JUNE
                                  i   . .y
                You  SHOULD  KNOW  ABOUT
                               Dl
                                                               AIR   POLLUTION
                                                                                     AND   KIDS
       tR| 5ION  1  LIBRARY n LJ r-i |-i1
                                           ID     L
                                                                      _   AND
                                                                IDLING
        Diesel exhaust ranks
     among the air pollutants
     that EPA believes pose
    the greatest health risks.

       Children have a faster
   breathing rate than adults.

         More than 1.7 million
     children in New England
       ride a bus to and from
          school every day.
        ARC
  Asthma Regional Council
        of New England
  Rhode Island Department of
  Environmental Management
oEPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency New England

      For more information:
   Visit www.epa.gov/ne/
    eco/diesel/,orcallthe
  EPA Air Quality Hotline at
          1-800-821-1237
                     L/iesel exhaust from idling school buses can accumulate
                     on and around the bus and pose a health risk, particularly
                     to children. When buses idle in the school  yard, the
                     exhaust also  can pollute the air inside  the  school
                     building and pose a health risk to children  throughout
                     the day. Exposure to diesel  exhaust can cause lung
                     damage and respiratory problems. Diesel exhaust can
                     also exacerbate asthma and existing allergies, and
                     long-term exposure to diesel exhaust can increase the
                     risk of lung cancer.  However, there are some simple steps that
                     schools can take to reduce idling time and air pollution.

                     How ARE  CHILDREN  AFFECTED?
                     More than 1.7 million children in New England ride a bus  to
                     and from school every day. While school buses are one of the
                     safest, most effective ways to transport children to and from
                     school, like all diesel vehicles, they emit  pollution  that is
                     dangerous  to  breathe. Air pollution from diesel vehicles has
                     health implications  for everyone,  but children  are more
                     susceptible to this pollution than healthy adults because their
                     respiratory systems  are  not fully developed, and they have a
                     faster breathing rate. Diesel exhaust contains significant levels
                     of small particles, known as fine particulate matter. Exposure to
                     particulate  matter, especially fine particles, is associated with
                     increased frequency  of childhood illnesses.

                     RECOMMENDED  ACTIONS  FOR
                     SCHOOL  DISTRICTS  TO
                     REDUCE   DIESEL   POLLUTION
                     Although every school district is unique, there are a number of
                     steps that schools can take to reduce the health risks associated
                     with exposure to diesel exhaust. Here are some actions school
                     districts should consider:

                     ESTABLISH  IDLING  GUIDELINES
                       When school bus drivers  arrive  at loading or unloading
                       areas to  drop off or pick up passengers, they should turn
                       off their  buses as  soon as  possible to eliminate idling time
                       and reduce harmful emissions. The school bus should not be
                       restarted until it is ready to  depart.

                     *  If buses need the engine to  run the flashing lights, consider
                       changing the circuit configurations so that the flashing
                       lights can be powered  by the battery without the engine
                       running.

                                                                 continued  D

 printed on 100% recycled paper, with a minimum of  50% post consumer waste, using vegetable based inks
    TEPS  YOU
 CAN
 REDUCE
 DIESEL
 POLLUTION

o
                off
     their buses as soon
     as tli-
     school yr:

         ig time of
     buses during early
               up.


     the school where bus
     drivers can wait.

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    At school bus depots, limit the idling time during early  morning warm-up to
     what is recommended by the manufacturer (generally 3 to 5 minutes). In colder
     climates, block heaters, which plug into electrical outlets, can help warm the
     engine to avoid starting difficulties and shorten warm-up time.

    In the winter, provide a space inside the school where bus drivers who arrive
     early can wait

    Follow anti-idling laws and guidelines in your state. Currently, three New England
     states have anti-idling laws: Connecticut, Massachusetts and  New Hampshire.

    Ensure school buses are regularly maintained.

    Reinforce smart driving practices such as following at least 3  car lengths behind any
     vehicle with visible exhaust or a noticeable odor.
WORK CLOSELY  WITH  Bus COMPANIES AND Bus  DRIVERS
TO IMPLEMENT THE GUIDELINES
    Make sure both the bus company and the bus drivers understand the importance
     of the new guidelines.

    Highlight the economic benefit of reduced fuel consumption as a result of less
     idling. A school bus burns approximately a half gallon of diesel fuel foreach
     hour it idles. Thus, if a company operates 50 buses and each bus reduces its
     idling time by 30 minutes per  day,  at $1  per gallon  of diesel fuel, the
     company would save $2,250 per school year in fuel costs.

    Inform drivers of the potential  risk to their health from breathing diesel exhaust
     and the benefits of not idling.

    Establish a program to recognize drivers. For example, create buttons that drivers
     who pledge to follow the guidelines can wear.
WORK  CLOSELY WITH  Bus COMPANIES  TO RETROFIT
BUSES WITH POLLUTION CONTROLS
    Fuel buses with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel and install paniculate matter filters.
     This approach can reduce emissions of paniculate matter by more than 90 percent.

    Another option is to install oxidation catalysts. This approach can reduce emissions
     of particulate matter by at least 20 percent and does not require the use of ultra-low
     sulfur diesel  fuel.

    More information about retrofit options is available at www.epa.gov/ne/eco/diesel/
     retrofits.html
WORK  CLOSELY WITH  Bus COMPANIES  TO PURCHASE THE
CLEANEST  NEW BUSES
    EPA is working  to reduce diesel pollution from new heavy-duty diesel trucks
     and buses by setting more stringent emission standards that will take effect
     beginning in 2004. In 2007, new trucks and buses rolling off the assembly lines
     will be 95 percent cleaner than today's models.

    Because some buses may meet EPA standards ahead of schedule, ask the
     manufacturer before purchasing a new bus to see if you can  acquire one that
     meets these standards. In addition, some buses come equipped with pollution
     control devices  like oxidation catalysts and/or devices that minimize idling and
     warm-up time.
 Idling wastes fuel and
 money.


 A typical school bus
 burns approximately one
 half-gallon of diesel fuel
 for each hour it idles.


 Reducing idling time by
 30 minutes per day, can
 save $2,250 per school
 year in fuel costs.
                                                                                              ARC
                                                                                       Asthma Regional Council
                                                                                              of New England
  Rhode Island Department of
  Environmental Management
>>EPA
     United States
     Environmental Protection
     Agency New England

 1 Congress Street
 Suite 1100
 Boston, MA 02114-2023
 www.epa.gov/ne/eco/diesel/
 EPA Air Quality Hotline:
 1-800-821-1237

 EPA-901-F-04-003
 June 2004

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