WATER SUPPLY AMP WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY.
                        HOLLEY RESERVOIR
                  CAIAPOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
                U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Northwest Region
                        Portland, Oregon
                            June 1967

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            WATER SUPPLY AND WATER QUALITY CONTROL STUDY
                          HOLLEY RESERVOIR
                    CA1APOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
     An investigation has been made which discloses a. future need
for storage for municipal and industrial water supply and for regu-
lation of stream flow for water quality control in the Calapooia
and Willamette River Basins, Oregon.  Future water requirements
and quality projections are based on economic, demographic, and
engineering studies.
          Prepared at the request of the District Engineer,
               U. S.  Army Engineer District, Portland
                Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon
                  u.  S.  DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
  Federal Water Pollution Control Administration,  Northwest Region
                          Portland, Oregon
                             June 1967

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                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                  Page No.

      LIST OF TABLES	     iv

      LIST OF FIGURES	      v

  I.  INTRODUCTION

      A.  Request and Authority	    1-1
      B.  Purpose and Scope	    1-1
      C.  Acknowledgments	    1-2

 II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS

      A.  Summary of Findings	   II-l
      B.  Conclusions	   II-4

III.  PROJECT DESCRIPTION

      A.  Location	III-l
      B.  Project Features	III-l

 IV.  STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION

      A.  Location and  Boundaries	   IV-1
      B.  Physical Features and Climate  	   IV-1

  V.  WATER RESOURCES OF THE STUDY AREA

      A.  Calapooia Basin Portion of the Study Area	    V-l
          1.   Surface Water
              a.   Existing Water Resource Development  	    V-l
              b.   Hydrology and Stream Flow Frequency Analysis .    V-l
              c.   Water Quality	    V-3
          2.   Ground Water
              a.   Quantity	    V-4
              b.   Quality	    V-4

      B.  Willamette River Portion of the Study Area	    V-5
          1.   Existing  & Planned Water Resource Development  .  . .   V-5
          2.   Stream Flow Frequency Analysis 	    V-6
          3.   Water Quality	    V-6

 VI.   THE  ECONOMY

      A.  General	   VI-1
      B.  Present	   VI-1
      C.  Projected Economic  Base and Population 	   VI-2

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                                                                  iii
                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
                             (Continued)

                                                              Page No.

 VII.  WATEK. REQUIREMENTS—MUNICIPAL & INDUSTRIAL

        A.  Present Water Use	VII-1
        B.  Existing Source Development ..,.,.....,  VII-2
        C.  Forecast of Future Water Needs	  VII-2

VIII.  WATER QUALITY CONTROL

        A.  Need for Control	VIII-1
        B.  Municipal, Industrial, and
            Agricultural Pollution	VIII-4
        C.  Water Quality Objectives	VIII-9
        D.  Evaluation of Flow Regulation Requirements. .  .   . VIII-10

  IX.  BENEFITS

        A.  Water Supply—Municipal & Industrial	   IX-1
        B.  Water Quality Control 	   IX-1

   X,  BIBLIOGRAPHY	    X-l


       APPENDIX	A-l to A-9

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                                                       iv
Table No.

  VI-1


  VI-2


  VI-3


 VII-1


 VII-2


VIII-1


VIII-2

VIII-3


VIII-4


VIII-5


APPENDIX
               LIST OF TABLES

                    Title
Page No.
Population of Incorporated Places,
Willamette River Hainstem & Calapooia River Basin     VI-3
Present & Projected Population,
Calapooia River Basin, Oregon.
Present & Projected Population,
Willamette River Mainstem, Oregon.
   VI-6
   VI-7
Municipal & Industrial Water Use,
Calapooia River Basin, Oregon	   VII-3

Projected Average M&I Water Demand at Brownsville,
Calapooia River Basin, Oregon	   VII-3

Present and Projected M&I Waste Loads,
Willamette River Mainstem, Oregon. ...  	  VIII-6

Projected M&I Waste Loads, Calapooia River, Oregon  VIII-7

Required Streamflow Regimen for Control of
Dissolved Oxygen, Calapooia River Basin,  Oregon.  .  VIII-14

Required Streamflow Regimen for Water Quality
Control, Willamette River at Portland, Oregon.  .  .  VIII-15

Regulation of Proposed Holley Reservoir,  Downstream
Temperature Control, Calapooia River Basin, Oregon  VIII-16
1
2
3
4
5
6
Recorded Streamflow Data,
Recorded Streamflow Data at Salem,
Mean Monthly Low Flows at Various Recurrence
Frequencies, Calapooia River Basin, Oregon ....
Mean Monthly Low Flows at Various Recurrence
Frequencies, Willamette River Basin, Oregon. . . .
Surface Water Quality at Albany,
Mineral Content of Municipal Water Supplies,
A-l
A-2
A-3
A-4
A-5
A-6

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                           LIST OF TABLES
                             (Continued)

Table No.                      Title                          Page No.

   7        Surface Water Quality,
            Willamette River Mains tern, Oregon	   A-7

   8        Groundwater Quality at Albany,
     41      Calapooia River Basin, Oregon	   A-8

   9        Inventory of Major Waste Source,
            Willamette River Basin, Oregon. ...  	   A-9
                           LIST OF FIGURES

Figure No.                     Title                          Page No.

   1        Willamette River Basin, Oregon	IV-la

   2        Schematic Diagram, Calapooia River Basin, Oregon    V-2

   3        Schematic Diagram, Willamette Basin, Oregon  .  .  .   V-7

   4        Dissolved Oxygen and BOD Profile,
            Willamette River, Oregon.  .....  	   V-8

   5        Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature Profile,
            Lower Willamette River, Oregon	   V-9

   6        DO-Flow Relationships, Year 2010	VIII-12

   7        Location Map	...'...  Back  Cover

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                          I.  INTRODUCTION





     A. •" Request and Authority



     The District Engineer, U. S. Army Engineer District, Portland,



Oregon, in a letter dated November 1, 1963, requested the advice of



the U.' S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare concerning the



needs for storage for water supply and water quality control in the



proposed Holley Reservoir in the Calapooia River Basin,      Linn County,



Oregon, and the value of benefits resulting therefrom.



     The water supply portion of this study was made in accordance with



the Memorandum of Agreement, dated November 4, 1958, between the Depart-



ment of the Army and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare



relative to the Water Supply Act of 1958, as amended  (43 U.S.C. 390b).



The water quality control aspects are considered under authority of



the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended  (33 U.S.C. 466 ,



et seq.).  Responsibility for these activities was transferred from  the



Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to the  Department of  the
                                        *


Interior by Re-organization Plan No. 2 of  1966, effective May 10,  1966.



     B.  Purpose and Scope



     The investigation was  conducted to advise the Corps of Engineers



on the  need for and value of  storage in Holley Reservoir Project,  Linn



County, Oregon, for municipal and industrial water supply and water



quality control in  the Calapooia Basin and  that portion  of  the Willamette



River  below the mouth of the  Calapooia.   To accomplish this, available



data on water uses, waste  sources, and water quality were examined,



evaluated, and projected.

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                                                              1-2

     The over-all area covered by this report includes the entire

drainage area of the Calapooia River and the portion of the main

stem Willamette River remaining below the point it receives the

Calapooia.  The Calapooia and main stem Willamette portion may

be discussed separately in some connections and collectively in

others.  The main stem Willamette portion is defined demographic-

ally by portions of Linn, Marion, Clackamas, Multnomah, and

Washington Counties.

     Evaluations include projected conditions to the year 2010,

with an interim point at 1985.  An economic base study was prepared

for this purpose and is summarized in the report.  The findings of

the report with respect to water quality control needs are based

on information contained in the FWPCA comprehensive report

entitled "Water Quality Control and Management, Willamette River

Basin", dated January 1967.1'

     C.  Acknowle d gmen ts

     Information for this report was provided by officials of the

communities of Brownsville and Halsey, the Oregon State Sanitary
•=/ The projected water quality control flow requirements for 1985
   computed for this report differ from those recommended in the
   FWPCA comprehensive report due to different criteria.  For this
   report:  (1) The base flow used for Portland Harbor is an
   expected regulated flow (storage constructed or authorized by
   1965) imposed on a statistical one-in-ten year monthly distrib-
   ution occurrence; and (2) An average basin-wide municipal and
   industrial waste treatment level of 85 percent BOD removal was
   used instead of the 87 percent used in the Willamette Basin
   report.  The resultant flow requirements for 1985 are about 20
   percent greater and demands on storage are about 6 percent
   greater.

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                                                           1-3




Authority,  the U. S, Soil Conservation Service,  and the U.  S.




Ar^riy Corps of Engineers.  The  cooperation of these persons  is




gratefully acknowledged.

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              II.  SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS






     A.  Summary of Findings




          1.  The site of the proposed Holley Reservoir.Project is on




the main stem of the Calapooia River near Holley, Oregon (drainage




area 100 square miles), about 46 river miles upstream from the




confluence of Calapooia and Willamette Rivers at Albany, Oregon.




          2.  As currently proposed by the Corps of Engineers, Holley




Reservoir would have a total storage capacity of about  186,000 acre-




feet.  Multiple purposes to be served would be:  flood  control, irri-




gation, recreation, fish and wildlife, municipal and industrial (M&I)




water supply, and water quality control.




          3.  Calapooia River is presently unregulated, and streamflow




varies considerably from year to year and by season.  The annual runoff




.to the river above the proposed site  (28 years of record) for example,




varies between 178,300 and 486,700 acre-feet and averages 324,000 acre-




feet.  Daily average discharges have ranged from 12,200 cfs to  13 cfs.




The base flow appropriated by the Oregon State Water Resources  Board




for Calapooia River between Holley and its mouth at Albany is 20 cfs.




At Brownsville (R. M. 32) the estimated mean minimum monthly one-in-ten




year  low flow, adjusted for full exercise of irrigation diversions




 (rights totalling  29 cfs) is 46 cfs.




          4.  The  flow of th« Willamette River  is regulated for power,




navigation,  and  flood  control from existing Federal reservoirs  and will




be regulated additionally-.for chese purposes upon completion of authorize!




storage development  (total  2,161,600  acre-feet,  of which  about




800,000 acre-feet  is being  reserved for  future  irrigation).  At




 the  key record

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                                                              11-2




station at Salem (R. M. 84), mean monthly minimum unregulated flows




(3,000-3,500 cfs) will be increased to about 5,500 cfs when all




existing and authorized Federal projects are in full operation.




Tributary inflow below Salem contributing to flows through Portland




harbor is about a minimum monthly average 1,1DO cfs on a one-in-ten




year low flow recurrence basis.




          5.  The physical and chemical quality of Calapooia River




waters above the Holley Reservoir site is excellent, with the exception




of sporadic sediment loads caused by high water, logging, road con-




struction, and gravel washing.  No significant sources of organic




waste exist above the site.  Downstream the Calapooia River has been




observed to carry an organic concentration of about 0.6 mg/1 five-day




BOD and a coliform bacteria count ranging from 1,000 to 4,000 per




100 milliliters.  During summer months, lower reaches of Calapooia




River are degraded in appearance by excessive algal and other aquatic




growths.  Dissolved oxygen  (DO) is available, in minimum concentrations




of greater than 7.0 mg/1.  Stream temperatures greater than 70 F have




been recorded near Albany.




          6.  The main stem Willamette River receives organic wastes




equivalent to a total population of about 737,000 persons in its 120-




mile length below the Calapooia River.  Stream quality is progressively




degraded to Portland harbor where five-day BOD concentrations commonly




reach 5 mg/1 and DO is reduced to as low as 2 mg/1 during periods of




minimum flow,  Dissolved oxygen content of main stem waters above




Portland harbor range above 5 mg/1 and reach saturation in upper sections.

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                                                               II-3



The coliform density of most sections of the river is greater than the



upper limit (1,000 MPN) usually considered safe for swimming and water-



contact recreation.  The aesthetic quality of the river has discouraged



Its use as a source of municipal water supply.



          7.  The 1960 urban population of the over-all study area
     
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                                                              II-4




          9.  The only sewage collection and treatment system in




Calapooia River Basin at the present time is at Brownsville.  About




1,000 persons are served by this facility.  Other sources of waste in




the basin are a particle board plant at Brownsville, the communities




of Rowley and Sodaville, and miscellaneous rural centers and residences.




The estimated organic load to Calapooia River from these sources is




about 220 PE.




         10.  Major loading points along the main stem Willamette River




below the Calapooia occur at Albany, Salem, Newberg, Oregon City and




Portland.  About 666,000 PE of waste from these sources and 70,000 PE




from tributary stream sources are received in the river.  More than




80 percent of the total organic load carried in the Willamette River




originates as industrial waste, about one-half of which is discharged




at Oregon City.  The combined efficiency of waste control, particularly




during low flow periods when industrial wastes are being held, barged




or applied to land is about 75 percent.




     B.  Conclusions




          1.  Municipal and industrial (M&I) water demands in the




Calapooia Basin portion of the study area will increase to 1.10 million




gallons per day (mgd) and 2.26 mgd by the years 1985 and 2010, res-




pectively.  By the end of the study period, an annual storage need of




1,500 acre-feet in Holley Reservoir to yield about 1.3 mgd will be




required to meet the 2.26 mgd demand.  First need in the amount of




about 500 acre-feet, will begin approximately at the time of assumed




project completion (1975).

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                                                            II-5

          2.  The annual value of storage in Holley Reservoir for

M&I water supply is estimated to be $28,500 based on least-cost

single-purpose alternative storage costs amortized on a 100-year

•basis 'at 3.125 percent interest and including annual O&M expenses

of $3,900.

          3.  Beginning in about the year 1975 flow regulation in

addition to adequate waste treatment will be needed in Portland

harbor during the months of July, August and September to maintain

dissolved oxygen (DO) levels at 5 mg/1 for fish passage, fish

oriented recreation and general aesthetics of the harbor.  Adequate

treatment or other means of controlling present and projected

wastes (assuming 85 and 90 percent BOD removal by years, 1985 and

2010, respectively) along main stem Willamette above Portland

harbor and Calapooia Rivers will control DO above 7 mg/1 for

fish rearing, spawning and other purposes without flow regulation.

          4.  Adequate assimilation of treated wastes in Portland

Harbor by the years 1985 and 2010 will require a total minimum

average seasonal flow of 8,930 and 9,280 cfs respectively during

low flow periods (July through September).  To obtain this flow

and meet fish passage and other use objectives on a 90 percent

annual achievement probability basis  (one-in-ten year low flow

recurrence), an annual draft-on-storagei/ of 623,000 acre-feet by
—' Annual draft-on-storage  is  the sum of  incremental  excesses of
   needed releases over  inflows during a  climatic year  (April
   through March).

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                                                            II-6



1985 and 690,000 acre-feet by the year 2010 will be required.   The



size limitation of Holley Reservoir would permit only partial



satisfaction of this requirement.



          5.  Quality control releases from Holley Reservoir and/



or additional reservoirs, as needed, would benefit a potential


4
population of 1,990,000 persons residing in the over-all study



area.  With control of DO in the harbor, annual anadromous fish



migrations averaging 51,000 would be preserved, contributing



therefore to continued sports and commercial fishery activities



and to the economic assets associated with these and other water



oriented activities.



          6.  Temperature enhancement in a ten-mile reach of



spawning gravel can be accomplished in Calapooia River with multi-



level releases from Holley Reservoir.  To meet fishery requirements,



flow releases from Holley Reservoir ranging from 132 cfs (50°F) in



November to 658 cfs (70°F) in July would be required.



          7.  The benefits derived from flow regulation for water


quality control in Portland harbor are both tangible and intang-



ible and would accrue only after an adequate degree of waste treat-



ment has been provided at all major waste sources.  The riparian



owners, downstream water users, and the populations of the



surrounding area would be the major recipients of  the benefits of



this control.  As beneficiaries are widespread throughout the



Willamette Basin study area, the State of Oregon and—for the



fishery use—the Pacific Northwest, the cost to provide quality

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                                                          II-7




control regulation in llolley Reservoir and/or other Federal




reservoirs as required would be nonreimbursable.




          8.  me minimum value of storage for water quality




control in Willamette River Basin is considered to be at least




equal to the least-cost alternative available to meet quality




objectives in the absence of the project.  Single-purpose storage




and advanced waste treatment costs were analyzed for this purpose.




Waste disposal underground, holding of waste for discharge during




high flow periods, transport of wastes downstream, and restriction




of future development were not considered to be adequate or




equivalent alternatives.




          9.  Advanced waste treatment compared to least-cost,




single-purpose storage  (Plan A and B cost analysis prepared by




the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers) was found to be the cheapest




alternative to flow regulation for water quality control.  The




estimated annual equivalent advanced waste treatment cost per




acre-foot was found to be $3.98 compared to $9.90 for single-




purpose storage,




          10.  The minimum value of the widespread water quality




control benefit assignable to an annual draft-on-storage o.f 690,000




acre-feet with first need for 590,000 acre-feet beginning in 1975




(assumed project completion) is $3.98 per acre-foot.  Multiplied




by 690,000 acre-feet...the total storage required by the year




2010...the annual benefit is $2,750,000 (rounded).

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                                                             II-8


           11.   Specific  releases  from Holley Reservoir  resulting


 in  improved minimum flows  in  Portland harbor would be worth  $3.98
  i

 per acre-foot  per  year on  a 100-year  basis.  Benefits associated


'with releases  for  temperature  control and  flow  stabilization in


 Calapooia  River would be equal at least  to the  value of the  enhanced
 4

 anadromous fishery.  This  latter  value will be  calculated by the


 U.  S.  Fish and Wildlife  Service.


           12.   After the project  is in operation, a system of


 water  quality  and  waste  monitoring and streamflow forecasting


 will be  required to effectively regulate flow for water quality


 control.


           13.   Maintenance of  water quality in  Calapooia River


 without  flow regulation  is predicated on the release of water


 which  is relatively uniform in quality from Holley Reservoir.


 Thermal  stratification and reduced dissolved oxygen in  lower levels


 of  the reservoir can be  expected.  Multi-gated  outlets  providing


 flexibility of releases  by depth  should, therefore, be  considered


 in  the design  of Holley  Dam.

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                 III.  PROJECT DESCRIPTION

     A.  Location
     The proposed Holley Dam and Reservoir Project is located in
the headwaters of Calapooia River, a tributary of Willamette River
in northwestern Oregon.  The site of the dam is about 24 air-miles
<«»
and 46 river miles southeast of Albany in Linn County (see Location
Map, back cover).  The drainage area above the site is 105 square
miles, and annual run-off averages 323,600 acre-feet.
     The Calapooia River drainage basin encompasses a total area
of 372 square miles.  The main stem, 70 miles long, originates in
the lower westerly slope of the Cascade Range and flows north-
westerly to join the Willamette River at Albany.  Elevations in
headwater areas range up to about 4,000 feet msl.
    • B.  Project Features
     Project purposes being investigated by the Corps of Engineers
include flood control, irrigation, municipal and industrial water
supply, water quality control, fishery enhancement, and recreation.
     As proposed by  the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, Holley
Reservoir will have  a total storage capacity of about 186,000
acre-feet.  Space for several years of carry-over storage is
included to provide  supplemental water for irrigation and fishlife
during! extreme dry years.  Principal features of the proposed dam
and reservoir are:

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                                                            III-2
                                  Elevation   Surface Area   Storage
                                   (Feet)       (Acres)     (Ac.-Ft.)
     Dam Height	     699          —          	
     Maximum Pool	• ',' .     694         3,080       186,000
     Conservation Pool  	     692         3,030       180,600
     Flood Control Pool	     660         2,110        96,000
     Normal Minimum Pool  ....     634         1,450        51,000
     Streambed	     530          —-          —-
IV
     At the maximum pool elevation Holley Reservoir would control

about 30 percent of the average annual discharge of Calapooia

River at Albany.  A minimum sustained conservation release is

planned, primarily to meet the needs of fish and wildlife.

     Potential needs for storage for M&I water supply are centered

in the Calapooia Basin area, at Brownsville about 13 miles below

Holley and at Halsey located outside of the basin west of Browns-

ville.  Considerations for water quality control regulation apply

to the lower Calapooia River and the main stem Willamette River

downstream to the mouth, including Portland harbor.  Operation

of the reservoir would be coordinated with existing and authorized

storage development in the entire Willamette River system.

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                          IV.   STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION






          A.   Location and Boundaries




          The  study area for this  report is  the Calapooia River drainage




     basin,  including the adjacent Halsey area west of Brownsville, and the portion of




the  main stem Willamette River below the point at which it receives the




     Calapooia            (see  Figure 1).  Principal urban areas in the main




    stem Willamette River study area are Albany,  Salem,  Newberg, Oregon Citjj




     West Linn,  Lake Oswego,  Milwaukie and Portland.




          B.   Physical Features and Climate




          The  Calapooia River drains a narrow area between McKenzie River




     Basin on  the  south and the Santiam River Basin on the north.   The upper




     portion of the basin area  is  heavily timbered.  The lower portion of the




     basin is  flat, mostly agricultural land with slopes as low as 2.5 feet



     per mile.




          The  Willamette River  meanders over a broad plain northward 115 miles



     to  its  confluence with the Columbia River.   At Oregon City (Rl-l 26.6),




     the river drops 45 feet, forming Willamette  Falls.   The stream gradient




     of  the  reach  above the falls  (Newberg Pool)  is less than 2 feet per mile.




     Below the falls the river  flows slowly  through Portland harbor and joins




     the Columbia  River just north of the city.   The river is affected by




     tidal movements and stage  of  the Columbia River from its mouth to




     Willamette Falls.




          The  climate of the study area is of the temperate maritime type,




     characterized by dry, moderately-warm summers and wet, mild winters.




     Headwaters of the Calapooia River are in one of the wettest areas of

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                                                               IV-2



the Willamette River Basin.  Although the normal annual precipitation



at the Holley Dam site is about 56 inches, that of the headwaters region
        i


exceeds 110 inches.   The normal annual precipitation for the watershed



is approximately 80 inches.  The temperatures of the basin are moderate



except for occasional short periods of hot or cold weather.  The

      *

temperature extremes at Albany, near the mouth of the Calapooia River,



have ranged from 104 to minus 15  F.  Growing season in the agricultural



areas varies from 180 to 200 days.

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                V.  WATER RESOURCES OF THE STUDY AREA



     A, •» Calapooia Basin Portion of the Study Area

          1.  Surface Water

               a.  Existing VJater Resources Development
                                                             Basin
               Water resources development in the Calapooia /  is closely

related to land utilization.  In general, land use upstream  from Holley

is almost exclusively devoted to forestry, while a considerable portion

of the downstream area of the Calapooia Basin has been developed for

agriculture.  No major storage reservoirs have been constructed in

Calapooia Basin.

               Basin lands have been irrigated since about 1905.  The

Calapooia River is an adjudicated stream serving over 100  individual

water rights for the irrigation of approximately 2,700 acres.  These

rights total about 31 cfs.  Brownsville has a surface water  right of

0.67 cfs for municipal purposes.

               A basin-wide irrigation plan has been developed by the

U. S. Bureau of Reclamation which would provide a water supply for

41,700 irrigable acres.  This is considered to be the ultimate irrigation

development potential within the Calapooia Basin.  Most of this area

lies north of the reach of  the river downstream from Brownsville.

               b.  Hydrology and Stream Flow Frequency Analysis

               Stream flows have been recorded for the Calapooia River

at Holley since 1935 and at Albany since 1940 (see Figure  2, Schematic

Diagram).  A summary of these data is included in the appendix  (Table  1).

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      bHoliey
       ! \
  HOLLEY
RESERVOIR
  SITE
                  LEGEND

                V USGS Gage

               \/ Proposed Reservoir
                V
                O Community

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                                                                V-3



A low-flow frequency analysis was performed using the mean annual flows



of record at Holley and Albany for the twenty-three years from 1941 to
        'l


1963, inclusive.  A distribution of mean monthly low flow with recurrence



intervals of 5, 10, and 20 years was developed.  The natural mean monthly



low flow of the river at Brownsville, with a recurrence frequency of
      '-i*

one-in-ten years, adjusted for full exercise of irrigation diversion



rights is estimated to be approximately 46 cfs.



               c.  Water Quality



               The physical and chemical quality of water above the



proposed reservoir is considered excellent, although at times sediment



concentrations reach significant proportions.  In 1949-50, the Calapooia



River discharged an estimated sediment load of 90,340 tons per year at



Albany (7).  Activities such as logging, road construction, and gravel



washing occasionally contribute substantial sediment loads to the stream



and are suspected of causing damage to fish spawning and propagation.



Under impounded conditions, changes in water quality will occur.  These



changes in quality are discussed in Chapter VIII, Water Quality Control.



               The main stem Calapooia River below Brownsville  is

                                and

a low gradient, sluggish stream / contributes to temperature and nutrient



enrichment conditions conducive to excessive growths of algae and other



aquatic forms.



               Analytical results of stream samples collected at Albany



are shown in Table 5 of the Appendix.  Organic matter in terms of bio-



chemical oxygen demand (BOD) is normally less than 1 mg/1 at Albany, and



dissolved oxygen has generally been greater than 7 mg/1 (80 percent of



saturation) during relatively  low-flow periods (20-40 cfs).

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                                                                V-4

          2.  Groundwatpr

               a.  Quantity

               Groundwater in the Calapooia River Basin is an important

complement to the surface water resources of the area.  Most of the

rural domestic water needs are supplied by groundwater.  Hie greatest
      4
use of groundwater in Calapooia Basin is for irrigation.  Irrigation

rights totalling about 16 cfs presently exist.

               Groundwater is relatively abundant in the basin due in

large part to the occurrence of coarse, permeable, and relatively silt-

free alluvium derived from the volcanic rocks of the Cascade Range.

Yield capability of wells in the area east of Brownsville is lowest,

while in the western part of the basin wells generally yield up to

several hundred gallons per minute (gpm).  The highest yields (up to

1,000 gpm) are obtained from wells located along the main stem in its

lower reaches and along Oak Creek.

               b.  (Duality

               Groundwater quality in the Calapooia Basin is generally

suitable for both domestic and irrigation uses.  Many wells, however,

are shallow and receive surface seepage, thereby being susceptible to

pollution.  Serious quality problems exist in certain areas of the lower

basin where mineral contamination and surface pollution of groundwater

restrict use and necessitate treatment.  Wells drilled deeper than 100

feet often tap water with sufficient salt content to be unfit for domestic

or irrigation use.  Hardness is also a problem.  This is readily apparent

by comparison of data presented in Table 6 of the Appendix.

-------
                                                          V-5




     B.  Willamette River Portion of the Study Area




          1.  Existing and Planned Water Resource Development




          The present water resource development in the Willamette Basin




has evolved over the last three decades as a result of continuous study




of the flood control power, navigation, and related resource needs.




Initially authorized by the Flood Control Act of 1938 and repeatedly




modified by subsequent acts, this development provides a system of




multi-purpose reservoirs which regulate the flows of the Willamette




and its tributaries.




          At present, there are fourteen multi-purpose storage reservoirs




authorized in the Willamette Basin.  Eight of the fourteen are in opera-




tion; together with three power reservoirs, these provide a usable




storage capacity of 1,515,600 acre-feet.  Reservoirs under construction




will provide an additional 646,000 acre-feet of usable storage.  Existing




and authorized storage capacity of 2,161,600 acre-feet is about 8.3 per-




cent of the annual 26 million acre-feet runoff of the basin.




          The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers estimates a potential




1,100,000 acre-feet of additional storage in the Willamette system,




which would bring the total storage capacity to 12.5 percent of the




annual runoff.  Investigations by FWPCA for the Bureau of Reclamation on




proposed irrigation projects on the Tualatin and Yamhill Rivers and




Rickreall Creek revealed that benefits would accrue from provision  for




storage for water quality control and municipal and industrial water




supply.  Storage in earlier reservoirs was not allocated for these




specific uses.

-------
                                                                   V-6


          When all existing and authorized Federal reservoirs are in
                                                            mean monthly low
full operation in Willamette Basin, the minimum unregulated/flow at

Salem (about 3jOOO cfs) will have been increased to approximately 5,500


cfs and in Portland harbor to about 6,500 cfs.

          2.  Stream Flow Frequency Analysis

          Stream flows have been recorded for the lower Willamette River


at Salem since 1909 and flow estimates of lower reaches are customarily

referenced to this gage (see Figure 3).  Table 4 in the Appendix shows

the results for a frequency analysis of stream flow at Salem and Portland

harbor.  The lowest mean monthly flow of the Willamette River at Salem

and at Portland--adjusted for regulation by all reservoirs now in operation,


under construction, or authorized—is estimated to be approximately 3,660

cfs and 4,760 cfs, respectively, on a recurrence frequency of one-in-ten

years.

          3.  Water Quality


          The chemical and physical quality of the main stem Willamette


River downstream  to Newberg pool, a rather sluggish reach  formed behind

Willamette Falls, is suitable for most uses.  Hardness ranges generally

from 15-25 mg/1 and dissolved solids from about 50 to 100  mg/1.  Nutrient


concentrations as nitrate have shown an increase between Albany and Newberg


from about 0.25 mg/1 to 0.5 mg/1.  Maximum water temperatures are in  the

order of 70  F during summer months.  During  these times below Newberg


pool (Portland harbor), stream waters are drastically degraded, as evidenced


by increased biochemical oxygen demand and critically low  dissolved oxygen

content.  Figures 4 and .5 illustrate these conditions.  As noted, dissolved


oxygen has on occasion dropped to about 2 mg/1.

-------
                                       A USGS Gcga

                                       W Prooosed Reserve!;
                                        V
                                       O Community
     NOLLE Y
RESERVOIR SITE
WATER SUPPLY&V/ATER QUALITYCC.V.'SCwSTUDY
        HOLLEY RESERVO::; PROJECT
      CALAPOOIA RlVE;?:.A3iK,OR=:GOX


          SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

           WILLAMETTE RIVER

UNITED SVATcS DE! PA Fv T";.'. E ,\T Of t,\TEn;.OS ~
    Podcrot\Voter Po!tution Control AdminiirrcTior.

REGIOMX    CO'.TCiO/CC)           PO"Tl.A';Dr-'-

-------
























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-------

35
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ED STATES DEPARTMENT Of- t.MERl
Federol V.'ctcr Pollution Control AdminisTrction
IX (DATt!
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iISSOLVSD OXYGEN & TEMPERATURE
LOWER "WILLAMETTE RIVER '
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HOLLEY RESERVOIR PROJECT
CALA?OO:A RIVER BASIN, OREGON

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                         	T9G4

-------
                          VI.  THE ECONOMY






     A. •* GeneraJL




     The demand for water for municipal and industrial purposes, and




the amount and character of waste waters resulting from such uses, are




determined largely by the activities associated with a region's economic




base.  The purpose of this section is to present economic and demographic




data to be used as a basis for projecting the needs for water for muni-




cipal and industrial purposes and for estimating the future amounts and




types of waste and land drainage material that may be expected to occur




in the Calapooia and main stem Willamette River study area with the




expanded development anticipated in the future.




     B.  Present




     The economic growth of the Calapooia and main stem Willamette study




areas has historically been based on timber and agriculture.  Although




diversification has taken place in recent years, these two natural




resource related industries continue to provide the impetus for overall




growth and development.  Timber harvesting and lumber production reached




peak levels between 1943 and 1956.  Since 1956, there has been a sharp




decline in lumber production, although the plywood and wood fiber




industries have continued to expand.




     Lumber and wood-products manufacturing are presently the largest




industries in the Calapooia River Basin.  Economic activity centers




around Brownsville, the basin's largest community, where several saw-




mills (employing about 125 persons) and a small particle board plant




are the major employers.

-------
                                                                VI-2


     There has been some decrease in total farm acreage during  the


past 30 years, but an increase in crop-land acreage.  Most of this



increase has been in vegetables, with a decrease in small grains,


tree fruits, and nuts.  The foremost crop in the area is seed grass.



A seed warehouse in Halsey is one of the largest in the Willamette
      ''>

Basin and is the toxvn's principal employer.



     The Calapooia Basin reflects the national trend toward a decrease


in rural population.  At the present time, however, the majority of


people continue to live on farm sites.  Total population in the


Calapooia River Basin in 1960 was 8,800.



     The Willamette main stem urban areas below Calapooia River serve


as trade and service centers, several of which have attracted many


diversified industries along with lumber and wood-products.  The


Portland Metropolitan Area provides a trading and service center for


many Willamette and State of Oregon communities and industries.  Pulp


and paper mills are located at Oregon City, West Linn, and Newberg.


Food processing plants operate on a seasonal basis at Albany and Salem.


     Table VI-1 shows the 1950 and 1960 population of incorporated


towns in the Calapooia Basin and main stem Willamette River study


areas.



     C.  Projected Economic Base and Population


          1.  Factors Influencing Riturc Growth


          The economic future of the Calapooia Basin to year 2010 will



most likely follow existing trends.  Some increase in the timber harvest



due to maturing of second-growth stands may be expected and, with the

-------
                                                                 VI-3
                            TABLE VI-1
                POPULATION OF INCORPORATED PLACES
        WILLAMETTE RIVER MAINSTEM & GALAPOOIA RIVER BASIN

         Location                            1950         I960
WILLAMETTE RIVER MAINSTEM:
   Portland	373,628      372,298
   Milwaukie 	    5,253        9,099
   Oswego	    3,316        8,906
   Gladstone	    2,434        3,854
   West Linn	    2,945        3,933
   Oregon City	    7,682        7,996
   Newberg 	    3,946        4,204
   Salem 	   43,140       49,142
   Independence	    1,987        1,930
   Albany	   10,115       12,926
CALAPOOIA RIVER BASIN:
   Brownsville 	 .....  1,175          875
   Halsey	    388          404
   Sodaville	    157          145
Source:  U. S. Census of Population, 1950 & 1960.

-------
                                                                VI-4




expansion of this resource, the basin's forest-produces industries




will grow.  Capacity at the sawmill in Brownsville should increase, and




increased capacity at the particle board plant also seems likely.




Agricultural production is expected to increase due to expanded irri-




gation and improved productivity.  With increased irrigation, a more




diversified agricultural base, with greater emphasis on dairying and




vegetable crops  could logically develop.  This will provide the




resource for an increased service industry at Brownsville and Halsey.




Some spill-over of the growth anticipated for urban areas of Linn




(particularly Albany) and Lane Counties may add to the basin's growth.




Development of a substantial manufacturing industry appears unlikely.




          In the lower Willamette Basin it is expected that the ratio




of service industry jobs to manufacturing jobs will increase in line




with national trends.  Service industry categories whose employment




increased most rapidly during 1950-60 will probably continue to show




the greatest increases in the future.  These include truck transporta-




tion and warehousing, wholesale trade, finance-insurance-real estate,.




professional services, education, and public administration.




          In manufacturing, continued growth of population is expected




to make possible the establishment of market-oriented plants for the




production of goods formerly brought in from outside the Portland




region.  Except for those industries whose location is oriented towards




the site of a fixed resource, it is expected that the distribution of




employment in the region will become more like that in the nation.  On




this basis, growth is particularly likely to occur in the following

-------
                                                                 VI-5




categories:  machinery, vehicles and other transportation equipment,




shipbuilding, cement, glass, concrete, stone and clay products, pro-




fessional and photographic equipment, textiles, apparel, and chemicals.




          2.  Future




          The Holley Reservoir project and its possible influence on




irrigation is the principal modifying factor to be considered in gaging




the future of the Calapooia Basin.  If the history of other irrigation




developments may be used to interpret probable effects in the basin,




additional irrigation can be expected to slow the downward course of




population trends.  Large agricultural outputs are more likely to




result in expansion of food-processing activities in the Salem or Albany




service area than in establishment of processing in the Calapooia River




Basin.




        .  The proposed Holley Reservoir project anticipates eventual




service to 41,700 acres of new land in Calapooia Basin.  The servicing




of organized districts is expected to be gradual with full service in




about 30 years.




          In the past few years, a leveling off in production of timber




products has been experienced within the middle Willamette Basin (from




the Long Tom to the Tualatin).  It is probable that a plateau has been




reached and will continue during the next 20 years.  Timber lands should




be near sustained-yield levels at about the end of the study period.




          Neither the recent history of the Calapooia Basin area nor




the prospects of economic development outlined above suggests vigorous




population expansion during the study period.  Most of the growth in the

-------
                                                                  VI-6

basin is forecast to occur at Brownsville.  While rural population if

forecast, to remain about 7,000, it is anticipated that the present

Brownsville population will triple by 1985 and that the 2010 population

will be double that of 1985.  The other incorporated places in the basin

will increase slightly but not significantly.  Table VI-2 shows the

projected population for the Calapooia Basin.

                             TABLE VI-2
                  PRESENT AND PROJECTED POPULATION
                   CAIAPOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
                        I960, 1985, & 2010

jjOcauion

Halsey 	 	

Sodaville 	
Rural Area 	 	
TOTAL, Calapooia River Basin .
Population
1960
. . 1.0
. . 0.4
. , 0.2
. . 0.2
. . 7.0
. . 8.8
, in
1985
3
1
1
0.5
7
12.5
thousands
2010
6
2
1
1
7
17
          Future Willamette main stem population growth was estimated

from projections of future employment in manufacturing industries,

together with assumptions concerning ratios of service-to-manufacturing

employment and ratios of population-to-total labor force.  As a check,

the results obtained were compared with national population projections

allocated to various states and hence, to river basin areas in Oregon.

The results of these.population forecasts are summarized in Table VI-3.

-------
                                                          VI-7
                        TABLE VI-3
             PRESENT AND PROJECTED POPULATION
            WILLAMETTE RIVER MAIN STEM, OREGON
                    I960, 1985, & 2010
Tributary Area
Portland (City Limits). . . .
Milwaukie & Vicinity . . . .
bswego & Vicinity ......
Gladstone & Vicinity 	
West Linn 	
Oregon City & Vicinity. . . .
Newberg 	

Albany 	
Other 	
Population,
in
1960 1985
.... 373
.... 38
.... 14
.... 7
.... 4
.... 11
.... 6
. . . . 77
.... 15
.... 32
600
107
40
16
11
26
17
178
41
53
thousands
2010
1,000
220
80
35
21
48
38
363
91
90
TOTAL	.  .  577    1,089     1,986

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          VII.  WATER REQUIREMENTS—MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL






      A.  Present Water Use




      Communities within direct range of the proposed Holley Reservoir




are Holley, Brownsville and Halsey.  Depending upon the quantity and




quality of water available at each location, these communities'water




supplies could benefit from storage.




      The City of Albany, located at the mouth of the Calapooia River,




obtains its water supply from the South Santiam River outside of the




study area.  Holley, Sod-aville, and other small communities within




Calapooia Basin have not yet developed community water supply systems.




Residents of these smaller communities, as well as people living in




rural areas, are supplied by wells and other individual facilities.




      The Brownsville municipal water facilities serve approximately




1,000 persons at the average rate of 140,000 gallons per day (gpd),




or 155 acre-feet per year.  Water is obtained from an infiltration




gallery on the Calapooia River.  The water plant has a rated capacity of




720,000 gpd (1.1 cfs).  Brownsville has surface and groundwater rights




of 430,000 and 320,000 gpd, respectively.




      At Halsey, the Citizens Water and Light Company provides water




from a well to serve approximately 200 persons at the average rate of




20,000 gpd, or 22 acre-feet per year.




      No significant amount of surface or ground water is being used




exclusively for industrial purposes in the Calapooia Basin.

-------
                                                               VII-2

      B.   Existing Source Development
                                               Calapooia
      The greatest demand for M&I water in the /  Basin     occurs at

 Brownsville,   The minimum daily flow recorded for the Calapooia River

 at Brownsville is approximately 13 cfs (8.4 mgd).  This flow would

 also be  available to the Holley community, located about 13 miles

 upstream.   Chemical analyses indicate a relatively good quality water

 at Brownsville (see Table 6, Appendix).  Chlorination is the only

 treatment practiced.

      The municipal well at Halsey has a rated capacity of 50 gpm.  The

 present  demand averages about 20,000 gpd, or 14 gpm.  Difficulties have

 been experienced in developing well supplies in this area  due  to

  limited yields          and water quality is generally unsatisfactory

 due to high brine content (see Table 6, Appendix).

      C.   Forecast of Future Water Needs

      Projected population growth in the Calapooia       area

(Table VI-2) and increasing per capita water demands indicate increased
                                                       year 2010.
 requirements for M&I water within the study period  to /      Based on
                                                 whole
 trends tov/ard higher per capita demands in the/Willamette Basin, the

 estimated daily per capita demand by 1985 will be about 200 gallons and

 by 2010  about 225 gallons.  Applying these values to expected municipal

 populations in the Calapooia area reveals future demands as shown in

 Table VII-1.   The expected annual  demand distribution for Brownsville,

 the major supply in the basin, is shown in Table_VIl-2_.

-------
                                                             VII-3
                           TABLE VI1-1
              MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL  WATER DEMAND
                  CALAPOOLA RIVER BASIN,  OREGON
                       1960,  1985,  6= 2010
Community
Brownsville


Halsey


Hoi ley


Sodaville


Year
1960
1985
2010
1960
1985
2010
1960
1985
2010
1960
1985
2010
Population
Served
(1000's)
1
3
6
0.2
1
2
0
1
1
0
0.5
1
Ave. Annual
Demand
(mgd)
0.14
0.60
1.35
0.02
0.20
0.45
0.00
'0.20
0.23
0.00
0.10
0.23
Maximum
Monthly
(mgd)
0.26
1.1
2.6
0.04
0.4
0.8
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.0
0.2
0.4
Demand
Daily
(mgd)
0.4
1.6
3.6
0.06
0.5
1.2
0.0
0.5
0.6
0.0
0.3
0.6
                               TABLE VII-2
        PROJECTED AVERAGE MONTHLY M&I WATER DEMAND AT BROWNSVILLE
                      CALAPOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
                               1985 & 2010	
  Month
                          1985
                                       2010
Percent of Avg.  Demand
 Annual Demand    (mgd)
Percent of Avg.
 Annual Demand
                                                               Demand
January ....
February. . .   .
March .....
April 	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September . .   .
October . . .   .
November. . .   .
December. . .   .
                                                                0,
                                                                0.
                                                  92
                                                  96
                                                                0.99
                                                                  ,06
                                                                  ,11
                                                                  ,76
                                                                  ,62
                                                                  ,11
                                                                  ,42
                                                                  ,15
                                                                  ,04
                                                                1.06
AVERAGE ....
      100
                                  0.60
      100
1.35

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                                                                VII-4




     Study area water demands for the respective years 1985 and 2010




are projected to total 1.10 and 2.26 mgd.  Demands in areas within range




of Holley Reservoir for these years are 1.0 and 2.03 mgd, respectively.




About 65 percent of this demand will occur at Brownsville,




     Limits on waters presently available in Calapooia Basin and




adjacent areas indicate a relatively early need for storage to supple-




ment existing municipal rights in the Brownsville and Holley areas




and to replace groundwater supplies at Halsey.  The annual need by the




end of the study period is for about 1,500 acre-feet of storage to yield




1.3 mgd.  First need for about 500 acre-feet will begin at the time of




assumed project completion (1975) when summer demands are expected to




exceed water rights and when transmission and treatment facilities at




Halsey could be completed for operation.

-------
                    VIII.  WATER QUALITY CONTROL




     A.  Ne:_ed_£or Cont:ro 1
       . T


          Surface waters in the Calapooia and Willamette River  Basins



     are used for municipal and industrial water supply, resident ond



anadromous fishery, recreation, navigation, irrigation, power and

      4

disposal of municipal and industrial waste.



          1.  Municipal and Industrial



          As discussed in the preceding chapter, both the existing and



potential supplies in Calapooia Basin rely heavily on surface water.



No use is made of Willamette River below the mouth of Calapooia River



for M&I supply; and no appreciable use is expected within the period of



this study.



          2.  Fishery



          One of the outstanding uses of the Willamette River and its



tributaries is the production of anadromous fish for the sport and



commercial fisheries of the Willamette and Columbia Rivers and the



Pacific Ocean.  Large populations of salmon and steelhead, highly prized



by sport anglers and commercial fishermen alike, make the Willamette



fishery of unique importance.   It should also be noted that the Willa-



mette is a "nursery," providing many of the fish for the commercial



fishery in the ocean and the Columbia River.  Moreover, the abundance



of fast-moving,  sparkling clear streams in the headwater areas provides



an excellent habitat for the delicate salmonid species and an abundance



of fishing opportunities to the sportsman.

-------
                                                                VIII-2

          Game  and  food  fish  found  in  the Willamette  Basin are  the

anadromo,us salmon (spring chinook,  fall chinook, and  coho), steelhead

trout, resident species of trout, and warm-water game fish.  Sturgeon

and shad are also present downstream from Willamette  Falls.




          An inventory of spring chinook in the Willamette River is

available from counts made annually at Willamette Falls by the  State

Fish Commission and from the annual sport fishery survey made jointly

by the State Fish and Game Commissions.  The average  annual run into

the Willamette during the period 1946-1964 was 51,000 fish.  The average

escapement upstream past Willamette Falls was 36,100  fish, with an

additional 2,500 fish entering the Clackamas River.   The difference

between the run and escapement (12,000 fish) is the sport catch.  Accurate

estimates of coho and steelhead are not available, but their numbers

are not large at the present time.

          Enhancement of the Calapooia and main stem Willamette fishery

is believed possible with improved passage facilities, controlled water

quality and increased minimum stream flows.   Potential fish runs possible

under controlled conditions are estimated as follows:  spring chinook—

65,000, fall chinook—90,000, coho--90,000,  steelhead—40,000.  The
                                                        t
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries estimates the gross value of these fish

to be nearly $4 million annually, three-fourths of which is attributable


to commercial fishing.

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                                                               VIII-3




          3.  Recreation and Aesthetics




          Recreation development has been largely concentrated near




headwater areas, distant from population centers of the valley.  However,




if the current trends of increased income and leisure time continue,




there will be growing pressure for broader recreational use of the




Willamette River itself, which is the water recreational resource nearest




the basin's populations.  There are riverside park developments in most




of the communities along the banks of the Willamette; most have boat




launching facilities; and each has supported measures to improve the




quality of local waters through waste treatment.  Current plans of




Willamette Basin communities include expansion of river parks at Eugene,




Corvallis, Albany, Salem, and Portland.




          The Willamette River passes by, or through, every major com-




munity in the basin.  More than a million persons, two-thirds of




Oregon's population, lived in the Willamette Basin in 1960, and over




half of these in a dozen communities on the banks of the Willamette.




The use of water for recreation and as a scenic adjunct to dwelling




sites is a significant manifestation of public appreciation of attractive




waterbodies.  As in development of recreational facilities, there is a




trend toward more complete utilization of the river in community




environment.  The beauty of  the physical environment is being  recognized




locally and nationally as important to community feeling, productivity




and personal satisfaction.




          4.  Irrigation




          In 1964, about 200,000 acres were being irrigated in Willamette




Basin; by 1985, irrigated land is projected to be about 350,000 acres;

-------
                                                            VIII-4




and by 2010, irrigated land may be as high as 750,000 acres.  Based




on the 1964 crop distribution, the gross water aiverted for irrigation




vas 2.56 acre-feet per acre.  Applying this factor, the total water




diverted for irrigation in the Willamette Basin may be estimated as




follows:  1960—512,000 acre-feet; 1985—896,000 acre-feet; and 2010—




1,920,000 acre-feet.  The impact of irrigation water return flows is




not expected to be significant in most areas of the basin.




     B.  Municipal, Industrial, and Agricultural Pollution




     Present and potential municipal and industrial waste discharges




to main stem Calapooia and Willamette Rivers are major considerations




in establishing needs for flow regulation for water quality control




in the proposed Calapooia River Project.  Water pollution measured




in terms of organic waste demands on the dissolved oxygen (DO)




resource of stream waters and DO requirements for maintenance of an




adequate environment for fish and other aquatic life dictate the .




level of control required.  As indicated in Chapter V, Portland




harbor is the only section along the main stem Willamette River where




significant DO depletions have occurred and where a need for greater




control of water quality is indicated.




     Agricultural pollution in Willamette Basin is recognized mainly




as a bacteriological problem, reducible by restrictions on animal




feed lots and grazing areas.  Control of bacterial pollution by flow




regulation is neither practical nor effective.  Irrigation return




flows, although minimal, carry soil minerals, fertilizers, pesticides,




etc. to surface streams.

-------
                                                            . VIII-5



          1.  Present Waste Loads



          In Calapooia Basin, the community of Brownsville  is  the



largest single source of municipal and industrial waste.  Municipal



waste in this area is collected and treated by lagoon stabilization.



The total daily load to Calapooia River in this area, including
  t>


industrial particle board plant waste, is estimated  to be 220  PE.



          Major loading points along  the Willamette  River study



area exist at Albany, Salem, Newberg, Oregon City and Portland.



Tributary streams contributing residual loadings to  main stem



Willamette are Luckiamute and Santiam Rivers, Rickreall Creek  and



Yamhill,- Molalla, Tualatin and Clackamas Rivers.  Table VIII-1



summarizes for 1964 the direct and indirect or residual loads  (total



of 737,000 PE)  received in the Willamette River downstream from



the Calapooia River.   An inventory of major waste sources in the



entire Willamette Basin is given in Table 9 of the Appendix.



          Of the total waste produced in 1964, approximately 18



percent was derived from municipal sources and approximately 82



percent from industries.   Pulp and paper mills located throughout •



the basin contribute a substantial portion (8170) of  the total



industrial load.   Food processing plants add another 15 percent,



and the balance is produced by a diversity of manufacturing and


service industries.



          2.   Future Waste Loads



          Future waste load projections are based on the economic



forecasts presented in Chapter VI.   Tables VI1I-1 and ^ respectively,

-------
                                              VIII-6
            TABLE VIII-1
PRESENT AND PROJECTED M&I WASTE LOADS
  WILLAMETTE RIVER MAINSTEH,  OREGON
Service Area

Willamette River

Albany


Total 	
Luckiamute River
Total Residual. . . .
Santiam River
Total Residual. . . .
Independence
Municipal 	
Industrial 	
Total 	 	
Rickreall Creek
Total Residual. . . .
Salem

Industrial 	
Total 	
Yamhill River
Total Residual. . . .
Newberg


Total . . 	
Molalla River
Total Residual. . . .
Canby

Tualatin River
Total Residual. . . .

Population Equivalents (PE)
' 1964

	 57,000

	 2,400
	 27,290
	 29,690

	 . 1,700

	 49,000

	 	 1,020
	 90
	 1,110

	 500

	 12,730
	 1-69,800
....... 182,530

, 	 2,600

	 670
	 116,330
, 	 117,000

	 1,900

	 360

	 3,100
(continued, next page)
1985

147,000

7,680
40,460
48,140

1,700

7.7,000

2,810
140
2,950

500

33,450
338,850
372,300.

5,200

3,200
246,820
250,020

3,800

1,310

11,600

2010

214,000

11,100
48,040
59,140

1,700

60,500

4,000
120
4,120

500

45,300
396,900
442,200

' 5,400

4,750
275,100
279,850

4,200

1,750

16,000


-------
                                                              VIII-7
                      TABLE VIII-1 (continued)
                PRESENT AND PROJECTED M&I WASTE LOADS
                  WILLAMETTE RIVER MAINSTEM, OREGON
   Service Area                          Population Equivalents (PE)
                                         1964       1985       2010


Oregon City
  Municipal	•.	    2,930     13,050     17,320
  Industrial	309,000    375,900    275,200
  Total 	  311,930    388,950    292,520
                                           *
Clackamas River
Portland Urban Area-

Total 	
SERVICE AREA TOTALS
Municipal. ........

. . . . 4,650
. . . . 19,200
. . . . 23,850
. . . . 24,760
. . . . 641,710
25,200
0
25,200
86,700
1,002,170
34,200
0
34,200
118,420
995,360
      SUBTOTAL	666,470  1,088,870  1,113,780

   TRIBUTARIES	127,600    258,600    314,100

      GRAND TOTAL 	  794,070  1,347,470  1,427,880
— Major portion treated and discharged to Columbia River
                             TABLE VIII-2
                         PROJECTED M&I WASTE LOADS
                           CALAPOOIA RIVER, OREGON
Service Area
Holley-Crawfordsville— .....

TOTALS 	

Population Equivalents (PE)
1985
. . 200
. . 600
. . 800

2010
200
1 . 100
1,300
—Assumed installation of collection and treatment facilities by 1985,

-------
                                                          VIII-8




show the combined municipal and industrial loading expected along




the Willamette and Calapooia Rivers for the years 1985 and 2010.
    •»



The loadings shown assume provisions for adequate treatment conforming




with the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 466 et seq.),




which provides that the inclusion of storage for regulation of

  4*


streamflow for the purpose of water quality control shall not be




provided as a substitute for adequate treatment or other means of




controlling waste at the sources.




          Adequate treatment is considered by the Federal Water




Pollution Control Administration to mean effective waste collection




and secondary treatment for domestic wastes and equivalent reduction




of industrial waste loads by a combination of process control,




internal waste savings, water reuse and effluent treatment.  At




the present time, efficiently operated trickling filter plants,




widely used in intermediate sized communities, are considered capable




of 80 to 90 percent BOD removal while the activated sludge process




is considered capable of 85 to 95 percent removal.  Because of the




problems of efficient operation to maintain such high removals,




the effect of diurnal fluctuations in waste loads, the lags experi-




enced in plant construction to provide for the growth in waste loads,




and the uncollectible wastes associated with urban storm water and/




or combined sewer overflows, it is deemed reasonable at this time




to expect an overall equivalent of 85 percent BOD removal in a well




operated sewage collection and treatment system.  In this study area,

-------
                                                           VIII-9




where the largest waste loads are from the pulp and paper industry




and ^here barging, lagooning and land disposal of waste is practiced,




it is believed that BOD reductions of 85 and 90 percent with respect




to the stream are feasible for the years 1985 and 2010, respective-




ly^, and have been used for design purposes in this report,




     C •  Water Quali ty Objectives




     Water quality control evaluations consider primarily those




water quality and pollution control problems which can be improved




or maintained by streamflow regulation.  For the Calapooia and




Willamette Rivers these include dissolved oxygen, temperature, and




nuisance aquatic growths, and are associated with maintenance of




fish life, water recreation, and aesthetic environment.  Water




quality objectives have been developed for the various uses based




on the following indicators.




          * •  Piss ol vd
          The dissolved oxygen  (DO) objective for Calapooia and




Willamette Rivers is delimited  by anadromous fishery requirements —




the use requiring the highest DO level.  Other uses served at  this




level are recreation and aesthetic conditions.




          Calapooia River above Butte Creek  (R.M. 19.8) provides




spawning and rearing habitat for salmon and  steelhead requiring DO




levels of no less than 7 mg/1.  Below Butte  Creek,  the Calapooia




River is sluggish and unsuited  for fish spawning and rearing,  thus




this reach requires a minimum DO objective of 5 mg/1 to assure




satisfactory fish passage.

-------
                                                            VIII-10


          Since the Willamette River main stem above Oregon City


is used at all times of the year for salmon and steelhead spawning,


rearing and migration, a minimum DO objective of no less than 7 mg/1


must be maintained throughout the year.  Below Willamette Falls at


Oregon City, and through Portland harbor, a minimum of 5 mg/1 is
  'i;

required to assure adequate fish passage.


          2.  Temperature


          Temperature requirements for the Calapooia and Willamette


Rivers are governed mainly by the anadromous fishery.  Recreation


and general stream conditions also benefit from cooler water temper-


atures.  Maximum temperatures should not exceed 70°F during summer


months to facilitate fish migration, holding and rearing, and by


mid-September, temperatures should not exceed 57°F to obtain optimum


egg survival.


          Maintenance of optimum temperature and DO levels by


selected releases from storage at the Holley site would be expected


to enhance the anadromous fish habitat, particularly in that reach


of Calapooia River downstream to about Brownsville.


          3.  Bacteria


          Coliform bacterial objectives for recreation and water


supply use are 1,000 MPN and 5,000 MPN, respectively.  Municipal and


industrial  (sanitary) waste treatment, including disinfection,  and


controls at animal feed lots and grazing areas are required  to


reduce bacterial concentrations.

-------
                                                            VIII-11


     D.   Evaluation of Flow Regulation^ Requirements


     Maintenance of adequate minimum streamflows for control of water
    i
quality in Calapooia and Willamette Rivers will insure that economic


values associated with water-oriented uses and activities will


continue and have an opportunity to grow in the future without

  **
flow regulation.  Waste treatment technology as now known and prac-


ticed will not in itself maintain water quality objectives in


downstream areas of Willamette River and Portland harbor.  With


respect to Calapooia River quality, the 20 cfs base flow reserved


by the Oregon Water Resources Board for stream conservation will


adequately protect water quality over the projection period of this


study.


          1.  Dissolved Oxygen (DO)


          DO-flow relationships computed by use of oxygen balance


techniques for present and projected waste loading conditions along


Calapooia River and for Portland harbor a.re shown in Figure 6.  A


projected minimum need for 15 cfs in the Calapooia River at Browns-


ville and downstream during months of greatest loading (July-August—


2010) is indicated.  This flow compared with the flows for design


one-in-ten year low monthly flow (46 cfs) (Table VII1-3), indicates


that more than adequate streamflow (with adequate waste treatment) is


available to meet Calapooia River dissolved oxygen objectives of


7 tng/1 above Butte Creek and 5 mg/1 below.  According to this


evaluation, therefore, a draft-on-storage (incremental increase


over and above inflows) from Holley Reservoir for control of water

-------
                                                            VIII-12


quality in Calapooia River docs not appear needed during the study


period.

    •^
          Data shown in Table VII1-4 for Portland Harbor indicates


that control of water quality in Portland harbor by the years 1985


and 2010 will require a total minimum average flow of 8,930 cfs

  £•
and 9,280 cfs respectively during low flow periods (July through


September) to assimilate treated wastes projected for those years.


To obtain this flow and meet fish passage and other use objectives


on a 90 percent annual achievement probability basis, an annual


draft-on-storage of 623,000 acre-feet by 1985 and 690,000 acre-


feet by the year 2010 will be needed.  Without this regulation,


adequate waste treatment to 85 percent by 1985 and to 90 percent


efficiency by 2010 would control minimum DO levels to about 2 mg/1


thus allowing little margin for diurnal fluctuations in waste loads,


efficiency of plant operation, benthic demands, and effects of


extreme drought.  With the needed regulation indicated above, DO


objective levels would not be significantly reduced on a o'ne-in-


twenty-year low flow recurrence interval.


          2.  Temperature


          A preliminary study was undertaken on the Calapooia River


to determine the probable thermal effects of the proposed Holley


Reservoir.  Possible reservoir release temperatures were determined


using preliminary energy budget and water budget analyses.  The


maximum temperatures of proposed reservoir releases were determined


at Brownsville, a point about 13 miles below the dam.  In determining

-------
           8-


           7-


           6-
         en
         E
        Cj
        0
             0
         en
         E
           8-


           7-


           6-


           5-
        .E **~
        Cj
           3-


           2-


           I-
         Colopooia River
         Below Drownsville
                          5
     10

FLOW, CFS
                          15
20
        Portland  Hoi-bor
10,000
    FLOW,
     20,000
                                                   30,000
40,000
                                             CFS
Note:
Required Flows Arc Based On
Waste  Treatment Efficiency
Of 90%  BOO Removal.
  WATER SUPPLY a WATER QUALITY  CONTROL  STUDY
          HOLLEY RESERVOIR PROJECT
        CALAPOOIA R.VZR QAS1N,  OREGON

       DO-FLOY/  RELATIONSHIPS
                 YEAR  2010
                                    UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF  THE  INTERIOR
                                     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
                                    REGION IX   tOATE I2/G01
                                                                 PORTLAND,

-------
                                                               VIII-14
                             TABLE VIII-3
     "REQUIRED STREAM FLOW REGIMEN FOR CONTROL OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN!'
                     CAIAPOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
. November
December
Design Low
Base Flow?/
(cfs)
719
811
640
499
326
164
80
46
51
169
550
806
Required Streamflow
(cfs)
5
7
8
10
12
13
15
15
14
11
8
6
i' Based on adequate treatment of organic wastes discharged to
   stream in year 2010,

£' One-in-ten year low flow recurrence interval.

-------
                                                           VIII-15
                            TABLE VIII-4
        REQUIRED STREAMFLOW REGIMEN FOR WATER QUALITY CONTROL
                WILLAMETTE RIVER AT PORTLAND, OREGON U
b
Month
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Total, ac-ft
Base
Flow
(cfs)
36,240
34,090
26,970
22,020
17,800
10,390
5,260
4,760
6,590
9,660
24,780
32,490
Required Strearaflow
(cfs)
1985
4,810
4,790
5,050
5,671
7,395
7,942
9,418
9,312
8,061
6,770
5,316
4,386
2010
4,924
4,902
5,223
5,854
7,614
8,182
9,615
9,572
8,643
7,003
5,553
4,571
Required Annual
Draf t-on-Stroagel'
(acre-feet)
1985
0
0
0
0
0
0
255,800
280,000
87,500
0
0
0
623,300
2010
0
0
0
0
0
0
268,000
296,000
126,300
0
0
0
690,300
£.' DO Objective:  5 rag/1 
-------
                                                            VIII-16

reservoir release temperatures, it was assumed that selector gates

would be adopted.  Results of the study are summarized in Table VIII-5,
                           TABLE VIII-5
             REGULATION OF PROPOSED I10LLEY RESERVOIR
                FOR DOWNSTREAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL


Dam Site
Proposed
Natural Mean Mean Monthly Reservoir
Month
May
June
July
August
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Monthly Disch. Water
(cfs) (°F
375
190
75
40
45
195
625
DATA SOURCE: U.

U.
52
58
66
66
59
50
45
S. Geological
S. Army Corps
Temp. Release
) (cfs)
321
483
658
556
337
132
132
Survey and
of Engineers
Schedule
Releases
Est. Temp.
50
60
60
60
60
55
50


Probable Max.
Stream Temp.@
Brownsville
<°F>
55
65
70
70
65
60
50



-------
                             IX.   BENEFITS









     ""A.   Water Supply  -  Municipal and  Industrial (M&I)




      As  described  in Chapter VII, a  future  need  for  storage  for




municipal and  industrial supply  exists  in the  Calapooia  and  adjacent




Halsey area.   The  need by the end of the  study period  is for annual




storage  in Holley  Reservoir  (1,500 acre-feet)  to yield the 1.3




mgd  supplemental requirement or  about 57  percent of  the  total




expected  demand  (2,26  mgd).   First need for about  500 acre-feet will




begin approximately  at the time  of assumed  project completion in




1975.




      The  value of  storage for M&I water supply is  considered equal




to the cost of single-purpose development that would be  incurred in




obtaining the needed supply  in the absence  of  Holley Reservoir




Project.   The most likely alternative storage  sites available to




serve the  Brownsville-Halsey  and  the Holley  areas  are, respectively,




on Cochran Creek about two and a  half miles  north  of Brownsville,




and on an unnamed'tributary  just  north of Holley.  Based on  the




total capital cost ($750,000)  of  these alternatives amortized over




a 100-year period at 3.125 percent interest, the annual value of




1,500 acre-feet of storage in  the project including annual operation




and maintenance expenses  ($3,900)  is estimated to be $28,500.




     B.   Water Quality Control




     Benefits can be assigned  to releases from Federal storage for




regulation of streamflow  for water quality control only after a




reasonable degree of treatment or control of waste at the source is

-------
                                                             IX-2




provided.   In  this instance, waste treatment or oi~her controls at




the source  would not in itself meet the quality goals described in




Chapter VIII.




     Storage releases for control of water quality in Portland




harbor and  for enhanced stream'temperatures in Calapooia River




would produce  economic benefits in terms of enhanced fish and




wildlife production, improved recreational opportunities and public




health, and aesthetic safeguards.  The beneficiaries of this control




are distributed widely throughout the Willamette River Basin, the




State of Oregon, and the Pacific Northwest and cannot, therefore, be




specifically identified.  Riparian owners, a potential population of




nearly 2 million persons, recreation, and fishery activities associ-




ated with anadromous fish runs (averaging more than 50,000 annually)




would be the major recipients of the benefits of this control.




     The precise monetary value of the benefit assignable to storage




in Willamette Basin projects for water quality control is not in




this instance readily measurable.  The minimum value of the benefit




assignable  to an annual draft-on-storage in Holley Reservoir and/or




additional reservoirs that may be required to meet water quality




objectives in Portland harbor is, however, considered at least equal




to the cost of achieving the same level of water quality by alter-




native means in the absence of the project or projects.




     For purposes of this report, flow regulation benefits were




analyzed on the basis of alternative single-purpose storage and




advanced waste treatment costs.  Waste disposal underground, holding

-------
                                                               IX-3




of waste  for discharge during periods of high stream  flow, waste




transport downstream and restriction of future development were




not  considered  to be either adequate or equivalent alternatives to




the  control that could be accomplished by  flow regulation.




     Compared to single-purpose storage (Plans A and  B prepared by




the  U. S. Army  Corps of Engineers) advanced waste treatment was




found  to be the cheapest alternative to flow regulation for water




quality control.  The estimated annual equivalent advanced waste




treatment cost  per acre-foot was found to  be $3.98 compared to $9.90




for  least-cost  single-purpose storage.




     Based on this alternative cost analysis, the minimum value of




the widespread water quality control benefit assignable to storage




for water quality control is $3.98 per acre-foot.  Multiplied by 690,000




acre-feet--the  total storage required by the year 2010—the annual




benefit on a 100-year basis is $2,750,000  (rounded).




     Specific storage releases from Holley Reservoir  resulting in




improved minimum flows in Portland harbor would have  an annual




vorth of $3.98 per acre-foot.  Water quality benefits associated




with releases for temperature control and  flow stabilization in




Calapooia River would be at least equal to the value  of the enhanced




fishery.   This latter value will be calculated by the U.  S. Fish and




Wildlife Service.




     In planning for additional water resource development in Cala-




pooia and Willamette River Basin areas, consideration should be




given to preserving the excellent quality of water in upper basin

-------
                                                            IX-4




tributary streams and to maintaining sufficient quality in lower




river areas to permit reasonable use for fish passage and rearing,




recreation, and general aesthetic enjoyment.  Maintenance of water




quality objectives for fish migration and propagation would assure




continued multiple use of the waters and would necessitate continued




updating of waste treatment facilities, improved land and water




management practices, and ultimate annual storage releases over




and above present authorized development of 690,000 acre-feet for




control of water quality in Portland harbor.




     After the project is in operation, a system of water quality




and waste monitoring and stream flow forecasting will be needed in




order to fully utilize flow regulation for water quality control.




     Maintenance of water quality in Calapooia River without flow




regulation is predicated on the release of water which is relatively




uniform in quality from Holley Reservoir.  Thermal stratification




and reduced dissolved oxygen in lower levels of the reservoir can be




expected.  Multi-gated outlets providing flexibility of releases




by depth should, therefore, be considered in the design of Holley




Dam.

-------
                     X.  BIBLIOGRAPHY
 1.  Upper Willamette Resource Conservation and Development
     Project Prgpram.  Preparation assisted by the U. S.
     Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service,
     Portland, Oregon, December 1964, 54 pp.

&2.  State Water Resources Board,  Middle Willamette River Basin
     Salem, Oregon, June 1963, 138 pp.

 3.  State Water Resources Board,  Middle Willamette Basin.Wa_ter_
     Rights Summary, Salem, Oregon, March 1962, 124 pp.

 4.  State Water Resources Board,  Water Quality Data Inventory
     Salem, Oregon, Bulletin No.  1, 128 pp.

 5.  State Water Resources Board,  Program for the Use and
     Control of the Water Resources of the Middle Willamette
     River Basin, Salem, Oregon,  June 22, 1964, 18 pp.

 6.  State College, Engineering Experiment Station, The^Fishes
     of the Willamette River System in Relation to Pollution
     by R. E.  Dimick and Fred Merryfield, Corvallis, Oregon,
     Bulletin No. 20, 1945, 58 pp.

 7.  U. S. Geological Survey, Ground-water Resources of the
     Willamette Valley, Oregon, WSP #890, by A. M, Piper,
     1942.

 8.  Portland  District, U.  S. Army Corps of Engineers, Report
     on Sedimentation, Willamette  River Basin, Oregon
     December  1948 - July 1951, 17 pp. w/ 185 charts.

 9.  U. S. Bureau of Reclamation,  Region I, Boise, Idaho,
     Monmouth-Dallas Project, Oregon, December 1962, 45 pp.

-------
APPENDIX

-------
'APPENDIX
                               TABLE 1
                        RECORDED STREAMFLOW DATA
                      CALAPOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
                                                                        A-l
                                       HOLLEY
                              ALBANY
    Station No.

    Elevation,  Ft.

    Drainage Area,  Sq.  Mi.

    Record

    Average Discharge,  cfs

    Average Discharge>  acre-feet

    Maximum Day,  cfs


    Minimum Day,  cfs


    Regulation above  Station

    Diversions above  Station
       14-1720

        527.58

        105

Sept 1935-Sept 1963

        448

    323,600

     12,200
    Dec 28,'45

         13
    Sept 8,'40

        None

        None
       14'-1735

        180.85

        372

Oct 1940-Sept 1963

        930

    673,300

     32,700
    Dec 22,'55

          4
    Oct  7,'52

        None

Approx 2700 acres
   irrigated
   Source:  U. S. Geological  Survey - Water Supply Papers

-------
APPENDIX
                                                                       A-2


                                    TABLE 2
                       RECORDED STREAMFLOW DATA AT SALEM
.	WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON	

         Station Number	14-1910

         Elevation, Feet	106.14

         Drainage Area, Square Miles ....   7,280

         Record	 October 1909 - December 1916
                                             January 1923 - September 1963

         Average Discharge, cfs	     23,350

         Average Discharge, Acre-Feet.  .  .  . 16,900,000

         Maximum Day, cfs	    500,000
                                             Dec.  4, 1861

         Minimum Day, cfs.  .	      2,470
                                             August 27, 1940

         Regulation Above Station;  Since 1941 by Fern Ridge Reservoir
                                    Since 1942 by Cottage Grove Reservoir
                                    Since 1949 by Dorena Reservoir
                                    Since 1953 by Lookout Point and
                                                  Detroit Reservoirs
                                    Since 1961 by Hills Creek Reservoir
                                    Since 1963 by Smith River Reservoir

         Diversions Above Station:  Many  small diversions for irrigation.
                                    Part  of North Santiam River flow is
                                    diverted to Mill Creek and returns
                                    to  river below station.
   SOURCE:   U.  S.  Geological Survey,  Water Supply Papers

-------
APPENDIX
                                                  TABLE  3
                         MEAN MONTHLY LOW FLOWS AT VARIOUS RECURRENCE FREQUENCIES'
                                      CALAPOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
                                                  (cfs)
HOLLEY!/
MONTH
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jiean
RECURRENCE INTERVAL
5 " 10 20
620
700
553
430
282
142
57
32
34
146
474
696
347
519
585
461
361
236
119
47
26
29
122
396
581
290
438
494
390
304
199
100
40
22
24
104
335
491
245
, YEARS
30
400
452
356
278
182
92
36
20
22
94
306
449
224
BROWNSVILLE!./
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS
5 10 20
862
973
768
599
392
197
96
' 55
61
203
660
968
486
719
811
640
499
326
164
80
46
51
169
550
806
405
610
689
544
424
277
140
68
39
43
144
467
685
344
ALBANY3/
RECURRENCE INTERVAL, YEARS
5 10 20
1266
1345
945
605
367
144
" 56
26
29
158
709
1220
680
1080
1148
806
516
313
122
48
22
24
135
605
1040
580
932
989
695
445
270
106
41
19
21
116
521
897
500
      I/  Natural Runoff
      2/  Estimated — Adjusted for Irrigation Diversions
      3_/  Not Adjusted for Diversions

-------
APPENDIX
                                                     A-4
                                  TABLE 4
           MEAN MONTHLY LOW FLOWS AT VARIOUS RECURRENCE FREQUENCIES
                      WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN, OREGON
                                  (cfs)
   Month
          SALEM
Recurrence Interval, Years
  5         10        20
     PORTLAND HARBOR
Recurrence Interval, Years
   5        10        20
 January
 February
 March
 April
 May
 June
 July
 August
 September
 October
 November
 December

 Mean
27,800
23,150
19,500
15,000
12,930
8,100
4,200
4,170
6,260
8,310
19,070
24,000
24,400
20,300
17,100
13,160
11,340
7,110
3,690
3,660
5,490
7,300
16,730
21,070
22,700
18,900
15,900
12,240
10,540
6,620
3,430
3,400
5,110
6,780
15,560
19,600 '
41,720
39,410
31,050
25,300
20,370
11,890
6,010
5,430
7,520
11,030
28,500
37,360
36,240
34,090
26,970
22,020
17,800
10,390
5,260
4,760
6,590
9,660
24,780
32,490
32,870
30,750
24,460
19,930
16,220
9,490
4,820
4,350
6,090
8,850
22,530
29,460
16,300    14,300    13,300   24,130    21,000    19,100
 NOTE:   These frequencies were developed from flow data adjusted for
        regulation by all Corps of Engineer storage projects now
        operating, under construction,  or authorized for construction.

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APPENDIX
                                                TABLE' 5
                                  SURFACE WATER QUALITY AT ALBANY
                                   CALAPOOIA RIVER BASIN, OREGON
Date
Time
Analysis by
Temp. °F
pH
DO, mg/1
% Sat.
BOD5, mg/1
MPN
Fecal Coli
Strep MF
Flow, cfs
7/30/57
-
SSA
71.5
6.9
8.4
95
0.7
2400
-
-
59
8/6/57
-
SSA
68
7.2
8.4
92
0.4
2300
- '
-
56
8/13/57
-
SSA
70.5
7.2
8.5
95
0.4
620

-
60
8/20/57
-
SSA
70
7.2
7.8
87
0.3
2400
-
-
43
8/27/57 9/3/57
- -
SSA SSA
70
7.3
8.9 8.5
- ' 95
1.0 0.1
620 2400
-
-
30 21
8/8/62
0915
PHS
64
7.6
8.8
92
0.5
4100
500
96
70
8/21/62
1000
PHS
60.
7.7
8.1
. 89
0.7
2900
500
280
40
9/12/62
0845
PHS .
60.5
7.5
8.8
89
0.6
1030
100
140
42
   Note:  SSA - Oregon State  Sanitary Authority
          •PHS - U. S. Public Health Service

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APPENDIX
                                                                       A-6


                                TABLE  "6

               MINERAL CONTENT OF MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLIES
                           LIMN COUNTY, OREGON

                                   Brownsville                Halsey
                                    3-16-1961                6-15-1961
               Analysis	Parts Per Million	  Parts Per Million
Color
Turbidity
PH
Alkalinity Bicarbonate
Carbon Dioxide
Aluminum
Ammoni.a Nitrogen
Calcium
Chloride
Fluoride
Hardness
Iron
Magnesium
Manganese
Phosphates
Potassium
Silicon
Sodium
Sulfates
Total Solids
Volatile Solids
Nitrates
Nitrites
Conductance (me mho/cm)
2.0 .
51.0 -'
7.10
54.0
9.0
0.12
0.31
12.3
11.3
<:o.i
55.4
0.68
6.0
0.10
<0.01
0.3
13.0
6.2
5.6
134.0
26.0
0.20
0.048
104.0
1.0
4.0
6.80
164.0
45.0
<0,05
0.16
160.0
423.0
0.1
730.0
<0.05
84.5
0.35
0.28
3.9
45.5
104.0
1.8
1210.0
338.0
2.7
0.007
1700.0
    a/  sample highly turbid due to heavy red precipitate indicating
    ~~   iron-manganese oxide
    Source:  Oregon State Board of Health

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     APPENDIX
                                                     TABLE 7
                                             SURFACE WATER QUALITY
                                       WILLAMETTE RIVER MAINSTEM, OREGON
                                             (milligrams per liter)
Location
&
Date

ALBANY
8/17/65
SALEM
10/1-10/61
1/1-15/62
4/6-15/62
7/1-14/62
8/17/65
NEWBERG
8/17/65
OREGON CITY
11/29/60
8/17/65
Flow
at Salem
(cfs)


— -

7,081
39,050
38,650
7,255
—

•mmm
Temp. S


71.5

59
45
50
65 •
--

70
(above Willamette
75,900
*•••
45.5-
69
ulfate



0.5

3.0
3.2
2.8
3.6
1

2
Falls)
. 9
.1
Chloride



2

3.5
2.0
1.5
2.5
3

5
*
3
3
Dissolved
Nitrate Solids



0.24

0,5
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.3

. 0.45

0.09
0.47



96

55
51
53
51
63

74

131
78
Alkalinity. Specif ic
Hardness as .Conduct. pH
(Ca^CO-O ' CaC03 £/


24

22
17
15
22
26

22

17
29


22

--
--
--
--
19

24

15
19


69

67
52
46
63


82

46
76


7.1

7.0
6.9
6.7
7.2
^ "™ "™

7.0

6.8
6.9
Source
k/


OSSA

USGS
USGS
USGS
USGS
OSSA

OSSA

OSSA
OSSA
PORTLAND HARBOR
11/29/60
11/27/60
9/7/62
9/4/63
8/26/64
8/17/65
75,900
24,700
5,900
6,220
6,700
4,900
44.5
43
6 7. 5
69 ?
70.5
68
—
2
7
7
*6
2'
—
4.
6
13
3
6
...
0.31
—-
-_-
—
0.47
—
64
80
75
51
72
._
22
52
38
28
31
_-.
23
32
30
26
18
46
52
—
--
66
98
6.8
6.9
6.8
...
6.6
6.6
OSSA
OSSA
PHS*
PHS*
PHS*
OSSA
a/ micromlios per centimeter
b/ SOURCE:  U.S.Geological Survey  (USGS); Oregon State Sanitary Authority  (OSSA);  Public  Health  Service  (PHS),
"5  Note:  Effective 1/1/66 PHS organization's name changed  to  Federal Water  Pollution Control Adm.  (FWPCA).

-------
APPENDIX
                                                                        A-8
                                TABLE  8
                      GROUND WATER QUALITY AT ALBANY
                       CALAPOOIA RIVER BASIN,  OREGON

Depth, Ft.
Date of Sample
Temperature F
TDS, ppm
Silica (si02> ppm
Iron (Fe) ppm
Calcium (Ca) ppm
Magnesium (Mg) ppm
Sodium (Na) ppm
Potassium (K) ppm
Bicarbonate (HCO^) ppm
Sulphate (SO^) ppm
Chloride (Cl) ppm
Nitrate (No3) ppm
Total Hardness as Ca C03, ppm
Percent Sodium
' Well #490
295
10-12-28
54
4967
15
1.03
324
62
1450
14
100
119
2956
,0.0
1064
74.9
Well #494-498
41
10-12-28
-
116
38
0.05
12
6.9
5.7
1.6
71
4.4
2.4
6.7
58
19.8
     Well #490:   Albany,  5k miles  S.W.  of;  at about river mile 10 on
                 Calapooia  River.

     Well #494-498:   Albany,  3 miles N.E. of;  north of Calapooia Basin
                 and  about  2  miles  west of  Willamette  River.

     Source:   U.  S. Geological Survey,  WSP  890

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 PAGE NOT
AVAILABLE
DIGITALLY

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                                                                    PROPOSED
                                                                    RESERVOIR
                                                                    LOCAT

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