&EPA
          United States
            'imenta
          Age.

           1820

          Research and Development
Wastewater
Renovation and
Retrieval on
Cape Cod

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                RESEARCH REPORTING  SERIES

Research reports oi the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate-
gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en-
vironmental technology. Elimination of traditional  grouping was consciously
planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields.
The nine series are:

      1.  Environmental Health  Effects Research
      2.  Environmental Protection Technology
      3.  Ecological Research
      4.  Environmental Monitoring
      5,  Socioeconomic Environmental Studies
      6.  Scientific and Technical Assessment Reports (STAR)
      7.  Interagency Energy-Environment Research and Development
      8.  "Special" Reports
      9.  Miscellaneous Reports

This report has been assigned  to the ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TECH-
NOLOGY series. This series describes research performed to develop and dem-
onstrate instrumentation, equipment, and methodology to repair or prevent en-
vironmental degradation from point and non-point sources of pollution. This work
provides the new or improved technology required for the control and treatment
of pollution sources to meet environmental quality standards.
 This document is available to the public through the National Technical Informa-
 tion Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

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                                             EPA-600/2-79-176
                                             August 1979
WASTEWATER RENOVATION AND RETRIEVAL ON CAPE COD
                       by
    R.F. Vaccaro, P.E. Kallio, B.H. Ketchum,
      W.B. Kerfoot, A. Mann, P. L. Deese,
     C. Palmer, M.R. Dennett, P.C. Bowker,
          N. Corwin and S.J. Manganini
      WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION
        WOODS HOLE, MASSACHUSETTS  02543
               Grant No. S-802037
                Project Officer

               William R. Duffer
Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory
              Ada, Oklahoma  74820

            This study was conducted
              in cooperation with
      Division of Water Pollution Control
         Commonwealth of Massachusetts
       Westborough, Massachusetts  01581
ROBERT  S. KERR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY
        OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
      U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
              ADA, OKLAHOMA  74820

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                                 DISCLAIMER
     This report has been reviewed by the Office of Research and Development,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and approved for publication.   Approval
does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies
of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names
or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for  use.

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                                  FOREWORD


    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established to coordinate
administration of the major Federal programs designed to protect the quality
of our environment.

    An important part of the agency's effort involves the search for infor-
mation about environmental problems, management techniques and new technolo-
gies through which optimum use of the nation's land and water resources can
be assured and the threat pollution poses to the welfare of the American
people can be minimized.

    EPA's Office of Research and Development conducts this search through a
nationwide network of research facilities and by cooperative efforts with
state agencies and private institutions.  In this case, we are pleased to
acknowledge the active participation of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

    The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory is responsible for
the management of programs to: (a) investigate the nature, transport, fate
and management of pollutants in groundwater; (b) develop and demonstrate
methods for treating wastewaters with soil and other natural systems; (c)
develop and demonstrate pollution control technologies for irrigation return
flows; (d) develop and demonstrate pollution control technologies for animal
production wastes; (e) develop and demonstrate technologies to prevent, con-
trol or abate pollution from the petroleum refining and petrochemical indus-
tries; and (f) develop and demonstrate  technologies to manage pollution re-
sulting from combinations of industrial wastewaters or industrial/municipal
wastewaters .

    This report contributes to the knowledge essential if the EPA is to meet
the requirements of environmental laws  that it establish and enforce pollu-
tion control standards which are reasonable, cost effective and provide ade-
quate protection for the American public.
                            William C.  Galegar
                            Director
                            Robert  S. Kerr Environmental  Research Laboratory
                                     111

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                                   ABSTRACT
    A rapidly increasing population on maritime Cape Cod has generated con-
siderable interest in alternative wastewater disposal techniques which pro-
mise to maintain high groundwater quality and promote its conservation.
Such deliberations, five years ago, led the authors to undertake an assess-
ment of agricultural spray-irrigation as a potential means of lessening
groundwater contamination and depletion.  In the course of these studies
individual components of an entire wastewater-cropping facility have been
isolated and subjected to detailed examination.  Experimental emphasis has
been placed on variations in the rates and methods of wastewater application
and in the types of rennovative agricultural crops placed under wastewater
irrigation.

    Results from these studies have been highly promising and suggest that
under ideal circumstances, the coupling of secondary domestic effluent to
animal forage crops can bring about a degree of wastewater renovation which
exceeds direct disposal to sand filter beds and approaches the goals of ter-
tiary treatments.  Moreover, three desirable consequences, i.e., water con-
servation, crop irrigation and nourishment and wastewater renovation are
simultaneously achievable.  Further confirmation and extentions of these
results could mean an elevation of domestic wastewaters into the category of
a significant natural resource.

    Geologically, Cape Cod is viewed as a glacial outwash plain connected to
a series of drown river valleys.  The local geohydrology features several
hundred feet of glacial till overburdening deep basement rock,  a  condi-
tion ideally suited for wastewater irrigation.  Also available is a consid-
erable amount of undeveloped acreage which could be committed to wastewater
recycling.  The soil is generally sand and poor in an agricultural sense,
yet usage and conditioning has resulted in dry forage grass yields in excess
of 8.9 metric tons (four short tons) per hectare per year.

    Relative to crop requirements, there is characteristically an excess of
phosphorus over nitrogen in most secondary effluents.  However, excess phos-
phorus which the plants are unable to utilize is readily bound within the
uppermost foot of soil.  A similar fate is accorded unassimilated heavy
metal ions which are also stabilized within the soil and denied access to
underlying groundwater.  Distinct from the above behavior, other chemical
elements of secondary effluent such as chloride, sodium, potassium and boron
have been observed to penetrate the groundwater to a considerable extent.
The ultimate impact of such penetration has not been fully resolved.
                                     IV

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                                  CONTENTS
Foreword	
Abstract	   iv
Figures	  vii
Tables	   ix
List of Abbreviations	xiii
List of Symbols	  xiv
Acknowledgments	   xv

Section

   1  INTRODUCTION	    1
        Background	    1
        Objectives	    3

   2  CONCLUSIONS	    4
        General	    4
        Hydrogeology	    4
        Physical Characteristics of the Soil	    5
        Recharge Time	    5
        Irrigation Water: Crop Relations	    5
        Chemical Soil Characteristics	    6
        Groundwater Quality Changes	    6
        Public Health Considerations	    6

   3  RECOMMENDATIONS	    8

   4  THE EXPERIMENTAL SITE	   10
        Otis Sewage Treatment Plant	   10
        System Design and Installation	   14

   5  CHEMICAL ANALYTICAL METHODS	   16

   6  SAND FILTER BED PERFORMANCE	   21
        Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Chloride Modification
          by a Sand Filter Bed	   21
        Trace Metal Modifications by a Sand Filter Bed	   24

   7  CHANGES IN NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS DURING AGRICULTURAL
      SPRAY-IRRIGATION	  26

   8  IRRIGATION-CROP RELATIONS	  30
        Crop Yields vs Irrigation Applied	  30
        Chemical Composition and Nutrient Characteristics of Crops	  34

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                            CONTENTS (Concluded)

        Nitrogen:Phosphorus Balance and Exchange	  36
        Additional Chemical Elements Measured in Otis Forage Crops	  39
        Wastewater Renovation by Crops	  41

   9  GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY AND THE IMPACT OF SPRAY-IRRIGATION	  47
        Hydrogeological Studies	  47
        Groundwater Quality Changes	  53

  10  CHLORINATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS IRRIGATED WITH
      DOMESTIC WASTEWATER	  61

References	  70
Appendix	  73
                                     vi

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                                   FIGURES
Number                                                                   Page

   1.  Plan of Otis Sewage Treatment Plant, sand filter beds,
       lagoon and irrigated sites	 13

   2.  Sand filter bed with location of wells and lysimeters	 18

   3.  Location of monitoring wells adjacent to the sand
       filter bed	 19

   4.  Groundwater quality beneath sand filter bed	 22

   5.  Winter and summer phosphate-phosphorus concentrations	 27

   6.  Winter-spring ammonia, oxidized and total inorganic
       nitrogen concentrations	 28

   7.  Summer-fall ammonia, oxidized and total inorganic
       nitrogen concentrations	 29

   8.  Effluent applied vs crop yields	 31

   9.  Total hydraulic load vs crop yields	 32

  10.  Total effluent delivered to subplots and equivalent amounts
       of nitrogen and phosphorus applied and retained	 37

  11.  Long-term renovative efficiencies for nitrogen, phosphorus
       and potassium	 42

  12.  Long-term renovative efficiencies for copper, cadmium
       and zinc	 43

  13.  Geology of the Falmouth area of Cape Cod, Massachusetts	 49

  14.  Water table map for Falmouth area, Cape Cod, Massachusetts	 50

  15.  Saturation thickness, Falmouth area aquifer Cape Cod,
       Massachusetts	 51

  16.  Location of the observation wells and discharge point
       with respect to the Retrieval Well, Otis AFB, Cape Cod,
       Massachusetts	 52

                                    VI i

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                             FIGURES (Concluded)

Number                                                                   Page

  17.  Time related chloride changes in groundwater beneath
       Site A	 55

  18.  Time related nitrate-nitrogen changes in groundwater
       beneath Site A	 56

  19.  Time related sodium changes in groundwater beneath
       Site A	 57

  20.  Time related potassium changes in groundwater beneath
       Site A	 58

  21.  Time related boron changes in groundwater beneath Site A	 59

  22.  Typical experimental format for studying coliphage, MS-2,
       survival in response to controlled chlorine concentrations
       and contact times at Otis Air Force Base	 63

  23.  Graphic presentation of coliphage, MS-2, survival in the
       presence of experimentally added chlorine concentrations
       at Otis Air Force Base	 65

  24.  Seasonal variations in temperature, pH,  ammonia-nitrogen
       and the corresponding chlorination indices for coliphage,
       MS-2, in lagoon water, Otis Air Force Base	 66

  25.  Computer-tested relations describing the combined effect
       of pH and temperature and ammonia-nitrogen on the inactiva-
       tion of coliphage, MS-2,  by chlorine	 68
                                   V111

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                                   TABLES
Number                                                                   Page
   1.  Wastewater Characteristics of Otis Treatment Plant	12
   2.  Laboratory Intercalibration  Results	 20
   3.  Heavy Metal Supply to Experimental Sand Filter Bed	 24
   4.  Heavy Metal Build-up in a Sand Filter Bed	 25
   5.  Annual Productivity and Yield Ratios for Wastewater
       Irrigated Forage Crops	 33
   6.  Yield Ratios for Total Plants, Leaf Plus Turf Produced
       Per Unit Irrigation Volume	:	 34
   7.  Elementary Composition,  Major Elements, Otis Forage Crops	 35
   8.  Energy and Nutritional Potential, Otis Forage Crops	 38
   9.  Nitrogen-phosphorus Content of Otis Soils	 39
  10.  Nitrogen-phosphorus Ratios, Otis Forage Crops 1974-1977	 40
  11.  Elementary Composition,  Major Cations, Otis Forage Crops
       1975-1977	 41
  12.  Elementary Composition,  Trace Elements, Otis Forage Crops
       1975-1977	 44
  13.  Renovative Efficiencies, Percent, for Various Chemical
       Elements Applied to Crops of Site A, 1974-1977....	 45
  14.  Renovative Efficiencies, Percent, for Various Chemical
       Elements Applied to Crops of Site B, 1974-1977	 46
Baseline Water Analyses
 A-l.  Otis Treatment Plant, Secondary Effluent	 75
 A-2.  Lagooned Secondary Effluent	 78
 A-3.  Chlorinated Irrigation Water	 80
 A-4.  Tap Water, Otis Treatment Plant (source, local deep well)	 82
 A-5.  Tap Water, Otis Field Laboratory (source, local shallow well)	 84
 A-6.  Tap Water, Woods Hole Potable Water Supply	 86
 A-7.  Surface Water, Ashumet Pond, Fisherman' s Landing	 88
                                     ix

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                               TABLES (Continued)
 Number                                                                   page
 Subsurface Water, Site A, East Plot
 A- 8.  Well Water, Well /M	 90
 A- 9.  Soil Water from 6", Lysimeter	 93
 A-10.  Soil Water from 1', Lysimeter	 95
 A-ll.  Soil Water from 2', Lysimeter	 96
 A-12.  Soil Water from 3', Lysimeter	 97
 A-13.  Soil Water from 4', Lysimeter	 99
 Subsurface Water, Site A,  South Plot
 A-14.  Well Water, Well #5	101
 A-15.  Soil Water from 6", Lysimeter	104
 A-16.  Soil Water from 1', Lysimeter	105
 A-17.   Soil Water from 2', Lysimeter	106
 A-18.   Soil Water from 3', Lysimeter	107
 A-19.   Soil Water from 4', Lysimeter	108
 Subsurface Water,  Site A,  West  Plot
 A-20.   Well Water,  Well #6	110
 A-21.   Soil Water from 6",  Lysimeter	113
 A-22.   Soil Water from 1',  Lysimeter	115
 A-23.   Soil Water from 2',  Lysimeter	116
 A-24.   Soil Water  from 3',  Lysimeter	117
 A-25.   Soil Water  from 4',  Lysimeter	118
 Subsurface  Water,  Site A,  Control Plot
 A-26.   Well Water, Well  #3	,	120
 A-27.   Soil Water  from 6", Lysimeter	123
 A-28.   Soil Water  from I1, Lysimeter	124
 A-29.   Soil Water  from 2', Lysimeter	125
 A-30.   Soil Water  from 3', Lysimeter	126
 A-31.   Soil Water  from 4', Lysimeter	127
 Subsurface  Water,  Site B,  Timothy Quadrant
A-32.   Soil Water  from 6", Lysimeter	129
A-33.   Soil Uater  from 1', Lysimeter	130

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                              TABLES (Continued)
Number                                                                   Page
A-34.  Soil Water from 2',  Lysimeter	131
A-35.  Soil Water from 3',  Lysimeter	132
A-36.  Soil Water from 4 ',  Lysimeter	I33
Subsurface Water, Site B, Smooth Brome Quadrant
A-37.  Soil Water from 6",  Lysimeter	13^
A-38.  Soil Water from 1',  Lysimeter	135
A-39.  Soil Water from 3',  Lysimeter	136
Subsurface Water, Site B, Timothy-Alfalfa Quadrant
A-40.  Soil Water from 6",  Lysimeter	137
A-41.  Soil Water from I1,  Lysimeter	138
A-42.  Soil Water from 2',  Lysimeter	 139
A-43.  Soil Water from 3',  Lysimeter	140
A-44.  Soil Water from 4',  Lysimeter	141
Subsurface Water, Site B, Reed Canary Quadrant
A-45.  Soil Water from 6",  Lysimeter	142
A-46.  Soil Water from 1*,  Lysimeter	143
A-47.  Soil Water from 2',  Lysimeter	144
A-48.  Soil Water from 3',  Lysimeter	145
A-49.  Soil Water from 4 ',  Lysimeter	146
Subsurface Water, Site B, Control
A-50.  Well Water, Well #8	!47
A-51.  Soil Water from 6",  Lysimeter	149
A-52.  Soil Water from 1',  Lysimeter	15
A-53.  Soil Water from 2',  Lysimeter	151
A-54.  Soil Water from 3',  Lysimeter	I52
A-55.  Soil Water from 4',  Lysimeter	I53
Subsurface Water, Site B
A-56.  Well Water, Well #7	I54
Hay and Turf, Site A
A-57.  Reed Canary, East Plot	I56

                                      XI

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                             TABLES (Concluded)
Number                                                                   Page
A-58.  Reed Canary, South Plot	157
A-59.  Reed Canary, West Plot	158
A-60.  Reed Canary, Control Plot	159
Hay and Turf, Site B
A-61.  Timothy	16
A-62.  Smooth Brome	i61
A-63.  Timothy-Alfalfa	162
A-64.  Reed Canary	I63
A-65.  Control Plot	164
Soil Samples, Site A
A-66.  East Plot	165
A-67.  South Plot	i66
A-68.  West Plot	167
A-69.  Control Plot	168
Soil Samples, Site B
A-70.  Northeast Plot, Timothy	169
A-71.  Southeast Plot, Smooth Brome	170
A-72.  Southwest Plot, Timothy-Alfalfa	171
A-73.  Northwest Plot, Reed Canary	172
A-74.  Control Plot, Timothy	173
                                     Xll

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                            LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
                                   Special
AFB      Air Force Base
A        Delta, difference between
         two values
DPD      Diethyl-p-phenylene diamine
E        East
EPA      Environmental Protection
         Agency
ET       Evapotranspiration
F-ratio  Significance level
HC
I
K
Hydraulic conductivity
Chlorination index - concen-
tration of chlorine (mg per
1) necessary to provide a 90
percent reduction in MS-2
concentration
Linear intercept
Linear slope
MS-2

N:P
P4 X 6

PFU
ROW
R-value
S
Sd
SFB
SPSS

SY
TEA
THL
Coliphage, culture designa-
tion
Nitrogen:phosphorus ratio
Escherichia coil, culture
designation
Plaque forming units
Retrieval observation well
Degree of chemical reduction
South
Standard deviation
Sand filter bed
Statistical package for the
social sciences
Specific (hydraulic) yield
Total effluent applied
Total hydraulic load
cals  calories
cm    centimeter
gal   gallon
ha    hectare
in    inch
kg    kilogram
km    kilometer
1     liter
m     meter
                         Quantity
                                3
                               m
                               mm
                               Mi
                               Mi2
                               ml
                               pH
                               ppm
     cubic meter
     millimeters
     mile
     square mile
     milliliter
     -log hydrogen ion concentration
     part per million
                               ppb  part per billion
                               ym   micrometer
                                    xiii

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                               LIST OF SYMBOLS
   Miscellaneous
C  Degrees Celsius
P   Protein
C   Carbohydrate
L   Lipid
>   More than
<   Less than
=   Equal to
EP  Total phosphorus
              Chemical
B   Boron
C   Carbon
Ca  Calcium
Cd  Cadmium
Cl  Chloride
Cr  Chromium
Cu  Copper
Fe  Iron
H   Hydrogen
K   Potassium
Mg
Mn
N
NH.
4
N02
N03
Na
P
P04
Zn
Magnesium
Manganese
Nitrogen
Ammonium
Nitrite
Nitrate
Sodium
Phosphorus
Phosphate
Zinc
                                     XIV

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                               ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    An inordinate amount of assistance from a variety of sources was re-
ceived during the course of these studies.  To the many who gave generously
of their time, expertise and resources because of a sincere interest in fur-
thering research on wastewater renovation the authors are most grateful.
Special thanks are accorded Clifford Man, Chief, Facilities and Services,
U.S. Department of Defense and to the staff of the Water and Sewage Group,
Otis Air Force Base for helping to coordinate the research efforts of the
authors, while also performing their responsibilities at the base.

    For valuable advice on matters relating to accepted agricultural prac-
tice, and for information on crop and soil chemistry and pathology our
thanks are expressed to the resident staff of the University of Massachu-
setts, Amherst and to the State Cooperative Extention Service, Hyannis.  In
these respective areas, we are grateful to Drs. Martin Weeks, Ralph Morgan
and Thomas Peters and to the Messers Richard Rhode, Arnold Lane and Chuck
Simmons.

    The Lockwood Corporation of Gering, Nebraska kindly provided a rotary
irrigation machine at no cost to the project and rendered assistance with
its errection and maintenance.  Also, the Rainbird Company of Glendora, Cal-
ifornia was an important source of advice on sprinkler selection compatible
with the irrigation requirements for the research activity.

    We also acknowledge the cooperation received from the Groundwater Branch
of the U.S. Geological Survey on matters relating to hydrological measure-
ments and information concerning aquifer characteristics of the local Cape
Cod groundwater.  Prominent contributors in this area are Michael Frimter,
Jack Guswa and Dennis LeBlanc.

    For valuable advice relating to facilities construction including the
design and installation of lagoon and retrieval well systems the authors are
respectively indebted to Frank Sullivan of Lancaster, Massachusetts and  to
Everett Hinkley of Falmouth, Massachusetts.

    Finally, the authors wish to thank Fred Medeiros, our resident engineer
at Otis, for contributions beyond the scope of his normal duties and also
William Richards for practical assistance with agricultural methods compat-
ible with local farming peculiarities.
                                      XV

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                                  SECTION 1

                                INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND

     Between 1974-78 the Cape Cod Wastewater Renovation and Retrieval Project
of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution investigated spray-irrigation-
cropping as a means of furthering secondary wastewater treatment on Cape Cod.
These efforts have been generously supported by the Research and Development
Office of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and by the Division of
Water Pollution Control, Commonwealth of Massachusetts.  A series of interim
reports  [1-4] prepared at this institution describes the background, concepts,
research facilities, and scientific contributions attached to these efforts.

     Coastal areas, such as Cape Cod, which have evolved geologically as ter-
minal moraines, often present unique hydrological features which can markedly
influence groundwater management.  The topsoil of such areas is ofte.n a wind-
blown sandy loam which overlies deposits of coarse sand and gravel extending
to bedrock several hundred feet below the surface.  The bulk of this overbur-
den is water saturated and in some instances subdivided into an upper fresh-
water lens which floats above a deeper and denser saltwater layer.  The high
permeability characteristic of these soils tends to favor the development of
lakes and ponds rather than river formations; the former representing surface
exposure of the local groundwater table [5, 6].  In this situation, ground-
water is the only reliable source of freshwater available for domestic and
industrial use.

     Groundwater reserves are highly vulnerable to excessive exploitation and
quality deterioration associated with rapid industrial development and popu-
lation growth.  Cape Cod, a summer recreational area of southeastern Massachu-
setts has a year round population of about 115,000.  During the summer months
a tenfold increase in population is not unusual.  The native population, in-
creasing each year by about 3.8 percent, is expected to double by the year
2000.  Within the same time period, an average increase of 20 percent in daily
individual water usage is predicted.  To meet anticipated demand, community
water facilities will need to double over the next 20 years.

     In coastal areas a finite amount of recharge to groundwater is essential
to maintain the subsurface hydraulic barrier which controls saltwater intru-
sion across the seawater/freshwater interface.  Excessive groundwater losses,
i.e., excessive wastewater disposal to the sea, can upset the existing fresh-
water-seawater equilibrium with damaging consequences.  A case in point is
that of Nassau County, Long Island where the combined effects of excessive
groundwater removal by a burgeoning population has led to excessively high

                                       1

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concentrations of sea salts and nitrates in the groundwater [7].

     Many coastal or peninsula towns, typical of Cape Cod are slowly but
surely approaching the maximum recommended rate of groundwater removal, which
has been placed at about one half the annual amount of groundwater recharge
[6].  Over the entire Cape area, present demand amounts to about 16% of the
annual recharge volume but three communities are already withdrawing more than
30 percent of the recommended maximum.  A return of a prolonged drought, such
as was encountered during the mid 1960's, could dramatically increase the
threat of a domestic water shortage on Cape Cod.

     An additional challenge to Cape Cod's groundwater resource is the in-
creasing amount of pollution which inevitably accompanies population growth.
Short-term impactions of fast-moving natural waters,  having relatively short
flushing times are usually transitory whereas pollution of an underground
aquifer can persist for a much longer period of time.  Presently the most
popular means of domestic wastewater disposal on Cape Cod is via on-site sep-
tic tanks, cesspools and/or leaching fields.  Wastewater disposal via marine
outfalls is not practiced to any appreciable extent.   Where municipal collec-
tion and sewage treatment facilities are operative, terminal wastewater dis-
posal is to groundwater via sand filter beds.  Sludge separated during the
treatment process is delivered to sludge drying beds  and ultimately removed
for burial.

     In summary, groundwater deterioration on Cape Cod emanates from the fol-
lowing major considerations [8].

     1.  Inadequate municipal wastewater and sludge disposal techniques.

     2.  Leachates and run-off from poorly operated land-fills and septage
         ponds.

     3.  Encroachment of saltwater into wells designated to provide potable
         water due to excessive groundwater exploitation.

     4.  Contamination from pleasure boating in freshwater ponds.

     5.  Combined effects ranging from reduced recharge due to an increased
         amount of paved area, pond eutrophication and inadvertent industrial
         contamination.

     6.  Long-and short-term population  instabilities which impose uncertain
         demands on municipal water supply and wastewater disposal.

     By 1973 the above considerations led to deliberations concerning appro-
priate means of upgrading wastewater quality to advance groundwater utility
and public health safety.  The need for such measures was underlined by chemi-
cal observations on the status of soil - and groundwaters which receive
secondary treated sewage effluent via sand filter beds at Otis Air Force Base,
Cape Cod.  In part, these observations revealed concentrations of inorganic
combined nitrogen which greatly exceeded the potable  water quality standard
recommendations of the U.S. Environmental Protection  Agency.  Subsequently, a

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pilot scale agricultural spray-irrigation system employing animal forage
grasses, soil infiltration and terminal groundwater deposition was proposed
to the Office of Research and Development of the Environmental Protection
Agency and to the Division of Water Pollution Control of the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts.

    In conventional wastewater spray-irrigation systems involving agricul-
tural crops, the crop is but one of several renovative components which con-
tribute to water quality improvement.  The renovative process is also ad-
vanced by lagooning, atmospheric exchanges, soil interactions and dilution
by groundwater.  The nature and abundance of accepted chemical and biologi-
cal indicators in influent wastewater, as opposed to the underlying ground-
water, is a measure of the overall effectiveness of the combined system.

OBJECTIVES

    The principal objective of the authors has been to demonstrate the long-
term advantages of an agricultural wastewater spray-irrigation system on
Cape Cod as a basis for encouraging increased wastewater recyling and
groundwater conservation.  A variety of experimental regimes affecting agri-
cultural parameters along with the extent of soil and groundwater modifica-
tions have been scrutinized.  Appropriate comparisons have been ma'de for
wastewater recharge systems which exclude agricultural crops and for agri-
cultural crops denied wastewater irrigation.

    The overall program has placed specific emphasis on the following cri-
teria in order to encourage and help shape future wastewater-irrigation pro-
grams on Cape Cod.

    1.  Facilities design and season operations.

    2.  Agricultural acreage and irrigation rates.

    3.  Crop yields and irrigation rates employed.

    4.  Wastewater renovation attributable to crops.

    5.  Wastewater renovation attributable to soils.

    6.  Requirement for pathogen control.

    7.  Ultimate impact on groundwater quality.

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                                  SECTION 2

                                 CONCLUSIONS
GENERAL

    A favorable opinion is advanced that spray-irrigation cropping is prefer-
able to direct sand filter percolation as a means of protecting and preserv-
ing groundwater resources on Cape Cod.  The bulk of the chemical constituents
of concern in secondary effluents are shown to be effectively removed by the
combined action of an agricultural crop and the favorable depth of soil and
gravel which overlies the water-saturated aquifer.

    The single most important contribution of the agricultural component is
likely to be nitrogen separation and removal whereas adsorption on soil, sand
and gravel is probably the major consideration affecting heavy metal removal.
Reaction times and saturation estimates for these interactions predict that a
wastewater spray-irrigation facility on Cape Cod should have a life expec-
tancy well in excess of 50 years.

HYDROGEOLOGY

1.  Hydrogeologically the Falmouth area of Cape Cod can be considered a
    single, homogeneous, anisotropic aquifer with maximum hydraulic conduc-
    tivity (HC) in the north-south direction roughly parallel to the direc-
    tion of deposition of the outwash sand and gravels. The east-west HC com-
    ponent is considerably smaller and in a direction which is roughly per-
    pendicular to that of general deposition.  The north-south HC ranges be-
    tween 43-51 m (140-167 ft) per day while the comparable movement in an
    east-west direction ranges from 5.3-6.4 m (17.5-20.9 ft) per day.

2.  Four aquifer tests involving a series of 'groundwater observation wells
    showed specific hydraulic yields that ranged between 0.13 and 0.25.

3.  The uppermost layer of water-saturated sand occurs at a depth of about
    20 m (65 ft) just north of Otis Air Force Base.  Comparable depths within
    the vicinity of the Otis spray-irrigation facility were reduced to about
    15 m (50 ft) in accordance with a tendency for these depths to diminish
    in a seaward direction.

4.  The saturation thickness of the glacial outwash aquifer in the vicinity
    of Otis Air Force Base measures between 70-76 m (230-250 ft).

5.  Maximum estimated recharge rates for 1975 were respectively estimated to

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    be 73, 79 and 84 percent for the 2.54, 5.08 and 7.62 cm (1, 2, and 3 inch)
    per week plots of Site A.  Minimum recharge estimates for the same areas,
    also during 1975, were 32, 49 and 34 percent respectively.

6.  A digital model constructed to simulate the steady-state water table con-
    figuration has indicated that sewering the town of Falmouth and transport-
    ing the effluent for disposal at Otis would result in a 1.67 m (5.5 ft)
    rise in the underlying water table.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOIL

    Baseline soil samples taken from the irrigation plots show a layer of sur-
face loam underlain by about 1 m (3 ft) of windblown light, sandy loam.  Oc-
casionally, deposits of silt-clay, distinctly different in texture and color
occur in clumps immediately beneath the surface.  Below 1.8 m (6 ft) there is
a shift from fine sandy loam to medium sand.  Deeper cores indicate a shift
from medium to coarse sand interspersed with cobblestones down to bedrock
some 79 m (258 ft) below the surface.  Typically the pH range for the upper
15.2 cm (6 in) of soil was 5.50-6.50.

RECHARGE TIME

    Chloride changes observed in the saturated aquifer following the onset of
spray-irrigation showed an S-shaped curve with time.  At a hydraulic loading
of 7.6 cm (3 in) per week, the arrival time for a measurable amount of
chloride was under 200 days.  For a lesser hydraulic loading of 3.1 cm (2 in)
per week the arrival time estimate increased to something less than 275 days.

IRRIGATION WATER:CROP RELATIONS

1.  For a given variety of forage grass and within the irrigation rates sup-
    plied, crop yields were consistently proportional to the amount of waste-
    water provided and the surplus amount of water added by atmospheric pre-
    cipitation had an insignificant influence on crop yields.

2.  On an annual basis, the highest rates of productivity were attained with
    reed canarygrass irrigated at 7.6 cm  (3 in) per week, a combination which
    led to the production of about 8.8 metric tons per hectare (4.0 tons per
    acre).

3.  The most favorable ratio between irrigation applied to crop yield  (yield
    ratio) was recorded for the combined timothy-alfalfa crop which had the
    potential for supplementing available nitrogen via nitrogen fixation
    within alfalfa root nodules.

4.  The calorific values of the wastewater-irrigated forage grasses ranged
    from  4800-4950 cals per gram of ash-free dry weight. The  comparable range
    for protein was  9.5-12.8 percent.

5.  Maximum elementary renovation in an agricultural spray-irrigation  system
    was provided for manganese, potassium,  nitrogen and zinc,  the renovation
    efficiencies for these elements being in excess of 30 percent.

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6.  Minimum elementary renovation was recorded for iron, calcium, copper and
    sodium at a range of 0.30-10 percent.

7.  Intermediate elementary efficiencies were noted for magnesium, phosphorus,
    cadmium and lead whose percent removal consistently ranged from 10-20
    percent.

8.  Domestic wastewater is not a well-balanced crop fertilizer due to the
    presence of excessive amounts of phosphorus relative to nitrogen.  Forage
    grasses exhibit a nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, by weight, of about 4.5:1
    while the same ratio in the wastewater is only about 1.25:1.  Ultimately
    this imbalance leads to an underutilization of phosphorus.

CHEMICAL SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

    Extended irrigation with secondary effluent has caused significant changes
in the chemical composition of the upper 30 cm (1 ft) of topsoil.  In part,
these changes reflect mediated changes imposed by wastewater-crop interac-
tions and in part they can be attributed to ionic exchanges between soil,
sand and soil water.  In accounting for the fate of those elements which fail
to measurably accumulate in the groundwater, soil analysis can be an impor-
tant means of determining the degree of renovation achieved.  Among the ele-
ments we have observed to accumulate most consistently in Otis agricultural
soils were phosphorus, iron, manganese, copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel and
lead.

    Presumably the excessive amounts of phosphorus over nitrogen in secondary
effluent leads to the observed increase in adsorbable phosphorus within the
soil column since each unit of crop nitrogen assimilated leads to a fixed
amount of phosphorus being underutilized.  Also the heavy metal enrichment of
these irrigated soils is believed to follow an  explanation not unlike that
of phosphorus.

GROUNDWATER QUALITY CHANGES

1.  Various elements have been observed to accumulate with time in the under-
    lying groundwater but their present concentrations do not exceed EPA or
    US Public Health Service standards for potable waters.

2.  Certain elements such as sodium, potassium and boron are continuing to
    appear at increasing concentrations and additional information on their
    ultimate stabilization levels is needed.

3.  Groundwater concentrations of phosphate, nitrate, magnesium and calcium
    appear to have stabilized at levels which are in line with public health
    and esthetic considerations.

PUBLIC HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS

1.  Proper public health safety would recommend that domestic wastewaters in-
    tended for agricultural spray-irrigation undergo protective disinfection
    prior to their release to the atmosphere and soil surface.

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2.  Chlorine is potentially a suitable chemical disinfectant for the above
    purpose providing that a favorable balance between the implications of
    pathogen control, overchlorination and crop damage can be maintained.

3.  In the experience of the authors safe and satisfactory levels of chlo-
    rine can best be assured by diligent monitoring and quick reaction to
    changes in the water parameters describing pH, temperature and ammonia-
    nitrogen content.

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                                  SECTION 3

                               RECOMMENDATIONS
1.  The concepts and documentation offered in this report offer a first-step
    toward the design of wastewater spray-irrigation agricultural systems for
    the Cape Cod area.

2.  Maximum benefits from agricultural wastewater irrigation, in the form of
    better crop yields and extended chemical renovation, can be anticipated
    providing the plant nutrient components of secondary effluents can be
    modified and more precisely tailored to the nutritional requirements of
    the agricultural component.

3.  To ensure safety and continuous operation during severe Cape Cod winters,
    a lagoon system providing three months storage capacity for the predicted
    rate of effluent release is an important consideration.  Also the winter
    advantages of fixed nozzle irrigation over delivery by a center pivot
    rotary rig appear to be substantial.

4.  The important renovative advantages provided by an agricultural crop over
    that of direct rapid infiltration via a sand filter bed has been clearly
    established and has important implications with regard to the ultimate
    protection of groundwater quality.

5.  Inclusion of an effective, but safe method of wastewater disinfection
    prior to crop application is strongly recommended.  Whether chlorination
    provides the ideal answer to this requirement cannot be fully established
    at this time.

6.  The possibility that persistent organochlorine combinations having poten-
    tially detrimental public health implications are generated and dispersed
    during the chlorination of wastewater seems remote, yet conclusive infor-
    mation on this subject exceeds the scope of these studies.

7.  The concentrations of certain ions on the groundwater underlying waste-
    water irrigated agricultural crops can be expected to increase in propor-
    tion to the irrigation rates employed.  For this reason persistent and
    effective groundwater monitoring is a prime management responsibility
    with regard to all wastewater-irrigation systems.

8.  The importance of the dilution phenomenon is frequently overlooked.   As
    irrigation rates increase and land area decreases, the percent of the
    total hydraulic load made up of precipitation also decreases.  The de-

                                      8

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    creased dilution at higher irrigation rates is partly but not completely
    balanced by a commensurate decrease in evapotranspiration.  The end result
    is that at higher irrigation rates, ionic concentrations in the recharge
    water are higher.  It may be possible to compensate for decreased dilution
    at higher rates by maximizing dilution with groundwater.   This could be
    accomplished by a facility design which orients long rectangular fields
    perpendicular to the ground-water gradient.  The results would be a larger
    but less concentrated ground-water plume. Another approach would be to
    divide the irrigation operation into two or more sites.

9.  Spray irrigation of perennial grasses and subsequent groundwater recharge
    should be considered a preferred alternative to direct sand filtration,
    which is currently the most commonly employed alternative for centralized
    wastewater disposal on Cape Cod.

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                                  SECTION 4

                            THE EXPERIMENTAL SITE
     The geology of the Falmouth area of Cape Cod has been summarized in
various reports  [9-11].  In general, these reports describe a single, homo-
geneous, anisotropic aquifer with maximum hydraulic conductivity in a north-
south direction and minimum hydraulic conductivity in the east-west direction.

     Field observations of this program were conducted at Otis Air Force Base,
Cape Cod, a military installation located 120 km (75 miles) south of Boston,
Massachusetts.  Geologically the site is constructed of a mass of unconsoli-
dated gravel, sand and silt deposited by glacial outwash and underlain by im-
permeable consolidated bedrock roughly 260 feet below the surface.  In a
north-south direction, the bedrock maintains an average depth of 52 m (170 ft)
below sea level; however, just east of the site, it drops to a depth of 122 m
(400 ft) below sea level.  Given this situation, the rates at which ground-
water is transmitted through a unit width of the aquifer can be expected to
vary in accordance with the thickness of the water-saturated layer.

                                                      3               2
     The annual rainfall at Otis averages about 3100 m  per day per km  (2.14
million gallons per day per square mile), but evaporation and transpiration
losses reduces the estimated amount of recharge to considerably less than
1550 m^ per day per km2 (1.07 million gallons per day per square mile).  The
result is a groundwater table which reaches a maximum height of 18.3 m (60 ft)
above sea level north of Otis.  Groundwater levels then subside in all direc-
tions towards the ocean.  Monitoring wells installed within the project area
reveal groundwater elevations ranging from 16.4-15.1 m (53.8-49.7 ft) above
sea level in accordance with the north-south hydraulic gradient previously
described by Meade and Vaccaro [12].

     Base-line soil samples taken from the irrigation plots show a surface
layer of loam underlain by roughly 1 m (3 ft) of windblown Enfield sandy loam.
Quite frequently deposits of silt-clay, visually and mineralogically distinct
from the surrounding sandy loam,  occur in layers or clumps immediately be-
neath the surface.   Below the 2 m (6 ft) depth, the topsoil grades from fine
sandy loam to medium sand.   Deep geological cores indicate a substrate of
medium to coarse sand with occasional cobblestone layers to the vicinity of
bedrock 78.6 m (258 ft) below the surface.

OTIS SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

     The sewage treatment plant at Otis Air Force Base has been in operation
since 1942 and processes wastewater generated at the base.  Primary sewage

                                     10

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treatment at the plant consists of a comminutor with a by-pass bar screen, a
Parshall flume, a grease-skimming and flocculation tank and two Imhoff
tanks.  Two trickling filters of 1 m (3 ft) depth and two settling tanks or
clarifiers comprise the secondary treatment component.  The plant effluent
is typically discharged onto sand filter beds for final disposal to the un-
derlying ground water.  Sludge removed from the Imhoff and settling tanks is
flushed to sand drying beds and periodically removed for burial.

    The plant was designed to accommodate an average summer flow of 14,000 m3
(3.7 million gallons) per day and to serve a population of about 37,000.
Its load has averaged substantially less than 3800 m^ (one million gal-
lons) per day for the past 10 years due to reduction of personnel and activ-
ities at the base.  Presently, the plant treats slightly less than 189 m3
(50,000 gallons) per day and is principally serving the stable but skeleton
population which occupies base housing.  Because the waste load is much less
than the design capacity, the treated effluent is actually recycled in order
to maintain minimum volumes.  Only one Imhoff tank, one trickling filter and
one secondary tank are currently being used at any one time.

    Strengthwise, the secondary effluent of Otis Air Force Base is rather
dilute and tends to be low in total dissolved solids.  Concentrations of
nitrogen, phosphorus and metallic cations are thus somewhat low in terms of
national averages.  Presumably this reflects the sparse population currently
being serviced and the recirculation which reduces the concentrations of
particulate bound cations to relatively low levels of iron, zinc, lead, cad-
mium and magnesium.  Table 1 shows the results of some typical analyses of
the chemical constituents in the secondary effluent of Otis Air Force Base.
For comparative purposes some accepted national averages for  secondary
effluents are also included [13, 14].

    Since irrigation was initiated, in the summer of  1974, a  continuous log
has been kept which records the amounts of wastewater irrigation applied  to
each of the agricultural subplots of Sites A and B.  Unpredictable interrup-
tions caused by equipment failures, weather extremes, or harvesting opera-
tions ensure that planned irrigation rates are rarely achieved and inevit-
ably total less than planned.  In a similar vein, a distinction must be made
between total wastewater applied to crops and the total hydraulic load since
the latter term includes the total amount of precipitation contributed by
rainfall.

    The original design  of the Otis sewage treatment  plant provided sand
filter beds for the terminal disposal of secondary effluents.  Over the past
33 years more  than 22 million cubic meters (6 billion gals) of effluent have
been discharged onto  the 6.9 ha (17 acres) reserved for this  purpose.  The
latter area consists  of  22 separate beds which measure 61 m (200 ft)  in
length and 30.5 m (100 ft) in width.  At full operation, 11,400 m3 (3 mil-
lion gallons)  per day, the rate of application was 1400 m-* per hectare
(150,000 gallons per  acre) per day.  Effluent is delivered to the filter
beds by gravity mains and distributed by wooden sluiceways.   The depth  of
the water table at this  location varies  from 5.5-6.1  m (18-20 ft).  Geogra-
phical relations between the Otis  sewage treatment plant and  surrounding
facilities are also shown in Figure 1.

                                     11

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       TABLE 1.  WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS OF OTIS TREATMENT PLANT
            SECONDARY EFFLUENT (CONCENTRATIONS AS MG/1: PPM).

Typical Secondary
Constituent Treatment Effluent
Nitrogen (as N)
Total inorganic
Nitrate
Nitrite
Ammonium
Phosphorus (as P)
Total dissolved
Orthophosphate
Other Elements*
Cadmium
Calcium
Chloride , . ~
Chromium (Cr + Cr )
Copper
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese 
Mercury (Hg )
Potassium
Sodium
Zinc
20





10


0.01-0.03
24
45
0.02-0.14
0.07-0.14
0.10-4.3
0.01-0.03
17
0.02
0.01
14
50
0.20-0.44
Otis Secondary
Effluent
(mean; St. Dev.)

17.90 + 3.25
10.18 + 5.17
0.29 + 0.15
7.43 + 5.46

8.49 + 0.83
6.93 + 0.78

0.00024 + 0.0001
10.77 + 0.70
26.78 + 2.39
0.01
0.050 + 0.020
0.502 + 0.07
0.00054 + 0.0001
3.79 + 0.17
0.021 + 0.016
0.00027 + 0.0001
8.94 + 1.09
37.91 + 6.34
0.047 + 0.025
Typical values from Pound and Crites or from Driver et al.
                                    12

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               IRRIGATION  SITE
               AREA = 22.6 ACRES
                                                                EXISTING ABANDONED
                                                                SAND FILTER BEDS
                                                                          SEWAGE  DISPOSAL  PLANT


                                                                               SLUDGE BEDS
                         LAGOON
                      PUMPING STATION
             FEET
                                                                          R03
                                                                               R04
                                                                                    RO 5
Figure 1.  Plan of sewage treatment plant, sand filter  beds, lagoon and irrigated  sites.

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SYSTEM DESIGN AND INSTALLATION

    To ealuate a spray irrigation-cropping program for wastewater manage-
ment, a pilot facility was assembled to provide year-round irrigation and to
test the water quality effects of a holding basin, prechlorination and the
performance of fixed versus rotary rigs for wastewater distribution.  The
supply of wastewater comes from the Otis Air Force Base sewage treatment
plant, and enters a pair of holding basins or lagoons each having a capacity
of 1100 m^ (300,000 gallons) of secondary effluent, which represents but a
small diversion of the total plant output.  Residence, or holding time, in
the lagoon is about three weeks.

    The remainder of the system includes a pump house and control station, a
415 m (1360 ft) force main, the irrigation equipment and irrigated fields.
The main pump has a capacity of .606 m^ (160 gal) per min and is started
with a secondary priming pump.  Safety valves are installed to prevent high
pressures and to provide automatic shutoff if pressure drops suddenly.  A
semi-automatic gas chlorinator is used for chlorination.  The effluent is
pumped through a 10.2 cm (4 in) Johns-Manville PVC force main to the irriga-
tion site.

    The relationship between the original Otis sewage treatment installation
and the facilities added for experimental purposes is included in Figure 1.
The figure shows two irrigation Sites A and B which have been seeded with
forage crops.  Irrigation Site A employs fixed deflection head sprinklers
which supply three subplots at rates of application of 2.5-7.6 cm (1-3 in)
per week to irrigate three equal areas of .11 hectares (0.268 acres).  Site
B contains a 45.7 m (150 ft) rotary irrigator anchored on a center pivot.
Six deflection heads 8 ft apart mounted downward and of decreasing opening
diameter toward the center deliver at the rate of 5.08 cm (2 in) of effluent
per week to each of four subplots, each encompassing 0.18 ha (0.445 acres).
Both Site A and Site B include appropriate control areas which are non-irri-
gated and whose monitoring provides a basis for background comparison.  Each
subplot is equipped with banks of lysimeters which are used to sample inter-
stitial groundwater from depths of .15, .30, .60, .90, and 1.20 m (0.5, 1,
2, 3, and 4 ft).  A total of six wells have been installed throughout the
agricultural areas which are oriented according to groundwater flow so that
groundwater monitoring can be provided.

    Reed canarygrass is the crop at all Site A locations, while at Site B
smooth brome, timothy, a mixture of timothy and alfalfa and reed canarygrass
are grown.  The control area at Site A is planted with reed canarygrass
while control areas of Site B have been seeded with timothy.

    Monitoring provides information on short- and long-term trends in terms
of nitrogen, phosphorus and trace metals after various degrees of treat-
ment.  All wells are constructed of PVC plastic which allows sampling for
groundwater nutrients, metals and pesticides and many other organic sub-
stances without undue contamination.  Measurements at the sand filter beds
show groundwater levels at 6.4 m (21 ft) below the surface and from 14.6-
16.8 m (48-55 ft) below the surface of the experimental irrigation fields.
The locations of nine groundwater sampling wells used to monitor these Sites

                                     14

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are also numbered in Figure 1.

    The principle field sampling effort of the authors has focussed on the
time-related changes affecting the chemical composition of surface and sub-
surface waters, hay, turf, and soils.  All water samples are collected in
2-liter polyethylene bottles, 200 ml aliquots being filtered CO.40 ym poro-
sity) in the field through a vacuum assisted membrane filter unit.  Filtered
samples are refrigerated and within 24 hrs analyzed for.the crop nutrients
phosphate,  ammonia, nitrite and nitrate.

    Well water samples are obtained with a vacuum pressure apparatus de-
signed for deep lysimeter sampling [15].  With this equipment, samples of
groundwater from depths greater than 7.62 m (25 ft) below the surface are
possible.

    Lysimeters are used to collect interstitial soil water by applying
vacuum to permeable ceramic cups (pore size ca 1.0 um) buried below ground
level.  During dry periods, particularly in the nonirrigated control plots
it was not always possible to accumulate an adequate volume of sample water
on a routine basis.

    Mature crops were cut, field dried, baled, and weighed according to
accepted agricultural practice.  During sample processing desiccated hay
samples were macerated in a blender and stored pending chemical analysis for
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus content along with a variety of
selected anions and cations.  Soil samples were removed via a horizontal
core taken from trench side walls exposed manually by shoveling or backhoe
assistance.

    Early water sampling was conducted on a bimonthly basis, but in 1977 and
1978 the sampling frequency was reduced to one complete sampling each
month.  Hay sampling was timed to coincide with crop maturation which led to
three samplings per summer except for 1977 when only two hay crops were har-
vested.  To date there have been a total of 10 hay crops which have been
cut, dried and removed from the agricultural Sites.  Nine of these have been
subjected to complete chemical analyses.  Turf and soil samples were col-
lected on an annual basis in the fall of the year after the growing season
was complete.
                                     15

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                                  SECTION 5

                         CHEMICAL ANALYTICAL METHODS
    In general chemical analytical methods used correspond to those de-
scribed in the EPA Manual for the Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes
 16 .  Where more sensitive methods have been necessary, particularly for
well- and groundwater samples, such exceptions are noted and referenced
below.

    Certain major cations (Ca, Na, K, Mg) were analyzed using flame atomic
absorption with direct aspiration of known standards or of sample unknowns
by methods also recommended by the EPA  [l6].  Standard response curves pre-
pared from multiple and known concentrations of each cation were used to
interpolate the appropriate unknown concentrations.

    Cations of trace metals (Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu. Fe, Pb) were originally ana-
lyzed by chelation-extraction using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and
methyl isobutyl ketone [17].  Later, these elements were determined more
efficiently via heated graphite atomization wherein a small amount of solu-
tion was injected into an electrically heated graphite furnace connected to
an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

    The authors relied upon the method of standard additions to evaluate
matrix interference in atomic absorption analyses conducted on various
sample types.  Except for calcium analyses, significant matrix interference
has not occurred.  For calcium calibration curves, interference associated
with the use of the air-acetylene flame did require some corrective modifi-
cation.

    Boron was measured by the curcumen reagent technique as described in
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1971 [18].

    Chloride was determined with a Buchler-Cotlove chloridometer [l9] which
supplies a constant direct current to a pair of ion generating electrodes
which release silver ions at  a constant rate.  An end point is reached when
all the chloride is precipitated as AgCl and the time elapsed in reaching
this condition is directly proportional to the chloride concentration.  Sul-
fate analyses were made according to the turbidiometric method described in
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 1971 ClS].

    The inorganic plant nutrients phosphate-phosphorus and nitrite-,
nitrate- and ammonia-nitrogen were all  determined colorimetrically with a
Beckman DU spectrophotometer.  The colorimetric reagent used for phosphate
analyses was acid molybdate [20].  Nitrite was analyzed in acid solution

                                     16

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using sulfanilamide to produce a highly colored red azo-dye [20].  Nitrate
was analyzed by a modification of the brucine method as described in the EPA
Manual for the Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes, 1974 [16].  Ammonia
was determined by the phenolhypochlorite method [22].

    Hay samples for each harvest were analyzed for organic carbon, nitrogen,
phosphorus, calorie content and residual moisture after being coarsely
ground in a Waring blender.  Pre-weighed subsamples for major cation and
trace metal analyses were ashed at 400C and reweighed to determine the
loss of weight on ignition.  Nitric acid was added and evaporated off
several times to complete digestion.  Samples were solubilized in 50% hydro-
chloric acid and filtered through a 3 ym membrane filter and then diluted
with deionized distilled water to a final volume of 25 mis.  Trace metals
were analyzed by flame atomic absorption via direct aspiration of unknown
solutions and an ultimate comparison with comparable responses from known
standard solutions.

    Elementary analyses for carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen in hay samples
were measured on material macerated (40 mesh) in Perkin-Elmer 240 elemental
analyzer.  Total elementary phosphorus was measured after ignition, at 600C
for two hours and after wet digestion in acid persulfate at 15 Ibs steam
pressure (240C) for 30 minutes [23].  The inorganic phosphate released by
the above treatment was then measured with acid molybdate [20].  Analyses of
plant material for caloric content were made with a Parr Calorimeter.

    Turf and soil samples from irrigated and control plots were  taken at the
end of each growing season.  For turf samples, a 15.2 cm (6 in)  cube was cut
from the soil surface and subdivided so as to obtain integrated  samples from
the upper, middle and lower thirds of the cube.  Soil cores were taken at
selected depths between 15.2 cm (6 in) and 122 cm (4 ft).

    Soil samples were sieved and particle sizes greater than 2 mm (.08 in)
were not analyzed.  Turf samples included the roots and stubble  of the har-
vested crop contained in the top 15.2 cm (6 in) of soil and were collected
prior to the onset of winter.  Soil and turf samples were treated and ana-
lyzed in the same manner as the hay samples except that in the case of soil
pH measurements were included and calorific measurements excluded.

    Early in these studies a single sand filter bed was selected for experi-
mental observations on the dissipation of various constituents of secondary
effluent in the absence of agricultural crops.  Eight suction lysimeters,
placed to sample a depth range of 0.15-1.22 m (0.5-4 ft), and two ground-
water observation wells were installed for this purpose.  Later  the number
of wells serving this location was increased to seven in support of addi-
tional studies on the local groundwater hydrology via draw-down  and recovery
observations.  The wells were located at strategic points, downstream with
respect to the flow of groundwater from beneath the  sand filter  bed.  De-
scriptions of these facilities are shown in Figures  2 and 3.

    In 1976 the project's analytical chemistry laboratory participated in
the Quality Control Program administered by the EPA  to evaluate  techniques
selected for the manual, Methods for Analysis of Water and Wastes.  We

                                     17

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                                      CROSSECTION
co
      CLAMP

      HOSE-


 STOPPER-^
                 PVC
                  TUBE-
POROUS
PORCELAIN
 CUP	
                 SUCTION
                 LYSIMETER
                                                         ^MONITORING WELLS
                                                            -SUCTION LYSIMETERS
                                                                                  DIKE ROADWAY
                                        TOP VIEW
                                            OF  BEDS
                                                                             MONITORING WELL NO t

                                                                                MONITORING WELL NO 2
SUCTION

    'To.RDW.LK  EVFLF4LVOR"'
                  ^   BLOCKS
                                                                                     TO TREATMENT PLANT
                                  Figure  2.   Sand  filter  bed with  location  of wells  and lysimeters.

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      DISCHARGED
           PIPE
                                                           N
                                                                   50
                                                                  FEET
                           100
              R.O.W. NO. 1
                    74.27
               4848.5
               4952.5
                   S.F.B. SOUTH
                          72.65
                     4810.6
                     4997.2
  . EAST 73.33
  4804.9
  5036.9
                                           PUMP HOUSE (Retrieval Well)
                        R.O.W.
                                ._ 47288
                            88.14   4966.7
        TYP2"WELL
                      ELEVATION
                                            R.O.W.
                                                    .    46868
                                                76.95   5070.8
                                RO.W. NO. 4  46407
                                     .86.88 ^5016.0
             DETAIL
             NO SCALE
R.O.W. NO. 5

     97.03
                                                              5103.3
Figure 3.  Location of monitoring wells adjacent to the sand filter bed.   R.O.W.  de-
           notes retrieval observation well.   Elevations in feet above mean sea level.
           Coordinates are in feet and are based on an arbitrary origin and magnetic
           bearings.  The North coordinate is on top,  East coordinate is on the bottom,
           both in feet relative to 5,000 at  the origin.
                                          19

-------
 received coded samples containing low and high concentrations of ammonia,
 nitrite and nitrate and a single sample for total phosphorus.  A sealed en-
 velope was also provided which was opened after completion of analyses to
 compare the laboratory results with the EPA reference sample standards. As
 summarized in Table 2, this exercise was highly successful since it vali-
 dated the precision and accuracy of the laboratory nutrient chemistry.  Dif-
 ferences between the laboratory values and the quoted EPA standards were
 generally comparable to the standard deviation of the laboratory methods,
 and generally differed by 5% or less from EPA quoted concentrations.
      TABLE 2.  LABORATORY INTERCALIBRATION:  WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC
       INSTITUTION AND  ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH  CENTER,'CINCINNATI,  OHIO
                              W.H.O.I. RESULTS*
Ampule Stated
Number Range
NH4-N
mg/1 + Sd
NO -N
mg/1 + Sd
PO.-P
mg/1 + Sd
IP
mg/1 + Sd
  1.     low     0.445 + .006   0.179 + .010    0.020 + .0001         	
  2.     high    9.52  + .009   1.06  + .019    0.389 + .002     0.723 + .001
                   EPA REFERENCE SAMPLES, PARAMETER VALUES
                        ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH CENTER
J. 
2.
high
\J  ^*T
9.47
 \j\j  /
.05
\s  * \J
1.11
 W> -J-
.05
W  \J *. J-
0.393
 \J WJ.
.004
0.713
.01

*Mean, five replicate analyses
                                     20

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                                  SECTION 6

                         SAND FILTER BED PERFORMANCE


NITRATE, NITRITE, PHOSPHATE AND CHLORIDE MODIFICATION BY A SAND FILTER BED

     At Otis, terminal wastewater disposal is accomplished by percolation of
secondary effluent through sand and gravel down to groundwater level.  Evalua-
tion of the renovative capacity of a single, isolated sand filter bed was un-
dertaken early in these studies.  Information on the sand filter bed selected
for this work and its location with regard to the field facilities provided is
given in Figures 2 and 3.

     The initial phase of this work was addressed to a dormant or inactive
filter and was carried out between January and June of 1974.  Samples of soil-
water and groundwater from beneath the filter were removed at predetermined
intervals to assess time-related changes for certain chemical constituents in
the absence of active inundation.  The most recent previous flooding of this
bed had occurred in May of 1973 after which water application was limited to
natural rainfall.  On 15 occasions analyses were completed which provided
measurements of the groundwater concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, ammonia,
phosphate, and chloride.  The results, shown in Figure 4, indicate that during
the dormant period nitrate and ammonia gradually decreased with time, that
chloride remained essentially unchanged while nitrite and phosphate showed
intermittent pulses, but no consistent trends.  It is significant that the
nitrate concentration reached 55 parts per million (ppm) thereby exceeding the
recommended limit (10 ppm) of the U.S. Public Health Service for potable
waters.

     On July 19, 1974 the same bed was inundated with secondary effluent at a
maximum loading rate of 378 m^ (100,000 gals)  per day which corresponded to
.204 m  per m* (5 gals per ft2)  per day until September when it was again de-
activated for drying.   A total volume of 16,430 in  (4.34 million gals)  was
applied during this 72 day interval.

     Within a week following inundation, the arrival of recharged wastewater
to groundwater level was indicated by an abrupt increase in chloride from 4
to 25 ppm (Figure 4).  Also the nitrate and phosphate concentrations showed a
corresponding increase which essentially duplicated their original concentra-
tion in the applied effluent.  During the remainder of these observations
phosphate concentrations stabilized at about 8 ppm but marked fluctuations in
the nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia concentrations were observed.

     The entire sand filter bed appears to act as an ion exchange column al-


                                     21

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             100
r>o
IM
                                                             J        J

                                                             MONTH
D
                 Figure A.  Groundwater quality beneath sand filter bed before, during and after inundation (July 17-September

                            27, 1974) with secondary treated effluent.

-------
though nonadsorbable nitrate and chloride appear to escape the soil matrix.
In this case, the tenfold decrease in ammonia, between the filter surface and
the recharged groundwater, suggests that the bulk of the ammonia was retained
within the filter.  A rough estimate of the total amount of ammonia bound to
the filter during inundation, based on ammonia-nitrogen input (2.10 ppm) vs out-
put (0.19 ppm) comes to about 27 kg (60 Ibs) for the 16,430 m3 (4.34 million
gals) of sewage plant effluent applied.

     The concept of restricted  ammonia passage is also supported by the
failure of groundwater ammonia to increase during a subsequent period of low
oxygen tension; a situation decidedly unfavorable for ammonia oxidation.  As
documented, anoxic conditions within the filter developed during the latter
stages of inundation and were accompanied by a corresponding decrease in ni-
trate measured.  This correspondence has been attributed to the microbial re-
duction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen during a period of reduced oxygen
tension.

     By November 1974 after a month of drying, aerobic conditions were re-
stored and the nitrate content of the groundwater increased from a minimum of
0.28 ppm to a maximum of 50 ppm by mid February.  Oxidation of adsorbed am-
monia to nitrate within the filter during this period and a subsequent mobi-
lization of nitrate by rainfall recharge presumably accounted for these
changes.

     An alternative possibility is that the elevated concentrations of ni-
trate which appeared late in these studies resulted from eluted nitrate being
resolubilized in a smaller volume of water.  The amount of rainfall recorded
adjacent to the site between the end of inundation on September 27 and the
nitrate peak in the recharge water on February 12 (138 days) was 39.4 cm
(16.52 in).  Assuming 50 percent recharge, the total volume for the area of
the bed (100 x 200 ft; 30.5 x 61.0 m) would thus be 366 m3 or 12,942 ft3.
The effluent applied was 42 times greater in terms of volume.  If all the
29.7 kg   (65.5 Ibs) of adsorbed ammonia-nitrogen were converted to nitrate
and dissolved in this volume of recharge rainwater, the nitrate-nitrogen con-
centration would be 76 ppm.  Later, nitrate observations showed further in-
creases to 67 and 57 ppm on March 12 and April 9, followed by a decrease to
34 and 33 ppm on May 7 and June 4 respectively.  Thus, it appears that nitri-
fication continued for at least 250 days, which compares with 72 days of in-
undation of the bed with effluent.

     Sampling of soil water removed from the four-foot lysimeter revealed
nitrate concentrations near 10 ppm prior to inundation.  During the initial
stages of flooding, the level of nitrate remained between 7 and 9 ppm.   When
water began to pond on the surface, nitrate decreased in the percolate to
5.5 ppm implying an onset of denitrification once anoxic conditions were es-
tablished.  A sample taken during the later drying stage showed a tenfold
higher nitrate concentration, 77 ppm, while the ammonia concentration was re-
duced to a trace amount.  These changes indicate reversals in the potential
modification of combined nitrogen dependent upon oxygen availability which in
turn is regulated by the prevailing rates of organic decomposition.
                                    23

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TRACE METAL MODIFICATIONS BY A SAND FILTER BED

     The ability of sand filter beds to remove trace metals was also evaluated
by sampling the subsoil at various depths and it has been observed that heavy
metals tend to accumulate within the upper few centimeters of sand.  The con-
centration in the effluent and the 33-year supply of copper, zinc, cadmium,
lead and chromium to a typical sand filter bed is shown in Table  3.  At Otis
Air Force Base wet sludge is separated and deposited on sludge beds  for dry-
ing and ultimate disposal by burial.  Thus,  the  filter beds have  been  exposed
to only a small fraction of the total heavy  metal load produced by the treat-
ment plant, the major concentration of these heavy metals being retained in
the dried sludge material as compared with the secondary effluent (Table 3).
In this case the sludge beds have not been evaluated as a possible source  of
groundwater contamination.
        TABLE 3.  HEAVY METAL SUPPLY TO EXPERIMENTAL SAND FILTER BED
                                          Metal  Concentration
                               Cu         Zn         Cd        Pb         Cr*
Sample Source
  Secondary Effluent                               (ppb)
    Soluble                    80        55        0.24      0.50     <10
    Particulate                32        12        0.58      9.30       0.6

                                                   (ppm)
    Dry Otis Sludge         2,799       246       13       358         96
                                                       2
Total 33-yr Metal Loading                          (g/m )
    Soluble                    48.06     33.70     0.151     0.302    < 6.15
    Particulate                19.66      7.24     0.356     5.72       0.012

    Total                      67.72     40.94     0.507     6.022    < 6.162


*Soluble chromium concentration was less than the sensitivity of the analyti-
 cal method.
     In terms of supply, the order of abundance for heavy metal additions to
the sand filter bed was Cu > Zn > Cr = Pb > Cd.  The surface enrichment fac-
tors, derived from appropriate comparisons with a nearby control soil, varied
from 20- to 360-fold, the enrichment order being Cu > Cd > Pb = Zn > Cr.

     By comparing the integrated amounts of these metals distributed within
the upper 52 cm (20.4 in) with the heavy metal supply over the past 33 years
it is possible to assign removal efficiencies for each of the five metals ex-
amined.  As recorded in Table 4, the data of the authors indicate that 85 per-
cent of the Cu, 49 percent of the Zn, 113 percent of the Cd, 129 percent of


                                     24

-------
 the  Pb  and  > 62  percent  of  the  Cr  supplied  are bound within  the  surface  soil.
 Thus, of  the metals  examined  only  Zn  and possibly  Cr would appear  to have  a
 reasonable  chance  of becoming entrained in  the groundwater some  740 cm  (21 ft)
 below the surface.
         TABLE 4.  HEAVY METAL BUILD-up IN A SAND FILTER BED.   METAL
          CONCENTRATIONS CORRECTED FOR APPROPRIATE CONTROL ANALYSIS
                                        Metal Concentration (mg/kg)
Depth (cm)
Surf
0-4
4-6
14-16
24-26
29-31
44-46
50-52
Control Soil, Surf
Surface Enrichment Factor
Integrated Metal Content
Cu
679
236
272
7.2
6.1
2.4
2.5
0.7
1.9
360
57.89
Zn
320
67
60
5.5
9.3
1.3
3.9
0.0
5.8
56
20.19
Cd
10.5
1.7
1.8
0.11
0.25
0.09
0.07
0.07
0.07
150
0.572
Pb
166
28
26
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.80
0.00
2.70
60
7.75
Cr
82
4.7
10.0
0.10
2.30
0.00
0.90
0.00
4.30
20
3.81
  (g/m2 to 52 cm)*

Percent Retention             85         49       113        129        62
 (Content/Loading) 100

*Assumes soil density of 1.85, i.e.,  938 kg under am  to a depth of 52 cm.


      The major accumulation of heavy metals on Otis sand filter beds after
33 years of service occurs within the uppermost 6 cm (2.4 in) of sand.  The
extent of enrichment for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn ranges from 20 to 360-fold.
Excepting Zn and possibly Cr, more than 85 percent of the applied amounts of
each of the above metals resides within the upper 52 cm (20.4 in) of sand.
                                      25

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                                  SECTION  7

                  CHANGES IN NITROGEN AND  PHOSPHORUS DURING
                        AGRICULTURAL SPRAY-IRRIGATION
     The removal of phosphorus from secondary effluent during agricultural
spray-irrigation treatment increases with the stage of treatment.  The phos-
phorus concentrations (as PO^-P) in Otis secondary effluent before lagooning
range from about 8 to 10 (mean = 9.25) ppm and are typically higher during
winter than in summer (Fig. 5).  Following chlorination and distribution over
the irrigation field the phosphorus concentration was reduced to less than
0.5 ppm in the interstitial water recovered from 15.2 cm (6 in) below the
surface.  At successively greater depths, no significant changes in phos-
phorus were observed down to the depth of the groundwater sampling at 15.2 m
(50 ft).

     Nitrogen is more versatile than phosphorus chemically and is affected by
a greater variety of biological processes.  Gains or losses of nitrogen to or
from the system are regulated by the relative importance of nitrogen fixation,
ammonification, nitrification and denitrification.  Thus, much greater uncer-
tainty exists regarding nitrogen distributions as compared with phosphorus
and phosphorus rather than nitrogen is the more appropriate element for mass
balance"analysis.

     Total inorganic nitrogen concentrations in Otis secondary effluent be-
fore lagooning range from about 12.5-18.5 (mean = 11.6) ppm and show a com-
parable reduction pattern to that of phosphorus following successive stages
of treatment (Figures 6 and 7).  During the winter-spring period, ammonia is
the most abundant form of inorganic nitrogen in secondary effluent although
appreciable amounts of oxidized nitrogen (nitrite or nitrate) also occur.
During the summer-fall months the oxidized forms of nitrogen are more abun-
dant than ammonia.   In the interstitial soil water, ammonia is almost com-
pletely absorbed in the first foot of soil,  but oxidized nitrogen penetrates
at reduced concentrations to the ground water.  The data on inorganic nitro-
gen distribution suggest that soil nitrification occurs throughout the year.
                                     26

-------
ISi
12.0


10.0
~N
| 8.0
-S-
Q.
o;6
CL
4,0
2.0
AVERAG
o  c
o
 \ n r
\
N,
~ \ ^^"s

D"^v\
/ \ /
- /. {/
~ ,
-------
   200
   18.0
   16.0
   14.0
   1 2.0
   10.0
'I
   6.0
   4.0
   2.0
                   NITROGEN

          WINTER-  SPRING,  1975
                     TOTAL  INORGANIC-N
                 NH4-N

                V
       N03+N02-N\\
        ^    /    I    /    J   J   J   /   /
      '    /    ^     fe             ^                 Ax
 ox
 ^y
>c
JP
                 G
                                                       cf
                                  5xJA//Z.


   Figure 6.  Winter-spring ammonia,  oxidized and total inorganic nitrogen concentrations

            (ppm)  for secondary effluent  after lagooning,  chlorination, irrigation and

            percolation through the ground.  Site A-west;  nominal rate of application


            3 in./wk.
                                   28

-------
          14 0 -
          12.0 -
          10.0 -
         i  8.0 -
ro
        NITROGEN
SUMMER- FALL ,1975
                                            i3+N02 -N
                                             SAMPLE

        Figure 7.  Summer-fall ammonia,  oxidized and total  inorganic nitrogen concentrations  (pptn) for secondary
                 effluent after  lagooning, chlorination,  irrigation and percolation through the ground.  Site
                 A-west; nominal rate  of application 3 in./wk.

-------
                                  SECTION 8

                          IRRIGATION-CROP RELATIONS
     Over a five year period irrigation-crop relations have been examined
from nine cuttings of mature plants taken from 10 different agricultural sub-
plots.  As previously stated the experimental variables included the follow-
ing.

     1.  Differences in rates of wastewater application (2.54, 5.08, 7.62
         and 10.2 cm per week).

     2.  Differences in the wastewater delivery system, (fixed nozzle vs
         rotary rig).

     3.  Different varieties of forage grasses.

     4.  Control crops exposed to precipitation only.

     Yield characteristics and renovative efficiencies observed in each of
the above situations are discussed in this section.

CROP YIELDS VS IRRIGATION APPLIED

     Tallying the accumulated amounts for crop yields vs total irrigation
applied requires a distinction between total effluent applied (TEA) and total
hydraulic loading (THL).  The latter is always larger than a comparable TEA
value since it represents the sum of TEA and the additional amount of crop
watering provided by precipitation.

     Data from Site A describing three different reed canarygrass plots
treated with three different rates of wastewater"application are shown in
Figures 8 and 9.  In Figure 8, marked proportionality between crop yields and
TEA is demonstrated.  When the same crop yields are plotted against THL, how-
ever, as in Figure 9, three different levels of proportionality result.  In
the latter case, crop yields were  decided  by the fractional amount of
wastewater provided and the additional water increment supplied by precipita-
tion had a minimal effect on crop size.

     The overriding influence of TEA over THL in affecting crop growth has
led the authors to adopt the following relation to express yield ratios.

                    -I j i, ...      Harvested crop, kg/ha
                   Yield Ratio = 	-V , p,77
                                 Wastewater applied, kg/ha


                                     30

-------

   32 r
   28
   24
i
    16
    12
    8
    4
                    SITE  A
 WEST PLOT
o SOUTH PLOT
* EAST PLOT
            10      20     30     40     50  -   60     70     80
     EFFLUENT APPLIED,  THOUSANDS OF METRIC  TONS
  Figure 8.  Relation between effluent applied and dry crop yields (accumulated values)

-------
CO
no
       20
        28
<:  24
\


K

Jo

^  16

S*


  l2


&  8
        4 -
        0
            o

            x
                        WEST

                     o   SOUTH

                     x   EAST
                       20
                          30     40     50      60     70     80

                          THOUSANDS  OF  METRIC  TONS /ha
                                                                          90
too
110
               Figure 9.  Relation between total hydraulic load and dry crop yields (accumlated values).

-------
Thus, the yield ratio for Site A data, Figure 8, is 0.36, a value which is
common to each of the three subplots.

     Yield ratios calculated for Site B, where four different grass crops
were irrigated at the same target rate of 5.08 cm (2 in) per week show a much
wider variation than comparable Site A values.  In part, this difference
could reflect the inability of the investigators to maintain rotary irriga-
tion of Site B during the three or four coldest winter months.  Yield ratios
for Site B crops were minimal for smooth brome (0.29) and maximum for mixed
timothy-alfalfa (0.55) with intermediate values recorded for timothy (0.35)
and reed canarygrass (0.40).  A summary of the information on crop yields vs
irrigation appears in Table 5.

     Another significant parameter in agriculture is the tonnage of harvest-
able crop accumulated over an annual growing season.  Efficient mid-western
farms of this country readily produce about 4.54 metric tons (5 short tons)
per acre per year.  As shown in Table 5 none of our experimental areas at-
tained the above level of productivity.  Rather, the average annual yield of
our most productive combination (reed canarygrass irrigated at 7.62 cm (3 in)
per week) totaled 3. 67 metric tons (4.04 short tons) per acre.  The mixed crop of
timothy-alfalfa irrigated at 5.08 cm (2 in) per week showed a lesser amount of
production, 2.94 metric tons (3.24 tons) per acre,  whereas the corresponding
averages for timothy and smooth brome were consistently less than the above.
            TABLE 5.  ANNUAL PRODUCTIVITY AND YIELD RATIOS FOR
                    WASTEWATER IRRIGATED FORAGE CROPS
                      Irrigation Rate
                      inches per week
                Productivity
               Short Tons/Acre
                Yield Ratio*
Site A

  Reed canarygrass
  Reed canarygrass
  Reed canarygrass

Site B

  Timothy-alfalfa
  Reed canarygrass
  Timothy
  Smooth brome
1.0
2.0
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.91
2.60
4.04
3.24
2.36
1.91
1.71
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.55
0.40
0.35
0.29
*Weight of dry crop harvested r weight total effluent applied.


     Strictly speaking, extension of wastewater renovation by agricultural
systems requires that the harvestable plant material, generated by wastewater
irrigation, be collected and disassociated from the local biochemical cycle.
                                     33

-------
Thus, crop harvesting and dispersal are integral parts of the process.  How-
ever, agricultural productivity also involves the development of considerable
amounts of primary and secondary organic biomass which escape  harvesting.
Nonetheless the presence of non-harvested organic material represents at
least a temporary change in phase for many chemical constituents supplied
during the wastewater irrigation.  For these reasons the authors have also
calculated yield ratios on the basis of complete plant biomass; i.e., the sum
of leaf plus turf.  The latter term includes unharvested stubble and roots.
Yield ratios calculated in this manner are shown in Table 6 and in general are
about double the magnitude of those calculated for leaf structure alone.
             TABLE 6.  YIELD RATIOS FOR TOTAL PLANTS, LEAF PLUS
                     TURF, PRODUCED PER UNIT IRRIGATION

                                1974 - 1977
                                  Yield
                              Leaf     Turf
                                m tons/ha
                     Total
                           Yield Ratio
                           Total Plant
Site A
  Reed Canary

    Reed canarygrass (E)
    Reed canarygrass (S)
    Reed canarygrass (W)
14.8
17.5
27.2
 9.40
 5.13
25.6
Site B
24.2
22.6
52.8
0.60
0.47
0.70
Timothy-alfalfa
Reed canarygrass
Timothy
Smooth brome
21.2
16.0
13.0
11.6
6.84
18.8
5.98
8.55
28.0
34.8
19.0
20.2
0.93
0.87
0.47
0.50

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRIENT CHARACTERISTICS OF CROPS

     Chemical elements such as carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus are
major constituents of all plant and animal assemblages wherein their propor-
tions vary according to molecular configurations, species origin and envir-
onmental conditions.  Chemical constituents such as nitrogen and phosphorus
along with an array of heavy metals are often the principle target elements
of supplementary wastewater treatment systems.  In practice the nutritional
requirements of wastewater-irrigated-crops help determine the level of waste-
water renovation achieved.  Also the chemical composition of the various
grasses determines their nutrient values as forage crops.

     In terms of ash-free dry weight, carbon, which is somewhat more promi-
                                     34

-------
nently represented than oxygen, is the most abundant element in the Otis
crops.  Together, these two elements account for about 90 percent of the ash-
free dry weight.  However, the bulk of the carbon probably originates from
atmospheric rather than wastewater sources hence its presence in the plant is
not a direct indication of wastewater attenuation.  Together, the fractional
percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus totaled less than 2.5 percent of the
total dry weight, but each of these elements is more intimately involved in
wastewater modification.  Nitrogen, as shown in Table 7, presents the strong-
est contrast between irrigated and non-irrigated (control) crops and appears
to be the element most likely limiting plant growth.
              TABLE 7.  ELEMENTARY COMPOSITION,* MAJOR ELEMENTS
                              OTIS FORAGE CROPS

                                 1974 - 1977
                            Ash-free
                             dry wt.
H       N
 PERCENT
                         0**
Site A,  Reed canarygrass

  East-plot                   91.34
  South-plot                  91.30
  West-plot                   92.13
  Control-plot                92.94

Site B
43.86
46.26
46.50
47.45
6.87
6.67
6.78
5.99
       2.00
       1.58
       1.93
       1.16
                                                                .420
                                                                .457
                                                                .454
                                                                .384
44.81
42.96
41.89
42.88
Timothy-alfalfa
Reed canarygrass
Timothy
Smooth brome
Control, timothy
92.80
92.74
93.18
92.90
92.86
46.34
46.22
47.65
47.05
46.21
6.77
6.13
6.92
6.77
6.41
2.05
1.79
1.53
1.89
1.65
.404
.301
.265
.336
.207
42.14
43.18
41.41
41.66
43.41
* Based on weighted means of ash-free dry weights
**Calculated from:  100 - [(%C) + (%H) + (%N)]
     Green plants have the unique ability to use carbon dioxide and water as
their principal raw materials from which they produce a multitude of organic
compounds of varying complexity.  The initial stages of the above process is
accomplished by photosynthesis which from a chemical point of view is a pro-
cess of reduction.  An input of energy is required to bring about this reac-
tion hence the reduced end products which are formed represent a potential
energy source.  The extent of the overall chemical reduction largely deter-
mines the level of plant-stored energy and can be expressed in terms of the
R-value which quantifies the degree of carbon reduction in an organic compound
                                      35

-------
in accordance with the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen  [24].  The
general formula for calculating R-values is given as:

            [.(% C x 2.66) + (% H x 1.936) .- % 0] x 100 _
                             398.9                    ~ R~value-

     Although R-values are calculated on the relative abundance of specific
elements, they express the energy content of organic materials and hence
should compare with calorific value, the heat of combustion per gram.  Small
variations  from linearity between these parameters are probably due to vary-
ing nitrogen content caused by different rates of nitrogen availability.  In
part, Table P summarizes the pertinent information on R-values and calorific
values from nine cuttings of Otis forage crops.  Calorific values for the ir-
rigated sites ranged from about 4800-4950 cals per gram, ash-free dry weight
basis, while the comparable range of R-values was 30.65-34.25.

     Once elementary analyses and R-values are determined it is possible to
estimate by calculation the approximate llpid, protein and carbohydrate con-
tent of an organic entity.  First the percent nitrogen multiplied by 6.25 is
used to estimate percent protein.  Using values for percent protein as one
constant and the R-values of the entire sample as another, an algebraic solu-
tion of two simultaneous equations can be used to estimate the percentages of
carbohydrates and lipid [24].  These equations are:

        (% P. x 42) + (%  x 28) + (% L x 67.5) = R-value x 100%, and    (1)

                            % J? + % C + % L = 100                       (2)

where  = protein;  = carbohydrate and L = lipid.  The results of these
calculations as applied to Otis hay samples also appear in Table 8.
NITROGEN:PHOSPHORUS BALANCE AND EXCHANGE

     The total amounts of irrigation water and the equivalent amounts of
available nitrogen and phosphorus provided for the crops of Sites A and B be-
tween 1974-1977, are shown in Figure 10.  Unforeseeable interruptions in ir-
rigation during crop drying and adverse weather conditions have meant that
the actual amount of irrigation accomplished was typically less than planned.
The available nitrogen application to Site A varied between 504 and 905 kg
per ha (.227-.403 tons per acre), the range reflecting the three different
rates of applied irrigation.  The quadrants of Site B, which were all irri-
gated at a constant rate, received 491 kg/ha (.219 tons per acre) within the
same time period.  The amount of available phosphorus applied at Site A
ranged from 358-642 kg per ha (.160-.286 tons per acre) while each subplot of
Site B received, in common, 348 kg/ha (.155 tons per acre).

     As iterated above, the value of an agricultural spray-irrigation system
as an effective supplement to conventional sewage treatment largely depends
upon the combined amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus intercepted by the crops
and underlying soil, processes which  deny  these elements access to the ex-
terior environment.  Consequently, close attention should be given to the

                                     36

-------
                          60-
                          40
                    Uj ^   20H
oo
"xj

1400-

1200-


1000-
         800 H
          600
         400
         200
                              E    S    W
                                                    SITE A
                        SITE  B
                              N  P
                             SOUTH
 N P
WEST
                                                        N P
                                                      TIMOTHY
                                                      ALFALFA
                                          60-


                                          40-


                                          20-
                                             = <  uo
                                             (-(El-
 N  P
 REED
CANARY
  N P
TIMOTHY
                                                                                                   i^^T
                                                                                                <   H   bS
                                                                                              OZ   O   go
                                                            CO
 N P
SMOOTH
BROME
       Figure 10.   Total effluent delivered  to  subplots (inserts)  and equivalent amounts  of nitrogen and phosphorus
                   applied  (dark areas)  and  retained (clear areas)  by crops 1974-1977.

-------
               TABLE 8.  ENERGY AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIAL,*
                             OTIS FORAGE CROPS

                                1975 - 1977
                                       R-    Gals       Carbo.  Protein  Lipid
                                     Value  per gm           - Percent -
Site A, Reed canarygrass

  East plot
  South plot
  West plot
  Control
30.65
32.41
32.88
4934
4809
4810
31.97   4848
85.28
82.46
79.86
85.27
12.50
 9.88
12.06
2.22
7.66
8.08
                    7.25   7.48
Site B
Timothy-alfalfa
Reed canarygrass
Timothy
Smooth brome
Control
32.71
31.16
34.25
33.36
31.78
4807
4808
4936
4823
4701
79.76
84.78
78.01
78.81
83.77
12.81
11.19
9.56
11.81
10.31
7.43
4.03
12.43
9.38
5.92

*Based on weighted means of ash-free dry weights.
establishment of an effective quantitative balance between the supply (waste-
water) of, and the demand (crops and soil) for, these nutrients within the
overall system.

     The data of Figure 10 also show  that the total amounts of nitrogen and
phosphorus intercepted by the irrigated crops varies with the rates of appli-
cation.  Nitrogen uptake is shown to be consistently higher than that of
phosphorus both on an absolute and on a relative basis.  The latter observa-
tion reinforces the earlier contention of the authors that nitrogen rather
than phosphorus was the element more likely limiting to plant growth. A third
revelation is that nitrogen:phosphorus ratios, by weight, consistently fall
below a value of 2 in irrigation water whereas the same ratio increases by
3-6 fold in the mature crops.  The above observation again stresses the
marked imbalance between available nitrogen and phosphorus abundance in secon-
dary effluent as opposed to the chemical make-up of these forage grasses.

     Prior to October 1973, the Otis agricultural plots were woodlands yet
to be cleared and planted in hay crops.  In the fall of 1975, after the
seeded crops had developed a firm root system, soil sampling profiles taken
to a depth of 122 cm (4 ft) were examined for each subplot and in addition
the uppermost 30 cm (1 ft) was subjected to soil and root analyses.  Results
for the observed amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen measured in these samples
are given in Table 9.  At each of the subplots, irrigation resulted in an in-
crease in phosphorus content above that recorded for the corresponding soil
                                     38

-------
           TABLE 9.  NITROGEN-PHOSPHORUS CONTENT  (GM/M2) OF OTIS
                     SOILS SAMPLED TO A DEPTH OF  30 CM
                                        Phosphorus                  Nitrogen

Site A, Reed canarygrass

  East                                     108                         234
  South                                    115                         207
  West                                     122                         213

  Control                                   93.6                       276

Site B
Timothy-alfalfa
Reed canarygrass
Timothy
Smooth brome
Control
76.4
102
112
88.3
73.2
186
224
-
231
192

control sample.  Phosphorus enrichment in the underlying soil was particu-
larly apparent in the case of reed canarygrass and timothy subplots.  Re-
garding nitrogen, the situation was not so clear-cut, however, unlike phos-
phorus, there was little or no indication of a nitrogen build-up in the up-
per-most foot of agricultural soil.

    Nitrogenrphosphorus  (N:P) ratios of leaf, turf and soil samples, collected
from each of the agricultural plots, have also been examined.  The resulting
data, as summarized in Table 10, show that the turf of these grasses does
not differ systematically from leaf material with regard to nitrogen and
phosphorus aportionment.  The mean N:P ratio observed for all irrigated
crops was 5.03 whereas the comparable ratio in the irrigation water was only
1.48.  Also the irrigated soils showed an N:P ratio of 1.66 whereas the soils
on non-irrigated control plots showed a significantly higher average N:P
ratio of 3.40.  The above nitrogen:phosphorus relations when expressed in
terms of a single unit of phosphorus, indicates that the nitrogen deficiency
of secondary effluent corresponds to 3.40 units of nitrogen for each unit of
phosphorus provided.

     Nitrogen limitation not only reduces potential productivity, but also
ensures an underutilization of phosphorus and possibly other elements.  Fur-
thermore, the low N:P ratios described for irrigated soils may reflect sig-
nificant scavangering of soil nitrogen by nitrogen deficient crops and/or
above-ambient adsorption of underutilized phosphorus to soil particles.

ADDITIONAL CHEMICAL ELEMENTS MEASURED IN OTIS FORAGE CROPS

     Elementary chemical analyses of harvested crop material has also

                                    39

-------
                TABLE  10.  NITROGEN:PHOSPHORUS RATIOS  (BY WT)
                              OTIS FORAGE CROPS

                                 1974 - 1977
                                           Crop           Turf          Soil
                                            N:P            N:P           N:P
Site A, Reed canarygrass

  East                                     4.76           3.83          1.68
  South                                    3.46           4.03          1.31
  West                                     4.25           4.33          1.62
  Control                                  3.02           5.47          4.04

Site B
Timothy-alfalfa
Reed canarygrass
Timothy
Smooth brome
Control
Mean, irrigated plots
Mean, Otis secondary effluent
5.07
5.95
6.12
5.63
7.98
5.05
1.48
5.21
4.59
4.96
4.38
6.33
4.48

1.50
1.61
1.83
2.05
2.75
1.66


included an evaluation of 10 additional elements besides carbon, hydrogen,
nitrogen and phosphorus.  These other entities can be conveniently divided
into two groups, the major cations and the minor cations or elements present
at trace concentration.  Among the major cations measured were potassium,
calcium, magnesium and sodium.  The minor cations or trace elements included
iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and cadmium.

     The fractional proportions of major cations measured on an ash-free dry
weight basis in the Otis crops are shown in Table 11 where the percentages
entered reflect weighted means for all crops harvested between 1974 and 1977.
The most abundantly represented element of this group was potassium which
consistently represented between 1.50 and 2.00 percent of the harvested
material.  Sodium, on the other hand, was the least abundant of these ele-
ments, its highest concentration measuring less than 0.05 percent.  The pro-
portions of calcium and magnesium in these grasses were quite comparable at
a concentration roughly intermediate between that of potassium and sodium.
A significant aspect of these data is the extent to which these crops dis-
criminate against sodium in favor of potassium.  Another interesting point is
that potassium and magnesium alone showed enrichment in the irrigated crops
above that of the non-irrigated controls.  The relative proportions of these
elements does not appear to differ significantly for the unique grass species.

                                     40

-------
               TABLE 11.  ELEMENTARY COMPOSITION* MAJOR CATIONS
                               OTIS FORAGE CROPS

                                  1974 - 1977
                                        K
                     Ca         Mg
                      - Percent  -
                                                                           Na
 Site A,  Reed canarygrass

   East
   South
   West

   Control

 Site B

   Timothy-alfalfa
   Reed canarygrass
   Timothy
   Smooth brome

   Timothy,  control
        1.66
        1.88
        1.45
        1.70
        1.97
        1.91
        2.00

        1.51
                                      .193
                                      .142
                                      .173
                                      .295
                                      .169
                                      .165
                                      .164

                                      .202
.192
.178
.234
.024
.165
.169
.119
.110

.098
.035
.026
.042
.011
.049
.025
.012

.018
*Based on weighted means of  ash-free dry weight.
     The representation of minor cations or trace elements, given in parts
per million ash-free dry weight basis, is shown in Table 12.  Again, the
values entered represent weighted means for all irrigated and non-irrigated
crops harvested between 1974 and 1977.  In this case iron is the most
prominent trace metal, followed by a preferential order of uptake whereby
manganese exceeds zinc, copper, lead and cadmium.  In terms of concentration,
iron exceeds cadmium by three orders of magnitude whereas the remaining ele-
ments occur at concentrations about 100 times greater than that of cadmium.
There is no consistent trend supporting luxury uptake by the irrigated crops
of any of these cations over that observed for the non-irrigated control
crops.

WASTEWATER RENOVATION BY CROPS

     The renovation efficiency whereby crops remove a given chemical sub-
stance from wastewater is defined as:
Efficiency, %
mass in harvested crop
   n applied
                                                         .....
                                                        X 100.
          (3)
     Accumulated values describing the long-term renovative efficiencies for
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, copper, cadmium and zinc are shown in
Figures 11 and 12 and Table 13.  Within the observed scatter and for the
                                     41

-------
no
SITE A


to
\ 400
*:

uT

:j 200
5;
^
0
A
A NITROGEN
A A

o *
o
  o
. O A
A
-
. * |A 1 1 1 !
ZOO 400 600 800 1000
N APPLIED, kg /ha
A
O
I 80
*
kT
^c
5 40
J^*
2
Q.
0
A
0 A
0 * PHOSPHORUS
o'
o
  O A

o, ob
o 
 P A 1 1 1 1 1 l^t
tOO 200 3OO 400 500 60O TOO 745
P APPLIED, kg /ha
S
\400
"*
^"
JJ 200
^
^
0
POTASSIUM
4. A
A A
o
a *>* 
^ *
"

 "1 A 1 1 1 1 1
IOO 200 300 400 500 600
K APPLIED, kg /ha

SITE B

-C 400
^
2*


5 200
JJ
^
^ o
NITROGEN
- A
A
 A
A

A A 
* a 
- * & o
* s *
A 1 ' 1 1 1
10 200 300 400 500
N APPLIED, kg /ha
**
c
\ 60
*
kT
V
Jt 4O
K^
^
d.
0
PHOSPHORUS
A
A
 *
A *
A
A A
A A *  8
A  0 0 0
A
a i i i i i
(00 2OO 300 400 500


5 400
\
*
^ 200
J5
%
V 0
POTASSIUM
A
A * * f
t   ' 
A  o
A o  
4
fi 1 1 ' <
f 100 200 300 400
K APPLIED, kg /ha
                     tsubpoof                              >    osporus an  potassium at
                     three  sublots  of  Site A and  four  subplots  of  Site B.   Site A data correspond
                                  ^" f "ed,cany  g-s  irrigation;  solid  circles,  1 ln per vk
                     SiteR H      ^ Per f"  1977;  Pen  ClrCleS 2-;  and Pen  triangles 3 in per wi.
                     Site B data correspond to different forage  crops  irrigated at 2 in  per wk -
                     solid  triangles timothy-alfalfa; solid circles, timothy; open triangles  reed
                     canary and open circles  smooth brome.                          triangles,  reed

-------
                        SITE A
U)

to
^ IO.O

ur
k
* 6.0

Q
5>
X>
^ 2.0



CADMIUM


A
A

o&
o- 

. *  200



n
 O JL LCt JD A
A
A CADMIUM
- A


__ 
A 
 O

* S o o o
ft  *


Ti 1 1 1 1 1 1
5 10 15 20 25 30
Cd ADDED, g/ha
200
5:
\
, 

3'
iv
a

COPPER

A
A
A
A A
A C
A
; . - * * * ft
 i i i i i
** 500 1000 (500 2000 2500
Cu APPLIED, g/ha
600
(a

** 400
ly

9; 200
o
5
_
-_
ZINC
A
 A *
A *
A *
A a *
A * 5   
1 * b 
^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
 *250 500 750 1000 (250 (500 (750
                         Zn APPLIED, ka/ha
                                                     Zn APPLIED, g/ha
         Figure  12.
Long-term (1974-77) renovation efficiencies  for  cadmium,  copper and zinc at
three subplots of Site A and four subplots of  Site  B.   Site A data correspond
to different rates of reed canary grass  irrigation;  solid circles,  1 in per wk.,
1974-76 and 4 in per wk., 1977; open circles 2-;  and open triangles 3 in per wk.
Site B data correspond to different forage crops  irrigated at 2 in per wk.;
solid triangles, timothy-alfalfa; solid  circles,  timothy;  open triangles,  reed
canary and open circles smooth brome.

-------
              TABLE 12.  ELEMENTARY COMPOSITION-TRACE ELEMENTS
                              OTIS FORAGE CROPS

                                 1974 - 1977
                                       Fe     Mn     Zn     Cu     Pb
                                               - Parts per million -
                                    Cd
Site A, Reed canarygrass

  East
  South
  West
  Control

Site B

  Timothy-alfalfa
  Reed canarygrass
  Timothy
  Smooth brome

  Timothy control
138
123
145
178
 89
 78
 76
85
52
50
23
46
21
33

29
37
34
37
46
29
33
31
23

18
14
 9
12
16
11
3    0.2
2    0.3
2    0.3
3    0.4
2
2
2
2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2

0.3
delivery rates applied, these data consistently describe a linear relation be-
tween the application and uptake variables.  Other elements such as magnesium,
calcium, and sodium were also observed to behave in a similar manner, whereas
calcium and iron behaved differently and exhibited a unique response for each
wastewater delivery rate.

     Information on elementary efficiences for the four different crop varie-
ties of Site B has also been compiled.  In Figure 11 and Tables 13 and 14,
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium exchanges are shown while Figure 12 pro-
vides information on copper, cadmium and zinc.  In each of the above instances
the maximum removal efficiency was accomplished by the mixed timothy-alfalfa
crop.  Other elements which were most effectively removed by the timothy-al-
falfa crop were calcium, iron, and lead.  Regarding other Site B crops there
was little or no difference between the long term trends describing renovation
efficiencies for the elements described in Figures 11 and 12.  On the other
hand, the individual crops of Site B showed separate uptake patterns for the
elements zinc, manganese, sodium and magnesium.

     Values representing the ultimate extent of renovation accomplished for
all the chemical entities examined for Site A and B crops also appear in
Tables 13 and 14 respectively.  These combined data suggest that neither the
irrigation rates, nor crop varieties employed, exclusively regulate the uptake
behavior of these crops.  The authors would anticipate, however, that irriga-
tion rates in excess of some undefined, but critical level would ultimately
lead to a breakdown in renovation efficiencies.
                                      44

-------
TABLE 13.  RENOVATION EFFICIENCIES, PERCENT, FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL
              ELEMENTS APPLIED TO CROPS OF SITE A*

                           1974 - 1977
Reed Canarygrass Plot

Chemical Element
Manganese
Potassium
Nitrogen
Zinc
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Cadmium
Lead
Iron
Calcium
Copper
Sodium
*Irrigation rates:



East
-
144
55.3
51.8
29.7
18.0
15.3
11.7
14.1
8.97
8.09
6.60
0.29
East 1 inch per week, 1974-1976
4 inches per week, 1977
South 2 inches per week, 1974-1977
West 3 inches per week, 1974-1977
South
Percent -
92.3
62.9
42.8
28.7
17.6
17.4
11.5
10.0
8.38
6.28
4.19
0.23




West

92.7
74.0
54.7
32.9
24.2
18.0
13.0
10.7
10.1
7.98
5.80
0.39




                               45

-------
      TABLE 14.  RENOVATION EFFICIENCIES, PERCENT, FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL
             ELEMENTS APPLIED TO FOUR DIFFERENT CROPS OF SITE B

                                 1974 - 1977
                        Timothy-
                         alfalfa
Chemical Element
                 Reed
             canarygrass
                   - Percent
               Timothy
             Smooth
             brome
Manganese
Potassium
Nitrogen
Zinc

Magnesium
Phosphorus
Cadmium
Lead

Iron
Calcium
Copper
Sodium
89.5
82.2
53.8
26.0

16.7
12.5
10.8
10.2

 5.84
 7.97
 5.74
 0.48
60.6
95.2
82.7
30.5

21.7
22.6
20.2
15.4

17.1
19.6
 3.84
 1.10
37.4
72.0
41.5
22.0

10.6
10.0
 9.67
 9.73

 5.23
 7.48
 2.99
 0.22
47.6
62.1
42.4
13.7

 8.07
10.4
 7.95
 7.24
 4.27
 6.08
 2.95
 0.09
                                     46

-------
                                   SECTION 9

           GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY AND THE IMPACT OF SPRAY-IRRIGATION
 HYDROGEOLOGIC STUDIES

      The geohydrography of Cape Cod (Figure 13) has been reviewed in reports
 by Oldale [9];  Mather et a.1.  [10];  Mather et al.  [11];  Strahler [5, 6]; and
 Palmer [25].   From these sources it can be inferred that the hydrogeology of
 the area can be considered a single,  homogeneous,  anisotropic aquifer with
 maximum hydraulic conductivity (HC) in the north-south  direction roughly
 parallel to the direction of deposition of the outwash  sands and gravels.
 The east-west HC is considerably smaller in a direction which is roughly per-
 pendicular to that of glacial deposition.   The water table map for the Fal-
 mouth area shown in Figure 14 and the saturation  thickness map shown in
 Figure 15 have  been used to prepare replicate estimates of the hydraulic con-
 ductivities  in  each of the above directions.   This  analysis provided a range
 of  north-south  HC values of 42.7-50.9  m (140-167  ft)  per day and an east-west
 range of 18.9-24.7 m (62-81 ft)  per day for annual  recharge rates of 5.35-
 6.36  m (17.54-20.88 ft)  per day.

      Analyses of data from four  aquifer tests,  involving the array of ground-
 water observation wells  shown in Figure 16,  yielded  an  estimated range of
 35.7-48.2  m  (117-158 ft)  per  day for HC and 0.13-0.26 for specific yield (SY)
 defined  as:
           sy  _ Volume water yielded by gravity  from  saturated rock
                            Volume  of  rock  source                  

 The averages  of  four independent  HC and SY  measurements  were 40.5  m  (133 ft)
 per day  for HC and  0.18  for SY.

     Average  annual  recharge was  estimated  by three different  methods:   a
 Thornthwaite  estimation  of  evapo-transpiration  (ET), a  flownet analysis,  and
 a chloride balance method.  These methods yielded estimates  of 53.04,  42.27,
 45.21 cm  (20.88,  16.64 and  17.80  in) per year respectively.  Maximum  and
minimum recharge  rates for  the irrigation plots were estimated using  a
Thornthwaite  calculation  (assuming  no ET loss from the  irrigation water)  and
a chloride balance method  (using the maximum measured chloride concentration
 in the percolate) respectively.  The maximum recharge rates  for  1975 were
respectively  estimated to be 73%, 79% and 84% for the 2.54,  5.08, and  7.62 cm
 (1, 2, and 3  in)  per week plots of  Site A.  For 1976 the maximum recharge
rates were 68%, 75%, and 80% for the 2.54, 5.08 and 7.62 cm per week plots
respectively.  The minimum recharge for the same plots,  respectively, are
placed at 32%, 49% and 34% for 1975 and 33%, 57% and 53% for 1976.

                                     47

-------
 Qb
 Qs
Q]
Qbo
Qsn>
Qmp .. '.'    Mashpee Pitted Plain Deposits
 Beach  and  Dune  Deposits
 (Contemporaneous  with  Qs)

 Marsh  Deposits
 (Contemporaneous  with  Qb)

 Cape Cod Bay  Glacial Lake
 Deposits

 Buzzards Bay  Outwash Deposits
 (Contemporaneous  with  Qsm)

 Sandwich Moraine  Deposits
 (Contemporaneous  with  Qbo)

 Buzzards Bay  Ground Moraine
            Buzzards Bay Moraine Deposits
                                                        /  Holocene
                                           ) Woodfordian )  Pleistocene
Qnd
Nantucket Sound Ice-Contact
Deposits
            Cape Cod Wastewater Renovation
            Experiment Site
            Bedrock Elevation Contour
            (Contour Interval = 25 m)
                          Figure  13.   Legend
                                 48

-------
 4I45'
4I40
41-35' '
41 30'
          70 40'
                     A
70 35'               70 30'

    0   4    8   12   16 thousand ft

      C  I   2   3  4  kilomteri
70s 25'
       Figure 13.   Geology of  the Falmouth Area of  Cape Cod, Massachusetts
                     (Legend continued.)
                                         49

-------
    4IM5
   4I4O'  -
    41
                    - j-    <^,
                   j.  \(    -ii* /*
                                      CAPE COO CANAL
           BUZZARDS
              BAY
                                                                              NANTUCKET
                                                                                 SOUND
                                                                      Groudvwtr lvattoo contour
                                                                         (contour  Interval = 5 ft)
                                                                      Exprimnt sit at Otl* AFB
                                                                     Pumping etnttrt  at Otl* AFB
                                                                   O  Lang Pond pumping Italian
VINEYARD SOUND
   41 35'
               70 40'
                             >
       70-35'                 70' 30'
            0   4   8   12  16 thousand ft
                                                |   2  3
                                                                                           70* 25'
Figure  14.   Watertable  map  for  Falmouth area, Cape Cod, Massachusetts  November,  1975.
                                               50

-------
        BUZZARDS
           BAY
                                                                           NANTUCKET
                                                                             SOUND
                                Otis B-Well
                            R  Retrieval well
                            3  Folmouth well no. 3
                             S  Fdlmoutti well no. 6-74
                             "  Saturated thickness contour
                                 (contour interval20ft)
                           VINEYARD SOUND
4I-30'
           70 40'
70 35'                 70-30'

    0   4    8    12   16 thousand ft


      C  I    2   3  4  Kilomrtrs
                                                                                       70 25'
                        Figure  15.   Saturated  thickness
                                                              map,

-------
:
       oppronimat*     ~
       center of recharge area
                                                                                     retrieval well	 __ _
        SAND FILTER BED AREA
        CfTIS AIR FORCE BASE,
        MASSACHUSETTS
            Figure 16.  Map  showing the Location of the observation wells and discharge point with respect to the
                       Retrieval Well, Otis AFB, Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

-------
     A digital model was  proposed and was used to simulate a steady state
 watertable configuration based on  existing  conditions.   This  was
 obtained  for  a homogeneous, anisotropic aquifer with an east-west HC = 26.2 m
 (86  ft) per day  and north-south HC = 38.1 m  (125 ft) per day and with a re-
 charge rate of 53.04 cm  (20.88 in) per year.  Thus far, no attempt has been
 made to model any  other recharge rates.  Recharge for spetic tanks in the
 Falmouth  area was  estimated from other reports [26] to be .089 cm (.035 in)
 per  day.   Pumping  at Long Pond, the source of most of the municipal fresh-
 water  for Falmouth, was set at 10,370 m3  (366,000 ft3) per day.  Pumping at
 Otis AFB  was  estimated to be  2082 m3 (73,530 ft3) per day and was distributed
 evenly over its  two pumping centers and recharged evenly over the area of the
 sand filter beds,  since the prepared irrigation plan called for a 5.08 cm
 (2 in)  per week  irrigation schedule, recharge rates of 49%, 69% and 79% of
 the  total applied  water (irrigation and precipitation) were simulated.

     The  results of those simulations were that regardless of whether ocean
 outfall or spray-irrigation are used as the wastewater management method, the
 effect  of sewering will be the same within the sewered areas, i.e., up to
 39.62  cm  (1.3 ft)  of groundwater  level decline will result.  Ocean outfall
 will have the effect of dropping the water level of Long Pond by 15.2 cm
 (0.5 ft)  and  spray-irrigation may reduce this drop to only 9.14 cm (0.3 ft).
 These  effects will be greater during the summer months when pumping is
 greater and there  is a net loss of water from the aquifer by ET.  To evaluate
 the  effects during the summer months a non-steady-state model would be re-
 quired.

     Areas around  the Otis irrigation site that are not far above the present
 seasonably high water table may be affected by rising water levels resulting
 from increased recharge;  up to 1.68 m (5.5 ft).  In particular, areas on the
west side  of Ashumet Pond may be affected.

     The model compiled has limitations.   It needs further refinement of
hydraulic  conductivity values.  It was modeled upon only one recharge value,
and  it is  a steady-state model.  Furthermore, it  does not take into account
the  effects from large ponds on the water table configuration.   Streams can
also have  a controlling influence on the water table configuration, for stream
 flows may  increase in response to increased recharge rather than waterlevels
within a particular area.  Better estimates of all parameters (recharge,
specific yield, hydraulic conductivity,  etc.) are also needed for formulation
of an improved model along with validation studies involving more waterlevel
measurements over  a much longer period of time.

     In spite of all of these short-comings the model presented should repre-
sent at least a first and best presently available approximation of the po-
tential affects from a full scale wastewater-irrigation facility at Otis for
the  town of Falmouth.

GROUNDWATER QUALITY CHANGES

     Groundwater samples have been routinely collected from wells located im-
mediately down gradient from each Site A plot and also from upstream control
sources.  All wells were assembled with 1.82 m (6 ft) well points which

                                     53

-------
 intersect  the  top several feet of  the aquifer where  the greatest  groundwater
 attenuation was anticipated.

     Numerous  cations and anions have been observed  to occur at increased
 concentrations with time, but the  abundance has not  as yet exceeded either
 EPA or U.S. Public Health Service  standards for potable waters.   At the  same
 time, however, this subject cannot be lightly dismissed since certain of the
 ions examined  are continuing to appear at accelerated concentrations in  the
 groundwater.   The following paragraphs describe groundwater characteristics
 after the  four years of wastewater irrigation.

     Time  related changes for chloride, nitrate, sodium, potassium and boron
 from beneath Site A plots prior to and after four years of irrigation are
 shown in Figures 17 through 21.    These data have been expressed as three
 point running  averages to help overcome background noise.  Also we have
 purposely  omitted data relating to the intermediate  rates of irrigation,
[south plot, irrigation 5.08 cm (2 in) per week], since these data consis-
 tently took an inbetween, but often overlapping position between  results re-
 corded for the minimum and maximum rates of irrigation.

     Since chloride is one of the  least likely ions  to be intercepted by
 crops or soil, its increase in groundwater can provide a useful measure  of
 the recharge time for irrigation water.  At Otis the arrival of chloride in
 the wells  followed an S-shaped curve and a mean arrival time has  been defined
 as the interval between the start of irrigation and  the arrival of one-half
 of initial plateau concentration.  Using this technique, the fastest rate of
 irrigation corresponded to a recharge time of about  200 days or a descent of
 7.6 cm (3 in) per day (Figure 17).  Greater uncertainty is associated with the
 lesser rates of irrigation, but the data clearly suggest an arrival time in
 excess of  200  days.  Information on recharge indicates a time requirement
which is strongly influenced by the total hydraulic  loading applied at the
 surface.

     Starting about mid 1976 a second pulse of chloride arrival began to
 appear under the west plot and a maximum concentration of 40 ppm  was reached
 during the first half of 1977.  The very moderate increase in chloride asso-
 ciated with the east plot is probably an independent effect since the irriga-
 tion rate  at this location was increased from 2.54 to 10.16 cm  (1 to 4 in)
 per week during 1977.  However, the reason for the secondary chloride pulse
 under the  west plot cannot be satisfactorily explained at this  time.

     Data  describing the appearance of nitrate-nitrogen in the groundwater
 under Site A are shown in Figure 18.  Again the mid-point of the  initial
 pulse under the west plot correspond to an arrival time of about  200 days.
 However, early in 1975 a marked decrease in nitrate  concentration commenced
 and persisted well into 1976.  During the latter half of 1976 and throughout
 1977 the nitrate changes stabilized at 1.0 and 0.30  ppm respectively for the
 west and east plot groundwaters.  There is reason to believe that the abrupt
 decrease in nitrate in 1975 corresponded to an increase in crop biomass and
 a more efficient nitrate uptake provided by a fully  established root system.

     Figure 19 shows comparable groundwater results  for sodium and provides

                                     54

-------
         30
en
tn
JM
ft  20


          10
                                                                                               X      X
                         ARRIVAL TIME
                          200 DAYS-
                                                X   xxx
                       o

                       (T
                       01
or

te
             XXX X
                                                     X  x  x  x xx x     x  x        x       x
                                                                                                   A A
                                                                                     A A
                                    AAAA
                                  A            AAAA
                                                                   A
         A
         A
         ..
                     1974
                                        1975
                                                           T
1976
                                                                        1977
            Figure 17.   Chloride concentrations vs.  time, Site A wells, located on west (crosses),  south (triangles)

                        and east (solid dots) subplots.

-------
01
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tn
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r

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10













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           1.50
I

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            .75
            .00
                                              X

                                            XXX
                           A
                         A  A
                 XX
                              
                              cc
                              a:
                              en
                                                   xxxxx
                                                                            xxx
                                XXA
                                                                    AAAA
                                                           
                                                                                                  X     X
                         1974
                              A A
                                          1975
1976
1977
             Figure 20.  Potassium concentrations vs. time,  Site A wells located on west (crosses), wouth (triangles)

                        and east (solid dots)  subplots.

-------
CJl
.ou
.40



|.30

1

Q^-20



.10








z
o
\-
0

 CC
tr
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o
.
CC
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x SJ
A
X
X X
x x
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XXX
X XX
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X
x xxx

A
A AA
A
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X x A A A 
v vXXA^A. AA  
{ .XwA  A     A 
A AAAX.  
  " X   A A 
A     & &
                       1974
1975
1976
1977
             Figure 21.  Boron concentrations vs.  time, Site A wells located on west (crosses),  south (triangles)  and
                        east (solid dots) subplots.

-------
unmistakable evidence of a continuing increase in concentration (up to 27
ppm) and the prolonged period required for a steady state development.  In
view of recent adverse disclosures concerning the effects of sodium on
hypertensive individuals, the incompleteness of the sodium record will
remain a matter of concern unless follow-up analyses are completed.  In
Massachusetts the drinking water recommendation for sodium is under 20 ppm,
which is significantly less than the current sodium content of the
groundwater beneath the agricultural crops.

    The time related changes for potassium as shown in Figure 20 also de-
scribe an initial arrival time of about 200 days.  As was the case with
chloride and nitrate, the maximum observed concentrations of potassium
occurred during the first half of 1975.  Late potassium changes during 1977
which demonstrated an accelerated increase in abundance are difficult to
interpret in view of a simultaneous and inexplicable increase in the potas-
sium content of the upstream control well.  This is the only instance where-
in such broad fluctuations were encountered in the control situation.

    Groundwater changes in boron with time underneath Site A are shown in
Figure 21.  Among the elements examined boron demonstrated the longest
groundwater arrival time; in excess of 500 days.  Also, the pattern of boron
enrichment was characterized by prominent pulses which appeared in mid 1976
and again in 1977.

    The investigators had hoped to make mass balance analyses, describing
the partitioning of some 15 critical chemical elements into crops, soil
water, and groundwater, an integral part of these studies.  However, the
unexpected delay encountered with respect to steady-state arrivals in the
groundwater presently preclude this possibility pending the appearance of
constant concentrations of sodium, potassium, boron and chloride.

    Distinct from the above, the Otis data also identify a second group of
ions which includes phosphate, nitrate, magnesium and calcium that display
groundwater concentrations which appear to have stabilized within the past
year.  Providing the behavior of these elements can be compared with the
equilibrium behavior of more conservative ions, such as chloride, their
potential as tracer ions can be more fully exploited.  Ultimately, this
should provide a much better understanding of the physical and biological
phenomenon which regulate the movement and quality of the groundwater of the
southern Cape Cod aquifer [27, 28].
                                      60

-------
                                  SECTION 10

                CHLORINATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS IRRIGATED
                           WITH DOMESTIC WASTEWATER
      Spray irrigation of agricultural crops with partially treated wastewater
 is already a popular means of extending water renovation and improving its
 conservation.   However,  as with all waste disposal techniques,  acceptance of
 this form of recycling requires pathogen elimination as well as an avoidance
 of other adverse environmental consequences.

      Unfortunately,  conventional wastewater treatments  do not guarantee path-
 ogen-free effluents  unless their end products are subjected to  terminal dis-
 infection.   In this  country,  chemical disinfection of wastewaters  used for
 irrigation is  generally  achieved by chlorination,  especially if crops  intend-
 ed for  human consumption are  involved.   In the absence  of chlorination,
 disease entities can be  transmitted from incompletely disinfected  irrigation
 waters  by way  of the following:

      1.   Inhalation  of aerosols  carrying pathogenic bacteria or viruses,

      2.   Consumption of  contaminated food crops,

      3.   Ingestion of drinking water containing pathogenic  organisms.

      While  terminal  disinfection would appear  mandatory  for  safe spray  irri-
 gation,  chlorine usage can also lead  to  undesirable  environmental effects.
 Chlorine  residuals as  low as 0.20 mg  per  1  or  less have  been  shown to be dis-
 ruptive  to many  aquatic  plants and animals.  Also,  free  chlorine can seriously
 inhibit photosynthesis in higher agricultural  crops.  Even more disconcerting
 is the increasing number of references in the  environmental literature which
warn  of biological hazards from persistent  chloro-organic compounds in nature.
Clearly,  there is a need for improved criteria to restrain an overzealous use
of chlorine  for  disinfecting purposes.  Ultimately,  it may even become de-
sireable  to assign optimal chlorine dosages which take into account the pecu-
liarities of individual chlorination  facilities.

     During the past year, the authors have investigated the effects of
chlorine on the inactivation of MS-2 bacteriophage at the spray-irrigation
and agricultural facility located at Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
In this case, secondary effluent is lagooned for two to three weeks and then
disinfected with liquid chlorine immediately before application to a series
of experimental agricultural plots.  A (10.2 cm)  polyethylene force main
415 m (1360 ft) long, serves as an experimental contact  chamber for chlorina-

                                     61

-------
 tion  and  provides  a  controllable  retention  time  (12 min.  at a normal pumping
 rate  of 265  1  (70  gals)  per minute).   Initially,  the chlorine dosage applied
 was fixed at 10 mg per 1; but  since 1976, after  evaluating preliminary  test
 results,  a more flexible chlorination  program was adopted whereby chlorine
 dosage is varied.  Usually residual chlorine (free available chlorine)  is
 maintained within  the range of 1  to 2  mg per 1.

      The  experimental studies of  the authors with chlorine have emphasized viral
 rather than bacterial survival since the former  typically display more  resis-
 tance to  chlorine.   The  virus of  the bacterial species, Escheptchia coli
 P4 X  6, known as MS-2, has become the  test  organism of choice.  This virus
 has similar size and structure to Poliovirus 1 and is considered equally or
 more  resistant to  chlorine than most enteric viruses.  The experience of the
 authors has  verified that bacteriophage MS-2 is indeed more resistant to
 chlorine  than is the coliform group of bacteria.

      To assess the disinfection potential of chlorine at  the Otis spray-irri-
 gation facility, nine survival studies were conducted with MS-2 coliphage.
 In a  typical experiment, a known  concentration of coliphage in the density
 range 1 x 1010 to  1  x 1011 Plaque Forming Units   (PFU) per ml was introduced
 continuously into  the origin of the force main with a peristaltic pump.  The
 static concentration of  phage in  the force main after its complete dispersal
 and dilution with  lagoon effluent was  typically reduced to 1 x 10-> to 1 x 10
 PFU/ml.   Before initiating chlorination, a sufficient number of samples was
 taken over a 40-minute period to  accurately establish the control MS-2 den-
 sity  in the absence  of added chlorine.  Subsequently, known and increasing
 increments of chlorine were applied, each for a 40-minute period, for ulti-
 mate  comparison of MS-2  levels with the non-chlorinated control.  At each
 chlorine  concentration,  four samples were taken at 10-minute intervals and
 immediately dechlorinated with sodium  thiosulfate and preserved with chloro-
 form.   Finally, each sample was quantitatively assayed in the laboratory for
MS-2 using the agar  overlay method described by Adams [29].  To help clarify
 the experimental format, the record from a typical survival study is shown in
 Figure 22.  Seasonal repetition of such observations along with other appro-
 priate water analyses has enabled the authors to intercompare antiviral
 chlorine  effectiveness with irrigation water parameters such as temperature,
 pH and ammonia content.

     Free residual chlorine was measured colorimetrically by the DPD method,
which uses the indicator solution diethyl-p-phenylene diamine.   Either a pH
meter or  colorimeter was used to determine pH.   Ammonia-nitrogen was deter-
mined, following Millipore filtration  (0.45 ym porosity) of the primary
water sample by the alkaline phenolhypochlorite method.

     Reductions in MS-2 density on nine different occasions following timed
exposures to experimentally added chlorine are shown in Figure 23.  For each
 experiment the log^o of  the surviving coliphage is plotted against the appro-
priate amount of experimentally added chlorine.   The relative steepness of
 the negative slopes describes coliphage inactivation and provides an assess-
ment of the relative effectiveness of chlorination on each of the indicated
dates.


                                    62

-------
               CHLORINATION  AND COLIPHAGE
                     MS-2  INACTIVATION
                         JULY 23,1975
                CHLORINE CONC. ppm
                0      6.7      12.8
       1000000 -
Figure 22.
                                        LAGOON WATER
                                        TEMP. 26C
                                        pH  7.6
                                        NH4-N 0.35ppm
                20  40
               60  80 ^ 100 120  140  160
                 TIME (min.)
Typical experimental format for studying coliphage, MS-2, survival in
response to controlled chlorine concentrations and contact times at Otis
Air Force Base.
                              63

-------
     The amounts of chlorine dosage necessary to Inactivate a majority of the
MS-2 particles varied from 2 to 3 rag per 1 in November 1975 to 25 mg per 1 in
February  1976.  Generally, the chlorine requirement for a comparable amount
of disinfection was higher during winter than summer and maintenance of 1.0
to 2.0 mg per 1 free available chlorine residual in the effluent insured ade-
quate disinfection.  However, closer examination reveals that such high chlo-
rine concentrations are not always required and may represent over-dosage.

     Because each coliphage measurement shown in Figure 23 corresponds to a
uniform contact period of 12 minutes, the slopes of the individual lines also
correspond to the time rates of change for coliphage inactivation.  The
authors have expressed these data in terms of a chlorination index defined as
the concentration of chlorine (mg per 1) necessary to accomplish a 90 percent
inactivation of the initially provided MS-2 concentration after 12 minutes
contact.  This index is inversely related to the effectiveness of chlorina-
tion since small chlorination indices correspond to relatively high chlorine
efficiencies.  The relations shown in Figure 24 record chlorination indices
ranging from 0.4 mg per 1 chlorine (November 10, 1975) to 17.8 mg per 1 chlo-
rine (February 27,  1976).

     Seasonal changes in the environmental variables, temperature, pH and
ammonia-nitrogen are linearly plotted in Figure 24 along with the nine chlo-
rination indices derived from Figure 23.  The pH varied from 6.5 to 9.6.
Hence, as described by White [30, 31], most of the chlorine should have
occurred as HOC1 at the lower pH value but as OC1~ at the higher value.
However, the relations shown in Figure 24 indicate that these pH changes per
se do not have an overriding effect on chlorination efficiency although
chemical theory predicts a significant role for this variable.  Conversely,
seasonal changes in ammonia do appear to impart significant variations on
the chlorination index, with low indices corresponding to low ammonia concen-
trations and vice versa.   As expected, temperature shows an inverse relation
to the chlorination index since high temperatures play a dual role by enhanc-
ing both ammonia removal via oxidative nitrification and the disinfection
process.

     A large number of plausible mathematical relations were examined to
evaluate the influence of variations in pH, temperature, and ammonia-nitrogen
on the effectiveness of chlorination.  Each of the empirical expressions was
computer-tested for statistical significance by means of the multiple re-
gression analysis available in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences
(SPSS).  The overall test for statistical goodness of fit in the SPSS pro-
gram involves the calculation of an F-ratio which is distributed approxi-
mately as the F-distribution.  In this case, an examined relationship becomes
statistically significant to the .001 level only when the F-ratio is greater
than or equal to the critical F of 29.00.

     The above analysis has enabled the authors to identify the following
emperical expressions 5 and 6 which have proven useful for evaluating the re-
lative influence of pH, temperature, and ammonia-nitrogen on the variation of
the chlorination index (I ):
                                     64

-------
            100
         .0001
                                        10   12    14    16    18   20   22   24
                                  CHL ORINE ADDED ppm
    Figure  23.
Graphic presentations of coliphage, MS-2, survival in the presence of experimentally added
chlorine concentrations at Otis Air Force Base.  All contact times 12 minutes.  The concen-
tration of  chlorine required for the initial 90 percent  inactivation has  been taken as the
chlorination  index.
                                        65

-------
   30.0
   25.0
 
   20.0

U
   15.0
    10.0
    5.0
                                          CHLORINATION
                                              INDEX
                        \   '
                        \t
                         
       '>,<
        / a
       / /
/r
                                         D-..
                                             i
                                        ~OQ- Q-

  / /
 /  /
J.-U
      9'
                                                                                 3O.O
                                                                                 25.0
                                                                                 20.0
                                                                                 15.0
                                                                                 10.0
                                                                                       I


                                                                                       -
                                                                                       I
                           i-
                           I
                           >
                            -
                           


                           ;
                                                                                 5.0
                                       f
                                        , MONTHS

    Figure 24.   Seasonal  variations in temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen  and the cor
                responding  chlorination indices  for coliphage, MS-2,  in lagoon water.
                Otis  Air  Force Base.
                                         66

-------
                                         T
                                    PH -  -4                              (5)

 and
                                      Nfl* -  N
                                 PH  + 	                            (6)

 where  temperature  is  in C  and  ammonia-N in mg/1.  The  chlorination  index,
 when plotted  against  these  parameters, describes  the  two exponential  relations
 shown  in Figure  25a and 25c.  For a statistical analysis of each of  the above,
 a  simple least squares  bivariate regression was performed which provided the
 linearized  relations  shown  in Figure 25b and 25d  defined as:


                         i   -*.  + v[pH~-'1
                         O    1    2
                        F-ratio = 58.6                                  (8)

where K  and K  represent the intercepts and slopes respectively for each of
the above expressions.

     The F-ratio in both cases is much greater than the critical F of 29.00
discussed above, thus indicating an extremely good fit between the experimen-
tal observations and empirical relations proposed.  An important implication
of this analysis is that pH modification by either temperature or ammonia ex-
erts a comparable influence on chlorination thereby suggesting that tempera-
ture and ammonia may also be interdependent.  Verification of this concept is
provided by a general acceptance that the oxidative conversion of ammonia to
nitrite and nitrate via bacteria nitrification is indeed temperature dependent
and proceeds most rapidly during the summer months.  The above relations pro-
vide useful terms of reference for predicting chlorination indices at Otis
when pH, temperature and ammonia content of the lagoon water are known.  Pre-
sumably a more stringent use of these parameters to describe safer chlorine
dosages can be obtained by redefining the chlorination index in terms of 99
rather than 90 percent removal of the test MS-2 concentration.

     These chlorination studies have underlined the complexity of chlorine
disinfection especially when overchlorination of secondary wastewater efflu-
ents is a matter of concern.  Optimal chlorine dosage implies a studious
avoidance of overchlorination as well as successful control of pathogenic
agents.  This definition is especially valid for spray-irrigation systems
wherein chlorine-sensitive agricultural crops intended for consumption by
animals along with soils and groundwaters are exposed to chlorinated waste-
water effluents.

     In the experience of the authors,  sole reliance on a particular free-
available chlorine residual to dictate chlorine dosage will not  always  guaran-
tee a pathogen-free effluent.   Also,  such a practice can at times result in
excessive overchlorination involving unnecessary cost and greater environmen-
tal hazard.   Avoidance of this possibility emphasizes the need for  vigilant

                                     67

-------
CTl
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                   I
                   I
                   
18

16

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10

 8

 6

 4

 2

 0
                                                                           18
16

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12

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 8

 6

 4

 2

 0
                                2.0      4.0      6,0
                                     M-[T/4]
                                     8.0
                                                        12
                                                                          12
                                                                       1  6
                                                                       S  4
                                                                                                          F RATIO = 78.6
                                                                                                          INDICATING A
                                                                                                          SIGNIFICANCE
                                                                                                          LEVEL >.001
                                                                200
                                                                        400
                                                                               600
                                                                                       800
                                                                                          e
                                                                        [PH]-[V4]
                                                                          18
                                                                          14
$  10

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                                                    r
                                                        
                                                                                        F RATIO = 58.2
                                                                                        INDICATING A
                                                                                        SIGNIFICANCE
                                                                                        LEVEL >.001
                                                                                   20
                                                                                           40
                                                                                                   60
                                                                                                          80
                                                                                                                  100
                Figure 25.   (Figures 25a,  25b)  Computer-tested  relations describing the combined effect  of pH and
                             temperature on the inactivation of coliphage, MS-2, by chlorine.  Figure  25a,  exponential
                             form;  Figure 25b, linear form having a significance level >0.001.   (Figure  25c, 25d)   Com-
                             puter-tested relations describing the combined effect of pH and ammonia-nitrogen concen-
                             trations on the inactivation of coliphage,  MS-2, by chlorine.  Figure 25c, experimental
                             form;  Figure 25d, linear form having a significance level >0.001.

-------
monitoring and  assessment of additional water parameters besides free-avail-
able  chlorine.

      These experiments again demonstrate that pH, temperature and ammonia-
nitrogen play an  important role among the factors which control the effective-
ness  of chlorination.  How these same parameters affect the general environ-
mental toxicity of chlorine is, however, less certain.  The inverse influence
of temperature  as opposed to ammonia is clearly discernible in the data pre-
sented.  The authors attributed this difference to the accelerated rates of
biological ammonia oxidation which lead to ammonia removal during the warmer
months of the year.  Thus, both temperature and ammonia-nitrogen appear to
exert comparatively long-term but opposite influences on chlorination.  Also,
variations in pH, which can occur within a much shorter time frame by rela-
tively rapid fluctuations in algal photosynthesis or by inputs of industrial
waste, can also have a profound influence.

     Regression analysis has been used to isolate empirical parameters which
incorporate both long- and short-term variables as a means of predicting
chlorination efficiency.  The results of these calculations are encouraging
and demonstrate a high degree of statistical significance.  Future studies
are contemplated to measure the effect of different chlorine contact times
on the disinfection index of the authors.   Also, for those involved in waste-
water irrigation,  more and better information on the uptake and tolerance
characteristics of agricultural crops exposed to known chlorine residuals is
needed.
                                    69

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 2.  Kerfoot, W. B., B. H. Ketchum, P. Kallio, P. Bowker, A. Mann, and C.
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                                     70

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 14.   Pound, C. E.  and R. W. Crites.   Wastewater treatment and reuse  by  land
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 15.   Wood, W. W.  A  technique using porous cups for  Water Sampling at Any
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 16.   Environmental Protection Agency.  Manual of Methods for  Chemical Analy-
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 17.   Brewer, P. G.,  D. W. Spencer, and C. L.  Smith.   Determinations  of  trace
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 18.   Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 13th Edi-
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 19.   Cotlove,  E.,  H. V. Trantham, and R. L. Bowman.  An Instrument for and
     Method for automatic rapid, accurate and sensitive titration of chloride
      in biological samples.  J.  Lab. and Clin.  Med., 51: 461-468, 1958.

 20.  Murphy,  J. and J. P. Riley.  A Modified  Single Solution Method for the
     Determination of Phosphate in Natural Waters.  Anal. Chim.  Acta. 26:
      31-36, 1962.

 21.  Strickland,  J. D. H. and T. R. Parsons.   A Practical Handbook for Sea
     Water Analyses.   Fish. Res. Bd. Canada,  Bulletin 167,  1968.   311 pp.

22.  Solorozano, L.  Determination of Ammonia in natural waters by the phenol-
     hypochlorite  method.  Limnol.  Oceanogr.  14: 799-801, 1969.

23.  Menzel,  D.  W.  and N. Corwin.  The Measurement of Total  Phosphorus in
     Seawater  based on the liberation of organically bound  fractions  by  per-
     sulfate oxidation.   Limnol. Oceanog., 10:  280-282, 1965.

                                    71

-------
24.  Spoehr, H. A. and H. W. Milner.  The chemical composition of chlorella;
     effects of environmental conditions.  Plant Physiol., 24: 120-149, 1948.

25.  Palmer, C. D.  Hydrogeological Implications of Various Wastewater Manage-
     ment Proposals for the Falmouth Area of Cape Cod,  Massachusetts,  Mas-
     ters Thesis, Dept. of Geology, Penn. State University, College Park,
     Pennsylvania, 1977.

26.  Bauer, W. J.  Wastewater Management Engineering Report Town of Falmouth,
     Massachusetts, Bauer Engineering, Inc., Boston, Massachusetts, 1972.

27.  Ketchum, B. H. and R. F. Vaccaro.  The Removal of  Nutrients and Trace
     Metals by Spray Irrigation and in a Sand Filter Bed.   In:  Land as a
     Waste Management Alternative.   R. C. Loehr, Ed. Ann Arbor Science Publ.
     Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich., 1977.   811 pp.

28.  Deese, P. L., R. F. Vaccaro, B. H. Ketchum, P. C.  Bowker, and M. R.
     Dennett.  Ionic Distributions  in a Spray-Irrigation System.  In:  Food,
     Fertilization and Agricultural Residues.  R. C. Loehr, Ed. Ann Arbor
     Science Publ. Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich., 1977.  727 pp.

29.  Adams, M. H.  Bacteriophages.   Interscience Publ.  Inc., New York, New
     York, 1959.  592 pp.

30.  White, G. C.  Handbook of Chlorination.  Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New
     York, New York, 1972.  713 pp.

31.  White, G. C.  Chlorination and Dechlorination:  A Scientific and Practi-
     cal Approach.  J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 60: 540-555, 1968.
                                      72

-------
                                DATA APPENDIX
     The principle field sampling effort has focussed on the time-related
changes affecting the chemical composition of surface and subsurface waters,
hay, turf, and soils.  All water samples are collected in 2-liter polyethy-
lene bottles, 200 ml aliquots being filtered (0.40 ym porosity) in the field
through a vacuum assisted membrane filter unit.  Filtered samples are refri-
gerated and within 24 hrs analyzed for the crop nutrients phosphate, ammonia,
nitrite and nitrate.

     Well water samples are obtained with a vacuum pressure apparatus modi-
fied from the design of Wood (1967) for deep lysimeter sampling.  With this
equipment, samples of groundwater from depths greater than 25 ft below the
surface are possible.

     Lysimeters are used to collect interstitial soil water by applying vacuum
to permeable ceramic cups (pore size ca 1.0 urn) buried below ground level.
During dry periods, particularly in the non-irrigated control plots it was
not always possible to accumulate an adequate volume of sample water on a
routine basis.

     Mature crops were cut, field dried, baled, and weighed according to ac-
cepted agricultural practice.  During sample processing desiccated hay samples
were macerated in a blender and stored pending chemical analysis for carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus content along with a variety of selected
anions and cations.  Soil samples were removed via a horizontal core taken
from trench side walls exposed manually by shoveling or backhoe assistance.

     Early water sampling was conducted on a biomonthly basis, but in 1977
and 1978 the sampling frequency was reduced to one complete sampling each
month.  Hay sampling was timed to coincide with crop maturation which led to
three samplings per summer except for 1977 when only two hay crops were har-
vested.  To date there have been a total of 10 hay crops which have been cut,
dried, and removed from the agricultural sites.  Only nine of these have been
subjected to complete chemical analyses. Turf and soil samples were collected
on an annual basis in the fall of the year after the growing season was com-
plete.  Identifications of the analytical techniques employed appears in Sec-
tion 5.

     Since irrigation was initiated, in the summer of 1974, a continuous log
has been kept which records the amounts of wastewater irrigation applied to
each of the agricultural subplots of Sites A and B.  Unpredictable interrup-
tions caused by equipment failures, weather extremes, or harvesting opera-
tions ensure that planned irrigation rates are rarely achieved and inevitably

                                     73

-------
total less than the planned application totals.  In a similar vein, differen-
tiation must be made between total wastewater applied to crops and the total
hydraulic load since the latter term includes the total amount of precipita-
tion contributed by rainfall.

     The time-related, accumulated, amounts of secondary effluent applied to
the east, south and west subplots of Site A between July, 1974 and August,
1977 are shown in Figure 8, Section 8.  The respective totals amount to 40,
49 and 62 million kgs per hectare (.109, .133, and .168 million tons per
acre).  The total hydraulic loadings (irrigation plus rainfall) for the same
subplots during this period are shown in Figure 9, Section 8, and respectively
amounted to 76, 85 and 109 million kgs per hectare (.207, .232 and .297 mil-
lion tons per acre).  These data demonstrate that, on Cape Cod, rainfall pro-
vides a significant fraction of the total amount of water applied, given ir-
rigation rates ranging from one to four inches per week.  Percentage-wise the
fractional rainfall contribution amounted to 30-50 percent of the total hy-
draulic loading.
                                     74

-------
               TABLE A-I    OTIS TREATMENT PLANT, SECONDARY EFFLUENT
             ^y/x.yAM^A^
7 V ,
pH
^Mho/cm
INORG NITROGEN
NOz-+NOj-N
NOZ-N
NH*-N
PO.-P

CALCIUM
MASNESIUM
.MANGANESE
	 fgB .
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

"BoitoH pff*


CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-SO



7.?












/to

ie

~j.i>










7-4


//v
.14
ft. '2
	
s.n
3.si
2.0
1.3
3i.<)




Jo











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id
7-3
Uo

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to
S"o
132.






27V




7.3


3.2f
 IS
/S-l

6.72
3. ill
g
f.e
W-7

 SS
to
4-2
to-1
3.3





27.7




7.2


336
 11
li.1
	
-7.13
l.io
6,
tl.o
V7-V

 off
to
Jo
loo
.2





J.f




/*
7.2


f.+7
23
f-2t
	
4.72
3.9o
/8
y-v
tl,2

 oS
JO
45
US
. 2





21.5




(*
1.0


//.So
26
rii

7-ot
3.86
2
/O.J
w.z

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Jo
42
/4
V-3V

fiti
3.11
12
1-8
36.4

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S~3
Jfr
 2





10.fi




/$
1.4.




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ff-V
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ft.7
3?,a

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t,0
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.2.





24.1




7 w # y/ $/ y y/ $/ ^ ^y $ 3/f!/?
(. i


/3.4J
ft
i.tsi

vr*

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7,3
~*t 8

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s*
ft
2.5-0
1.4





23.4




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2-t2
Cl 1

9.1i
4-OO
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7.2
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 05-
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3f
2t>f
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2V. 1




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10.12

l.4ti

8 11
TW
if
7. /
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33.0




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101 A

"2.16

P. to
? f 7
tft
g.S
141

n<
Jo
92
S~a
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tr\
4-9
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2.91




X'NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
f.1


,-,(
.It
rn

r..u
^ 1$
T4
1 
,7ftt>

/><
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79
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t/.f

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374











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7. 3
4i/

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 05
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3.V5

2.5"
Kfl











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74
//77

I't
 flf
Ig.l

S~43
1 4

10.1
T7?











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14


7ff
.1?
U f

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6.ffi



yfg
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(CONTIN
( f?
177

mi
i?n
755

47S
2. ft

10. <)
rr.i











^T




UED)
tn

-------
                                                               TABLE  A-1   (CONTINUED)
              ANALYSIS

                  pH
                       S"
                                6.6
                                 .0
                    6.0
                                       7.
                                                                                7-4-
                                                                                               (-.7
                                                                                            7.Z.
                                                                             7.7
                                                                        i /
                /(Mho/cm
                           386.
                                3J0
                       3(30
          3Z+
                                     332.
326
                                                            300
237 Z?0
                                                                                     V//
                                                          2%.
                                                                                      Iff
                                      &L




                                                                        too
                G_ NI
                 fr
INORG_ NITROGEN
      m
             N02- 4NOj-N
                       Iffn 7.07
                                              IZ-S*
              fo.f*.ll.?+ it.lf
                                                                      //J
                        2-A5 .
-------
                                   TABLE  A-/   (CONTINUED)
ANALYSIS
PM
CONDUCTANCE
^Mho/cm
INORG NITROGEN
NOZ- +NOj-N
NOj-N
NH4-N
P04-P
CATIONS, ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
.MANGANESE^g
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

KOKOfJ (fPn)

ANCNS^pm
CHLORIDE-CI
SULFATE-SO



6-7
3/f

6.08
J&t
3.68
t.(8

II.Q
+1
30.5"
9.3
38.0



11
3.1o



t


38.6
M



1.1
Z83

/o.?3
.4io
/i5"
^^

/o-3
+/
l/.o
8.6
4-1.0



/S~
180



-*r


H.l
&



.&
Z7

(o.oB
.3&
I-*?
ffl

-!L
}.f
ro.t
9 -a.
49-f



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US'



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9+



?.i.
34/

IL.9L
3&>
/3J&
170

tf
3.8
//.5"
a.?
/?!



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3#f



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fro
&-



7.o
Z?o

Ui
x$
*'7
7.of

?-7
+-r
/0.0
8.6
5-6. o



1?
US'



.60


11. 6"
&



7-3
JH

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.A5Z
8.-f7
577jT

77
4
/6.o
e.i
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S9


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W7

+.6t
/*(,
//.as
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+ 7
/6.f
//.7
&.?



38.$




 63,


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V.



6S
72.?

f.8l
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ft
3.6/

4.6
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         X-NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                        TABLE A-2     LAGOONED  SECONDARY  EFFLUENT
       ANALYSIS
                 V AV^/A*



PH
CONDUCTANCE
//Mho/cm
INORG. NITROGEN
ppiri
NOj- +NO,-N
NOj-N
NH4-N
P04-P
CATIONS, ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
 MANGANESJ^
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

SOZOH Pfln

ANONS,ppm
CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-SO

TEMP C




.57
.07
.0?
-11

















//.3







.2V
-/V
01
04

















H.2




?.o


.15
/V
13
>fi

r.v
J.7o
as
7.2
2?.o



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22.7


ao.S"




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.OS
r.t3

T.i
3.U
2.5"
7.2
a?.j



97
/^o






22.9




4.5


/J.Z

2-V#
^.^V

5:^
3.5-0
3*
1-0
3*3



7s-
i/o






27- 1>




L-t


3.yo

2./0
.32

.<,'(>
3, S3
15"
7.2
37.7



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/2<5






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2Z
tti
MS

s~,t.
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-it,
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7.ff
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4-.I
3 7
9.3
3J-0




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2S.f
2JL

6.0

oo
                X-NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                               (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                 TABLE  A-2    (CONTINUED)

  CALCIUM
            i-e
73
                          S.3
         5.V
                                                 A,/
                                          y./
                                                                                                                       9 1
 MAGNESIUM
                          33
                       3.1,
                                                      3,o
                                                             X?
 MANGANESE
                                   /f.o

                                                   6-3
                                                                  J+.3
                                                             rn
                                                                                                  Jo
 POTASSIUM
                 9.3
         If
                                   10.3
              ?J_
                                                        S.I
                                                    8.1
                             7-7
                                                                            79
                                                                      ft. 7
  SODIUM
                          3?.$
                  18S
                                          i22
                                                           6 f/.f -53.0
                                                                                                  4?. <" 4?.
                                                                                                                                3-?. 5
 CATIONS,ppb
  CADMIUM
 CHROMIUM
  COPPER
            ft
ya-
3?
zz.
^
                   fs-
                                                    33
                                  /7
                                                                           30-G
                                                    3d o
                                                                                         Iffl)
                                                                                                                                 //) 0
   IRON
            /Of
     XL
                        33
                        57
                             V
          /7-r
                                                                                                  I/O
   LEAD
   ZINC
                     SO
         A?
                       AS"
                                                 J.T
                                                      J.
      off*.
L
42.
                        72
                                                           afl
 ANNS,ppm
CHLORIDE -Cl
                     8.(>
                              tf.3,
                   y-3
                                                   36.7
                                          if}.!
                                               1ft 4
SULFATe-S04
                      1*
li.
                        a?
                                                    I/
                                           10
                                               34.
                                                                                         1 1
  TEMP C
                      .0
                          t,.o
                              ff.o
                                                                                                  C./
                 SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                   TABLE  A~5       CHLORINATED  IRRIGATION  WATER
                         f
             ANALYSIS  /  o

                 PH
                              T.I
                 (,7
                  73
    "7.T
k-8
              7-1
7.3
     73
                                                                                                               tf.5"
                                                                         .$
                       (,.3
              CONDUCTANCE
                                           370
                                        30?
                                                                                                 3*7
                                                                                                      v/o
                                                                                                       3/6
            INORG  NITROGEN
                         fl.S'
                733
                                    6.60
                      613
                  ffl
                                                                                                                     . (3,
            NOj-N
                 OOA
                                                0/3
                              SQL
                                            ,oo\
                                              Off/
                               -oio
                                                  oof
                                             oof
                                                                                                       3
                                                           oof-
                                                                        002,
                                                                             OOZ,
                                                                                                                             00,3
                                                                   6.28

                                                                    001
            NH,-N
                         ,nf
         iM-
                                        .off
              ,o
                                                 .OS&
                                                                                             /.7JD
                                                                                                       2.6& /O.&l
                                                                                  a^L
                                                                                                                4L
            PO4-P
   (>o8
                              7.32.
                                                7. Off
                           ff97
             7.85
                                                              416
                                            7.23
                                                                       7.00
                                                                                              ZZ3
                                             ?
                                                      (3
                                                                                                                                      6.s-/
              CATlONS.ppm
CO
o
                CALCIUM
                                                                  17.1
                                                 ff-4
                                                                           fo.1
                                                                                             7.8
                                                                        t.o
                                                          S.1
                                                      ,V3
                                                                                 to
               MAGNESIUM
                                       3 -*f
                     33
                           S-ff
                                                                  z.t.
                                                                       3.3
                                             a.r
                                                               a.?
                                                                                  30
               MANGANESE
eek
1..
&.
                  ILL
                           7A.
                                    SSJ.
                                                                                         /7.fj
                                                                                                        2.
                                    3.o

                                    2A7_
               POTASSIUM
                               Rfi
18
                                   9. ft
                                                                       ft.
                                                  7.3
                                         A3
                                                                                             9.2.
                                              9.3
                                                                                  7.1
                SODIUM
                         3.1.1
        K-f 372-
                                                         3?.o
                                             3S.S 30.3"
                                                                                                  33.0
                                                                                    37.5-
                                                                                                   6.0
               CATION S.ppt
                CADMIUM
                                                         .HO
                                                                                                  LG3_
                                                                   d
                                                                                             LOL
                                                                                              xZZ
                                                                                                       .5*0
                                                                                                            /.Si
               CHROMIUM
                COPPER
                               //r
                                                          2L
                                                                    2i-
                                                                                                  JO
                 IRON
                                                 M
                                                           3
                                                                                             I3S
                                                               3S2.
                                                                                                                                       31
                 LEAD
                                                              12.
                                                                                             .57
                                                                             L
                                                                             ^L
                                                                                  3o_
                 ZINC
                                                              as
                                                 SfT
                                                      7T
                                                                                    .TO
                                             100
                                              7.T
                                                                vr
                                                           AT
              i3nw   ff*
                                                          Si.
                  OL
                                m
                                L
                      47.
                                                                       .S9
41
iSA
                                                                                          ,t,a
                                                                                                                        .70
                                                                                      .S3
                                                                                                                57
               ANONS,ppm
              CMLORIOE-CI
                                                         39-7
                                                376
                                                      3^3
                                                  3S.1
                                                                                            fy&o.
                                                                                                                             yj./
              SULFATE-SO
                                                          If
                                        /7
                                                                    Zf
                                                                                                                    H
                         X: NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                                    (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                    TABLE  A-3    (CONTINUED)
INORG  NITROGEN
  2- +NOj-N
                       /w
                        S.67
                                  W
                                  9.13
N02-N
                                      ,00%.
                              06*
                             oof
                                                         .001
                                                                   .CO?
                                                                        .oaf,
NH-N
                                           frt,
                                                     oto
                                           0/3
PO.-P
                                                         S-78 7.U-

    CALCIUM
              4.0
     a-i
                         *'/
   MAGNESIUM
                        14
               'I
              f-7
                        4-f,
  .MANGANESE..),
      ! - ttS.
     n-ft
     /o.A
                   3.3
                             4.0
                         /.O
                                           /
   POTASSIUM
              7-,1?
7:0
V-fl
4.0
7.H.
ft.l
9.7
1.8
t.fi
    SODIUM
                   fS.O
                             43.
                                                                   ffo
                                                                         ?.o
   CATIONS.ppb
    CADMIUM
              ./V
.31
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                   /O
          9-f
                                  10.0
     IRON
                                                              Mo
                                                                   fff>
     LEAD
     ZINC
                        .7V
                             .J&_
                                                                        .a
   ANONSjipm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
              3/5
     37-Y
          -v/
                                     S8^L
         4J3_
                        tf.3.
  SULFATE-SO*
                             IO
                                      j-i
                        228
                                      SO
             X  NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                 TABLE  A-4      TAP WATER.  OTIS TREATMENT PLANT
           INORG. NITROGEN
           NOj- +NOj-N
                                                               .pff
                                  .03
                                       50
                                                                                03
                                                                                    o/
           NOj-N
                                .oW
                                         .0,10
           NH-N
                            .04.
                                CA
 pa.
                                          02.
                                             .oa
                                                      .12-
3-19
                                   M
                                                                            .o/
M-
32
                                                                                                                       ^
           P04-P
                                /.YO
                                     .0"?
                                         .07
                                             .07
                                                  o/
                 .Pi
                                                              .03
                                                                                                  SB

                                                                                  (22i
             CAT IONS, ppm
              CALCIUM
                                                          7-1/
                                   ft-Y
                                        "? 9s
             MAGNESIUM

00
            .MANGANE
                   SE^
             POTASSIUM
              SODIUM
                                                      7.-T
                                                          7.0
*2.
                                                                                     1
                                                                 o//




                                                                                           /94
             CATIONS,ppb
              CADMIUM
             CHROMIUM
              COPPER
               IRON
               LEAD
               ZINC
                                                                                                 .n
                                                                          /A.
                                                                                                                       13
                                                                                       H
                                                                                                                                iO
             ANIONS.ppm
            CHLORIDE -Cl
                                                                                             i?
            SULFATE-S04
                       X'NO SAMPLE;BLANK:ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                             (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                  TABLE  A-4    (CONTINUED)
 ANALYSIS
                                                        6-+
                                           .8
                                                                                                    .(,
                                                                                           7-i
  CONDUCTANCE
                    57
                                     230
                                                                           J+3.
                                                                                          /$&
                                                                                  s+z
                                                                      X53
INORG.  NITROGEN

    <*"*	
N02-
                                                                   .tt
                                                        /.*?
                                                                                                     40? 3.#S
NOj-N
              002.
     QIO
              125.
                            .oo/
                                                                           0+3
                                                            Off,
                                                                                                    02?
                                                                                            00/
NH4-N
03k
                                               Oo&
                                               .33?
                                                                                      -&0
                                                                              Stf/
P04-P
                   133,
                                                    .tie
                                                                       />&
                                                                                                    J38
                                                                                       of?
  CATIONS.MHK
    CALCIUM
                                                131
                       SLZ
                                                                                               730
                                                                                8.10
CO
co
   MAGNESIUM
                                                     &8.L
                                 1.1?
                                                                  6.
                                                                                     4.82.
                                                                                   c
  .MANGA
lO^
                                                         50
                                               37.5"
                                                                                                   38. t>
   POTASSIUM
                                                    /.0U
                                          /.-fo
                                                                                          /.a.
    SODIUM
                          -
                                                             H/.2.
                                                                   7.3o SJ.o
   CATIONS,ppb
    CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                                                         43
                                                             J7.&
                                                                                                         '7
     IRON
                                                                  37
     LEAD
     ZINC
  lelto*,  PPI*
               .Iff
.If
                                       ./v
                                    .17
                                                    .08
                            S-l
/*
                                                                                     . i
.'
   ANK)NS,ppm
   CHLORIDE -Cl
            133.
                                 f/,7
                                 //
                                                                   &1L
                                                                    /J.8
   SULFATE-S04
               II
                        /A.
                                                                    37
                                                                    S3
                                                    '3
                   '7
/A
              X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                    TABLE  A-5     TAP  WATER.  OTIS  FIELD  LABORATORY
 ANALYSIS
                                              //   AD/ nV/'V/AV %
                                              /////&
    pH
CONDUCTANCE
 //Mho/cm
              (,.0
   (,-3
**-
                        f?
,5-7
                  57?
                                  &
                              ZL
                                                                      (09
                                                                             I7f
                                                                           77
INORG  NITROGEN
           73
               .73
       01
    .01
               .03
                   02,
                                   ajft
           0(3
00 ft
,03$-
.j&te
                                            J32.
.iW
N02-N
           .01 ft
.005_
                                        ^Si
   SODIUM
               7-5"


                             7-3
                                                                   -
                                                              s.o
                                                               7.3.
                                                                                      7.?
                                                                             71.
  CATION S.ppb
   CADMIUM
  CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD
    ZINC
       ft*
                                     .07
                          .09
                      .ot
                                              .OV
                                    .06
                                        .0}.
                                        .07
                                            .Of
                                                       .13.
                                                              .03,
                                                                  ,o.
-------
                                              TABLE A-5   (CONTINUED)
         ANALYSIS
PM
CONDUCTANCE
/^Mho/cm
INORG NITROGEN
PAl
NOj- + NOj-N
NOj-N
NH.-N
PO-P
CATlONS.wm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
.MANGANESE^
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppt
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

2fflto*' ff>*

ANOMSrfjpm
CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-S04



W
/{.&

.116
X
.046
.aooj

108
i.ef

.10
.<



S2




.to


jt.e,
to



f-f
/S7

.013

^



J




.o&


/0+
?-*



6.f
/7f

.30
.001
.016
-eoi.

&&
3.tf
1100
.XL
S.f



7.<*
2750



./>(,


//.o
tt



6*
/93

/&
.005
<*V
-
/euro



./>


8-f
9



63
/&

.otf
.0<
.acCL
 Ol

3.3+
300
X3L5
-7Z
<8



4<
7aoo



./


?.o
S~



61
W

.Off.
.OOf
.a/6
 oaof

W

USD
.60
*3



l.o
46av



 3.0


7-7
6



6./
/oS

.o>+
.003
 oil
ax>3

3.3f

looo
.70
to



3.0




of


7

.00A"
.006
.a/7
ooZ

I8f

/USD
.-Jt>
*.(,



/.o




/i


*f
r






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































oo
CT1
                      SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                      TABLE  A-6      TAP WATER.  WOODS  HOLE  POTABLE  WATER  SUPPLY
 ANALYSIS
             *f
            $
                                                                                M,k
             A7 AV iv/
            $W<
     PH
  CONDUCTANCE
   p Mho /cm
                     (,-f
                                     C.7  x
                                                                            6-ft
                                                                                             6.9
                                       u
                              LSL
                          22
                                                                         -
                                                                            70.A.

                                                                                                 1D.O

INORG NITROGEN
             Oof,
                     ftff
                                     Of3
oiL
                 o?
                                                                                                      ./a*,
                         2-7
                                                               .(,0
                                                                                                 2L
NH-N
             03
                                 oo'f
                                  73
                                                           i?/'
                                                                    J2
                                                                                        JlL
                                   &L
                                                                                                  J&L
P04-P
                                       l3
                                                               .i
                                                                        .10
                                                                                        .0-7
  CATIONS, ppm
   CALCIUM
CD
CT>
  MAGNESIUM
                     l-o
                                                  /.o
                                                               /.o
                                                                                /.o
                 /.O
                                                                            /.o
                                                                                                          J22
                                               ^2
                                                J^
  MANGANESE
         ^
  POTASSIUM
   SODIUM
                     7.3
                                                  7V
7.3
                                                               7.3-
73
it

  CATIONS.ppb
   CADMIUM
  CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD
    ZINC
^aftfV ^y.^7
                                                                                             07
                                                                                                              Of
                                                   07
                                                                                                              5Z
                                               o
  ANIONS.ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
            //-i
  SULFATE-S04
                                                       MQ
            ^C
                                                                                                     /ft
                                                                                                              / '2.
            X NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                              TABLE  A-6    (CONTINUED)
             ANALYSIS
                 pH
L.
                                            7.o
                       7.1
              8,1*
                      6.0
                       7.1.  7.1   C.I  6.B J^l
              CONDUCTANCE
.33 (A.8
                                                U.I
                            73&Sti
                                                       70.0
                                                                          &(,
            INORG  NITROGEN
            N02-
OL
                       01
                                                     OM
                                 lot,
                                              .080
                                                             .047
                                               .358
                   .oaf .o?i-
                                                 .so
                                 vo
                       to
                                                                             0.6
                                          /.o
                                                            0-?
                                                                           0-3
                                                                          1.0
QLL
                   OoS
                                                      00?
                                                                               .633
                                                                      ool
                                                                          .0/3
            PO-P
                          a
                              .33.

                                '71
                                                                        if
                                     VI
                                         .117
iff
                                                                       .OSl
                                               .03
                                                                               .ojo
              CATIONS, ppm
                CALCIUM
         4Z&.
                                                          V-7V
                                     484
                                     -f./f
                                         40.
                           &
                                                             f of
CO
               MAGNESIUM
                       .73
                                                          ,76
                                 .Co
                                          /.fO
                                                        f.av
                                                                 /.go
                                                                                L&
                                                                          /./J
               MANGANE
                     SE^
                                                        3-0
                                              J.o
                                                                 2-0
                                                            o
                                                                                    /
                                                                          2^
               POTASSIUM
                                                 .5-5-
                                                        .Co
                                              .82.
                                                                      .70
                                                            .(,0
                                                                                .70
                SODIUM
                                   t.to

                                                           -
                                                                                  B.2.
                                                            9.1
                                                                               9.3
                                                                      7.8
                                                                          3.3
               CATIONS.ppD
                CADMIUM
               CHROMIUM
                COPPER
                                                                                               370
                 IRON
                                                                                  130
                                                                                                         /So
                 LEAD
                 ZINC
                          .06
                              .01
          .03
                                        .OS.
                                            .0.1
                                                 .03
                                                          .03
                                     .0+
                                         .0-3
                                                                                                              .10
                                                                                     fo
              ANONS.ppm
              CHLORIDE -Cl
                          //.A
          11.3
II.
    /A?
                   10,
11.7
                                                               //
                                          if -7
                                                   9.7
//.O
1/4
              SULFATE-SO,
                                                           s
                                                        *>.&
                                                             4-
                                                                      S'
                         X:NO SAMPLE;BLANK:ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                       TABLE  A-7       SURFACE  WATER,  ASHUMET  POND
 ANALYSIS
   pH

CONDUCTANCE
                  7-f
   /fMHo/cm
INORG NITROGEN
    rr"
                                                                                                                    r?,*
NOj- +NOS-N
                      .60
                        (.01
                                                    .76
                                                                         .73
                                       Ztt
N08-N
             00?
                         oaft
                                                                00^
                                                         007
             00(3
                           oot>
                          .38
                              2.30
                                                            &2-
                                                  /.S~7
                                                    .&L
PO-P
            .OCU.
                                         SSL
                                                           
01
.CSL
sol
00^
.
3&
                                                                                   QO^
&L
0
3
002,
%
                                                                                                                 002,
03
  CAT IONS, ppm
   CALCIUM
                                            7-7
CO
GO
  MAGMESIUM
                  . a
                      3*L
                                                                               ft
                               L3SL
                                                                                                       /.ftf
                                                     ,10
  MANGANESE
          ^
  POTASSIUM
                 3-3
                                                                                 LJL
                                                                          / e
                                                                             /ft
    SODIUM
                             &J
                                                               ft. 3
                                                                          r
                                                                                                                         7-?
   CADMIUM
  CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD
                                                                                       ofc
                                                                                          07

  CHLORIDE -Cl
                 fS-f
             Ho.
                                                                     //.a-
                                                                            //O
                                                                                                                         Iff
  SULFATE-SO4
                                                                                                il
                                                                                                                     30
            X NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                    (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                             TABLE  A-7   ( CONTINUED)
             ANALYSIS
   pH

CONDUCTANCE
Zi
    LQ_
                                                              7.2,
                                                     5? 5
                                                           .
                                                                     oo(,
                                                                oof
                                                                       004-
                                                                         .oof
                       oof
oof
            NR,-N
                                           .*>!
                                                                                                  ./6o
                                                                         /ft
                                                                                                   094
                                                                                            /of
            PO-P
                          007
                                  .noS.
       ao/
                                            .DO
                  .001
                                     033.
                                  .001
                                                         041
                                         t.-ool
                                                                                 ool.
                                                                       .ooi
                                                                .002.
                                                                                                  .00 1
                                                                                                        oof
                                                                                       .oil
              CATIONS, ppm
                CALCIUM
Zi
                                            V-V,?
                Y-4V
                  wo
                                                                  f. ft
                                                                + 71
                                                                              41
CO
UD
               MAGNESIUM
O2.
    h2Q_
L2L
                                        m
           1. 7 A
                           f.tnir>
                                                                                              2.30
                                                                                33?
                                                                                                                     3.10
              .MANGANESE^
                                                                  0.0
               POTASSIUM
                              I-V7
       1-loQ
         'tiff
                                                     /.B
                                                                  /.
                                                                              /.fo
                                                                                  1.60
                                                                                                                     i.
                SODIUM
                          7
                               -
                                         -

                                                               .
                                       9.8
                                         9.8
                                                                       /o.8
                                                                         94
                                                                              t.
                                                                                   9.
               CATIONS.ppb
                CADMIUM
               CHROMIUM
                COPPER
                                                                       4-7
                                                         3.0
                                                           f-o
                                                                                         2.0
                                                                                  yr/o
                 IRON
                                                                                              5
                                                                  fo
                 LEAD
                 ZINC
                          .08
                              .13.
.07.
       .07
         .04
                                                         .Of
                                             4t
                                                                   of
                                                                     .01
                                                                         ^L
               ANIONS,ppm
              CHLORIDE -Cl
                    &5
              HA
                  UL&_
                                                         l&l
                              IJJa.
                                    41.
                                                                                                    . 3
                                                                                '33
                                                                                  it -7
              SULFATE-SCU
UL
                                        11
         IL
                                            XL
                                                     jr-7
&.
                                                            a .
                                                                                     8
                                                                              10
                                                                                            8
                              SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                       TABLE  A-8       WELL  WATER,  WELL   '4
INORG  NITROGEN
NO,-
                       0/6
                                ,0/1
                                     d/,2.
                                                                 001
                                                                     0/3
                                                                          032.
                                                                                   24.
                                                                          oi_
N H4 - N
                  061
                       oof
                                 -001
                                         oof
                                             .not
                                                                     V73
                                                                                   039

P04-P
        _
ZL
tOS*.
J&.
ai.
o&S.
S&.
al
oj^

02^






   CALCIUM
              13.
                                                                                       /.fl
  MAGNESIUM
             tf?
                                                                                                                    i
  MANGANESE
  POTASSIUM
                                                                                   .13.
                                                                                                                        89
    SODIUM
                           .'
                            ai
                                          .
                                                            TJ,



  CATIONS, ppb
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
             130
    LEAD
    ZINC
  ANIONS,ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
                       7-f
                  l.f
                        77
                            77
                                               7-9
                                                                         73
  SULFATE-SO4
                                                                                                                        J-O.

                                                                /JO
 ELEVATION FT
    ]^/
                                                  S3-07
                                                           tt.lo



                                                                                                               jry/ 5^. /t> &. y?3~o.
             X NO SAMPLE; BLANK'-ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                           (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                    TABLE  A-8   (CONTINUED)
INORG  NITROGEN
NO,- +NO5-N
              .682.
V?
                                                                                  37
                                                                                                    ///K
                                                                                                     .137
N02-N
                   .70
    .By
         36
                                           70
                                                                                  57?
                                                                                                                        0.4-
               0/3
006
                                                CO&
                                                      on
         pfm
                     oo6
                             .el/
                                           o/o
                                                 OfO
                                 .<*??
                                                                    co8
                                                     22.

                                                     M~
                                                                                            MB.
                                                                         ao





    CALCIUM
                    /./o
                        t.ol
                                           'ID
                                                !<#>
                                                              /A?
                                                                                                                                  3-26
   MAGNESIUM
                   ''J
                                                /ft
                                                                                                1.3
                                                                                                               /
  . MANGANESE
                                                                                                          ft.p,
   POTASSIUM
              .75
                   .70
    .73
.73
-VJ
                                       .7J
                                                                                                      (0
                                                                                                So
    SODIUM
                                                     .T.I




                                                                                                               Ft*


                                                                                                              ^8

    CADMIUM
                                       75
                                                                                       75"
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                                      a-fl
                       3.3.
                                            v./
                                                                                       r?
                                                                                                                             IO-&
                                                                                                     fff,
     IRON
                        11,3
                                                                                                                    f.o
                                                                                                         19 <
                                                                                                                                  //.O
     LEAD
                                                                                                                   fl (.
     ZINC
                        Zf
                                                          SfT
   QOKOH
                   OH
                                           Oi
                             of
                             fft
                                  off
           a*/
of
to
f4-

  CHLORIDE -Cl
              A7.Z
         9-*
                                                          -fi
                                 st,
                                 9-7
                                           SJL
6.
                                                                   73
     ^
                                                                                                                             if.
                                                                                                              3
  SULFATE-S04
                                                                                            V

                        13.0


                       S.ti
                                                JO-0
                                                         tl.t
                                           t.fr
                                                                   /.o
                                                    (S^SL
                                                0_
                                                                                                         /so
                                                                                                              ft
  ELEVATION FT
                                                    f^6^\f/.3')\s:i.it>\so.'j3sa.iti\fo.^\si).il SOM yg.'jltf.01
                                                                                           o.80 /./S~ 37.33.
             X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                                (CONTINUED)

-------
                                               TABLE  A-8    (CONTINUED)
 ANALYSIS
   PM
CON&UCTANte
                               &.0
                                                6-2.
INOAG. NITROGEN
                                    l-lf?
             0.8
                  '1
                                   /.o
                                                0.8
NH4-N
                         .oaf
                       *//
                                       .0/2
                             0/3
.0/7
  CATNS.p
   CALCIUM
  MAGNESIUM
                  146
ro
             16.0
                           *?*
                                                If
  POTASSIUM
                                    0.79
    SODIUM
                  t?.o
  CATIONS**
   CADMIUM
  CHROMIUM
   COPPER
                                    8.0
    mow
    LEAD
    ZINC
'Ban-on. Pfin
                                    /i
                         .3 A
  ANONS
 CHLORIDE -Ct
                      31.3
                                       31."
 SULFATt-SO,
                  s



 ELEVATION FT.
            X-NO SAMPLE;BLANK:ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                           TABLE  A-9       SOIL  WATER  FROM  6",  LYSIMETER
            ANALYSIS
                 pH
CONDUCTANCE
 ^Mho/cm
                                               -7.7
                                                        7.?
                                                                      7.4
                                7-3
7.2
                                                                        b.te
                                         73.
                                         ZL
                                                                                          7V
                                                                      463
                                    587
    6/8
         310
118
                          277
            INORG  NITROGEN
             2- +NOj-N
                                           01,
                                                        .>/
                                031
.01+
XII
                                                                                             .O&O
                                                           .77-?
                                                                                .71
                                                                                                 /.6B
                                                                 70
            NH4-N
                                           .Of
                                                         .O/
                                                                      034
 Olf
                                              oo(-
              .007
                  -47J
 ooj
                                                /L
                                                                      1*5
                                                                                        1-2+
                                                                IZ-I
                                                                                                                   oi&
                                                                             ^1
                                                                                                                        375"
                                                                                 &st,
              POTASSIUM
                                                                               .36
                                         .4-1
         .18
                                                                                                          LXL
                                                                        JL
                SODIUM

                                                                                        38 i.
                                                                                                 Ji.?
                                                                          1 0
              CATIONS.ppb
               CADMIUM
               CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                IRON
                 LEAD
                ZINC
                                                                                        aft
                                                       ift
                           .(ft
     *L
                                                                                                                   17
                                    .37
              CHLORIDE -D
                                  713
                                      3JI
397
                                                        33
                                                                          843
                                    783 .i
                  7.V
              SULFATE-S04
                        X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                                    (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                 TABLE  A-9  (CONTINUED)
 ANALYSIS
             6-0
        77
 f-f
         e-1
   /fMho/c
   Wo
INORG  NITROGEN
             ,097
            VAT
    .'73
     .taf
N02-N
                                X
                          9.9
         6.8
         3-7
NH4-(*
             0/3
                  (Xtf
                                oo3
         .0/3.
     .0/4-
P04-P

   CALCIUM
                                             &&.O
  MAGNESIUM
                               440
                                            If,. 03
                                                            /
-------
                                           TABLE  A-10SOIL  WATER  FROM   l'  ,  LYSIMETER
            INORG  NITROGEN
                                                at
                                                    /a,
                                            52 
                                                                                        .IV-
                                                                                                          433_
                                                                            LBL
            NO,-N
             z
                       ,
                    pot,
             If
t./f
                                     7.1
                                     ' V

                         l-Ole
                               33
                                  .Ok
                                      ..93
                                               .07
                                                    .o3
                                                                               .003
                                                                                                                       034
                                                                                                                                .0/0
                         .9o
                                  t.LO
                                                                  2.3
                                                                               22.3
                                                     /Jf
                      85.
              CATIONS, ppm
               CALCIUM
                                                                          3b.l
                                                                                            373
                                                                                                          37 S
                                                                                                               Vo
to
en
              MAGNESIUM
                             //P
{,,8
     2-70
3.77
                                                                       2o.
1M
                                                                                                                         17
              MANGANESE
                               A?*"
              POTASSIUM
                                                                                    .6,8
                                                          -3V
                                                                                                      l.li,
                SODIUM
                                                                                   I3L.4
                                                      /*?
                             '.S 795
                                                                                                          875
                                                                                   0
              CATIONS.ppb
               CADMIUM
              CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                IRON
                LEAD
                ZINC
                                                                      .3ft
                                                                           37
                                                 ,/ft
                                                                                        ae
                                                           HO
                            fl?
                                                                                                      70
                                                                                                                   70
                                Sf
              ANONS,ppm
             CHLORIDE -Cl
              SULFAT-SO
                                                                 4*7
                                   37.+
             ZS.S
                                                                                                /aa.
                                                                      /r
                                                                               i/
                                                                                            /3_
                                                                                              A.
                        X^NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                    TABLE  A-M     SOIL WATER  FROM 2'.  LYSiMETER
CT>
               ,Mho/eii
            INORG  NITROGEN
            NOZ-
            NH-N

               CALCIUM
              MAGNESIUM
              MANGANESE
              POTASSIUM
               SODIUM
              CATIONS,ppt>
               CADMIUM
              CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                IRON
                LEAD
                ZINC

             CHLORIOE-CI
             SULFATE-S04
                             3.30
                             /.tf
                             ./at)
                             J-7
/.a
*/
                                      30
         xv
.02
                                              Ao
                  /.o
.or
                                                            .061
                           -3f
                                                                3^7
                       ./JO
                                                                     .37
                                                                     f/
                                                                         .33?
                                                                         o'Jo
                                        2L
.63
                                                                             17.1
                                                                             .A"!
                                            19.0
                                                                                  2.2
                                                                                  70.6
                                                                                  1.4-7
                                                                                  ta.7
                                    9o
                                    .9o
                                                                                  it,. ft
                                                     D-l
                                                         3A&
                                                         I.'S
                                                                                               33.1
                                                              /Of
                                                              7C.K
                                                              .62.
                                                                                               HI
                                                                                               *
                                                                                                   ./oft

                                                                                                   3.O.
                                                                                                    71
                       X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

                                                                                                        /.v
                                                                                                        afl T

                                                                           308

                                                                                                                  
                                                                                3a
                                                                                /Of,
                                                                                                                 1L&
                                                                                                                 32.
                                                                                    ij"j
-------
                              TABLE  A-12     SOIL  WATER  FROM  3X,  LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
     pH
CONDUCTANCE
 //),
y//
                                          ale
S3L
                                                                 ./3Z
                                                   .116
                                      06+
                                                                                       .83
                            .140
    281
                                          (.10
                                                   foe
                                                        I.DO
                                                             /f
                                                                                               Qoz,.o4
NH-N
              .(ft
                   .3o
 33
     .1$.
                                .10
                                     .10
                                          .3.1
                                                   .ox
                                                        .01
                                                                  .03
                                                    .oil
                                               _2*t
                                                                                                       oaa.
                                                             0/7
P04-P
              3.60
                  S.t.3.
                        ./o
                                            ti
                                                   /.33
                                                   32+
                                                                                                                         3/t,
  CATIONS, ppm
    CALCIUM
                   /a 8
                                                   8.6
                                 ft,*,
   MAGNESIUM
                   3-1
         r?-/
                                                             /8o
                                               /.37
                                          2.73
                                                                                             (,.50
                                                                           &22
   MANGANESE
                   J.OI
   POTASSIUM
                   18
                                                                                .68
                                                                           -ea
    SODIUM
                   /
                                                                 5/.O
                                               30.0
                                                    5. i
                                 rt.ft
                                                                                                                3o. i
   CATlONS.ppb
    CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                            /A-
     IRON
     LEAD
     ZINC
                                                            .5"3
31*.
                                                                 .23
11
                                                             .3?
                                                                                                              .TV
   ANIONS,ppm
  CHLORlOE-Cl
                   li-f
                            73
                                                        77
                   tfl
                                                                           -f
                                                                               37.
                                                                                                                    UP
                                                                                                      3^
  SULMTE-S04
                                                                                                  /ft
                                                                                    /7
                                                                           3.T
             X-NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                            (CONTINUED)

-------
                                            TABLE A-12  (CONTINUED)
         ANALYSIS
pH
CONDUCTANCE
^Mho/cm
INORG NITROGEN
NOj- ^NOs^Np^^
NO*-N p,i
NH-N p,m
PO,-P ^pi
CATIONS, ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

~fat/v ff/*t

ANIONS.ppm
CMLORIDE-CI
SULFATE-SO.



.3.
Wi

.070
.IfO
.oaL
/S.ij

//(e
Mti
X
.78









,s8


V>{,
3F



M
m

./a
,
-------
                             TABLE  A-13     SOIL  WATER  FROM  4X,  LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
     pH
                                                       7-3-
                                                            7-3
                                                                 6.0
                                              66
                                         6-0
                                                                          -3
                                                                                            5"
  CONDUCTANCE
                                                                 27Z
                                              243
                                                           3&S
                           2/4
                      31 (^
                       ?/
INORG  NITROGEN
NO,-
                                S45L
472_
                                                                               .
                                              1.3.
                                                                               o/7
                                                                                    a/4-
                                                                                                           oil,
                                                                                   V/7
                                                                              .01$
PO,-P
              .01 *
                            .DOS'
                                          ,099.
                                     003.
                                                                           030
                                                                               oil
                                                                                    014-
                                                                                              023
                                                                          152.
                                                                                                          .Olio
  CATlONS.ppm
    CALCIUM
                                                                          17.2.
                                                   V
                                              13d.
                  31L
                                //r
   MAGNESIUM
                       3-V
{$
A3-
                                              J.&I
    //f
/.&,
                                                                 A-./o
                                                             07
f.il
a -iff
  . MANGANESE
                                 ^i
                                      .oa,
                                                                                                                    X
   POTASSIUM
                                                                          3.00
                                                                     .80,
                                                                     ,70
    SODIUM
                                                                          4f.fi
                                                   ft
                                                            t?-3
                                    4^-5' S0-S~
   CATIONS.ppb
    CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                   3.0
                                 y/
     IRON
                   ilo
     ^1^
     LEAD
     ZINC
   BottaH
                                                                               .11
                                                        33
                                                                                                      ,10
                                                                                                                        .65"
   flNONS.ppm
  CM LOR IDE -Cl
                   89*
                                                   /!LL
                                                                          31.0
                                                  /4-.1.
                                                            3+3
  SULFATE-S04
                                                                                             ZL.
                                                                                                                             30
             X^NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COVPLETE
                                                                                                                            (COflTKIUED)

-------
                                                    TABLE  A-15  (CONTINUEDj
 ANALYSIS
     pM
                  .7
                                  ,.$
                             C..L
  CONDUCTANCE

   /(Mho/cm
3A3
     3/5
                                                             $70
iNORG  NITROGEN
             .331
     60S
/.33
                                                                      j.iTJ y.e&
NO,-N
     10.Q
                       3-1
         /$
                                                             3.7
                                                    L-
             .063
         oil
     .0/7
                                                                       .0/6
PO.-P
             .(03,
                                                    aa-8
                                                         3-^0
  CATIONS, ppm
   CALCIUM
              A-7
         Sft.t
  MAGNESIUM
                  a- it
                                                TV*
                                          o_
  MANGANESE
                                          /.r
                                                    /.<*
                                                                       JLR.
o
o
   POTASSIUM
                            5~.ce
                        .30
                   S.30
                                                                  s:yo
                                                                       b-to
    SODIUM
                                                    1/0
                                                             11 8
  CATIONS.PJ*
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
   COPPER
                                     37.0
                                      M.o
                                 K.o
     IRON
                                                X
                                       rl
                                                                  d.
     LEAD
     ZINC
                                 -35
                                  .68
  flNIONS.ppm
  CHLORIDE-CI
             377
         yj.y
              fa.
  SULFATE-SO
              a a.
                                           /A
                                                                  (.

 ELEVATION FT
             X-NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE

-------
                        TABLE A-14  WELL WATER. WELL *5
            j My*/, 
MNMLTSIO

INORG NITROGEN
NO,- + N03-N flpfl
NOj-N pffc
NH4-N pp^
P4-P tfyW

MAGNESIUM
.MANGANESE
POTASSIUM
SODIUM

CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

***** ^"l

CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-S04


ELEVATION FT
/ '
-^-

.OOJ
fo
,0/J
0/3

f.'->

'/
L



 /
<.30
t-tf




Xs


X
K7.0o
s/


.oil,
1
<.o7
e2-


^

 b
<.6I










t.o



&J3
'/
*-


X
(.000'
.Oof















6.0



53.05
/ ^
X


V
.0
X.

.Ot^
/
.0/0
 oofe

^T

.x/l
4-i










?r>


x
j



Ji_

or^r
,Y
.nil


.Jo
l.i 4"

7^











7<^


o..V

6 3

we\
<-r
.0/3


JLk.
/.if

V?











/? //


/^.^

i^.

-T??
P
oil


l-rf

flY











, ^


fa*

^l_

T?'fT
' f^
.oot


y / "5
1 7

?(*
6- 7













//<7

A

r-"1
1
t


11

9 1











', -


//y

x "3

/.
-------
                                                                TABLE  A-14  (CONTINUED)
             ANALYSIS
                              s?
                        7.f
                       .0
                                      6.0
                                      S.I
          H2L
LQ.
                                                          s.s
L3_
                                                                                           .{7
              CONDUCTANCE

               /f Mho /cm
         S&3
    773
8X0
                       77 i
                   XV
                            SO.?
                                                                       JO 4
                                                                                                                n.
            INORG  NITROGEN
            NO,- +NOj-N ftm
1-37?
    1.088
                                                                73
               377
                                                                                                                                       7f3
            N02-N
                     ffb
                           10
      84
                   .64-
                                                                $3
               -6Z
                        .73
                                                         A2.
                                                                                      X
                                                                                               (5-3
            NH..-N
                          '13
          .oof
                                        00&
          007
                                                      .020
                                                                .olZ.
                                                                         .0/0
                        0$,
                                                         fl?7
                                                                                                                             o/?
                                                                                                              .r>/7
            PO,-P
.004.
                               ood
                                              ooi
                        .OO'f
                        oof
                                                                              .03
                                                                                 CXtj-
                                                                             out
                                                                                                                                        ld
                                                                                                                  .ot-4-
              CAT IONS, ppm
               CALCIUM
                          ,.,1
                              1. 10
          /.*?
    /.as
              /f)
          /I?
ML
                                                                       &JL
                                                                        .**-
              MAGNESIUM
                          ?*
     .2-7
         3-7
                                                 S.o
     A 9
                                 i.s-
                        2A.
                                                              23-
                                                              2J*.
                                       LSL
                             UL
o
ro
              MANGANESE
                                                                                                                                       re.s
                                                                                                                                           /?>
              POTASSIUM
                               -ar
          .&/
                       .03
          .559
                                                                    22-
                                                                         .IS
          Jo.
                             i.os-
                                                                                 .flo
                                                                                          .?_
                                                                                           ee?
                SODIUM
                                                 3.8
                                                9-f
                                                                                    -
                                                                                                 //
                                                                                                                    8.3
                                                                                                         /ff.i.
              CATIONS.ppb
               CADMIUM
                                   34.1
                        /ftf
                  ^0-7
                                           i&3_
               CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                                    7?
                        V-7
                   5-3
               3.1
                                                              AL
                                                          5.5.
                                                         /o-j-
                                                1.8
                 IRON
7A-
                                                                                                          /fl.ft
                                                              /tl
                                                                                                              380
                 LEAD
                                                   X
                                                                                                                    o-3
                                                                                               o.l
                 ZINC
               &OROU (ffn)
oH
         .If
^7_
&L
                   .if)
                                                                                        io_
         ^L
                                                                                                                          /A
              ANK)NS,ppm
              CHLOfilDE-Cl
                         191
     /?*
         243
          /Z
                             2i2
                                                                                 fft,
                                           /^
                                                                                     X..2.
              SULFATE-SO.,
                           7
      &
 16
               6~
                                                     Y_
                                                                                                                ft
               TEMP C
                          /r
     JS.f
     /J.o
         //.r
7-f
                                                           fo.o
                        I3.S
                                                                              I/.0
                                                                                            /i'i
                                                             ZZ^
                                                         fo.o lo.o  /J_-5_
                                                                                                    /r.o
             ELEVATION FT
                         50.0.0
                                                                         SI-U.
                                                    51-03
                                                                                                                    >.*
                         X NO  SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                                          (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                                 TABLE  A-14    (CONTINUED)
               ANALYSIS
CONDUCTANCE
 /^Mho/cm
                                 63
                                    6.0
                                               /J
              INORG  NITROGEN
              N02- +NOj-N
            .as
     .8*7
                                                     20?
              N02-N
                        ppy
                      1.6
              NH.-N
                            008
                 .003
.007
              PO-P
             ee1?
                                      cy?
                                                     a/O
                CATIONS, pprn
                  CALCIUM
                                           L6
                 MAGNESIUM
                                           37
o
U)
                 MANGANESE
                            32.0
                      a/.r
                 POTASSIUM
                                 /.Ho
                                                /SZ
                  SODIUM
                                 36.0
                 CATIONS.ppb
                  CADMIUM
                 CHROMIUM
                  COPPER
                            li.
                           7.5
                                               /a.o
                   IRON
                   LEAD
                   ZINC
                 ANIONS.ppm
                CHLORIDE -Cl
                SULFATE-S04
                                  IS
                                     X
                  TEMP C
                ELEVATION FT   0..f SO.if
                           X  NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT  COMPLETE

-------
                                         TABLE  A-15     SOIL  WATER  FROM  6",  LYSIMETER
            CONDUCTANCE

             ^Mho/cm
          INORG  NITROGEN
n&_
                            .oot
                                                            732.
                                         1-043
                                                      a.n
    ,273.
                                                                     3J-I
                                     X
              7/
     57
                                                                         11.7*
                                                                1.0
                                                                              0.9
                                                   J-7
          NH.-N     ppm
                                 .03
                       ol
                                          o/7
          nt
          PO-P
                       .005-
.00^
                                         ooj.
                                               X
                                &
284-0^
                                                                                                0/7
                                              of?
                                                                                       
                                                       o7
o
->
            CATIONS.***
             CALCIUM
/8J_
                                                                    2L2.
                                                                                                                       n-1
                                                                                                         
                                                                                                             /a./
            MAGNESIUM
                                                            2.5-
                                                                1,53
                                                           j.sz,
            .MANGANESE
                                                                                                          X
                                                                                                               X
                                                                                       X
                                                                                           3.2
                                                                Zi
                                                                                                                                     J.o
                                                                         8.0
             POTASSIUM
                                                                 ..SB
                                                                         Laa
                                                  4-.U-
                                                      1.07
                                         t.?o
                                                                                       2<_
                                                                                                     o.Jo
                                              /.-fa
              SODIUM
                                                            34.0
                                                                     ao.5
            C4TIONS.IX*
             CADMIUM
             CHROMIUM
             COPPER
                                                                                                                                 Wo
                                                                                                         f?.o
              IRON
                                                                                                                       go
                                                                                                     73
                                                                                                                                     170
              LEAD
              ZINC
             SO HOW
                                                                Ifi
                                         .30
                                             ^as:
                                     .5-5-
                                                                                                                            33
                                                                                                                   30
            ANONS^pm
            CHLORIDE -Cl
                                                   *.?
                                    26.5
SL
                                                                    377
                                          45-3
                                                                                                         39.1
            SULFATE-SO*
                                                                         At
                                                                                   1?
                                                             18
                                                                                                               X
                      X^NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPUETE

-------
                            TABLE A-16   SOIL WATER  FROM  I' ,  LYSIMETER
        ANALYSIS
pH
CONDUCTANCE
/^Mho/cm
INORG NITROGEN
>,-**>,-..
"0,-N pfn
NH.-N pfn
P-P IA
CATIONS.ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppb
CADMIUM
. CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

BORON (pf*)

ANWNS.ppm
CHLORIDE-CI
SULFATE-S04



4-8
1Q2,

1,11
*
./a*?
*

fl.O
*
X-
.?.?o
f?-0








,7J


(fl.O
*



1-le
3A7

,tn
K
K
1C

7-f.
V-flC
/<;
,?,3A
X








.t


3J.3
X



M
Y/o

o^V
X
.05D
X

aff.3
*
A
X
X

4
*
i.
*
x
X.

.90


X
?A



4.5*
j^fO

37,f
<
,P7
.05^


-------
                                          TABLE  A-17      SOIL  WATER  FROM  2',  LYSIMETER
            ANALYSIS
                pH
                                    22.
                                                                               6+
                                    6.3
                                                      62.
                                                                                       6.V
             CONDUCTANCE
              /^Mho/cm
                                Z3B
                                                            222-
                                                                        AT3
                                                                    35"
                                                                                       378
                                                                                      335"
           INORG  NITROGEN
                                                                                .367
                                                  .260
                                                                          364
           NO,-N
xr"
                                                        2^L
                                                                                3.7Z
                                                                                              .70
                                                                                                 2./0
                                                                                                      A62
           NH,-N
                         330V
go
lo
                                           20
                                                                /At,
                                                                                            V-3
           PO.-P

                                            62
J-7
                                                        J.
                             X
                                                       A 67
                                                       z.&ftf.?/
                                                                                                           /Oi
                                                                                                                (03
             CATIONS.ppm
               CALCIUM
                                                                                     li.7
                                         /2.7
                                                                3-0
                                                                                                           rf.7
                                                                             /M.
              MAGNESIUM
                                                                                AV7
                                         /.4-3
                                                                                                                             3,/o
o
CTi
              MANGANESE
                                                                                                       A
                                                                                                                     X
                                                                                                                         X
              POTASSIUM
                                                                                         .33
                                              .16
                                                                 .4-6
                                                                         .V?
                                                                               7J
               SODIUM
                                                                                53.0
                                    34.5"
                                                                                         32.5"
                                                                         370
                                                                                                                        5X5
              CATlONS.ppb
               CADMIUM
              CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                IRON
                LEAD
                ZINC
            Oattn,
                                                                                .41
                                                                                         ft
                                                            .32.
                                                                OL
                                                       .3.3
                                                           ,4.3
                                                                    .77
                                                                         .50
                                                                              .5-9
             ANK>NS,ppm
             CHLORIDE -Cl
&L
                                26.1
                                                                                             250
                                                                                                           3ft/
                                                                              V5-./
             SULFAT-SO
                                                                                         /&
                                                       22.
                                                                                                           /e
                                                                                                                             ae
                        X'NO SAMPLE,BLANK:ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                              TABLE  A-18     SOIL  WATER  FROM  3',   LYSIMETER
PO
  CAT IONS, ppm
   CALCIUM
                                                              IZ.I
                                                                                    tf.o
                                                                          tl.f
                                                                                                                  LL&
  MAGNESIUM
*J-
.&.
L/L
                                                                           y..oo
                                                                                    2.9*
                                                                                                     L30.
A3
  .MANGANESE
   POTASSIUM
                  1.8
         l-o
                                                 53T
                           20
                          .10
                                                .a'?
    SODIUM
                                                                           22. 1
                                                                      ri.8
                                                                                             23-
                                        33.0
                                                         5J5~
   CATIONS.ppb
    CADMIUM
                                                                                X
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                      1L
         13.
     IRON
     LEAD
     ZINC
                                                              .37
                                                 40
                                                                       if
                                            ,75"
   ANIONS,ppm
  CHLORIDE-CI
                                                              26.?
                                                                  2i.8
                              31. y
                                                                                                                  ffl
  SULFATE-SO,
                                                                                    10
                                                                                         /7
                                                                                                 33.
                                                                                                                   10
             X NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                     TABLE  A-19     SOIL  WATER  FROM  4  .  LYSIMETER
        INORG  NITROGEN
        NO,-
                             A*/
                                                      .17
.0-7
                                                                        .077
                                          Jfo
*g_
                                                                                                           070
                                                                                                               Jfli
                                                                    l.O
                                                                                                   4-7
                                                                                                              09V
                                                        01'
                         ./v
                                -o/
                                               OS
                                                  .01
                                                 .01
                                                                             -004-
                                                                                     .0/3
                                                                        / -A?







                                                                                             3-3
CD
CO
MAGNESIUM

MANGANESE
                         V-V
                                                                        I.OO
          POTASSIUM
                                              1,9
                                                               50
                                                                                        .5-0
           SODIUM
                                 9-8
                                        V?

                                                                                     77. ,



                                                                                                                                87

           CADMIUM
          CHROMIUM
           COPPER
                                 /o
            IRON
                                 /fr;
            LEAD
            ZINC
                                                                                  v
                                                                           ?7
                      tfi_

         CHLORIDE -Cl
                    54?
                                                              40
                                                                          77
                                                                                                 fa. a.
         SULFATE-SO4
                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                       33
                   X'NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                          (cormriuED)

-------
                                                    TABLE  A-19   (CONTINUED)
 ANALYSIS
     pH
                            /
                         6.6
    &.I
   /
-------
                                                     TABLE-A  20     WELL  WATER,  WELL   *6
              ANALYSIS
                  pH
               CONDUCTANCE
                /M.
               Ofjj_
                                                                      .008
                                 ^_
                                      2L
                           oiS~
                                     oof
                                          oof
                                              008
                                                    at
                                                                      .008
                                                                          .00?
                                                                               . 31O
                                                                                          ogs'
                                                                                              0>3
               CATIONS, ppm
                CALCIUM
                                ,74,
                                                                                         A2^
                                                                                                                                         J-A
               MAGNESIUM
                                (,08
         /.o3
                   X/5"
                                                                                                                 S33
                                                                                                                               /S~7
                                                                                                                                        J.fc
O
               MANGANESE
                POTASSIUM
                           .6
,<*/
               .70
 Si
.76
.7V
                                                                                                                          7?
                                                                   .7?
                                                                                                                                    /.&/
                                                                                                                                        //J
                 SODIUM
                                      .6
                                                                                                                 y.-s
                                                                                                                                    7-ie
                                                                                               9,3
               CATIONS.ppb
                CADMIUM
                CHROMIUM
                COPPEH
                  IRON
                  LEAD
                  ZINC
                    _ppS_
               ANIONS.ppm
               CHLORIDE -Cl
                           (,.1
                                                        7?
22.
                   7.7
               77
    7.?
                                                              7.0
                                                                       ffl
                                                                                      /ra-
               SULFAT-SO<
                 TEMP C
                                           //o
                                                                                                   /J.o
                                                                                                       //n
                                                                                                                 /J.o
                                                                                                                      Jt.a
                                                                                                                               /a. o
               ELEVATION FT
                                     r/rr
                                                                                     &?$
                                                                                         filfl
                                                                                                   n.o?
                          X-NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT  COMPLETE
                                                                                                                                            (COriTINURD)

-------
                                                     TABLE  A-20   (CONTINUED)
 ANALYSIS
    pH
CONDUCTANCE
                                 6ft
                                       CJ
                                      6.0
                                           5:7
                                                     6.0
                                                          1$
                                                                                                                                   -r.7
                             AJJ
                                  /Jo
                        nj
                                  f/3,

INORG  NITROGEN
NOZ-
                             -J88
                             7S?
                                                                                                           ,$10
              ?-*
V
                                  /.2o
                                                     .36
                        /.1 2
                        Jf
                        7o
                                                          JO,
                                                                                                52)
.36
                                                                                                                          .67
              .ait,
                                                      oi7
                                       oil
                                                                    .033
                                                                         .0/3
                                                           008
                                                .o&J
                                                                                                      .oof
                                                                                                                               010
              .001
                                   oof
                                            .003
                                                .002.
                                                     .00+
                                       0*8
                                                               of*.
                                                                    .008
                                                                             .006
                                                               .oof
                                                                                                                               Ooi
                                                                                                                                   .00?
  CATIONS, ppm
    CALCIUM
                   3-33
                             J8&
                        />"
              SL.M
                                  J.Ofl
                                 a /ft
                                                                                             zsa
                                                                                                                          .as
                                                                                                                             I.*/
   MAGNESIUM
                    7*7.1
                                  3.3
                    3.0
                   3 <
                    3.-I
                                                 4-7
                                                                                                                     LB-
                                                                                                                          '3
   MANGANESE^
                    17,5"
                                                      HSL
                                                                                                  9.8
   POTASSIUM
                   /.3S-
                                  /./o
                                       f./4-
                                                               i.OO
                                                 1.06
                                                                         1.00
                                                                             /.
                                                                                            /Oo
                                                                                             ^L.
    SODIUM
                                                     ,*?
                                       I.3M
                             13.1
                                  11,.
                                                                                                      /77
                                                          ?9.r
   CATJONS.ppb
    CAOMtUM
                                       1,3
                                                                    L3-
                                                                              L3~
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                                                     3JL
                                                                    4L
                                                                                                                          3.7
                                                                                                                7.7 
     IRON
                                                                                                        X
                                                                                                                 X.
                                                                                                                         ff
     LEAD
                                                                                                                          o-l
                                                                                                                .8
     ZINC
                                                          75-
                                                                    a.r
                                                                                                      fO
          ,OB_
1L
Z
JO.
                                                           33.
                                                                30
                                                      AS,
                                                                            XL
                                                                                                       /J
                                                                                                            an
   ANIONS.ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
                                                          Ifl.t
                                                                                                 277
                                                                                   38.3,
                                                                                                      It*
                                                                                                43,2.
  SULFATE-SO,
                    7_
                                                          /r
                             nL
                                           !L
    TEMP C
                             /t.o
                                       13.0
                                           /J.O
                                                                   '3.0
                                                                                                      U.Q
                                                                                                                         /f.o  S3. o
  ELEVATION FT.
                                                                   S2./7
                                                                        */.




             X  NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                                  (COHTiriUED)

-------
                        TABLE  A-20   (CONTINUED)
PH
CONDUCTANCE
/^Mho/Cm
INORG NITROGEN
NOZ- MOj-N pff,
N02-N ffr
NM4-N pfq
P04-P />pm
CATIONS.ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE f^
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

J&>rc~t (ffln

ANIONS.ppm
CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-SO,

TEMP C
ELEvaTiON FT
6.3
/76

 3(-o
0.4-
Olj
.oof

334-
f.S~
/o.f
/.4*
MB



17.0
9.3
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X NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                              TABLE A-21      SOIL  WATER  FROM  6",   LYSIMETER
INORG NITROGEN
                 /*
    /3S
         .07
                                                         .20+
                                                                                     //
NO*-N
                                                                       /.OO
                                                          Z..IO 2
                                                                                        J 7
             'V
                           .03
                                        .03-
                                                      o/O
                                                 0/6
                                                                            0/6
                                                                                03
                                                                                         0/7
                  -eeofe

                                                                            oof

                                                     61.
                                                     Z
                                                                                          7 S
   AGNESIUM
                                                     1.HC.
                                    '1,11
                                                                           2 vr
                                                                                                                       4-.&O
   ANGANESE^
                  .03
   POTASSIUM
                                                                                                      3?
    SODIUM
                                                     V/.T
                                                                  if 7


  CATION S,p(*



   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM




   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD




    ZINC
       para
                                                                       37
                                                                                                                        St,
  AMONS.ppm



  CHLORIDE-Cl
                 38ft
Tf-V
9.o
  SULFJU-SO
                                                                               a/ft
                                                                                        22i
                                                                           5^
                                       ^ffk
                                            3/7
            X NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                      (CO;iTI!IUCD)

-------
                                  TABLE  A-21  (CONTINUED)
ANALYSIS
pH
CONDUCTANCE
/^Who/cm
INORG NITROGEN
NOJ-4N03-N/y)/r,
"02-N ffb
NH4-N pprf-
P04-P pf>rn
CATIONS, ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE^, ^
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATlONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

do/lam ?/>"

ANONS.ppm
CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-SO.



.8
&/

>3
30
0/3
ISB

&+
3.&0
18
G->'
-Ti'i'



/7-0
^3



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^



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2?3

Hi
X
-Off
.f/

'?<
U3
3.3
30
Sl.f



330
34-



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14-.0
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Z4-



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3do

-iff
X.
K
K.

/??

-------
                              TABLE  A-22      SOIL  WATER  FROM   I   ,   LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
     PH
  CONDUCTANCE
                                                                                                              ?
         .02?
                                                                    Me.
                                                                                 QLL
                                                                                                             nrv,
                      .009
                                                           .0/6
                                                                                               O34
  CATIONS.ppm
   CALCIUM
                                                                                              pip
  MAGNESIUM
                                    /.S8
                                                                             1.00
                  i2l
                                                                                                            J.CO
  .MANGANESE
                  .OS.
  POTASSIUM
                                                           .30
                                              -47
.08
                                                                            .3.1
                                                                                                        .37
                                                                                      7?
    SODIUM
                                                               S7.6
                                                                        J/J
                                                                                     18
                                                                    575"
  CATIONS.ppb
   CADMIUM
  CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD
    ZINC
       ppn
                                         dL
    3k.
                                                                                      70
  AN(ONS,ppni
 CHLORIDE -Cl
                                                                                                       5&.7
 SULFATE-SO4
                                                                                                        34.
            X^NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                             TABLE  A-23     SOIL  WATER  FROM  2',  LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
     pH
                                                          ;.&
                                                                                                       7.o
                                                                                     (--9
                                                                        {3
  CONDUCTANCE
   /^Mho/cm
                                        JOB
INORG NITROGEN
             /V9
//f
/TO
    JO.O
                                                                   .235"
                                                  158
                                     .Ql 9.-W
                                                          2.AO
                           .fio
                      J37
                                                                   /./Z
                                                                        8+
                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                       /.v
       -ft>
                  a/-?
.ar
                                    .o/
                                                                        o/l
                                    .01$
                                                                                .01 3
                                             .3/7
                                                                        023
                                                                                                       -O33
                                                                   .008
                       oof
                                        .no
                                                                       /.**?
                                                                                                       O8l
                                                                    783
                                                                                         .52
  CATK>NS,MMl
   CALCIUM
                                                                   Z7.3
                                                                        14.3
                                                                                                  tff.1
  MAGNESIUM
                                                               7.32.
                                                 /.6o
                                        3.70
              a. 79
  MANGANESE
                  -73
   POTASSIUM
                  P-?
                                        .36
                           VJ
.Ola
         /ao
.u
3?
.39
    SODIUM
                                                                        If.l
                                                                             .t,
                                                                                                                  0
  CATlOHS^pb
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD
    ZINC
                                                                   ,81
                                                              .37
                                                           7?
                           .70
  ANONS,ppm
  CHLORIDE -CI
                                             3/3
                                                          37.8
                                             40.6
                                9.4-
                                                                                                       S3L-C
                                             xi t
  SULFATE-SO
                                                                                 38
                                                                                     23
            X  NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE

-------
                               TABLE  A-24     SOIL  WATER  FROM 3',  LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
CONDUCTANCE
 ^Mho/cm
                                                  13
                      6-7
             fr-7
                                                           6.0
                               le.i.
                                                  30
                                                                JS8
                                         2<3/
                                         218
                          27 /
INORG.  NITROGEN
NOj- +NOS-N
                                                                 US
                                              .//d
                                         .1*6
                                /x.
                                                                                                         iffl
                                                                              Iff)
                                                       l.o
                                                                                           J.oo
                                                                /*
                                                                                                    -30
NH4-N
             v/
,03
                                         .o\
.01
0*1
                                                                       .014.
 070
.031
P04-P
                                    .f
                                         z.v?
                                                                              3.1
                                                                                           Z.I7
                                                                    /

                                                                                                              2
  CAT IONS, ppM
   CALCIUM
   MAGNESIUM
                       3-3
                                                                                                /7.V
                                                                                                         J5.Q
                                                                                                                  a?./
                                              l.li
                                                                                                             3.50
                                                                                                                  Z-SY
   MANGANESE
                           .008
     D/V
   POTASSIUM
                                                                42
                                         4-7
                                .2?
                  ./r
                                                                                                       iff
    SODIUM
                                                                         J3T.O
                                                                                           27.0


   CATIONS.M*
    CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
                        /V
     IRON
                  tfii
    Jlfco
     LEAD
     ZINC
  BoOo*  fP*
                                                                              53
                                                                                   7
                                                                                                         f-02.
  ANQNS^lpm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
                                                                    /7
                                                                         77.7
                                                                                           ft*
  SULFATE-S04
                                                                                       /fl
            X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                               TABLE  A-25      SOIL  WATER  FROM  4\  LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
   pH
CONDUCTANCE
                                                   r-v
                                 t-*-
     3
                                                                  S.7
f-7
                                                    6J
                        6.J
          7.3
                                                                 188
                                                    Z23
                        ZZ3
                                                             /Jtt
                   IKS'
                            22 f
                                                                                                       3.4-3
INORG.  NITROGEN
                  .73
iTJO
39
         .3.10
.301
.,7?
                                                                             f.ffl
                                                                           ./Si
                                                                                                            f8t,
                                              .7
                                                    g
                                                        / o
                                                                           2.38
                                                         .92.
                                                                            .
                                                   /.a.
                                               <..&
                   7.83
                       U-76
  CATIONS, ppm
   CALCIUM
                                                                           S3.+
                                                        3.3.0
                                                                           31.1
                                                                                /ft 1
  MAGNESIUM
                   w
tf*
                            /78
                                /.TO
                                                    /.Z/
                                                                                                                     i7.fr.r
                                                                                                   757
  .MANGANESE
                            .010
                                ,0<,f
                                                                       X
                                                     X
                                                                                          X.
   POTASSIUM
                   .5-3
    X/3
                                i.OO
                                                                       .to
                                                         .30
                                                                                                                               Ji.
    SODIUM
                       /Vtf
                                33.7
                                          at.i
  CATIONS.ppb
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
   COPPER
     IRON
     LEAD
     ZINC
                                                                 .5??
                                               -Y7
                                 2L
  ANONS.ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
                      Yfp.7
         ft. I
                       3J-1-
     9.7
              37.0
     I9J
                            114,
                                                                                                                     5V. 5
  SULFATE-SO,
                                                                           24
                                                                  27
                                      14
                                                                                                                              3/
             X NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                             (CO;!TI!!UED)

-------
                                                    TABLE  A-25  (CONTINUED)
INORG  NITROGEN
  t- +NOj-N
              /ft?
1%
                            .133
                       1.013.
                            /.as? 2.6/2.
N02-N
              /r
                        /.of.
         2-Z
                   2.3
                                                     O.&
NH4-N
              Of?
                   o//
         osl
         .033
                                           o/Z.
                                                          .00*
PO-P
          Pfb
                                                              88.7
  CATIONS, ppm
    CALCIUM
                            32J
         if./
                                 iB^L
   MAGNESIUM
         2..8B
                                                330
                                 + 0$
  .MANGANESE^
   POTASSIUM
                        /./O
                   .go
                                                     f*
                             .30
                                                               50
    SODIUM
                       33.0
    37.  +3.&
                             36.0
   CATIONS,ppb
    CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
                                       7.8
                   //.o
                                                //o
                       /7-0
                            VO
                   6.0
    COPPER
     IRON
     LEAD
     ZINC
        fppiw)
                                            .TO
                                                     4+
                                 33.
                                 4&
  flNONS.ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
              ^2.7
                                      17
  SULFATE-S04
                   a?
/7
/n
/ft
K
             X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT  COMPLETE

-------
                                      TABLE  A-26      WELL  WATER,  WELL  *3
INORG  NITROGEN
                           .008
         .aaff
                                         007
                            .oaf
                                                       o//
                                                                          067
                                                                               010
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                                                                                                      00?
                                                                                                                                   >/&
              /o
                                                                                                                         V
             .oi4
                           .0067
                                    ,008
                                              O//
                                                  .008
                                                                 13_
                                                                     0/f
                                                   //r
                                                    ni,
PO-P
              -4
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                                 S&.
                                                                 0/7
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             .73
                           /.*/
                        9ft
                                                                                1*
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                  /.*/
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                                    /.I7
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                                                                                                                    /at.
  MANGANESE
          ^
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   POTASSIUM
                            .7
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                                                                       to
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    SODIUM
                  f.-T
     5-.;
                            i'o










   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
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             <: Jo
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     ZINC

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                  73
7.3
7-V
         7.3
7-V
                                                                7-0
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                                                                              7-
                                                                 7
 SULFATE-SO4
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                                                                                   /J
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                                                                                                  y.f
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            X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                   LU
                                                                                     33
                                                                                                                            (CONTINUED)

-------
                                     TABLE A-26  (CONTINUED)
ANALYSIS
pH
CONDUCTANCE
/(Mho/Cm
INORG NITROGEN
NOj-*NOj-N/>f>f
NOZ-N p/t
NH4-N ffffj
P04-P f"/Vt
CATIONS.ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE^
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATlONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

BOSON (ff+

ANOMS.ppm
CHLORIOC-CI
SULFATE-SO

TEMPC
El EVATION FT
f.6
4.1

.043
.84
.oil
.a off

,7*
t.f
x
.4
3.0








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(yf.


/4-I

P
tftv
/ /

*

' 
-------
                                                     TABLE  A-26    (CONTINUED)
      pH
          .1
  CONDUCTANCE
   ^Mho/cm
INORG  NITROGEN
               051
070
                                    118
034-
                                  .101
.036
NOj-N
               1-1
          o.B
                                              a.t,
NH-N
               0/0
     .06
P04-P
 03.4
                                  .0/5"
                                                   .001
  CATIONS.ppm
    CALCIUM
              1.58
   MAGNESIUM
                                  /ft
                   Z
ro
ro
  .MANGANESE
           ^
                     -0
   POTASSIUM
              i./e
/./o
                                              /.of
    SODIUM
     8.*
                                         7.1
   CATION S.ppb
    CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
              30.0
133
                                       10.0
     IRON
                   y.o
     LEAD
     ZINC
         nr**i
              D*.
   ANKDNS.ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
               li. to
     f/.t
                                         
  SULFATE-SO
    TEMP C
               I/.2.
          so. 7
  ELEVATION FT
                '.fi fU/S/.aJ
                    SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT  COMPLETE

-------
                               TABLE  A-27   SOIL WATER  FROM 6'",  LYSIMETER
          ANALYSIS
                                  <\v ,*
c\^V  (b/  J-
                                       YT
                                        '/ In/
                                             ^
                                                 .v
           V  L
NH,-N pPj?
po-p P/"fc

CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE^
POTASSIUM
SODIUM

CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

3VV* CfP^}


CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-SO4




)t
X.

6f J
X
100.3
$.<*

















X





A
>r

Ztf
x.
^0
A. tf

















^





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/

5-27
X
.20
<.6i

















/X





X
i'

2.38
X
20
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6.3
537

./f
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^r
//.6

















?-?





./
^^

.Ps"
/
/ '
f.i

















i>

.21?/
i H
J>'33
,-r./^

//f

<
r.z>1
3-t








<39


^,^
v'




<-f
7<5,<

244
/^
7. 70
9?^

/J.V
/S6
XL
y.7,4
a*








04


{33





fnft
in?

?
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30 2
-



x













O,?





<
Oft

1%
f-f

< +

4/,i,

-^
tip
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C (.
t
-------
                                       TABLE A-28     SOIL  WATER  FROM  l"  .  LYSiMETER
           INORG NITROGEN
                       27
.7V?
ni
                     HI,
                                                            .w
        .76
                                                                        3.3
                                                                            3 /
             CAT IONS, ppm
              CALCIUM
                                        3-6
                                                                    1C.
                                                            /?
                                                                        f-
ro
                                                                        /o.
                                                        f.v
                                                                                / 60
                                                            o.V
                3L.7
                                                                            /.I
                                                                    /77
                I3o
               1,8
               ZINC
             AMONS.ppm
            CHLOR'D-Cl
            SULFTE-S04
                                X
                                                        10
                                                            01
                                                                     of,
                     0+
                      X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                     TABLE  A-29    SOIL  WATER FROM  2  ,  LYSIMETER
           INORG  NITROGEN
                                                03
.10
                                      .1*2.
.077
           NOj-N
                                            '7
             I.7/
                                              O.f
                                                                               n 8
           NH-N
           PO-P
                       13
                                                 V
             /./z
                                                                                                  4.3
                                                                             / (47


              CALCIUM
                         &
                                                                                                          
-------
                             TABLE  A-30     SOIL  WATER  FROM  3  .  LYSIMETER
ro
en
INORG NITROGEN
NH.-N    ff>l,
  CATIONS.ppm
   CALCIUM
  MAGNESIUM
  MANGANESE^
  POTASSIUM
    SODIUM
  CATIONS.ppb
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
   COPPER
     IRON
     LEAD
     ZINC
  ANIONS.ppni
  CHLORIDE -Cl
  SULFATE-SO,
              X-
              X.
                             X
                        X
                           3-7
                           r.r
^4^
                                                  a?
                                                            .JO
23.9
                                                      3.3
                                                        X
                                                                 .60
                                                                -3.Y
                                                               ,4-Jo
                                                                ,53
ML
                                                               .01
                                                               07
                                                                    .08
                  ,1.8
                                                                         4.0
                                                                        a.R
                                                                             ./8J
                                                                              X
                                                                                  3ft
                                                                                                .lot
                                                                                        X
                                                                                                AMI
                                4-7
                                                                                      ISA.
                                                                                           /.PC
                                                                                           a?
                                                                                           07
                                                                                               i_
                                                                                               AtoO
                                                                                                    .11,0
                                              l.o
t,.J>
                                                                                                    .10
                                               7
                                                  -o?/
                                                                                                        73.3
                                                                                                                 .lot.
                                                                                                                  /./D
                                                                                      n.f.
                                                                                                                            7.3
                                                            /fD
              4-0
                                                                                                                  7-0
                  ./03
                                                                                                                      /./o
7.S
                                                                                                                                 7-0
                                                                                                                      .of,
                  3.5
                                                                                               oB7
                                                                                                                                     fitc,
                                                                     4J.
                       0.58
                                                                                               5-5"
                                                                                                                           13.$
                                                                                                                                     .05"
                                                                                                                                7V
                                                                                                                               12. -3
                                                                                                                                 /JL
             X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                              TABLE  A-31      SOIL WATER  FROM  4',   LYSIMETER
                                                                                                            /7y  #
                                                                                                            'y/ ~\Y  
                                                           .//Z
                                                           .fn
                                                                 5-0
                                                                     4-6
.63
                                                                         5-4J
                                                                             O-t
 /8
                                                                             /gg/ *.")
-------
                                            TABLE A-51   fCQNTJNUED)
         ANALYSIS
PH
CONDUCTANCE
^/Mho/cm
INOBG NITROGEN
NOZ- 4NO,-Nfley,r
NOj-N pft
NH-N m.
PO4-P pfl,
CAT IONS, ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE^
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS, ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

BOYCM (fW*)

ANIONS,ppm
CHLORlDE-G
SULFATE-SO.,



t.i
75 J

.otf
o.a
/./
/?

tf7
^./o
^^
-f.^
30



.2
af



.of


3
3$

//./
fl If
2


^
/6



fB
M.i

."W
Q.iif
t1.+
2.7

If.
/fto
&?,
3./S
4-?



nr#
e.s"



.0&


7
/+



^.0
7s--8

.of?
0.6
JS.&
/.7

4 f
/,lc>
/fl.O
Jot
5-+



.0
V



//


f.1
/o



C^f
W

.etc
o-7
6*8
/8*

&(,
/.fft
//.S'
4.0*,
3-i"



/3.5
it.?



*1


4J
/o



<7.
*U

/
X
X
X

K
y
X
X
*



X
X



*


X
X







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ro
c
                 X NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                        TABLE  A-52     SOIL  WATER FROM  6",  LYSIMETER
            INORG.  NITROGEN
                            sf-f
5V
yz-
18?
                  3-67
.S-ll
                                                ^z
           NOZ-N
                                               2,
                  2-
    1.80
                                                                         -42
            NH,-N
                                   y
    o'i
                      ooB
                   PPb
                        <.*>!.
                                          /o
             IZ
                                                                         i'7
                                                                                          tti
              CATIONS.ppm
               CALCIUM
                                                            trt.b
                          //a.f,
                                                                                          SL
              MAGNESIUM
                        '*.'&
                               /./J."
ro
vo
              MANGANESE
              POTASSIUM
                                 \.T~-
                                                            .42.
               SODIUM
                        IL
                                                    ^L
              CATIONS.ppb
               CADMIUM
              CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                IRON
                LEAD
                ZINC
                 (PPm)
              ANIONS.ppm
             CHLORIDE -Cl
                          . 7
            0. 1.
    37.6
             SULfATE-SO.
                                                                              if
                                                                                      3V
                       X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                      TABLE  A-33     SOIL  WATER  FROM   l'  .  LYSIMETER
           INORG  NITROGEN
                       -o/
SI
*?
                                                                              .086
                                                                          0_
                            71
                                  (.21
                                A.
                                                     /.a

             CALCIUM
                                                     MX
                                  38.^
                                                                          ijlj
             MAGNESIUM
                      U.I*
                                                     i.lf
                                  1.88
             MANGANESE
O
             POTASSIUM
                                                     .62
                                  .57
                                                                                   (,7
              SODIUM
                                                     V9.5-

                                                                                   28.O
            CATIONS.ppb
             CADMIUM
             CHROMIUM
              COPPER
               IRON
               ZINC
                                  2B.
                                                                                   30

            ChLORiDE-Cl
                      #>.*.
                                                                 If.o
            SULFATE-S04
                                                                  If!
                                                                                   tft
                      X NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT  COMPLETE

-------
                           TABLE A-34     SOIL  WATER  FROM 2',   LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
     pH
CONDUCTANCE
 //Mho/cm
                 7,2,
                                                   7.7
                     7.0
                                                              7.2
                                 13
                                               367
                                                                                /as
                                                       MR
INORG NITROGEN
            M.I
,21Z
*./
(,-*,
                                     0?
07
.on
.520
.198
NO,-N
             X,
                                               .as
                                                                    ,42 H, 3? U
                                                                u3_
                                                       /ss
  CAT IONS, ppm
   CALCIUM
  MAGNESIUM
                                                                            /f3
                                                            33.
  .MANGANESE
             .23
  POTASSIUM
                                                        X
                                                                            -AS
                                                                                 .a/
    SODIUM
             77
  CATIONS,**
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD
    ZINC
                                                            X
                                                                                 ao
  ANK>NS.ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
                                                                A.
                                                           f&L
                                                                                           l
  SULFATE-SO
                                                                A
           X  NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                          TABLE A-35     SOIL WATER  FROM  5'.   LYSIMETER
INORG  NITROGEN
                                     /v
                                               .27
                                                        34+
                                                                140
                                                                                                    .2L1
                                to
                                       V
                                                                                -
                                                                                                  /v
                        y/
                                   (f
/ft
?.*
                                                                                                 ,8O

                                                <.62.








                                                                                         '18

                                                    7.
                -3$
                                                                                                 38
     ANESE
           .260
               m
  POTASSIUM
                                                    /.*>
                                                                                 ft
                                                                                        1.07
   SODIUM
           1ft
                -'tt








   CADMIUM
  CHROMIUM
   COWER
           'V
                   /.T
    IRON
                7V
    LEAD
    ZINC
 BoVOM
 ANONS,ppm
CHLORIDE-Cl
SULFATE-S04
                    7V
                                                            17
                                                                        .0 /
                                                                T.7
          X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE

-------
                            TABLE  A-36     SOIL  WATER  FROM 4X.   LYSIMETER
INORG. NITROGEN
          ,
                                   0-7
                                                      33
                                                J'i
                                                        33
                                                                            .<;&
                                                                                                   34
        Mi
                                                                     tit,
                                                                                      f-2.
                 .3*
                                  /9
  CATK)NS,f>pm
                                      /t>
                                                      .?
                                                   J.C3-
                                                                                 Z2.<
                                                                                      ?./8
                                                                                                          9.1
                      l-
                              01.
                                                                 37
                                                                                      33
CO
CO
            .060
                 .0(0
                     .Oft
                         .age
            3-r
                     Y-Y
                         f.l
                                                                                    f.oo
                                                                             3.40
                                                                                 3..&
'.&

                          /.o
                                  .2-7. y
  CATIONS.ppb
                                                                a/./
                                                                                                   2,2 a
                          IS.
    LEAD
                                                                         Ql
                                                                                  37
  ANIONS,ppm
 CHLORIDE -Cl
            n-i
                                    3? 8
                                        m
                                                                                     9-fl
     TE-SO,
                                                                                      3
           X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                                      a
                    TABLE A-37   SOIL WATER FROM 6 . LYSIMETER
ANALYSIS
pM
CONDUCTANCE
/(Mho/cm
INORG NITROGEN
NO^+NOj-N^
NZ-N Pf>l,
NH,-N fprf
P04-P pfM

CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE
POTASSIUM
SODIUM

CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

TZofiotJ fyM


CHLORIDE -ci
SULFATE-SO,



H
V*r

J-X
3-
.01
.A5*
4363-

















H.Z.




8.0
W2~

 t,o
X"
)f
*

















X




1.3
*a

.&o
<./f
.OIL
.oil

u
n
*
*
X.

It
>c_
X.
<.
f.
1C

<


tf./
X



.


X
X



3
f/^

^
<
.030
.01}

X
X
X.
X
x:

/-
X
X
X
X
X

_x 	 ,


X
A



tf.7
22.

.174-
X
.Of/
X

U.2
tit

3.%
/f-7








 39


*7
//



^-f
Z^L

..53/
/.5"
.o//
fY7

)<
X
X.
.
rf

<
K.
K
K
X
X

\ . ...


x
/7



72.
ML

 W
X
.Of/
X

?V
i. 10

.w
^.5-








.


-J/7.3
/.^



^./?
^2,

/A3
,90
,x>^
419 <

m
*!*

.37
Ki








.SH


31. t*
**-



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































        X NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                             TABLE A-38    SOIL  WATER  FROM  l' , LYSIMETER
ANALYSIS

//>m


CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-S04



( \

JL

3ti"
X
.7V
t.oi

?f-9
7.7,1
*>f
1-1
JZ..7











?-i

.10
v'
y
X

















x-




y
f- f?
27
>/
o/9
&&'

ft-1
77

.2f
oa/
03?

j-j 7
/^,g

,3o
^<








.3fc


34. <*




V >
^ V


x
ff


<-7









Vo


jf T
">



r7





























/





























/





























/





























/





























/





























/





























/





























/





























/





























/





























/





























CO
01
                 X^NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                 TABLE  A-39     SOIL  WATER  FROM 3\  LYSIMETER
       INORG  NITROGEN
                                                                             .nil
                                                                                     IS/
                     .050

                              18
                             i.o
                                                                                                                  /O
       NH-N
                                    5"
 ft?
       P0 P





          CALCIUM
                  2i
                                                                                   S~ Z5.7
                     /2
                                                                                                              2L3_
         MAGNESIUM
CO
cr>
         MANGANESE
                   opt-
                           .0^.0
         POTASSIUM
                   -5-8
                       19.1
                                                                                 .44
             .It,
                          77
          SODIUM
                           -700
'+.4






         CADMIUM
         CHROMIUM
         COPPER
           IRON
           LEAD
           ZINC
                                                                 33
     3)
         a?
                                                                                              11
                 /fl

        CHLORIDE -Cl
        SULFATE-S04
                                                        31
                                                                        33.0
    77 *
I9-+
/f
                                                  *L
                                                                                                                  35"
                  X NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                        TABLE A-40     SOIL  WATER  FROM 6*,  LYSIMETER
            ANALYSIS
                pH
                                 7-8
                           7-3-
         77
         7.3
                                                                <*.?.
CONDUCTANCE
 /iMho/cm
                                  j
                                    -7V0
                      .2/0
                               5-70
                                                                                  V57
                                                                   Z7T
           INORG  NITROGEN
           NOj-
                        tff'
                  of
.03
.3-3-
                                                 it?
                                                                 l.7f)
                         n
                                                       <:./*
                                                               .10
                                             1,0
           NH,-N
                                                                         .art
                                                          ._o_
                                         012.
                                        ,*>
           P04-P
fflt,
                                                                         /5V
                                                                    01?
                                                  010
             CATIONS, pf>m
               CALCIUM
                                                                     U.O
              MAGNESIUM
                        t,
                                         45"
                                    t ff
CO
             .MANGANESE
              POTASSIUM
                                                             XT
                                                 2L
               SODIUM
                                                                  .2
              CATIONS.ppt
               CADMIUM
              CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                IRON
                LEAD
                ZINC
                   aoM
                                                            30
             ANIONS^m
             CHLORIDE -Cl
                             iff*
                  ro.
/a./
                                                 22.6
                                                         &2*L
                                        &&
             SULFATE-SO
                                                 .
                               L2-
                                                                              n
                                    3SL
                       X:|MO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                         TABLE  A-4I      SOIL  WATER  FROM  I   ,  LYSIMETER
                 PH
             6-7
              CONDUCTANCE
               /(Mho/cm
             335-
         l&l
              //S
 91
            INORG NITROGEN
            NOZ- +NO$-N
co 7
                                       .370
         153
          s&o
/ta.
3M
            N02-N
             S.o
                      2-0
                            8f
                        .67
                                      s?
                                                                                                   .0
            NH4-N
                                   033
              0/4
         040
                        01+
01 7
         012.
            PO<-P   PPb
A?
1.7
1.2.
         JQ.
             33.0
              CATIONS.ppm
               CALCIUM
              MAGNESIUM
                              j-.po
                                                                                52,
                                                                    42-
co
CO
              MANGANESE
              POTASSIUM
                                                                   A
                                               43
                                                                            .13
                                                       vr
                SODIUM
                                                                            /3.9
              CATIONS.ppb
               CADMIUM
               CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                 IRON
                 LEAD
                 ZINC
                                                                                .51/
                                                             7/
              ANONS.ppm
              CHLORIDE -Cl
                                  J4.J
                                         S2.5
                                                       VZL
              SULFATE-SO4
                                                                                              3.1
                                               .+
                         X'NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                            TABLE  A-42    SOIL WATER FROM 2X.  LYSIMETER
        ANALYSIS
PH
CONDUCTANCE
/(Mho/Cfn


INORG NITROGEN
NOZ- +NOS-N ff
NOj-N pf>J,
NH..-N pf>W
PO..-P ppfe
CATIONS, ppm
CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
.MANGANESE
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS,ppt>
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

GrJtV* (Pffl




ANIONS.ppm
CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-S04



A
X

f'7
X
.0^
X

loa.
4.0

A,
<
A
<
<

X
M-
<
*
V
<




X
X



7./
y.2^

^)/0
<-^
-cad
A

X.
A
X.
A
<.

X
X
X
/
<
<




<4.o
A



7^
S3

.tf
X
X
A

X
y.
<
X
A

X
X
X
*
jf
i




<5.9
A



7-3
'31

.o&$
X
-009
A

A
X
X
<
A

<
X
<
X
X
X




A
X


.7
X^j

*2*
X
.o/L
X

*
X
X.
X
A

X
A
A
A
X
A

X


X
X



7.0
24-2

K7
X
.a>
A

X
X
X
X
*

X
A
A
X
X
X

X


#6
X



7/
2J7

03?
X
X
A

A
A
X
/*r
*

X
X
X
x-
X
X

X


/,T.6
X



^.3
75?

.6;
/V5~
.003
<-
-------
                            TABLE  A-43     SOIL  WATER  FROM  3  .  LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
     pH
                                   6-7
    f.J
J.&
             f-B
                                    4.0
                           516
                          5.2.
                           5.1
             S.I.
                                                          (..0
  CONDUCTANCE

   //Mno/cm
                                                     88. /
                                            20$
                                                     2/0
INORG  NITROGEN
                      //v
                                   ./a
             .235-
                                                              .353
              K9
             .23?
         .001-
                               .35-0
                                                              .3/3
                               l.oB
                                                      33?
                               /f
.7
             -n
/3f
 uf
-42
/4O
3..80
                               3.37
f.7D
1.00
                      .03
                                        .63-
                                            01
                                                              .00+
                               .CO?
                      S?/
                               .OSB
                          .OS3
                          *?.
                                                                                                                   .0/0
PO,-P
                               /&,
              7-?
             9-3
                                                                                    13LA.
                                                                                                    .
  CATlONS.ppm
   CALCIUM
                 V,
                      /J.V
             /a-5"
              1-0
                      3.3
                          /?$
                           7o
                  (,.0
  MAGNESIUM
     2L
    ZL
                          *&.
                                                                                                           .38
                                                                       .20
                                                          .20
  MANGANESE
                          .oiO
  POTASSIUM
                  2.8
L3*.
                                                      Qi
                                                     . 7f
                                                 -V/
                                            ^L
    SODIUM
             77
                                                                         .i
                                         .3
  CATIONS.ppb
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
   COPPER
     IRON
     LEAD
    ZINC
                                                      au
                                                                                02.
                                            ifii.
                                                          M.
  ANIONS,pp
-------
                            TABLE  A-44     SOIL WATER  FROM  4'.  LYSIMETER
INORG NITROGEN
            /f.o
                                                                                 6.762
                                                                                           tJ
        fipl
ff.ft
                              33-
                                                             Iff
             a.t,o
                 Jfa
                              fo
                                                                             Q.jb
                                                         .48
3.
  CAT IONS .
                 4.t3-
                          /.
                                                                                  /^.5O
                                                            lB.0
                                                    lO.,
  MANGANESE
  POTASSIUM
   SODIUM
  CATIONS.ppb
                              t-l
                          .030
                              .0*0

                                                                              in
                                                        4BL
                                                                                           ^23
                                                             ,.$
                                                                     175"
                                                                                   .
  CHROMIUM
     PER
                         /si
    /to
    LEAD



    ZINC
 CHLORIDE -Cl
 SUl_FATE-SO
                                                            M.
                                                            f-f
                                          n i
                                                                         11
                                                                                           yfl
                                                                                 33 0
           X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                          TABLE A-45   SOIL WATER FROM 6".  LYSINETER
        ANALYSIS
pH
//Mho/cm
INORG NITROGEN
NOZ- + *>!-*,#,#
N2-N ffii
NH N ^/H
P04-P p/>m

CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE
POTASSIUM
SODIUM

CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

Soaotv /V"1


CHLORIDE -Cl
SULFATE-SO4



77
&

?.18
2-
.e>S.~>
.OOlJ

















fS.o




&*
/

.S3
x
01*1
,00^

















M




7./
&:>

&8
X
-U/
 oif\

X-
X-
X-
/.
X

X.
X.
/-
X-
X
X.

X


Ha
X



6-7
J37

./5b
*38
.OJ,4
.^>/y

;&-t>
3, 'ft

13
44,








-Ji


/Y.t




4>.5
^0

rAJft
ASO
-ft?/
.6>i-t

W.1*
/,V^

.HO
in.f)








.H


IW
40




-------
                                       TABLE  A-46      SOIL WATER  FROM   |x,   LYSIMETER
            ANALYSIS
                pH
                                     7.7
                                                            7-0
                                                   7-+
    6.8
7.0
6-7
6.Q
.0
({.7
CONDUCTANCE
 //Mno/cm
ZBf 345
                                                                                  29
            INORG  NITROGEN
            NOZ-
                                  01*
                                                                     130
                  .(,73.
             we
                               23?
                                                                         36
                                                                     4-2
                                40
                               7-3
            NH-N
                         2B-
                                                                     .OOi
                                                            .004.
                                                                              OXL
                                                                                   010
                                        Qll
                                   .008
            P04-P
                         77
                                                                     .oU,
                                                                          OaSL
             CATIONS.ppin
               CALCIUM
                                                           Ml
              MAGNESIUM
                                                                                  .51
OJ
              MANGANESE
              POTASSIUM
                                                                         ^a
                                                                     48.
                      a^
                               17
               SODIUM
                             t.S
                                                              .5
                   .00
                                                                                       -
              CATIONS.ppb
               CADMIUM
              CHROMIUM
               COPPER
                IRON
                LEAD
                ZINC
                   -/"">
                                                                                  <_
                                   *SL
                                                                                                        ^i
              ANONS,ppm
             CHLCWIOE-CI
                         ?.*!
                                               s
                                                         X
                                                           A3.. .0
                  18.7,
             27.8
             Ji
              SULFATE-SCU
                                                                 X
                                                                      X
                                                                                           13-
                        X:NO  SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT  COMPLETE

-------
                          TABLE A-47     SOIL  WATER  FROM 2X.  LYSIMETER
                                                       /  ,  I
INORG  NITROGEN
            93$
171
                                                                                          112.
                                                                              LA
                                                     <.7<3

                                                             3.00
                                                                              J73
                                1
                                                                                      121
11

   CALCIUM
  MAGNESIUM
                                        30,1
                                                 &}
    4A
   AKGANESE
  POTASSIUM
                                                         -43
                                                                                  1
   SODIUM
   28$
                                                             3ft n


                                                                                          yy<-

  CADMIUM
  CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
    LEAD
    ZINC
 ANlONS.ppm
                                                     V-3
        13
                                                                                      So
  HiORlDE-CI
 SULFATE-SO.
                            7--J
                                                                 *>.?
                             Z

                                                                                 tl
           X  NO SAVPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                       TABLE  A-48    SOIL WATER  FROM  3X,  LYSIMETER
            ANALYSIS


                                         7-2.
                              6.O
                                                                               TO
                                                                    fl
              /Mho
                 /cm
                                         7J-?
                                  3.9+
                                                                               IBS







           INORG. NITROGEN
                   3L*L
                                         /f
                                                           /*-
                                                              .'41
                                  .'37
                                                                                            .of/
                                                                         083
                        7-9
                                                 /. o
                      /.O
                          A 6
                              '.It,
                                     .Of
                                                      .03
                                                                                            0/8
                                                                 0/0
                                                                     OI7
                                                                                            03ft
                                     SJ-

                                                                                        /93~






 CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
                                                                                            a A
                                                                         ag
                                 J-f
                               7
                                                                                        53
C71
             .MANGANESE
              POTASSIUM
                                                              tif-,
                                                                   /.Off
               SODIUM
                       22J
a*.
                                                     23.8






              CADMIUM
              CHROMIUM
              COPPER
               IRON
                                 **>
                LEAD
                2INC
            3o*ofi/
                                                                           30

             CHLORIDE -Cl
                                f*-?
    *,-*
                               99
                                                   5-
9-IS 3/
         37/
             SULFATE-SO*
                       X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                          TABLE  A-49     SOIL WATER FROM  4X.  LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS

     PH
   ^Mho/cm
                        /
                        /  2
                         2
                                     t?7

                                                                      :8


INORG  NITROGEN
                                     v/
                                 a-ff
tefl
            f*
            .off
A*
        o/
                                             a/  . 01
                                      70
            .70
                                                                              .9-r
                                                             006







                                                                 21-8
                                                                      ?
                                                                 5-
                                                                                      37
  POTASSIUM
                i.r
                                                                     *
                                                                  1ft
                                                                                          ,j:
   SODIUM
  CATlONS.ppb
                                                               .5
                                                                     33. /
                                                                                         33.5-
                                                                                  ft:
  CHROMIUM
   COPPER
    IRON
               t.ol
                s/o
                            a.o
    LEAD




    ZINC
 ANIONS.ppm
                                                     .37
                                    V /
                                        rr
                                                                                         27
           X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                             TABLE  A-50    WELL WATER. WELL   'I
ANALYSIS
HIMHLI OIO
pH
CONDUCTANCE
INORG NITROGEN
NOj- +NOj-N
NO*-N ffl
NH4-N pfn
P04-P /yr*

CALCIUM
MAGNESIUM
MANGANESE., /
PF9
POTASSIUM
SODIUM
CATIONS.ppb
CADMIUM
CHROMIUM
COPPER
IRON
LEAD
ZINC

fcttt/ fa/*


CHLORIDE -Cl
SUL FATE-SO.,
TEMP C
ELEVATION FT
/


,JA
-/
,00 1
,0f

/*>*
('1

f.3L
$.sr

4-5

f-B
t3o
Ft -4





#$


5V.77
'( \


,07
1
t.eef
./

,t>0
/>i

.f9
>'/




<1&






r.7






,n
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s.e'l
.oel

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f-**

.5-9
f 3




&e>






-*


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/


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,eu>?

















f.3



f


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,oay

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At
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xf


5T-*
f


.of
.8
s.~>l
.aot,

















<*.a-


<^
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.17
8
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/.6Z-
102

.U
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7.V



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x

.3/
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-
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J.w

 73
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{
e.

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.0/0
.D6t,

















SI



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x

.3.1
f.f
.o3r


/.0
/. 5-7

fff
f.80











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r
/ '
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.*{
3f
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.31

















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fl-~>3
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5"_i?^











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rf
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// 1
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^^
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y ^


f7'--3
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3
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73


,-A

3
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T'



/<37

^V












r '




























iw^~
         X'NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                             (CC'ITI.'IUCD)

-------
                                                              TABLE  A-50  (CONTINUED)
             ANALYSIS
                 pH
L4_
                                            71
     6.1
              C.Q
                                          75"
                                                                                      6.0
                  ^o
                                                       to*
              CONDUCTANCE
               /^Mho/cm
5S+
$76
                                                   533
                      50.0
            INOSG  NITROGEN
            NO,-
J-
                              .re
                                   02.
                  .470
                                                                      ./SO
                          .-7
                               /v
                    31
                   17
                                          .62
22_
                                                                                    60
                                                        /v
                                                                                    .AO
            NM4-N
                          OtJ
                                                     Z
                   SSS.
                                               42_
                                                                                    001
            P04-P
                         ,0/i.
                                                   ooK
                                                    009
                                                                                                                  Oil
              CATIONS, ppm
               CALCIUM
                         32.
          62L
          TL
                                                   J
              MAGNESIUM
                         I-/0
                                   //r
     f.2
                                 /.Oft
                                                                      t-H
oo
              MANGANESE
                                                     8.6
                                          &3L
                                                                 3_
               POTASSIUM
                                                 .&,.
         41
                                     57
                                                                 ..51-T
                                          .67
                                                                               .loO
                            .SI
                SODIUM
                              S'j'O
(,.0
                                                           ,
                                               s-a.
                                                                                             6.3
              CATIONS.Ppb
               CADMIUM
                                                     .89
                                          .78
               CHROMIUM
                COPPER
                                                                                      7.0
                                                                      1L
                 IRON
                                          &i
                                                                                                                  S.1
                 LEAD
                 ZINC
                                                     A5L
                                                                        5V7
                    />/
     .04,
                             'ML
.01
                                                               .0*1
                                 .07.
                            .OS
                                                                                 &L
                                                                                      .01
     .OQ.
t&L
              ANIONIS.ppm
              CHLORIDE -Cl
                                        8.1*
8.3
 8-8
                                 9.3
         9.9
                                          IO.O
              73
     /.?
              SULftATE-S04
                                                 XL
                                 4_
                                               2_
                                                                           2_
                                              ^
                                                                           1-
                TEMP C
J3-
     tiL
                                      a.
                                                                    /f
                                                            LLSL
              ELEViTiON FT
            >.// 9.91 SD.otSb.'&st.aft SA
                                                                                                                  $1.0
                                                                          S2S6S
                         X NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                             TABLE A-51    SOIL  WATER  FROM 6     LYSIMETER
 ANALYSIS
     pH
     7.2
                 22-
  CONDUCTANCE
   /(Mho/cm
                      737
INORG NITROGEN
                          .72
x-yf
./a?
                                                .56.
NH,-N
                                                1-3.0
                           '7
          .13
  CATIONS, ppm
   CALCIUM
                                               UL.
             21o
  MAGNESIUM
  .MANGANESE
   POTASSIUM
                                                '3
                          Jl
    SODIUM
  CATIONS.ppb
   CADMIUM
   CHROMIUM
    COPPER
     IRON
     LEAD
     ZINC
                                                .Ob_
             L
             ^L
  flNNS,ppm
  CHLORIDE -Cl
                                           OS
         0?
  SULFATE-50
                                                             HL
            X'NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                            TABLE A-52   SOIL  WATER  FROM  l'   LYSIMETER
        ANALYSIS
pM
CONDUCTANCE
/
-------
                                         TABLE  A-53    SOIL  WATER  FROM  2,'    LYSIMETER
           ANALYSIS
               pH
                         A
              -7
6.7
                                                         f-7
    5:7
                                                                                                         7?
         7-9.
CONDUCTANCE
 //Mho/cm
                                                                211.
                                            2A3
                           163
          INORG  NITROGEN
                                                       55"
                                   .7(7
               J74-
                                                                                    ,/5-J
112.
              335-
                                  L-
                                                                 I.8Z
                                                                   3-02.
    /.3V
'80,
                                              AO
                                      60
                                   034-
.008
                                                                  .ooj-
                                                                                       -006
.oof
                                                                                                     0/0
     OS/?

                                                                 -63
                                                -62.
            CATIONS, t>
              CALCIUM
     L
                                                                         :fc^
             5#/
                                                                               2A
             MAGNESIUM
                            J.6
                                    43
              37
                                                                               -V/
                                                                                     ,30
en
            .MANGANESE
             POTASSIUM
X
                             .(,0
                                                            .26
                                                                 .AD
     .23
                                                                              ./o
                                                          VJ
                                                                                       1?
              SODIUM
                             .t,
                                                            /a-
                                                 /.J
                                                         (-7
                       O.I*
                                                                                0.5"
    0.1,
    as
             CATlONS.ppb
              CADMIUM.
             CHROMIUM
              COPPER
               IRON
               LEAD
               ZINC
                                                            .03,
                                                                 oi.
                                                                         .OS,
                                                     &L
                                                                                           .03
             ANIONS,ppm
            CHLORIDE -Cl
                                 if.C,
                                                <$.(,
                           13.1
                                                                                   II. 5
            SULFATE-SO4
                                                                                       28
                                                                                                        L
                            SAMPtE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                       TABLE  A-54   SOIL  WATER  FROM  3,   LYSIMETER
            ANALYSIS
                pM
CONDUCTANCE
 /(Mho/cm
                          X
                                  1.1
    (,.0
&.&
                                                                                                         *./
                                                      fT.lt,
                                                                 //
                                                                                                                 ,
           INORG  NITROGEN
           N02-
                                          .8*.
                                                             33
                  -234
                                                                                    07S
                                                                                                     BSL
                                                           .^L
           IMOZ-N    ppfc
                                                1-
                                                                          J.4S
                            18
                                                                                                     Uc_
                                                                                                 ik
           NH.-N
                                               /3
_Z_
                                                             X7/?
                                                                                                                  35.0
           PO.-P
                                                                                   < 62.
                                                                                                      L

             CAT IONS, ppm
              CALCIUM
                         X-
                                                                              .10.6,
                                                                                            3A7
             MAGNESIUM
                                                                               4-1
                                                                                            ,Tt
                                                                                   &.
                                             P
                                                                                                 AT
             ANK>NS,ppm
             CHLORIDE -Cl
             SULFATE-SO
                            n/
                                       if
                                   17-0
                                                                                                                  IB.7
                       X  NO SAVPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS  NOT  COMPLETE

-------
                                     TABLE  A-55   SOIL  WATER  FROM  4,  LYSIMETER
          PO.-P
            CATIONS,pin
             CALCIUM
                                                                 A?
                                          5:;
                                                      7.7
            MAGNESIUM
                                                                          SSL
                         if 3
tn
co
            .MANGANESE
            POTASSIUM
                                                                                              .50
                             ^L
                                      37
              SODIUM
                                                                 '
                                                                              .8
                                                                                       
            CATIONS.ppt)
             CADMIUM
             CHROMIUM
             COPPER
              IRON
                        x:
              LEAD
              ZINC
&L
                     &L
                                                                                                       .01
                                   bin
            ANK)NS,ppm
            CHLORIDE -Cl
U
*&
                                                                         .3
    .fl
                                      4.0
            SULFAT-SO4
JZL
                                                                                          ft
                             ^L
                                                       J3..
                                                       IS-
                      X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                                TABLE  A-56     WELL  WATER,   WELL  '7
          CONDUCTANCE
           //Mho/cm
        INORG  NITROGEN
        NOj-
                                                           .07,
                                                                01
                                                                         .1-0-
                                      .10
                             oS.
                                 .oti
          01
        NOZ-N
                       Y
     -7
      3
/r
.7
^?_
z.
         .3
        NH4-N
                           olZ
Of/
                                                  Ooi
Oll
                                                                012.
         .010
          oil
.&!(,
              .03J
         ,&&_
                          .eot-
                                    003
00 3-
                                                      Oo
                                   *7'
                                                         olO
                   oo~?
                                ,00 &
                                                                                                                                      .OJ/
          CATIONS.ppm
           CALCIUM
                                77
          MAGNESIUM
                               ,7?
                                                                  /.
           ANONS,ppm
          CHLORIDE -Cl
                                                        Z&
                                                   1-
                                                                                                                                          9.3
          SULFATE-S04
            TEMP C
                                                       X.
                                                                 X
                                                                                                      /o
                                                                  i/
                                                        //.r
          ELEVATION FT
                      53.17  &./,
                                    51.13
                                          .52.33
                                                                                                              &.00
                                                                                                                                Sb.
                                                                               so /^
                     X  NO SAMPLE, BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE
                                                                                                                                     (CONTINUED)

-------
                                                           TABLE A-56  (CONTINUED)
               PH
         6.2.
                                     77
                      577
                                         7?
            CONDUCTANCE
             /(Mho/cm
                                  -
                      93.3 89.0
                               7J.7/3/.7
          INOftG.  NITROGEN
          NOj-
          NH-N
                                                                    L2i
                                                           AP7
                                             / 12.
                                f'T
                       <.H .3?
                                                 .ao
                                         .0/7
                                                      00
                                             OO7
          P04-P

                                             .ottf
            CATK3NS.pp.il
             CALCIUM
             Ale-
             UL
                                                                JJL
                       LS.
            MAGNESIUM
                       ZA
                           1Z
                           LSL
                       &L
                                    &&
CJ1
            .MANGANESE
                    '.
                       70
             8-2
                 &i
             POTASSIUM
                                                                    ^ZZ
                                                 JL
                                        ZL
              SODIUM
                             -
                                 -


                                                                    S.
            CATIONS,**
             CADMIUM
                       47
                  .16
                 3
             CHROMIUM
              COPPER
                                                                    L
               IRON
                       8*
             IQ.r?
               LEAD
               ZINC
                                                      if
                  PV!*
                        13.
         .03
                                     03-
    JOS'
,os_
     09
Ik-
                      .Ob_
             .of)
                                                                    .ex,
             ANONS,ppm
            CHLORIDE -Cl
9.9
                                                                                 U
            SULFATC-SO*
                                                  m.
                                    !L
              TMP.C
ri
                            a
10
lL
L
                       /SSW.5
            ELEVATION FT.
                       rtsrvv.
                  /fw aist
                                                               SJ.tJf S7.Q3
                       X:NO SAMPLE; BLANK: ANALYSIS NOT COMPLETE

-------
                                       TABLE  A-57    REED CANARY.  EAST PLOT
tn
 '74 HARVEST I




 '75 HARVEST H




 '75HARVESTBI




 '75 HARVESTS




 '75 TURF




 ' 76 HARVEST Y




 '76




 '76 HARVESTS



'76 TURF



'77 HARVEST3ZEI




'77 HARVESTS



'77 TURF
HARVESTS! jg;/
                        HJ-3
                        vw
                        Y3,0
                            Ml
               A7V
               AY?
                            .97
                            2.03
                            o.ft
ic-ee
                                 4.13
f.3/
                        Uf
                                      Vf
4,*#P
                                  1,841
                                      1,190
iSflk
                                          ijeo
                      * EST. AS % N X 6.25   - No DATA  X Mo AMf^C
                                                             JA1
                                                ^i
                                                             /ate.
                                               /a&
                                                             Z22.
                                                            6*0
                           352T
tAi
          ^a.
                                                                  59
                                                                      *./
              1-7 2
                   t!L
                                                             +1
                                         8.0
                                      &L
                                                                               1O7
                                                                  '&.
                                                                               &A&2
                                                                               ,<&
                                                   LL
                                                   ll.o
                                                                       Li.
                                                                                    3.1
                            +.0
                                                        32.
                                 &
                                                        3J_
                                                                                         5V
                       fS
                                                        fcr
                                                                                                  38
                                                                 3+
,11
                                               3Ji
                                                                                          HO
                                                                                                      l.tl
                                                                                         1.03
                                                                           If
                                                                                               9.Z,
                                                    13.1
                                                                                                            3/.0
                                                                                                           14.Q
                                                   J/.Z.
                                                                                              4-f.o

-------
                                   TABLE  A-58    REED CANARY,  SOUTH  PLOT
01
                      EST. AS % N x 6.25   0: NoBArA  x: No Snnn.1

-------
                                      TABLE  A-59    REED CANARY. WEST PLOT
en
oo
             ,
'74 HARVEST I



'75 HARVEST H



'75 HARVEST HI



'75 HARVEST JY



'75 TURF



'76 HARVESTS:



'76 HARVESTSI



'76 HARVESTm


'76 TURF


'77 HARVEST2HI



'77 HARVEST IX


'77 TURF
                        91.1
                        ne
                        -58.8
AAk
Lkk
                             Lit
      C.ff
                                 /V-/3
                                 7-86
                                 7.00
                                 If 6?
               370
               .in,
               V/f
                   fLO&L
%&&
                   yo8o tyefl
                  LQ23*.
         f,700
                       8,07*
          ML
                                 ,&<*>
23
                                                             l&L
                                221.
                                      S3L.
     ^i
     ^151
                       ^&.
                                     53..
* EST. AS % N x 6,25     -'
LS-
2J-
                                              &3_
                                                                          $.$
                                                                          L
1^
                                                    Z3-
    &L.
                  2i.
                                          liS_
                                          M-
                                                       U-
                                                                                   fL
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                                                             /5.5*
                           Q_
                       LZ.
                                                                      .J.a,
                                                                 32.
                                                                      3.0
                                     L
                                 3-
                                                            31
                                                                               L3_

                                                                                                           3S--7
                                                                               J3T.3
                                                                                                            60-7
                                                     X:

-------
                                   TABLE A-60   REED  CANARY,  CONTROL  PLOT
01
1C
                     'EST.AS %Nx6.25
1- No DATA    X: Wo .SAM RLE

-------
                                       TABLE A-61    TIMOTHY
o
'74 HARVEST I
'75 HARVESTS
'75 HARVEST III
'75 HARVEST Iff
'75 TURF
' 76 HARVEST 3T
'76 HARVESTS!
'76 HARVEST3ZE
'76 TURF
'77HARVEST3ZI1
'77 HARVEST IX
'77 TURF

134
*1
39.7
m
313
W-/
U.o
n?
V3-3
*?/
<*r
**r

I.tp0
l.io
LSI
t.te
I.IQ
W
*o<
A.**
..

/.*
/*

1000
6,80
W
,0cp
^.flfl
9-w
^
/^o/fl
*7S
13.31
8.56

,.?<*>
*,**


w
/,7?t
/*/
?m
/3
(314.
^v?i?
/,/V/

Wo
tf&

a&iic


A, 5V
5; 0/7

rfM

?TO|
^d.
A^
^//^>


#04,

/5"7
t^XS"
/9V

J^O
IMI
J+3
Jte
xa

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11

.30
^

31
.5^8
<-0
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V5
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jjl

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ff9
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7./


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v.v
77
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n.v

^^
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9o

rr
3Q8
3,099
^9



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l.l
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3.1
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0.9
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3.0
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jia.

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sj

17
flT

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//
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3.1
V.O
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S" 7
J.3
7.t
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/*
3S
*/

it

2.3
HI
HI
is


33u

+/
67



^
,3

j 57
0-


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(2>

3.3
/Of
/$'
30,0
3&.S
Z3.O
KB
30.Q
3/.r
5^.p
^
4>/.o


-------
                                                   TABLE A-62    SMOOTH BROME
CTi
 '74 HARVEST I




"75 HARVEST H




'75 HARVEST IE




'75 HARVEST IZ



'75 TURF




'76 HARVEST 3T




'76 HARVEST 32




'76 HARVEST 3ZD.



'76 TURF




'77 HARVESTS



'77 HARVEST IX




'77 TURF
                         VV.fc
                         Ytf.o
                         423
                              /.ft
                              I.?/
                              A7?
/v?
                              .80
J.73
                              I.&7
                              l.oi
     9.13
     A'.OO
                                                 /,31/S
                                                 /,/?
                        JjM.
UhB
A2
                                 2Q3L
                                 l&L
ZI6
                                 544
                       * EST. AS % N x 6.25      : NoDATA    X: NoiAMPUt
                                      ,3o
                                       a?
                                      JlL
                                      47_
     ./r
                                      .75
               J^L
         6_
            8
              4EL
                   ii.
                    75"
                   J2.
                                                                                  J3&
loo
                                                                       Sift
                                                                                       A0_
                             L^,
                                                                                       <2.O
                                                                                       3.3
                        7-5"
                                                                                       3-O
3.2
                             Ill-
         2L.
                                                              J7
                            U_
'f
          4-0
         ZZ.
                                 VL
/-f
          JZ.
                   yy_
              4-7
         4.73
                                                .70
                                                JS_
                                                J.3
                                                                                 ;Z
-------
                                                   TABLE A-63    TIMOTHY  ALFALFA
cn
ro
'74 HARVEST I



'75 HARVEST E



'75 HARVEST IE



'75 HARVESTS



'75 TURF



'76 HARVEST 2



'76 HARVESTS!
'76 HARVEST2EL



'76 TURF



'77 HARVEST3ZIE



'77 HARVEST IE



'77 TURF
                         v/.o
ffJ_
                         43.5
                    A4&
                              3.00
                    L2L
                              f.60
                              /<&
           tQ.50
                                        ,s\o
SBO
                983
                     M33
11,707
                                  12SS1
                                   tf,9oo
                                                 fy80
                                       332-
                                       AftlQ
                                                      30A.
                                       1,3-SI,
                                       H2L
                                        1,171
                                            23*.
                                                                     .7.-T
                                                           ^L
1.02*
                                                                          J.fc
                                                               S^L
                                                 UL
                                                                          5-7
                                                  p.o
                                                       He
                                                                               8.8
                                                            iao
                                                                         441
                                           a,73/
                                           loz.
                                                JA-
                                       13*.
                                                                                         J.o
                                                                                         J.O
                                                                 53
                                                     17-
                                                                                              A/
                                                                      3V
                                                                       /JZ
                                                                          (3.0
                                                                           <3-7
                                                          ZL.
                                                                           Y-3
                                                                           /y
                                                                                             ^fi_
                                                                                30
                                                                              37
                                                                                    U/
                                                                                                                 JT-5
*EST. AS % N x 6.25
                                               : No DATA   X'- No .SAMPLE.
                                                                                                                 Jo.o
                                                                                                                    . 8
                                                                                                                  33.0
                                                                                                                  3o.Q
                                                                                                       3*0
                                                                                         39.0
                                                                                         4-1-0

-------
                                                   TABLE A-64    REED CANARY
cr
oo
'74 HARVEST I



'75 HARVEST II



'75 HARVEST III



'75 HARVEST Iff



'75 TURF



176 HARVEST 3T



'76 HARVESTS!



'76 HARVEST3ZE



'76 TURF



'77 HARVEST3ZE



'77 HARVEST JX



'77 TURF
                         V3-7
                              1.07
                              I.SQ
/.7t>
                             {&>
                             .88
                             338
                             /.oo
                                  7/3
34,?
          352
1,13-1
                   I7AR
                        ^038
                                                     itfft
             1,1/0
                            aA
                                                    32fe_
                                                                                 3V23
                                                     32_
                                                                                  7
                                                    2_
                                          3, $$3
                                                    S&.1
                                       L2_
                                                                                       .
                                               7?
                                               &2_
                                                         7V
                                                         -f-/
                                                    ^2_
               ^9
                                                                                            2?
                                                                                                3.1
                                                                                                 ,0
                                                                                                     33,
                                                                                                     31
                                                                                                           IL

                                                                  aJzi
                                                                                                               3.3
                                                                        3.0.0
                                                               .0.8
                                   Z3.0
                                                                                                               30.8
                                  34-.0
                                                                        4-/.0

-------
                                                   TABLE  A-65    CONTROL PLOT
cr>

 '74 HARVEST I




 '75 HARVEST E




 '75 HARVEST m




 '75 HARVEST JZ




 '75 TURF




 ' 76 HARVEST Y




 '76 HARVESTS!





 '76 HARVEST3ZK




 '76 TURF




 '77HARVEST3ffll




'77 HARVEST JX



 '77 TURF
                          VV.a.
                         4*1
L



I.ZS
                              .71
0.7JL

     BJBL
     HL
         .373
.//f
10300
                                                     fl??
                       3.29
                                                              ^57
                   .a?
                                      n
                                                                        79
fl.9
                                                                        V.fc
                                                                        6*31
                                Z&.
                                 3.0
                                               7.1
                                                                            V.3
                                               3.7
                                     213_
                                                                             76
                                          400
                                                                                 3O3,
                                 HS7
                                 3,319
                                                   32..C
                                 too
                                      St.S
                   J/
                       iLl.
                                                        /3
                            H
It,
                                                                                                          '3
                                                                                                         rf?1/
                                                                  0?
                                 &.
                          EST. AS % N x 6.25
              :
                                                      X-
                                                                                _	
                                                                                                              >
         4L

-------
                                                     TABLE A-66    EAST  PLOT
01
                  Aua. /17J
                  DfC,/f75.

                  Nov. I17L
                       mi
                              0-ta

                               /a.
04-
                               0-3
UL
                               0-3
0-6
                               3-6
                               S3-
2_
     ,5"- 7
     ,3.87
                                    4a
 OP
'JtL
                                         O
           fJff
                                         .Of
           3.6?
                                         3.77
           1.38
          0-32
      /v
           -if
                                              .07
                 '4-
                -03
           .ol
                    QJL
               QJ3-
                                                   01 /
          CM
                .0/7_
                     0/3
            Off-
                     .0/7
                     OI3, I L.O
                     0/t> I tf.0
                         /a/9
                     370
&a_
31
                          3L.
                              ML
                                                             303
 a. &t
2,0*0
                         5^10
                      7*0
                         /7A.
                         l&L

                               A18
                          I&L
                                    /fff
48-
                                                                       A^
                                                                       L
                               /OH,
                                    trf
                               Joo
                                    J/0
42-
      .27
                                                                            .AO
                                          *L
                &.
                                         Ii
                                         J&.
                39
     1.0
          -
          &_
                                         V-7
           9.8
                      27
                     /a 3.
                                         /o. 6
525-
                               {03S
          &_
                 3.3
                                                    3.6
                                                        I 1.80
     &L.
                                                                  73
                                    .7
                                                                                                 JJ.o
                                                                                                /C'-i
ZZ_
                              3J-
                                                            &_
                         ^.
                                                             sj_
                               /J
                                         40.0
                AL
                                                                                                          JL.
                              3.3
                33_
                                                                                                          J.V
                                                                   7-3
                                                   &L
                                                                                 t&-
                     J(
          LfL
                                         JO
                                    //r
V: Wo >S AMPLE

-------
                                                  TABLE A-67     SOUTH  PLOT
cn
                  Dre. 11 is
                 Nov. mi
0-4,
                              0-3
                              V8
                              0-3
3d*.
                              JJL.
                              0-6
                              0-3
                               IS.
     _&
     o
     
/..sa
          LL
                                        .it,
                                       .07
                                        .04,
          .OS
         L*8_
LBQ_
                                        in
o.tf
                                             ,01
              .02.
     .03
                                             n
               A3
                                            .07
              .01
               Of
         )&
          .Q/Q
                    OJ1,
          LOAA
&_
          .017
          .046
          .of/
                    .&*
                                                      49
                        21.
     &5L
                             242.
                              ,5^
                                  33
                         2XL
                                       XT
                             37
                             33L
                                       Vfl
                                       /to
                              /oo
                                       800
                                            .AO
                                             17
                                            .]&,
                                            JA^
                                  .10
                                  .52-
                                  9ft
                                   49
                         S3T
                                       2*.
h^L-
                                                 g.A,
                             V-o
                                       f-Z
                                            /.v
                                            L
                                                     Lai.
                                            A2L
                                            LB_
                                  03-
                                                      3.3
                                                      v-i
                                                      V-fl
                                                     0_
              S^,
                                                                    /o.o
                                                A^L
                                                 *7_
                                                                    /r
                                                 JJ_
                                                                    s.o
                    J7
                                                                         3.0
                                                                        ZCL-
                                                      y.s
                                                     2J_
                         A&_
                             B_
                                                                                                            f.o
                                                                    7-7
                                                                              /o
                                                                                                            so
                                                                                                            7s2__
                                                                                                            AO
                                                                                                           ^10
                                                                                                            lf-0
                                                                         X-' Wo 5AM RLE



                                                                          : Wo DATA

-------
                                   TABLE A-68    WEST  PLOT
Pu6. /17.3
             O-b
                                         L3-.
Dec. I11S
            O-L,
A30
     771
                              3.0
     8-1
                                      3&ZL
                                                                          4333
                                                              &L
                                                         L_
                                  Q3&
                                       joo
                     15&.
                     S^_
                                                            30
                              LZ_
                                                                                          3.a,
                       -5-y
                                                                3-7
                                                    SD/O
              13,
                                       /3
                     33B
               aoe
                                 .CW
                                                           .18
                                               /.,
              34,
                                                 311*
                                                                      .0
                                                                    J-7
                        .07
                                                 yjf
                                     .*&
                                     3.3
Men/. 1V7L
             04,
                $38
                          .33
                         J 7
5.7
J.to
                             JO
                                                            35-
                                                                         jo_
                             -of
                                                                                     V-f
                                                                    s.o
                                                              {,.0
              I3L
                       .35-
      ,03
.o/
37
                                                 .222
ttft
          /3
     7-3
             0-6
                             Jo
                                  .062.
                275V
                          -3?
                                                   3.8
             0-3
                                  .000
                                                            58
                                          6,1
                                               I8.o
                                                   4.1
             3-6
                             .oj
           Otf
                               4-9-
                               0-50
3.0
                                              8.0
     M.
                              02.
                                  .013
                                     .13
                               6.1
                                                    3.1

-------
                                                 TABLE A-69    CONTROL PLOT
en
oo
No\t
                   . /977
LL
                            Q^L
            3=
            0-f,
                              a
L3L
                                       30
                                       O
    21
                                       .57
                                       .93
                                       1-4+
o_
Q_
                                            f>7
                                            o-r
ML
                           .11
                            10
                             03
                    >Q3
.033
 otf
                                                 .03)
,052.
M.
          lo.
                                      60
                                          //f
                                          3/0
         Ml.
         &
          3*0
                                          310
                                                               /?
                                                               /7f
                                                               no
                                               230
                                                                500
                                                               305
                                                                    AS"
                    0
                                  l?L
                                                    37
                    5
               5
                                                         (0
                         ,12,
                        -Oft
                                                                         .flu
                                                         .30
                         .30
                                                                          .30
                    32.
                                                                          .21
                        /
                        VV
                        rf.V
                                                              4.7
                                    7Y
                                   J.ft
                                   a?
                                       t>OII
                                                      4^2
                                                                                             1.7
                                                                             Y/
                                            t.fl
                                                                             3.0
                                                                                 347
                                            0,9 ft
                                                      to.*-
                                                                                 6- 33
                                            Wo
                                                 JQ.O
                                                  to.)
                                                                                                  tf.o
                                                                                                  no
                                                                                                   9.*
                                                      33
                                                 f-A
                                                 J.I
                                                                                                       y.o
                                                       5.3
                                                       f.l
                                                           4.0
                                                           .3-9
                                                                          3-7
                                                                                           +0
                                                            7-3
                                                      /o
                                                           IQ
                                                           8-7
                                                                          7,o
                                                                           7o
                                                           f.o
                                                                       .1 Wo SAMPLE

-------
                                        TABLE A-70    NORTHEAST PLOT,  TIMOTHY
cr>
PfC.U75
Q^_
                            0-2
                            0-6
                            0-3
                                 5T0
L
                                     .30
.10
                                     /.B7
                                      .33
  36
                                     O.37
    ,03
     o/
     .07
     -Oi
      ,0?
                                           07
          .0^7
          .01 J
                                                    If.l
                                    V-fl
                                                    a- 5"
sss-
                   1O1
5J3_
                                         S'V^'
                                                        /33
                                         J13.
                                         330
                                                             SLQO
                        /ao
                                              330
                                  22.
                                         92? s*>
                                              180
                             37
                             Hi
                                                   36,
                                                                  30_
                                       SO
                                       32.
                                                   So
                                       loo
                                       60
                                                                       .3.0
                                                                       ^L
                                  .20
                                                       .9.0
                                                                       .38
                                                                       .3.3
                                   3f
                                                            a.5"
                                                                            J.3
                                                3-1
                                                3.3
                                       Vv
                                       -2-5
                                                            3.9
                                                     A3
                                                                 /Y
                                           A3
                                                      s-o
                                                     /A-
                                            /3
^
                                 (^775
                                                     2-
                                  J-ft
                                                               2*.
                                                      3^_
                                                     3.0
                                  9.5
                                                          L.O
                                       /ft
          31
                                                          -.9
               3.0
                                                               -2-tf
                                               3.y
                                                                                                    S-3
               49
                                                                   Y-7
                                                                        *Av&. of 4-
                                                                         ^ AM PLES

-------
                    TABLE  A-71     SOUTHEAST  PLOT, SMOOTH  BRdE
.,.
-pff.. 117*
ot/, mt
mi
          Q4_
Jo,
           ZL
           4S
           0-2
           3-L
           0-Q
           0-5
           3-6
&.
%Z_
 
                            m.
                                        til.
                        173>
               033
                        Bit'
                             08
                             Sdl
                             /w
                                            366
                                   v/
                                                 38
                                                 i.
                                  y*.
                                                   M>
77
                                  57
                                  60
                                       .a?
                                                        .57
                                                        ./
                                               3-B
                                                            *L2.
                                  .0
                                                       &?
                                                           3.1
                                                            S.I
                                                            3.1
                                           3.Z-
                                  6.2.
                                                           s-.i
                                                 /Y
                                                     f-9
              .03
                                                3.o
                                                     3d
                                                     =?./
                                                                      LM>1
                                                     Stff
                                                                          9.0
f,?
                                                3.7
                                                                           3.7
                        /f.o
                                                               13.*
                                                                                    3-8
                                                                    f-B
                                                          L-
                                                                                   SL-I
                                                                               /.e
                                 3-7
                                                          3. 7
                                                                                    3-0
                                                                    3.6
                                                              &L
                                                                        3.1
              3-7
                                                                                          7-3
                                                               f-.f
                                                               50
                                                                                         X: No CAMPLE







                                                                                         *Av6. of 4-

-------
                   TABLE  A-72    SOUTHWEST  PLOT.  TIMOTHY  ALFALFA
flufi. 1173
DEC. /1 75
AW
tfot  ft 11
             IS-
            O-(e
             V8
            0-6
            0-3
                 J..7
                      .02,
                      (.57
                      /.&
                      .vr
A#
                      0.57
 01
                          .09
Q_
&L_
                           ,01
                          .Of,
-JSL
                            .06
                           .02.
                                
StS-
 OIO
&1Q.
                               007
                               .013
     .031
     ,033
42L
                               .031
                                0+7
     0/6>
          &L
&o_
&L
                                     a.3
     63?
                                         ie>L
          LJ^L
                        49-
                   JO_
                   m.
          2S8-
          &3-
                    no
                    160
                                              no
                113
                    ZL
                         v/
                             UL
              2L
                         fffT
               7o
                                                        .Si3
^o_
                                                        .US'
                             .34,
                         Jk.
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-------
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-------
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-------
                                   TECHNICAL REPORT DATA
                            (/'lease read Instructions on the reverse before completing)
 1. REPORT NO.
  EPA-600/2-79-176
                              2.
 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
  WASTEWATER RENOVATION AND RETRIEVAL  ON CAPE COD
                                                           6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE
                                                           3. RECIPIENT'S ACCESSI ON-NO.
                                                           5. REPORT DATE
                                                                August 1979 issue  date
 T.AUTHORIS)
               >  Vaccaro> P> E> Kallio,  B.  H.  Ketchum,
 W.  B.  Kerfoot,  A. Mann, P. L. Deese,  C.  Palmer, M. R.
           P.r.  Bnwker. N. Corwin.  and  S.  J.  Maneanini
                                                           8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO
9. PERFORMfNG ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS
 Woods Hole Oce anographic Institution
 Woods Hole, Massachusetts  02543
                                                           10. PROGRAM ELEMENT NO.
                                                              1BC822
                                                           11. CONTRACT/GRANT NO.

                                                              S802037
 12. SPONSORING AGENCY NAME AND ADDRESS
 Robert S.  Kerr Environmental Research Lab-Ada, OK
 Office of  Research and Development
 U.  S.  Environmental Protection  Agency
 Ada,  Oklahoma  74820
                                                           13. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED
                                                           14. SPONSORING AGENCY CODE

                                                             EPA-600/15
 15. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
 16. ABSTRACT
       A rapidly increasing population on maritime Cape Cod has  generated considerable
  interest in alternative wastewater disposal techniques which promise to maintain high
  groundwater quality and promote  its conservation.  Such deliberations, five years ago,
  led  the authors to undertake  an  assessment of agricultural  spray-irrigation as a
  potential means of lessening  groundwater contamination and  depletion.   In the course
  of these studies individual components of an entire wastewater-cropping facility have
  been isolated and subjected to detailed examination.  Experimental emphasis has been
  placed on variations in the rates  and methods of wastewater application and in the
  types of renovation agricultural crops placed under wastewater irrigation.

       Results from these studies  have been highly promising  and suggest that under
  ideal circumstances, the coupling  of secondary domestic effluent to animal forage
  crops can bring about a degree of  wastewater renovation which  exceeds direct disposal
  to sand filter beds and approaches the goals of tertiary treatments.  Moreover, three
  desirable consequences, i.e., water conservation, crop irrigation and nourishment and
  wastewater renovation are simultaneously achievable.
 7.
                                KEY WORDS AND DOCUMENT ANALYSIS
                  DESCRIPTORS
                                             b.lDENTIFIERS/OPEN ENDED TERMS
c. COSATI Field/Group
  Land use, water quality
  Sewage treatment
  Trace elements
  Nutrient removal
  Water reclamation
  Groundwater recharge
                                              Slow rate land treatment
                                              Sewage effluents
                                              Spray irrigation
                                              Secondary pre-treatment
                                                 (wastewater)
   43F
   91A
   68D
 8. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  RELEASE TO PUBLIC
                                             19. SECURITY CLASS (This Report)
                                             UNCLASSIFIED
21. NO. OF PAGES
   190
                                              20. SECURITY CLASS (Thispage)
                                              UNCLASSIFIED
                                                                         22. PRICE
EPA Form 2220-1 (9-73)
                                            174
                                                                    U.S. GOVERNMENT HUNTING OFflCE: 1979 -657-060/5403

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