Enter site

          I.	

          2.   	

          3.   	

          4.

          5.
                                   A-5

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      Other Personnel  Assigned  to Handle Hazardous  Substances
      (decontaminate,  analyze samples)
           I .

           2.

           3.

           4.

           5.
 ALTERNATIVE WORK PRACTICES

      (Describe alternative work  practices  not specified  In this Chapter.
      Indicate work practices specified  In the Chapter  for which proposed
      alternative work practlces'wlI I serve as substitute.)
APPROPRIATE LITERATURE CITATIONS
LEVEL OF PROTECTION
SITE MAP

     (Attach a site map In advance of a response, if possible, or at
an early stage of an emergency response.  Map should be properly scaled
and keyed to local  landmarks.)
                                   A-6

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                         APPENDIX B - REFERENCES


    U.S.  EPA:  National  Guidance Package for Compliance with Department
    of Transportation Regulations fn the Shipment of Environmental
    Laboratory Samples,  U.S.  Environmental  Protection Agency (March 6,
    1981).
                                   B-1

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                  CHAPTER  10 -  EPA  DIVING SAFETY  POLICY
                            Table  of  Contents

PARAGRAPH                                                      PARAGRAPH
 TITLES                                                        NUMBERS

Purpose	   1
Scope	   2
Administration	   3
Pol 1 ci es	   4
Diver Training and Certification	   5
Diving Operations	   6
                 APPENDIX 10-A - EPA  DIVING  SAFETY  RULES

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                  CHAPTER  10 - EPA DIVING SAFETY POLICY


1.  PURPOSE.  This Chapter establishes Agency  policy regarding commercial
diving operations in accordance with Department of Labor, Occupational
Safety and Health Administration  regulations  at 29 CFR 1910, Subpart T.
Its purpose is to assure that all diving operations, parformed under the
auspices of EPA, are conducted  in a  safe manner, according to uniform
procedures, and by sufficiently trained personnel.  This Chapter establishes
Agency procedures for developing  and administering such  standard safety
practices.

2.  SCOPE.  The requirements and  procedures  specified  in this Chapter
shall  apply to all diving  operations involving any project of the Agency
and carried out by any employee,  either temporary or permanent, of the
Agency during the course of his/her  employment.  In addition, these
requirements shall also apply to  any visiting non-Agency employee engaged
in a joint diving operation at, or under the  auspices  of, any Agency
facility to the extent that this  person is  not governed  by  comparable
requirements of the Agency or institution that he/she  represents.  This
Chapter applies, regardless of  ownership  of  equipment, and  any  equipment
used in conjunction with Agency diving operations regardless of ownership,
shall  conform to the provisions  of this Chapter.  This Chapter  shall
apply  to any type of open  circuit SCUBA diving operation, including  but
not limited to:  research  projects,  monitoring projects, sample collections,
or equipment maintenance,  with the only exception being  the handling  of
an actual emergency situation.   It  is  not  the intent  of  these provisions
to delay or hamper an actual rescue  operation; therefore, it is the
responsibility of the Unit Diving Officer or Dive Supervisor  at the
scene  to determine the ultimate course of  action during  a particular
emergency and by doing so, must not  aggravate the  situation or  jeopardize
the safety of additional personnel.

3.  ADMINISTRATION.  The Assistant Administrator for Administration  and
Resources Management broadly administers  the Agency's  Diving Safety
Program through the Occupational  Health  and Safety  Staff (OHSS).

    a.  Designation.  The  Occupational Health and  Safety Staff,  upon
the advice of the EPA Diving Safety  Committee, shall  administer the
Agency's Diving Safety Program  and coordinate safety  policy and
procedures.

    b.  EPA Diving Safety  Committee.

        (1)  Composition.   The EPA  Diving Safety Committee shall be
composed of the following  members:
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               (a)  Chairperson selected or voted on  by  Committee  Members;
               (b)  Active EPA Diving Officers;  and
               (c)  OHSS Safety Programs Manager.

         (2)  Revisions.  All recommendations for revisions  of  the  regu-
  lations must be agreed upon by the EPA Diving  Safety Committee.

         (3)  Responsibilities.  The EPA Diving Safety  Committee  shall
 be responsible for:

              (a)  Recommending policy  and changes in operating procedures
 within EPA that will  ensure a safe and efficient  diving program;

              (b)  Reviewing existing policies,  Procedures,  and training
 needs to ensure a  continually high level  of  technical  skills and know-
 ledge throughout the  EPA diving program;

              (c)  Planning,  programming,  and directing, in  cooperation
 with  the OHSS,  matters  of  policy pertaining  to  the initial certification
 of new divers  and  refresher training of experienced divers;

              (d)  Recommending  changes  in operating policy to the Director,
 Occupational Health and Safety  Staff,  the Assistant Admi nistrators, and
 Regional Administrators;

              (e)   Serving  as  an  appeal  board in cases  where a diver's
 certification has  been  suspended;

              (f)   Planning,  programming,  and developing diver workshops,
 seminars, and other activities considered essential  to maintaining a
 high  level  of  competency among  divers;

             (g)   Reviewing EPA diving  accidents  or potentially dangerous
 experiences and  reporting on preventive measures to  ensure the avoidance
 or  reoccurrence  of incidents; and

             (h)  Meeting,  at least, annually to discuss recommendations
and proposed actions.

 In  addition, members may participate in the Safety Officer/Designees
Annual Meeting.

    c.  Diving Safety  Committee Chairperson.   The Committee wil 1  select or
vote for a  chairperson to represent them and  act as  focal  point on  all
EPA diving activities.
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         (1)   Qualification.  The Chairperson shall:

              (a)  Be  a trained diver with a wide range of experience;
              (b)  Be  a currently certified EPA diver;
            .  (c)  Have a  least 5 year's experience as  a diver;  and
              (d)  Have successfully completed a nationally recognized
 instructors certification course or its equivalent.

         (2)   Responsibilities.

              (a)  Issue through OHSS, EPA Diver Certification to quali-
 fied employees based  on recommendations and data from  the unit  diving
 officer;

              (b)  Coordinate with OHSS, and the Diving Safety Ccmmittee
 training certification and other safety programs for divers;

              (c)  Confer, with the OHSS Industrial Hygiene Manager on the
 approval and use of specialized breathing apparatus  or mixture  of gases;

              (d)  Review and initiate through OHSS,  appropriate action
 on recommendations made by the Diving Safety Committee; and

              (e)  Remain abreast of new diving techniques, procedures
 and equipment.

    d.  Unit Diving Officer.

        (1)  Designation.  Unit Diving Officers shall  be selected from
 various EPA installations which conduct diving operations.  These diving
 officers shall be appointed by the installation director.

        (2)  Qualifications.  The Unit Diving Officer  shall be  a trained,
 currently certified diver experienced in the types of  diving conducted
 by the organizational unit.

        (3)  Responsibilities.  The Unit Diving Officer shall be response
ble,  within the unit, for:

              (a)  Ensuring that all diving gear and accessory equipment
be maintained  in a safe operating condition;

              (b)  Ensuring the maintenance of equipment files at the
reporting unit levels, to include type, brand name,  serial number, and
 repairs completed on compressors, tanks,  regulators, depth gauges,
pressure gauges, watches,  helmets,  hoses,  pneunometers and decompression
meters;
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             (c)  Ensuring that a competent  Dive  Supervisor  is in charge
of  the  diving operations conducted by the unit's  various  operations;

             (d)  Reporting immediately  all  diving  related accidents
which occur within the unit on EPA Form 1440-9 and  other  appropriate
accident reports as outlined in Chapter 3 of this Manual  to  the
Occupational Health and Safety Staff through the  local Safety Officer/
Designee;

             (e)  Maintaining a file of each diver  in  the unit, or  dele-
gating the responsibility to the Dive Supervisor.  Files  shall include
but not be limited to:  diving physical  exams (subject to the  requirement
of the Privacy Act of 1974), training records, letters of certification,
and monthly dive logs, etc; and

             (f)  Dive plan/log information.

    e.  Dive Supervisor.

        (1)  Designation.  Depending on the  unit  organization, a  Dive
Supervisor will  be assigned for each operation by the Unit Diving Officer

        (2)  Qualification.  The Dive Supervisor  shall be a  currently
certified diver experienced in that specific type of diving.

        (3)  Responsibilities.  The Dive Supervisor shall be in  complete
charge of the individual diving operation as a member of  the dive team
at the location of the dive, and shall be responsible  for and  ensure
that:

             (a)  All diving operations are  conducted  safely in  accord-
ance with prescribed EPA diving safety rules and  regulations;

             (b)  All divers are certified,  properly trained,  and
physically fit to perform the required diving, and  that the  prescribed
files on the divers are maintained if the responsibility  has been
delegated by the Unit Diving Officer;

             (c)  All equipment is in a safe operating condition, and
that the required records are maintained as  directed by the  Unit  Diving
Officer;

             (d)  Dives are terminated when, in The Diver Supervisor's
opinion, significant cant environmental, personal,  or  equipment  problems
are encountered and emergency aid is summoned;

             (e)  Emergency procedures are understood  by  all personnel
prior  to diving;
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             (f)  All  divers  are  monitored after each dive for symptoms
of decompression sickness;  and

        (3)  He/she is knowledgeable 1n  the  dive plan and overall
operation to be performed.

    f.  Individual  Diver.

        (1)  Designation.  Individual  divers shall  be certified by the
EPA Diving Safety Committee Chairperson  upon recommendation from the Unit
Diving Officer.

        (2)  Qualifications.   Divers shall be sufficiently trained to
undertake the assigned diving tasks.

        (3)  Responsibilities.  The individual  diver shall be  responsible
for and ensure that:

             (a)  A good physical condition  and a  high  level of diving
proficiency are maintained;

             (b)  The equipment is 1n a  safe operating  condition;

             (c)  Diving conditions are  safe; and

             (d)  The dictates of training  or diving regulations  are  not
violated.

    g.  Tender.

        (1)  Designation.  The Dive Supervisor will select the Tender
to be used for a specific dive.   The Tender's name will  appear on the  Dive
Plan/Log and will,  therefore, be approved beforehand by the  Unit  Diving
Officer.

        (2)  Qualifications.   The Tender need not  be a  currently  EPA
certified diver, but must,  in the opinion of the Dive Supervisor  and  the
Unit Diving Officer,  have sufficient knowledge of  basic first  aid,
swimming, life saving, boat operation and other procedures to  be  used in
an emergency.

        (3)  Responsibilities.  The Tender will perform the  following:

             (a)  Assist the  divers, as  requested, 1n putting  on  or
taking off equipment;

             (b)  Record 1n writing the "down" and "up" times  of all
divers on the team;
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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
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              (c)  Maintain a constant visual  observation of the diver's
 exhaust bubbles and,

                   l_  warn off boat traffic which may  pose  a hazard to
 the submerged divers;

                   2_  in larger vessels,  advise  the  vessel  operator as
 to the location of the divers  and  their  readiness for being retrieved;

              (d)  Assist the divers,  as  requested,  in exiting the water;
 and

              (e)  Perform no other concurrent function which will inter-
 fere with  the conduct  of the above  duties.

 4.  POLICIES.

     a.   Individual  Diver Responsibility.   Each  diver has the responsibility
 and privilege to refuse  to dive if  diving  conditions are unsafe or unfavor-
 able;  if at any  specific time, the  diver feels  that he or  she is not in
 good physical or mental  condition for diving; or if by diving, the 'diver
 would violate the dictates of  training or  these regulations.  The conditions
 and reasons  for  refusing to  dive may be required to be documented.  If
 requested  the incident will  be reviewed by the  officer in  charge of the
 Reporting  Unit with the  Unit Diving Officer and diver, and appropriate
 action  may be taken.   Any  action resulting from this review may be appealed
 to the  EPA Diving Safety Committee.

     b.   SCUBA Diving Teams.  Except under  emergency conditions, the buddy
 system  of  at  least two (2) divers will always be required.  In the event
 that diving  is  shallow within  a restricted area, with water conditions
 of low  velocity  and turbidity, the buddy diver may remain at the surface
 fully equipped,  maintaining  visual, verbal and/or physical contact with
 the  working diver at all times.  A surface attendant shall  be in the
 immediate  area any time  diving conditions  require it.

     c.  Diver Proficiency.   EPA certified divers should  complete and
 record  an  average of at  least two (2) diving days per month.  Any time
six  (6) weeks or more elapses without a dive, the diver  should complete
a  requalifying program.  Any time three (3) months or more elapses without
a dive, the diver must complete a requalifying program before  resuming
work dives.  The EPA Diving Safety Committee Chairperson, with the advice
of the Diving Officer or designee,  shall  specify the requalifying program.
This requirement may be waived by the official in charge of the project,
program, or Reporting Unit during emergency conditions.   A memorandum
requesting such  a waiver mist be submitted to the Director, Occupational
Health and Safety Staff,  through  the Unit Diving Officer for review by
the EPA Diving Safety Committee.   Supervisors will  authorize the necessary
time and payment for qualifying dives  if  diving  is  required for official


                                   10-6

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                               1440
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program activities.  Diving  equipment will be available during non-duty
hours for purposes of maintaining  diver  proficiency.

5.  DIVER TRAINING AND CERTIFICATION.

    a.  Training.

        (1)  Basic.  ATI  prospective EPA divers  must  have  successfully
completed a basic  diver training course  offered  by one of  the nationally
recognized private agencies  (e.g.  NAUI,  PADI, YMCA, NASDS) or by the
U.S. Navy.  Training courses given  by colleges or universities must be
approved for content by the  EPA Diving Officer before being  accented
for this requirement.

        (2)  National Oceanic and  Atmospheric Administration  (NOAA)
Training.  All  working divers,  senior divers and diving instructors
shall attend the NOAA "Diving Accident Management" class within 1 year
of adoption of  this Chapter.

    b.  Medical  Requirements.

        (1)  Prior to acceptance for  initial diver training  or certifi-
cation, and annually thereafter, each diver shall be  required to undergo
a diving physical  examination.   The individual diver  shall provide  the
examining physician with  the following listed NOAA medical forms, as
appropriate, in order to ensure an examination appropriate to diving
activities:

             (a)  NOAA Form  64-5,  Part I,  Medical Evaluation Criteria;
             (b)  NOAA Form  64-5,  Part II, Diving Fitness  Medical
Evaluation Report;
             (c)  SF-78,  Certification of  Medical Examination (Civilian
Personnel);
             (d)  SF-88,  Report of Medical Examination (Commissioner
Personnel); and
             (e)  SF-93,  Report of Medical History.

        (These  forms are  available from  the local Safety Officer/Designee.)

        (2)  Upon  receipt of the completed medical documents from the
examining physician, the  individual diver  is responsible for distribution
of these forms  as  follows:

             (a)  Forward signed originals  of SF-78 to the EPA Diving
Safety Committee Chairperson through  the Unit Diving  Officer, with  copies
to OHSS;
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL                               1440
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        (4)  A written statement of the Unit Diving Officer's evaluation
of the overall qualifications and  performance of the prospective diver;

        (5)  An EPA certification  issued by the Unit Diving Officer
in one of the following categories:

             (a)  Trainee Diver.   A diver who has completed a basic
SCUBA diver training course but has performed fewer than 15 open water
dives.  Diver Trainees may not  be  paired together to form a dive team nor
may they perform working dives. They may accompany a working diver as a
buddy on dives involving a simple  task, at  the discretion of the Unit
Diving Officer.

             (b)  Working Diver.   A diver who has completed a least
15 open water dives, but who otherwise may  have limited or infrequent
experience or at the judgment of  either the EPA or Unit Diving Officer
should be restricted in his/her activities.  A limited diver may perform
working dives within his/her restriction or abilities.

             (c)  Senior Diver. A diver who has demonstrated a high
level of competence, good judgment, and considerable experience and who
has logged at least 100 dives.  The senior  diver shall be capable of
serving as the Dive Supervisor on  a given dive.

        (6)  At the recommendation of the Unit Diving Officer, along
with supporting documentation,  the EPA Diving Safety Committee Chairperson
will  Issue new classifications  as  appropriate.

    d.  Reciprocity.  In order to encourage and facilitate  joint  operations
between EPA facilities and neighboring colleges, universities, private
institutions, or other government  agencies, the Unit Diving Officer may
approve such dive plans upon Inspection of  the credentials of the  prospec-
tive non-EPA diver, providing the criteria  for certification  of that
diver by the Institution he/she represents  is comparable to those  in
this Manual.  The visiting diver nust  also  have permission  from his/her
diving officer and must be covered by an accident insurance  plan  by
his/her institution.  Questions in this matter should  be directed to  the
EPA Diving Safety Committee.

6.  DIVING OPERATIONS.

    a.  Certification.  Each diver who  is  an  employee  of the U.S.  Environ-
mental Protection Agency must have an EPA certification at the level  of
the dive being conducted.  Each non-EPA diver engaged  in a  dive under the
auspices of any EPA facility must  have a certification comparable  to  EPA
certification from the Institution he/she  represents  on  file with the Unit
Diving Officer.
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  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                              1440
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     b.  Limits.

         (1)  All dives shall employ  open  circuit SCUBA using ccnpressed
  air unless otherwise specifically  approved  by the Unit Diving Officer
  in writing.

         (2)  All dives shall be within  the  no decompression limits as
 specified in the U.S.  Navy Decompression Tables.  When there is a need
 for dives beyond this  limit the dives must  be approved in advance
 by the Diving Safety Committee.

         (3)  No solo diving will be  permitted.

         (4)  No diving will  be  conducted without the submittal  and
 authorization of a  Dive Plan.

         (5)  No dive exceeding  the 130  foot depth will be permitted in
 the  absence of  a working decompression  chamber attended by trained
 personnel.

         (6)   Cave and  under ice diving will generally not be permitted.
 Submit  all  requests  for special dives to the Unit Diving Officer and
 forward copies  to the  Diving Safety Committee Chairperson.

         (7)   Dives in  waters of great depths,  where the diver  is not in
 visual  contact  with  the bottom  (over  bottom dives)  and where a diver
 could lose  his/her orientation or descend beyond safe limits,  will  be
 conducted with  some  provision for direct contact with the surface such
 as a buoyed weighted line with depth markings.

    c.   Dive Teams.  A  standard SCUBA diving team shall consist of a
 minimum  of three  members:  the Dive Supervisor,  the diver buddy, and the
 Tender.  Some situations may require a third diver in the water, but at
 no time  shall any diver in the water lose visual  or tactile  contact with
 at least one  other diver.   If such  contact is  lost,  all divers  must
 immediately surface.   In the situation requiring diving from a  boat, the
 vessel operator's principle responsibility is  for the safety of his/her
 vessel  and its occupants.  Hence, depending  on the  size of the  vessel
 and the  conditions,  it may be deemed inappropriate by the Unit  Diving
Officer, the Dive Supervisor, or the  vessel  operator, for the latter to
 serve also as the Tender.   When this  is  the case,  the Dive Supervisor
will  advise the vessel  operator as  to the  safety  precautions specified
in this Chapter.  At the discretion of the Unit  Diving Officer,  a single
diver may enter the  water if line tended from the surface.   However, a
fully equipped stand-by diver nust  be at the dive  site ready to give
immediate assistance.
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 OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH  AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
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     d.   Equipment.   All Items of equipment shall  be visually  and  opera-
 tionally inspected before  each actual use and must be in proper operating
 condition.  All dive team  members shall  be familiar with their  use.  The
 following equipment  shall  be present at the dive site for all dives.

         (1)   Personal equipment.

              (a)  Flotation/Buoyancy Compensation Device - Each diver
 must wear an  adequate flotation device capable of being filled  by at
 least two methods.

              (b)  Tank Harness and Weight Belts - must have a quick
 release  mechanism.

              (c)  Tank Pressure Gauge - must be worn at all times and
 monitored frequently.

              (d)  Depth Gauge - shall be worn by each diver when diving
 in  unfamiliar territory, at unknown depth, 1n areas of great  tidal
 fluctuation,  1n areas-of uneven bottom, or under any other conditions
 which might cause the diver to exceed his/her planned depth.   It  1s
 recommended that a depth gauge be worn during all diving operations.

              (e)  Diving Watch - shall  be worn by each diver 1n situations
 where there 1s any likelihood of exceeding the no decompression limit.

              (f)  Decompression Meter - shall not be used in lieu of
 proper planning of the dive and timekeeping at the dive site.

              (g)  Compass  - shall  be worn by each diver.  Divers  can
 become disoriented in direction at any depth.

         (2)  Support Equipment.

              (a)  D1ve Flag - an appropriate dive flag shall be shown  at
 all  times.  This is  especially critical  while actively diving 1n  areas
 subject  to boating or other hazardous traffic or when required by local
 regulation.  An appropriate dive flag 1s a square red flag with a white
 diagonal  stripe at least 12" square (depending on the size of the
 vessel)  in all waters except those frequented by International  traffic.
 in  this  case, the international code flag "Alpha" will be used in
addition to the dive flag.  In any case, divers will make every effort
to  avoid  diving in areas in which traffic would cause a safety hazard.

              (b)  First Aid Kit - shall  be approved by the Unit's
physician who performs the annual  physicals.  A copy of the American
National Red Cross publication, Standard First Aid and Personal Safety
 shall be included and a copy of the NOAA/Sea Grants Book, First Aid for
 Boaters  and Divers.  Also emergency oxygen should be on board.


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 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
                                                                    3/18/86

             (c)  Ladder - shall be provided when diving from a vessel,
 dock  or  other  surface where elevation above the surface of the water
 presents a difficulty to the diver.  The ladder must extend sufficiently
 below the surface of the water to support the diver while still in.the
 water.

             (d)  Safety Plan - a copy of this Diving Safety Chapter,
 the U.S. Navy Decompression Tables and emergency aid information shall
 be present at each dive site.

             (e)  Communications - at each dive site, shore or vessel,
 located beyond the range of other reasonable voice communication, a
 2-way radio will be provided for use in summoning emergency aid.

             (f)  Additional  support tanks - should be on board and be
 available.

             (g)  Underwater transponder/communicator should be on
 board.

    e.  The Dive Plan/Log.  Divers are required to log all di-v4s.  The
EPA Diving Plan/Log will  be initiated by the prospecttye DiveJSupervisor
desiring to conduct a dive and submitted tp tKe.UBit Diyfiig Officer ft)r
approval.  After the dive is  completed,, detajls'd'f the di.ye will be1
 recorded and the DA ye Supervisor will certify that the regulatibrts of
the Manual were adhered to and submit it each month to the tJnit Diving
Officer.
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY  MANUAL


                     APPENDIX A -  DIVING SAFETY RULES

1.  Certification.  Each diver  nust have a  valid EPA certification or
EPA equivalent.

2.  Solo Diving.  No one nay dive  unattended.

3.  Depth Limits.  Dives shall  not exceed 130  feet.  Proposals for planned
dives to depths greater than 130 feet  will  require written  approval  by
the Unit Diving Officer or deslgnee.

4.  Decompression Tables.  Deconpression tables  should  be copied for use
by a photographic method which  reproduces an exact copy.  If this method
1s not available, then the hand copied schedules  should be  checked for
accuracy and signed by several  persons.

5.  Decompression Dives.  Diving activities which  exceed the  limits  of
no-decompression nust be approved  in advance by the  EPA Diving Committee.

6.  Over-Bottom Dives.  Dives in waters where, a  diver  could sense  a  loss
of or1 entatl on: or descend .belbw. safe .diving depths are  to be  considered
o ver-b at torn dives.  No ovef Bottom dives  shall be made  unless some direct
contact with the.surface 1$ ijtaintained, such as  net  web, a  marked  line
suspended* fnom, a. surface fl oat,, or depth  gauges  for  al 1 ;participants,
which permits the diver to determine whether ascensVbn  or descension
occurs.  All such divers must be equipped with a buoyancy  compensating
device.

7.  Boat Tending.  During dives beyond swimming distance from shore  or
those in areas of strong currents, a  small  boat  with a  qualified operator
will tend the diver.

8.  Recompression Chamber.  The location,  availability  and telephone
number of all accessible and operable  recompresslon  chambers  shall be
maintained by the dive supervisor who instructs the  dive team.

9.  Emergency Procedures.  The Unit Diving Officer,  with the  approval of
the EPA Diving Safety Committee, will  prescribe emergency  procedures to
be used in handling diving-related accidents 1n  the  operational  area,
and all divers shall be familiar with these procedures.  All  emergency
lists and procedures shall be available at  the dive  location.

10.  First Aid Training.  All divers should have  appropriate F1 rst Aid
and CPR training.
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  OCCUPATIONAL  HEALTH  AND  SAFETY MANUAL                               1440
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  11.   Equipment.

      a.   Life  Supportii  Open circuit SCUBA using compressed air shall
  be standard.  Other types of equipment (i.e., surface-supplied 
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OCCUPATION IP WEALTH AND SAFETY MANUAL                                1440
                                                                     3/18/86

12.  Equipment Maintenance.  All diving gear and accessory equipment.
shall be maintained in a safe operating condition.  Manufacturers  recom-
mended servicing ffcfi icy shall be followed.  Equipment in questionable"
condition shall be*  rep^-i red, "averhau-l ed,' or discarded.  All  regulatory
valves, depth gauges, and decompression meters must be critically
examined, calibrate^/1 'or checked for Accuracy by a  competent  mechanic
or appropriate SpecTarTI'st" every eighteen (18) months.  A record of
the inspection and  fepa-ir wiTl -be filed with the Unit-Diving
Officer.

13.  Air Tank Inspection and Testing.  The interior of all cylinders  must
be visually inspected annually by a trained person; cylinders shall be
hydrostatically tested -at" lea.st every; tnree' 14) years.  Th  date  of  the
last test must be recorded on' "the
14.  Air.  Tank's snail tre charged" only- With" dir  certified  as jne.et..ing
established air standards.
                                  10-A-3

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