The Herbicide

Environmental Protection Agency
           May 1974

Prepared for the Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental
Protection Agency by the:
Criteria and Evaluation Division
Special Working Group on 2,4-D

William V. Hartwell, Ph.D., Group Leader and Editor
Chapter I       George E. Bagley
Chapter II      Latnar B. Dale, Jr., Ph.D.
Chapter III     Merle H. Markley -=-
Chapter IV      Raymond E. Landolt
Chapter V       Ralph Freund and James Uorst, Ph.D.
                Staffs of Economic Research Service and
                Agricultural Research Service USDA
Chapter VI      Charles R. Lewis

Library Assistance Of:
     Mr. Robert Ceder
     Mrs. Claudia Lewis


                  Table of Contents

Introduction 	 	       1
Summary	       3
Chapter I.  Chemistry of 2,4-D 	      11
Chapter II.  Toxlcity of 2,4-D and its Derivatives 	      34
Chapter III.  Toxicity, Fate, and Significance of
              2,4-D in the Environment	      52
Chapter IV.  Residues	     104
Chapter V.  Economic Summary of Production and use of 2,4-D  .  .     108
Chapter VI.  Uses of 2,4-D	     119


     The term 2,4-D has been ascribed to 2,4-dlchlorophenoxyacetic

acid, it salts and esters which are used as herbicides.  A simple

method for preparation of 2,4-1) was described lir 1941.  At about

the same time, and analogue, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid,

had been produced commercially by Imperial Chemical Industries in

1945.  The 2,4-D, apparently held under secrecy for military reasons,

was patented as a growth stimulant in 1943 and as a herbicide in

1945.  Production which was started in 1944 by Amchem was more than

20 million pounds per year in 1949 and almost 100 million (acid

equivalents) by the late 1960's.

     According to the U.S. Tariff Commission, major producers of

2,4-D are Dow Chemical Co., Monsanto Chemical Co., Rhodia

Corporation, Riverdale Chemical Co., Gordon Corporation, Thompson

Hayward Chemical Co., and Guth Chemical Co.  A total of 1426 labels

are registered by 282 companies for the control of broadleaf plants

found in soil and water.  Major uses are on corn, including pre-

emergence treatment, wheat and small grains, sorghum, pature and

rangeland, right-of-way and ditch banks, lawn and turf, and control

of aquatic broadleaf plants.

     A maximum acceptable daily intake for 2,4-D and tolerances on

food and feed crops and water have been established.

     In 1969 the Secretary's Commission on Pesticides and Their

Relationship to the Environmental Health recommended re-examining

the registered uses of the materials and other relevant data of

possible teratogens and carcinogens in order to institute prudent

steps to minimize human exposure to these chemicals.  2,4-D was

included in the list of pesticides covered in this recommendation.

     In a statement issued on March 18, 1971, the Administrator

of the Environmental Protection Agency said that "Active internal
review is being initiated as to the registrations of products

containing . . . 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, its salts and

esters . . . and all others deemed necessary for review.  The
function of these reviews is not to make another study of pesti-

cides, but to identify which, if any, of the presently registered

products presents a substantial questions of safety.  Questions which

should trigger the administrative process of cancellation"

(Ruckelshaus, 1971).


     The pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a member

of the phenoxyalkanoic acid family of herbicides which emerged from

wartime research in the early 1940's.  Available forms include, esters,

acid salts and the free acid.

     The United States Tariff Commission reports that 280 million pounds

of cyclic herbicides and plant hormones were sold in the U.S. in 1972.

Of this amount, less than 75 million pounds were sold as acid, salt or

esters of 2,4-D.  Available information indicates that greatest amounts

of 2,4-D were used-during the middle and late 1960's.  Amounts used in

1971 was less than one-naif the amount used in 1968.  Since 1971 amounts

used have increased probably due to "restrictions placed on 2,4,5-T.

     2,4-D is used to control broadleaf plants in soil and water'and

as a growth regulator on citrus and potatoes.  According to USDA reports

approximately 95 percent of 2,4-D used in 1971 was applied to corn,

wheat, pasture and rangeland, other grains, sorghum and summer fallow.

Greatest amounts were used in the Northern Plains followed by the

Corn Belt, the Mountain States, the Lake States, the Pacific States,

Southern Plains and Appalachian region.  Lesser amounts were used in

the Northeast, the Southeast, and the Delta States.

     The fate of 2,4-D in soil is dependent on presence or organic matter

content, clay content, cation exchange capacity and moisture content.

Resident microorganisms hydrolyze their ether bond and convert the ring

structure to succinic -acid which is subsequently used by a source of

carbon.  Under favorable growing conditions, 2,4-D in soil is usually

broken down within 4-6 weeks.  Residual phytotoxicity lasts approximately

one month.

     Time for decay of one half the residual 2,4-D in water is about

one week; and trace amounts may be detected after one month.  Esters

are usually hydrolyzed within 9 days, and ultraviolent light causes

decomposition.  Microbial action of lake mud decomposes 2,4-D in sedi-

ments as rapidly as 80 percent in 24 hours.

     Movement of 2,4-D in air has been indicated by adverse effects on

susceptible crops adjacent to sprayed areas caused by drift.  Low

chain esters of 2,4-D are also volatile and drift from residual amounts

have caused adverse effects in adjacent nontarget crops.

     2,4-D is a synthetic auxin which creates growth reactions much like

those from naturally occurring indole auxins.  Indole auxins are

inactivated rapidly whereas 2,4-D is far more active and persists for

longer periods of time.  Usually, the movement of 2,4-D is usually from

leaf to  the stem.  Depending on plant species and rate of application,

2,4-D may be used to accelerate or inhibit growth, RNase activity,

protein  content and respiration rate.  Its effects on the abscission

layer of young fruit may permit thinning by spray application while

effects  on retardation of respiration can be used to prolong storage

of citrus fruits.

     Three routes of metabolism have been demonstrated in resistant and

susceptible plants.  These pathways are simple conjugation, conjugation

and hydroxylation, and oxidation of the side chain.  In hydroxylation,

the chlorine atom in the 4 position is shifted to the 3 or 5 position.

     2,4-D may have adverse effects on selected beneficial insects  but

amine salts and esters of 2,4-D are nontoxic to honeybees.  Toxicity

attributed to other formulations may in part be caused by carriers

such as diesel oil.  Greater numbers of bee kills have occurred

following application to plants which were in blossom rather than to

plants not in blossom.  This observation and the detection of 2,4-D

in plant nectar suggest that the route of exposure to the honeybee is

not through surface and allows the conclusion that 2,4-D acts as a

stomach poison rather than a systemic.  In Canadian fields not treated

with 2,4-D, coccinellid predators were found to be numerous and healthy.

Similar species from treated fields were less numerous and less vigorous

than those from untreated fields.

     Toxicity of 2,4-D to domestic animals is low.  Administration by

intubation of 2 grams of 2,4-D per day for 90 days to sheep starting
one day after breeding, didAcause congenital malformations in the

lambs.  No clinical signs of poisoning occurred in the ewes during

the feeding period and none of the dams or lambs contained pathological

lesions on the internal organs.

     2,4-D was detected in serum from cattled fed 5.5 grams per day

for 106 days.  However, signs of poisoning were not observed and 2,4-D

was not detected in the cows milk at freshening.  Other studies indicated

0.06 ppm in milk could be detected following daily ingestion of rations

containing 1,000 ppm.  -Following ingestion, 2,4-D was detected in visceral

content and in urine, but after three days only trace amounts were

detected in urine.

     Laying hens were fed 2,4-D at rates equivalent to 50 and 150 ing/kg

diet between ages 28 and 48 weeks without decrease in egg production,

hatchability or growth, rate of progeny or decrease in eggshell thickness,

egg weight or yolk weight.  It may be concluded from these observations

that the amount of 2,4-D consumed ao rccidue on pastures treated for

weed control would be injurious to cattle, sheep, or chickens.

     The toxicity «* 2,4-D to wild birds and mammals is low.  The LDjQ

reported for the mallard is greater than 1000 mg/kg.  Under laboratory

conditions high dietary levels cause a reduction in egg production;
however, this effect has not been reported in bird populations resident

in areas of use.

     Some repellent action to rabbits has been observed in areas treated

with 2,4-D.  Observed reduction of gopher populations in treated areas

has been attributed to reduction in natural foods such as perennial

forbs and herbs.  Treatment for brush control has caused improved

habitats for several species of mammals and game birds by improving

browse, cover, and food supply.

     Most forms of 2,4-D are relatively nontoxic to fish, oysters, clams

and crabs.  However, the acetamide and isopropyl derivatives are highly

toxic, and uses of these two materials are not allowed in areas where

possible contamination of water may result.  Results of laboratory

studies indicate  that oysters and mussels concentrate 2,4-D in their

bodies up to 700 times the level in water, and application of 20 Ib.

per acre or more to surfaces of shallow lakes and ponds may cause

bubotantial mortality in some species.  In large bodies of water or

under conditions 01 local or topical application, most species of fish
temporarily leave areas of treatment.  Following aquatic treatment,
increases in resident species of rishes have been reported._

     Acute oraj-'toxicities for 2,4-D and its various esters are

relatively low, range 375-800 mg/kg in rats.  Dogs are more

sensitive, the LDjg being reported as 100 mg/kg.  When 2,4-D was

studied in humans as a possible treatment for disseminated

coccidioidomycosis, patients tolerated intravenous doses up to

15 mg/kg for extended periods to time.  However, an intravenous

dose .of 67 mg/kg produced mild symptoms.  Suicidal ingestion of

a quantity of 2,4-D as a single dose known to be greater than

6500 mg (in excess of 90 mg/kg) was fatal.

     Thyroid function is altered and renal resorption is disturbed

with high levels of 2,4-D, and following heavy repeated exposures,

central nervous symptoms and myotonia have been reported.  A possible

explanation for muscle effect may be inhibition of phosphorylase

activity by large doses of 2,4-D.

     The rate of absorption of salts, acids and esters of 2,4-D through

the gut is 10 times that of dermal absorptions.  Esters are absorbed

somewhat more slowly and apparently are hydrolyzed totally during

absorption.  2,4-D is not stored in body fat.  Distribution within

the body is primarily intrdfcellular, and sometimes, particularly

the liver and kidney contain amounts of the same order as the plasma.

              -- *     &
Excretion as the^yunc^anged acid and small amounts of 2,4-dichloro-


phenols is rapid and nearly exclusively renal, half time for total

body clearance is within the order of 5-30 hours. <

     No evidence has been found that implicates 2,4-D as a mutagen.

In the one study reported 2,4-D was found to be inactive in a test

designed to identify compounds capable of inducing point mutations.

     Tumor induction has been studied in two hybrid strains of mice

by single subcutaneous injection or by continuous oral feeding for

••« months beginning with animals at 7 days of age.  Tumors observed

     principal ^ iiver^ lung and lymphoid orgin, but 2,4-D was not

found to cause an increase in _	 incidence.  However, three related

materials  a-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) proplonic acid; u-(9.4,5-trichloro-

phenoxy) propionic acid; and 2,4-D isopropyl esters caused a slight

increase as compared with negative control.  Small numbers of animals

              the increasedincjArfice was of a low order of statistical

significance.  The WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues concluded

in 1971 these data do not substantiate the veaw that 2,4-D is


     In a three generation six-litter rat reproduction study, no

deleterious effects of dietary levels of 2,4-D at 100 or 500 ppm was

evident.  In contrast when 500 ppm was fed to one, sow during the entire

pregnancy,  one of the 15 piglets delivered was dead and nine more died

within the first 24 hours.  Fairly high concentrations of 2,4-D were

found In the tissues of the piglets.

     Five teratogenic studies with 2,4-D have been reported, one each

in mice and hamsters and three in rats.  The mouse study and one of

the rat studies must be discounted because 2,4-D was administered

with substances known to be teratogenic.  Results of the Bionetics

Study indicated a significant increase number of abnormal fetuses

from dams receiving maximally tolerated doses of either the octyl,

butyl, or.isopropyl esters of 2,4-D administered subcutaneously in

dimethyl sulfoxide (JMSO).

     An increase in incidence of cleft palate was observed in rat pups

from dams dosed orally with 60-120 mg/kg of a mixture of 2,4~D and

2,4,5-T.  Since the dioxin content of the mixture was not given, no

weight can be given this study was an indication of the teratogenicity

of 2,4-D.

     Dosage levels of 2,4-D up to 87.5 mg/kg/day (maximum tolerated

dose) given to pregnant rats on days 6-15 of gestation failed to

elicit teratogenic responses.  At higher dosage levels, fetotoxic

responses were noticed and following single oral doses of 100-150

mg/kg on days 6-15 of gestation an  increase in skeletal anomalies

was noted.  Doses of 50 mg/kg of 2,4-D derivatives induced no apparent

effects.  While no maternal toxicity was reported with these chemicals,

it is doubtful that 2,4-rD in the high dose range could have been with-

out toxic effects on the dams.

     Pregnant hamsters received dally oral doses of 2,4-D in levels
up to 100 rag/kg.  Fused ribs were noted with doses of 60 ing/kg
(equivalent to about 600 ppm in diet) or more.
     The danger of significant amounts of 2,4-D appearing in ground
water or drainage channels from areas receiving extensive treatment
of pesticides is slight.  Following applications of 2,4-D at* the rate
of 100 Ib. per acre to TVA reservoirs for control of Eurasian water-
milfoil residues in bottom sediment was 0.24-58.8 ppm 10 months after
treatment.  Maximum residues detected in water one hour after application
was 0.037 ppm; and more than 95 percent of this had disappeared after
8 hours.
     Tolerances are allowed on selected food and feed commodities, and
FAO/WHO has established an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 0.3 mg/kg/day
(21 mg/day for aJ70 Kg man^.  Estimated daily intake lias decreased from
0.15 mg/day in 1965 to less than 0.005 mg/day in 1970.  In 1965, 4.5
percent of composite samples contained  <0.001-0.14 ppm and in 1970 1.4
percent were  contaminated.

                            Chapter I
                       Chemistry of 2,4-D

     The pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid£2-,4rD) belongs te-a-
family of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicid^s--vrfnch emerged from wartime
research in the early 1940's.  An analogue, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy-
acetic acid (MCPA), discovered at about the same time, was apparently
used 1n England in 1941 - 1942 and was produced commercially by Imperial
Chemical Industries in 1945.  The 2,4-D apparently held under secrecy
for military reasons, was patented as a growth stimulant in 1943 and as
a herbicide in 1945.  Production which was started in 1944 by Amchem
was more than 20 million pounds in 1949 and over 100 million pounds
per year (acid equivalent of esters and salts) by the late 1960's
(Lawless, E. W., R. von Rumker and T. L. Ferguson, 1972).  These herbi-
cides in the acid form are only slightly soluble in water and usually
are formulated for commercial uses as esters and salts.
I.A.  Synthesis
     Two methods of industrial importance used to prepare 2,4-D are
presented in Figure I.I.  With Process I phenoxyacetic acid or its
esters are treated with chlorine in aqueous medium, organic solvents
or in a fusion (Melinkov, 1971).  Chlorophenoxyacetic acids recovered
by this method are equivalent to 90 percent of the starting material,
but the quality of the product obtained contains greater amounts of
Isomers than that obtained with Process II described below.
     Process II, Figure'1.1., is the preferred industrial procedure.
In the process of chlorinating phenol (Ila) several isomeric chloro-

Process I
acetic acid
2,4-D (2,4-dlchlorophenoxy-
           acetic acid)
Process II

                  .NO OH
    Figure  I.I. Chemical  processes  used for producing 2,4-D

phenols may be formed, but by careful control  of the conditions of
the reaction, a product 1s obtained which contains predominantly
2,4-dichlorophenol - the decreased product.  To suppress formation of
the 2-6 dichloro isomeric chlorination of phenol is carried out at
temperatures slightly above 43°C.  by chlorination of phenol in liquid
sulfur dioxide 2,4-dichlorophenol of 98 percent purity may be obtained.
At the boiling point of sulfurdioxide formation of the 2,6-isomer is
Inhibited and the formation of 2,4,6-dichlorophenol is inhibited.  Under
these conditions a product containing 92 percent 2,4-dichlorophenol,
7.5 percent 2,6-dichlorophenol and 0.5 percent 2,4,6-trichlorophenol
(Dellne, 1972).
     In the condensation step (IIt>),-monochloroacetic acid is reacted
with an excess of 2,4-dichlorophenol to prevent hydrolysis of mono-
chloroacetate.  Following acidification (lie) and removal of the 2,4-D,
the excess 2,4-dichlorophenol may be distilled off with steam and reused.
With ratios of two moles of 2,4-dichlorophenol on one of monochloro-
acetate, yields of 2,4-D are 94 percent theoretical.
     The condensation step (lib) is carried out under alkaline
conditions which favor formation of dioxlns.  Dichlorodioxin at approxi-
mately 300 ppm has been detected in water products (Goulding, et al.,
1972).  Toxlcity of this compound is relatively low as compared with
the tetrachlorodioxin.
     The purity of technical 2,4-D has been examined by several
workers.  The unpleasant odor of the technical product is attributed
to a small amount of 2,4-dichlorophenol.  Wool son, e_t al_., (1972)

examined 129 samples of 17 different pesticides  derived  from chloro-
phenols for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d1oxins  by EC-GC.   They found
a detectable amount of hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HCDD)  In  one
2,4-D sample but suggested that since most samples were  produced
before 1970 they may not represent current production  methods.   No
explanation was given for the occurrence of HCDD in one  twenty-
eight samples examined.  Hudson (1972) observed.three  neutral
contaminants in production grade 2,4-D.  The major component was
identified as b1s-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) methane  by GLC retention time,
melting point, mass spectra, and nuclear magnetic resonance  spectra.
The other two impurities were not isolated, however, their mass spectra
are virtually identical to the major component,  suggesting that they
are positional isomers.  Results of semiquantitative analysis of the
commercial sample of 2,4-D used in Houston's study indicated that the
contaminants were present at levels of 1, 10 and 30 ppm.   The major
component has a retention time similar to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-
dibenzo-p-dioxin when several different columns  and varied operating
conditions were employed.  This Illustrates the  need for caution by
the analyst who use GLC data as an indication  of impurities  In pesticides.
I.B.  Chemical Properties of 2,4-D
     2,4-D add 1s a white crystalline substance, m.p. 141°C, b.p.
160 °C at 0.4 mm. of Hg.  Pure 2,4-D has practically ho  odor; technical
grade 2,4-D almost always contains a small amount of 2,4-dichlorophenol
and as a result has an'unpleasant odor.  According to  International
standards the permissible impurity in technical  2,4-D  is not more than

0.3% dichlorophenol.   At 20°C, 540 mg.  of the acid dissolves  In one
liter of water (Table I.B.I.).  2,4-D is highly soluble also  in benzene,
carbon tetrachloride, acetone, and tetra - and pentachloroethanes.   It
1s stable in storage both in solutions  of different solvents  and in the
crystalline state.  When it is irradiated with ultraviolet light slight
decomposition may occur.  The dissociation constant of 2,4-D  is 23  x 10"  .
     With inorganic and organic bases it forms stable salts.   The
properties of some salts of 2,4-D are shown in (Table I.B.2.).  The
salts of the bivalent metals are poorly soluble in water,  and conse-
quently whan 2,4-D is dissolved in hard water precipitates may separate
out.  To avoid this, complexons (Trilon B) often are added to technical
preparations of 2,4-D.
     The effectiveness of the esters of 2,4-D in controlling  various
weeds is considerably higher than that of its salts and various other
derivatives.  The lower alkyl esters of 2,4-D (ethyl, isopropyl, butyl,
etc.) are comparatively volatile and their vapors may damage  crops
sensitive to 2,4-D that are located next to the treated plots.  With
an Increase in molecular weight, the volatility of the esters decreases.
Jensen and Schall, 1966, using gas-liquid chromaiography determined
vapor pressures of 24 esters of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichloro-
phenoxyacetic acid) over the temperature range 170° to 300°C  (Table
I.B.3.).  These data were extrapolated to 25°C in order to provide
field temperature C25°C) data for use as a criterion of herbicide
volatility.  The 25°C data support the previous gauge of volatility -
that a phenoxy ester with five or less carbons in the ester portion

                                TABLE I.B.I.
             Solubility of 2,4-D in Various Solvents
Temperature °C
Solubility, g/lOOg Solvent
or Weight Percent
Ethyl alcohol
Carbon Tetrachloride

        0.10 - 0.35
       Melnlkov, N. N., 1971
       'Herbicide Handbook, 197.0

n uyer uu:> ui od i ii> or ct4-aiciiiuropnenoxyaceiic MCIU
Solubility in Water
Benzyl ami ne

Di ally! ami ne
Dime thy 1 ami ne
Di ethyl ami ne
Me thy! ami ne
Sodium (Monohydrate)
. .,
106 -107
^ 	 ^ x
138 - 139
93 - 94.5

107 - 109
85 - 87
94 - 94.5
129 - 131

, ,_„ 	 ,_,
157 - 159
145 - 147
136 - 138
216 - 218

131 - 132

g/100cj H20

Highly Sol.
Temp .


                          TABLC  I.B.3.
The Vapor Pressure of Esters of 2,4-D  at  Various Temperatures
                         (MM of Hg)

                        Temperature, °C
Heptyl -
2-Butyl .
Adapted from:

171 187
11.0 22
8.8 18
6.4 12
4.5 . 9.2
3.9 7.7
2.1 4.5
7.6 17
5.4 10
	 3.1 '
D. J. Jensen and

8.1 .
E. D. Schall

, 1966.

. 31



is highly volatile and/jubertLTiial the phenoxy-t-ype hcrbicid^i, willi
a "upor pressure greater than 1.5 x 10  mm.  of Hg at 25°C should be
classified as "highly volatile".  Baskin and Walker, 1903, working
with tomatoes, suggested that phonoxyacetic esters containing five
carbons or less in the alcohol porLion were "highly volatile", while
those containing more than five were "low volatile".  This classi-
ficiition has been widely acceptf.d.
l.C.  ts. : r h r ii
     2,4-D acid reacts readily -..'ith a variety of alcohols to produce
e large selection of esters and with amines to produce amine salts.
A large number of alcohols well known for their practical interest
Ivve been synthetized and studied.  Properties of some of these esters
arc presentee! in (Tdbl^ !.[?.<•".).  Of the "large number of esters of 2,4-D
that have been studied, practical use has been made of the ethyl, isopropyi
butyl, einyl , heptyl , octyl and isooctyl, chlorocrotyl , polypropylene and
polyethylencr]lyrol esters,, and others.  These esters of 2,4-D are produced
commercially by csterifi cation of the acid with the appropriate alcohols
or by chlorination of the ester-, of phcnoxyacetic acid,  tsterification
usually ii carried out in the presence of acid catalysts, and the water
is distilled off as an azeotropic mixture with an organic solvent.
1 . U .  Comnerclal Formulations of 2,4-D
      The 2,4,5-1 compounds used in commercial formulations include
the acid, salts and a wide variety of esters.  These active components
are formulated with a variety of ingredients, all designed to reach
the target pest in a form that will effect maximum control.  The

                                       M"i: t.n.4.
           Properties of Some Esters of 2,4-dichlorG|j!i' ^-^yacetic Acid
Formula of Starting Alcohol
Ch3 OH
C2 H5 OH
CH3 (CH2)2 CH2 OH
(CH3)2 Cll Cl!2 OH
CH3 (CH2)3 CII2 OH
(CH3)2 Cll CH2 Cli2 OH
CM, (CH0).. CH(C,Hr) CH0 OH
 _ j i.
CH3 (CH2)6 CH? OH
CII3 (CH2)7 CH2 OH
CH3 C CL - CH CH2 Oil
2,4-Clo C, M, OCH, CIL OH
£ U vJ L. U
15.2 - lb.4
33 - 34
149 -
146 -
133 -
136 -
173 •-
173 -
186 -




Adopted from:  Melnikov, 1971.

     o.   ]'.op ropy 1
     d.   Butyl
     c.   Amyl
     Esters,  Low-volatile
     a.   Dutoxyethanol
     b.   Butoxyethoxypropanol
     c.   Ethoxyethoxypropanol
     d.   Isooclyl
     o.   Propyluic glycol ljutyl  other
     One formulation commonly uscn in Vietnam as a defoliant, usually
referred to as Orange,  is a reddish brown Lo tan-colored liquid soluble
in diesel fuel and organic solvents, but insoluble in water.  Oranne is
formulated to contain a 50:50 volume mixture of n-butyl esters of 2,4-D
end 2,4,5-T.   Tht weiy'it percentages of the formulation are:
     n-butyl  ester of 2,4-D                              45.5%
     n-butyl  ester of 2,4,5-T                            48.2%
     inort ingredic'iits  (e.g., related manufacturing
     inpurities)                                          6.3%
Some of the  physic?.! and chemicnl properties of Orange are:
      Specific density (20°C)                       1.205
      Viscosity, Contiooise (23°C)                 43
      Weight of  Formulation (Ibs/gal)              10.7
      Vapor  Pressure  1 mm. of l!g @                35°C
I.E.  Analytical Methods
     2,4-D is routinely determined by gas liquid chromntoqraphy
(GLC) as the methyl ester using electron capture (FC) detection or

micro couloiK'tnc detection cell, (Frank d!)d Conic:.,  1967),  (Zuilinski
and (Hshbein, 1967), (Yip, 1962),  (Ketchersid. a n_l_.,  1970),
(Richardson, 1966), (Woodhan, K al_., 1971), (Clark,  e_t  al_.,.. 1967),
(Crosby, D. G., 1964) and Schultz,  1973).  Use of electron-capture
(EC) detection ha? tlr> advantage of high sensitivity ar.d thus  pvoiriing
the necessity of handling relative  large amounts of  sample.   However,
a vigorous clean-up procedure to prevent gross contamination of the
detector is necessary.  Gas chromatography, although an  extnniK.-ly
notful onulyticdl toolj does nul possess the specificity required,
especially for e.ivn uiiiiientul :,»ii|>lus.  "Ihu use of several  columns
of  different polarity have been employed to enhance  the  reliability
of  the method.  Other methods used  have  included determinations by
coloriinetric methods, thin layer chromatocjraphy  (TLC), an indirect
polarograprnc method for biological  materials, and  paper chrornatography.
     A typical GC analysis usually  includes several  steps starting with
nacerdtion of sample (solids),  ,i thorough mixing of  liauids, solvent
extraction of acid dnd/or cstc-r, column  chroi'iatoqropliy,  esterification
(usually methyl fit ion) and qudiiti Uition by GC.  This  general  procedure
is  applicciblo  Lo residues of ^!/l-IJ  acid, esters  or  hound form in various
substrates.  The methylation  is accomplished eithri  with diazoivethane
or  boron trifluoride-methanol.  Scogqins and Fitzgerald  (1969) proposed
dimethyl sulfate as a rapid pielhylation  agent  for  the chlorophenoxy-
acetic acid herbicides.  They claim thai methylation v.'ith dimethyl
sulfate yields excellent qualit.ilive and rnorcs  quantitative results

limn thf oMd-i.ataly/f:d reacting,.  /\1 though hv:hly toxic., dimetl-vl
•.ulfdte i', inexpensive, available in stock containers, has a long
shelf life, and is not explosive like diazoinehtane.  The dimethyl
sulfate reagent approaches the quantitative metiiylation of diazomethane
and has the advantages listed jhovp.
     Bjerke,  e_L d_l_., (1972 determined residues of 2,4-U acid and i Ls
phenol moiety in milk and cream by electron capture or microcoulomelric
GC.  The procedure was used to quantitato the chemicals down to 0.05
Pi-im, with over*-.II average recoveries rreater than 80 percent.
     Mendricksn-i and iloaghcr (V.J69) unployed EC-bC to investigate
2,4-D and metabolites in "pineapple" orange peel.  They observed
that a heat-labile fraction, not extracted with acetone, became the
predominate metabolite in a matter of weeks und showed the greatest
persistence.   In this study 2,4-0 was recovered as four fractions:
free ecid, c-stcr acid, (hexane-soluble), conjugated acid (v.-ater-
soluble, hexane-insoluble), and a heat-labile conjugated acid  (heat
rr.'1'.dsc-c).  Previous publications by tieagher  (19G(jfi,  1966b)  described
a  technique for  isolating fractions of  the total  ?,4-D residue from
citrus peel.  A  sequence of extraction  and heating divided the total
residue into four  respective fractions  that are converted  to the free
acid, esterilied and then quentitdtt-d by GC,  utilizing an  EC detector.
     Clark, et_  al_.,  (19G7) investigated the extraction efficiency  of
several solvents including benzene, petroleum ether,  acetone,  diethyl
ether, sulfuric  acid benzene,  chloroform, carbon  tetrachloride, 0.05N

Illl/jO.i, duo' 'Jjl', ethdnol.  Tisr.ti" v/u'j fortified with a known amount  of
 'C- of 2,4-i) und trie recovery determined rndiometrically after  hciiio-
gcnation with three  IQQ-ml portions of the various solvents.  Extraction
with hot 95 percent ethanol proved to be, by far, the most efficient of
the solvent system tested wiv!i Consistent recoveries of .ibove 96  percent.
Using the alcohol extraction procedure Clark, e_t cH_., (1957) determined
2,4-D rncidue in the body tissues of sheep.  After extraction and  cleanup,
the herbicide is hydrulyzcd to ?,4-dichlorophenol and further cleanup
is accomplished v/ith ' distillation.  Average recoveries of  82 percent
were obtained from tissues of sheep spiked with known amounts of herbi-
cide.  The method will detect residues as small as 0.05 ppm.
     Yip and Ney (1966), Klingrnc-.n, e_t al_., (1966), applied a micro-
coulomteric GC method to the determination of 2,^-D residue  in milk
and forage.  The authors obtained a sensitivity of 0.01 ppm.  The
method detects 2,4-D as the acirl, ester and in bound form from a single
sample after alkaline hydrolysis.
     Sears and Meehan (1971) reported detection limits for 2,4-D of
0.0005 ppn in water and 0.05 ppin in fish  tissues usinq gas chromatography.
Recovery ranged from 8b to IU2 percent.
     Larose crnd Chau (1973), usc'd retention indices to predict retention
time (RT) of the esters of chlorophenoxy  acids.  The total retention
index is divided into three additive components:  the alcohol contri-
bution, the acid contribution, i.-nd the interaction contribution.  They
found a linear relationship between the logarithm of the RT  of a series
of esters o1 a particular chlorophenoxy acid and the number  of carbon

•ii.av, in Lhi- olcc-hol used lor o'.ti-rification, piovided tliaL the alcohols
were part of on homologous scries.  This information may bo used to
predict the usefulness of a chromalographic system in separation of
particular esters.
     Aldhous (1967) used paper chromatonraphy to determine 2,4-D
residues in water following aerial spraying in a Scottish forest;
recovery data and/or detection limits were not re-ported.
     Yip (lOo-l) reported rc'-uM;:. oi paper chromcito'irapln'c. amilysis
of several chlnrophenoxy acids nnd osters in whoat.  The cleaned up
sample could be subjected to GC analysis also.  Recoveries of the
acid and esters ranged from 70-100 percent.  2,4-D applied to wheat
was detected at 0.01 ppm.
     Fidelus ?iid 7ietek (1970) used an  indirect nolaroqraphic method
for analysis of 2,4-D in blood ?nd urine samples.  The results from
the analysis of human  and rat blood and urine with known amounts of
2,-1-D added either directly or by  intubation revealed that the polaro-
grophic method  is sensitive to the b to 60-ng/ml range and has excellent
I.F.  Stability of 2,4-D
     2,4-D is Liable in storage both in solutions of different solvents
and in the crystalline state.  When it  is irradiated with ultraviolet
light, slight de-composition may occur.  The dissociation constant of
2,4-D is 23 X }Q~*  (Melnikov, 1971).
     Aly and Knust  (1964) examined the  effects of ultraviolet light
on aqueous solutions of 2,4-D salts arid esters and demonstrated the



                 .  t

                /  tl
                  \.   ..„
Figure  I. 2..  Proposed  mechanism of  2,<--D


rapid d is-appearance of the hf-.-ri-icide and provided colorimctric evidence
for the presence of phenols in the irradiated solutions.  Crosby and
Tutas (1%&) compared the effect of sunlight and laboratory ultraviolet
light on aqueous 2,4-D solutions and identified the major decomposition
products.  2,4-H acid dcco.iijH)i,ui rapidly in t!ic pro-.enc.e of water and
ultraviolet light.  Products resulting from this decomposition were
2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-chloro-c.';terhol, 2-hydroxy-4-chlorphenoxyacetic
acid, 1,2,4-benzene triol, and finally, oolymeric hunric acids.  The
decomposition products from ariifical licjht or sunlight were essentially
identical (Figure I.2.).  Laboratory irradiations employed mercury
arc lamps which produced light principally at a wavelength of 254 nm.
Irradiations in sunlight were carried out in borosilicate glass baking
dishes or petri dishes.  Each solution Wcis c.xposed for about 5 hours at
noon on each of 10 days in early October or late i"-1arch.
     The over-all photodccompov,tion rate of 2,4-U soilium salt in
aqueous solution  1-5 fairly rcipi' (50 percent loss  in E>0 minute? at
p!! 7.0), while 2,4-chchlorophcnol is even ir:ore phouilahile (50 p&rccnt
loss in 5 minutes at pH 7.0) (Aly and Faust, 1964).
     Rodgers and  Stalling  (1972) used   '^C-labeled butoxyethanol ester
of 2,4-U (!JEE of"  2,4-D) to study its rate of hydrolysis in water, its
uptake and elimination by  fishes, and to determine its distribution  in
                               1 /i
organs of several fishes.  The   C-labeled BITE of 2,4-D used  in  their
study was labeled in the carbonyl carbon.  Hydrolysis of the BEE of
2,4-D  in hard, nearly neutral water without fish was relatively slow
at 21°C  .  The hydrolysis  rate of the BEE of 2,4-D was  50 percent/40

hours.  Howe'.'.v, in duplicate aquaria containing fish, 50 percent of
the; I3LE of 2,4-1) was liydrolyzed in only 3 hours, and 24 hours after
addition of the ester only 1  percent of the BEE of 2,4-D remained.
     Aly and Faust (1964) studied the fate of 2,4-D and ester derivatives
in natural :,urf,v:e water:,.  2,4 '1 persisted up to 120 days in lake water:,
aerobically incubated in the laboratory.  Esters of 2,4-D were hydroly?cd
biologically to the free acid ami corresoonding alcohol within 9 days,
as measured by inanometric techniques.  Oxygen uptake data indicated that
only the alcohol moiety was oxidized.  2,4-D was decomposed biologically
by lake muds, 81 to 85 percent within 24 hours, but only after qxtensive
microbial adaptation techniques.                                i
     The lake bottom mud and manornetr.ic studies indicate that 2,4-D
is biologically decomposed in a relatively short period of time with
adapted microorganisms.  However, 2,4-D is applied usually once every
1 or ? years to a surface water (or aquatic plant control.  Consequently,
the development of adapted microorganisms may take a relatively long
time under <.uch unfavorable anaerobic conditions that may develop when
deed aquatic plants decompose.
     2,4-Dic.hloroi.ihenol, on the other hand, was biologically degraded
in the lake water indicating the presence of microorganisms capable
of decomposing this chemical in natural waters.
     At least 10 different organisms are reported to decompose 2,4-D.
In these studies two pathways are described:  (1) beta-oxidation of
the dlkanoic acid and (2) initial hydrolysis of the ether linkage
between the ring and the side chain.  Step (1) proceeds by sequential

 reiv.ovel  oi  L\;;. carbon fragments from the functionr.l  enci  of  the alkanoic
TTcT-r—--44*»_Ca-U> of the ring structure in soils  has  also  been studied.
 Detection of 2,4-dichlorophenol. 4 chloroaterhol.  and chloromuconic
 acid  from either soil or pjjje-culture studies  suggests a sequence uf
 i-coc-l'ioni ih«r:/ing ring liydroxylalion  and  clocjvngc and  further inotabulism
 of  the  open structure to carbon dioxide (Uare  and  Roan,  1970).

Aldliou:,, J. R. 2,4-D Residue's In Water Follov/ing /'."rial Spraying  in  a
Scottish Purest.  1,'ood Res. 7:^39-241, 1%7.

Aly, 0. M. and S. D. Paust.  Studies on tlic Fate of 2,4-D Derivatives  in
Natural .Surface Wa tors, Agr. and Food Chan, 1 2 (G):54 1-5-16, 1964.

Baskin, A. D. and E. A. Walker.  The Responses of Tomato Plants to Vapours
of 2,'i [i uiici/or .'V.^-I Pon.:uL;tio.n.s at lion.ial and llici:;er Temperatures.
Weeds 2:   280-287, 1953.

Bjerke, F. I.., J. L. Herman, P. W. Miller, and J. H. Wetter.   Residue  Stud.
of Phcno/y Herbicides in Milk and Cream.  0. Agr. Food Chern.  20(5):  963-
Clark, I). F.., P. C. UVight, i.iv.' L. M. Hunt  Determination of  2^4-D  Residue
in Aninidl Tissues.  Agr. and load Cliem, 15(1):  171-173, 1967. '

Crosby, D. G., Metabolism of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid  (2,4-D)  in
Bean Plants. Ag. and Food Chan* 12(1): 3-6, 1964.

Crosby, D. G. and H. 0. Tutass.  Photodecomposition of 2,4-Dichlorophonoxy
acetic Acid. J. Agr. Food Chcm. 14: "596-599, 1966.

Deline, D. D. Manufacturing Presentation to IIAS/NRC Study Committee  on  Use
of Herbicides in Vietnam, Dow Ciiem. Co. Oct. 6, 1972.

Fidel us, J. and M. Zietek.  An indirect Poldrographic Determi nation  of '2,4
Dichlorophenoxyacotic Acid in Biological Materials.  Mikrochim Acta  No.  5,
1010-6, 1D70.

Frank, P. A. and R. D. Comes.  Herbicidal Residues in Pond Water  and
Hydrosoil.  Weeds 15:  210-213, 1967.

Coring, C.A.I.  Fx|jocted Fate of ?,4-D, 2,4,5-T and Piclorar.i  in the  Vietnas
Environment.  NAS/i!liC Herbicide Review, Uow Chemical Co., Oct. 6, 1972.

Gouldinru R. L., M. L. Montgomery and W. S. Staton, Waste Pesticide
Marmijcn.ent, Interim Progress Report, Oregon State University, 26  January,

Hammond, H. Free Acid in Esters of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic  Acid and 2,4,
Trichlorophenoxyacctic Acid and their Formulations, J. AOAC 56(3):  596-597

Hcndrickion, R. arid W. R. Mcaqher Spray Residues of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-lP  in
"Pineapple" Orange Peel.  J. Agr. Food Chcm. 17(3): 601-603,  1969.

Huston, C. L. Identification of Three Neutral Contaminants in Production
Grade 2,4-D, J. Agr. Food Chcm. 20(3): 724-727, 1972

ivin, r. :;.  ,iivJ  J.  !_". ra:ic;i, Sc-n- ili/cd PiinLcil'jcrv.p'.T i tu-n :<'ul f'!;:)1^-
:,cir, Hi. cr /VLivily of i'eGlici'.'u  ChcMUdV- i • ; ov.-a  to  Nunlifjhl on Mli
            lL-s.  J.  Ayr. Foo-i Clicia.  19(3}-  ', lib-'', (.)'.:),  l'J/1.
Omscn, D.  J.,  and C. D. Scl.all,  He termination of Vupor  Pressures of Sor-.r
Piirnoxy.irelic  Herbicides by Gas-Liquid Chru.iatography, J.  Agr.  Food Cho;n
14(2):' 123-126, 1906.
Kctchcrsid,  H.  L., 0. M. Fli-lcliall ,  P.  W.  Santolmann, and l-'erkle, !'. G.
Rosiclur-s  in  f>orchu,.i Fronted •„'! In  the Iscoctyl T.slcr of  2,<1-D, Pest. I'.orrl 1
Jour. '',( J):  Sll-llJ, i:i/0.
         , D.  L.,  C.  II. Gordon,  C>.  Yip,  duel I!. P. Burchficld.   Kf>suluj?j,  ir
the I'orc'.c,!.1 Tioaied and in \-\\\\\  fr(;.n  Coi.'L  drc/.iiig Toranc  1 reeled v.'ith  \$:f
of 2,1-D.  l.V-ods  l-i:   IC.-J-1G7, 1%G.

1'linrjT-Mi, D.  I .  -inci  !•/. C. 5 1, :.'.:, Uc.inn  PhrMso,,;/ !'?rln'cic!r'S E'ffcctivply,
icirn-err.1 i/jll.-Lin ,'io.  2183, US.;A,  devised Jar.uary 1971.
      , Fi.  II.  and Alfred S. Y. Ciiau  lltTlx'citlo Analysis:   Relationship  P:-i
liolcculcir  Structure ind P.ctfntion  index.   Jour AOAC 56(5):  1183-1187,  I?/

Lawless, E. '!','.,  R.  Von Riimkor, and T.  L.  Fcrcjuson.  The  Pollution f'otsnti
in -PestiF-iric-  i-ianufacluring Fc^tic-ide Study Series - 5,  EPA,  Technical
Studies K,:-port:  TS-OO-72-O'i,  1972.
licagher, !,'.  R.  A Meat- Labile  Insoluble Cuiijjuatad Form  o" 2,4-Did>lurop."fc
acetic Acid  end 2-(2,4,y-rrichlorophenoxy)propionic Acid  in Citrus Peel.
0. Ayr. Food Chem.  14(6):  593-501,  1965.

Ifcagher, W.  R.  Detnn.ii nation  nf  ?,4-Dichlorophcnoxyacctic Acid and ?.-'?/
Trichlorophenoxy) propionic Aci:i  in  Citrus by Electron  Capture C;-s
Chro:r.atogrci|iMy. J.  Agr. Food  CMOM. 14(4):  3/4-377, 1S5G.

Melnikov, f!.  H. Residue Reviews,  Chemistry of Pesticides, 36: 163-168,  15

Plchardsori,  L.  A.,  Analyzing  Shellfish for 2,4-D Residue  Utilizing Electr
Capture  riiro-.ialngraphy.   Procpodings  of the 19th Annual Nee ting of  Li,
Southern l-.'ec-d Confc-rcnce, 19f>G.

Rodgcrs, C.  A.  and  U.  L. Stcilling,   Dynamics of An Istcr  of 2,4-D in Orga
Three Fir.h Ijiocies, Weed Science  20(1):  101-105, 197?.

Sclmltz, D.  P.  Dynamics of o  Salt of (2,4-Dic'ilorophcnoxy)acelic Acid in
l.'dter, and Hydrosol, J. Agr.  food Chem.  21(2): 186-19?,  1973.       .   . „

   ''       '    Sf','*1  M°°h?"' Sl'or>t-Tc™  Cffocts of  2,4-D on Aquatic


IJ.sjf, fi.  W.  .UK! C. f. H-3fiSt l%«l.
Yip, G.  and  L.  F.  Ncy, Jr. Analysis of 2,4-D I'.esidues in liilk and  Fora
Wucds 14:   lf.7-170, 1956.
    \, W. I.., Jr.  and  L.  Fishbcin,  Gas  Chroiatoqraohic f-lRasurcmnts  of
Disappearance Rotes ot 2,4-1)  d ,d  2,4,5-T Acid and 2~,4-D Estprs in Mice,
J. Agr.  hood Them.  15(5):   li'M -844,  1967.

                            Chapter  II
             Toxicology of 2,4-i)  500 to bOOO mt|/k(i).  Jn plants this substance is  a  growth stimu-
lator; in sninals, it causes irritation  of  the gastrointestinal
tract, mirier irritation of tho  kidney and liver,  anorcxias  weight
loss, inyotonici., and possible nwmrujoal irritation.
II,A.  Acute Toxicity
       Acute oral toxicity of 2,4-D  and  its derivatives to  various
iininals is presented in Table I .A,

                                        T..M': i x
tested Species
,, «. ., ,
/\C!'J Ixulj
Guinc-a pigs
*.i: .-'icia.,n'.:
Soil Chicks
Sodiu»i Rats
S'-l t Rats
G uin erf pigs
Pi i "i no.1 M "i fi c;
R ;i h h i 1 <;
ester Guinea pigs
'lix-xl butyl Rats
",of.o- , di- , Mice
:.!";; ropyk'iic f.!i icks
fjlytol bulyl K
    Sifnr> of toxic.tty observed with these compounds include loss of
    tilx-, loss oV weight, depress ion, roughness of coat, general
tensensoss. and muscular weakness particularly of the posterior quarters.
Post-mortem findings include irritation of the stomach of small animals
and of the .•.Lonc^i":) of ruminrnil.1', minor evidence of livr-r and kit'nr.y
injury and in SOMIO instances congestion of the lungs.  The dogs appears
to be more susceptible to those materials and the chicks appears to be
more tolerant.  The acute oral LDi.Q values for the rats, mouse, guinea
pig and rabbit arc in the range o-~ 300 to 1000 nig/kg.
    The acute oral 1050 of 2,4-0 in dogs v/as reported at approximately
100 mg/kg.  The initial signc of r.oxicity were observed after approxi-
mately six hours.  These signs varied from mild ataxia and stiffness  in
the hind  legs to definite myotonia.  Signs of irritation and pain when
the animal war. gasped at the bad* of the neck may indicate meningeal
irritation.  Occasionally, sneezing, rubbing of the eyes, and diarrhea
were olr.erved, bui not vomiting.   In many cases, death was apparently
due to pneumonia which followed  tie development of anorexia, weinht
loss and  myotonia.  liecrosis and inflammation of the intestinal mucosa
\-zz reported  (Drill, V. A., et a_l_., 1953).
    A formulation containing 50£ 2,4-D and 50« 2,4,5-T vws administered
orally to a btecr dl 1000 mg/kn without any adverse effects reported.
However,  when this, formulation was administered orally at 1000 mq/kg
for three successive days, general depression, decreased food and water
 intake and decreased rumen motility and death v/ere observed following
the third dose (Rowe, V. K., ct  al., 1954).

       YOUIKI adult I email} rut:-, received oral doses of ?,4-D  in olive  oil
at 0, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300 ing/kg five tines a week for four weeks.
No adverse effects were observed at the 30 mg/kg level and below.  At
the 100 mq/kg levnl varyinn (Wroes of nristrcintpstinal irritriion,
slight cloudy swelling in the liver, and depressed growth rate were
observed.  At the 300 mg/kg level, death accompanied by severe gastro-
intestinal irritation was observed (Uowe, V., ejt al_., 1954).
    Dietary lev-Is of 2,4-D at 0, 100, 300, 1000, 3000 and 10,000  ppm
'.•'.•re Ve.i  Lc youny auiiU ieiiidle rats for 113 days.  No adverse effects
ware obseivcd at 100 and 300 pum levels.  At the 1000 pp;.i level, depressed
growth rate, mortality, slightly increased liver weights and slightly
cloudy swelling of the liver was observed.  Animals at the 3000 and
"iG.OOu |ip:n  level wore ternvincted after twelve days.  Increased organ
weights and pathological change's in the liver and kidneys v/nre reported
nt the two highest levels (Ro'.-o, V. K., e_L aj_., 1954).
    2,4-L) '.;aL ad!-]mistered orei'iy in capsules to dogs at the dosage
levels of 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg five days a week for 90 days.   Three
of the four annrals rtcoiving W mg/kg dose of 2,4-D died within  18-49
days, one animal survived.  Iho--.!.1 that died exhibited muscle tonus,
slight ataxii'i, difficulty in chc./ing and swallowing, and occasionally
bleeding  gums.  The surviving dninals did not show any significant change
in liemoglobin,  Lotril blood count, or differential blood count.  The  three
dogs that dir-d during the study showed a definite decrease in tin;  percentage
of lymphocytes  in the peripheal Mood.  Two animals, one at  5 mg/kg  and  the

otl-t-r v-t ?.\) iiiq/!'f;  (--xin'bited an oocdsional  c.i'ca  of toed necrosi",  in  the
liver, but i.'J3  ;i!'  aoubtful su(:n Cicance  (Diill,  V.  A., et_ a].,  i9!53).
   •  I he hutoxy  ethyl  ester of 2/t-D VMS  added  to the chick mash and  fed
to broiler chick:,  jl  levels of 0 to /500 mrj  <.icid/k'j for 21 days.  Levels
up to 1000 i-:cj/kf! hcic!  nn advi rse  '-ffnct'.  on orov/th r?  At  tf.c  higher
dosaijf-  levels ril ?000 ng/kg» thcrL- v/as d reduced food consumption end
yrowtli mti'.  A'i the  SO-'iO mj/ky  level there  were no deaths during thp
exposure period i^iiL j,v;ollen ki'Jiv.ys and  mottled spleens were  reported.
Ilistulotjic i;xaimurn.'.oil rove'! iud  n^ssive  distention of the medullary
rollTtinn 'j.jct s.\i' pirLs of i .c i.-'pliroii.  f!o  diffeivni,u in iiiarj.-iesiurii
concentration 01 the  plasma v;ere reported  Tor  the 1000 or 5000 mcj/kq
levels tested.   Pxediictions" in dnounts of calcium in plasma was associated
with the reduced ioyd consuiiiption.  Chicks were able to tolerate  5000
ng/ko in tiieir  ditt lor one \,'ecK and still resume normal groi/th rate
v/hen ri'Vjrr.'jd to uncontaminatac!  Tood.  Tlio birds wore able to discriminate
between contanvinalod  and unr.on Lamina ted  food when given, a choice
(1..1hiu.-!'ic.ii;, C.  C., ft uj., 1471).
     food intake of chicks fed dietary levels of 2,4-0 at 0, 500,  1000
find  2000 ppm  for L.even days was  reduced  
Oral Dosages that Cause Significant Signs of Toxicity in Cattle, Sheep
and Chickens
2 ,4-Dichl orophenoxyaceti c
acid (2,4-D) cilkanolamine
salts (of the c-Lhanol and
isopropanol series).
acid (2,4-D), uropylene
gij'ccl butyl cl:;jr ester
l.6t: S


I nu:nber of dosages for
le Sheep Chickens


Signs of poisoning for the 2,4-D alkanplarm'rie salt in cattle were anorexia,
ataxia and ulceraticn of oral mucous membranes with prolonged exposure.
jiieep exhibited depression and weight loss.  At necropsy lesions in cattle
and sheep varied.  Hemorrhages on surface of the epicardiun with excessive
pericardia! fluid were observed.  Liver and kidneys were congested and
friable.  There was ruinen stasis characterised by undigested food.  The
lungs were generally engonjed with blood.
  Signs of poisoning for the pro^ylene glycol butyl ether ester of
2,4-D in cattle and sheep include depression and anorexia followed by
prostration.  At necropsy, the liver was soft and friable and the gall
bladder was distt;ru.!fcd with bile.  The kidneys were congested and friable
and tlK're were on  the surface of  the epicnrdiun and large vessels.
The lymph nodes  in some animals were enlarged and hyperemic.  The authors
conclude that application rates above 30 pounds actual  per acre are
hazardous for caltle, sheep  and chickens.

j].(,.  _(:!irci^K_jp_/_i_' ij.". of  ?,4-!j
       Dietary Icwel:,  o1  0,  5,  25,  I2f>, 625 or 1250 ppni of 2,4-D  acid
fed to an equal number of male  snd  female weanling rats for two years
had no significant  effect, on gro-./th or survival rate, organ weights  or
heinatologic values,  'fui.ior  incidence of the respective levels was 15,
14, 18, 20, 23 and  22.   Tumor tyuos; were random and widely distributed
of a type associated with aging. "Ihe raw data support the pathological
!Mf,'.i-prr.t:Lic)n  ii  r^ re interne  effect of 2,4-0 hr.s not been shorn
(Hansen, '•!. H., ft  a_l.,  1971).
     Dietary levels  0,  10,  50,  100  or 500 ppm of 2,4-D acid were  fed
to an equal number  of  mole  and  female, 6-8 month old dogs for 2 years.
Twenty-eight dogs surviving  the 2 year'period were clinically normal, no 2,4-U' effects wen- notrd.  Nunr- of the lesions seen
ir.icroscopically in  the 30 dogs  were believed due to toxic effect  of
ingested 2,4-U (Hansen,  H.  H.,  c_t_ al_., 1971).
11. D.  A_^oj-.Ltion_ and_£,:cre_tion t f  2 ./N)
     Zielirisk'i, !/.  L.,  c_t a_l_.,  (19C/) reported on the rate of disappearance1
of 2/r-l) orvJ 2/,-D  butyl  and isuoctyl esters as detornined by electron-
capture gas chroi'iotoyrupliy  on extracted v/hole aninals.  The herbicides
wuri: adiinnisLf.Tfd in DI1SO by eitl.c^r singular or repuaLod subcutdiieous
injections di: 100 ug/kg to  an inbred strain of mice.  The repeated pro-
tre.nnent of Lhe 2,4-D  butyl  and ir.ooctyl esters consisted of five
:-.uccessive daily  injections  of the  herbicides.  Ths last pretreatncrit
dose v;as nri-uinistored  24 hours  pi ior to the test injection.  The  disap-
pearance r.Ur-5 for  2,4-D and 2,4-D  butyl and isooctyl esters are  cor.pared
in Table II.D.

ciiir.o of i'Mcrs and Acich.  of  LV:--l) I rom Mic.f
Sorri fice
Time, Mr.
[•4 .
                2,4-D  Butyl  Ester
                       Isoo' tyl
                 2,4-D Acid
                                       84.9 +  3.9
                                       56.4 l  6.9
                                       33.4 _+ 13.8
                                       16.4 +  6.3
                                       71.4  :  7.0
                                       55.3  t  7-3
                                       55.6 ±  6.8
                                       29.8   11.5
9.4 1  6.7

     :!if anihal'. pictreated vnih  the !>utyl  (,".,tc-r opnec'r ic eliminate  tlii:
ester More rapifily  t!ion  the no.i ^retreated  animals.  Tl-n disappearance
rates of these herbicides  in  the  extraclnd  -./hole mice .showed ihe  following:
butyl ester >isooctyl ester >?,/:• D acid.   Comparable recoveries of  the
herbicidus rro;ii in ICG  pretreated with Ui'iSO indicated "that this vehicle did
not appear to influence  the disappearance rates.  No 2/t-dichlcrophenol  vos
detected in the analysis of anvils injected v.'ith  these herbicides.
     Lci!jnl"d 7,/i-u  friiMnister'c1  ntrpvpncusly sho'-.'pd a slight tendency
to a ecu 'Ulrite in the  visor?.'!  yolk sac and pass to the fetus in preqnant
mice, but v/ns eliminated rapirfiy  (within U hours) from all tissues.
2,4-D uroved to be  stable  in  thi  body, no major metabolites being
found (LintKiuist, N.  S., et_ ol_..,  1971").
     h'hcn 2s'f-i) was ad.ninistered  subcutt-neously to female  rats at
100 mg/kg, peak levels of  73.0 ug 2,4-D/ml  serum occurred  at two  hours.
Whole bloud was nnalyzsd for  2/;-D and it could all be ocounted for in
the serin.  The auLhor conclude  that thsir delta is in accord to those
findings roper led by  Khanna,  ct  cij_., (1966) i.'ho stated moro  than
i  K. D., 1970).
     Shrjfik, K. T.. 01 ol.,  (n/i) described an iinalyLical nietl.od for
ddterminiiuj tracr- 
unchanged in the urisic.  Anol\i,is of urine from ocuipfitionally exposed
human:, revealed urinary level1 of 0.19 to 0.10 ppm for 2,4-D.
     llolstein cov/s wore fed dioUry levels of 2,4-c!ichlorophenoxy3cetic
c'cid al ID, JO, luO, 300 HI'--  lu1.   14 days ^"d  IMO for 21 deys.  Milk
samples wore collected on al U rnc'te days during the test period and
during the seven-day withdraw I period.  No adverse effect due to
ingestion of the test, material' '/r-rc noted in any of th.** animals.
Residues of 2,4-U oi1 2,4-dichloro|>henol did not exceed 0.05 ppni for
the milk samples taken from animals fed 300 ppni or less.  An average
ot 0.06 ppm of 2,4-D'and < C.Ob ppni of 2,4-dichloroplicnol was reported
in the milk at the 1000 ppm lovul . -These residue levels were reduced
to less than 0.05 ppm. on the  first day after withdraw! of the test
material.  Ho significant difference was found between residues in
milk or cream (Cjcrke, Leroy  1..,  et a!.,  i972).
1I.E.  MiKagpnic Studies of 2.-1-i)
               d and  Lon herbif.icei, were evaluated for their  ability
to induce point mutations in one or more of four different microbidl
systems.  The authors, conclude that they were unable to detect any
conclusive evidence of point mutations induced by any of  the  HO
herbicides (including 2,4-D) evaluated (Anderson, K. J.,  e t a I . ,
II. f.  Rcproduc lion Study of 2,4-D
      In a throe-gonorntion, six litter rat reproduction study no
deleterious effects attributed to the dietary levels of 2,4-U at

100 ur 500 pp:-i W.MO evident.  At IfiOt) p|mi levol of L.1-D there
appears to be no deleterious effecc on fertility of the male or
female rats or on average litter size.  The 1500 ppm level did
reduce the percent of pups born that survived to 21 days and
dc;^iLSsed the 'eights of the:>G ween lings.  Neither liver aliesterase
activity or liver acylamidase activity differed between test and
control rats of the F2b litter (Hanson, H. II., el a]_., 19/1).
11.'..   Teraloqpm'c Studies of 2.4-fJ
       A statistically significant  increase in the proportion of
abnormal fetuses v/as rcportc-d in mice receiving maximally  tolerated
doscr, of either the isooctyl, isopropyl esters of ?,4-D at 130, 100,
and 94 ul/kg respectively, in DMSO  administered subcutaneously.   These
anomalies ware characterized l.y a total absence of the lower jaw.   The
data suggest that the distribution  of abnormal fetuses per litter was
statistically  Iprx-sr in the DHSO control  than  it was in the untreated
cfjrurols (i'lrak, !.. M., with rrTnrenr.p to  Uionetic:. lies, lab.,  1069).
       Pregnant rots were treated orully  with  2,4-D dosage levels of
12. f,, 25,  50,  71; inid 87.5 rnn/kq/day (ridxirnum  tolerated dose) or equi-
rnolar dose  levels of propylene cjlycol butyl ether ester of 2,4-D  up
to  K-I.K nitj/krj/fhy or  isooc'.yl e-.ter of 2,4-F)  up  to 131 mg/lai/cby on
days 6-15  of gestation.   Fetotoxic  responses  were seen at  the  high
close levels, bul teratogcnic responses wore not  scon at any dose  level.
2,4-U and  it<:  cc.U-rs had  little or  no effect  on  fertility, gestation,
viability  and  lactation  indices.  There v/as no observable  effect  on
neonatol growth and development from these  herbicides  at  those dosaqc
levels.  The authors suggest  thai  the dose  level  essentially  without

'.'ffu.t is 2'j liirj/kq/duy fm 2,4-1) or  the  inolo-r equi vaunt of this
figure in the case of ils propylcne  ylycol  butyl  ether and isooctyl
esters.  Of the compounds that  have  the  leas I. effect on embryonal
foetal and neonatal development, propylene  glycol  butyl ether had
trip least of fee i ,  follGv-_d by 2,;-l), with gpj.-ilcst effect noted witn
the isooctyl esters.  The authors  conclude  that oral doses up to and
including the ii,fiximum tolerated dose level  of 87.5 ing 2,4-D/l'S/day or
equircolar dose level of  uro'-yluii"  nlyrnl butyl  oilier or i°ooctyl csre
associated with embryo and  foeto.,oxir. ity but  not teratononicity when
given  to rats on days 6-15 of'.tion  (Schwetz,  B. A., et al_., 1971).
       Prei.ntal scudies  on 2..4-D induced fetopaLhy and an increased
incidence of skeletal anomalies following single oral doses of  100-15'J
ing/!:g  to rats en clays G-15 of gestation.   Increased frequency of skpl
defects was also observed in single  trials  with butyl, isooctyl, butoxy-
ethai-iol and dunothylarnine derivatives of 2»4-D.  At the highest dose all
derivatives oi 2/f-D \-rre 3Siocial<;d v/ith a significantly increased
teri.tologic incidence; the butyl and isooctyl cst(-rs tended to  depress
fetal  i;eiglit.  rh-.-re \/a-; no  indication of any advurse effect 0:1 nu:;iber
of viable fetusL-r,  cinrl only a slight  suggestion of an increased  fetal
iiiortality with siveral of the derivatives.   At the lower level  of
treatment (50 ing/kg), 2,4-D  derivatives  induced no apparent harmful
effect.  The  incidc-nce of visceral effects  did not apoear to be dose
or compound related.  The observcci skeletal defects did noL appear to
be incompatible with postnatal  survival.  Foil owing treatment of

rlrTTj with 2,4-L) and its hutyl and  isooctyl esters,  M-e  weiqht gain
and viability oi the offspring were within control  linits.   Hie
findings suggest that poc-tnatal parameters were  unrelated to the
teratologic potential of the chemicdlr,  (Khera, 1C.  S., e_t a_l_., 1972).
       Profjnsn! hainstcrs rou; i >'.jd  'i-iily nrnl  i-Josi.";  of coi.i.ii:rcidlly
available samples of 2,4-D fit 0, 20,  41,  60  and  100 rnq/ky on days
fi-10 of gestation.  The vehicle used  for these compounds consisted
of acetone, corn oil and carboxymethyl  cellulose in a ratio of
l:rj.£i:10.  Terai.a \/ere prodiicei' occasionally with 2,4-D arid the
fetal viability par litter decreased,  but neither effect was clearly
dose-relateJ.  Fused ribs were seen with the greatest frequency.
The lowest dose causing fetal anomalies with the three  commercial
samples of 2,4-D was 60 nvj/kg, tiis would approximate 600 ppm in
the diet (Collins, T. F., el. al_.,  1971).
11. G. 1.  rcratonrnic Studies  with  J) jiic thy!  Sulfoxi dc CPMSO)
       Caujollc, F. H. E., e_L,  al., (1967) reported that DMbO proved
to be a terdtoycnic agent when tested in 1owl and nannals.  A 50*
solution of Df'iSO  in physiological  saline v/as used.   The temtogenic
action of DMSO v/as observed  in the Rhode Island  chick  embryo.  The
Leghorn breed was olso studied and appeared to have the same sensitivity
to the toxic and teratogenic  action of DMSO as the Rhode Island chick
embryo.  The maximum number  of malformations occurred when doses
approaching the LDr.o were employed.   The cause of :i'0! t  limb malformations
appear to be due to defects  in vascularization resembling a hemorrhagic
cyst.  The appearance of  hemorrhagic  cysts within 4 hours after injection

ol DM>0 L-i.fjeosts a hemolylic action  iniurei  the proliferating vascular

system and this  injury is the 01 gan of malfomations.   Spontaneous wil-

fcrmation nay  exist in the chick enhryo to en  extent of about 2%.  These

malformations  consists of anophthalmia, crossed  beak v/ith or without

••nn.cepiirilic.,  .".td c lo,m,,ia.  !'..• lfnr,,vitiot::>  o' the are ncvoi been.

T!ie teratotjr.'iiic  action of 13I1SO i'i mai'Maliiui  foetuses is discretely shown

Inn. only whni  relative high and .-opcrtied  doses were given.  Mice ann

roLb v;ere treated v/it'i hO'/ DI1SO  in physioloqicdl  salinr-, given oral or

p'-ritorieally  fro:.! t\\c Gih to  I'/'iii day of  gosLatiun.  lio malformations

v.-jre noted in  mice receiving UflSi) dL 5-12 qrain/kg by oral administration.
Hov.'sver,  tho  interperitoneal adi.iini strati on  of DMSO at 5-12 gram/kg to

MI'CI resulted  in malformation in 7/10Q foetuses.   The author concluded

that these M-?!formation in m'c.j ;>re specifically related to the

influence of  D!^0.  Mr,l formation and aborted foetuses v/ere observed

irom both oral  and interperi toner. 1 administr.-l.ion of DI130 aL 8 to 10

gi'fi::i/kg.  '..'iiun rabbits received ' '.bO at 4-!)  tjrarn/kq by eilher oral or

ss.iiji.utanpons  ad^inis(.ration durinq the 6-1 /;t!i dfiy oT g^^totion, iiO

if-v-rkable difference was reported between  the treated and control


11.H.  Hunan  Exposure to 2,4-D

       Headaches and double vision were experienced by a young male

fitter  spraying with 2,4-D.  These symptoms  occurred only at the

    of days  during which he had sprayed 2,4-D (Sare. W. 11., 1972).
       The jccidentdl ingestion of the herbicide Knoxweed by a

Iti-yenl-cld i'i?ed to 37  mg/kq. Following the
19lh and final  dose  of 67 mg/kq,  the patient exhibited fibrillary
twitching  of  the mouth and  both upper extremities, as well as general

hyporcflcxiii.  Durinn  the  subsequent two ivpeks, the not sent exhibited
marked muscular weakness and  lethargy.   Death which v.'t.s associated
vn'th the disease VMS reportec' 17 days after the lost infusion.
     Nk'lson, K.,  £± aj_.,  (H6b) reported on the fatal poisoning  of
a 23-yeor-old male from  the  suicidal ingestion of a single dose of 2,4-D.
This dose was estimated  to Le in excess of 90 mg/kg.  It was not  possible
to estcibVr.h  the lethal  riosp, r>s n aood deal of the KrMcide \/'-.'•. vm'tc-M.
Ihe tissue i oncontration of  2,4-0 at auLofir.y v;os reported as 80 niu/kfi
     With reference to Hie Report on 2,4,b-T, titled A Report of  the
Panel on ijerbicides of the Prot-idc.n1-.'s___S_c_i;ince__Ad__yj_sory Committee, the
panel suggest on page  42 that levels of 50 to 100 mg/kg of 2,4-D  arc.
acutely toxic to humans.
     Assouly, 1951 is  reported to have taken 500 mg/kg of 2,4-D daily
for three wet-Its  (approximately 8 nicj/kg body weight) without experiencing
i ny harm I i;l (.1 lects.

Aii'krr -.on,  !'   J.,  I ciniiLy, L. <.-.  and lakahjski .,  M. T.,  Evaluation
of lii-rbiurL'-,  for ;/.)£,i-ibitj miiUrii'iiic  properties.   J. Agri . Food
Che;n. Vol. 20  No. 3 p.M(J-G!>Gs
Assoulv, ;i.,   Evaluation of sc-. .: pesticide  residues in food.  The
Monographs,  I'An/S.'liP p. 69.
ru-r.'ick, Plrilio.   2,4-dichlore nonoxyacetic  r.cid poisoning in non.
J. ri'lA. Vol.  214  lio.f. p.lll4-m/, 1070.

LjcM-e, Leroy E,  ILrni-^ii, J. L., Miller,  P. W.  and Metiers, J. II.
Residue siudy of  phonoxy herinndes  in milk  and cream. J. Agr.  Food
Chcm. Vol.  HO i.'o.  p.%3-967, lr;,2.

(.MHjollc:.  I.  '1.  L.,  C-:iujollo, ,). li., Cros, S.  13. and Calvot, M. M. J.
I  i-n'ts of  t'):>.  a. [  i-  ?torrni! i.ol^rnncc oi  di'-.^tlv/i sulioxioo  .
Anna Is. ol  the iicw York Academy ot Sciences  Vol. 141 Abst. 1 p. 110-125-

Collins,  f.  I-. X.  and l.'illiains., (..H.  Teratogenic studies with  2,4»5-T
and  2,4-D  in  Lho  h.'i;isa:r.  Rullf  Envirom.icntal Contamination and
Fo/.icology Vol.  6  Ho. 6 p.559-5'V/5 1971.
Cc'.-ctn^y.  /,  I?.   ?,",b--T in thr ut: Excretion oattern scrun  levels,
ijldcontdl  fcfc.n'sporl  and metaboliMii.  Pesticides Symposia Seventh  Conference
Miami, riorida,  p. 277-203, Aimir^ 1Q70.
Drill, V. A.  cinri Hirat/';d, T.  Vn;;icity  of 2,A-dichloror.!i:jnoxyacc:vic
cjcrj d'vJ 2.', ,:,-Lriciiloropheiif)xy<-i.-ctic  acid.   Archives of Industrial
listen? ^ii'l  '•" f.L!|).ii ion... !  Kco'ichr  /-Cl-G/, 19L-3.

lidnicn, '/I. II.,  M.  L.  OiMiic, R.  I., Hdbenninn and 0. (•. Fitzhugh.
Ccrtiiic tny icjiy ni  ?,4-d ichlon uhcnoxydccL ic. acid in rais.  Toxi colony
onrl Ap|,hnl  I'li.Tnnjculogy 20. l?2 129,  1971.

Kii'-ra, K. S.,  and  McKinloy, W. I1.  Pn; and po«,(nuVal studies on
/',/l>L"i-Lri(.liloroi.[>enoyy{iC"tic aci(:, 2/!-dicliloro|iliunoxyfKci. ic acid  find
thfir (Jerivativ-,  in  rots,  loxicol. and Applied. Pharm. 22, 14-28,  l(J/2.
Mndquist,  N.  G.,  unH Ullbi-rg, S.  Distribution of the herbicides  2,4,5-T
and 2,4-D  in  Mreqnant n.ire:  AccuniNlation  in  tlio yolk ^ac epithelium.
Ixpcjricntia 27_ lio.  12 p. 1439-41, 1971.

f'rnk, r. M.   Rr-port of the SecreL-.rys1  Coininission on P(;sLicides  and
their Relalicnship to InvironmenLfil Health.   U.S. Dent, of Health,
location and  iiulfare p.GG5-675, 19G9.

I! H I sen, i-.,  Kcjcinpe.  I;., and JiM'.rn-llulin, .IPJIS.  IYil<»'  poLuning in i-i
!iy ?,4-d if.liluroiihciifj.xvjcotic oci.l  (2,4-D); Outcinnnnl of" Jio <"i and  ?../\,\,  T type herbicide',  ana an evaluation of the1 hazard to
livestock  OL.jCcii.ted with thc--h  'j';o.  Am. J. Vet. Res.  p. 622-629,
October V:'6A,.

SuK-, !.'. l-i.   !!•" \/(-;odn~i(i( i',/l-li i.s (i rause of Iv.'-idachcs and diplupia.
L. lied. 0.  7'X'':/f():17"'; 1 /'' ,  197?'.

Sealiury, J.  H.   Toxicity of 2,4  T  for man and don.   Arch.  Environ, llodlth
7:202-9,  H63.

Schwctz, B.  A.,  G.  L. Sparschu a. id P. J. Gtiring.   The effect of
2/»-dichlorcphfMi')xyacet-ic acid (?../<-[)} and esters of 2,4-D on rat
embryonal,  foc.'tsl and neonatal yroi'Lh and dGVGlopiiient .   TO. Cosn:et.
Toxicol. VoT.  

    icily,  Fate did  significance of ?,4-D  in the tnvironinenl
1 1 1 . A .   livtrp: jj' f ' ion

     2,4-dic".loi ophenoxyocetic CM: id  (£,4-D) its  saltr, and ester deriva-

tives  have.- LI.; n widely used  01 herbicides  ann'iru.L  broad! ear  plants sincf

World  i-'?"1 II.   i i.e.1  seroLoniii-lif'.t.- f.f •; i vity caused  in some species of

i. loi,.'  i)1/ 2,4-1") .jcid ond oLh'-r j>!i Tioxy  compounds  arid  the seniority in

el,'  •! K.I;]  sLp'cL'.'-p  o' sci'i'i.j.i !;i_ (, ., jni.ial l;or. " ic . «.-nd .'J- :r- !')'nacy1. r

:t!>!,  -i  fjl:,-ii lic.-.oiie) f"(/r; i Vv> 1C';"7)  hf.s CfTu^er1-  co.icern that  tim v/ic!o

use o.7 pheno>y ftfid herbicides uinhL inhibit survival of resident aninirO

specie:-,  in crcas  o." use.   Kcs^lts of laboratory  and  field tesLi suqo?r.i.
ti'at hazards to non-target fiiiiial s;j:jcies  is r.iininol.  2/!--l) is not

, -.': !: -.rst.  "!r.  tc./icity t'. {Ki:atif. pnn^l-: d'i i *.erroslrial  s;f:ciss

is  In1.'.   It t'-.rr,  not accumuliit'? biologically and UIP perent  conoound

a. i'.1  ! • r,  i.rlc ! on ii s arc exc.-f t--.'! rapidlv.   The gr^^Lcsl hazard  to

f. - •':. '. '.'j-'i ii  .  ;rr,:: the use ff i'hr-i:rixy^f..-tal fj  l''jr!'icu!cs ?!>;•. j;'.rs> to

In-  .. ri.'-roi. ion in  i.he home riinfjc-..  In  i.^ny  instance:., however,  tiie.'.e

n! 7 ':*M lions, h.ivi-  ror;ulLed in c,n  incic«'Se in the  ouc:liv.y diici  quantity

of  ijrow^e and rovei1.

1 1 1 . J .   To/J.c H y__ JQ Aciualif  l.!i Icil iic?

II. C.I.   Fish
1 1 1 . P. . 1 . a .   Ac_u_lj,_^tudj cs_

      Pesticide1 whose LC5Q  voluus for  fish equal  1  0 ppin or  more are

generally cons-idr-rod safe  for fish when  concentrations in water doe:,

IK"', e/'.ecfl  Mos aiiiounl.  l!c'3t r.-1-n lorniijliil iOM1; are :.,-L cr-Msi tiered

prirlicularlv toxic i.o fish.   Orn.1 exception  l\ui:)J !>y "nr-lu's  (197"!)

\.-ds the  butyl  es. tcr v;hosc  93  hr I Cr^j value  foi  striped bo-jr,  larvae

was 0.15  pp'-i but the tolerance of finqorl iiu]s  increased to  3.0 ppm.

Lt... •.-.., ,ce  (r;r.o} i spo. tc-ci 2.o  pp  of butyl • :.:. oofc for  L'iuc-gi II

  ghes and  H.TVIS (19f*7) gave  HIP following  M-hr Hm values  for

   r.-ijill  sunfish:  dimethyl ami no s-alt 188: lomj cliain tertiary aninp

s,-'H  ?.9: diKl  i:ooctyl ester  32' pn.n.  In an  earlier sluHy,  llunhes

cj:,d usvis  (ic,.ub) found ilidt qrai.ular fnrnuk. cions q: ncrri'l ly  -;?re

le:>s  toxic  than the liquid fonnultitions and that toxiciLy}  as s,hoi/n
!>y isooctyl "osters in Table  III. B.I varies  widely among connarcial

                              o  III. 8.1

     TLm  of  Va'io-is 2/,-D  rnr-ulatin.T; to
   i;f ide                         ?4 fir.    /1,'j  hr.       2^  hr.
iiooclyl  ester                    8.8        C.R        113.0        IV..n
   M        II
   II        II

                                  24.0       23.0
                                  66.3       59.7       --1000
propylene  glvcol butyl
  Khcr  ebtcr                     2.1        2.1           CJ.3          0.3!  i-sLur               2.1      , 2.1      ;•   3G.G*        3-1.5*

                                                          43.4+        /!!./! +

''Stored  in  clo:,ed container;  i-storcd in open  container

         -.i.M (n?0)  r."r;nrifd  lur '['f\ hr.  Li.-/, il  /O'', <;.-u\o  ir,cpvsiu.,-J d]_.,  (l<<70)  listc-d o 4,°.  hr. f f,,^  for nl  a ?5/i-D-r../l>b-l
mixture  o«, irritated c't 100  rn- .   Uondur (1056)  stated that 2,4 1)
(' u^yl)  .. •, /.  .  ;. .  c;i  \-j.  i . . r',.1 .  ^n.
      Inglis (ir'n/i)  foijnd  slisj'il fffccts o!  \.'atcr horu.-fS^  on toxicliy
oT butoxyethanol  p^tcr on '.pccic-i.   liluen'il'ls v/ers fesLfJ c-t
b^,  208  end 3f.r>  niir!i li?rdness.   liic 48  hr. I O.^  values v^rn 1.?, 1.'',,
and  l.L) p;'1!  respectively.   In :>,r.iilcir tc^L'   i.-ith hlocl;  bullh'.-1-..'s iL
13,  52  and 3.VJ pprn  hardness  ciavu b hr.  LCjjQ's 3s 11.2, 8.4 ai.d  10.6
,71.'  v/il!i 'jcichn  shincri in  st«;:ic!-:rd  v/otter (:•? ppm hardiicss) the 48-hr
1  053 wes 3.2  np-n.
      Shii:i and :-.clf  (lc)/2)  ,;ot:"' t^£  cfFod/. cf  2,VD replication to
larvivirou'j fis'ies  in Korean ncc 1icicis.  fhe  granular  form used
',-"'L  not  (tuisi'j'.jvod  hivrirduub n, r/n  paddy- d.(fl I inn F'XTIPS wlvicli
coi'sirip  ii'i.r;,ou'i uO  larv^-j and  piir. t>,>.   Fish iir.rtDlity (.!jb n'.-fjlirjiolt- vrit.h
roru^Trnd"d o;-"1! icoLion rsl1 of ^ I  I'.ct/h.i cv with l'f I"!/!.;? i'!,r:!.  'r.i.i£>ff!
recidues of  ppMv/iLh  7% ri.i. qrcsnulc.   Doubnti'-j t!i,-- raie to  ?o
hp;i  gave ir,)r1  al i Lies, of 5,  20 j-ic I'5 % at ^4, 4y and ",V-nr cxno^-uros.
      Toxiciiy tosts hy Applp']ol'.\ ct al_., (!nD7) indie a Lrd th-t conr^n-
crrjtiop.'^ o.r 5 punt of ? butyl  c^tcr or  ?,4-f) v/crf letlid!  to roinbo1/
trout (lll^o i!£iHriG_rj) and  blue;;ill5  (l.qpc:1!]^  nacrqc'-uijs) after
12-hr cxio-urc:.   ilcKoo and  Uol f (lrJG3)  reported  1 r-.nfi !>  pprn of P.-V-I)
but./I  ester produced Mortalities of  40 and 100%  in finncrling blir-nills

•:!"!  Hi  .'.  fir 'jrjtii ••',...  vliicli  v-;  ••  i  '• I'.ui.' ••!  'i.v  I  i'.h \'n  d'i-.o  MI:.(..">: J.'ir  l.o
?.•'.-  r  Ijiii. wi r'j  ,-n r- rf.-rj1 jn....;  I  > a  iiiixlurc n[  in uj'V'.i.uc tjl^.'.'!  uix!
l".l!.Vl  CSlCTS  Oi  I'/I H.
ill.!'., i.b.   ciii\' !;<'v'»  • .CM i-'V.I !U"T>  (1f.""''.)  ;sf-;>r ti,  a 7-unv
c.xi.s^vi.T'  riunru1 viii.-l.  Lhc t m.i.'.: \~<\\ in,, of J'jI-IJ \i.ii^ l,!"'t a I.  <";  ! ixc'd
I'.-vc'l.   Uncior iJn-.i. c-oivJii.if•!!•.,  t ••  LC;,!) 1-.-v.-1  for  M I I i'. Vjli \.";..
;-|:ii) '!•• ii'i-'jl '.:ly ^  fifj  j.. ;,i;  for  ':.:•.n  isii  I ,'!:",[)  iipir, iind  fnp'.!i.  !'f".i
       \v':i  \<- -,.,'i\\' I:  -...],....,ir, c.-f,  i..  '  ': • !•  '.:i1r ;;,  ,iv:ri  '•,;:'.   of  '•'.''.-I-  .'if
Ki-i'lc  I.M uciuriiiiin-  Lh>:  cflr-ci. fni  !Vj»iv»'i:ic1, i"!i  .JIK! ^riiv/Lli O'i   f('ii.!if-n(i
1'ii nil'. '.••'.;.   L/.pOMM-c:  cnn1  inuou:-. ly  .; 1.  I/I!)  Lhr- 06  fir  n.i:i  f'ic! no I: h..ii"i:'
(!-i their prowth or  ri.proHuctio:1!  (il.junl:  itiid  S'lcnhfiiij  1';(•/).
      Some chronir:  ::i rcctc  Oi  pni-iylen'.i yiyf/ii  hul'.y'i  cuicr csa:'r  or
t.-T-1.)  o-i  Ilk  l/i.;. ;;•!'! I  wore yv.-Vj.!  i-./ Co;-.,  cli .;!..  (l!!?0).  'fho
rich -'.ruJ  !".nr.l c:1 virnmi.'-.'ni:  \;r >•»•  •'.iKiiei-'i fcr  rivo  hoiu.i.1...    (Vu.:  fi-rtli
o;  !•'•  ri:,h  l.n-.  •  n .:».  10  |;  .;  Ji  -.  i.iii'in  <: 'i.iy..1.  i"-'n  i .lii.y i.-cu.
nod I'if| il/lc: '•IIIIOIKJ l)li;c(ri  11r) '•xiifi./d  to 1> pp'ii or  1'".••;.
      ^,'i-D iiii'iy  ii'ii  fiiivj  «  ciii'i'i!  ii'i.  ii'tincw '.-;'i  t.h'   <;ii f I1..1' is  ri-l1."  ;.[•
indivio'iial  1isli, hi.t   vdWit-r  n\\  f;c'locl 'ion,  i'il:h  i.e..-I. liiv  i*1 i'i,i:i. i in1;
''.iii-'lK Iw-viflor,  :, Uiw-fjrow'iiVj  . isli.    Tivi': ijhtrioinoiidn  w;i1'. o!.\.i''Vixi  \-r\ \.
2/!--iJ  ''nd bUu^ii'l'li'. in Ol:leihri:rn,i  ponds, wi Ui high  h t iiti..c:nL  rati'S
•I' i:,i:iaTI  nu-nlic-rs  of rc'Kjl'.ivoly 1iir(|i:  (unx-.,  1'JCiL)).

                    •'i I  f. In'!'
           /*:iuii"  iisli  ta!.r-n  i:o:.: TVA trrv. luiPnt firm^, only the  (irazincj t,nd

fil u.T-fcediii:'  oi/iMrd s.lir.c!  n'u  one  of  its  proriflorL.-larr'C11 1'julh  InibS •

• i.u,.  -' y  '. !!>   i. s';-'"J u-HvAiM  v-'Oj I.UM.S, ci_ iii_. 5  i ')/'!}.   Pi/7firci  sliaci

I'^K'j'y,  were ().f\, 0.1, 0.2? f,nci O.I inn/kti  at /!  ./«c!:«;,  2,3 and 6  month-.

tx'ji.  li'i.-1. i.:.r!pni ,  » '.-"P'jcl ivr-ly.  I-Rxinnin  ' c-ritonl  •fr,r Isrdf.v^U' h bnsr.. v,1'.:-.

0.1'..  Hl'i/i'fj  |D ' I ! i'.,t'T'nl    " l  '  ' 'i«;t i» v:  i 'lit. "•" •'••"'• •••  •-'•;';  f.-.l.   f," \"\\.-

ciric..)  Mimi'.i.  di'i not ccf:i':,':i,,Lr liliA  ? ,^ P.  S-c-js, end  U-rl.-n fl9"/l)

siufJi.d  the- '.IrM'i.  tc'p'i of it irs of /;/:-!) on  nriuiuic  orfjanisn-,   in  a

';0!i.,l!(\'r,1.C'i ii  ;',l. .hi  i/dit:i • iT"i .    Si. .;)icj had concr-:'n'.rritioiis v:oil  Liolow

L/:r:  Icvt-l  cj;;».{'i illy  corn-, ic1"! ("d to be" 'lethal.  Cohu suli.ion  fry contr/incd

0.0  i.'.-i.!  3 dt\v«,  i\\ci-.r sppdw inn.

      Uptake 0;   'C- uvX'leri  l.uir.  ( .  Iff;  l.ciurs.   liixi -. n r"srJUij  cenccntra

               r...''ii r::rl wiihui '/  uour:-,    V^lir1-:. in  'j-i/io   fo-,1  Tcr'  fish v;;

               i1 h -3.h2.  -ind  hlni".;i I-K. .5r>;  Tor fjr.L'vl clionncl  c

i-nd  uii"jf)il I  •'/'•', .< *  foil ..t  ? i.'-irs).   Aft">  , in>: \  <\\.\\ re .Idjc  cu

\/orc ic-uciiod,  k'/i-D  fsnd/ur iROd.!ioliti's v/ero  el inr!:intfid  rapidly.

      oinilh and  J:o.:i  (1967)  invcv.t. iqel inrj cifrr/ct1-,  ol  larqe bC<'ilu  jjpplic.i1 \^\ c.

of  2,/i U  (l'-LL)s  lound fJ s-M.^ic",  oi (-",  <;;f,) imiidtivc  fo

Ono  r.ii'.iplf- oi  l-li.'-'iills, colhcted  1)0  doyi  post trc.itmanL   contsincjd

0.1!) iiq/hrj 2,1  n  (liLE).

      ','' i  ' i.U'i H",
          Usiinj  (.-1 if, iron  cHi'inily !iv,  Cuu'iiwanii  (md l.i'.k
(1 ?')'.,)  dOTOi)Ltr.;tC'd the  for.vrri.ifin  of ^-(2/f--lJiI) herbicide to ?,4-D by
blue, cj ills.   Conversion occurred only ir- tlie  presence  of fish ciiid not cis
o i_j-jiL 01  utln'1^l  CM  i.,.i(;bi»i i>cLiViI."y  ;;>  L!"'Cj '. \ t.:.%r.
      lio lites'iiUjrc references wrv  IO;JIK! on  resistance or biological
      rari'ici'" r:f fish tf, s»rl- '--'iLcr free of  herbiri:!^s \MS sl.'.i'.iied by
ll;-nson  (1970).   /.voidance o.  10 npn. ^,4-D i.i(;y huvo heen f, reaction to
crystdl1'. of  ttic  posticides.  liin-iows cyjosod sii'iuli^ncously to  tv/o
o'ifrt.rciit coiicctUrfltiotib of 2.4-1) iiVf-uJod the hiulioot concentration
tfj^Lfc!  but did  hot. disci in mule !)ctv.vr:ii tlvj  othors.
I I J.!;.?.  CriJS_L;::_:rfjTS_
      Toxicities  01  some  herbicides  to .six species of  freshwater crustice^ir,
shov/n in Tablo  iU.B.2 were invt-«1 ioottd Iw  SonJoii  (1970).  Tl'.pso r-.iiiiiia is
\,":rc  selected  ?(<•' 'nor.b'.ay^ uccc'J^t; tiiey reprfjpnf an inportdiit linl:  in
li".  ''.;-'J c'..-in  of risli,  ir-c-ii'-.e  hlUt  is knoi'n ; h'/ut toxic it;/  of Ir^bi-
c-;'t:  to c'lijoLi'  iiivtr;,'.-:.. i-oics , find bf-cnuse  they \ nro rcrdily  i ob!;;
ar.d  e-i-sily hf-.-lO or rcari'd under  laboratory  condi 1 icii.

                                 1,-il»lp  Hi.!;.:'.

                             Vnluf".  or  r..'\-\) i'.'  r--i,: r.if(/i'.. ci  Fresl^Ml-.T
                 _48_ v,  Tl_;/i for  f':.1 ,i  spori':s_r.;:


                              vi. o

                                                          100.0    100.0

                                                            3.2      1.4
                                                            TOO  0      f' '•

                                                            100.0    K'f.O

                                                            100.0   •   1.1
The  ri^opj'ic'.v:1 g'lyco'i  bi'iyl  ether t.-l1   of 254-D shoved  the ^

ie.::itf i.T  i'.ixici'y  to tJ'ie  Ci'ustai.'-..,".,..  ranciitifj from no cr-iiiatriL  efipct

•A  !"'; ''•/!  Tc:   cray:>.!!  to a  -1'j ',;  i  -,Q \-  "IUL- i»f  O.iP.  i.:'j/l  Tor dc],,,!'!.!.

I  I.'ret', o   ,(.r,ous  (.-/• UL.U-X- intc,  Ml.  on tiu.- sci'Oj G,--.  .•••:•"  I eiscun :ir-.,

in  ll.t/i   vrilues  v;ero:   for ?,<1-D (!•(:•-•.) - 4.1> ?.G, rind ?.i3- and tot

2t-'.  b (D!i )  •  (i.b,  5.f-',  r"!iul ii.y i,L  2''i, 48 und % hour

rc",iit.'f tivr-ly.

      Survive  ol  J..hc tid'JI'?' crj!>,  Ucf: pjjnu?. :  1!: 3r,nrij  v::!^i- and
vt. illation  coiil-jiiiinated w! I1; 2/*-U  uc icl  v/as sLu-J.-cd 'oy S'j-J.-.l:  uiid Claft
(ICdO).  2,1-IJ ,11.1 d v/a, irarl" up  in  Irc-sh wo tar  solutions oT  ',,000,  2,bO'J,
cinci  5.,000 cUi'J  10,000 part",  per MI I h on.   I'iddl'jr crabs ('ib avq.) wore
iu  U.K so c-u Lien of  1,000  pr-1"1.
      Fifty  I'f.-rLOM1- of  I lie  cniniuis for  12 hours to a  concept, '-otioi
oT  10.000 ppni \.  -c r!,jcifj v/itln'n '/? hoors  ai't*-r  they  -,,'ere  rcniovt.-:!  from t'l?.1
(O'l'-.-'inoLiX' I'-'1:. ins.   liahlv pcr-~"i',!. %/CP.: doo'l fti'rr  t-;o \'r'-'- .   •''  ----- .•"•
lii-hour exposure 1o recoi:'.np|iilod  snroy  conconi rat ions  [1,000  ppii) wss
i':'J'!i.'l fo  10 '?0'. c  -F th: nin-  . !s  ''.'id'iiii  L'/o v.roekr- .
!;.. .r  or d \,'.-'l!.r:'j  ap'.jc':.!. q:-) ,"i. s  d :,-! Int iQ'.'i of  •'.-.<:  lodii!1;:  sfH of
J'.'. h ficid.   li."  '.nxic.iiy LM i'iis  co1. 'o:jnd "fir.  tn-iir!  ly !.-•  «r'.. ter
Ihan  0.4 mq/qra:-  hody '.r-ioht    li.  \;.iS corsrluciod  'son  tnis r.iu^y that
^.l [i ucif'  !!iny :•••  tn/Ir  to '.nii'!;:!^ wliiuii li'.'i-  in ,!•"•>  t iddi  zoiij if
t'i'j horhicidf1 i".  used duriny inv/  tide  in hot. v/pyllifi's.
      'Ilic dvoidcnvfj of posLi' if!iir>  by (JIM:/; shriiiip i,,i.:"';  invest if a tod by
IKJII.UI, Pt_  •'!_[., (1373).   Crus1,-.C'"i',nf. .;>'0 usuol ly i or? sen:. iLivo to
P"sf.icidcs,  p.!} u'jularly  iin,c'«  i '^'\'\'-i .  iluin aru  lishr-s, hut little
if, k:icv;n abonl. ihcir ability to tivoid  v.^ticiclo  pollution,   i'.oine

C.MI  ..void ;"*i-«-4u;-i  ,.-   vii-r.   r,!ic« |j:.heH '.-innciw:.   r/nrij'!idon_
y-iric'ii-l-u-.,  nvo«-i'-«l  2^-H and  ::iov|Uito1 ish. ^Vil^.'.-i.' l>. c U.l'IV1 »  ^';'^'!
      i iic ?/.-lir  LC..D  i'or qr?-.s  '-• i inp  ot 70':'. l;uto/ypt!idiicil  ester shu-vc-d
no  o'iect ill 1U '•"'.  ('.-li'tic  Inr-  '/.-y).   C, v.,s  shrimp avoided  1.0 and
10.0 ;j».i oi-  the l.i:i.(,:.y:'thar,ol  iMor of  2,/i-0  by secMng wator  1 reo of
tliij, hPK--n:idL'.  "Ilic: r-voi'lsri'''1 trsnonsc of  L'.o fishos,  shfiec-Jif-ad ininnov/s
 .••"OT-i- ';.   ! .'.'.  i-i  1V,'\ i'L'o::r.o"   •  "TC- -tiV'irc ,:! I/ rr: rl k ! !ntcr free of toxicant.
       In 10'.-.. t1." lcniic\,sco Vniioy A^lliorit" anplict! £.'.""'•  Lonc. of ^0,"
 ^,4-D, buLi.xyoLi.uiiol ;  . Lcr, yi-oinlar hprlncvlo to fi.OOO iicres of
 Lnrdr.ii'in  VMliTi.ii "i foil ()ri;wl;is is: r.ovcn yciJ.Lrvoirs, dt roles  varyiiit!
 from  1') to 100  II) of ?.*4~D lifid  "nuivfllenl  per acros ('-inith  and Isoin.
 lr)62).  I, .l'nr ,ilmy  on.' r3liT.;pd lif.t'lr-1 uplal.e  of  ?,1-i) by fish,
 but soiiP  by nus'-.cl1..  Tv/o GJ"!"!-:.  of nussr'ls, held in cd
           :  '  '     "'>'»•  «•  •    •''-'.  !'• 'r'Mtr'u  in >.>'..••-••  to  i'..iv  '.:'   Jl   '•
;i.,i...-it--  UK I  lioy concc"")- !  d  2,1-D.
Hi.!;.3.   jyn'JjIfs.
       PIP  iiuvi". ,:-'jni:  of  |v ,-" Mianol  c:.Uv ot  ?X -!J ;--ci<,  in  shol h",-'i
'•'•I'-  IT'P"1. l"r i . .  i'" "I'fikl'"'  •    '• i   .  (TV1';.   !; ••:•   n-  (' -    ' " .''• "
•::,."!,  i :sli i'vi-r   -/ ope rat-Tin ,.:  the Ch-.-sr-pcokt-  l.a'/j  infoti.'^uion  on ti'L-
ujil,>(::.•  ci.:ii :xi  '.i'lO'i  of L!' • Lv n.-yc1 li-'iioI  rstcr  of  2,4-0 a-.i(! !>y
c i:, i !. 1 c if. 11 v  i";'fli i^'iii.  :.!"•(•. K-  o'"  Liirl'iilLh hecr1'!0  >• pro row..  11:-  In
i!' •  i'f'!i'. I.I"rdLT..,i  0'"  L'iCJ   .  • •  ' . i-(,f.i l';',r. QI  this  !v  ri iv \i\c ir>  cnsv i"  i
. L'   '  I  ''.   i.  .• : ' i  i  ('• i  i .   '.i.i1.     I ji ,i i U' i i7 i.i'J i.i.u^ j  I-,, .>*•_) "i i.1'!'..'•  f.  i.  , L
'. C1 -1   • ''.Mi-'J  in  o.Jj-3.7 ppi:i ("' ••• ',-r-, cxpor;«.'fJ 3  (J<'y.  zl the ccsitcr of .;
l-ccrc  plot  ',,'hir!-!  '^cl been  I'ii'i  ireoy.'d wi L!1  L!n: c:;in'vo"if:ril f f  .''')
r-M'r.oi  acirl pci  c.tro.
      r-ieici ou'jc1"1^n'cns  UD • i -/-ci.firii:.  dri.••?.'!«:  e/!!.-^."1''  to 2/>-!J  u'ero
 .,.-io  hy I.1.;: vu1   ^i. >.'-j.->  C1'-  ')  •   »Jj"-^'^ ••,  ti-"!>s   ;ic"i-.  ciiici  ,i-p  ;,._.', o
!i'  ')   i'l'.1  C"r,trJi  M.'I o'lt".!'!'  ''F •..'•-«.  n«  !,T:'.I-..J'  r  i iul:;  of  '  '.  . -. _|_v-i !i  ,
'-'.'.  ii-.ii  I'uriiy    . d ti.ujr  :,....: i L v/itli  i!,c  bu  ',.•/:•;'• .'sol  (',.r-r of
2,-  ') './ere "jsci  ,in.i  ior  fiv- '.-••.•'•.s «:1 Lc-r  trct  tn.'-i1 L   rx^ui i.i-  ,::.-J ic.c;Lc
I!:  .  , ,•,.] iCo'i;-:i.  ut  refers  f    l:-jh ^'.   l^'j  l.s.  'LI''  i-'UiVH'...  ;.-_c oc.-.
-r;1  not fiiir;ctl\'  lilh?l  to  Mi.-  "ocod  rini";cih,.
      Tc:,ts './cr1.  r.>,it!u(.Led l>y Mr,/en  (i'IC2)  on  con .in I oF v:d foil
(:!•'.'._'_',  ;!:'Jj-Ul'l .^'•Jj-i^L1'.)  '-'i^' P'-'llfiLs!  20%  2,4--iJ  (-'  CM-uyl  i:oxyl  oster
for,,:),   ili'j |jjr|j'i .'.• »;ac  to  di.-UTMinL1  its  oificiicy  on ni I foi I  <.'i:d |jori.ii)li'
li.'im  i;i nquutic  t;iiii.ials  in  ', tin;1  tvlal cstuaric'b.   Study iirc1,'!'  v»fcrc li'n
tributnriiis of  Llic lower Poti'Mfic  Rivor in  Virqini;i.   '.Jire r.onr-c.  rontoinin
bluo  crahs, 1'  ontl  oy;tcr:. V/CM-C  plfiCfd  in are^r.  In be treat i.'!.   Ih'ii'i.1
five  iiorcon!  01   in'1 noxious  pK'!,!.'> v/fro killpcJ.   !o  losses  o1  r^qod  ii'ii

1 1 .'hi  or ciy'jicis atlriliuU'Me Lo ?..<\-\> v,-r
.•' ''I ICdliOM.
     A sr.ronci lost  ir Miiilar !i('lnliil involved use of ?'>,".  i. ••i
•fc^Ler  of ?  *  D yt'rtriiiur.   Lk'V'-n ipncies  of hotlfJin faun-ij  Hos
l.nii.'j  Or •-•  /.'i.; v'Jj i  1  .!'("  I'ii-l.LnL i.'.. !!:•.'  LiCiii-tJ ill C'it L'tfiOTC ci;)|)] "ICC i. Tin i ..
a:'d  13 in the control plot.   CM"!;/  3 species of hcnthic or"<3irisms  v.-ore
     f!  on Lno  trcatciJ arcji  rifu=r i/:isLrol.   A dr'ar.i.ic reductio'i  occu.rod
Io;je3 v/cri  coii^iclprcj a^  iir!ircc\  Lreatnent fcih-ct.  A;,  Gi'arroMc lav^.'
of-  flocnfii;jf):,c'c.l plant:, on ths hoi'to:.i  cu!: off  the 0x3 gen supply.   Also  lov.
of  pli-nt cover iiicitle,  suoh uo arophipods an-1!  bonLhic oroanisnis \.'oro
inure  vulnerable:  Lo  preclation L-y  1-Jsl' and  c.-abs.
      lUfi' ii.rjnt ruibjuCoiiin ccrtdin crtuorinr-
nnii.ia'is to  a 2-^-D  ester \.(ere f-rovided hy Rawls  and Beavcn (1963).
N'ino  one-acre olocs containing nearly «.olitl !ii'i'tis,ian '..'Ricnni Ifoil
(' -IlL'^iiV'J.lI'l1- '.J"Ll£^i'';l) 9''"'n-i'=  in f souMicsn rlTylanrl  iic'-i'./ntcv bay
of,'  v. .-,._• ..iLor.iT.o  River '."..r!1 LrecirJ ,'itli  20, ^0.  o.  GO  li)s.  a.o./Vi.
of  i.! » 2 ethyl .v/yl tster (!,? ?.'! iJ.  One 'jOi.-.i-' i.c in:.'-! plot  si to,
Ire • ltd at  f.n ll)r,.  a.c./A., '.-ir,  c'io'.c.n onlibt-r.. : c-lv ii;  £,r  pfl:crt Lo
ciculc1 aii'i' » ::liit  condi Lioi'1'. t r'jul iiiiKj Iron i.-iil fui I  dc'con;jusit ion in  a
frjii fined urea.   Ihrc-o |jart-itionerl ciigos,  c-acli  uintsin^nn  soitsliell clam.,
                                                   y i_r'-in i_c_o) ,  Muo  crah*.
                       .) ' dilL' I'UMiiititi  ' -cd  (].cnni]is  riif^hosj's) , wore scatic-rcd
iic-tir  fc'ich  pluL center prinr to horljicido  trecili ,i.-iiL.  Scir.idnG  ft on coiiu'ol
and  3D Ib/Ac, Irt.-jlcd tiri-dS were?  tokon 3,7,21,  c:n-^ 3b days from the d'lp

0   -,f!  :i !'!<• ..;•!.'ic.iliou    .i': rv..'!':U.'-'  i'u  ?/; !J  r<-',-\<\\i?i.   I'm I imricMy
ii!;!/.,!1.  ' ij.ii  liifiic;.'' r!  no  2/; i;  re-1 idii'---. i.'urc 1oi.p;i'i.  Of Liirj  L'.'O  pn.'V.Tlfiu
cl.. i'. r.rci-iri1 ;  n^Un a !ly in  .h."£.c jiloi.:..  liviii'i  ;.j <-"'ii\ ii1'.'''.".1.':.'•<''re
plc.i'.i T!'! .  v;iiilr liv?  llaci)  i- i,-]_l!,i_cd  i/.-rc absent  in  Li.o  30  !';.  c»nd
co.Li'.-i  |'"ioi.ii  inrL  ,i,?sciv,   r:  i'ie 60  'h.  nlol.
III.I1../i.   fjipl>ili''j^.
      Fc-iiilirci1  ?.' (.'-borat^ry con^'i Lie1.;  in  h  cono iitraLio;:
n[  V  ."  i"i iri-.  ';-. ,.-p th?r  r' """ ,-•!-;  Mr/, \'. •''."'!.•;   .;,..•  - ,. r. • -; -j"l;r,' t i.
ui  0.'./  .' ".'fl' •r,i.-mt  '.'TS  s'(••'•'•<•  ccj, •nlr'1"'l\    [ •"'•   ,:'.i\(.'* \'  •  ''"•'. «.  r^\ .
in  o  fj.l';  soluLio.i  (rccoiiuv.i':  d spr<.y  C':'.c:.-ntratinn)  ciicl  tlic-n l^nnsfcrrr-
Lo  ir;:,!i \/GLc>r  lialchod,  bui  J:-L' "mrvdiy v/urc snalic-r  tl-.n  nor::-al.   Cccaus
of  HIP  'Jiluticn. iluL spray ,•;>]• licaLioiv-. w.nild uiidrn;o  "hen  allied  to
poncls.  u!:os,  .in1-!  '..treats,   iL  ".iiiVl  d|M(ji>  lii'3^  r'-s^e  r.ninal'j '..'OiilJ
pro!.-.ljly not  be nffoctcd in  ii.-U! ^tudic; (Llost'j  aiid  Hoth-  ID^fi).
 11.. (..   IC_:_X_,_CJ_Lv _tfij"pi.rr_5ljfj" L 1!' ? ^ HP
 111. C.I.  Acut!ur:-s
 Ui'.; (.n',u'." {i:.-/'J; us  shw-n  1:1  ipUo  III.C.I.
 111.C.?.   l*cl>\  S;jLic!jes

       ['on feoflinq  cxpcrimoriL'j  o-.  high Ir-vek,  (1,0'in  f-.r-.-i)  hove  shown  livor
     kidncy!;'  Lo v.-.iterfdwl  (Denver   IMlill.  IIc:^.  Cc-ntcr,  ir()?.).

r    '-,»-'..-  ?-/
;:.., lercis  ±/
:•'. !"l--irds  (S.i.)
Pi; .-on-,    -'•-''
                                                   (9F.1/1- coof'/l ii,.
Q.I w' iVin ' /'/''f*
0 1 . A i \ \J 1 " ' I / • *
• * i
o a o
0 ft 0
0" j . .i. • 1 (U .'
3-5 , ". 2025
7 mo. POOD
0-11 r-o. '10'i-C'j'j
'; '-( , r r! n'rnl sodii1'1 S3 1 1 .'j( i»:"/! 4 Ib

li:   .,: L.I.   I" ,i'h<'L,
      I'Ti'Jt r.f,!1.  (I' .'.f>) stU'Jii.'.!  Liu rfi'i.t:.  (.•'   \:,o-'-'.  M  ec,'>r  'ifr say."-
brush control non- iiorlh f'nrk,  Coloivoo on ccoid;-hr n?!i;:i-;i ii,  and bird:-..
"liic-  rollo^'iM) i'..indues  as piM  \,vre  found  in live  ijr-H^ir.ons coll'CUM!
113 oc.ys arlc, .-.,- -1 ir.alion:   nrrr1!-'  s^irr--! r-->rr •:,' -C.G2, 1  .':'  and  ?.','.
cjroui'd f.fjuiiTfl  viscera-0.;-."   1. /J  .-.•.! C.G-'i;   iiorn':.: lark  (\'Iiolr)  -  O.^ii,
0.31  olid  U.lf;  I'i.-ck  bi)H (-,;;,•)!-)  - 0.1-"-  di.d  U.i1.  owco'. ivlvl-)  -  ('.I'1-
fid'! ^.pc1! ro.r.  {'i.ole)  - 0.'/2.    Fv.o ic.'l  (i-holo)  col'ieclcd ofttr  90-ri.:y3
   -**   r  I  O *" f   »'f   C f*

      L)c.r-.  of lict'1'ic irioi.  cil Loi  Li:(  li-. jiUt  ol SOMC  ^ildlife for:1., and
judicious  ^',o i.ia;/ bi1  bonef'ic-.1.i.   Shrub species  on we.ten. rnnqf." ,  notfib'i;'
sap'.:')rn';!i.  hav.i  km  rniiovf-ij rili. hcrbiridr-s  to ii!CivCc!r,e  cjfoss nroduci icii
sr.1.!  ^Lllc  I'o.'oi.'-j.    The me L'IOU if, cosv. i'lerod  rlir  i-o1.;  bcnir;r:,  !".-• s  t!iy
IcdiL resici'Jr'l  c-i'/ct,  . rn1  v.  f.  r!>  s.JLCil'ic  in  ; i:/i.  rcsri-.riof (r.-vpt-. i:-i
and  '.'IT! i::;i",,  I0""').  The- sp"c i > ii'it" •••[  i.r : hicifi;. : u^'fcs.:-.  i.',':ii'
;:o:.-'  i.i'l   H ,-,J;.T;.. "i ji.ino v;. ;..(..,•. inn  ,.; provide i.,-i 1.^-ncfiti.  for  bvs
fj-:,i,i'\   l.yon and  .I't^cigler (lyf-'Oi  in h^ho, found  rcduc.?d  virinr or  cio^Hi
in r.'  '1,'O'vso MJ'-CI.-.   ;,-i!^li n,. . :•,  .•_-.; ^iJi'diil (jr-O'./l.'i in  iiitijji.1,  clilJ 1'iLLlc
cliiKi'ic in  iuo othi.r  i.pocin:,.   Joimscn (19j'}.  in  i1;/.)1'1;:^;. roi'-nJ L!i.»L
ivhilc' LI::  i.Uiiiirjr  ol   •.riyc.'bi u^h  j'luiLs  dr-cro.".?'.!  .
the  rii'^bor  of vi.iijk-  seed liny.,  iind  jrc:: of ren.-n'mi.o  nve cru-./ri,  ii
Chan'ji'ifj  the rjrj"  structure  of  'iroi/sc  sLond:  may siuni iif.antly   inorove

         '.'Mb', fl (l!:Vj)  ff> Mii  tint  I-1,',-'1  fOlltr'.'i Oi  LI-I  .;....,:, ir-Il  Illi llieii:.. '1

•—l.;t: i bui  •   f)i  ; \\:  on the f»rob  '-'ci^r.' draiiio'j'j  :M 'Jycvnii'j.  Vecje. I'iti .'•'.•

    '.ro. th  began f-rriicr .i:  < rioted  •i;f.7;;. and  dltruC'icd  o!L,  dipt dally iii

    Uto -jjirin'i Ihorohy  o.Tc-riim a  r, OL'i-.-.l  tool  in :.;.rby.   '.'..udicc. bv Klcoeno1./ (l'J/0)

    i:  ]i jli.'. -i'...    '.. i!' Tal 1., iiC'i'I) i C i'.sL  ' \\'i- (' ...V C  flUOl.'-iX'f'

    to  a.croasa coiri / canu. it^ lor  b-'on.'.-- rot!,or  i.'iin  tote My ol i:'ir.-it'inn

    fji'ni!--'.    Vour.cj birds :ii.'.y  !i-,vc bt-..i  iiioro  susc %p'.i!)l:  to  prccititior;  ond

    i;;M?-r::.;;r,t  \/eai.'i"r  in i:|V.;;,0'i i.rf" .

          )ii  a  7-yr-j,']' slufly M  i31rxi.  '>\~i a Color.".'o   >.  ''-D !"'L!i.yl  CL.t2r init,];:!.1/

    i t-.JiiLC'd  ID b ui;ii;:;:fsnLc < n;J ;jo,.kC"  u.,:'iiir  d'l'Jii-JuiKL ;jQ io '0,.'.   Tho. v'cc.i :M,J

    ;;•  '• ic'"'t  tjo ('   ,  i.U'ih:..',  i;':,!.1!  '     >i.i, c^Li/.ci  !)> cJ i re c L C"  -i ii:-i '.'t'c u  t«xic:o.

    i!i  i...;.  '  S'K'.  !•--• •. J-. ti:1  in.   ,!i,.\'  I/- Mirvivc  in ..•  »i«;  \;'-\ vo  L!ICJ  j-rc  cr.-'-u

    fcj'i  (iLorbs) h.'u IJRCII oli1 :ii,t'.:' t1  (lioi..ien, t'L  ?•]_...  1^57).   \ si-ni'U'.r  Lre. d

    .-..',  :.'jL.-.'d  by lljh  (19', i)  HI rr.'\'  Hi;  .'.sin,  J itl-t.  "^i-f ov;.-i c SPI ;;y 1.,^

    ;orv,''  of  irj y  v., c;oflic.r  Mnuii'J'i o.  Li raced  ;-lo;.-   v/crp  rc.i",:!1:; liy Oj,;.

    (.<;,()  ',;intcr ctlJi'. t//  1J-V/.  ?r, cc'ip^r:.', tn unsprayed .rrrjr.i,.   liansen  and ILru

    (l()f.G)  found tiuu Lpreyiiin ri pti-r-pni;:! forb  ranfe  in Coloiado  with 2,4-U

    i-r..r:nr,,fi  the cjori.or onnuK-tinn !.y H7/'  the  y--fir  c'ilf,"  spr&yin'j.

          Kreftin'j  ami ll.irr.ei,  (lf:G9)  TOUM! that  f.erial  application-;, of  ethyl

    c.-ster  of  J','! I)  IM I'linncsoto n?duiM.-l t!ic  haxr:l  .wl  other lov/-pjeferciiice

l/i i.  .f.  v,jr:ci"1.  <,-h a  fiiilj^f "iic'nl  ni'.iv.ise in  ".•' o1  liro'-'so  plants
vlik'i v.-c-re I>°U.'i1 ior  'hitc'l.t'ilc'I  c'( o,\   The deer were attracted  to
spivyod plots  for v/intor hro' |  and  su:..n,er beddinrj.
      [•rarblc ur,;J  P.yrnes  (1972)  r>l.udko  for I'.1 ycvrs  the  ga'i-e food and
cove*'  jloncj a  r.p'-ayed  ul'lliLy  ll-ic. rlg'^L-of-u'r'./  in a uixcci upland hard
\.ooo  fores!' uf P-rinsylvania.   A diversity of  food plr.nts useful  to v/ildlire
developed on  UK  right-or-v:-..y  foilo'"iii(i spraying.  It vas  nerivily use:;  by
•.''i (. >..It n ''"• .  . r^b.MT,  nr'iC'i  ;,:^v - rnd \'il-J L-.'r-'cy.   fi:.?1.  use '.'j^
CTi  ,'.l^nl-  -.'-o ',  .-.'•/  "in  CM  •-.c,',  .,-..  i:,:!ic^Unt'  .TtLr scl/! v rcod i-iv^ (.'\-;'
      Uoc of ?/  i-1 on  corn  ir. rLitstio-i  Vo avdil-jl-ility of ganr  bird food
•./as stu'Jifea  in ,'iuiiigan  i/,' JoiVjson o>i'd '.Jiicelc-i1  (19r)l).   Generally, 2/-U
s;j)\,y creaLiicn'1,  not.  f.s L,u<./:oss,tul  in r-j'Juci1'1!  v.'ecd sec-d  producLiO'i
anci htncc '.vilclnlc;  fuoc!  t.s '-t \::-'c!:..,:! ci'l L, v^i.ioi..
      Vfiruni  (1W) -)oint'd  oi'i  li'".t '-.r-rayinn roadsides,  crrcl: bonks, f.^ricc1
roi'i,,  unused  <;i.'lhcs,  nnd  Tic'i'J corners of the-  Piilnuse.  region of
Co".1!' 'osfi"rn  '.'••'^'iivji.^i  '/ii1. ? •'•  0 <. 11  iinsl^d :iipil-. of  i!ic: nat'ivc lood
cr'-d  '.o/er which V'r.s  tbspnti-:!  to rimj-ntckcd  r-iifcj^ants,  linncierir.n and
C .0-.  ->r partri'.'•!'" ,  v.illoy <\.i.\\,  ?iui  rabMts.
 llf.J.   Toxicijy  tf'_D^f;;>  d!_io_ fit. '-'r__Ii''.f;cj:i,_
      ConflicL- e/'i'it ainony rcfJOrL^ m   toxicity  o1  substitiucd  phenc-xy
 hrrl'-cidcs  1o hr^i'-yboc^ and  bf.virh'c^l   inriecLi..    !;rr.ults fron  so.r.c
       *. su^'ifst.  Ilitit carrier:,  or the  herbicides  nay  be  as  toxic as the;
 111. B. 1.   Fpxj M L^_ JpJJfjni-.yJ'.tos
      Various   (omul at ions  (.['.'me s«iltr> and estcri) of  2,4-D v;cro nontoxic
 to  I-!1.'", when  anjii ir-d in v/ttcr Ciirricrs.   Uirscl   oil  sho\/t-d Lon?ii'Jcr.i!>lr

 U)/::T.y L!IJ  i  :•!•;,!. 'i-.iy a1"U-»  vr.iyii!;)   Dioc'il  oil,  •.•••>lc>- .Tiid  du',-;l  oi
•..•aici  [".30 co '  ,,ii!t!op. caiiu'    were  less  loxic l!.m Jiebel oil 'ml  nc.i
to/v:  tlrri vvif:  • !c;.a.   i'ri'l!.,- (lr//n) siaLed  l!v<  Lliu  use  ci" plant
!'.-••>.--  •••... rl,',-.,L ,!-.  Mich  ft:. 11 if .-.lid  Us  deriv?: iv.1'. r.f:red  clp.-th
-..M^n"  hc:!"y!3».-cs  \/iir:ii  used  in c-ccnsMVi.- ,.   .. ,-•„<  or vliCii  used  u'l^-jr
utiMnL'. ;>]'• caiioiLio!!1"    li'-i  '.i  "iv requiring fro"i  il-c- u^e o.  f'.'i-!>.
nay l>c  cr-latrrj  (,u tin- fl.-.i1 i"  iiic Fcaf-on  v.'lu-n  the hf!  'icido  is c.j.'rli^r!.
    a...  •' .-lii'j  -..I - i   ()"'  '.   .   .i,1;1:"  \> >\ ;ci.i \C.'.  i' ;; ! ..•-; i.:.  '.!.l.'i  if
 in hlr-,v,  !-,-,•'-.,  - LI. ;:. (-0  ,  |,-,     -:ii(!i , •,-.- unl.  ii> '•":?• •.;.).!.   i ;,(•-."
ohm v.-itir. i, i-i!'! Li •:  f'otC'fLif!.i  01 ?j4-P in tiie  j;A'\rr of pi arils  Luyc'c-.-.-!.
li'Gi ti.c1 r: utc  of oxptij-uro  tc-   iio hontyher- is  thrui''!i tlie nectar and
not iiirr.'r-'i'  surf a':.- concaci.  \'!i,'!i ailov/i.  !':u conci'.'sic-.i  that ;i/r-U
rr:^ ".  .  •. Lc- ,.cl. •-.:•. i.on or,  lio..^1, ^ _:, rilin.i  trir.-i t,b a  syitrj.,!'/.
      i.'nv'-l""1'^'!!  pt lp|iir°  '""Inv, •• p.'^tLM"?.c.  iil !!r.' '/r-^|?n.'J involV1-"  COT ''.'
oT )\\cj,,i'-)i'.1 .   Tlii'  is  oonc  i\' i ; '^'/i-ici 3 1!r.,. of '•Oi,o!iyti"-:itccl r.odii.';i s;il.!
rii" ?/'  [• -.•; l!> :  ••'••••<-:\v -,"h, /  iM.illzrr    /,.'J:or :•• ,^i-1 1  i ;.>;-.l ic.-lic,, uf
1-iis :iix!i','i- iii  i'/1 '••itori.'o   u:   • t'-ioa. c/'v'cr-al  hi"!- v ••!  tn'vp'i  v/erc
sc'i"itij'-, I v . Iff..ic-(!.   (.urr, ic'-i   ir- l^-c; in  i •!>!:.•" ri'/i ••,   nl'.v!     S;;1^--
f|U'j,Hly,  .1 viiiildf rippl icai.:Di'  • .. -,  'Mdc:  in on  P>OM  i ;,'•:•, :,al orca.   lliis
tdu'.fj  cl:-. Lr'jS  <-ii" an avorc-ne  . ori'ality  or  over ^t) PI., cont  in fit-Id
Lee'j hut no  oclvrsr- effect wa^  o'jsrrved in llie  snicry fron '.vhich the
field  ljf,"'-s f..(:'i'v  (1'iili-if r-Joii^L. ..  '.'54).
III. I).?.   [• !  ijji." 'j ori jj'.hcr In'.f. i;:
      KC.-PO, t^  of dljhori'Ml  number,  of aphids on yrain  \.vro  widcsprccul
throunhouL ranarla  in 1CI55.    rn^ii',  not trcr.led with  pt-sticidcs  r,fiO''?r|

cv:cn'K ! I if!  pf'-o i'.'jr..  In ii'.-  , M •   in'ii-in;;-    U-cur,.! 1  id  InrvcK; collected

1 I'Olil i  id'!'  il'f>:'';(! '.'i'ii ivr .< i f.,'k'S d I (.'•"!  '.OOll  ciftCV.  W.'VTea1.  !»Wi\"

Iro'i uni-jT  li-'d iiolrl,  i-urvivi.'!.   f.uccim Ilifi locvtf  of  3 '.pecif'O  t-irl

6 d i fff.'i'. ni  tfjc1 i'»'oiJi.'..  v.'crc  i.ii.iul?ci vn'iii  ^,'"-li ,ind tlto:: Lonfincti

'.  -j.uj.  V .  .   ...  '. .-  .  >',•>'( i     iv;,> Ijrtu' i ;-i i  Ciif'ti.^ I-:* jcrvt1. '•.'(•»•<;:

Morf'il  i •' v l/di)  iiiCi1?^ ',od frui  i  i  •• s in  oil  ano  'jrnui)\ oi: i p^ciniii.k.1 co

piMr.iion  iiicr'j'iScJ  ih  till  i.r,- •.)oui"J  eACupt fir.- "i-da.1 c»"i;:  Ku .':••:.

Thus,  it  o. r-'vrccl  li'.(-ly J!r.t  'I'-IH apulic: ..ii,v c*\\\<  \:--•  !•"  i  -

irJr.l   l.iC'M  to  ls".ii  i ifia I  I'/.cci4..

      jtafic  l)ic-tiiS5.v".  \/srp  ex1' ' '.icU 'J  to ci'iernlno I1:? rclativu cicutc

T.O/. ic i  ti,", r. 1  L'-^mi  no1".'.ici(i( :j Ln r-oidds oi"  r.ioncfli;? (Sfp-L-r^ iT-i!

C-.-pG,  TO.'-':).   i!LLiii:-..!cfi iC    v, ! u ;s " for PU 'qryr^y.  Cd1" i foy_;n'f' iv i.•;••'-••>

c.!i  Slif".:ii  it:  Ll.lIO  J I I .!•. I.
                        : • - r ;.r.  o
    1  !(. ll.
'' '-  i' Ij'll J/ , .  o'l
  t: L'jr  (I .f. .   -

Ji/i  D (li.-Ji.  I'.-.
                   ',10 1
                                          iJl.l'. I.

                                          c.i  5:;*•..'

2/i in

hi'. . 0
'..'J l*v

1 80
'.'11 '!"

! L- . (;

lj<   .   "•'..;!/  /Vj.l   '•-•

      .": .    If' I'  ' ! }  dtir'  11, !"/•   (J i •  f • •,

      Tho  i''1,1:  •.[» il.MKj .r ,,'oc.i or  S-crl-icicJo  ••'.>;'. iiity  in veterinary Mficliu'p*

is  I!-,-:  £p'.i:ni  p.iiicil1.'  of  profo'•.,:,  rro'.n their i".(j.   licir-'-iciiJcs  li;

1  .•.".•Loci; f'.:f!.   Avai'i;1 lr-  'Jai-i  ;:idir: ;-.c the  low Loxicily cf chlorui-iL',:!

[•!.,"i r./vucf. IG  .;".!'] co.-;'OUiid" 10  f-U!'.   Chrjnic '.o;:ic"!V1 of 2/r--')

oli.'-.ifilaniiric Sails  ;;o  rotLl.': ',;<.<•  iLuoi-'.d by r-t-l!'i:r  (I'.'G.i).   Sirjns of

l/j i'.(.in mn ocn;r,.i.l in  r',c. rj;.1 ;i  -^./ii/ dosed  CI'CC;L  (2L".0  ri.''/!.ii)  afLor

!!.•  I1  "I  KT'r.  (   GUJT.  i':i  •• ci }  in conLrast  ; n ?''••  troi'iL!1?!:!:. aL Ifi.i  i,-;/ki-i

i\ '.0  :T;/k'i (In .,,1..  jii.d  i". u;,.\.f 'n   o,;-rl a.rr 11 : coy^

      l!:t;  tO'/i'  olnny ol  nlivL^I'O'' .:.i,i':  n,  ih^ei-  \:as  i;nc^i i-p Lt.-o  Ijy IliV-.tiif1

.,.'.! /'.ivari/.u (i"/'i).   c.,^-L! cid-Miiiisicrcu in a  sinolc close of  125 and 1/S

!•!':/!'?) I'-ody \.".•!'!hi  -..(is  tapidly a'-i  or!)jci and el iMii^cf"-!.  i'.oxir.ia  concc-iv

Litaions, obsct veil in  tho  fir?t  hours following <':cV.nni strati on.,  w^rc

100 pr:';i  in pldsi.-j, 300 and  ^'KJ p; n in rui.icn coritontp-, anci frnn  ?,000-

JjOr|"J p;>i!i in tli."  urine.

      'Jlien do:.cs>  of 300,  '.00 or1 LC'O :in of 2,4-1; per kn vprp fid'nm'stcr'.'d

ci'iily,  amounts in urino  .ivorayos  3,000 ppm.   Viscera concentrations

        fro.n 700 in  2,000

       I...- •  I i: .1 r, • i  ion 'if  i' f  'i  •:!  '/n.  'Ji . i!,• c'  •   i '•;-   c>'!)0' i .1  i-t  'J \>\.'  IM

\'' •  i^c-tj v;ri'~  oi "( t'vcd by i.,'.1    o!  ,• i .,  (K'o3).   Ui  Inr p! • ('uc iion t.r-<

lirr.t  :-:  d.j/:.  •.:..  4.U-J.  l';..,j ,,i!  10.'X), i;it:i  correspond,ry 2,1-15

Y(.'  I'j'jei, Oi  I/.C-,   1.0 c,.i! r). !   ,',ij,,,.    loUl  2/--U  r-l  i,ii!n.--l'vj .us 35.:;  r,;

i...  .  '   • •   ' .,   .» •  I '•-' •  ••>  •'!  >-:''-  . '.'><.i«.   11' L i1 i  -'  J'.'i •, 01  i. !*•!  i' ffJG \\i5

II."..i.  :.yj -.  ,'iil'  ilitjt.  i-.covrrcd  -i:   he  urinp i^us 10" f,5 nr..  j i n-iy !>c

livL,  \'iiiiin   Li,'1  liin'lT,  o"  r y.vru :-.n..'il  prior, !'/-!< is  ol i M'jjtoa

Cf. . ilptol"  n.i'i  i!  L?ct ";n i!,1  uri!:.1

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Mill.                 «

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voluLik diiti  !:TJ!I  volrililc f'i'-r.s CM'  ?/'i-l) acid VTU .-.prayi"'  0,1 scparnlc

pastures at about double the us,ual  rate.   Milk cows grazing these
pastures contained from 0.01 to 0.09 ppm 2,4-D during the first 2 days
after spraying and lower amounts thereafter.  Residues in milk from
cows put into the pastures 4 days after spraying were below 0.01 ppm,
tho practical limit of prccisiDr. of the ^etlioci used.  Residues of 2,4-D,
in or on forage, declined rapidly during the experiment.  Almost all the
2,4-D in or on forage Wtis hydrolyzed to the acid form in samples of
forage which were taken within one-half "lour after spraying with the
butyl ester of 2,4-D, and about 7b % aft.2r applying the 2-ethyl hexyl
tsler.  Levels of 2,4-D in milk from cows maintained on rations containing
1,000 ppm was 0.06 ppn, and trace amounts we:-e detected in samples taken
seven days after withdrawal.
III.E.2.  Toxlclty to Fowl
     The effects of the alkanolam'ne salt of 2,4-D on White Rock Chicks
v/ere examined by Bjorn and Northen (1948).  Oral dosages were at the
rates of 0.0, 0.28, 2.8, 23, and 280 ng/kg of body weight.  The herbicide
was administered 3 times weekly on alternate days for a total of 12 doses.
Height differences after 12 closes were not significant at the 5% level
at the lower 3 dosage rates, and only barely significant for the 280 mo/kg
group.  Lethal dose tests showed a group receiving 765 ir/i/kg died.  There-
fore the acute oral LDsg is between these figures.  4 single dose of
765 mg killed whereas 3,360 administered over a 4-week period did not,
indicating that this form of 2,4-0 is not a cumulative poison.
     The toxicity of 2,4-D to hens' eggs was assessed hy Dunachio and
Fletcher (1970) by the egg injection technique.  All chlorinated

phenoxy acids were toxic at 3QO pp;n but were not equally toxic at
200 ppm.  The effect of 2,4-D on hatching of hens'  eqgs expressed
as percentage of the control were:  at 200 ppm - 62%; 100 ppri - 71%;
50 ppm - 100%; and 10_J2P»^^^.  No teratogenic effects were found
     The effect of 2,4-D and diesel  fuvl  on egg hatchability was reported
by Kopischke (1972).  Three groups of !J7  pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)
eggs were each sprayed with water, 2,4-D  solution, or diesel fuel to
assess the effects of these liquids  on hatchability.  Two groups of
C2 bantam chickens (Gallus donesticus) eggs were sprayed, one with
water and one with 2,4-D solution.  Application of 2,4-D in the
concentration normally applied for-weed control did not adversely affect
hatchability of eggs, cause deformities in hatched chicks, or cause
death of the chicks.  Application of diesel fuel to pheasant eggs
reduced hatchability to zero.
     The effect of 2,4-D acid on laying hens was observed by Uhitehead
and Pettigrew (1972).  Laying hens were fed 2,4-D, a herbicide (butoxy-
ethyl 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate in  ethanol) at a rate equivalent to
50 and 150 mg/kg diet from ages 28 to 48 v/eeks.  No adverse effects of the
treatments were observed upon rate of egg production, egg or yolk weight,
eggshell thickness, hatchability or growth rate of the progeny.
     Dobson (1954) sprayed grassed chicken runs daily for 14 days with
2,4-D "at the normal recommended rate" and at 10 times this rate.  Three
weeks after the start of the treatment, normal spraying had decreased

 egg production by 22%, whereas Ihe production of hens tn the pens treated
 at 10 times the normal rate had decreased by 8%.  During the experiment
 all eggs were incubated; fertility and hatchability of the eggs and
 growth rate of the chicks were not adversely affected by the treatment.
 Bjorklund and Erne (1966) gave water containing 1000 mg 2,4-D arnine/1
 to chicks from 3 day of age.   During the first 2 months of lay, the
 birds laid at about 70% of the rate of the controls; eggs fron the
 treated birds v/ere also slightly lighter in weight.
 III.F.  Fate in Hater
      The principal concern with this herbicide in water appears related
 to its persistence, the residual  contamination from direct application
 for aquatic weed control and  drift or runoff from terrestrial application.
 Bartley (1970) and Bartley and Siatrup (197&) studied amounts of 2,4-D in
 irrigation water following ditchbank treatment.  Peak concentrations of
 100 ppb or more occurred in only 2 of 19 canals, and these dissipated
 rapidly as the v/ater moved downstream.  Frank, e_t al_., (1970) found the
 same  type control produced 25 to 61 ppb of 2,4-D in water but that
 concentrations v/ere negligible ?0 to 25 miles downstream.  Morris,
 e_t al_., (1965) studied on brush control on forested lands.  He found
 (in low amounts 0.2-70.0 ppb) which decreised below 0.2 ppb v/ithin a
 few days.  Rowe (1963) and Kram-ies and Willetts (19G4) observed 2,4-D
.runoff from a California watershed treatment.  Rowe found no 2,4-D
 residues, but traces of ether solubles; Krammes and l/illetts found
 0.05  ppm 2,4-D in only-2 of 11 sa-iplcs, all within one month of
 spraying.  Averilt (1967) evaluated 2,4-D persistence from aquatic   /
 applications in Louisiana and reported that only trace amounts v/ere

detected after one month.   Douglas, et^ al_.,  (1969)  found no 2,4-D
residues in water when a lO-foot strip on either side of the channel
was left unsprayed.  Aly and Faust (1964) studied tne fate of 2,4-D
in natural  surface waters.   Insignificant amounts were sorbed on
various clays.  2,4-L) persisted up to 120 days in lake waters
aerobically incubated, but esters were hydrolyzed biologically within
9 days.  Lake mud microbial action decomposed over 80% of 2,4-D in
24 hours.  Ultraviolet light also decomposes 2,4-D.  These data reveal
a short half life for 2,4-D, generally less  than a week, and persistent
only in trace amounts after a month.  These  low concentrations likely
would not be hazardous to crops or animals.
III.G.  .Fate in Soils
     Sorption of 2,4-D on three clay surfaces ws found related to surface
area but not to temperature (.Haque, e_t aJL,  1968).   Initial activity of
2,4-D was greater'on sandy than in clay soils.  Herbicide adsorption
by soils increases with greater organic matter content, clay content,
cation exhange capacity, and surface area (Fanner,  1970).  Also, increased
soil water content accelerates volatility losses.  Remo"dl of 2,4-D
acid and its calcium salt by leaching in various soils was reported by
Hanks (1946).  Leachates v/ere relatively nontoxic from peat after two
weeks and from all other except naturally alkaline soils after six weeks.
Friesen and Dew 0966) found that the soil moisture and air temperature
were conducive to maximum growth.
     2,4-D breaks down from 4 to 6 weeks in  soil under favorable growing
conditions.  Residual phytotoxicity lasted one month (Mullison, 1972).

Breakdown of 2,4-D in field plots treated initially was slower than
in those receiving annual treatments over 12 years (Hurle and Rademacher,
1970).  Residues occurred in pond bottom nuds several weeks after
aquatic weed control application (Cope, 1965).  A national soils
monitoring pro:j:%an, covering cropland in 43, and non-cropland in 11
states was summarized by Wiersi.ia, et^a_l_., (1970).  Of 188 samples analyzed,
only 3 were positive with a range 0.01-0.03 ppm.  Over 15% of the sites
sampled had been treated with 2.4-D.  These data sunqest that 2,4-D
is relatively non-persistent in most soil types.
111. G. 1.  ilicrofauna
     Audus(1950) found that the biological detoxication of 2,4-D in soils
was due to the action of microorganisms of the "Bacterium globi forme
group".  Colmer (1953) found that commonly use/-', application rates of
the triethanolamine salt of 2,4-D for weed control in sugar beets did
not harm the Azotobacter.  A_. a_2ile. was more tolerant of 2,4-D than
the A_. cjvroococcujn.isolates.
     Removal of liquid DMA ?,4-D from wat;;r by plankton that adsorb or
absorb the herbicide was an important form of loss of a/'olied material
(Mojtalik, et_al_., 1971).  These organisms removed 24% within one hour
and a proportional amount during the next 7 hours, while the 2/-D
content of raw water was increasing 19 times.  Microbiai degradation of
2,4-D in aqueous solution was reported by Schwartz (1967).  Only a
small relative concentration of 2,4-D was degraded by a mixed microbial
population in a dilute mineral salt medium.  For aqueous solutions
containing 0.1 and 1.0 mg/1 of 2,4-D, no nore than 3'/% of the acetic
acid moiety disappeared over a period of 3 to 6 months.

     Toxicological  effects of 2.4-D on ruhcn function in vitro from a
sheep were observed by Kutchcs, et_al_., (1970).   2,4-D depressed j[n_
vitro dry matter disappearance beginning at 500 meg/ml and progressively
inhibited microbial activity as the pesticide concentration increased.
Ciliated protozoal  nunbers also decreased at 100 and 1000 meg/ml levels.
     Delayed lethal effect of 2,4-D acid on bacteria was investigated by
Lamartiniere, ,e_t al_., (1969).  This effect has ecological implications
for soil in that serious effects on thr: nn'crofauna would not be noted
unless exogenous carbon sources were absent.  Sensitivity of Bacillus
thuringiensis to 2,4-D was noted by Dougherty, et_al_., (1971).  Relatively
poor inhibition (failure to inhibit at 10"^ m) was obtained.
     Uptake of 2,4-D acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens was observed by
Wedemyer (1956) who concluded that uptake probably occurs by a two-step
process: sorption onto the cell wall followed by passive diffusion into
the cytoplasm.  Ring-labeled 2,4-D acid was metabolized to succinic acid
by a soluble enzyme preparation obtained from Arthrobacter sp. (Tiedje,
ej: al_., 1969).  Similar studies by Duxbury, e_t aj. 5  (1970) showed enzymes
from the same genus catalysing 2,4-D acid to chloromaleylacetic acid and
maleylacetic acid and subsequently to succinic acid.
     Cleavage of the ether bond of phenylmethyl by enzymes of Arthrohacter
sp. was described by Raymond and Alexander  (1972).   R?cent investigations
have also shown cleavage of the ether linkage of 2,4-D and related
phenoxyacetates by Arthrobacter and pseudomonads (Tiedje and Alexander,
1969; Gamar and Gaunt,11971).

III.G.2.   Mlcroflora
     Schroder, cjt al_., (1970) studied the effccls of 2,4-D on nucleic
acid biosynthesis in Neurospora crassa.  Amounts of DNA were as much as
140% of the control at the highest culture concentration.  Ando, et al.,
(1970) reported the isolatinti of 2,4»dic!iloror'ienol fron the soil brolli
of a PeniciIlium.  The isolation of normal breakdown product of 2,4-D
from a living organism suggests that some derivatives of this herbicide
act as growth regulatory hormones in plants.
     The nitrogen-fixing alga lolypothrix tenuis is recommended as a
substitute for some of the nitrogen fertilizers applied to rice fields.
Hamdi, e_t al_., (1970) found that dry weight and nitrogen fixation were
generally inhibited but that chlorophyll synthesis was stimulated by
low levels.  On the other hand, Venkataraman and Rajyalakshmi (1971)
found that tolerance limits of most strains of five species of algae
exceeded amounts encountered with recommended application rates.
     Effects of herbicides on unicellular narine algae (9 species) were
evaluated by Walsh, e_t al_.,  (1970).  Photo, ynthetic rates of seven species
increased when exposed to treated attaclay carrier plus 2,4-D, and
standing crops of five species were greatei , as were these effects
from sea water extracts of attaclay. Purified 2,4-D did not alter the
rate of photosynthesis.
     Aspergillus niger proliferation was reduced by 2,4-D acid at 10
and 50 ppm (Arnold, et_al_.,  1966).  However, this organism apparently
reduced the  phytotoxicity of the herbicide and degraded the material.
Barber and Nagy  (1971) determined in vitro affects of 2,4-D on rumen
microflora of the mule deer.  A concentration of 1,000 ppm caused

significant decreases in numl'ers of rumen hacteria.   2,4-D regained
inhibitory at 100 and 10 ppm levels.  Protcolytic enzymes and cellu-
lolysis also were sensitive parameters.
     Bacterial, fungal and acttnomycete  populations  in soil receiving
repeated applications of 2,4-D v/ere investigated by  Breazeale end Camper
(1970).  Compared with control plots, the fungal and actinomycete colony
count was the same, but the bacterial count was lower.
III.H.  Fate in Air
     Movement of 2,4-D in air has been knowi: because of drift hazard to
susceptible crous adjacent to sprayed rireas.  Fit-Id  sampling by Adains,
et_ al_., (1964) established the presence- of three esters of 2,4-D in the
atmosphere.  Studies by U'eigle, et_al_.,  (1970) indicated the, amount of
2,4-D in the air which affected yields of Vruits and vegetables.
Sherwood, e^_ al_., (1970) studied effects of 2,4-D dispersal from a central
point as it affect growth of plants grown in a series of concentric
circles.  Delayed, stunted or aborted growth attested to aerial movement
of herbicide from the central source.  Ecolooical effects of herbicides,
particularly as related to volatility, were discussed by Mullison  (1972).
Air currents may carry herbicides quite a distance fron the application
site.  Effects of simulated rainfall on herbicides was observed by Bovey
and Diaz-Colon (1969).  Oil soluble mixtures usually were less affected
by rainfall or washing than water-soluble formulations.  The hazards
of aerial application or movement  in ambient air to non-target areas
can be minimized by  use of salts or low-volatile esters and by application
during atmospheric conditions which provide the least possibility of
volatilization or drift from the target area.

II1.1.  Fate in Plants
     Chlorinated phenoxy acids their salts or esters conprise a group of
phytotoxic materials used as herbicides.   They are growth regulators with
hormone-like activity and small amounts kill root systems of perennial
weeds by translocation from foliar application.  At higher dosages, they
function as preemergence herbicides in soil, and as post emergence herbi-
cides in flooded rice (De Datta, et al_.,  1971).  Because broadleaf plants
are much more susceptible than grasses, 2,4-D can be used to control weeds
in cereal and grass crops.  Depending on  the plant species and rate of
application, 2,4-D may be used to accelerate or inhibit growth, RNase
activity, protein content and respiration rate.  Its effects on the
abscission layer of young fruit may permit thinning by spray application,
while effects on retardation of respiration can be used to prolong
storage life of citrus fruits (Ashton and Crafts, 1973).
     2,4-D is a synthetic auxin vhich creates growth reactions nuch like
those from naturally occurring ir.dole auxins.  The major difference is
that 2,4-D is far more active and persists for a longer tine whereas
indole auxins are rapidly inactivated (Klambt, 1961).
     Although plants maintain certain auxin levels in tissues particularly
in growing fruit and stems these are constantly charioing.  These
fluctuating levels bring about ratio change between auxins and other
hormones such as kinins and gibbcrellins  necessary for growth.  Such
ratios determine the physiological fate of a tissue, i.e., cell
division, root or shoot growth, or dormancy (Skoog and Miller,

     Introduction of an artifical  and more persistent auxin  such as
2,4-D alter the auxin content of cells and prevenl the normal  fluctuation
necessary for orderly, non.ial growth and differentiation (Van  Overbeek,
I! 1. 1.1.   Absorption
     Site of uptake of soil-applied 2,4-D amine on corn and  pea was
recorded by Prcndeville, £t 
in starch in roots 2 or 3 day; after treatsrjnt.  No changes in soluble
sugars occurred, but protein  increased by 3> and 80% in 2 and 3 days.
     Foliar applications of 2,4-D acid to rn.irabu, a woody weed found in
Cuba, generally gave complete defoliation with varying amounts of stem
kill.  Basal areas arid roots were rarsly da1-aged (Hay, 1955).  Previously
Young and Fisher (1950) treated the distal loliage of mesquite branches
with 2,4-D while the proximal parts were shielded.  Ten inches was the
Maximum extent  of kill below the treated area.  01 air and Fuller (1952)
made foliage applications to  the top 6 inches of mesquite seedlings with
2,4-D-I131.  Less than 3% of  the applied I13' moved below the treated
area.  Best results with foliage applications to brush were obtained by
thorough coverage of the lower parts.  This suggests that downward move-
ment is negligible (Res. Comm., 1952).
     Uptake, trans!ocation, and fate of 2,4~i) were compared in night-
flowering catchfly and common lambsquarter, resistance and susceptible
species, respectively.  Catchfly leaf sections absorbed more 2,4-D.
At 72 hr. post treatment catchfly released 2 .4-D through the roots into
the nutrient solution while lambsquarter continued to accumulate 2,4-D.
Catchfly metabolized 2,4-U while lambsquarter did not (Neidernyer and
Nalewaja, 1969).
     The effect of 2,4-D on trans location of ^C-assimilates on grapes
was observed by Leonard, et_ al_., (1967).   High concentrations interfered
with downward movement 1n field-grown vines.   Trans'!ocation within the
treated shoots continued from the vegetative part to the clusters.

Thompson Seedless rootings treated with 20,000 ppn 2,4-D transported
less   C to roots than did the controls.  Effects of 2,4-D on vegetative
development of "Tokay" grapevines was noted by Kasimatis, e_t al_., (1968),
Treatments at 1.0 to 10 ppm all showed residues of 2,4-D in whole shoots
after application by v.'hich ui,i>j 2,4-D at 10 pp:r: had caused the death of
shoot tips.
     Translocation of labeled assimilates into and out of bean leaves
as affected by 2,4-D was examined by Leonard, et_al_., (1968).  Uhen
a primary leaf on a bean plant /MS treated with 2,4-D it imported
^C-labeled assimilates from the opposite primary leaf; the greatest
import occurred when the treated leaf was darkened.  Regardless of
the type of treatment, imported labe-led ass'imilates were confined
mainly to the leaf veins.
     Uptake and movement of 2,4-D by bean petiole sections were studied
by Taylor and Warren 0970).  Tissue orientation had little effect
on movement.  Retention is likely the result of conjugation with
products in the cells or of physical binding in the cells.  2,4-D was
bound an accumulated in petiole sections and in rooi": of intact plants.
Shoot zone uptake of soil-applied 2,4-D was investigated by Prendeville
(1968).  Placement of soil treatment with 2,4-D in the shoot zone of
maize after emergence did not  significantly affect plant growth except
to  cause swelling and distortion of the roots.  Slight distortion of the
pea  stem and curling of the leaves  indicated below soil  penetration of
?,4-D and  translocation upward.

            Studies by Morris and ["rcvd (1966)  were made on absorption and
       trans location of 2,4-D in bigloaf maple.  Their findings are included
       in Table III.I.I.

                              Table III.I.I
	The Absorption and Trans!ocation of formulations of 2,4-D	
           No. of                     (% of absorbed activity found in) Herbicide
Treatment  plants        Absorption   	  in roots
(replications) 00
2,4-D acid
2,4-D online
2,4-D ester
(ug a.e.)
TSie data represent the absorption and distribution of   C in bigleaf maple
72 hr after
treatment with acid, trietlianoldinine salt or 2-ethylhexly ester
 of 2,4-D-l- 4C.
           Comparative studies were made with labeled 2,4-D on woody plants
      by Yamaguchi and Crafts (1959).  The labeled material was applied to
      the inner bark of manzanita, toyun and buckeye.  2,4-D was distinctive
      in its downward nobility in all three species in spring and early
      summer.  Later an upward movement became prominent, esoecially in
      manzanita and buckeye.  Downward movement was in the phloem and upward
      in the xylem.
      III.1.2.  Plant Metabolism
            Norris and Freed 0966) studied the metabolism  characteristics  of
      2,4-D 1n  bigleaf  maple.  Decarboxylation of 2,4-D  in maple foliage showed

92% absorption (4 replications) and 0.46% of absorbed 14C (I4C02 liberation
72 hr. after treatment.  The major metabolite in bean plants is 2,5-
dichloro-4-hydroxyphenoxyacetic acid, while 2,3-dichloro«4-hydroxyphenoxy-
acetic acid is a minor metabolite (Hamilton, c;t.al_., 1971).
     Uptake and metabolism of 2,4-D ;;ci.d oy p-.:; root sequer.ts after
14C-labeled auxin application was observed by Andraea 0967).  Growth
inhibition following 16 hrs. treatment was about as great as for only
3 hrs., being 45% and 36%, respectively, of control growth.  Grain
sorghum was sprayed with propylene qlycol butyl ether ester and alkano-
lamine salt formulations of 2,4-D when 6 to 8 inches high (Liang, et al.,
1969).  Pollen mother cells from all treated r.orghum revealed chromosomal
abberations, mostly at.euploidy and polypioidy.  Added chromosomes were
not-always of the basic number.
     Comparative metabolism in bean and corn plants was reported by
Montgomery, et_ al_., (1971).  Three routes of metabolism were demon-
strated in resistant and susceptible nlants.  These pathways were
siriple conjugation, conjugation and hydroxylation, and oxidation
of the side chain.  In hydroxylation, the chlorine atom in the
4 position 1s shifted to the 3 or 5 position, primarily the latter.
     Hydroxylation of several weed species was studied by Flecker and
Steen (1971).  Uild buckwheat, leafy spurge, yellow foxtail and wild
oat hydroxylated in 7 days, 2 to 7% of the 2,4-D-l-  C absorbed.  Only
trace hydroxylation products were detected in wild mustard, sowthistle
and Kochia.  Enhancement by 2,4-D of chromatin RNA polyroerase in soybean
hypocotyl tissue was examined by O'Drien, e_t al_., (1968).  Chromatin from
control and 2,4-D acid-treated tissue incorporated labeled nucleoside
triphosphates into acid-insoluble RNA.

     Effect of metabolic iinhibitors on herbicide movement in plants
was reported by Taylor and Uarren (.1370).  Pretreatnent of bean petiole
sections greatly stimulated the movement of 2,4-D acid.  Absorption of
2,4-D by honeyvine milkweed was 7.2, 9.3 and 10.9% of the applied
herbicide at 1, 4 and 8 days aUcr treatment, respectively.  Addition
of 1.0% v/v Tween 80 increased absorption to 55.8, 71.3, and 78.7%
at the same sampling dates (Coble, e_t al_., 1970).
     2,4-D acid and auxin cataholism in barley and wheat was examined
by Fooz, et_ al_., (1966).  Cffccb of 2,4-D on growth and IAA catabolism
(in vitro and vivo) in the dark showed increasing concentrations of
2,4-D inhibited germination and growth.
     2,4-D metabolism in resistant grasses was studied by Hagin, et al.,
(1970).  3-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid was recovered from
bromegrass (70  ppm), and from timothy and orchard grass (20 ppm),
indicating it to be a major metabolite.  Conversion of 2,4-D to
herbicidally inactive 3-(2..4-DP) may be a primary mechanism of resistance
of grass species to 2,4-D.
III. 1.3.  Residues
     lull is and Davis (1950) discussed the affect of supposedly  persistent
2,4~D in plant  tissue.  They mention the injurious effect described by
Pridham  (1947)  upon bean  seedlings grown from seeds of plants sprayed
while the pods  were maturing and that described by Dunlap  (1948) upon
cotton seedlings grown  from seed borne by plants  injured the previous
season by 2,4-D.  However, Brown, et. aJL, (1948)  reported no evidence
of injury on cotton plants grown from seeds,  collected  in fields  affected
by 2,4-D.

     Studies by liatson 0940) on the bean, by Earces (1949) on Cyperus,
and by Tukey, e_t aj_., 0949) on Prunnus now show that injury is done
to developing buds at the tine of treatnent but that the effect is
evident only later when the buds develop.  Injury is brief, not
     Residues in stored lemons were reported by Erickson, et^al_., (1963).
A 14C-label in the isopropyl group provided evidence that all of this
ester in the cells was hydrolyzed and that any ester-like residue was
synthesized in vivo.  Erickson and Meld (1962) mentioned 2,4-D use in
citrus culture for preventing preharvest. fruit drop, increasing fruit
size, and increasing storage life.  Oranges nicked from trees sprayed
with 20 ppm of 2,4-D showed an average of 0.1 ppm residue 1 day after
spraying.  Lemons dipped in wax emulsion containing 500 ppm of 2,4-D
averaged 1.1 ppm 2,4-D residue 2 days after treatment.
     An isooctyl ester of 2,4-D was applied to sorghum at a.e.
rate of 1.25 or 2.50 Ib/ac. to control broadleaf weeds.  Growth stage
at treatnent varied from preeinergence to dough state.  No 2,4-D residues
were deto.-cted in the grain.  Residues in the forage ranned from < 0.2
to 5.25 ppm.  Time interval between application and harvesting was the
critical factor (Ketchersid, ejlal_., 1970).  Average residue found in
tubers of plants sprayed with the propylene glycol butyl esters of
2,4-D ranged from 15 to 110 pph varying with rate, year and time of
application at 8 oz/ac (92 g/ha), while the lowest (4 ppb) was from
plants sprayed with 2 oz/ac  (23 g/ha) Nelson, et_al_., 1971).

     Residual effect of some herbicides on Medicauo sp.  in the Victorian
flallee of Australia was studied by Wells (Ttf?).  Cherrical fallowing
gave higher wheat yields but sometimes adversely affected under plantings
of lucerne or medic pasturage.  Results of studies with 2,4-D, picloram
or mixtures of the two indicale that no damage occurred after 2,4-D
alone was used; however, harmful residues of picloram were detected.
III.I.4.  Forestry aspects
     Degradation of 2,4-D in forest litter was studied by Norm and
Greiner (1967) who reported that. 2,4-D was rapidly degraded in forest
litter and that the rate varied with litter type, herbicide formulation
and the presence.of DDT.  Douglas fir, bi<]leaf and vine maple, Ceanothus
and red alder were sampled.  Recovery of different formulations of
2,4-D from alder litter 15 days after 3 Ib/Ac had been applied was 65%
for IDE form and the solubilized acid, 62% for triethanol amine salt,
and 45% for 2,4-D acid.  Variations among the 11 species were from 60 to
73%.  Growth analysis was made of red maple atvl white ash seedlings
grown hydroponically with technical 2,4-D prepared as the triethylamine
salt.  Root treatments with 2,4-D were more effective than shoot appli-
cation for white ash, but this was not true of red maple.  For all
applications 2,4-D was less phytotoxic than either 2,4,5-T or picloram
(Perry and Upchurch, 1968).
      Effect of pretreatment of  red pine seeds with 2,4-D  on germination
and growth of young seedlings was made by Sasaki, e_t al_., (.1968).  At
500 and 1000 ppm, 2,4-D markedly  inhibited both early and final germi-
nation.  At  500  ppm, 2,4-4)  began  to kill young seedlings  at 27 days.

Marked morphogenic changes in seedlings were caused by pretreatment of
the seed.  A similar study was conducted by Sasaki and Kozlowski  in 1968.
At concentrations up to 4000 ppm, 2,4-D suppressed germination and
inhibited grov/th of young pine seedlings, particularly cotyledon
     Sasaki and Kozlowski (.1967) also examined effects of 2,4-D application
on carbon dioxide uptake by 3-year-old red pine seedlings.  2,4-D applied
at 20 Ib/Ac or at 4000 ppm inhibited absorption of C02 at a steady rate.
Depression of COg absorption closely paralleled development of toxicity
symptoms, especially chlorosis.
III.I.5.  Aquatic use - runoff
     Monitoring ecolog>ic£l condition^ associated with widescale application
of DMA 2,4-D on over 18,000 surface acres of TVA reservoirs was reported
by Wojtalik, etaJL, (1971).  At application of 20 and 40 Ib/Ac excellent
control of Invading Eurasian interim'If oil was achieved within 3 to 4
weeks without serious affect on other' submersed aquatics, plankton,
benthic macroinvertebrates, or fish.  The DMA salt of 2,4-D appears to
be a noncumulat.ive herbicide since only small amounts were translocated
through food chains.  Plankton sorbed and retained 2,4-D for extended
periods.  Weldon and Blackburn (1969) applied propylene glycol butyl
ether esters of 2,4-D acid to flooting alligatorweed and determined
carbohydrate levels in underwater stems.  Application rates were 4
and 8 Ib/Ac during the growing season.  One month after application,
the readily-hydrolizable carbohydrates had been depleted by 23.8% in
a tidal  area and  14.5%  in  a  non-flowning  area.

     Barnett, et^al_., 0967) measured 2,4-D acid in washoff (water-soil
mixture) froin cultivated fallow sandy loarn soil.  Formulations of isoocty
and propylene glycol butyl ether esters and an alkanolamfne salt of the
ethanol and isopropanol series were applied at 2.2 and 4.4 Ib/Ac.  Simula
rainfall intensities and storiii durations were used to represent storm
frequencies of 1, 10, 80 and > 100 years.  Isooctyl and butyl ether ester:
were far more easily removed in washoff than the amine salt.  2,4-D
concentrations in washoff were less than 1 ppm, whereas concentrations
as high as 4.2 ppm of 1;ooctyl ester v/ere measured.  Butyl ether ester
and amine salt losses were 13 and 4% following a 1-year-frequency storn
and 26 and 5% following a 100-year frequency storm.  Soil bioassays
showed that most of the 2,4-D remained in the surface 3 inches of soil.
     The subacute toxicity of 2,4-D acid and 2,4,5-T acid to chicks v:?s
investigated by Whitehead and Pettigrew (197;1).  Chicks tolerated large
dietary doses (250-600 mg/kg) of 2,4-D acid the only adverse effect being
a reduction in food consumption (ceased to eat or drink for 1-2 days)
and 10% in growth rate.  A level of 5000 mg/ki of 2,4-D, while not
resulting in death, did cause histological changes (swollen kidneys
and mottled spleens).  Chicks were able to tolerate these levels for
up to  1 week, however and resume normal growth rate when returned to
uncontaminated food.  No specific effect of high dietary levels was
noted  on plasma calcium or magnesium concentrations.  Birds were able
to discriminate between contaminated and uncontaminated food; when given
a choice they rejected contaminated food and grew at a normal rate.


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2,4-DB on the  vegetative development of toki\y  grape vines.   Amor.  0.
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Ketchersid, H. L., Fletchall, 0.  K., Santelnann,  P. W.,  and Merkle, M. G.
Residues in sorghum treated with  the fsooctyl  ester of 2,4-D.   Pest.
Konit. J. 4(3):in-113, 1970.

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Klambt, H. D.   Planta 57:333-353, 1961.

Klebenow, D. A.  Sage Grouse versus  sagebrush  control  in Idaho.  J. Ranae
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Klingman, D. L., Gordon, C. H., Yip, G., and Burchfield, H. P.   Residues
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Kopischke, E.  D.  The effect of 2,4-D and diesel  fuel  on egg hatchability.
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Kranmes, J. S., and l-iillets, D. B.  Effect of  2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on water
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Mcffett, J. 0., Morton,  II. L., and MacDonald,  R.  H.  Toxicity of some
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Neidermyer, R. VI., and Nalewaja,  J.  Uptake, translocation and fate  of
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Norrfs, L. A., and Freed, V.  H.   The absorption  and  trans-location
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O'Brien, T. J., Jarvis, B. C.,  Cherry, J. II., and  Hanson, 0.  Enhancement:
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Palmer, J. S.  Chronic toxicity  of 2',4-D alkanolaminc salts to cattle.
J.A.V.M.A, 143(4):398-399, 1963.

Palmer, J. S.  Toxicity of 45 organic herbicides -to  cattle, sheep and
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Palmer-Jones, T.  Effect on  honeybees of 2,4-D.  N./..J.  Agric. lies.
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Prerideville, G.  Shoot-zone  uptake of soil-applied herbicides.  Weed  lies.
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Prendeville, G. I'l., Eshel* Y.,  Schrieber, M. M., and Warren, C. F.   Site
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PMdham, A.M.S,  Science 105:412, 1947.

Rawls, C. K., and Ueaven, G.  l;.   Results  of a 1962 field experiment
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Raymond, D, D., and Alexander,  M.  Cleavage of the ether bond  of
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 Rodgers,  C.  A., and  Stalling, D. L.  Dynamics of an ester of 2,4-D in
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 Sasaki, S.,  Kozlowski,  T. T., and Torrie, J. H.  Effect of pretreatment
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Slsim, J. C., e_t al_.  To.xlci.U of agricultural  chemicals  to  larvivorous
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Smith, G. E., and Isom, B. G.  Investigation  of effects  of  large-scale
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St. John, L. E.f Wagner, D.  G., and Lisk,  D.  J.  J.  Dairy Sci.,  47:1267,
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excised plant tissue.   Weed  Sci. 13(l):64-68, 1970.

Taylor, T. D.> and Warrne, G.  F.  The effect of metabolic  inhibitors  on
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Tiedje, J. M., and Alexander,  M.  Enzymatic cleavage of  the ether bond
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Tiedje, J. M., Duxbury, J. M.,  Alexander,  M., and Dawson,  0.  E.   2,4-D
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Tietjen, H. P., Halvorsen. C.  II., Hegda-,  P. L.,  and Johnson, A.  M.
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Tucker, R. K., dnd Crabtrcc, D.  G.  Handbook of toxicity of pesticides
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Wei don, L. W., and  Blackburn,  R. D.  Herbicidal  treatment on carbohydrate
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Hells, G. J.  Residual effect  of some herbicides on  Med_icaoo_ species
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VMersma, G. B., Tai, H., and Sand,  P.  F.  Pesticide  residue  levels  in
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Vlojtalik, T. A., Hall, T.  F.,  and  Hill, L".  0.  Monitoring ecological
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                             Chapter IV

     Use of the herbicide, 2,4-D for control  of weeds in a wide variety
of situations have been increasing each year for the last two decodes.
It is not a loiit1-persistent pesticid? and its MSO ot recommended rates
of application results in residues which persi'.t for only a relatively
short time (about 1 month or less).  Results of" studies by Ft'A of
pesticide chemical residues in total diet samples during the period
1954-1970 show residue levels which cannot be r"gardsd as presenting a
significant health hazard.  (President's Science Advisory Connnittee-

     2,4-D residues have been detected in foods of plant and animal
origin.  Thirty composite samples of pach ?f 12 classes of food wore
analysed each year between 1964 and 1972.  Between 1964 and 1970 only
5 of  II classes of food have been found to be contaminated, and amounts
detected were < O.OP1-0.16 ppm.  Residues ''ere foimd in 1.0 percent or
less of dairy products, oils fats and shoriening, and fruit, in 1.9
percent of leafy vegetables and in 22.1 pe.cent of sugar and adjuncts.
Of the total samples analyzed in 1971 only 3 leafy vegetable samples
were contaminated  (range 0.01-0.02 ppm)» and no chlorophenoxy acid
residues were detected in 1972  (Private communication F.F. Cumberback).

     The allowable daily intake for 2,4-D has been established by the
Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues of FAO/WIIO (1971) to be 0.3

                    Average incident  nd ^r'L/ i-ic.n'-.c nt  8  pr.nticido cli'-"n.icj?1.3

                                             r =-  '•O .-."31 n.-i

•o?-; n
b/.'/v :



! 4.2


*-».-«• , T
. • . * 1 t
C'>. ' r



A" I * » ' 1_"

i'LJ'CI "J
T D.\ LiA'
v ;,;-;; .'GSil E\T. Ilir.V'.V
urs 2 •/•;,, CJ:".T:;
O.C/-1 I 33. r,
0.028 i 31.1
0.018 i 23.9
Q.1C- ! 15,3
O.CC- ! 10.6

C.COJ 1 3.9
:. 0:3 i 1.1
j.°:-- i i 7

T.iE'.; J (.:".)


"•.':•' \

' :-,
i ,
i f -j
• CO

J k
\\ .: ;x D.'
r"nv~ i:

i,',.?. 0.
37.5 0.
31.1 0 .
:•?.* o
:.:•,: c.

1 ;• . 1 0 .

•"* Q O
t ' *J •

. .-.r.
*•« \
-: y

c; '^OCIT;

1 '? ' 25.2
, -. ; i j O ^
V.-02 1 12.2
I 0.3


, , '

^ JL - . -
5 j ,- , . |

C . ' 11
O.I _• "

C . >J - u

ot.cil* 1971)

mg/kg/day, or 21  ing for a 70 kg man.   Average incidence of contami-

nation and daily intake of DDT, DDE,  ODD, ^ieldrin,  lindane,  heptachlor

epoxide, carbaryl and 2,4-0 reported  annually between 1964 and 1969

are shown in Table IV A.

     The1following tolerences have been allowed for  2,4-D: 5  ppm on
apples, asparagus, grapefruit, lemons, ora.iges, and  pears; 0.5 ppm or

groins of barley, oatss rye and wliput; and 20 p]-m or grain forage.


Duggan, R.E., Lipsominb G. ,  Cox, E.L. , He:ilthwol«,  R.E.  Klcnp,, R.C.,  (197]
Residues  in Foods  and  Fei'd .   J'est. Monit. J. 5-2  73-212.

Cumberbacl: , F.  F.  1973.  l'i ivato Comrcunir ition  May 22,  1973

Pesuicide Residues In  l''oud  (197J).  Report of  the Joint  Meeting of the
FAO working party  oC cxporr:: on ^«£3tici<'c Kcsiclues and  tho, IfflO expert
Committee on 1'nsLicide Kpsidue .  Hovembcc 22-29,  1971.
President' K Science Advisory Cnui.irittee K-.-port on  2,4-D  September 30>

                            Chapter V
                   Economic luirc.sary of Production
                         and Use of 2,4-D
V. A.  Introduction
     Since their first use by fanners and lanchers in the mid 1940's,
Lie phcnoxy h:-rbiuc!es have U.cciii? an mcriasingly important tool in
weed control in the Unitod Stat-:s.  Of all  Lhe phenoxy herbicides,
2,4-D has bocorne the most widaly employed,  whether this usage is
based on amount applied, on »creanc tr -ated  or on type of crop for
which used.  In general, 2,4-D is high.y selective, of medium term
persistency, is low in acute nmm?lian toxicity, and is effective at
low rates and volumes of application.  In addition, its  relatively
low cost suggests 'that the chemical could result in significant benefits
to users.  This benefit is further indicated by the increased use of
2,4-D over the past 20 years.
     While uics of 2,4-D  include  industrial and governmental as well
ds agricultural, only agricultural uses are examined in t/is paper.
Agricultural crop use currently recounts fO'A approximately half of
all 2,4-D sales.  The major remaining i.->es 
use of 2,4-D indicates that no alternative will  provide acceptable
control in all  cases.   Atrazine is currently used on  over 45 million
acres of cornland, indicating that in many cases it is  an acceptable
weed control technique.
V. B. Prnd'.iction and
Use of a,4-U
     There are currently four basic domestic producers  of 2,4-D.
These are BASF Wyandotte Corp., The Dow Chemical Company, Rhodis  Inc.,
Chipman Division, and Thompson-Hayward Chemical  Company.-   As  en
indication of the complex and rapidly changing nature of the chemical
pesticide Manufacturing industry,  it should be noted  that BASF  Wyandotte
has commenced 2,4-D production since 1972, while such companies as
Monsanto, Riverdale, Gordon and Gutti have discontinued  2,4-D production
since that date.-'  All. four basic domestic producers are large and well
     Dow manufactures a diversified line of organic and inorganic chemicals,
plastics, pharmaceutical, agriculture, and consumer products and metals.
Agricultural chemicals include weed, br^sh, (.nd grass killers,  roil, space
and grain fumigants, disinfectants and insecticides.  Sales  in  1972 were
$2.4 billion.  Dow has plants in many slates of the U.S., in Canada,
Latin America, Europe, and Australia.
     Thompson-Hayward, a subsidiary of Pi-Pi Jnc. controlled  by  North
American Philips Corporation, is partially owned by Philips  Incandescent

I/  Farm Chemical Handbook, 1974.
2/  Farm Chemical Handbook, 19/2.

Ltinip Works Mid Holding Company of l.hf Netherlands.   PEPI products sorvo
human, animal, and plant health needs as well as those of industrial
end users.  Plant health products include fungicides, herbicides,
insecticides, rodenticides, and grain fumigants.  Sales in 197?.
were $204 million.
     Rhodia is a subsidiary of Rhone-Poulenc S.A. of Franco.  Rhone-
Poulenc is a holding company with subsidiaries operating in France and
abroad.  Products are cliemicals and Pharmaceuticals, man made fibers,
cellulose, plastic film, petrochemical intermediates, chlorine, soda,
etc.  Sales in 1972 (converU-d from Frei-ch Franks) exceeded $2.4 oil lion.
     The most recent production data av'ilabie refer to 1971.  In that
year, sales !>y basic menu lectures i/ere  3.5 nil lion pounds, down from
the,1 1970 level of 59.7 millinti pounds.   A d?i,vnufird trend in 2,4-D  is
al'.>o indicated through examination of D'parti,snt of Agriculture  infor-
mation.    In this report, domestic di-sappearance at the producer level
(production less exports) is estimated  to have decreased from 46.9  million
pounds  in  1970 to 32.2 million pounds in 1971.  l.'hile production and
use data are  unavailable fax the post 1971 period,  industrial sources
_'{_/  Production and Sales of Prr.ticidos  and Related  Products,
    U.S. Tariff Commission, October, 1973.
2/  The Pesticide Review 1972. USDA, June, 1973

indicate that production and use levels h?.ve ceased to decline and
may in fact have increased since 1971.
     Most 2,4-D used in the United States is produced domestically
and most domestic production is consumed domestically.  The last
year in which the Tariff Commission reported sizeable imports of
2,4-D was 1068 (2.5 million pounds).   Tariff Commission data on
2,4-D exports are clouded due to the inclusion of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
in a single category.  In recent years exports in this category
(primarily 2,4-D) have ranged fiom 7 to 11 mil lion pounds.
     The most comprehensive c^tim-ite of agricultural use of 2,4-D
is that of the Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Survey (Tables
VI, V2 and V3).  Data from the survey indid'-te that the acreage upon
which 2,4-D has been used remained relatively constant between 1966
and 1971 (56.'J million dcrus in 1966 to b'1.8 million acres in 1971).
The major discernable shift in ucaije, according to USDA data, is a
decreased use on corn with a corresponding increased use on wheat.
Th" trend in amount of 2,4-D u-.od is parallel to the trend in acreage
     In summary, accounting for statistical error and unavailable
data, it appears that 50-60 million pounds of 2,4-D are produced
annually in the United States, that net exports (exports minus imports)
are in  the vacinity of 5-10 million pounds, and that agricultural use
accounts for over 30 million pounds of the approximately 50 million
pounds  available for domestic  use.  Thir.  is consistent with all published
data except  the USDA 1972 Pesticide* Review estimate of domestic availability
of 32 million pounds in  1971.-  Previous analysis has indicated that this
I/ The Pesticide Review, 1972. USDA, p.34.

TAB! E VI.- Crop Acres Treated with 2,4-D
Other Grains
Other Field Crops
Alfalfa, Other Hay, and Forage
Pasture and ftangeland
Other Fruits and Nuts
Summer Fallow
(inon acres)
(1000 acre:,)
TOTAL                                      56,893              54,845
         Source:     US DA -  SRS  -  "1971  -  farm Production  expenditure  Survey,"
                     and USD^  -  i:i;3.

TABLE V.?. - Crop  Acrss Treated wiih 2,4-D by Reg-ions
Lake States
Corn belt
Northern Plains
Delta States
Southern Plains
1 %G
(1000 acres)
(1000 acros)
      Source:     USDA - SRS -  "1971 - Farm Production Expenditure  Survey,"
                  and USDA - ERS.

1/UJI.L  V3.   • Pounds 2,4-U Used uu 'Ji

Other Grains
Diner field Crops
Alfalfa, Other Hay and Forage
Pasture and Range lend
Ci trus
Other Fruits and Nuts
Sum-lie r Fallow
Nursery and Greenhouse
(1000 1!;.)
1 ,373

(1000 Ib.)
TOTAL                                     39,'-13              33,252
      Source:     USDA  -  SRS  -  "1971  - Farm Production expenditure Survey,"
                  and USDA -  CIIS.

estimated domestic disappearance for the plienoxy herbicide group may
be quite low, and that the 1969 and 1970 estimate of 50 million pounds
per year more accurately describes domestic availability of 2,4-D
than does the 32 million pounds estimated for 1971.
V. C. Cost of Restricting
Use of 2,4-D
     The benefits derived from  the agricultural use of 2S4-D can best
be examined through estimating  the costs incurred if current users of
2,4-D must substitute alternative control insures.  The only published
attempt at such an analysis was completed by the USDA in 1970, and
examines the Cost to Farmer; of Restricting tlie Use of Phenoxy Herbicides;-'
While this USDA analysis consiclars -the irrplicationc of restricting all
phenoxy herbicides, 2,4-D accounted for over 90 percent of all phenoxy
herbicide use during  the period of analysis (p. 17).  In  addition to  the
problem of aggregating all phenoxy herbicide*., the USDA research  is based
on usage estimates  for the ye^r 1966 arid on production, cost and  alternative
information fir- the year 1969.  i'inally, the USDA study assumes  that  weedL
must be controlled  at the bass !>criod level; this nv>y or  may riot  be the
case.  In spite of  these limitations the study offers valuable insights
into the benefits derived  from use of 2,4-D ..nd serves as the bf;si[, for
the estimated cost  of phenoxy herbicide restriction herein presented.
     The USDA Study estimated that production  costs could increase by
as much as $290 million if existing commodity  output  is to be maintained
_]_/   Restrictinc] _the_U:-.e of  Phenoxy  Herbicides  -  Cost to. Farmers,
     USDS" Agricu'lturaI  EcorioiiiTc"K'pbr t No.  194, Novclnber,  1970.

without the use of phenoxy herbicides.  As Iv., previously IK.'UM mentioned,
2,4-D comprised over 90 percent of all phenoxy herbicides used during
the period of analysis.  While it is not necessarily true Inat 2,4-D
restriction could increase producer costs by S2G1 million ($290 x 90
percent) it is oovious thai (':• vast majority of the estimated $290
million loss would be due to a restriction of 2,4-D.
     In addition to these production cost increases, the USDA estimates
that 5.7 million additional acres would be needed to compensate for yield
losses associated with v/ocd coii'peti tion that would have IJPCM control I fja
with 2,4-D.  Also, it is estnncied Lhat an aJdiLional 20 ml lion hoi'IT,
of family labor used for weed contiol would have been needed.
     Thi.s $290 million increase in production costs constituted about
5 percent of the value oT crops produced on acres treated with phenoxy
herbicides.  T!rib translates to a per acre cos1-, of approximately $4.t>4.
The primary burden of this loss would fall on corn (37 percent), v/heal:
(17 percent) oiid other siiiall fjrain (10 percent) producers.  Table V.4
presents a complete brc-aktiown of projected increased costs by crop  did
by cost category.

     Table  V.4   Costs  of  restricting phcnoxy herbicides
                by  crop and  cost  category,  19G9
	Costs  of restrict in r: phenoxy herbicide use
 materials Substitute     Acldi-    Production   Net
    and    herbicides   tional        on      addi-
  appli-         and  .   cultural   additional  tional
  cation    application   practices    acres      cos.ts_

Other small
Other crops
All crops


122.5 21.2 	
15.3 12.1 45.0
10.9 9.1 23.1
14.5 2.4 	
• - — 1/6.4 1.6
163.2 137.6 91.0

    ]J  Includes $2.2 million for lower income from loss in tju.ility.
    Source:   Restricting the Use of Phenoxy Herbicides, USDA, Jov.,  1970
     Several  variables affect the magnitude of tins projected cost increase
all of which  have changed since the 1970 completion of the USDA report.
     First,  new chemicals may have been developed,  new cropping patterns
may have been established, or weed susceptibility to 2,4-D may have changed
All of these  could alter the efficacy of 2,4-D relative to other chemical

     Second, chenical  price-; have changed.   For example,  USDA's
assumed 2,1-U per acre treatment cost of approximately $.60 is
now approximately $.85.   Dicamba treatment at the same rate has
increased in cost from $1.85 to approximately $3.80 per acre.
To the extent that alternative costs have increased faster than
2,4-D costs., estimated USDA cost estimates could have been'Tirider-
     Finally, the last two years have witnessed a rapid increase in
the farm price of many agricultural  products.  Nowhere has this increase
been more r<"ipid than in the grain sector of the agricultural economy.
This increased commodity price accentuates the problem of potential
yield losses due to chemical restriction.  Because of these rapidly
changing market conditions, it is perhaps better to view increased
production costs in relative terms (five percent of the value of
affected crop production), rather than in absolute terms ($290 million).

                                Chapter VI

     A simple method for the preparation of 2,4-D was first described
by Pokorny (1941).  Growth regulating effects were described by Zimmerman
(1942) and herbicidal effects by Marth, and Hamner (1944).  Since these
first reports were published, the number of uses for the chemical have
increased greatly.  Currently, approximately 142G 2,4-D products are
marketed by 282 companies.  According to the U.S. Tariff Commission,
reports of the 280 million pouirJs of cyclic herbicides and plant hormones
sold during 1972, 75 million pounds were in the form of 2,4-D.
     2,4-D is formulated as the free acid; sodium, lithium, and ammonium
salt; diethanol, triethanol, dimethyl, trimethyl and triethylaiiiine salts;
low volatile esters such as isooctyl, butoxyethyl, poly ethyl one glycol
bi-ty], prcpylfciic glycoT, tetrahydrofu-rfiiryl, ethoxy propyl. and hexyl
butoxy; and volatile esters such as amyl, butyl, methyl, ethyl, isopropyl,
octylainyl, and pentyl.
     2,4-D is registered both for the control of broadleaf p'lctnt-s and as
a growth regulator.  Crops for which 2,4-D is registered as a lic-rbicidc
include: asparagus, barley, blueberries, corn, cranberries, graphs, hay,
oats, pastures, pears, raiKjcland, rice, rye, sorghu;i, sugarcane, wheat,
and aquatic sites.  Non-crop uses include: applications to fall owl and,
lawns and turf, reforestation projects, rights-of-way, fencerows, and
along roadyways.
     As a growth regulator, 2,4-D is registered on citrus  (grapefruit,
lemons, and oranges) to increase fruit size and reduce drop. anc! on
potatoes to intensify the red color and improve skin appearance.

     Of the crops and oiLci  for which 2,4-D is  registered,  the major
uses ore for weed coivtr^T' in corn, whtai anil nther small  grains,  sorghum,
            range!and, nglits-of-way, ditchbanks, aquatic-sites, and turf.
     For broadleaf weed control 2,4~D is generally applied as either a
pre or post-emergent spray.   However on site such as ponds or turf areas,
granular formulations may provide the best control and ease of application.
Any of the acid., salt, or ester forms may be utilized in the formulation
of granular products.
     When treatment of woody plants is necessary, 2,4-D is sprayed as
either a foliar, basal hark, stump, or frill treatment.  Foliar treatments
provide satisfactory results v;!ien brush is less than 8 feet tall and active!
growing.  Rate per acre will vary with species and population density:
however, sufficient material must be apolied to thoroughly wci  the leaves.
Basal bark treatments are most effect!VP on susceptible trees less than
6 inches breast height diameter.  The Icwer 18 inches of the trunk
is sprayed with sufficient material to drench the ground at the
base.   In order to prevent re-sprouting, at least one year is
allowed before cutting the treated tree.
Stump treatments reduce sprouting of trres larger than 2 inches at
the base.  The most satisfactory result1, arc achieved when freshly
cut surfaces are treated.  The 2,4-D is applied in sufficent quantities
to thoroughly wet the cut surface and bark.
Frill treatments stet kill of  larger trees  is desired.  This method
involves making overlapping  dxe cuts completely around the trunk as
as close to  the base as possible.  2,4-u is then  applied directly to
the injured  area  in sufficient quantities  to thoroughly drench  the

     A listing of the pia-i^s-controlK-J  by  2,4-D  and  the  important
plants controlled on a chop/sjU^tasis  is  provided  in Tables  VI.A and
VLB respectively.  Tables VI.C and VI.D lists  the  registered alternatives,
with application rates, for the crop and non-crop areas  for which 2,4-D
is registered.  This information has bcc,-i  summarized  in  Table VI.E.,
Alternative Herbicides by Use.   Table VI.F lists  the  important broadleaf
weeds controlled by each alternative.
     From the information provided, one can see that  2,4-D can be
effectively utilized to control a wide range of both  herbacious and
woody plants on a variety of crops and sites.  Consequently,  it is
rather difficult to find registered herbicides  that fully substitute
for 2,4-D.  In most instances, more than one alternative must be  applied
in order to achieve the spectrum of control obtained  from a single  appli-
cation of 2,4-L).  However, alternative herbicides do  exist, on a  plant-
by-plant basis, that provide satisfactory control for most of the woody
species and for a limited number of the herbacious  species.

                            Jjibl iogruphy
EPA .Summary  o f KPJJJ_S L9£pA ^1' '""-"^ t"ffll Pesticide Cncmicjl
Volume  1  -_ Her I) jr. i tic-r>, _Dc 1 u 1 unifs,  DC sic: can I :., P3nnt Regulators.
Environmental I'rotoction A{;cincy.  Washington. 1). C.

Jix^Len_t_ami Cost. 01  Weed Coiij-^o.'-_ wJ.L'n herbici• ies and an Evaluation
of'jmpo'riant Weeds.  USDA Pub." ARS-II-L," "Kovomber 1972.

Huuincr, G.L., II.E.  Tukey. Bot.-.:n.  Gaz. 106: 2'.2-245.
Herbicide  Handbook of. the Weed  Socioty of /Mnarica.  Second Ed.
W.V. liiiinphrcy Inc. Cenov,',  New York.  1970.
      iKJn,  G.C.  Weed_Contrql :_ As _A_ .Jicierice_. John VJilcy  and Sons, Inc.
;!t-.. You..  19GG. "~ .........

Maith,  P.C.,  and J.W. Mitchc-1] .  Botan.  Gaz. 106: 244-232. 1944.

Page, B.C.  and W.T. Thomson.   The. 1972  InsocEicidc, Herbicide, Funglcdde
Quick Guide.   Thomson Pub] ica lion.  Indianapolis, Indiana.  197.1.

Pokorny,  K.J. Amer. Chem.  SPC. 63:  1768. 1941.

Thomson.  W.  T.  Agricultural  Chemicals,  Book £1 - Herbicides. Simmons
Publishing Company, Davis, Coi Lj-oinia.   1964.

Weed Con rrol MavniaJ .-ind^Jlerbi rjrlc Guide. Fa rm Technology/Agr . -
FipldmanT   I?el7ruary"]973.

                            Table  VI.A.
                  Plants  Controlled  Hy 2,4-D

alder, arrowhead, artichoke, beech,  begger tick, bindweed, bitterweed,
bitter winLrr cress,  boxelcior,  buckbrush, bull  Lliistle, bulrush, burdock,
buttercup, Canada thistle,  catnip, chaparral brush, chickweed, chickory,
coastal sage, cocklebur,  cqffeobean, creeping jenny, curly indigo,
dandelion, dock dogwood,  duckweed, elderberry,  elm, goldenrod, ground
ivy, hazel, hawthorn, hoary cress, horseweud, honeysuckle, ironwecd,
jimson weed, knotweed, lambscjuate^s, leafy spurge, locust, maple,
mccartney rose, Mexican weed, milkweed, morningglory, mustard, nutgrass,
oak, parrot feather,  pecan, penny wort, peppergrass, persimmon, pigweed,
plantain, poison ivy, pokeweed, poverty weed, prickly lettuce, puncturevine
purslane, rabbitbrush, ragweed, red .sorrel, rush, Russian thistle, sage-
brush, salt ceder, shepherd's, purse, shinncry oak, smartweed, sour dock,
sow thistle, stinkweed, sumac,  sunflower, tie vine, Virginia creeper,
velvetleaf, water hyacinth, v/aler  lily, water primose, wild buckwheat,
wild carrot, wild garlic, wild  gr;ipe, wild lettuce, wild onion, wild
radish, willow, witchweed,  yellow rocket, and certain other herbacious
and woody broadleaved weeds.

                               TACI.L  VLB.
                MELDS COdTROLLD)  IJY  2,4-D  ON'  A  CROP/SITE.JASIIS
Apples and IVnrs
Barley, Onls,
Rye, Whoal
bindweed, Canada Ihistle, dandelion, dock,  lambs-
quarters, iiioniiiig-'lory, piqweed,  plantain,
poise.;! ivy, roijwc'id, suni lower, velvetieaf.

Corn and




Pasture and



Aquatic site:.
(ponds and
bindv/ced, chickwccd, horscnettle,  lambsquarters,
morninqqlory, mustard, piyvt'ed,  ragweed,  thistle.

bindv.'poci, huttercup, chickv.'ced,  cockle-bur,  dock,
lambr-qudrtorb, mustard, pirn-sod, plantain,  nrickly
Ictti'co, rno-x'Pd, Russian tl.istie,  shepherds purse,
smartuL-e-l ,, wild buckwheat,  wild  garlic,
wi 1 d r«' J 1 1. h , y el 1 1. v/ rocket.

certain broadleaf weeds (registered labels  do not
indicate the specific weeds  that are controlled by

bindv/eed, Canada thistle, horsenettle, jinisonweed,
lambsquarters, inoi ningglory, mustard,  pigweed,
ragweed, sniaitwGec, suivriov.'t-i ,
certain ijroa'JIoaf weeds  (lahels  do  not  indicate
specific weeds controlled).

bindweed, Canada tnistle,  hoary  cress,  horsenettle,
leafy :.|,urge, ragi;)ed, sow thistle.

bi ndv/eed

bindweed, bittcirwcsd,  buckbrush,  Canada  thistle,
chickory, chaparral brush,  cocklebur, curly dock,
dandelion, locov/ec-J, pigweed,  rabbitbrush,  ragweed,
Russiiin thistle, sagebrush,  sow  thistle.

coffeebean, curly  indigo,  bulrush,  duckvyeed, red
stem, sniar tweed.

morninqglory, tie vine.

arrov/hcad, bulrush., duckweed,  water hyacinth, water
lily, water primrose.

T.ible VLB. continued
     Lawns and Turf      chickweed, c.uriy clock, dai.deI ion, ground ivy,  iron
                         weed, knotwced, musta.'d, plantain, red sorrel,
                         wild garlic, wild onion.

     Fencorows,          alder, beecli, boxelde5', dcqwoocl, elderberry, elm,
     Reforestation       hazel, Iw./ti.orn, liunfc.'suci le,  locust, maple, oak,
     Righls-of-way,      pecan, persimmon, poi'on ;vy,  salt ceder,  shinnery
     Roadv;ays, and       oak, sumac, Virginia creeper,  willow.

                                                          Table  i/I.C.
          (pp-a)      (lb.  a/A.)
                                2,4-3 acic »-:
                                sol .^' '3 c  "ir.e fc"-
                                riis'at'O'is.  Arply
                                w.ncn '..eeds a?e yourg
                                end  actively cro:irrg.
                                Do  not allow spray to
                                cortact Tcovcs, rru-; •..
                                cr  st-: s.
                                         Su If a-, ate
                                                             n 1=5
!nfo--.?ti>p nb
r.Ti r
                                              cf Rer--'<;t9r?d  Arn cultural Pesticide  Cherical  l!sos,
                                             --foc -T-.v- ? I_1 ,->nr'  tfi--  -> 1 ^nv^ -3 H .,a^ = ^r.  ^--.^-^-. i-,
                                                                                               gals, v.atr.-- a i.-stting sp^^y  tc  c:••£
                                                                                                            ivy in fLll leaf.   NCC."
                                                                                                            spray off tres fen?.=3
                                                                                                            ard fruit.
                                           Apply flirecteJ  sr-'2y •*.
                                           sc '1 .  Do  r.oc =}-•"•>
                                           witliin 4 \.ceNS  af'.er t'
                                           plor.tin.   Co '•ot G--a-
                                           nvestc:<  c-  trr;:c_. •-»•

                                           Aaoly to c-'cherd ""c^r
                                           after clean OJ!*T\ i-.:u.
                                           Do not apply \ '-c'. f
                                           C". t!'G tre: , rr . • t'-'r
                                           90 days of hjrv-cst.  C.
                                           pot graze  1 i» :5"C':  . GI
                                           treated areas.

                                           Apply directive  spray t^
                                           orchard floor during
                                           Spring (Mar.-?;ay) on c
                                           established at  least 01
                                           year.  Avoid contact v. '
                                           fol iagc cr ^rjit.  ,c -
                                           treat dwarf varic-'-'cs.
                                           rot replant tredtcd i'
                                           to any crop within  2 v
                                           after application.



                    {lb.  a/A.)
                                           Use restricted to f-s Fer
                                           l-.'cst.  Apply as dire;:;:
                                           spray to orc'—rd fcrr
                                           don'ng './inter {Dec. - rso.;
                                           on crop estaolishej at
                                           least one yc-ar.  Avoi-
                                           contact with •
                                           fruit.  Do not trc-at c>-.=rf
                                           varieties,  E? rc-t <---=" i-t
                                           treated arc?.s 10 ar;. cv:
                                           v.i thin 2 yc^rs 'if cer
                                           C p p l 1C u u 10 ~ •

                                           Apply direct spray to .vesd
                                           ground co\er.  Keeo £?"-:-'
                                           off frtiic and foliage.  Co
                                           not graze 1 ivestac1- ;.i
            Directed spray  to  e-.e'/ced
            weeds.  Do not  allcw
            spray to cor.toct fcn?ce,
            fruit orst:~c.  I:  *:>.
            allow 3ni:;2"lb to craze on
            treated areas.

            Apply to orchard floo"
            before weeds emerge  --r>3
            trees are established
            one or .Tiore years.   Co
            not £f-!y to fcl'.e.'ie or

            Single spring spray  to
            soil of orchards
            established 3 c>- rc^c-
            yoars.  Do net  » cr

Aspara-    5
gus      (fro1?
(Ib.  a/A.)
         salt  of
           Pree^ergence appli-
           cat-'on irnediately
           a'ter discvjg on
           established bod, or
           after posthark-est

           Young seedlings.

           During rjrvost.
           Dot over f. o
           soaced 1 ir-o"th
           apart.  Post-
           harvest applica-
           tion.  Use dror-
           nozzles to keep
           spray off plant.

                                                                              Preemorgence appTic?.ti3p
                                                                              to sesdbed  ir-nc"
                                                                              after seeding.
                                                                              Use restricted to Vsh-
                                                                              ington.  Irrigated c»-cp.
                                                                              Apply during  Kite 'OI-E--
                                                                              faer or December.  Co rot
                                                                              replant treated areas  to
                                                                              any crop within 2 y>?a.y'3
                                                                              afcor applicatior.

                                                                              Ncnirngated  crop.  Apply
                                                                              4 weeks before spears
                                                                              er.=rge or during early
                                                                              cutting season end
                                                                              iT.,-redi?toly after hrrvest.
                                                                              Do net replant tteart:;
                                                                              areas to any  crop ii'thin
                                                                              2 years after last
                                                                              aps' icatior;.

                   (ib. a/A.)
(COIL. }
                3.2          Apply once djrir.c pe-'ioi
                            from  Cut*:--;
                            period or follov.ir2 last
                            cultivation.  Secc-.J
                            application inrejiate1}1
                            after harvest.  Tot?.?
                            'j^-'ye not to excee:
                            6 Ibs. per acre p2-

                            within 18 i.:o»vtus b3fc.-re


            Preemergepce.   Do  not
            apply within  IS ticnths
            before  harvest


            Pretransclant.   Z'o "•: .
            apply within  18 months
            before  harvest.


            PosteTercence.   Apply as
            directed  spray  to  soil
            when crop is  in fsrn
            stage.  Keep  spray off



5.5         PreeTergence aopHcatlon
            or after cutting season
 Apoly at tiller to
 boot siape.  DC rot
 apply ir seedling
 or boot to nilk
 stage.  Do not
 graze or feed
 forage froii treated
• fieios within 2
 v/eeks after treat-
                                                                            '   0.05
            Apply in spring after
            disking and before scesrs
            and weeds emerge.  Repeat.
            after harvest and weed'
            growth renoveri.

            Aoply befo.-p the -J-le.-1'
            st^ae of c'~cp cr'O \/."ei '•"•"•i
            oats are i.- f-'euf
            stcge-  Do rot a i Ic1..1
            livestock to graze
            treated fields until
            after harvest of crop.
                                            Apply 1n fall or spring,
                                            vvhen grain is from tr-o-
                                            leaf to boot staga.  !?c
                                            not contar:in;te st,'2'"S,
                                            lakes, and pon^s v."th this
                                            material .
                                            Preplant soil i
                                            Apply in fall within
                                            weeks of soil freeze-,^.
                                            Plant in spring.

                                            Preemergence soil incor
                                            poration.  Apnly befort
                                            crop sprouts.

                   DOSAGE      LIMITATIONS
                  I PP.1-)

                stra .)
                                                                 (alot',8 or under -
                                                                 seeded to
                                                                 (aic'-e or under-
                                                                 seeded to

                                                                 (alo-.e or under-
                                                                 sec-J ad to
                1  (grain)
                2  (tey,
                         Poctemergence.  At^pTy in
                         sr-,ing before j^rt sr:.g
                         Do not graze o- harvest
                         for aalry  'e-  ?»".cr co
                         crcs T.aturit/. (Fell
                                         Pcstemergerce.  Apply at
                                         2-:-ieaf ?.-ige.   Co  not
                                         rv'-',;p  or • .n/est  fr>-
                                         d1  r'v  f'ji'j  pricr  '.•">  C'T5
          U:c restricted to \ostern
          Cregc1 and western '. ash-
          Ir^tn.  Preeirerger.ce.  Do
          not replant to any crop
          WTL'in ore year after
          a: '1 icaticn.
          c< op is 3-6 inches  Ul 1 .
          "3 net craze livestock
          on treated or  Teid
          trcitcd hay. within  £0
          dc»s after treatment.

          Poste:nergence.  Apply
          when crop is 3-6
          inches tall .
          Fcstemergence.  Apply
          Wiien crop  is 3-6  inches
          tall.  Do  not graze
          livestock  en treated
                 or  feed  forage

(Ib.  e/A.)
                                                                                         = r ;
                                                                                        Str;  )


           PcstefFerger-ce a:,:l:cst'or!
           f'3T  tiller to ;irly tcot
           slags.   Do  not i.::-"..1
           c Ti-g  t7ot tc COJCT
                          PcsteTergence jo
                          from emergence to  boot

                          L'so restnctea to  'is'.Tsh-
                          iiVj-on,  Oregon, and !c=hc.
                                                                                                           tcic.'ed ;!-.e 2-1caf si:ce
                                                                                                           o.- in saving w.en t3r",^y
                                                                                                           r=>.s no* n;ore th?n 1 or ?
                                                                                                           tillers.  Apply to v-.eecs
                                                                                                           before rcscttes ?"2 2
                                                                                                           J.:c.i9C ir r.ij.'etr-" cr
                                                                                                           L'-iti! th-1;/ are ^ i-c-:i in
                                                                                                           heirht.  !?o pot use c- sar:
                                                                                                           f :r2 I-.:- 3 -o "-  - -.' -1  "  : '•
                                                                                                           c.op cycle..  Do ret plant
                                                                                                           •seated fields to -i---'. crop

                                                                                                           urtil  pine r.-ort,'-r fcllo/1-
                                                                                                           ir.g ajjpl icatioT.  Co  r.ct feed
                                                                                                           green fo.-ace or g-ere *rea'.sd
                                                                                                           areas to livestock  fcr  6
                                                                                                           rc",tns folio,.-ire acplicstisn.

(Ib.  a/A.)

Aoply in fall after
blueboTy leaves
have f.-Tior and
befo-e a b'jrn.
Repeat fall
application in
2-3 years.

Apply on revolving
cloth covered c^ins
held oiove blue-
berry foliage during
June and July of
season preceding a
bjrn.  Do not czply
within 2 years cf
berry harvest.

Chloropropham    Extended
                                                                                  12.0     Apply as  a  directed spre;y
                                                                                           fron Iste fall  to esrly
                                                                                           £pr->.T w;en are
                                                                        6.0     Apply directed spray
                                                                                to soil.   Do not a-ply
                                                                                withi'p 4  weeks aft;'-
                                                                                transplanting.  Do not
                                                                                graze 1ivestock en
                                                                                treated areas.

                                                                        3.2     Apply directed spray to
                                                                                crop established at
                                                                                least cna year.  Co not
                                                                                replant tc any crop wit1:'
                                                                                2 years arler applicator

                                                                        2.8     Apply directed spray to
                                                                                v.socis in  fall after har-
                                                                                vest or in eirly soring
                                                                                bsfc'-o tlcc1'.

                  (ib. c/A.)
,'r-_*  \
\~- •>••.'

 ard fodder)
                             FreeTe-aencs appli?
                   1.5       cation."  DC rot
                             use en light sandy
                             soil.   Double
                             dosage en muck

                       .5    FoslCTergence
                             Erne* gence to
                             tasselirg.   Do
                             r.o: apply fror1
                             tasselirg ~o
                             dcugn  staqe.
                             Use drop  nozzles
                             when corn is
                             over 10 inches

keT.ol s
plus cob'
witp h^sk
                          Apply while doi-rant, or as
                          a Directed s?ra/ to soil
                          bei/.esn crop rows.  Keep
                          sc ~ay off croD ste"is.

                          Ap-ly in spring before
                          v.'s.cds energe and fruit
                          sc-,,  or in fall after
                          h:. -vest.  Do net acply
                          tc fcliago or v;hile frir't
                          IE, i: re-sent.
                                                    soil  i"CC:pO'ra-
                                          ti:n v.-ithir  7  days before

(Ib. a/A.)
                                                                                        0.25 (in or
                                                                                        c- frc-su
                                                                                        c?rr. 'ir.r.liiding
                                                                                        s-.-eet corn
                                                                                        [kernels plus
                                                                                        ccbs with
                                                                                        ii-jsks removed],
                                                                                        corn grain
                                                                                        [includes pop-
                                                                                    4.0      Preplanting broadest
                                                                                             fall  or sowing.  "3
                                                                                             plant treated at-Ji  to
                                                                                             any crop except &rn
                                                                                             and sorghum LT-' the
                                                                                             follov,irg year

                                            PVeeirergence   Acply when
                                            wards are le>:  tna- 1 "i/2
                                            inihos high   Co r.:t c's^:
                                            treated arcs  tr c": r •:_
                                            e/c^ct cotr -r<3 sc--^"--
                                            until the  cl'io..-:-; . f---

                                                                                                         4.0      Postanerjence.   Apply di-ect
                                                                                                                  spray 3 v-ee's after

                       LI,'! I TAT IOKS
                                                 (f eld)
                                                 (field, pop,


  plus cob
  with husk

                                                                              0.05          5
                                                                              forage, fresh
                                                                              (kernels plus
                                                                              hi,s \.ec<.*'S zra lc.3c.
                                         than  "i.5  ncfioi ^a"l -".r.J
                                         before crop reaches  5-1e?f
                                         stage.  Do not use  on n-.-ck
                                         or  peat soils.
                                         PosteT.ergence.   Broadcast
                                         aoplication before ccrT is
                                         10 inches  high,  and veeJs
                                         are 2-4  inQ'-es  h'.gfi.  Co
                                         not plant  treated srnas to
                                         any crop except  corn until
                                         the following year.  Do not
                                         cut for  feed and silage
                                         v.ithin 30  days after
                                         applic^t ion.


          (opr.)      (lb. a/A.)
                                                                                       plus ccb
                                                                                       v/ith r-jsks

                         Preerrergence.   Do not
                         graze treated  areas.  DJ
                         not harvest for dairy £
                         feed prior to  ensilage
                               -  -1,  „ * —^
                                          Postemergence.  Apply  overall
                                          spray  before  crop  is 36
                                          inches tall  (15 days
                                          before tassels appear).
                                          Do  not graze  treated
                                          areas.   Do not her vast
                                          for dairy animal feed
                                          prior  to ensilage
                                          stage  (psilk stage-).

e:    T:_E3.-':cE     COS'-GE     LIKITATIO-IS
                   (lb.  e/A.)
                                                                     Butyl ate
                                                                     f^ieV, sweet
                  P'I-J: cobs
                  '..--; th husk

                  kernel s
                  plus cobs
                 4.C      Preplant soil  Incorpora-

                      COS^C-E      LI-IIT.-iTlCNS
                    {-b. a/A.)
                                                                       (v.'inter -
                                                                       alcr.c or
                                                                       v; tn peas or
                                                                       •.'••> fen)

-se restricted  to casire1":!
Oregon, eastern V>3s'"-;.*:r.
?,r,d Ida'-.o.   Fcsre";": :e
1 j^r after  l:st c:r"

1)30 restricted  to i.tsrc
C ---.^r. crj.  i-ester- !';r  ;
irf::o-,.   Prefer-':" :E
                                                                                                                  replant i'j ary  c»-?r  •.;::-.:-.
                                                                        clone or
                                                                       (ulcne or

                                                                       (;: lone or
                                                                       to  legumes)
PosteTergencG.   /op'y v\!-2
crop is 3-6  inc'.cs t;"il.
not graze .1 ivastcck o.^
treated e^eas  oc .:c:c
treated nay cO u£;.
after treatrer.t.
                                          crop is 2-5.
crop is 3-6  inches tall.
Do not graze livssto-'.
on treated fields  or ^,1
forage within £C c?ys artar

  I or-)
(ib.  a/.\.)
                                                                                                         '.se restricted to Delta
                                                                                                         c.-ea.  Freenergence.   Do
                                                                                                         rot replant treated  areas
                                                                                                         to any crop witn-n 6
                                                                                                         . ort'ns aftrr appl -ic
                                                                                                         Postererccnce.  Apoly  dire:
                                                                                                         i.^d sora> to crop  20
                                                                                                         'i-ches tall and '..eeds  ar;
                                                                                                         loss tear. 3 inc!r:3  tall .
                                                                                                         L; net re^lu.'.L li ^....t:J
                                                                                                         .'.••eas to aiy CTP  o
(Ib.  a/A.)
                                                                                  DOSAGE          LIMITATIONS
9.0      Freeniergence.
                                                                      (TS)    •
                                                                      '•field, pop,
                                 4.5       Posterurger.ce.  Aoply
                                           when  ccrn is in tight
                                           ro1!  to tv.-o-leaf

                   Exts-'ied      6         Freerergence.
                              (12.4 granu-
                  ipcludi ig
                  si set
                  (kernel s
                  phis ccb
                                                                                   3         Postemergence.  Apoly
                                                                                             when  corn is in tic.'.t
                                                                                             roll  to two-leaf st=c=.

                                                                                   1.0       Preeir.ergcnce application
                                                                                             to  seedling
                                                                                             v/eeds,  one or rcre
                                                                                             before  crop e^e

                      DOSAGE     LIMITATIONS
                    (ib.  a/A.)
                 4.0      Preplant soil  incoroord-
                          tion, plant crop  in  7-10
                          days.  Do net  use on tnilo,
                          sorghim, and hyc, id  earn
                          grov.n for seed.
                                                                                                        3.0      Pr22--orger.C2 soil -

                                                                                                                 11":o, scrrhL.n, hybrid  ccrr
                                                                                                                 cro.n fcr seed.
                  13 • '".
                  D*~ c-:r)
          Preer.iergence.   Apply to
          C.up  pldHteU  I  3/4 inCrC-5
          deep.   Co  not  f^ant trc^!
          3'2?S  tO 1tf.t-  i-'.r ~'- t"'
          .£..ei  v.'itn.'. 'f  r,''iitns -if

                                                                                                        l.S       Posternerger4ce.  Appl>
                                                                                                                 directed spray after cr
                                                                                                                 is  15 inches tal1.  Do
                                                                                                                 plant treated areas to
                                                                                                                 crops r.:-t ci the label
                                                                                                                 •.nthir 4 norths after

 •J3E    TCLE'-'.CE     CCS.^GE     LI.'ilTATIOi'.'S
                     (lo.  a/A.)

                 Ecir, 'cdder,
                  (grs ;r. ,
                  fodder &
Use restricted  tc  Ceni'-a'i
Eastern an:  Sc-jfcr-
'Jnitcd Staf.s
Pree~erg? 'C£.   C^  rr.t
use en cor-  pl = -t:ci i -
deep furrows.   DJ  not LSS
on inbrc-u j..\ii:..L  SC-CG cor:
Do ret use on TiqHt soil
o*- soil •*kir° rt-c,2nic
r.         l-:ss  t
                                                                                                                   .cr  s
  h":' than  f:cld  co-:i.
pcfcc-toes, ot  iJ>L'r;-s
uith-!1-, 6 '-ortiis  =ft--
appl icdtior.

Preplant application to
emerged '..'ceds.   Free ..... -
gence app!1cctir>- +r
emerged v;eeds.

                   (Ib.  a/A.)
                                                                                        i-.g  cop-
                                                                                        f '-.31-.
                                3.0      Preeiergence.  Do not
                                         p^nt to any crop except
                                t^e following ysar.
                                                                                        3  -- I
                                                                                        c  • r.
                                                                                        pljs COLS
                                                                                        wi th
                                                       fc todder
                                                       { ii eluding
                                                       sv.cet, L

                                                                                                               Foste^erger.ce.   Apply ju:-t
                                                                                                               after  crop  emerges and
                                                                                                               before weeds  reach 2-1 ear

                 (lb. a/A.)
                 TOLE'1,- :XF.
Dins cobs
wi :n hus/5
re .•:•', cd)
                                                                                                               3,:tcr crcp
                                                                                                                                    v just
                    (• j-rals
                    an I  cobs
                    v.'-^n husks
                    S -o 1 n,
                    f r Jacr
                        plo\; land in sn.'ir.g jjsr
                        p*"icr to seedirg.  _3  r:t
                        plant any crop sxcec*  :.-?s^
                        specified on t'-.e Utol  : -a
                        fol lowing year.  Co rot
                        g-aze treated areas.
                                                                                                               Prec-nergcnce.   Co  net L-" ,-t
                                                                                                               any crop e?c-;-pt those L^.^ci-
                                                                                                               fied 01 the  label  the
                                                                                                               following year,  do  not on 73
                                                                                                               treated areas.   Pa r.ot cr-.j".y
                                                                                                               r-jra t'lan 4.C  Ib.  ?.ct_'"  :o
                                                                                                                  p IP ar.y  or.e ^--»~.


rar.-  Extended
It).  e/Vi.)

   1      Apply broadcast
          over be.53 LP to
          white b-jd stage.
          Do r>ot apply after
          first flovvers open.

   0.25   Apply by swabbing
   (in    \veeas above crop
   v;ater) any t1'1"^ uo -Q
          end of blesses
          pen'cd.  T-o not
                                                                     SUBSTITUTE     TOLERANCE       DOSAGE          LIMITATIONS
                              or. crar.Lerry

                              Broadcast over bog
                              after drawing
                              down winter
                              flood or  01 ice
                              before soring
                              thaw while
                              arc d
Chloropham         Extended      20.0     Postharvest acnl icatic-.  ip
                                          Nov.-Dec.  Repeat epclica-
                                          tion in early spring while
                                          crop is stil1 dorrant.

          .;=:•-}      (Ib.  a/A.)


inPA   •
sol vent

  0.15          4.0
                                                                                           -  '


                                          Preblncin.   Apply .in js
                                          in  sirgle  cr sclit 3rrli-
                                          cat-'o.- 3-t v.jcks ;. irt.
                                          Do  not graze treated ere.= 3.


                                          Postharvest single applica
                                          tion.   Do  r.'jL yraze
                                          feared are^s.

                                          Aoply  to «rop betweer. Apwii
                          Dorrar.t app^icaticr 3*= £'-.
                          overall spray bef^'e r-J
                          break (April  to f'sy) to
                          establish crop.

                          Use restricted to i'^33-
                          achjsetts.  Con^arI
                          application ^3 an ovpr?1!
                          spray teforc  c..d t-ea''.
                          (Acril  1  - ."jy -,C}.

                          Apply while dorr.i3p.t every
                          2  \.e«irs to cont/oi  ru?.'cs
                          and sedge. Co rot aoply
                          after buds begin to sv.c-11.

                          Uf.e restricted to Nass-
                          ac.iusctts.  '-poly in spring
                          before growth bee ins or in
                          fall  after hardest.

Fa Vow
         (lb.  s/4.)
                          to >,.e3ds
                    activftl> grow-
                    ing.  Do rot
                    plant tO fry
                    crop LT.I:! 3
                    ncnt'"S drter
                    treafcnt or
                    until che.'.ical
                    fro.Ti soi'.
                   V i-r *
Chemical Fallow:
viand to be
"ceded to)
                                                          /.Is ike




Apply to well est^blishe:
grasses and w.->cds.   Dis:
into soil several rorths
before plentT'ic.
                       disc into soil.

                       Preeiergence appl icaf-ic-..

                       Preplanting 3Dplic?t-,or..   C:i-
                       into soil prior  co  geiriraticn
                       of v.eeds and
                                                                                                                clover has at
                                                                                                                        L  u.-reo  ^r^E

                                                                                                                Apply in fall or spring  rr':r
                                                                                                                ger.r.ination of annual veed?.  c
                                                                                                                w.uen crop hes t^ree or ror=  '„

                                                                                                                Apply to v/ee'-'s active'ij
                                                                                                                growing.  Do not plant to
                                                                                                                ary croo until 3
                                                                                                                afle>- treat ."it cr
                                                                                                                ch£'".iral hDs a'U-'
                                                                                                                f»c..- soil.

      ..-- J
:es    rxtended

       Dormant season
       Apply Defovo or?^e rccch the
       ground.  Iso a nooa'ed
       boom soray to
       prevent am't to
       grape fol ,agc.
       inch v.'dc b^r.J
       urder tre". 1 Is
       of bea'-ir.c
       vineyards, i;!-en
       bind-./st— s:art
       to bloom and
       ttfore gi-^po-
       1 •' rs ":" ~'~ ~'"~
       ground.  Koo? bar
       off griiTC1. "ir.e s:'70ts.
       Tr ••.-". of* cr?po
       sheets rhat are OP
       the ground.
  6.0      Apply directed  spray to
           soil.  Do r,ot apply «s-1t'°in
           4 v.aeks after trar.splarti.-c
           To net graze livestock en

  4.8      Use restricted  to east of
           Rocky fountains.  A^oly
           TT spring to crco
           established at  least 2
           years.  Co not  replait
           tro-jtec to zny croc
           i - rhin ? '.•-. jrs  after

                   C's. a/;.}
                                                                                                                     LIMITS IOIIS
                                9.6      Use res'w-ictc-d  to '.2- v? - -
                                         a^d Penr.sylv 2 •;-.;..  S:ct
                                         treatment.  Ac ply i".
                                         sprirg 3s z dT2-tG-- sp-=y
                                         to crop est^.-jl i:r-cd ::
                                         least 4 years  on  hcc^y
                                         soils.  Do not  repeat
                                         application within & ;'ears.

                                3.2      L'SP restr-T-.tco  ti .-is: o-

                                         repcat anr.ually with l.f

         Split application  in  l;te
         Fall or early  Spring.   Ci
         not rcplont  created a>-£?.3
         to any crop  -."t'-in 2  „-:---•-
         after apol icat-.o-i.

         Directed sp.ray cc  wesds

         before bloom.   !?3 c-:ze
         live-stock  on treated  C:-ES£.
          Use rsstnc'.sj  to  ?:-crfic
          N?rc',:c3c, Cal ifj'--i-.a  a-j
          Arisen?.  Apsly to
          estaolishod crop by rcter-'ro
          into furrow or  flood
          tiCT v;3ter.   To roc 2rr"
              in "-'0 c^ys  os^cfo

                                                                                   cXLiTj t
Jse  in
(zt  le?3t  3 :.c--rs o'4;.
Apply in spring sfter .;=y ":

Directed spray to e^i3r;o-
',.:ods.  Do net allo* s:>-;y
to contact foliage,
r-jit cr ste"5.  Co r.ct
allcv, 2r-:!  tc -."azo
en treaLo^ arc.'s.
••'f'^'iy dirc-.icc;  it -a.. :;
V'n2>:.rd  flee"  .' cr, '.-.?-.?ds
(ji-fi 1-3  "'^c^'^s  t?"'l.
 "c=? S"r'ciy  off  crc^ s*:t~.
and fol iane.

''Pply to  viney3»v. f^cor
fro^i late fall  sfter
harvest  to  early  s^i"-
before ', seds  c •".•:, 2 :"
vineyards &rs
G5tcblichci 3 or  rz-z

Use restricted  to Western
States.   Preolant soil moral ion en  new

Use restricted  to i.'estern
States.   Use  en estaclished
croo.  Apply  as directed
sp'-ay to  sci": arc i':ccrp^.-?
Oo rot apsly  i.-ithin 6C  :'^j5
before har/est.

     T.II •'DI'
(ib.  a/A.)
ape-    5
 24 ppm    To  increase fruit
           size,  reduce
           crop.   Apcly
           J'jie or -July.
           Cc  rot a-roiy to
           trees  less  then. o
           years  c'c!,  cr during
           IT--jar  fl-'E- cr "c:f
           q^c.-'tn. c"  .•-ii,u-"n
           7 days of harvest.
           Do  not apply

 12 ppm    To  rc^-jce T"ri:it
           drcs-   ".cjly
           during i;c.. cr
           Dec.   Co not
           apply  to trees
           less than 6
           years  old,  or
           during rajor
           flush  of leaf
           growth, or
           i.ithin 7 d'ys
           of  harvest.  Do
           not apply

                                 2         Use restricted to.Celi-
                                          fcrnia.  S^bs'.irfacs  s?J1

                                          c'?ep.  Acp'y in srr'-sg  -:
                                          specie! blade.

(Vc.  a/A.)
                                                                   TO' FR.A?!CE
»                        ing erd ircroace
                        stor2ce "i ire.
                        Apply to harvested
                        fruit as -.,ax er -1-
                        sion or as water
                        soray bifcre

   C.5         .25       Aopiy at tille- co
 (3*-;'!r)                 boc": slags.  3o
   2C                    not appTy in
 (forage)                seednng or boot
                        to in Ik slacji?.
                        Do net g^azr or
                        feed forces fre-
                        treated fields
                        ••/ithin 2 wcsks
                                                   I X
                str- :)
 0.25      ^asf'ergpnco.   Aro'y •"
           spring  before joiit st?-
           Tr. not  grczo or f>?r\est:
           •>!• dairy  feed  r*"ic" to
           c ~cp naturi ty.

 0.125     F.-:steMorgenee.   Apply at
           2-5-1eaf  stage.  Do not
           cvaze or  harvest for
           L.iry feed pr-or to crop
           r itunty.
                (.Hay, fo.-are,
 1.2      t!se restricted to eastern
          C^ero1";,  eastern '-ash*.net?n
          c~d 1f.c.'"0.   Prcs' t<"jc-rice
          ci-ol icar-cn  to d-"ill
          planted  oats.

-*•»<•••-     Pi"*Cr/*C
:•-- .UD.     LLfbrtut
p-)     (Ib. a/A.)
{clover t>

24 PDT.    To  increase friiit
          size and  reduce
          fruit  dfCDi   AD:,!}'
          in  fall c:s  hm^-
          wcsh tre:t;ror.t.
          Do  not •??""> to
          trees  loss  t:>a.n. 5
          years  old,  or
          during trajor flush
          of  leaf growth
          o>-  within 7  ,-ia.yr
          o-e  U-i-. r - ••    "* -  -7^


6.0       l.'oody  plants arc!
          brush.  Ipply v.^sri
          grasses are  we11
          estaalis.-eJ  and
          woody  plants grD 'ing
          actively.   Do not
          apoly  v.hc-n  grass is
          in  eany booi: to
          milk stage wr-ere grass
          seed prod..ction  is
          dosirod.  Do no:
          apoly  \.o seeded
          areas  or after head-
          ing renirs.   Do  p^t

                                                                                            Porterergence.   Apply fro
                                                                                            fjll teller  to  bcot stEr?,
                                                                                            DJ not spray oats c^rirg
                                                                                            iLcot to dough stage.
                                                      o app1v:ati:ri
                                         from emergence to toot

                                         Increase  fruit set.  Ar^
                                         as after  bluon j[-'fy f> -~
                                                                                                                  i'e2rri€3  arp.-o 
 f -2
                      u   _ / •»
                      ib.  if-.)
Broad!caf wocds--

v.ceds ai-e acf'v.-iy gro-.-
ing.  C? rot  f-.1y
when gi-;sr.  is i- c-rrly
boot tc nlk  stj:j2
where grass seed
                                dr5i:cc.   T: rot
                                3^-"'..  to' re:1/
                                S(;L^CC ;%-c"s or t
                                -.ot  criz-: ti.-.:r-y
                                anvi.als  en treatsd
                                erc-as  within 7
                                days after

                                     die^f i.eods--
                                when  '.vceds are
                                actively ^i-
                                cr.j -iear r - ste-;a.
                                Do •••it  S'-y-y '.'"a-
                                grcss is ir acrly
                                boot  to iMlk stac^ii
                                i/here gi ass seed
                                orc-Jjction is desired.
                                Oo not spc'.y to        e
                                ne..1y si'c •.' •' arc-'.s or
                                afte>" hO'-id-!-^ L'f^-i'is.
                                Co not q»'a: e dairy
                                ani.'.als an treated
                                areas within 7 cay;
                                af i»r appi icatior.

                    Hb. e/A.)
Bent a1-;-  S'-scor
grass r'=st'j>'e3.   Co
not apply vhen
grass is  in  e?.'-1y
boot ro ~iilk stige
where grass  seed
                               desired.  Do  net
                               p.poly to re.r'ly   ;
                               seeced a"c?.s  cr
                               are=s ..-'crir.  7
                               davs after app]ica-

                     1.0       Clovs*- end alfelfa
                               F?.s>-'-e?.  "2 -o'
                               £ j_iy .. -.en gr-r-ss  is
                               in earl.. bcoc to
                               r.i1 % \.l-e1 o
                               grass s~^d orcci.1:-
                               tion is aesirsd.
                               Co not epply  to newly
                               sesaod arr-23  o:- rfter
                               heading   Do
                               not c'-aze dairy
                               anir-als en trsatrd
                               arecs w:tnin  7 c^ys
                               after eppl icaticr..

                   Ob.  a/P.}
Tiller to beet  stage
Do not s^^ay S32C-
ling oracses cr
hhen grass is -Troii
boot to r-ilk staoe.
                                                                         100 Ibs./ Treatment to be£pp1iea  to
                                                                         ICO oais. indivick" p";..;s.  r^>-  .
                                                                         v.2ter    control  f '-:'.-'•• ^".3r:s,
                                                                                       ha vi
                                                                                       (in milk)
                                                                                                                1?-'. 2S  CT HOC CC] ::  I"
                                                                         8   ;     ^osteniip'gence.  App"'y ',. -.j"
                                                                         (spr^y)   w^eds rre active", y grov-i:-,
                                                                                  DD nov. graze irsat ar.'rs's
                                                                                  in *.~e3te:i fields -•'t'-r'
                                                                                  30 Jd/3 Locc-5 s"3.; -.v
                                                                                  D: mt U53 s?CJ *rc '
                                                                                  t  (oated ciras; "?r -"::v  c -
                                                                                                       DC rot graz_e da:ry a-:••••:". s
                                                                                                       C'i treated areas wit1-  -:
                                                                                                        i days if :/2  IP.  EOT:  r'.A.
                                                                                                          applic-d.  21  cc,-s   r
                                                                                                         Ib. actual/A is  oip  ied.
                                                                                                       ^0 days  if 2 Ib.  actyal/'x.-
                                                                                                      Jis applied.  50 c=>s  if
                                                                                                      ,'8 Ib. actual/A,  -s arrl-Je-...

                                                                                                       Co  net hr.r.'ost cry ray  T-OT t-e«i
                                                                                                       e-'i-as as  fei;: for a = irj e-i.~2l.'
                                                                                                          .in:  37 days if 1/2  ID.  2:1.2?
                                                                                                           ICG.  51  C5"s if " i=.  ec~  ?"/
                                                                                                            id.  70  -:.->s

(lb.  a/A.)

   (liver  of

   i  -. i
                                                                                  DOSAGE          LIXITATIONS
                                10        roste^ercsrce.  "Co  lot
                                (are.™-   cvazs TI£: L  = v'-3*s  v
                                la*-)      t eateo  fiel-'s  *.ith-;.-. 30
                                          d-:ys of  slaughter.   To
                                          rot c.'J-.e,  cut  fcr  r'cragc
                                          o>- hay fr-r  dairy amrsls
                                          for 60 days after treat-

                                2 tables- 3p:-t trcat-erc
                                spoonful? CJ-.L.-J!.  Ao.i'.v
                                of £j,i'    ^ c.r'~ liros  .  C^ r. '-
                                pellets   2pply v,heii  ground is
                                per       rroiep.

                                2.0       Asply v.hen  weeds are
                                          actively growl?,g.  '..hen
                                          c'c/er ard  a'>f^r~.  ?"e
                                          D"s!;ent,  reduce  rete t-;
                                          0.25 PCJP.L.

                                0.5       L'se restricted  to Te\as.
                                          •Jse only es a package
                                          mixture  wi'th 2,^,5-1
                                          anine salt.   Aaplv  in

                                          fi'St green growth
                                          epcco"3.  5-10  yc-•* cen-
                                          tre! is  BAprcted fro-i ona
                                          appl icaticT,  ho-e/ar, a
                                          second treatment nay be
                                               after  2 vo2vs  if
                                                       DC  rot  coita-
                                                 v.'-ittr.   L'o nat 7.ove
                                          •:»""t2J  ceil.   Do no: use

  (or-)     (la.  a/A.)

  fet, ar-rf
  m-.-.t by-
  than kid-
  ney a°cl
  liver of
  Ci- i.1. i j ,
    . i • '
  V • , I r, i

          Co not allow sor?v drift.
          Susceptible fcrbs ~jy he
          do-cged.  Do -,3t cr^ce
          cairy aii.ials en tfe^tsd
          areas within 6 \seks after
          application.  DC net
          graze meat ani.r.als on
          t^'ted areas within 2 -
          -•;eeks of slauahter.
                          '..'oody  plor.ts  and b»~ush.
                          Apply  in  latd seeing th^u
                          season -jntil  3 *eeks before
                          frost.  To  rot use on
          or rarfjslenos.

          f'esquite control .  Ma'  2
                                                                                                              weeks cf slai'gl.ter.

Ob.  a/A.)

TCLCR "-r.'C E
2/-D :."d 5": oil
sol'jfcre f.nine fcr-
irulet-lcns.  Apply
when -. cccs arc
your-g 3--d actively
grc'i.iiic.  Do pot
alio1.; sr"?.y tc
coritac": TSJV?S. frylt,
or str"S
                            stock on tre?.ted  si-e-.s.

                 6.0        Apply directed  s:rc -  -?
                            soil.  Do not a:.;:1:' -.-- ;
                            4 v.eeks after trc'-ir'a-
                            Do not graze livestoc';
                            on treated areas.

                 3.2        Acply directed  s:-3y  t:
                            orchard floor during
                            winter (Dec.-Feb.) or
                            sp- ing (.".dr.-liav)  -~
                            croo established  st
                            lecst or.s ycjr.   A.-»*r
                            cc.-tect i.^th folia;.:  :•
                            frj-:.  DC r-ot;  tf£:.:
                            d.-,a:-f var icties.   TJ  . :
                            replant treated if^~ '
                             -         -^i-        -

             iL IMITATIONS
(Ib. a/A.)
in wir.tsr  and soring.
Total orsage shai'ld rot
axceec1  3.2 lb./;icre croo.
Avoid co^tdct with folia-j
or fr-jit.   Do not treit
.•'...or* i;o'"ietirs.  Do net
 •.::•" :.r',  t. cr .<„•*. J '-.. ' •-'
5-r1  CT.T i it ri'i J y:~r;
?.ftzr last co'..a-11.

Apply dire:Lcd so;fly Lc
rs^s^c.   L'J rot jrarp
livestock  on treavju

Ac-ly directed sp*"ay  t'j
'.-.•^•^ rro'j.-.d  co.1:"" ••••ilf
cror.s =>'e  'Jjr:.--.-,t ;.*J
cieTn r.  bloo T.   .".c r :*
grszn 1 1\ on
 lb.  c/A.)
1.12 o:. /A.  To  intenslf, red
             color ard
             improve skin
                                                   SUBS\ITUTE     TOLERANCE
                                                                                                      DOSAGE          LI.'lITATIO'iS
                                 4.0       Apply  to orchard  fleer
                                           befcra weeds  e^s^ce cr.o
                                           trees  are  establ '"sr.ed
                                           one or rr.ore years.   DJ
                                           rot contact foliage cr
                                           fruit  with spray.

la r.d
                                  pot" : -os are
                                  ir, prebjd
                                  st-joe (7-1C
                                  inches high);
                                  IC-l-i days

                                  E'-oadlcef wscas.
                                  Acply in
                                  so." i "  .,' ?r
             rap -dly.
                                  V.'oody plants.
                                  Apply -.-'ion
                                  woody plants
                                  are ac ;ucl j
                                  grov.-i.n in
                                  spring or foil .
Arjnon i um
100 Ibs./ Treat-rent to be applied  to
ICOgals. individual plants.   Tor
v;ator     the control o." wc^dy
          plants, wet fc'page
          thoroughly:  Aoply after
          brush reaches full lea'
          stage until leaves cn-:.i ca
          color in fall.

        TO1 -PA'IC^     DOSAGE      LIKITATIO.'.S
          (--}      (Vo. a/A.)
                                                                                          ranr si and))
                                                                                          « "i ™
                                                                                                       DOSAGE           LIMITATIONS
Postenercerce.   '"pi."

ing.  £'C r.C". 9'" = rS  ""-!

with'"! 30 days refore
slajghter.  Do '-2t  u'.-o
seed from treated g".3-
for fooo or fe;_ ?.rp.-;
                                                                                                                   Do  pot grare dairy r-r-.-*:
                                                                                                                   on  trr2tc-u are:.3 .,•*'. ,r
                                                                                                                   7 adys if 1/2 It. :c: .i i '
                                                                                                                   A.  is  oDpl led.   2"p .'a >
                                                                                                                   if  1  T*.  e:cua1/A. i-
                                                                                                                   avrl'.cd.   -C1 cays !•? 2  'b
                                                                                                                   actual/A, is :^r""eJ.   'C
                                                                                                                   days  if 8 Ib. actual/ '•  7<;

                                                                                                                   Do  not hardest ^y -'i.-  "r:
                                                                                                                   tr?3t°d ?rt2: or f:-:  •"::•
                                                                                                                   daTv  ani-^' s . ; :'T."
                                                                                                                   3?  ee:3 ir 1-2 n_. r--.:1,/
                                                                                                                   A.  is  ecpl 'cd.   .". c  i. 5
                                                                                                                   if  1  ib,  acl-jcl/ti ^s
                                                                                                                   apolies.   7C da\s if ?  ""b.
                                                                                                                   actJiVA is applied.   JC.
                                                                                                                   oays  11" 3 Ib. act'-al/M  is

                   C:b.  a/A.)
                                10         Posie^ergence.  *D r.ct
                                (granulc>-}=r'~:ze P'32t spirals ••-
                                           treated fielcs ;iit.-1- 33
                                           days  of slaughter.  D:
                                           not graze, cut fcr forage
                                           or  hay for dciry d"--.-:ls
                                           for 60 days efte- -reitr^'.i.

                                1          Use 1 in-'csd to Tsxas,
                                           I'svi f est sts^e
                                           of  ect've  src.,:l,.

                                2 table-   Spot  zrcat^ent fcr L.--5T
                                spoonfuls  control.  Apply tc-sc'il
                                of <:o/b     iiiiijei  L'lUii,.  Do r.ct apply
                                pellets    i.'hen  ground is froze"!.
                                                                                       (H.c- of
                                                                                         shio,r. goets)
                                                                                         (•...."... fat,
                                          Use  onl^  as a cacka^e
                                          mixture with ?,4,5-T a.iiine
                                          salt.   Apply in 53-1 -.5
                                          40-90  dz-js after first
                                          green  growth appsdrs.  5-10
                                          years  control is excactG^
                                          fro.r, cr-e epp' : cation;
                                          ho-.-'cvsr,  a sece".a trsst-
                                          ment may be irade after 2
                                          yei-"  if recess?.'-,. .  '-"
                                          not  co.-t.ii"ir.2Te .?t?~.
                                          DC not .''eve tree!.=; ;;--;T.
                                          PC rot use arc'jrtJ ti'2
                                                                                                                 sv.i.lar si tes.   Do not

>.  a/A.)

  c ihs"

  and 'iiver
  of cs'tle,
  0.05 (milk)


          allow soray  drift.   S'js-
          ceotible forbs  ^ay  be
          d-.--:ges-i .   Co ret c,r£zo
          dairy rni,T.als on rreated
          areas within 6  weeks
          after application.   Do not
          graze ii'eat anirsls  o-.
          treated areas within 2
          \\eeI-3 cf
                                          l.'acdy plants cr d  brush.
                                          App1^- in late  spring
                                          thrii se:scn ur.ti i  3
                                          v.oks bffc.-t rtost.   C'"
                                                                                           aoplication in  late
                                                                                           spring when plants ,u£.pj
                                                                                           li—ves fui'
          Apply  ir  spn'r.'i  b_,
           '                '
                                                                                           90 dai3 af.ter  '.eaves
                                                                                           unfold).  Do ret  ;.»".~2e
                                                                                           dai>-y an-i.ra's  en  trG2';ed
                                                                                           areas within 6 i.'celcc
                                                                                           after a^pl icatior:.  Do not
                                                                                           grize r.tzt £ -!i,rsls  en
                                                                                           treated areas  -/ithin 2
                                                                                           v:eeKS of slaughter.

'?:• rr


(IS.  a/A.)

Tiller to bcot.
If ere
used, apply 3  Ibs.
when rice is 2
weeks old.

After flooding (3-
21 oays;.  Cc  not
apply after seed
stalks rave er.erged.

                                                                                             DOSAGE           L!K174TIO:.S
8.0        "" erp" Ic3":': ..
           Tice  srcu'd b= $;:.-•- re*.
           "ess  than 1 inch ic:p.
           /•'•Dply v.he'1 gr;ss ';s j-;st
           t-erging, or :s  "n fif?t
           1eaf  stoge.
                                                           Moli nate
                                                                      0.1            3.0

                                                                      and  strew)
                                                                                    Posterergence.  Apply
                                                                                    whei rice is f1-1"!
                                                                                    tillered ard 6-3  inches
                                                                                    :bcve -rt;ijr f5'"-G5 c1-^,
                                                                                    a^ter 2 ; anting}.  Cc ". '•:
                                                                                    spray sflsr r-ce  is  v.
                                                                                    boot stage.

                                                                                    "'replant acrl "cr"-'.?i.  ••
                                                                                    -?tor-s:-:-d=G cro:.   I1-' 10 1
                                                                                                                  .:>nr3  ?rd r.o;t-
                                                                                                                  <"-?p~y  •>'." ~c
                                                                                                        ;:nd ". ess  tMdr.  3  •r.r-ie,- «\"!
                                                                                                        rot ccr.t?^"i3ta  doings*ic
                                                                                                         7: '• C'" Z

(lb.  =/'..)

(dry seeded)
                                                 Si1 vex
                                                                    i U I Ci i\ /


noste:nergence application.
Koter into irricafion
•,.'ater to e3tabli£hcG "ice
during the ertire  irriga-
•;icr period.  Deyflcv-'C'
~.'ist be co.-pTetc-l^
sjt.ierged and cjrnye^d-
grass 2/3 submerged arid
jider 5 inches  tell.   Do
not ccnta-iir:.te cic-.estv
1 3t?v'S.

Fostc-'ergencc- appl icaticp
•. ,-ier. grass ;s in  1-ieif to
c-arly tiller staye or.d
before nee is  in  late
tiller stage (45-50 days
after planting).   Do not
use -nore tnar, 6 Ibs.
actual n-?r 5;'ic;le  t.-eat-
i erst or a total of a Ibs.
actual per crop se?s:^.
Do not apply to s=:cind
cropaing is practical.

Treat 4-8 weeks after
e'Verger.ce of nee.   If
flooded, treat 7-9 weeks
after seeding.

  '...--.     Lli'i. i^. U.i'*
' 1 b   £ ''- )

 ..5  •     Apoly at ti'  to
           boor st=ge.  -o  ret
           epoly in seeding
           or boot EC v-.". k
           stage.   Dc1 i-ot
           graze or fee^
           forage from
           treatoj fields
           within 2 i-Mks

(alone o*-

           .'•r-n crcc  is 3-G •'•:~rs
           livestcck  on t^c^t;:
           ^••ras cr  *c€'J t.-c-cf':-:
                                  1.5        Fostercrgence.  Aan'y
                                             -her c'-ap is 3-5  '-:-c3
                                                                                                                *".r; ?  13   -   ••  :  ••-
                                                                                                          tall .   Co  Tt  c> r-~: " -^ :
                                                                                                          stock on t.-ea~=_  •••':'' :s
                                                                                                          or food forcg; '..i:--.r
                                                                                                          CO  days after  trsJt'"2-t

         Preefr.ergence.  Do
.5       not  apoly on
         lirht  sandv so^.


L-.cot stage.   C'  ".:t
cpply durir.g  o:.-t to
dough stage.

Preplant.   Broadcast
fall or  s!»"«•*•    ?- '
                                                                                               ar.y crop e'-'ept
                                                                                               cr cci~:-, urf;l ti
  _5       Emergence to
          flowering.   Use
          drcp  nozzles •••hs-i
          Cr7->  -5  ever ".0
          iricpes  hirii.  Do
          rot -".pDlji cjr'pg
          flover-,r,'. cr
          es " i y ~- ^ j':' -  s t "* ^_ s.

0.75      Use restricted  to .
          lit^i-. r.  E.-'.t.
          Overall  spray frcn
          d inches till
          until  tne SDC-  head
          is c  incir-s  hs^cw
          tin of  th-2 boot.
          u 0 P ^ '- "^ "^ r* ' J"' *• ' ^ ' ^* y
          fle..snrg ta c-er'iy
          dough steres.
                                                                                                                 v.-eeds are  less t'rar. ".1-2
                                                                                                                 inches  high.   Do nc* p'int
                                                                                                                 treated  are;s tc 2-. c*-::
                                                                                                                 except  corn ov- sc1'  . •
                                                                                                                 until the  fcT.:- i" .-:-: -.

                                             Poste~ercoTicc.   'j.^l..
                                                                                                                 after crcp
                                                                                                                 net plart tre^t-.;:  ersis
                                                                                                                 to any crop exc'jt ccrn
                                                                                                                           i  t!15 fo"." :'.,!-;
                                                                                                                 year.   Do  r.o
                                                                                                                 areas cr feed t'e;tc-J
                                                                                                                 fori'73  tO  "!lVC"3Cf. rC'-
                                                                                                                 2\ days after -crea j~e"ii

, _ . r...
                         Posthar-es*. ?~
                            '-ci    t.-'l
                                                                                                                    piar.t  to  -Ahsat.  Dr r.c
                                                                                                                    graze  t-'satrr r-p'S. o
o 9;
                                                                                                                    c'oc ochc"-  il-; . r; :
                                                                                                                    the ''c.'::-' i.i ti in K"
                                                                                                                    r.onth? ufrcr  t:'-:at,-
                                                                                                                      . fieMs  for z*1--
3.0 (grain,    0.25      FosteTsrgencs.  £:p"y  10-
fodder and               25 days  after crop
forage)                  emerges  and weeds are  2
            CuSAGE     LI.'-:i7ATIOi,S
{p«n}     (Ib. a/A.)

                              0.25       -Jsa restricted to d's*. v-
                                        ar.d Texas-.  Foster .arc^r.ct.
                                        Aoc'iy d'lrectod or o-3rtcp
                                        "re." srf: dcuc" 5^173 cc
                                        c-cp Lsrcil 30 risjs  t;."c-e
                                        r.srvest.  Do r.ot g.-aze
                                        treated areas or feed
                                               i forage- cr silj.^e
                                         rscn.erce."ce.    :,T>
                                        crop planted 1
                                        Do not plant '.re-'ied
                                        ^re2s 1.3 cr.y c~c-.  rot  on
                                        Ubel 4  -:-.t>-s
                                        c-fter t

          (ppn)      (Ib. a/A.)
                                             crop  "•.  ir:.-s« :-" :-
                                             taller with airect=d
                                             spray.   Avoir! co-tact
                                             with  crop fc'i--rs.  ~s
                                             p'lir.t treo'.sc. ::-;is '.o
                                             any crop net on lac?"1
                                             within 4 r-rnt'-s &:":=••
                                             fror. trestca ' -c'-.s
                                             vn ::nr  9C iiys 2T"r:--
                                             trec .""siit.   Co '--C'C ;"i srt
                                             t>"35ted  areas tc ; .-
                                             crop except so^rlv.'-1.
                                             until the follc^-ir; >?>>-
                            ,-C7ci g-;nce.   r
                         after C'-o:,  is  E;:
                         a r.c! ', o- -. = "--••;  : •
                         i.'ictos  t^ll.   L.-
                                                                    • y
                                             graze or  ft53 f:r;:->
                                             fro^i  tref-tcd f-'euis
                                             w'tnin  PO days a*~to'
                                             treatr.snt.   Co r.Dt
                                             plant treated a<"ea5 tc.
                                             any cros  except
                                             SG^ahj"1. -jntil '.re
                                             follc,:i."g >c-3.r.

             (pp-n)     (1b.  a/A.)
                   (3~ '•)
o rc h jn1
                 •• n

           Prci1. a r.;  arpi"' c•:• • ••: -> to
           £T"-r~pd li "^''cij • ^*"c ^" -^ *-
           5 :d appl -,c:ticp t:.
                                                                                                                         graze- or  T'CJ- scrcr."
                                                                                                                         i-'T'c; fo,-:i.c- c-- si'.:
                                                                                                                         "  •  . t. •:.=•!.:•-  :"~c".c.  '
                                                                                                                         Ct.-v.' :--  -"s.
                                                                                                                         - - r •  . •  .-   ^ ? :   -; • -.
                                                                                                                         .-.: /r ' ;••.- - .--;  ;

                                                                                                                         • ;~. t) r" t  c? ";"" ,  i

                                                                                                                         iTiO.-iL^is  after cj?" ica;
                                                                                                                         Dr rot  p1art tc i-\--  c
                                                                                                                         cri.-  c  -c.:;  so'-; \ -
                                                                                                                         * I L. .1.  • o  i ^ * •- i"i - -  -;
           .- cc •  "Ji-'ze.  •.':•  ~" * r"-
           cvo.- G'.trged s:-'"y-~.  i^-
           not fiijkc-  second aDoli^a-
           tic" "o  4.H= s£:-£ cr:~.
           Cc -iwo brcjociit C".
           fiirrorf-plantec £•:>-,} ••.-
           in T'j/.os,  N?.1 f'e- i  :> or
                                                                                                                        ml lets,  z-jiar.-s.:'-:: '
                                                                                                                        hvbirds ard  sorg;- .7
                                                                                                                        Lre3uing  stoc1:.  '•  ^
                                                                                                                        •,;. -at i.-.y y= p'ai :c-
                                                                                                                        folio .'i--;, sc-'f-j.-  *•-
                                                                                                                        Other cr:p3  ~av bs r
                                                                                                                        ^rc>  fell?' v;  ;--;-c
                                                                                                                        i-ot  graze c.r fee.   ••";

              Ob. a/A.)
Extended    2.0

                        &  i  t . a '  .-'
               :•• "•£/-.•/.

   (?- •)

(cart., fodder,
?nd f err re)
                     0.25 (s'jgar-
                     C.Z5 (fodd'-
                                                                                           * nn }
                                                                                           ' ~. -1
                                                                                                     8.0    -"•---r.c^.-r'ice cr •*.'
                         Apply 1 or  2  Interl -re-
                         directed soravs bcrc"u
                         caie cl^s'ts  '".  '""3 "C"
                         S03ly .-.ore  L' T  !•: ", :-. .
                         ".Zt'-o"  "I".  IfO". '.fi- :.' i •'
                         f.J,  C -,J C>>1'.

                         1:2 restncc'.d  to rlrr^co.
                         Foster -:,-,3£.iics iirc-ct;-; !-3
                         sp^a;- ;  to t^s"  of c.-.' 3t
                         30-c^i  internals ii;.1:-. .•
                         "close- IP.".   Avci-J crn-
                         tac: to fo] iaji.

                         Use li.incej  to  Flo;:   •.
                         /'"plv ii-re'.tc"  "j"-: •  :o
                                           "   '
                                                                                                             jppl ica '.ion at t'-rs  of
                                                                                                                   r.T,  or rat,'.o.n~' •;•.
                                                                                                     4.0    DosT:ener:;s?r:cc.  A-piy
                                                                                                             broadcast  over o".e'ced
                                                                                                             car1:, '-t^!::-.'. vith  2

                                                                                                             Iroi..i3.  Do  r.ot ap?"-v  -'t.'.*

TCL-- .:
                                            t'  ac»:y":-:c'
                                               • •.-£ (_>•••'   e  ::

                                                                 *• inCT'Ti -
                                                                 i "  ••  u i r l  1 T   - ' f.  "' ~; "

        ncr: a^cly  rfftcr croo  c"-c-;es
        1 ;"•.   "CCID  Sri"- ' Zff  -£  •"
                                                                                                              1.6 "b.  actua1 33 a
                                                                                                              directed spra> •l1^'•
                                                                                                              D- r>ct  'j^ply r :>r^ ~:! ;
                                                                                                              t.-er.; .;'us :- '::.--.  -
                                                                                                              •'  '  '-.  set- f •"-'  r
                                                                                                              cycl°.   L'o . 3t •  .""  .
                                                                                                              I-'.-"i^:'J eroiTS ic :  -
                                                                                                              , ^:iir  2 ,:i.  ' r "tv
                                                                                                              arpl 'icct-.'"1-.
                                                                                                      5.4     Use r'jst«--;cv.ecl LC :-:  :^
                                                                                                              arc! Puerto  Rico.  ,"-•:". -
                                                                                                              after o1anfng or : fte
                                                                                                              herxest-'v  cf .^le -t  f
                                                                                                              ra\;3 usi."T  3.2 lb.  ;ct-.
                                                                                                              chc'ical/acrc.  Do  rot
                                                                                                              e-a^d 9.5  "ib. at*.;?"
                                                                                                              c.'^nc:.'  per crrp c..;";'.
                                                                                                              Co r.ot treue-
                                                                                                              jfc-as Lc  ar.y cr:r ,••;'•
                                                                                                              2 ypa-'s af'-r.  list

 0.1 (frc-i
 use of  >:diuni
 e-.1 d-  --L ...1-
                                                       application to
                                                                                       csri?.   ?%: rot
                                                                                  :._-asio  i"cv-  feed z-
                           'se  restricted to  Lcuis-
                           ,; jr.   ri"":;1 ^'•~,?l~r £

                          'c "* ? r'" ^ J c a n o r. c - t."».  ' £. d

                          LagasG? for fucd or
                                                                          3.6    'Jsc r??tr~,cccd tc
                                                                                     ication  in
                                  (plant  cane)
0.1 (cane)
0.2 (bagrssc)
       before cf.i.«; ar.J  •,.£-.: JG
       {.-••jrge.   Do -.^t  ci\ r?
       • •ivertock cr, trc»c t:J
       fie'as.   Do POT:  plant
       c-0^5  o'.f-f!- t'i?r,  cij"nr-
      c. "i o,-  rctlrn -;icnin 1 after last
      u^pl icatkn.

(=37.)      (lb. a.'-..)

                                                                                                            cirecr^d,  or c ---:.- :--
                                                                                                            top iOrvy  1.,.Kc-n ;:-.;  '.3

                                                                                                            v.-,.£-J5 le-s  i!••-.'. 2  ii:c
                                                                                                            tail.  Do  •'ot apply \
(Ib. a/A.)
                                                                             livestock on treated
                                                                             fields.   Do rot p]e-z
                                                                             cross  other th3" s.-^r-
                                                                             canc- cr  cotton 1
                                                                             yerr r.ttc>" lest
                                                                             af>o"' ica'.icn.  Co rot
                                                                             apply  more than 8 IDS.
                                                                             active per ycir.

                                                                             "rply  "r';ev -jlar-tiro.
                                                                             cr  after '-.:• /csrirg
                                                                             cf  dint c-r,p
                                                                             ratoo". or ct-
                                                                             Repeat .---.h t'..o
                                                                             irterrov: directed
                                                                             Do  rot exceed 2 p^j"ds
                                                                             between  p'lantirg ana
                                                                             har/ssting in r-:w3ii or
                                                                             f-.B fCu.-ids in Flc*"-.e.
                                                                                                                               bM crop;
                                                                                           Tassel  reJjction; arply
                                                                                           bet'-'c^n 3c?t^...^-jr 5-"! 5
                                                                                           to crop.; -Oe ~cc^ ?r
                                                                                           ratcor.sJ pr'-o>' to Jjly 1
                                                                                           of G3n!3 year.

                                                                                           Ma':e single application
                                                                                           in fall after planting
                                                                                           and before cane emerges;
                                                                                           or ir cpri ••rj c.f,t..'
                                                                                           yVav'1-^ and riff-^arrir?
                                                                                           before car.e erer.jcs, o.'
                                                                                           as directed spray if cane
                                                                                           has e-.orcied.
                                                                      3.2    Use  restricted to L'jis-

(Ib. a/A.)
                                                                                                     ?DSAGE           LIMITATION'S
                                                                                                              plant treated soils *
                                                                                                              c^oos rot ci Icbrl •
                                                                                                              5 mcntns after f:2t-
                                                                  Si 1 vex

                                                                                                       Use restricted to Louis-
                                                                                                       iana and Puerto Rico.
                                                                                                       Postsrergencc.  Oo not
                                                                                                       i^pl" i-"it!Mn b .:.ontns
                                                                                                       before harvest.  Do >"c :
                                                                             crops r.ct on labo": vuh:n
                                                                             5 irontlis aftr1' t1"**.  c~t.

                                                                             Apply as cirec:s-J sr-ay
                                                                             beti.-een rows before close
                                                                             in of crop.
                                                                                                              Fostcr.'srcerce ^ror.1T:st
                                                                                                              applicat:on.   i"~ •• SCCD'.J
                                                                                                              aoDlicatioi bp"ov'o cdfij is
                                                                                                              3'1/2 fec-t '-all.

                                                                                                       3.0    Use restricted to Lcuis-
                                                                                                       plant cace or after
                                                                                                       shaving and off-bcrring.

                                                                                                       Use  restricted to LOM-.S-
                                                                                                       iane.  Posto-iicrgcnce,
                                                                                                       repeat if not applied
                                                                                                       preeTerrcrco.  C? rot
                                                                                                       apply within 5
                                                                                                       before harvest for food
                                                                                                       and  feed.   Apply 2.-.}
                                                                                                       tip.? to cane c:ro-.. -. for

         (?p*)      (Ifa.  a/A.)


 5.0    Use restricted to -Hfi
        F- -^r-'orccncc a",1! Ic^tln
        i  "fidiecel./ 3f-:c-
        planting or  and
        before csne c."e;'C3s.

 5.0    L;e restricted to  -.awaii.
        Foste".ergence apnlicatic"
        25  z airecle-.i spray  tc
        v.L-sds in inter! -r«  Do -ot s~"ay
        C^:TP.  To r.rf =-'>->l\. - : r?
        t'on Ivice *D e">  c.-:-  -,rcr..

 4.0    F''5e~crgence.  'oirlv  it cr
                                                                                                              and before \.eeJs or  cer.e
                                                                                                              £. -erge.  For ratcon  crop,
                                                                                                              e-ply i.r'"cdiote1y  after
                                                                                                              r.-'-vest, 3" tefore car?


                                                                                                      Apply once
                                                                                                              o\er cane or t'-o di-ecte.";
                                                                                                              srrays betvion  rc\
(Ib. a/A.)
                                                                                                                  . .
                                                                                                : \rr-.-ij a -.: r.z  c  :: : f;
                                                                                                ^"idri;e- c;r.e ^>  f i- st
                                                                                                . ,-ca  •;'••, i:  •
                                                                                                '-se  rost-Tc't.'j  ii  LCUI?-
                                                                                                • er:.   Pi-c?c: .^fnLrco
                                                                                                ;"!TC  ocpl ic?! •.ci.   'J,"1"-
                                                                                                1 :~!f -Josags in  fnl 1
                                                                                                •-,, s'.'Jato1-* afrc-r  .-.iii-.tir-
                                                                                                         'io j^oi"  .if  >"''
                                                                                                lest  appl icitum.

                                                                                         2.0    Lss 1i:.itc--' lo :i.i.%2ii.
                                                                                                rrC "VrOr'TC S '! ."I.'-!
                                                                                                •ppl'cation t;- p'jfit ccro.
                                                                                                [:? s-or  D^-fit .-i-.y  Ci ;p
                                                                                                except  S'jga»ca>-e  or
                                                                                                •: :s\e for 2 >c;.-s.

                                                                                                                                '".  •*•  :-  ce.    ;'.     n"jr-
                                                                                                                              r •- •  '  -   r -  -1 ~ ' - '  C c. •" C  " "
.5        A2?ly  it t-.llo- to
          boot  sta^c.   Do
           r**— -I-"*!   -t^  F-.«l
           <--c-r.-1-   i •  - ^ ^ -
          1 irg c- c:c";  tc
          r.ii'<  s!:c-r;o.   Do not
          c'-azs  or -;cu
          forage- f.-c   .!--..'t.-3
          fields /.it -:n 2
          \ :i' s  ^'"t^-  trr-t-
0.25  ;rrEir,)      3.0
•0  t i v. . ,' **
                                                                                                                      in spring.

                                                                                                                              M^ri •"^}3~r~cJ"o\t  * c ' . t"1
                                                                                                                              •" cf ~~ '" ? r t  c „ ' T
                                                                                                                              £ —k'"^i"^i"i1'. ^o  rlr't
                                                                                                                              -s- =• r^ •::": • '  "  •..  -"
                                                                                                                              c-"  -: I.:;.1  c'i 2  I-c -' .•
                                                                                                                              b'^fj-c-. ,  ro.'s r. ••:  2
                                                                                                                              -r-l  -    "1    '-,.,..
                                                                                                                                rt\ i        '    i  ' J  i i
                                                                                                                              s-.n -r .   f-flzr  s.11.  '   ''.
                                                                                                                              .-.r-,'L3;.  "ii.'j-/? ^a^c.:  c^
                                                                                                                              yc?r  a-K;  p". -:-rt  '.: i'-;2
                                                                                                                              G :•" -..-.  ,-f .--i 'i. ;.:-.  .--

                                                                                                                              to  -.   • C»L-  rr  ::-   .   •

(Ib. e/A.)
                                                                    2 years  fallow
                                          "  li-.-tec! to ?o:"ir
                                                                                                                 r'rply to ».iV«cat s-._b".c
                                                                                                                 in  f^Ti  aftr*' vo'.j- :•;-.'
                                                                                                                 grair 5Dp=ars fol'ic.'r
                                                                                                                 ral"i  rains ano DJI'° ~n.
                                                                                                                 Jcr,fjtjr>  1.  L'^evo  ftvli.
                                                                                                                 one _.icr and p"1^-:
                                                                                                                 '"'"itcr ' ,". ;^t i r. '"I'.
                                                                                                                 net crp.;n 1 i .'Cit.::'-  c".
                                                                                                                 ^ .  . 'TEOc ',.1 '.}: -.•  £
                                                                                                                 .r.onths after .vpl ica-.i'.
         .•'csth.-r-ves;.  ;-:'.,  ;:•
         v.n=at st\jbb'e v.  x" 1
         after vc"! j.-.'uer :j  :• •-,
         appeals fcllOi'.'T";  fell
         rains.   Lea1, c fell en.  for
         2 yoirs arc p1ant  to
                                                                                                                 To  ret. 3'
                                                                                                                 Oii  g.-ovlrg \..:ic-2t  v;z-"i-
                                                                                                                 6 rorths a^tcr ccoiica-

:•:.-)      (••;. =/A.)
                                                         (fall  seeded)
0.5 (grc-in
arJ stra.-)
.375    """y bcfo^a f*e  '.-lc:f

       -~T"'CO-' he •••/'•it of  :'"•!.

0.5    --ply ir fe'l o^  s-.r'rn,
         •. -.  i;--s vt i: f;" •  .  •-

        '; " .-_• •.  ;i:  :. • •

2.0    Lsc -estr-ic^ed to \j.-:h
       Cer.'ral  s-atcs.   i-.'k?*?"
       spot  tre2t.T;-;rt.   Ap^'/

       3C arvs  pririr vc  r'v'-,;:.
       cr cs ?--ei..-e':;-'  :.-   I-
       ''Ot plsnc crcs" c"..1.1,

       pererin:?.' eric:  G' • .

       'caf  c'~ops IT.": fa". :a ,
             ,  peiis, co"jr.oes.
              ccoti) .•!". ,1  2  \2i-3
       jfter a;-.-! i:o'_"  -..   I '-i:;-,
       oats, cc'-r,  so-r  . •,  f^j-'
       er.d pc-rcr.Rial Ci-i:.s  CICE"
       ".ay be- jrlaito-j tc ticai^f

          :L:RA\CE      D:s:-2i
            (cp-.J      Ob. a/A.)
DCS*"            LI'-'ITAVTC:

 5.0     Jr.1?  r.'Cinc\.L^ .1
                                                                                                                          ".cc cl'irt cr-"S
                                                                                                                          ~r •* : ,~  >_ L ••  ,~  J
                                                                          (spring  seeded)
                                                                                                                          ./c-:-r3 j, r' ic: L-
                                                                                                                          33 r" :•/ »  O'-^-T.  c;v-n,
                                                                                                                          s: '•g,..-. r.f-i.ia1  an
                                                                                                                          oc-r^-' , • ' •.;•--•;&  :r :rs
                                                                                                                           •^•i1  ':e  pl:r. '. _j ~,o '.•-::
                                                                                                                          are-rs  1  year  :ff.^'
                                                                                                                          •;pTl -,cJt jcr.
         Co  ri t c. err:  c- .' T. :-'.-.
         •fc>- dai-'y ."..?! cr-T"  '.•:
         crop r.iJ.ijr'1 iy.

 0.125  Postc 'ergc-r.ce.   /'r:o":-  : ^
         2-2-lec ' st3:e.  .T:  • ?'.
         jjvi;  or Is •-•.•'•>•,- •":-
         c.2iry fciJ  -ficr to  f "."•

b. a/A.)
                                                                                      1.5     "•••:e-2.-;e-ce '
C.05  ;c"-in,
.- ~ - r • »
                                                                                              0' ••'Cf.'T.-1  t-'.'-j.
                                                                                              i-r?~(2r.t  soil  v,c:
                                                                                              ti'jr.  -r  fall  i~:r -
                                                                                       Co  r:i
                                                                                              o?-;s nr.*c  year,  f

            (pc-n)      (lb.  a/a.)
,.- -  \
SUBSTITUTE      7C1."'  :
                    ,•_   \
                                                                           (alcre or
                                                                           D.\'"  (CIS)
                                                                           (a"3-.3 0-
1 .5
                                                                                                                           t'-r-'t1:;  :.-c; 3  c-- •:. :
                                                                                                                           trsatC'J  ivv   ' '.'•• ~ £3
                                                                                                                           day z filer t .•'.:.* =
                                           croc  ~s '.'-•.'  •-:•".;  :;"
                                                                           ::r>°  (is)
                                                                           (^or-c c-
                                                                           n-Jcr seeded to
                                                                                                                  T.25     c- tr.'.-,.c.J  f-i?-"d; ;••
                                                                                                                           feed  f~v":7r.j •••!'.'•.•,!'  :1
                C.2!; -Vr-E-1)
                "  ^   ----*- p
                '. . -    - - o t_ ,
                                                                                                                           j. j'%r.  . I •'.
                                                                                                                           v.'    •-:.--.• • :  i  r-;.
                                                                                                                           triji"-:--.?;.   f?  •:-.
                                                                                                                           gre./= c,' ?<••: !  -•  - -y
                                                                                                                           clar.ts  *3 " • .'2:- '.c.  .

Lli'ITAT" .3
                                                                                                              ;, ••  '.  !  r:. .•.'  ••--"<  "^ -1
                                                                                                              crcr,  --JL :•,  I'--"'
                                                                                                              •.'.T'-'",I 6 • •:•   :• : "t -r
                                                                                                              i^o^'.''':.-^.   Cj ret.  : •".i
                                                                                                              befo-p -T?OJ  aro L1  •• .•:' '.-
                                                                                                              tall.   Co nc: "• .= r-_-  •: •
                                                                                                              fe?a  "i"'aL.': ; ;".:.;?  tr,
                                                                                                              li-.-:3tock.   Do '-'. t  pl-v -
                                                                                                              treolcJ crs'.s to , .j  '.:TO
                                                                                                              n:t or 'L.L.?:  ..-1 J'."  C
                                                                                                     af ti'  .1".; .':•...

-'» t -- — * f p
'. _~--^. C
«T« •••"•?, *vi"1
L! . I-.* . _' .-
T>  r, -1 ~p

"(PF. i"
                                                                                  .--,,,--  5---^.

                                                                          0.5    ?c?t£~error.c5 a^pl
                                                                                   C1. "• : ^ —

                                                                                   f .'I-', '<".
                                                                                   _il  afts • .. ,::t
                                                                                  2-i£3f  ste:?. f.-

                                                                                  1-2  :<1 ilr s^.: --.
                                                                                  2 f L _ t~  1 1" ": - " " " -. .
                                                                                  1 i . ?ST;:C:-  for -*; : ?•- '.'3
                                                                                  3ft -T  c.-fjc,-c-:t.   :c "Ot
                                                                                   •: .e   -•>•• j -' m •_' -  - - ji -;'
                                   (\i inter)
                                                                                   0.05 fr^ai
                                                                                   c -\
 1       J?3 i"?Suri:t-?<' T/J '..-"'5.

                 L  ,
           for r?fi.
           «-••- ,  . , :--  • ;:. s
           e:t' •- 2~. •'
           grci ^rc-
           fen  in  sp'-T.g
           brca::£57i  -r <".-cni
           h^a*-  /*»-  c^-*f"*-i^  -*
           c."1 ice  ir '.'"rr.s-.
                                                                                            7.2  r:r  May  t3 -..s?o  •„--
                                                                                                      •ir>-ac£!:: jr   J  •--. s
15.0      D":^,c?-5~  .:  -.
          bct-;r—  :r ::  ..-
                                                                                                      tre? L^J -..ttS''  *o '
                                                                                                      •-.--,'1^ . i.-r. or  'cr h>'
                                                                                                      or  1 ivcstick rj  :    "
                                                                                                      ilo  i oc i: - .^
                                                                                                      fee:  3- ':;:•.. •"
                                                                                                      clivs  e.fCC'- '.•;.' .'.

.__ .   .
                                                                                                                         I T • • r T '• '
                                                                                                                   !i.   L'O  IT-ii. J3£

                                                                                                                     ',  ~ , J'"  fC "  j

                                                                                                                        ^ _ I    r-

                                                                                                                       •,-,-:   ••-, •
                                                                                                                   ••'-,•,• j   '  •  •
                                                                                                       act./  ,;hc"  v/cccs  o1'? iiiv. il.-
                                                                                                       'T^o-  cro\ ":,'T.  Uo  r.ct  1 .-.•:".
                                                                                                       foot   '-C.-Q  ".i-?". '/:G :•'  ; - .--
                                                                                                               dz  o-i-j Li•••-.   Ic  • ot
                                                                                                       (a~,inc js? fic-h fr^T -.rL-:--
                                                                                                       salLs) . T'c-i1 for fr,-';'1 o<  '•_:•
                                                                                                                /i i  • •. j :'•;',   : '• -r
                                                                                                               trc-:t ,'jr',..   ; .. .-:..  v,-e
                                                                                                               t'^auf/J  3-•:.•" fo"  ". ».i.
                                                                                                               :1j-r, 1 TV-.' '.'^cr  '^r  •^-
                                                                                                               tic  r-.-^rcc.-;  ,;i-hii.  H
                                                                                                               days  after

('.-. e/s.)
              I *t|rT."T"~ii<;
              L 4 I .   I - V 1 J
LI-'-'iI i A" 1C
                                                                                         3.5  I':-.;  ,'.-.?! ; '-3 s. •';:: : -
                                                                                         a:t./     ;^c-  *:••:.. :.-   -
                                                                                         "iCf^-     >.rrrJS 3r-; T4'.   -"
                                                                                         foot of  or:.  T-.-.  ?:  --: ..:
                                                                                         ,.-tc-     t- ;h  ;--  :  - -   -
                                                                                         (K,  ;,'a   \.,-'.e.' i"^r -"::_  .   "
                                                                                         sal ts)   vii-.i- 3 -.-1  -  --"--'-
                                  11.C/     App'iv  as  a s'.'
                                  150-25C1   d."--: ~a  t.-? r-c
                                  5 = 1 .      ;r::5v,-.   To r:
                                                    Sil vex
                                  '"0        Ami v v,.-,-!-! L-  '. •
                                  (-r--j_   :.-_ jC--; •_

                                  c-r '      t'.-f'.!-?  "i  .   :;
                                  S         rrirv -.:•£ "  :
                                  ("n'^uit}  ~.~PJ -r  3"\ f-
                                            DC no i  co"i-  -,-

  DOSAGE      Li  Ii-VTir.,5
(Ib. a/A.)
                                                  v ee-.s
                                                                                                                      •• s
                                                                                        o.'        b:F  -•: f.-c..- •-    _:  'c
                                                                                        6 ib./   trcit ":-e  '.   "•> 1/2
                                                                                        acre  f*.  c -ca  v- £••.• ..- •: 	
                                                                                        (1 leu:   •'; -.(. ~ cc-:
                                                                        : 'tc-J :d
                                                                                        g:l ./A.
                                                                                                  !lp".V' f .. • 1  C" ' I'"- "
                                                                                                  S'irjy.   Do  r.c •:  r.-f •
                                                                                                  si ':-_• fT" 5  r._ . : ^ ."

       //,-;>  •
•in i I 'i\'\ . '..''V". i'
    10" i-'r
                      2/. -U  2-il  Ibs ap/ii
                      2. ':,[>-.'  2-16 I hi "C/a
                                 /.a-i   /;  lu a^/a
                                   : "1'v,,:',  •  •'.   -. .  -/,;
                           .''-U  '  Uicjf,ba   IM2  Us p.:/d
                            -Ml  '-  ?/ HP   8-30 Hi:,  ae/a.
                          /,:nlrn:c  :<--4  lhs/d
                          'V- oi'i;  i su I fai-aU-  i/i-f/j l
                             c. i   .  Ji" >, K:'..  •' "I ;  ./•:>
                          C cu'-'r; rcid  3  P M.-./c!
                          2./1-P   16 ll-s  ac/100 rals. sol.
                          2.4,1'  f   3-lfi  Ibs ricv'in'' r!--!",.  sol.
                          2,4-')  !  2,/i,5-T  lf> 11^  a:j/iOO  gals. sol.
                          2,4-i,  :  R^.'JP  K'--lo  T;s dc/100 gals.  sol
                          2,4-n  :  i)u:.'iiba  4-12  l'-s nc/ino qals.  sol
                          D-t«"-J".   lf-32 ll-s. (-;r./i^O 'iais.  sol.
                          r.-T.-  . 1   ?° I'T./K'O ?,:•'«.. so!.

                          2,4 -D   4  Ihs ac un^iluL^1
                          ?/•.>•!   fi-ift  Ihs c:/l'jrj nil:;,  sol.
                          2 '--I.  :  25'",.r;-l   Ifi Ibs  so/mo  nals. scl.
                          t/r i-  :  2,-'-!j!'  1?'-!   i . :. ar/i')0 c,uls.  r.ol
                                                            -ol .
                          L'lC"   .   ".  iUa  cU- ll, i '1 I"LL'.,
                          ;•. ,4 . •:     4 1 i'S  fi'v"i ' ' u : I :> .  ?ol .
                          ii.-V-n    Pitloran   !:i
                          OiCi1...' :'   't  Ihs  QI. :j?.ui"luL..i

                          2.'l-ri   in ibs dc/infj ruii',.  -.ol.
                          ?,4J.  1   I '1-16  11.-; , o/MVj njls.  sol.
                          ? 4 [•  i  2/,5-T  10 llr,  «.r./l-)0  gals. col.
                          r-,4 I)  -:  2,/i-llP   u'--'.'^  11.-. cf./1'JO c;als.  sol.
                          ?,/--u  i  ?,", :-Hl  1.  -1C  II.; cr./lf!() pais.  sol
                          2,4,1.  'ii'  I1-1C. I'.--. d../l";) (jrils. sol.
                          Avi'ioii iH'i suli'niidLc  f\  ilr./fiol.  sol.

  !•• .ori-.!.  • ':• .  l-.i:-.-
                                   j!-i.'i, ".•  r. i  '>,,rL.   Inil
                                    i-1."'  Li  "'.i-iir. -  ;,o;:,'j  ac
  '•I  .'••j'i-'-l1.1-JP.'  i1"'"1'"!"' "-1  '"•-"'  '-i"1- re a .,i:.o
  I. '   is  'incj
\: / ,'. -;"   /J-'1  1!)'.  cie/
Z/  ;.'  •  ?.-': »''-'
X./'! A- 1 11  /'  3  il-s f\o/a
                                 2.-' "   .r!J  !!•:.  ie/L
                                 ;:i    ..    ,:    n.    -/j
                                 L'lj.u1.;! i.ic   ld-2'.-  ibi/a
                                 DM1/1   !('-•:;  !i;S/d
                                 L'i; :•..; i:-.. i «!    10  lbs/a
                                 ti!-!?:1' . i   .5  lb'j/ci
                                 2. -I,1 -,.1   .''L.--1 V's ae/a
*  Ihf 'ic^h'Icu'os I'istp'i  f-vc  al'.'i  iPni5:'iL-rori  in variciis comb in \tion^  witn

                       X-TIV V-T    , i icf.-i?3 By  Usf
     ;.!i.',o.nii,!  ...'',,.- ..;i, 5  I):;  •l'..-L,till  Dijj'MtiuMid, Uu'iof:,  L'li-ioP,
     Si IPO rim3,  Ur'oCli
 ^•p •>._<'

     Clilorfl'.Muii! i'tu.x1,. ['.'!:."(.:!-.,  !\ ! •.-iiit/L,  Poiroit'iif! Solvent.,  Sc->one»

     Uarhjn,  Crt'-i-cxyiiil, D'.illcitt, l»ic.:ri!ie.»  Diuron,  li::ilP,  ilCPA,  Terbutryiu«

     C'-ilcroprciv..,!.  DicMobv nil.  Mii-niri',  Dli'.iP,  Petrclc-i'i.i Solvents.  Ginia^ine

 C(i f '•>.

     Alarhlor,  Aii&zino., I'M^'1 etc. CDLC, Ciilore-inbcn,  r.yanazine,  Cyprozine,
     Cfi.V1,, ncr.1,. !" icilli'^r-, !J,c..:  .,, Ijiiiioti,  n::,7,  L'i'-:'., !.inurons [-o'lorciiij
     Paraquat,  I'^Tolei .- Sfjiverii.,  Pri-jarry-ie,  1 P0|jf:cl,,or,  Simazir.o

 Ci .--ii!  :rrii-s
               .i;.'-. ••   i)ir!'iioii-:r:i ! ,  r-'inr,  SLi"l."ai.e, !.a|;',;,  k'li, fiu-i
     Solvent,  Siii'T/.iiic

_["-• i  : v '._Lcmd.

     iJichlobeni ! 4  Diuron,  D!J!
I  i. i i • V ' , •   < <  • ii • •  •',

 c:   ,-. ."•.

      Cii'j i riii

      Ai-r.uiiiui;!  Sul fcriuii., Dlcu. .-n, fuii.Ton, I1CPA,  Picioreto,  Si 1 vex,  2s'1|,ri-T

      nidilf.jenil, DiiTori, D?jr;!J,  P.r.'pqi-'at, Petroleum Solvent, Siiwzine
 P-'-l.T' 1 iT.'
              ;.! Sin i. '.i no, U'iCun.Lc, ;-:/i-nP» lonuron, Pic lorain, Silvex,
                plui'ii, !yiC!;A, fio! iiicii .!, Propanil,  Cilvox
       D1 ii 1 1 ,   \t r f, •(
       i IL!|  ,  i }v/i r t
   ne: x i nc , "I orliu ;.ryn«
                                       n:  Linuto;i,  Norea,  Psr-^qua-.,  Pron?cMors
      .'  "•t.r/.'.f--, Aii-.i/in". CT«
      , •/"•.•".i   .'.•)•!„.;,  ijf'j' i-clci ii :A', ii",u,  liilv.,j\.  Ci i.a; in.'1,  fcrlaci!-
      Atro/mR, RdrhuM, iiromoxyni I. Dicanba, IJiu^on,, DNUP, Linuron>
      liC.f'A,  i'cjrbuirync, Vril'luranr.
                                        ibr-oiiiidt,  frrlothai.  MalacliiLe» SJlvc-x

Am 1. roll-, /,:  or, ii' ;  T.ui i
I'islcir. llydro-'i'.i. » PicU,
  '•   -  
                f'1! i.f'  ''-'MMi'i.  ''   '•''.  '-£;i.' >"1"'-'l'  i,  ^'' i i 'V'1., T'1 .  ^ii'i i r!'C_[ i 'ijU
                r-'l/ir f i'  sb, Wt.ijr  I.', rici:-.ii"i,  i.Vi   i  JT.WOSC.

                f   ' '    •.-.  fr.'      '   !"'••.' • ''..   • •    '•.  ' '    tloiv'? "•,  - i  .. .-,
                 If -.IT. -ivr {err.,  :•,••» •i,rK';i'orv,  r.r\- pc'no, ;;iTi"od,  jn;r: loir ,
                rvuvv".-;.  smar- w1'"!,  .c,"w l.nn.llo,  Sijarmh  r-e^dles,  v.'lviic lc?df ,
                wi Id riiif.tdrd.
/"•ivh-ynr       f irpw'fl,  Flnrv1-,  ••.uphn.ish,  Fluridf: pur.ley,  pursl.MC.
                fifi-j Ihr.ile, o|ifn" .I'lT.-fdlos.
                   ,.  binluaf I--.; !•  ,  ir-ciiii.,  s.t I1': -f.
A1 : T'iri un1       ijii'vor -Jock, blu -,  -fd,  [jravblr-c,.  hroor-r^d, ci'.iciu."-;?--!, cocklt^in
 S'.i i ra'r. ,Lcj     rifMfls.-Mi od, ho? v. C' , 1 ,  ji'iso:T.'?f'i'l   lrn-bs'.'iijcir!:erss  l-'ii i'.spi1--,  lr. .\\
                by-urfir,  Tiilkwivdj !-'.r;"iniai  re^'.^sd, po:soi", ivy, poison ne!;.
                pmsor, siiinac,  prir.:ly  icttuca, si CDhsrd'spursc,  aldir, cish,
                birch, cf-'dar,  eld'-- , eln, cju-n, hickory,  Nianle,  oak,  p^Ccin,  poplt
                wi Mov.1.
Atrazioe       I'.'1:)!-.;1.!- rters,  n.nri!i>ncilory,  nuii-trird, nightshade, pioweed,
                purslane,  roT,""T-i,, velvet leaf.
Marban         dock, shicp sorrel, wild buciavliosc.
lionefin        c.iri'lRsr1.01-!'1,  c?r   i""^r!, chickv: ;d. Florida  n'jsl.^y.  Knor'
                '! f." ov.u • cL3rs ,  ') • '    ' i -  Durs 1 ano ,  r?d;v? i ds .
                f!  <''-!;'C'-. -LV, V.  j'r  -.:^V'S,  pIJTS'l c ,K.' ,  COdrC'H,  i'TC.'O-ii, :;•"' llC25 0 '
                pr.-ss:.  ', •/'iviU'O;;.

                coLUJC./c1"'.!, h^ci:!'1::11  v. ,  ''ifTj-1!?,  onk,  pcjlrv, roc: Uiid.  :-\, •.->(•{,  'i,;-i.
                \'i h! rii-.-i-ry  \'i ] I    , '."iinod f-li".

                D!I'   -jMtTi'. coi -; r.! .,,,T..i'ri lo,  CM •:  n »•;::<•••••> | i ,  r.ow r^..'!?, i"idd'>>
                i,",!-:,  Mold r.-ri:"-: ,   «-s, rireon  : i^n  ci'-cd,  ni Oun-.'s.'1! ,  I'.r'.i'.iL.
                kriru/c-l,  Iciml souarirrr, ,  London  rocket, iv^-'cr-d, pp!jper,.rricd,
                o'l-.''d'i pi rr-.",  -^I'Tilnof iiifli,",ha(i.1,  Lu'cery !)i:' 'I'/iiEiit1 ,
                ifi,ii-'c>-. i.i,  liii'blc  r:i.' i.ird, v.'i Id  L-'icS'i.'hfiriL,  K'tld  ousii rd.
Rulylutr:       lUiiinjl I'nrniri'i" lt.i-\ ,  fir-Id  sftiKiinn1,  Floridn pn^lf'/i  laRil'ifiiidPLo
                punilo i.ut'jf d'l-: ,  j'lu^laiie,  redrooi  pin1. -cud, yellov:  nulcniis1,.
CHAA           crjrflcnriwpfj,  cnr\:-  li-.'iri, purslcjn;-,  )-0(!rr;o1. piqwcod,  <;pii
                p i • 'weed .

i.;.|;  ' J .!   (.on I
 Li i i 01 ..' 0*
 rv.' / in.
car: !<:s?./,_orl,  r.i •!.•.-•  n. '
                                                              r • -I'.TS ,  pmVI.';ii-?5
                iHirMMl  sn'ircie,  Mil,.!.,  riifiiK'uidc.  rdnv, ••-r-ti, coff-ctr^'d,
                kidnfi.  I,.,-, !)squ..i ,-ji '; ,  Ptim. siv.»'t /r"fJ, .ncivcecl,  ITU My
                sir!.'  purslane,  ivu.v :'.-d,  '^iJi-jion  1'ii:,ik:,  velvet! cvf,  wi
                muc,- '.v-r1.
muc,- '.v-r1.

1)1 &rk nv'I'uDhfidr', r r. rnv !:v.'oe,'! , cocUebur, rinrid«i  pus "Icy,
Jiii.'.riiii'/ivfi,'a.-Loi". ,  piqwCdc .. pric'Hy  sida,  pursldne,
rfiriwc'd,  Mnartw/.-'d,  ^/oiveclc.'F^^)  wild  mu'^iurd.

Ccirir-lwijod, corn sr''.i'-iy,  clr'cl.v;e':ij, di'dJ.'r,  false  f'lox,  field
sortx1!,  krowcl .  knrr "^'i.  nurc- l-n. , sht-r'1 ^dspursf- .  ^'"urt'j'-H!,
v/i i-J Lucf.viu-at.

•:-!i:i,1'1! b1,1. .'.-rcii;', .. .:  •.: !  orci'vc:.:  r^ ,  ; Mjal niorr.K.c.'ilor/,  ai,..
SL'dn^1, hinck iniir.tiif.i,  oisf felotLir,  .ct p^t-.'^'-d, cockl'jbur, common
chii.-l'.>1.ifi?ri, co'nT^n f :c,' nd:,el , c?~rT'ci m?i I  U •'.•.',  coT.fiori rursltVi-:,
corn sf."j.'iy, curly r;. ••.!:,  l-'lnro's |.- linthmsh, Florid.i  pulley,
h^d'js mustard,  ji'r--c !\>n'2d.  kochiri. ladyf.uT..";'h,  lanj!)sqi'2ru-:rs,
mgyv/ccd,  Poiin.  si.iurf1'.- :\\\  mnw^ed, pineopnlp-.^ed,  pi ^" tain,
pocrioGj  nrosrriiU: i.^ci'^'ced, prosli'-ata  sps-irpe,  raciv:ced.  siif'JhH
nur'-."< sin '11 flov/or  odhnsona,  sui.iy  sid;. , t.drwped.  vf-i
v.'ild buckwheat,  wild  ir.jsrurd, wild r^-iisl:. vnld  turnip.

           j'dqweca, siii.irLwfiod, surn' I'-wer, velvctleaf.

nnn-.j.-il i.-onnnoritor1",  bill  thistle, coM-.lriUM1, curlv fine's', hoiry
if1:-, -r,  ii drif  -: .....    'ii,  'Ji-'juii'!1.
Cji 't..".'  T'. .  L'Xid;,!, (i,       !',<•! (-rf ••.'!'•
let-'iic,',  i ,inv;c'jJ, :,..  ,...M  .J.^U'.
sfiiii: ,'.f(i, '>WI?L'I  el'".  ':  (,;in'j>y  ir
V/i Ui l:RJ.-5Ci'i U, Vi'i !t-:  .'ir ..ip.
                                                           !M,,I  .in, jjic.11,-.' '•'"',  or
                                                          ;i-.  '•!•  -'ds-MJrs'1, •.. .-riv/  .'i.
                                                           -Y1. \flvci. icvf,  -.n !d 'y^i,
                c.'.r::.. L/i,: \-iv chic!",:-. M. c'ld-Jpr,  «'u.:  ,  Flnr  -I'M ;"js"iC'y,  f.roup.dti ,v\v
                lc;r,».. .':ii ii lors,  iTi\, i,.,i •,  rvii :  ol r  'iv^'Cu   M.t
                                             ',  rcdruol
                ClciVtti -. :![;:jill  dfiij I".  i>.'P'.  COi.kl'-i-'lr .  COli)  ChdMOiTH If. .  C7>r!'l  COfjki1.'
                Co:/ Lfi'.klc  doq if-,.-.- \.  i'.n'.n/el,  i n-. Iv/c-r.-.i,  kochia,   I.,',:!; .owners.
                morn i r/ir, ;ory-cn""',;'!>  nil  ?;iT.U'*l,  i.'U^tinM. j.i-nny  cre'vJ-1 ioi'L
                pe|)! ^rvrc'!, UK",'c-cd-r.'drnuL rind  •}.:j;i;t>lp. "oncjn^,  pri'Str'nii.  sour'.,
                rdbbit  bi'i;1-.!),  ranw'f'd, >"fifl inrrr-i   (r,hrr" f,nrrttl),  c,i:iiri.vv«''""!-oni1!"1!
                sew i.lns',.1:1, fipiiin',:i  'I'l'tlo, rij'i!'••••/co.. v/ilf.l i)uc.i'.wii"inl.: •,- • i'r, i I ft! .'. I   i>  r  /
                '.ucli ;,' : Mcdclc-r ;•>.••  IHI,  hu ,'•! c Ir.'i-ir,  i •> \>.\ v^x'd,  chi( !"•»>',  ••••O!',-,..
                cn> h' ; •!'.• :i: --.c-, (.criscl,  v.-iVii-M  ,

i-i'i  ('.n:, :'ii  ;  ',''-  <<   ns.'ici!  i!  •  '•  \  HI/.I :  '.  :   i  -^iriv  < •'<••  e \-.^d^.- __
                !;.•! I'inv i !",  .   .'..  : ,)'"  i'.-!,  f.l' '  i.     •» •"  .;.''"! !0'-  l:u!'   ii  O'j,
                •'•.'•i ;;•..•  ••;!•'! i  !,  '  .'. ''  Sj'O1 !"'! .  ' f:   '  iy. M-O-,  |)':r-":inc, !
                r.'H'1 of'.  '•>  •'"  so1   •;'i.'jrl,  :>;>, I i   ,"  '  ,  tr'.rb'jJi.  L.'"'l s I ''- -so.'.
                onion;  v,-. .ci   • '>;•>,-• .-i Iv!  ?l .';  "ii. <,,''-  &uc!. ?.s:  bhJv.v'Ci'O1.  ijf
                n.",h, col i. '•'"!,••: :.'ri
                ti'ii-^,  '•-.- 'K.-frjH.  oiiiT'Lis*  :"!i',on  ivy,  r.?i>'. ine,  sf!r:2.:r: ;.i
                silv'?rlcri  , i  •iitr.i'.sf'e, si-'ori vc'ti-;- .nnnit'l ,  sn.'l'.ewt^c!,
                stinqidr;  nc-Lt'c,  t.v^y mover;-  ('••.liiuro) ,  1.ruii:-CM.  crec-i'T-r,
                wood sow,  1 . Vilcl Ctrroc, >crro^;  >'aupon:  V'-veds cor.i rol "ic-c1
                nl.  ^-8  "'b,/<] •   !'rr!strriw,  L>. i .'cr^-c!;,  blaci'htrr.",  tlni.!;
                   . •. I-1.-,  (.. ,:   .   .'ii'.,! !'>  i1."1!" f'ci' -j  '-•••. ').?rry   . •":• i.'.1!1.
                            ,  '. 'ii'  hi,.'!1.. ;fi, r T. ;•', .'i1- DdroVin i-  •_ t\v '   i r> r • -
                poison  0? !:.  f ( '.oi.'C'-ii, kussu'i • r\; , i;;.'eci ,  so1,/  un £:.!•:•.  su:  .•.: .
                t&iidf'lfix-i'r. i: -i ION,  Luro!1-?! I?.,  v  Lch, v/alc-rli-TilocU,  v/Iiit.;:
                I'jpi.-ic,  i.'ilt! ' In,"1, vi I  iu\:, yjccr.

                Uindy sp'-xips !->y ii-.^ftinsi : i".h  c.
                »K niSii'lr-  i, ', .   .....   I"'.''..  /.ii.L. .   .'    ! •! .'TM1.;!' ;  ::;.',•:
                i'. •'  up1. .  i  . i .    •  '• " • •> • , i 'i  .  ,' "  '    n • .: .  r. i1 r ••'.-. -L , c 1 1!
                \:i L'liifirrt'  , .  'n  ri;''i"Jrir.')i.b,  i>  ''f M ••>' ^,f- , imic-r  ;;ic  w'":''i
                pi  iildT.T,  i1: i   i, •!!'.,  i,...; ,  r  i.    r (.-.. ••.'•- d ,  v, i'  .  -••..•n i ;. ir. ,
                Ki ("'IT' 00 1  '•!  ••    '!.  ',  "'('I'1'' .','   t""1  '   ,i  'M"Vn,"r:r''   i iJ1'/'. 1 c'.ii  t..if1.
                shcpp  s«)i . 'i,   : iii1. •.':•• f^r/urr.  , s:::. •'-» -.oti,  L!1-',. ;< i1!ic-.i'''ici. ,
                i-purcifij  t.-ii1;-:-"!,  fi'/ob  p^iii  iii-i  (:.i.'t ra'mra'.E.) ,  . inoLny,  v/ilo
                ariichol:-    \-iic1  rj-.L. r,  v.-'ild  hriiliV-  wile';  .  \vilc'  :".''u.
                \'ilfl  rad!1'",  y-'llov  rock"l,  vol I'"/'  v/oodsoi rol ,  and otiirr
                liorbficio-".  i- 1   n1,^.
                n()>'J,!:fTn ",.v i '.i. ifi.i L nuid vfv!',  (potaniou-tuM  '•??), ?: «!

Table Vi.F. continued
carpctv.-eed,  common  c'lickweed, corn spurry, evening
prini"0?s,  field  peopergrass, Florida pus ley.,
groundsel,  knotweed,  Ic.inbsquartcrs, pigweed (care-
lesswccd),  purslane,  rod sorrel, sandbur (sancispur),
shephsrJs-piirse,  smartweed, spiny fi.ncira nth (slicker-
wc>3d},  thy»'5leaf  sandv.ort.
bladderwort,  cattails,  coontail, duckweed,
naiad,  penpyv/ort,  ponciv.-oeds, slavirn's  v/ater hyacinth,
water  lettuce,  water milfoil, annual broad leaf weeds,

annual  grcu'idc!ia"ry , annual  inornincylory, cocklebjr,
/corn spurry,  chickw?ed, dog  fennol .  fiddleneck,
-groi-.a:ll ,  grour-dsel , .k.-!.T,.'.il , picv.'cod , prickly sicis
(teaweed),  lanibsqunrters.  raqweed, red sprangleiop,
sesba.iia,  sicklepod, shcpherdspur^e, tansey mustard.
wild Ic-ltiice, \v-ild nustcrd,  annual srrartweed, ?r,nual
sow thistle,  areratum,  buTtonweed , corn speedwell,
day flov/nr, hav;>s beard, horsenettle, horsswet-d,
Kochia,  kyllinqa,  niarigo'fJ,  fiexican clover, pepper-
grass,  nir.e-epplewecd,  pokev.'eed, rabbit tobacco,
Spanish  needlss, wild  riiclish.

annual  morn ing glory." annual  mustard, annual sriar tweed,
annual  thistle, chickwsed, cof f eev.'ced , cocklebu*',
common  ragweed, fan  weed (french weed), Horida
pusley:  .iinison  weed, kochia, Ismbsquurters, mallow,
r.ayweed, musr.erd,  piq^eed, pineapple •. esd, pi;rsl?ne,
redroot  niqx.'ced, sorrel, smartwoed ,  sweet fennel,
velvetleaf, wile carrot, wild lettuce, wild r&dish,
yellow  rocket.

blueweed.  carrotweed,  chickv/eed, clover, kochia, pig-
weed,  purslane, ragweed, shepherd's  purse, smartweed,
wild buckwheat, many aquatic weeds.
 chicki'eed,- clover, nrnunri ivy, knotveed,  lahsouarter,
 piav/eed, pl.inr.ain, ranweed, stitchwnrt.

i   i,   ,  '  i   r i.ri 1. i •  ',
                            rtiii'iiiul  I'Mriii'V'!  ;r-v>  hliiCt' [i icil|i • h.-'js-s  <  M pi'
                            COL, i on trill.!  ;•'•',  rorn  ipm r\v .  (V. dnr;i.U  >.  l
                                   I  I is ifi   ; •: i. ","•.! no,  hu;-y  ii I'^tbii-'dcs  h-
                                  i;i s-td.  • ''•   n: Lilcli-'s'i  fir-o'.: iof)t. ,  p;ir'0
                            coiivion,  JMV  -c-i'.  LI i fji-.'Rcrl , M-yc.-. u-coir,nii,
                                                                               .  i.
                            pi'';,vCK'ci,  pii'li: :, ii <-.cjdqr (niitfjivss) , yellow nuls':mv
                                    fi,  Cr-i^dii ihibtlo., clncLv.Tfd.  ci'Uir'oi ion.  dock,
                            kocl.ia,  ]('•','  r."nrt:c', nifihtsiroo.  pun;t-0'l,  |-!«nti>iri,
                            PUIII 1;ui'C'' it)'  .  pi.T'.lano,  rcifn.'f : il,  llussian  ki:apv;ned,
                            !\n  • id, i  • 'i i',1 I* . i Cv.-j r~lii.,  ci'-:-i!!i
                            ciiiifry,  j II..M iiv.1 ••'!.  IciiiinsquiM iurc , mot nn-rjf) lory,
                            picjv/otd.  fjrivkly •, u!a ,  pursliino,  rcifiv/c:ud,
                            sicklcpod, MI;.:) tv  •(•(!,              as;K-n» cli'-rry,  din,  honeyi-uckle,  maple, oak, :>umac.'M'nn          '         crTirkv.'C'iH.  ri'^ir!-.  pur,le:y,  Ori I ip^-oq-; s  Irin'.usCi'icM'tGrs,
                            ri.|" •rjcd,  •-;.!:!i  l\,. d,  velvet Iorif,  v.-iici  radislij annual
                            niornir.'jqlurv.  cock'.-Liir.",  pickl\; c,cJ?i,  sic kit-rod,
                                    li'irr is. I'jifry,  carp^tv.K-',  don  Crrinc"1 ,
                                    (i'\.  i.r-.J1.;-'1!,  lambsquc rice's,  prickly  sida,  ser.-

                            .Vr .-ti.; •:"!.,'•

                            ru r:  .•/lif.Ti,  'VMI'.II,  hurh.f-o!,  ' 'ij'l* i.'.'r, cur\y  inc.1'!  f,
                            '!'-|'.y, i'1  !' , ''i.11'!  llt'JLlP,  Pi',.'. •,',  !,<'• f'  I'.Ii'L. !"•". il >1 .
                            1'li'if! bi'i!,,1 i'i,   , if'ld |jGpp^» MI u1/,, rj!;.'!1. lKy:>d,  he ;-
                            Ijf"! ; • Ii1-'•'•••! '.;I1 '«. ii'ili, !•,  I-iHL11!11'•"• cr--".,
                            inr.r ,':'• I'I T  . i   «•(.!••.'  'jiittfrr up,  i"\".:in  •• p.%', i'M^h'.rj!,
                            inii'jr.'jS1,   p. •• < pfi i'.!  i.onniK,") m"v.  ijicp.-"ii,  j^.i:.on
                            liOiiilotk,  [irn.i'ly  IcLi.uco, pui.cfm i1 vino, iMfn.-.'t'i.l,  \"(-.(.
                            pi'|V""f|,  cc.i r,Liii:   ',("lqc, 'ihci' •!'•,  pur^p,  'iiV>rl;wc.\jd.
                            bp.'.ni'jh iurj|r»,  •;*.inl.weed,  thv.M'1,  wcitot1 •hv-'iop,
                            v: i •' •  r pl-ni .in,  "!n t thrush, \;il'i  'urrol, './il-l  fv^oi.^-
                            h'.Ti1-/, will .I'd;  .  Mid iwriii'il'!,  ".id  iihir.iT.  wil-J
                            r,;fli-,|i, •/   lie.-  r(K.!'-'U buL•£•)•. IM;:  (..uiril,-, l.lir 1.kj,
                            (l.'nid.'l ion ,  iif-i piiC'l.M P, picv.v:1  il,  ul diiLj ill,  pur-, lurif,
                              i  :.,'•.;•••., ''ijlojy, c!n-"l v.i r-i!,  lim-.h^ciuart 'i's
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                                          AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC REFU37 ?i'l- 194

                     -  Costs to Farmers -
 Economic Research Service
Agricultural Research Service                         U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULT'J^b


     Assuming that current levels of farm production are to be maintained,
:vbtricting the farm use of phenoxy heroicides would increase U.S. farm-
ii> direct production coses about $290 million.  In addition, about 20
i.i 11 lion more hours of family labor would be used.

     Net reductions in farm income would tonal $107 million for corn, $51
million for wheat, $3 million for rice. $28 million for other small grain,
?Ll million for sorghum, S33 million for pasture, $36 million for range-
land, and $16 million for other crops on which the phenoxys were used in
1966.  The estimates were determined for each of the above crops by par-
tial budgeting using cross-sectional data from the ERS Pesticide and
general Farm Survey, 1966; Agricultural Statistics, 1968; and from Agri-
cultural Research Service weed scientists.

     Key Words:  Cost of restricting herbicides, phenoxy herbicides,
2,4-Dj 2,4,5-T, herbicide, weed control herbicides, economics of herbi-
cide use.

     This report presents estimates of costs to U.S. farmers of prohibi-
ting the use of phenoxy herbicides.  It does noi: consider nonfarm uses
such as herbicide applications to lawns, gardens, industrial sites,
rigr.ts-of-way, and aquaric sites.

     An important assumption of the analysis was that the current level
of farm production would be maintained.  The use of nonphenoxy herbicides,
mechanical means, and other cultural practices were considered as alter-
natives for the phenoxy herbicides.  For some crops, current yields vould
:!cclir>t. nitliCuL U3c oi plieuuAy iiei.'uii.iueb, &u ctuuj.Lj.onai acres would be
needed to maintain production.  The additional land would be available
from that currently diverted under various Government programs.  It was
assumed that through adjustments in the provisions of various Government
programs, payments to farmers would remain the same.

     Data on farr.i use of phenoxy herbicides used in the cost calculations
arc from the nationwide ERS Pesticide and General Farm Survey of 1966,
the most recent available results of which are published in Quantities of
IVsricides Used by farmers in 1966. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Econ. Rpt. No.
179, April 1970.  Although total farm use of herbicides has increased
since 1966, use of phenoxy herbicides in 1969 was riot much above the 1966
level.  Ail quantitiPS of herbicides are expressed in pounds of active
Uumirnl ingredients.  The data are quantities farmers' indicated they had
viM-il in 1966 and do not necessarily mean that such uses are currently
i i'i;i stored.

     The report was prepared jointly by the Economic Research Service
(l.RS) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) , U.S. Department of
•V,i-; culture.  It was developed under the direction of Velmar W. Davis,
I'.imi Production Economics Division, ERS, and William B., Crops
Kii.-UMrch Division, ARS.

     The policy of the Department of Agriculture is Lo continually
i'-.-v:cw ii:;eds £or herbicides and to register and use only those that are
•on- wiL'n. respect to people, property, and the environment.
              20250                                             November  1970




  Product-ion and domestic use	   2
  Farm use	,	   3


  Corn	   7
  Wheat	   8
  Other small grains	,	   9
  Sorghum	   10
  Rice	   11
  Other crops	   12
  Pasture and range! and	«	   13
  Summary of effee ts	   14


TABLES	   16
                      Use of trade  names in this report
                      is for identification" only and does
                      not constitute  endorsement of these
                      products or imply discrimination
                      against other similar products.
                      Chemical names  and ether designations
                      of pesticides are shown in table  17.
           ft: li'la by ifc 

      Prohibiting the use of phenoxy herbicides  (44  million  pounds  yearly)
 --primarily  2,4-D  and  2,4,5-T on   62  million  acres  of cropland—would
 eventually increase costs substantially to consumers.   The  immediate
 effect would be an increase of $290 million in  production costs  to farmers
 The estimates were based on use in  1966 and production  levels, costs,  and
 alternatives in 1969.   In addition,  farmers and their families would'have
 to work 20 million more  hours  to  control the weeds  without  these herbi-
 cides.  For this extra  labor,  the farmers would obtain  no additional

      The increase in costs  represents about 1 percent of the farm  value
 of all crops or 5 percent of the  value  of the crops from the treated
 acres.  The amount is nearly three  times  that spent for weed control with
 phenoxy herbicides,  and  constitutes  an  increase in  costs of $4 64  per
 treated acre.

      The impact  of the ban would  be more  severe for some crops and farmers
 than  for others.   The total  additional  costs for maintaining production
 are distributed,  among crops  as  follows:   corn,  37 percent; wheat.  17 per-
 cent;  other small grains, 10 percent; sorghum,  4 percent; rice,  3  percent;
 other crops.  6 percent;  pasture,  11 percent; and rangeland,  12 percent.

      Alternative  ways of maintaining production include the uses of other
 herbicides^and changing cultural  practices  (e.g., handweeding, spot treat-,  an-  increasing acreage./.   Dicamba could be used as an alternative
 herbicide  to maintain production  on half of the acres of corn, wheat,
 other small  grain, and sorghum treated in 1966 with phenoxy  herbicides.
 On  the remaining  acres of corn and sorghum, other herbicides could be
 used,  along with  some additional  cultivations and spot chemical treatments
 or  hoeing.  Where yields could not be maintained by alternative herbi-
 cides  and cultural practices at reasonable costs, more of the crop would
 be  grown on acres previously diverted from farm production.   For rice,
 the crop rotation would be changed to control most weeds and additional
 acreage planted to offset losses  in  production.

     Of the $290 million additional  costs, other substitutes for phenoxy
 herbicides would  increase farm  costs $61 million.  Added cultural prac-
 tices  on land now being treated with phenoxy herbicides, and loss in
 quality of rice, would increase costs $138 million.   Additional  variable.
 costs  for producing some of these crops  on diverted acres to offset yield
 losses would be  $91 million.

     For individual crops, estimates of  additional costs to  farmers are
as follows:

        Costs of restricting phenoxy herbicides in 1969, by crops

Other small
grain . 	

Other crops.

All crops.

                           -COSTS TO FARMERS-


        Austin S. Fox, Robert P. Jenkins, and Paul A.  Andrilenas
       Agricultural Economists, Farm Production Economics Division
                        Economic Research Service


               John T. Hols tun Jr. and Dayton L. Klingman
                  Agronomists, Crops Research Division
                      Agricultural Research Service


     Herbicides have become an increasingly important  tool in farm pro-
duction in the United States.  They provide both selective and effective
weed control in row crops, nonrow crops, pastures, fence rows, and rights-

     Herbicides are an integral part of the production process that has
evolved with increased specialization and more intensive farming.   While
many of the latest farm practices do increase production, they also pro-
vide a more favorable environment for certain weeds and, in turn,  in-
crease the nsed for effective herbicidal weed control.  Herbicides, by
providing more effective control of weeds, have helped to maintain farm
production with an even smaller labor force.

     The increased use of herbicides suggests benefits to farmers.  How-
ever, the use of herbicides by individuals or groups sometimes may have
undesirable side-effects.  For example, herbicides may cause economic
losses by drifting to nontarget crops and other plants.  Or, they  may be .
transported to other crops by water.

     In general, the phenoxy herbicides, are highly selective, do  not
persist for more than 1 to 6 months in soil, are low in acute mammalian
toxicity, and are effective at low rates and low volumes of application.
These characteristics make them useful components in integrated systems
of weed and brush control.

     The selectivity of phenoxy herbicides permits their use in control-
ling weeds and brush in some, crops and noncropland areas without injuring
desirable plants.  This is important where alternative controls are not
economically feasible.

     Some consideration was given to restricting the use of phenoxy herbi-
cides, particularly 2,4,5-T, in late 1969.    It resulted from a labora-
tory study by a private research firm working under a  Government contract
with the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.  This study indi-
cated that offspring of mice and rats given relatively large oral  doses

of 2,4,5-T during early stages of pregnancy had a higher than expected
number oL: deformities.^/

     This report focuses on the economic effects on U.S. farmers that
would follow a prohibition on the use of all phenoxy herbicides.  First,
however, the report summarizes trends in the production and utilization
of phenoxy herbicides, and briefly discusses possible alternative weed
control practices and the extent to which these alternatives are already
in use.  Then, specific economic costs to U.S. farmers of prohibiting
the use of phenoxy herbicides are estimated for individual crops and
groups of crops on which the phenoxys are used.

     The evaluation of costs of restricting phenoxy herbicides is based
on the following assumptions:  (1) farm production will be maintained at
the level existing before the restriction, (2) brush SZid weeds will be
controlled at 1966 levels, (the most recent year for which detailed data
on the use of herbicides are available), and (3) Government payments to
farmers will not change from present levels.

     Although total farm use of herbicides has increased since 1966, the
1969 use of the phenoxys was rot much above the 1966 level..  Within the
phenoxy group of herbicides, some changes have taken place, but they are
mainly offsetting.  For example, proportionately more 2,4,5-T and less
2,4-D are currently in farm use than in 1966 when the former was in short
supply because of military purchases.

     The cost estimates do not include an evaluation of losses that might
occur on crops protected indirectly by the phenoxy herbicides.  An exam-
ple is cotton, a crop on which phenoxys are not generally used, but which
is protected indirectly by tie*Liner.!: cf ™aof\*. such as cocklebur in corn,
included in crop rotations with cotton.  Neither dees the report cuu&Luei:
losses that would result from weeds and brush not controlled in noncrop
areas or farms, nor losses from Ponfarm uses.

                          PHENOXY llERblCIDES

     The phenoxy herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were first employed by
fanners and ranchers in the mid-1940's and remain the most common synthe-
tic organic herbicides.  They are used in several situations.  The largest
use of 2,4-D is for broadleaf weed control in corn and other grains; the
major use of 2,4,5-T is to kill brush.  These materials are available as
amine salts and esters, but include small amounts of acids and inorganic
salts.  Other lesser used phenoxy or related herbicides include erbon,
fcnac, 2,4-DEP, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, sesone, silvex, dichlorprop, and

                      Productiun and Domestic Use

     Specific data on production and producers' domestic disappearance of
the phenoxy herbicides are available only for 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T.
However, these herbicides accounted for nearly 93 percent of all phenoxys
vised in farming.  Total U.S. production find domestic disappearance of
these herbicides from 1958 to 1958 varied as follows (table 1):
   JL/  News release by the Executive Office of the President, Office of
Scicnco and Technology, Washington, D.C., Oct. 29, 1969.

     (1)  The combined production of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T increased steadily
from 34.6 million pounds in 1958 to 96.8 million pounds in 1968.

     (2)  Production of 2,4-D stayed between 80 and 90 percent of the
total.  The percentage was slightly lower in some of the later years.

     (3)  Exports of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T increased through 1964, accounting
for about 20 percent of production until 1964-.  Since then, exports have
dropped sharply and by 1968 were down to 4 percent of production.

     (4)  The combined domestic disappearance of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in-
creased generally from 1958 through 1965.  It increased from 25.1 million
pounds in 1958 to about 58 million in 1965.  The sharp increase in domes-
tic disappearance to 81 million pounds in 1966 reflects the increased
military'purchases for use overseas.

     (5)  In earlier years, a higher proportion of the production of
2,4,5-T than of 2,4-D was used domestically.  Since 1964, a higher pro-
portion of the production of 2,4-D has been used domestically.

     (6)  The use of 2,4-D accounted for almost four-fifths of the com-
bined domestic disappearance of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T throughout the 1958-65
period.  In 1966, the proportion of 2,4-D was considerably less because
of the increased production and military purchases of 2,4,5-T which are
included in the total domestic disappearance.

                                Farm Use

     Uses of the phenoxy herbicides on farmland are primarily for selec-
tive control of annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in crops, and of
broadleaf weeds and brush on grazing Hands.  They are also used, at rela-
tively high i-ptpq (more than a pound an acre) for spot treatments on
cropland and noncropland, and as general treatment OLI ncricrcplcr.d.  Oft-»n
they are used on crops as postemergence treatments following earlier use
of other herbicides as pree^ergence treatments.  When used for postemer-
gence treatments they are applied as needed.  Low cost, high selectivity,
effectiveness at low rates of use, short persistence, and low acute oral
toxicity to animal life make the phenoxys most desirable for broadleaf

     Farmers take nearly half of all the 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T used in the
United States.  The remainder is used by industry, Government (Federal,
State, and local) and by homeowners.

     Farmers' use of phenoxy and other herbicides is summarized as follows
(tables 2-5):

     (1)  Phenoxy herbicides account for a large share of all herbicides
used by farmers--38 percent in 1966.  Their proportion is declining be-
cause the use of other herbicides, such as atrazine and propachlor, is
increasing more rapidly.

     (2)  The herbicide 2,4-D accounted for ovar 90 percent of the
phenoxy herbicides used by farmers in 1964 and 1966.

     (3)  Nearly all the phenoxy and other herbicides were used on crops
or grazing land.  About 7 percent of all acres of crops,  pasture, and
rangoland was treated with phenoxys in 1966.

     (4)  Although the acreage? treated was small, nearly 2 percent of the
phenoxys and 3 percent of other herbicides were used extensively for
treating fence rows, ditches, grounds around buildings, and other noncrop

     (5)  In 1966, 84 percent of the farm use of phenoxy herbicides was
on corn, wheat, other small grain, pasture, and rangeland.  These crops
accounted for 46 percent of the farm value of all crops, and occupied 78
percent of all crop acres, including pasture and rangeland.  The largest
use of phenoxys, 34 percent, was on corn.

     (6)  Herbicides other than phenoxys were used in largest quantities
on cotton, corn, soybeans, fruits and nuts, and vegetables.

     (7)  In 1966, phenoxy herbicides accounted for 98 percent of all
herbicides used on pasture and rangeland, 97 percent of those used on
small grains other than wheat, 88 percent on wheat, and 33 percent on

     (8)  The quantity used and extent of use of phenoxy herbicides varied
among crops.  In 1966, for example, almost 2 pounds of phenoxys were used
on each of the 145,000 acres of rice treated.  This compares with an
average of less than 0.5 pound of phenoxys an acre on wheat and other
small grains.  Average applications on corn and grazing land were two-
thirds and three-fourths of a pound of phenoxys, respectively.

     (9)  Corn and wheat accounted for nearly two-thirds of the acres
treated with  2,4-D  in 1966.  Corn alone accounted for 39 percent.  The
largest use of "2,4,5-1 was on pasture and  rangeland.


     For some weed problems in some crops, no fully satisfactory weed
control alternatives for the phenoxy herbicides are available.  But for
many crops, other herbicides and selected cultural techniques can be
used to control some of the same weeds, although at higher cost.  In
still other situations, alternative herbicides are even more effective
than the phenoxys.

     The role of the phenoxy herbicides in weed and brush control is
complex.  The land area protected greatly exceeds that treated in any
one year because the phenoxys are frequently part of a continuing weed
control system.  If the phenoxy treatments, or satisfactory alternatives,
were not applied when needed, certain weeds would increase rapidly, and
yearly treatments would soon become a necessity.  Research has shown that
species of weeds that escape control often become the predominant species.
With poor control for only 2 co 3 years, the weed population can shift
to a "hard-to-control" complex.  Use of the phenoxys minimizes such shifts
through their contributions to integrated systems of control.2/  These
systems evolved from years of research and testing.  Many of Them are
complex and delicately balanced.   Removal of an essential component, such
   2_l -  An-integratffl weed control system includes all production practices
for the entire farm over tine.   Chemical,  mechanical, and cultural prac-
tices used to control weeds are all considered as they affect and are
affected by other farm practices such as seedbed preparations, and fer-
tilizer practices.

as the phenoxy herbicides, without replacement with a satisfactory alter-
native, can make the entire system ineffective.

     Dicamba is the best replacement for phenoxy herbicides in many sit-
uations.  It gives better control than the phenoxys of some broadleaf
weeds such as smartweed, wild buckwheat, and white cockle.  It is cur-
rently recommended in mixtures with the phenoxys for control of these
weeds in small grains,  It is not a satisfactory alternative for many
other broadleaf weeds and brush (e.g,,x^ild mustard, curly deck, milkweed,
Russian knapweed, field bindweed, many species of oak, and mesquite).
Only 2,4-D is registered for application to wheat in mature stages for
control of weeds that interfere with harvest.  Such use is particularly
needed in the winter vjheat areas.  A low degree of tolerance by crops,
hazards from drift and persistence, and higher costs limit the usefulness
of dicamba on other field crops and grazing land.

     Preemergence treatments with such herbicides as atrazine, amiben,
diuron, fluometuron, linuron, trifluralin, nitralin, and propachlor con-
trol many of the same species of weeds controlled by the phenoxy herbi-
cides.  But these herbicides have only a limited value as alternatives
to phenoxy herbicides.  Their current use is often in conjunction with,
rather than in place of, postemergence treatments with the phenoxy herbi-
cides.  Preemergence treatments with these herbicides are seldom feasible
for rice, wheat, or other small grains.  Preemergence use of diuron on
small grains, for example, is limited to the Pacific Northwest.  One or
more of these herbicides are used extensively as preemergence treatments
on corn, sorghum, sugarcane, and soybeans.  Some use of these treatments
is made on grazing lands, and on grasses and legumes grown for seed.

     Postemergence treatments with atrazine. atrazine in oil-water
emulsion, linuron, diuron, chloroxuron, and others also control many
species of weeds controlled by the phenoxy herbicides.  Such postemergence
treatments can be considered as aicernai-ivfss L.U puenuAyb co a greater
degree than similar preemergence treatments.  Postemergence treatments
with one or more of these herbicides can be used on corn, sorghum, sugar-
cane, soybeans, and on grasses and legumes grown for seed.  Little or no
use could be made of these treatments on grazing lands, rice, wheat, or
other small grains.  These treatments, however, have limitations.  Some
must be applied as directed sprays, and thus cannot be applied by aircraft.
Few of these treatments are effective if the weeds are much beyond the
seedling stage when treated.  Many of these alternative herbicides are
also applied as preemergence treatments, and the additional postemergence
applications must not be enough to cause the total to exceed the amount
that is registered for use within one crop season.  Excessive residues in
the soil may injure succeeding crops.

     Postemergence treatments with certain other herbicides, such as
propanil in rice, or brorr.oxynil in small grains, will control certain
weeds in these crops.  But such herbicides fail to control many broadleaf
weeds that the phencxy herbicides will control.

     A number of organic herbicides such as picloram, prometone, diuron,
and several inorganic harbicides such as sodium chlorate or sodium boratp.
can be used to kill most plant life in noncrop areas.  In this sense,
they control the weeds controlled by the phenoxy group.  But they arc
not satisfactory alternatives because of possible adverse effects on the
environment, including erosion of soil from the denuded areas.

     Some alternative herbicides, although considered satisfactory, are
 less desirable because of adverse effects on crop production.  For example,
 barley has less tolerance for dicamba than for 2,4-D.

     Cultivation and other kinds of mechanical control are alternatives
 to phenoxy herbicides in some situations.  Additional cultivation of inter-
 row spaces after emergence of crops, additional tillage before planting,
 chain-dragging and bulldozing brush, killing weeds with flame, and inten-
 sive fallowing for extended periods (1 to 3 years) are examples.

     Alternative cultural practices are seldom as effective as proper
 treatment with the phenoxy herbicides.  These practices do not control
 weeds that reach above the crop; their use may result in soil erosion
 by wind and water; and they may also pollute the air with dust and smoke.
 For example, alternative methods of reducing stands of shinnery oak on
 certain sandy soils in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico create wind erosion
 hazards that may do irreparable damage.

     Increased farm use of higher cost alternative herbicides mighc be an
 incentive to the chemical industry to develop new herbicides that would
 be satisfactory alternatives for the phenoxys.  But experience suggests
 that the development of new selective herbicides is relatively slow.
 It is not likely that effective materials, that are as selective as the
 phenoxys for controlling the broad range of weed species in many different
 crops, can be developed quickly.

                        ECONOMIC EFFECTS ON CROPS

     This analysis givec estimates of costs from prohibiting all phenoxy
 herbicides used on crops and grazing lands.  It does not consider such
 noncrop farm uses as treating fence rows, ditches, yards, gardens, and
 aquatic sites that make up about 2 percent of the farmland and represent
 less than 2 percent of the farm use of phenoxy herbicides.

     The evaluation is based on the farm  use  of herbicides in 1966, che
mcst recent available.  The results are believed to represent 1969 eco-
 nomic effects of restricting the phenoxy herbicides.  The only major
 change in phenoxy herbicide use patterns since 1966 involves spot treat-
ments for control of such perennials as field bindweed.   For practical
 purposes,  2,4-D  is now the only herbicide that, can be used for spot
 treating these weeds on almost 9 million acres of small  grains and

     Although acreages and geographic distribution of crops, farm use of
 herbicides, and costs of herbicides per acre to farmers  are for 1966,
 yields are averages for 1965-67.  Data for recent years  were used for
 estimates of use of alternative herbicides, cost of supplemental cultural
practices, amount and productivity of land brought into  production, and
variable costs of producing crops on additional acres.
   3/  In recent years, field bindweed has been held in check by a system
of Tallowing for 2 yp.atrs followed hy spot rreafment with soil scerilants
to control surviving plants.  The recent cancellation of registration of
soil sterilants for use on cropland has created new use for the phenoxys
in 1969.

     The most economical alternative herbicides and cultural practices
were considered.  It wcis assumed that additional acres of crops would be
grown if cotal production of each crop could not be maintained by other
alternatives.  These acres are less productive than those treated with
phenoxy herbicides.4/  Sufficient quantities of alternative herbicides
were assumed to be available at 1966 prices.  It was also assumed that
additional land needed -jould be obtained through adjustments in Government
wheat and feed-grain programs.  Although such adjustments would not affect
all farmers similarly, it: was assumed that total Government payments to
farmers would not decline.

     Average variable costs, including hired labor plus a fifth of the
usual charge for depreciation on added capital, were applied to the
additional acres'needed to maintain production.  No charges were included
in the analysis for the additional hours of operator and family labor
needed to bring land back into production.

     The only reduction in costs was the expenditure formerly made for
phenoxy herbicides and their applications.


     Corn valued at $5«.l billion was produced on 66.3 million acres in
1966.  The majority of it was grown in 10 States—Illinois, Iowa, Indiana,
Ohio. Missouri, Nebraska, Michigan, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

     Corn yields have risen significantly in the last 20 years.  Much cf
the credit for this, comes from such major technological developments as
hybrid seed, improved fertilization practices, insecticides, and
herbicides.  One family of herbicides whose increase in use parallels
these yield increases is the phenoxy compounds.

     More recently developed herbicides such as atrazine, CDAA, and
linuron are used to complement, or replace, r.he phenoxy herbicides in
some situations.  Yet about 23 million acres--more than a third of all
corn acreage--were treated with the phenoxys in 1966 (table 5).  Atrauine,
the next most popular herbicide, was used on 14 million acres that year.

     The phenoxy compounds do not adequately control grasses in corn, but
are extremely effective against broadleaf weeds and vines.  Alternative
herbicides do not control all broadleaf weeds under adverse conditions.
However, dicamba will control many species but at higher cost and greater
risk of damage to susceptible crops in adjacent fields.

     Adjustments and costs.  What would be the effect of prohibiting the
use of phenoxy herbicides on corn?  Dicamba could be used to control weeds
on nearly half, or 11 million, of the acres treated with phenoxy herbi-
cides in 1966 (table 6).

     On the remaining acres, preemergence treatmant with propachlor plur.
atrazine followed by postemergence treatment with herbicides such as
atrazine or linuron could be used.  This would need to be supplemented
with cultivation and handweediiig or spot treatment with herbicides.  This
   4/  Estimates of lower productivity are from F.  Weisgp.rber' s Produc-
tivity of Diverted Cropland, U.S.  Dep't. Agr,,  Econ. RCG.  Scrv., ERS-398,
Apr. 1969.

treatment would be relatively effective for control of annual broadlcaf
weeds and grasses emerging with or soon after the corn.   Once a post-
emergence treatment: with the above materials had been made,  they could
seldom be reapplied for weeds that emerge later.  They wnuld not be
effeeuive for annual weeds more than 3 to 5 inches high and  would not
control perennial broadleaf weeds.  Postemergence use of these materials
would depend, in part, on whether the material had been used as a pre-
emergence treatment.  The total amount that can be used in one season  is
limited by registration and sometimes by crop tolerance.  Because of
these limitations, the acres created with herbicides other than dicamba
would require a net addition of one cultivation plus handweeding, or
spot treatment with other herbicides.  These would be needed to prevent
populations of perennial broadleaf weeds (bindweed, horsenettle, honey-
vine milkweed) or large-seeded annuals (morningglory,  cocklebur) from
increasing.  These weeds, and others like them, would not be effectively
controlled by postemergence applications of atrazine or linuron.

     The total additional cost to farmers for producing corn, if the
phenoxy herbicides were unavailable, is estimated at $107 million (table
6).  This is almost three times the cost of weed control using phenoxy
herbicides.  It is about 2 percent of the 1966 farm value of corn and
6 percent of the farm value of corn from phenoxy-treated acres.


     Wheat valued at $2.1 billion in 1966 was produced on 54.5 million
acres.  Most of it was produced in the Plains areas and the  Pacific

     Wheat growers treated 28 percent of the total wheat acreage with
herbicides in 1966.  About 90 percent of the herbicides used in wheat
production were in North Dakota. Sonrh nsViot^, Mimics.-.ta, Honcana,
Colc/rauu, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon.  Farmers in these States treated
about 80 percent of their wheat acreage.  Herbicide treatments go mainly
on spring wheat.  But in unusually wet years they are sometimes used
extensively on hard red winter wheat in many areas.  They are also widely
used on winter wheat in the Northwest.

     Wheat producers used more phenoxy herbicides than other types of
herbicides.  They treated more than 15 million acres of wheat with herbi-
cides in 1966, and more than 14 million acres received phenoxy herbicides
(table 5).  The most widely used herbicides were  2,4-D,  MCPA,  and  dicamba.
Of these,  2,4-D  accounted for 83 percent of 8.2 million pounds of herbi-
cides applied.

     Wheat producers began to use phenoxy herbicides in the  1940Ts with
the discovery of  2,4-D.   Use increased rapidly.  The phenoxys, especially
2,4-D,  are inexpensive and provide effective control of broadleaf weeds.
Other herbicides that will control annual broadleaf weeds in wheat are
more expensive, often are not as effective, and are less tolerated by

     Adjustments and costs.  What would be the effect on wheat growers if
the use of phenoxy herbicides were prohibited?  Dicamba, diuron, or
broinoxynil could substitute on about  half of the wheat acres treated
with phenoxys in 1966 (table 7).  Wheat appears tolerant to  dicamba before
jointing.  Later applications cause some crop injury.   This  lack of crop
tolerance limits its use in much of the winter wheat area because wheat

is ofren beyond the jointing stage when weed problems occur.  Dicamba is
not registered for application to mature wheat lor control of late-season
weeds.  Dicamba is also more expensive and will not selectively control
many weeds controlled by  2,4-D.   Diuron or brosnoxynil might also be used
on some wheat acres but they are less selective and even more expensive.
They do not control all of the problem weeds, and diuron is not registered
for use except in the Pacific Northwest.

     On about half of the wheat acres treated with phenoxy herbicides,
there are no suitable substitutes.  On these acres, wheat producers would
have to accept an average loss of 30 percent in yield.  In some areas,
farmers might have a complete crop loss in some years.

     For the acres where there are no suitable subscitutes for the phenoxy
herbicides, wheat producers could maintain production by planting 3.3
million more acres and by additional cultivations during fallowing to
control such perennials as field bindweed on about 5 million acres (table
7).  Adding acres now diverted under Government wheat and feed-grain pro-
grams would increase variable costs $40 million and machinery investment
and depreciation costs another $5 million.  Additional fallowing to con-
trol bindweed and other perennial weeds would increase costs $12.1 million.

     Prohibiting the use of phenoxy herbicides would add $50.5 million
to farm costs.  This is more than twice the cost of controlling weeds with
phenoxy herbicides.  It is over 2 percent of the farm value of wheat and
8 percent of the value of wheat produced on acres treated with phenoxys.
Also, these growers would need to provide about 5 million additional
hours of operator and family labor.

                           Other Small Grains

     Barley, oats, and rye valued at $977 million were grown on 35.6
million acres in 1966.  These smut 11 ^raliis were fcur.d iv. ell rcgicr.c cf
the United States.  But 96 percent of the barley was grown in the Lake
States, Northern Plains, Mountain, and Pacific Regions.  And 86 percent
of the oats was grown in the Corn Belt, Lake States, and Northern Plains

     About 15 percent of the farmers growing small grains, other than
wheat, used herbicides, but they treated 29 percent of the acres grown.

     The phenoxys are the most important herbicides used on other small
grains.  In 1966, 97 percent of the 4.9 million pounds used were phenoxy
herbicides.  About 8.1 million acres or 83 percent of other small grain
acres treated with herbicides were treated with 2,4-D  (table 5).

     Adjustments and costs.  What would be the effect of restricting the
use of phenoxy herbicides on other small grains? Dicamba could be used
to control weeds on half of the 9.7 million acres that were treated with
phenoxy herbicides in 1966 (table 8).  However, dicamba is more expensive
and the range of crop tolerance is narrower.  On the remaining acres, no
practical substitute exists for the phenoxy herbicides.  Herbicides that
are not phenoxys do not provide adequate control of certain weed pests.
On these acres, small grain producers would sustain a loss in yield.

     On acres where there Is no suitable substitute herbicide for the
phenoxys, i t is estimated that: prohibiting  their use would reduce yields of
other small grains by 30 percent.  Farmers would need to increase

Che acreage of small grains planted by 1.8 million acres to maintain pro-
duction.  This additional acreage of small grains would increase farmers'
variable costs $20.4 million and the average annual machinery investment
and depreciation costs another $2.7 million.  Necessary changes in cul-
tural practices, including the substitution of fallow cultivation for
phenoxys to control bindweed and other perennial weeds, would add $9.1
million more to farmers'  costs.

     Prohibiting phenoxy herbicides would add $28.5 million to farm costs.
This is over twice the cost of using phenoxy herbicides for weed control.
It is nearly 3 percent of the farm value of other small grains and 9 per-
cent of the value of these small grains produced on phenoxy-treated acres.
In addition, these growers would need to provide 2.8 million additional
hours of operator and family labor.


     Sorghum has become an important feed crop.   Planted acres exceeded
16 million in. 1966, about a fourth that of corn.  Most of this was in the
Southern and Northern Plains, and in parts of the Corn Belt.  In some of
these areas, where moisture is insufficient or poorly distributed during
the growing season, sorghum will produce more total digestible nutrients
(TDN) than corn.

     The phenoxy herbicides have helped make possible efficient production
of sorghum.  They are especially useful for controlling broadleaf weeds
and vines.  This reduces the competition from weeds for needed moisture
and in some areas, tne amount of fallowing requirad.

     In 1966, farmers applied phenoxy herbicides to 3.6 million acres of
sorghum, almost a fourth of all sorghum acres (table 5).  The triazines,
the ceccr.d ~cct popular Srsu? cf herbicides, -..-ere ucsd cr. ftwai: tl»» =i
million acres and almost no other herbicides were used on sorghum.

     Adjustments and costs.  What would be the effect on sorghum producers
if the phenoxy herbicides were prohibited?  Of the 3.6 million acres
treated with phenoxys, dicamba could be used to  replace nearly half of
the phenoxys (table 9).  For the acreages treated with dicamba, the
effect would be limited to increased herbicide costs.

     On the. remaining acres, production could be maintained using other
herbicides if additional cultural practices were used.  Atrazine and oil
could be used as a postemergence treatment for control of grasses and
some broadleaf weeds but this replacement costs  more and crop tolerance
is less than with corn.  Currently, it is registered only for use in
New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.  Adoitional cultural practices would be
required in lieu of phenoxy herbicides in programs for control of bindweed
and other perennial pesrs in certain areas.  In  these areas, a 2-year
fallow program, involving 16 cultivations, could be substituted at the
beginning of each 10-year production cycle for periodic spot-treatments
(or general treatments in crops) with phenoxy herbicides.  This substi-
tution would raise costs by about $1 million.

     The additional costs to farmers of these alternative practices would
total more than $11 million per year—about twice the cost of using
phenoxy herbicides for weed control.  This is about 1.4 percent of the
farm value of sorghum and more than 6 percent of the value of production
from acres treated with phenoxy herbicides.



     Farmers produced rice valued at $421 million in 1966.  This produc-
 tion was primarily in four States--Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and
 California.  Production was almost equally divided among the four.

     About two-thirds of the rice growers applied herbicides.  They
 treated a little more than half of 2 million acres of rice grown in 1966.
 About 145,000 of these acres were treated with phenoxy herbicides (table

     The use of propanii, which accounted for 90 percent of the herbicides
 used on rice in 1966, effectively controls one of the major weeds--barn-
 yardgrass.  Propanii also controls several species of broadleaf weeds.
 It does not effectively control curly indigo, redstem, purple ammania,
 or many aquatic species.

     The phenoxy herbicides complement propanii in the control of broad-
 leaf weeds.  Those not controlled by earlier applications of propanii,
 as wall as the midseason and late season brcadleaf weeds, are effectively
 controlled by the phenoxys.  These weeds are major problems on almost
 500,000 acres.  Control is maintained by treating about a third of these
 acres each year with phenoxy herbicides.

     Use of the phenoxy herbicides also helps to maintain the quality of
 the grain.  Broadleaf weeds growing in rice during harvest will increase
 the moisture content and contaminate che grain with weed seeds and plant
 parts.  The greater the contamination, the lower the quality and price
 of the rice.

     Adjustments and costs.  What would be the effect of prohibiting the
 pher.o::y herbiciH.«?s7  If no 
acres of soybeans to summer fallow and another 24,000 acres to rice pro-
duction would reduce the quantity of soybeans produced by 3.9 million
bushels, j?/  This decline in soybean produce ion could be offset by addi-
tional fertilizer applied to 1.7 million acres of soybeans.  The in-
creased use of fertilizer would add $5.6 million to costs.

     If phenoxy herbicides are not available to control weeds on the
145,000 acres treated in 1966, the rice produced would be contaminated
with weed seeds and plant parts.  The resulting loss because of the de-
cline in quality is estimated at $2.2 million.j?/

     The net loss to rice producers because phenoxy herbicides would not
be available is $7.6 million.  This is about 19 times the cost of using
phenoxy herbicides to control the weeds.  It is nearly 2 percent of the
farm value of rice and 25 percent of the value of production from acres
treated with phenoxys.  In addition, these growers would need to provide
an additional 142,000 man-hours of operator and family labor.

                               Other Crops

     The phenoxy herbicides are used to control weeds and regulate growth
of a wide variety of crops.  Some of the crops--corn, small grains,  sorghum,
and rice as well as pasture and rangeland--on which the phenoxysiare used
extensively are discussed separately.   Other crops on which smaller amounts
of phenoxys are applied are grouped together for analysis.  These include
cotton,  soybeans, peanuts,  tiugarbescs, vegetables, fruits, nuts, land
being fallowed, and all other crops.  The smallness of uhe acreages treat-
ed and also the minuteness of the quantities used conceal the tremendous
impact of the phenoxy herbicides on these crops.

     tor instance,  z,4,:>-T used as a growth   regulator to thin fruit in
thii spring and to hold it on tha tree until harvest in autumn, saves a
large labor expenditure, insures a better quality product, and leads to
a more orderly harvest.  On cotton, the phenoxy herbicides are sometimes
used as desiccants for killing the foliage.  This facilitates mechanical
harvesting.   Wax bars impregnated with phenoxys suspended on cultivators
are used in soybean fields  to control x?eeds rising above the soybean
plants.   Grass seed contaminated with weed seed because of poor weed con-
trol cannot be certified and its value can be reduced more than 50 per-
cent.  Phenoxy herbicides are important parts of effective weed control
programs in the grass seed  crops.
   8/  To offset the 3.9 million bushels of soybeans lost from these
acres, 1,746 thousand additional acres would have to be fertilized using
1964 practices.  The cost of applying the average quantities of fertilizer
when used on soybeans in this area was $3.23 per acre for materials and
application.  It has been estimated that the application of additional
fertilizer would increase average yields about 2.2 bushels per acre.
   9/  A loss in quality valued at $0.40 per hundredweight would occur
when production from the 145,000 acres formerly treated with phenoxy
herbicides was marketed.  It also would occur on 2,000 wpp.d infested
acres or 7 percent of the 24,000 additional  acres brought into production.
It is assumed that the average yield on these 147,000 acres would be
37.2 hundredweight per acre.  The loss in quality would be $14.88 per


     The phenoxy herbicides are used on about 3.6 million acres of other
cropsj some of which were devoted to the production of high value crops.
Thus, a loss in productivity could cause serious losses (table 5).

     Adjustments and costs.  Losses on acres of other crops formerly
treated, but left untreated if phenoxy herbicides are restricted, are es-
timated at 15 percent.  To offset these losses, about 538,000 additional
acres must be brought into production (table 11).  The average variable
cost of production for acres needed to replace the phenoxy loss was es-
timated to be $39.67 an acre.  For the 538,000 additional acres required,
this amounts to $21.3 million added costs.  However, after subtracting
savings from not applying phenoxys, farmers would have $16.0 million of
additional costs.  This is less than one-fourth of 1 percent of the total
farm value of these other crops but it is 7 percent of the value of pro-
duction from phenoxy treated acres.  In addition, these growers would
need to provide 3.6 million additional hours of family labor.

     This method of analysis is not fully valid for maintaining production
on crops in this grouping which require long periods of time to bring in
new production.  In these instances, where the phenoxys had been used as
herbicides, handweeding and cultivation would probably be the best alter-
natives.  For growth regulator purposes, other, sometimes more expensive,
materials such as  2,2-dimethyl  hydrazide 10/ and carbaryl would be used.
Phenoxys used for cotton dericcation probably could be omitted without
loss provided recently introduced desiccants are available.

                          Pasture and Rangeland

     There were about 630 million acres of pasture and rangeland in farms
in 1964, including about 58 million acres of cropland used for pasture
and 82 million acres of woodland pasture.  Thus, in terms of acres,
pasture and range is the largest farm and ranch enterprise.  These lands
provide ir.uch fcra^c- fo~- H?iry and lipef cattle  sheep, horses, and some
for hogs and poultry.

     Much of the pasture and most of the rangeland is untillable because
of shallow soils, and steep, rocky, or rough terrain.  Much of it is also
unsuitable for cultivated crops because of low average annual precipi-
tation*. 'Weeds on much of the pastureland may be partially controlled by
mowing, but most of the weeds and brush on rangeland must1 be controlled
by a combination of managed grazing, and mechanical and herbicide treat-
ment.  If control programs are not used, then broadleaf weeds and shrubs
compete strongly with grasses and legumes for sunlight, moisture, and
nutrients.  Mechanical control of weeds and brush on much of the range-
land appears to be expensive, and in many instances farmers and ranchers
have resorted to less costly herbicide treatments.

     At present, Lhe phenoxy herbicides are the only group of herbicides
used to any extent on pasture and rangeland.  Weeds and brush infesting
pasture and rangelancl are most widely controlled by  2,4-D and 2.4,5-T,
respectively.   In 1966, nearly 8 million acres (more than 1 percent) of
pasture and rangeland were treated with phenoxy herbicides (table 5).
The phenoxy herbicides have several advantages for use on pasture and
rangeland.  They are pffcctive, selective, and inexpensive; they do not
        (B-Nine, Alar)


harm grasses at the rates used; and they can be effectively and econom-
ically applied by aerial equipment.  Fewer chemical substitutes for the
phenoxy herbicides ust?d on weeds and brush in pasture and rangeland are
available than for other crops.

     Of the 7.8 million acres treated with phenoxys, 5.2 million acres
were pasture and 2.6 million acres were rangeland (tables 12 and 13).

     Adj us tmen ts arid cos f s .  What would be the economic costs if the
phenoxy herbicides were not used on these lands?  Mowing and land reno-
vation are the primary alternative control methods on pasture.  This land
would be renovated at intervals by disking, fertilizing, and seeding to
maintain productivity.

     Mowing is not a satisfactory alternative to the phenoxy herbicides
for most of the rangeland because much of it is covered with woody shrubs.
The major alternatives for removing shrubs are bulldozing, chopping, root
plowing, shredding, root grubbing, or chain dragging with crawler tractors.
These methods are expensive when measured against benefits received.  In
many cases, the brush must be chopped with a heavy disk, raked, or burned.
Seeding, fertilizing, and deferred grazing are common practices accom-
panying hand clearing for successful control.  Mowing, if the land is not
too uneven and rocky, will control weeds for a few years following brush
removal and seeding.

     Although a relatively small percentage of the pasture and rangeland
acreage is involved, the additional costs are very high, about $69 nil lion
--almost four times the cost of using phenoxy herbicides for weed and
brush control.  Thic is about 2 percent of the value of all range and
pasture production, and more than the value of production on phenoxy
herbicide treated acres.  Eight million additional hours of family labor
    H ajl^n V*o r»ooHorl_
     Producers of feed from pasture and rangeland, particularly rangeland,
would face exceptionally high additional costs in relation to the value
of forage if phenoxy herbicides are prohibited.  They might find such
outlays for improving rangeland unprofitable.

                           Summary of Effects

     Stopping the use of phenoxy herbicides would add about $290 million
to farm costs (table 14) .   When phenoxy herbicides are used to control
weeds on 62,5 million acres, costs per acre for these herbicides and
their application are $1.64 per acre.  Alternative methods that could
replace phenoxy herbicides on these acres would add $4.64 per acre.  This
would increase the total cost to $6.28 an acre- -nearly four times that
of the phenoxy herbicides.  The increase in cose is about 1 percent of
the farm value of all crops or 5 percent of the value of crops from the
treated acres.

     The herbicides substituted for phenoxys on 38.7 million acres would
increase farm costs for materials and application $60.7 million above
those for phenoxys.  The cost of substitute herbicides and application
($163 million) would be $4.22 per acre for nearly 39 million acres treated.
Corn production would account for 75 percent of the increase in the cost
of purchasing and applying substitute herbicides.

     Over 5.7 million additional acres of cropland, not including rice, 3aintain_produr..tJon-and offset—yield losses. -Additional'


variable costs of $90 millicn would be incurred in adding these acres.
The average variable coses on the additional acres are $15.79 per acre
added.  About 90 percent of che added acres would be needed to maintain
the producuion of wheat and small grains.

     Range renovation and seeding, mowing Lo control weeds, and other
cultural practices on crops other than rice would add $131 million to
farm costs.  These cultural practices would be needed on 30.6 million
acres at an average cost of $4.28 per acre.  Pasture and rangeland
would account for 66 percent of the added costs of cultural practices.

     Lowered quality of rice would add another $2 million to the cost
of restricting the use of phenoxy herbicides.  Also, net additional
costs for cultural practices on rice and the added variable costs of
substituting rice for soybeans add $6 million to costs.

     The total additional costs for maintaining production would be
distributed among crops as follows:  corn, 37 percent; wheat, 17 percent;
other small grains, 10 percent; sorghum, 4 percent; rice, 3 percent;
other crops, 6 percent; pasture, 11 percent; and rangeland, 12 percent.

     In addition to the costs resulting from the prohibition of phenoxy
herbicides, farm operators and their families would need to provide nearly
20 million hours of additional labor to maintain current production and

                             NONCROP USES

     Large quantities of phenoxy herbicides are now used for noncrop
purposes.  These include treatment of fence rows, road banks, and ditches,
but data on acreages so treated are not available.  Hence, no estimates
on the impact of banning phenoxy herbicides on costs' of controlling weeds
in these biuudLiuus wei/e maJc.  These uccc ;;culd hive little direct is?.--
mediate effect on productivity, but would require more mechanical work
and labor.  Labor used for these purposes would probably increase at
least 10-fold.  Also, uncontrolled weeds in fence rows and along ditches
and roads would provide reservoirs of weeds to reinvade cropland.

    Table  1.--Production,  exports,  ana  dornesLic  disappearance  of 2,4-D
             and  2,4,5-T  (acid  basis),  United  States,  1958-68

Production \J


2,4-D and

disappearance 2j

i 2,4,5-T

   j./  Does not include the acid equivalent of esters and salts produced
from precursors other than the acid form of the phenoxy herbicide.  Pro-
duction of other precursors v/as relatively minor before 1967.
   27  Production and initial carryover stocks plus imports less exports
and end-of-year carryover stocks.  Producers' domestic disappearance in-
cludes military shipments abroad; these are not considered exports.
   _3/  Not available.

   Source:  The Pesticide Reviews,  1968 and 1969.   U.S.  Dept.  Agr., Agr.
Stabil. and Conserv.  Serv.

Table 2.--Quantities and peircencages of phenoxy and other herbicides  used
in  farm production, by type of herbicide, United States, 1964  and  1966 _!/
                                    1964 2/
1966 3/
                                  Million             Million
                                  pounds    Percent   pounds     Percent

Phenoxy herbicides:
  2,4-D	   34.4        41       40.1        35

  2,4,5-T	    1.7         2          .8         1
  MCPA	    1.5         2         1.6         1

  Other phenoxy herbicides	      .8         1         1.5         1

    All phenoxy herbicides	   38.4        46       44.0        38

  Atrazine	   10.9        13       23.5        20

  Dicamba	    4/         _5/          .2        _5/

  Linuron	      .2        5_/         1.4         1

  Propachlor	.	    £/         6/         2.3         2

  Picloram	    4/         V          .1        5/

  Cacodylic acid	    77         U        ^/         I/

  Other herbicides £/	   J4«i        4i       43.6        38

    All others	   45.6        54       71.3        62

      Total herbicides 9/	   84.0       100      115.3       100

Defoliants and desiccants 10/...   16.1                   6.1
   I/  Does not include Alaska and Hawaii.
   Y/  Revised estimates basp.d on Quantities of Pesticides Used by Farmers
in T964. U.S. DepL. Agr., Agr. Econ. Rpt. No. 13 L, Jan. 1968.
   T7  Based on Quantities of Pesticides U.spd by Farmers in 1$^-  U.S.
Dept. of Agr., Agr. Econ. Rpt. No. 179, April 1970.
   4/  Less than 50,000 pounds.
       Less than 0.5 percent.
       Data not available.
       None reported.
-   -
   9/  Does not include petroleum.
  1H/  Includes some materials used as herbicides.  Includes primarily
arsenic a'cid, "cnluifates; ' arid 'KoTfaTcs', T6l'ex^R\ and

    Table 3.--Acres grown, farm value of production, and quantities of phenoxy
         herbicides used, by crops and other uses, United States, 1966 ^/
Crop and
other use
Other small grain...

Pasture and range-
Noncrop use 	
Farm value
dollars Percent
pounds Percent
   I/  Does not include Alaska and Hawaii.
   ?/  Calculaccd from acres reported in Crop Production. 1967, U.S. Dept. Agr.,
CrPr 2-2 (7-67) and from estimates based on 1964 Census of Agriculture.
   3_/  Calculated from farm value reported in U.S. Dept. Agr., Agricultural Statis-
tics, 1968.
   4/  Based on Quantities of Peslicides Used by Farmers in 1966. U.S. Dept. Agr.,
Agr. Econ.  Rpt. Ho. 179.April 1970.
   5/  Less than 0.5 percent.
   ]>/  Estimated $6.50 per acre.  Based on che weighted averag-2 feed value of
cropland pasture ($27.00 per acre) and grassland pasture and rangeland ($4.70  per
   7/  Data, not available.

    Table 4.--Quantities and percentages of phenoxy and other herbicides used,
                 by crops and other uses, United States, 1966 I/
Crop and
other use

Other small grain...
Other crops 	
Pasture and range-


herbicides 2_l
Mil] ion
pounds Percent
15.0 34
- 7.2 16
4.8 11
2.0 5
.2 1
3.7 8
10.3 ' 23
.8 2
44.0 100
I/ Based on Quantities of Pesticides
Other ;
nerbicides |

Used by Farmers in 1966. U.S.
Dept. Agr
Agr. Econ. Rpt. No.  1/9, April 1970.Does  not include Alaska and Hawaii.
   ^/  includes acids, amine salts,  high-volatile esters,  low-volatile esters,
and inorganic salts  of 2,4-D and 2,4,5~T.   Also includes  other phenoxy herbicides
and related herbicides such as erbon,  fenac,  2,4-UEP,  MCPA,  MCPB, mecoprop,  sesone,
silvex, dichlorprop. and 2,4-DB.
   V  Less than 0.5 percent.

     Table 5.--Acres treated with phenoxy and other herbicides, by types of herbicide and by
                          crops and other uses, United States, 1966 i/
Phenoxy herbicides:
2,4,5-T 3/"..' 	
Other phenoxy 	
Others: _?/


Corn :
: Othei:
Wheat : small
: grain
and other acres
: Sorghum : Rice
treated £;
; Other ;
\ crops \
Pasture :
and : Total
rangeland :

I/ Based on Quantities of Pestici
13.7 8.1
.1 .1
.8 1.5
A/ 4/
1.2 .2
des Used bv Fa

3.4 0.1
4/ 4/
rmprs in 1Q66. 11

.S. Dept.
6.7 56.9
.9 1.6
4/ 2.9
.1 1.1
i./ 15.0
4/ 1.6
4/ .1
Agr. , Agr. Econ. Rp
No. 179, April 1970.  Does not include Alaska and Hawaii.
   2^1  Does not include noncropland acreages such as fence rows and ditch banks nor nonfarm uses.
Acreages cannot be added to get land area treated because more than one herbicide may be applied
to the same acres.  For example, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T may be applied to the same acres for v/eed control,
   J3/  Acres treated were down from 3.1 million in 1964 because of increased military purchases
in 1966.
   4/  Less than 50,000 acres.
   J>/  Selected substitutes for phenoxy herbicides.  Other herbicid •, can be used to control many
of the same weeds controlled with phenoxy herbicides.

                     Table  6.--Corn:  Costs of restricting  the use  of phenoxy herbicides,
                                            United f.tates,  1969  I/

Weed control practice

1956 use of:
Phenoxy herbicides 	 	 	
Substitute practice 2/

Other herbicides
Pireemergence 4/ 5/ 	

Other cultural practices 8/ 	
Additional costs
Substitute practice 	 	

Acre s
Acre s


11, ('00


; Costs per acre
: Materials : Application
Dollars Dollars

0 60 1.00

1 .85 1.00
4.30 0.50
1.70 1.00






31 .4


          I/   Estimates based  on use  shown  by  the ERS Pesticide  and General Farm  Survey,  1966  and  on
       substitute  practices available in  1969.
          21   Allocation  of acres  based on  ARS  estimsites.
          3/   Assumes ueeds being  controlled with  2,4-D on  11 million acres can  also be  controlled with
       dicamba without a  lost,  in production ot  the need  for  additional cultural practices.
          4/   On the 12,136 thousand  acres  not  treated with  dicamba,  a preemergence  treatment  would be
       applied consisting of propachlor at  3 pounds an acre  plus atrazinc at l.b  pounds an acre.   Costs
       are indicated only for  the  atrazine  portion oJ' this treatment  because propachlor is used  primarily
       to  control  grasses not  adequately  controlled with phenoxy herbicides.
          _5_/   Other herbicides (amiben, butylate, CD/.A,  linuron, simazine) could  also be  used  in programs
       similar to  that described,  but the cost  would be  equal or greater.
          6/   A banded application of postemergence Treatment with atrazine to the acres  not treated with
       dicamba at  the broadcast rate  of 1.5 pounds an acre in oil-water  emulsion.
          7/   One  additional cultivation  of acres not treated with dicamba.
          \i   Where needed, follow herbicide treatment and mechanical cultivation with spot treatments
       using  herbicides or handueeding to suppress w(;eds not controlled  by earlier treatments.  The cost
       for this practice  assumes widely scattered anil limited infestation over all acres  not treated with

             Table 7.--Wheat:  Costs of restricting the use of phenoxy herbicides,  United States,  1969 _!/

Weed control practices

1966 X-SG of:
Phenoxv herbicides 	
Substitute practice 2/

Additional costs
Substitute practices 6/ 	

; Costs per acre
Acres :
Materials Application
acres Dollars Dollars"
14,577 0.50 1.00

7,000 1.18 1.00
3 335 	 	

.•».•_ _ . _ _ — — __




•- V _ _

Hours per





   I/  Estimates based on use shewn by the EUS Pesticide and General Farm Survey,  1966 and on substitute practices
available in 1969.
   2/  Allocation of acres and yield losses based on ARS estimates.
   3/  Assunes weeds on ',000 thousand acres can be controlled with dicamba.
   5/  Acres needed to offset loss in production on the remaining 7,577 thousand acres where no satisfactory alterna-
tive herbicide is available.  Based on 1965-67 aver.ige yield of 24.5 bushels  per acre on presently used land, 22.0
bushels on additional acres, 80 percent of acres infested, and 30-percent loss in yield on acres not treated.
 3,335= (14,577-7,000) (24.5) (0.30) /22.0-(0.30) (0.80) (22.0).  Yields are  for States where most of the herbicides
were used.  Variable costs are per planted acre (table 15).
   _5/  Acres infested with bindweed.  The control i.s additional cultivations  duiing a 2-year fallow period.  The $2.40
cose per acre is for 16 cultivations in 2 years out of a 10-year period at $1.50 per acre prorated over 10 years.
   ^/  Cost of substitute practice less cost of using pheroxy herbicides.

      Table 8.--Other small grains:   Costs  of  restricting  the use  of phenoxy herbicides, United States, 1969 JL/

Weed control practice

1966 use of:

Substitute practice 2/
Dicamba o/ 	

Cultural practices 5/ 	 	 	
Additional costs
Substitute practice 6/...... 	 	 	 	

; Costs per acre
\cres :
: Materials Application
acres Dollars Dollars

9,692 0.51 1.00

5 000 1.18 1.00

— — — •. « •• _ H • « « V


Total :


2 18


Hours per

Trtf-a 1


43 1

28 •>


   I/  Estimates based on use shown  by  the  £RS  Pesticide  and  General Farm  Survey,  1966 and on substitute practices
available in 1969.
   2/  Allocation of acres and yield losses based  on  ARS  estimates.
   3/  Assumes weeds on 5,000 thousand  acres can be controlled  with dicamba.
   7/  Acres needed to offset loss in production on the remaining  4,692  thousand acres.  Based on 1965-67 weighted
average yield of barley,  oats, ana rye  (44.0 bushels)  en  presently used  land, 37.0 bushels on additional acres,  30
percent of additional acres will  need to be treated end 30  percent loss  in yield on acres not treated.  1,838=  (9,692-
5,000) (44.0) (0.30) / 37.0-(0.30)  (0.30)  (37.0).  Veriable costs  are  per  planted  acre (table 15).
   J>/  Acres infested with bindweed.  The control  is  additional cultivations during a 2-year fallow period.  The $2.40
cost per acre is for 16 cultivations in 2 years over  a 10-year  period  at $1.50 per acre prorated over  the 10 years.
   _6/  Cost of substitute practice less cost of using  phenoxy herbicides.

           Table 9.--Sorghum:   Costs  of restricting  the  use  of  phenoxy herbicides, United States, 1969 _!/
Weed control practice
1966 use of:

Subst Ltuce practice 2/

Tillage prac tices 5 / 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	 	

Additional costs

Costs per acre
Materials Application
Dollars Dollars
0.56 1.00
1.85 1.00
4.24 1.00
---- ----

do] Lar.s
   ±1  Estimates based on use shovn by  the ERS Pesticide  and General Farm  Survey, 1966 and on substitute practices
available in 1969.
   2/  Allocation of acres based on ARS estimates.
   7/  Assume weeds controlled with 2,4-D  on 1,7CO  thousand acres  can also be controlled with dicamba without a  loss
in production or the need for additional cultural  practices.
   47  Assume weeds being controlled with 2,4-D en  1,853 thousand  acres can be generally controlled with atrazine
and oil.  All acres so treated require  an additional cultivation.
   5/  One additional cultivation at $0.75 per acre  on  land  treated with atrazine and oil.
   1>/  Acres infested with field bindweed and other  perennial weeds must receive 16 cultivations in 2 fallow years out
of each 10-year period at $1.50 per acre per cultivation  prorated  over the 10 years of effectiveness.  This amounts
to $2.40 per acre.

             Table 10.--Rice:   Coses of restricting Che use of phenoxy herbicides,  United  States,  1969 _!/
Weed control practice
1966 use of:

Substitute practice 2/

Los:; in qualitv &/ 	
Addc'd fertilizer on soybeans 5/ 	
Changing rotation 6/ 	
Additional costs

: Costs per acre
Materials Application Total
Dollars Collars Dollars
1.72 1.00 2.72
Hours per
Mi 1 L Lon
   I/  Estimates based on use shown by the ERS Pesticide and General Farm Survey,  1966 and on substitute practices
available in 1969.
   21  Allocation of acres and yield losses based on ARS estimates.
   3/  Acres needed to offset loss in production en the L43 thousand acres where no satisfactory alternative is
available.  Based on 1965-67 average yield of 43.8 hundredweight per acre and a 15 percent lower yield due to weeds.
24 = 145 (0.15) (43.8; / 43.8 - (0.15) (0.52) (43.8).  The additional land taken out of soybeans has the &ame produc-
tivity.  Variable costs are per planted acre with nonphe-ioxy herbicides used on half the added acres (table 15).
Farmers will increase their costs $65.70 an acre by growing rice rather than soybeans.
   4_/  The cost of a loss in quality is associated with the production from all of the acres  treaced with phenoxy
herbicides plus 2,000 additional acres.
   5/  Additional fertilizer was applied to 1,746 thousand acres of  soybeans to offset the loss in production on  145
thousand acres shifted to summer fallow and 24 thousand acres shifted to rice production.
   £/  The substitution of fallow for 1 year of soybeans reduces fanners costs"on these acres because the variable
costs oi~ summer fallowing ($3.90 per acre) are $9.85 an acre-less than the variable costs of  producing soybeans ($13.75
an acre).
   2.7  Hours of family labor required on acres adc'ed to maintain rice production.   Hours of labor are the additional
hours required in the switch from soybeans to rice.  Rice requires 9.2 man-hours of family labor per acre and soybeans
need 3.3 man-hours for a net addition of 5.9 man-hours per acre.

         Table 11.--Other crops:  Costs of restrict:ng the use of phenoxy herbicides,  United States,  1969 _!/
              Weed control practice
                                                                            Costs per acre
1966 use of;
  Phenoxy herbicides,
Substitute practice 2/
  Additional acres 37..


Additional costs
~ Substitute practice k_l'
Additional family lahor.
                           Hours per





   I/  Estimates based on use shown by the ERS Pesticide and General Farm Survey, 1966 and on substitute practices
available in 1969.
   2/  Allocation of acres based on ARS estimates.
   T[/  Acres needed to offset loss in production on the 3,590 thousand acres of other crops.   Fifteen percent more
acres are needed to replace losses due to lower yields and quality, and che lower productivity of the additional acres.
The cos': per acre for the additional acres is an average vnriable cost for the o.ther crops weighted by the acres treated
with ph<;noxy herbicides.  Variable costs are per planted acre, not per treated acre; chus, no adjustment is made in
the additional acras to allow for those that would not be treated.
   ft/  Cost of substitute practice less cost of using phenoxy herbicides.

           Table 12.--Pasture:  Costs of restricting the use of phenoxy  herbicides, United  States,  1969 _!/
Weed control practice
1966 use of:

Substitute practice !2/

Addirional costs.

Additional fatiily labor 	 	 	 	

Costs per acre
Materials Auplication Total
acres Dollars Dollars Dollars
5,178 1.00 1.00 2.00
2,500 	 	 15.66
2,678 	 	 1.55
Hours per
5,178 	 	 3/0.91
10. 4
   I/  Estimates based on use shown by the ERS Pesticide and General Farm Survey,  1966  and on  substitute practices
available in 1969.
   "il  Allocation cf acres based on ARS estimates.   Assumes that on the average 5,178 thousand acres  need to be treated
each year.  The same acreage would not generally be treated in successive years.   Productivity would  be maintained by
renovation and mowing.
   J3/  Weighted average of additional hours used for renovation and mowing obtained  by  dividing total hours  by acres
where used.

               Table  13.--Rangeland:   Costs  of  restricting  the use of phenoxy herbicides, United States, 1969 _!/
Weed control practice
1965 use of:

Substitute practice 2/
Renovation 3/ 	 	 	

Additional costs
Substitute or act ice 	 	 	

Costs per acre
Materials Application Total
Dollars Dollars Dollars
1.80 1.00 2.80
Hours per
dol lars
       L./   Estimates  based  on  use  shown  by  the ERS  Pes.ticidc  and  General  Farm Survey,  1966  and  on  substitute  practices
    available in  1969.
       2J   Allocation of acres based  on  ARS estimates.  Assumes that  on the  average  2,589 thousand acres  need to  be  treated
    each year.  The same acreages  would  not generally  be  treated  in successive years.
       3/   Includes disc plowing,  cultivating, seeding, and reseeding on  land not  presently infesLed with brush.
       5/   Also includes root  plowing, cultivating,  seeding,  and  reseeding where needed on  enough  of the  remaining acreage
    to maintain production  at  levels  attained with  phenoxy herbicides.  All  of this  remaining land is  brush infested.   It
    was estimated that  72 percent  of  the acres not  reuovatable could  be bulldozed  and  reseeded  to  maintain carrying
    capacity.  Such treatments are generally effective for irore than  10 years.
       5_/   Weighted average of additional hours  used ior  renovation,  bulldozing, and mowing obtained by dividing  total
    hours  by acres where used.

      Table 14.--Effects of restricting the use of phenoxy Herbicides In farm production, United States, 1969 _!/

Wheat . . . : 	
Other small grain..



Acres on
inputs needed
Land 2/

Additional costs

practices !_/
Million dollars--
acres 3_/

costs £/

   \l  Estimates based on use shown by the ERS Pesticide and General Farm Survey, 1966,  and on substitute practices
available in 1969.  Does not include Alaska and Hawaii.  Does not include fence rows,  ditches, building sites, other
noncropland, Government-sponsored control programs, nor any nonfarm use.
   2/  Calculated based on ARS estimates of yield re.-luctions.
   2/  Includes costs for hired labor assuming the n.itional average ratio of hired labor to total labor used for each
   4/  Additional costs for alternative materials, for growing new acreages, and for lower payments less the lower
expenditures for phenoxy herbicides.
   I/  Additional costs for cultural practices and loss in quality related to maintaining rice production minus returns
for rice above those for soybeans on the additional acres where rice was grown in place  of soybeans.  Includes $2.2
million for lower income from loss in quality.

           Table  15.--Variable  costs  per  planted  acre  and related data  Cor growing additional acres  of wheat,  other small grains,
                                and rice  in areas where phenox-j  herbicides were used,  United States,  1969
r2 5 	


Variable machine costs

Machine depreciation and investrient

per p ,r ; ToLol
Dollars Collirs
1.1 2. "10 2.20
.5 1 . 'JO . 80
16.7 .10 1.67
13.0 ..0 1.30
6.3 . )4 .25

3i?all grains
Per ; To;<;1
unlt : acre
Dollars Dollars
.95 1.52
1.60 .80
.10 1.03
.09 .93
.05 .28

per \
acre )

; Total
I per
   I/  Twenty percent of the usual per acre interest on investment and depreciation costs.  It is assumed that 80 percent of the machinery
and equip-neiit necessary to farm the" added acres is currently a /ailable on farms.

   Table 16.--Acres Created with phenoxy herbicides and variable costs
       per additional acre, selected crops, United States, 1969 I/
Crop 21


Vegetables other than potatoes

Acres treated
with phenoxy
herbicides 3/
1,000 acres

: Variable costs
: per acre k^l

   I/  Does not- include Alaska and Hawaii.
   T/  Includes all crops where phenoxy lieirbicidcc T.:cre reported used in
an ERS Pesticide and General Farm Survey, 1966, other than corn, wheat,
other small grain, sorghum, rice, pasture, and rangeland.
   3/  Data from ERS Pesticide and General Farm Survey, 1966.
   7/  Includes seed, hired labor, fertilizer, pesticides, fuel, oil,
machinery repairs, custom services, 20 percent of machinery depreciation
and interest, and all production interest charges.
   5/  Preharvest costs only.
   "5V  Weighted average of crops other than summer fallow.
   7/  Weighted average of crops including summer fallow.

            Table 17.--Idontifi'.atio.i oC pesticides mentioned  in  this  report
      Common name or
     other designation
                                     Chemical Name
                                      TKS LAC3I.

                                u. KfMTScn or itunimi
                 Thi«?  *y.:blicst"|or>  rppnrt-f*  reBearrh Involvino:
              pesticides.   It  does  not contain recommendations
              for their use,   nor does it imply  that the uses
              discussed here have been  registered.   All uses
              of pesticides must be registered by appropriate
              State  and/or Federal  agencies before they  can
              be recommended.
              CAUTION:  Pesticides  can be injurious to humans,
              donfistic animals,   desirable plants, and fish or
              other wildlife   --  if they  are not  handled or
              applied properly.  Use all pesticides selectively
              and carefully.   Follow recommended practices  for
              the disposal of  surplus pesticides and pesticide