WATER   TEMPERATURE
   INFLUENCES,EFFECTS, AND CONTROL
  Proceedings of the Twelfth Pacific Northwest
    Symposium on Water Pollution Research
               November 7,1963
               Corvallis, Oregon
 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH,EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
   Public Health Service, Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory

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                    PROCEEDINGS

                      of the

        TWELFTH PACIFIC NORTHWEST SYMPOSIUM

                        on

             WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH
               WATER TEMPERATURE --
         INFLUENCES, EFFECTS,  AND CONTROL
                   Assembled by
                Edward F. Eldridge
                    Consultant
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION,  AND WELFARE

             Public Health Service

        Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory

                 Corvallis, Oregon

                 November 7,  1963

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                            AGENDA
                  TWELFTH RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM
Introduction.  Edward F. Eldridge.

Temperature as a Water Quality Parameter.  Curtiss M.  Everts.

Effects of Water Uses and Impoundments on Water Temperature.
     Robert 0. Sylvester.

Water Temperature Requirements for Maximum Productivity of Salmon.
     Roger E. Burrows.

The Effects of Temperature on Disease in Fish.  Erling J. Ordal  and
     Robert E. Pacha.

Temperature Studies on the Umpqua River, Oregon.  William H.  Delay
     and John Seaders.

Temperature Phenomena and Control in Reservoirs.  Jerome M. Raphael.

Method of Computing Average Reservoir Temperature.  Peter B.  Boyer.

Some Observations of Columbia River and Reservoir Behavior From
     Hanford Experience.  R. T. Jaske.

Instrumentation for Water-Temperature Studies.  A. M.  Moore.

Summary of Current Theories and Studies Relating to Temperature
     Prediction.  Robert Zeller.

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                         INTRODUCTION

                        E.  F.  Eldridge*
     As many of you know,  this is the twelfth  of  a  series  of  symposiums
sponsored by the Public Health Service during  the past  six years. These
symposiums have been a phase  of a Research  and Technical   Consultation
Project initiated in the Portland  office of the  Service  in  May, 1957-
They have had several  objectives:   First,  to  bring together  persons  of
this area who are  involved in research in  the Water   quality  field  in
order that each may become acquainted with the respective  interests and
research activities of  others in this field.   Second, to  investigate
the available knowledge regarding  specific  water quality   problems and
to delineate those areas where  research is  needed to  supply  new  or ad-
ditional knowledge.   And third, to stimulate  researchers  in  all  scien-
tific disciplines to conduct such research.    In  my opinion,  the  sympo-
siums have successfully accomplished these objectives.

     The initial meetings  were attended by  a  comparatively small group
(25  to  30) which was conducive to free  discussions  by  most  of those
present.   Because of the apparent interest  created by  these meetings,
attendance has  increased until approximately   150 persons were  at  the
last meeting.

     Since the Project to which I referred is  to  be incorporated  in  the
activities of the  Water Laboratory of the  Public Health Service to  be
constructed here in Corvallis,  future symposiums will  be  sponsored  by
this Laboratory.  Mr. Curtiss Everts is Director  of the Laboratory  and,
undoubtedly,  he will tell you something about the scope  and activities
planned for this facility.
     ''"Consultant, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, Water Supply and Pollution Control Program,
Pacific Northwest, Portland, Oregon.

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           TEMPERATURE AS A WATER QUALITY PARAMETER

                      Curtiss M. Everts*
     Everyone engaged in the field of water quality control  will  quickly
recognize temperature as one of the most important measurements of the
physical characteristics of water.  In fact, the temperatures of surface
and underground waters have probably been recorded as often, if not more
so, than almost any other physical, chemical or biological  measurement
made.

     The relationships of the temperature of surface waters to the
enhancement of fish and other aquatic life, chemical and biochemical
reactions, water treatment, the toxicity of contaminants, tastes and
odors in drinking water and to the quality of domestic, industrial and
agricultural water supplies have been explored by numerous investiga-
tors.  Until recently much of the data and information obtained have
not always been put to practical  use.  Even now some areas need more
precise evaluation and study to clarify the divergent opinions ex-
pressed in some reports, to correlate the information that has been
obtained so that it may be usefully applied to the problems of water
quality control, and to check laboratory results under actual field
conditions.  It is unlikely that this will prove to be a simple task
for as we approach this point it may be expected that conflicts of
special  interest will arise that will require the judgment of Solomon
to resolve.

     In the hope that I wi11 not transgress too greatly on the remarks
to be made by the speakers that follow, I should like to offer a few
examples of the effects of temperature on water use.  You are familiar
with most of them, but it is believed that mention of them may set the
stage for some of the discussion that we hope will take place during
the remainder of this Symposium.

     Sphaerotilus, a troublesome slime in the surface waters of the
Pacific Northwest, is reported to grow extremely well in the waters of
the Columbia River at temperatures between 8 degrees and 12 degrees C.
These same temperatures are highly suitable for salmon production.  At
higher temperatures (summer 20-2U degrees C.) poor growth of Sphaerot-
il us is experienced, but these are temperatures not so suitable for
salmon.   Interestingly enough growth in the laboratory occurred quite
well throughout a range of 10 degrees to 2k degrees C.
     ""Director, Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory, U. S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Division of
Water Supply and Pollution Control, Corvallis, Oregon.

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     The effects of rises in water temperatures on fish are well  known.
These include increases in metabolic rates and oxygen requirements,  in
sensitivity to toxic materials, in reduction in swimming speed,  and  in
increased avoidance reactions.

     Drinking water at a temperature of 50 degrees F. and below  is
usually considered satisfactory.  Temperatures in excess of 65 degrees
F. are likely to result in complaints,  for tastes and odors become more
noticeable as temperatures increase.  On the other hand, pathogens
survive longer at lower temperatures.

     When treatment of water is necessary for domestic consumption,
floculation and sedimentation rates increase with temperature, and the
bactericidal effects of chlorine are greater at temperatures above 20
degrees C.

     Agriculturists prefer water at temperatures above 60 degrees F.
(15 degrees C.) and this is the sort of environment that the warm-water
fishes enjoy.  Return irrigation flows usually increase temperatures in
receiving streams.

     The effects that temperatures have on dissolved oxygen concentra-
tions, on the rates of biochemical oxygen demand, and on aquatic life
are well  documented and must be reckoned with in any water quality
control program.

     Thermal stratification in water impoundments wi11 also cause
problems, particularly those with low-level turbine intakes.  This was
well illustrated in the Lower Roanoke River Basin in North Carolina
where due to stratification in the impoundments, water released at
certain times during the year was deficient in oxygen and adversely
affected downstream uses.  Use of submerged weirs to draw water of
satisfactory quality from a different level is reported to have cor-
rected this problem.

     Heat added to water which has been used for industrial and power
plant cooling purposes has an adverse effect on aquatic life, and
reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.

     Thermal pollution is rapidly becoming a problem in the Delaware
River Basin where 3-1/2 billion gallons of water daily (5*+00 cfs.)
are used for thermal electric power in the basin.  In the Chicago area
where a number of steam power plants use from 50 to 90 percent of
water available for cooling on a once-through basis, thermal pollution
is reported to be equivalent to the doubling of the organic waste load
the Illinois River now receives from the Chicago area.

     It should be obvious, therefore, that a rather concentrated effort
needs to be expended in gaining more useful knowledge on the effect of

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water use and watershed activity on water temperatures, so that reason-
able objectives can be established, and practical procedures for tem-
perature adjustment and control can be developed.  It may even be pos-
sible to use temperature variations as a means of forecasting approach-
ing changes in other water quality parameters.

     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act makes such an effort a
responsibility of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Section 2 of this act directs the Secretary to develop comprehensive
programs for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters
and tributaries thereof.  In the development of these programs it is
required that due regard be given to the improvements necessary to
conserve such water for public water supplies, propagation of fish and
aquatic life and wildlife, recreational purposes, and agricultural,
industrial  and other legitimate uses.

     This section also provides that "in the survey or planning of any
reservoir by the Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, or other
Federal  Agency, consideration shall be given to inclusion of storage
for regulation of streamflow for the purpose of water quality control"
and that "the need for and the value of storage for this purpose shall
be determined by these agencies, with the advice of the Secretary, and
his views shall be set forth in any report or presentation to the
Congress proposing authorization or construction of any reservoir" in-
cluding storage for low-flow augmentation.

     In carrying out research, and the responsibilities for special
studies and demonstration under the act, the Secretary is directed to
develop and demonstrate "Methods and procedures for evaluating effects
on water quality and water uses of augmented streamflows to control
water pollution not susceptible to other means of abatement."

     The Public Health Service has a wealth of experience in this field
beginning with its studies in the Ohio River Basin in 1938, 1939 and
19^0 when the effects of temperature on water quality became increas-
ingly apparent.  The work of LeBosquet on the Mahoning River in the
vicinity of Youngstown, Ohio, in 19^2, where high water temperatures
from use and reuse upstream had threatened the shutdown of an impor-
tant steel  mill, resulted in Congressional approval for the release of
flood control  waters from upstream impoundments for temperature control.

     With the potential hydroelectric power development in the Pacific
Northwest far from complete, a much more complete understanding must
be obtained of the effects of impoundments on downstream temperatures
so that  suitable preventive or protective measures may be developed
for existing storage and incorporated into any new impoundments pro-
posed for the future.

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     With these facts in mind, the Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory,
scheduled for construction under Section k of the Federal Water Pollu-
tion Control Act, will have, among its chief objectives, a precise
study of the effects of multiple-purpose impoundments on downstream
water use.  We would also expect to carefully investigate the effects
of watershed use on water quality.  In both of these areas temperature
will be a most important area of concern.

     This work will not be exactly new to Oregon and the Pacific North-
west for it has already been recognized that at least one of the impor-
tant contributions that can be made by low-flow augmentation will be
that of temperature control.  Such a program is included for the im-
poundments  in the Rogue River Basin, and is now under study in the
Umpqua River Basin.

     Over ten years ago the Pollution Control Council, Pacific North-
west Area,  included the control of high temperature wastes as part of
its water quality objectives.  Similar criteria may be found in the
regulations of other water quality control agencies.

     Construction of the laboratory is expected to begin in February,
196^ with completion scheduled for the summer of 1965-   In the meantime,
the task of assembling a competent staff of engineers, scientists, and
supporting  personnel will proceed as rapidly as appropriations for this
purpose will permit.  When the staff becomes operational, it will be
engaged in  a program of research technical assistance on water quality
problems in an area which includes Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.  Training will also be an important function
of the laboratory staff.

     As one of the arms of the Public Health Service, we would expect
to furnish  substantial support for any of our activities in the field
of water quality control, and would hope that through our efforts and
with your help some of the answers on temperature-water  use relation-
ships wil1  be found.

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   EFFECTS OF WATER USES AND IMPOUNDMENTS ON WATER TEMPERATURE

                      Robert 0. Sylvester*


                          Introduction

     The natural temperature rise or fall  of a water body is established
by a number of meteorological and physical factors.  Meteorological  fac-
tors influencing water temperature are the amount of solar radiation,
wind velocity, air temperature and vapor pressure.  Physical  factors are
the surface area exposed, water depth, water temperature, rate of water
exchange, mixing afforded, shading from vegetation or land masses,
impurities in the water, surface and subsurface inflows, and the temper-
ature of the surrounding land mass.  The most important factor is the
amount of solar radiation absorbed, which for a given mass of water  is
a function of the exposed water surface area.

     The amount of solar radiation striking a given body of water de-
pends upon the season of the year, geographical location, time of day,
elevation, shading, amount of particulate matter and water vapor in  the
atmosphere,  and quantity of indirect solar radiation.  On striking a
water surface, a portion of the light is reflected, perhaps 5 to 35  per-
cent, depending upon the angle of incidence (1).  Light penetrating  the
water is absorbed at different depths depending upon the wave length of
the light and the amount of suspended and dissolved substances in the
water which limit the amount of penetration.  The longer wave lengths
(red and orange) and the shorter rays (ultra-violet and violet) are
reduced more quickly than the middle-range wave lengths of blue, green
and yellow.   The first meter of depth may absorb or extinguish 53 per-
cent (1) of the total incident light where it is transformed into heat.

     Water temperature is influenced by land temperature, especially in
the case of irrigated areas with their return flows.  The specific heat
of water is high compared with other materials and it thus becomes a
stabilizer of temperature and an important factor in soil temperature.
Evaporation from wet soil surfaces together with the relatively high
specific heat of the wet soil, will cause it to have a temperature much
lower than that of a- dry soil under the same conditions.  The original
source of energy for evaporation is solar radiation which can be di-
vided into three parts:   direct solar radiation; heat that reaches the
evaporating  surface from the air; and heat that is stored in the evap-
orating body.  Part of the incoming solar radiation is reflected from
the surface back to the sky and may amount to 25 percent (k) for a sur-
face covered with vegetation. ' Perhaps 10 to 15 percent of the incoming
     '"'Professor of Sanitary Engineering, University of Washington,
Seattle.

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radiation is radiated back to the sky, depending upon the temperature
of the earth's surface and of the atmosphere above.  The remainder of
the solar radiation is used in evaporation and in heating the soil and
the air in contact with the soil.  When the soil is very moist, more
than 80 percent (k) of the net radiation is used in evaporation.  When
the soil is dry, most of the radiation is used in heating the air.

                         Heat Budgets

     Included in the heat budget for a body of water would be the heat
gain from solar radiation, the heat loss by evaporation, the heat gain
or loss by conduction, the heat loss by radiation, and the heat con-
tained in the inflow and outflow of the system.  With time and a uniform
meteorologic condition, a body of water would tend to come into equilib-
rium wherein the heat losses would balance the heat gains.  This condi-
tion is approached in large shallow reservoirs and in long streams where
the diurnal temperature changes become uniform and of about equal mag-
nitude.

     The amount of heat that a body of water will absorb or release can
be expressed as follows:

        H = f(A,M,V)

where   H - heat loss or gain

        A = surface area

        M = mixing afforded by advection, wind or channel configuration

        V = volume of water involved

     The rate of heat release or absorbence can be expressed as:

        Hr = f Tw, W, Vp)

where   Hr = rate of heat gain or loss

        Ta = air temperature

        Tw = water temperature

        W  = wind velocity

        Vp = vapor pressure of the atmosphere

     Velz (2) presents the following equation for computing heat  loss in
a body of water.  Heat gain can be computed from the same equation by re-
versing the sign of the air and water temperature; by making solar radia-
tion and conduction a gain; and by subtracting evaporation and radiation,

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     H = To.00722 HVC (1 + 0.1W) (Vw - Va)~| + |~(0.8 + 0.16W)  (Tw  -  Ta)~]

            + p.O (Tw - Ta)l -  Hs


     where the first term is heat loss by evaporation,  the second is
     heat loss by conduction, the third is heat loss by radiation and
     the fourth is heat gain by solar radiation.

        H  = heat loss in Btu per hour per sq. ft.  of water surface

        Hv = latent heat of vaporization for a given water temperature

        C  = a constant ranging from 10 to 15> depending upon the
             depth and exposure of the water body

        W  = mean wind velocity in miles per hour

        Vw = vapor pressure of water in inches of H_ near water surface

        Va = mean absolute vapor pressure in the overlying atmosphere

        Tw = water temperature at the surface, F.

        Tg = mean air temperature, F.

        Hs = Btu per hour per sq. ft. of solar radiation

                    Temperature Comparisons

     There is a dearth of reported temperature data on Northwest  streams
obtained prior to man-produced changes in the stream heat budget.  Com-
parison of water temperatures before and after an act of man are subject
to question unless all the variables can be held constant in the two
periods or can be accounted for by calculation.  In a natural stream
flowing from an upland to a lowland environment, there will be a normal
natural temperature increase or decrease that must be known before arti-
ficial  causes of temperature change can be evaluated.  In the ^2-mile
stretch of the Wenatchee River between Lake Wenatchee and Dryden, man's
activity has produced little effect on the river's natural temperature.
Thermograph records (5) of the Chelan County P.U.D. show average monthly
natural temperature changes (Table 1) as the river flowed from the up-
land to the lowland environment.  These temperature changes might be
considered typical of a moderate-sized stream in the Northwest as most
of our streams have storage on the headwaters, although they are not
all surface drawoff as in Lake Wenatchee.  Raphael  (11) (12) has calcu-
lated that under natural conditions in August, the Columbia River tem-
perature will rise about 1F. in a 72-mile stretch below Chief Joseph
Dam and about 1F. in a 50-mile stretch below Rock Island.
                               8

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    Table 1 - Natural Temperature Changes in the Wenatchee River,
            Lake Wenatchee to Below Dryden, 1956 (5), F.
                       Feb.   Apr i1   June   Aug.   Oct.-   Dec.
    Lake Wenatchee     34.0    38.1   44.6   57.6    51.6   37-9
    Below Oryden       32.8    42.0   46.7   61.4    47.7   36.4
    Difference         -1.2    +3.9   +2.1   +3~7S    -3.9   -1.5
      *Year  1955

     In a computer analysis of Lower Columbia River water quality (8),
correlation analyses were made between the various quality constituents.
Table 2 shows these correlations with water temperature for the entire
year of I960, using the power function equation since it gave the best
correlations.  If one considers a correlation of 0.55 or above to be sig-
nificant, then the only significant correlations with temperature, other
than dissolved oxygen, on a yearly basis are those involving activity of
the biota, such as phosphate, nitrite and nitrate, and chlorophyll.  Flow
rate very definitely affects water temperature as examined on a month-by-
month basis but not on a yearly basis, since low flows occur under both
warm and cold climatic conditions as may the higher flows.  Feigner (15)
in an evaluation of temperature control by low-flow augmentation, con-
cludes that flow requirements increase exponentially with temperature
rise.

    Table 2 - Correlation of Water Temperature with Water Quality,
                     Lower Columbia River, 196oi/

            Flow                                    0.22
            pH                                      0.54
            Dissolved Oxygen                        0.81
            Total  Solids                            0.32
            Suspended Solids                        0.18
            Biochemical  Oxygen Demand               0.14
            Alkalinity                              0.22
            Hardness                                0.24
            Most Probable No. Coliforms             0.29
            Sulfate                                 0.13
            Phosphate                               0.61
            Ammonia                                 0.40
            Nitrite                                 0.62
            Nitrate                                 0.76
            Total  Nitrogen                          0.55
            Pearl  Benson Index                      0.37
            Chlorophyll  a                           0.83

    \J From reference (8), using power function equation Y = A + B(X)
       + C(X)2.  Highest correlation shown with temperature as the
       independent or dependent variable.  Correlations above 0.55
       are considered significant.

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     Figure 1 shows downstream temperature changes in August on four
different rivers east of the Cascades which are representative only
for the years indicated.  The Columbia River in the 450 miles between
Grand Coulee Dam and Bonneville rose 5.4F., the sharpest rise occur-
ring between Pasco. and Umatilla due to the warm inflow of the Snake
River.  In the warm year of 1958, while the Brownlee and Oxbow Reser-
voirs were first being filled on the Snake River, the mean August water
temperature rose to 74F. at Clarkston.  In the more moderate year of
1959, after the dams were in operation, a temperature drop of about 3F.
was observed below the Brownlee Reservoir, rising another 2F. through
the Oxbow Reservoir and then falling off to 69F. at Clarkston.  The
Yakima River receives most of its irrigation return flow in the 80-mile
stretch between Parker and Kiona where the large majority of the flow
in August consists of irrigation return water.  Figure 1 shows a tem-
perature rise in this stretch of 12=2F. to a monthly average of 73-20F.
at Kiona whereas in the preceding stretch of 90 miles, the river tem-
perature rose only 2.7F.  The Wenatchee River in flowing some 40 miles
from Lake Wenatchee to Dryden exhibits a gradual  temperature rise of
1.5F. as there is little effect herein by man's activities.  This com-
pares closely with the temperature rise in the Upper Yakima River.  It
should be pointed out that these temperature changes vary, depending
upon the year in which the comparisons are made.

             Effect on Stream Temperature by Usage

     Data are sparse in showing specific changes in river water temper-
atures from various water uses.  Thermal power plants and return of
cooling water from various industries are perhaps the chief source of
temperature pollution.  Hoak (9) reports that the installed capacity of
thermal  power plants is doubling about every decade.  Monongehela River
temperatures have risen to 98F. because of industrial water return,
and then cooled to 87F. in a distance of 1.4 miles.  He states that
because of the concentration of industry, the heat raised at one point
is not always dissipated before another temperature rise occurs.  In a
study of Columbia River water temperatures between Priest Rapids and
Umatilla, Rostenbach (13) concludes that natural  climatic and river
conditions caused a greater temperature variation in the Columbia River
for the 19^4-55 period than did the effluents from the Hanford reactors.
Oil refinery effluent temperatures observed in the period of 1959-61
in northwest Washington ranged from 72.5 to 83.5F.

     Water,  in passing through a municipal water system and subsequently
through a sewerage system, experiences a rise in temperature that may or
may not be significant, depending upon the size of the receiving water.
Table 3 presents temperature data in the Tacoma and the Seattle (Alki)
sewage treatment plant effluents.  Both plants are of the "primary"
treatment type.   Although the years of comparison are different, both
plants have a similarity in effluent temperatures.  Tacoma's water sup-
ply is obtained largely from the Green River and Seattle's from the
                              10

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                    COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN WATER TBMPBRATURES  IN AUGUST
                               Downs tream
  66
  64
  62
         Q>
                                   Columbia River. 19SS (ref.  3)
                                                                              o
                                                                             a
                                                                              a
                             Snake River; 1958.  1959 (ref.  6)
  74
  72
  70
  68
H)
M

U

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adjacent Cedar River.  The data in Table 3 for Puget Sound area  condi-
tions indicate that the treatment plant effluents are warmer  than  the
diverted water by about 14F. in the winter,  12F.  in the spring,  9F.
in the summer, and 13F. in the autumn.  Additional  data are  needed  on
water temperature increase through municipal  use.
Year
         Table 3 - Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent Vs.
                    River Temperatures,  F.

          Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May  June July Aug.  Sept.  Oct.  Nov.  Dec.

                      Green River Intake
1961 I/
1962 2/
1963 2/
k]
kk
36
ko
39
37
41
39
41
^3
43
43
44
44
48
48
50
54
55
57
57
59
58
59
50
58
60
46
49
55
41
43
--
42
39
--
1961
1962
1963
1960
I960
                 Tacoma Sewage Treatment Plant
54
55
57
54
56
57
57
54
58
59
59
57
62
59
60
64
61
68
64
63
67
67
64
67
65
64
65
62
62
61
61
62
--
54
57
--
                      Cedar River Intake

          39.5 40.1  40.6 44.6 48.5 52.8 56.4 54.0 51.1   48.8 43-3 40.3

            Seattle Alki Sewage Treatment Plant 1'

          53   53   52   55   58   60   63   64   62    61    55   55

          \J Prior to Howard A. Hanson Dam Impoundment.
             Temp, taken dai1y.
          2/ After Howard A. Hanson Dam Impoundment (during period of
             May to October) thermograph records.
          3/ Daily thermometer reading.
Irrigation Return Flow:

     The use of river water for irrigation may have beneficial  as well
as detrimental effects in regard to water temperature.  Water is normally
stored to increase the irrigation season base flow of the river above
the points of diversion.  If this water is stored in fairly deep reser-
voirs at higher altitudes, it will result in water temperatures above
the points of diversion being lower than would prevail under summertime
conditions of natural flow.  However, downstream from points of diver-
sion where water is diverted so as to decrease the streamflow below its
                              12

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     1.35 AC-FT/AC OF
     SUBSURFACE SEEPAGE,
      APRIL-SEPTEMBER
     SALTS, 615 LBS AC
                                     1.35 AC-FT/AC
                1230 LBS/AC
                SALTS APPLIED
                   TO SOIL
 1.3 AC-FT/AC
   WASTAGE,
 APRC-SEPTEMBER
 SALTS, 300 LBS/AC
         SALTS
                                TO GROUND WATER STORAGE
                                FOR RELEASE, OCTOBER-MARCH.
                                   SALTS, 615 LBS/AC
                                     2.7  AC-FT/AC
                                 SOIL COLUMN PERCOLATION,
                                    APRIL-SEPTEMBER
                                                        2.6 AC-FT/AC
                                                    EVAPO-TRANSPIRATION
                                                            LOSS,
                                                       APRIL-SEPTEMBER
       1530  LBS/AC
                              FROM RIVER
                        1    M   1  _LL
                                                    6.6 AC-^T/AC
                                       DIVERTED FROM
                                       YAKIMA RIVER,
                                      APRIL-SEPTEMBER
                        ''fz.
Fig.  2
     FATE OF DIVERTED IRRIGATION WATER
AND ITS  SALTS, YAKIMA RIVER BASIN, 1959-60
                                   13

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normal rate, water temperatures would be raised above those otherwise
occurring.  The return of spent irrigation waters may raise or lower
the receiving stream temperature,  depending upon the method of conduc-
ting this return flow.

     Figure 2 will serve to illustrate the fate of water diverted for
irrigation in the Yakima River Basin which can be considered typical  of
an irrigated area.  Of 6.6 acre-feet per acre of diverted water in the
April-September irrigation season (10), 1.3 acre-feet per acre is wast-
age resulting from over-irrigation and from canal spillage.  This water
returns to the parent river in open drains during which time its tem-
perature is increased.  Of the remaining 5-3 acre-feet, 2.6 acre-feet
(about 50 percent) is lost to evapotranspiration.  This large evapo-
transpiration loss is responsible for the soil-cool ing effect discussed
previously.  About 2.7 acre-feet per acre of the previously diverted
water passes through the soil column into the groundwater stratum where
about half of it returns to the parent stream during the irrigation
season and the other half returns from bank storage during the non-
irrigation season.  (The groundwater table rises during the irrigation
season and falls during the non-irrigation season.)  This groundwater
seeps into open drainage channels or is conveyed to open channels via
subsurface drains.  The great majority of the soil drainage in the
Yakima Valley is comprised of open drains.

     Table 4 illustrates some of the water temperature changes observed
in the Yakima Valley irrigation facilities during August of 1959 and
I960.  On the average, water temperature increases of 35F. are expe-
rienced in 37 miles of main canal  flow.

    Table k - Irrigation Water Temperature, Yakima Valley,
              August 1959-1960 -- Mean Values in F. (10).

Diverted water to Kittitas, Roza,  Wapato and Sunnyside Main Canals .  .
                                                                 61.5
Water after traveling average of 37 miles in main canals .... 65.0*
Water in sub-laterals as applied to land; average of 7 	 63.7*
Water in sub-surface drains; average of 7	58.4
Water in open drains as discharged to Yakima R; average of 5   67.0

     '"'These two figures are not comparable as sampling stations
      are different.

This is somewhat greater than would have been found in the river for  the
same flow distance if the water had not been diverted.  However, in
August, without irrigation flow augmentation, the normal river temper-
ature rise in 37 miles of flow would closely approximate this 3.5F.
temperature rise.   Water applied to the land had an average temperature
of 63.7F. and that returned to the river via open drains had an aver-
age temperature of 670F., a rise of 3-3F.  Water temperature emerging

-------
from sub-surface drains,  however, had an average temperature of 58.^F.,
a drop of 5'3'r.  As previously discussed,  this drop in temperature  is
caused by evaporation heat losses on the soil  surface.   Thus,  if irriga-
tion water wastage can be reduced and if return flows can be conveyed
back to the parent river largely by sub-surface drains, these return
flows can be beneficial in lowering stream  temperatures.  During the
non-irrigation season the release of bank storage,  built up during the
irrigation season, will tend to raise otherwise low water temperatures.

     Figure 3 shows the seasonal temperature increase in the Yakima
River from the point of initial irrigation  diversion at Easton to the
lower river at Kiona after most of the return flow  has entered the
river.  The figure shows an average water temperature increase during
the irrigation season of from $6.k to 66.2F.  in the 72-mile stretch
between Parker and Kiona.  This river stretch receives the majority  of
the return flow and it also contains two areas of very low flows; below
the last major irrigation diversion at Parker and below the power canal
diversion at Prosser.  The power canal diversion discharges back into
the Yakima River above Kiona.  Figure 3 suggests that the increase in
river water temperature between Parker and  Kiona, due to irrigation-
associated influences, had a maximum value  of about 6-7F.  A more
rigorous study is needed, however, to validate this figure.

          Impoundment Influences on Water Temperature

     The impoundment of water will produce various  temperature effects
on the impounded water temperature and on the downstream water temper-
ature, depending upon:

     1.  Volume of water impounded in relation to mean streamflow.

     2.  Surface area of impounded water.

     3.  Depth of impounded water.

     k.  Orientation with prevailing wind direction.

     5.  Shading afforded.

     6.  Elevation of impoundment.

     7.  Temperature of inflow water in relation to temperature of
         impounded water.

     8.  Depth of water withdrawal.

     9-  Downstream flow rates during critical temperature period, i.e.,
         an increase or decrease in flow over that  occurring naturally.
                              15

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;
o
o

CL

UJ
K

cr
LU
                                  ESTIMATED NORMAL TEMP IN

                                  ABSENCE OF IRRIGATION
           PROBABLE INCREASE IN

           TEMPERATURE DUE TO

           IRRIGATION
                             IRRIGATION SEASON
       10
       0
                                                      u_
                                                      o

                                                      CL
                                                      5
                                                      UJ
                                                      H

                                                      (T
                                                      UJ
                                                  32
          J&N  FEB  MAR APR MAY  JUN  JUL AUG SEP OCT  NOV  DEC

                           1959-1960-1961
  Fig. 3
WATER TEMPERATURES AT YAKIMA RIVER STATIONS.

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     In general, it can be said that large and deep impoundments will
decrease downstream water temperatures in the summer and increase them
in the winter, if withdrawal  depths are low; that shallow impoundments
with large surface areas will increase downstream water temperatures
in the summer; that water periodically withdrawn from the surface of a
reservoir will increase downstream water temperatures;  that  a reduction
in normal streamflow below an impoundment will cause marked  temperature
increases; and that "run-of -river" impoundments, when the surface area
has not been markedly increased over the normal  river area,  will produce
only small increases in downstream water temperatures.
     Andrew and Geen (1^), in a study of downstream water temperatures
from the proposed Moran Dam on the Fraser River, estimated that the tem-
perature of water discharged from the reservoir through turbine and
spill outlets during the period of adult salmon migrations would range
from 43F. on July 1 to 56F . on September 30.  These temperatures are
11F. colder and 9F. warmer, respectively, than average temperatures on
these dates in the undeveloped river.  Churchill (7), in a study of
Tennessee Valley impoundments with deep withdrawal  depths, observed a
lowering of downstream water temperatures as much as 1*t~15C. below
normal  summer stream temperatures.

     Raphael (11) (12), in his calculations on the possible effect of
the Wanapum and Priest Rapids and the Wells and the Rocky Reach Dams on
the temperature of the Columbia River, concluded that in August, the
month of the largest temperature rise, the Wanapum and Priest Rapids
Dams would cause a temperature rise of 1.5F. over that occurring with
natural flow.  The predicted rise for the Wells and Rocky Reach impound-
ments was 1F. over the natural temperature rise.  He further concludes
that "taking the two studies together, it can be seen that the continued
development of reservoirs on the Columbia River is doubling the temper-
ature rise of the water as it moves from headwaters to its mouth-  It
seems inevitable that when the river is fully developed, the maximum tem-
perature of the water will rise even above its present high level.  It
is estimated that maximum temperatures in the range of 70 to 75F. at
Priest Rapids Dam must be considered in future planning."

     Another effect of impoundments on smaller streams is to even out
extreme diurnal temperature fluctuations.  Figure k shows diurnal tem-
perature fluctuations in the Green River above the Howard A. Hanson
impoundment of from 12.5-25.5C. ( 5**.5-78F. ) in the period of July 17-
2k.  Figure 5 shows the even temperature discharge below the dam (and
above the Tacoma municipal water intake) where the diurnal temperature
fluctuation is about 1F.  This reduction in municipal water intake tem-
perature peaks is, of course, an advantage to the water user.

     Figures 6, 7> and 8 show the temperature structure with depth in
three dissimilar reservoirs (3).  In figure 6, Lake Merwin on the Lewis
River is a medium-depth reservoir showing pronounced temperature grad-
ients in all seasons but the winter and early spring of 1938-39-  Thus,

                              17

-------
Fig. k - Diurnal  Temperature Changes  on  the Green River
         above the Howard  A.  Hanson Impoundment
                      18

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Fig. 5 - Diurnal  Temperature Changes  on  the  Green River
         Below the Howard A. Hanson Impoundment
                       19

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DEPTH TOT
INTAKE
                             TEMPERATURE OF LAKE MERWIN. 1938-39
                                   PREWRED FROM DATA IN REFERENCE (3)
                                   o LEWIS RIVER TEMP. UPSTREAM  FROM RESERVOIR
                                   OF GAUGING STATION ABOVE COUGAR
           WATER TEMPERATURE - C
            10
                   Fig.  6

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0 '
$
CO
2!

10
20 	

30 	 	
UJ
UJ 1
u.
1
1
40 w ,


50

60 - o


A
1
















i I
 


~~~*






"\^
&* k






/









I




*/
i
f








1


f



I
1
.
r
-
"Ss
w


TEMPERATURE OF MCNARY RESERVOIR

3000 FEET ABOVE DAM - CENTER OF RESERVOIR






PREPARED FROM DATA IN REFERENCE (3) AND )
F8WS THERMOGRAPH RECORDS.
NORMAL DEPTH TO TURBINE INTAKE -65 FT.



 DOWNS
u>
UJ

TEMPERATURE -*C
8 10 12
JTRE



AM TEMP AT
5
0

IIMATILLA




d
4


14 16 16
I/
tf
J
? I
L
ll
u>
0




20
Fig. 7

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                                                                                               -20
                         5 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE
                    50 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE -
                                                    ZOO FT BELOW WATER SURFACE

                                                  350 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE
100 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE
                                                     WATER TEMPERATURES-I95I
                                                         ROOSEVELT  LAKE
                                                     NOTE:-TEMPERATURES TAKEN AT
                                                           BLOCK 68, BETWEEN 67
                                                           AND 69 TRASHRACKS, AT
                                                           GRAND COULEE 0AM
                                                           FROM REFERENCE
JAN.     FEB.    MARCH   APRIL    MAY     JUNE    JULY     AUG.    SEPT.     OCT.     NOV.     DEC.
                                           F'g. 8

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the water released through the turbines is colder  than  the  upstream
water from May through September and warmer than the upstream water
from October through April (the August Lewis River temperature  shown
in Fig. 6 is an anomaly).  After construction of a similar  reservoir
immediately upstream (Yale Reservoir), this was no longer true  and the
combined effect of the two reservoirs in series (195^-55) is  to pro-
duce a year-around warming of downstream water as  shown in  Table 6.
The lack of stratification in Figure 7 for the McNary Reservoir is due
to the shallow depth of the reservoir and the short detention period
for inflowing water.  (Slight differences in temperature shown  between
the downstream temperatures at Umatilla and the turbine intakes at 55
feet of depth is probably due to thermometer calibration or evaporative
cooling effects in the turbine tail race.)  The sharp nonconforming
thermodine on May 19 occurred at a time when the Columbia  River and
the Snake River inflows to the reservoir were about equal and the
warmer Snake River waters were contained in the upper layers  of the
reservoir.  By June 16, the Columbia River flow had more than doubled
that of the Snake and mixing occurred to destroy the temperature grad-
i ent.

     Roosevelt Lake above Grand Coulee Dam is a very long,  deep and
narrow reservoir.  The temperature gradient between surface and bottom
waters is small (Figure 8) except for the summer months when a  differ-
ence of about 9F. between surface and bottom was observed  in late July,
195), half of this temperature difference occurring in the  upper 50
feet.  Minimum temperatures were in March when the deepest  water was
the warmest, this deep water being the closest to the temperature of
maximum density.  Maximum temperatures for water withdrawal through  the
turbines (nominal water depth of 260 feet) was in early October when
the pool level had been drawn down for irrigation and power production.
Isothermal conditions are shown for January, May, and October when
overturns are possible.

     Figure 9 is a plot of Columbia River temperatures (3)  at Rock
Island Dam for the mean of a five-year period before construction of
Grand Coulee Dam and a five-year period after construction  of the dam.
Time periods were chosen when river flows and air temperatures  were
similar.  As shown in Figure 9, Grand Coulee Dam construction has pro-
duced warming of the Columbia River at Rock Island between  September
and March and cooling between March and September.  This warming ef-
fect was about 7F. maximum in the winter and the maximum cooling ef-
fect in the summer was about 3F.

     Table 5 gives the characteristics of several  reservoirs in
western and eastern Washington.  Table 6 lists the observed tempera-
ture changes through these impoundments for different periods of ob-
servation.  The Yale-Merwin impoundments in series on the Lewis River
give a significant temperature rise throughout the year.  The Howard
A. Hanson flood control-conservation  impoundment produced a uniform
                              23

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34
   COLUMBIA RIVER AT ROCK ISLAND

     TEMPERATURE COMPARISON FOR
     YEARS 1934-38  AND  1946-50
   PRE AND POST GRAND COULEE DAM
 COMPILED FROM P.S.P.8 L. CO. RECORDS
 JAN
MAR.
MAY
JULY
SEPT.
NOV.
                                            Fig. 9

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temperature rise of about 1.5F. during the period of conservation stor-
age until October, when the pool was drawn down,  and the warmer surface
waters raised the flow-through temperature by 3F.  Grand Coulee im-
poundment water is pumped into the Banks irrigation equalizing pool
which is a very broad and shallow pool  subject to a maximum of solar
radiation in the summer months.  Temperature increases exceeded 7F.
through this reservoir from the cold Grand Coulee inlet water to the
irrigation water discharge.  In Roosevelt Lake,  temperature decreases
through the reservoir are experienced in the summer until September
when the reservoir is drawn down and the warmer  upper level  water enters
the turbine intakes.  The effect of Roosevelt Lake in cooling Columbia
River water would be more pronounced in Table 6  if the natural tempera-
ture increase through the 150-mile reservoir were considered.  McNary
and Bonnevilie run-of-river impoundments produce very little warming
effect in the summer months, varying from 0 to 0.5F.

             Tab1e 5 - Impoundment Characteristics


Impoundment


Yal e-Merwin
H. A. Hanson
Banks
Roosevelt
McNary
Bonnevi 1 1 e


River


Lewis
Green
Col . Basin
Col umbia
Col umbia
Col umbia
Average
Vol ume
AC - FT
XI 000

7^7
20
951
8,252
790
480
Average
Surface
Area
Acres
XT 000
7,3^0
0.6
24.50
70.30
37.90
20.30
Average
Depth
Feet


101
33
39
118
21
2k
Theor.
Detention
at Average
Flow
Days
^3
10
140
35
2
1
     Table 6 - Temperature Changes Through Impoundments -
                Observed Average Monthly, F. I/
Impoundment
Yal e-Merwin
H. A. Hanson
Banks
Roosevel t
McNary If
Bonnevi 1 1e
Average Monthly Temperature Change Through Impoundment
Mar.
1.6+
-
-
_
1.5-
0.2+
May June
3.0+ 5-1+
1.5+ 1.8+
7.0+
1.9-
0.1- 0.7-
0.1-
July
1.4+
1.8+
7.5+
1.9-
0.0
0.1-
Aug.
0.8+
1.8+
5.9+
0.1-
0.1 +
0.0
Sept.
3..1 +
1.5+
2.0+
3.6+
0.5+
0.0
Oct. Nov. Dec.
4.0+
3.0+ -
_ . _
- _ _
0.2+ Oi,2-
- o.o 0.5-
   ]/ From reference (3) 1954, 1955; except Hanson U. of W. data,
      1962, 1963.
   2/ Temp, above McNary Dam measured at Pasco.  Snake River inflow
      raises or lowers McNary pool temp.
                              25

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                            Summary

     A discussion has been presented on the various factors that in-
fluence water temperatures in streams, impoundments and on irrigated
lands.  Data are shown that illustrate the wide range of temperature
increases and decreases that are obtained seasonally through water use
and its method of use.  These data are fragmentary and indicate the
need for a thorough study on water temperature patterns as influenced
by man's alteration of the natural water environment.

     Low water temperatures, commensurate with the maximum productiv-
ity of the fishery, should be the goal in water quality management for
the following reasons:  Low temperatures increase the oxygen capacity
of a water body; they slow the rate of biological oxidation (which may
not always be desirable); cool water is more palatable in a municipal
system; cool water is more valuable to industry for cooling purposes;
and the rate of metal corrosion is reduced.  Occasionally, cool water
is undesirable for certain crops, such as rice.

     Future engineering design and redesign or operational changes in
existing .structures, in consideration of the present trend towards
higher river water temperatures, can do much towards reducing or amel-
iorating this trend.

                          References

1.  Reid, G. K., Ecology of Inland Waters and Estuaries, Reinhold Pub.
    Corp., New York, 1961.

2.  Velz, C. J. and Gannon, J. J., Forecasting Heat Loss in Ponds and
    Streams, Jr. Water Poll. Cont. Fed., 32, k, April, I960.

3.  Sylvester, R. 0., Water Quality Studies in the Columbia River Basin,
    U. S. Fish and Wildlife Serv. Sp. Scientific Report - Fisheries No.
    239, May, 1958.

1*.  The Yearbook of Agriculture, 1955, 8Uth Congress, 1st Session,
    House Document No. 32.

5.  Sylvester, R. 0., Water Duality Study of Wenatchee and Middle
    Columbia Rivers Before Dam Construction, U. S. Fish and Wildlife
    Service Sp. Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 290, March, 1959.

6.  Water Temperature Studies for 1958 and 1959 Middle Snake River
    Drainage, Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Bur.
    Comm. Fisheries, I960.

7.  Churchill, MiloA., Effects of Storage Impoundments on Water
    Duality, Trans. Am. Soc. Civil Eng., 123,  p. **19, 1958.
                              26

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 8.  Sylvester,  R.  0.  and Carlson,  D.  A.,  Lower Columbia  River  Basic
     Water Quality  Data Analysis for the Year I960,  Univ.  of Wash.,
     Oept. of Civil  Engineering, Oct.,  1961.

 9.  Hoak, R. D.,  The  Thermal  Pollution Problem,  Jr.  Water Poll.  Cont.
     Fed., 33,  12,  Dec.,  1961.

10.  Sylvester,  R.  0.  and Seabloom,  R.  W.,  The Character  and Signifi-
     cance of Irrigation Return Flows  in the Yakima  River Basin,  Univ.
     of Wash.,  Dept.of CivilEngineering,  Feb.,1962.

11.  Raphael, J. M.,  The Effect of  Wanapum and Priest Rapids Dams on
     the Temperature of the Columbia River,  Grant  Co. P.U.D. No.  2,
     Ephrata, Wash.,  Sept., 1961.

12.  Raphael, J. M.,  The Effect of  Wells and Rocky Reach  Dams on  the
     Temperature of the Columbia River, Grant Co.  P.U.O.  No. 2,
     Ephrata, Wash.,  Jan.,  1962.

13.  Rostenbach, R.  E., Temperature of the Columbia  River Between
     Priest Rapids,  Washington and  Umatilla,  Oregon,  U.  S. Atomic
     Energy Cornm.,  HW-393^7,  Unclassified,  Oct.,  1955.

1^.  Andrew, F.  J.  and Geen,  G. H.,  Sockeye and Pink Salmon Production
     in Relation to Proposed Dams in the Fraser River System, Int. Pac.
     Salmon Fisheries  Comm.,  Bulletin XI,  New Westminster, B.C.,  Canada,
     I960.

15.  Feigner, K. D., An Evaluation  of Temperature Reduction on Low Flow
     Augmentation Requirements for  Dissolved Oxygen  Control, M. S.
     Thesis, Oregon State University,  June,1963.
                              27

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DISCUSSION

Q..  How did you arrange your chlorophyll  rate values?   Were these on
    membrane filters?

A.  A cooperative group made this studythe five pulp and paper  mills
    in the Lower Columbia, the Washington Pollution Control  Commission,
    and the Oregon State Sanitary Authority.  They collected the  algal
    samples and filtered them on membrane filters, dissolved and  ex-
    tracted the chlorophyll with acetone, and then ran absorbence tests.

Q_.  The average temperatures that were shown on the graphswere  they
    taken from the means of the daily temperatures, the mean of maxi-
    mums and minimums, or do they take into account the whole diurnal
    cycle?

A.  At Rock Island the temperature was read every six  hoursmidnight,
    6 a.m., noon, 6 p.m.  We took the mean of those temperatures.
    Where we had a thermograph record, we tried to balance out the
    diurnal variations so that we had the same area above as below.
    In other cases where we were given only the minimum temperature
    or the maximum, we took the average.   We found that in most cases,
    if you took the minimum daily temperature and the  maximum daily
    temperature and averaged the mean of that, this was very close to
    working out a thermograph cycle,
                              28

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          WATER TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR MAXIMUM
                    PRODUCTIVITY OF SALMON

                       Roger E. Burrows*
     Water temperatures can and do affect the productivity of salmon;
the problem, then, is that of defining the temperature limitations.
At various stages in the life cycle, productivity must be measured in
different ways, either by the number of individuals produced or by the
size of fish produced.  The effect of temperature on productivity may
be measured in a similar manner.  Because temperature effects are dis-
similar at different stages in the life cycle,  it is necessary that
these effects be discussed separately for the several  stages.

     The temperature of the water during the upstream migration and  the
maturation period of the adult in the lake or stream affect the sur-
vival of the adult,  and the water temperature at time of spawning af-
fects the survival of the eggs.  High temperatures during fresh water
residence are conducive to disease development  and the subsequent death
of the adult prior to spawning.  Fish (19^8) cites temperatures above
60F. as conducive to disease development in blueback salmon (Oncorhyn-
chus nerka) and temperatures above 70F. as fatal.  Royal (1953) de-
fines normal spawning temperatures of sockeye salmon (0. nerka) as be-
tween k5f. and 55^- and indicates that temperatures above and below
this range are conducive to reduced spawning efficiency either through
death of the adults or loss of the eggs.  He concludes, "Thus water
temperature was indicated as one of the major limiting factors, if not
the exclusive limiting factor, in the timing of spawning."  The Inter-
national Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission (1962), again, reports
mortalities as high as 86 percent in sockeye runs of the Fraser River
attributed to disease occasioned by water temperatures in excess of
72F. in certain tributaries.

     Burrows (I960)  defines the critical water  temperature for disease
development in chinook and blueback salmon as 60F.  Above this tem-
perature, survival is dependent on the extent of injury incurred by
the fish during migration and maturation, the length of the period
between the upstream migration and spawning, the incidence of disease
organisms, and the type of holding environment.

     Warm water temperatures also inhibit spawning activity.  Burrows
(I960) reports the effect of unseasonably high  water temperature as
delaying the spawning act.
     "Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Salmon-Cultural Labo-
ratory, Longview, Washington.
                              29

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     Brett (1958) speculates on the role of cold water temperatures as
an inhibiting factor affecting the normal  endocrine balance necessary
for spawning.  This speculation is confirmed by Burrows (I960)  report-
ing on the effect of temperature on an exotic race of large summer
chinook salmon (0. tshawytscha) which did not spawn when water  tempera-
tures dropped bel ow
     The temperature at spawning not only affects the adult but the
survival of the egg as well.  Combsl'  has demonstrated that water tem-
peratures below 42.5F. at time of egg deposition result in progres-
sively greater mortalities until at 35F. egg losses are practically
complete in chinook salmon and up to 50 percent in sockeye salmon.

     The high temperature limitations on eggs at time of spawning have
not been clearly defined.  It is extremely doubtful  that the adult
could survive to spawn at water temperatures which would be immediately
lethal to the eggs.

     The water temperatures most conducive to maximum productivity in
the adult salmon during its fresh-water existence range from 42.5F.
to 55F.  Obviously the adult can exist at temperatures beyond this
range but not under optimum conditions of survival and egg deposition.

     Egg incubation temperatures affect the survival of the eggs, the
rate of development, and the size of fish produced.  Combs and Burrows
(1957) and Combsl/ have defined the thresholds for normal development
for chinook salmon eggs as *f2.5F. and 57-5F. and for sockeye salmon
eggs as *+2.5F. and 55F.  In addition, Combs demonstrated that both
chinook and sockeye salmon eggs would tolerate 35F. temperatures after
the 128-cell stage of development was reached.

     Water temperatures within the thresholds of normal development
affect the growth rate of the embryo.  At the higher temperatures the
growth rate is accelerated but the size of the fish produced is re-
duced primarily due to higher maintenance requirements.  The size of
the emergent fry should, in theory at least, affect the survival rate
with the larger fish having the advantage.  The time of emergence also
can, conceivably, affect survival particularly in species with a short
fresh-water residence.  Acceleration or deceleration of emergence
could place the fish in an unfavorable environment either from the
standpoint of available forage or predation activity.  Dislocation of
the time of migration could result also in unfavorable estuarine condi-
tions and poor acclimation to salt water.  Vernon (1958) demonstrates
an inverse correlation between temperatures in the Fraser River during
     I/ "Effect of Temperature on the Development of Salmon Eggs" by
Bobby D. Combs.  Manuscript in preparation.


                              30

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the period of egg and fry development of the pink salmon (0.  gorbuscha)
and the size of the resultant adult run.  The critical  period of  devel-
opment as affected by temperature appeared to be during hatching  and
the subsequent fry stage, December through February.   Average tempera-
tures above 38F. were usually unfavorable.  Since no temperature re-
ported was actually lethal  to either eggs or fry, it  must be  assumed
that the acceleration of development due to the warmer temperature dis-
rupted the timing of the seaward migration.

     The effect of temperature on productivity in the egg and fry stage
of development is much more difficult to define than  in any other.
While the thresholds of normal  development are easy to measure,  the more
obscure effects of temperature,  such as its influence on fry  size and
migration timing, are very evasive to evaluate but may have a profound
impact on survival.

     When salmon finger lings have a more prolonged fresh-water residence,
the effect of temperature on productivity may be measured by  either the
number of fingerlings produced or the size of fingerlings produced.  The
two criteria are not synonymous because the size of the downstream mi-
grant affects survival.  Marking experiments conducted with sockeye
salmon at the Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery indicated that doubl-
ing the weight of the fingerlings at release from 120 to 60 per pound
resulted in tripling the adult return.  Marking experiments with fall
chinook salmon {Johnson, unpublished) indicate higher survivals for the
larger fish at release although the results are somewhat obscured by
different times of release.

     Water temperature, then, to attain maximum productivity in the
fingerling must not only remain within the tolerance  leveT of the
finger ling but, at least in species with more than a  minimum of fresh-
water residence, reach the optimum growth  level as well.  Brett (1952)
defines the lethal levels for Pacific salmon fingerlings (Oncorhynchus)
as between 32F. and 75F. with but slight variation  in the upper
threshold between species.  He also found the preference temperatures
for all species to be in the range of from 50F. to 60F.  The prefer-
ence temperatures coincide with those for optimum growth.

     The response of sockeye and chinook salmon fingerlings to temper-
ature differs.  Sockeye grow at a faster rate at alt  temperatures
between itOF. and 60F. than do chinook salmon.  The  growth rates of
chinook salmon, however, accelerate more rapidly with temperature in-
creases.  For every 10-degree rise in temperature between UOF. and
60F. food consumption increases k$ percent in sockeye salmon and 60
percent in chinook salmon, but there is an initial 25 percent differ-
ence between the two species at *+0F.  While temperature may affect
species differently, it  is still the prime factor in the determination
of growth rate.
                              31

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     Streams or lakes in which optimum growth temperatures are not
reached, or for only short periods,  will  not attain maximum produc-
tivity.  Similarly, streams or lakes which exceed the optimum range
for considerable periods will  not attain highest productivity.  Water
temperatures which remain relatively stable either above or below the
optimum range for extended periods are conducive to disease develop-
ment which may result in a reduction in the number of fingerlings
produced.

     The food production capacity of a stream obviously affects fish
productivity by controlling the growth rate and time of migration.
Such food production is dependent to some extent on the temperature
regimen.  Streams stocked beyond their food capacity induce forced
migrations.  Chapman (1962) describes the continuous downstream dis-
placement of small silver salmon fingerlings (0. kitsutch) during the
first year of fresh-water residence and attributes this premature
migration to the aggressive behavior of the larger fingerlings.
Kalleberg (1958) suggests that the aggressive characteristic is
evolved in salmon and trout to insure an adequate food supply.  It
may be concluded that food shortages result in forced migrations of
portions of the populations not necessarily at sizes and times con-
ducive to optimum survival.

     The long downstream migration of salmon fingerlings imposes a
gauntlet of predation not normally encountered in other species of
fish.  One of the factors affecting the degree of predation is the
activity of the predators.  Water temperature controls the activity
of fish predators and, therefore, the degree of predation per fish
encountered by the downstream migrants.  The preferred or temperature
of optimum activity of both the migrant and predator influences mi-
grant survival, particularly at the warmer temperatures.  Streams
warm more as they progress toward the sea and the salmon migrants,
if the warm-up is considerable, may move out of their optimum activ-
ity range, thus being placed at a distinct disadvantage in the eva-
sion of resident predators.

     Brett (1958), in discussing environmental stress, lists high
water temperature as an indiscriminate stress on salmon fingerlings
which may be either lethal or loading in nature.  A  loading stress
is defined as any environmental factor which places an undue burden
on an organism, necessitating the rapid or steady release of energy.
The warm water temperatures, between 65F. and 75F' encountered
on occasion during migration, place salmon fingerlings under a load-
ing stress.  While such conditions may not prove immediately  lethal,
they may impair the metabolic activity of the animal to such an ex-
tent that any additional stress such as pollution may prove syner-
gistic and result in a high level of mortality.
                              32

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     The annual thermal cycle in a watershed determines both the produc-
tivity and the species which it will support.  Brett (1959) tentatively
delineates the thermal requirements for different life processes which
characterize Pacific salmon.  The work of the Salmon-Cultural  Laboratory
more precisely defines the requirements in some of these areas of specu-
lation.  Review of these requirements in comparison with the thermal
cycles existing in lakes and streams indicates that only rarely will
the complete thermal cycle coincide with the optimum life cycle require-
ments for maximum productivity.  The thermal pattern of a stream is af-
fected by the weather conditions encountered in the area and by man-
made diversions and obstructions.  Irrigation diversions can reduce the
normal streamflows until the water temperatures become intolerably
high.

     Dams created for storage or power can become either liabilities or
assets depending on how they alter the normal thermal cycle of the
stream.  Moffett (19^9) reports on the favorable temperature conditions
created in the Sacramento River by Shasta Dam.  Johnson and Brice (1953)
describe the adverse temperature conditions created by the delayed dis-
charge of waters from the epilimnion of Dorena Dam.  In the latter cir-
cumstance, the normal temperature pattern of the stream was reversed
with high water temperatures occurring in the fall during the egg incu-
bation period of the salmon.

     High power and storage dams with thermal stratification provide
opportunity for control of the thermal cycle within a watercourse to
the benefit of the salmon population.  Such thermal control, scientif-
ically applied, could alleviate to some extent at least some of the
detrimental effects of the dams by increasing the productivity of the
available stream area.

     The effect of temperature on productivity is not confined to the
fresh-water portion of the life cycle of the salmon.  Davidson (1938)
attributes limitations of the geographic distribution of the salmon in
part to the ocean temperatures encountered adjacent to the parent
stream.  Tully e_t al . (I960) reports an intrusion of warm ocean currents
at temperatures approximating 45F. into the Northeastern Pacific in  ~
1957 and 1958 and attributes this intrusion as the cause for the diver-
sion of the 1958 sockeye run of the Fraser River away from its normal
migration path.  Gilhousen (I960) points out that not only diversion
but delay in maturation occurred in this run and speculates that the
fish were displaced into more northern latitudes during their ocean
existence, which because of an abnormal lengthening of the light
cycle, delayed their time of maturation.  Such occurrences indicate
that radical  disruptions of ocean current patterns could conceivably
erect thermal barriers and completely divert a salmon population from
its normal oceanic and fresh-water habitat.  Other less obvious vari-
ations in ocean temperature may have pronounced effects on salmon
productivity.  Variations in the ocean survival rates of salmon
certainly exist.


                              33

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     While our knowledge of the temperature effects on ocean productiv-
ity of salmon is rather nebulous at present, information on the require-
ments for the fresh-water portion of the cycle is rather precise.  The
temperature requirements for maximum productivity of salmon in fresh
water may be defined as follows:

     1.  Temperatures during the upstream migration and maturation
         period of the adult should be between 45F. and 60F.

     2.  Spawning temperatures for maximum survival of the eggs
         should be between 42.5F. and 55F.

     3.  Egg and fry incubation temperatures, after 128-cell stage
         of development is reached, may vary but should remain
         within the range of 32F. to 55F.  The effect of fry size
         and time of migration on survival in different areas makes
         it impossible to confine the optimum tenperature range more
         precisely.

     4.  The range in temperature for maximum productivity in finger-
         ling salmon is between 50F. and 60F.

     Where dams with thermal stratification make thermal manipulation
possible, every effort should be made to produce stream temperatures
compatible with optimum productivity.
                          References

1.  Brett, J. R., Temperature Tolerance in Young Pacific Salmon, Genus
    Oncorhynchus, Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 9,
    No. 6, pp. 265-323, 1952.

2.  Brett, J. R., Implications and Assessments of Environmental Stress,
    in The Investigation of Fish-Power Problems, H. R. MacMillan
    Lectures in Fisheries, University of British Columbia, pp. 69-83,
    1958.

3.  Brett, J. R., Thermal Requirements of FishThree Decades of Study,
    1940-1970, Trans. Second Seminar on Biological Problems in Water
    Pollution, United States Public Health Service, Robert A. Taft
    Sanitary Engineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1959.

k.  Burrows, Roger E., Holding Ponds for Adult Salmon, U. S. Fish and
    Wildlife Service, Special Scientific ReportFisheries 357, July,
    13 pp., I960.

-------
 5.  Combs, Bobby D. and Roger E. Burrows, Threshold Temperatures for
     the Normal Devel opment of Chinook Salmon Eggs, U. S. Fish and
     Wildlife Service, Progressive Fish-Cul turist,  Vol. 19, No. 1,
     pp. 3-6, 1957.

 6.  Chapman, D. E., Aggressive Behavior in Juvenile Coho Salmon as a
     Cause of Emigration. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
     Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 101*7-1080, 1962.

 7.  Davidson, Frederick A. and Samuel  J. Hutchinson, The Geographic
     Distribution and jnironmental Limitations of the Pacific Salmon
            OncorhKnchus, Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries,
     Vol .  *8, for 19*+0, pp. 667-689, 1938.

 8.  Fish, Frederic F., The Return of Blueback Salmon to the Columbia
     River, Scientific Monthly, Vol. 46, No. k, April, pp. 283-292,
     T958T

 9.  Gilhousen, Philip, Migratory Behavior of Adult Fraser River Sockeye,
     Progress Report of International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Com-
     mission, 78 pp., I960.

10.  Royal, Loyd A., Annual Report for Year 1961, International Pacific
     Salmon Fisheries Commission, ^3 pp, 1962.

11.  Johnson, Marian E. and Richard F. Brice, Use of Impounded Water for
     Fish  Culture, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Research Report 35,
     35 pp., 1953.

12.  Kalleberg, H., Observations in a Stream Tank of Territorial ity and
     Competition in Juvenile Salmon and Trout (Salmo salar L. and s7
     trutta L.), Institute of Freshwater Research Report 39, Drottm'nq-
     holm, pp. 55-98, 1958.

13.  Moffett, James W., The First Four Years of King Salmon Maintenance
     Below Shasta Dam, Sacramento River, California, California Fish
     and Game, Vol. 35, No. 2, April, pp. 77-102, 19^9-

\k.  Royal, Loyd A., The Effects of Regulatory Selectivity on the
     Productivity of Fraser River Sockeye, The Canadian Fish-Cul turist,
     October, pp. 1-12, 1953.

15.  Tully, J. P., A. J. Dodimead, and S. Tabata, An Anomalous Increase
     of Temperature In the Ocean Off the Pacific Coast of Canada Through
     1957  and 1958, Journal Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 17,
     No. 1, pp. 61-80, I960.

16.  Vernon, E. H., An Examination of Factors Affecting the Abundance of
     Pink  Salmon in the Fraser River, Progress Report of the Inter-
     national  Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, U9 pp., 1958.


                               35

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DISCUSSION

Q..  Have fisheries agencies ever made their wants known about  using
    thermal structure of reservoirs for optimum production of  eggs
    and fry?  This can be done.

A.  They really did not know what was wanted for quite some time,  but
    they know pretty well what is wanted now.

Q..  If you don't speak up, you'll never get what you want.

A.  That's for sure.  I presume it is entirely feasible to adjust  so
    that water is taken from either the top layers or lower layers of
    a reservoir without affecting the power production, if there are
    outlets to do it.  But in running all the water through the tur-
    bines, there is not much choice.

&.  Isn't it possible, in dam construction, to provide for taking  out
    of different levels?

A.  In new dams this can be done, and is being done now.  However, in
    the operation of existing dams, this is not possible.  My sug-
    gestion is to get letters to people who operate these dams, telling
    them what your needs are.

A.  It seems that it is a glaring defect in our entire fish-management
    program that we have made no effort to take advantage of the thermal
    requirements of the fish and to correlate them with the thermal
    capabilities of management.

A.  This is possible only within the limits of the overall objectives
    of the project, and reservoir operation is only too happy to help
    out.  For instance, recently the Fish & Wildlife requested that
    we operate the Bumping River Dams to provide for the  survival  of
    the finger lings.  This is being done.

A.  We had an occasion in California, on the American River, where long
    after Folsom Dam was constructed the Bureau constructed adjustable
    louvers for the control of water temperature.

A.  The Army Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, if  they knew the
    requirements, would at least incorporate structures into dam con-
    struction and possibly even now operate dams more advantageously.
    I don't think that it would be too prohibitive in cost.  There are
    some areas below these streams now which are apparently much more
    suitable for fish than they ever were before.
                              36

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Q..  There was a report in SCIENCE a few weeks ago about some work on
    temperature periodicity.  Instead of regulating temperature in
    constant degrees for long periods of time, the investigator took
    the square waves of temperature in which he changed the frequency
    by which temperature varied up or down.  This seemed to produce
    dramatic results in survival.  This was done, I b'e! ieve, with the
    juveniles, but not with the adults.

A.  We have found that fish adjust very readily to temperatures of 10
    to 15 degrees change.

Q..  His point was that maybe the problem of temperature adaptation may
    be controlled by the frequency with which temperatures are brought
    up and down and the period at which they stay and then drop.

A.  This is not in conflict at all with Brett's work in which he found
    that where he acclimated fish to a temperature, say of 65 degrees,
    their lethal level of temperature would rise.  Where the fish were
    acclimated to lower temperatures, say 50 degrees, a sudden rise to
    75 would probably kill  the fish.  Actually this would not have been
    the lethal level, if the fish had had a chance to accommodate over
    a considerable period of time.

0_.  You mentioned better survival of the juveniles of the larger sizes.
    Do you mean survival of adults and what about the preponderance of
    jack salmon?

A.  This all depends on what sizes you are talking about.  For example,
    with silver salmon, if you increase the size and hold them for a
    considerable length of time, you get a preponderance of jacks back
    With fall chinook, groups have been released when they were running
    about 20 to the 1b. as contrasted to fish that were running about
    100 to 200 to the 1b.  There have been no indications of a prepon-
    derance of jacks back on these fish.

Q..  What is the effect of temperature on adults carrying eggs in trans-
    portation waterthat is, the effect of relatively high water tem-
    perature on the development of eggs prior to the fish reaching the
    spawning area?

A.  It doesn't seem to have any effect.  On the Grand Coulee, fish were
    moved in hot water.  The adults may die, but if the adults survive,
    the temperature at which the eggs are taken is the thing that in-
    fluences the egg itself.

Q..  The possibility was mentioned of acclimatizing the fish to a higher
    temperature regimen where they would not be quite so susceptible to
    some of the things that would affect them.  How long a period of
    time might be involved in making such an acclimatization?
                              37

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A.  This takes about three weeks,  but really it doesn't amount  to much
    as to the adjustment.  There is only about 2 degrees difference  in
    the lethal temperatures and lethal  temperatures are not,  of course,
    the important temperatures anyway.

0,.  Would it affect some of the subsequent life processes that  take
    place where the eggs might be affected by the higher temperature?
    That is, the stage where the adult  is carrying the egg?

A.  As far as we know, they are not affected.  There are cases  where
    temperatures have been as high as 72 degrees and the eggs were
    perfectly normal.

Q..  Mr. Burrows, you gave a list of ranges of temperatures for  various
    stages of life cycles of fish, and  in streams such as the Rogue
    River all of these stages may be taking place at one time.   Is
    there a range of temperature under  such conditions for all  of the
    cycles taking place at the same time?

A.  It is difficult to visualize a condition where all of them would
    be taking place at the same time other than an overlap such as
    when finger lings are moving downstream while adults that have not
    yet spawned are moving upstream.  In this case, the temperatures
    would have to come down to the range that will not affect any
    particular individual part of the cycle.  If the fish is vulner-
    able throughout any stage and it is not  in an optimum habitat, we
    are going to have to adjust to reach that habitat.  Obviously if
    we have a temperature of 32 degrees that the eggs will tolerate,
    when we move into a temperature with the adult and it won't de-
    posit eggs at that time, or if spawning  has actually taken place
    and we know that this is the lethal temperature during spawning,
    then U2-]/2 degrees becomes the minimum  temperature.  We narrow
    the limits, in other words.
                              38

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         THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON DISEASE IN FISH

             Erling J. Ordal  and Robert E.  Pacha*


     Fish are poikilothermic animalsj consequently they normally take
on the temperature of the water in which they are found.   This fact  has
a profound effect on host-pathogen relationships, since both the host,
in this case a fish, and the pathogen, the organism infecting the fish,
may be affected differently by the water temperature.   Since warm-
blooded animals have a temperature regulatory mechanism which holds  the
body temperature of the animal near to a particular value, it is not
feasible to evaluate specific effects of temperature on host-pathogen
relationships in such animals.  The situation is different with fish,
since here the temperature of the host can be placed under direct ex-
perimental control.

     From the literature it is evident that most fish diseases are fa-
vored by increased water temperatures.  This has been our experience
with most of the diseases of fish which we have studied at the Univer-
sity of Washington.  Some of the studies on this problem have been
carried out in the University of Washington Experimental Hatchery where
water temperatures are under relatively exact control.  In these stud-
ies, carried out with salmonid fishes, we have found that higher water
temperatures drastically increase the effect of such diseases as kidney
disease, furunculosis, vibrio disease due to a marine vibrio, and
columnaris disease in young fish.  Experience with natural outbreaks
of a number of diseases in hatcheries, as well as observations of dis-
ease in fish in natural waters, tends to confirm these findings with
most diseases.

     A striking exception to the more or less general experience that
increased water temperatures favor outbreaks of diseases  in  fish is
found with the disease sometimes referred to as "low-temperature dis-
ease" or "cold-water disease."  This disease is due to an aquatic
myxobacterium named Cytophaga psychrophlla which, as  its  name  indi-
cates, prefers low temperatures.  The disease is generally found in
young silver salmon in the early spring when water temperatures are
low and in some outbreaks causes very heavy  losses of young  fish.  As
a rule, when water temperatures increase with the annual warm-up of
the water, the disease is self-limiting and disappears.

     The effects of temperature on the disease in young silver  salmon
can be illustrated by an experiment  carried out at the University of
     ^Professor, Dept. of Microbiology; Research  Instructor, Dept. of
Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle.
                               39

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Washington.  A stock of young silver salmon from the Dungeness Hatchery
suffering from low-temperature disease was brought to the University of
Washington Experimental Hatchery and held at 43F.  Each day a consid-
erable number of these fish died.  After a week the remaining fish were
divided  into two groups.  While one group was held at ^3F., the second
group was tempered into water at 55.  After two days, mortalities in
the  lot  of fish held at 55 ceased, but deaths continued in the fish
held at  **3F. until all the fish were lost.  .

     On  isolation of the strain of . psychrophila in the Dungeness
fish, it was found that this bacterium was a true psychrophi1e, failing
to grow  on culture media except when incubated well below room tempera-
ture.  However, not all strains of . psychrophila which are found on
fish behave like the Dungeness strain, since some other strains have
been found which can cause disease at higher water temperatures.  In
some cases, the disease persists as water temperatures rise to 55F.
and even higher.  In the laboratory it can be shown that some strains
of C. psychrophila produce mutants which are capable of growth at higher
temperatures, and it is probable that the disease at the higher temper-
atures is due to these mutant strains.

     The occurrence of mutants in some strains of . psychrophila which
are capable of causing disease at a higher temperature illustrates the
fact, that bacteria can undergo genetic change.  When first discovered,
. psychrophila caused serious disease only in young silver salmon.
During recent years new strains have appeared, identifiable as .
psychrophila by serological methods, which have been found responsible
for generalized infections in young chinook salmon and blueback salmon.

     Columnar is disease, due to another myxobacterium, Chondrococcus
columnaris, is now well known and recognized as a warm-water disease;
and a good deal of attention has been given at the University of Wash-
ington to the study of this organism and its effects on populations of
fish not only in the hatchery but also in the natural habitat.

     Columnaris disease was first described by Davis in 1922 as a new
infectious disease of warm-water fishes in the Mississippi River Valley.
The disease was found in fish which had been trapped in sloughs along
the Mississippi River when flood waters receded, and which subsequently
warmed up, and in fish in a hatchery at Fairport, Iowa, at high water
temperatures.  The disease was found in 15 different species of fish.
Although Davis was not able to isolate the organism causing the dis-
ease, he observed and described the organisms present in the external
lesions on the fish sufficiently well so that there is no question but
that the disease which he studied was similar to that known today.
Following Davis1 report, nothing further is found in the literature
until papers by Fish and Rucker, 19^3, and Ordal and Pucker, 19M*, on
the occurrence of columnaris disease in cold-water fishes, i.e., in
salmonid fishes, at the Fish and Wildlife Station at Leavenworth,

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Washington.  The building of Grand Coulee Dam made it necessary  to
relocate the runs of salmonid fishes which were obstructed by the dam.
In this operation adult salmon and steelhead trout were trapped  at
Rock Island Dam and hauled in tank trucks to large holding ponds on
Icicle Creek at the Leavenworth Hatchery.  There they were maintained
until they spawned.  The fish were trapped over the period 1939  to
         were placed in the holding ponds in the period 19^0 to
     At the Leavenworth Hatchery columnaris disease was first observed
in a stock of young blueback salmon in the summer of 19^2.   Cultures
were isolated, and the pathogenici ty of the . columnaris was demon-
strated, thus proving that the disease in the young salmon  was due to
this organism.

     Subsequently, columnaris disease was found present in  adult
chinook and blueback salmon, steelhead trout, white fish, squaw fish,
chub and suckers trapped at Rock Island Oam.  Pure cultures of .
columnaris were isolated from external lesions and internal organs of
some of these fish.  Columnaris disease was also found in adult chinook
and blueback salmon taken in a moribund condition from the  holding
ponds at Icicle Creek.  It was reported by Fish and Hanavan (19^8) that
72.3 to 97-6 percent of the adult blueback salmon and 75.^  to 95-^ per-
cent of the summer chinook salmon in these ponds died before spawning
during the four -year period 19^0 through 19^3-  The cause of death in
the adult salmon was not established.  However, since the fish had been
hauled by tank trucks from Rock Island Dam, and since no precautions
were taken to prevent infection, it is probable that the majority of
these fish had been exposed to columnaris disease during the hauling.

     Following the reports on the occurrence of columnaris  disease in
salmonid fishes and the isolation of the causative agent, epidemics of
columnaris disease were reported in a number of regions of  the United
States ranging from New York to the South to the Pacific Coast (Davis,
19^9, 1953).  Most of the reports have dealt with the occurrence of
columnaris disease in hatcheries or with mass mortalities in natural
impoundments,  lakes or streams when water temperatures reached high
levels.

     In some studies carried out in the State of Washington in postwar
years it was noted that the strains of C. columnaris isolated in dif-
ferent places varied widely in their virulence, that is, their capa-
bility of infecting and killing young fish.  A report of these studies
was published by Rucker, Earp and Ordal (1953).  Thus, it was found
that strains of C. columnaris isolated from fish in the lakes and
streams and hatcheries of western Washington and from some fish in the
Columbia River were of relatively low virulence in that they produced
a slowly progressing infection which led to extensive tissue damage
only at relatively high water temperatures.  Serious epidemics due to
these strains occurred only at high water temperatures, ordinarily in
excess of 70F.  A number of hatchery outbreaks of this type were

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observed, and it was noted that although many fish were lost when water
temperatures ranged from 70 to 75F.>  mortalities diminished or  ceased
when water temperatures were reduced to 65F. or below.  Outbreaks  of
columnar is disease due to this kind of strain of C. columnaris occurred
a number of times at the Samish Hatchery on Friday Creek in western
Washington.  These strains were considered to be of low virulence  since
they failed to infect fish unless the fish were scarified or  injured by
some means to provide a portal of entry.

     In sharp contrast to these strains of low virulence, a number  of
strains of C. columnaris isolated from fish in holding ponds at  hatch-
eries in the Upper Columbia River Basin in postwar years exhibited
extraordinarily high virulence.  Tested in the experimental  hatchery
these cultures killed young salmon in less than 2k hours when  fish  were
exposed to dilute cultures and held at 68F.  As an illustration,  an
experiment performed with a culture isolated from a salmon at  the  Entiat
Hatchery in the late summer of 1951 might be cited.  Twenty uninjured
chinook salmon and twenty scarified chinook salmon were exposed  to a
dilute culture of . columnaris for two minutes, then placed in  a  trough
of running water at 68F. at 5:00 p.m. one afternoon.  By 9:00 a.m. the
next morning 39 fish were dead, and one fish was near death.  A similar
experiment performed with a culture isolated from fish in the Samish
Hatchery, though using smaller numbers of fish, led to no deaths in a
period of a week in uninjured fish with half of the fish which had been
scarified dying of columnaris disease in that period.

     Only limited data are available on the virulence  of the cultures
of C. columnaris which were isolated during the period of the Grand
Coulee fish-maintenance project, although it was recognized in this
early period that water temperatures played an important role in the
disease.  Fish and Rucker (19^3) showed that uninjured young fish ex-
posed to a particular culture of . columnaris for 30 minutes and held
at 70F. died in three days.  However, only 2k percent of fish which
had been exposed similarly and held at 65F. died  in  the 38-day period
of the experiment.  Rucker and Ordal (19^*0 carried out another exper-
iment on the effect of temperature on the effect of columnaris disease
in young salmon.  It was found that uninjured fish exposed to a culture
died in 72 hours when held at  71.6F., while 90 percent of the fish
held at 68F., 45 percent of the fish held at 64F.,  and 30 percent of
the fish held at 6lF. died in a week.  Thus the effect of temperature
on an infection of young salmon was well recognized,  although these
cultures were far less virulent than some of the cultures subsequently
studied by Rucker, Earp and Ordal  (1953).  The occurrence of high
virulence strains of C. columnaris in the Upper Columbia River Basin
and their apparent ablence in  the waters of western Washington pre-
sented an interesting problem  and  led to the more  recent investiga-
tions.

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     In view of the existing data  on  damage  done  to  populations of
fishes by columnaris disease,  the  question arose  as  to  the  significance
of columnaris disease to the fisheries  resources  of  the Columbia River
Basin, particularly in view of the impending construction of dams which
might serve as points of congestion where transmission  of columnaris
disease might be expedited.

     One reasonable hypothesis that might account for  the existence of
the high virulence strains in the  Upper Columbia  River  Basin was that
salmon became infected with ordinary  strains of .  columnaris  in^the
Lower Columbia River, and as they  migrated upstream an  increase  in
virulence occurred as the result of some genetic  process  such  as muta-
tion in the strains infecting the  fish.  Higher water  temperatures
resulting in increased multiplication of C.  columnaris  would  be  ex-
pected to increase the likelihood  of  a  mutation to higher virulence.

     One way in which to explore the  problem was  to carry  outfield
investigations on the disease in salmon at various locations  in  the
Columbia River Basin and to develop methodology whereby specific strains
of Chondrococcus columnaris might  be  identified.   Such an investigation
was begun on a small scale in 195^ and carried out through  1959.   The
most difficult"part of the investigation turned out to be the procure-
ment of samples of fish at various locations in the river,  since this
required availability of facilities for trapping fish and permission
and cooperation of agencies such as the Army Corps of Engineers  and  the
State and Federal Fishery Agencies.  Sampling was carried out at
Bonneville  Dam, at McNary Dam, and at Rock  Island Dam on the main
Columbia River; at Roza Dam, at Prosser, and at Horn Rapids on the
Yakima River;  at Tumwater  Dam on  the Wenatchee River; and at Zosel  Dam
on the Okanogan River.  Samples were obtained at these locations when
time and the necessary  cooperation and availability of trapping facil-
ities made  it  possible.  Since at  this time there were no barriers in
the Lower Snake River,  sampling was carried out  in  1955 and 1956 with
the cooperation of  the  Fish Commission of Oregon by use of fyke nets
in conjunction with  a  study of patterns  of  migration of salmon and
steel head trout in  the  Snake  River.

      Fortunately  for  this  investigation  there were  thermograph records
of water temperatures available from approximately  19^ at a  number of
locations  in  the  main  Columbia River and  in its  major  tributaries.
These records  were available  because of  the farsightedness of Mr.
Kingsley Weber of  the  U.  S. Fish  and Wildlife  Service  and his associ-
ates  who recognized that water  temperature  might  be an important fac-
tor which affects runs  of  salmonid fishes.   Unfortunately  for the
investigation, the thermographs which  had been employed were  wearing
out,  and coincident with  the  period  of the  columnaris  study,  most of
them  were  taken out of  service  and were  not replaced.  By  1958 most
of the Fish and Wildlife  thermographs  were  out of  service, and  by 1959
all were removed.   Though  some water  temperatures  were taken  by  other

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agencies, all records of water temperatures used in  the  present  study
were obtained from the Fish and Wildlife Service.

     Relatively high water temperatures prevailed  in the main  Columbia
River during the period of the Grand Coulee Salmon Relocation  Project.
This is illustrated in Figure 1, where mean water  temperatures at  Rock
Island Dam are plotted for the months of June,  July, and August  for  the
period 1933 to 1959*  Relatively warm water temperatures prevailed dur-
ing much of the 1939 to 19^3 period when upstream  migrants were  trapped
at Rock Island Dam.  This situation was followed by  a decline  in water
temperatures until minimum water temperatures for  July and August  were
reached in 195^ and 1955.  After these minimums, the temperatures  again
rose, reaching a secondary maximum in 1958, and then declined  rather
sharply in 1959.

     Water temperatures in the main Columbia River in the  summers  of
19^1 and over the period 1955 through 1959 are given in  Figure 2.  The
water temperature at Rock Island Dam in 1958, the warmest  of recent
years, approached but remained less than that in 19^1-  The  Snake  River
becomes warmer than the Columbia River during the summer months.  This
river normally reaches a temperature of 65F. late in June and quickly
exceeds 70F. where it remains throughout the summer months.  In 1955,
an exceptionally cold year, the warm-up was delayed  approximately  two
weeks.  The pattern of behavior of the Snake River is given  in Figure
3 where 6-day averages of daily maximum water temperatures are plotted
for the summer months.  The Lower Yakima River and the Okanogan  River
warm up in a similar fashion, with the warm-up in the Yakima River
usually occurring earlier than in the Snake River.

     As indicated in Figures 1 and 2, the field investigations from
195^ through 1958 covered a period of increasing water temperatures  in
the main Columbia River, with a sharp decline occurring  in 1959.  Par-
ticular attention was paid to blueback salmon since the  patterns of
migration were known and migration occurred mainly  in the  latter part
of June, July and early August.  This period also coincided  with the
time when assistance was available from students at  the  University.

     It is not possible to completely document the findings  in the
period allowed for this talk.  However, it was .found during  the  period
1955 through 1957 that columnaris disease was to all practical purposes
absent from salmon and other fishes at Bonneville Dam.  In 1956, for
example, only two cultures of C. columnaris were isolated  from 5^3 fish
examined between July 26 and September 11.  In 1957 only one culture
was isolated from 1^0 fish examined  in this  location.  In 1955,  when
permission to sample fish at Bonneville Dam could not be obtained,
approximately 300 scrapfish were taken from the mouths of  the tribu-
taries between Bonneville and McNary Dams, and only four cultures of
C. columnaris could be isolated from these fish.  None of  these strains
exhibited high virulence.  In contrast, the incidence of columnaris

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    .  '   '.     I.I   I.I  I.I  '.I   I.I   I.'   I   I   'i1   'i1   '  i '    ' i '  '  i I
    '33    35    37   '39   '41   '43   '45   47   '49    '51    53   '55   57   '59
                                       Year
Fig. 1. Columbia River at Rock Island. 1933-1959.  Mean monthly vater temperatures.

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7CH
51
 Fig.  2.  Columbia River at Rock Island.  Water temperatures
        (6 day averages), 1941; 1955-1958.

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     Jun.
Fip. 3.  Snake River at Sacajawea. Water temperatures
       (6 day averages), 1955-1958.

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 disease in  fish  taken  in  the warm waters  of  the Snake River near
 Clarkston  in  July  and  early August  of  1955 and 1956  ranged from 20
 percent to  75 percent  in  the chinook and  blueback  salmon  sampled by
 fyke nets operated by  the Fish  Commission of  Oregon.  It was subse-
 quently reported by Thompson, e_t aK (1958)  that 3*t  percent of the
 blueback salmon  captured  by fyke nets  in  the  Snake River  in 1955 and
 50 percent  of the  fish  captured in  1956 exhibited  recognizable colum-
 nar is  disease.

     A small  run of blueback salmon enters Redfish Lake in Idaho.  The
 number of adult  salmon  reaching the weir at Redfish  Lake during the
 period 1955 to 1959 is  shown in Table  1.  It  can be  seen that the run
 decreased from k,36\ fish  in 1955 to a low of 55 fish in  1958.  Evi-
 dence  obtained by  personnel of  the Oregon Fish Commission, together
 with data collected in  field studies carried  out during this period),.
 suggests that the  decrease in fish reaching Redfish  Lake was due to
 mortalities in these fish as a  result of infection with columnaris
 disease.  By  comparing  the temperature data plotted  in Figures 1  and
 2 with the  data  presented  in Table  1, it can  be seen that the decline
 in  fish  reaching Redfish  Lake is paralleled in an  inverse fashion by
 water  temperatures  in the main  Columbia River.  Since the water temper-
 atures of the Snake  River rather consistently reached values in excess
 of  70F., it  would  appear from  these findings that the water temper-
 atures in the Columbia  River below the Snake  River junction played a
 role in  determining  the incidence of columnaris disease.
                            Table 1

           Counts of Adult Blueback Salmon Crossing
                   the Weir at Redfish Lake-
Year
No. Bl ueback Salmon
1955
^361
1956
1,381
1957
571
1958
55
1959
290
     -VData from Bjornn (1960)

     In this connection, some studies carried out during the summer of
1957 are interesting.  In this summer columnaris disease was essentially
absent from salmon at Bonneville Dam.  When first sampled at McNary Dam
July 10 and 11, 1957, 52 blueback salmon were examined? 27 showed le-
sions characteristic of columnaris disease; 17 pure cultures were iso-
lated from these fish.  Eight additional cultures were isolated from
other species of fish.  Many of the lesions of the b!ueback salmon were
tiny and,  therefore, most likely of recent origin.  Hence, it seemed
probable that these fish had been infected either while in the ladders
at McNary Dam,  or while massed before the dam.  This might account for
the relatively high incidence of columnaris disease in the blueback

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 salmon  taken  from  the  Snake  River, although  the development of the
 disease would,  of  course,  be favored by  the  high water temperatures
 in  the  Snake  River.

      In 1955,  one  of the  coldest years on record, samples of blueback
 salmon  were taken  during  the period of migration over Zosel  Dam on the
 Okanogan  River.  At the very first part  of the run the incidence of
 columnaris disease was 1.5 percent.  Near the end of the run the inci-
 dence was k2  percent as determined by isolation of pure cultures.  As
 noted before, water temperatures in the  Okanogan River during the
 summer  months are  comparable to those in the Snake River.

      In 1956  only  one  trip was made to Zosel Dam.  This was during the
 latter  part of  the blueback  run, and 55  percent of the fish taken were
 found to  be infected with  columnaris disease.  In 1957 columnaris dis-
 ease  was  found  common  even in the early  part of the run of blueback
 salmon.   In 1958,  an exceptionally warm  year, difficulties were expe-
 rienced in obtaining blueback salmon from the Okanogan River during the
 normal  period of migration;  and the run was a failure.  However,  a
 large number of blueback  salmon were found dead or dying of columnaris
 disease in the  Similkameen River, a cooler tributary of the Okanogan
 River,  where these fish had  taken refuge.

      From the studies  in  the Snake River and the Okanogan River it
 seemed  evident that columnaris disease offered a real  hazard to salmon
 in the warmer tributaries, but the evidence indicated that the water
 temperatures  in the main  Columbia River represented an important factor
 in determining  incidence  and effects of the disease in fish in the
 tributaries.

      Beginning with the 1957 season,  more attention was paid to the
question  of the virulence  of the strains of . columnaris isolated
from  fishes of the Columbia River watershed,  since it was expected
that  high virulence strains would be more dangerous to salmonid fishes
than  low  virulence strains of . columnaris.   The facilities at the
University of Washington had been improved so that it was possible to
carry out analyses of virulence on a number of strains.

     As noted before,  in  1957 columnaris disease was essentially  absent
from  salmonid and other fishes examined at Bonneville Dam.   Eight of
the 17  strains isolated from blueback salmon at McNary Dam on  July 10
and 11,  1957 were analyzed for virulence immediately after isolation,
and five  of these  strains were found to be of high virulence in that
they killed young salmon in less than 2k hours when exposed  to  a
dilute culture in water.   Sampling at Rock Island was limited  to  two
trips on  July 16 and 2k,  1957, at water temperatures of 61  and  64F.,
respectively.   In spite of these relatively low temperatures,  15  pure
cultures of C. columnaris were isolated,  all  from blueback salmon.
Since columnaris disease was not found  in scrapfish at this  location,

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 the  blueback  salmon must have been infected while downstream.  On sub-
 sequent analysis for virulence, most of the Rock Island strains were
 found  to be of the high virulence type.

     One of the tools employed for the study of columnaris disease in
 fishes of the Columbia River Basin was a system of serological analy-
 sis.  This is a method whereby strains of a particular organism can be
 distinguished from each other.  The method is widely used in epidemiol-
 ogical studies on certain diseases of man.

     It was found that all strains of C_. columnaris had a common or
 species antigen.  This antigen was assigned Arabic numeral _K  Seven
 additional  antigens were found.  These were designated by the Arabic
 numerals 2, 3, 5_, 6, 2 * and 2*  These antigens were present or ab-
 sent or found present~in~different combinations in the strains which
were investigated.

     One useful result of the development of a system of serological
analysis was that it was possible to show that wide variations in
 virulence existed within a given serological  type of C. columnaris.
 This is illustrated in Table 2 where the virulence of a number of dif-
 ferent 1957 isolates of C. columnaris containing antigens 1, 3, 8, and
9 are compared.

     Codes in this table illustrate the locations in which these cul-
 tures were isolated.  M is McNary; R is Rock Island; T is Tumwater; 0
 is Okanogan;  and BL is Bumping Lake or Tieton Reservoir.  The strains
were all  isolated in 1957, and it may be noted that strains of high
virulence belonging to this serological type were isolated at a number
of locations.  Interestingly enough, the strains of lowest virulence
were isolated from the Tieton Reservoir on the Naches River, a body of
water which cannot be reached by migrant fish, where a mass epidemic
of columnaris disease occurred in kokanees or silver trout at a high
water temperature.  Large numbers of dead and dying fish were found
on the lake or on the shores.  Tested in the laboratory, these strains
all exhibited low virulence.  By present standards, this means strains
which failed to kill in four days or failed to kill at all when tested
by the contact method, that is, by exposure to dilute cultures of C.
columnaris for two minutes and subsequent holding at 68F.  An inter-
esting finding based primarily on the work in 1957 is that high viru-
 lence strains occurred in many serological types.  As a matter of
fact, in 1957 high virulence strains of C. columnaris were found in
seven of the serological  types which were present in the Columbia
River.

     The ecological  and epidemiological studies on the problem of
columnaris disease in fishes of the Columbia River Basin through 1959
have been reported by Ordal  and Pacha (I960) and cannot be presented
in detail  here.  However, it was possible to conclude that due to the
                              50

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                            Table  2

      Variations  in  Virulence  in Strains of C. columnar is
   of Antigenic Composition  1,  3,  8,  9  and Bacteriocin Type D
              Strain                          Virulence
                               (Hours  for  100% mortality  in test fish)
1-M57-22
1-M57-29
2-M57-27
3-M57-5
4-M57-4
1-R57-2
1-R57-17
2-R57-21
2-T57-2
4-T57-7
2-057-20
3-057-37
l-BL57-1e
2-8L57-3a
2-BL57-8c
24
18
22
94+
139
22
22
20
16
1 14
22
72
222
196
222+
occurrence of high virulence strains of C.  columnar is in the Columbia
River Basin, columnar is disease has become one of the major factors
contributing to the decline of the runs of salmon and steelhead trout.
In years of high water temperatures catastrophic mortalities due to
Columnaris disease can occur in adult salmon prior to spawning.  In
colder years, a larger proportion of adult salmon survive to reach the
spawning grounds, but carry high virulence strains of C. columnar is,  if
present in the river, into lakes and streams supporting populations of
young salmon and steelhead trout.  In light of present knowledge of
columnaris disease in the Columbia River Basin, it is probable that the
major damage to runs of salmonid fishes as. a result of infection by
strains of C_. columnaris of high virulence is not normally the killing
of adult salmon before spawning but rather the killing of young salmon
and steelhead trout  in the lakes and streams supporting these fish.
Salmonid fishes such as blueback salmon, spring and summer chinook
salmon, and steelhead trout, all of which normally remain in lakes and
streams for a period of a year or more before migrating to sea are
therefore particularly susceptible to destruction by high virulence
strains of C. columnaris.

     That columnaris disease was a serious threat  to runs of blueback
salmon was evident from the investigations on columnaris disease  in the

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summers of 1957 and 1958.  However,  in the absence of  counts  of  down-
stream migration, no data became available on damage to juvenile salmon.
As pointed out by Ordal and Pacha (I960) in a report on work  supported
by the Fish and Wildlife Service, the full impact of columnaris  disease
could not be determined until  the return of the progeny of  the  1957  and
1958 runs as adults in 1961 and 1962.  That these runs were badly dam-
aged is indicated in Table 3.
                            Table 3

                 Adult Blueback Salmon Counts
                       at Bonnevi11e Dam
                       1957 to 1963
                1957                       82,915
                1958                      122,389
                1959                       86,560
                I960                       59,713
                1961                       17,111
                1962                       28,179
                1963                       60,027*

                    "'Counts up to August 1 .
     Termination of support by the Fish and Wildlife Service for the
program of investigation of columnaris disease and its effects on the
fisheries resources of the Columbia River Basin left a number of ques-
tions unanswered.

     Although it was now established that columnaris disease repre-
sented a serious threat to natural runs of salmonid fishes in the
Columbia River Basin, the question of the source of the strains of .
columnaris, in particular, the high virulence strains, was not yet
resolved.  The hypothesis that high virulence strains originated from
low virulence strains in salmon infected in the lower river during the
course of migration was disproved, and the available evidence indicated
that the high virulence strains originated in the Columbia River Basin
somewhere between McNary and Rock Island Dams (Ordal  and Pacha, I960).
Since both the Snake and the Yakima Rivers warm up early in the season,
long before the Columbia River, it was considered entirely possible
that these might be the source of the high virulence strains.  Emphasis
in the earlier studies had been on salmon, but the disease had also
been found in scrapfish, particularly in scrapfish at McNary Dam during
the course of the blueback migration, and in the scrapfish observed in
the Lower Yakima River.  In colder years, the disease had been found at
Rock Island Dam in salmon, but not in scrapfish.  Hence, it was consid-
ered possible that the disease originated in scrapfish.


                               52

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     In an effort to learn the actual source of the strains of . colum-
nar is infecting fish in the Columbia River Basin, field trips were car-
ried out to the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia Rivers early in 1962 with
support from the Atomic Energy Commission.  The first trip to the Lower
Yakima River was on May 2k, 1962, when water temperatures were 59F.
On this trip 63 out of 113 scrapfish obtained at this site showed le-
sions suggestive of columnaris disease, and pure cultures were isolated
from 35 of these fish.  During the first three field trips to the Lower
Yakima River conducted at weekly intervals when water temperatures
ranged from 56F. to 60F., 310 fish were examined and 123 pure cultures
of C. Columnaris isolated from individual fish.  Field trips were begun
to Ice Harbor Oam on the Lower Snake River on June 7'  The water temper-
ature at this time was 53F.   One culture was isolated,  but in the fol-
lowing week 13 cultures were isolated at a water temperature of 59F.
In the following three weeks a large proportion of the scrapfish ex-
amined showed evidence of columnaris disease.  Two cultures of . Co1um-
naris were isolated from scrapfish at McNary Oam on May 31, 1962, when
the water temperature was 5^F.  At McNary Dam difficulties were expe-
rienced in getting fish for examination, and columnaris disease was not
found to be widespread until  July 11, when 33 pure cultures were iso-
lated from 83 fish examined.   Water temperatures on this date were
6kF.

     On analysis of virulence of a number of strains of . columnaris
isolated at these sites in the earliest part of the season, it was found
that cultures of all grades of virulence were present.  The presence  of
low virulence strains in fish taken in the Lower Yakima River, the Lower
Snake River, and at McNary Dam at water temperatures ranging from 53F.
to 60F. indicated that these strains must have originated at some loca-
tion where warmer water occurred.  Such a region might also provide an
environment where build-up in virulence could occur through some genetic
mechanism since multiplication of bacteria infecting a poikilothermic
animal  would be favored by higher water temperatures.  Since water tem-
peratures at Rock Island Dam on the main Columbia River did not exceed
52F. over the period May 2k to June 5, 1962, during which 123 pure
cultures of C.  columnaris were isolated from individual  fish in the
Lower Yakima*River,  and the water temperatures in the Lower Snake River
did not exceed 53F. during this period, natural  waters from these
streams could not have been the warmer water in which columnaris dis-
ease first developed.

     The regions of the Columbia River fed by the warm effluents of
the Hanford reactors represent locations where initial infection of
fish by C. columnaris and build-up of virulence of strains of C.
columnarTs might occur.  A second possibility, suggested by personnel
of the General  Electric Company, is that a number of warm sloughs on
the Hanford Reservation may be the areas where initial infection of
fish and development of high virulence strains of C. columnaris take
place.
                              53

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     To obtain evidence on this problem, field studies were instituted
in the early spring of 1963 in order to compare cultures isolated from
fish in the sloughs on the Hanford Reservation with those from the fish
entering the Lower Yakima River.  Field studies were begun in the Lower
Yakima River on April 9,  1963, at a water temperature of 48.2F., with
the cooperation of Fish and Wildlife personnel, and continued at ap-
proximately weekly intervals.   Through the cooperation of personnel  of
the Atomic Energy Commission and the General  Electric Company, it was
possible to obtain samples of fish, mainly by gill  net, from a number
of sloughs and ponds on the Hanford Reservation.  Sampling was initi-
ated on April 23, 19&3j when water temperatures in the sloughs and
ponds ranged from 50F. to 55F.

     As a result of these studies it was found that columnaris disease
was far more prevalent and cultures of C. columnar is isolated nearly a
month earlier from fish taken in the Lower Yakima River than was the
case with fish taken in the Hanford sloughs and ponds.  Cultures of .
columnaris were isolated from nine fish taken in the Lower Yakima River
on April 2k, 1963, at a water temperature of 56.3F.  Over the period
April 9 to May 27 a total of 108 cultures of C. columnaris were iso-
lated from 629 fish examined at water temperatures below 65F.  Most of
these were scrapfishes though the fish examined included some salmonid
downstream migrants.  Over the period April 23 to May 16 a total of
605 fish were examined in the sloughs and ponds on the Hanford Reser-
vation.  Columnaris disease was not found in these fish.  Two cultures
of . columnaris were isolated on May 22, 1963, when water temperatures
at the points of sampling ranged from 58.1F. to 67F.  Over the period
April 23 to June 5, 1963, when sampling was temporarily terminated by
flood waters in the Columbia River, 8^9 fish were examined and five
pure cultures of C_. columnaris obtained.

     Though analyses of virulence and of serological type have not yet
been carried out, the results of the field investigations in 1963 con-
firm the findings in the spring of 1962, and it is not possible to
avoid the conclusion that the infected fish during the early season
enter the Lower Yakima River after exposure to the warm effluents of
the Hanford rteactors.

     At present, the evidence indicates that warm-water-loving fishes
or scrapfishes resident in the Hanford area seek the areas of warm
water in the Hanford effluents.  There is some evidence from studies
in western Washington which indicates that scrapfishes carry low viru-
lence strains of C. columnaris over the winter season.  Hence, when
these fish enter the warmer water these strains may develop and cause
infections in the fish.  Spontaneous mutation to high virulence may
occur during multiplication in warm water, or incorporation of radio-
active materials may induce mutations to high virulence.  Once infec-
ted, it is entirely possible that these fish may seek areas of colder
water, and under these circumstances multiplication of low virulence

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strains may cease whereas the high virulence strains of .  columnaris
are capable of attacking and killing fish at lower temperatures.   Once
high virulence strains of C. columnar is develop,  there would be an
opportunity of transmission" of the disease from fish to fish.  Although
data on migration patterns of scrapfishes in this area are  scanty, the
occurrence of columnaris disease in scrapfishes taken in the Lower
Yakima and Snake Rivers, and subsequently at McNary Dam, can be ac-
counted for by the fact that as the water rises in the late spring
months the fish either seek the calmer waters of the Yakiria or Snake
Rivers or are swept downstream to McNary Dam where they may accumulate
in the ladders and provide a source of infection of migrant salmonid
fishes.

     In conclusion, there are a number of problems yet to be solved.
One is the question of whether the temperature or the radioactivity of
the Hanford effluents is responsible for the development of high viru-
lence strains of . columnaris.  A second, which should be of importance
to experts in fisheries, is to determine whether high virulence strains
of C. columnaris survive from year to year in some intermediate host.
A third is consideration of the possibility that high virulence strains
of . columnaris are transported to other watersheds by transfer of
stocks of salmonid fishes.  Finally, consideration should be given to
the possibility of lowering the water temperatures of the Lower Snake
River by proper construction and operation of dams which are in the
planning stage or under consideration.  With construction of Lower
Monumental Dam and other dams on the Lower Snake River, there will be
multiple points of congestion where transmission of columnaris disease
to the important runs of salmonid fishes in the Salmon River will be
expedited, unless water temperatures are materially reduced during the
summer months.
                              55

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                          References

1.  Bjornn, T. C., Salmon and Steelhead in Idaho, Idaho Wi Idl ife
    Review, J_3_:  6-11, 1960.

2.  Davis, H. S., A New Bacterial Disease of Fresh Water Fishes,
    U. S. Bur. Fisheries Bui 1 ., _3_8:  261-280, 1922.

3.  Davis, H. S., Cytophaga Col umnaris as a Cause of Fish Epidemics,
    Trans. Am. Fisheries Soc., 77: 102-101*,
k.  Davis, H. S., Culture and Disease of Game Fish, Univ. of Calif.
    Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1953-

5.  Fish, F. F. and Rucker, R. R., Col umnaris as a Disease of Cold
    Water Fishes, Trans. Am. Fisheries Soc., T$\  32-36, 1953.

6.  Fish, F. F. and Hanavan, M. G., A Report Upon the Grand Coulee
    Fish Maintenance Project of 1939-1 9^7, U. S. Fish and Wildlife
    Service Special  Scientific Report No. 55,
7.  Ordal, E. J. and Pacha, R. E., Final Report, Research and Investi-
    gations on Diseases Affecting the Fisheries Resources of the
    Columbia River Basin, I and II, 1 5k pp., I960.

8.  Rucker, R. R., Earp, B. J. and Ordal, E. J., Infectious Diseases
    of Pacific Salmon, Trans.  Am. Fisheries Soc., 83: 297-312, 1953.

9.  Thompson, R. N., Haas, J.  B., Woodall, L. M., and Holmberg, E. K.,
    Fish Commission of Oregon, Final  Report, Contract DA 35-026-eng-
    20609, 1958.

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         TEMPERATURE STUDIES  ON  THE  UMPQUA RIVER,  OREGON

                William H.  Delay and John Seeders*


      The temperature study on the Umpqua River  system  is  an essential
 part  of  a comprehensive study now being  undertaken  for the development
 of  the Umpqua  Basin's  water  resources.   Central to  the plan of develop-
 ment  envisaged by  the  U. S.  Army, Corps  of Engineers,  the agency respon-
 sible for the  comprehensive  study,  are three  reservoirs to be located
 on  the South Umpqua River, Cow  Creek and Calapooya  Creek.  Their func-
 tion  is  to regulate flows  in each of the streams  for purposes of flood
 control,  irrigation, municipal  and  industrial water supply, fish and
 wildlife enhancement,  recreation and water quality  control.

      One of the  problems which  needed consideration under the compre-
 hensive  plan of  development  related to stream temperature conditions.
 Summer temperatures in many  of  the  streams in the Umpqua  Basin exceeded
 tolerable limits for fish  life  and were  unfavorable to the maintenance
 of water  quality.   It  was  therefore recognized  that a major function of
 any proposed development was the control  and enhancement  of stream tem-
 perature  conditions.   Capability of the  proposed  reservoirs 6or exer-
 cising such control  had therefore to be  established.   Information was
 also  needed on thermal  structure in the  reservoirs  to enable the plan-
 ning  of  outlet facilities  for maximum utilization of the  thermal grat-
 ifications  for stream  temperature control.  Moreover,  the improvement
 of stream temperature  conditions had to  be determined  in  order to fully
 evaluate  resulting  benefits.   Assessment  of these benefits was consid-
 ered  essential  for  determining  economic  feasibility of the plan of
 development.

     To satisfy  these  planning  needs, temperature evaluations were re-
 quired to answer the following  questions:

      1.    In what amounts and at what temperatures will water be
          available  in  the  reservoirs during summer months, the
          season  of  critical  stream temperature, for average as
         well  as critical water years and  temperature years?

     2.    For given  reservoir  release rates, from what levels
          should water be drawn  to achieve maximum control  of
          downstream water temperature throughout the entire
          critical period?
     ''Evaluations Engineer, State Water Resources Board, Salem;
Department of Civil  Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
                              57

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     3.  For given release rates and temperatures,  what maximum stream
         temperatures will occur downstream from the reservoir, for
         average as well  as critical years?

     A number of Federal  and State agencies have been cooperating in
carrying out the temperature study, the evaluations and temperature
forecasts being the particular responsibility of the State Water
Resources Board.

     For several reasons the energy-budget method was adopted for mak-
ing the necessary temperature forecasts.  The method is sound theoret-
ically and basic methodology had already been developed.  It had been
used by McAlister I/ for temperature predictions on the Rogue River
similar to those needed for the Umpqua River.  Raphael  / had employed
the method on reservoirs and rivers in California and Washington.  Al-
though there is room for refinement, the method as presently used is
expected to yield reasonably accurate results.

     The method is based on the identification and evaluation of the
energy exchange processes between a body of water and its environment.
In the energy-budget equation for the body of water, all the items of
energy gain and energy loss are combined into a single algebraic ex-
pression.  Solution of the equation for any given set of conditions
gives the value of energy change of the water and, hence, its tempera-
ture change.

     The modified energy-budget equation as used for lakes and streams
states that for a given interval of time:
where  Q.Q = net change in energy in the body of water.

       (s = net incoming solar radiation.

       Q.b = effective back radiation from the water surface.

       Q.e = energy loss due to evaporation.

       Qh = energy loss by conduction from water to air.

       Qa = energy advected into the water by tributary
            streams, precipitation, etc.
     I/ Rogue River Basin Study by W. Bruce McAlister, 1961.
     2/ Prediction of Temperatures in Rivers and Reservoirs by
        Jerome M. Raphael, Journal of the Power Division.  Proceedings
        of the American Society of Civil Engineers,  July,  1962.
                              58

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     Although the energy-budget equation was known as far back as 1915
when Schmidt used it to estimate the annual evaporation from the oceans,
the difficulty in evaluating many of the terms has restricted its appli-
cation.  That the classical energy-budget equation needed modification
was established by the exhaustive Lake Hefner Study I/ carried out in
the early fifties.  This study also developed information which enabled
the evaluation of energy-exchange processes with a greater degree of
confidence.  Accuracies approaching + percent were obtained for evap-
oration from Lake Hefner for periods greater than seven days using the
energy-budget method as compared to the water- budget method.  Reference
will be made later to a verification study which was carried out on the
Willamette Coast Fork by the agencies who are participating in the
Umpqua study.

     The following is a brief description of the terms of the energy-
budget equation and the data required to evaluate them:

     a.  Q.s - Net Solar Radiation

         Between sunrise and sunset, the body of water receives energy
         directly from the sun in the form of short-wave radiation.
         Of the total radiation incident on the water surface, a small
         portion is lost by reflection and scattering.  The rest of the
         energy is absorbed by the water and is identified  in the en-
         ergybudget equation as Q,s, net incoming radiation.  Radiation
         values for Roseburg, which is centrally located, are assumed
         to be applicable  for all locations in the Umpqua River Basin.
         In the absence of recorded values, average monthly solar radi-
         ation for Roseburg is taken from maps prepared by  Sternes, ad-
         justed for measured values available for Medford.  For the
         verification of these values, experimental radiation inte-
         grators were maintained during the past summer at  selected
         stations.  Data obtained has yet  to be evaluated.

     b.  Ql  - Effective Back Radiation
          The  body of water  constantly  loses energy through the emission
          of long-wave  radiation.   Energy  loss  is computed by applying
          the  Stefan-Bol tzmann  radiation law, using an emissivity fac-
          tor  of  0.97.   A  constant  gain in energy occurs  through the
          absorption of long-wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere.
          Atmospheric radiation received at the water surface is also
          expressed in  terms of the Stefan-Bol tzmann  law, but includes
          an atmospheric radiation  factor  to allow for vapor pressure
      I/ Water  Loss  Investigations:   Lake  Hefner  Studies, Technical
      ~" Report,  Geological  Survey  Professional Paper  269,
                               59

-------
    and cloud cover.  It is estimated that only 97 percent of this
    radiation is absorbed by the water.

    Expressions for energy exchanges through long-wave radiation
    are usually combined into one which gives the effective back
    radiation.  Under certain circumstances, however, the exchange
    will result in a net gain in energy to the body of water.

    The equation is as follows:

        Q = 0.97cHTj;  -  TJJ)  8-

where  O.^ = effective back radiation

       
-------
         0.3^+,  to allow for the higher rates of evaporation from
         streams.

     d.  Q.n ~ Energy Transfer by Conduction

         Conduction of sensible heat occurs between the body of water
         and the air whenever a temperature difference exists between
         them.   The rate of conduction depends upon the temperature
         differentia!  and the wind velocity.  Energy change is identi-
         fied in the energy-budget equation by the term Q,n.  Values
         are determined with the aid of the Bowen Ratio, which gives a
         relationship between loss of energy from evaporation and the
         loss from conduction.  This ratio, combined with the expres-
         sion for the energy loss by evaporation, states that:

            ah = 0.138  u(ta - tw)  e
                                                           f\
     where  Q.n = Energy transferred by conduction in Btu/ft

            U  = Wind in miles per hour

            ta = Temperature of air in degrees Fahrenheit

            tw = Temperature of water in degrees Fahrenheit

            9  = Time in hours

         The constant 0.138 allows for barometric pressure which is
         assumed for the Umpqua Basin to remain constant at 29.5
         inches of mercury during summer months.

     e.  Q.a - Advected Energy

         When water is added to a reservoir or stream, the energy con-
         tained in that body of water is increased by the energy con-
         tent of the added water.  Similarly, water removed causes a
         decrease in the energy content of the lake or stream.  Energy
         change by this process is referred to as advected energy and
         is represented in the energy-budget equation as Q^.  Quanti-
         ties and temperatures of inflow and outflow are required to
         compute this term.

                   Data Sources and Analysis

     The energy-budget method may well be criticized for its excessive
data requirements.  Extensive meteorologic, hydrologic and other phys-
ical data are required before the energy-budget equation can be re-
solved for a given reach of stream for a specific period.
                              61

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     Data for the Umpqua River study was obtained from a  number  of
agencies, both from published and unpublished records. Where  needed
information was not available it was secured through special  studies
which were undertaken.  Data was collected and processed  as  follows:

     A.  Meteorology

         1.  Solar Radiation

             Average solar radiation for Roseburg was obtained from
         Sternes radiation maps of Oregon.  Values were adjusted with
         the aid of Weather Bureau records for Medford, the  nearest
         pyrheliometer station to Roseburg.  Average net  daily values
         corrected for reflected solar radiation were computed for  10-
         day periods.  One-half of the daily radiation was assumed  to
         occur between 0700 and 1200 hours and the other  between 1200
         and 1700 hours.  Data was collected during the summer from
         experimental radiation integrators consisting of relatively
         small insulated pots containing water.  Two of these inte-
         grators were located at pyrheliometer stations at Medford
         and Corvallis while three were located in the Umpqua Basin,
         at Roseburg, Tiller and Riddle.  The data collected,  which
         has not yet been evaluated, is expected to provide verifi-
         cation of radiation values adopted for the Umpqua Basin.

         2.  Solar A1titude

             Mean altitude of the sun was determined  for each ten-day
         period from declination values taken  from  the solar ephemeris
         corrected for the latitude at Roseburg.  Daily average was
         obtained by multiplying the mean altitude  by  0.75-

         3.  Sky Cover

             Wean sky cover at Roseburg was obtained from Weather
         Bureau records,  which gave the information in tenths  of sky
         covered for the period between sunrise and sunset.   These
         values were assumed to hold for the period from midnight to
         midnight.  Values were average for ten-day periods.

         k.  Relative Humidity

             Relative humidity at Roseburg was taken from Weather
         Bureau records,  and mean values were determined for the
         periods 0000-0700, 0700-1200,  1200-1700 and 1700-2^00
         hours for each ten-day period.

         5.  Mean Winds

             Mean wind speeds for Roseburg were taken from Weather

                               62

-------
         Bureau records.   Values in miles per hour  were tabulated  for
         periods identical  with those adopted for  relative humidity
         values.

         6.  Air Temperature

             Using Weather  Bureau records for Roseburg,  average  air
         temperature values were determined for the hours 0000-0700,
         0700-1200, 1200-1700,  and 1700-2^00.  A set of values was
         obtained for each  ten-day period.

         7.  Barometric Pressure

             Barometric pressure for Roseburg was taken from Weather
         Bureau records.

         8.  Evaporation

             A pan evaporation  station was set up at Roseburg in co-
         operation with several agencies and data was collected  dur-
         ing the past summer.

     Tables containing meteorological  and other data were prepared in
a form convenient for making energy-budget computations.  Table  1  is
one such table.

     B.  Reservoirs

         1.  Streamflow

             Streamflow data for the reservoir sites was obtained from
         U. S. Geological  Survey, Water Supply Papers.

         2.  Pool Elevation

             Depth-capacity curves prepared by the U. S. Army, Corps
         of Engineers, reservoir inflow rates taken from U.S.G.S.
         Water Supply Papers and reservoir release rates specified
         by the Corps of Engineers enabled monthly pool elevations
         to be estimated.

         3-  Water Surface Area

             Monthly water surface areas were determined from Corps
         of Engineers' area-capacity curves and estimated pool ele-
         vations.
                              63

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                                                 ISBIE 1
                                           MEMSQBDrOGICAL DAIA
PERIOD
Month
JUNE











JULY











AUGUST









Bay
1-10



10-21



21-30



1-iO



10-21



21-31



1-10



10-21


21-31


Hour
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-S400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-3400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-3400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-3400
Qs*
Met Solar
Radiation.
BTTJ/ftS
0
990
990
0
0
1040
1C40
0
0
1090
1090
0
0
1170
1170
0
0
1090
1090
0
0
1110
1110
0
0
970
970
0
0
890
890
0
0
860
860
0
P
Atmospheric
Radiation
Factor
.86
.35
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.84
.34
.34
.34
.82
,83
.83
.83
.83
.33
.83
.83
.32
.82
.81
.82
.82
.33
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.64
.33
.84
.83
.84
ea
Mean Vapor
Pressure
mb
12.5
12.4
13.6
13.4
12.3
12.4
12.7
13.4
12.7
12.6
12.9
13.3
12.3
13.3
13.0
13.1
13.1
14.2
13.9
13.8
12.6
13.S
12.2
13.3
11.9
13.0
12.7
12.8
12.1
13.0
11.9
13.1
11.8
13.0
12.2
12.9
U
Mean Wind
Velocity
rcph
3
6
10
6
3
6
11
5
3
3
12
7
2
6
12
6
3
7
12
6
3
3
14
7
5
7
15
6
2
7
12
7
3
7
12
6
ta
Mean Air
Temperature
-o F
53
64
72
61
54
65
73
62
55
66
76
64
G5
69
81
66
57
71
85
69
D7
72
87
70
54
70
83
58
54
68
82
67
53
68
30
65
Total daily solar radiation is divided equally between the  two  daylight periods.

-------
    k.  Inflow Temperature

        Temperature of reservoir inflow was taken  from records  of
    hydrothermographs stationed at the reservoir  sites.

C.  Streams

    1.  Streamflow

        U.S.G.S.  Water Supply Papers provided flow data  based on
    gaging records.  Flow in ungaged tributaries was estimated  on
    the basis of  drainage areas and unit yield rates.

    2.  Water Temperature

        Stream temperature data was taken from hydrothermograph
    records.   Instruments were located on the principal  streams in
    the Umpqua Basin, the earliest installations  taking  place in
    I960.

    3  Time  of Travel

        Time  of travel was determined in the field for three dis-
    charge values for each stream except Calapooya Creek.   Only
    one determination was made for this stream.  Discharge values
    were selected for damsites to represent, as far as possible,
    the range of  reservoir releases adopted for the temperature
    study.  Travel time was measured with the aid  of a tracer
    technique. A fluorescent dye, Rhodamine-B, was introduced
    into a stream at a known time and point of introduction and
    the time  taken by the dye to reach downstream points was
    observed.  Sampling was done at these points with a fluoro-
    meter.  Stream gaging measurements were carried out simul-
    taneously so  that travel  time was related to stream dis-
    charge for every reach.  A plot for each of the reaches was
    then made of  travel time versus discharge.  From these plots
    travel time values were taken for stream discharge rates
    equal  to  reservoir release rates adopted for  the study.
    These values  enabled curves to be drawn of elapsed time
    versus stream miles for constant discharge rates equal to
    reservoir release rates.   Figure 1 illustrates curves plot-
    ted for the South Umpqua River for the discharge rates of
    700, 1200, and 1600 cubic feet per second.

    *4.  Water Surface Area

        Water surface areas were determined for each river mile
    from a number of aerial photographs taken at  different times.
    With the  aid  of U.S.G.S.  Water Supply Papers  pertaining to
                         65

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CO
tj
0)

H
(V
CD
&
(0
H
W
    30
    20
    10
      0
                70     60      50     40      30


                           Miles Above Mouth
                                                     20
        10
                                                                        700 cfs



                                                                       1200 cfs


                                                                       1600 cfs
            FIGURE 1 - Time of Travel of South Umpqua River
 -p
(0 0)
0! 0)
  
-------
         the time of each photograph,  stream discharge values were
         estimated for each river mile to correspond with each sur-
         face area determinations  Plots were made for each river
         mile of surface area versus discharge.   From these plots,
         surface area values were taken off for  the constant stream
         discharge rates adopted for the study.   Curves were then
         drawn of cumulative water surface area  versus stream mile.
         Figure 2 illustrates the curves prepared for the South
         Umpqua River.

                     Reservoir Temperature

     Temperature analysis of reservoirs required a knowledge of their
physical characteristics and method of operation.  The proposed reser-
voirs were relatively deep, depths at full pool  being 380, 210 and 220
feet respectively for Tiller, Galesville and Hinkle reservoirs.  An-
nual regulation cycle called for evacuation in the fall to provide
storage space for flood control.  Reservoirs were to be filled during
winter and spring, the period of minimum stream temperature, and were
expected to attain full pool elevations by the end of spring.  During
summer, reservoirs were to be evacuated, withdrawals being made from
zones of relatively coo! water for purposes of stream temperature
control.

     Very little is known about changes in thermal conditions within
deep reservoirs, particularly when operated for modification and  con-
trol of stream temperature.  Several assumptions had, therefore,  to be
made in undertaking temperature evaluations for reservoirs  in the
Umpqua Basin.  At the beginning of summer, each reservoir was assumed
to have a constant temperature throughout, with the exception of  the
surface layer, which will be discussed presently.  With the advance
of summer, the development and downward movement of thermoclines were
assumed.  Validity of this assumption is borne out by records avail-
able for comparable reservoirs.

     Two factors were recognized as the primary causes of  reservoir
temperature changes during summer months.  They were:

     1.  Energy exchange processes identified in the energy-budget
         equation; and

     2.  Evacuation of water from selected elevations  in  the reservoir.

     Analysis of these two factors, therefore, formed the  basis of
temperature determinations in the Umpqua reservoirs.  Thermal condi-
tions were determined for each of the summer months for various reser-
voir depths, for selected meteorologic and hydrologic conditions  and
for selected withdrawal schedules.
                              67

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     Evaluation of the energy-budget equation required a knowledge of
reservoir surface temperature.  No temperature values were available
for similar reservoirs that would have served as a guide.  In arriving
at a reasonable assumption, it was argued that, because of the slow
rate of heat transfer by conduction, reservoir surfaces responded di-
rectly to meteorological  conditions regardless of reservoir depths.
From the temperature standpoint, the surface layer of a reservoir was,
therefore, assumed to be analogous to a shallow pond exhibiting no
thermocline characteristics.  Temperature in such a body of water is
known to be ambient, following the diurnal  meteorologic cycle.  Surface
temperatures of the reservoirs were, therefore, assumed to correspond
to the ambient temperatures of shallow ponds subject to the same mete-
orological conditions.  This assumption was not expected to cause any
significant errors in energy-budget computations for reservoirs.  In
the absence of temperature observations for shallow ponds in the Umpqua
Basin, values were taken from hydrothermograph records for Cow Creek
where thermal conditions,  in the summer, were known to approximate
those governing ponds.

     Gain in energy for the reservoir was determined for each ten-day
period by the energy-budget equation.  Computations were made on the
basis of the four elements into which a 24-hour period was divided so
as to allow for the diurnal cycle.  A sample computation is given  in
Table 2.  Energy gain for  each month was obtained by totaling the  gains
for the appropriate ten-day periods.

     Reservoir gain in energy for each of the months of  June, July,
August and September was then distributed within the reservoir by  depth
so that resulting temperature-depth curves were comparable to curves
available for certain western Oregon reservoirs.  A trial-and-error
procedure was adopted for  this purpose.  Changes in reservoir thermal
structure resulting from the energy exchange processes at  the surface
were thus determined.  A typical temperature-depth curve is illustrated
in Figure 3 which shows average thermal conditions in Tiller Reservoir
at the beginning of July.

     Modifications to thermal structure resulting from reservoir with-
drawals were determined by a simple procedure.  Water withdrawn  from  a
certain elevation was assumed to be at the temperature prevailing  at
that elevation at the time of withdrawal.  Knowledge of  the quantity
and temperature of water withdrawn  during each of the summer months
permitted the correction of temperature-depth  curves, which had  been
prepared as described in the previous paragraph.  The procedure  is
illustrated  in Figure k.   The modified temperature-depth curve for a
given month, used in conjunction with the capacity-depth curve for
the reservoir, enables determination of the quantity and temperature
of water available in storage for  temperature  control during  the fol-
lowing month.
                              68

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                                                  TABEE 2

                                          EMERGE BUDGET OCMPUTAIION
                                            FOR TTT.TKR EESEHVDIH
                                             Period\j-uly 1-10
TIME
(for ten days) hours
BESERVDIH
Volume ac. ft.
Surface Area acres
Inflow ac. ft.
Release ac. ft.
TEMPERATURE
Inflow  F
Belease e F
tw (Surface)  F
SOLAR RADIATION
Qs (Table 1.) BTO/ft2
LONG WAVE RADIATION
t., (Surface)  F
tg, I Table 1.)  F
B ' (Table 1.) %
& hours
Qb BTU/ft2
EVAPORATION
U (Table 1.) mph
em mo
ea (Table 1.) mb
0 hours 0
Qe BTU/fV*
CONDUCTION
U (Table 1.1 mph
ta (Table 1. J  
tv, (Snrface)  F
6 hours
Qh BTO/ft2
MEEGY GAIN
Qe.Qb.Qe.Qh BTO/ft2
^-Qb-Qe-Qh (for
entire res.) OTO*
A0VBCOED ENERGY
Inflow ac. ft
Inflow Tentp.  I
Qa. (from inflow) OTU
Belease ac. ft
Release Tern.  F
^3. (from release) OTU
Qa, (net) OTU
TOTAL ENERGY QAJN
Qij 0
0000-0700
70

350,000
2,850
580
3,500

61
45
70

0

70
55
82
70
2,770

2
25.0
12.3
70
1,015

2
55
70
70
290




580
61
10,820
3,500
45
-45,500



0700-1200
50

350,000
2,850
420
2,500

61
45
69

1,170

69
69
83
50
1,105

6
24.2
13.3
50
1,865

6
69
69
50
0




420
61
12,180
2,500
45
32,500



1200-1700
50

350,000
2,850
420
2,500

66
45
72

1,170

72
81
83
50
745

12
26.7
13.0
50
3,905

12
81
72
50
-745




420
66
14,280
2,500
45
-32,500



1700-2400
70

350,000
2,850
580
3,500

66
45
74

0

74
66
83
70
2,065

6
28.6
13.1
70
3,710

6
66
74
70
465




580
66
19,720
3,500
45
-45,500



0000-2400
240

350,000
2,850
2,000
12,000





23,400





6,685





10,495



10

6,210
283,000


63,000


-156,000
93,000

190,000
*  OREGON THEEMAL TWIT = Quantity of heat required  to raise one acre-foot  of water 1 F.
                                                     69

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    1300
-4
to
U4
U4

-4
W
     1200
     1100
     1000
                  Pool elevation
                             50                  60

                             TEMPERATURE IN F
70
         FIGURE 3.   Estimated temperature gradient of Tiller Reservoir
                    for July 1st.
                                   70

-------
6
g
I
     1300
     1200
     1100
    1000
            Change in pool  elevationMue  to withdrawal
Temperature gradient
assuming no withdrawal
                                        Temperature gradient
                                        allowing for withdrawal
         40
                   Depth and  elevation
                   of  layer withdrawn
             50                 60

             TEMPERATURE  W  p
                                                                    70
         FIGURE  4.   Effect of reservoir withdrawal upon temperature
    gradient.
                                 71

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                      Stream Temperature

     Computational procedure for streams differed in some respects from
that used for reservoirs to allow for differences in their physical
characteristics.  For a stream, it was necessary to determine maximum
and minimum daily temperatures of parcels of water from the moment they
left the reservoir to the time they reached the mouth of the stream.
Energy exchange processes had, therefore, to be evaluated for relatively
short periods so that the response of the stream to diurnal variations
of meteorological influences was accurately ascertained.  Allowance had
to be made for stream velocity and changes in stream width since they
determined the period and areal extent of exposure of the body of water
moving downstream.

     To satisfy these requirements and yet keep the number of energy-
budget computations to a minimum, the following time intervals were
adopted:  0700-1200, 1200-1700, 1700-2^00 and 2/400-0700 hours.  The end
of the second period marked the point of maximum daily temperature while
the end of the fourth coincided with the minimum.

     Certain assumptions were made in evaluating energy changes for
streams.  One was that thermal gradients were absent due to complete
mixing of the water.  Streambeds and banks were assumed to have no in-
fluence on the water temperature.  Energy contributions by thermal dis-
charges, biological and chemical processes and the conversion of  kinetic
energy to thermal energy were disregarded as being minor.

     Stream temperatures were determined for summer months only,  the
period of critical temperature.  The procedure is  illustrated in  Table
3 which shows the evaluation of the various terms  in the energy-budget
equation for a specific case.  The example deals with a hypothetical
discharge of 1200 cubic feet per second  from Tiller Reservoir entering
the South Fork Umpqua River at 0700 hours.  A probable gain  in  temper-
ature of 5-7F. is indicated by the computation, when temperature of
water released is ^5F. and meteorological conditions are  those nor-
mally encountered during the period July 1 to 10.

     With the aid of specially prepared  nomographs and  tables,  it was
possible to expedite the procedure illustrated  in  Table 3.  Reference
should also be made to a computer program  set up at  Oregon State  Uni-
versity as part of this study  for solving  the energy-budget  equation
for streams.

     Table 3 indicates that the average water temperature, for  the
reach of river being analyzed, has to be estimated at the  very  com-
mencement of the analysis.  This temperature is needed  for evaluation
of the terms 0_b, Q.e and 0_h  in  the energy-budget equation.  In cases
where the computed average differs substantially  from the  estimated
value, the energy-budget computation  is  repeated,  using a  new esti-
                               72

-------
                                  TABLE  3

                         ENERGY  BUDGET COMPUTATION
                           FOR SOUTH  UMPQUA  RIVER
STREAM SECTION
          Beginning River Mile ...............    770
          Ending River Mile (from Figure 1) .........    69.0

PERIOD
          Month  ......................    July
          Day ........................    1st -  10th
          Hour .......................    0700 - 1200
           9   .......................    5 hrs

DISCHARGE
           Q. (average for Stream Section) ..........    1200 cfs

TEMPERATURE
          Initial ......................    15F.
          tw (estimated average for section)  ........    1+8F.

SOLAR RADIATION
          0_s (Table 1) ...................    1170 BTU/ft2

LONG WAVE RADIATION
          tw ........................    48F.
          ta (Table 1) ...................    69QF.
          p  (Table 1) ...................    83%
          6  ........................    5  hrs
          Qb ........................    14 BTU/ft2

EVAPORATION
          U  (Table 1) ...................    6  mph
          CM ........................     1 1 . 3 mb
          ea (Table 1) ...................     13.3 mb
          9  ........................    5  hrs
          0 ........................    -Jk BTU/ftz

CONDUCTION
          U  (Table 1) ...................    6  mph
          ta (Table 1) ...................    69F.
          tw ........................    48F.
          9  ........................     5  hrs
          0_h ........................    -87 BTU/ft2

TOTAL ENERGY GAIN
          Qs ........................     1170 BTU/ft2
          Qe ........................   -33
          Qh ........................    87
          Q  ........................    1277 BTU/ft2

TOTAL TEMPERATURE GAIN
          d  ........................    1277 BTU/ft2
          A  (Figure 2) ...................    6.7 x 10& sq ft
          Q.  ........................    1200
          9  ........................    5 hrs
          At ........................    57F.

FINAL TEMPERATURE ......................    50.7F.

          "" 0_e   in  this case  is energy gain due to condensation


                                      73

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mated value.  In the example shown in Table 3,  the assumed  average  of
48F. is in close agreement with the computed average of  47.8F.

     Table 3 shows further that the value of Q_t is determined firstly
for a water surface of unit area, in this instance a square foot.   This
value is then applied to the surface area of the reach of stream  under
analysis, 6.7 x 1 0& square feet in the example.  The final  temperature
in one reach, 50.7F. in Table 3, is taken as the initial temperature
for the next lower reach.

     In the Umpqua River studies, temperatures were computed for  reser-
voir releases occurring at 0700, 1200, 1700 and 2400 hours.  For  each
stream, computed temperatures were plotted against river  miles and
curves drawn connecting maximum and minimum points, respective!y,   These
curves were taken as the limits of the diurnal  temperature range  for  the
particular conditions considered.  It is proposed to develop such  curves
for three discharge values and an appropriate range of initial tempera-
tures with respect to each of the three reservoirs.  Curves are to  be
plotted for average as well as critical years for each ten-day period
from June 1 to August 31.  These evaluations have been held in abeyance
until field data collected this summer becomes available.

     As mentioned earlier in the paper, a verification study was under-
taken on the Willamette Coast Fork.  The purpose of the study was to
determine the reliability of methodology adopted for temperature analysis
of streams.  Preliminary evaluations of data gathered for the Willamette
Coast Fork indicated close agreement between computed and observed stream
temperatures during the day.  At night, observed values were  less than
computed values.  The study demonstrated the reliability of the method,
at least for the meteorological and other conditions experienced during
the study.

     There is considerable room for improvement  in  the energy-budget
methodology as currently used for both reservoir and  stream temperature
determinations.  A simplification in computational  procedure, which will
reduce man-hours without sacrificing accuracy,  is  particularly needed.
Current knowledge on evaporation from  streams  and  on  surface  tempera-
tures in reservoirs appears to be inadequate for precise temperature
determinations.  The need exists for an expansion  in  the collection and
publication of meteorological data  required for  energy-budget studies.
                       Acknowledgements

     The guidance and inspiration received from Malcolm H. Karr, Chief
Engineer of the State Water Resources Board of the State of Oregon,
under whose supervision the Umpqua Temperature Studies were carried out,
and the loyal cooperation of Robert T.  Evans and Bruce A. Tichnor, who
assisted in the computations, are gratefully acknowledged.

-------
DISCUSSION

Q.  Do you feel  that stream turbulence may have any effect  on evapora-
    t i on?

A.  Yes, because most of our equations have been obtained from lakes
    and the lakes, in general, may be fairly placid and of  a given
    surface area.  We feel that the river, in general,  is quite turbu-
    lent, having a very rough surface; in fact, most of our streams on
    the West Coast are for large distances white-water  rivers and we
    feel that the extra surface area which is involved  here will  be a
    considerable factor in increasing the evaporation above and beyond
    what is presently being estimated.

Q..  How do you justify the use of solar radiation data  from only one
    point when you are considering a whole basin or a length of stream
    maybe 70 or 80 miles  long?

A.  Solar radiation is a function of cloud cover.  The  solar radiation
    hitting a latitude would be constant, if the sky were clear.  We
    felt that, in the Umpqua Basin, Roseburg is centrally located in
    fhe area that we are considering, and it would provide us with an
    average value that could be attainable with the degree of accuracy
    that we are aiming at.

Q..  Do you believe that the use of pyrhel iometers would be advantageous
    in the collection of  solar radiation data to supplement the read-
    ings at only one point in the basin under investigation?

A.  We have had some experimental radiation integrators installed in a
    number of places.  They are, you might say, modified Cummings radi-
    ation integrators--smal1 insulated pots.  One  is located in
    Corvallis alongside a pyrheliometer and another one at Medford,
    also alongside a pyrheliometer, and we have a  few scattered in the
    Umpqua Basin.  Unfortunately, we have not yet  evaluated this data,
    but we hope that this will give us an indication of whether our
    assumption or our adopted practice of using the Roseburg values
    are adequate.
                              75

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        TEMPERATURE PHENOMENA AND CONTROL IN RESERVOIRS

                      Jerome M. Raphael"'


                           Abstract

     The variation of temperature in reservoirs with time and with  dis-
tance from the surface can be predicted with confidence,  using a heat-
budget approach, if proper account is taken of the varying influences
of meteorological phenomena, the geometry of the reservoir,  the posi-
tion of the outlets, and the volume of the inflow and outflow.  The
reservoir can be considered to be made up of a number of  horizontal
layers each having the average temperature of the portion of the tem-
perature gradient in that layer.  Heat moves into and out of the layer
chiefly by means of water transported into and out of the layer.  Some
heat is transferred between layers by conduction, which is another  way
of saying molecular diffusion, but this amount is physically so small
in comparison with the amount of heat moved by mass transfer that it
can safely be neglected in any engineering computation.

     In the typical reservoir, water leaves the reservoir through an
outlet works or penstock.  The water that leaves the reservoir is drawn
not only from the layer directly in line with the outlet, but also to
some extent from layers above and below.  Any water drawn from a low
elevation must be replaced by waters from layers above, and in this
manner heat is transferred downward from the surface to lower-lying
layers.  Water flowing into the reservoir at a given temperature is
considered to dive down beneath warmer and lighter layers until it
hits a colder layer, and then to mix with this layer.

     At the surface itself, a tremendous amount of heat is transferred.
The primary agent here is solar radiation.  Incoming short-wave radia-
tion is attenuated by passage through the atmosphere, and diminished by
clouds and reflection from the surface of the reservoir.   The amount of
incoming radiation is dependent upon the hour of the day, the day of
the year, and the altitude and latitude of the reservoir.  The warmed
water surface radiates heat to outer space as long-wave radiation and
the atmosphere likewise radiates to the surface of the reservoir as
long-wave radiation.  The net interchange of long-wave radiation is
termed effective back radiation and is generally net radiation to
space.  Some heat is lost from the surface of the reservoir by evap-
oration, which is affected by the vapor pressure of the atmosphere,
the wind velocity and the temperature difference between water surface
     "'Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California,
Berkeley.
                              76

-------
and the air.  Some heat is gained from the atmosphere by  direct  conduc-
tion between air and water.   And finally,  some heat  may be  gained
directly from rainfall.

     In an engineering calculation of these surface  temperature  effects,
a finite surface layer must be considered.  Experience in swimming in
deep lakes has shown the great temperature differences between the water
at the immediate surface and that lying only a few feet  beneath  the sur-
face.  However, it can readily be visualized that this daytime phenom-
enon must change greatly at nighttime.  As air temperature decreases,
there will come a time when the surface skin of water is  cooler  than the
air.  Thus the surface itself is cooled to a temperature  slightly  less
than the water immediately below it.  Being heavier, this water  sinks
through the warmer water and the warmer water is in turn  cooled  at the
surface.  Thus, there are set up local convection currents which tend to
stabilize a finite layer of water of nearly uniform density at the sur-
face.  In calculations made using data obtained at Shasta Reservoir,
temperatures computed using a 10-foot surface layer corresponded most
closely to temperatures measured at the reservoir.  Use of a thinner
surface layer gave temperature fluctuations which did not seem repre-
sentative of those measured.  Thus, a 10-foot surface layer has been
utilized in a number of predictions of reservoir temperature.

     Time intervals for these predictions should be as short as practi-
cable if detail is needed of maximum and minimum temperatures.  With 3-
hour intervals, diurnal variations are easily shown.  With daily  in-
tervals, detail is lost, but averages are easily obtained for gaging the
effect of various operating criteria on the temperature of the reservoirs.

     Recognition of temperature as a parameter of water quality is  so
recent a phenomenon that there are only a few engineering works designed
to deliver water at a predetermined temperature.  These usually involve
either a number of outlets at different elevations  in a dam,  or a device
that can be used to mask off all  inflow except that  from an  elevation in
the  reservoir at the desired temperature.   It must  be recognized  that as
a corollary to  this it  is necessary to have practically continuous  mon-
itoring of  the  variation of temperature with  depth  in the  reservoir in
order to be able to determine the quantities  of water to draw at  various
elevations.
                               77

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       METHOD OF COMPUTING AVERAGE RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE

                        Peter B. Boyer*


                   On Reservoir Temperatures

                         Introduction

     Recent emphasis on the effect of water temperature on fish,  irri-
gation, and recreation led the Portland District,  Corps of Engineers  to
the examination and study of reservoir and river temperatures and re-
lated data.  The study is continuing, but sufficient progress has been
made to report on the analysis and results.  Specifically, this report
discusses the procedure used for reproducing or determining the month-
end average reservoir temperatures.  Essentially,  the method consists
of solving a "heat-storage" equation, known also as "heat-balance" and
"energy-budget".  The equation is employed as a guide in keeping an
inventory of the basic data, assumptions, appraisals, and computations.
The terms of the equation are defined by the ordinarily observed mete-
orologic factors.  All work is conveniently arranged, symbolized, and
referenced in Table 1.
                Observed Reservoir Temperatures
              (Detroit and Lookout Point Projects)

     Since 195^ Portland District, U. S. Corps of Engineers has been
reading thermohms, installed on the upstream face of Detroit and Lookout
Point Dams, to obtain general information on the reservoir temperature
and specifically on the temperature of water entering the powerhouse in-
take.  The temperatures are recorded daily from August 1  to November 15
and weekly during the remainder of the year, between the hours of k and
8 p.m.  For this study, it is assumed that the water temperature at a
thermohm equals that at the same level in other parts of the reser-
voir. I/ The observed temperatures for 1958 are plotted in three dif-
ferent forms, shown by Figures 1, 2, and 3  The patterns are typical
of other years.  Examination of the patterns reveals the following tem-
perature characteristics in Detroit and Lookout Point Reservoirs:
     * U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland.

     \J Dorena Reservoir is also equipped with thermohms at 10 feet
apart.  However, water temperatures were observed only during 1951
and 1952.
                               78

-------
                       TABtE 1.   KEHIODUCTIOH OF 1958 MDHTH-0JD AVHUGE RESffiVDIR TEMPERATURES, DETROIT HSOJECT, OREGOH

                                     By Heat-Storage Equation:     !T2 = (S;iTi + I Tj. - 0 To + 0.03 A H) /3a
JHE
j.
2
3
1*
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
ll*
15
16
17
IS
19
20
21
22
23
2>*
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
SYMBOL
Si
TT
Sj. Tl
I
T!
I TI
0
To
0 T0

F
Si
sr
PSr
sa
Ta
TV
Rn

Ep
Is
He
Tw-Ta
U
He
H
A
.03 AH
IT1-OT0
S2T2
32
T2
T2
          ITEM

Res. content
Ave. Res. temp.
Res. heet content

Inflow
Av. inflow temp.
Heat Inflow

Outflow
Av. outflow teup.
Heat outflov

Sky cover ty clouds
Possible sunshine
Incident solar rad.
Reflect, (clear sky)
(11) X (13)
Absorbed, Si - P Sr

Air temperature
Hater surf. temp.
Net. L.W. Rad. Loss

Rain:  0.1 or more
Pan evaporation
Res.
Evapo. heat, 1*9-5 E
      (17) - (IS)
Wind speed
Oonv. heat, 0.89
 Res.  surf,  area
 Total over res. surf.
 (6) - (9)

 (3) + (28)  + (29)
 Res.  content
 Ave.  res. temp.(30)f(3l)
 Observed ave.
UNIT
SFM
F
SFM-OP
SFM
op
SFM-F
SFM
OF
SFM-F
Tenths
I^dy.
n
rt
p
QP
lor/dy.
Days
Inches
lor/day
P
Iff/dy.
Wdy-
Acres
BFM-F
SIM-OF
SIM-0?1
SFM
OF
OF
JAN
1*170
166.8
U210
1.0
168.1*
1*300
l*o
192.0
9-2
17
99
38
g
93
1(0
1*1
103
16 .
0.65i
0.3
1.5
1
7.1*
6
-31
2200
-2.0
-23-6
ll*1.2
3570
39.6
39-6
FEE MAR
3559 1*662
11*1.2 19"*-5
5130 1765
1*0 39
205.2 68.8
3820 1015
1*0 1*1
152.8 U.6
9-2 7-8
19 'H
150 280
39 38
7 ifi
I *"
ll*3 261*
1*5 ^3
1*5 >5
95 106
IB 10
l.l*2i 2.25i
0.7 i-1*
35 69
0 2
6.3 7-3
0 13
13 76
2260 2630
0.9 6.0
52.1* 27.2
191*. 5 227-7
1*662 5>*35
1*1.7 >*l-9
1*1.6 1*1.6
ASR
5^35
227-7
3350
1*1
137- !*
2250
1*1
92-3
7-5
1*7
395
1*0
19
376
1*7
1*9
109
3-Tli
2.2
109
2
7.6
13
ll*5
2970
12.9
1*5-1
285-7
6535
1*3.7
1*3-7
MAT 3m
6535 7317
265.7 31*2.3
21*05 1635
1*7 51
113.0 83.1*
1650 151*5
1*2 1*3
69.3 66.1*
6-5 7-2
57 1*7
512 1*78
1*6 1*7
26 22
1*36 1*56
61 63
61* 66
127 129
7  l1* 
6.81*i S-1*^
l*.5 l*-2
223 208
3 3
6.3 6.3
17 17
119 102
331*0 3500
11.9 10.7
l*i*.7 17.0
31*2.3 370-0
7317 7!*03
1*6.8 50.0
1*6.9 50.0
JUL
7*103
370.0
925
56
51.8
1270
1*1*
55-9
1-9
93
707
>*5
1*2
665
71
75
ll*l*
10.02.
8.0
396
1*
7-o
25
100
31*50
10.1*
-l*.l
376.3
701*7
53.1*
5l*.2
ATO
7Ol*7
376-3
655
57
37-3
970
1*7
1*5-6
2.6
87
623
1*1
36
587
71
76
151
9.2li.
7-7
333
5
7-0
31
22
3320
2.2
-8.3
370.2
6720
55-1
55-7
SEP
6720
370-2
635
53
33-7
1550
50
77-5
5-9
53
372
39
21
351
61
67
ll*7
8
i*.r
i*.i*
216
6
7-9
1*2
-56
3070
-5-2
-1*3.8
321.2
5810
55.3
56.7
OCT HOT
5810 1*353
321.2 231.0
755 >*095
1)8 1*5
36.2 ofli*.3
2165 51*90
55 50
119.1 27i*.j
5-9 8.3
53 28
273 139
38 39
20 11
253 123
56 1*1*
62 51
ll*l 136
5 18
3.02i 0.62i
3-5 i-o
173 5"
6 7
6.1 8.5
32 61
-93 -119
2630 2080
-7.3 -7A
-82.9 -90.2
231.0 133. >*
1*353 2895
53.1 1*6.1
52.9 ^5-3
DEC
2695
133-1*
3350
1*2
11*0.7
31*55
1*3
11*8.6
9-1
19
87
35
7
60
1*1*
1*5
101
*!
0.29i
0-5
25
1
6.6
7
-53
1800
-2.9
-7-9
122.6
2785
1*1*. 0
1*3.0
REMARKS
At 'begin, of no.
See line (32)
In. 1000. See line (3O)
During month
In 1000.
During nonth
From fig. 1 or 2
In 10OO.
USWB, Salem, Ore.
From fig. 5
From fig. 5
Hearly game each yr.
Cor. for sky cover.
A-re. for no.
Ote'd at Detroit Dam.
Assumed
Rn=w-0.87 Ra;talxLe 2
Ote'd at Detroit Dam
i Jfedford 2. Detroit Dam
Assumed
Are. for mo.
USWB, Salem, Ore.
Ave, for mo.
AVB. for jno.at res. surf.
Ave. for mo.
In 1000.
In 1OOO.
At end of mo.; In 1000.
At end of month
n n n IT
Weighted tiy storage.



1
s

1


l-l
i
i



-------
                                                     MAY
                                       JUNE      JULY
                                                  AUG      SEPT
                                                                                                         OCT     NOV
                                                                                                   DEC
oo
c
                 TOP OF DAM (ROADWAY)
                                                                   WATER SURFACE AT  ?IME  OF
       1200
              JAN
FEE
MAR        APR       MAY     JUNE      JULY        AUG



   FIG.  1   WATER TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION, DETROIT RESERVOIR,  ORE.
                                                                                                                    NOV
                                                                                                     DEC  1958

-------
       155P
       1500
CQ
 *

S

 *

EH
      itoO
oo  g
    I 1350
      1300
      1250
                         MAR. 28
                             I
                1*0
                                          APR. 28
                                                            UPPER OUTLETS
                                                       X	^^
                                                         LOWER OUTLETS
                                                          SUMMER & SPRING
                                                 I
                                                                                           NOV. 15
                                                                                                              SEPT 30
                                                                                                                       SEPT 15
                                                                                                             OCT. 31
                                                                                                     FALL
                        50  F       1^          50          60          70 F      ^0          50



                                FIG. 2   OBSERVED 1958 TEMPERATURE PROFILES,  DETROIT RESERVOIR,  ORE.
60
70 F

-------
3H&     TO
Ml
3\3L1
                           SEP      OC1
                                                                                                               DEC
             KAX. W.S. EL.  1568.8,  JUNE  8
             MIN. W.S. EL.  1U146.5,  DEC.  22
                     AT WATER SURFACE (ASSUMED)

                        AT 10 FT. BELOW WATER SURFACE.
       70
      60
00
IS3
              MEAN MDNTHLY AIR TEMP. AT EL.  1300 PT.
                                                                         AT 
-------
 1.   During winter,  there  is  little or no variation of temperature
     wfth  depth  and  time.   This  is the rainy season when continuous
     and  complete mixing takes place  from repeated filling and
     emptying  operations of the  reservoir for flood control.  Mix-
     ing  also  takes  place  by  wave action and by the sinking of the
     surface water as  it cools and increases in density.

 2.   The  alternate warming and cooling of the reservoir surface is
     a daily occurrence, particularly during summer.   Estimates of
     heat  flux indicate  that  heat loss by outgoing radiation and by
     evaporation generally begins to  exceed heat  gain  from solar
     radiation about two hours before sunset; the loss rate in-
     creases decidedly as  night  approaches and continues until
     about an  hour after sunrise.

 3.   The  temperature of  the water below  the sill  of penstock inlet
     varies  little with  time.  This suggests that relatively little
     of the  discharge  is drawn from below this level.

 b.   The  temperature of  the released  water is assumed  to equal that
     of the water  in the reservoir at a  level about 10 feet above
     the  center  line of  penstock inlet.

 5.   Near  the  surface, the reservoir  starts to warm in March.  Sum-
     mer withdrawal  of cold water (in excess of  inflow) and contin-
     ued  surface heating produce steep gradients  of temperature.
     The  maximum surface temperatures occur  late  in July or early
     in August.

 6.   Temperature stratification  begins with the warming of  the
     reservoir surface in  early  March and continues through the
     filling and evacuation periods.

 7.   By the  end of August  the cooling rate at  the surface  is  fast
     enough  to begin reversing the  temperature-depth  curve  near  the
     surface.

 8.   At the  end of November or early  in  December  the  reservoir
     attains a near-isothermal condition and remains  isothermal
     until March when  surface warming begins again.

 9.   The  average monthly temperature  of  the  surface water  is  not
     observed, but it  appears to be generally  higher  than  that  of
     the  air.

10.   It is believed  that streamflow entering  the reservoir  sinks
     rapidly  to a  level  where the existing water  has  the  same
     temperature,  particularly when the  velocity is  reduced to
     less than one foot  a  second.
                          83

-------
                     Heat  Storage Equation

     The heat content of a reservoir  changes  as  a  result  of  the differ-
ence in the inflow and outflow of heat  energy.   The  increase is chiefly
due to:

     1.  Heat content of water entering the reservoir,  and

     2.  Net heat gain from Solar and Sky radiation.

and the decrease in heat content results mostly  from loss of heat:

     1.  In water leaving  the reservoir,

     2.  By long-wave radiation, and

     3.  By evaporation.

In addition, a reservoir gains sensible heat  by  convection  when  its
surface is colder and loses heat when the surface is warmer than  the
air.

     The Heat-Storage Equation, suggested for computing the average
reservoir temperature at end of a selected time  interval, is expressed
in the form:

     Eq. (1)  S2T2 = S]Ti  + I Tf - 0  TO + C A H
     where    ^2^2  ^s ^'1e Prduct of the volume of water in the reser-
                    voir and its average temperature at end of the
                    selected time interval;

              S^Tj  is a similar product at the beginning of the time
                    interval;

              I Tf  is the product of the reservoir inflow and its
                    temperature;

              0 TQ  is the product of the reservoir outflow and its
                    temperature;

            C A H   is the quantity of heat entering or leaving the
                    reservoir surface, A being the area, C a dimen-
                    sional constant; and

     Eq. (2)        H = sa - Rn - He 1 Hc

     with       H   representing the net rate of heat flow across the
                    reservoir surface,

-------
            Sa  the absorbed solar and sky radiation,

            Rn  the net loss of heat by long-wave radiation,

            He  the heat loss by evaporation, and

            Hc  the relatively small heat gain (or loss) by conduc-
                tion.

    The  following figure illustrates the terms of Eqs. (1) and (2):


              SCL "   Rh -  He  He)  CA^ CAH
     The net effect of the following  heat  factors is  considered  negli
gibly small  and a reliable appraisal  exceedingly  difficult,  if not
impossi ble:

     1.   Ground heat,

     2.   Bank storage and its heat content,

     3.   Evaporation of residual  ground and  surface moisture as
         reservoir is drawn down,

     k.   Shading effect of canyon walls and  trees,

     5.   Heating (or cooling) effect  of the  surrounding terrain by
         long-wave radiation and by reflected short-wave radiation
         reaching the reservoir surface,

     6.   Heating effect of possible chemical and  biological  changes
         and density currents in the  reservoir.
                              85

-------
     Their introduction would only compound further the uncertainties
involved in the evaluation of the terms of the heat-storage equation,
with resultant decrease of confidence in the reliability of the method.
Fortunately, the cooling effect of some items on the list is compen-
sated by the heating effect of others.  They are omitted from the heat-
storage equation in this analysis.
                Evaluation of Terms in Eg. (1)

     Table 1  includes the working data,  formulas,  nomenclature,  com-
putations, and references to sources used as aids for evaluating the
terms of Eq.  (1).  The computed and observed values of month-end
average reservoir temperatures are shown on the last two lines in the
table.

     As noted in Figures 1, 2, and 3>  during January and February,  Tj  =
TO = ^2 ~ "*"i  = ^a approximately.  Therefore,  these are the logical
months in which computation may be started.  Values of Si,  S, 0, and
A are available from an actual reservoir regulation (or from an  adopted
rule curve for regulation.)  Note that $2 and Tj at the end of a period
equal S]  and T]  at the beginning of the succeeding period.

     In this verification study, the outflow temperature TQ was  taken
from Figure 1  at a level 10 to 20 feet above the center of the penstock
inlet.  In a hypothetical study, To is generally specified or assumed
for each period.

     The average reservoir inflow temperature (T^) for 1958 was avail-
able for the computation shown in Table 1.  If Tn-  is not available,  it
may be obtained from a graph of T^ = f (Ta), similar to that shown in
Figure k, constructed from observed river and air temperature data.

     If H, the net rate of heat flow at the reservoir surface, is in
gram-calories per square centimeter (langleys) per day, the total in
30 days over the entire water surface (A acres) is

     Eq.  (3)  30 x 4.05 x 10?  A H = 1.22 x 109 A H   calories

And since 4.11 x 1 0'^ calories will change the temperature of one cfs-
month volume of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit,  the monthly change in the
heat content  of the reservoir from surface heating,

     Eq.  (k)   C A H = 0.03  A H    cfs-month - F.

The basic data together with the computed values of the components of
the heat f1ow H across the reservoir surface are illustrated in Figure
8.
                              86

-------
                       ROGUE RIVER.  MAIN  STEM
oo
                           50          60          70
                   MEAN MDNTHLY AIR TEMPERATURE, F
                            MEDFORD, OREGOK
                                                                       6Q
                                                                     K
                                                                                    ROGUE RIVER AT LAUREIZURST
                                                                                          RIVER MILE
30          to          50          60
         MEAN MONTHLY AIR TEMPERATURE, F
                 PROSPECT, OREGON
                                    FIG. k   RIVER TEMPERATURE VS. AIR TEMPERATURE

-------
                Evaluation  of  Terms in  Eg.  (2)

1.   Sa,  the absorbed solar  and sky  radiation,  is  determined  from

    Eq.  (5)   Sa = S.  - P Sr }-f

    in which  Sf is the solar  and sky  radiation,  incident  on the  reser-
                 voir  surface.  It  is  obtained  from Figure 5, which  is
                 an adaptation of a nomograph  by  R. W.  Hamon,  L.  L.
                 Weiss and  W.  T.  Wilson 2/.

              Sr is the reflected amount under  a  cloudless sky.   For
                 a given latitude,  the  monthly  values  of  Sr  are nearly
                 the same for  each  year.  Values  of Sr  for Detroit
                 Reservoir  are found on line 1 3  Table 1.

               P is the percentage of  possible sunshine duration.  In
                 this  study P  was estimated from  Figure 5> using  cloud
                 cover for  a  nearby Weather Bureau station.

2.   Rn,  the net long-wave radiation heat loss,  is determined from

    Eq.  (6)  Rn = Rw - 0.8? Ra = 1.1331 (lO'8)  /~(TW  + k60)k  -

                                                  0.87 (Ta + k6ofij
or

    Rn = 60 + 6.2 T  - 5.4 T   which is a close approximation for  tem-
peratures between 30 and 85?.  In Eq.  (6)  Rw  and Ra are the "black
body" I/ radiations at water  surface temperature  Tw and air temperature
Ta, respectively.  Values of R and 0.87 R are  found in Table 2,  together
with an  example which shows the use of the table  for estimating Rn.  If
not available, TW and Ta must  be estimated.  In this study, T  was ob-
served at project headquarters; but Tw had to be appraised.  (Throne V
suggests Tw = 1.05 Ta.  At Lake Hefner the observed monthly averages of
Tw for the months of October  through May were  from 1 to 5C. less than
Ta, and  for the months of June through September  they  were  1 to 2C.
more than Ta.)
    ]_/ In view of the complexity and uncertainties involved in the
appraisal of unobserved elements, one may be justified in ignoring the
reflected solar radiation term in Eq. (5) but compensating for it by
increasing the coefficient in Eq. (7) by about 10 percent.  That is,
He + P Sr - 55 E approximately.
    2/ Monthly Weather Review, June  1954.
    3/ R =crt4 = 8.26 (10-n)  t^ ly/min.  P. 38, compend. of Meteor.,
1951.  (t in OK).
    k/ How to Predict Lake Cooling Action, by R. F. Throne, Sept.,
19517 POWER.

-------
oo
       TOO
                                                                     COYER (SUNRISE TO SUNSET)
                                                                      1*0           60          80
100
                                                                                 JU^Y THROUGH JAN.
                                                        CORRECTION  TO REDUCTION FACTOR

MONTH
JAN
FEE
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
PERCENT OF
0 10 20
+k
+3
-1
-2
-k
-5
-5
-U
-2
0
+2
+4
+3
+3
-1
-2
-3
-k
-k
-3
-2
0
+2
+3
+3
+2
-1
-1
-3
Jt
-3
-3
-1
6
+1
+3
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
30 UO 50 60 70
+2
+2
-1
-1
-2
-3
-3
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+2
+2
-1
-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+2
+1
0
-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+1
+1
0
-1
-1
-2
-2
-1
-1
0
+1
+1
+1
+1
0
0
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
0
0
+1
                                                                                                              :
                                                                                            NOTE:   - TO FIND AVERAGE DAILY
                                                                                            INSOLATION FOR AUGUST WHEN AVE.
                                                                                            CLOUD COVER IS 52#,  FOLLOW ARROWS
                                                                                            AND READ 463 LY/DAY.  TEE RE-
                                                                                            DUCTION FACTOR (-2)  IS TAKEN FROM
                                                                                            TABLE.
                                   FIG. 5   DIAGRAM FOR ESTIMATING INSOLATION IN LATITUDE

-------
                                                     -8              4

       TABLE 2.   LONG WAVE RADIATION, R = 1.1331 (10  )  (T +   460 ) , Ly/day




                     (Ly - Langleys = cals./cm2 =3.69 BTU/ft2)
Temp.
op
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
Ly/day Temp,
R
624
629
634
64o
645
650
655
66l
666
672
677
682
688
694
699
705
710
716
722
728
0.87 R
543
547
552
557
561
566
570
575
579
585
589
593
599
6o4
608
613
618
623
628
633
Uj,
45
46
46
43
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
6l
62
63
64
Ly/day
R
734
739
745
751
757
673
769
775
781
787
793
800
806
812
818
825
83i
837
844
850
0.87 R
639
643
643
653
659
664
669
674
679
685
690
696
701
706
712
718
723
728
734
74o
Tengp.
Op
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
8l
82
83
84
Ly/day
R
857
863
870
877
883
890
897
904
910
917
924
931
938
945
952
959
966
973
981
988
0.87 R
746
751
757
763
768
774
780
786
791
798
8o4
810
816
822
828
834
84o
847
853
860
Temp.
op
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99





Ly/day
R
995
1003
1010
1017
1025
1032
lo4o
1047
1055
1063
1070
1078
1086
1094
1102





0.87
866
873
879
885
892
898
905
911
918
925
931
938
945
952
959





Example:  Net Long Wave Radiation Heat Loss,  R  = R  - 0.87 R  
"^^^                                       H    W        EL



  Given:  TV = 60 F;   Ta = 55 F




   Find:  Ry = 825;    0.87 Ra = 690   Ly/day from  table.




          Rn = 825 - 690 = 135   Ly/day
                                    90

-------
     In Eq. (6) the coefficient 0.8? represents the monthly ratio of the
atmospheric to "black-body" radiation at Ta.   Actually,  this ratio varies
with local humidity and cloudiness J_/ (amount, height,  type, and thick-
ness), smoke and dust level of the air.  West of the Cascade Range,  it
varies from about 0.82 in summer to 0.87 in wintera relatively narrow
range.  The effectiveness of the incoming long-wave radiation is further
reduced by the reflectivity (0.03) of water 2,7.  The reason for using
the upper limit of these ratios is to compensate for taking 1.0 as the
emissivity coefficient for water instead of 0.97> commonly used.  This
modification eliminates the effort required to evaluate the 1ocal humid-
ity and cloudiness which are not ordinarily available.   On this subject,
E. R. Andersen / concludes that:

     "Empirical relationships between atmospheric radiation and local
vapor pressure may be used if 10 percent accuracy is acceptable, pro-
vided the air mass is similar to that of the  area where the original
observations were recorded.  For other areas, with no consideration of
air masses involved,  the accuracy of the relationships  is more question-
able 	 To obtain more accurate methods of determining atmos-
pheric radiation, in terms of more easily available parameters, it will
be necessary to consider the total vapor content of the atmosphere as
the moisture variable, rather than the local  vapor pressure."

     "Without taking into account  the local moisture-temperature dis-
tribution with height, we should expect nothing better  than a rough
approximation of the downward atmospheric radiation in  the absence of
clouds," says J. G. Charney J/.

3.   He, the evaporation heat loss, takes place mostly during rainless
periods when surface-water temperature is within ^2-80F.  In this
range, the reservoir loses approximately 1485 (varying from  1^73 to
1^99) calories of heat per inch depth of water evaporated from each
square centimeter.  Letting E be the evaporation in inches during a
selected period of t days, the average daily  rate of heat loss by evap-
oration He is 1485 (E/t).  And for t = 30 days:

     Eq. (7)   He = ^9.5 E        ly/day
     ]/ U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 270, Water Loss Investigation;  Lake
Hefner Studies, Base Data Report.
     y pp. 90-99, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 269, Water Loss Investi-
gations;  Lake Hefner Studies, 195^.
     3/ Sec. IV, Handbook of Meteorology, 1st edition,
                               91

-------
     In this study, the monthly values of reservoir evaporation E are
estimates, using as guides the pan evaporations observed at U.  S.
Weather Bureau stations in the vicinity, the number of rainy days, and
the monthly values of lake or reservoir to pan evaporation ratios sum-
marized on page 1*tO of U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 269,
     Of course, such appraisal of E cannot be considered objective, but
one cannot do otherwise when required data are not available for deter-
mining with confidence the regional  constants and computing evaporation
by the generally accepted Meyer formula, as Marciano and Harbeck I/ did
and derived:

     Eq. (8)   E!  = 0.00^5 U (ew - ea)        cm/day

in which U is the wind speed in mph and (e^, - ea) is the vapor pressure
difference, in millibars, between reservoir surface and air.

k.   Hc, the conduction of sensible heat, which is relatively small in
this case, was estimated from:

     Eq. (9)   Hc = 0.89 U (Tw - Tft)          1y/day

derived from the Bowen ratio -'
         ,  ,        P (*w -
     Eq. (10)  H  = B
               He    1000 (a* - ea)

by substituting E,/0.00^5 U for (ew - ea) from Eq. (8), 0.61 for B8,
1000 for the atmospheric pressure P, (5/9) (Tw - Ta) for (tw - ta),
and 585 ET  for He.

     U and TW in Eq. (9) are only appraisals, based on observed values
at a meteorologic station in the vicinity of the reservoir.  TW - Ta is
the temperature difference in F. between water surface and air, and
tw - ta in Eq. (10) is a similar difference in oc.

     The working equation used as guide for estimating the monthly aver-
age flow of heat at the reservoir surface was:

     H = Si - Psr - (Rw - 0.87Ra) - *+9.5E - 0.89U (Tw - Ta) by/day

But  H = Sj - (60 + 6.2TW - 5.VTa) - 55E - 0.89U (Tw - Ta)
     J/ P. 67, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 269, Water Loss Investiga-
tions, Lake Hefner Studies, 195^.
     2/ P. 10*4, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 269, Water Loss Investiga-
tions, Lake Hefner Studies,
                              92

-------
was found to be a satisfactory approximation.   The latter  may  be used
when one cannot evaluate with confidence the reflected solar  radiation
and the emissivity of the air.  Furthermore, the latter is also a more
suitable form for a digital  computer,
                          Applicat ion

     Following the verification step described in this report,  the heat-
storage equation was applied for estimating the month-end average tem-
perature of water in a proposed reservoir during a critical  year of low
runoff and above-normal  summer-air temperature.  A chart showing the
temperature variation with depth and time, similar to Figure 1,  was
drawn in such a manner that the weighted average temperature at  the end
of each month equalled the computed month-end reservoir temperature.
Of course, the assumed monthly average reservoir-surface temperatures
and the adopted design temperatures of the outflow were also employed
as guides in drawing the isotherms.
                          Future Work

     As time permits, efforts will be made to simplify the procedure, to
increase the reliability or confidence in the appraisal of unavailable
but necessary factors, and shorten the unit time from 30 to 10 days or
less.  Exploratory statistical analysis is under way to find a relation-
ship between the heat content of a layer of water in the reservoir and
the pool elevation at the end of the month.  Such a relationship, if
satisfactory, will serve to distribute the computed month-end average
temperature throughout the depth of the reservoir with more confidence.

     Water surface temperature, which is not available, makes the task
of evaluating long-wave, evaporation, and convection heat terms of Eq.
(2) very difficult.  Plans are ready to instrument Lookout Point,
Detroit and Fern Ridge Reservoirs for the purpose of assembling suffi-
cient surface-water temperatures which can be studied  in relation to
the solar-radiation estimates or to air temperature and land pan evap-
oration, ordinarily observed at the project.
                          Conclusion

     This  is an office progress report on the analysis of Lookout Point
and Detroit Reservoir water temperatures collected since 195^ by the
Portland Office of the U. S. Corps of Engineers.  The month-end average
reservoir  temperatures have been reproduced with acceptable reliability,
using the  heat-storage equation as a guide, and the procedure was ap-
plied in estimating the temperature pattern in several proposed reser-
voirs during critical years of low runoff and above-normal summer tem-
perature.

                              93

-------
     The most difficult task is the numerical  evaluation of the heat
flow across the reservoir surface because of the uncertainties in-
volved in the conversion of the ordinarily observed rneteorologic ele-
ments at some Weather Bureau station to those over the reservoir.
Considerable judgment and trial-error method must be exercised in the
appraisal of the heat terms in Eq. (2).  This task will  continue to
be difficult until  the reservoir surface temperature, evaporation,
distribution of the local humidity, wind and air temperature are in-
dexed to a satisfactory degree of approximation to the ordinarily ob-
served elements at  a Weather Bureau station and the short-wave and
long-wave radiation can be determined with confidence for cloudy sky
conditions.

     As noted in Figure 6, the relative magnitudes of the inflow and
outflow have greater influence on the average temperature of the water
in Detroit Reservoir than the heat flow across the reservoir surface.
Near the surface, however, the change in water temperature is almost
entirely due to heat exchange taking place at the water surface-air
interface.

     The recent emphasis on water quality demands continued effort to
close the gaps in observational data and analysis leading to the sim-
plest procedure possible for satisfactory estimates of reservoir and
river temperatures.
                        Acknowledgment

     The aid given by C. Pedersen, Chief, Water Control Section, in
reviewing this paper, is gratefully acknowledged.  The assistance of
Orville Johnson (Hydr. Engr.)  in collecting, processing, and charting
the basic data is also appreciated.  Reservoir temperature data are
collected by project personnel under the supervision of Donald Heym
and Donald Westrick, the Project Engineers for Lookout Point and
Detroit Reservoirs.

-------
Lnn
       J     F
                            A     M     j     j     A      g     p     N
             I      I      I      I      I
                                              T      I      I       I      I
   300
                                     S2T2 = S-^-L 4- ITj_  -  OT0  + 0.03 AH
   200
   100

        -2.O
%
  -100
  -200
   -300
                                      INFLOW HEAT,
                        .SURFACE HEAT, 0,03 AH    L
                                  "9    tO.T
                                                      . 2
                                                         -.S.2    -7.3
                                                         ^-OUTFLOW HEAT, OT0
  .UOO
I _ I _ I
                                        i       i
I      I      i
         MAM
                                                 ASOND
                                        JJ
                                          1958
                 FIG.  6   RELATIVE MAGNITUDES OF HEAT TERNB  IN EQ.  (l)
                                      95

-------
6o
         I      i
55
50
                                   Observed
                                 Compu-ted
35
           Source:   Ta~ble 1
               I	I
                  M
M
                                                                  N
                                     1958
                FIG.  7    COMPUTED & OBSERVED MDNTH-END AVERAGE
                            RESERVOIR  TEMPERATURES
                                96

-------
8
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97

-------
  SOME OBSERVATIONS OF COLUMBIA RIVER AND RESERVOIR BEHAVIOR
                     FROM HANFORD EXPERIENCE

                          R. T. Jaske*
     Considerable interest in reservoir behavior has been generated as
a result of the desire to extend the purposes of impoundments to include
regulation of downstream water quality.  Churchill I/ on a previous oc-
casion has stated, based on his 26 years' experience, "It can be con-
cluded that water control structures may exert a profound influence dur-
ing warmer months of the year on water temperature of both impounded and
released waters.  By understanding the forces that control these influ-
ences, advantage can be taken of the desirable effects, and the less de-
sirable effects can be controlled or perhaps avoided."  In our own expe-
rience with Lake Roosevelt and the Columbia River we have come to an
identical conclusion, although from an entirely different set of circum-
stances.

     Where Churchill and other investigators have dealt with large im-
poundments on streams of relatively low flow, the Columbia River system
of dams, with the exception of Grand Coulee, is a system where daily
through-put is a significant fraction of reservoir capacity.  In some
projects, such as Rocky Reach, Rock Island and Priest Rapids, this could
involve as much as 30 percent or more of the available storage.  As a
result, despite heads ranging to 90 feet, we find little effective strat-
ification.  Rather, the stream has been slowed and subjected to in-
creased exposure to solar radiation, heat transfer and bank flow effects
with the net effect of a persistent increase in temperature over the
natural conditions.  Attempts to explain these effects have not fully
yielded to rational explanation although Raphael / has pointed a way
evolved from earlier work by Anderson, et. aj_., at Lake Hefner and Lake
Mead.  Our measurements during 1962 and 1963 fail to confirm the values
predicted in the reports, although the general method appears to have
merit.  Rather, it appears that Raphael's correlation requires the addi-
tional benefit of a broader meteorological data base and machine compu-
tation from an improved mathematical model.
     -Principal Engineer, Facilities Engineering Section, Irradiation
Processing Department, General  Electric Company, Richland, Wash.
     _!/ Symposium on Streamflow Regulation for Duality Control held in
Cincinnati, Ohio, April 3-5, 1963.
     2/ The Effect of Wanapum and Priest Rapids Dams on the Temperature
of the Columbia River, September, 1961.
                               98

-------
     The behavior of Lake Roosevelt more closely resembles the eastern
situation with the exception that the relatively high through-put  and
low BOD demand of tributaries currently results in little or no effect
on dissolved oxygen.  Lake Roosevelt does,  however,  develop considerable
stratification, as much as 7 degrees to 9 degrees C. during August and
September.  Temperature soundings show a characteristic slope of iso-
therms downward toward the 1030-foot discharge.  Correlation of the data
from various stations suggests a discontinuity rising approximately ac-
cording to the one-third power of the distance from the outlets.  Further
measurements in the unusual  year of 1963 indicate that as of October 25,
the cooler inflow has failed to appear in the turbine discharge at the
rate estimated by displacement of withdrawn water, the net result  being
that discharges from Grand Coulee have remained relatively constant
through September and October.  It might appear that, due to the differ-
ence in weather over the lake length and the sharp curvature of the old
stream bed, the lake is filling by displacement from the north rather
than the expected layer flow.  The data will be published by the author
at a later date.

     Additional work by the Irradiation Processing Department in support
of the river-cooling program will include attempts to derive a mathe-
matical model with computation in the IBM 7090 machine at Hanford.  At
present, we are collecting the following data for the passive record:

     1.  Continuous monitoring of temperatures at Grand Coulee Dam at
         levels of -5 feet,  -20 feet referred to surface at the penstock
         level approximately 230 feet deep.

     2.  Once-a-shift readings of Chief Joseph turbine discharge.

     3.  Hourly turbine discharge temperatures at Rocky Reach.

     k.  Continuous temperature monitoring  at the Priest Rapids gage.

     We expect to add a continuous recorder to a point downstream of
Grand Coulee by the first of April, 196^.  To the extent of available
resources, we expect to continue temperature soundings of Lake Roosevelt,
but these will remain somewhat fragmentary.

     Downstream from the plant, the Hanford Laboratories conduct a re-
search and development program which includes an investigation of the
effects of reactor effluent on Columbia River water quality.  The pur-
pose of this study is to distinguish any net changes in river water
characteristics due to plant operations from those which would occur
naturally.  The emphasis is on water temperature variations, but poten-
tial chemical effects are also being studied.  The work is  in addition
to our routine and special studies of radioactivity in the  river.

     The various phases of this work include the following:



                               99

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     a.  Continuous upstream and downstream monitoring at several points,
         plus repeated comparisons of parameter distribution in cross
         sections with the continuous point monitor data.

     b.  Dye studies to define diversion patterns from individual release
         points, as well as the labeling of water masses in order to fol-
         low time sequential changes of temperature.

     c.  Measurement of pertinent variablesrfor a calculated heat budget,
         using portable meteorological  instruments.  The portability
         feature permits comparison measurements along the river with
         routine data from our Hanford meteorological station.

     In summary, we believe that continued study of the thermal aspects
of the Columbia River system should form an essential part of planning
for ultimate optimum use of the river.  Recent contacts by the Bureau of
Reclamation regarding the potential construction of a third powerhouse
at Grand Coulee indicates the desirability of assessing the economic
benefits of thermal regulation, of identifying possible thermal effects
of upstream impoundments, and the need for improving insight into the
physical processes involved.  It has been suggested that interested agen-
cies sponsor a cooperative study of the Snake and Columbia River Basins
over the next several years in order to strengthen the theory and pro-
vide a reasonable basis for incorporating appropriate regulating works
in the proposed upstream storage projects.

     The General Electric Company, under contract to the Atomic  Energy
Commission, currently expects to continue a program related primarily
to operational aspects of the Hanford plant.  We hope other agencies
will avail themselves of the opportunity to broaden these studies to
the extent that long-range planning can proceed on a factual basis with-
out involving potential danger to resources such as fisheries  because
of inadequate investigation.
                               100

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        INSTRUMENTATION FOR WATER-TEMPERATURE STUDIES*

                         A. M. Moore-""
     Our knowledge of the thermal  properties of lakes and streams has
grown largely with the development of suitable temperature-measuring
instruments and with demands imposed by present and predicted water
use.  Temperatures of water in lakes or streams depend upon many fac-
tors, a discussion of which is beyond the scope of this paper.  Pro-
fessor Sylvester has mentioned many of these factors in the excellent
paper he presented earlier today.

     Instrumentation for temperature determination depends on such
things as the purpose of the investigation, required accuracy of data,
number of additional parameters to be measured, and the depths (pres-
sures) that instruments must withstand.  Temperature data are needed
for water-loss, thermal-load, water-quality, fish and wildlife, water-
use, and sediment-transport investigations.  Equipment presently in
use ranges from the simple, direct-reading hand thermometers to infra-
fted photography.  Other agencies may be using instruments with which I
am not completely familiar; my comments will, therefore, be limited
largely to equipment used by the Geological Survey.

Temperature-Profile Recorder

     The temperature-profile recorder was developed by the Navy Elec-
tronics Laboratory for use in the water-loss investigations conducted
by the Geological Survey at Lake Hefner, Oklahoma. ]7 The temperature-
sensing element for this instrument was a thermocouple which was con-
nected to a length of electrical cable.  The small current generated
by the thermocouple was amplified by a storage battery and then routed
to an Esterline-Angus event recorder, which also was used to record
other data.  The equipment was maintained in a boat for the temperature
surveys and to conserve electrical power the Esterline-Angus recorder
was clock-driven.  The lake thermocouple equipment gave excellent re-
sults once the cables were covered to prevent electrical leakage and
mechanical abrasion.  The temperature-profile recorder gave more ac-
curate data than the bathythermograph that had been used previously to
obtain water-temperature data.
     "Publication authorized by the Director, U. S. Geological Survey.
    "-"Hydraulic Engineer, U. S. Geological Survey, Portland.
     ]/ Water-Loss Investigations;  Lake Hefner Studies, U.S.G.S.
ProfessionalPaper 269, Harbeck and others,195*+.
                              101

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Bathythermograph

     In similar water-loss investigations for Lake Mead the bathyther-
mograph was used to record water temperature.  The temperature-profile
recorder is more accurate, but would not function properly at  the
greater depths of Lake Mead.  ]_/

     The bathythermograph provides a continuous record of temperature
versus depth.  A stylus, attached to a Bourdon (pressure) tube records
the temperature on a smoked-glass slide.  The slide is held in a  frame
attached to a pressure bellows and hence the frame and slide move rela-
tive to the arc of the stylus as the depth changes.  Thus, pressure
changes resulting from temperature changes cause the temperature  stylus
to move, while pressure changes resulting from changes in depth cause
the frame and slide to move.   Observed surface temperatures are used to
calibrate the bathythermograph record.

Whitney Underwater Thermometer

     The Whitney underwater thermometer utilizes a small thermister as
the temperature-sensing element and a small dry-cell battery to supply
power needs.  The thermister  is used as one arm of a Wheatstone bridge
circuit.  Depth of observation is measured by the length of line from
the sensing element to the water surface.  Temperature is read directly
from the dial of an electrical meter which is calibrated for a range of
5F. and is provided with multiple settings for temperature range.

     The Whitney thermometer  was used to obtain water-temperature pro-
files in the thermal-load investigations of Lake Colorado City, Texas.-'
The instrument, though non-recording, is portable and therefore is
preferable, for some purposes, to the bathythermograph or temperature-
profile recorder.

Infrared Photography

     Although the existence of infrared energy has been recognized since
the l?th Century, the development of scientific instruments utilizing
this energy was negligible prior to World War I.  Some development of
infrared photography occurred during and shortly after that War,  but
significant progress was hampered by lack of sensitive infrared detec-
tors.  Highly sensitive detectors were developed during World War II
     ]_/ Water-Loss Investigations;  Lake Mead Studies, U.S.G.S.
Professional Paper 298, Harbeck, Kohler, Koberg, and others, 1958.
     2/ The Effect of the Addition of Heat from a Powerplant on the
Thermal Structure and Evaporation of Lake Colorado City, Texas, U.S.G.S,
Professional Paper 272B, Harbeck, Koberg, and others, 1959-
                             102

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and these have spurred widespread use of infrared equipment for  many
important purposes.

     Infrared photography, as applied to bodies of water,  utilizes
aerial  cameras, infrared detectors, and photographic film.  Everything
warmer than absolute zero (-273C.) radiates infrared energy that can
be optically focused.  The infrared scanner consists of a  plane  mirror
with rotational axis parallel to the line of flight of the airplane.
The mirror scans along a line at right angles to the line  of flight of
the airplane.  The infrared radiation picked up by the plane mirror is
reflected to a parabolic mirror that then focuses the radiation  on an
infrared detector.  The detector converts changes in radiation into an
electrical signal  that is amplified and then used to modulate the cur-
rent passing through a glow tube.  Light from the glow tube is scanned
across the film in synchronization with the rotating scanner.  The film
itself is moved across the exposure station at a speed proportional to
the speed-to-altitude ratio of the airplane.  The airplanes are  usually
flown at altitudes ranging from 300 to 1,000 ft.

     Normally the technique is limited to recording surface tempera-
tures, but the Geological Survey has developed a modification in which
sensing elements placed in the water transmit signals to the airplane
as it passes overhead.  In this way, accurate measurements of tempera-
ture of the water mass are made along with measurements of surface
temperature.

Multiparameter Recorder

     The multiparameter recorder can record simultaneously many water-
quality parameters including temperature.  Other parameters commonly
recorded are dissolved oxygen content (DO), specific conductance, pH,
oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, chloride,  radioactiv-
ity, and sunlight intensity.  In water-quality investigations now being
carried on in the Delaware River and estuary, temperature, DO, pH,
specific conductance, and turbidity are recorded continuously on a
single instrument. I/ Four multiparameter recorders are now being  in-
stalled on the Duwamish River in Washington, between Renton and Seattle,
for a Geological Survey investigation of the effect on water quality of
the discharge from a large new sewage treatment plant that is expected
to double the usual low flow of the river below Renton.  These four
instruments will record the same five parameters included  in the Dela-
ware study and, in addition, solar radiation index (sunlight intensity).
However, not all of the instruments will record all six parameters, but
at two sites some parameters will be measured at more than one depth.
     T/ Continuous Recording of Water Quality in the Delaware Estuary.
McCartney and Bearner, U.S.G.S., A.W.W.A., October, 1962.
                             103

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The U. S. Public Health Service is using instruments of this type in the
Willamette River, Oregon, to record DO, pH, specific conductance, and
temperature.

     In these recorders, a thermocouple develops a small  current having
a voltage of 50 millivolts or less that is proportional to the water tem-
perature.  The electrical signal  is amplified and fed to a strip-chart
recorder or a paper-tape punch.  In some instances,  the signal is tele-
metered to a central location where receiving equipment provides a peri-
odic print-out of the data and a recording on paper punch-tape.

Telethermometer

     The telethermometer provides a convenient means of obtaining tem-
perature profiles in streams, lakes, ponds, and reservoirs.  As with the
Whitney underwater thermometer, the temperature-sensing element is a
thermister, and a very tiny one, as the probe in which it is housed is
only 3/16-inch both in length and diameter.  Power is supplied by two
flashlight batteries housed in a small console.  Depth of observation is
measured by the length of line from the thermister to water surface.  A
dial on the console provides for registration of temperature directly,
both in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius (Centigrade).  The in-
strument used by the Oregon District does not provide for a recorder,
but some models of the telethermometer do make such provision.  Our in-
strument covers a range from 30 to 120F. with only one dial setting,
but more sensitive (multiple-setting) models are available.  We have
modified our telethermometer by constructing a small aluminum bar in
which to house the probe and about one foot of the insulated electrical
cable.  This bar provides enough weight to position the probe for depth
in ponded water; the bar can be taped to a wading rod or attached to a
regular hanger bar and sounding weight for use in flowing water.

Thermograph

     To obtain continuous records of stream temperature, the Geological
Survey uses a thermograph attachment with the Stevens A-35 water-stage
recorder.  The pen trace of water temperature is continuous on the same
strip chart on which is recorded the stage record.  Some Federal and
State agencies use recorders that provide a pen trace of temperature on
a circular chart, usually geared to make one rotation  in seven or eight
days.  Those recorders are not suited to our normal routine visits to
basic network stations (streamflow and water quality) once every five
to six weeks.  Also, the computation of accurate records is more dif-
ficult from the circular charts than from the strip charts.  Because of
the difficulties involved in the use of circular charts and the advan-
tage of obtaining both stage and temperature record on the same chart,
we prefer the thermograph attachment to the water-stage recorder.
                              10**

-------
     The thermograph attachment consists of a temperature probe con-
nected by means of capillary tubing to a bellows mounted on the under-
side of the recorder.  The temperature probe is placed at the stream
end of a 11<-inch galvanized inlet pipe and the position of this end of
the pipe is so selected that it is always in moving water.  The probe,
capillary tubing, and bellows are filled with methyl alcohol.  With
increase in water temperature the alcohol expands and causes a piston-
like movement of the bellows.  This movement is transferred to the
temperature pen through a torque arm, gear sector, wheel, shaft, and
beaded cable.  The temperature pen, which operates within the top three
inches of the strip chart at a scale of ^0F. to the inch, is set one
hour ahead of the stage pen to insure that the two pens will never
interfere with each other.

Maximum-Minimum Thermometer

     The maximum-minimum thermometer is a U-shaped thermometer so con-
structed that the mercury column on the left side of the U positions a
small metal marker indicating minimum temperature, while maximum tem-
perature is similarly indicated on the right side of the U.  The tem-
peratures so designated are those that occur between visits to the
station.  A small magnet is used to reset the metal markers on the
mercury columns.

     The Geological Survey has completed some preliminary experiments
with these instruments and we believe they show promise as an inexpen-
sive means of obtaining monthly maximum and minimum water temperatures.

Hand Thermometer

     Hand thermometers used by the Geological Survey for spot observa-
tions of water temperature are red-liquid-filled and are graduated  in
intervals of 1 from 30 to 110F.  Initially, mercury-filled ther-
mometers were used, but the red-liquid type are easier to read and
almost as accurate although slower in responding to temperature change.
These thermometers are also used to check the setting of thermographs.
Hand thermometers that have been accurately tested and calibrated are
used to check the setting of some of the more precise instruments such
as the temperature-profile recorder, bathythermograph, and Whitney
underwater thermometer.

Accuracy of Instruments

     Whitney thermometers, temperature-profile recorders and bathyther-
mographs are accurate to within about 0.2F., but most of these instru-
ments achieve that precision only if they are periodically checked
against a standard mi 11iameter or thermometer.

     Thermograph attachments to water-stage recorders are, in them-
selves, accurate only to within about 2F., but they are checked


                             105

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against hand thermometers and results can be considered accurate to
within about 1F.

     Multiparameter recorders are considered accurate to within 1F.

     The telethermometer used by the Geological  Survey in Oregon is
guaranteed accurate within 1% of the range,  or 0.9F. for the 90
range, but accuracy is generally found to be within about 0.5F.

     Manufacturing practice reportedly permits inaccuracies in hand
thermometers and maximum-minimum thermometers not to exceed one half
of the smallest graduation interval.  This means that hand thermom-
eters used by the Geological  Survey should be correct within 0.5F.
and maximum-minimum thermometers, within 1F.  We have checked our
hand thermometers periodically and errors as great as 1F. have been
found only rarely.

Precautions in Use and Installation of Instruments

     When a water-temperature station is to be established, whether it
be recording or non-recording, care must be exercised to see that the
temperature registered is representative for the cross section.  For
example, when we installed our first thermographs in Oregon, in 19^+9
and 1950, we assumed that if the thermometers or the temperature probes
for thermographs were placed in moving water, the record would be repre-
sentative.  A series of near-surface measurements across the section
indicated that this was so.  In the summer of 1963, we used a telether-
mometer to obtain temperature profiles at kQ thermograph sites.  Tem-
perature at the inlet was found within 0.5F. of average temperature
for the cross section for 3k of the ^0 sites, and within 1.0F. for 39
of the kQ sites.  At one site the difference was 1.6F., but there the
temperature profile had to be measured about 600 ft. upstream from the
gage.  For 35 of the kO sites, the variation in temperature throughout
the cross section was confined to a range of 1.3; at the other five
sites, temperatures in sluggish water at the banks were found to be
about 2 higher than in the faster-moving water.  However, water at
these higher temperatures comprised a negligible part of the flow.
Figure 1 shows the temperature-profile for Breitenbush River above
Canyon Creek near Detroit, Oregon.

     A temperature profile is particularly necessary where a tributary
enters a short distance upstream from the proposed water-temperature
station.  In such an instance, the waters may not be thoroughly mixed
as they pass the station.  A site where incomplete mixing exists is
unsuitable for the collection of water-temperature data.

     The temperature probe for the thermograph should not rest on the
stream bed.  A few tests made in the summer of 1963 indicated that the
stream bed, when exposed to direct sunlight, can be about 1F. warmer
                             106

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                                          Water surface
                               Temperatures are in Degrees  Fahrenheit
                                                                  o
                                                                  CD
5
Q

re
->


5

~n


a
                   30      40


                   Width in  feet
FIGURE I-TEMPERATURE  PROFILE FOR  BREITENBUSH RIVER

         ABOVE CANYON CREEK NEAR DETROIT ON JULY 16,1963

-------
than the water above it.   As mentioned previously,  Geological  Survey
installations are designed so that the stream end of the temperature
inlet is above the stream bed.

     Spot observations of water temperature with a hand thermometer
should be made with the bulb end of the instrument immersed in moving
water as the registration can change rapidly when the bulb is  exposed
to air.   Because many streams have large diurnal  fluctuations  in tem-
perature, the time of day should be noted along with the temperature.
Minimum temperatures generally occur about 7 to 9 a.m. and maximum
temperatures about k to 6 p.m.   Figure 2 shows diurnal fluctuation of
water temperature for selected streams at gaging stations in Oregon.

     When maximum-minimum thermometers are serviced, the two readings
should be made quickly because air temperature can reposition  one of
the metal markers indicating maximum or minimum water temperature.
Another possibility for error is that the scale for minimum tempera-
ture increases in a downward direction and, so, is easily misread.
Still another chance for  error exists when the maximum-minimum ther-
mometer is reset, because the mercury columns and markers must be set
at the existing water temperature.  When this has been accomplished,
the thermometer must be quickly placed in position in the water before
air temperature can affect the registration.
                          Conclusions

     All instruments used for obtaining water temperature can, if used
with proper precautions, yield results that are accurate to within at
least 1F.  Also, all of these instruments have a place in the work to
be done.  Temperature-profile recorder, Whitney thermometers, bathy-
thermographs, and infrared photography are adapted to precise measure-
ments needed for water-loss and thermal-1oading investigations.  Con-
tinuous temperature records should be obtained for routine operational
purposes and where good records are urgently and immediately needed.
Also, at least one thermograph record should be obtained on each major
stream for an indefinite period.  Such records could serve as "primary11
records with which "secondary", or intermittent, records could be cor-
related.  The secondary records can be from thermographs operated for
just a few years, or maximum-minimum thermometers operated for two or
three summers.  Where temperature records are not immediately needed,
the secondary records can be in the form of spot observations made
over a relatively long period.  Multiparameter recorders are desirable
where several water-quality characteristics must be measured.  Infra-
red photography  is particularly useful in locating sources of pollu-
tion in streams and in locating areas of groundwater inflow.  The
technique is also valuable in oceanographic work, where it helps de-
fine ocean currents and circulation patterns.
                               108

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   80
    70
I
01

a
to
a.
60
    50
0)
0
*   80r
O)
O.
E
 O)
 a
    70
    60
    50
                                            Rogue River near Agness
                                            DA  3,939
          Western Oregon
          StatIons
South Fork  Coquilte River
nea r  Powers
DA  93.2
                                        Middle Fork  Willamette
                                        River near Oakridge
                                        DA 258
          12PM
          12PM
                     Time  of  day

                    6A           I2M
                              6P
                                                          12PM
12PM
             Eastern Oregon
             Stations
                          River near
                   Richland
                   DA 1,310
                                          South Fork Walla  Walla
                                          River near Milton
                                          DA 63
                                             Metolius River
                                             near Grandview
                                             DA 324
                  DA= Drainage area in square miles
     FIGURE 2-TYPICAL DIURNAL FLUCTUATION  OF WATER
                 TEMPERATURES DURING  SUMMER MONTHS
                                   109

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DISCUSSION

0_.  Do you not use the Ryan thermograph?

A.  No.  We have written to them and have inquired of some of  our
    offices who have used them.  We are inclined to think that we
    probably will try them.  They had some trouble over a year ago--
    the thermographs were not waterproofbut I think they have  cor-
    rected most of that now and, if that is so, we are going to  try
    them.

A.  Fourteen of them are used in the Hungry Horse-Libby study  with
    good results.

A.  One of the advantages, of course, is that you don't have to  build
    a house for these thermographs as we do with others.  This is  ex-
    pensive.  They could just be mounted in a pipe and this makes  a
    very inexpensive installation.  That is why we are thinking  of try-
    ing them.

Q..  Tell us again how many of these thermograph stations you have  in-
    stalled and approximately how long they have been in operation.

A.  The first ones were installed in 19^*9 in cooperation with the
    Oregon State Fish Commission.  Only one of these is operating
    now.  Those installed for the Corps of Engineers have all  been
    in continuous operation since 19^9 and 1950.  Up until this  past
    summer we had obtained records at about 50 different sites with
    33 thermographs which were constantly in operation.  This past
    summer, in work for the Corps of Engineers, we installed 2k more.
    This was for their 308 Review Report for which these records
    were needed.  We now have close to 80 thermograph records, 60 of
    which are in almost constant operation.

Q..  Do you move these around from station to station?

A.  Yes.  Three or four were discontinued this year in the Alsea
    Basin.
                              110

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            SUMMARY  OF  CURRENT  THEORIES AND  STUDIES
              RELATING  TO  TEMPERATURE  PREDICTION

                        Robert  Zeller*


                             Outline

 I.   Introduction

     A.   Paper to  be included in  the  Proceedings will:

         1.   Present several  methods  of  temperature  prediction

         2.   Discuss related  studies  involving  these methods

         3   Discuss research needs and  present a  general  outline

     for a comprehensive reservoir-stream temperature study.

     6.   This presentation will include:

         1.   Short description of the usual  energy-budget  approach

         2.   Outline of methods involving "heat-exchange coefficients"

             a.  Computation  of "equilibrium temperature"  by  correlation
                with air  temperatures.

             b.  Computation  of natural  stream  temperature input and out-
                 put functions.

         3.   A temperature prediction example using  an exponential  decay
             factor.

         4.   Discussion of research needs relative to the methods of
             temperature prediction presented.

II.   Energy-Budget Approach

         The energy budget attempts to equate the  net exchange of heat
     between a body of water  and its  environment  to a change in tempera-
     ture.
     *SA San. Engineer, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and
       * Public Health Service, Water Supply and Pollution Control
Program, Pacific Northwest, Portland.
                              11

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          The exchange of heat involves:  (notation from Schroepfer)

          1.  The difference between incident and reflected solar radi-
              ation (+
    2.  The difference between incident and reflected atmospheric
        radiation and the loss of heat by thermal  radiation  from
        the water surface (i.e.,  net exchange of long-wave radia-
        tion) (- ATR)

    3.  The loss of heat due to evaporative processes (-ATf)

    k.  The gain or loss of heat  due to temperature difference at
        the air -water interface + (ATC)

    5.  The heat gain due to discharge, for example,  of cooling
        water into the reach (+ATA)

    These incremental temperatures,  then, are added algebraically to
the upstream temperature, T/\, to  estimate the downstream interface
temperature, Tg, as follows:

    T
           A +ATA +ATS -ATE Tc -TR = TB

          Other processes actually involved, but usually disregarded, are
      biochemical reactions and conduction of heat at the water-channel
      bottom interface.

          Since computation of evaporation and thermal radiation exchange
      depend on the assumed downstream temperature, the equation,. cannot be
      soilved directly.  Formulae, such as the above, can be solved by suc-
      cessive trials assuming downstream temperatures, Tg.

          This method is used equally well on streams in their natural,
      steady-state condition as on streams receiving large amounts of
      cooling water or cold, reservoir water.

III.  Equilibrium Temperatures and Exponential  Decay of Temperature  Incre-
      ments

          This second approach is a two-fold operation:

          A.  First, the steady-state, or equilibrium, temperature of the
      water is estimated by any one of several  methods.

          B.  Second, transient temperatures due to thermal additions are
      decayed exponentially downstream.

          To elaborate just briefly:
                                 112

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    A.   Equilibrium temperatures  can be estimated  by:

        1.   Energy-budget equations, as just  discussed.

        2.   Simple correlation with air temperature as  Gameson,  Hall
            & Freddy did on the Thames Estuary  in  1957-

            e.g.:   The Thames Estuary data yielded the  following
        relationship:   Equil. Temp. = & = 0.5 + 1 . 1 09 Ta

        3.   Estimation of the natural  stream  temperature  according
            to its response to its thermal  environment  as expressed
            by Duttweiler's equations:
                                   Qn - 25   B,Tad + CBTa  ^-%
              Heat input = T..(t)  = ------ +  ............ (-----)
                            fc         A        B,  + CR       *
                                                1     B
              Water temp. = T* (x,t) = T  +       Tunsin (mrt + ^n-efn
                                            n = 1
    The first of these equations is plotted from a knowledge of clima
tological  data.  Short time intervals will yield points on a modified
sine curve.

    The second equation is merely a reflection of the first modified
by an amplification factor (TU/T.) and phase lag (c().

    B.  Regardless of what form the equilibrium temperature takes,
transients can be accounted for by computing the initial temperature
increment and reducing it exponentially downstream.  The exponential
decay factor can be expressed as follows:     k
                                           e~ vx
                          kx
                        ~
        Where:  v = average velocity

                x = dist. downstream

          and:  k has been evaluated by Major Outtweiler as X
                                                            z

                Where:  z = avg. depth

                  and: X = C1 + C2U2 = K35 + 0-2 U2

                        Where:  U2 = estimated wind speed in mph
                          113

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         An example of this  procedure  is worked  out  in  the  paper  to be
     included in the Proceedings.

IV.       Finally,  I want  to  list  some  of the  areas where  continuing re-
     search is needed relative to  the  several  methods of  temperature  pre-
     diction discussed in the paper  included  in  the  symposium  Proceedings.

     A.   Energy-budget approach

         1.  Inexpensive  instrumentation to replace  the array  of  equip-
             ment currently  needed to  obtain  accurate radiation and evap-
             oration data.

             One possibility which has been around  for  some time  now  is  the
         CRI.  (These are, essentially,  insulated evaporation  pans instru-
         mented to simulate  a complete-miniature heat-budget unit. Several
         small units of this type  were installed recently here in Oregon.
         Evaluation results  should be  available  soon.)

         2.  Extensive correlation of  all  available  meteorological data
             could eliminate the  need  for  this instrumentation on many
             projects, if not most projects.

         3.  Methods should  be developed to determine  location and
             quantities of significant bank storage.

         k.  We still need some guidelines on the accuracy of computations
             required.  This relates directly to the basic temperature
             criteria problem.

     B.   Equilibrium temperature  correlations and exchange coefficients

         1.  Although usefulness  of air-water temperature correlation
             seems controversial  for this  region, a  reasonable correlation
             study would settle this question.

         2.  The values arrived at by  Duttweiler for the constants used to
             estimate the exchange coefficient (^L) need verification.
                            Synopsis

     The following paragraphs are intended to familiarize the reader with
 some of the currentl y used methods for estimating stream temperatures as
 a function of their thermal environment and time.  No attempt has been
 made here to evaluate the methods presented other than to point out major
 features of interest.

-------
     Also included is a presentation of some recent and proposed field
studies involving one or more of the temperature prediction methods.
Several of these studies are discussed in conjunction with the presen-
tation of the method of prediction;  others are discussed separately.

     Finally, a partial tabulation of research needs relative to the
methods of temperature prediction included in this paper has been at-
tempted.

            Summary of Current Theories and Studies
           Relating to Stream Temperature Prediction

     Generally speaking, there are two currently-used methods of pre-
dicting stream temperatures.  The first method applies an energy-budget
approach to both streams in a steady-state thermal environment and to
streams responding to significant discharges of industrial cooling water
or impounded water.

     The second method is a two-fold operation.  First, the steady-state,
or equilibrium, temperature of the stream is estimated by any one of
several methods, including the energy budget.  Second, transient tempera-
tures due to thermal additions are imposed on the equilibrium temperature
profile at the point of discharge and decayed exponentially downstream.

I.  The Energy-Budget Approach

     The energy budget attempts to equate the net exchange of heat between
a body of water and its environment to changes in water temperature.  En-
ergy-exchange processes normally considered include:

     1.  The difference between incident and reflected solar radiation.

     2.  The difference between incident and reflected atmospheric radi-
         ation and the loss of heat by thermal radiation from the water
         surface (i.e., net exchange of long-wave radiation).

     3.  The loss of heat due to evaporative processes.

     k.  The gain or loss of heat due to temperature differences at the
         air-water interface.

     5.  The heat gain or loss due to advected water (e.g., heat gain
         due-to cooling-water discharges).

     Other processes actually involved, but usually disregarded, are
biochemical reactions and conduction of heat at the water-channel bottom
interface.

     For detailed descriptions of theory and data relative  to individual



                              115

-------
energy-budget parameters,  the interested  reader  is  referred  to  several
references in the bibliography (1,  6,  7>  8>  1?)-

    A.    G.  J.  Schroepfer  (1961)  presented an  energy-budget  solution
         to temperature prediction  for the Mississippi  and Minnesota
         Rivers at Minneapo! is-St .  Paul,  Minnesota  (15).

         Schroepfer set up the energy  budget  in  the form  of  its effects
         on stream temperature by converting  heat -exchange quantities  to
         incremental  temperatures.   The resulting mathematical  expres-
         sion of the energy budget  is  as  follows:
            TA

    Where   TA = temperature of river at point  A

          ATA ~ temperature increase due to thermal  addition

           Tg = temperature increase due to solar radiation

         A TC = temperature decrease due to latent heat loss

         ^ Tp = temperature decrease due to convective heat transfer

         2^ TR = temperature decrease due to thermal  radiation exchange

            Tg = temperature of river at point  8

    After substitution of measured and estimated quantities plus con-
version units, Schroepfer 's "working" relationship is:
          0.1855        O.OOM+5A
    TA +~~:7 HA V1 ft -7Z~HS - (-3253) (10 + W) (Vw - Va)
        - (0.16) (5 + W) 
-------
              Va = partial  pressure of  water  vapor  at  the  temperature
                   and relative humidity  of  the  surrounding  air; mm  of Hg.

              Tw = mean water temperature,-  F.

              Ta = mean air temperature;  F.

     In the above equation, Meyer's formula  for  evaporation  was  selected
since the values for the empirical  constants  were developed  in Minnesota:

         E = C (1 + 0.1W) (Vw - Va) = evaporation rate;  inches/month

         C = empirical constant = 10 for  deep rivers to  15 for shallow
             streams

         W = wind speed; mph

        Vw = saturation vapor pressure at the temperature  of the water
             surface; inches of Hg

        Va = absolute vapor pressure at the temperature  and  relative
             humidity of surrounding air; inches of Hg.

     Solar radiation was estimated from St.  Cloud,  Minnesota,  radiation
data after a correlation study using local  percent sunshine  records  for
comparison.  No correction for reflected radiation was applied  to  the
solar radiation data.  Wind speeds and other meteorological  data were all
estimated from local records.

     The above "working" equation is solved by successive  approximations
using assumed downstream temperatures.   Ordinarily, convergence  on the
assumed temperature is rapid.

     With this equation, Schroepfer computed temperature profiles  of the
Mississippi River from the Minneapolis waterworks intake downstream kj
miles to the Hastings Dam for the month of August.  The results  were
checked against Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District temperature data
for the years 1950-59 obtained during routine river sampling operations
(Figure 1).  Agreement was generally good where the sampling data  was
adequate for comparison.  Temperature profiles computed for the Minnesota
River downstream of a large steam generating power plant provided  simi-
larly good agreement with measured temperatures (Figure 2).

     A six-day, diurnal plot of the Mississippi River temperature a short
distance downstream from a steam generating power plant in St. Paul  was
computed for August 25-31> 1959.  Measured temperatures at the downstream
station again provided good agreement with the computed profile (Figure
3)-
                               117

-------
00
      M
      O
      tt
      en
      Crt
    C
   OQ 13
    C >-"
    - 3
    NO J

    0 TJ
      W
      H
      G
      JO
      W
      en
 IQ
 C
 (P
rt
^

-------
  B
  en
  G

  B


M- J>
3 .
3 
<6 D
o O
*0
2  r
n  O

5  g
<-c  t1)
   - w
   00 Hj

      B
      t)
      O

      B
             u
             cc
             o:
             LJ
             a.
             5
             LJ
                                                                                 Discharge
                                                                                 Air temperature
                                                                                 Relative humidity
                                                                                 Wind speed
                                                                                                    611 cfs
                                                                                                    67.7F
                                                                                                    60%
                                                                                                    12. 1 tnph
                                                                                                    75 Btu/sq
                                                                                                        ft-hr
                                                                                Solar radiation, H
c
-1
to
                                          MINNESOTA  RIVER, Miles  above mouth

-------
        0
        O
        2
      H 1)
     -WS
   ^  -
   
      4 en
     O W
       M
     - d
       H
       to
                ri
                -
                V
                -^<
                (Xj
                 12
               Noon
              Aug. 25
   12
 Noon
Aug. 26
   12
 Noon
Aug. 27
   12
 Noon
Aug. 28
      12            12            12
     Noon         Noon         Noon
   Aug. 29       Aug. 30       Aug. 31
Measured Temperature Variation
Calculated Temperature Variation
  
  -

-------
     Finally, the derived energy-budget equation was used to predict
1980 temperature profiles of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers based
on estimated steam generation thermal  additions and values for meteor-
ological conditions.

     B.  Jerome M. Raphael (1962) presented an energy -budget formulation
applicable to lakes, reservoirs, and stream increments of isotropic tem-
perature structure (12).

     Raphael's method applies a numerical integration of a time rate of
temperature change function as follows:
                                                        . (t. - tj
         Time rate of temperature change =
         Where:  9 = time

                n^ = total  mass of the lake

                tw = mean temperature of the lake

                rrij = inflow water mass

                tj = inflow water temperature

                 A = lake surface area

                Qt = total  surface heat transfer per unit of time.

Substitution of volumes for mass and simplification for solution over
given increments of time resulted in the following working equation:
      lw   5275    1

         Where:  \l] = volume of the lake

                 Vf = inflow volume

                 tw = average lake temperature over the Increment
                      of time, 6

     Solution of this equation requires evaluation of the gross heat
transfer parameter, Q.^, as follows:

     Qt = &1 - ^b - <*h - Qe + QVJ BTU/sq.ft./hr.

         Where:  Q.J = (1-0.0071 C2) (Q_s - Q_r) = net short-wave insolation
                             121

-------
              and Q.s  = incident  solar  radiation  (measured)

                  Q.r  = reflected solar radiation (measured  or  estimated)

                  C  = average cloud cover  in tenths  of  sky covered

              Q.U = effective back (long-wave) radiation

                 = 0.970
-------
report on heat exchange processes in flowing streams (8).   This report
includes discussion of the energy budget,  turbulent diffusion theory,
and exponential  decay of temperature with  time.

    Following a detailed examination of the individual  heat exchange
processes, the Advanced Seminar expressed  the total "heat  budget" for
a selected stream as follows:
                     - d
                        ar
        Where:  S = surface area

               Q.s = incident solar radiation (measured)

               Q.r = reflected solar radiation (measured or estimated)

               da = atmospheric radiation (measured)

              dar = reflected atmospheric radiation^-0.03 da

              dos = back radiation from water = e'crT*4 = 0.97fl~r*

                                      t          2
                    e.g.:  Q.^ = 25 + ; cal./cm. /hr.

                               Where:  10C.< t <40C.

                                       t = water surface temperature

               (lg = evaporation energy = EL r
                                           f 6

                    E = volume of water evaporated per unit time

                    L = latent heat of vaporization

                  ' e = density of water evaporated

               Q^ = conduction loss at air-water interface
                          dt
                  = -C A (-- +V  )
                      P   dz

                    Where:  Cp =  specific heat  of air at constant
                                  pressure

                             A =  vertical component of eddy conductivity
                              123

-------
         dt
         -- = temperature gradient of air
         dz
         Y = adiabatic lapse rate

However, using Bowen's ratio, R, 0_n = R0_e

                       To - Ta_   P

                                 1000
                     Where:   R = CB
                                CB = 0.61 (varies from 0.58 - 0.66)

                                To = water surface temperature; C.

                                Ta = air temperature; C.

                                e0 = saturation water vapor pressure
                                     at water surface temperature; mb

                                ea = water vapor pressure of the air;
                                     mb

                                 P = atmospheric pressure; mb

                   = loss of sensible heat by evaporation of water
                     at constant temperature

                   = (feE)  C  (Te - Tb)

                     C = specific heat of water at temperature of
                         evaporation

                    Te = evaporation temperature; C.

                    Tb = arbitrary base temperatures; C.

                   = primary advected heat input (i.e., inflow heat)

               QVQ = primary advected heat output (i.e., outflow
                     heat)

               0-vi1 - Q-vo1 = heat exchange by eddy diffusion

               0,-u. = change in heat storage

Rearranging the above equation:

                   1 + R)  d  - SO  + (d   - Q) + (Q1.-     )
                         12U

-------
         Qn = net radiation input

         and:  reach length = <4x

               average discharge in the reach = q

               average velocity in the reach = v = ^*
                              7                    At

         Then:  q(T0 - Tb) Cp + SQn - SQbs - S( 1  + R) de - SQ^ +

                  (Ivi1  - Qvo1) = (q - E) (T, - To)  Cf

               Where:  TQ = average entering water temperature} C.

                       Tb = arbitrary base temperature} C.

                        C = specific heat capacity

                        /  = average water density; gm/cc

                       T| = average leaving water temperature} C.

         Substituting for:  
-------
                    Where:  qc = cooling-water discharge

                            TC = temperature of cooling water;  C.

                            Primes indicate new heated condition.

     Rearranging and letting:  T^ = To & T ,  = 	


     Then:
                      (T,1 - Tb) - E (T,  - Tb)_7
                  (To1 - To) + (T,1- T,)                 .
            = S C	. I _l_7 + s//fl  + RL]E]f- (1  + R)LE_7
              SC/V E1
          1


(To1  - To) + (T,1  - To)      T,  -  To
                          -    2   -7
     By trial and error, this equation will  approximate the new down-
stream temperature,  assuming a discharge of qc at temperature Tc into
it.

     Note that solar radiation quantities are independent of water tem-
perature.  Hence, solar radiation data is not needed for solution of the
modified stream temperature.  Evaporation data and original  temperatures
are needed, however.

     In conjunction with their discussion of stream temperature predic-
tion relative to heated discharges, the Advanced Seminar pointed out the
necessity for examining in-stream temperature equalization by temperature
diffusion.  For example, if cooling water (or reservoir water) is dis-
charged at a point in a stream, there will be a finite, predictable dis-
tance downstream in which significant vertical and/or horizontal  strati-
fication exists.  Until a point is reached where no stratification of
temperature exists,  temperature equalization by turbulent diffusion must
be investigated because of its effects on heat exchange at the air-water
interface.  No attempt will be made in this paper to investigate this
problem further.  The interested reader is referred to the Advanced
Seminar and related papers on this subject.

     To test their evaluation of the energy-budget processes and study
the relationship of the energy budget to turbulent mixing mechanisms,
the Advanced Seminar analyzed data from an eastern river temperature
study conducted in August, I960.
                             126

-------
     Data collected in the study included the following:

     1.  Location of temperature transects relative to a heated discharge
         outfal1  as follows:

         Transect                       Distance from Outfall   (ft.)

             3                                   (upstream)
             ^                                        50
             6                                       500
             7                                     1,000
             9                                     3,000
            10                                     5,000
            11                                     7,000

     2.  Soundings at each temperature sample point

     3  Temperature profiles spaced approximately 100 ft. apart at each
         transect.  (Stream width averaged greater than 1,000 ft.)

     *+.  Relative humidity along each transect

     5.  Time intervals of study at each transect (necessary for temper-
         ature correction calculations to follow a specific body of water
         downstream)

     6.  Weather  description at each transect

     7.  Automatic stream temperature recorder data in area of the heat
         outfal1

     8.  Radiation data from nearest weather station

     9.  Wind velocity data

    10.  Heated water discharge and temperature

    11.  River discharge estimates for the specified date.

     Seven transects were studied in allone upstream of the heat out-
fall  and six downstream.  Total  reach distance was about l1-^ miles.

     Field data were analyzed as follows:

          1.  Advected heat = 0_v = Ka1V1 Al^; cal/hr.

                 Where:  a^ = subsection areas of uniform width

                         \l] = average velocity at subsection
                              127

-------
                         = temperature excess  over  the  natural water
                           temperature;  C,

                       K = 0.565  x 108

          2.   Radiation

              The water surface area was divided  into areas  of equal
          temperature where diffusion of the heated discharge was  in-
          complete.   Generally, this involved  a warm wedge,  natural
          temperature wedge,  and  gradient area.

              Net solar radiation input was  computed from direct and
          diffuse solar radiation given at the weather  station, assuming
          the reflected radiation at 0.0^8 cal./cm2/min.

              Net atmospheric radiation = 0*97 x  1.25 x solar radiation

              Long-wave radiation emitted =  0.97crT

          3.   Heat lost from evaporative processes  was  computed from
              the difference between the advected heat  and net  radia-
              tion input,  (i.e., heat loss  from  evaporative processes =
              o_vi +  dn - dvo)

          Finally, temperature excesses over natural  temperature were
     computed from turbulent mixing theory (Hinze,  J. 0.; 1959;
     Turbulence;  McGraw Hill; New York) and  compared with the field data.

     The conclusions drawn from this application  of the energy  budget  and
turbulent mixing  theory are particularly interesting:

     1.  The reduction in cross-section temperature downstream of  the
          heated  discharge to a point where  the  temperature gradient
          vanishes was more a result of turbulent mixing than heat loss
          to the  atmosphere.  (Note that this  reach was over a thousand
          feet wide.)

     2.   Turbulent  mixing theory described  actual  conditions reasonably
          well .

     3.   The energy-budget needs for accurate instrumentation were
          emphasized.

     ^.   Variation  in evaporation rates and Bowen  ratios between
          natural and "heat-loaded" conditions was  significant.

     D.   There have been other presentations of  the energy budget; how-
ever, the above methods are fairly representative of those currently used
                              128

-------
       Biblio.
        Ref .    Stream
            Location
            Reservoir
State   Author
                                                          Study
                                            Sponsoring Completion
                                              Agency	Date
         10
Rogue R.    Lost Creek
                         Oregon  W.  Bruce   Bureau  of
                                 McAlister   Sport Fish.
                                            & Wildlife
Clearwater  Bruces Eddy  Idaho   Wayne V.
VO
                 River
        3,  14  Columbia
                 River
               Dam
            Wells,
            Rocky Reach,
            Wanapum,  and
            Priest Rapids
               Dams
        Burt
Wash.   J. M.
        Raphael
                                            Walla Wai la
                                            District,
                                            Corps of
                                            Engi neers
                                 1961
                                                                         960
                                            P.U.D.  #2,   1961-1962
                                            Grant  Co.,
                                            Washington
C.
0.
(Q
rt>
rt "H
O
Q)  '
o 
2.2
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01 (Q
-" IV
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13 (ft
I/)
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O <
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rt 0>
-I 
(ft
Ol T
3 (ft
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T3
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-I 3
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rt
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"I C
fl) -I
a n>
"1 3
(ft r+
Q.
 1. (/|
O rt-
r+ C
-.. Q.
O -"
3 (ft
I/I M
3
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3
(0
(ft
(ft
in
i
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0)
Q
TJ
 
_l.
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3














-------
     In addition, the Oregon State Water Resources Board is currently
applying energy-budget analyses to a cooperative study of stream tem-
perature prediction and control in the Umpqua River Basin,  Oregon.
The Oregon State Water Resources Board is also applying the energy-
budget method to data collected in August,  19&3* on the Coast Fork
Willamette River, Oregon, during a cooperative field study.

II.  Equilibrium Temperatures and Exponential Decay of Transient
     Temperatures

     A.  M. LeBosquet, Jr., (19^6) introduced a relationship for deter-
mining heat loss rates from streams receiving cooling-water discharges
(9)-  The heat loss coefficient, K, would be found from examination of
actual excess-temperature decay rates expressed as follows:

       df   KASF

       dT     L

     Where:  K = heat loss in BTU/sq.ft./hr./F. of excess temperature
                 of water over air

             F = excess temperature of water over air at distance (D)
                 milesj F.

            As = surface area; sq. ft.

             L = weight of water; 1b.

     After substitution of stream physical  characteristics, integration,
and simplification, the derived relationship for K is:
                 Fa
         0_ Log10  F
     K =	-----
         0.0102 WD

     Where:  Q. = average discharge; cfs

            Fa = initial  excess temperature of water over air; F.

             W = average stream width; ft.

             0 = reach distance; miles

     LeBosquet points out in his presentation that the decay of excess
temperature with time is exponential.  This phenomenon is readily seen
from a rearrangement of the derived formula for K:
                 '2.3 (0.0102) WK
     F = Fa exp(	-	  D
                              130

-------
     The range of values for K given by LeBosquet for  rapid,  shallow
streams and slow, sluggish streams was 18 to 6 BTU/sq.  ft./hr./F.

     B.  Gameson, Hall,  and Preddy (1957) presented a  method  for  pre-
dicting temperature effects on the Thames Estuary due  to steam-electric
generation cooling water discharges (5)-  Their conclusions were  based
on the following study outline:

     1.  Measurements of water temperatures in the estuary over the
         years
     2.  Estimation of "unheated" water temperatures for the same
         years.

     3-  Estimation of the rate of heat entry to the estuary.

     k.  Calculation of the rate of loss of "excess" temperatures.

     5.  Prediction of the temperature distribution for unit inputs
         of heat at points throughout the estuary.

     Elaboration of their study follows:

     1.  The estuary temperature measurements were taken weekly at  a
         midstream depth of six feet and at fifteen regularly-spaced
         stations over a reach of fifty miles.

     2.  The "unheated11 water temperatures were estimated by regres-
         sion analyses of a comparison between long-term records of
         water and air temperatures dating back to the first half of
         the eighteenth century.  This was done for three stations.
         The resulting correlations for the three stations studied
         were extrapolated to estimate "unheated" temperature curves
         for the entire fifty-mile reach.

     3.  The estimated rates of heat entry are summarized as follows:

         a.  Steam-electric power plants (7)   228 x 10^ BTU/day
         b.  Industrial outfalls (gasworks,
             paper mills, sugar refineries)     19 x 10^
         c.  Sewage outfalls                    27 x 10^
         d.  Advected fresh water               20 x 10^
         e.  Biochemical activity               12 x 10^

             TOTAL                             306 x 10? BTU/day

     b.  The temperature change rate for a given heat loss was expressed
         as fol lows:
                            < = - ! G
                            dt     z

                             131

-------
         Where:   & = initial  temperature increment

                 f = an exchange coefficient or  rate constant with
                         "^  dimensions
                 z = average stream depth

                 t = t i me

     Equating the heat-loss rate to rate of heat  entry yielded an aver-
age value for the exchange coefficient,  f,  as follows:
                                      de
         - heat loss rate = -(yz$ x)jO---
                                       dt
                       f ft
                     - --)



     and:  Q. =J^*f 1 yS  dx = total  rate of  loss of excess heat

               Where:  y = stream width

                       x = reach increment

                      jf= water density

                      
-------
     The stream temperature data showed strong diurnal  variations of up
to 8C. near the power plant outfall.  Decreasing diurnal  variations and
lower mean temperatures downstream indicated definite cooling effects.

     Because of the strong diurnal  temperature variations, it was pos-
sible to calculate channel volumes and flow times from flow records and
the peak-to-peak time intervals on the temperature profiles.

     Equilibrium (or unheated) water temperatures were estimated in the
same fashion as for the Thames Estuary study.  Using the same data as
for the Thames Estuary, the equilibrium water temperature was estimated
as follows:

     6 = 0.5 + 1.109 Ta

         Where:  & = equi 1 ibrium water temperature; C.

                Ta = air temperature; C.

     Again, the exchange coefficient was calculated from the time rate
of temperature change function with the following results:

     Over-a 11  average; f = 2.6 cm/hr.

     Range of f = 1.66 - 3-83 obtained by averaging all four reaches
                  over four days

     Range of f = 2.10 - 2.88 obtained by averaging all four days for
                  each reach.

     One conclusion of this study,  later contradicted by others, was
that the exchange coefficient was apparently unrelated to wind speed.

     D.  C. J. Velz and J. J. Gannon (1959) presented a comprehensive
paper on stream temperatures; temperature effects on water quality;
magnitude and sources of heat loads; and temperature prediction (16).

     Velz and Gannon derived a relationship for the long-term equilib-
rium (unheated) stream temperature from meteorological  data as follows:

     (1.8 + 0.16W)  E + 0.00722 HVC (1 + 0.1W)  VE

         = (1.8 + 0.16W) Ta + 0.00722 HVC (1 + 0.1W)  Va + Hs

     Where:  W = wind speed average measured at 25 ft.  above the water
                 surface or surrounding land area; mph

             E = equilibrium water temperature (unknown);.F.
                             133

-------
             Hv = latent heat of vaporization at the assumed water
                  temperature; BTU/lb.

             C  = constant = ]k for flowing streams of moderate depth
                  and velocity

             VE = equilibrium temperature vapor pressure (unknown);
                  in. of Hg.

             T  = average air temperature; F.

             Va = average absolute water vapor pressure of the air at
                  25 ft. above the water surface;  in. of Hg.

             HS = solar radiation heat  gain (measured); BTU/sq.ft.

     The above energy-budget relationship is solved by successive ap-
proximation, assuming values for the equilibrium temperature.  In the
derivation of this relationship, Meyer's evaporation formula was used
to estimate evaporation.

     Velz and Gannon then derived a relationship between water temper-
ature and the water surface area required for cooling, as follows:
                  T2          tJ
     A = -22k,6kQ- ....... -----  -- ...... = sq.ft./cfs of streamflow
                  Tl <(VW - VE) +(TW  - E)
          Where: C( = 0.00722 HVC (1  + 0.1W)

                {3 = 1 -8 + 0.16W

     The total increment of temperature between the initial  heated
condition and desired downstream temperature is divided into equal
increments (ATW) with TW and V  as the mean temperature and mean satu-
ration vapor pressure in each increment.  Note here, however, that E
represents a "long-term" equilibrium temperature and is not specific
for short-time periods;  Hence, long-term weather data averages are
used in this computation.

     According to Velz and Gannon, the above solution for required
cooling area will yield stream temperature profiles as follows:  "Know-
ing the cumulative surface area along the course of the stream for the
particular runoff from channel cross sectioning, the river temperature
profile for that runoff can be constructed."

     E.   David W. Duttweiler (1963) completed a mathematical model of
stream temperature (3).  His derivation began by equating the heat
gained in an incremental reach of stream to the time change in enthalpy
of the water in the reach as follows:

-------
Where:  (\) - heat entering the reach

        (2) = net heat exchange in the reach

        Q.n = net radiation input

       Qj.,5 = thermal radiation from the water surface

        Q.e = evaporation heat loss due to  latent heat of
             evaporation

        0^, = loss of sensible heat by evaporation of water
             at constant temperature

        (in = conduction loss at air-water  interface

           = conduction loss through stream  bed

           = heat leaving the reach

        (^) = increment in enthalpy in time,  dt,  for  the volume,
             adx

        c  = specific heat of water; gca1/gm/C.

        )   - density of water; gm/cm3

        q  = di scharge

        T  = entering water temperature

        TJJ  = arbitrary base temperature

        dx  = reach  increment

        dt  = time increment

        w  = stream width

        a  = cross-sectional area

        qe  = rate of evaporation;  cm3/hr.

                     135

-------
     After substitution of expressions for the energy-budget terms;
disregarding bank loss; letting wdx = surface area; qe = Ewdx;  q =
av (where v = velocity); L = constant; assuming q;^ qe; rearranging
and simplifying, Duttweiler arrived at:
     cfa  T   cfav aT             (A + BU2)  -
      *- + --." " = ^n - 25 + -- ...... - (Pi Tad + CBTa)  if
      w  3t    w  ^x                2k

                           BU>
                                                T
     The general expression for evaporation used in the above equation
was as fol lows:
                   (A + BU2) (ew - ea)                  .
               E = ......... -- ......... , and ew - ea = 0, (T - Ta  ^-  lf ' 9cal

                       (A + BU2)
     X=1^+ (fa + CB)	--  LJ; gcal./cm2/hr./C.

              cfa  T   cfav aT
       Thus:  -'-- -- + -<-	=/\
               w  t    w   ^x
              cfa aT   cfav 8T
        and:  -'-- -- + -;-	= &  - T
              >w  ^t   >-w  px   >-

           Now, let:  z = mean depth = -
                                       w
                          w N.    \
                and:  k = - = -"-
                          cTa   c|Z

                and:  T^ (t) = 4S

           Then:  ?- + v ?- = k/T^ (t) - T(x,t)


           Now, let:  v = --
                          dt
                                  0T   ^T dx   dT
     Then, by Euler's expansion:   + --  = -- =  kXT^ (t)  -  T(t),
                                  at   dx dt   dt


                             136

-------
     According to Duttweiler, then, "the time rate of temperature in-
crease is proportional to the deficit between the actual temperature
and some equilibrium temperature."  Here, the actual  temperature, T(t),
can be described as a reaction, or output, of the stream to the thermal
input, T (t).  The output temperature, in this case, will approach but
never equal  the input temperature.

     As seen in earlier discussions, the idea of a proportionality
constant or exchange coefficient, k, is not new.  The input function
concept of the equilibrium temperature, however, is believed to be
or i g i na 1.

     Duttweiler solves the above time-rate change of temperature rela-
tionship and arrives at the following expression for the temperature of
a stream as a function of its "equilibrium" temperature:

     T(x,t) = e-kt fektkT, (t)dt *- e'ktf(t-$~?)

     He then represented the equilibrium temperature, T (t) by a Fourier
series with a period of 2if hours, whereio= -rf as follows:
                    tf^  ^^                 T!^^
                        lAJ                 12
      .*-/- n = 1 (ancos- nwt + bnsin.nwt)

         or alternatively:
                     CO
     T/* (t) = Tm + _^JiT. sin (nu/t +   )

         Where:  Tm = time average temperature

                Tin

                ^_  = arctan.an
     Substituting these expressions for T  (t)  into  the  equation for  the
actual temperature, T(x,t), yielded:

     T(x,t) = Jm + n^} -1 an cos. (nwt  - qfn) +  bn  sih.  (nWt  - <^J
                              137

-------
                   /       ,.    nW      ,   Tf
                   [n = arctan. --,  o
-------
     After substitution of estimated values for the above constants,
Duttweiler determined probable values of C^  and % as 1-35 and 0.239
respectively.  Hence: /x = 1.35 + 0.239 U2.

     However, comparison with the studies of Gameson, Hall, and Preddy
and of Gameson, Gibbs, and Barrett led Duttweiler to reexamine the
value of C2.  The results of his reexami nation have placed the value of
C2 between 0.179 and 0.239 as a current estimate.

     Examination of the previously derived simplification constant, A,
resulted in the following expression:
      = Qn - 25 + (/Tad + 0.61 Ta)  (0.505 + 0.1009 U2)

                    T     C T
      = Qn - 25 +^.1  B_a_ (~   ^j _ net radl-atl-on heat load
                   X?1*CB

             heat load from non-radioactive sources

     Duttweiler describesMas "the hourly rate of heating per unit
surface area independent of water temperature."

     Then, since T^. (t) = ^:
                                  + CB      X

     Finally, assuming steady conditions, the water temperature at any
fixed point in the reach, x*, is:
     T(x*,t) = T  +  ~T* Tun sin.
                in   n ~  i                  11    - 


     Hence, with adequate climatologies! data plus a set of discharge-
depth-velocity curves, a space-time solution for the natural water tem-
perature is now available.  This, of course, is only a one-dimensional
model, a restriction which should fit most streams quite well.

     Duttweiler then modified his expression for natural water tempera-
ture to show the effects of a heat source at x - 0 such that the stream
temperature will be uniformly increased by an increment Tr(t), at x = 0.
The resulting equation shows an exponential decay characteristic of the
temperature increment as follows:
                              139

-------
                                                           k
                                                         - -X
     T(x,t) = Tm +       Tun sin.(nu^t + j*  - cf) + Tr( t )
     If the heat source temperature itself follows a periodic function,
for example!
     Tr(t) = Tr + n   \  (arncos.n/t + brnsin. nut)

                      *Z   C                   _               I
Then:  T(x,t) = Tm + ^ \  j  ancos(nwt -cfn) + bnsin.(nWt -cfn)j
               k
               ~
+ T e  v  + e  v   -/1 (a  cos. nrt + b  sin. ntft)
   r              n = 1   rn            rn
                      - -x
                        v       v
     Duttweiler solved a hypothetical  problem using this relationship
to illustrate the characteristics of an artificially-heated stream.

     A second modification of the basic one-dimensional case involved
expression of downstream water temperatures assuming a constant initial
temperature at x = 0.  (e.g., releases from the hypolimnion of a reser-
voir which constitute the entire stream discharge).  The resulting
equation assumed TS as the temperature of the discharged water:
     T(x,t) = Tm + n^1 Tun sin. (nwt + ^n - qfn)

              >         k
              Z>       - -x      _
            n = 1 W  V sin. / nw(t - ?) + ^ - c(n_7 + (T, - Tj
     Again, a hypothetical problem was worked out to show character-
istics of the model.

     The temperature model was subjected to testing under controlled
laboratory conditions to verify the basic concept of the input function
and establish the validity of the exchange coefficient parameters.  With
these results, Duttweiler used the model to predict 19 hourly tempera-
tures in a small stream and 13 monthly temperatures for Lake Hefner,
using data from the Lake Hefner water-loss studies (17).  Agreement of
the model with measured temperatures was reasonably good.  The follow-
ing table lists estimated temperatures and observed temperatures (energy
storage per gram = <>C.) for Lake Hefner:
                             140

-------
            Estimated   Observed                Estimated   Observed
Month       Temp.(QC)   Temp.(C)   Month       Temp.(C)   Temp.(QC)

Aug.  '50     26.92       25.56     Mar.  '61       7.59         7.88
Sept.         23.77       22.96     April         12.67        12.16
Oct.          19.66       20.08     May           20.01        19.15
Nov.          11.06       12.37     June          23-82        23.25
Dec.           6.55        6.02     July          26.50        26.77
Jan.  '51      2.28        k.37     August        26.92        27-50
Feb.           2.08        5-80
     Theoretically, thermograph data would not be needed to estimate
stream temperatures in the situations described above.  However, with
current records of climatological data falling considerably short of
the standards required for accurate estimation with the model, thermo-
graph installations are a desirable accessory to the computations.
Initial  conditions, at any rate, must be known or estimated.

     F.  The characteristic of exponential decay with time of tempera-
ture increments can be put to good use in estimating stream tempera-
tures as a function of regulated releases from storage reservoirs.

     The exchange coefficient, as developed by David Duttweiler, was
used to predict temperatures of a reach of the South Umpqua River,
Oregon, as a function of regulated releases from the proposed Tiller
Dam.  This example, worked out by Duttweiler, is attached along with
appropriate comments on the method by the writer.

III.  Research Needs

     The following are a few thoughts regarding research needs of
current temperature prediction theories:

     A.  Inexpensive instrumentation for obtaining net short-wave and
net long-wave radiation data.  The currently accepted method  includes
erect and inverted pyrheliometers to measure incident and reflected
solar radiation plus Gier & Dunkle flat plate radiometers to measure
incident, total radiation.  Even then, expensive as this instrumenta-
tion is, the thermal radiation from the water surface must be esti-
mated from measurements of the water surface temperature.

     The Cummings Radiation Integrator (6, 17) has been suggested as
a substitute for the pyrheliometers and radiometer; however,  the CRI
needs extensive evaluation for the Pacific Northwest region before
its usefulness can be accepted for this area.

-------
     Even with adequate instrumentation,  these measurements may have to
be made for individual  projects because of the scarcity of applicable
data from nearby weather bureau stations.  Extensive correlation of all
available meteorological data at this time may or may not eliminate the
need for complete instrumentation on each project.  Some correlation
studies have already been completed, but much more needs to be done.

     B.  Extensive water-loss investigations of the type conducted on
Lakes Hefner and Mead are needed in the Pacific Northwest to evaluate
existing evaporation equations and/or formulate new ones.  Again, some
work has already been done by the United States Geological Survey which
is currently involved in mass-transfer studies on McKay Reservoir near
Pendleton, Oregon.  However, additional studies are needed at other
regional reservoirs and on the streams themselves.

     C.  Studies relative to the location and yield of-bank storage
sources both on reservoirs and streams are needed.  This item is usually
ignored, presumably on the basis of its magnitude and temperature dif-
ferences.  However, until some method is found to determine these values,
ignoring bank storage may lead to erroneous results.

     D.  Conduction losses across the water-channel bottom interface
need evaluation.  Again, this parameter is usually ignored.

     E.  The net thermal exchange due to biochemical reactions could
conceivably be of some importance where alga! counts are high or pollu-
tion is excessive, but is generally disregarded.

     F.  A detailed evaluation of the accuracy required of energy-
budget computations is needed.  Is  it necessary, for example, to pre-
dict temperatures more specific than the mean temperature for the  crit-
ical month?  How important are diurnal variations in these temperature
predictions?  Answers to questions  such as these will  have a direct
bearing on the complexity of energy-budget instrumentation and compu-
tations.  Actually, considerable literature exists on  portions of  this
problem.  An extensive library research could conceivably yield  enough
data,  if properly organized, to provide reasonable guidelines for
accuracy objectives.

     G.  The constants used for estimation of the exchange coefficient,
 \, need verification (3).  This exchange coefficient  is a function  of
several meteorological variables and is not necessarily constant.   The
error  involved in assuming a constant value forj^  (and  the rate  constant,
k = ^needs evaluation.
    z

-------
     H.  Simultaneous studies are needed of reservoirs and streams  as  a
unit.  Of necessity, most studies to date have had to be limited  to
either a reservoir or reach of a stream.  To the writer's  knowledge,
there have been no fully-instrumented,  long-term studies of temperature
phenomena in a reservoir and its downstream reach as a unit.

     Such a study would begin with the  selection of a reservoir and
stream physiographical1y and hydrographical1y comparable to other
reservoir-stream units in the same region.

     A complete evaluation of the water budget on the selected reser-
voir stream unit would be essential.  To date, an accurate water  budget
is still required to check evaporation  estimates and other computations.

     Instrumentation should be selected to provide the basis for  complete
parameter evaluation.  In this respect, complete meteorological  stations
are needed both on the reservoir and somewhere along the reach of stream
to be studied.  Differences in elevation, ground cover, wind velocities,
and location relative to major geographical relief are all important and
difficult to evaluate when extrapolating meteorological data.  If evalu-
ation of prediction methods is the objective of the study, extrapolation
of climatological data from distant weather stations is not acceptable.
There is too much latitude for "fudging the data to fit the answers"
when estimation of radiation or evaporation is involved.  In addition to
pyrheliometers, radiometers, wet-dry bulb recorders, anemometers, and
recording rain gages, Cummings Radiation Integrators are recommended at
each meteorological  station.  If CRI installations are not practicable,
evaporation pans would suffice.

     If continuous stage recorders are not already in operation at all
significant points on the selected reservoir-stream unit, they should
be installed where needed.

     Thermographs are needed just downstream of the dam, at the crit-
ical reach, and at one or more intermediate points.  Additional  thermo-
graphs are needed at the reservoir to record significant advected flows
such as major tributaries and at turbine penstocks.

     In addition to the full-time instrumentation described above, reser-
voir temperature surveys would be needed at least once every month, pref-
erably once every two weeks.  These surveys would include full tempera-
ture profiles down the centerline of the reservoir channel, plus suffi-
cient cross-section temperatures to complete an accurate description of
thermal stratification.

-------
     The reservoir temperature profiles would be planimetered and a
mass diagram of heat quantities assimilated to aid in water-budget
computations.

     In addition to the routine sampling described above,  attempts
should be made to locate and measure velocity currents in the reservoir.
Again, this data would simplify water-budget computations.

     Finally, several  discharge-depth-velocity surveys should be run
during the course of the study.  A fluorescent dye would be used as a
tracer for flow-time determinations.

     The total duration of the study would be at least one full year.
It would be preferable, though not necessary, to include two summers
during the study period.

     A study following the general pattern outlined above would yield
"working data" for any of the methods described in this paper.
            Notes on Stream Temperature Prediction
            Assuming a Constant Temperature Source

     The following notes pertain specifically to prediction of stream
temperatures at a given point and time based on the exponential-decay-
of-transient-temperatures method developed by Duttweiler.  The predic-
tion necessarily assumes that the entire source of flow  is fixed at a
short-time constant temperature (i.e., constant for the  period of time
under consideration).  The temperature of the South Umpqua River, for
example, can be predicted at any time for which the temperature of the
discharge at the proposed Tiller Damsite is estimated.   Attached is an
example of the application of this method to the South Umpqua River,
Oregon.

A.  Data Collection Requirements

    1.  Flow data at the damsite, estimated reach  of  critical water
temperatures (critical point), and above each major tributary.  Also,
the major tributaries at their mouths.  This data  must eventually be
predicted for the period under consideration.

    2.  Stage-discharge-velocity relationships  at  the damsite,  critical
point, and above each major  tributary.

       It would also be desirable to  get velocity data at enough  inter-
mediate points to assure satisfactory  flow-time estimation.   Flow times
are critical.

      The stage-discharge  relationship  is  essential for  parameter esti-
mation  in the prediction computations.  It would be advisable to  take


                               ]kk

-------
cross sections and current meter sections concurrently with flow-time,
dye studies.

      If possible, at least two surveys, at different flows,  should be
made to increase the confidence in the stage-discharge, velocity data
obtained.

    3-  Thermograph records at the damsite and critical point.

      Minimal requirements would be continuous-strip records of water
temperatures for a period of time analogous to the period under consid-
eration.  This will usually mean at least several  days of records.

      It would be better to obtain at least one full year of records to
help understand the general characteristics of the stream relative to
its thermal environment.

      Of some value, also, would be graphs at several  intermediate
points in the reach.

      Note that records must be obtained at the mouth  of intermediate,
major tributaries.

    k.  Wind velocity records at the damsite and critical point for
analogous periods of several years.

      This requirement may be difficult to fill in the usual situation.
The temperature prediction can be completed without this data, using a
conservative estimate for wind velocity.

      If anemometers are available in addition to nearby weather sta-
tions, the survey anemometers should be read at both two meters and
eight meters above the water surface.  The two-meter data is preferable
for computations.  The eight-meter data would be used  for correlation
with the weather station data.

B.  Data Analysis and Temperature Prediction

    1.  Basic Methodology

      The method developed by Duttweiler assumes that  any artificial
deviation from a steady-state temperature will decay exponentially with
distance downstream.  In application, this means that  with an artifi-
cially-imposed, uniform-temperature discharge, there will be a variable,
but predictable initial deviation from the hourly temperatures of a
steady-state thermograph at the damsite.  These deviations wi11 then
decay on an exponential curve until, at some point downstream, the
stream temperature will again exhibit the natural, steady-state diurnal
variations.

-------
       Thus it is, for computation, both the damsite and critical  point
thermograph records are needed.  The damsite data will  yield the alge-
braic value of the deviation at that point.  The residual  deviation
(after decay) will then be applied to the critical  point thermograph
data to yield the predicted temperature curve.

       Mathematically, the method is stated as follows:
T*(x,t) = T (x,t) + /~Ts(t) - T (00)^
                                                 e
                                                    v
(Predicted temp.) = (steady-state temp.) + (temp, deviation) (exponential
                                                                  factor)

     Where:  T*(x,t) = predicted temperature at time "t" and mile "x"
                       taken from the damsite time of "0" and mile "0".

             T(x,t) = steady-state temperature at time "t" and mile "x".

             Ts(t) = reservoir discharge temperature, noted at Ts(t),
                     but assumed constant over entire period.

             T(0,t --) = steady-state temperature at damsite.  The time
                    v    will be "x" hours less than that used at mile
                                  v
                         "x" with "v" being the estimated stream velocity,

             e = Naperian base

             k = - (assumed constant for the reach)
                 Where: A = Cj + &2^2 ~ exchange coeff.j cm./hr.

                           CT = 1.35

                           C2 = 0.18 - 0.2k

                           ^2 = wind velocity in mph

                       4 = average stream depth; cm.

             v = estimated average stream velocity; mph.

             x = miles from damsite to critical  point.

     2.  Application

       Note that this method can be applied easily only to the situation
where the entire flow of the stream is discharged from a constant tem-

-------
perature reservoir during the period under  consideration.

      Note also that the method assumes a temperature for  the reservoir
discharge.  If needed,  the reservoir temperatures would  have  to  be
evaluated by a separate study.  Logically,  the solution  could be worked
backwards to determine a reservoir temperature-discharge relationship
to satisfy the stream temperature requirements.

      For the situation where it is desired to reproduce existing
thermograph records, more sophisticated data collection  is required
as fol lows:

        a.  Total  solar and atmospheric radiation, using a Gier  &
    Dunkle flat-plate radiometer.

        b.  Slope of vapor pressure curve within range of water
    temperatures concerned.

        g.  Relative humidity to obtain dewpoint.

        d.  Air temperatures.

        e.  Remaining climatological data is computed or assumed.

      This data would be used to estimate,  mathematically, the natural
temperature curves.  These computed curves would then take the place of
thermograph records.
      Temperature Predictions for the South Umpqua River
 from Tiller to Winston Assuming Constant Temperature Releases
 	from the Reservoir at the Proposed Tiller Dam	

    Data available for the computations included thermograph records at
Tiller and Winston plus discharge data for March 30 through April 5> 1961,
at several applicable stations and sufficient stream characteristics to
estimate depth of flow and flow times.

    From these data, the following quantities were calculated:

        0-avg. = 3,600 cfs

        Difference in water surface elevations from Tiller to
           Winston = 5^1 ft.                     !

        River miles from Tiller to Winston =55.5

        Average channel slope = 1.85 x 10"^ ft./ft.

-------
       Average channel  width = 165  ft.

       Average depth of flow = k.9  ft.  = 151  cm.

       Average velocity = 3 mph (Kutter's n = 0.04)

    The water temperature,  as measured  by the thermographs, was  assumed
to be in a steady-state condition.   Hence,  the transient,  fe'k*, was
assumed negligible.

    The difference between steady-state temperatures and the  tempera-
tures modified by reservoir releases was designated  as 8.   That  is, 9  =
temperature increment under natural temperature.

    The following derivation for the modified temperature relationship
at Winston ensued:

       Let:  the temperature increment  at x = o be 6(0)

       and:  the temperature at x = 55-5 be 6(55.5)
                            - - 55.5
      Then:  e<55-5) = (o)e  v

    Now, assume that the temperature of the regulated release, Ts(t),
from Tiller Reservoir is equal to the steady-state temperature,   T(o),
at Tiller plus the temperature increment, 8(0).

  i.e.:  T(o) + 6(0) = Ts(

    The flow time from Tiller to Winston for Q. = 3,600 cfs is 55.5 miles/
3 mph = 18.5 hr. or approximately 18 hr.  Then, the temperature increment,
6to) at t = t0 will  decay exponentially to 6(55.5) at tQ + 18.

                                       k

    Hence:  6(55-5, t) = 9(o,t - l8)e  v

    Then, the predicted water temperature at Winston will be:

      T*<55.5, t) = T(55.5, t) + 6(55.5, t)
                                               _ 5 55.5
                  = T(55.5, t) + 6(0, t  -  I8)e  v    '
                                                          -  - 55-5
                  = T(55.5, t) + /~Ts(t) - T(o, t -  I8)_7e   v

          Where:  T(555, t) = steady-state  temperature at Winston.

-------
    To apply the method, it is necessary to assume a hypothetical  tem-
perature for the reservoir release at Tiller.   Let Tg(t) = *+0F. for
the period under consideration,  00 to 2k hours on March 30, 1961.

    Finally, some value(s) must  be estimated for the exchange coeffi-
cient, X .  For expediency, the  decay factor,  _ k     , will  be computed
at the same time.                            e  v ''-'

    }= G! + C2U2 = 1.35 * C2U2

        Where:   C2 varies from 0.18 to 0.2*+ (assume C2 = 0.20)

                U2 = wind speed at 2 meters above the water surface

    A= 1.35 + 0.2 U2; also, k = * = - 
                                 z   151

    Although the usual prediction would involve the critical  condition
of low, or negligible, wind speed, a wide range of wind speeds will be
assigned here to show the effect on  X  .
U2
(mph)
0
3
5
8
10
15
20
X
cm/hr .
1.35
1.95
2.35
2.95
3-35
**.35
5.35
k
(1/hr.)
0.0089*+
0.0129
0.0155
0.0195
0.0222
0.0288
0.035**
L/k
(hr.)
112
77-5
6i*.5
51.3
t+5.0
3*t.7
28.2
v/k = 3/k
(mi . )
336
232.5
193.5
153.9
135.0
10*+. 1
8*t.6
k/~ = k/3
(I/mi.)
0.00298
0.00^30
0.00517
0.00650
0.007**0
0.00960
0.0118
- !< 55.5
\t
e v
0.8*+8
0.788
0.751
0.698
0.663
0.587
0.520
     Computations for three wind speeds (0, 8, and  20 mph) are  shown
on the following pages.  These computations and  the accompanying  graphs
indicate probable temperatures at Winston for the conditions  assumed.

     To test the hypothesis that estimation of an average velocity, v,
is a critical factor in temperature computations, the estimates will  be
recalculated for an average velocity of 2.0 mph.

         Q. = 3,600 cfs

         v = 2,0 mph = 2.9*t cfs

         w = 165 ft.

         A = 3,600/2.9** =  1,220  sq. ft.

         z = 1,220/165 = 7.**  ft. =  228  cm.
                              \k9

-------
              Table 1
Temperature Prediction Computations
So. Umpqua River--Ti1ler to Winston

  March 30-31, 1961 - v = 3.0 tnph
(1) (2) (3) (4)
t T(o,t) T(55-5,t) 8to,t-l8)
(Thermograph records)
March 30,
00 43.00
01 42.25
02 41.75
03 41.50
04 41.25
05 41.00
06 40.50
07 40.25
08 40.00
09 40.00
10 41.25
11 42.25
12 43.25
13 44.75
14 46.00
15 46.50
16 47.00
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
March
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
47.00
47.00
46.75
46.25
45-75
45.50
45.25
45.00
31,
44.75
44.25


















1961
47.50
47.25
46.50
46.25
46.00
45.50
45.00
44.75
45.00
46.00
47.25
48.75
50.00
51 .00
51.50
51-75
52.00
52.25
52.25
51.50
50.25
49.25
48.25
47.50
47.00
1961
46.75
46.25
46.00
45.50
45.25
44.75
44.50
44.50
46.00
47.75
49.50
51.00
52.25
53-00
54.00
55.00
55.00
54.75
53-50
52.25


-3.00
-2.25
-1.75
-1.50
-1.25
-1.00
-0.50

-0.25
0
0
-1.25
-2.25
-3.25
-4.75
-6.00
-6.50
-7.00
-7.00
-7.00
-6.75
-6.25
-5.25
-5.50
-5.25
-5.00
-4.75
-4.25
(5)
~kx
0e vx
(A-=2.95)


-2.09
-1.57
-1.22
-1.05
-0.87
-0.70
-0.35

-0.17
0
0
-0.87
-1.57
-2.27
-3.32
-4.19
-4.54
-4.89
-4.89
-4.89
-4.71
-4.36
-3.67
-3.84
-3.67
-3.50
-3.32
-2.97
(6) (7)
^x
T*(55-5,t) 0e v*
(3)+(5) (X=1.35)


50.16
49.93
49.03
48.20
47.38
46.80
46.65

46.58
46.25
46.00
44.63
43.68
42.48
41.18
40.31
41.46
42.86
44.61
46.11
47.54
48.64
50.33
51.16
51.33
51.25
50.18
49.28


-2.54
-1 .90
-1.49
-1.27
-1 .06
-0.85
-0.42

-0.21
0
0
-1.06
-1.91
-2.76
-4.03
-5.09
-5.50
-5.93
-5.93
-5.93
-5.73
-5.30
-4.45
-4.66
-4.45



(8)
T*(55-5,t)
(3)+(7)


49.71
49.60
48.66
47.98
47.19
46.65
46.58

46.54
46.25
46.00
44.46
43.34
41 .49
40.47
39.41
40.50
41.82
43.57
45.07
46.52
47-70
49.55
50.34
50.55



(9)
i 0e~X
(X=5-35)


-1.56
-1.18
-0.91
-0.78
-0.65
-0.52
-0.26

-0.13
0
0
-0.65
-1.17
-1 .69
-2.47
-3.12
-3.38
-3.64
-3.64
-3.64
-3.51
-3.30
-2.73
-2.86
-2.73



(10)
T*(55-5,t)
(3)+(9)


50.69
50.32
49.34
48.47
47.60
46.98
46.74

46.62
46.25
46.25
44.85
44.08
43.06
42.03
41.38
42.62
44.11
45.86
47.36
48.74
49.70
51.27
52.14
52.27



               150

-------
60
56
52
48
44
40
36o















































X















V









~^~~~















rins
1








 ^^















ton
emp
























Es
era








/































1
ESTIMATED TEMPERATURE OF SOUTH UMPQUA RIVER AT WINSTON
For Constant Temperature Of 40F at Tiller
Equivalent q
V
Travel time









Winston Actual

tim
tur






y
/






ate
e 






/







d j




/
/
*~  ,


V



i -
c
A - j
*= 2
*= 1,



7
/

- w


- H-





s



Lnsi

ypo


35
95
35


^



Lon

the










Temp.
cm/
cm/
cm/






Ac

:ic.


'hr
rhr
hr






:ua'

al '


3600 c
3 mph
18 hrs




\
-._




*^-



L Ti

["em;






\
\
1


^.



;mp

3 . <


fs





\
.\
^;

*>.






at











S,
,N
s^

->





ni












V
, s
*K


  .





ler













X
S^J







Dai














'^-^







nsi














^s






rp















<.























\
\





















'" .
vV-.
vV 
V




















s.

v'-.
\ \ "
V
\
\



















'^

\ '.
^ '
\x>
\

























s
. \
s



















7
/


/
'/
s

















/
/


'

t
f i
T /
/
















/
/




t
/
.' f
1
/

















/
/




/
//
/
/

















/



t
/
/
/
s t
/


















/


*
s
' /
/


















/



1 t
/
' t
/ T



















/


f
/
/
/
f













4 08 12 16 20 24 04 08 12 It
30 MARCH 1961
31 MARCH 1961

-------
                                                           k
                                             ./          --55-5
                   X             k           k/v           v
                (cm/hr.)      (1/hr.)      (I/mi.)      e	

                 1.35         0.00592      0.00296         0.81+9
                 2.95         0.0129       0.0061+5         0.70
                 5.35         0.023^       0.0117          0.523
     Note at this point that the change in average velocity has had no
effect on the exponential decay factor,   k rr r.  An examination of the
                                        -- wo

units involved indicates this to be logical.

     The modified computations for the temperature at Winston are shown
on the following page.  These temperatures for 0*+ to 1600 hrs., March 31,
1961, are plotted on the accompanying graph.

     A comparison of Winston temperature predictions for average veloc-
ities of 2.0 and 30 mph does,  indeed, show considerable variation.
Diurnal  variation of the steady-state temperature is important here.
                              152

-------
                                          Table 2
                            Temperature Prediction Computations
                            So. Umpqua River--Ti1ler to Winston

                              March 30-31, 1961  v = 2.0 mph


(D  (2)      (3)       (4)      (5)       (6)       (7)       (8)        (9)        (10)
                                   -ky                 -kv                 -ky
 t  T(o,t) T(55.5,t) er(q,t-l8     Oe v   T*(55.5,t)   cre *   T*(55.5,t)   ffe v   T*(55-5,t)
   (Thermograph records)	(>=2.95)   (3)+(5)   0=1.35)  (3)+(7)   (X=5-35)  (3!

March 30
00
01
02
03
Ok
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
1*3.00
^42.25
41.75
1+1.50
1*1.25
1*1.00
1*0.50
1*0.25
1*0.00
1*0.00
1*1.25
1*2.25
43.25
44.75
March 31

01
02
03
01*
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
11*
15
16
17
1*5.50
1*5.25
44.75
1*1*. 50
l*l+. 50
1*6.00
47.75
1*9.50
51.00
52,25
53.00
51+. oo
55.00
55.00
-3.00
-2.25
-1.75
-1.50
-1.25
-1.00
-0.50
-0.25
0
0
-1.25
-2.25
-3.25
-4.75
-2.10
-1.57
-1.22
-1.05
-0.87
-0.70
-0.35
-0.18
0
0
-0.87
-1.57
-2.28
-3-32
1*3.1*0
1*3.68
43.53
43.45
43.63
45.30
47.40
49.32
51.00
52.25
52.13
52.43
52.72
51.68
-2.54
-1.90
-1.49
-1.27
-1.06
-0.85
-0.42
-0.21
0
0
-1.06
-1.91
-2.76
-4.03
42.96
43-35
43.26
43.23
43.44
45.15
47.33
49-29
51.00
52.25
51-94
52.09
52.24
50.97
-1.57
-1.18
-0.92
-0.79
-0.65
-0.52
-0.26
-0.13
0
0
-0.65
-1 .18
-1 .70
-2.48
43-93
44.07
43.77
43.71
43.85
45.48
47.49
49.37
51.00
52.25
52.35
52.82
53-30
52.52
                                             153

-------
60
56
52















































^

























  -

























^ 


















































>


















































/<


^




















/
/
1 1
ESTIMATED TEMPERATURE OF SOUTH
For Constant Temperature
i
1
Equivalent q
V
Travel time


























_ Tiller


Hv





pot




het













7im
Act


ica













5tOI
1 	 1
ual


1 T


= 3600 cfs
=












i Ei
2 mph
28 hr











;tir











iat<
Temp.


emp




. a




t I



5











3d :



ill














Wi
Demj



er ;














ist




Dam


1 1
UMPQUA RIVER AT WINSTON
Of 40F at Tiller












3n j



sit'














\ct\
5.
2.
1.

















aal
35
95
35


















Tei
i












np.
cm/hr.
cm/
cm/






hr
hr



















' 

--'




















^
^5
*-





















 ,
	
























M^_.
^=























X
^
*






















/i
Y






















i
J
W























>
























/
























^























/























/

B--"















48
4 4
4 0
36
   04
08
12           16
30 MARCH 1961
20
24
04          08
       31 MARCH  1961
12
                                                                                                              16

-------
                           References

 1.   Anderson,  E.  R.,  Anderson,  L.  J.,  and Marciano,  J.  J.,  A Review  of
     Evaporation Theory and Development of Instrumentation,  U.  S.  Navy
     Electronics Lab.  Rept. 159,  February  1,  1950.

 2.   Burt,  W.  V.,  A Forecast of  Temperature Conditions  in  the Clearwater
     River  Below the Proposed Bruces Eddy  Dam,  Corps  of  Engineers,  Walla
     Walla  District, November 30,  I960.

 3.   Duttweiler,  D. W., A Mathematical  Model  of Stream  Temperature,
     Dissertation for  school of  Engineering Science,  Johns Hopkins
     University,  1963.

 k.   Gameson,  A.  L. H., Gibbs,  J.  W.,  and  Barrett,  M. J.,  A Prel iminary
     Temperature Survey of a Heated River; Water and  Water Engineering,
     63:13+,  January,  1959.

 5.   Gameson,  A.  L. H., Hall, H.,  and  Freddy, W. S.,  Effects of Heated
     Discharges on the Temperature of  the  Thames Estuary,  Parts I  and II;
     Combustion,  p. 33+, December,  I960; p. 37+, January,  1961.

 6.   Harbeck,  G.  E., Jr., Kohler,  M. A., Koberg, G. E.,  et al., Water -
     Loss Investigations;  Lake Mead Studies, Technical  Report, U.S.G.S.
     Professional  Paper 298, 1958.

 7.   Harbeck,  G.  E., Jr., A Practical  Fiefl'.d Technique for  Measuring
     Reservoir Evaporation Utilizing Mass-Transfer  Theory, U.S.G.S.
     Professional  Paper 212-1,  1962.

 8.   Heat Dissipation in Flowing Streams;  Advanced  Seminar Report,
     Oept.  of  Sanitary Engineering and Water Resources,  The Johns
     Hopkins  University, June 30,  1962.

 9.   LeBosquet, M., Jr., Cooling-Water Benefits from Increased River
     Flows, Journal New England Water  Works Association, 60:111-6,
     June,
10.   McAlister, B.  N.,  Rogue River Basin Study. Parts I, II, and III;
     Water Research Association Report, May 5, 1961; May 15, 1961;
     November 22,  1961.

1 1.   Organization  for Water Temperature Prediction and Control  Study,
     Umpqua River  Basin, Oregon State Water Resources Board Report,
     February, 1963.

12.   Raphael, J. M., Prediction of Temperature in Rivers and Reser-
     voirs, Power  Division Journal, ASCE Proc.; 88:157*, July,  1962.
                               155

-------
13   Raphael,  J.  M.,  The Effect of Wanapum and Priest Rapids Dams on the
     Temperature  of the Columbia River,  Report for PUD No.  2 of Grant Co.,
     Washington,  September,1961.

14,   Raphael,  J.  M.,  The Effect of Wells and Rocky Reach Dams on the
     Temperature  of the Columbia River,  Report for PUD No.  2 of Grant Co.,
     Washington,  January,  1962.

15.   Schroepfer,  G. J., Susag,  R. H.,  et al.,  Pollution and Recovery
     Characteristics  of the Mississippi  River, Vol.  One, Part Three;
     Report by Sanitary Engineering Division,  Dept.  of Civil Engineering,
     University of Minnesota for Minneapolis-St.  Paul Sanitary District,
     September, 1961 .

16.   Velz, C.  J.  and  Gannon, J. J., Forecasting Heat Loss in Ponds and
     Streams,  Journal Water Pollution Control  Federation, 32:392-417,
     April, I960.

17-   Water-Loss Investigations;  Lake Hefner Studies, Technical Report,
     U.S.G.S.  Professional  Paper 269,  1954.
                               156

-------
              ATTENDANCE AT THE TWELFTH SYMPOSIUM

                         November 1,  19&3
Donald F. Amend
Aven M. Andersen
N. H. Anderson
R. L. Angstrom
Robert Averett
Robert J. Ayers

Richard Bakkala
Wil1iam J. Beck
Paul F. Berg
Richard Berg
Harold Berkson
Donald E. Bevan
Russell 0. Blosser
B. R. Bohn
C. E. Bond
Peter B. Boyer
Lt. George Brown
R. L. Brown
Fred J. Burgess
Melvin H. Burke
Roger E. Burrows
Wayne V. Burt

Richard J. Callaway
Dale A. Carl son
George G. Chadwick
W. N. Christiansen
Robert F. Clawson
Wm. D. Clothier
A. G. Coche
Chas. W. Coddington
Gerald B. Collin
John F. Conrad
A. C. Cooper

J. P. Cor ley
J. F. Cormack
R. A. Corthell
Frederick K.  Cramer
Colbert E. Gushing

G. E. Davis
Wm. H. Delay
Oregon State University
State Shellfish Laboratory
Oregon State University
Oregon Fish Commission
University of Washington
Oregon Fish Commission

Bur. Commercial Fisheries
PHS Shellfish San. Lab.
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Oregon State University
U. S. Public Health Service
University of Washington
Oregon State University
Oregon Fish Commission
Oregon State University
Corps of Engineers
5Mst M.I. Det.
State Water Resources Bd.
Oregon State University
U.S. Forest Service
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Oregon State University

U.S. Public Health Service
University of Washington
Oregon State University
Ore. State Game Commission
Calif. Dept. of Water Resources
Ore. Fish Commission
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Bur. Commercial Fisheries
Oregon Fish Commission
International  Pacific Salmon
     Fisheries  Commission
General Electric  Co.
Crown Zellerbach
Ore. State Game Commission
Corps of  Engineers
General Electric  Co.

Oregon State University
State Water Resources Bd.
Corval1 is
Brinnon
Corval 1 is
Portland
Seattle
Portland

Seattle
Gig Harbor
Boise
Corval1 is
Portland
Seattle
Corval1 is
Clackamas
Corval1i s
Portland
Forte Meade, Md.
Salem
Corval1 is
Portland
Longview
Corvallis

Portland
Seattle
Corvallis
Salem
Sacramento
Portland
Corval Us
Corval lis
Seattle
Clackamas
New  Westminster,
   B.C.,  Canada
Richland
Camas
Portland
Wai la Walla
Richland

Corval Hs
Salem
                               157

-------
 George R. Ditsworth
 Hugh H. Dobson
 Peter Doudoroff

 Wes Ebel
 John E. Edinger
 W. E. Eldridge
 M. W. Erho
 Robert T. Evans
 Curtiss M. Everts

 Elliott M. Flaxman
 Richard F. Foster
 Laurie G. Fowler
 John Fryer
 Paul  Fujihara

 Robert L. Garrison
 Daniel  L. Gerlough
 Charles V. Gibbs
 J. Wendell Gray
 A1Ian B.  Groves

 James B.  Haas
 James D.  Hall
 J. A.  R.  Hamilton
 George H.  Hansen
 Gary  Hewitt
 R.  C.  Hinchcliffe

 Harlan  B.  Holmes
 J.  C. Huetter
 Jim Hutchison

 Gary W. Isaac

 Robert T.  Jaske
 H. E. Johnson
 David C.  Joseph

 Malcolm Karr
 Earl D. Kathman
Max Katz
 Kenneth D. Kerri
 James T. Krygier
 Norman Kujala

R.  L. Laird
Robert E.  Leaver
 U.S. Public Health Service
 Oregon State University
 Oregon State University

 Bur. Commercial  Fisheries
 The Johns Hopkins University
 U.S. Public Health Service
 Washington Dept. of Fisheries
 State Water Resources Bd.
 Pac. N.W. Water Lab., PHS

 Soil Conservation Service
 General  Electric Co.
 U.S. Fish & Wildlife  Service
 Oregon State University
 General  Electric Co.

 Oregon State University
 Planning Research Corp.
 Municipality of  Metro
 Pac. N.W.  Water  Lab.,  PHS
 Bur. Commercial  Fisheries

 Oregon Fish  Commission
 Oregon State University
 Pacific  Power &  Light  Co.
 Wash.  Pollution  Control Comm.
 1870 Fifth N. E.
 Gen. Admin.  Bldg.,  Research
      Office
 Fisheries Consultant
 Corps  of  Engineers
 170  S. Owens

 Municipality of Metro

 General  Electric  Co.
 University of Washington
 Calif. Dept. of Fish &  Game

 State Water Resources Bd.
 Oregon State University
 University of Washington
 Oregon State University
 Oregon State University
 Oregon State University
 Portland
 Corvallis
 Corval1 is

 Weiser
 Baltimore
 Portland
 Vancouver
 Salem
 Corval1 is

 Portland
 Rich land
 Longview
 Corvallis
 Rich land

 Corvallis
 Los Angeles
 Seattle
 Corvallis
 Seattle

 Portland
 Corval1 is
 Portland
 Olympia
 Sal em
 Olympia

 Portland
 Portland
 Salem

 Seattle

Rich land
Seattle
Sacramento

Salem
Corvallis
Seattle
Corval1 is
Corvallis
Corvallis
A.I.D. India, c/o Dept. of State  Washington, D.C.
Wash. State Dept. of Health       Seattle
                              158

-------
Norman Leibrand
Dale A. Long
Harold W. Lorz

W. Bruce McAHster
George McCammon
J. H. McCormick
Arthur B. Mclntyre

Norman J. MacDonald
Barton M. Maclean
Jas. A. Macnab
L. D. Marriage
Y. Matida
Fred Merryfield
H. W. Merryman
A1 Mills
D. T. Montgomery
Phil F. Moon
Albert M. Moore
S. Moriyasu
Kenneth H. Mosbaugh

R. E. Nakatani
Ronald E. Nece
Francis Nelson
Mark L. Nelson
George 0. Nielsen
Anthony J. Novotny

R. T. Oglesby
Waine E. Oien
Melvin J. Ord
Erling J. Ordal
D. L. Overholser
Eben L. Owens

Clarence Pedersen
L. Edward Perry
John C. Petersen
D. C. Phillips
K. S. Pi 1cher
Herbert E. Pintler
Stuart T. Pyle

Edison L. 0_uan

Jerome M. Raphael
Edwin F. Roby
U. S. Geological  Survey
Portland State College
Oregon State University

Oregon State University
Calif. Dept. Fish & Game
Sport Fisheries 6-Wildlife
U.S. Public Health Service

Corps of Engineers
Corps of Engineers
Portland State College
Soil Conservation Service
Freshwater Fish.  Res. Lab.
Oregon State University
State Board of Health
Wash. Pollution Control Comm.
Bur. Sport Fish.  & Wildlife
Corps of Engineers
U. S. Geological  Survey
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service

General Electric Co.
University of Washington
U.S. Public Health Service
Corps of Engineers
Wash. Dept. of Fisheries
Bur. Commercial Fisheries

University of Washington
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Corps of Engineers
University of Washington
Ore. State Fish Commission
Oregon State University

Corps of Engineers
Bur. Commercial Fisheries
Bureau of Reclamation
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service
Calif. Dept. of Water  Resources

State Board of Health

University of California
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Portland
Portland
Corvallis

Corval1 is
Sacramento
Longview
San Francisco

Seattle
Walla Walla
Portland
Portland
Tokyo, Japan
Corval1 is
Eugene
Olympia
Portland
Portland
Portland
Corvallis
Portland

Rich land
Seattle
Olympia
Portland
Vancouver
Seattle

Seattle
Spokane
Walla Walla
Seattle
Clackamas
Corval 1 is

Portland
Portland
Boi se
Corval 1 is
Corval1 is
San Francisco
Sacramento

Portland

Berkeley
Portland
                               159

-------
Donald L.  Ross
Jack Rothacher
Lloyd 0. Rothfus

Roy E. Sams
Roy B. Sanderson
Harold Sawyer
Ralph H. Scott
Robert W.  Seabloom
John Seaders
Wm. L. Shapeero
Thomas T.  Shen
Dean L. Shumway
R. 0. Sinnhuber
George R.  Snyder
Leale E. Streebin
Robert 0.  Sylvester

Allan E. Thomas
Edward B.  Thornton
Parker S.  Trefethen

William E. Webb
W. Donald Weidlein
E. F. Weiss
E. B. Welch
Henry 0. Wendler
Ray Westenhouse
John W. Wolfe
J. Larry Worley

Boyd Yaden
Franklin R. Young
Stephen A. Young

Robert W. Zeller
U.S. Public Health Service
Oregon State University
Washington Dept. Fisheries

Oregon Fish Commission
U. S. Geological Survey
Ore. State Board of Health
U.S. Public Health Service
University of Washington
Oregon State University
University of Washington
2309 **8th N. E.
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Fish Passage Research
Oregon State University
University of Washington

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Oregon State University
Bur. Commercial Fisheries

Idaho Fish & Game Dept.
Calif. Dept. Fish 5-Game
Oregon Fish Commission
University of Washington
Washington Dept. Fisheries
Weyerhaeuser Co.
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service

State Water Resources  Bd.
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service

U.S. Public Health Service
Olympia
CorvalI is
Vancouver

Portland
Portland
Portland
Portland
Seattle
Corval  1i s
Seattle
Seattle
Corval  Us
Corvallis
Seattle
Corval1i s
Seattle

Longview
Corvallis
Seattle

Boi se
Sacramento
Clackamas
Seattle
Vancouver
Springfield
Corvallis
Portland

Salem
Corval lis
Portland

Portland
                               160

-------