WAT  ER    TEMPERATURE
        INFLUENCES,EFFECTS, AND CONTROL
       Proceedings of the Twelfth Pacific Northwest
         Symposium on Water Pollution Research
                      November
i
                      Corval I i s , Or r <; I 1 I I) S I A T I S I) I l A K I M I N I  0 F  T II I. 1  N I  K K I 0 It
    Federal Water I'n I I u t i mi (.ontrul Admin i s t ra t i on , Nor thwes t Region


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            WATER   TEMPERATURE--
INFLUENCES,   EFFECTS,    AND   CONTROL
                           PROCEEDINGS
                             of the
               TWELFTH PACIFIC NORTHWEST SYMPOSIUM
                               on
                    WATER POLLUTION RESEARCH
                          Conducted by
       U. S,  DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE
                      Public Health Service
                             at the
               Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory
                        Corvallis, Oregon
                        November 7, 1963
                          Assembled by
                 Edward F. Eldrldge, Consultant
                           Reissued by
                U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
         Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
               Northwest Region, Portland, Oregon
                           April 1967

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                            AGENDA
                  TWELFTH RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM
Introduction.  Edward F.  Eldridge.

Temperature as a Water Quality Parameter.   Curtiss M.  Everts.

Effects of Water Uses and Impoundments on  Water  Temperature.
     Robert 0. Sylvester.

Water Temperature Requirements for  Maximum Productivity  of  Salmon,
     Roger E. Burrows.

The Effects of Temperature on Disease in Fish.  Erling J.  Ordal  and
     Robert E, Pacha.

Temperature Studies on the Umpqua River, Oregon.  William H.  Delay
     and John Seaders.

Temperature Phenomena and Control in Reservoirs.  Jerome M. Raphael

Method of Computing Average Reservoir Temperature.  Peter B,  Boyer-

Some Observations of Columbia River and Reservoir Behavior From
     Hanford Experience.   R T.  Jaske.

Instrumentation for Water-Temperature Studies.  A. M. Moore,

Summary of Current Theories and  Studies Relating  to Temperature
     Prediction.  Robert  Zeller.

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                         INTRODUCTION

                        E.  F.  Eldridge*
     As many of you know,  this is the twelfth  of  a  series  of  symposiums
sponsored by the Public Health Service during  the past  six years.  These
symposiums have been a phase  of a Research and Technical   Consultation
Project initiated in the Portland  office of the  Service in  May,  1957
They have had several  objectives:   First, to  bring together  persons  of
this area who are  involved in research in  the Water   quality  field  in
order that each may become acquainted with the respective  interests and
research activities of  others in this field.    Second,  to  investigate
the available knowledge regarding  specific water quality   problems and
to delineate those areas where  research is needed  to  supply  new or ad-
ditional knowledge.   And  third, to stimulate  researchers  in  all  scien-
tific disciplines to conduct such research.   In  my opinion,  the sympo-
siums have successfully accomplished these objectives.

     The initial meetings   were attended by a  comparatively small  group
(25  to  30) which was conducive to free  discussions  by most  of those
present.   Because of the  apparent interest created by  these meetings,
attendance has  increased  until approximately   150 persons were  at  the
last meeting.

     Since the Project to  which I referred is  to be incorporated in  the
activities of the  Water Laboratory of the  Public Health Service to  be
constructed here in Cor vail is,  future symposiums will  be  sponsored  by
this Laboratory.  Mr.  Curtiss Everts is Director  of the Laboratory and,
undoubtedly,  he will  tell you something about the scope and activities
planned for this facility.
     "Consultant, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare,
Public Health Service, Water Supply and Pollution Control Program,
Pacific Northwest, Portland, Oregon.

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            TEMPERATURE  AS  A WATER QUALITY  PARAMETER

                      Curtiss  M. Everts*
      Everyone  engaged  in  the  field  of water  quality  control will quickly
 recognize temperature  as  one  of  the most  important measurements of  the
 physical  characteristics  of water.  In  fact,  the  temperatures of surface
 and  underground waters have probably been  recorded as  often, if not more
 so,  than  almost any  other physical, chemical  or biological measurement
 made.

      The  relationships of the temperature  of  surface waters to the
 enhancement  of fish  and other aquatic  life,  chemical and biochemical
 reactions, water  treatment, the  toxicity of  contaminants, tastes and
 odors  in  drinking water and to the  quality of domestic, industrial and
 agricultural water supplies have been explored by numerous invest'ga-
 tors.   Until recently  much of the data  and information obtained have
 not  always been put  to practical  use.   Even  now some areas need more
 precise evaluation and study  to  clarify the  divergent  opinions ex-
 pressed in some reports,  to correlate the  information  that has been
 obtained  so  that  it  may be usefully applied  to the problems of water
 quality control,  and to check laboratory results  under actual field
 conditions.  It is unlikely that  this will prove  to be a simple task
 for  as  we approach this point  it  may be expected  that  conflicts of
 special interest  will  arise that will require the judgment of Solomon
 to resolve.

      In the  hope  that  I will  not  transgress  too greatly on the remarks
 to be made by  the speakers that  follow, I  should  like  to offer a few
 examples of  the effects of temperature  on  water use-   You are familiar
with most of them, but  it is  believed that mention of  them may set  the
 stage for some of the  discussion  that we hope will take place during
 the  remainder  of  this  Symposium.

     Sphaeroti1 us, a troublesome  slime  in  the surface waters of the
 Pacific Northwest, is  reported to grow extremely well  in the waters of
 the  Columbia River at  temperatures  between 8 degrees and 12 degrees C.
 These same temperatures are highly  suitable  for salmon production.  At
 higher  temperatures  (summer 20-2^ degrees  C.) poor growth of Sphaerot-
 ilus is experienced,  but  these are  temperatures not so suitable for
 salmon.  Interestingly  enough growth in the  laboratory occurred quite
well throughout a range of 10 degrees to 2k degrees C.
     -'-Director, Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory, U. S. Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Division of
Water Supply and Pollution Control, Corvallis, Oregon.

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     The effects of rises in water temperatures on fish are well  known,
These include increases in metabolic rates and oxygen requirements,  in
sensitivity to toxic materials, in reduction in swimming speed,  and  in
increased avoidance reactions.

     Drinking water at a temperature of 50 degrees F. and below  is
usually considered satisfactory.  Temperatures in excess of 65 degrees
F. are likely to result in complaints, for tastes and odors become more
noticeable as temperatures increase.  On the other hand, pathogens
survive longer at lower temperature*.

     When treatment of water is necessary for domestic consumption,
floculation and sedimentation rates  increase with temperature, and the
bactericidal effects of chlorine are grearer ar temperatures above 20
degrees C,

     Agriculturists prefer water at  temperature* above 60 degrees F,
(15 degrees C.) and this is the sort of environment that the warm-water
fishes enjoy,  Return irrigation flows usually increase temperatures in
receiving streams.

     The effects that temperatures have on dissolved oxygen concentra-
tions, on the rates of biochemical oxygen demand, and on aquatic life
are well  documented and must be reckoned with in any water quality
control program.

     Thermal stratification in water  impoundments wi11 also cause
problems, particularly those with low-level turbine  intakes.  This was
well illustrated in the Lower Roanoke River Basin in North Carolina
where due to stratification in the impoundments, water released at
certain times during the year  was deficient in oxygen and adversely
affected downstream uses.  Use of submerged weirs to draw water of
satisfactory quality from a different level is reported to have cor-
rected this problem.,

     Heat added to water which has been used for industrial and power
plant cooling purposes has an adverse effect on aquatic life, and
reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water.

     Thermal pollution is rapidly becoming a problem in the Delaware
River Basin where 3-1/2 billion gallons of water daily (5^00 cfs.)
are used for thermal electric power  in the basin.  In the Chicago a?-ea
where a number of steam power plants use from 50 to 90 percent of
water available for cooling on a once-through basis, thermal pollution
is reported to be equivalent to the  doubling of the organic waste load
the Illinois River now receives from the Chicago area.

     It should be obvious, therefore, that a rather concentrated effort
needs to be expended in gaining more useful knowledge on the effect  of

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water  use and watershed activity on water temperatures, so that reason-
able objectives can be established, and practical procedures for tem-
perature adjustment and control can be developed.  It may even be pos-
sible  to use temperature variations as a means of forecasting approach-
ing changes in other water quality parameters.

     The Federal Water Pollution Control Act makes such an effort a
responsibility of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Section 2 of this act directs the Secretary to develop comprehensive
programs for eliminating or reducing the pollution of interstate waters
and tributaries thereof.  In the development of these programs it is
required that due regard be given to the improvements necessary to
conserve such water for public water supplies, propagation of fish and
aquatic life and wildlife, recreational purposes, and agricultural,
industrial  and other legitimate uses.

     This section also provides that "in che survey or planning of any
reservoir by the Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, or other
Federal Agency, consideration shall  be given to inclusion of storage
for regulation of streamflow for the purpose of water quality control"
and that "the need for and the value of storage for this purpose shall
be determined by these agencies, with the advice of the Secretary, and
his views shall be set forth in any report or presentation to the
Congress proposing authorization or construction of any reservoir" in-
cluding storage for low-flow augmentation.

     In carrying out research, and the responsibilities for special
studies and demonstration under the act, the Secretary is directed to
develop and demonstrate "Methods and procedures for evaluating effects
on water quality and water uses of augmented streamflows to control
water pollution not susceptible to othe" means of abatement."

     The Public Health Service has a wealth of experience in this field
beginning with its studies in the Ohio River Basin in 1938 '939 and
19^0 when the effects of temperature on water quality became increas-
ingly apparent.  The work of LeBosquet on the Mahoning River in the
vicinity of Youngstown,  Ohio,  in 19^2, where high water temperatures
from use and reuse upstream had threatened the shutdown of an impor-
tant steel  mill,  resulted in Congressional  approval  for the release of
flood control  waters from upstream impoundments for  temperature control.

     With the potential  hydroelectric power development in the Pacific
Northwest far from complete,  a much  more complete understanding must
be obtained of  the effects of  impoundments on downstream temperatures
so that suitable preventive or protective measures may be developed
for existing storage and incorporated into any new impoundments pro-
posed for the future.

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     With these facts in mind, the Pacific Northwest Water Laboratory,
scheduled for construction under Section U of the Federal  Water Pollu-
tion Control Act,  will have,  among its chief objectives,  a precise
study of the effects of multiple-purpose impoundments on downstream
water use.  We would also expect to carefully investigate the effects
of watershed use on water quality.  In both of these areas temperature
will be a most important area of concern.

     This work will not be exactly new to Oregon and the Pacific North-
west for it has already been recognized that at least one of the impor-
tant contributions that can be made by low-flow augmentation will be
that of temperature control.  Such a program is included for the im-
poundments  in the Rogue River Basin, and is now under study in the
Umpqua River Basin,

     Over ten years ago the Pollution Control Council, Pacific North-
west Area,  included the control of high temperature wastes as part of
its water quality objectives.  Similar criteria may be found in the
regulations of other water quality control agencies.

     Construction of  the  laboratory is expected to begin  in February,
1964 with completion  scheduled for the summer of 1965.  In the meantime,
the  task of assembling a  competent staff of engineers, scientists, and
supporting  personnel will proceed as rapidly as appropriations for this
purpose wi11 permit.  When the staff becomes operational, it will be
engaged in  a program  of research technical assistance on water quality
problems  in an area which includes Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah,
Washington, and Wyoming.  Training will also be an  important function
of  the  laboratory  staff.

     As one of the arms of the Public Health Service, we would expect
to  furnish  substantial support for any of our activities  in the field
of water  quality control, and would hope that through our efforts and
with your help some of the answers on temperature-water use relation-
shi ps wi11  be found.

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  EFFECTS OF WATER USES AND IMPOUNDMENTS ON WATER TEMPERATURE

                      Robert 0. Sylvester*


                          Introduction

     The natural temperature rise or fall  of a water body is established
by a number of meteorological and physical factors.  Meteorological  fac-
tors influencing water temperature are the amount of solar radiation,
wind velocity, air temperature and vapor pressure.  Physical  factors are
the surface area exposed,  water depth, water temperature, rate of water
exchange, mixing afforded, shading from vegetation or land masses,
impurities in the water, surface and subsurface inflows, and the temper-
ature of the surrounding land mass.  The most important factor is the
amount of solar radiation absorbed, which for a given mass of water  is
a function of the exposed water surface area.

     The amount of solar radiation striking a given body of water de-
pends upon the season of the year, geographical location, time of day,
elevation, shading, amount of particulate matter and water vapor in  the
atmosphere, and quantity of indirect solar radiation.  On striking a
water surface, a portion of the light is reflected, perhaps 5 to 35  per-
cent, depending upon the angle of incidence (1).  Light penetrating  the
water is absorbed at different depths depending upon the wave length of
the light and the amount of suspended and dissolved substances in the
water which limit the amount of penetration.  The longer wave lengths
(red and orange) and the shorter rays (ultra-violet and violet) are
reduced more quickly than the middle-range wave lengths of blue, green
and yellow.  The first meter of depth may absorb or extinguish 53 per-
cent (1) of the total incident light where it is transformed into heat.

     Water temperature is influenced by land temperature, especially in
the case of irrigated areas with their return flows.  The specific heat
of water is high compared with other materials and it thus becomes a
stabilizer of temperature and an important factor in soil temperature.
Evaporation from wet soil  surfaces together with the relatively high
specific heat of the wet soil, will cause it to have a temperature much
lower than that of a dry soil under the same conditions.  The original
source of energy for evaporation is solar radiation which can be di-
vided into three parts:  direct solar radiation; heat that reaches the
evaporating surface from the air; and heat that is stored in the evap-
orating body.  Part of the incoming solar radiation is reflected from
the surface back to the sky and may amount to 25 percent (k) for a sur-
face covered with vegetation.  Perhaps 10 to 15 percent of the incoming
Seattle
"'Professor of Sanitary Engineering,  University of Washington,
1e.

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radiation is radiated back to the sky, depending upon the temperature
of the earth's surface and of the atmosphere above.  The remainder  of
the solar radiation is used in evaporation and in heating the soil  and
the air in contact with the soil.  When the soil is very moist,  more
than 80 percent (*) of the net radiation is used in evaporation. When
the soil is dry, most of the radiation is used in heating the air.

                         Heat Budgets

     Included in the heat budget for a body of water would be the heat
gain from solar radiation, the heat loss by evaporation, the heat gain
or loss by conduction, the heat loss by radiation, and the heat  con-
tained in the inflow and outflow of the system.  With time and a uniform
meteorologic condition, a body of water would tend to come into equilib-
rium wherein the heat losses would balance the heat gains.  This condi-
tion is approached in large shallow reservoirs and in long streams  where
the diurnal  temperature changes become uniform and of about equal mag-
nitude.

     The amount of heat that a body of water will absorb or release can
be expressed as follows:

        H = f(A,M,V)

where   H = heat loss or gain

        A = surface area

        H = mixing afforded by advection, wind or channel configuration

        V = volume of water involved

     The rate of heat release or absorbence can be expressed as:

        Hr = f(Ta, Tw, W, Up)

where   Hr = rate of heat gain or loss

        Ta = air temperature

        Tw = water temperature

        W  = wind veloci ty

        Vp = vapor pressure of the atmosphere

     Velz (2) presents the following  equation for computing heat loss  in
a body of water.  Heat gain can be computed from  the  same equation  by  re-
versing the sign of the air and water  temperature; by making solar  radia-
tion and conduction a gain; and by subtracting  evaporation and  radiation.

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     H = To.00722 HVC  (1 + 0.1W) (Vw - Va)l + |"(0.8 + 0.16W) (Tw - Ta)~l

            + p.O (Tw  - Ta)1 -  Hs


     where the first term 1s heat loss by evaporation, the second 1s
     heat loss by conduction, the third Is heat loss by radiation and
     the fourth Is heat gain by solar radiation.

        H  = heat loss  In Btu per hour per sq. ft. of water surface

        Hv = latent heat of vaporization for a given water temperature

        C  = a constant ranging from 10 to 15> depending upon the
             depth and exposure of the water body

        W  = mean wind velocity In miles per hour

        Vw = vapor pressure of water In Inches of Hg near water surface

        Va = mean absolute vapor pressure In the overlying atmosphere

        Tw = water temperature at the surface, F.

        Ta = mean air temperature, F.

        Hs = Btu per hour per sq. ft. of solar radiation

                    Temperature Comparisons

     There Is a dearth of reported temperature data on Northwest streams
obtained prior to man-produced changes in the stream heat.budget.  Com-
parison of water temperatures before and after an act of man are subject
to question unless all  the variables can be held constant in the two
periods or can be accounted for by calculation.  In a natural stream
flowing from an upland to a lowland environment, there will be a normal
natural  temperature increase or decrease that must be known before arti-
ficial  causes of temperature change can be evaluated.  In the U2-mi1e
stretch of the Wenatchee River between Lake Wenatchee and Dryden, man's
activity has produced little effect on the river's natural temperature.
Thermograph records (5) of the Chelan County P.U.D. show average monthly
natural  temperature changes (Table 1) as the river flowed from the up-
land to the lowland environment.  These temperature changes might be
considered typical  of a moderate-sized stream in the Northwest as most
of our streams have storage on the headwaters, although they are not
all surface drawoff as in Lake Wenatchee.  Raphael (II) (12) has calcu-
lated that under natural conditions in August, the Columbia River tem-
perature will  rise about 1F. in a 72-mile stretch below Chief Joseph
Dam and about  1F.  in a 50-mile stretch below Rock Island.
                               8

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    Table 1  - Natural Temperature Changes in the Wenatchee River,
            Lake Wenatchee to Below Dryden,  1956 (5), F.

                                      June   Aug.   Oct."    Dec.
                              ^^^^^^W*   I

    Lake Wenatchee     34.0
    Below Dryden       32.8
    Difference         -1.2
      *Year 1955

     In a computer analysis of Lower Columbia River water  quality  (8),
correlation analyses were made between the various quality constituents.
Table 2 shows these correlations with water  temperature for the entire
year of 1960,  using the power function equation since it gave the  best
correlations.   If one considers a correlation of 0.55 or above to  be sig-
nificant, then the only significant correlations with temperature, other
than dissolved oxygen, on a yearly basis are those involving activity of
the biota, such as phosphate, nitrite and nitrate, and chlorophyll.  Flow
rate very definitely affects water temperature as examined on a month-by-
month basis but not on a yearly basis, since low flows occur under both
warm and cold climatic conditions as may the higher flows.  Feigner (T5),
in an evaluation of temperature control by low-flow augmentation,  con-
cludes that flow requirements increase exponentially with temperature
rise.

    Table 2 - Correlation of Water Temperature with Water Quality,
                     Lower Columbia River, 196oi/
            p"
            Di
        Flow                                    0.22
        ,H                                      0.5ft
         issolved Oxygen                        0.81
        Total  Solids                            0.32
        Suspended Solids                        0.18
        Biochemical  Oxygen Demand               0.14
        Alkalinity                              0.22
        Hardness                                0.24
        Most Probable No.  Coliforms             0.29
        Sulfate                                 0.13
        Phosphate                               0.61
        Ammonia                                 0.40
        Nitrite                                 0.62
        Nitrate                                 0.76
        Total  Nitrogen                          0.55
        Pearl  Benson Index                      0.37
        Chlorophyll  a                           0.83

\J From reference (8), using power function equation Y = A + B(X)
   + C(X)2.   Highest correlation shown with temperature as the
   independent or dependent variable.  Correlations above 0.55
   are considered significant.

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     Figure 1 shows downstream temperature changes in August on four
different rivers east of the Cascades which are representative only
for the years indicated.  The Columbia River in the ^50 miles between
Grand Coulee Dam and Bonneville rose 5.^^., the sharpest rise occur-
ring between Pasco, and Umatilla due to the warm inflow of the Snake
River.  In the warm year of 1958, while the Brownlee and Oxbow Reser-
voirs were first being filled on the Snake River, the mean August water
temperature rose to Jk^f. at Clarkston.  In the more moderate year of
1959, after the dams were in operation, a temperature drop of about 3^-
was observed below the Brownlee Reservoir, rising another 2F. through
the Oxbow Reservoir and then falling off to 69F. at Clarkston.  The
Yakima River receives most of its irrigation return flow in the 80-mile
stretch between Parker and Kiona where the large majority of the flow
in August consists of irrigation return water.   Figure 1 shows a tem-
perature rise in this stretch of 12J2F,  to a monthly average of 73.2OF.
at Kiona whereas in the preceding stretch of 90 miles, the river tem-
perature rose only 2.7F-  The Wenatchee River  in flowing some 40 miles
from Lake Wenatchee to Oryden exhibits a gradual  temperature rise of
1.5F. as there is little effect herein by man's activities.  This com-
pares closely with the temperature rise in the Upper Yakima River.  It
should be pointed out that these temperature changes vary, depending
upon the year in which the comparisons are made.

             Effect on Stream Temperature b-y Usage

     Data are sparse in showing specific changes in river water temper-
atures from various water uses.  Therma1  power  plants and return of
cooling water from various industries are perhaps the chief source of
temperature pollution.  Hoak (9) reports that the installed capacity of
thermal  power plants is doubling about every decade.  Monongehela River
temperatures have risen to 98F- because of industrial water return,
and then cooled to 87F. in a distance of 1 .*f miles.  He states that
because of the concentration of industry, the heat raised at one point
is not always dissipated before another temperature rise occurs.  In a
study of Columbia River water temperatures between Priest Rapids and
Umatilla, Rostenbach (13) concludes that natural  climatic and river
conditions caused a greater temperature variation in the Columbia River
for the 19M+-55 period than did the effluents from the Hanford reactors.
Oil refinery effluent temperatures observed in  the period of 1959-61
in northwest Washington ranged f>om 12,5 to 83.5F.

     Water,  in passing through a municipal  water  system and subsequently
through a sewerage system,  experiences a rise in temperature that may or
may not be significant, depending upon the size of the receiving water.
Table 3 presents temperature data in the  Tacoma and the Seattle (Alki)
sewage treatment plant effluents.  Both plants  are of the "primary"
treatment type.   Although the years of comparison are different, both
plants have a similarity in effluent temperatures.  Tacoma's water sup-
ply is obtained largely from the Green River  and  Seattle's from the
                              10

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                    COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN WATER TBMPBRATURES  IN AUGUST
                               Downs tream
  66
  64
  62
         Q>
                                   Columbia River. 19SS (ref.  3)
                                                                              o
                                                                             a
                                                                              a
                             Snake River; 1958.  1959 (ref.  6)
  74
  72
  70
  68
H)
M

U

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40
39
37
41
39
41
43
43
43
44
44
48
48
50
54
55
57
57
59
58
59
50
58
60
46
49
55
41
43
--
42
39
--
adjacent Cedar River.  The data in Table 3 for Puget Sound area condi-
tions indicate that the treatment plant effluents are warmer than the
diverted water by about 14F. in the winter,  12F.  in the spring, 9F.
in the summer, and 13F. in the autumn.  Additional  data are needed on
water temperature increase through municipal  use.
         Table 3 - Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent Vs.
                    River Temperatures, F.

Year      Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May  June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov.  Dec.

                      Green River Intake

1961 i/   41
1962 !/   kk
1963 !/   36

                 Tacoma Sewage Treatment Plant

1961      54   54   57   59   62   64   64   67   65    62   61    54
1962      55   56   54   59   59   61   63   64   64    62   62   57
1963      57   57   58   57   60   68   67   67   65    61

                      Cedar River Intake

I960      39-5 40.1 40.6 44.6 48,5 52.8 56.4 54.0 51.1  48.8 43-3 ^0.3

            Seattle Alki Sewage Treatment Plant I/

I960      53   53   52   55   58   60   63   64   62    61   55   55

          ]_/ Prior to Howard A. Hanson Dam Impoundment.
             Temp, taken dai1y.
          2/ After Howard A. Hanson Dam Impoundment (during period of
             May to October) thermograph records,
          3/ Daily thermometer reading.


Irrigation Return Flow:

     The use of river water for irrigation may have beneficial  as well
as detrimental effects in regard to wate* temperature.  Water is normally
stored to increase the irrigation season base flow of the river above
the points of diversion.  If this water is stored in fairly deep reser-
voirs at higher altitudes,   ic will result in water temperatures above
the points of diversion being lower than would prevail under summertime
conditions of natural flow.  Howeve'1, downstream from points of diver-
sion where water is diverted so as to decrease the streamflow below its

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     1.35 AC-FT/AC OF
     SUBSURFACE  SEEPAGE,
      APRIL-SEPTEMBER
     SALTS, 6)5 IBS AC
                                      1.35 AC-FT/AC
                1230 LBS/AC
                SALTS APPLIED
                   TO SOIL
  1.3 AC-FT/AC
    WASTAGE,
  APRIL-SEPTEMBER
 SALTS, 300 LBS/AC
         SALTS
                                TO GROUND WATER STORAGE
                                FOR RELEASE, OCTOBER-MARCH.
                                   SALTS, 615 LBS/AC
                                     2.7 AC-FT/AC
                                 SOIL COLUMN PERCOLATION,
                                    APRIL-SEPTEMBER
                                                        2.6 AC-FT/AC
                                                    EVAPO-TRANSPIRATION
                                                            LOSS,
                                                       APRIL-SEPTEMBER
       1530  LBS/AC
                             FROM RIVER
                        IT    It    M

                                       66 AC-^T/AC
                                       DIVERTED FROM
                                       YAKIMA RIVER,
                                      APRIL-SEPTEMBER
Fig.  2
     FATE OF DIVERTED  IRRIGATION WATER
AND ITS  SALTS, YAKIMA RIVER BASIN, 1959-60
                                  13

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 normal  rate, water temperatures would be raised above those otherwise
 occurring.  The  return of  spent  irrigation waters may raise or lower
 the  receiving stream temperature, depending upon the method of conduc-
 ting this return flow.

     Figure 2 will serve to  illustrate the fate of water diverted for
 irrigation in the Yakima River Basin which can be considered typical of
 an irrigated area.  Of 6.6 acre-feet per acre of diverted water in the
 Apri1-September  irrigation season (10), 1.3 acre-feet per acre is wast-
 age  resulting from over-irrigation and from canal spillage.  This water
 returns to the parent river  in open drains during which time its tem-
 perature is increased.  Of the remaining 5-3 acre-feet, 2.6 acre-feet
 (about  50 percent) is lost to evapotranspiration.  This large evapo-
 transpiration loss is responsible for the soil-cooling effect discussed
 previously.  About 2.7 acre-feet per acre of the previously diverted
 water passes through the soil column into the groundwater stratum where
 about half of it returns to  the parent stream during the irrigation
 season and the other half returns from bank storage during the non-
 irrigation season.  (The groundwater table rises during the irrigation
 season and falls during the  non-irrigation season.)  This groundwater
 seeps into open drainage channels or is conveyed to open channels via
 subsurface drains.  The great majority of the soil drainage in the
 Yakima Valley is comprised of open drains.

     Table 4 illustrates some of the water temperature changes observed
 in the Yakima Valley irrigation facilities during August of 1959 and
 1960.  On the average, water temperature increases of 35F. are expe-
 rienced in 37 miles of main  canal flow.

     Tab!e k - Irrigation Water Temperature,  Yakima Valley,
              August 1959-!960  Mean Values in F. (10).

 Diverted water to Kittitas,  Roza, Wapato and Sunnyside Main Canals . .
                                                                 61.5
Water after traveling average of 37 miles in main canals .... 65.0*
Water in sub-laterals as applied to land; average of 7 	 63.7*
Water in sub-surface drains; average of 7	58.k
Water in open drains as discharged to Yakima Rj  average of 5   67.0

     -'These two figures are  not comparable as sampling stations
      are different.

This is somewhat greater than would have been found in the river for the
 same flow distance if the water had not been diverted.  However, in
August, without irrigation flow augmentation, the normal  river temper-
ature rise in 37 miles of flow would closely approximate this 3.5F.
temperature rise.  Water applied to the land had an average temperature
of 63.7F.  and that returned to the rive"- via open drains had an aver-
age temperature of 67.0F., a rise of 33F.  Water temperature emerging

-------
from sub-surface drains,  however,  had an average temperature  of  58.4  F.,
a drop of 5.3?'  As previously discussed,  this drop in temperature  is
caused by evaporation heat losses  on the soil  surface.   Thus,  if irriga-
tion water wastage can be reduced  and if return flows can be  conveyed
back to the parent river  largely by sub-surface drains, these return
flows can be beneficial  in lowering stream  temperatures.   During the
non-irrigation season the release  of bank storage,  built  up during  the
irrigation season, will  tend to raise otherwise low water temperatures-

     Figure 3 shows the seasonal temperature increase in  the  Yakima
River from the point of initial irrigation  diversion at Easton to the
lower river at Kiona after most of the return flow  has  entered the
river.  The figure shows  an average water temperature increase during
the irrigation season of  from 56.4 to 66,2F,  in the 72-mile  stretch
between Parker and Kiona.  This river stretch receives  the majority  of
the return flow and it also contains two areas of very  low flows; below
the last major irrigation diversion at Parker and below the power canal
diversion at Prosser.  The power canal diversion discharges back into
the Yakima River above Kiona.  Figure 3 suggests that the increase in
river water temperature between Parker and  Kiona, due to irrigation-
associated influences, had a maximum value  of about 6-7F.  A more
rigorous study is needed, however, to validate this figure.

          Impoundment Influences on Water Temperature

     The impoundment of water will produce various  temperature effects
on the impounded water temperature and on the downstream water temper-
ature, depending upon:

     1.  Volume of water  impounded in relation to mean streamflow.

     2.  Surface area of  impounded water.

     3.  Depth of impounded water.

     4.  Orientation with prevailing wind direction.

     5.  Shading afforded.

     6.  Elevation of impoundment.

     7-  Temperature of inflow water in relation to temperature of
         impounded water.

     8.  Depth of water withdrawal-

     s'  Downstream flow  rates during critical temperature period,  i.e.,
         an increase or decrease in flow over that  occurring naturally.
                              15

-------
3
      30
    o 20
    o

    Q_
    2
    UJ
cr
UJ
\
<
       10
       0
                                  ESTIMATED NORMAL TEMP IN

                                  ABSENCE OF IRRIGATION
                                                        86
           PROBABLE INCREASE

           TEMPERATURE DUE

           IRRIGATION
                         IN

                        TO
                             IRRIGATION SEASON
                                                        68
    u.
    o

    CL

    LU
    -

    o:
    UJ
50
                                                  -r
                                                        32
          JAN  FEB  MAR APR MAY  JUN  JUL AUG  SEP OCT  NOV DEC

                           19591960-1961
  Fig. 3
      WATER TEMPERATURES AT YAKIMA RIVER STATIONS.

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     In general, it can be said that large and deep impoundments will
decrease downstream water temperatu'es in the summer and increase them
in the winter, if withdrawal  depths are low; that shallow impoundments
with large surface areas will increase downstream water temperatures
in the summer; that water periodically withdrawn from the surface of a
reservoir will increase downstream water temperatures;  that a reduction
in normal streamflow below an impoundment will cause marked temperature
increases; and that "run-of-river"  impoundments, when the surface area
has not been markedly increased ove< the normal  river area, will produce
only small increases in downstream water  temperatures.

     Andrew and Geen (lM, in a study of downstream water temperatures
from the proposed Moran Dam on the Fraser River, estimated that  the tem-
perature of water discharged from the reservoir  through turbine and
spill outlets during the period of adult  salmon migrations would range
from 43F. on July 1  to 56F. on September 30.  These temperatures are
11F. colder and 9F. warmer, respectively, than average temperatures on
these dates in the undeveloped river.  Churchill (7), in a study of
Tennessee Valley impoundments with deep withdrawal  depths, observed a
lowering of downstream water temperarures as much as 14-15C. below
normal  summer stream temperatures.

     Raphael (11) (12), in his calculations on the possible effect of
the Wanapum and Priest  Rapids and the Wells and the Rocky Reach Dams on
the temperature of the Columbia River, concluded that in August, the
month of the largest  temperature rise, the Wanapum and Priest Rapids
Dams would cause a temperature rise of 1  5F over that occurring with
natural flow.  The predicted rise tor the Wells and Rocky Reach impound-
ments was 1F. over the natural temperature rise.  He further concludes
that "taking the two studies together, it can be seen that the continued
development of reservoirs on the Columbia River  is doubling the temper-
ature rise of the water as it moves from headwaters to its mouth*  It
seems inevitable that when the river is fully developed, the maximum tem-
perature of the water will rise even above its present  high level.  It
is estimated that maximum temperatures in the range of 70 to 75F". at
Priest Rapids Dam must  be considered in future planning."

     Another effect of impoundments on smaller1 streams is to even out
extreme diurnal  temperature fluctuations.  Figure k shows diurnal tem-
perature fluctuations in the Green River1 above the Howard A. Hanson
impoundment of from 12.5-25.5C. (5ft.5-78F.) in the period of July 17-
2k.  Figure 5 shows the even temperature discharge below the dam (and
above the Tacoma municipal water intake) where the diurnal temperature
fluctuation is about  1F.  This reduction in municipal  water intake tem-
perature peaks is, of course, an advantage to the water user.

     Figures 6,  7, and  8 show the temperature structure with depth  in
three dissimilar reservoirs (3).  In figure 6, Lake Merwin on the Lewis
River is a medium-depth reservoir showing pronounced temperature grad-
ients in all seasons but the winie-  and ea'ly spring of  1938-39-  Thus,


                              17

-------
                                       \1
                                zz
Fig.  *t - Diurnal  Temperature Changes  on  the Green River
         above the Howard  A.  Hanson  Impoundment
                      18

-------
Fig.  5   Diurnal  Temperature Changes on the Green  River
         Below the Howard A. Hanson Impoundment
                       19

-------
DEPTH TOT
INTAKE
                             TEMPERATURE OF LAKE MERWIN. 1938-39
                                   PREWRED FROM DATA IN REFERENCE (3)
                                   o LEWIS RIVER TEMP. UPSTREAM  FROM RESERVOIR
                                   OF GAUGING STATION ABOVE COUGAR
           WATER TEMPERATURE - C
            10
                   Fig.  6

-------
0 '
$
CO
2!

10
20 	

30 	 	
UJ
UJ 1
u.
1
1
40 w ,


50

60 - o


A
1
















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~~~*






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&* k






/









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*/
i
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f



I
1
.
r
-
"Ss
w


TEMPERATURE OF MCNARY RESERVOIR

3000 FEET ABOVE DAM - CENTER OF RESERVOIR






PREPARED FROM DATA IN REFERENCE (3) AND )
F8WS THERMOGRAPH RECORDS.
NORMAL DEPTH TO TURBINE INTAKE -65 FT.



 DOWNS
u>
UJ

TEMPERATURE -*C
8 10 12
JTRE



AM TEMP AT
5
0

IIMATILLA




d
4


14 16 16
I/
tf
J
? I
L
ll
u>
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20
Fig. 7

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   70
   66
   62
   58
   54
M
   30
   46
   42
   38
  34
                                5 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE
                                                       ^

                            50 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE-
ZEZ
                        100 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE
            T BELOW WATER SURFACE


      330 FT BELOW WATER SURFACE
                                                                                                     hZO
                                                                                                      18
                                                                                                     -14
                                                      0

                                                   '2  ,
                                                                                                         K
                                                                                                         O
                                                                                                      IO
         WATER TEMPERATURES-I95I

             ROOSEVELT LAKE


         NOTE:-TEMPERATURES TAKEN AT

               SLOCK 68, BETWEEN 67

               AND 69 TRASHRACKS. AT

               GRAND COULEE DAM


               FROM REFERENCE (3)
                                                                                                     -6
                                                                                                     -4
                                                                                                     -Z
        JAW.     FEB.    MARCH   APRIL     MAY    JUNE     JULY     AUG.    SEPT.     OCT.     NOV.     DEC.
                                                  Fig. 8

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 the water released through the turbines is colder than the upstream
 water  from May through September and warmer than the upstream water
 from October through April (the August Lewis River temperature shown
 in Fig. 6 is an anomaly).  After construction of a similar reservoir
 immediately upstream (Yale Reservoir), this was no longer true and the
 combined effect of the two reservoirs in series (195^-55) is to pro-
 duce a year-around warming of downstream water as shown in Table 6.
 The lack of stratification in Figure 7 for the McNary Reservoir is due
 to the shallow depth of the reservoir and the short detention period
 for inflowing water.  (Slight differences in temperature shown between
 the downstream temperatures at Umatilla and the turbine intakes at 55
 feet of depth is probably due to thermometer calibration or evaporative
 cooling effects in the turbine tail race.)  The sharp nonconforming
 thermocline on May 19 occurred at a time when the Columbia River and
 the Snake River inflows to the reservoir were about equal and the
 warmer Snake River waters were contained in the upper layers of the
 reservoir.  By June 16, the Columbia River flow had more than doubled
 that of the Snake and mixing occurred to destroy the temperature grad-
 ient.

     Roosevelt Lake above Grand Coulee Dam is a very long, deep and
 narrow reservoir.  The temperature gradient between surface and bottom
 waters is small (Figure 8) except for the summer months when a differ-
 ence of about 9F. between surface and bottom was observed in late  July,
 1951> half of this temperature difference occurring in the upper 50
 feet.  Minimum temperatures were in March when the deepest water was
 the warmest, this deep water being the closest to the temperature of
 maximum density.  Maximum temperatures for water withdrawal through the
 turbines (nominal  water depth of 260 feet) was in early October when
 the pool level  had been drawn down for irrigation and power production.
 Isothermal conditions are shown for January, May, and October when
 overturns are possible.

     Figure 9 is a plot of Columbia River temperatures (3) at Rock
 Island Dam for the mean of a five-year period before construction of
 Grand Coulee Dam and a five-year period after construction of the dam.
 Time periods were chosen when river flows and air temperatures were
 similar.  As shown in Figure 9, Grand Coulee Dam construction has pro-
 duced warming of the Columbia River at Rock Island between September
 and March and cooling between March and September.  This warming ef-
 fect was about 7F. maximum in the winter and the maximum cooling ef-
 fect in the summer was about 3F.

     Table 5 gives the characteristics of several reservoirs in
western and eastern Washington.  Table 6 lists the observed tempera-
 ture changes through these impoundments for different periods of ob-
 servation.  The Yale-Merwin impoundments in series on the Lewis River
 give a significant temperature rise throughout the year.  The Howard
 A. Hanson flood control-conservation impoundment produced a uniform
                              23

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34
   COLUMBIA RIVER AT ROCK ISLAND

     TEMPERATURE COMPARISON FOR
     YEARS 1934-38  AND  1946-50
   PRE AND POST GRAND COULEE DAM
 COMPILED FROM P.S.P.8 L. CO. RECORDS
 JAN
MAR.
MAY
JULY
SEPT.
NOV.
                                            Fig. 9

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temperature rise of about 1.5F. during the period of conservation  stor-
age until October, when the pool was drawn down,  and the warmer  surface
waters raised the flow-through temperature by 3F.  Grand Coulee im-
poundment water is pumped into the Banks irrigation equalizing pool
which is a very broad and shallow pool  subject to a maximum of solar
radiation in the summer months.  Temperature increases exceeded  7F,
through this reservoir from the cold Grand Coulee inlet water to the
irrigation water discharge.  In Roosevelt  Lake,  temperature decreases
through the reservoir are experienced in the summer until September
when the reservoir is drawn down and the warmer  upper level  water enters
the turbine intakes.  The effect of Roosevelt Lake in cooling Columbia
River water would be more pronounced in Table 6  if the natural tempera-
ture increase through the 150-mile reservoir were considered.  McNary
and Bonneville run-of-river impoundments produce very 1ittle warming
effect in the summer months, varying from 0 to 0.5F.

             Table 5 - Impoundment Characteristics


Impoundment


Yale-Merwin
H. A. Hanson
Banks
Roosevel t
McNary
Bonnevi 1 1 e


River


Lewis
Green
Col . Basin
Columbia
Columbia
Columbia
Average
Vol ume
AC - FT
XI 000

7**7
20
951
8,252
790
i*80
Average
Surface
Area
Acres
XI 000
7,3^0
0.6
2^.50
70.30
37-90
20.30
Average
Depth
Feet


101
33
39
118
21
2k
Theoro
Detention
at Average
Flow
Days
^3
10
UtO
35
2
1
     Table 6 - Temperature Changes Through Impoundments -
                Observed Average Monthly, F. I/
Impoundment
Yale-Merwin
H. A. Hanson
Banks
Roosevelt
McNary I/
Bonnevi 1 1 e
Average Monthly Temperature Change Through Impoundment
Mar.
1.6+
-
-
-
1.5-
0.2+
May
3.0+
1.5+
-
.
0.1-

June
5.1 +
1.8+
7.0+
1.9-
0.7-
0.1-
July
1.1++
1.8+
7-5+
1.9-
0.0
0.1-
Aug.
0.8+
1.8+
5.9+
0.1-
0.1 +
0.0
Sept.
3.1 +
1.5+
2.0+
3.6+
0.5+
0.0
Oct. Nov. Dec.
U.O+
3.0+ -
. _
_
- 0.2+ 0.2-
- 0.0 0.5-
   I/ From reference (3), 195% 1955; except Hanson U. of W. data,
      1962, 1963.
   2/ Temp, above McNary Dam measured at Pasco.  Snake River inflow
      raises or lowers McNary pool temp.
                              25

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                            Summary

     A discussion has been presented on the various factors that in-
 fluence water temperatures in streams, impoundments and on irrigated
 lands.  Data are shown  that illustrate the wide range of temperature
 increases and decreases that are obtained seasonally through water use
 and  its method of use.  These data are fragmentary and indicate the
 need for a  thorough study on water temperature patterns as influenced
 by man's alteration of  the natural water environment.

     Low water temperatures, commensurate with the maximum productiv-
 ity  of the  fishery, should be the goal in water quality management for
 the  following reasons:  Low temperatures increase the oxygen capacity
 of a water  body; they slow the rate of biological oxidation (which may
 not always  be desirable); cool water is more palatable in a municipal
 system; cool water is more valuable to industry for cooling purposes;
 and  the rate of metal  corrosion is reduced.  Occasionally, cool water
 is undesirable for certain crops, such as rice-

     Future engineering design and redesign or operational changes in
 existing structures, in consideration of the present trend towards
 higher river water temperatures,  can do much towards reducing or amel-
 iorating this trend.

                          References

 1.  Reid,  G. K., Ecology of Inland Waters and Estuaries, Reinhold Pub.
    Corp., New York, 1961.

 2.  Velz,  C. J. and Gannon, J. J., Forecasting Heat Loss in Ponds and
    Streams, Jr. Water Poll. Cont. Fed.,  ^2, 4, April, I960.

 3.  Sylvester,  R. 0.,  Water duality Studies in the Columbia River Basin,
    U.  S.  Fish and Wildlife Serv, Sp. Scientific Report - Fisheries No.
    239,  May, 1958.

k.  The Yearbook of Agriculture,  1955* S^th Congress,  1st Session,
    House Document No. 32.

5.  Sylvester,  R. 0.,  Water dual ity Study of Wenatchee and Middle
    Columbia Rivers Before Dam Construction, U. So Fish and Wildlife
    Service Sp.  Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 290,  March,  1959.

6.  Water  Temperature  Studies for 1958 and 1959 Middle Snake River
    Drainage, Dept.  of the Interior,  Fish and Wildlife Service, Bur.
    Comm.  Fisheries,  I960.

7. ,  Churchil1,  Milo A.,  Effects  of Storage Impoundments on Water
    Qual ity, Trans.  Am.  Soc.  Civil  Eng,,  123,  p.  W9,  1958.
                              26

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 8.   Sylvester,  R.  0.  and Carlson,  D.  A.,  Lower Columbia  River Basic
     Water Quality  Data Analysis for the Year I960,  Um'v.  of Wash.,
     Dept. of CivilEngineering,Oct.,1961.

 9.   Hoak, R. D.,  The  Thermal  Pollution Problem, Jr.  Water Poll.  Cont.
     Fed., 33, 12,  Dec., 1961.

10.   Sylvester,  R.  0.  and Seabloom,  R. W.,  The Character  and Signifi-
     cance of Irrigation Return n_ows__in the Yakima  River Basin,  Univ.
     of Wash., Dept. of CivilEngineering,  Feb., 1962.

11.   Raphael, J. M., The Effect of  Wanapum and Priest Rapids Dams on
     the Temperature of the Columbia River,  Grant Co. P.U.O. No.  2,
     Ephrata, Wash., Sept., 1961.

12.   Raphael, J. M., The Effect of  Wells and Rocky Reach Dams on  the
     Temperature of the Columbia River, Grant Co. P.U.D.  No. 2,
     Ephrata, Wash.,  Jan.,  1962.

13.   Rostenbach, R.  E., Temperature of the Columbia River Between
     Priest Rapids,  Washington and  Umatilla,  Oregon,  U. S. Atomic
     Energy Comm.,  HW-3931*?, Unclassified,  Oct., 1955.

1*t.   Andrew,  F.  J.  and Geen, G. H.,  Sockeye and Pink Salmon Production
     in Relation to Proposed Dams in the Fraser River System, Int. Pac.
     Salmon Fisheries  Comm., Bulletin XI,  New Westminster, B.C.,  Canada,
     I960.

15.   Feigner, K. D., An Evaluation  of Temperature Reduction on Low Flow
     Augmentation Requirements for  Dissolved Oxygen Control, M. S.
     Thesis,  Oregon State University,  June,  19637
                              27

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DISCUSSION

0_.  How did you arrange your chlorophyll rate values?  Were these on
    membrane filters?

A.  A cooperative group made this studythe five pulp and paper mills
    in the Lower Columbia, the Washington Pollution Control  Commission,
    and the Oregon State Sanitary Authority.  They collected the algal
    samples and filtered them on membrane filters, dissolved and ex-
    tracted the chlorophyll with acetone, and then ran absorbence tests.

0_.  The average temperatures that were shown on the graphswere they
    taken from the means of the daily temperatures, the mean of maxi-
    mums and minimums,  or do they take into account the whole diurnal
    cycle?

A.  At Rock Island the temperature was read every six hoursmidnight,
    6 a.m., noon, 6 p.m.  We took the mean of those temperatures.
    Where we had a thermograph record, we tried to balance out the
    diurnal variations so that we had the same area above as below.
    In other cases where we were given only the minimum temperature
    or the maximum, we took the average.  We found that in most cases,
    if you took the minimum daily temperature and the maximum daily
    temperature and averaged the mean of that, this was very close to
    working out a thermograph cycle.
                              28

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          WATER TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR MAXIMUM
                    PRODUCTIVITY OF SALMON

                       Roger E. Burrows-
     Water temperatures can and do affect the productivity of salmon;
the problem, then, is that of defining the temperature limitations.
At various stages in the life cycle, productivity must be measured in
different ways, either by the number of individuals produced or by the
size of fish produced.  The effect of temperature on productivity may
be measured in a similar manner.  Because temperature effects are dis-
similar at different stages in the l;fe cycle, it is necessary that
these effects be discussed separately for the several stages.

     The temperature of the water during the upsfeam migration and the
maturation period of the adult in rhe lake or stream affect the sur-
vival of the adult,  and the water temperature at time of spawning at-
fects the survival of the eggs.  High temperatures during fresh water
residence are conducive to disease development and the subsequent death
of the adult prior to spawning.  Fish (19^8) cites temperatures above
60F. as conducive to disease development in blueback salmon (Oncorhyn-
chus nerka) and temperatures above 70F. as fatal.  Royal (1953) de-
fines normal spawning temperatures of sockeye salmon (0. nerka) as be-
tween 45F. and 55F and indicates that temperatures above and below
this range are conducive to reduced spawning efficiency either through
death of the adults or loss of the eggs.  He concludes, "Thus water
temperature was indicated as one of the major limiting factors, if not
the exclusive limiting factor, in the timing of  spawning."  The Inter-
national Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission (1962), again, reports
mortalities as high as 86 percent in sockeye runs of the Fraser River
attributed to disease occasioned by water temperatures in excess of
72F. in certain tributaries.

     Burrows (I960) defines the critical water temperature  for disease
development in chinook and blueback salmon as 60F.  Above  this tem-
perature, survival is dependent on  the extent of  injury incurred by
the fish during migration and maturation, the length of the period
between the upstream migration and  spawning, the  incidence  of disease
organisms, and the type of holding  environment.

     Warm water temperatures also inhibit spawning activity.  Burrows
(I960) reports the effect of unseasonably high water temperature as
delaying the spawning act.
     -Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife,  Salmon-Cultural  Labo-
ratory, Longview, Washington.
                              29

-------
     Brett (1958) speculates on the role of cold water temperatures as
an inhibiting factor affecting the normal endocrine balance necessary
for spawning.  This speculation is confirmed by Burrows (I960) report-
ing on the effect of temperature on an exotic race of large summer
chinook salmon (0. tshawytscha) which did not spawn when water tempera
tures dropped below
     The temperature at spawning not only affects the adult but the
survival of the egg as well.  Combs-!/ has demonstrated that water tem-
peratures below ^2.5F. at time of egg deposition result in progres-
sively greater mortalities until at 35F. egg losses are practically
complete in chinook salmon and up to 50 percent in sockeye salmon.

     The high temperature limitations on eggs at time of spawning have
not been clearly defined.  It is extremely doubtful that the adult
could survive to spawn at water temperatures which would be immediately
lethal to the eggs.

     The water temperatures most conducive to maximum productivity in
the adult salmon during its fresh-water existence range from *t2.5F.
to 55F.  Obviously the adult can exist at temperatures beyond this
range but not under optimum conditions of survival and egg deposition.

     Egg incubation temperatures affect the survival of the eggs, the
rate of development, and the size of fish produced.  Combs and Burrows
(1957) and Combsl/ have defined the thresholds for normal development
for chinook salmon eggs as U2.5F. and 57-50F. and for sockeye salmon
eggs as 42.5F. and 55F.  In addition, Combs demonstrated that both
chinook and sockeye salmon eggs would tolerate 35F. temperatures after
the 128-cell stage of development was reached.

     Water temperatures within the thresholds of normal development
affect the growth rate of the embryo.  At the higher temperatures the
growth rate is accelerated but the size of the fish produced is re-
duced primarily due to higher maintenance requirements.  The size of
the emergent fry should, in theory at least, affect the survival rate
with the larger fish having the advantage.  The time of emergence also
can, conceivably, affect survival particularly in species with a short
fresh-water residence.  Acceleration or deceleration of emergence
could place the fish in an unfavorable environment either from the
standpoint of available forage or predation activity.  Dislocation of
the time of migration could result also in unfavorable estuarine condi-
tions and poor acclimation to salt water.  Vernon (1958) demonstrates
an inverse correlation between temperatures in the Fraser River during
     \J "Effect of Temperature on the Development of Salmon Eggs"
Bobby 0. Combs. . Manuscript in preparation.
by
                              30

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the period of egg and fry development ot  the pink salmon (0.  gorbuscha)
and the size of the resultant adult run,   The critical  period of  devel-
opment as affected by temperature appea-ed to be during hatching  and
the subsequent fry stage, Decembe'- through February.   Average tempera-
tures above 38F. were usually unfavorable,-  Since no temperature re-
ported was actually lethal to either eggs or  fry, it  must be  assumed
that the acceleration of development due to the warmer temperature dis-
rupted the timing of the seaward migration.

     The effect ot temperature on productivity in the egg and fry stage
of development is much more difficult to define than  in any other.
While the thresholds of normal development are easy to measure,  the more
obscure effects of temperature, such as its influence on fry  size and
migration timing, are very evasive  to evaluate but may have a profound
impact on survival.

     When salmon fingeriings have a more prolonged fresh-water residence,
the effect of temperature on productivity may be measured by  either the
number of. fingerlings produced or the size of finger!ings produced.  The
two criteria are not synonymous because the size of the downstream mi-
grant affects survival.  Marking experiments conducted with sockeye
salmon at the Leavenworth National Fish Hatchery indicated that doubl-
ing the weight of the fingeriings at release from 120 to 60 per pound
resulted in tripling the adult return.  Marking experiments with fall
chinook salmon (Johnson, unpublished) indicate higher survivals for the
larger fish at release although the results are somewhat obscured by
different times of release.

     Water temperature, then, to attain maximum productivity  in the
fingerling must not only remain within rhe tolerance level of the
fingerling but, at least  in species with more than a minimum of fresh-
water residence, reach the optimum growth  level as well.  Brett (1952)
defines the lethal levels for Pacific salmon fingeriings (Oncorhynchus)
as between 32F. and 75F. with but slight variation in the upper
threshold between species.  He also found  the preference temperatures
for all species to be in the range of from $0F. to 60F.  The prefer-
ence temperatures coincide with those for  optimum growth.

     The response of sockeye and chinook salmon fingeriings to temper-
ature differs.  Sockeye grow at a faster rate at all  temperatures
between ^0F. and 60F. than do chinook salmon.  The growth rates of
chinook salmon, however, accelerate more rapidly with temperature in-
creases.  For every 10-degree rise  in temperature between kOP. and
60F. food consumption increases *+5 percent  in sockeye salmon and 60
percent in chinook salmon, but there  is an initial 25 percent differ-
ence between the two species at J+0F.  While temperature may affect
species differently, it is still the prime factor  in the determination
of growth rate.
                              31

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     Streams or lakes in which optimum growth temperatures are not
reached, or for only short periods, will not attain maximum produc-
tivity.  Similarly, streams or lakes which exceed the optimum range
for considerable periods will not attain highest productivity.  Water
temperatures which remain relatively stable either above or below the
optimum range for extended periods are conducive to disease develop-
ment which may result in a reduction in the number of finger-lings
produced.

     The food production capacity of a stream obviously affects fish
productivity by controlling the growth rate and time of migration.
Such food production is dependent to some extent on the temperature
regimen.  Streams stocked beyond their food capacity induce forced
migrations.  Chapman (1962) describes the continuous downstream dis-
placement of small silver salmon fingerlings (0. kitsutch) during the
first year of fresh-water residence and attributes this premature
migration to the aggressive behavior of the larger fingerlings.
Kalleberg (1958) suggests that the aggressive characteristic is
evolved in salmon and trout to insure an adequate food supply.  It
may be concluded that food shortages result in forced migrations of
portions of the populations not necessarily at sizes and times con-
ducive to optimum survival.

     The long downstream migration of salmon fingerlings imposes a
gauntlet of predation not normally encountered in other species of
fish.  One of the factors affecting the degree of predation is the
activity of the predators.  Water temperature controls the activity
of fish predators and,  therefore, the degree of predation per fish
encountered by the downstream migrants.  The preferred or temperature
of optimum activity of both the migrant and predator influences mi-
grant survival, particularly at the warmer temperatures.  Streams
warm more as they progress toward the sea and the salmon migrants,
if the warm-up is considerable, may move out of their optimum activ-
ity range, thus being placed at a distinct disadvantage in the eva-
sion of resident predators.

     Brett (1958), in discussing environmental stress, lists high
water temperature as an indiscriminate stress on salmon fingerlings
which may be either lethal or loading in nature.  A loading stress
is defined as any environmental factor which places an undue burden
on an organism, necessitating the rapid or steady release of energy.
The warm water temperatures, between 65F. and 75F., encountered
on occasion during migration, place salmon fingerlings under a load-
ing stress.  While such conditions may not prove immediately lethal,
they may impair the metabolic activity of the animal  to such an ex-
tent that any additional stress such as pollution may prove syner-
gistic and result in a  high level of mortality.
                              32

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     The annual thermal cycle in a watershed determines both the produc-
tivity and the species which it will support.  Brett (1959) tentatively
delineates the thermal requirements for different life processes which
characterize Pacific salmon.  The work of the Salmon-Cultural  Laboratory
more precisely defines the requirements in some of these areas of specu-
lation.  Review of these requirements in comparison with the thermal
cycles existing in lakes and streams indicates that only rarely will
the complete thermal cycle coincide with the optimum life cycle require-
ments for maximum productivity.  The thermal pattern of a stream is af-
fected by the weather conditions encountered in the area and by man-
made diversions and obstructions.  Irrigation diversions can reduce the
normal streamflows until the water temperatures become intolerably
high.

     Dams created for storage or power can become either liabilities or
assets depending on how they alter the normal thermal cycle of the
stream.  Moffett (19^9) reports on the favorable temperature conditions
created in the Sacramento River by Shasta Dam.  Johnson and Brice (1953)
describe the adverse temperature conditions created by the delayed dis-
charge of waters from the epilimnion of Dorena Dam.  In the latter cir-
cumstance, the normal temperature pattern of the stream was reversed
with high water temperatures occurring in the fall during the egg incu-
bation period of the salmon.

     High power and storage dams with thermal stratification provide
opportunity for control of the thermal cycle within a watercourse to
the benefit of the salmon population*  Such thermal control, scientif-
ically applied, could alleviate to some extent at least some of the
detrimental effects of the dams by increasing the productivity of the
available stream area.

     The effect of temperature on productivity is not confined to the
fresh-water portion of the life cycle of the salmon.  Davidson (1938)
attributes limitations of the geographic distribution of the salmon in
part to the ocean temperatures encountered adjacent to the parent
stream.  Tully et al. (I960) reports an intrusion of warm ocean currents
at temperatures approximating 45F. into the Northeastern Pacific in
1957 and 1958 and attributes this intrusion as the cause for the diver-
sion of the 1958 sockeye run of the Fraser River away from its normal
migration path.  Gilhousen (I960) points out that not only diversion
but delay in maturation occurred in this run and speculates that the
fish were displaced into more northern latitudes during their ocean
existence, which because of an abnormal lengthening of the light
cycle, delayed their time of maturation.  Such occurrences indicate
that radical  disruptions of ocean current patterns could conceivably
erect thermal barriers and completely divert a salmon population from
its normal oceanic and fresh-water habitat.  Other less obvious vari-
ations in ocean temperature may have pronounced effects on salmon
productivity.  Variations in the ocean survival rates of salmon
certainly exist.


                              33

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     While our knowledge of the temperature effects on ocean productiv-
ity of salmon is rather nebulous at present, information on the require-
ments for the fresh-water portion of the cycle is rather precise.  The
temperature requirements for maximum productivity of salmon in fresh
water may be defined as follows:

     1.  Temperatures during the upstream migration and maturation
         period of the adult should be between U5F. and 60F.

     2.  Spawning temperatures for maximum survival of the eggs
         should be between 42.5F. and 55F.

     3.  Egg and fry incubation temperatures, after 128-cell stage
         of development is reached, may vary but should remain
         within the range of 32F. to 55F.  The effect of fry size
         and time of migration on survival  in different areas makes
         it impossible to confine the optimum temperature range more
         precisely.

     k.  The range in temperature for maximum productivity in finger-
         ling salmon is between 50F. and 60F.

     Where dams with thermal  stratification make thermal manipulation
possible, every effort should be made to produce stream temperatures
compatible with optimum productivity.
                          References

1.  Brett,  J. R.,  Temperature Tolerance in Young Pacific Salmon, Genus
    Oncorhynchus,  Journal  Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 9,
    No. 6,  pp. 265-323,  1952.

2.  Brett,  J. R.,  Implications and Assessments of Environmental  Stress,
    in The  Investigation of Fish-Power Problems, H. R. MacMillan
    Lectures in Fisheries, University of British Columbia, pp.  69-83,
    1958.

1.  Brett,  J. R.,  Thermal  Requirements of FishThree Oecades of Study,
    19^0-1970, Trans.  Second Seminar on Biological  Problems in Water
    Pollution, United States Public Health Service, Robert A. Taft
    Sanitary Engineering Center,  Cincinnati, Ohio,  1959.

 .  Burrows, Roger E., Holding Ponds for Adult Salmon, U.  S.  Fish and
    Wildlife Service,  Special  Scientific ReportFisheries 357,  July,
    13 pp.,  I960.

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 5.  Combs,  Bobby D. and Roger E.  Burrows,  Threshold Temperatures  for
     the Normal  Development of Chinook Salmon Eggs,  U.  S.  Fish  and
     Wildlife Service, Progressive F i sh-Cul tori st,  Vol ,  19,  No. 1,
     pp. 3-6, 1957.

 6.  Chapman, D, E., Aggressive Behavior in Juvenile Coho Salmon as a
     Cause of Emigration. Journal  of Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
     Vol.  19, No. 6, pp. 1C47-1080,  1962.

 7.  Davidson, Frederick A. and Samuel  J.  Hutchinson, The Geographic
     Distribution and Environmental  Limitations of  the Pacific  Salmon
     TGenus  Oncorhynchus),  Bulletin of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries,
     Vol .  48, for 1940,  pp. 667-689, 1938.

 8.  Fish, Frederic F.,  The Return of Blueback Salmon to the Columbia
     River,  Scientific Monthly, Vol. 46, No. k,  April,  pp. 283-292,
 9.   Gilhousen,  Philip,  Migratory Behavior of Adult Fraser River Sockeye,
     Progress Report of  International  Pacific Salmon Fisheries Com-
     mission, 78 pp., I960.

10.   Royal,  Loyd A., Annual  Report for  Year 1961, International Pacific
     Salmon Fisheries Commission, U3 pp., 1962.

11.   Johnson, Marian E.  and  Richard F.  Brice, Use of Impounded Water for
     Fish Culture,  U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Research Report 35,
     35 pp., 1953.

12.   Kalleberg,  H., Observations in a Stream Tank of Territorial ity and
     Competition in Juvenile Salmon and Trout (Salmo salar L. and s7
     TFutta L.), Institute of Freshwater Research Report 39, Drottning-
     holm, pp. 55-98, 1958.

13   Moffett, James W.,  The  First Four  Years of King Salmon Maintenance
     Below Shasta Dam,  Sacramento River, California, California Fish
     and Game, Vol. 35,  No.  2, April, pp. 77-102, 19**9.

1*t.   Royal,  Loyd A., The Effects of Regulatory Selectivity on the
     Productivity of Fraser  River Sockeye, The -Canadian Fi sh-Cul turist,
     October, pp. 1-12,  1953.

15.   Tully,  J. P.,  A, J. Dodimead, and  S. Tabata, An Anomalous Increase
     of Temperature in the Ocean Off the Pacific Coast of Canada Through
     1957 and 1958, Journal  Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Vol. 17,
     No. 1,  pp.  61-80,  I960.

16.   Vernon, E.  H., An Examination of Factors Affecting the Abundance of
     Pink Salmon in the  Fraser River, Progress Report of the Inter-
     national Pacific Salmon Fisheries  Commission, ^9 pp., 1958.

                               35

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DISCUSSION

Q.  Have fisheries agencies ever made their wants known about using
    thermal structure of reservoirs for optimum production of eggs
    and fry?  This can be done.

A.  They really did not know what was wanted for quite some time,  but
    they know pretty well what is wanted now.

Q..  If you don't speak up, you'll never get what you want.

A.  That's for sure.  I presume it is entirely feasible to adjust  so
    that water is taken from either the top layers or lower layers of
    a reservoir without affecting the power production, if there are
    outlets to do it.  But in running all the water through the tur-
    bines, there is not much choice.

Q.  Isn't it possible, in dam construction, to provide for taking  out
    of different levels?

A.  In new dams this can be done, and is being done now.  However, in
    the operation of existing dams, this is not possible.  My sug-
    gestion is to get letters to people who operate these dams, telling
    them what your needs are.

A.  It seems that it is a glaring defect in our entire fish-management
    program that we have made no effort to take advantage of the thermal
    requirements of the fish and to correlate them with the thermal
    capabilities of management.

A.  This is possible only within the limits of the overall objectives
    of the project,  and reservoir operation is only too happy to help
    out.  For instance, recently the Fish 6- Wildlife requested that
    we operate the Bumping River Dams to provide for the survival  of
    the finger lings.  This is being done.

A.  We had an occasion in California, on the American River,  where long
    after Folsom Dam was constructed the Bureau constructed adjustable
    louvers for the control of water temperature.

A.  The Army Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, if they knew the
    requirements, would at least incorporate structures into dam con-
    struction and possibly even now operate dams more advantageously.
    I don't think that it would be too prohibitive in cost.  There are
    some areas below these streams now which are apparently much more
    suitable for fish than they ever were before.
                              36

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Q_.  There was a report in SCIENCE a few weeks ago about -some wo--k on
    temperature periodicity.  Instead of regulating temperature in
    constant degrees for long periods of time, the investigate1-  look
    the square waves of temperature in which he changed tre frequency
    by which temperature varied up or down.  THs seemed to produce
    dramatic results in survival.  This wa% done, I believe, with the
    juveniles, but not with the adults.

A.  We have found that fish adjust very readily to temperatures o* 10
    to 15 degrees change.

0_.  His point was that maybe the problem of temperat u-e adaptation may
    be controlled by the frequency with which Jempe1 aturti are b'Oijght
    up and down and the per iod at which they stay ara the'- drop

A.  This is not in conflict at all with Brett's wo- k in which he r ou"d
    that where he acclimated fish to a temperature, say of 65 degrees,
    their lethal level of temperature would rise   Where the fish were
    acclimated to lower temperatures, say 50 degrees, 6 sudden rise ro
    75 would probably kill   the fish.  Actually this would not have been
    the lethal level, if the fish had had a chance to accommodate over
    a considerable period of time.
0_.  You mentioned better survival of the ju^en'ile^ or the larger sizes.
    Do you mean survival of adults and what about the preponderance of
    jack salmon?

A.  This all depends on what sizes you are talk^-'g about.  For example,
    with silver salmon, if you increase rne size ana hold them for' a
    considerable length of time, you get a preponderance of jacks back,
    With fall chinook, groups have been released wner they we-e running
    about 20 to the 1b. as contrasted to fish that were running about
    100 to 200 to the  Ib.  There have been no indications of a prepon-
    derance of jacks back on these fish.

0_.  What is the effect of temperature on adults carrying eggs in trans-
    portation water  that is, the effect of relatively high water tem-
    perature on the development of eggs prior to the fish reaching the
    spawning area?

A.  It doesn't seem to have any effect.  On the Grand Coulee, fish were
    moved in hot water.  The adults may die, but if the adults survive,
    the temperature at which the eggs are taken is the thing that in-
    fluences the egg itself.

0_.  The possibility was mentioned of acclimatizing the fish  to a higher
    temperature regimen where they would not be quite so susceptible  to
    some of the things that would affect them.  How  long a period of
    time might be involved in making such an acclimatization?
                              37

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A.  This takes about three weeks, but really It doesn't amount to much
    as to the adjustment.  There is only about  2 degrees difference in
    the lethal temperatures and lethal  temperatures are not,  of course,
    the important temperatures anyway.

Q..  Would it affect some of the subsequent life processes that take
    place where the eggs might be affected by the higher temperature?
    That is, the stage where the adult  is carrying the egg?

A.  As far as we know, they are not affected.  There are cases where
    temperatures have been as high as 72 degrees and the eggs were
    perfectly normal.

Q..  Mr. Burrows, you gave a list of ranges of temperatures for various
    stages of life cycles of fish, and  in streams such as the Rogue
    River all of these stages may be taking place at one time.  Is
    there a range of temperature under  such conditions for all of the
    cycles taking place at the same time?

A.  It is difficult to visualize a condition where all of them would
    be taking place at the same time other than an overlap such as
    when fingerlings are moving downstream while adults that  have not
    yet spawned are moving upstream.  In this case, the temperatures
    would have to come down to the range that will not affect any
    particular individual part of the cycle-  If the t'ish is  vulner-
    able throughout any stage and it is not in an optimum habitat, we
    are going to have to adjust to reach that habitat.  Obviously if
    we have a temperature of 32 degrees that the eggs will tolerate,
    when we move into a temperature with the adult and it won't de-
    posit eggs at that time, or if spawning has actually taken place
    and we know that this is the lethal temperature during spawning,
    then ^2-1/2 degrees becomes the minimum temperature.  We  narrow
    the limits, in other words.
                              38

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         THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON DISEASE IN FISH

             E'-ling J. Ordal  and Robert E.  Pacha--
     Fish are poiki1othermic animals; consequently they normally take
on the temperature of the water in which they are found.   This fact  has
a profound effect on host-pathogen relationships, since both the host,
in this case a fish,  and the pathogen, the organism infecting the fish,
may be affected differently by the water temperature.   Since warm-
blooded animals have a temperature regulatory mechanism which holds  the
body temperature of the animal near to a particular value, it is not
feasible to evaluate specific effects of temperature on host-pathogen
relationships in such animals.  The sicuation is different with fish,
since here the temperature of the host can be placed under direct ex-
perimental  control.

     From the literature it is evident that most fish diseases are fa-
vored by increased water temperatures.  This has been our experience
with most of the diseases of fish which we have studied at the Univer-
sity of Washington.  Some of the studies on this problem have been
carried out in the University of Washington Experimental  Hatchery where
water temperatures are under relatively exact control.  In these stud-
ies, carried out with salmonid fishes, we have found that higher water
temperatures drastically increase the effect of such diseases as kidney
disease, furunculosis, vibrio disease due to a marine vibrio, and
columnaris disease in young fish.  Experience with natural outbreaks
of a number of diseases in hatcheries, as well as observations of dis-
ease in fish in natural  waters, tends to confirm these findings with
most diseases.

     A striking exception to the more or less general experience that
increased water temperatures favor outbreaks of diseases  in  fish is
found with the disease sometimes referred to as "low-temperature dis-
ease" or "cold-water disease."  This disease is due to an aquatic
myxobacterium named Cytophaga psychrophila which, as its  name indi-
cates, prefers low temperatures.  The disease is generally found in
young silver salmon in the early spring when water temperatures are
low and in some outbreaks causes very heavy losses of young  fish.  As
a rule, when water temperatures increase with the annual warm-up of
the water, the disease is self-limiting and disappears.

     The effects of temperature on the disease  in young silver salmon
can be illustrated by an experiment carried out at the University of
     ''Professor, Dept. of Microbiology; Research  Instructor, Dept. of
Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle.
                              39

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Washington.  A stock of young silver salmon from the Dungeness Hatchery
suffering from low-temperature disease was brought to the University of
Washington Experimental Hatchery and held at ^3F.  Each day a consid-
erable number of these fish died.  After a week the remaining fish were
divided into two groups.  While one group was held at ^3F., the second
group was tempered into water at 55.  After two days, mortalities in
the.lot of fish held at 55 ceased, but deaths continued in the fish
held at J+3F. until all the fish were lost.

     On isolation of the strain of C. psychrophila in the Dungeness
fish, it was found that this bacterium was a true psychrophile, failing
to grow on culture media except when incubated well below room tempera-
ture.  However, not all strains of . psychrophila which are found on
fish behave like the Dungeness strain, since some other strains have
been found which can cause disease at higher water temperatures.  In
some cases, the disease persists as water temperatures rise to 55F.
and even higher.  In the laboratory it can be shown that some strains
of C. psychrophila produce mutants which are capable of growth at higher
temperatures, and it is probable that the disease at the higher temper-
atures is due to these mutant strains.

     The occurrence of mutants in some strains of . psychrophila which
are capable of causing disease at a higher temperature illustrates the
fact that bacteria can undergo genetic change.  When first discovered,
C. psychrophila caused serious disease only in young silver salmon.
Bur ing recent years new strains have appeared, identifiable as C.
psychrophila by serological methods, which have been found responsible
for generalized infections in young chinook salmon and blueback salmon.

     Columnar is disease, due to another myxobacterium, Chondrgcoccus
columnar is, is now well known and recognized as a warm-water dTsease;
and a good deal of attention has been given at the University of Wash-
ington to the study of this organism and its effects on populations of
fish not only in the hatchery but also in the natural habitat.

     Columnaris disease was first described by Davis in 1922 as a new
infectious disease of warm-water fishes in the Mississippi River Valley.
The disease was found in fish which had been trapped in sloughs along
the Mississippi River when flood waters receded, and which subsequently
warmed up, and in fish in a hatchery at Fairport, Iowa, at high water
temperatures.  The disease was found in 15 different species of fish.
Although Davis was not able to isolate the organism causing the dis-
ease, he observed and described the organisms present in the external
lesions on the fish sufficiently well so that there is no question but
that the disease which he studied was similar to that known today.
Following Davis* report, nothing further is found in the literature
until papers by Fish and Rucker, 19^3, and Ordal and Rucker, 19M*, on
the occurrence of columnaris disease in cold-water fishes, i.e., in
salmonid fishes,-at the Fish and Wildlife Station at Leavenworth,

-------
Washington.  The building of Grand Coulee Dam made it necessary  to
relocate the runs of salmonid fishes which were obstructed by the dam.
In this operation adult salmon and steelhead trout were trapped  at
Rock Island Dam and hauled in tank trucks to large holding ponds on
Icicle Creek at the Leavenworth Hatchery.  There they were maintained
until they spawned.  The fish were trapped over the period 1939  to
19^3 and were placed in the holding ponds in the period 19^0 to

     At the Leavenworth Hatchery columnaris disease was first observed
in a stock of young blueback salmon in the summer of 19^2.  Cultures
were isolated, and the pathogenicity of the . columnaris was demon-
strated, thus proving that the disease in the young salmon was due to
this organism.

     Subsequently, columnaris disease was found present in adult
chinook and blueback salmon, steelhead trout, white fish, squaw  fish,
chub and suckers trapped at Rock Island Dam.  Pure cultures of .
columnaris were isolated from external lesions and internal organs of
some of these fish.  Columnaris disease was also found in adult  chinook
and blueback salmon taken in a moribund condition from the holding
ponds at Icicle Creek.  It was reported by Fish and Hanavan (19^8) that
72.3 to 976 percent of the adult blueback salmon and 75^ to 95.^ per-
cent of the summer chinook salmon in these ponds died before spawning
during the four-year period 19**0 through 19^3.  The cause of death in
the adult salmon was not established.  However, since the fish had been
hauled by tank trucks from Rock Island Dam, and since no precautions
were taken to prevent infection, it is probable that the majority of
these fish had been exposed to columnaris disease during the hauling.

     Following the reports on the occurrence of columnaris disease in
salmonid fishes and the isolation of the causative agent, epidemics of
columnaris disease were reported in a number of regions of the United
States ranging from New York to the South to the Pacific Coast (Davis,
19**9 1953).  Most of the reports have dealt with the occurrence of
columnaris disease in hatcheries or'with mass mortalities in natural
impoundments, lakes or streams when water temperatures reached high
levels.

     In some studies carried out in the State of Washington in postwar
years it was noted that the strains of C. columnaris isolated in dif-
ferent places varied widely in their viFulence, that is, their capa^
bility of infecting and killing young fish.  A report of these studies
was published by Rucker, Earp and Ordal (1953).  Thus, it was found
that strains of C. columnaris isolated from fish in the lakes and
streams and hatcheries of Western Washington and from some fish  in the
Columbia River were of relatively low virulence in that they produced
a slowly progressing infection which  led to extensive tissue damage
only at relatively high water temperatures.  Serious epidemics due to
these strains occurred only at high water temperatures, ordinarily In
excess of 70F.  A number of hatchery outbreaks of this type were

                              1*1

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observed, and it was noted that although many fish were tost when water
temperatures ranged from 70 to 75?., mortalities diminished or ceased
when water temperatures were reduced to 65F, or below.  Outbreaks of
columnaris disease due to this kind of strain of . columnaris occurred
a number of times at the Samish Hatchery on Friday Creek in western
Washington.  These strains were considered to be of low virulence since
they failed to infect fish unless the fish were scarified or injured by .
some means to provide a portal of entry.

     In sharp contrast to these strains of low virulence, a number of
strains of C. columnar is isolated from fish in holding ponds at hatch-
eries in the Upper Columbia River Basin in postwar years exhibited
extraordinarily high virulence.  Tested in the experimental  hatchery
these cultures killed young salmon in less than 2k hours when fish were
exposed to dilute cultures and held at 68F,  As an illustration, an
experiment performed with a culture Isolated from a salmon at the Entiat
Hatchery in the late summer of 1951  might  be cited.  Twenty uninjured
chinook salmon and twenty scarified chinook salmon were exposed to a
dilute culture of C. columnaris for two minutes, then placed in a trough
of running water at 68F. at 5:00 pnm  one afternoon  By 9tOO a.m. the
next morning 39 fish were dead, and one fish was near death*  A similar
experiment performed with a cuHure isolated from fish in the Samish
Hatchery, though using smaller numbers of fish, led to no deaths in a
period of a week in uninjured fish with half of the fish which had been
scarified dying of columnaris disease in that period.

     Only limited data are available on the virulence of the cultures
of C. columnaris which were isolated during the period of the Grand
CouTee fish-maintenance project,  although it was "ecognized in this
early period that water temperatures played an important role in the
disease.  Fish and Rucker (19^3) showed that uninjured young fish ex-
posed to a particular culture of .  columnaris for 30 minutes and held
at 70F. died in three days.  However, only 24 percent of fish which
had been exposed similarly and held at 65F. died  in the 38-day period
of the experiment.  Rucker and Ordal  (194*0 carried out another exper-
iment on the effect of temperature on the effect of columnaris disease
in young salmon.  It was found that uninjured fish exposed to a culture
died in 72 hours when held at ~}\.60?., while 90 percent of the fish
held at 68F., 45 percent of the fish held at 6^f"., and 30 percent of
the fish held at 61F. died in a week.  Thus the effect of temperature
on an infection of young salmon was well recognized, although these
cultures were far less virulent than some of the cultures subsequently
studied by Rucker, Earp and Ordal  (1953).   The occurrence of high
virulence strains of . columnaris in the Upper Columbia River Basin
and their apparent absence in the waters of western Washington pre-
sented an interesting problem and led to the more recent investiga-
tions..

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     In view of the existing data on damage done  to  populations of
fishes by columnaris disease,  the question a'ose  as  to  the  significance
of columnaris disease to the fisheries resources  of  the Columbia  River
Basin, particularly in view of the impending construction of  dams which
might serve as points of congestion where transmission  of columnaris
disease might be expedited.

     One reasonable hypothesis that might account for  the existence of
the high virulence strains in the Upper  Columbia  River  Basin  was  that
salmon became infected with ordinary strains of ,  columnaris in  the
Lower Columbia River, and as they migrated upstream an  increase  in
virulence occurred as the result of some genetic  process such as  muta-
tion in the strains infecting the fish,,   Higher water  temperatures
resulting in increased multiplication of . columnaris  would  be  ex-
pected to increase the likelihood of a mutation to higher virulence.

     One way in which to explore the problem was  to carry out field
investigations on the disease in salmon at various locations  in  the
Columbia River Basin and to develop methodology whereby specific  strains
of Chondrococcus columnaris might be identified.   Such  an  investigation
was begun on a small scale in 195^ and carried out through  1959-   The
most difficult part of the investigation turned out to be  the procure-
ment of samples of fish at various  locations in the river,  since this
required availability of facilities for trapping  fish and  permission
and cooperation of agencies such as the Army Corps of Engineers  and  the
State and Federal Fishery Agencies.  Sampling was carried  out at
Bonneville Dam, at McNary Dam, and at Rock Island Dam on the  main
Columbia River; at Roza Dam, at Prosser, and at Horn Rapids on the
Yakima River; at Tumwater Dam on the Wenatchee Riverj  and  at  Zosel  Dam
on the Okanogan River.  Samples were obtained at  these locations  when
time and the necessary cooperation and availability ot  trapping  facil-
ities made it possible.  Since at this time there were no barriers in
the Lower Snake River, sampling was carried out in 1955 and 1956 with
the cooperation of the Fish Commission of Oregon  by use of  fyke  nets
in conjunction with a study of patterns of migration of salmon and
steel head trout  in the Snake River,

     Fortunately for this investigation there were thermograph records
of water temperatures available from approximately 19^ at  a  number  of
locations in the main Columbia River and  in its major tributaries*
These records were available because of the farsightedness  of Mr.
Kingsley Weber of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and his associ-
ates who recognized that water temperature might  be an important fac-
tor which affects runs of salmonid  fishes.  Unfortunately for the
investigation, the thermographs which had been employed were wearing
out, and coincident with the period of the columnaris study,  most of
them were taken out of service and were not replaced.  By 1958 most
of the Fish and Wildlife thermographs were out of service,  and by 1959
all were removed.  Though some water  temperatures were taken by  other

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agencies, all  records  of water  temperature*  used  in the present study
were obtained  from the Fish and Wildlife  Service,

     Relatively high water temperatures prevailed  in  the main Columbia
River during the period of the  Grand Coulee  Salmon Relocation Project.
This is  illustrated  in Figure 1, wnere mean  water  temperatures at Rock
Island Dam are plotted for the  months of  June,  July,  and August for the
period 1933 to 1959-   Relatively warm water  temperatures prevailed dur-
ing much of the 1939 to 19^3 period when  upstream migrants were trapped
at Rock  Island Dam.  This situation was followed  by a decline in water
temperatures until minimum water temperatures for  July and August were
reached  in 1954 and  1955-  After these minimums,  the  temperatures again
rose, reaching a secondary maximum  in 1958,  and  then  declined rather
sharply  in 1959-
           temperatures  in  the main Columbia River  in  the  summers of
 1941 and over the period  1955 rh rough  1959 are given  in Figure  2.   The
water temperature at Rock Island Dam  ir  1958, the warmest  of recent
years, approached but remained less than  that in 1941 -  The Snake Rive
becomes warmer than  the Columbia Rive1" during the summer months.  This
river normally reaches a  temperature of 65':  late  in  June and  quickly
exceeds 70F  where  it remains 'throughout the summer months.  In 1955>
an exceptionally cold year, the warm-up was delayed approximately two
weeks.  The  pattern  of behavior of the Snake River  is  given in  Figure
3 where 6-day averages of daily maximum water temperatures are  plotted
for the summer months.  The Lower Yakima  RiVer and  the Okanogan River
warm up in a similar fashion, with rhe warm-up in the  Yak ima River
usually occu'1'") r-g earlier '.nan in the Snake P've'".
     As indicated in Figures  1 and 2,  the field  investigations from
1954 through 1958 covered a per >od ot  f.-.c '-easing water temperatures  in
the main Columbia Rive;", with a  iha-p  decline occurring  in  1959-  Par-
ticular attention was paid to blueback salmon since the  patterns of
migration were known and migration occurred mainly  in the latter part
of June, July and early August,  T'n's  pe'-iod also coincided with the
time when assistance was available f"'om  students at the  University.

     It is not possible fo completely  document the  Bindings  in the
period allowed for this talk.  However,  ^ th's location.  In 1955, when
permission to sample M'sh at Bonne^'Me  Dam could not be obtained,
approximately 300 scrapfish wer-e taKen *'om t he mouchs of the tribu-
taries between Bonneville and McNa'-y  Dams, and only t-'ojr cultures of
. col umnar i s could be isolated  f-om  these M'sh,  None of these strains
exhibited high wt'ulence-   In centres:,  the incidence of columnaris

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    '33   '35    '37    '39   '41   '43   '45   '47    '49    '51    '53   '55
                                                                          '57  '59
Fi:
                                   Year
1.  Columbia River at Rock Island  1933-1953.
                                                 monthly  ate  temperature c

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70-
51
 Fig.  2.  Columbia River at Rock Island.  Water temperatures
        (6 day averages), 1941; 1955-1958.
                          1*6

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0^

I

I
iS
sj
i
         Jun.
        3.  Snake River at Sacajawea. Water temperatures
           (6 day averages), 1955-1958.

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disease in fish taken in the warm waters of the Snake River near
Clarkston in July and early August of 1955 and 1956 ranged from 20
percent to 75 percent in the chinook and blueback salmon sampled by
fyke nets operated by the Fish Commission of Oregon.  It was subse-
quently reported by Thompson, t al. (1958) that 3^ percent of the
blueback salmon captured by fyke nets in the Snake River in 1955 and
50 percent of the fish captured in 1956 exhibited recognizable colum-
nar is disease.

     A small run of blueback salmon enters Redfish Lake in Idaho.  The
number of adult salmon reaching the weir at Redfish Lake during the
period 1955 to 1959 is shown in Table 1.  It can be seen that the run
decreased from 4,361 fish in 1955 to a low of 55 fish in 1958.  Evi-
dence obtained by personnel  of the Oregon Fish Commission, together
with data collected in field studies carried out during this period),
suggests that the decrease in fish reaching Redfish Lake was due to
mortalities in these fish as a result of infection with columnaris
disease.  By comparing the temperature data plotted in Figures 1 and
2 with the data presented in Table 1, it can be seen that the decline
in fish reaching Redfish Lake is paralleled in an inverse fashion by
water temperatures in the main Columbia River.  Since the water temper-
atures of the Snake River rather consistently reached values in excess
of 70F., it would appear from these findings that the water temper-
atures in the Columbia River below the Snake River junction played a
role in determining the incidence of columnaris disease.
                            Table 1

           Counts of Adult Blueback Salmon Crossing
                   the Weir at Redfish Lake"
Year
No. Blueback Salmon
1955
4,361
1956
1,381
1957
571
1958
55
1959
290
     Data from Bjornn (I960)

     In this connection,  some studies carried out during the summer of
1957 are interesting.   In this summer columnaris disease was essentially
absent from salmon at  Bonneville Dam.  When first sampled at McNary Dam
July 10 and 11, 1957,  52  blueback salmon were examined;  27 showed le-
sions characteristic of columnaris disease; 17 pure cultures were iso-
lated from these fish.  Eight additional  cultures were isolated from
other species of fish. Many of the lesions of the blueback salmon were
tiny and,  therefore, most likely of recent origin.  Hence,  it seemed
probable that these fish  had been infected either while in the ladders
at McNary Dam,  or while massed before the dam.  This might account for
the relatively  high incidence of columnaris disease in the blueback

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salmon taken from the Snake Rive-",  although the development  of the
disease would,  of course,  be favo-ed by ihe high water temperatures
in the Snake River,

     In 1955, one of the coldest years on record, samples of blueback
salmon were taken during the period of migration over Zosel  Dam on the
Okanogan River-  At  the very first  pa< the Snake River.

     In 1956 only one trip wa^ made to Zosel Dam   This was during the
latter part of the blueback run, and 55 percent of the fish taken were
found to be infected wi th columnaris d'sease.  In 1957 columnaris dis-
ease was found common even in the ea*  ly pan of the run of bl ueback
salmon.  In 1958, an exceptionaHy  warm yea--1, difficulties were expe-
rienced in obtaining bl ueback salmon f>om the Okanogan River during the
normal period of migration; and the r*jn was a failure.  However, a
large number of blueback salmon were found dead or dying of columnaris
disease in the Similkameen River, a coole- "ributary of the Okanogan
River, where these fish had taken "'efuge.

     From the studies in the Snake Ri\er and the Okanogan River it
seemed evident that:  columnaris disease offered a real hazard to salmon
in the warmer tributaries,  but the evidence indicated that the water
temperatures in the  main Columbia River represented an  important factor
in determining incidence and effects of' the disease in fish  in the
tri butari es.

     Beginning with the 1957 season, move attention was paid to the
question of the virulence of the suaini of . col umnar i s isolated
from fishes of the Columbia River watershed, since it was expected
that high virulence strains would be more dangerous to  salmonid fishes
than low virulence strains of C, columnar is.  The facilities at the
University of Washington had been improved  so that it was possible to
carry out analyses of virulence on a  number of strains.

     As noted before, in 1957 columnar is disease was essentially absent
from salmonid and other fishes examined at  Bonneville Dam.   Eight  of
the 17 strains isolated from biueback salmon at McNary Dam on  July 10
and 11, 1957 were analyzed for virulence  immediately after  isolation,
and five of these strains were  found  ro be  of high virulence in that
they killed young salmon in less than 2k hour's when exposed  to a
dilute culture in water.  Sampling at Rock  Island was limited to two
trips on July 16 and 2k, 1957> a* water  temperatures of 61 and 6i*F.,
respectively.  In spite of these relatively low  temperatures,  15 pure
cultures of . columnaris were  isolated, all from blueback  salmon.
Since columnaris di'sease was not found  in  scrapfish  at  this  location,

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 the  blueback  salmon must have been infected while downstream.  On sub-
 sequent analysis  for virulence, most of the Rock Island strains were
 found  to  be of  the high virulence type=

     One  of the tools employed for the study of columnar is disease in
 fishes of the Columbia River Basin was a system of serological analy-
 sis.  This  is a method whereby strains of a particular organism can be
 distinguished from each other.  The method is widely used in epidemiol-
 ogical studies  on certain diseases of man.

     It was found that all strains of . columnar is had a common or
 species antigen.  This antigen was assigned Arabic numeral _]_.  Seven
 additional antigens were found.  These were designated by the Arabic
 numerals  2, 3,  5> 6, ]^, 8, and 9.  These antigens were present or ab-
 sent or found present in different combinations in the strains which
were investigated.

     One  useful result of the development of a system of serological
analysis was that it was possible to show that wide variations in
 virulence existed within a given serological  type of C. columnaris.
This is illustrated in Table 2 where the virulence of~a number of dif-
 ferent 1957 isolates of C. columnaris containing antigens 1, 3, 8, and
9 are compared.

     Codes in this table illustrate the locations in which these cul-
 tures were isolated.  M is McNary; R is Rock Island; T is Tumwaterj 0
 is Okanogan; and BL is Bumping Lake or Tieton Reservoir.  The strains
were all   isolated in 1957* and it may be noted that strains of high
virulence belonging to this serological type were isolated at a number
of locations.   Interestingly enough,  the strains of lowest virulence
were isolated from the Tieton Reservoir on the Naches River, a body of
water which cannot be reached by migrant fish, where a mass epidemic
of columnaris disease occurred in kokanees or silver trout at a high
water temperature.  Large numbers of dead and dying fish were found
on the lake or  on the shores.  Tested in the laboratory, these strains
all exhibited low virulence.  By present standards, this means strains
which failed to kill in four days or  failed to kill at all when tested
by the contact method,  that is,  by exposure to dilute cultures of C.
columnaris for  two minutes and subsequent holding at 68F.  An inter-
esting finding  based primarily on the work in 1957 is that high viru-
 lence strains occurred in many serological  types.  As a matter of
fact, in  1957 high virulence strains of C.  columnaris were found in
seven of the serological  types which were present in the Columbia
River.

     The ecological  and epidemiological  studies on the problem of
columnaris disease in fishes of the Columbia River Basin through 1959
have been reported by Ordal  and Pacha (I960)  and cannot be presented
in detail  here.   However,  it was possible to conclude that due to the
                              50

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                            Table 2

      Variations in Virulence in Strains  of  .  columnari s
   of Antigenic Composition 1,  3  8,  9 and  Bacter iocin  Type  D


              Strain                          Virulence
                               (hours fo-  100% mortality in  test  fish)
1 -M57-22
1-M57-29
2-M57-27
3-M57-5
ii-M57-^
I-R57-2
1-&57-17
2-R57-21
2-T57-2
^-T57~7
2-057-20
3-057-37
l-BL57-le
2-BL57-3a
2-BL57-8c
2k
18
22
9V
139
22
22
20
16
1 \k
22
72
222
196
222-t-
occurrence of high virulence strains of  ,  columnaris in the Columbia
River Basin, columnaris disease has become one of the major factors
contributing to the decline of the >-uns of salmon and steelhead trout,
In years of high water temperatures catastrophic mortalities due to
Columnaris disease can occur in adult salmon prior to spawning.   In
colder years, a larger proportion of adult salmon survive to reach the
spawning grounds, but carry high virulence strains of C. columnaris, if
present in the river, into lakes and streams supporting populations of
young salmon and steelhead trout.  In light of present knowledge of
columnaris disease in the Columbia River Basin,  it is probable that the
major damage to runs of salmonid fishes as a result of infection by
strains of C_. col umnar is of high virulence is not normally the killing
of adult salmon before spawning but rather the killing of young salmon
and steelhead trout in the lakes and streams supporting these fish.
Salmonid fishes such as blueback salmon, spring and summer chinook
salmon, and steelhead trout, all of which normally remain in lakes and
streams for a period of a year or more before migrating to sea are
therefore particularly susceptible to destruction by high virulence
strains of C. columnari s.

     That columnaris disease was a serious threat to runs of blueback
salmon was evident from the investigations on columnaris, disease in the
                              51

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 summers of  1957 and  1958.  However, in the absence of counts of down-
 stream migration, no data became available on damage to juvenile salmon,
 As pointed  out by Orda! and Pacha (I960) in a report on work supported
 by the Fish and Wildlife Service, the full impact of columnaris disease
 could not be determined until the return of the progeny of the 1957 and
 1958 runs as adults  in 1961 and 1962.  That these runs were badly dam-
 aged is indicated in Table 3-
                            Table 3

                 Adult Blueback Salmon Counts
                       at Bonnevi11e Dam
                       1957 to 1963
1957
1958
1959
I960
1961
1962
1963
82,915
122,389
86,560
59,713
17,111
28,179
60,027*
                    --'Counts up to August 1
     Termination of support by the Fish and Wildlife Service for the
program of investigation of columnaris disease and its effects on the
fisheries resources of the Columbia River Basin left a number of ques-
tions unanswered.

     Although it was now established that columnaris disease repre-
sented a serious threat to natural runs of salmonid fishes in the
Columbia River Basin,  the question of the source of the strains of C.
columnaris, in particular, the high virulence strains, was not yet
resolved.  The hypothesis that high vi-ulence strains originated from
low virulence strains  in salmon infected in the lower river during the
course of migration was disproved, a^d the available evidence indicated
that the high virulence strains originated in the Columbia River Basin
somewhere between McNary and Rock Island Dams (Ordal  and Pacha, I960).
Since both the Snake and the Yakima Rivers warm up early in the season,
long before the Columbia River, it was considered entirely possible
that these might be the source of the high virulence strains.  Emphasis
in the earlier studies had been on salmon, but the disease had also
been found in scrapfish, particularly in scrapfish at McNary Dam during
the course of the blueback migration, and in the scrapfish observed in
the Lower Yakima River.   In colder years, the disease had been found at
Rock Island Dam in salmon, but not in scrapfish.  Hence, it was consid-
ered possible that the disease originated in scrapfish.


                               52

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     In an effort to learn me a^'.uol sour ce o* the it -a ins of   col um-
naris infecting fish in the Colombia Rive- Ba^i i,  Meld t^ips were car-
ried out to the Yakima, Snake, and Columbia R i \ e- s early in 1962 with
support f r om t he Ai omi c Ener gy Commi ss > on   7he M - ^ t  trip to the Lower
Yakima River was on May 24, 19&Z, wnen waie- t emper at ures were 59F
On this trip 63 oui  of  113 scom individual M *>h .  Held trips we' e begun
to Ice Harbor Dam on the Lowe'- Snake Pi\/e' on  June ] .   The wate- temper -
ature at this rime was 53F   One cul'u-e was  isolated, but in i he fol-
lowing week Ij cuho-es we"e  isolated ai  a waie- lempe* at u-e ot 59f'
In the following ihree weeks a la-ge p-opo-'M'or. or \ he -,;.-apf'1sh ex-
amined showed ev;dence o* coljmna's d'sease.  7wo cul:ufe$ OT   Col um-
nar i s were isolated from sc'aptish ar McNaf>y Dam o^ May 3' > 1962, when
the water temperature was t)l^f '.  At McNa^y Dam d'*1  ic.lties we^e expe-
rienced  in getting r i sh r o, exam;naM'on,  and coOmna-. s disease was  not
found to be widespread until   July II, wher.  33  pu- e c^ltu-es were  iso-
lated from 83 r'ibh examined   Wate'' tempe'aiufes on :nis date we-e
     On analysis of virulence of a numbe1" ot strains of . col umnar j s
isolated at these sues  in the earliest parr of the  season,  it was  found
that cultures of all grades of virulence we-'e present ,  The  presence of
low virulence strains  in fish taken  in  the  Lower Yakima River, the  Lowe-
Snake River, and at McNary Dam at water temperatures ranging  from  530f 
to 60F. indicated  that  these strains must  hav/e originated at some  loca-
tion where warmer water  occurred.  Such a region might also  provide an
environment where build-up in vi'ulence could occur  through  some genetic
mechanism since multiplication of bacteria  infecting a po'ki lothermi c
animal would be favored  by higher water lemperat u'es.  Since water  tem-
peratures at Rock island Dam on  the  main Columbia  River did  not  exceed
52F. over the period May 2k to  Jjne ;?, 1962, during which  123 pure
cultures of C. col umnar is were  i^ola'ea t  om  individual fish  in  the
Lower Yakima River, and  the water + emperar yr-es  in  the  Lower  Snake  Rive-
did not exceed f>3F, during this period, natural waters from these
streams could not have  been i he wa'-me'' water  in which  columna* >s dis-
ease first developed.

     The regions of the  Columbia River  fed  by the  warm effluents of
the Hanford reactors represent  locations where  initial  infection of
fish by C. columnar! s and build-up of ' virulence of strains  of C,
col umnar is might occur.  A second possibility,  suggested  by  personnel
of the General Electric  Company,  is  that a  number  of warm sloughs  on
the Hanford Reservation  may be  the areas where  initial  infection of
fish and development of  high virulence  strains  of  C ,. col umnar Is  take
place.

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      To obtain evidence on  this  problem,  field  studies were  instituted
 in the early spring  of 1963 in order  to  compare cultures  isolated from
 fish in the sloughs  on the  Hanford  Reservation  with those from the fish
 entering the Lower Yakima River.  Field  studies were begun in the Lower
 Yakima River on April  9,  1963, at a water  temperature of U8.2F., with
 the cooperation of Fish and Wildlife  personnel,  and continued at ap-
 proximately weekly intervals.  Through the cooperation of personnel of
 the Atomic  Energy Commission and the  General  Electric Company, it was
 possible to obtain samples  of fish, mainly by gill net, from a number
 of sloughs  and ponds  on the Hanford Reservation.  Sampling was initi-
 ated on April  23, 1963, when water  temperatures in the sloughs and
 ponds ranged from 50F.  to  55F.

      As a result of  these studies it  was  found  that columnaris disease
 was far more prevalent  and  cultures of C.  columnaris isolated nearly a
 month earlier  from fish  taken in the  Lower  Yakima River than was the
 case with fish taken  in  the Hanford sloughs and  ponds.  Cultures of C.
 columnaris  were isolated from nine fish  taken in the Lower Yakima River
 on April  2k,  1963, at  a water temperature  of  56o3F.  Over the period
 April  9 to  May 27 a total of 108 cultures  of  C.  columnaris were iso-
 lated from  629 fish examined at water temperatures below 65F.  Most of
 these were  scrapfishes  though the fish examined  included some salmonid
 downstream  migrants.   Over  the period April 23  to May 16 a total of
 605 fish were  examined  in the sloughs and  ponds  on the Hanford Reser-
 vation.  Columnaris disease was not found  in  these fish.  Two cultures
 of C.  columnaris were  isolated on May 22,  1963,  when water temperatures
 at the points  of sampling ranged from 58.1Fo to 67F.  Over the period
 April  23  to June 5,  1963> when sampling was temporarily terminated by
 flood waters  in  the Columbia River, 8^9 fish were examined and five
 pure cultures  of C_. col umnaris obtained.

      Though analyses of virulence and of  serologfcal type have not yet
 been carried out, the results of the  field  investigations in 1963 con-
 firm the findings in the spring of 1962,  and  it  is not possible to
 avoid the conclusion that the infected fish during the early season
 enter  the Lower Yakima River after exposure to  the warm effluents of
 the  Hanford reactors.

      At  present, the evidence indicates that warm-water-loving fishes
 or  scrapfishes  resident in  the Hanford area seek the areas of warm
water  in the Hanford effluents.   There is  some evidence from studies
 in western Washington which  indicates that  scrapfishes carry low viru-
 lence  strains  of .  columnaris over the winter  season.  Hence,  when
 these  fish  enter the warmer water these strains may develop and cause
 infections  in  the fish.  Spontaneous mutation to high virulence may
 occur  during multiplication  in warm water, or incorporation of radio-
active materials may induce mutations to  high virulence.   Once infec-
 ted,  it  is  entirely possible that these fish may seek areas of colder
water,  and  under these circumstances multiplication of low virulence

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strains may cease whereas the nigh xi-ulonce strains of C. col umnan's
are capable of attacking and killing t'i ah at lowe1* temperatures.   Once
high virulence sixains of C. coiumnari5 develop, there would be an
opportunity of transmission of the disease from fish to fish.  Although
data on migration patterns of scrapfishes in this area are scanty, the
occurrence of columnaris disease in sc^apfishes taken in the Lower
Yakima and Snake Rivers, and subsequently at McNary Dam, can be ac-
counted for by the fact that as the water rises i'n the late spring
months the 1ish either seek the calmer  waters of the Yakina or SnaUe
Rivers or are swept downstream to McNary Dam where they may accudulntr:
in the ladders and provide a source of  infection of migrant salir.onid
fishes.

     In conclusion, there are a numbef  of problems yet to be solved.
One is the question of whether the temperature or the radioactivity oi?
the Hanford effluents is responsible fo'  the development of high viru-
lence strains of C. columnaris.  A second, which should be of importance
to experts in fisheries, is to determine whether high virulence strains
of C. columnari s survive from year to year in some intermediate host.
A third is consideration of the possibility that high virulence strains
of C. columnaris are transported to other watersheds by transfer of
stocks of salmonid fishes.  Finally, consideration should be given to
the possibility of lowering the water temperatures of the Lower Snake
River by proper construction and operation of dams which are in the
planning stage or under consideration   With construction of Lower
Monumental Dam and other dams on the Lower Snake River, there will be
multiple points of congestion where transmission of columnaris disease
to the important runs of salmonid fishes in the Salmon River will be
expedited, unless water temperatures are materially reduced during the
summer months.

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                          References

 1.  Bjornn, T. C., Salmon and Steel head in Idaho, Idaho Wildl ife
    Review, r):  6-11,  I960.

 2.  Davis, H. S., A New Bacterial Disease of Fresh Water Fishes,
    U. S. Bur. Fisheries Bull., J:  261-280, 1922.

 3.  Davis, H. S., Cytophaga Columnar is as a Cause of Fish Epidemics,
    Trans. Am. Fisheries Soc., 77: 102-10^, 19^9.

**.  Davis, H. S., Culture and Disease of Game Fish, Univ. of Calif.
    Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1953-

5  Fish, F. F. and Rucker, R. R., Columnar is as a Disease of Cold
    Water Fishes, Trans. Am. Fisheries Soc.,  J:  32-36, 1953.

6.  Fish, F. F. and Hanavan, M. G., A Report Upon the Grand Coulee
    Fish Maintenance Project of }939^Shl, U. S. Fish and Wildlife
    Service Special  Scientific Report No. 55,
7.  Ordal, E. J. and Pacha, R. E., Final Report, Research and Investi-
    gations on Diseases Affecting the Fisheries Resources of the
    Columbia River Basin, I and II, 15** pp., I960.

8.  Rucker, R. R., Earp, B. J. and Ordal, E. J., Infectious Diseases
    of Pacific Salmon, Trans. Am. Fisheries Soc., 83: 297-312, 1953.

9.  Thompson, R. N., Haas, J. B., Woodall, L. M., and Holmberg, E. K.,
    Fish Commission of Oregon, Final  Report, Contract DA 35-026-eng-
    20609, 1958.

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        TEMPERATURE STUDIES ON THE UMPQUA RIVER,  OREGON

               William H. Delay and John Seaders*


     The temperature study on the Umpqua River system is an essential
part of a comprehensive study now being undertaken for the development:
of the Umpqua Basin's water resources.  Central to the plan of develop-
ment envisaged by the U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers, the agency respon-
sible for the comprehensive study, are three reservoirs to be located
on the South Umpqua River, Cow Creek and Calapooya Creek.  Their func-
tion is to regulate flows in each of the streams for purposes of flood
control, irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and
wildlife enhancement, recreation and water quality control.

     One of the problems which needed consideration under the compre-
hensive plan of development related to stream temperature conditions.
Summer temperatures in many of the streams in the Umpqua Basin exceeded
tolerable limits for fish life and were unfavorable to the maintenance
of water quality.  It was therefore recognized that a major function of
any proposed development was the control and enhancement of stream tem-
perature conditions.  Capability of the proposed reservoirs 6or exer-
cising such control had therefore to be established.  Information was
also needed on thermal structure in the reservoirs to enable  the plan-
ning of outlet facilities for maximum utilization of the thermal jstrat-
ifications for stream temperature control.  Moreover, the  improvement
of stream temperature conditions had to be determined in order to fully
evaluate resulting benefits.  Assessment of these benefits was consid-
ered essential for determining economic feasibility of the plan of
development.

     To satisfy these planning needs, temperature evaluations were re-
quired to answer the following questions:

     1.  In what amounts and at what temperatures will water  be
         available in the reservoirs during summer months, the
         season of critical stream temperature,  for average as
         well as critical water years and temperature years?

     2.  For given reservoir release rates, from what  levels
         should water be drawn to achieve maximum control  of
         downstream water temperature throughout the entire
         critical period?
     '''Evaluations Engineer, State Water Resources  Board, Salem;
Department of Civil Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis.
                               57

-------
      3.   For given  release rates and temperatures, what maximum stream
          temperatures will occur downstream from the reservoir, for
          average as well as critical years?

      A number of Federal and State agencies have been cooperating in
carrying  out the temperature study, the evaluations and temperature
forecasts being the particular responsibility of the State Water
Resources Board.

      For  several reasons the energy-budget method was adopted for mak-
ing the necessary temperature forecasts.  The method is sound theoret-
ically and basic methodology had already been developed.  It had been
used  by McAlister I/ for temperature predictions on the Rogue River
similar to those needed for the Umpqua River.  Raphael  -'  had employed
the method on reservoirs and rivers in California and Washington.  Al-
though there is room for refinement, the method as presently used is
expected  to yield reasonably accurate results.

      The method is based on the identification and evaluation of the
energy exchange processes between a body of water and its environment.
In the energy-budget equation for the body of water, all the items of
energy gain and energy loss are combined into a single algebraic ex-
pression.  Solution of the equation for any given set of conditions
gives the value of energy change of the water and, hence, its tempera-
ture  change.

      The modified energy-budget equation as used for lakes and streams
states that for a given interval  of time:

       Qe = as - Qb - ae - ah + ia

where  Qg = net change in energy in the body of water.

       Qs = net incoming solar radiation.

       Q.J, = effective back radiation from the water surface.

       Q.e = energy loss due to evaporation.

       Qh = energy loss by conduction from water to air.

       Qa = energy advected into the water by tributary
            streams, precipitation,  etc.
     I/ RogueRiver Basin Study by W. Bruce McAlister, 1961.
     2/ Prediction of Temperatures in Rivers and Reservoirs by
     ~  Jerome M. Raphael, Journal of the Power Division.  Proceedings
        of the American Society of Civil  Engineers, July, 1962.
                              58

-------
     Although the energy-budget equation was known as far back as 1915
when Schmidt used it to estimate the annual  evaporation from the oceans,
the difficulty in evaluating many of the terms has restricted its appli-
cation.  That the classical  energy-budget equation needed modification
was established by the exhaustive Lake Hefner Study I/ carried out in
the early fifties.  This study also developed information which enabled
the evaluation of energy-exchange processes with a greater degree of
confidence.  Accuracies approaching +_ percent were obtained for evap-
oration from Lake Hefner for periods greater than seven days using the
energy-budget method as compared to the water-budget method.  Reference
will be made later to a verification study which was carried out on the
Willamette Coast Fork by the agencies who are participating in the
Umpqua study.

     The following is a brief description of the terms of the energy-
budget equation and the data required to evaluate them:

     a.  Q.s - Net Solar Radiation

         Between sunrise and sunset, the body of water receives energy
         directly from the  sun  in the form of short-wave radiation.
         Of the total radiation  incident on the water  surface, a  small
         portion is lost by reflection and scattering.  The rest  of the
         energy is absorbed by  the water and  is identified  in  the en-
         ergybudget equation as Q.s, net  incoming radiation.   Radiation
         values for Roseburg, which  Is centrally  located, are  assumed
         to be applicable for all locations  in the Umpqua River Basin.
         In the absence of  recorded values, average monthly solar radi-
         ation for Roseburg is  taken from maps prepared  by  Sternes, ad-
         justed for measured values available for Medford.  For  the
         verification of these  values, experimental  radiation  inte-
         grators were maintained during  the  past  summer  at  selected
         stations.  Data obtained has yet to  be evaluated.

     b.  Q.b - Effective Back Radiation

         The body of water  constantly loses  energy  through  the emission
         of long-wave radiation.  Energy  loss  is  computed  by  applying
         the Stefan-Boltzmann  radiation  law,  using  an  emissivity  fac-
         tor of 0.97-  A constant gain  in energy  occurs  through  the
         absorption of  long-wave radiation  emitted  by  the  atmosphere.,
         Atmospheric radiation  received  at  the water  surface  is  also
         expressed  in terms of  the  Stetan-Boltzmann law,  but  includes
         an atmospheric radiation factor  to  allow for  vapor pressure
      \J Water  Loss  Investigations:   l.ake Hefner  Studies,  Technical
        Report, Geological  Survey  Professional  Paper  2^9,
                               59

-------
    and cloud cover.  It is estimated that only 97 percent of this
    radiation is absorbed by the water.

    Expressions for energy exchanges through long-wave radiation
    are usually combined into one which gives the effective back
    radiation.  Under certain circumstances, however, the exchange
    will result in a net gain in energy to the body of water.

    The equation is as follows:

        Q. = o.97cj~(TJ;  -  rj)  e

where  Q.^ = effective back radiation

       ^~ - Stefan-Boltzmann constant

       Tw = absolute temperature of the water

       & - atmospheric radiation factor

       Tfi = absolute temperature of air

        8 = time

c.  Qe - Energy Loss Due to Evaporation

    The evaporative process removes energy from the body of water
    in the form of latent heat of vaporization, the loss being
    identified by the term Qe.  This loss of energy is computed
    by means of an empirical equation which was found to agree
    with data collected at Lake Hefner.

    The equation for lakes and reservoirs is as follows:

       Q,e = 0.3*  U(ew - ea)  Q
                                 j
where  0_e = energy loss in Btu/ft

        U = wind speed in miles per hour

       ew = vapor pressure of water in saturated air at the
            temperature of the water surface, in millibars

       ea = vapor pressure of water in air, in millibars

        9 - time in hours

    This equation also gives the energy gain due to condensation.
    When applied to streams, a coefficient of 0.57 is used instead
                         60

-------
         0.3^,  to  allow  tor  the  night"  -ates  of  evaporation from
         streams.

     d.   Q_n -  Energy  Transfer  by  Conduction

         Conduction of  sensible  neat  occurs  between  the  body  of water
         and the air  whenever  a  temperature  difference exists  between
         them.   The rate ot  conduction depends  upon  the  temperature
         differential  and the  wind  velocity.   Energy change  is identi-
         fied  in the  energy-budge*  equation  by  the term  0_n.   Values
         are determined  with the aid  of the  Bowen  Ratio, which gives a
         relationship between  loss  of energy from  evaporation and  the
         loss  from conduction.   This  'atio,  combined with  the expres-
         sion  for  the energy loss by  evaporation,  states that:

            Qh -- 0.138  U(ca -  tw)   6
                                                           o
     where  Qh = Energy  transferred by conduction  in Btu/ft

            U   - Wind in miles per  hour

            ta = Temperature of  air in degrees  Fahrenheit

            tw = Temperature of  wate^ 
-------
     Data for the Umpqua River study was obtained from a number  of
agencies, both from published and unpublished records.  Where needed
information was not available it was secured through special  studies
which were undertaken.  Data was collected and processed as follows:

     A.  Meteorology

         1.  Solar Radiation

             Average solar radiation for Roseburg was obtained from
         Sternes radiation maps of Oregon.  Values were adjusted with
         the aid of Weather Bureau records for Medford, the nearest
         pyrheliometer station to Roseburg.  Average net daily values
         corrected for reflected solar radiation were computed for  10-
         day periods.  One-half of the daily radiation was  assumed  to
         occur between 0700 and 1200 hours and the other between 1200
         and 1700 hours.  Data was collected during the summer from
         experimental radiation integrators consisting of relatively
         small  insulated pots containing water.   Two of these inte-
         grators were located at pyrheliometer stations at  Medford
         and Corvallis while three were located in the Umpqua Basin,
         at Roseburg, Tiller and Riddle.  The data collected, which
         has not yet been evaluated, is expected to provide verifi-
         cation of radiation values adopted for the Umpqua  Basin.

         2.  Solar Altitude

             Mean altitude of the sun was determined for each ten-day
         period from declination values taken from the solar ephemeris
         corrected for the latitude at Roseburg.  Daily average was
         obtained by multiplying the mean altitude by 0.75-

         3.  Sky Cover

             Mean sky cover at Roseburg was obtained from Weather
         Bureau records, which gave the information in tenths of sky
         covered for the period between sunrise and sunset.  These
         values were assumed to hold for the period from midnight to
         midnight.  Values were average for ten-day periods.

         k.  Relative Humidity

             Relative humidity at Roseburg was taken from Weather
         Bureau records, and mean values were determined for  the
         periods 0000-0700, 0700-1200, 1200-1700 and 1700-2400
         hours for each ten-day period.

         5.  Mean Winds

             Mean wind speeds for Roseburg were taken from Weather

                               62

-------
         Bureau records.   Values in miles per  hour were  tabulated  for
         periods identical  with those adopted  for  relative  humidity
         values.

         6.   Air Temperature

             Using  Weather  Bureau records for  Roseburg,  average  air
         temperature values were determined for the  hours  0000-0700,
         0700-1200, 1200-1700,  and 1700-2400.   A set of  values was
         obtained for each  ten-day period.

         7'.   Barometric Pressure

             Barometric pressure for Roseburg  was  taken  from Weather
         Bureau records.

         8.   Evaporation

             A pan evaporation station was set up  at Roseburg in co-
         operation with several agencies and data  was collected  dur-
         ing the past summer.

     Tables containing meteorological and other data were prepared in
a form convenient for making energy-budget computations.  Table  1  is
one such table.

     B.  Reservoirs

         1.   Streamflow

             Streamflow data for the reservoir sites was obtained from
         U.  S. Geological Survey, Water Supply Papers.

         2.   Pool Elevation

             Depth-capacity curves prepared by the U. S. Army, Corps
         of Engineers, reservoir inflow rates taken from U.S.G.S.
         Water Supply Papers and reservoir release rates specified
         by the Corps of Engineers enabled monthly pool  elevations
         to be estimated.

         3.   Water Surface Area

             Monthly water surface areas were determined from Corps
         of Engineers' area-capacity curves and estimated pool ele-
         vations.
                              63

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                                                   TABIE 1
                                             MECBOBOIDGICAL MCA
PERIOD
Month
JUNE











JULY











msjss











Day
1-10



10-21



21-30



1-10



10-21



21-31



1.10



10-21



21-31



Hour
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
0000-0700
0700-1200
1200-1700
1700-2400
Qs*
Net Solar
Radiation
BTU/ftS
0
990
990
0
0
1040
1040
0
0
1090
1090
0
0
1170
1170
0
0
1090
1090
0
0
1110
1110
0
0
970
970
0
0
890
890
0
0
860
860
0
/3
Atmospheric
Badiation
Ebctor
.86
.85
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.86
.84
.34
.84
.84
.82
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.82
.82
.81
.82
.82
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.83
.84
.83
.84
.83
.84
ea .
Mean Vapor
Pressure
nib
12.5
12.4
13.6
13.4
12.3
12.4
12.7
13.4
12.7
12.6
12.9
13.3
12.3
13.3
13.0
13.1
13.1
14.2
13.9
13.8
12.6
13.6
12.2
13.3
11.9
13.0
12.7
12.8
12.1
13.0
11.9
13.1
11.8
13.0
12.2
12.9
U
Mean Wind
Velocity
ntpn
3
6
10
6
3
6
11
6
3
8
12
7
2
6
12
6
3
7
12
6
3
8
14
7
3
7
12
6
2
7
12
7
3
7
12
6
*a .
Mean Air
Temperature
53
64
72
61
54
65
73
62
55
66
76
64
55
69
81
66
57
71
85
69
E7
72
87
70
54
70
83
68
54
68
82
67
53
68
80
65
*  Total daily solar radiation is divided equally between the two daylight periods.

-------
    *+.  Inflow Temperature

        Temperature of reservoir inflow was taken  from records  of
    hydrothermographs stationed at the reservoir  sites.
C.  Streams
    1.  Streamflow

        U.S.G.S.  Water Supply Papers provided flow data  based  on
    gaging records.  Flow in ungaged tributaries was estimated on
    the basis of  drainage areas and unit yield rates.

    2.  Water Temperature

        Stream temperature data was taken from hydrothermograph
    records.  Instruments were located on the principal  streams in
    the Umpqua Basin,  the earliest installations taking  place  in
    I960.

    3  Time of Travel

        Time of travel was determined in the field for three dis-
    charge values for each stream except Calapooya Creek.  Only
    one determination was made for this stream.  Discharge values
    were selected for damsites to represent, as far as possible,
    the range of  reservoir releases adopted for the temperature
    study.  Travel time was measured with the aid of a tracer1
    technique.  A fluorescent dye, Rhodamine-B, was introduced
    into a stream at a known time and point of introduction and
    the time taken by the dye to reach downstream points was
    observed.  Sampling was done at these points with a fluoro-
    meter.  Stream gaging measurements were carried out simul-
    taneously so that travel time was related to stream dis-
    charge for every reach.  A plot for each of the reaches was
    then made of travel time versus discharge.  From these plots
    travel time val ues were taken for stream discharge rates
    equal to reservoir release rates adopted for the study.
    These values enabled curves to be drawn of elapsed time
    versus stream miles for constant discharge rates equal to
    reservoir release rates.  Figure 1 illustrates curves plot-
    ted for the South Umpqua River for the discharge rates of
    700, 1200, and 1600 cubic feet per second.

    k.  Water Surface Area

        Water surface areas were determined for each river mile
    from a number of aerial photographs taken at different times.
    With the ai'd of U.S.G.S. Water Supply Papers pertaining to
                         65

-------
CO
tj
0)

H
(V
CD
&
(0
H
W
    30
    20
    10
      0
                70     60      50     40      30


                           Miles Above Mouth
                                                     20
        10
                                                                        700 cfs



                                                                       1200 cfs


                                                                       1600 cfs
            FIGURE 1 - Time of Travel of South Umpqua River
 -p
(0 0)
0! 0)
  
-------
         the time of each photograph,  stream discharge values were
         estimated for each river  mile to correspond with  each  sur-
         face area determination,   Plots were made for each  river
         mile of surface area versus discharge,   from these  plots,
         surface area values were  taken off for  the constant stream
         discharge rates adopted for the study,   Curves were then
         drawn of cumulative water su-face area  versus stream mile.
         Figure 2 illustrates the  curves prepared fo-~ the  South
         Umpqua River.

                     Reservoir  Temperature

     Temperature analysis of reservoirs required a knowledge of 'their
physical characteristics and method or operation.  The proposed reser-
voirs were relatively deep, depths at  full pool  being 380, 210  and  220
feet respectively for Tiller, Galesville and Hinkle reservoirs. An-
nual regulation cycle called for evacuation in the fall to provide
storage space for flood control-  Reservoirs were to be filled  during
winter and spring, the period of minimum stream temperature, and were
expected to attain full  pool elevations by the end of spring.   During
summer, reservoirs were to be evacuated, withdrawals being made from
zones of relatively cool water  for purposes of srream temperature
control.

     Very little is known about changes in thermal conditions within
deep reservoirs, particularly when operated for modification and con-
trol of stream temperature.  Several assumptions had, therefore, to be
made in undertaking temperature evaluations 'o'  reservoirs in the
Umpqua Basin.  At the beginning of summe1", each reservoir  wa* assumed
to have a constant temperature throughout, with the exception of rhe
surface layer, which will be discussed presently.  With the advance
of summer, the development and downward movement of thermoclines were
assumed.  Validity of this assumption is borne out by records avail-
able for comparable reservoirs.

     Two factors were recognized as the primary causes of reservoir
temperature changes during summer  months.  They were:

     1.  Energy exchange processes  identified in the  energy-budget
         equation; and

     2.  Evacuation of water from selected elevations  in  the reservoir

     Analysis of these two factors, therefore, formed the basis of
temperature determinations  in the Umpqua  reservoirs.  Thermal  condi-
tions were determined for each of the Summer months for various reser-
voir depths, for selected meteorologic and hydrologic conditions and
for selected withdrawaI schedules.

-------
     Evaluation of the energy-budget equation required a knowledge of
reservoir surface temperature.  No temperature values were available
for similar reservoirs that would have served as a guide.  In arriving
at a reasonable assumption, it was argued that, because of the slow
rate of heat transfer by conduction, reservoir surfaces responded di-
rectly to meteorological  conditions regardless of reservoir depths.
From the temperature standpoint, the surface layer of a reservoir was,
therefore, assumed to be analogous to a shallow pond exhibiting no
thermocline characteristics.  Temperature in such a body of water is
known to be ambient, following the diurnal meteorologic cycle.  Surface
temperatures of the reservoirs were, therefore, assumed to correspond
to the ambient temperatures of shallow ponds subject to the same mete-
orological conditions,  This assumption was not expected to cause any
significant errors in energy-budget computations for reservoirs.  In
the absence of temperature observations for shallow ponds in the Umpqua
Basin, values were taken from hydrothermograph records for Cow Creek
where thermal conditions, in the summer, were known to approximate
those governing ponds.

     Gain in energy for the reservoir was determined for each ten-day
period by the energy-budget equation.  Computations were made on the
basis of the four elements into which a 24-hour period was divided so
as to allow for the diurnal cycle.  A sample computation is given in
Table 2.  Energy gain for each month was obtained by totaling the gains
for the appropriate ten-day periods.

     Reservoir gain in energy for  each of the months of June, July,
August and September was then distributed within the reservoir by depth
so that resulting temperature-depth curves were comparable to curves
available for certain western Oregon reservoirs.  A trial -and-error
procedure was adopted for this purpose   Changes in reservoir thermal
structure resulting from the energy exchange processes at the surface
were thus determined.  A typical  temperature-depth curve is illustrated
in Figure 3 which shows average thermal conditions in Tiller Reservoir
at the beginning of July.

     Modifications to thermal  struc'ore resulting from reservoir with-
drawals were determined by a simple procedure-  Water withdrawn from a
certain elevation was assumed to be ar the temperature prevailing at
that elevation at the time of withdrawal.  Knowledge of the quantity
and temperature of water withdrawn during each of the summer months
permitted the correction of temperature-depth curves, which had been
prepared as described in the previous paragraph,  The procedure is
illustrated in Figure U.   The modified temperature-depth curve for a
given month,  used in conjunction with the capacity-depth curve for
the reservoir, enables determination of tne quantity and temperature
of water available in storage for  temperature control during the fol-
lowing month.
                              68

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                                   FOE TIIJJTR KESEEVOm
                                    Period Tuly  1 -  10
TIME
(for ten days) hours
EESEEVOIH
Volume ac. ft.
Surface Area acres
Inflow ac. ft.
Ttelease ac. ft.
TEMPERATURE
Inflow  F
Be lease  F
t^ (Surface)  F
SOLAE RADIATION
Qs (Table 1.) BTU/ft2
I0WG WAVE HAPIATION
tw (Surface), " F
ta ITatle 1.)  F
B (Table 1.1 1
Q nours
0^ BTU/ft2
EVAPORATION
U (Table 1.) umh
&w ,  m
e^ (Table 1.) nb
6 hours 0
Qe BTU/ft~
OONWETION
U (Table 1.) aroh
ta (Table 1.)  " F
t^ (Surface) a F
6 hours
Qh BTU/ft2
EMEFGY GA1K
a -
69
69
50
0




420
61
12,180
2,500
45
-32,500



50
745

12
26.7
13.0
50
3,905

12
81
72
50
-745




420
66
14,280
2,500
45
-32,500




66
45
74

0

74
66
S3
70
2,065

C
28.G
13.1
70
3,710

C,
GG
74
70
46E




580
GG
19,720
3,500
45
-45, BOO



0000-2400
240

350,000
2,850
2,000
12,000





23,400




0,685





10,495




10

fi,210
283,000


63,000

-15C,000
93,000

190,000
THKMHi UNIT = (Joantily of heat required  to raise  one acre-fooi- of water 1 F.
                                            69

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     1300
t-4
CO


H
UJ
UJ
     1200
w
    1100
    1000
                   Pool  elevation
                            50                   60

                            TEMPERATURE  IN  F
                                                 70
        FIGURE 3.
Estimated temperature gradient of Tiller Reservoir
for July 1st.
                                  70

-------
pw
53

H
S
    1300 
    1200
     1100
     1000
           Change in pool elevation due to withdrawal
Temperature gradient
assuming no withdrawal
                                        Temperature gradient
                                        allowing for withdrawal
                   Depth and elevation
                   of layer withdrawn
                             50                  60

                             TEMPERATURE  IN  F
         FIGURE  4.   Effect of  reservoir withdrawal upon temperature
                    gradient.
                                 71

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                       Stream  Temperature

      Computational  procedure  for  streams differed  in some respects from
 that  used for  reservoirs  to allow for differences  in their  physical
 characteristics.   For  a stream,  it was  necessary to determine maximum
 and minimum daily  temperatures of parcels of water from  the moment they
 left  the  reservoir  to  the time they reached the mouth of the stream.
 Energy  exchange processes had, therefore, to be evaluated for relatively
 short periods  so that  the response of the stream to diurnaJ variations
 of meteorological  influences  was  accurately ascertained.  Allowance had
 to be made for stream  velocity and changes in  stream width  since they
 determined the period  and areal extent  of exposure of the body of water
 moving  downstream.

      To satisfy these  requirements and  yet keep the number  of energy-
 budget  computations  to a  minimum,  the following time intervals were
 adopted:   0700-1200, 1200-1700, 1700-2^00 and  2M)0-0700  hours.  The end
 of the  second  period marked the point of maximum daily temperature while
 the end of the fourth  coincided with the minimum,

      Certain assumptions  were made in evaluating energy  changes for
 streams.   One  was that thermal gradients were  absent due to complete
 mixing  of  the  water.   Streambeds  and banks were assumed  to  have no in-
 fluence on the water temperature.  Energy contributions  by  thermal dis-
 charges,  biological and chemical   processes and the conversion of kinetic
 energy  to  thermal energy  were disregarded as being minor.

      Stream temperatures were determined for summer months  only, the
 period  of  critical  temperature.   The procedure is  illustrated in Table
 3  which shows  the evaluation  of the various terms  in the energy-budget
 equation  for a specific case.  The example deals with a  hypothetical
 discharge  of 1200 cubic feet  per  second from Tiller Reservoir entering
 the South  Fork Umpqua  River at 0700 hours.  A  probable gain in temper-
 ature of  5-7F. is indicated  by the computation, when temperature of
 water released is *t5F. and meteorological  conditions are those nor-
 mally encountered during  the  period July 1 to  10.

      With  the  aid of specially prepared nomographs and tables, it was
 possible  to expedite the  procedure illustrated in  Table  3  Reference
 should  also be  made to a  computer program set up at Oregon State Uni-
 versity as  part of this study for solving the energy-budget equation
 for streams.

      Table  3 indicates that the average water  temperature, for the
 reach of river  being analyzed, has to be estimated at the very com-
 mencement of the analysis.  This   temperature is needed for evaluation
 of the terms Qk, 0^ and Qji in the energy-budget equation.  In cases
where the computed average differs substantially from the estimated
 value, the  energy-budget  computation is repeated,   using a new estl-
                              72

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                                  TABLE 3

                         ENERGY BUDGET COMPUTATION
                           FOR SOUTH UMPQUA RIVER
STREAM SECTION
          Beginning River Mile	     77.0
          Ending River Mile (from Figure 1)	     69.0

PERIOD
          Month	     July
          Day	     1st - 10th
          Hour	     0700 - 1200
           9	 .     5 hrs

DISCHARGE
           Q. (average for Stream Section)	     1200 cfs

TEMPERATURE
          Initial	     1+5F.
          tw (estimated average for section) 	     U8F.

SOLAR RADIATION
          0_s (Table 1)	     1170 BTU/ft2

LONG WAVE RADIATION
          tw	     I*8F.
          ta (Table 1)	     69F.
            (Table 1)	     83%
          0	     5 hrs
          0_b	     ]k BTU/ft2

EVAPORATION
          U  (Table 1)	     6 mph
          CM	     11.3 mb
          ea (Table 1)	     13.3 mb
          8.	     5 hrs
          O.g	Jk BTU/ft2

CONDUCTION
          U  (Table 1)	     6 mph
          ta (Table 1)	     69F.
          tw	     **8F.
          9	     5 hrs
          0_h	    -8? BTU/ft2

TOTAL ENERGY GAIN
          0_s	     1170 BTU/ft2
          Qb	i    . \k
          0-e	33
          0-h	     87
          0.	     1277 BTU/ft2

TOTAL TEMPERATURE GAIN
          Q	     1277 BTU/ft2
          A  (Figure.2)	     6.7 X 10$ sq ft
          d	     1200
          9	     5 hrs
          At	     5.7F.

FINAL TEMPERATURE	     50.7F.

          " Q.e  in this case is energy gain due to condensation
                                     73

-------
mated value.   In  the  example  shown  in  Table  3 the assumed average of
kQF. is  in  close agreement with the computed average of k7.8F.

     Table 3  shows further that the value of Q.t  is determined firstly
for  a water  surface of unit area, in this instance a square foot.  This
value is  then  applied to the  surface area of the reach of stream under
analysis, 6.7  x 10 square feet in the example.  The final temperature
in one  reach,  50.7F. in Table 3> is raken as the initial temperature
for  the next  lower reach.

     In the  Umpqua River studies, temperatures were computed for reser-
voir releases  occurring at 0700, 1200, 1700 and  2400 hours.  For each
stream, computed  temperatures were plotted against river miles and
curves  drawn connecting maximum and minimum points, r-espectivel y -,  These
curves were  taken as  the limits of the diurnal temperature range for the
particular conditions considered.  It  is proposed to develop such curves
for  three discharge values and an appropriate range of initial tempera-
tures with respect to each of the th^ee ^ese>-voi r s-  Curves are to be
plotted for average as well as critical yea^s for each ten-day period
from June 1  to August 31-  These evaluations have been held in abeyance
until field data  collected this summer becomes available-

     As mentioned earlier in the paper, a verificatfon study was under-
taken on the Willamette Coast Fork.  The purpose of the study was to
determine the  reliability of methodology adopted for temperature analyses
of streams.  Preliminary evaluations of data gathered for the Willamette
Coast Fork indicated close agreement between computed and observed stream
temperatures during the day.  At night, observed values were less than
computed values.  The study demonstrated the reliability of the method,
at least for the meteorological  and othe'  conditions experienced during
the study.

     There is considerable room fo<-  improvement  in the energy-budget
methodology as currently used for both reservoir and stream temperature
determinations.  A simplification in computational  procedure, which w'H
reduce man-hours without sacrificing accuracy, is particularly needed.
Current knowledge on evaporation from streams and on surface tempera-
tures in reservoirs appears to be inadequate t'or prec?se temperature
determinations.  The need exists for an expansion in the collection and
publication of meteorological  data req^i'-ed Tor energy-budget studies-
                       Acknowledgements

     The guidance and inspiration received from Malcolm H. Karr, Chief
Engineer of the State Water Resources Board of the State of Oregon,
under whose supervision the Umpqua Temperature Studies were carried out,
and the loyal  cooperation of Robert T. Evans and B'-uce A, Tichnor, who
assisted in the Computations, are gratefully ackmowledqed.

-------
DISCUSSION

Q..  Do you feel  that stream turbulence may have any effect on evapora-
    tion?

A.  Yes, because most of our equations have been obtained from lakes
    and the lakes, in general, may be fairly placid and of a given
    surface area.  We feel  that the river, in general,  is quite turbu-
    lent, having a very rough surface; in fact, most of our streams on
    the West Coast are for large distances white-water  rivers and we
    feel that the extra surface area which is involved  here will  be a
    considerable factor in increasing the evaporation above and beyond
    what is presently being estimated.

Q..  How do you justify the use of solar radiation data  from only one
    point when you are considering a whole basin or a length of stream
    maybe 70 or 80 miles long?

A.  Solar radiation is a function of cloud cover.  The solar radiation
    hitting a latitude would be constant, if the sky were clear.  We
    felt that, in the Umpqua Basin, Roseburg is centrally located in
    fhe area that we are considering, and it would provide us with an
    average value that could be attainable with the degree of accuracy
    that we are aiming at.

0_.  Do you believe that the use of pyrhel iometers would  be advantageous
    in the collection of solar radiation data  ro supplement  the read-
    ings at only one point in the basin under  investigation?

A.  We have had some experimental radiation  integrators  installed  in a
    number of places.  They are, you might say, modified Cummings  radi-
    ation integratorssmall  insulated pors.   One  is located in
    Corvallis alongside a pyrheliometer and  another one  at Medford,
    also alongside a pyrheliometer, and we have a  few  scattered in  the
    Umpqua Basin.  Unfortunately, we have not  yet  evaluated  this  data,
    but we hope that this will give us an indication of  whether our
    assumption or our adopted practice of using the Roseburg values
    are adequate.
                               75

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        TEMPERATURE PHENOMENA AND CONTROL IN RESERVOIRS

                      Jerome M. Raphael*


                           Abstract

     The variation of temperature in reservoirs with time and with dis-
tance from the surface can be predicted with confidence, using a heat-
budget approach, if proper account is taken of the varying influences
of meteorological phenomena, the geometry of the reservoir, the posi-
tion of the outlets, and the volume of the inflow and outflow.  The
reservoir can be considered to be made up of a number of horizontal
layers each having the average temperature of the portion of the tem-
perature gradient in that layer.  Heat moves into and out of the layer
chiefly by means or" water transported inro and out of the layer.  Some
heat is transferred between layers by conduction, which is another way
of saying molecular diffusion, but this amount is physically so small
in comparison with the amount of heat moved by mass transfer that it
can safely be neglected in any engineering computation.

     In the typical reservoir, water leaves the reservoir through an
outlet works or penstock.  The water that leaves the reservoir is drawn
not only from the layer directly in line with the outlet, but also to
some extent from layers above and below.  Any water drawn from a low
elevation must be replaced by waters from layers above, and in this
manner heat is transferred downward from the surface to lower-lying
layers.  Water flowing into the reservoir at a given temperature is
considered to dive down beneath warmer and lighter layers until it
hits a colder layer, and then to mix with this layer.

     At the surface itself, a tremendous amount of heat is transferred.
The primary agent here is solar -"adiation.  Incoming short-wave radia-
tion is attenuated by passage through rhe atmosphere, and diminished by
clouds and reflection from the surface of the reservoir.  The amount of
incoming -adiation  is dependent upon the hour of the day, the day of
the year, and the altitude and latitude of the reservoir.  The warmed
water surface radiates heat to outer space as long-wave radiation and
the atmosphere likewise radiates to the surface of the reservoir as
long-wave radiation.  The net interchange of long-wave radiation is
termed effective back radiation and is generally net radiation to
space.  Some heat is lost from the surface of the reservoir by evap-
oration, which is affected by the vapor pressure of the atmosphere,
the wind velocity and the temperature difference between water surface
     ""Professor of Civil Engineering, University of California,
Berkeley.
                              76

-------
and the air.  Some heat is gained t< om ihe atmosphere by direct conduc-
tion between an-  and water,   And *') ra I I y ,  some heat may be gained
directly from rainfall.

     In an engineering calculation of rhese surface temperature effects,
a finite surface layer muse  be considered.  Experience in swimming in
deep lakes has shown the great temperature differences between the water
at the immediate surface and that  lying only a few feet beneath the su'-
face.  However, it can readily be visualized that this daytime phenom-
enon must change greatly at  nighttime.  As air temper-ature decreases,
there will come a time when the surface skin of water is coole" than tne
air.  Thus the surface itself is cooled to a temperature slightly less
than the water immediately below it.   Being heavier, this water sink*
through rhe warmer water and the warmer water is  in turn cooled at the
surface.  Thus, there are set up local  convection currents which tend  to
stabilize a finite layer of water of nearly uniform density at the su--
face.  In calculations made using data obtained at Shasta Rese'voi-,
temperatures computed using a 10-foot surface layer corresponded most
closely to tempe-atures measured at the reservoir.  Use of a  thinne'
surface layer gave Temperature fluctuations which did not seem repre-
sentative of those measured.  Thus, a 10-t'oot surface laye-- has been
utilized in a number of predictions of reservoir  temperature,

     Time intervals for these predictions should  be as short  as practi-
cable if detail is needed of maximum and minimum  temperatures.  With 3-
hour intervals, diurnal variations are easily shown.  With daily in-
tervals, detail is lost, but averages are easily  obtained for gaging rhe
effect of various operating criteria on the temperature of the reserve"''

     Recognition of temperature as a parameter of water quality is so
recent a phenomenon that there are only a few engineering works designed
to deliver water at a predetermined temperature.  These usually involve
either a number of outlets at different elevations in a dam,  or a device
that can be used to mask off all inflow except ihat from an elevation  '>
the reservoir at the desired temperature.  It must be recognized that  a^
a corollary to this it is necessary to have practically continuous mon-
itoring of the variation of temperature with depth in the reservoir  in
order to be able to determine the quantities of water to draw at various
elevations.
                              77

-------
       METHOD OF COMPUTING AVERAGE RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE

                        Peter B. Boyer-


                   On Reservoir Temperatures

                         Introduce ion

     Recent emphasis on the effect of water temperature on fish, irri-
gation, and recreation led the Portland District, Corps of Engineers to
the examination and study of reservoir and river temperatures and re-
lated data.  The study is continuing, but sufficient progress has been
made to report on the analysis and results.  Specifically, this report
discusses the procedure used for reproducing or determining the month -
end average reservoir temperatures.  Essentially, the method consists
of solving a "heat-storage" equation, known also as "heat-balance" and
"energy-budget".  The equation is employed as a guide in keeping an
inventory of the basic data, assumptions, appraisals, and computations.
The terms of the equation are defined by the ordinarily observed mete-
orologic factors.  All work is conveniently arranged, symbolized, and
referenced in Table 1.
                Observed Reservoir Temperatures
              (Detroit and Lookout Point Projects)

     Since 195^, Portland District, U, S, Corps of Engineers has been
reading thermohms, installed on the upstream face of Detroit and Lookout
Point Dams, to obtain general information on the reservoir temperature
and specifically on the temperature of water entering the powerhouse in-
take.  The temperature's are recorded daily from August 1 to November 15
and weekly during the remainder of the year, between the hours of *t and
8 p.m.  For this study, it is assumed that the water temperature at a
thermohm equals that at the same level in other parts of the reser-
voir. J/ The observed temperatures for 1958 are plotted in three dif-
ferent forms, shown by Figures 1, 2, and 3  The patterns are typical
of other years.  Examination of the patterns reveals the following tem-
perature characteristics in Detroit and Lookout Point Reservoirs:
     * U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Portland.

     \J Dorena Reservoir is also equipped with thermohms at 10 feet
apart.  However,  water temperatures were observed only during 1951
and 1952.
                               78

-------
                                           TABLE 1.   KE3RODUCTIOH OP 1958 MOTH-HID AVSIAGE RESERVOIR IQIPHIATOREB,. DE2BOET HWJECT, OREGON

                                                         By Heat-Storage Equation:      T2 = (Si^i + I % - O T0 + 0.03 A H) /32
LUJE     SYMBOL               ITEM

  1          Si     Res. content
  2          T]_     Ave. Res. temp.
  3       SJL 1i     Res. heat content

  1*          I      Inflov
  5          TI     Av. Inflow temp.
  6        I TI     Heat Inflow

  7          0      Outflow
  8          T0     Av. outflow teup.
  9        O T0     Heat outflow

 10                 Sky cover by clouds
 11          P      Possible sunshine
 12          Si     Incident solar rad.
 13          Sr     Reflect, (clear sky)
 11*        P Sp     (11) x (13)
 15          Sa     Absorbed, Si - P Sr

 16          Ta     Air temperature
 17          Tv     Water surf.  temp.
 18          Rn     Het. L.W. Rad.  Loss

 19                 Rain:   O.I or more
 20          Ep     Pan evaporation
 21          E      Res.    "
 22          He     Evapo. heat, 1*9.5  E

 23       VTa          (17) -  (16)
 21*          V      Wind speed
 25          EC     Conv.  heat,  0.89

 26          H      (l5)-(UB)-(22)+(25)
 27          A      Res. surf, area
 23     .03 AH      Total over res. surf.
 29     ITi-OT0     (6) - (9)

 30       Sg T2     (3) + (28) + (29)
 31          82     Res. content
 32          Tg     Ave. res. temp. (30)7(31)
 33          Tg     Observed ave.
UNIT
SFM
op
SFM-F
SFM
F
SFM-F
SFM
F
SFM-F
Tenths
jt
Ly/dy.
"
n
tt
F
QF
Ly/dy.
Days
Inches.
"
Ly/day
Of
mph
Ly/dy.
'Ly/dy.
Acres
SIM-F
SFM-OF
SFM-OF
SFM
F
Op
JAH
1*170
to
l6.8
1*210
to
168.1*
1*800
to
192.0
9.2
17
99
38
6
93
to
1*1
103
Ifi 1
0.3
15
1
7.1*
6
-31
220O
-2.0
-23.6
11*1.2
3570
39-6
39.6
FEE
3559

11*1.2
5130
to
205.2
3820
.to
152.8
9.2
19
150
39
7

1*5
1*5
95
IB
0.7
35
0
6.3
0
13
2280
0.9
52.1*
191*. 5
1*662
1*1.7
1*1.6
MAR
1*662

191*. 5
1765
39
68.8
1015
1*1
1*1.6
7.8
1*1
280
38
Ifi
261*
1*3
1*5
106
10 i
2.25i
1.1*
69
2
7*3
13
76
2630
6.0
27.2
227.7
5**35
1*1.9
1*1.6
Affi
5435

227 .r
3350
1*1
137-1*
2250
1*1
92.3
7-5
1*7
395
to
19
376
1*7
1*9
109
17 a
2.2
109
2
7.6
13
11*5
2970
12.9
1*5.1
285.7
6535
1*3-7
1*3-7
MAY
6535

285.7
2to5
1*7
113.0
1650
1*2
69-3
6.5
57
512
1*6
26
1*36
61
61*
127
7
i*!s
223
3
6.3
17
119

11-9
l*l*.7
31*2.3
7317
1*6.8
1*6.9
JUN
7317

31*2.3
1635
51
83.1*
151*5
1*3
66.1.
7-2
1*7
1*78
1*7
22
1*56
63
66
129
ll*
5.1*0?.
1*.2
208
3
6.3
17
102
3500
10.7
17.0
370.0

50.0
50.0
JUL
71*03

370.0
925
56
51.8
1270
1*1*
55-9
1-9
93
707
1*5
1*2
665
71
75
1W*
10.022.
8.0
396
i*
7.0
25
100
31*50
10.1*
-l*.l
376.3
701*7
53.1*
5l. 2
ADD
70U7

376-3
655
57
37-3
970
1*7
1*5-6
2.6
87
623
1*1
36
587
71
76
151
2
7-7
383
5
7-0
31
22
3320
2.2
-8.3
370.2
6720
55-1
55-7
SEP
6720

370. C
635
53
33-7
1550
50
77-5
5-9
53
372
39
21
351
61
67
11*7
8
i*!i*
216
6
7-9
1*2
-56
3070
-5-2
-1*3.8
321.2
5810
55-3
56-7
OOP
5810

321.2
755
1*8
36.2
2165
55
119.1
5-9
53
273
38
20
253
56
62
11*1
3.02i
3.5
173
6
6.1
32
-93
2630
-7-3
-82.9
231.0
1*353
53-1
52.9
HOV
1*353

231.0
1*095
1*5

51*90
50

8.3
28
139
39
ll
126
W*
51
136
18 !
0.62i
1.0
50
7
8.5
61 
-119
2080
-7.1*
-90.2
133.1*
2895
1*6.1
1*5-3
DEC
2895

133-1*
3350
1*2
lto-7
31*55
1*3
li*8.6
9-1
19
87
35
7
80
Mt
1*5
101
^
0.5
25
l
6.6
7
-53
1800
-2.9
-7-9
122.6
2785
1*1*.0
1*3-0
RaURKS
At begin, of mo.
See line (32)
In 1OOO. See line (30)
During month
S
In 10OO. g S
During month q S
From fig. 1 or 2
In 1000.
UEWB, Salem, Ore.
From fig. 5
From n^. '> s EH
nearly same each yr. o M
Cor. for sky cover. m
Ave. for no.
Obs'd at Detroit Dam.  H
Assumed > i3
Rn^ly-0.87 Ra; table 2
Obs'd at Detroit Dam 
i Bedford . Detroit Dam  H
Assumed g g
Ave- for mo.

USWB, Salem, Ore. is 
Ave. for mo. 8 ss
Ave. for mo. at res. surf.
Ave. for mo.
In l(>oo.
In I'.XJO.
At end of mo.; In 1OOO.
At end of month
H ' N It II
Weighted by storage.

-------
                JAN      FEE
         MAR
          APR      MAY
JUNE      JULY
AUG      SEPT
                                                                                                         OCT      NOV
                                                                                                    DEC
oo
                 TOP OF DAM (ROADWAY)
                                                                   WATER SURFACE AT TIME OF
                                                                    OBSERVATION
              V
        x-MIN. FL.  CONTROL^ POOL^
                                                     x- 4. PENSTOCK INLET
                                                          LOWER OUTLET
       1200
               JAN
FEB
MAR        APR       MAY     JUNE      JULY        AUG      SEPT


   FIG.  1   WATER TEMPERATURE  AND PRECIPITATION,  DETROIT RESERVOIR,  ORE.
                                                                                                                    NOV
                                                                                                      DEC   1958

-------
       155P
       1500
CQ
 *

S

 *

EH
      itoO
oo  g
    I 1350
      1300
      1250
                         MAR. 28
                             I
                1*0
                                          APR. 28
                                                            UPPER OUTLETS
                                                       X	^^
                                                         LOWER OUTLETS
                                                          SUMMER & SPRING
                                                 I
                                                                                           NOV. 15
                                                                                                              SEPT 30
                                                                                                                       SEPT 15
                                                                                                             OCT. 31
                                                                                                     FALL
                        50  F       1^          50          60          70 F      ^0          50



                                FIG. 2   OBSERVED 1958 TEMPERATURE PROFILES,  DETROIT RESERVOIR,  ORE.
60
70 F

-------
            JAN     FEE      MAR      APR      MAY     JUNE     JULY      AUG      SEP      OCT      NOV      DEC
CD
             MAX. W.S. EL. 1568.8,  JUNE  8
             MIN. W.S. EL. 1M6.5,  DEC. 22
 AT WATER SURFACE  (ASSUMED)
    AT 10 FT. BELOW WATER SURFACE
              MEAN MONTHLY AIR TEMP. AT EL. 130  FT.-v
                                                                        AT  
-------
1.  During winter,  there is little or  no variation of  temperature
    with depth and  time.  This is the  rainy season when continuous
    and complete mixing takes place from repeated filling and
    emptying operations of the reservoir for flood control.   Mix-
    ing also takes  place by wave action and by the sinking of the
    surface water as it cools and increases in density.

2.  The alternate warming and cooling  of the reservoir surface is
    a daily occurrence, particularly during summer.  Estimates of
    heat flux indicate  that heat loss by outgoing radiation and by
    evaporation generally begins to exceed heat gain from solar
    radiation about two hours before sunset; the loss rate in-
    creases decidedly as night approaches and continues until
    about an hour after sunrise.

3-  The temperature of  the water below the sill of penstock inlet
    varies  little with  time.  This suggests that relatively little
    of the  discharge is drawn from below this  level.

k.  The temperature of  the  released water  is assumed  to equal that
    of the  water in the reservoir at a  level about 10  feet above
    the center  line of  penstock  inlet.

5.  Near the  surface,  the  reservoir starts to  warm in  March.  Sum-
    mer withdrawal of  cold water  (in excess of inflow) and contin-
    ued surface heating produce  steep  gradients  of temperature.
    The maximum surface temperatures occur late  in  July  or early
    in August.

6.  Temperature stratification  begins  with the warming of the
    reservoir surface  in early  March and continues through the
    filling and evacuation periods.

7.  By  the  end  of August  the cooling  rate at  the surface is  fast
    enough  to begin  reversing the temperature-depth  curve near  the
    surface.

8.  At  the  end  of November or early  in December  the  reservoir
    attains a near-isothermal  condition and remains  isothermal
    until  March when  surface warming  begins again.

9.  The average monthly temperature of the surface water is  not
    observed, but  it  appears to be general 1y. higher  than that of
    the air.

10.  It  is believed  that streamflow entering the reservoir sinks
    rapidly to  a  level  where the existing water has  the  same
    temperature,  particularly when the velocity is reduced to
     less  than one  foot a  second.
                          83

-------
                     Heat Storage Equation

     The heat content of a reservoir changes as a result  of the differ-
ence in the inflow and outflow of heat energy.   The increase is chiefly
due to:

     1.  Heat content of water entering the reservoir,  and

     2.  Net heat gain from Solar and Sky radiation.

and the decrease in heat content results mostly from  loss of heat:

     1.  In water leaving the reservoir,

     2.  By long-wave radiation, and

     3.  By evaporation.

In addition, a reservoir gains sensible heat by convection when its
surface is colder and loses heat when the surface is  warmer than the
air.

     The Heat-Storage Equation,  suggested for computing the average
reservoir temperature at end of  a selected time interval, is expressed
in the form:

     Eq. (1)  S2T2 = S]Ti + I Tf - 0 To + C A H

     where    $2*2  ^s t'"ie Prot*uct f tne volume of water in the rese'-
                    voir and its average temperature  at end of the
                    selected time interval;

              SjTj  is a similar product at the beginning of the time
                    interval;

              I T^  is the product of the reservoir inflow and its
                    temperature;

              0 TO  is the product of the reservoir outflow and its
                    temperature;

            C A H   is the quantity of heat entering  or leaving the
                    reservoir surface, A being the area,  C a dimen-
                    sional  constant; and

     Eq, (2)        H = Sa - Rn  - He * HC

     with       H   representing the net rate of heat flow across the
                    reservoir surface,
                             81*

-------
            S=  the absorbed solar and sky radiation,
             a

            R   the net loss of heat by long-wave radiation,
             n

            He  the heat loss by evaporation, and

            HC  the relatively small heat gain (or loss) by conduc
                tion.

    The following figure illustrates the terms of Eqs. (1) and (2)


                *. -   Bh -  He  Hc)  CA^ CAH
     The net effect of the following  heat  factors is considered  negli
gibly small  and a reliable appraisal  exceedingly difficult,  if  not
impossible:

     1.   Ground heat,

     2.   Bank storage and its heat content,

     3.   Evaporation of residual  ground and  surface moisture as
         reservoir is drawn down,

     k.   Shading effect of canyon walls and  trees,

     5.   Heating (or cooling) effect  of the  surrounding terrain  by
         long-wave radiation and by reflected short-wave radiation
         reaching the reservoir surface,

     6.   Heating effect of possible chemical and biological  changes
         and density currents in the  reservoir.
                              85

-------
     Their  introduction would only compound further the uncertainties
 involved in the evaluation of the terms of the heat-storage equation,
with resultant decrease of confidence in the reliability of the method.
Fortunately, the cooling effect of some items on the list is compen-
sated by the heating effect of others.  They are omitted from the heat-
storage equation in this analysis.


                Evaluation of Terms in Eg. (1)

     Table  1 includes the working data, formulas, nomenclature, com-
putations, and references to sources used as aids for evaluating the
terms of Eq. (1).  The computed and observed values of month-end
average reservoir temperatures are shown on the last two lines in the
table.

     As noted in Figures 1, 2, and 3 during January and February, T] =
TQ = T2 = Tf = Ta,  approximately.  Therefore, these are the logical
months in which computation may be started.  Values of Si,  S-, 0, and
A are available from an actual reservoir regulation (or from an adopted
rule curve for regulation.)  Note that S2 and T2 at the end of a period
equal S]  and T]  at  the beginning of the succeeding period.

     In this verification study, the outflow temperature TQ was taken
from Figure 1  at a level 10 to 20 feet above the center of the penstock
inlet.  In a hypothetical study, To is generally specified or assumed
for each period.

     The average reservoir inflow temperature (Tj) for 1958 was avail-
able for the computation shown in Table 1.  If Ti is not available,  it
may be obtained from a graph of Tj = f (Ta), similar to that shown in
Figure k, constructed from observed river and air temperature data.

     If H, the net rate of heat flow at the reservoir surface, is in
gram-calories per square centimeter (langleys) per day, the total in
30 days over the entire water surface (A acres) is

     Eq.  (3)  30 x ^.05 x lO?  A H = 1.22 x 109 A H   calories

And since ^4.11 x 10'" calories will change the temperature of one cfs-
month volume of water by 1  degree Fahrenheit, the monthly change in the
heat content of the reservoir from surface heating,

     Eq.  (*0  C A H = 0.03  A H    cfs-month - F.

The basic data together with the computed values of the components of
the heat  f1ow  H across the reservoir surface are illustrated in Figure
8.
                              86

-------
                       ROGUE RIVER.  MAIN  STEM
oo
                           50          60          70
                   MEAN MDNTHLY AIR TEMPERATURE, F
                            MEDFORD, OREGOK
                                                                       6Q
                                                                     K
                                                                                    ROGUE RIVER AT LAUREIZURST
                                                                                          RIVER MILE
30          to          50          60
         MEAN MONTHLY AIR TEMPERATURE, F
                 PROSPECT, OREGON
                                    FIG. k   RIVER TEMPERATURE VS. AIR TEMPERATURE

-------
                Eva1uation of Terms In Eg. (2)

 1.   Sa,  the absorbed solar and sky radiation, Is determined from

     Eq.  (5)   Sa = Sf - P Sr I/

     in which  Sf is the solar and sky radiation, Incident on the reser-
                 voir surface.  It is obtained from Figure 5 which is
                 an adaptation of a nomograph by R. W. Hamon, L. L.
                 Weiss and W. T. Wilson /.

              Sr Is the reflected amount under a cloudless sky.  For
                 a given latitude, the monthly values of Sr are nearly
                 the same for each year.  Values of Sr for Detroit
                 Reservoir are found on line 13, Table 1.

               P is the percentage of possible sunshine duration.  In
                 this study P was estimated from Figure 5, using cloud
                 cover for a nearby Weather Bureau station.

 2.   Rn,  the net long-wave radiation heat loss, is determined from

     Eq.  (6)  Rn = Rw - 0.87 Ra = 1.1331 (lO'8)  /~(TW + 1*60)U  -

                                                  0.87 (Ta + 460/*_7
or
    Rn = 60 + 6.2 T  - 5.k T  which is a close approximation for tem-
peratures between 30 and 85P.  In Eq. (6) Rw and Ra are the "black
body" I/ radiations at water surface temperature TW and air temperature
Ta, respectively.  Values of R and 0.87 R are found in Table 2, together
with an example which shows the use of the table for estimating Rn.  If
not available, TW and Ta must be estimated.  In this study, T. was ob-
served at project headquarters; but Tw had to be appraised.  (Throne i+/
suggests Tw = 1.05 Ta.  At Lake Hefner the observed monthly averages of
Tw for the months of October through May were from 1 to 5C. less than
Ta, and for the months of June through September they were 1 to 2OC.
more than Ta.)
    \J In view of the complexity and uncertainties involved in the
appraisal of unobserved elements, one may be justified in ignoring the
reflected solar radiation term in Eq. (5), but compensating for It by
increasing the coefficient in Eq. (7) by about 10 percent.  That Is,
He + P Sr - 55 E approximately.
    2/ Monthly Weather Review, June 195**.
    3/ R =crt^ = 8.26 (10-")  t1* ly/min.  P. 38, compend. of Meteor.,
1951.   (t in OK).
    V How to Predict Lake Cool Ing Action, by R. F. Throne, Sept.,
19517 POWER.

-------
       TOO
GO
VO
PERCENT
    20
                                                                     COVER  (SUNRISE TO SUNSET)
                                                                                   60          80
                                                   100
MONTH
JAN
FEE
MAR
APR
MAY
JUN
JUL
AUG
SEP
OCT
NOV
DEC
PERCENT OF
0 10 20
+U
+3
-1
-2
-k
-5
-5
-U
-2
0
+2
+k
+3
+3
-1
-2
-3
-U
-4
-3
-2
:
+2
+3
+3
+2
-1
-1
-3
J*
-3
-3
-1
6
+1
+3
POSSIBLE SUNSHINE
30 Uo 50 60 70
+2
+2
-1
-1
-2
--
-3
-2
-1
0
+1
+2
+2
4-2
-1
-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-1
:
+1
+2
+2
+1
0
-1
-2
-:
-2
-2
-1

+1
+2
+1
+1

-1
-1
-2
-2
-1
-1
0
+1
+1
+1
+1
^
0
-1
-1
-1
-1
-1
0
0
+1
                                                                                                             90
                                                        CORRECTION TO REDUCTION FACTOR
                                                                                            NOTE:  - TO FIND AVERAGE DAILY
                                                                                            INSOLATION FOR AUGUST WHEN AVE.
                                                                                            CLOUD COVER IS 52%, FOLLOW ARROWS
                                                                                            AND READ 1+63 LY/DAY.  THE RE-
                                                                                            DUCTION FACTOR (-2) IS TAKEN FROM
                                                                                            TABLE.
                                   FIG. 5   DIAGRAM FOR  ESTIMATING  INSOLATION IN LATITUDE ^5  N.

-------
                                                     -8             4
       TABLE 2.   LONG WAVE RADIATION, R  1.1331 (10  ) (T +  460 ) ,  Ly/day


                     (Ly - Langleys = cals./cm^ =3.69 BTU/ft^)
Temp.
Op
25
26
2?
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
^3
44
Ly/day
R
624
629
634
640
645
650
655
66l
666
672
677
632
638
694
699
705
710
716
722
728
0.87 R
543
547
552
557
561
566
570
575
579
585
589
593
599
6o4
603
613
6lS
623
623
633
Tenp.
OF
45
46
46
43
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
Ly/day
R
734
739
745
751
757
673
769
775
781
787
793
800
806
812
808
825
831
837
844
850
0.87 R
639
643
643
653
659
664
669
674
679
685
690
696
701
706
712
7^
723
728
734
740
Teujp.
op
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
7*
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
Ly/day
R
857
863
870
877
883
890
897
904
910
917
924
931
938
945
952
959
966
973
981
988
0.87 R
746
751
757
763
768
774
780
786
791
798
804
810
816
822
828
834
840
847
853
860
Temp.
op
85
86
87
38
89
90
91
92
93
9U
95
96
97
98
99





Ly/day .
R
995
1003
1010
1017
1025
1032
1040
1047
1055
1063
1070
1078
1086
1094
1102





0.87 
366
873
879
885
892
898
905
911
93fl
925
931
938
9^5
952
959





Example;  Net Long Wave Radiation Heat Loss,  Rn = RW - 0.87


  Given;  Tw - 60 P;   Ta  55 F


   Find:  Ry  825;    0.87 Ra  690   Ly/day from table.


          RJJ - 825 - 690 = 135   Ly/day
                                    90

-------
       In  Eq.  (6) the coefficient 0.87 represents the monthly ratio of the
 atmospheric  to -black-body" radiation at Ta.  Actually, this ratio varies
 with  loca]_ humidity and cloudiness I/ (amount, height, type, and thick-
 ness), smoke and dust level of the air.  West of the Cascade Ranqe, it
 vanes from about 0.82 in summer to 0.8? in winter-a relatively narrow
 range.   The effectiveness of the incoming long-wave radiation is furthe'
 reduced  by the reflectivity (0.03) of water %.  The reason for using
 the upper limit of these ratios is to compensate for taking 1.0 as the
 emissivity coefficient for water instead of 0.97, commonly used.  This
 modification eliminates the effort required to evaluate the local  humid-
 ity and  cloudiness which are not ordinarily available.  On thTTTubjecf,
 E. R. Andersen / concludes that:

      "Empirical  relationships between atmospheric radiation and local
 vapor pressure may be used if 10 percent accuracy is acceptable, pro-
 vided the air mass is similar to that of the area where the original
 observations  were recorded.   For other  areas,  with  no consideration of
 air masses involved,  the accuracy  of  the relationships is  more  question.
  u  .' "  j.'  !    '  T obtain more  accurate  methods  of determining  atmos-
 pheric radiation,  in  terms  of  more easily available parameters,  it  will
 be necessary  to  consider  the total  vapor content  of the atmosphere  as
 the moisture  variable,  rather  than  the  local  vapor  pressure."

      "Without taking  into  account  the local  moisture-temperature dis-
 tribution with height, we  should expect  nothing better  than  a rough
 approximation of  the  downward  atmospheric radiation  in  the absence  of
 clouds,"  says J. G. Charney  I/.

 3.  _ He,  the  evaporation heat  loss, takes place mostly during rainless
 periods when  surface-water temperature is within 42-80F,  In this
 range, the reservoir  loses approximately  1485  (varying from  1473 to
 1499)  calories of heat per inch depth of  water evaporated from each
 square centimeter.  Letting  E be the evaporation in  inches during a
 selected  period of t days, the average daily rate of heat loss by evao-
 oration He is 1485 (E/t).  And for t = 30 days:

     Eq.  (7)   He = 49.5 E        iy/day
     I/ U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper 270, Water Loss Investigation;  Lake
Hefner Studies. Base Data Report. ~~           '	
   .  y PP- 90-99,  U.S.G.S.  Professional  Paper 269,  Water Loss Investi-
gations;  Lake Hefner Studies.  1954.
     3/ Sec.  IV, Handbook of Meteorology,  1st edition,  1945.
                               91

-------
      In  this study, the monthly values of reservoir evaporation  E are
 estimates, using as guides  the pan evaporations observed at U. S.
 Weather  Bureau  stations in  the vicinity, the number of rainy days, and
 the monthly values of  lake  or reservoir to pan evaporation ratios sum-
 marized  on page 1UO of U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 269,
     Of course, such appraisal of E cannot be considered objective, but
one cannot do otherwise when required data are not available for deter-
mining with confidence the regional constants and computing evaporation
by the generally accepted Meyer formula, as Marciano and Harbeck I/ did
and derived:

     Eq. (8)   E, = 0.00^5 U (ew - ea)        cm/day

in which U is the wind speed in mph and (e^ - ea) is the vapor pressure
difference, in millibars, between reservoir surface and air.

*t.   Hc, the conduction of sensible heat, which is relatively small in
this case, was estimated from:

     Eq. (9)   Hc = 0.89 U (Tw - Ta)          1 y/day

derived from the Bowen ratio  '
                     P (tw - ta)
     Eq. (10)  H  = B
               He    1000 (^ - ea)

by substituting Ej/0. 00**5 U for (ew - ea) from Eq. (8), 0.61 for B8,
1000 for the atmospheric pressure P, (5/9) (Tw - Ta) for (ty, - ta),
and 585 E!  for He.

     U and TW in Eq. (9) are only appraisals, based on observed values
at a meteorologic station in the vicinity of the reservoir.  TW - Ta is
the temperature difference in F. between water surface and air, and
tw - ta in Eq. (10) is a similar difference in oc.

     The working equation used as guide for estimating the monthly aver-
age flow of heat at the reservoir surface was:

     H = Sj - Psr - (Rw - 0.87Ra) - ^9-5E - 0.89U (Tw - Ta) by/day

But  H = Si - (60 + 6.2TW - 5.**Ta) - 55E - 0.89U (Tw - Ta)
     I/ P. 67, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 269, Water Loss Investiga-
tions? Lake Hefner Studies, 1951*.
     2/ P. 104, U.S.G.S. Professional Paper 269, Water Loss Investiga-
tions, Lake Hefner Studies, 1951*-
                              92

-------
was found to be a satisfactory app^oximati on.   The latter may  be used
when one cannot evaluate with confidence the reflected solar radiation
and the emissivity of the air,  Furthermore, the latter is also a more
suitable form for a digital compute1".
                          Appli cat ion

     Following the verification step described in this report,  the hear
storage equation was applied for estimating the month-end average tem-
perature of water in a proposed reservoir during a critical  year of low
runoff and above-normal  summer-air temperature.  A chart showing the
temperature variation with depth and time, similar to Figure 1, was
drawn in such a manner that the weighted average temperature at the
of each month equalled the computed month-end reservoir temperature.
Of course, the assumed monthly average reservoir-surface temperatures
and the adopted 'design temperatures of the outflow were also employed
as guides in drawing the  isotherms.
                          Future Work

     As time permits, efforts will be made to simplify the procedure, to
increase the reliability or confidence in the appraisal of unavailable
but necessary factors, and shorten the unit time from  30 to 10 days o"
less.  Exploratory statistical analysis is under way to find a relax io--'-
ship between the heat content of a layer of water in the reservoir and
the pool elevation at the end of the month.  Such a relationship, if
satisfactory, will serve to distribute the computed month-end average
temperature throughout the depth of the reservoir with more confidence

     Water surface temperature, which  is not available, makes the task
of evaluating long-wave, evaporation, and convection'heat terms of Eq
(2) very difficult.   Plans a~e ready to instrument Lookout Point,
Detroit and Fern Ridge Reservoirs for  the purpose of assembling suffi-
cient surface-water  temperatures which can be studied  in relation to
the solar-radiation  estimates or to air temperature and land pan evap-
oration, ordinarily  observed at the project.
                          Conclusion

     This  is an office progress  report on  the analysis  of  Lookout Point
and Detroit Reservoir water  temperatures collected  since  195^ by the
Portland Office of the U. S. Corps of Engineers.  The month-end average
reservoir  temperatures have  been reproduced with acceptable  reliability,
using the  heat-storage equation  as a guide, and the procedure was ap-
plied in estimating  the  temperature pattern in several  proposed reser-
voirs during critical years  of low runoff  and above-normal  summer tem-
perature.

                               93

-------
      The most difficult task  is the numerical evaluation of the heat
flow  across the reservoir surface because of the uncertainties in-
volved  in the conversion of the ordinarily observed meteorologic ele-
ments at some Weather Bureau  station to those over the reservoir.
Considerable judgment and trial-error method must be exercised In the
appraisal of the heat terms in Eq. (2).  This task will continue to
be difficult until the reservoir surface temperature, evaporation,
distribution of ,the local humidity, wind and air temperature are in-
dexed to a satisfactory degree of approximation to the ordinarily ob-
served  elements at a Weather  Bureau station and the short-wave and
long-wave radiation can be determined with confidence for cloudy sky
conditions.

      As noted in Figure 6, the relative magnitudes of the inflow and
outflow have greater influence on the average temperature of the water
in Detroit Reservoir than the heat flow across the reservoir surface.
Near  the surface, however, the change in water temperature is almost
entirely due to heat exchange taking place at the water surface-air
interface.

      The recent emphasis on water quality demands continued effort to
close the gaps in observational data and analysis leading to the sim-
plest procedure possible for satisfactory estimates of reservoir and
river temperatures.
                        Acknowledgment

     The aid given by C. Pedersen, Chief, Water Control Section, in
reviewing this paper, is gratefully acknowledged.  The assistance of
Orville Johnson (Hydr. Engr.) in collecting, processing, and charting
the basic data is also appreciated.  Reservoir temperature data are
collected by project personnel under the supervision of Donald Heym
and Donald Westrick, the Project Engineers for Lookout Point and
Detroit Reservoirs.

-------
   1400.	_                      M     J     J     A     S     0    _N	D.
             I            I     ~T~   ~T~   ~T~   ~T~   "~T~   "T~   ~~T~   ~~T~
   300
                                                   [Ti - OT0 + 0.03 AH
   200
   .100

        -2.O
                                      INFLOW IIEAT,
                         SURFACE HEAT, J . i H AH
                                                        - S.Z   -7.3  -7.4
1
  -100
  -200
  -300
                                                ^-OUTFLOW IfEAT, OT(
  -UOO
   -I	1	1	1      ''      I      I
J	L
'           MAMJJAS

                                 1958

       FIG. 6   RELATIVE MAGNITUDES OF HEAT TERNE IN EQ. (l)
                                                                0     N     D
                                      95

-------
6o
         I      i
55
50
                                   Observed
                                 Compu-ted
35
           Source:   Ta~ble 1
               I	I
                  M
M
                                                                  N
                                     1958
                FIG.  7    COMPUTED & OBSERVED MDNTH-END AVERAGE
                            RESERVOIR  TEMPERATURES
                                96

-------
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-------
  SOME OBSERVATIONS OF COLUMBIA RIVER AND RESERVOIR BEHAVIOR
                     FROM HANFORD EXPERIENCE

                          R. T. Jaske*
     Considerable interest in reservoir behavior has been generated as
a result of the desire to extend the purposes of impoundments to include
regulation of downstream water quality.  Churchill ]_/ on a previous oc-
casion has stated, based on his 26 years' experience, "It can be con-
cluded that water control structures may exert a profound influence dur-
ing warmer months of the year on water temperature of both impounded and
released waters.  By understanding the forces that control these influ-
ences, advantage can be taken of the desirable effects, and the less de-
sirable effects can be controlled or perhaps avoided."  In our own expe-
rience with Lake Roosevelt and the Columbia River we have come to an
identical conclusion, although from an entirely different set of circum-
stances.

     Where Churchill and other investigators have dealt with large im-
poundments on streams of relatively low flow, the Columbia River system
of dams, with the exception of Grand Coulee, is a system where daily
through-put is a significant fraction of reservoir capacity.  In some
projects, such as Rocky Reach, Rock Island and Priest Rapids, this could
involve as much as 30 percent or more of the available storage.  As a
result, despite heads ranging to 90 feet, we find little effective strat-
ification.  Rather,  the stream has been slowed and subjected to in-
creased exposure to solar radiation, heat transfer and bank flow effects
with the net effect of a persistent increase in temperature over the
natural conditions.   Attempts to explain these effects have not fully
yielded to rational  explanation although Raphael / has pointed a way
evolved from earlier work by Anderson,  et. al., at Lake Hefner and Lake
Mead.  Our measurements during 1962 and 1963 fail to confirm the values
predicted in the reports, although the general  method appears to have
merit.  Rather, it appears that Raphael's correlation requires the addi-
tional benefit of a broader meteorological data base and machine compu-
tation from an improved mathematical model.
     "Principal  Engineer,  Facilities Engineering Section, Irradiation
Processing Department,  General  Electric Company, Richland, Wash.
     I/ Symposium on Streamflow Regulation for Quality Control held in
Cincinnati, Ohio, April 3-5, 1963.
     2/ The Effect of Wanapum and Priest Rapids Dams on the Temperature
of the Columbia River,  September,1961.
                              98

-------
     The behavior of  Lake Roosevelt mo'-e closely resembles the  eastern
situation with the exception that the relatively high through-out  and
low BOD demand of tributaries currently results in little or  no effect
on dissolved oxygen.   Lake Roosevelt does,  however,  develop considerable
stratification, as much as 7 degrees to 9 degrees C. during August  and
September.  Temperature soundings show a characteristic slope of iso-
therms downward toward the 1030-foot discharge.  Correlation  of the data
from various stations suggests a discontinuity rising approximately ac-
cording to the one-third power of the distance from the outlets.  Fu--the
measurements in the unusual  year of 1963 indicate that as of  October  2f>,
the cooler inflow has failed to appear in the turbine discharge at the
rate estimated by displacement of withdrawn water, the net result  being
that discharges from Grand Coulee have remained relatively constant
through September and October    Ic might appear that, due to the dO>e--
ence in weather over the lake length and the sharp curvature of the old
stream bed, the lake is filling by displacement from The north rathe'
than the expected layer flow.  The data will be published by  the autho-
at a later date.

     Additional work by the Irradiation Processing Department  in suppo-:
of the river-cooling program will include attempts to derive a mathe-
matical model with computation in the JBM 7090 machine at Hanfordo  At
present, we are collecting the following data for the passive  record:

     1.  Continuous monitoring of temperatures at Grand Coulee Dam at
         levels of -5 feet, -20 feet referred  ro  surface at  the penstock
         level approximately 230 feet deep.

     2.  Once-a-shift readings of Chief Joseph turbine discharge.

     3.  Hourly turbine discharge temperatures at Rocky Reach,,

     k.  Continuous temperature monitor ing at  the Priest Rapids gage

     We expect to add a continuous  recorder  to a  point downstream  ot
Grand Coulee by the first of April, 196*4.  To  the extent of  available
resources, we expect to continue  temperature soundings of  Lake Roosevelt,
but these will remain somewhat fragmentary.

     Downstream from the plant,  the Hanford  Laboratories  conduct a re-
search and development program which  includes  an  investigation of  the
effects of reactor effluent on Columbia River water  quality.   The  pur-
pose of this study is to distinguish  any net changes in  river  water
characteristics due to plant  operations  from those which would occur
naturally.  The emphasis is  on water  temperature  variations, but poten-
tial chemical  effects are also being  studied.  The work  is in  addition
to our routine and special  studies  of  radioactivity  in the river,.

     The various phases of  this  work  include the  following:



                               99

-------
      a.   Continuous  upstream  and  downstream monitoring  at  several  points,
          plus  repeated  comparisons  of  parameter  distribution  in  cross
          sections with  the  continuous  point monitor  data.

      b.   Dye studies  to define diversion  patterns  from  individual  release
          points, as well as the labeling  of water  masses in order  to fol-
          low time sequential  changes of temperature.

      c.   Measurement  of pertinent variables for  a  calculated  heat  budget,
          using portable meteorological instruments.  The portability
          feature permits comparison measurements along  the river with
          routine data from  our Hanford meteorological station.

      In summary, we believe that  continued  study of  the thermal aspects
of the Columbia River system  should form  an essential part of planning
for ultimate optimum  use of the river.  Recent contacts by the Bureau of
Reclamation regarding the potential construction of  a third powerhouse
at Grand  Coulee indicates the desirability  of assessing the economic
benefits  of thermal  regulation, of  identifying possible thermal effects
of upstream impoundments, and the need for  improving insight  into  the
physical  processes involved.  It  has been suggested  that interested agen-
cies  sponsor a cooperative  study  of the Snake and  Columbia River Basins
over  the  next several years in order to strengthen the  theory and  pro-
vide  a reasonable basis  for incorporating appropriate regulating works
in the proposed upstream storage projects.

      The General  Electric Company, under  contract  to the Atomic  Energy
Commission, currently expects to continue a program  related primarily
to operational  aspects  of the Hanford plant.  We hope other agencies
will  avail themselves of the opportunity  to broaden  these studies  to
the extent that long-range planning can proceed on a factual  basis wirh-
out involving potential  danger to resources such as  fisheries because
of inadequate investigation.
                               100

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        INSTRUMENTATION F'OR WATER-1EMPERATURE STUDIES-1-'

                         A. M. Moo--e~
     Our knowledge of the thermal  properties of lakes and streams has
grown largely with the development  of suitable temperature-measuring
instruments and with demands imposed by present and predicted water
use.  Temperatures of water in lakes or streams depend upon many fac-
tors, a discussion of which is beyond the scope of this paper.  Pro-
fessor Sylvester has mentioned many of these factors in the excellent
paper he presented earlier today.

     Instrumentation for t emper'at u-~e determination depends on such
things as the purpose of the investigation, required accuracy of data,
number of additional parameters to be measured, and the depths (pres-
sures) that instruments must withstand.  Temperature data are needed
for water-loss, thermal-1oad, water-quality, fish and wildlife, water-
use, and sediment-transport investigations.  Equipment presently in
use ranges from the simple, direct-reading hand thermometers to infra-
iled photography.  Other agencies may be using  instruments with which I
am not completely familiar; my comments will,  therefore, be  limited
largely to equipment used by the Geological Survey.

Temperature-Profile Recorder

     The temperature-profile recorder was developed by the Navy Elec-
tronics Laboratory for use in the water-loss investigations  conducted
by the Geological Survey at Lake Hefner, Oklahoma. ]} The temperature-
sensing element for this instrument was a thermocouple which was con-
nected to a length of electrical cable.  The small current generated
by the thermocouple was amplified by a storage battery and then routed
to an Esterline-Angus event recorder, which also was used to  record
other data.  The equipment was maintained in a boat for the  temperature
surveys and to conserve electrical power the Esterl ine-Angus  recorder-
was clock-driven.  The lake thermocouple equipment gave excellent  re-
sults once the cables were covered to prevent  electrical leakage and
mechanical abrasion*  The temperature-profile  recorder gave more ac-
curate data than the bathythermograph that had been used previously  to
obtain water-temperature data.
     "Publication authorized by the Director, U. S. Geological Survey.
    '-"-Hydraulic Engineer, U. S. Geological Survey, Portland.
     ]/ Water-Loss Investigations;  Lake Hefner Studies, U.S.G.S.
Profelsional Paper 269, Harbeck and others,  195*+.      ~
                              101

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Bathythermograph

     In similar water-loss investigations for Lake Mead the bathyther-
mograph was used to record water temperature.  The temperature-profile
recorder is more accurate, but would not function properly at the
greater depths of Lake Mead. I/

     The bathythermograph provides a continuous record of temperature
versus depth.  A stylus, attached to a Bourdon (pressure) tube records
the temperature on a smoked-glass slide.  The slide is held in a frame
attached to a pressure bellows and hence the frame and slide move rela-
tive to the arc of the stylus as the depth changes.  Thus, pressure
changes resulting from temperature changes cause the temperature stylus
to move, while pressure changes resulting from changes in depth cause
the frame and si ide to move.  Observed surface temperatures are used to
calibrate the bathythermograph record.

Whitney Underwater Thermometer

     The Whitney underwater thermometer utilizes a small thermister as
the temperature-sensing element and a small dry-cell  battery to supply
power needs.  The thermister is used as one arm of a Wheatstone bridge
circuit.  Depth of observation is measured by the length of line from
the sensing element to the water surface.  Temperature is read directly
from the dial of an electrical meter which is calibrated for a range of
5F. and is provided with multiple settings for temperature range.

     The Whitney thermometer was used to obtain water-temperature pro- ,
files in the thermal-load investigations of Lake Colorado City, Texas.-
The instrument, though non-recording, is portable and therefore is
preferable, for some purposes, to the bathythermograph or temperature-
profile recorder.

Infrared Photography

     Although the existence of infrared energy has been recognized since
the 17th Century, the development of scientific instruments utilizing
this energy was negligible prior to World War I.  Some development of
infrared photography occurred during and shortly after that War, but
significant progress was hampered by lack of sensitive infrared detec-
tors.  Highly sensitive detectors were developed during World War II
     I/ Water-Loss Investigations;  Lake Mead Studies, U.S.G.S.
Professional  Paper 298, Harbeck, Kohler, Koberg, and others, 1958.
     2/ The Effect of the Addition of Heat from a Powerplant on the
Thermal Structure and Evaporation of Lake Colorado City, Texas, U.S.G.S.
Professional  Paper 2728, Harbeck, Koberg, and others, 1959.
                             102

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and these have spurred widespread use of infrared equipment  for  many
important purposes.

     Infrared photography, as applied to bodies of water,  utilizes
aerial  cameras, infrared detectors,  and photographic film.  Everything
warmer than absolute zero (-273C.)  radiates infrared energy that can
be optically focused.  The infrared  scanner consists of a  plane  mirror
with rotational axis parallel to the line of flight of the airplane.
The mirror scans along a line at right angles to the line  of flight of
the airplane.  The infrared radiation picked up by the plane mirror is
reflected to a parabolic mirror that then focuses the radiation  on an
infrared detector.  The detector converts changes in. radiation into an
electrical signal  that is amplified  and then used to modulate the cur-
rent passing through a glow tube.  Light from the glow tube is scanned
across the film in synchronization with the rotating scanner.  The film
itself is moved across the exposure station at a speed proportional to
the speed-to-altitude ratio of the airplane.  The airplanes are usually
flown at altitudes ranging from 300 to 1,000 ft.

     Normally the technique is limited to recording surface tempera-
tures, but the Geological Survey has developed a modification in which
sensing elements placed in the water transmit signals to the airplane
as it passes overhead.  In this way, accurate measurements of tempera-
ture of the water mass are made along with measurements of surface
temperature.

Multiparameter Recorder

     The multiparameter recorder can record simultaneously many water-
quality parameters including temperature.  Other parameters commonly
recorded are dissolved oxygen content  (DO), specific conductance,  pH,
oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, chloride, radioactiv-
ity, and sunlight intensity.  In water-quality  investigations now  being
carried on in the Delaware River and estuary, temperature, DO,  pH,
specific conductance, and turbidity are recorded continuously on a
single instrument. I/ Four multiparameter recorders are now being  in-
stalled on the Duwamish River in Washington, between Renton and Seattle,
for a Geological Survey investigation  of the effect on water quality of
the discharge from a large new sewage  treatment plant  that is expected
to double the usual  low flow of the river below Renton.   These  four
instruments will record the  same five  parameters  included in the Dela-
ware study and, in addition, solar radiation index  (sunlight intensity).
However, not all of the instruments will record all  six parameters,  but
at two sites some parameters will be measured at more  than one  depth.
      I/ Continuous Recording of Water dual ity  in  the  Delaware  Estuary.
McCartney and  Bearncr, U.S.G.S., A.W.W.A.,  October,  1962.
                              103

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 The U.  S.  Public  Health  Service  is  using  instruments of  this  type  in  the
 Willamette River,  Oregon,  to  record DO, pH,  specific conductance,  and
 temperature.

      In these  recorders, a  thermocouple develops a  small  current having
 a  voltage  of 50 millivolts  or  less  that is proportional  to the water  tem-
 perature.   The electrical  signal  is amplified and fed  to  a strip-chart
 recorder or a  paper-tape punch.   In some  instances, the  signal is  tele-
 metered to a central  location where receiving equipment  provides a peri-
 odic  print-out of  the data  and a  recording on paper punch-tape.

 Telethermpfneter

      The telethermometer provides a convenient means of  obtaining  tem-
 perature profiles  in  streams,  lakes, ponds,  and reservoirs.   As with  the
 Whitney underwater  thermometer,  the temperature-sensing  element is a
 thermister, and a  very tiny one,  as the probe in which it is  housed is
 only  3/16-inch both in length and diameter.  Power  is  supplied by  two
 flashlight  batteries housed in a  small console.  Depth of observation  is
 measured by the length of  line from the thermister  to water surface.  A
 dial  on the console provides for  registration of temperature  directly,
 both  in degrees Fahrenheit  and degrees Celsius (Centigrade).  The  in-
 strument used  by the Oregon District does not provide  for a recorder,
 but some models of  the telethermometer do make such provision.  Our in-
 strument covers a  range from 30  to 120F. with only one  dial setting,
 but more sensitive  (multiple-setting) models are available.   We have
 modified our telethermometer by constructing a small aluminum bar  in
 which to house the  probe and about  one foot  of the  insulated  electrical
 cable.  This bar provides enough  weight to position the  probe for  depth
 in  ponded water; the bar can be taped to a wading rod  or  attached  to  a
 regular hanger bar and sounding weight for use in flowing water.

 Thermograph

     To obtain continuous records of stream  temperature,  the  Geological
 Survey  uses a  thermograph attachment with the Stevens A-35 water-stage
 recorder.  The pen  trace of water temperature is continuous on the same
 strip chart on which is recorded  the stage record.  Some  Federal and
 State agencies use  recorders that provide a  pen trace of  temperature  on
 a circular chart,  usually geared  to make one rotation  in  seven or  eight:
 days.   Those recorders are  not suited to our normal routine visits to
 basic network  stations (streamflow  and water quality) once every five
 to six weeks.   Also, the computation of accurate records  is more dif-
 ficult  from the circular charts than from the strip charts.   Because of
 the difficulties involved in the  use of circular charts and the advan-
 tage of obtaining both stage and  temperature record on the same chart,
we prefer;the  thermograph attachment to, the water-stage recorder.
                             104

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     The thermograph attachment consists of a temperature  probe  con-
nected by means of capillary tubing to a bellows mounted on  the  under-
side of the recorder.  The temperature probe is placed at  the  stream
end of a 1'-z;-inch galvanized inlet pipe and the position of this  end of
the pipe is so selected that it is always in moving water.  The  probe,
capillary tubing, and bellows are filled with methyl alcohol.  With
increase in water temperature the alcohol expands and causes a piston-
like movement of the bellows.  This movement is transferred  to the
temperature pen through a torque arm,  gear sector, wheel,  shaft, and
beaded cable.  The temperature pen, which operates within  the  top three
inches of the strip chart at a scale of ^0F. to the inch, is  set one
hour ahead of the stage pen to insure that the two pens will never
interfere with each other.

Maximum-Minimum Thermometer

     The maximum-minimum thermometer is a U-shaped thermometer so con-
structed that the mercury column on the left side of the U positions  a
small metal marker indicating minimum temperature, while maximum tem-
perature is similarly indicated on the right side of the U.  The tem-
peratures so designated are those that occur between visits to the
station.  A small magnet is used to reset the metal markers on the
mercury columns.

     The Geological Survey has completed some preliminary experiments
with these instruments and we believe they show promise as an  inexpen-
sive means of obtaining monthly maximum and minimum water temperatures.

Hand Thermometer

     Hand thermometers used by the Geological Survey for  spot  observa-
tions of water temperature are red-liquid-filled and are  graduated in
intervals of 1 from 30 to 110F.  Initially, mercury-filled ther-
mometers were used, but the red-liquid type are easier  to read and
almost as accurate although slower in responding to temperature change.
These thermometers are also used to check the setting of  thermographs.
Hand thermometers that have been accurately tested and  calibrated are
used to check the setting of some of the more precise  instruments such
as the temperature-profile recorder, bathythermograph,  and Whitney
underwater thermometer.

Accuracy of Instruments

     Whitney thermometers, temperature-profile recorders  and  bathyther-
mographs are accurate to within about 0.2F., but most  of these  instru-
ments achieve that precision only  if they are periodically  checked
against a standard milliameter or  thermometer.

     Thermograph attachments to water-stage  recorders  are,  in them-
selves, accurate only to within about 2F.,  but  they are  checked


                             105

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 against hand  thermometers and  results can be considered accurate to
 within about  1F.

     Multiparameter  recorders  are considered accurate to within 1F.

     The  telethermometer used  by the Geological Survey in Oregon is
 guaranteed accurate within  1%  of the range, or 0.9F. for the 90
 range, but accuracy  is generally found to be within about 0.5F.

     Manufacturing practice reportedly permits inaccuracies in hand
 thermometers  and maximum-minimum thermometers not to exceed one half
 of  the smallest graduation  interval.  This means that hand thermom-
 eters used by the Geological Survey should be correct within 0.5F.-
 and maximum-minimum  thermometers, within 1F.  We have checked our
 hand thermometers periodically and errors as great as 1F. have been
 found only rarely.

 Precautions in Use and Installation of Instruments

     When a water-temperature  station is co be establ'i shed, whether  it
 be  recording or non-recording, care must be exercis'ed to see that the
 temperature registered is representative for the cross section.  For
 example, when we installed our first thermographs in Oregon, in 19^9
 and 1950,  we assumed that if the thermometers or the temperature probes
 for thermographs were placed in moving water, the record would be repre-
 sentative.  A series of near-surface measurements across the section
 indicated that this was so.   In the summer of 1963, we used a telether-
mometer to obtain temperature profiles at kO thermograph sites.  Tem-
 perature at the inlet was found within 0.5f". of average temperature
 for the cross section for 3*t of the *40 sites, and within 1.0F. for  39
 of  the **0 sites.  At one site  the difference was 1.6F., but there the
 temperature profile had to be measured about 600 ft. upstream from the
gage.  For 35 of the kO sites, the variation in temperature throughout
 the cross section was confined to a range of 1.3, at the other five
 sites,  temperatures in sluggish water at the banks were found to be
about 2 higher than in the faster-moving water.   However, water at
 these higher temperatures comprised a negligible part of the flow.
Figure 1  shows the temperature-profile for Breitenbush River above
Canyon Creek near Detroit,  Oregon.

     A temperature profile is particularly necessary where a tributary
enters  a short distance upstream from the proposed water-temperature
station.   In such an instance,  the waters may not be thoroughly mixed
as they pass the station.  A site where incomplete mixing exists is
unsuitable for the collection of water-temperature data.

     The temperature probe for the thermograph should not rest on the
stream  bed.   A few tests made in the summer of 1963 indicated that the
stream  bed,  when exposed to  direct  sunlight,  can be about 1F. warmer
                             106

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                                           Water surface
                               Temperatures are in Degrees Fahrenheit
5
0

rc
                                                                   (I
                                                                   CD
                   30      40

                   Width in feet
FIGURE I-TEMPERATURE PROFILE  FOR  BREITENBUSH  RIVER
         ABOVE CANYON CREEK NEAR DETROIT ON  JULY 16, 1963

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 than  the water above  it.  As mentioned previously, Geological Survey
 installations are designed so that the stream end of the temperature
 inlet  is above the stream bed.

      Spot observations of water temperature with a hand thermometer
 should be made with the bulb end of the instrument immersed  in moving
 water as the registration can change rapidly when the bulb is exposed
 to air.  Because many streams have large diurnal fluctuations in tem-
 perature, the time of day should be noted along with the temperature.
 Minimum temperatures  generally occur about 7 to 9 a.m. and maximum
 temperatures about ^  to 6 p.m.  Figure 2 shows diurnal fluctuation of
 water temperature for selected streams at gaging stations in Oregon.

     When maximum-minimum thermometers are serviced, the two readings
 should be made quickly because air temperature can reposition one of
 the metal markers indicating maximum or minimum water temperature.
 Another possibility for error is that the scale for minimum  tempera-
 ture  increases in a downward direction and, so, is easily misread.
 Still another chance  for error exists when the maximum-minimum ther-
 mometer is reset, because the mercury columns and markers must be set
 at the existing water temperature.  When this has been accomplished,
 the thermometer must  be quickly placed in position in the water before
 air temperature can affect the registration.
                          Conclus ions

     All instruments used for obtaining water temperature can, if used
with proper precautions, yield results that are accurate to within at
least  1F.  Also, all of these instruments have a place in the work to
be done.  Temperature-profile recorder, Whitney thermometers, bathy-
thermographs, and infrared photography are adapted to precise measure-
ments  needed for water-loss and thermal-loading investigations.  Con-
tinuous temperature records should be obtained for routine operational
purposes and where good records are urgently and immediately needed.
Also,  at least one thermograph record should be obtained on each major
stream for an indefinite period.  Such records could serve as "primary"
records with which "secondary", or intermittent, records could be cor-
related.  The secondary records can be from thermographs operated for
just a few years, or maximum-minimum thermometers operated for two or
three  summers.  Where temperature records are not immediately needed,
the secondary records can be in the form of spot observations made
over a relatively long period.  Mult{parameter recorders are desirable
where  several water-quality characteristics must be measured.  Infra-
red photography is particularly useful in locating sources of pollu-
tion in streams and in locating areas of groundwater inflow.  The
technique is also valuable in oceanographic work,  where it helps de-
fine ocean currents and circulation patterns-
                              108

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    80
    70
to
 II
t-
I
< 1
(4
M
0)
    60
    50
U
( )
a>   80
U
ii
E
*   70
0)
o
    60
    50
                                                                   I
                                             r Rogue  Rivet near Agness
                                             \DA  3,939
               Western Oregon
               Stations
                    South  Fork Coquille River
                    nea r Powers
                    DA  93.2
                                              Middle  Fork Willamette
                                              River near Ou k ridge
                                              DA  258
           12PM
           12PM
                          Time  of  day
                         6A           I2M
                                                                 12PM
                                                                  12PM
              E aste rn  Oregon
              Stations
                    Powder River near
                    Ric hla nd
                    DA  1,310
                                                South Fork  Walla  Walla
                                                River near  Milton
                                                DA 63
                                                   Metolius R iver
                                                   near Grandview
                                                   DA  324
                  DA = Drainage area in  square miles
    FIGURE 2 - TYPICAL D! URNAL FLUCTUATION  OF WATER
                 TEMPERATURES DURING  SUMMER MONTHS
                                    109

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DISCUSSION

0_.  Do you not use the Ryan thermograph?

A.  No.  We have written to them and have inquired of some of our
    offices who have used them.  We are inclined to think that we
    probably will try them.  They had some trouble over a year ago--
    the thermographs were not waterproofbut I think they have cor-
    rected most of that now and, if that is so, we are going to try
    them.

A.  Fourteen of them are used in the Hungry Horse-Libby study with
    good results.

A.  One of the advantages, of course, is that you don't have to build
    a house for these thermographs as we do with others.  This is ex-
    pensive.  They could just be mounted in a pipe and this makes a
    very inexpensive installation.  That is why we are thinking of try-
    ing them.

0_.  Tel 1 us again how many of these thermograph stations you have in-
    stalled and approximately how long they have been in operation.

A.  The first ones were installed in 19^9 in cooperation with the
    Oregon State Fish Commission.  Only one of these is operating
    now.  Those installed for the Corps of Engineers have a11 been
    in continuous operation since 19^+9 and 1950.  Up until this past
    summer we had obtained records at about 50 different sites with
    33 thermographs which were constantly in operation.  This past
    summer, in work for the Corps of Engineers, we installed 2^ more.
    This was for their 308 Review Report for which these records
    were needed.  We now have close to 80 thermograph records, 60 of
    which are in almost constant operation.

0_.  Do you move these around from station to station?

A.  Yes.  Three or four were discontinued this year in the Alsea
    Basin.
                              110

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            SUMMARY OF  CURRENT  THEORIES  AND  STUDIES
              RELATING  TO TEMPERATURE  PREDICTION

                        Robert  Zeller
                             Ou t_l j_ne

 I.   Introduction

     A.   Paper  to be included in the  Proceedings* wi 1 1 :

         1.   Present several  methods  of  temperature prediction

         2.   Discuss related  studies  involving these methods

         3.   Discuss research needs and present a  general  outline

     for a comprehensive reservoir-stream temperature study.

     B.   This presentation will  include:

         1.   Short description of the usual  energy-budget  approach

         2.   Outline of methods involving "heat-exchange coefficients"

             a.  Computation  of "equilibrium temperature"  by  correlation
                 with air temperatures.

             b.  Computation  of natural stream temperature input and out-
                 put functions.

         3.   A temperature prediction example using an exponential decay
             factor.

         k.   Discussion of research needs relative to the methods of
             temperature prediction presented.

II.   Energy-Budget Approach

         The energy budget attempts to equate the net exchange of heat
     between a body of water and its environment to a change in tempera-
     ture.
     *SA San. Engineer, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, Public Health Service, Water Supply and Pollution Control
Program, Pacific Northwest, Portland.
                              Ill

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          The exchange of heat involves:  (notation from Schroepfer)

          1.  The difference between incident and reflected solar radi-
              ation (+ ATS)

          2.  The difference between incident.and reflected atmospheric
              radiation and the loss of heat by thermal radiation from
              the water surface (i.e., net exchange of long-wave radia-
              tion) (- ATR)

          3>  The loss of heat due to evaporative processes (-&Tg)

          k.  The gain or loss of heat due to temperature difference at
              the air-water interface + (ATC)

          5.  The heat gain due to discharge, for example, of cooling
              water into the reach (+ATA)

          These incremental  temperatures,  then,  are added algebraically to
      the upstream temperature, TA, to estimate the downstream interface
      temperature, Tg, as follows:

                                     -TR = TB

          Other processes actually involved, but usually disregarded, are
      biochemical  reactions  and conduction of heat at the water-channel
      bottom interface.

          Since computation  of evaporation and thermal  radiation exchange
      depend on the assumed  downstream temperature,  the equation...cannot be
      solved directly.  Formulae,  such as  the above,  can be solved by suc-
      cessive trials assuming downstream temperatures,  Tg.

          This method is  used equally well on streams in their natural,
      steady-state condition as on streams receiving  large amounts of
      cooling water  or cold, reservoir water.

III.   Equilibrium  Temperatures and Exponential  Decay  of Temperature Incre-
      ments

          This second approach is  a two-fold operation:

          A.   First,  the  steady-state,  or  equilibrium,  temperature of the
      water  is estimated  by  any one of several methods.

          B.   Second,  transient temperatures due to  thermal  additions are
      decayed exponentially  downstream.

          To  elaborate just  briefly:
                                112

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    A.   Equilibrium temperatures  can  be  estimated  by:

        1.   Energy-budget equations,  as  just  discussed.

        2.   Simple correlation with  air  temperature as Gameson, Hall
            & Freddy did on the Thames Estuary  in  1957'

            e.g.:   The Thames Estuary data yielded the following
        relationship:   Equil. Temp.  - & = 0.5 + 1.109 Ta

        3.   Estimation of the natural stream temperature  according
            to its response to its thermal  environment as expressed
            by Outtwei ler ' s equations:
                                   0_n -  25   B,Tad + CBTa  x - 4
              Heat input - TJt)  = ------- + ............ (-----)
                            f         X      ^  + CB       X

              Water temp. = T* (x,t) = T  +  ^-/   Tunsin  (n/t +  rfn-efn)
                                            n - 1
    The first of these equations is plotted from a knowledge of  cl ima-
tological  data.  Short time intervals will yield points  on a modified
sine curve.

    The second equation is merely a reflection of the first modified
by an amplification factor (TU/T.) and phase lag (<0.

    B.   Regardless of what form the equilibrium temperature takes,
transients can be accounted for by computing the initial  temperature
increment and reducing it exponentially downstream.  The exponential
decay factor can be expressed as follows:     k
                                             rx
                                           e  v
        Where:  v = average velocity

                x = disti downstream

          and:  k has been evaluated by Major Outtwei ler as A.
                                                            z

                Where:  z = avg. depth

                  and: \ = C, + C2U2 = 1.35 + 0.2 U2

                        Where:  l^ - estimated wind  speed  in mph
                           113

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         An example of this procedure is  worked out  in the paper  to  be
     included in the Proceedings.

IV.       Finally,  I want:  to Hsr some of  the areas where continuing  re-
     search is needed relative to  the several  methods of temperature pre-
     diction discussed in the paper  included in the  symposium Proceedings.

     A.   Energy-budget approach

         1.  Inexpensive  instrumemat ion  to replace  the array of  equip-
             ment  currently needed to obtain accurate radiation and  evap-
             oration data.

             One possibility which has been around for some time  now is  the
         CRI.   (These are,  essentially,  insulated evaporation pans instru-
         mented to simulate a complete-miniature heat-budget unit.  Several
         small  units of this type  were installed recently here in Oregon.
         Evaluation results should be available soon.)

         2.  Extensive correlation o* all  available  meteorological data
             could eliminate the need *or  this instrumentation on many
             projects,  if not most projects.

         3>  Methods should be developed  to determine location and
             quantities of  significant bank storage.

         k.  We still  need  some guidelines on  the accuracy of computations
             required   This relates  directly  to the  basic temperature
             criteria problem-

     B.   Equilibrium temperature correlations  and exchange coefficients

         1.  Although usefulness o* air-water  temperature correlation
             seems controversial ror  m;>  regi0r, a  reasonable correlation
             study would  settle this  q^est'o^.

         2.  The values arrived at  by Duttweile'  ro^  the constants used  ro
             estimate the exchange coefficient  (^L) need verification.
                            Synops's

    The  following  paragraphs are  intended  to  familiarize  the  reader with
some of  the currentl yused  methods ro'  esrimaring  stream  temperatures  as
a function of their thermal environment and  rime    No  attempt  has  been
made here to evaluate the methods  presented other  than to point  out major
features of interest.
                               Ill*

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     Also included is a presentation of some recent  and proposed field
studies involving one or more of the temperature prediction methods*
Several of these studies are discussed in conjunction with  the presen-
tation of the method of prediction;  others are discussed separately.

     Finally, a partial tabulation of research needs relative to the
methods of temperature prediction included in this paper has been at-
tempted.

            Summary of Current Theories and Studies
           Relating to Stream Temperature Prediction

     Generally speaking, there are two currently-used methods of pre-
dicting stream temperatures.  The first method applies an energy-budget
approach to both streams in a steady-state thermal environment and to
streams responding to significant discharges of industrial  cooling water
or impounded water.

     The second method is a two-fold operation.  First, the steady-state,
or equilibrium, temperature of the stream is estimated by any one of
several methods, including the energy budget.  Second, transient tempera-
tures due to thermal additions are imposed on the equilibrium temperature
profile at the point of discharge and decayed exponentially downstream.

I.  The Energy-Budget Approach

     The energy budget attempts to equate the net exchange of heat betwee'
a body of water and its environment to changes  in water temperature.   En-
ergy-exchange processes normally considered  include:

     1.  The difference between incident and reflected  solar  radiation.

     2.  The difference between incident and reflected  atmospheric radi-
         ation and  the  loss of heat by thermal  radiation from the water
         surface (i.e., net exchange of  long-wave radiation).

     3.  The loss  of heat due to evaporative processes.

     k.  The gain  or loss of heat due  to  temperature  differences  at the
         air-water  interface.

     5.  The heat  gain  or loss due to  advected  water  (e.g.,  heat  gain
         due to cooling-water discharges).

     Other processes actually involved,  but  usually  disregarded,  are
biochemical  reactions  and conduction of  heat at the water-channel  bottom
interface.

     For detailed  descriptions of theory  and data relative to individual
                              115

-------
energy-budget parameters, the interested reader is referred to several
references in the bibliography (1, 6, 7 8, 17).

    A.   G. J. Schroepfer (1961) presented an energy-budget solution
         to temperature prediction for the Mississippi and Minnesota
         Rivers at Mi nneapol is-St . Paul, Minnesota (15).

         Schroepfer set up the energy budget in the form of its effects
         on stream temperature by converting heat-exchange quantities to
         incremental  temperatures.  The resulting mathematical expres-
         sion of the energy budget is as follows:
    Where   TA = temperature of river at point A

          ^ T/\ = temperature increase due to thermal addition

          ^ Ts = temperature increase due to solar radiation

          Z^ T = temperature decrease due to latent heat loss

          ^ T = temperature decrease due to convective heat transfer

         ^ TR = temperature decrease due to thermal radiation exchange

            Tg = temperature of river at point B

    After substitution of measured and estimated quantities plus con-
version units, Schroepfer's "working" relationship is:
          0.1855        O.OOMt5A
    TA +/"-"-7 HA +/"--Q""7/~Hs - (0-3253) (10 +  W) (Vw - Va)

        - (0.16) (5 + W) (Tw -  Ta) - 1.1  (Tw - Ta)_7 = TB

    Where:  Q. = river discharge; cfs

            HA = thermal additions (i.e., heat load); mega BTU/day

             A = water surface  area; 1000' s sq.  ft.

            Hs = solar radiation;  BTU/sq. ft./hr.

             W = mean wind speed;  mph

            Vw = saturation water  vapor pressure at the mean
                 temperature of the water surface;  mm.  of Hg'.
                              16

-------
              Va = partial  pressure of water vapor  at  the temperature
                   and relative humidity of the surrounding  air; mm  of Hg.

              Tw = mean water temperature;  F.

              Ta = mean air temperature; F.

     In the above equation, Meyer's formula for evaporation  was selected
since the values for the empirical  constants were developed  in Minnesota:

         E = C (1  + 0.1W) (Vw - Va) = evaporation rate;  inches/month

         C = empirical constant = 10 for deep rivers to 15 for shallow
             streams

         W = wind speed; mph

        Vw = saturation vapor pressure at the temperature of the water
             surface; inches of Hg

        Va = absolute vapor pressure at the temperature.and relative
             humidity of surrounding airj inches of Hg.

     Solar radiation was estimated from St. Cloud,  Minnesota, radiation
data after a correlation study using local  percent sunshine records for
comparison.  No correction for reflected radiation was applied to  the
solar radiation data.  Wind speeds and other meteorological  data were all
estimated from local records.

     The above "working11 equation is solved by successive approximations
using assumed downstream temperatures.  Ordinarily, convergence on the
assumed temperature is rapid.

     With this equation, Schroepfer computed temperature profiles  of the
Mississippi River from the Minneapolis waterworks intake downstream 43
miles to the Hastings Oam for the month of August.   The results were
checked against Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District temperature data
for the years 1950-59 obtained during routine river sampling operations
(Figure l).  Agreement was generally good where the sampling data  was
adequate for comparison.  Temperature profiles computed.for the Minnesota
River downstream of a large steam generating power plant provided  simi-
larly good agreement with measured temperatures (Figure 2).

     A six-day, diurnal plot of the Mississippi River temperature  a short
distance downstream from a steam generating power plant in St. Paul  was
computed for August 25-31, 1959.  Measured temperatures at the downstream
station again provided good agreement with the computed profile (Figure
3).
                               117

-------
00
      M
      O
      tt
      en
      Crt
    C
   OQ 13
    C >-"
    - 3
    NO J

    0 TJ
      W
      H
      G
      JO
      W
      en
 IQ
 C
 (P
rt
^

-------
  B
  en
  G

  B


M- J>
3 .
3 
<6 D
o O
*0
2  r
n  O

5  g
<-c  t1)
   - w
   00 Hj

      B
      t)
      O

      B
             u
             cc
             o:
             LJ
             a.
             5
             LJ
                                                                                 Discharge
                                                                                 Air temperature
                                                                                 Relative humidity
                                                                                 Wind speed
                                                                                                    611 cfs
                                                                                                    67.7F
                                                                                                    60%
                                                                                                    12. 1 tnph
                                                                                                    75 Btu/sq
                                                                                                        ft-hr
                                                                                Solar radiation, H
c
-1
to
                                          MINNESOTA  RIVER, Miles  above mouth

-------
        O
        O
        s
      H 1]
      W O
      01
    **  -l
    -  en
CO
o
        d
        >
        r
        "Z
        O
     Sw
     - o
     !"*
     4^ >
        H
        M
79

   12
 Noon
Aug. 25
   12
 Noon
Aug. 26
   12
 Noon
Aug. 27
   12
 Noon
Aug. 28
      12            12            12
     Noon          Noon         Noon
   Aug. 29        Aug. 30       Aug. 31
Measured Temperature Variation
Calculated Temperature Variation
 a
  re
  ^>

-------
     Finally, the derived energy-budget equation was used to predict
1980 temperature profiles of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers based
on estimated steam generation thermal additions and values for meteor-
ological conditions.

     B.  Jerome M. Raphael (1962) presented an energy-budget formulation
applicable to lakes, reservoirs, and stream increments of isotropic tem-
perature structure (12).

     Raphael's method applies a numerical integration of a time rate of
temperature change function as follows:

                                           dtw   QtA+mi (ti " tw)
         Time rate of temperature change =  = ------------------
                                           d9          nv,

         Where:   9 = time

                ny, = total mass of the lake

                tw = mean temperature of the lake

                itif = inflow water mass

                tj = inflow water temperature

                 A = lake surface area

                Q.t = total surface heat transfer per unit of time.

Substitution of volumes for mass and simplification for  solution over
given increments of time resulted in the following working equation:
      lw = 6275    i

         Where:  V1 = volume of the lake

                 V^ = inflow volume

                 tw = average lake temperature over  the  increment
                      of time, &

     Solution of this equation requires evaluation of the gross  heat
transfer parameter, Q.t, as follows:

     0-t = <*i - 0-b - -h - -e + dv; BTU/sq.ft./hr.

         Where:  d,- = (1-0.0071 C2) (0_s - Qr) =  net  short-wave insolation
                             121

-------
              and Qs = incident solar radiation (measured)

                  Qr = reflected solar radiation (measured or estimated)

                  C  = average cloud cover in tenths of sky covered

              Qb = effective back (long-wave) radiation

                 = 0.9700^(1^ -^T^)

                  a~ - Stefan-Boltzmann constant =1.71 x 10"'

                  $ - function of atmospheric vapor pressure
                              /j
                     = Qa/0-Ta ; where Q.a  atmospheric radiation

                  T  = water surface temperature; F.
                   W

                  Ta = air temperature; F.

              Qg = evaporation energy = 12U (ew - ea)

                   U = average wind speed in knots

                  ew = saturation water vapor pressure at the tempera-
                       ture of the water surface; in. of Hg.

                  ea = absolute vapor pressure of water in the air;
                       in. of Hg.

              0_n = conducted heat = 0.00407 UP (ta - tw)

                   P = atmospheric pressure; in. of Hg.

                  ta = air temperature; F.

                  tw = water surface temperature; F.

     For application to stream temperature prediction, Raphael's working
equation assumes the outflow temperature of a reach to be the inflow
temperature of the adjacent downstream reach.

     In his presentation of the method, Raphael  includes examples of its
application to temperatures in a small, re-regulating reservoir for a
period of one week and to a major western river, estimating daily temper-
atures for July through September.

     C.  The 1960-61  Advanced Seminar of the Johns Hopkins University,
Department of Sanitary Engineering  and Water Resources, submitted a study
                              122

-------
report on heat exchange processes in flowing streams (8).  This report
includes discussion of the energy budget,  turbulent diffusion theory,
and exponential decay of temperature wi th  time.

    Following a detailed examination of the individual  heat exchange
processes, the Advanced Seminar expressed the total "heat budget" for
a selected stream as follows:
S /~QS - Qr - da - d
                        ar
        Where:  S = surface area

               Q.s = incident solar radiation (measured)

               Q.r = reflected solar radiation (measured or estimated)

               Qa = atmospheric radiation (measured)

              Qar = reflected atmospheric radiation~0.03 Q.a

              
-------
                         dt
                         -- = temperature gradient of air
                         dz
                         Y = adiabatic lapse rate

                However, using Bowen's ratio, R, Qn = RQe

                                       TO - V   P
                     Where:   R = CB 	J  	
                                       e0 - eg   1000

                                CB = 0.61 (varies from 0.58 - 0.66)

                                T0 = water surface temperature; C.

                                Ta = air temperature; C.

                                eQ = saturation water vapor pressure
                                     at water surface temperature; mb

                                ea = water vapor pressure of the air;
                                     mb

                                 P = atmospheric pressure; mb

                0^ = loss of sensible heat by evaporation of water
                     at constant temperature

                   = (f eE)  c  
-------
         Qn  =  net  radiation  input

         and:   reach  length  = Ax.

               average  discharge  in  the  reach = q

               average  velocity  in the reach = v = 4*


         Then:   q(TQ  -  Tfa) Cp  +  SQn  - SQbs  - S( 1 + R) de  - SQW +

                  (dvl1  -Qvo1)  =  (q - E)  (T, - To)  Cf

               Where:   TO =  average  entering water temperature; C.

                       Tb =  arbitrary base  temperature; C.

                        C =  specific heat  capacity

                       7 =  average  water  density; gm/cc

                       T] =  average  leaving water  temperature;  C.

         Substituting for:   Qbs;  Qgj Q^j  and (ln +  Qe =  ( 1  +  R)  EL/

         Then:   qC/(TQ - T, )  *  EC/(T,  -

                      = S
                      = S /f(25 + ---) + (1  + R) EL/+ EC/

                                         (T, - Tb) - as 7
                      Where:  T   = To 4- T
     This "working equation/1 as with previous energy-budget formula-
tions, is solved by trial  and error for the downstream- face tempera-
ture, Tj .

     Now, if heat in the form of cooling water is uniformly discharged
into the reach at the upstream face with no significant gain in over-
all discharge, q, then:
                 - Tb) C/+ qcC/(Tc - Tb) + Sd' n . SQ1^ . S(1 + R1)

                          ll - a1^!) = (q - Eld (T,1 - Tb)  C/
                               125

-------
                    Where:  qc = cooling-water discharge

                            TC = temperature of cooling water; C

                            Primes indicate new heated condition.

     Rearranging and letting:  Tj, = To & TQj


     Then:
                      (T,1 - Tb) - E (T, - Tb)_7


                                                                + R)LE 7
(To1 - To) + (T,1-
- c r 	 - 	 ----
L 4
(Tol - To) M
4. <;r r / r1
* bL/ / fc 	 	 2
-lV + S/V~1 + RL^1/-
-_/ 1-ay^iTiM.t/
T,1 - To) T, - To
	 E "" i"" -
     By trial and error, this equation will approximate the new down-
stream temperature, assuming a discharge of qc at temperature Tc into
it.

     Note that solar radiation quantities are independent of water tem-
perature.  Hence, solar radiation data is not needed for solution of the
modified stream temperature.  Evaporation data and original temperatures
are needed, however.

     In conjunction with their discussion of stream temperature predic-
tion relative to heated discharges, the Advanced Seminar pointed out the
necessity for examining in-stream temperature equalization by temperature
diffusion.  For example, if cooling water (or reservoir water) is dis-
charged at a point in a stream, there wi11  be a finite, predictable dis-
tance downstream in which significant vertical  and/or horizontal strati-
fication exists.  Until a point is reached where no stratification of
temperature exists, temperature equalization by turbulent diffusion must
be investigated because of its effects on heat exchange at the air-water
interface.  No attempt will be made in this paper to investigate this
problem further.  The interested reader is referred to the Advanced
Seminar and related papers on this subject.

     To test their evaluation of the energy-budget processes and study
the relationship of the energy budget to turbulent mixing mechanisms,
the Advanced Seminar analyzed data from an eastern river temperature
study conducted in August, I960.
                             126

-------
     Data collected in the study  included 'he  following:

     1.   Location of temperature  transect*  relative  to  a  heated discharge
         outfall  as follows:

         Transect                       Djstance from Outfall  (ft.)

             3                                   (upstream)
             1*                                       50
             6                                       500
             7                                     1,000
             9                                     3,000
            10                                     5,000
            11                                     7,000

     2.   Sounding* at each temperature sample point

     3.   Temperature profiles spaced approximately 100  ft,  apart  at  each
         transect.  (Stream width averaged greater than 1,000 ft.)

     U.   Relative humidity along  each transect

     5.   Time intervals of study  at each transect (necessary  for  temper-
         ature correction calculations to follow a specific body  of  water
         downstream)

     6.   Weather  description at each transect

     7.   Automatic stream temperature recorder data in  area of the  heat
         outfall

     8.   Radiation data from nearest weather station

     9.   Wind velocity data

    10.   Heated water discharge and temperature

    11.   River discharge estimates for the specified date.

     Seven transects were studied in all--one upstream of the heat  out-
fall and six downstream.  Total reach distance was about  l1-^ miles.

     Field data were analyzed as follows:

          1.  Advected heat = Q,v - Kfa^^Tjj cal/hr.

                 Where:  a] = subsection areas of uniform width

                         V] = average velocity at subsection
                               127

-------
                         = temperature excess over the natural  water
                           temperature; C.

                       K = 0.565 x 108

          2.  Radiation

              The water surface area was divided into areas of equal
          temperature where diffusion of the heated discharge was in-
          complete.  Generally, this involved a warm wedge, natural
          temperature wedge, and gradient area.

              Net solar radiation input was computed from direct and
          diffuse solar radiation given at the weather station,, assuming
          the reflected radiation at 0.048 cal./cm2/nrin.

              Net atmospheric radiation - 0,97 x 1.25 x solar radiation

              Long-wave radiation emitted = 0.97
-------
Biblio. 	
 Ref.   Stream
                    Location
                    Reservoir
State   Author
              Study
Sponsoring Completion
  Agency	Date
  10    Rogue R.
                    Lost Creek   Oregon  W. Bruce   Bureau of
                                         McAlister  Sport Fish.
                                                    & Wildlife
        Clearwater  Bruces Eddy  Idaho   Wayne V.
          River        Dam               Burt
13,  1**  Columbia    Wells,        Wash.    J  M.
          River     Rocky Reach,          Raphael
                    Wanapum,  and
                    Priest  Rapids
                       Dams
                   Walla Walla
                   District,
                   Corps of
                   Engineers

                   P.U.D. #2,
                   Grant Co.,
                   Washington
                                 1961
                                                                  I960
                                                                1961-1962
o-
c
0.
(Q
A
!-* n
rr  i
o
o> 
TO 
= .
O 3
oi in
-, at
O 1
3 A
in
W
if A
0 <
A
l/> ~l
if O>
A
Q> T
3 A
0
if A

-Q rl"
A 01
n 3
01 CL
if
c n
-I C
A 1
-0 A
T 3
A if
a.
"* |/)
O if
if C.
-" a.
o 
3 A
M W
-j*
3
to
A
3
A
-i.
3

at
^o
z.
^
o
01
If
o"

o

in
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-s
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3


-------
      In addition,  the Oregon State Water Resources Board is currently
applying energy-budget analyses to a cooperative study of stream tem-
perature prediction and control in the Umpqua River Basin, Oregon.
The Oregon State Water Resources Board is also applying the energy-
budget method to data collected in August, 1963, on the Coast Fork
Willamette River,  Oregon, during a cooperative field study.

II.   Equilibrium Temperatures and Exponential Decay of Transient
      Temperatures

      A.  M. LeBosquet, Jr., (19^6) introduced a relationship for deter-
mining heat loss rates from streams receiving cooling-water discharges
(9).  The heat loss coefficient, K, would be found from examination of
actual excess-temperature decay rates expressed as follows:

       df   KASF

       dT     L

     Where:  K = heat loss in BTU/sq.ft./hr./F. of excess temperature
                 of water over air

             F = excess temperature of water over air at distance (0)
                 milesj F.

            As = surface area; sq. ft.

             L = weight of water;  1b.

     After substitution of stream physical characteristics, integration,
and simplification, the derived relationship for K is:
                 Fa
         Q. Log,0  F
     K =	-----
         0.0102 WO

     Where:  Q. = average discharge; cfs

            Fa = initial  excess temperature of water over air; F.

             W = average stream width; ft.

             0 = reach distance; miles

     LeBosquet points out in his presentation that the decay of excess
temperature with time is exponential.  This phenomenon is readily seen
from a rearrangement of the derived formula for K:
                '2.3 (0.0102) WK
       = Fa exp<	-	  D


                             1-30

-------
     The range of values for K given by LeBosquet for  rapid,  shallow
streams and slow, sluggish streams was 18 to 6 BTU/sq.  ft./nr./F.

     B.  Gameson, Hall,  and Preddy (1957) presented a  method  for  pre-
dicting temperature effects on the Thames Estuary due  to steam-electric
generation cooling water discharges (5)  Their conclusions were  based
on the following study outline:

     1.  Measurements of water temperatures in the estuary over the
         years 19^9-5**.

     2.  Estimation of "unheated" water temperatures for the  same
         years.

     3.  Estimation of the rate of heat entry to the estuary.

     k.  Calculation of the rate of loss of "excess" temperatures.

     5.  Prediction of the temperature distribution for unit  inputs
         of heat at points throughout the estuary.

     Elaboration of their study follows:

     1.  The estuary temperature measurements were taken weekly at a
         midstream depth of six feet and at fifteen regularly-spaced
         stations over a reach of fifty miles.

     2.  The "unheated" water temperatures were estimated by regres-
         sion analyses of a comparison between long-term records of
         water and air temperatures dating back to the first half of
         the eighteenth century.  This was done for three stations.
         The resulting correlations for the three stations studied
         were extrapolated to estimate "unheated11 temperature curves
         for the entire fifty-mile reach.

     3.  The estimated rates of heat entry are summarized as follows:

         a.  Steam-electric power plants (7)   228 x 109 BTU/day
         b.  Industrial outfalls  (gasworks,
             paper mills, sugar refineries)     19 x lO?
         c.  Sewage outfalls                    27 x 10?
         d.  Advected fresh water               20 x 10^
         e.  Biochemical activity               12 x 10^

             TOTAL                             306 x 109 BTU/day

     b.  The temperature change rate for a given heat  loss was expressed
         as follows:
                            j0     f
                            *_ =  - f e
                            dt     z

                             131

-------
         Where:  6 =  initial temperature increment

                 f =  an exchange coefficient or rate constant with
                      time"' dimensions

                 z =  average stream depth

                 t =  time

      Equating the heat-loss rate to rate of heat entry yielded an aver-
age value for the exchange coefficient, f, as follows:
                                     d0
      &Q. = heat  loss  rate = -(yz x)j0---
                                       dt
     and:  Q, = J0-f j y  dx = total rate of loss of excess heat

               Where:  y = stream width

                       x = reach increment

                      j - water density

                      O" - specific heat of water

     The total rate of heat loss, Q., can be equated to the known rate
of heat entry, assuming steady conditions, yielding a value for the aver-
age exchange coefficient, f.  For the Thames Estuary, F = k.Q cm/hr. over
a selected period.

     5.  Exchange coefficients, obtained in the above manner, were then
         used in conjunction with a derived temperature discharge distri-
         bution method to approximate observed temperature profiles.

     C.  Gameson, Gibbs, and Barrett (1959) published the results of a
temperature survey and study of the River Lea near London (k).

     For a total of 129 hours, water temperatures were measured about
once every hour at five stations below a steam-electric generation plant
and once every three hours at one station upstream.

     Air temperatures were measured at each station.  Solar radiation
temperatures (mercury-in-glass thermometer with a blackened bulb placed
in an evacuated outer glass bulb) and wind velocities were measured at
a single station.
                             132

-------
     The stream temperature data showed strong diurnal  variations of up
to 8C. near the power plant outfall.  Decreasing diurnal  variations and
lower mean temperatures downstream indicated definite cooling effects.

     Because of the strong diurnal  temperature variations, it was pos-
sible to calculate channel volumes and flow times from flow records and
the peak-to-peak time intervals on the temperature profiles.

     Equilibrium (or unheated) water temperatures were estimated in the
same fashion as for the Thames Estuary study.  Using the same data as
for the Thames Estuary, the equilibrium water temperature was estimated
as follows:

     e = 0.5 + 1.109 Ta

         Where:  = equilibrium water temperature; C.

                Ta = air temperature; C.

     Again, the exchange coefficient was calculated from the time rate
of temperature change function with the following results:

     Over-a 11 average; f = 2.6 cm/hr.

     Range of f = 1.66 - 3.83 obtained by averaging all four reaches
                  over four days

     Range of f = 2.10 - 2.88 obtained by averaging all four days for
                  each reach.

     One conclusion of this study, later contradicted by others, was
that the exchange coefficient was apparently unrelated to wind speed.

     D.  C. J. Velz and J. J. Gannon (1959) presented a comprehensive
paper on stream temperatures; temperature effects on water quality;
magnitude and sources of heat loads; and temperature prediction (16).

     Velz and Gannon derived a relationship for the long-term equilib-
rium (unheated) stream temperature from meteorological data as follows:

     (1.8 + 0.16W)  E + 0.00722 HVC (1 + OJW)  VE

         = (1.8 + 0.16W) Ta + 0.00722 HVC (1 + 0.1W)  Va + Hs

     Where:  W = wind speed average measured at 25 ft. above the water
                 surface or surrounding land area; mph

             E = equilibrium water temperature (unknown); F.
                              133

-------
             Hv = latent heat of vaporization at the assumed water
                  temperature; Biu/lb-

             C  - constant = ]k for flowing streams of moderate depth
                  and velocity

             VJT = equilibrium temperature vapor pressure (unknown);
                  in* of Hg0

             T'a = average air temperature; F,

             Va - average absolute water vapor pressure of the air at
                  25 ft. above the water surface; in of rig,

             I-L = solar radiation heat gain (measured); BTU/sq.fto

     The above energy-budget relationship is solved by successive ap-
proximation, assuming values for the equilibrium temperature-  In the
derivation of this relationship, Meyer's evaporation formula was used
to estimate evaporation.

     Velz and Gannon then derived a relaiionship between water temper-
ature and the water surface area required for cooling, as follows:
                  TZ          tfJ
     A = -22k, 640  ------------- - ---------- - sq.ft. /cfs of streamflow
                          - VE) +(TW - E)

          Where: C( = 0.00722 HVC (1 t 0,IW)

                   - 1 08 + O.I6W
     The total increment of temperature between the initial heated
condition and desired downstream temperature is divided into equal
increments (AT'W) with TW and V  as the mean temperature and mean  satu-
ration vapor pressure in each increment.  Note here, however, that E
represents a "long-term" equilibrium temperature and is not specific
for short-time periods-  Hence,  long- ierm weather data averages are
used in this computation,,

     According to Velz and Gannon, the above solution for required
cooling area will yield stream tempera?ure profiles as follows:   "Know-
ing the cumulative surface area along '.he course or the stream for rhe
particular runoff from channel  cross sectoring, the river temperature
profile for that runoff can be const: "u^ ted J'

     E.   David W, Outtweiler (19&3) completed a mathematical model of
stream temperature (3)-  His derivar'or. began by equating the heat
gained in an incremental reach of *t
-------
                    n - 
-------
     After substitution of expressions for the energy-budget  terms;
disregarding bank loss; letting wdx = surface area;  qe = Ewdx;  q  =
av (where v = velocity); L = constant; assuming q?^ qe; rearranging
and simplifying, Duttweiler arrived at:
     cfa  T   cfav aT             (A + BU2)   -
       - + -T-- -- = On - 25 +	(Pi Tad + CBTa)   if
      w  ft    -~  ^x                2k

                 (    (A
     The general expression for evaporation used in the above equation
was as follows:
                   (A + BU2) (ew - ea)                   .
               E =	"	>  d ew - efl =@}  (T -  Ta(J)
where//] = incremental  slope of the vapor-pressure curve.

     Note that the above-derived equation is now a space-time expres-
sion for the rate of temperature change in the reach.   In  this equation,
Duttweiler made the following substitutions:
                    0             (A + BU )
    A = Qn - 25 + 05,Tad + CBTa) -----  if',  gcal .tfcm2/hr.

                      (A + BU?)
     X=1i+ (&  + CB)	---  if-, gcal./cm2/hr./C.
              '            2^
              cPa _T   cPav gT
       Thus:  -<- ?- +  -''-
               w  dt    w
              cfa aT   cfav &T
        and:  -J- -- *  -i	=   - T
              Aw  ^t   Aw  ^x   A

           Now,  let:  "z = mean depth = -
                                       w
                and:  k = - =
                         *.* -  4-
                         cja   cpc
                and:   Tr (t)  = *
                       ^      A
           Then:   ?I + v ?I = k/T, (t)  -  T(x,t)
                                               -}
                                               )C
                                               J
           Now,  let:   v =  --
                          dt
                                 0T   a1"  dx    dT     (f            ")
     Then,  by  Euler's  expansion:  -- +----  =    =  k/T6 (t)  -  T(t)i
                                 at   9x  dt    dt    /  *          )
                                                    <            /
                             136

-------
     According to Duttweiler,  then, "the time rate of temperature in-
crease is proportional  to the deficit between the actual  temperature
and some equilibrium temperature."  Here,  the actual  temperature, T(t),
can be described as a reaction,  or output, of the stream to the thermal
input, Tf (t).  The output temperature, in this case) will  approach but
never equal  the input temperature.

     As seen in earlier discussions, the idea of a proportionality
constant or  exchange coefficient, k, is not new.  The input function
concept of the equilibrium temperature, however, is believed to be
or i g i na 1 .

     Duttweiler solves the above time-rate change of temperature rela-
tionship and arrives at the following expression for the temperature of
a stream as  a function of its "equilibrium" temperature:

               -kt   kt             "kt
     T(x,t) = e-t  etkT  (t)dt * e"f ft-
     He then represented the equilibrium temperature, T (t) by a Fourier
series with a period of 2if hours, wherew= tf as follows:
                    fni   .                 Mkt
                        *Y                 12
        (t) = Tm + n^ ,  (ancos. nwt + bnsin.nwt)

         or a1 ternatively:
                    op,
        (t) = Tm + n4',T1n$in (nut + /$n)

         Where:  Tm = time averaje temperature

                Tin =/'n2 - 2
                             n
                6n  = arctan.an
                             bn

     Substituting these expressions for T (t) into the equation for the
actual  temperature, T(x,t), yielded:

                     %  C-                                     )
     T(x,t) = Tm + n r'1 4 an cos. (nu* - qfn) * bn sih. (ntot - 
-------
                  Cfn = arctan. --,
                                K

             or alternatively:
                    0-5,
                                                    "kt
     T(x,t) = Tin +     ,  Tun sln.fnwt + ^n - cfn) + e"f(t -2
                              T1n      CH   I!
             Where:  Tun = -- ------- ^ =Ja   + b
     The input function, T (t), is modified by an amplification factor,
Tun/Tin, a phase lag, qfn, and a "transient," fe~'
-------
     After substitution of estimated values for  the above constants,
Duttweiler determined probable values of C|  and  C2 as  1.35 and  0.239
respectively.  Hence: A = 1-35 + 0.239 U2-

     However, comparison with the studies of Gameson,  Hall,  and Freddy
and of Gameson, Gibbs,  and Barrett led Duttweiler  to reexamine  the
value of C2-  The resultsof his reexamination have placed the value of
C2 between 0.179 and 0.239 as a current estimate.

     Examination of the previously derived simplification constant, A,
resulted in the following expression:
    /= 0_n - 25 + (Tad + 0.61  Ta)  (0.505 + 0.1009 U2)

                    T     C T
      = 0_n - 25 +-4. ---?- (y^- l$) = net radiation heat load
                       +  B
             heat load from non-radioactive sources

     Duttweiler describesMas "the hourly rate of heating per unit
surface area independent of water temperature."

     Then, since T (t) = ^:
                     A      ""/?I""CB"  " X"

     Finally, assuming steady conditions, the water temperature at any
fixed point in the reach, x*, is:
     T(x*,t) = Tm + n*r'1 Tun sin. (ntot + jrfn - 
-------
                                                         - -x
      T(x,t)  =  Tm +        Tun  s1n.(n0t + /rf   - 
-------
            Estimated   Observed                Estimated   Observed
Month       Temp.(C)   Temp.(C)   Month       Temp.(C)   Temp.(C)

Aug.  '50     26.92       25.56     Mar.  '61       7-59         7.88
Sept.         23.77       22.96     April         12.67        12.16
Oct.          19.66       20.08     May           20.01        19.15
Nov.          11.06       12.37     June          23.82        23.25
Dec.           6.55        6.02     July          26.50        26.77
Jan.  '51      2.28        k.37     August       .26.92        27-50
Feb.           2.08        5-80
     Theoretically, thermograph data would not be needed to estimate
stream temperatures in the situations described above.  However, with
current records of climatological data falling considerably short of
the standards required for accurate estimation with the model, thermo-
graph installations are a desirable accessory to the computations.
Initial conditions, at any rate, must be known or estimated.

     F.  The characteristic of exponential decay with time of tempera-
ture Increments can be put to good use in estimating stream tempera-
tures as a function of regulated releases from storage reservoirs.

     The exchange coefficient, as developed by Oavid Duttweiler, was
used to predict temperatures of a reach of the South Umpqua River,
Oregon, as a function of regulated releases from the proposed Tiller
Dam.  This example, worked out by Duttweiler, is attached along with
appropriate comments on the method by the writer.

III.  Research Needs

     The following are a few thoughts regarding research needs  of
current temperature prediction theories:

     A.  Inexpensive instrumentation for  obtaining  net short-wave and
net long-wave radiation data.  The currently  accepted method  includes
erect and inverted pyrheliometers to measure  incident and reflected
solar radiation plus Gier & Dunkle flat plate radiometers to measure
incident, total radiation.  Even then, expensive as this instrumenta-
tion is, the thermal radiation from the water surface must  be esti-
mated from measurements of the water surface  temperature.

     The Cunnings Radiation Integrator (6,  17) has  been suggested as
a  substitute for the pyrheliometers and radiometer;  however,  the CRI
needs extensive evaluation for  the Pacific  Northwest  region before
its usefulness can be accepted  for this area.
                              \k\

-------
      Even with adequate  instrumentation, these measurements may have to
 be made  for  individual projects because of the scarcity of applicable
 data  from nearby weather bureau stations.  Extensive correlation of all
 available meteorological data at this  time may or may not eliminate the
 need  for complete  instrumentation on each project,.  Some correlation
 studies  have already  been completed, but much more needs to be done.

      B.  Extensive water-1oss investigations of the type conducted on
 Lakes Hefner and Mead are needed in the Pacific Northwest to evaluate
 existing evaporation  equations and/or  formulate new ones.  Again, some
 work  has already been done by the United States Geological Survey which
 is currently involved in mass-transfer studies on McKay Reservoir near
 Pendleton, Oregon.  However, additional studies are needed at other
 regional reservoirs and on the streams themselves.

      C.  Studies relative to the locatiqn and yield of bank storage
 sources  both on reservoirs and streams are needed,-  This item is usually
 ignored, presumably on the basis of its magnitude and temperature dif-
 ferences.  However, until some method  is found to determine these values,
 ignoring bank storage may lead to erroneous results,

      D.  Conduction losses across the water-channel  bottom interface
 need  evaluation.   Again, this parameter is usually ignored.

      E.  The net thermal exchange due  to biochemical reactions could
 conceivably be of  some importance where algal  counts are high or pollu-
 tion  is excessive, but is generally disregarded.

     F.  A detailed evaluation of the accuracy required of energy-
 budget computations is needed.  Is it necessary, for example, to pre-
 dict  temperatures more specific than the mean temperature for the crit-
 ical  month?  How important are diurnal  variations in these temperature
 predictions?  Answers to questions such as these will  have a direct
 bearing on the complexity of energy-budget instrumentation and compu-
 tations.  Actually, considerable literature exists on portions of this
 problem.  An extensive library research could conceivably yield enough
 data, if properly  organized, to provide reasonable guidelines for
 accuracy objectives.

     G.   The constants used for  estimation of the exchange coefficient,
 ^,  need verification (3).   This exchange coefficient  is a function of
 several  meteorological variables and is not necessarily constant.  The
error involved in assuming a constant value forj^ (and the rate constant,
k = *)needs evaluation.
    z
                              Hf2

-------
     H.  Simultaneous studies are needed of reservoirs and streams as a
unit.  Of necessity, most studies to date have had to be limited to
either a reservoir or reach of a stream.  To the writer's knowledge,
there have been no fully-instrumented, long-term studies of temperature
phenomena in a reservoir and its downstream reach as a unit.

     Such a study would begin with the selection of a reservoir and
stream physiographical1y and hydrographical1y comparable to other
reservoir-stream units in the same region.,

     A complete evaluation of the water budget on the selected reser-
voir stream unit would be essential,  TO date, an accurate water budget
is still required to check evaporation estimates and other computations.

     Instrumentation should be selected to provide the basis for complete
parameter evaluation.  In this respect, complete meteorological stations
are needed both on the reservoir and somewhere along the reach of stream
to be studied.  Differences in elevation, ground cover, wind velocities,
and location relative to major geographical relief are all important and
difficult to evaluate when extrapolating meteorological data.  If evalu-
ation of prediction methods is the objective of the study, extrapolation
of climatological data from distant weather stations is not acceptable.
There is too much latitude for "fudging the data to fit the answers"
when estimation of radiation or evaporation is involved.  In addition to
pyrheliometers, radiometers, wet-dry bulb recorders, anemometers, and
recording rain gages, Cummings Radiation Integrators are recommended at
each meteorological  station.  If CRI installations are not practicable,
evaporation pans would suffice.

     If continuous stage recorders are not already in operation at all
significant points on the selected reservoir-stream unit, they should
be installed where needed.

     Thermographs are needed just downstream of the dam, at the crit-
ical reach, and at one or more intermediate points.  Additional thermo-
graphs are needed at the reservoir to record significant advected flows
such as major tributaries and at turbine penstocks.

     In addition to the full-time instrumentation described above, reser-
voir temperature surveys would be needed at least once every month, pref-
erably once every two weeks.  These surveys would include full tempera-
ture profiles down the centerline of the reservoir channel, plus suffi-
cient cross-section temperatures to complete an accurate description of
thermal stratification.

-------
      The reservoir  temperature  profiles would  be  planimetered  and a
 mass  diagram of heat  quantities assimilated  to aid  in water-budget
 computations.

      In addition to the  routine sampling  described  above,  attempts
 should be made  to locate and measure  velocity  currents  in  the  reservoir.
 Again,  this  data would simplify water-budget computations.

      Finally,  several discharge-depth-velocity surveys  should  be run
 during the course of  the study.  A  fluorescent dye  would be  used as a
 tracer for flow-time  determinations.

      The total  duration  of  the  study  would be  at  least  one full year.
 It would be  preferable,  though  not  necessary,  to  include two summers
 during the study period.

      A study following the  general  pattern outlined above would yield
 "working data"  for  any of the methods described in  this paper.
             Notes on Stream Temperature  Prediction
             Assuming a Constant Temperature Source

     The  following notes pertain  specifically to prediction of  stream
 temperatures at a given point and time based on the exponential-decay-
 of-transient-temperatures method  developed by Duttweiler.  The  predic-
 tion necessarily assumes that the entire source of flow  is fixed at a
 short-time constant temperature (i.e., constant for the  period  of time
 under consideration).  The temperature of the South Umpqua River, for
 example,  can be predicted at any  time for which the temperature of the
 discharge at the proposed Tiller  Damsite is estimated.   Attached is an
 example of the application of this method to the South Umpqua River,
 Oregon.

 A.  Data  Collection Requirements

    1.  Flow data at the damsite, estimated reach of critical water
 temperatures (critical point), and above each major tributary.  Also,
 the major tributaries at their mouths.   This data must eventually be
 predicted for the period under consideration,

    2.  Stage-discharge-velocity relationships at the damsite,  critical
 point, and above each major tributary.*

      It would also be desirable to get  velocity data at enough inter-
mediate points to assure satisfactory flow-time estimation.  Flow times
are critical.

      The stage-discharge relationship is essential for  parameter esti-
mation in the prediction computations   It would be advisable to take

-------
cross sections and current meter sections concurrently with flow-time,
dye studies.

      If possible, at least two surveys, at different flows, should be
made to increase the confidence in the stage-discharge, velocity data
obtained.

    3.  Thermograph records at the damsite and critical point.

      Minimal requirements would be continuous-strip records of water
temperatures for a period of time analogous to the period under consid-
eration.  This will usually mean at least several days of records.

      It would be better to obtain at least one full year of records to
help understand the general characteristics of the stream relative to
its thermal environment.

      Of some value, also, would be graphs at several intermediate
points in the reach.

      Note that records must be obtained at the mouth of intermediate,
major tributaries.

    U.  Wind velocity records at the damsite and critical point for
analogous periods of several years.

      This requirement may be difficult to fill in the usual situation.,
The temperature prediction can be completed without  this data, using a
conservative estimate for wind velocity.

      If anemometers are available in addition to nearby weather  sta-
tions, the survey anemometers should be read at both two meters and
eight meters above the water surface.  The two-meter data is preferable
for computations.  The eight-meter data would be used for correlation
with the weather station data.

B.  Data Analysis and Temperature Prediction

    1.  Basic Methodology

      The method developed by Outtweiler assumes that any artificial
deviation from a steady-state temperature will decay exponentially with
distance downstream.  In application, this means that with an artifi-
cially-Imposed,  uniform-temperature discharge, there will be a variable,
but predictable initial deviation from the hourly temperatures of a
steady-state thermograph at the damsite.  These deviations will then
decay on an exponential curve until, at some point downstream, the
stream temperature will again exhibit the natural, steady-state diurnal
variations.

-------
        Thus  it  is, for  computation, both the damsite and critical point
 thermograph  records are needed.  The damsite data will yield the alge-
 braic  value  of  the deviation at that point.  The residual deviation
 (after  decay) will then be applied to the critical point thermograph
 data to yield the predicted temperature curve.

        Mathematically,  the method  is stated as follows:
                                                  - ^x
         T*(x,t) = T (x,t) + / Ts(t) - T (0,0)_/ e  v

 (Predicted temp.) = (steady-state  temp.) + (temp, deviation) (exponential
                                                                  factor)

     Where:  T*(x,t) =  predicted temperature at time "t" and mile "x"
                        taken from  the damsite time of "0" and mile "0".

             T(x,t) = steady-state temperature at time "t" and mile "x".

             Ts(t) = reservoir discharge temperature, noted at Ts(t),
                     but assumed constant over entire period.

             T(0,t --)  = steady-state temperature at damsite.  The time
                    v    will be "x" hours less than that used at mile
                                  v
                         "x" with "v" being the estimated stream velocity

             e  = Naperian base

             k  = - (assumed constant for the reach)
                 WhererX- C| + ^2^2 ~ exchange coeff.; cm./hr.

                           C1 = 1.35

                           C2 = 0.18 - 0.2k

                           IL - wind velocity in mph

                       i = average stream depth; cm.

             v = estimated average stream velocity; mph.

             x = miles from damsite to critical  point.

     2.  Application

       Note that this method can be applied easily only to the situation
where the entire flow of the stream is discharged from a constant tem-
                              1U6

-------
perature reservoir during the period under consideration.

      Note also that the method assumes a temperature for  the reservoir
discharge.  If needed,  the reservoir temperatures would have to be
evaluated by a separate study.  Logically, the solution could be worked
backwards to determine a reservoir temperature-discharge relationship
to satisfy the stream temperature requirements.

      For the situation where it is desired to reproduce existing
thermograph records, more sophisticated data collection is required
as follows:

        a.  Total  solar and atmospheric radiation, using a Gier &
    Dunkle flat-plate radiometer.

        b.  Slope of vapor pressure curve within range of water
    temperatures concerned.

        '.  Relative humidity to obtain dewpoint.

        d.  Air temperatures.

        e.  Remaining climatological data is computed or assumed.

      This data would be used to estimate, mathematically, the natural
temperature curves.  These computed curves would then take the place of
thermograph records.
      Temperature Predictions for the South Umpqua River
 from Tiller to Winston Assuming Constant Temperature Releases
         from the Reservoir at the Proposed Tiller Dam _

    Data available for the computations included thermograph records at
Tiller and Winston plus discharge data for March 30 through April 5, 1961,
at several applicable stations and sufficient stream characteristics to
estimate depth of flow and flow times.

    From these data, the following quantities were calculated:

        -avg. = 3,600 cfs

        Difference in water surface elevations from Tiller to
           Winston = 5U1 ft.                     !
        River miles from Tiller to Winston = 55.5

        Average channel slope = 1 .85 x 10~3 ft. /ft.

-------
       Average channel width =  165 ft.

       Average depth of flow =  k.9 ft. =  151 cm.

       Average velocity = 3 mph (Kutter's n = 0.0*0

    The water temperature, as measured by the thermographs, was assumed
to be in a steady-state condition.  Hence, the transient, fe~'
-------
    To apply the.method, it is necessary to assume a hypothetical  tem-
perature for the reservoir release at Tiller.  Let Ts(t) = 1+0F.  for
the period under consideration, 00 to 2l+ hours on March 30, 1961.

    Finally, some value(s) must be estimated for the exchange coeffi-
cient, X   For expediency, the decay factor, _. k     , will  be computed
at the same time.                             e  v "*'

    > = Cj + C2U2 = 1.35 + C2U2

        Where:  C2 varies from 0.18 to 0.21+ (assume C2 = 0.20}

                U2 = wind speed at 2 meters above the water surface

    A= 1.35 + 0.2 U2; also, k = * = -<^-
                                 z   151

    Although the usual prediction would involve the critical  condition
of low, or negligible, wind speed, a wide range of wind speeds will be
assigned here to show the effect on  X- .
U2
(mph)
0
3
5
8
10
15
20
X
cm/hr.
1.35
1.95
2.35
2.95
3.35
^.35
5.35
k
(1/hr.)
0.00891+
0.0129
0.0155
0.0195
0.0222
0.0288
0.0354
t-A
(hr.)
112
77.5
61+. 5
51.3
1+5-0
3U.7
28.2
v/k = 3/k
(mi . )
336
232.5
193.5
153.9
135.0
101+.1
81+. 6
k/v = k/3
(I/mi.)
0.00296
0.00l30
0.00517
0.00650
0.0071+0
0.00960
0.0118
-t 55-5
e v
0.81+8
0.788
0.751
0.698
0.663
0.587
0.520
     Computations for three wind speeds (0, 8, and 20 mph) are shown
on the following pages.  These computations and the accompanying graphs
indicate probable temperatures at Winston for the conditions assumed.

     To test the hypothesis that estimation of an average velocity, v,
is a critical factor in temperature computations, the estimates will be
recalculated for an average velocity of 2.0 mph.
         a = 3,600 cfs

         v = 2.0 mph = 2.9^ cfs

         w = 165 ft.

         A = 3,600/2.9* .= 1,220 sq. ft.

         z = 1,220/165 = l.k ft. = 228  cm.


                              11+9

-------
                                         Table 1
                           Temperature Prediction Computations

                           So. Umpqua River--Ti1ler to Winston


                             March 30-31, 1961 - v = 3.0 mph


(1)   (2)       (3)       (4)      (5)       (6)       (7)       (8)       (9)        (10)

                                  Jix                 d
-------
60
56
o^ 52
H
2
S 48
B
H
H
^
44



4 n



a g




















~-i


























X















h









 .
































































1 1
ESTIMATED TEMPERATURE OF SOUTH UMPQUA RIVER AT WINSTON
For Constant Temperature Of 40F at Tiller
Equivalent q
V
Travel time









Winston Actual



Winston Estimated (










-~^_




emp













era







>





tur






>
/





e 






/*






\




/
7
~- 


^x




- c
A= 2
A= 1



/


-Wi


- H^





^



_nsl

/pol


.35
95
35


~S



:on

:hel





_





Temp.
cm/hr
cm/hr
cm/hr






Acl

:ia








:ua'.

il :


3600 cfs
3 mph
18 hrs




X,
;:_
- 


^**



L T<

fern]






s

s^;


^-s



mp

). i








.\




















x


f

/ /
/


















/



/ ,
/



















/


''
/
/













JV04 08 12 16 20 24 04 08 16
IQ
C

II

-p-
                                    30 MARCH 1961
31 MARCH  1961

-------
U2
(mph)
0
8
20
X
(cm/hr. )
1.35
2.95
5.35
k
(1/hr.)
0.00592
0.0129
0.023**
k/v
(I/mi.)
0.00296
0.0061*5
0.0117
k
- - 55.5
V
e
0.70
0.523
     Note at this point that the change in average velocity has had no
effect on the exponential decay factor, _ k re r  An examination of the
                                        ~~ y '' * '
units involved indicates this to be logical.

     The modified computations for the temperature at Winston are shown
on the following page.  These temperatures for Ok to 1600 hrs., March 31,
      are plotted on the accompanying graph.
     A comparison of Winston temperature predictions for average veloc-
ities of 2.0 and 3*0 mph does,  indeed, show considerable variation.
Diurnal  variation of the steady-state temperature is important here.
                              152

-------
                                          Table 2
                            Temperature Prediction Computations
                            So.  Umpqua River--Ti11er  to  Winston

                              March 30-31,  1961  -- v  = 2.0 mph
(1)  (2)
(3)
(4)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
 t  T(o,t) T(55.5,t) ff(q,
   (Thermograph records)
                   Oe v
                (>-=2.95)
                T-(55.5,t)    ffe  v    T*(55-5,t)   &e
                 (3)+(5)    0^=1.35)   (3)+(7)    0^=5.35)
 (10)

( 55.5,1)
3)+(9)
March 30
00
01
02
03
Oh
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
43.00
42.25
41.75
41.50
41.25
41.00
40.50
40.25
40.00
40.00
41.25
42.25
43.25
44.75
March 31

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
45.50
45.25
44.75
44.50
44.50
46.00
47.75
49.50
51.00
52,25
53.00
54.00
55.00
55.00
-3.00
-2.25
-1.75
-1.50
-1.25
-1.00
-0.50
-0.25
0
0
-1.25
-2.25
-3.25
-4.75
-2.10
-1.57
-1.22
-1.05
-0.87
-0.70
-0.35
-0.18
0
0
-0.87
-1.57
-2.28
-3.32
43.40
43.68
43.53
43.45
43.63
45.30
47.40
49-32
51.00
52.25
52.13
52.43
52.72
51.68
-2.54
-1.90
-1.49
-1.27
-1.06
-0.85
-0.42
-0.21
0
0
-1.06
-1.91
-2.76
-4.03
42.96
43.35
43.26
43-23
43.44
45.15
47.33
.49.29
51.00
52.25
51.94
52.09
52.24
50.97
-1.57
-1.18
-0.92
-0.79
-0.65
-0.52
-0.26
-0.13
0
0
-0.65
-1.18
-1.70
-2.48
43-93
44.07
43.77
43.71
43.85
45.48
47.49
49.37
51.00
52.25
52.35
52.82
53-30
52.52
                                             153

-------
       60
       5 6
    -.
    I
-
c
       48
       4 4
       4 0
  IQ
  C.
  -
  -.
        3 6



1





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1


2
/I
/




k









ESTIMATED
For
TEMPERATURE OF SOUTH
Constant Temperature
Equivalent q
V
Fravel time











/
7
_ T

























Jin:
= 3600 cfs
^

Z mph
Z8 hr:
i

































;ton Estimau
i Her Actua 1






pothet


ica




1 1


Temp .


emp



. a



t T































UMPQUA RIVER AT WINSTON
Of 40F at Tiller














Winston
?d Temp. J
, i



ill




er


)am




sit



































\ctual Tei
i
= 5.
: 2
= 1





35
95
35










np.
cm/hr
cm/
cm/











hr
U *
hr































^-













^ 1
i H






























































LjL
''/
'






















h
//
[
































/
/
j
ff

































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          04
08
12           16
30 MARCH  1961
20
24
04          08
       31 MARCH 1961
12
l

-------
                           References

 1.  Anderson, E. R.,  Anderson,  L.  J.,  and Marciano,  J.  J.,  A Review of
     Evaporation Theory and Development of Instrumentation,  U.  S.  Navy
     Electronics Lab.  Rept. 159,  February 1,  1950.

 2.  Burt,  W.  V., A Forecast of  Temperature Conditions in the Clearwater
     River  Below the Proposed Bruces Eddy Dam,  Corps  of  Engineers, Walla
     Walla  District, November 30, I960.

 3.  Outtweiler, 0. W., A Mathematical  Model  of Stream Temperature,
     Dissertation for  school of  Engineering Science,  Johns Hopkins
     University, 1963.

 k.  Gameson,  A. L. H., Gibbs, J. W., and Barrett,  M.  J,, A Preliminary
     Temperature Survey of a Heated River; Water and  Water Engineering,
     63:13+, January,  1959.

 5.  Gameson,  A. L. H., Hall, H., and Freddy, W. S.,  Effects of Heated
     Discharges on the Temperature of the Thames Estuary, Parts I  and II;
     Combustion, p. 33+, December,  I960; p. 37+, January, 1961.

 6.  Harbeck,  G. E., Jr., Kohler, M. A., Koberg, G. E.,  et al., Water-
     Loss Investigations;  lake  Head Studies. Technical  Report, U.S.G.S.
     Professional Paper 296, 1958.	

 7.  Harbeck,  G. E., Jr., A Practical Fiedd Technique for Measuring
     Reservoir Evaporation Utilizing Mass-Transfer  Theory, U.S.G.S.
     Professional Paper 272-E, 1962.

 8  Heat Dissipation  in Flowing Streams; Advanced  Seminar Report,
     Oept.  of  Sanitary Engineering and Water Resources,  The Johns
     Hopkins University, June 30, 1962.

 9.  LeBosquet, M(> Jr., Cooling-Water Benefits from Increased River
     Flows, Journal New England  Water Works Association, 60:111-6,
     June,  19*46.

10.  McAHster, B. N., Rogue River Basin Study. Parts I, II, and III;
     Water  Research Association  Report, May 5,  1961:  May 15, 1961;
     Novanber  22, 1961.

11  Organization for  Water Temperature Prediction  and Control  Study,
     Umpqua River Basin. Oregon  State Water Resources Board Report,
     February, 1963.

12.  Raphael,  J. M., Prediction  of Temperature in Rivers and Reser-
     voirs, Power Division Journal, ASCE Proc.; 88:157+, July,  1962.
                               155

-------
13-  Raphael, J. M., The Effect of Wanapum and Priest Rapids Dams on the
     Temperature of the Columbia River, Report for PUD No. 2 of Grant Co.,
     Washington, September,1961.

]k.  Raphael, J. M., The Effect of Wei 1s and Rocky Reach Dams on the
     Temperature of the Columbia River, Report for PUD No. 2 of Grant Co.,
     Washington,January,1962.

15-  Schroepfer, G. J., Susag, R. H., et at., Pollution and Recovery
     Characteristics of the Mississippi River, Vol. One, Part Three)
     Report by Sanitary Engineering Division, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
     University of Minnesota for Minneapolis-St. Paul Sanitary District,
     September,  1961.

16.  Velz,  C. J. and Gannon, J. J., Forecasting Heat Loss in Ponds and
     Streams, Journal  Water Pol lution Control Federation, 32:392-^+17,
     April, I960.

17.  Water-Loss Investigations;  Lake Hefner Studies, Technical Report,
     U.S.G.S. Professional  Paper 269, 195*+.
                               156

-------
              ATTENDANCE AT THE TWELFTH SYMPOSIUM

                         November 7,  1963
Donald F. Amend
Aven M, Andersen
N. H.  Anderson
R. L.  Angstrom
Robert Averett
Robert J. Ayers

Richard Bakkala
Wil1iam J. Beck
Paul F. Berg
Richard Berg
Harold Berkson
Donald E. Bevan
Russell 0. Blosser
B. R.  Bohn
C. E.  Bond
Peter  B. Boyer
Lt. George Brown
R. L.  Brown
Fred J. Burgess
Melvin H. Burke
Roger  E. Burrows
Wayne V. Burt

Richard J. Cal1 away
Dale A. Carl son
George G. Chadwick
W. N.  Christiansen
Robert F. Clawson
Wm. D. Clothier
A. G.  Coche
Chas.  W. Coddington
Gerald B. Collin
John F. Conrad
A. C.  Cooper

J. P.  Cor ley
J. F.  Cormack
R. A.  Corthell
Frederick K.  Cramer
Colbert E. Cushing

G. E.  Davis
Wm. H. Delay
Oregon State University
State Shellfish Laboratory
Oregon State University
Oregon Fish Commission
University of Washington
Oregon Fish Commission

Bur. Commercial Fisheries
PHS ShelIfish San. Lab.
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Oregon State University
U. S. Public Health Service
University of Washington
Oregon State University
Oregon Fish Commission
Oregon State University
Corps of Engineers
5<+lst M.I. Det.
State Water Resources Bd.
Oregon State University
U.S. Forest Service
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Oregon State University

U.S. Public Health Service
University of Washington
Oregon State University
Ore. State Game Commission
Calif. Dept. of Water Resources
Ore. Fish Commission
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Bur. Commercial Fisheries
Oregon Fish Commission
International  Pacific Salmon
    Fisheries  Commission
General Electric Co.
Crown Ze1lerbach
Ore. State Game Commission
Corps of Engineers
General Electric Co.

Oregon State University
State Water Resources Bd.
Corval 1 is
Brinnon
Corval1is
Portland
Seattle
Portland

Seattle
Gig Harbor
Boise
Corval1i s
Portland
Seattle
Corval1i s
Clackamas
Corval1 is
Portland
Forte Meade, Md.
Salem
Corval1 is
Portland
Longview
Corval1i s

Portland
Seattle
Corval1i s
Salem
Sacramento
Portland
Corval1i s
Corval1 is
Seattle
Clackamas
New Westminster,
   B.C., Canada
Richland
Camas
Portland
Walla Walla
Richland

Corval1 is
Salem
                              157

-------
 George R.  Ditsworth
 Hugh H.  Dobson
 Peter Doudoroff

 Wes Ebel
 John E.  Edinger
 W. E. Eldridge
 M. W. Erho
 Robert T.  Evans
 Curtiss  M. Everts

 El 1iott  M. Flaxman
 Richard  F. Foster
 Laurie G.  Fowler
 John Fryer
 Paul Fujihara

 Robert L.  Garrison
 Daniel L.  Gerlough
 Charles  V. Gibbs
 J. Wendel1 Gray
 A1Ian B. Groves

 James B. Haas
 James 0. Hal I
 J. A. R. Hamilton
 George H, Hansen
 Gary Hewitt
 R. C. Hinchcliffe

 Harlan B. Holmes
 J. C. Huetter
 Jim Hutchi son

 Gary W.  Isaac

 Robert T.  Jaske
 H. E. Johnson
 David C. Joseph

 Malcolm  Karr
 Earl  D.   Kathman
Max Katz
 Kenneth  D. Kerri
 James T. Krygier
 Norman Kujala

 R. L. Laird
 Robert E. Leaver
U.S.  Public Health Service
Oregon State University
Oregon State University

Bur.  Commercial Fisheries
The Johns Hopkins University
U.S.  Public Health Service
Washington Dept. of Fisheries
State Water Resources Bd.
Pac.  N.W. Water Lab., PHS

Soil  Conservation Service
General Electric Co.
U.S.  Fish & Wildlife Service
Oregon State University
General Electric Co.

Oregon State University
Planning Research Corp.
Municipality of Metro
Pac. N.W. Water Lab., PHS
Bur. Commercial Fisheries

Oregon Fish Commission
Oregon State University
Pacific Power & Light Co.
Wash. Pollution Control Comm.
1870 Fifth N. E.
Gen. Admin. Bldg., Research
     Office
Fisheries Consultant
Corps of Engineers
170 S. Owens

Municipality of Metro

General Electric Co.
University of Washington
Calif. Dept. of Fish & Game

State Water Resources Bd.
Oregon State University
University of Washington
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Oregon State University

A.I.D. India, c/o Dept. of State
Wash. State Dept.  of Health
Portland
Corval1 is
Corval Us

Welser
Baltimore
Portland
Vancouver
Salem
Corval1 is

Portland
Rich land
Longview
Corval Us
Rich land

Corval1 is
Los Angeles
Seattle
Corval1 is
Seattle

Portland
Corvallis
Portland
Olympia
Salem
Olympia

Portland
Portland
Salem

Seattle

Rich land
Seattle
Sacramento

Salem
Corval Ms
Seattle
Corval Us
Corval11s
Corvaltis

Washington, D.C.
Seattle
                              158

-------
Norman Leibrand
Dale A. Long
Harold W. Lorz

W. Bruce McAlister
George McCammon
J. H. McCormick
Arthur B. Mclntyre

Norman J. MacDonald
Barton M. Maclean
Jas. A. Macnab
L. 0. Marriage
Y. Matida
Fred Merryfield
H. W. Merryman
A1 Mil Is
0. T. Montgomery
Phil F. Moon
Albert M. Moore
S. Moriyasu
Kenneth H. Mosbaugh

R. E. Nakatani
Ronald E. Nece
Francis Nelson
Mark L. Nelson
George 0. Nielsen
Anthony J. Novotny

R. T. Oglesby
Waine E. Oien
Melvin J. Ord
Erling J. Ordal
D. L. Overholser
Eben L. Owens

Clarence Pedersen
L. Edward Perry
John C. Petersen
0. C. Phillips
K. S. Pi 1cher
Herbert E. Pintler
Stuart T. Pyle

Edison L. 0_uan

Jerome M. Raphael
Edwin F. Roby
U. S. Geological Survey
Portland State College
Oregon State University

Oregon State University
Calif. Dept. Fish & Game
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
U.S. Public Health Service

Corps of Engineers
Corps of Engineers
Portland State College
Soil Conservation Service
Freshwater Fish. Res. Lab.
Oregon State University
State Board of Health
Wash. Pollution Control Comm.
Bur. Sport Fish. & Wildlife
Corps of Engineers
U. S. Geological Survey
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service

General  Electric Co.
University of Washington
U.S. Public Health Service
Corps of Engineers
Wash. Dept. of Fisheries
Bur. Commercial Fisheries

University of Washington
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Corps of Engineers
University of Washington
Ore. State Fish Commission
Oregon State University

Corps of Engineers
Bur. Commercial Fisheries
Bureau of Reclamation
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service
Calif. Dept. of Water Resources

State Board of Health

University of California
Sport Fisheries & Wildlife
Portland
Portland
Corval1i s

Corval1 is
Sacramento
Longview
San Francisco

Seattle
Walla Walla
Portland
Portland
Tokyo,  Japan
Corval1i s
Eugene
Olympia
Portland
Portland
Portland
Corval1 is
Portland

Rich land
Seattle
Olympia
Portland
Vancouver
Seattle

Seattle
Spokane
Walla Walla
Seattle
Clackamas
Corval1 is

Portland
Portland
Boise
Corvallis
Corval1 is
San Francisco
Sacramento

Portland

Berkeley
Portland
                                59

-------
Donald L. Ross
Jack Rothacher
Lloyd 0. Rothfus

Roy E. Sams
Roy B. Sanderson
Harold Sawyer
Ralph H. Scott
Robert W. Scabloom
John Seeders
Wm. L. Shapeero
Thomas T. Shen
Dean L. Shumway
R. 0. Sinnhuber
George R. Snyder
Leale E. Streebin
Robert 0. Sylvester

Allan E. Thomas
Edward 6. Thornton
Parker S. Trefethen

William E. Webb
W. Donald Weidlein
E. F. Weiss
E. B. Welch
Henry 0. Wendler
Ray Westenhouse
John W. Wolfe
J. Larry Worley

Boyd Yaden
Franklin R. Young
Stephen A. Young

Robert W. Zeller
U.S. Public Health Service
Oregon State University
Washington Dept. Fisheries

Oregon Fish Commission
U. S. Geological Survey
Ore. State Board of Health
U.S. Public Health Service
University of Washington
Oregon'State University
University of Washington
2309 Wth N. E.
Oregon State University
Oregon State University
Fish Passage Research
Oregon State University
University of Washington

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Oregon State University
Bur. Commercial Fisheries

Idaho Fish & Game Dept.
Calif. Oept. Fish & Game
Oregon Fish Commission
University of Washington
Washington Dept. Fisheries
Weyerhaeuser Co.
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service

State Water Resources Bd.
Oregon State University
U.S. Public Health Service

U.S. Public Health Service
Olympia
Corvail is
Vancouver

Portland
Portland
Portland
Portland
Seattle
Corval 11s
Seattle
Seattle
Corval Us
CorvaUis
Seattle
Corval 11s
Seattle

Longview
Corval1 is
Seattle

Boise
Sacramento
dackamas
Seattle
Vancouver
Springfield
Corval11s
Portland

Salem
Corval Us
Portland

Portland
                              160

-------