PESTICIDES
  IN YOUR
  GARDEN
 SOME TIPS ABOUT
PESTICIDES AND THEIR
  ALTERNATIVES
    JUNE 2001
    &EPA
    New {.Midland

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  DO  YOU  REALLY NEED A PESTICIDE?
 In your yard and garden, pests come in a variety of forms:
 weeds, insects, molds, and fungi to name a few. Pesticides
 provide relief from many pests, but they are not the only
 solution to every problem. Review this booklet before making
 your decision to use pesticides. Pesticides must be used with
 caution. If used or disposed of incorrectly, they can harm
 people, pets and plants, as well as pollute air, soil and water.
           WHAT'S CAUSING YOUR PEST PROBLEM?

             *Look over your entire landscape to see how
              widespread the problem may be. Is there a
              pattern? How extensive is the damage? How
              severely are individual plants affected? Is the
              entire plant damaged, or just one part such as
              leaves, stems, flowers, or roots?
             ^-Consider other causes. Many problems
              appear to be caused by pests. For example,
              scorching of leaves may appear to be pest
              damage, however, the plant may just need
              additional water or fertilizer.
             ^Identify your pest accurately. If it is a pest
              problem, identification is the key to control-
              ling it. Your local yard and garden store,
              library, and other resources in this brochure
              can help.
In your yard and garden, pests

come in a variety of forms:

weeds, insects, molds, and

fungi to name a few.

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                                 DO  YOU NEED TO !
The need to control outdoor pests varies. Some weeds in your
garden, or some grubs in your lawn are tolerable, however,
certain pests present serious threats. Some pests can damage
human and animal health, like mosquitoes that may carry
diseases. Contact with poison ivy causes an itchy rash for
many people.

What are your options to manage your yard and garden?
Whenever possible, use prevention techniques, such as
allowing grass height to be over 2.5  inches. You can also use
non-chemical pest control methods such as hand picking
pests from leaves, otherwise known as cultural controls, a
component of IPM.
          INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM)

          A process of balanced use of cultural, biological
          and chemical procedures that are environmentally
          compatible. It is a philosophy of pest control that
          uses the best combination of these methods, IPM
          promotes a healthy environment, is cost effective
          and may offer longer-lasting results using fewer
          pesticides.
                            You can use non-chemical pest

                             control methods such as hand
                                 picking pests from leaves.

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CONTROL  PESTS?
             CAN YOU PREVENT A PEST PROBLEM?

               ^Research which plants will survive best in your
                 yard. Consider plants' tolerance to cold
                 weather. Plants are listed according to
                 hardiness zones, the higher the number, ihe
                 lower the tolerance. USDA hardiness zones for
                 New England: Southern NE: Zones 5-6,
                 Northern NE: Zones 3-4.
               ^Consider your soil type: sandy, silty or clay9
                 Use organic matter to adapt.
               ^Check the acidity of the soil (pH level). New
                 England soils tend to be on the acidic side.
               * Mulch your gardens to eliminate weeds and
                 conserve soil moisture.
               *Mow your lawn no shorter than 2.5 inches in
                 height to shade competing weeds and
                 discourage pests.
               * Periodically rotate the position of plants in your
                 garden to minimize the spread of disease.
               > Inspect  the condition of store bought plants.
               * Locate plants carefully, consider the plant's
                 tolerance to sun or shade.
               *Know your plants' friends and enemies. There
                 are many beneficial insects and organisms that
                 are important to gardeners and farmers because
                 they kill great numbers of pests. A few examples
                 of these are: praying mantids, lacewing larvae,
                 ladybugs and even some insect parasites.
          illy rotate the position

   of plants in your garden to

   minimize the spread of
   disease

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                                WHAT TYPE OF PES1
If pesticide use is necessary, here are some things to consider
before you buy. There are several types of pesticides, with
different names and uses.
           ^INSECTICIDES control insects such as
            mealybugs and grubs (beetle larvae).
           ^-HERBICIDES control vegetation such as
            dandelions and crabgrass.
           ^-FUNGICIDES control some plant diseases such
            as rose black spot and bolrytis (gray mold).

         SHOPPING TIPS

           *Know the size of the area to be treated, take
            careful measurements.
           *> Purchase only the amount of product needed
            for the application.
           ^Calculate the correct amount, especially if the
            pesticide is a concentrate which must be
            diluted. Using too much of the active ingredi-
            ent may damage your plants, cause harm to
            yourself, pets and the environment, however
            using too little product may not correct your
            pest problem More is not better.
           ^Check for application equipment you need
            (such as a hand held sprayer). If you have it
            already, does it work properly? Do you need new
            hoses or nozzles7
           *Pick up any personal protection equipment
            required such as gloves or goggles.
        N

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OIDE DO YOU NEED?
     Before applying the pesticide, make sure there are no other
     people, including children or pets present, and remove any
     toys or garden equipment from the area to be treated.
              HOW DO YOU APPLY AND HANDLE THE PESTICIDE
              SAFELY?

                *Use common sense and realize the label may
                  not tell what to do in all situations.
                ^Choose the correct form: dusts, sprays,
                  granules, liquids,
                ^-Measure accurately and have the correct tools
                  available such as measuring cups or spoons.
                  Use these tools only for pesticide measuring.
                ^Time your application correctly. Some
                  pesticides affect a specific stage in the life
                  cycle of a pest, making the timing of applica-
                  tion very important. For example, a herbicide
                  used for crabgrass control, will kill only the
                  seedlings of crabgrass before they emerge from
                  the soil, there is little benefit applying the
                  herbicide after sprouting.
                *Pay attention to other label instructions such as
                  not mowing or watering too soon after
                  application, however, some granular products
                  must be watered in to be effective.
                ^Check the label to be sure the pesticide is
                  approved for use on the vegetable or fruit plants
                  being treated.
                ^Check the weather conditions before you start
                  the application and do not spray in windy
                  conditions.
                ^Never leave the pesticide unattended when
                  using, especially near children and pets.
                ^Don't eat, drink or smoke while handling
                  pesticides.  Wash your face and hands after
                  using the pesticide and before you smoke, eat
                 or use the toilet.
                ^Clean up any spills immediately.

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                                          WHAT'S ON
TARGET PEST
Listing of pest(s) controlled. Frequently more than one pest
will be listed on the label.

FORM OF PESTICIDE
Products are sold as liquids, aerosols, granules, dusts, and
wettable powders, Note: Many pesticides are sold as "ready to
use". These products require no mixing or measuring, and may
be easier to use.

INDOOR OR OUTDOOR
The label will tell you if the product must be used indoors or
outdoors. Do not use garden pesticides indoors.

EPA REGISTRATION NUMBER
EPA has reviewed the product, it can be used according to
label directions,

ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
The ingredient(s) that will control the target pest.

SIGNAL WORDS
Communicate the potential for making the user sick. Pesticides
vary in their toxicity to humans. Most of the products for use in
and around the home will have "caution"  or "warning" as the
signal word.
             CAUTION
             least harmful, but must be handled
             with care

             WARNING
             moderately hazardous

             DANGER
             very poisonous/irritating may have
             skull and crossbones signal

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THE  LABEL?
           AUTiONARY STATEMENTS
     Tells if protective clothing, such as gloves or goggles, are
     required. Can also instruct you to keep children and pets away
     from the pesticide when in use, and the treated area once the
     application is complete.

     ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
     Listing of possible sites of damage: water, birds, fish, plants,
     animals.

     DIRECTIONS FOR USE
     How to apply the product, where the product can be applied,
     how much to use, how to dispose and store the pesticide

     FIRST AID INSTRUCTIONS
     Actions to take an in emergency situation. If you need to
     contact poison control or require medical assistance, have the
     label handy to help emergency personnel.
               YOU HAVE APPLIED THE PESTICIDE. WHAT'S
               NEXT?

                 *Be patient! Depending on the type of
                  pesticide product, it may take some time
                  before control is seen. For certain herbicides,
                  it may take several days before seeing the
                  leaves of treated weeds yellow and curl.
                 * Watch for your results; create a diary to record
                  your successes and failures.
    Pesticides vary in their toxicity
    to humans. Most products for

    use in and around the home
    will have'caution" or
    "warning" as the signal word.

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                              STORAGE AN
STORAGE

  > Pesticides should be stored in the original
   labeled container, covered tightly.
  * Never store pesticides in the application
   equipment or in containers that held food or
   beverage
  ^Do not store the product near feed, seed, heat
   sources or near flammable materials such as
   gasoline or oily rags.
  >Temperature and humidity may aflect
   pesticides. The label will give you specifics.
  *Keep pesticides out of the reach of children
   and pets, preferably in a locked cabinet
USE  PESTICIDES SAFELY!
READ  THE LABEL!
IT'S  THE LAW!


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D DISPOSAL
               DISPOSAL
                      label offers general disposal instructions.
                 * Containers should be rinsed three times.
                 * Potentially reusable containers should be
                  punctured to prevent re-use.
                 *0ld pesticides should be disposed o(, they
                  may no longer be effective or safe to use.
                 ^Improper disposal can lead to health issues for
                  humans and pets, and environmental
                  contamination.
                 *NEVER pour pesticides down a drain, toilet or
                  curbside catch basin.
                 > NEVER re-use pesticide containers for any
                  purpose.
                 *NEVER put pesticides in containers used for
                  food purposes.
                 * Disposal problems can be prevented by buying
                  only the amount needed to do the job.
                 * Contact your local government, state
                  agriculture or environmental agency about
                  household hazardous waste collection
                  programs.
    Improper disposal can lead to

    health issues for humans and

    pets, and environmental
    contamination


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                                     FOR FURTHER
* Your local garden center, library, and bookstore are
  resources for information on gardening, outdoor pesl
  management or assistance in problem diagnosis.
>> Community based garden clubs, botanical gardens, and
  horticultural societies regularly share information and may
  have staff available to answer questions.
*Surf the web! Type in key words, and explore!
* National Pesticide Telecommunications Network (NPTN):
  1 -800-858-PEST(7378). This is a 24 hour hotline lor
  assistance in emergencies and information about safety.
  health and environmental effects, spill clean-up and
  disposal procedures and referrals
        POISON CONTROL CENTERS FOR NEW
        ENGLAND

        Provide help in pesticide poisonings. Have the
        pesticide label with you if you call.

        Connecticut: 800-343-2722
        Massachusetts: 800-682-9211
        Maine: 800-442-6305
        Rhode Island  800-682-9211
        New Hampshire: 800-562-8236
        Vermont: 877-658-3456
                                Your local garden center,
                               library, and bookstore are
                            resources for information on
                                     pest management.
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INFORMATION
     Stale pesticide regulatory agencies in New England provide
     information about pesticide regulations, investigate consumer
     complaints and possible pesticide violations, spill clean-up
     and disposal.
              STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES IN NEW
              ENGLAND

              Connecticut Dept of Environmental Protection:
              860-424-3369

              Maine Board of Pesticides Control: 207-287-2731

              Massachusetts Pesticide Bureau: 617-626-1700

              New Hampshire Depl. of Ag. Markets and Food:
              603-271-3550

              Rhode Island Dept. of Env. Management:
              401-222-2781

              Vermont Plant Industry, Lab and Consumer
              Assurance: 802-828-2431

              U. S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
              (EPA) NEW ENGLAND OFFICE CUSTOMER CALL
              CENTER:1-888-372-7341

              EPA is the federal agency responsible for pesticide
              regulation. No pesticide can be legally sold or
              used in the U.S. unless its label has an EPA
              registration number. EPA publications on
              pesticide  related issues can be ordered by calling
              our Customer Call Center. More information is also
              available on the Internet at: www.epa.gov/region1.
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NOTES

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      SHOPPING TIPS

        *Know the size of the area to be treated, take
         careful measurements,
        ^-Purchase only the amount of product needed
         for the application.
        >\\ possible, purchase ready-to-use formulations
         to avoid mixing, and some storage and
         disposal problems.
        ^Calculate the correct amount, especially if the
         pesticide is a concentrate which must be
         diluted.  Using too much of the active ingredi-
         ent may damage your plants, cause harm to
         yourself, pets and the environment, however too
         little product may not correct your pest
         problem. More is not better.
        *Check for application equipment you need
         (such as a hand  held sprayer) If you have it
         already, does it work properly? Do you need new
         hoses, nozzles?
        *Pick up any personal protection equipment
         required such as gloves or goggles.
If pesticide use is one of your

options, here are some things

to consider before you buy.

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