WATER  QUALITY

POLLUTION CONTROL COUNCIL
PACIFIC NORTHWEST AH
 VEMFi

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                    POLLUTION CONTROL COUNCIL

                     PACIFIC NORTHWEST AREA
                          November 1966


          WATER   QUALITY   OBJECTIVES
MEMBER AGENCIES:

ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND WELFARE
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH SERVICES AND
     HOSPITAL INSURANCE
BRITISH COLUMBIA PROVINCIAL DEPARTMENT OF LANDS, FORESTS, AND WATER
     RESOURCES
IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
MONTANA STATE BOARD OF HEALTH
OREGON STATE SANITARY AUTHORITY
WASHINGTON STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
WASHINGTON STATE POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION
CANADIAN DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
     Federal Water Pollution Control Administration, Northwest Region

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                   POLLUTION CONTROL COUNCIL

                    PACIFIC NORTHWEST AREA
                         November 1966


                    WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES
                         Prepared by:

           Subcommittee  on Water  Quality Objectives
Warren C. Westgarth, Oregon State Sanitary Authority,  Chairman
James L. Agee, Federal Water Pollution Control Administration
Amos J. Alter, Alaska Department of Health and Welfare
Vaughn Anderson, Idaho Department of Health
James Behlke, Washington State Pollution Control Commission
Glen D. Carter, Oregon State Sanitary Authority
Stanley S. Copp, Canadian Department of National Health and Welfare
George H. Hansen, Washington State Pollution Control Commission
Robert E. Leaver, Washington State Department of Health
Alfred T. Neale, Washington State Pollution Control Commission
John C. Spindler, Montana State Board of Health
E. J. Weathersbee, Oregon State Sanitary Authority
                    Original Objectives 1952
                   Reviewed and Readopted 1959
                    Reviewed and Revised 1965
                  Reviewed and Revised June 1966
               Reviewed and Readopted November 1966

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                    MEMBERS OF POLLUTION  CONTROL COUNCIL

                            PACIFIC  NORTHWEST AREA
            Alaska
Commissioner
Alaska Department of Health and Welfare
Alaska Office Building
Juneau, Alaska 99801
Att'n: Director, Division of Public  Health
  For: Mr. Amos J. Alter, Chief Engineer
            Idaho
Vaughn Anderson. Director
Engineering and Sanitation Division
Idaho Department of Health
P. 0. Box 640
Boise, Idaho 83702
       British Columbia
Charles Keenan, Executive Engineer
Pollution Control Board
Water Resources Service
Department of Lands, Forests,  and
     Water Resources
Parliament Buildings
Victoria, British Columbia

William Bailey, Director
Division of Public Health Engineering
Department of Health Services  and
     Hospital Insurance
Parliament Buildings
Victoria, British Columbia
            Oregon
Kenneth H. Spies. Chief Engineer
Oregon State  Sanitary Authority
P. 0. Box 231
Portland, Oregon 97207
            Montana
Claiborne W. Brinck, Director
Division of Environmental Sanitation
State Board of Health
Helena, Montana 59601
       Washington
Emil C. Jensen, Chief
Division of Environmental Health
Washington State Department of Health
406 Public Health Building
Olympia, Washington 98501

Roy M. Harris, Director
Washington State Pollution Control
     Commission
409 Public Health Building
Olympia, Washington 98501
            Canada
Stanley S. Copp, Regional Engineer
Public Health Engineering Division
Department of National Health and
     Welfare
1110 W. Georgia Street
Vancouver 5, British Columbia
        United States
R. F. Poston. Acting Regional Director
Federal Water Pollution Control
     Administration, Northwest Region
U. S, Department of the Interior
570 Pittock Block
Portland, Oregon 97205

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                                PREFACE

                       WATER QUALITY OBJECTIVES


     The Pacific Northwest is presently in an enviable position in regard  to
its water resources.  Sufficient water of generally high quality prevails  in
most river basins throughout the area.  Water is intimately tied in with the
health, welfare, and pleasure of its citizens, and with the whole economic
structure of the area, to such an extent as to make high water quality objec-
tives not only desirable, but imperative.

     A similar position was held by many areas of this country during the  past
years.  The development of these areas without regard to the implications  of
pollution has resulted in the loss of many industrial waterways and streams
for any use except the disposal of sewage and wastes.  The water essential to
growth and to effective living has been dissipated by carelessness and lack
of foresight.  Water is a factor which can well limit the development of all
areas of the country; and, therefore, water pollution control in the Pacific
Northwest becomes a conservation and prevention program.  Certainly we in  the
Pacific Northwest should profit by the mistakes of others and establish high
objectives for the waters of the area and apply such objectives with judgment
and especially with a view to future needs.

     To this end, the Pollution Control Council declares it to be the policy
of the Northwest drainage basins to:

     1.  Encourage and promote programs for the preservation of surface and
         ground waters and the restoration of these waters to the best possi-
         ble condition consistent with the public health and welfare; the
         propagation and protection of fish, aquatic life, and wildlife; and
         the recreational, agricultural, and industrial needs of the area;

     2.  Insure that the waters of those basins that have not yet been adversely
         affected by municipal, agricultural, or industrial development and,
         therefore, are of highest possible quality, be preserved in the best
         condition consistent with reasonable and beneficial future development;

     3.  Restore those waters that now exist at levels of quality below that
         which is necessary and desirable for the best interests of the people,
         to conditions permitting increased beneficial uses by the people  of
         the area.

     In furtherance of this policy, the members of the Pollution Control Council
will be concerned with municipal, industrial, and agricultural waste waters  as
well as with water management and related land management practices which tend
to adversely influence water quality.

     With  these considerations, the Council recommends  these revised objectives
of water quality.

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                               INTRODUCTION
     How good is this water?  How bad is that water?  Will other uses be
affected if this treated waste is discharged to this stream?   These wastes
have been going in here for twenty years and haven't hurt anyone; why do
we have to stop now?  Pollution control personnel are making  decisions daily
on these and similar questions.  In the Pacific Northwest area many of these
decisions had as their basis the Water Quality Objectives and Minimum Treat-
ment Requirements promulgated in 1952 by the Pollution Control Council.  It
is the basic purpose of this report to set forth updated and  revised water
quality objectives which can be used as bases for decision-making.

     The revised Water Quality Objectives are presented in a  tabular format
similar to the original objectives table, which is appended for reference
purposes.  The tabular section has been strengthened by narrative discussions
which are keyed to the table by water use letters (A through  G) and water
quality parameters (1 through 12).  This system, for example, makes it easy
to refer to square F-3 in discussing the pH of agricultural water supply.
The A-G designations are not intended to rank the uses in terms of best use.
This depends on the stream or section of stream involved and  on the uses to
which that section is best suited.

     The objectives as used in this report are rules, tests,  or guides useful
for making decisions regarding water quality.  Objectives of water quality
are a collection of the best available information relating quality parameters
to specific uses.  They have no legal authority, but will serve as a guide for
setting standards which carry legal authority.  Constant surveillance of new
technology and new uses must be maintained to keep these objectives flexible
and useful.

     It is recognized that this is a brief resume of all of the possible
quality parameters and that many items are apparently overlooked.  For more
detailed criteria on specific contaminants, a list of references is attached
at the end of this report.  Reference 2* is especially valuable and lends
itself well to specialized problems.

     This report has been influenced to some extent by the provisions of the
Federal Water Quality Act of  1965, which stipulates that states must adopt
standards on interstate waters within a specified period of time  or the
Federal Water Pollution Control Administration will set the standards.  The
policy of the Pollution Control Council and the objectives contained herein
appear to agree closely with  the purpose and intent of the Federal Act and
should therefore prove useful as a basis for the required standards.

     In  the preparation of  these objectives, help was solicited  from State
and Federal water pollution control  agencies,  fish  and wildlife  groups,
universities, water  resources agencies,  industries, and agriculture.  The
response was  fairly  good so that the objectives represent a reasonably good
consensus.


* Water  Quality Criteria.  2nd Ed., McKee and Wolf,  Publication 3A,  State
  Water  Quality Control Board,  Sacramento,  California,  1963.

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                             GENERAL DISCUSSION
     The beneficial uses of domestic water supply, water-based recreation,
growth and propagation of aquatic life, agricultural water supply, and in-
dustrial water supply are affected by natural variations and by man's use
of the water.  Each successive use leaves the water less clean for the next
user unless extreme measures are taken to remove all material added by the
use.  Water quality objectives are aimed at protecting the downstream user
by prescribing some rules that will keep the used water in the best possible
condition for his use.  These rules have changed as concern has progressed
from erosion products through nutrient addition to pesticide impact.  Bac-
teriological parameters have progressed from emphasis on MPN, using fermenta-
tion tube techniques, to membrane filter methods for determination of coliform
group, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci.  Progress is being made in
the study of probable viral contaminants.  Biological studies are under way
to provide indicators of biological activity associated with varying degrees
of pollution or nutrient enrichment.  Natural seasonal and geographical vari-
ations in water quality may be sufficient to impair usage requirements. From
the foregoing, it is apparent that protection of downstream uses is closely
allied to preventing the entry of polluting materials over and above those
naturally occurring.  The objectives are designed to define water quality
conditions that are necessary to maintain each use so that effluents which
degrade the waters below these conditions can be excluded from the waters.

     Some of the terms used in these objectives are described in the follow-
ing glossary to provide a common base for the table and discussion material.
                                  GLOSSARY
Objective
     Rule, test, guide, aim or goal useful for making decisions regarding
water quality parameters related to specific uses.

Coliform Group
     The coliform group includes all of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic,
nonspore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria which ferment lactose with gas formation
within 48 hours at 35 C.  (This designation is equivalent to the older terms
"B-coli group" and "coli-aerogenes group.")

MPN
     The most probable number of coliform group organisms per 100 ml as de-
termined by multiple-tube fermentation technique.

MF
     Membrane filter technique for determining coliform group concentrations.

Coliform Group Average
     The arithmetic mean of a representative number of samples, using MPN or
an equivalent MF procedure.

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JTU
     Jackson Turbidity Units are readings from a standard Jackson Candle
turbidimeter.  They are based on the light path through a suspension which
causes the image of a flame of a standard candle to disappear.

True Color
     Color of the water from which turbidity has been removed,  based on a
unit of color being that produced by 1 mg/1 platinum in the form of the
chloroplatinate ion.

Sediment
     Inorganic or organic particles originating from weathering, chemical
precipitation, or biologic activity; and transported, suspended, or deposited
by water, air, ice, gravity, organisms, or combinations thereof.

Toxic Matter
     Both organic and inorganic constituents may be toxic to people or to the
life in the streams.  These toxicants often are not amenable to direct test-
ing and require bioassay for determination of effects.
     Lethal concentration dose for 50% of the test organisms.

Primary Treatment
     The removal of settleable, suspended, and floatable solids from waste
water by the application of mechanical and/or gravitational forces.   In pri-
mary treatment, agitation, aeration, or addition of chemicals  may be used to
enhance flocculation and increase efficiency of separation of  the solids.
In primary treatment, unit processes such as sedimentation, flotation,  screen-
ing, centrifugal action, vacuum filtration, dissolved air flotation, and
others designed to remove settleable, suspended, and floating  solids have been
used.  Generally, a reduction in dissolved or colloidal solids will  also be
obtained in primary treatment, but this effect is incidental and not the
planned purpose of primary treatment.

Secondary Treatment
     The removal of dissolved and colloidal materials that in  their  unaltered
state, as found in waste water, are not amenable to separation through  the
application of mechanical means and/or gravitational forces.  Secondary treat-
ment is generally accomplished through unit processes such as  bio-absorption,
biological oxidation, wet combustion, other chemical reactions, adsorption on
surface-active media, change of phase, or other processes that result in the
removal of colloidal and dissolved solids from waste waters.

Advanced Waste Treatment, Tertiary Treatment, or Reclamation of Waste Waters
     These terms have implication with respect to the degree of removal of
impurities, the ultimate being the production of pure water.

     Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water (7)  is the
basic reference for measurement of chemical, biological, and bacteriological
parameters wherever possible.  The current National Shellfish  Sanitation Pro-
gram, Manual of Operations (12) is used for shellfish areas.  For some  of the

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more exotic pollutants such as pesticides, combinations of Federal Food and
Drug Administration tolerances and observed toxicological data prove valuable
for setting objectives.

     Because these objectives are water quality objectives, treatment require-
ments have been left to the discretion of the pollution control authority.
It is well to point out, however, that these objectives are designed to help
keep high quality water in the Pacific Northwest.  To achieve high quality
water, no one can have a right to pollute; streams cannot be used for trans-
porting wastes; all wastes must be treated to reduce solids, organic mate-
rials, nutrients, or other material to levels that are acceptable for down-
stream uses.  This implies that minimum treatment of primary and secondary
is necessary for nearly every stream in the Pacific Northwest.

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                            DISCUSSION OF TABLE
     Narrative descriptions in this discussion are designed to supplement,
explain, and bolster the numerical and descriptive notations in the  tabular
format.  For each of the water uses (A-G)  listed on the table, the narration
contains a general statement and parameter discussions (1-12) .

A.   Raw water objectives for domestic water supply without treatment  other
     than simple chlorination or disinfection and removal of naturally pres-
     ent impurities.

     General
          Natural waters from protected watersheds can be used safely  with
     proper chlorination if special care is taken in the watershed to  ex-
     clude human sources of bacterial and viral contamination, and if  the
     turbidity and organic matter that make chlorination less effective are
     controlled.  Selective alternate diversion facilities, large storage
     reservoirs, and auxiliary sources should be used to the maximum extent
     to overcome short natural turbid runoff problems.  Positive control of
     the human activities in the drainage basin shall be available.

     A-l  Organisms of the Coliform Group
               Natural waters in this area uncontaminated by human activity
          will normally have an average coliform MPN of less than 50.   Iso-
          lated watersheds have been effective for over 60 years in  pro-
          ducing a good grade of water where short, flash turbidity  peaks
          are prepared for by selective diversion, storage, etc.  The  sig-
          nificance of MPN should be correlated with a sanitary survey as
          to origin.  Therefore, the MPN or equivalent MF counts shall
          apply where evidence demonstrates that the coliform present  may
          be associated with fecal sources.  Samples from isolated water-
          sheds where the stream is slow flowing and wildlife is relatively
          abundant may have average monthly MPN's above 50 during summer
          warm-water periods.  To properly monitor raw water quality where
          chlorination alone is used, at least 20% of the number of  samples
          required for finished water should be run on raw water as  addi-
          tional sanitary survey samples.

     A-2  Dissolved Oxygen
               DO is a valuable indicator of overall water quality for a
          surface water supply.  Good quality surface waters should  remain
          very close to saturation with oxygen.  Departures from 100%
          saturation are a measure of oxygen-consuming impurities or of
          oxygen-producing biological activity.  Abnormally low DO indi-
          cates the presence of excessive quantities of wastes having  a
          high biochemical or chemical oxygen demand.  Super-saturation
          with oxygen is an indication of excessive algal activity and
          nutrient enrichment.  DO levels outside the range 75-100% of
          saturation denote poor raw water quality which may require
          extraordinary treatment to produce a safe, high-quality finished
          drinking water.

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               The following table extracted from Standard Methods for t^he
          Examination of Water and Waste Water, 12th Edition, shows solu-
          bility of oxygen at various temperatures and chlorinities:
Table 19 - Solubility of Qxygen_in Water Exposed to Water-Saturated Air*



Temp.
C

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Chloride Concentration in Water - mg/1


0


5,000


10,000


15,000


20,000


Difference
per 100 mg
Chloride

Dissolved Oxygen - mg/1
14.6
14.2
13.8
13.5
13.1
12.8
12.5
12.2
11.9
11.6
11.3
11.1
10.8
10.6
10.4
10.2
10.0
9.7
9.5
9.4
9.2
9.0
8.8
8.7
8.5
8.4
8.2
8.1
7.9
7.8
7.6
13.8
13.4
13.1
12.7
12.4
12.1
11.8
11.5
11.2
11.0
10.7
10.5
10.3
10.1
9.9
9.7
9.5
9.3
9.1
8.9
8.7
8,6
8.4
8.3
8.1
8.0
7.8
7.7
7.5
7.4
7.3
13.0
12.6
12.3
12.0
11.7
11.4
11.1
10.9
10.6
10.4
10.1
9.9
9.7
9.5
9.3
9.1
9.0
8.8
8.6
8.5
8.3
8.1
8.0
7.9
7.7
7.6
7.4
7.3
7.1
7.0
6.9
12.1
11.8
11.5
11.2
11.0
10.7
10.5
10.2
10.0
9.8
9.6
9.4
9.2
9.0
8.8
8.6
8.5
8.3
8.2
8.0
7.9
7.7
7.6
7.4
7.3
7.2
7.0
6.9
6.8
6.6
6.5
11.3
11.0
10.8
10.5
10.3
10.0
9.8
9.6
9.4
9.2
9.0
8.8
8.6
8.5
8.3
8.1
8.0
7.8
7.7
7.6
7.4
7.3
7.1
7.0
6.9
6.7
6.6
6.5
6.4
6.3
6.1
0.017
0.016
0.015
0.015
0.014
0.014
0.014
0.013
0.013
0.012
0.012
0.011
0.011
0.011
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.010
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.009
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008
0.008

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    *At a total pressure of 760 mm Hg.  Under any other barometric
pressure, P (mm:  of P1, in.) the solubility, S1 (mg/1),  can be
obtained from the corresponding value in the table by the  equation:


                          S1 = S  p  - P
                                 760 - p

in which S is the solubility at 760 mm (29.92 in.) and p is the
pressure (mm) of saturated water vapor at the temperature  of the
water.  For elevations less than 3,000 ft. and temperatures below
25 C, p can be ignored.  The equation then becomes:


                     s* = s  P     =
                            760

Dry air is assumed to contain 20.90% oxygen.  (Calculations made by
Whipple and Whipple.)

A-3  Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
          In general, a good drinking water has a pH between 6.5 and
     8.5.  Low pH is normally associated with the presence of carbon
     dioxide, mineral and organic acids, and salts of strong acids
     and weak bases; and can result from the presence of acid-reacting
     industrial wastes, swamp waters, or dissolving of naturally occur-
     ring, acid-forming mineral salts.  Low pH waters are generally
     corrosive to metals and are often highly colored and difficult to
     coagulate.

          High pH is normally associated with the presence of bicar-
     bonate and carbonate ions and sometimes with hydroxide, borate
     silicate, and phosphate ions.  High pH values can result from
     alkaline-reacting industrial wastes, intense algal activity,
     and dissolution of naturally occurring alkaline salts.  High pH
     waters are generally hard, deposit-forming, and corrosive to
     some metals.

A-4  Turbidity
          Turbidity is an indication of the suspended matter measured
     by its interference with the passage of light.  It is not a direct
     equivalent of the amount of suspended matter, since the interfer-
     ence is a  function of  the size and number of suspended particles
     that compose a given weight.  Turbidity of water is due to the
     suspension in it of clay, silt, finely divided organic matter,
     microscopic organisms, and similar substances.

          Excessive turbidities indicate inordinate fouling of a
     stream by natural or artificial causes.  Large quantities of
     turbidity-causing materials impose heavy loadings on treatment
     facilities and,  if they are organic or soluble, can impart dis-
     solved  impurities to the water with resultant deterioration of
     quality.

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          Turbidity during normal runoff should be less than 5 JTU.
     During short periods of time with natural turbid runoff, selective
     and alternate diversion, use of storage, or auxiliary sources
     should be used to the maximum extent to keep the water clear
     enough that it can be effectively disinfected at all times when it
     is used  for a domestic water supply.

A-5  Temperature
          For domestic purposes, water with a temperature below 50 F
     (10 C)  is usually satisfactory.  Water at 60 F (15 C) or higher
     can become objectionable.  Water system operation should be con-
     trolled  to keep water below 60 F whenever this is possible.  In-
     creased  temperature may stimulate organic growths and intensify
     taste and odor problems.  If natural temperatures are in excess
     of 60 F, no material of higher temperature should be put into
     the waterway.

A-6  Dissolved Inorganic Substances
          The USPHS Drinking Water Standards set a limit of 500 mg/1
     of dissolved solids.  Some natural waters in excess of this value
     are used as "medicinal" waters but, in general, dissolved solids
     above 500 mg/1 cause high use of soaps and may have cathartic
     effects on people who are not used to the water.  Natural waters
     in excess of 500 mg/1 would have to be treated and would be classed
     under B-6,

A-7  Residues
          Waters for this use are objectionable if any oils,  floating
     solids, settleable solids,  sludge deposits or sediments  are in
     evidence.  Even small amounts of these residues may react un-
     favorably with chlorine to cause objectionable tastes and odors.

A-8  Sediment
          Sediment in measurable amounts falls out in reservoirs, in
     pipelines, or at points of use of water and therefore should be
     excluded where there are no treatment facilities.

A-9  Toxic or Other Deleterious Substances,  Pesticides,  and
     Related Organic and Inorganic Materials
          The USPHS Drinking Water Standards list chemical substances
     that should not be exceeded:

          Substance                                Concentration in mg/1
     Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate (ABS) 	    0.5
     Arsenic  (As)   	    0.01
     Chloride (Cl)	250.0
     Copper (Cu)	 .    1.0
     Carbon Chloroform Extract (CCE)  	    0.2
     Cyanide (CN)   	    0.01
     Fluoride (F)   	  0.7-1.2 Optimum
     Iron (Fe)	    0.3
     Manganese (Mn)   	    0.05
     Nitrate (N03)  	    45.0
     Phenols		    0.001
     Sulfate (504)  	   250.0
     Total Dissolved Solids  	   500.0
     Zinc (Zn)	    5.0

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         Any concentrations of substances in excess of the following list-
         ing are cause for rejection of the supply:

              Substance                              Concentration in mg/1
         Arsenic (As)	    0.05
         Barium  (Ba)	    1.0
         Cadmium (Cd)	    0.01
         Chromium  (Hexavalent) (Cr +6)	    0.05
         Cyanide (CN)	    0.2
         Fluoride  (F)  	 0.7-1.2 Optimum
         Lead  (Pb)	    0.05
         Selenium  (Se)	    0.01
         Silver  (Ag)	    0.05

    A-10 Color
              Color as used here is that resulting  from natural metallic
         ions  (iron and manganese), humus and peat materials, plankton,
         weeds, and some  industrial wastes.  Effects of unusual industrial
         wastes with  high colors would  have to be individually determined
         on the basis of  methods shown  in current Standard Methods for in-
         dustrial  color analyses.

    A-11 Radioactivity
              Levels  of gross  radioactivity and  concentrations of radio-
         nuclides  should  conform to current USPHS Drinking Water Standards
         which are established to  insure that the total intake of these
         radionuclides from all sources is not likely  to  result in an
         intake  greater than  that  recommended by the Federal Radiation
         Council*   In addition, all concentrations  of  radionuclides
         should  be maintained as  far as possible below the maximum per-
         missible  concentrations  for water from  all dietary sources
         recommended  by the International Commission of Radiological Pro-
         tection for  the  population at  large.  Surveillance must be ade-
         quate to  provide estimates of  average levels  and determine trends
         to insure that the intake of radionuclides from  all sources does
         not  exceed the established guides proposed for continuous intake
         by the  general population.

     A-12 Aesthetic Considerations
               Wherever  simple disinfection  is  the only treatment,  the
          senses  of sight, smell,  taste, and  touch are  good  indicators.
         Anything that  is offensive  to  these senses is not  acceptable  in
          the water supply.

B.   Raw water objectives  for  domestic water  supply  with  treatment.

     General
         Although significant advances  have  been made  in water purification,
     equipment, and techniques in recent years, we  do not  yet  have  all  of
     the answers regarding the precise  relationships between viruses  and
     human diseases, and also  the possible  long-term effects of the so-
     called exotic wastes, which result  from the  manufacture and use  of

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10

pesticides and from certain industrial wastes.  In addition, the poten-
tial for mechanical and human failure or error must always be kept in
mind.  For these reasons and for whatever aesthetic values that might
be assignable to any given situation, the general policy of preferen-
tially utilizing the best possible source of raw water should be fol-
lowed.  Adequate treatment must be imposed as an additional safeguard
to insure the highest quality water and maximum protection to the
public health.

     "Polluted sources should be used only when other sources are eco-
nomically unavailable and then only when the provision of personnel,
equipment, and operating procedures can be depended upon to purify and
otherwise protect the drinking water supply continuously."  (USPHS Drink-
ing Water Standards, 1962.)

B-l  Organisms of the Coliform Group
          Coliform bacteria are admittedly imperfect indicators of bac-
     teriological safety or hazard.  Fecal streptococci and perhaps
     fecal coli to total coliforms ratios might eventually prove to be
     better indicators of hazardous contamination.  Because of the lack
     of even reasonably precise standards using these newer indicators,
     the MPN will be continued in use for the present.  The criterion
     of 2,000 coliforms per 100 milliliters of sample where associated
     with fecal sources is considered the upper limit for waters to be
     safely used as a source of domestic water supply with ordinary
     treatment.  Waters ordinarily exceeding this limit should not be
     used unless a better source is not reasonably available.  When
     the dry weather MPN exceeds 2,000, extraordinary precautions must
     be taken to ensure the continuous production and delivery of safe
     water.

B-2  Dissolved Oxygen
          Same as A-2.

B-3  Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
          Same as A-3.

B-4  Turbidity
          Same as A-4.

B-5  Temperature
          Not only is temperature important in its own right as a
     quality parameter, but it influences the saturation values of
     solids and gases that are or can be dissolved in it, and the
     rates of chemical, biochemical, and biological activity such
     as corrosion, BOD, and growth and death of micro-organisms.

           Waters with temperatures greater than 65 F are likely to
     support excessive biological and bacterial growths, have a flat,
     unpleasant taste, and be generally unappealing as a source of
     domestic water supply.

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                                                                     11

     B-6  Dissolved  Inorganic  Substances
               The limit  of  500 mg/1 of total dissolved solids as set by
          the  USPHS  Drinking Water  Standards for  finished water serves as
          a guide to the  type  of  treatment necessary.  If a treatment sys-
          tem  cannot reduce  the dissolved solids  to  this level, the water
          quality is unsatisfactory.

     B-7  Residues
               Oils, floating  solids,  suspended solids, sludge, and sedi-
          ment are objectionable  because they complicate and increase costs
          of treatment  and in  some  cases cannot be satisfactorily removed.

     B-8  Sediment
               Sediment in general  can be removed in water treatment pro-
          cedures, but  the removal  is  costly.  Therefore, sediment should
          be excluded whenever possible.

     B-9  Toxic or Other Deleterious Substances
               Such  materials  are generally objectionable as it is not al-
          ways possible to depend on water treatment to lower the concen-
          trations to acceptable  levels.

     B-10 Color
               Color for this  classification has  little meaning because  it
          can  be removed by  treatment; however, the  treatment is costly.
          Therefore, a  limit of 15  color units has been set as the objective.

     B-ll Radioactivity
               The permissible levels  and surveillance requirements are  the
          same as  in A-ll.

     B-12 Aesthetic  Considerations
               To  be aesthetically  acceptable, the raw water should contain
          no wastes  which are  offensive  to the senses of sight, taste, smell',
          or touch.   Treatment costs  for removal  of  these materials are  high
          when compared with conventional treatment  costs.


C.   Bathing,  Swimming, Recreation

     general
          Waters used for this purpose must be aesthetically acceptable  or
     people will avoid  the areas.  Any significant  signs of pollutional
     material, whether  it be sewage,  industrial wastes, silt,  sediment,  or
     natural detritus,  will cause rejection of the  sites by many people.
     Waters containing  uncontrolled waste discharges above or  contiguous
     to these points of use constitute an objectionable hazard.  None  of
     the public health surveys to date have  shown direct correlations
     between waste discharges  and water-contact diseases.  However, the
     potential exists for people  to ingest water  with  pathogenic organisms
     and contract the disease  through this  route. Limits  in  these  criteria
     have been set so that pollution  will be  excluded  to prevent the possi-
     ble development of public health problems due  to water contact.   Health

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12

risks associated with swimming in sewage-polluted water appear to be
associated with chance contact with intact aggregates of infected
fecal material.  Therefore, treatment equivalent to secondary treat-
ment is indicated for wastes discharged to waters in this use category.

C-l  Organisms of the Coliform Group (where associated with fecal
     sources)
          This has been a controversial issue for many years, due prin-
     cipally to the fact that there are insufficient scientific research
     and sound epidemiological data upon which to base conclusions.  For
     this reason, the U. S. Public Health Service has not seen fit to
     recommend or establish standards for bathing beach water quality.
     Despite this limitation, many State and local agencies have promul-
     gated bathing water standards.  Most officials accept the viewpoint
     that, while the bacterial quality of water for bathing need not be
     as high as that for drinking, the water should be reasonably free
     of bacteria of sewage origin.

          A review of State and local standards shows that coliform con-
     centrations for acceptable bathing areas vary widely from 50 to
     3,000 bacteria per 100 milliliters.  The methods of expression also
     vary in terms of the arithmetical mean, the geometrical mean, or
     the median of monthly samples.  In some cases, the percentage of
     samples that may exceed a given limit is indicated.  The most widely
     utilized criterion is patterned after the ORSANCO objective that the
     arithmetical mean coliform density should not exceed 1,000 per 100
     milliliters, and that this concentration should not be exceeded in
     more than 20% of the samples in any one month.  These bacterial
     standards have evidently been established arbitrarily on the basis
     of aesthetic considerations and compliance ability.  None are
     founded on sound epidemiological evidence that infections have re-
     sulted due to bathing in contaminated water.

          From an objective point of view, two approaches have been used
     to assess the relationship between the bacterial quality of bathing
     water and the incidence of illness in swimmers as compared with non-
     swimmers.  One approach is based upon the probability of infection--
     that is, the ratio of pathogens or viruses to coliform organisms and
     the probability that a swimmer might ingest water containing these
     agents and become ill.  The second approach is based upon epidemio-
     logical and statistical study of populations bathing or swimming in
     contaminated waters as opposed to non-swimmers or those exposed to
     waters of excellent bacterial quality.  The studies thus far have
     been inconclusive.

          In view of the above, it is felt that additional scientific re-
     search must be carried out before a sound basis can be established
     for a uniform code.

C-2  Dissolved Oxygen
          At DO values below 5 mg/1, ecological changes occur which start
     to limit production of fish, fish food, and other useful aquatic

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     life.  There is a tendency toward slime and aquatic weed growth,
     which make the water less suitable for water-contact purposes.

C-3  p_H
          In general, no physiological problems may be expected from
     water contact with pH values in the range of 6.5 to 8.5.

C-4  Turbidity
          Waters with turbidities exceeding 25 Jackson Turbidity Units
     are not good for water-contact uses for three reasons:   1) the
     waters are aesthetically not acceptable, 2) there is danger from
     unseen submerged matter, and 3) it is not safe for swimming since
     the swimmers cannot see the bottom or side configuration.  With
     certain types of turbidity a lesser value may be necessary fol-
     lowing the above line of reasoning.  If natural turbidities lie
     above this value, no effluent shall be added which has a higher
     turbidity.

C-5  Temperature
          This appears to be a personal factor.  Some persons can stand
     either cold or warm waters so that no normal range appears to be
     practicable.

C-6  Dissolved Inorganic Substances
          People swim, fish, and boat in all types of fresh and salt
     waters with no apparent preferences or problems.  Therefore, a
     limitation on dissolved solids would have no meaning.  Excessive
     mineral nutrient concentrations should be avoided, however, due
     to their enhancement of algal and other aquatic nuisance growths
     especially in fresh water lakes.

C-7  Residues
          One of the most disheartening sights in a recreation area is
     floating debris, scum, or sludge.  This is especially true when a
     swimmer goes to the bottom and kicks loose a raft of foul-smelling
     sludge that has accumulated there.  Gravel operations which dis-
     charge loads of silt and muddy water also ruin the pleasures of
     water-contact uses.  Greases, scum, and foam often accumulate on
     log rafts or on floating piers and become vocational hazards to
     workers.

C-8  Sediment
          Sediment should not be in quantities that make it impossible
     to see into the water.  There should be no interference with nor-
     mal ecology of the water system.

C-9  Toxic or Other Deleterious Substances
          These materials have not been shown to have any public health
     significance in water-contact uses, but provision should be made
     to keep some surveillance since they are potentially hazardous.

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    14

     C-10 Color
               Color above 15 true color units causes people to stay away
          because they cannot see into the water.

     C-ll Radioactivity
               The permissible levels and surveillance requirements are the
          same as in Part A; and, in addition, the gross radioactivity and
          concentrations of radionuclides accumulating in sediments and
          other media from the water should contribute only negligible ex-
          posure to persons coming in contact with them.  Surveillance
          should include the determination of activity in the radionuclide-
          accumulating substances.

     C-12 Aesthetic Considerations
               It has been noted throughout the discussion of this water use
          that most restrictions are due to aesthetic considerations.  People
          will shy away from any area which has floating solids,  scum, excess
          aquatic growths, or other evidences of pollution.  To allow water-
          contact use, it is necessary to exclude these unsightly, potentially
          harmful materials.
D.   Growth and Propagation of Fish

     General
          Any attempt to establish water quality objectives for biological
     life is fraught with factual limitations from the beginning.  For every
     apparent norm there is a readily available anomaly to be cited.   The
     wisdom of experience, and knowledge from both the laboratory and field,
     would most certainly guide us away from setting exact quality or quantity
     figures which may be construed as standards.  Unfortunately, actual num-
     bers are sometimes the most descriptive means by which values can be con-
     veyed for establishing desired conditions in an aquatic environment.

          The following narrative is set forth as an attempt to clarify some
     of the obvious deficiencies built into the water quality objectives chart
     which relates water uses to water quality parameters.

          The real meaning of these titles immediately generates confusion
     and uncertainty because any water quality considerations for such a
     broad array of life must be geared to that type having the narrowest
     tolerance range at the highest level of water purity.  Thus, in  prac-
     tical application, the demands for certain water quality conditions
     must be tailored predominately to the demands of society.

     D-l  Organisms of the Coliform Group
               The listed MPN value of 1,000/100 ml as an upper level for
          aquatic life is most definitely a public health innovation  for
          the protection of humans rather than lesser animals.  Here  is
          an area where an experienced worker should know that an MPN

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                                                                    15

     finding of 1,000, or more,  will very often signify  that  other
     water quality parameters and water uses  may be  suffering from
     inadequately treated sewage.

D-2  Dissolved Oxygen
          The study of dissolved oxygen has probably excited  the  imagi-
     nation and ambition of water pollution control  workers more  than
     any other water quality parameter.  Saturation  or absence of oxy-
     gen in water seems to make  little sense  unless  related to aquatic
     life, and all research evidence supports having oxygen saturation
     as an optimum for higher aquatic life.  Human developments make
     saturation impractical, perhaps impossible, in  many instances.

          With presently available knowledge  about DO requirements,
     DO levels may be recommended for certain specific aquatic life
     needs.  Dissolved oxygen needs in the Pacific Northwest  region
     of the United States and Southwest Canada, by no matter  of choice,
     must be geared to salmonid  fishes who are the prima donnas of both
     physiological intolerance,  migratory uniqueness, and economic im-
     portance 

          Since most Pacific Northwest fishery types require  a naturally
     high DO content at all times, there can  hardly  be a valid argument
     presented in opposition to  setting an absolute  low  of 75% saturation.
     It must be remembered that  any surface waters in this area which are
     allowed to degenerate to 75% saturation  of dissolved oxygen  will
     likewise not measure up to  quality for many of  the  other recognized
     beneficial uses.  A genuine need for very nearly 100% saturation of
     DO in spawning, hatching, and early rearing stages  of salmonid  fishes
     has been demonstrated conclusively beyond question  both under labora-
     tory and under field conditions.

D-3  p_H
          The ranges of pH acceptability presented herein are exceedingly
     impractical for use over a geographical  area as large as we  are
     attempting to consider under one heading.  Natural  pH ranges from
     6.5 to above 10.0 are known to occur in this region, and tolerant
     fish species live quite comfortably at all levels.   We  must, there-
     fore, establish pH criteria for individual water bodies  or stream
     sections in question.  A pH deviation allowance of 0.5  in either
     direction from natural occurrence has been suggested as  a most
     workable guideline in the State of Montana.  Careful consideration
     and application of this practice will prove reasonable,  particu-
     larly near the mode of pH ranges in specific waters.  It might  not
     be wise to add another 0.5 to a pH of 10.1 or permit a further
     reduction of 0.5 at pH 6.5.  Definite knowledge of natural water
     quality for specific areas should be applied in determining accept-
     able pH ranges.

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16

D-4  Turbidity
          It has been amply demonstrated that acute damage to adult
     fish by very high turbidities is minimal and reparable, provided
     that the period of exposure is not prolonged, notwithstanding
     adverse side effects such as interference with light penetration
     and modification of the temperature regime of the water body.
     The most critical period in the life history of fish as it con-
     cerns turbidity is during the incubation period of the eggs in
     redds.  Further, nature of the turbidity is important, since
     plankton blooms have not been incriminated while inorganic par-
     ticulate matter is damaging.  The criteria chart figure of "less
     than 25" Jackson Turbidity Units was selected because this level
     seems to be the point at which turbidity becomes troublesome to
     sports fishermen and other recreational enthusiasts.  As with
     other water quality parameters, turbidity tolerances in accept-
     able application are to be governed by a whole array of social
     and ecological conditions.  Turbidity cannot be related to silta-
     tion, since siltation characteristics are a function of velocity,
     gradient, and bottom type.

D-5  Temperature
          The importance of water-temperature control as it applies to
     fish revolves about spawning of adult fish, development of embryos
     and young, and disease control during critical periods.  No periods
     of life are more critical to fish than during reproduction and hot
     weather.  The temperatures given in the chart for different fish
     types and for certain spawning characteristics are at the upper
     limits of desirability.  They certainly do not apply to all waters,
     nor to all fish types.

D-6  Dissolved Inorganic Substances
          Dissolved inorganic substances for most fishery management
     purposes may be limited to heavy metals in ionic form.  These are
     specific toxic types, zinc, copper, lead, and other less common
     metals.  Bioassay evaluation would be necessary for suspected
     inorganic wastes.  Inorganic nutrients fall into this category and
     may have an important effect on the aquatic habitat in addition to
     the aesthetic impact on the fishermen.  Hence, inorganic nutrients
     should be limited to less than eutrophic levels promoting problem
     growths of slime, algae, or higher plants.

D-7  Residues
          Numerous residue types known to accumulate from wastes would
     make a lengthy list, but attention is directed further to harmful
     residues resulting from the nutrient stimulation of secondary
     growths.  Bacterial slime, Sphaerotilus, is a classical example of
     secondary growth residue.  Enhanced algal and water weed growths
     may likewise become objectionable secondary residues.  Floating
     residues such as oil may have little effect on water quality but
     are definitely deleterious to waterfowl even in small quantities.

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                                                                     17

D-8  Sediment
          Sediment that closes pores in the stream bottoms or that  inter-
     feres with normal ecology should be excluded.

D-9  Toxic or Other Deleterious Substances
          Toxic or other deleterious substances are listed in a composite
     grouping of materials causing many of the more subtle environmental
     aberrations.  The effects of these are usually most accurately eval-
     uated through sophisticated bioassays.  Non-lethal effects involving
     tastes and odors to fish flesh, or causing avoidance reactions, would
     fit this category.  Some overlapping is certain to develop among cate-
     gories D-7 through D-ll on the chart.

          Pesticides and related compounds have been studied extensively
     for their effects on aquatic life, but there is still much unknown
     about their total effect upon an aquatic ecosystem.  Recent experi-
     ences and research in Oregon have centered around herbicide wastes
     imparting objectionable tastes and odors to the flesh of migratory
     fish.  When we are dealing with highly toxic substances, the working
     philosophy must always be, "How much can we keep out of the water?"
     and not, "How much can we put into it?"

          Oregon State University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry
     (16), prepared a summary table listing FDA tolerances and toxico-
     logical data for aquatic organisms.  Most of the data concern  fish
     life.  In some cases, varying experimental conditions on toxico-
     logical tests cause multiple values for a particular organism.
     Even so, it is felt that these toxicological values are more sig-
     nificant than the FDA tolerances.  It is believed from data avail-
     able that a reasonable water quality objective would be 0.001  of
     the LC5Q for the most sensitive organism on 96-hour exposure.

D-10 Color
          Any color over 50 units would tend to block out sunlight  and
     interfere with propagation of fish food organisms.

D-ll Radioactivity
          Uncontrolled radioisotopes are a far-reaching concern in  our
     nuclear age.  All phases of their production and usage are rigidly
     regulated, so it is generally the accidental loss of dangerous
     types to the environment that causes alarm.

          As power reactors become commonplace, both radioactive parti-
     cles and thermally heated waters will require concentrated regula-
     tory attention.  Radioisotopes, like pesticides, must be studied on
     their individual merits and knowledge therefrom applied to specific
     cases or hydrological situations.  Public health regulations will
     govern the existence of isotopes at large.

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     18

     D-12 Aesthetic Considerations
               Aesthetic considerations are mostly for humans who may be
          seeking recreational enjoyment through fishing or other water
          uses.


E.   Shellfish Growth and Propagation

     General
          Shellfish have not received attention separately from fin fish
     in earlier guides to water quality criteria in the Pacific Northwest,
     and to give them a place of distinction at this time may be inviting
     criticism for the dearth of specific data from which criteria were
     developed.  If this section does nothing more than create an increased
     awareness of the water quality needs for shellfish and their importance
     as marine products of commerce, it will have served its intended purpose,

          In the matters of water quality criteria,  shellfish biologists are
     almost as quiet and tight-lipped as their subjects.  Individually and
     collectively, they would rather remain mute than proffer water quality
     parameters which might prove difficult to live  with at a later date.
     Consequently, the parameters in Line E on the water quality chart are
     described in very general terms.

     E-l  Organisms of the Coliform Group
               Maximum allowable coliform bacteria levels in waters over
          shellfish growing grounds are set by the USPHS as a means of
          safeguarding public consumers from waterborne diseases which may
          be transmitted via shellfish.  At the time of this writing,  the
          upper MPN limit is a median of 70/100 ml,  subject to certain
          statistical manipulations for a series of  samples.  Even though
          this method has long been employed as a guideline to the accept-
          ance or rejection of products going into interstate shipment,
          there has not yet been developed a workable correlation between
          the incidence of coli bacteria and other pathogenic bacteria or
          virus types.  Refined techniques are continually being sought,
          and it seems likely that field measurements will soon shift  from
          coli types to the more significant, virulent fecal streptococci
          species.

     E-2  Dissolved Oxygen
               Dissolved oxygen guidelines for shellfish are based upon
          known productive ranges for oyster larvae  and adults under labora-
          tory conditions.  Substantially greater variations in DO afield
          are known to exist, but how these ranges may relate to all shell-
          fish types remains little understood.  For example, the burrowing
          types by necessity must survive limited periods of low DO.   The
          critical period for survival in shellfish  propagation is definitely
          through the egg and larval stages,  and all laboratory studies  bear-
          ing upon the developmental stages conclude that DO saturation is
          the optimum condition.

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                                                                  19

E-3  p_H
          Proper pH in waters for shellfish production appears to be
     more critical than previously thought by growers and researchers.
     Recent studies on oyster larvae at the Oregon State University
     laboratory reliably demonstrate that larvae do not "lay down"
     calcareous shell material in waters with a pH below 7.5.  With
     such information pertaining to a major shellfish industry, there
     can be no hesitancy shown in adopting pH 7.8 as the lower level
     of acceptance.  Marine waters of the Pacific Northwest are com-
     monly found at pH 8.3 - 8.4.

E-4  Turbidity
          Turbidity levels for shellfish waters must be dealt with
     solely on the basis of turbidity components.  The bulk of shell-
     fish food comes from turbidity-causing plankton blooms, laced
     with innumerable bacterial types.  These items are pumped through
     the shellfish body and "strained" out as food.  Turbidity of in-
     organic, earthen origin can be exceptionally harmful to shellfish
     when it replaces regular food types.  Mud will not substitute for
     food.  Prolonged exposure to earthen turbidity brings about poor
     body condition and increased mortality rates in adults.  There is
     strong evidence that such turbidity is likewise deleterious to
     free-swimming larval stages; and, in addition, it causes their
     premature settling to the bottom, which is lethal.

E-5  Temperature
          Temperature, as a water quality parameter for shellfish, can
     be neither easily described nor prescribed within definite limits.
     There are optimum ranges to be reported, if a specific species re-
     quirement is wanted.  Unusual temperature circumstances surround
     the propagation of shellfish and their production for edible
     products.  Some types do not spawn except in the upper ranges of
     Pacific Northwest estuarine or marine water temperatures,  Con-
     trarily, if they are held at higher temperatures, their bodies
     persist in a watery flaccid flesh condition which is not at all
     salable as a palatable market product.  Thus, the annual tempera-
     ture fluctuation for shellfish propagation and production must
     necessarily range to the upper 64 - 68 F level for spawning and
     drop to 45 - 50 F for edible body condition.  Temperature must
     be related to time and species.  Freezing, of course, is fatal to
     shellfish.

E-6  Dissolved Inorganic Substances
          Dissolved inorganic substances in the nature of heavy metals
     are especially lethal to larval shellfish types at very low con-
     centrations.  Bioassay data would be most useful in deciding the
     fate of inorganic wastes which are suspected of being inimical or
     fatal to shellfish at any life stage.  The conditions of each
     shellfish-waste situation should be evaluated individually for
     safest water quality control.

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20

E-7  Residues
          The matter of waste residues being objectionable to shell-
     fish is hardly without exception.  Beyond the free swimming larval
     stages they live a sedentary demersal life  literally at the bot-
     tom of the sea.  Even the residues of natural decay exist as a
     paramount threat to shellfish survival; perhaps the burying by
     shifting sand and associated debris is the greatest single hazard
     to estuarine species.  These animals without means of locomotion
     for escape need greater protection than motile aquatic types.

E-8  Sediment
          Same as D-8.

E-9  Toxic or Other Deleterious Substances
          "Freedom from toxic, colored, or other deleterious substances"
     is a self-explanatory grouping of materials which may not readily
     fit with or be only partially applicable to the general water
     quality parameter categories.  Colored wastes would probably have
     little or no direct effect upon a color-blind oyster, but they
     could completely upset food cycles through the dimming of sun-
     light penetration.  In similar thinking, one may recall instances
     when wastes would cause objectionable tastes and odors in food
     flesh and not measurably harm the animal.

          The relationship of pesticides to shellfish has in recent
     years created some highly complex situations of animal toxicity,
     and human emotion.  As would be expected, the free-swimming larval
     forms are the first ones to show a susceptibility to pesticide
     poisoning.  Much more research evidence is needed in this area of
     water pollution control.  There is a growing usage of selected
     pesticides by oyster farmers for the eradication of noxious preda-
     tors and competitors upon their oyster beds.  This practice is
     visually effective for the prime purpose, but virtually nothing
     is known of secondary or cumulative effects on the environment.

          Oregon State University, Department of Agricultural Chemistry
     (16) prepared a summary table listing FDA tolerances and toxico-
     logical data for aquatic organisms.  Most of the data concern fish
     life.  In some cases varying experimental conditions in toxicologi-
     cal tests cause multiple values for a particular organism.  Even
     so, it is felt that these toxicological values are more significant
     than the FDA tolerances.  It is believed from data available that a
     reasonable water quality objective would be 0.001 of the LC5Q for
     the most sensitive organism on 96-hour exposure.

E-10 Color
          Color above 50 units prevents light penetration and interferes
     with propagation of aquatic organisms.

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                                                                      21

     E-ll Radioactivity
               Shellfish tend to concentrate  radioactive  particles during
          the process of pumping large  volumes  of water through  their bodies
          to meet food, respiration,  and body waste  removal  needs.  There
          are research data available in abundance on this subject.  Shell-
          fish are analyzed for radioisotope  concentrations  on a routine
          basis by the numerous State and Federal radiological monitoring
          programs in operation in the  Pacific  Northwest.

     E-12 Aesthetic Considerations
               Aesthetic considerations are mostly for humans  who may be
          seeking recreational enjoyment through fishing  or  other water
          uses.
P.   Agricultural Water Supply

     General
          The concept of setting water quality criteria for irrigation use
     is acceptable within general limits,  but is,  in fact,  the reverse of
     actual practice.  Generally, soils are selected which  are deemed suit-
     able for the production of crops with the existing water quality,
     quantity, climate, and location.  General criteria include concentra-
     tion (salinity), sodium relations (alkalinity,  sodium  percentage, or
     sodium adsorption ratio), boron concentration,  and residual sodium
     carbonate, but are influenced greatly by water  quantities, soil
     characteristics, and management.

          Stock water criteria are not as  critical in concentration as
     drinking water criteria for most constituents.   Total  salinity in ex-
     cess of 10,000 mg/1 has been rated as acceptable for stock-watering
     purposes, while small concentrations  of nitrates, fluorides, selenium,
     and molybdenum are of concern.  Of more concern are toxic algae.
     Although no evidence is at hand to document occurrence of infection in
     cattle or hogs subjected to sewage or effluent, the risk of contamina-
     tion should warrant the prohibition of such practice.   Some animal
     diseases and parasites are suspected of being transmitted by water
     from dairy or slaughterhouse sources  and should provide enough evi-
     dence to avoid using such water as a precautionary measure or, better
     yet, to keep such wastes out of the watercourse.

     F-l  Organisms of the Coliform Group
               From the foregoing discussion, it may be concluded that high
          bacterial counts in water would make it undesirable for livestock
          watering.  If contact concentration criteria for coliform organisms
          average less than 1,000 per 100 ml, the limits should be the same
          for general  farm use, and less for irrigation use when fruits or
          vegetables are consumed raw and irrigated  within thirty days prior
          to harvest.

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22

F-2  Dissolved Oxygen
          Some evidence of greater effectiveness of fertilizer and
     growth has been related to dissolved oxygen in irrigation water
     for  some areas.  With no other evidence, perhaps a nuisance-
     avoidance level of three mg/1 should be recommended.  Successful
     irrigation with ground water with levels of DO less than 3 mg/1
     or intentional heavy loading of wastes in land disposal practices
     has  produced acceptable levels of growth.

F-3  jDH
          There is a wide range of pH in the natural waters of the
     basin.  East of the Cascades there is a general alkaline level
     up to 8.5, while west of the Cascades the levels may range about
     6.5.  If the pH is shifted, the equilibrium will shift, and it may
     not  be balanced to the natural environment; thus it appears logi-
     cal  to limit any change to 0.5 unit  from the natural environment.

F-4  Turbidity
          Turbidity, unless caused by suspended soil particles, would
     not  apply.  The closing of the pore space in the soil results in
     reduced infiltration rates and less efficiency of irrigation
     application.  Deposition in head gates, canals, and laterals
     causes excessive maintenance costs.  There is no concentration
     which would prohibit its use, but a reasonable concentration up
     to 200 JTU may be a desirable goal unless from natural causes.

F-5  Temperature
          Cold waters have a physiological shock on plants and absorb
     thermal energy when the air and ground temperatures are greater
     than the applied water temperatures.  A range of 60 to 70 F
     (15 to 21 C) is suggested, or not more than 1 10 F (5 C) de-
     parture from the mean daily air temperature, but not exceeding
     90  F.

F-6  Dissolved Inorganic Substances
          The acceptability of the dissolved solids concentration of
     water for irrigation is determined by the soils, crop, climate,
     quantity of water applied, and character of the dissolved con-
     stituents as discussed in the foreword.  The suggested levels of
     specific electrical conductivity of 1,500 micromhos @ 25 C, SAR
     of less than 2.5, sodium percentage less than 60%, residual car-
     bonate  of less than 1.25 me/1, and boron less than 0.3 mg/1 would
     be suitable for most soils and crops under most conditions.  This
     does not preclude use of water with concentrations exceeding these
     values but, in general, less than these levels would be desirable.
     Although trace concentrations of heavy metals are desirable to
     avoid crop-demand deficiencies, there should be less than concen-
     trations found to be toxic to the plant or undesirable in the crop
     or its residues.  Stock watering was discussed in the foreword.

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F-7  Residues
          Reduced yields have been experienced when irrigation water
     was contaminated by petroleum products and infiltration reduced.
     Slimes and aquatic growths increase maintenance costs and create
     operational problems.

F-8  Sediment
          The impact of sediment on irrigation water use depends on the
     size and concentration of particles and the method of application
     and use.  Excessive wear of sprinkler nozzle heads and fittings
     occurs when any sediment of very fine sand (0.074 mm) or coarser
     size is present in the distribution system.  The extent of wear
     by concentrations of silt-size particles is not known, but a mini-
     mal concentration of fine sediment is desirable.  Settling ponds
     and filters will be required to precondition sediment-bearing water
     for sprinkler use.

          Extended application of irrigation water at a suspended sedi-
     ment load concentration higher than 200 mg/1 tends to close pore
     space in the soil, thereby reducing infiltration rates, and may
     lower the efficiency of application.  Recharge of underground
     basins by prolonged spreading of water that contains suspended
     sediment load concentrations higher than 200 mg/1 tends to clog
     the pores and reduce the intake rate.  Acceptable concentrations
     above minimal levels depend on the duration of use and character-
     istics of the soil or soil material on which the water is being
     applied or spread.

          Water containing sediment has not been found to be injurious
     to livestock.  However, stock consume more clear water, thereby
     resulting in greater gains in weight.

          The effect of sediment on agricultural water facilities in-
     cludes deposition in head gates, canals and laterals, irrigation
     reservoirs, and stock ponds.  The result can be higher maintenance
     costs or loss of needed water storage capacity.

F-9  Toxic or Other Deleterious Substances
          The toxicity of trace metals was discussed in F-7.  Limits
     would be concentrations in amounts less than those known to have
     significant effect.

F-10 Color
          For this use, color seldom presents any problems.

F-ll Radioactivity
          In the absence of specific values, the limits set by USPHS
     and NCR for drinking water would apply for stock water.  The effect
     on soils, soil organisms, and crops is not well known.  Soils are
     a good absorbent; crops assimilate radioactive elements.  Studies

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     24

          of movement of elements through soils and of assimilation (and
          concentration) by crops have been made, using radioactive-tagged
          elements.  Due to decay rates and absorbance, it is doubtful if
          there is extensive effect of radioactive materials from water
          on crops.  Use of the crops and concentration of elements, like
          the ingestion of forage by dairy cattle and the appearance of
          radioactive nuclides in the milk, suggest that levels of radio-
          active material in water for crops should be set as low as drink-
          ing water standards until further investigation shows otherwise.

     F-12 Aesthetic Considerations
               Irrigation water should not contain any floating, suspended,
          or dissolved solids from domestic or industrial wastes.  Levels
          of nutrients should be less than those causing excessive aquatic
          growths.
G.   Industrial

     General
          Industrial water users are generally willing to accept for most
     processes, water that meets drinking water standards.  Any peculiar
     requirements for special use such as electronic  tubes,  food and bever-
     age, brewing,  high pressure boilers, etc., are recognized by industry
     as the responsibility of the user.  One characteristic  which is desir-
     able is that the concentrations of the various constituents should  re-
     main relatively constant.

          The amount of water used by industry varies widely,  as does the
     percent used for process, for plant workers,  and for carrier and cool-
     ing water.  With the exception of the pulp and paper industry,  75%  to
     95% of the water needs are for cooling.  Hence,  only a  small portion
     of the water requirements for most industries must meet the more strict
     requirements for process use.

          In the Pacific Northwest, the major demands for industrial water
     are for the pulp and paper and non-ferrous metal (principally aluminum)
     industries.

     G-l  Organisms of the Coliform Group
               It is believed that any industrial  water with which the worker
          can come  in contact (handling,  etc.)  should conform  to the coliform
          limits for swimming and recreation.

     G-2  Dissolved Oxygen
               Dissolved oxygen in many cases  is not  desirable  for process
          water, since it may cause corrosion  or enter into  chemical reac-
          tions. Since most  of the water is  for cooling,  the oxygen content
          may not be applicable.

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G-3  pj
          The pH usually can be adjusted to desirable levels for process
     water.  Cooling and transport preferably would be on the alkaline
     side of neutrality.

G-4  Turbidity
          In industrial water, abrasion would be the most objectionable
     property of materials causing turbidity.  Process water may have to
     be treated.

G-5  Temperature
          Not especially limiting.

G-6  Dissolved Inorganic Substances
          Dissolved solids in process water may have to be treated.  Con-
     stant concentrations are desirable so treatment does not have to be
     varied.

G-7  Residues
          Residues should be treated before discharge, but industry does
     not consider this a limiting problem because it can treat the water
     for almost any of its purposes.

G-8  Sediment
          Sediment is expensive to remove, as well as difficult, and
     should be excluded at the source whenever possible.

G-9  Toxic or Other Deleterious Substances
          Toxic materials in cooling and carrier water may not be criti-
     cal; in process water they may require treatment.

G-10 Color
          Highly colored waters tend to interfere with some industrial
     processes.  Color is expensive to remove and should not be added
     if it is possible to exclude it at the source.

G-ll Radioactivity
          Workers should not be subjected to exposure to radioactivity,
     nor should radioactivity be incorporated in the industrial product.

G-12 Aesthetic Considerations
          Certainly aesthetics may be as important to an industrial
     worker as to a recreationist.  Therefore,  there should be no sus-
     pended,  floating,  or dissolved matter; or  scums, oils, or other
     objectionable material in water supplies for industrial use.

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                             SELECTED REFERENCES
  1.  Water Quality Objectives, Pollution Control Council,  Pacific Northwest
     Area, 1952  (Revised 1959).

  2,  Water Quality Criteria, 2nd Ed., McKee and Wolf,  Publication 3A,  State
     Water Quality Control Board, Sacramento, California,  1963.

  3.  Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, U.  S.  Department  of  Health,
     Education, and Welfare; Public Health Service, Washington,  D.  C.,  1962.

  4.  Water Quality Criteria, George W. Burke, Division of Water  Supply and
     Pollution Control, DHEW, PHS, Washington, D. C.,  1964.

  5.  Influence of Dissolved Oxygen on Freshwater Fisheries.  Progress Report.
     USPHS Research Grant WP 135, Oregon State University,  October  1964.

  6.  "Water Quality Criteria - Stream vs. Effluent Standards," Harold  L.  Jacobs,
     Ira N. Gabrielson, Robert K. Horton, Walter A. Lyon, Earle  C.  Hubbard,
     and Gordon E. McCallum, Journal WPCF. 37,, No. 3,  March  1965, pp.  292-315.

  7.  Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. APHA, WPCF,
     AWWA, Current Edition.

  8.  "Folklore in Water Quality Standards," P. H. McGauhey, Civil Engineering.
     June 1965.

  9.  The Crises in Criteria (Why Standards are Stultified). John E. Kinney,
     ASTM National Meeting on the Control of Water Quality, Philadelphia,
     May 13,  1965,

10.  Who Controls Our Water Quality?  John E. Kinney, International Water Quality
     Symposium, Washington, D. C.,  August 25,  1965.

11.  Water Quality Act of 1965.  Public  Law 89-234, 89th Congress, S. 4,
     October  1965.

12.  National Shellfish Sanitation Program,  Manual of  Operations. 1965 Revision,
     Part I,  Sanitation of Shellfish  Growing Areas; Part II, Sanitation of the
     Harvesting and Processing of Shellfish.

13.  "Biological Evaluation of Polluted  Streams," Kenneth M. Mackenthun, Journal
     WPCF, February 1966.

14.  The Development of Disinfection  Standards,  H. B.  Fosler and H. F. Collins,
     California Department of Public  Health,  Berkeley, California, 1965.

15.  "A Lawyer Looks at Stream Pollution," William M.  Gross, Civil Engineering.
     April 1965.

16.  Correspondence from Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Oregon State Uni-
     versity,  Table listing FDA Tolerances and Toxicological Data for Aquatic
     Organisms, July 1966.

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