Environmental Protection
And Public Affairs
                  :    -;.
Saptember 1992
A Guide To Processes8;
Standards, And Style  *


Whom To Call
To Get A Publication Number—EPIC 	513 569-7980
To Obtain Forms
      Product Review	202 260-5590
      Inventory  	202 260-4371

To Order A Publication—PIC	202 260-2080

Editorial  Services Division, OCEPA  	202 260-4359
Communications Planning Division, OCEPA  . . . 202 260-5590

Print Shop—Headquarters	202 260-2125
C.E.R.I, (technical documents)	513 684-7369
Mail Management Staff  	202 260-2040


A Guide To Processes,
Standards, And Style


OCEPA and You
   Services	2
   Responsibilities  	2
   Steps To Top-Quality Publications 	3

Terminology	4

Processes and Forms  	6
   Numbering System	8
   Inventory Form—Line-By-Lme Guidance 	10
   Inventory Form—2200-5—Sample	11
   Printing Request Form—Line-By-Line Guidance	12
   Printing Request Form—2340-1—Sample  	13

Writing Style 	14

Graphic Standards  	16
   Typography And Layout 	20
   Layout Grids And Cover Elements	22

EPA Requirements
   Disclaimers  	29
   Mailing Labels  	29
   Funding	30

Printing Regulations
   Printing Defined 	31
   Who May Print—Not Contractors Or Grantees	31
   Penalties For Violations 	31
   Mailmg-List Validation	31
   Bylines	32
   Contractor/Grantee Names	32
   Recycled Printing Paper	32
   Use of Color	33
   Illustrations, Etc	33
   Employee Photos	33
   Illustration Guidelines	34
EPA Order 2200.4A 	Inside back cover

This booklet contains descriptions of
processes, guidelines, and other
information to assist you in efficiently
creating top-quality publications for
EFA.  It also describes the regulations
and standards governing the manage-
ment and production of publications
within and for the Agency.

 OCEPA &  You
 The Editorial Services Division -within
 the Office of the Associate Adminis-
 trator for Communications, Educa-
 tion, and Public Affairs (OCEPA), is
 staffed with specialists who have the
 expertise and equipment to turn your
 text into professional-caliber publica-
 tions for optimal communication of
 your message.
    Our editors can work with you to
 achieve just the right tone and level
 of writing while maintaining proper
 grammar and conforming to Agency
style. Our staff and contract photo-
graphers can provide stock images
and location photography, and our
 design and production team can
provide the correct look and feel to
maximize your message's impact
while maintaining EPA's corporate
 image.  When contract work is called
for, we can arrange it or help you
evaluate outside proposals. In con-
sultation with other OCEPA com-
murucabons experts, we cart assist in
the planning, the processing, the
marketing, and the evaluation of your
   In other words, the Editorial
Services Division is a full-service
operation, capable and eager to  assist
its clients along virtually every step
of the way towards creating effective,
timely, and top-quality publications
   Our clients generally discover that
OCEPA's services in planning, edit-
ing, design, illustration, layout, type-
setting, and marketing are an inex-
pensive (if not free) and superior
alternative to having the work done
by private contractors. Another plus
is the guarantee that the results will
comply with all regulations and stan-
dards; thus helping to avoid last-
minute delays in printing.
   If you have a message to commu-
nicate, give OCEPA a  call on
202 260-4361. If a publication seems
the best vehicle for the message, the
Editorial Services Division (260-4359)
is ready and willing to provide
professional assistance.
   Please be sure to bring a copy of
your completed and approved
Concept Notification form with you
•whenever you request graphic, photo-
graphic, or editorial assistance from
the Editorial Services Division
OCEPA is charged with ensuring that
the Agency's commurucahon efforts
are comprehensive, credible, and
accurately reflect EPA policy and
 For all non-technical publications,
the Editorial Services Division works
• Ensure that the tone and level of
   writing is suitable for the intended
• Ensure that the writing is in accor-
   dance with Agency style and
   accepted rules of grammar and
• Determine if the  whole package
   adds up to effective communica-
• Maintain the Agency's public image
   through application of the Graphic
   Standards System.
• Ensure that the production process
   is cost effective.
   Since resources are always limited,
the level of scrutiny applied to vari-
ous publications will vary.  Generally,
the wider the distribution and the
more critical the issues covered, the
more complete will be OCEPA's
editorial participation
   Your attention to the Agency's
needs and your cooperation with
OCEPA's tasks are critically needed
and greatly appreciated.

 Steps To  Top-Quality Publications
 1. Decide on form, message, audience, and desired impact.
 2. Submit a Concept Notification form (2200-6) to your AA's/RA's Product Review Officer.
   Procedures for concept notification and final-draft review are covered in the booklet Developing
   Products For The Public, published by OCEPA's Communication Planning Division (202 260-5590).
 3. Sometime between steps 2 and 7, get a number for the publication by calling EPIC at
   513 569-7980.
 4. Research to obtain all necessary data and policy.
 5. Write the first draft.
 6. Edit and rewrite to achieve an accurate and professional text.  From this point on, close
   coordination with the Editorial Services Division is advisable to minimize obstacles and glitches.
 7. Fill out the Public-Information-Product Inventory form  (2200-5) and send to the Publication
   Review Coordinator,  Editorial Services Division (A-107). Forms are available from EPIC
   (513 569-7980) and in limited quantities from the PRC (202 260-4371). Submitting this form
   eliminates the need to fill out a Notification Of Intent To Publish form.
 8. Design a format that makes sense for the message, the audience, the distribution method, and
   your budget.
 9. Illustrate with photographs and artwork that communicate clearly and please the eye.
10. Typeset for economy and readability.
11. Create a layout that aesthetically fills the pages.
12. Proof the assembled  mechanicals.
13. Circulate for review by all concerned parties (see product-review  guidebook).
14. Compile lists for distribution.
15. Document that all reviews and approvals have been completed.
16. Complete form 2340-1, Publication Review Record And Printing Request (available from Printing
   Management Section in room G100D).  Editorial Division signature is required to authorize any
   variance from the Graphic Standards System.
17. Deliver the camera copy, form 2340-1, and the blue part of an  accepted form 2200-5 to EPA
   Printing Management.
18. Announce the publication's availability and market as appropriate.
19. Monitor response and distribution to evaluate usefulness and predict need for reprints.

 Publishing  Terminology
 The name and logo of a periodical
 which appears boldly across the top
 of the first page or cover.  (This term
 is often confused with "masthead.")

 To trim the margins of a printed page
 so as  to cut into the  printed area.

 A short quote from the text, printed
 in larger type and placed within or
 around the actual text. Used to
 intrigue the reader or to make a page
 full of type look less formidable.

 The mechanicals and accompanying
 art and photographs .which are ready
 to send to the printer.

 A word  or brief phrase, usually in
 bold or headline type, placed above a
 photograph or other illustration as a
 label.  (Compare to Cutline.)

An inscription giving facts about the
physical production of a publication:
typefaces, presses, paper, etc. (The
term can also mean a printer's or
publisher's identification mark.)
A descriptive phrase or sentence(s),
usually in small or italic type, placed
under or beside a photograph or
other illustration.

Display Type
Heads, subheads, captions, cutlines,
call-outs, bulleted text, illustration
labels, and any other type that is not
part of the main body of text. Rules
of punctuation and grammar ai«
often different for display type.

Drop Cap
     An enlarged letter at the begin-
     ning of a block of text.  It is set
into the copy  and aligned  with the
top of the text.

Preliminary drawings or layouts
showing the position of illustrations
and text as they are to appear in the
final publication.

Foreword (Never "forward")
(See Preface.)

The continuous sheet of text  returned
from the typesetter, which is cut into
columns and used to create mechanic-
The imprinted area between the right
edge of the type on the left page and
the left edge of the type on the right

Reproductions of photographs or
drawings through use of a screen
pattern to show shading (as opposed
to "line art").

The text on the front and the text on
the back of a sheet are  aligned in the
same direction.

The result of one complete motion/
cycle of a printing press. Depending
on the size  of the press anrf the
dimensions of the page, one
impression can be from one to four or
more pages.

That part of the front text that gives
the background, importance, and/ or
overview of the subject of the publica-
tion. (Compare to Preface.)

Two or three typeset characters
linked to create a single letterform.
Example—  ffl.

  A box giving advertising and sub-
  scription rates and listing the names
  and titles of those involved in the
  publication of a periodical. Some use
  this term as a synonym for "banner."
  (In early newspapers it was placed at
  the top of the first page.)

  Exact renderings of the formal layout
  of the publication pages, using
  corrected galleys of type to fill all
 copy blocks. They are the text
 portion of the camera-copy.

 A stage between dummies and
 camera-copy that often uses
 photocopies of galleys and rough
 sketches of artwork

 A paragraph's first line isolated at the
 bottom of a page of type.  (See

 Photostats or Stats
 Photographic reproductions of
 mechanicals. To achieve the
 necessary clarity and sharpness over
 the  entire  plate, a special camera is
  That part of the front text (usually the
  first) that gives the why and how of
  the publication itself. This term is
  preferred to the equivalent

  Ring Folios
  Encircled numbers written in non-
  reproducible blue that identify the
  actual page count in a document
  Often ring folios will not correspond
  to the printed page numbers (folios),
 as these .begin after the front matter
 and/or vary by chapter.

 Type set to fit the  contour of an illus-
 tration or typographic element.

 Saddle Stitch
 Binding the pages  of a publication by
 use of staples in the fold of the

 Groups of printed  sheets, containing
 the images of from 4 to 64 pages,
 which are folded as one unit to form
 a section of a book or pamphlet.

 Table Of Contents
 A list of the main headings and the
 pages on which they appear.  Should
be labeled simply "Contents." Should
not include front matter items.
 Type ...
 A typeface is determined by its interi-
 or proportions, relative line widths,
 and overall design. Typefaces are
 referred to by "brand" names such as
 Palatino and Helvetica. Type form
 refers to distortions of a typeface-
 such as Extra Condensed or Extend-
 ed, and angle—Roman or Italic. (The
 latter characteristic is also known as
 type  "posture.") Type weight means
 the general thickness of the letters'
 structural lines, such as light,
 medium, and demibold. Type
 families are rather arbitrary cate-
 gories of similar typefaces (and all of
 their  different forms and weights)
 such as Modem and Script.

 The process of placing proportionally
 spaced type on a page using high-
 quality photo-composition equipment.
 The result usually saves space while
 it improves readability. Recently, the
 term has come to be applied to
 proportional laser printing.

A paragraph's last line isolated at the
top of a page of type.  (See Orphan.)

 Processes And  Forms
 Publication management at EPA
 focuses on three general areas:
 reviewing, cataloging, and printing.

 Two important processes regulate the
 review and approval of Agency
     The first is Agency Order
 2200.4A, EPA Publications Review
 Procedure. Essentially, this document
 directs each Assistant/Associate/
 Regional Administrator to  establish
 internal review procedures to provide
 for "expeditious approval"  and assure
 "high quality" of their programs'
 publications prior to release. When
 this Order was issued, the  printing
 form was revised to reflect this
 process by adding spaces for the
 signatures of the reviewers, and
 renaming it the Publication Review
 Record And Printing Request form.
    The Order also requires that
 certain publications be forwarded to
 the public affairs office for final
approval: documents and audiovisual
 products with policy implications,
 periodicals, and any "other item
required to be reported to the Office
of Management and Budget."  This is
a reference to OMB Circular A-3,
under which almost all publications
must be reported to OMB.
     While OCEPA is concerned with
the entire inventory of Agency publi-
cations (see next section on "Catalog-
ing"), the office is not in a position to
carefully review each of the
thousands of documents produced
annually by EPA. To determine
which publications merit thorough
reviews by OCEPA and other offices,
EPA established a "Product Review"
process.  This is the second of the two
important review and approval
processes in the Agency.
     Under the Product Review
process, the originator of a public-
information product (publication,
video, exhibit, etc.) and the program's
Product Review Officer use specific
criteria to determine whether to send
OCEPA a "Concept Notification" form
and a "Final Draft Review" form.
Upon receipt, a member of OCEPA's
Communications Planning Division
distributes the form or the draft to
various outreach experts, synthesizes
comments, and assists in resolving
conflicts. As part of this process, the
Editorial Services Division may
review the text for grammar, level,
tone, style, and effectiveness.
     The Product Review process is
intended to:
• Ensure that Agency policy is prop-
     erly interpreted and that poten-
     tially embarrassing mistakes are
• Reduce confusion and conserve
     resources by eliminating dupli-
• Enhance the product's  usefulness.
• Take advantage of every opportuni-
     ty to communicate the Agency's
     priorities and themes.
     A full explanation of the Product
Review process is given in a booklet
titled Developing Products For The
Public: A Handbook For EPA Communi-
cators.  For copies of the Product-
Review forms, call the Communica-
tions Planning Division on
202 260-5590.

 EPA needs to maintain an up-to-date
 inventory of information products for
 three reasons. (1) A catalog of
 publications, videos, etc., is an essen-
 tial tool in fulfilling EPA's obligation
 to provide information to the public.
 (2) The Office of Management and
 Budget requires all federal depart-
 ments to maintain an electronic
 inventory of publications. (3) Publi-
 cation coordinators, communications
 planners, printing officers, and others
 need accurate data to make sound
 managerial decisions.
     EPA's Center for Environmental
 Research Information (CERI) compiles
 a computer database and prints an
 annual catalog of all technical
 publications it produces. All other
 EPA publications (that is, all non-
 CERI publications) plus all audio-
 visual and  other types of public-
 information products,  are recorded
 for cataloging using the Public-
 Information-Product Inventory
 form—EPA form 2200-5.
     When an Inventory form (for a
 publication) is processed, a GPO form
3868 (Notification Of Intent To
 Publish) is  automatically created and
forwarded  to the Government Print-
 ing Office, thus eliminating the need
for the originator  to fill out this form.
Since the 3868 is required by GPO at
least 30 days prior to printing, publi-
cation originators should complete
and submit the Inventory form as
soon as all the requested information
can be assembled.  Publication origi-
nators should also be aware that
EPA's Printing Control Officers will
not accept a job without evidence of
an accepted Inventory form.
     The Inventory forms are submit-
ted to the Publications Review Coor-
dinator in the Editorial Services Divi-
sion of OCEPA. This person checks
the form for completeness and re-
views the keywords and the catalog
description for appropriateness and
readability.  The originator may be
asked for clarifications or revisions
before the form is accepted. The
forms are then forwarded to EPIC
(the Environmental Publications and
Information Center) in Cincinnati for
inclusion in the Master Inventory Sys-
tem and creation of the GPO 3868
     The Master Inventory System is
a database of more than 30,000 entries
that provides for entering orders,
determining quantities in stock, and
using key words to search for docu-
ments. In the not-too-distant future,
staff throughout the Agency will be
able to access the System—and com-
plete Inventory forms—directly via
     A sample Public-Information-
Product Inventory form along with a
line-by-line explanation appears on
pages 10 and 11. Your Product Re-
view Officer can obtain copies from
EPIC. Small quantities may be
picked up from the Publication
Review Coordinator (260-4371).

All EPA printing is done by or
through the Agency's Printing Man-
agement Section (hereinafter called
"the print shop") within the Recy-
cling, Printing Services, and Mail
Management Branch of the Facilities
Management and Services Division of
OARM. No printing can be done
without going through this office.
(See section on Printing Regulations
for a full explanation of this require-
ment.) The print shop has a limited
in-house printing capability restricted
to single-color jobs of fewer than
60,000 impressions (single or multi-
page sheets printed in one equipment
cycle). All other jobs are sent to GPO
for auction to contract printers.
    External printing jobs can take a
month or more, so advance planning
is a must if you have a scheduled
time for distributing your publication.
    All printing is initiated using
EPA form 2340-1,  Publication Review
Record And Printing Request.  An
annotated sample of this form can be
found on pages 12 and 13. These
forms are available from Printing
Management (room G100D) and from
the Supply Store.

                                           The EPA numbering system is maintained by EPIC.
                                                To obtain a publication number call
                                                            513  569-7980
Processes And  Forms
Numbering System
An Agencywide numbering system is
essential for efficient tracking and
dissemination of EPA information
products. This, in turn, is necessary to
fulfill the Agency's mission to make
environmental information available
to the public.
     As of January 1,1992, all EPA
publications, both  scientific and
public-oriented, are assigned numbers
under one system. The system is
applicable to all products (publica-
tions, disks, films,  or whatever)
intended for distribution outside the
Agency, through the PIC, EPIC, NTB,
or otherwise.
     Developed jointly by OARM and
OCEPA, the system reflects the Agen-
cy's current structure and needs
while following a pattern similar to
the one established in 1974 for  techni-
cal documents.
     The publication number must
appear on each publication cover in
accordance with this manual. (See pp.
23, 26, and 28.)  EPA publications
without numbers will not be accepted
for printing.

The new publication number consists
of an alphanumeric designator identi-
fying: the AA/RAship, office within
the AA/RAship, publication type,
year of publication, sequence number
and, as necessary,  an indicator of
volume number for publications bear-
ing identical titles.
    A sample number looks like this:
The "EPA" is required for clear
identification on multi-agency
publications, computer disks, and
other items where ownership might
not be obvious.  For consistency, it
should be used on all products.  The
prefix does not, however, appear in
the EPIC database.
    The number itself has six
elements, labeled 'a' through T for
explanation purposes.
     a. '2ff — The first two digits
signify the organization responsible
for producing the publication. The
proper code for the organization is
selected from the "Office Identifica-
tion  Codes" list (see below).  Note
that  the larger and more complex
offices have from three to six possible
identification codes.
     b.'!' — This single digit is
assigned to a specific office within the
organization at the discretion of that
office's management, in coordination
with EPIC.
     In the '201' the 20 signifies the AA
for Administration and Resources Man-
agement and the 1  might indicate the
Office of Administration.
     c. 'N' — A single letter  identifies
the type of information product.  In
this example, 'N' signifies a periodical.
    These codes are assigned using
the "Priority Order" list in the box on
page 9. For example, a compilation
of Federal Register notices stored on a
floppy disk would be given type code
'C because the "computer" entry is
listed before the "Federal Register"
    The main purpose of these codes
is to give librarians and inquirers an
idea of what they're looking for before
effort is expended on the search.
Everyone seeking Federal Registers, for
example, might not have a computer
available to read a disk. The codes
will have numerous other uses, such
as allowing a computer to exclude
draft and unpublished documents
when printing a list of publications
on a certain topic.
    d. '92' —  The calendar year of
    e. '123' — A three-digit number
(001 through 999) will be assigned by
the EPIC.  The number starts with
001 on each January first  and
increases by one for each new pub-
     f. 'b' — An expander to the
publication number is assigned to
indicate multiple volumes only.
(Volume indicators are not used for
single volumes. Therefore, if there is
an 'a' there must be a 'b'.) This is a
lower case letter with one exception:
a capital F can be used to indicate a
Final public-comment draft.

  Office Identification Codes
  10  Administrator, Deputy
  11  Administrative Law Judges
  12  Science Advisory Board
  13  Cooperative Environmental
  14  Associate Administrator for
      Congressional and Legislative
  15  Civil Rights
  16  Assistant Administrator for
      International Activities
  17  Associate Administrator for
      Communications, Education, and
      Public Affairs
  18  Small and Disadvantaged
      Business Utilization
  20-22 Assistant Administrator for
      Administration and Resources
  23   Assistant Administrator for
      Policy, Planning, and Evaluation
 27   Associate Administrator for
      Regional Operations and
      State/Local Relations
 30-34 Assistant Administrator for
 35   Office of Inspector General
 36   Office of General Counsel
: 40-45 Assistant Administrator for
      Air and Radiation
 50-55 Assistant Administrator for
      Solid Waste and Emergency
 60-65 Assistant Administrator for
      Research and Development
 70-75 Assistant Administrator for
      Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic
 80-85 Assistant Administrator for
 901  Region 1
 902  Region 2
 903  Regions
 904  Region 4
 905  Regions
 906  Region 6
 907  Region 7
 908  Regions
 909  Region 9
 910  Region 10
 930  Central Regional Laboratory,

 Type Codes in Alphabetical Order
 A   Article reprinted from other pub.
 B   Reference (Glossary,
     Bibliography, etc.)
 C   Computer (CD-I, CD-ROM,
     Floppy Disk, etc.)
 D   Draft
 E   Exhibit
 F   Unbound Pub. (Fact Sheet,
 H   Photograph, Filmstrip, Slide, etc.
J    Peer-reviewed Journal
K   Bound Pub. (Booklet, Pamphlet)
M   Microfilm, Microfiche
N   Periodical (other than peer-
     reviewed journal)
P   Public Comment Draft
Q   Unpublished
R   Report
S    Summary, Research Brief
U   Audio
V   Video
X   Internal
Z   Federal Register
 Type Codes
 In Priority Order
 Assign  codes in the following
 E   Exhibit
 C   Computer  (CD-I, CD-
     ROM,   Floppy  Disk,
 V   Video
 U   Audio
 M   Microfilm, Microfiche
 H   Photograph,  Filmstrip,
     Slide, etc.
A   Article  reprinted from
     other publication
Q   Unpublished
Z   Federal Register
J    Peer-reviewed Journal
N   Periodical   (Journal,
X   Internal
B   Reference   (Bibliogra-
     phy,  Glossary, etc.)
D   Draft
P   Public Comment Draft
S   Summary,   Research
R   Report
F   Unbound  Pub.  (Fact
     Sheet,  Leaflet)
K   Bound   Pub.  (Booklet,

 Processes And  Forms
The Public-Information-Product
Inventory Form—2200-5
       Line-By-Line Guidance
1. TITLE—Short and simple is best
with a key word as close to the start
as feasible. For further guidance, see
the section on Titles under "Writing
2. NUMBER—Numbers for all EPA
information products are assigned by
the manager of the EPA Publications
and Information Center in Cincinnati,
Ohio.  To obtain a number, call
513 569-7980. See page 8 for details
on the numbering system.
3.   FORMAT—Use one of the terms
listed here if applicable. If none seem
to fit, call 260-6642 for assistance.  In
any  event, avoid using a description
of the content, i.e., "fact sheet," or
Flyer A single sheet of paper with
     type placed without regard for
     any folds.
Leaflet: A single, folded sheet with
     type placed in columns between
     the folds.
Pamphlet: Two or more bound (usu-
     ally stapled) sheets without a
     separate cover (see "booklet").
Booklet: Any number of bound sheets
     with a separate cover (one made
     of paper different in weight, fin-
     ish, or color from the inside
Poster A single sheet intended for
     wall-mounting or similar public
Slides: 35mm transparencies.
Vu-Graphs: Overhead transparencies.
Videotape                 Audiotape
Film                      Microfilm
Floppy Disk               Microfiche
CD-I                         Exhibit
4. SERIES—Indicate here if the
product is one of several under an
overall title or category, such as "Tech
Facts,"  or "public-service announce-
5-8. Self-explanatory.
a contractor or grantee was, is, or will
be involved in the research (editorial,
not scientific research), writing, edit-
ing, design, or other preparation of
the product, list the company or
organization's name, the EPA contract
/grant number, and the amount of
money spent or allotted:
10. SOURCE—The box(es) checked
here will tell catalog readers where to
obtain your product.  If proper source
isn't listed, give details in item 20.
11. Number of individual units to be
produced.  For exhibits, indicate
expected number of showings per
year and number of years of useful-
ness (i.e. 5/2).
12. COLORS—Do not include the
color of the paper stock.  For exam-
ple, black ink on blue paper is a one-
color process.
13. SIZE—For publications, this is
the dimensions of the folded product.
For leaflets, size typically will be 4" x
9". Pamphlets and booklets may be
4" x 9", 5%" x 8%", or 8W x 11".
    For videotapes, this is the type:
VHS, Vi", 1", etc.
    For audiotapes this is cassette,
reel, etc.
    For film, this is 16mm, 8mm, etc.
    For computer disks, 3V4" or 5W.
    For an exhibit, this is either
table-top or free-standing
14. LENGTH—For publications, this
is  the number of printed pages, not
including any separate cover. If the
publication will be but is not yet
typeset, the number of pages can  be
roughly estimated on the basis of one
double-spaced page (25 lines) of
typewritten text (pica type) being
equal to approximately:
One-third of a page in an 8Vi x 11"
Two-thirds of a page in a 5W x 8%"
Three-quarters of a page in a 4" x 9"
    For tapes and film, length is
time. For transparencies and micro-
film/ fiche this is number in package.
For computer disks, give length in
bytes. For  exhibits, give width and
15. AUDIENCE—Describe in terms
of educational level (i.e., children,
average citizen, or college graduate),
degree of subject knowledge (i.e.,
none, general, or skilled), and involve-
ment (i.e., businesyyinancial, special-
interest group, governmental, or
16. PROMOTION—List quantities,
audiences, and timing for flyers, press
releases, announcements, advertise-
ments (where? in what?), review
copies (to whom?), or other market-
ing activities planned for the product.
[This information is necessary to com-
plete GPOform 3868—Notification Of
Intent To Publish.] For many EPA
documents, the response will be
17. DESCRIPTION—A concise para-
graph that clearly gives the catalog
reader enough information to decide
whether to order or seek out the
18. KEY WORDS—These terms will
be used to locate your product in the
Agency's electronic databases and
library files and indexes. Careful
thought in their selection is crucial to
the effectiveness of your product. In
genera], concentrate on terms that
distinguish and specify; avoid com-
monalities, such as "environment"
and "report."
Review Officer is the person in each
program office who has been desig-
nated by the AA/RA to handle the
EPA Product-Review process. If you
are unsure who this is in your
program, call your AA/RA's secre-
tary or the OCEPA Communications
Planning Division at 260-4361.
20. COMMENTS—Use this space for
overflow information from items  9,
10, and 16; or to flag special
characteristics or considerations.

PUBLIC-INFORMATION-PRODUCT INVENTORY      Prin' "•«* and """*to •"*"• -" «*"» are te8'ble
                                                      Guidance in completing this form Is given on the reverse side.
1. Title
4. Series
7a. Contact Name
8. Issuance
D Initial O Periodical — Frequency will be issues per

9. Contractors
IP No ... . - Amr>Mflt $.

11. Quantity 12. No of Ink Colors
Cover Text
15. Audience
2. EPA Product Number
3. Format
5. Date Submitted (mo -day-yr.| 6. Publication Date (mo -yr.)
7b. Mail Code 7c. Telephone
HI R»pnnt — Dntft last pnntftd . ., .

10. Source D Public Information Center
D Program D EPIC — Cincinnati

13. Size 14. Length

16. Promotion
17. Catalog Description (topics covered and points made)
18. Key Words (for indexes and databases) [no more than 12]

19. Product-Review Officer's Certification — The concept of this material and the expenditure of resources for its production are approved by
Program/Regional management, and the OCEPA Communications Planning Division has been notified in ample time for comment. It will be
produced in accordance with all applicable and pertinent Agency and federal rules and regulations (including those given in the OCEPA
Publication Management guidebook). Two copies of all non-technical publications will be sent to the Editorial Services Division of OCEPA
upon completion. One copy of video/audio products will be sent to the Multi-Media Services Division of OCEPA upon completion.
Name (printed) Date
20, .Comments
ORIGINATOR: Keep bottom copy, send rest to: PRC. Editorial Services Div.. OCEPA (A-107). U.S.EPA. Wash., DC 20460
For OCFPA ' tea <~>nly Ra™,,«^

Accepted and forwarded to EPIC
For EPIC Use Only:
EPA Form 2200-5 (1-92)

 Processes And  Forms
 Publication Review Record And
 Printing Request—2340-1
       Line-By-Line Guidance
 1*5. (self explanatory)
 6. Overtime can as much as triple
 the printing cost.
 7. Due to the auction/contract
 process at GPO, printing times are
 impossible to predict accurately.  It is
 wise to allow six weeks for printing,
 yet jobs are sometimes completed in
 one week or less.  Faster service can
 often be obtained at additional cost.
 8 - 13.  In almost all cases, these
 items are left blank, as composition is
 completed prior to submitting the job
 to GPO.
 14.  (a) "Camera Copy" refers to the
 quantity  of physically separate boards
 or pages  of mechanicals.
     (b) "Negatives" are rarely involv-
     ed, except with reprints.
     (c) "Overlays" do not include
     tissues covering the mechanicals,
     only sheets of plastic with parts
     of illustrations.
     (d) Count only illustrations that
     are not part of the mechanicals.
     Normal photographs are "half-
 15. An 11" x 17" sheet folded once to
make four standard letter-sized pages
would be described as 8-V4" x 11".
 16. Almost always "Head to Head."
 17. If it's not a form, leave this
18, 19, & 22. Paper "Grade" is an
indication of a paper's strength and
finish. "Weight" is a measure of pa-
per's thickness or density expressed
as the weight of 500 sheets. [Note:
Since cover stock is manufactured in
smaller sheets than text stock, 50-lb
cover paper is thicker than 50-lb text
paper.] The typical leaflet is  printed
on 40-lb, offset. If using in-house
printing, simply specify "bond." The
typical booklet cover is 50-lb vellum.
     Available Paper "Colors" are
limited by GPO specifications and
contracts and exact matches  are often
impossible. Therefore, if an  exact
color, such as PMS-228, is desired as
a backdrop to a title, it must be
ordered as an ink color painted over
white paper.  Otherwise,  keep the
orders simple, such as "light blue."
[Note for the curious: PMS-228 is the
Pantone Matching System number for
a dark plum-red.)
20. Normally left blank.
21. A "Self" cover is made of the
same paper as the rest of the publi-
23 & 24.  (Self explanatory, but
rarely used)
25. If the printer is being requested
to send various quantities to different
addresses, attach a clear and accurate
26. Most pamphlets and booklets
are "saddle-stitched"—with staples;
thicker publications are often "perfect
bound"—with glue.
28, 29, 31, & 32. Unneeded if
the job will be printed in-house, but
necessary for printing through GPO.

30. Usually the program office or
the Product Review Officer for the
33. Usually none.
34. If there are only a few destina-
tions, list them here.
35. According to the program's
procedures. (See "Reviewing" on page

36. Each program and region should
have two persons (usually the
Product Review Officer and alternate)
authorized to sign in place of the

37. These boxes refer to provisions
in OMB Circular A-3, Government
Publications (May 1985). A-3 is being
replaced by an expanded Circular A-
130.  Under A-130, OMB requires
agencies to maintain and implement
planning, management, and record-
keeping systems for "all information
products." Until this form has been
revised, check the second box for all
publications not specifically excepted
by EPA Order 2200.4A.
38. The blue copy of the Inventory
form, signed by OCEPA's Product
Review Coordinator, must accompany
the Printing form and takes the place
of a signature in line 38a. Exception:
the signature of the Director or Depu-
ty Director of the Editorial Services
Division is required here to authorize
any variance from the Graphic Stand-
ards System.

I . CONTACT (program name, mail code. name. & phone number)
5 QUANTITY (Umu of finished product! 6 IS OVERTIME AUTHORIZED TO f~-| I"""!


nj~~| No Sets
Yes L_l No
Hold Days No Sets Hold Days
1 8 TEXT PAPER (Grade. Color, and Weight) 1 9 COLOR INK
I—I Self L_J Separate (Specify)
D Top/Left L
26. D Side Stitch C
D Saddle Stitch C
D 3-Rmg Binder D Other (Specify)
J Acco Fastener
D Corner Stitch Q Sew CD Assemble Only
D PastefoM D Perfect Bind D Band in Sets
27 Use separate sheet if needed for additional specifications or remarks
D Internal Use Only
1 — 1 Written approval is on fill
ITTTY (Check one only)
LJ Reprint LJ External Distribution
from the holder of any copyrighted material requisitioned

15. SIZE fl/ic/ies;
Trimmed Page
16 RUN (Check one)
O Head to loft
LJ One Side Q Head to Right
20. Margins Aftei Back or Left
(picas or inchest


11. SIZE

D Head to Head
D Heed to Fool
Right Top
Inl to Top/L»*t m fr«

17 Forms Must
m Top/Left
a. D Mailing Keys D
Bulk Mailing D Addressing Only
b. Quantity (Copies! c. OTHER MAILING (Attach labels or listing)



36. I concur in the publication of the attached material and certify that it complies with Agency Order No. 2200.4A

37. If this material is to be forwarded to the Office of External Affairs, indicate which of the following apply
I 1 Has policy implications, as per attached explanation I—I Periodical as defined by OMB Circular A-3. or other item required to be reported to OMB

Replaces EPA Forms T-60, 2340-6. and the previous edition of 2340-1. which are obsolete

 Writing  Style
 The rules given here are based on the
 GPO and/or Associated Press style
 books, with some modifications stem-
 ming from either common sense or
 personal eccentricities (depending
 upon your level of agreement).  They
 should be applied consistently in
 writing and editing all non-technical

 Always use a comma after the second
 to last entry in a series.
    Dashes should be used sparingly.
 They are best employed to set off an
 "aside" within a sentence, and should
 not be used to set off a final phrase
 unless that phrase is an appositive or
   When a dash is used—for
 whatever purpose—there should be
 no blank space before or after it.
   Do not use a hyphen after an
 adverb ending in  "ly."
   As a general rule (although
 general rules are dangerous here)
compound modifiers should be
 hyphenated as required to avoid
ambiguity. Example1 There is no
significant difference between
 "chemical waste that is toxic" and
 "waste composed  of toxic chemicals,"
so "toxic chemical waste" does not
require a hyphen. On the other hand,
"a hazardous waste program" could
be interpreted as referring to a waste
program that is dangerous, so
"hazardous-waste" needs a hyphen.
When judging a term's potential for
ambiguity, however,  it is acceptable
to take the context into account.
   The text following a bullet, or
other graphic device used to set off
the elements  of a list, should always
begin with a  capital letter and end
with a penod.  Do not use semicolons
and do not put an "or" before the last
item. The only exception  is when no
bulleted item is longer than the
length of the  line, in which case the
periods may  be omitted.

Single digit numbers (lower than 10)
are spelled out unless they are used
with measurement symbols or abbre-
viations: 5", 6 mph, etc. Double digit
numbers (greater than nine) are
expressed in  digits unless they begin
a sentence; but such sentence
structures should be avoided when-
ever possible.
   The numbers of EPA regions  are
expressed in  Arabic numerals, not
   Do not number items  in a  list
unless the number signifies an abso-
lute value or  meaningful  sequence, or
unless you frequently will need to
refer back to  specific items; otherwise,
use bullets or other graphic devices
   Follow the lead of Ma Bell and
company, telephone numbers are
written: area  code [hard space] ex-
change [hard  hyphen] last four digits.
Example. 202 260-4359 The hard
spaces and hyphens prevent the num-
ber from breaking at the end of a line
of type
The terms "federal," "state," "local,"
and "tribal" are not capitalized unless
they begin a sentence or are part of
an official title.
   "Agency" is capitalized when it
refers to EPA.
   The terms "section" and "article,"
as in article 3, section 14, are not
   Unless otherwise specified here,
refer to the GPO Style Manual for
guidance on capitalization. In partic-
ular, see sections 3.5 (Chesapeake
Bay, the bay), 3.19, 3.35, and 3.44

As a noun, always spell out "United
States " As a modifier, "U S " is
acceptable (but not in the Agency's
name on covers and title pages).
   Always use the two-letter postal
code abbreviations when abbreviating
state names. No periods:  "NY"  not
"N.Y."  Note, however, that abbrevia-
tion is only appropriate in long  lists
and addresses.
   "Southwest"  is one word; it is
abbreviated "SW." with only one
period.  Ditto for all compass points
   Do not use "St" unless you are
referring to a saint

For clarity, consistency, and in view
of the needs of bibliographic data-
bases, titles should be restricted to
two levels: one main title followed, if
required, by one sub-title.  In refer-
ences, the division between main and
sub-title is signified by a colon; on
covers it is indicated by spacing
down one-half line and shifting to a
lighter weight (and sometimes a
smaller size) of the same typeface.
   Also for purposes of clarity and
easy reference, one of the key words
in the title should be at the beginning
or as  near as feasible. Therefore, such
phrases as "Report To Congress" and
"Guide To Federal Activities" should
be placed  as sub-titles rather than
used  to begin  the main title

Miscellaneous Style
Labels for illustrations, tables, and
lists do not require the obvious
descriptions ("photograph," "table,"
"list," etc.). Especially, do not write
"Table of Contents."
   Use the article "a" not "an" before
a pronounced "h." For example. He
is an  heir to a historical manor
   The first use of a temperature
measurement should be written "XX
degrees Fahrenheit" (or Celsius, not
centigrade). Further references to the
same scale are written "XX °F" or
"XX °C". Note the thin space (about
0.02") between the digit and  the
degree symbol
   Spell out "percent" (one word).
Be sure to hyphenate when using as a
modifier: "five percent of the popu-
lace" but "a 40-percent reduction "
   The pronouns "we," "us," and
"our" should only be used to desig-
nate the Agency or a part thereof. Do
not use them to mean a combination
of the reader and author, as in "Let us
examine the facts "
   Avoid long  series of modifiers
(more than two) by re-writing. Exam-
ple: "Leaking underground storage tank
regulation implementation plan" would
be considerably easier to grasp if
written "A plan to implement regula-
tions covering underground storage tanks
that leak."

Specific Terms
EPA, not the EPA. Also, do not spell
out "Environmental Protection Agen-
cy" in articles for the EPA Journal or
EPA Insight.
   Our environment consists of what
surrounds us- air, water, trees, etc.
The "earth's environment"  likewise
consists of what surrounds the earth*
planets, stars, cosmic dust, and the
   The term "waste" is essentially
plural. Do not  add an "s" unless you
are writing of different types.  For
instance: "hospital waste is composed of
various dangerous items," but, "solid and
liquid wastes differ in important
   The noun is "cleanup," the verb
form is "clean up," and the adjective
is "clean-up" or "cleanup."
   To  "dispose" means to arrange,
incline, or set in readiness, as in "The
on-scene-coordmator will dispose the
clean-up crew on the site "  If you want
to get rid of something, you must
dispose of it—even if you must
thereby end a sentence with a prepo-

Commonly Misused Words
Despite the leniency of some dictio-
naries, clarity and consistency
demand  that "may" be used only to
signify permission, not as a synonym
for "can" or "might."
    Be  careful of using "which" in
place of  "that." "Which" is a paren-
thetical modifier telling something
about  the subject that is not absolute-
ly necessary to the communication-
"The project, which is six weeks overdue,
is still  with the contractor." "That"
provides a necessary definition or
restriction: "Let's review the project that
is six weeks overdue "
    Do not begin a sentence with
"However" unless you mean it in the
sense of "However we do it, they won't
like it" Using the term in the midst
of a sentence, however, is permissi-

Graphic  Standards
Included Publications
Unless otherwise indicated, the
standards given and regulations cited
herein apply to all Agency pub-
lications including but not limited to:
*    Technical documents
*    In-house publications
*    Pamphlets and booklets
*    Fact sheets
*    Reports to Congress
*    Instructional manuals
n    Posters and bumper stickers
*    Pins and buttons
*    Catalogs
*    Newsletters and journals
*    Announcements
     These standards and regulations
need not be applied to such adminis-
trative documents as internal direc-
tives, RFPs, and correspondence. (See
EPA Order 2200.4A, inside back cover
of this booklet, for a complete list of
exemptions from EPA's Publication
Review Procedure.)

Value And Purpose
In the mid-1970s, EPA worked with
the  public relations firm of Cherma-
yeff & Geismar Associates to design a
high-quality, unified, contemporary
look for the Agency.  The resulting
Graphic Standards System was issued
in 1977.
    The system was created for three
main reasons:
• Agency management saw a need
    for a single graphics approach to
    EPA publications to help elimi-
    nate the "patchwork" image
    resulting from the Agency's
    formation from many separate
    federal offices.
• Documents were often published
    with design and typography not
    up to current professional stand-
    ards, reflecting poorly upon the
• The Government Printing Office
    was encouraging all federal
    departments to standardize the
    size and format of their publica-
    EPA's design package has long
been displayed by GPO as an ideal
system. The thoughtfulness which
went into its development is evident
from the remarkably little revision
required since 1977.  The lasting val-
ue of the design was proven in 1988,
when the system won top honors in
the Presidential Design Awards spon-
sored by the National Endowment for
the Arts.
    The value of the Graphic Stan-
dards System lies in its assurance of a
high quality and uniform appearance
for all EPA publications.  It is not
intended to inhibit creativity or stand
in the way of meeting special needs
or applications. Should your require-
ments necessitate a departure from
the standards, the Editorial Services
Division will work with you to create
acceptable alternatives.
Status And Authority
EPA Order No. 1015.2A states, in
    3.b. The Agency will use the
    Agency Identifier [logo] on all
    brochures and other printed
    3.c. This Agency will not use
    any visual identification forms
    other than those authorized in
    this Order.
    SM. Organizations  responsible
    for the organization, prepara-
    tion, presentation, or appear-
    ance of printed communica-
    tions or graphic materials
    must comply with provisions
    of this Order and appropriate
    requirements in the EPA
    Graphic Standards System
(The term "appropriate" is used to
indicate the exclusion  of the hand-
book's requirements concerning sta-
    S.b. (1) The Director, Office  of
    Public Awareness, is respon-
    sible for: The implementation
    and continuous management
    of the EPA Graphic Standards
    System, including  supple-
     ments and revisions to the
    standards  Handbook as re-
    quired; and (2) The granting
    or denying of requests for
     exceptions to the policy pro-
     mulgated  in this Order.

 Current Version
 The original Graphic Standards
 System was presented in approxi-
 mately 100 pages of directives,
 suggestions, examples, and repro-
 ducible  artwork in a two-inch, three-
 ring binder.  In this  time of fiscal
 constraints, the cost of reproducing
 and distributing additional copies of
 this colorful publication is prohib-
 itive.  The actual text of the Stan-
 dards—without the redundancies and
 the artwork—is brief enough to fit in
 the following few pages.
    Direct quotes  from the original
 text are  reproduced here in italic type
 form so that the updates, printed in
 roman type, can be noted easily.

 The graphic identity system for the
 United States Environmental Protection
 Agency reflects the Agency's intention to
 communicate a strong,  authoritative, and
 consistent image.
    This manual establishes and
 delineates the graphic standards which
 EPA will adhere to in  all of its visual
    The graphic standards put great
 emphasis on the continuity 'and consist-
 ency of all visual components to help
 make EPA recognizable as  a single
federal agency.
    As this manual covers only the major
needs of the Agency's communications
tasks, it is intended that supplements be
issued periodically to all holders of the
EPA Graphic Standards.

The EPA Logo
The central element of the graphic
communications standards is the Agency
logo, a combination of custom-designed
letters and symbol which has been created
as a single unifying element far the
Agency's multitude of communications,
and is designed to convey a simple and
contemporary image of the United States
Environmental Protection Agency. The
commonly used abbreviation EPA has
been adopted and  replaces the lengthy
legal name in areas of primary visibility.
    The accompanying symbol is an
integral element of the primary identifica-
tion.  Aside from  the importance of creat-
ing a memorable image/or the EPA
itself, the logo serves to clearly distin-
guish publications distributed by the
federal agency from all  other environmen-
tal agencies on state and local levels.
    The Agency logo, even though it is
composed of two elements, is  one unit of
identification.  The relationship between
the two elements has been carefully estab-
•  The space between them cannot be
•  No alteration in the proportion, sizes,
    or construction of either element is
   The logo must always be reproduced in
    a single color,  never in two or more
    colors at once.
• The two elements should appear togeth-
   er at all times.
• The individual elements should never
   appear by themselves.
   The integrated form is the only
authorized visual identifier of the Agency
(with the exception of the EPA Seal in
certain situations not applicable to
publications).  All other symbols and
logotypes that have been developed by the
various regions, programs, or special
offices are to be discontinued.
   The height of the letters EPA must be
equal to the cap height of the type being
   The letters EPA in the Agency logo
were derived from the typeface Univers
with some modifications in the design of
the individual letters required because of
their fixed relationship. When printing
the Agency  logo, use repros only.
[Note: Copies of the logo suitable for
reproduction (repros) are available
from OCEPA.] The initials should not
be reset in normal Univers when they are
part  of the Agency logo. The height of
the capital letters corresponds, however,
with the Unwers alphabet and allows the
logo  and the normal Univers setting to
match in height.

 Graphic Standards
    EPAlog, EPAlert, or any other
 special designations derived from the
 EPA initials are never to be used as
 they change and distort the Agency's
 correct name both visually and audib-
 ly, and compete with the Agency
 logo. All other special names are to
 be discontinued.

 Agency Signatures
 The EPA signature is the combination of
 the logo and its full legal name.  Its
 application is mainly in print advertis-
 ing, television, films, etc. and for all
 communication components when the
 standard grids do not apply.
    When using advertising signatures, it
 is important  that they be placed in a
prominent position within the advertise-
 ment format. The signature should align
with columns of text or other graphic and
illustrative elements whenever possible,
aligning the E of the initials and allow-
ing the Agency symbol to hang out to the

The logo:
       Typographic Organization—Covers
       A major design consideration has been
       the standardization of the arrangement of
       cover information.
          Layout standards have been estab-
       lished to maintain consistency among
       EPA publications.  The standard layout
       either groups together or separates differ-
       ent levels of information and organizes
       material both vertically and horizontally.
       (See pp. 16,17, and 20.) All covers
       and publications pages have been divided
       into either one, two, three, or four
       vertical columns.
          Recurring identification elements  (the
       full  legal name of the Agency, the orig-
       inating office [AA or staff] or region,
       the  producing unit's mail code, the
       date of issue, and the publication
       number) are grouped across the top of the
   Format For
   Identification Elements

   United States
   Environmental Protection

   June 1989

   Region 3

   Environmental Monitoring
   Systems Laboratory

   Air And Radiation (ANR-464)
   The legal name must always be set in
three lines as shown, with "United
States" unabbreviated.
   The number of the region should be
set in Arabic numerals
   Since space is extremely limited in
some formats, the words "Office Of"
should be omitted unless doing so
would imply an individual, i.e
"Office Of General Counsel"
The signature:
      United States
      Environmental Protection
Washington DC 20460

The configuration of the words and lines
of titles is a dominant design element on
a cover.  Due to the variation in copy,
only general rules can be specified for
their graphic treatment.
   The mandatory specification is that
the title is to be set flush left and ragged
right (unjustified). Attention should be
given to the length of the lines.  The
breakup of the words should consider
both  their meaning and the resultant
shape, avoiding hyphenation whenever

Program  Identifiers
To visually differentiate the various
program areas and major activities of
the Agency, the Graphic Standards
System established a separate
identification system that would not
compete with the Agency's logo.
This system consists of a specific
color for each program's use and a
band of bars and lines—called the
'Identifier'—across the publication's
cover at or near the bottom. Use of
the system is optional, but no other
identification symbols were/are
   The option of using specific
"program" colors never found favor
within the Agency. (Today, colors
are chosen according to their appro-
priateness to the subject matter and
the accompanying artwork.)  Changes
in the Agency's organization some-
times require adjustments in the
identification system. As any new
Identifier is  a change to the Graphic
Standards System, offices desiring
new or updated Identifiers should
contact the Editorial Services Divi-
sion, OCEPA, for assistance and
   Subordinate offices within
programs that have established
Identifiers cannot have Identifiers of
their own.  A consistent image for
such offices, or for activities within
such offices, can be achieved by using
common illustrations on publication
covers.  These illustrations must not
have the appearance of a logo or
symbol, and must be large enough
not to compete with the Agency's
identification system.   Offices are
asked to consult with OCEPA before
initiating the design of any such
Grids And Format
A number of specific sizes hove been
adapted for all pamphlets, leaflets, and
booklets to accommodate standard paper
sizes.  For each of the standard publica-
tion formats, a grid system has been
established for both covers and inside
layouts. The interrelationship between
logo, typography, and other design
elements is of utmost importance in
maintaining a visual balance and
continuity throughout all ofEPA's publi-
   The grid systems are designed to
accommodate all standard layout require-
ments established for EPA and allow for
design flexibility of other design elements.
The grid systems should be used  at all
times as layout guides for preparing
artwork. They  are not intended to
restrict design creativity, but to facilitate
and assist the complex task of the
designer and to improve production
   Four formats were established by
the original Graphic Standards
System. One  of these, the 8%" x 8W
"Special format," is no longer used by
EPA due to its excessive use of paper.
The remaining three formats—
BW x  11". 5%' x SVi", and 4" x 9"—
result in the most efficient use of
printing-press paper and should not
be deviated from.
   Documents intended for photo-
copying by recipients for further
distribution should be designed on
the 8W x 11"  grid.

Graphic Standards
Typography And Layout
The following specifications are
designed to achieve maximum
readability, as well as consistency
with other EPA publications.

Any column of type may be set
ragged-right. To avoid excessive
word-spacing, only use right-
justification with columns wider
than 14.0 picas.

For unjustified type, avoid end-of-
line hyphens except when necessary
to prevent long words from causing
distractingly short lines. In any
case, minimize hyphenation to the
extent feasible and never allow
more than two successive lines to
end with hyphens.

Vertical Rules (lines)
In the 1800s, newspapers were
forced to use vertical rules to lock
their type into the cylinder of the
printing press.  Nowadays, when
the .proper guide is followed, the
use of vertical rules to divide
columns of type is unnecessary and
is best avoided.

White Space
Liberal use of white space or "air"
(blank areas on the page) is encour-
aged whenever aesthetics, budget,
and printing constraints allow.
Cover Typeface
The standard typeface for title and
heads is Univers.  This typeface estab-
lishes a contemporary appearance and
meets the specific requirements of
simplicity and versatility. Among the
outstanding virtues of Univers is its
clarity in small sizes, its even appear-
ance, and its well-designed individual
   Main titles or titles of series are
always set in Univers Bold, with the
Agency logo and titles matching cap
height. Subtitles are set in Univers
Medium.  The identification elements
at the top are set in Univers Light. If
Univers is unavailable, similar weights
of Helvetica may be substituted.

Text Typeface
Studies show that about two-thirds
of all readers prefer serif typefaces
over sans-serif designs. Since serif
faces also have a  somewhat greater
legibility, they should be used for
the main body of text.  EPA publi-
cations are generally typeset in the
Palatine typeface.  Computer/laser-
printed materials will probably be
most legible if produced using
Charter, Lucida, or Stone—typefaces
designed specifically to maximize
legibility at the 300-dot-per-inch
resolution of the common laser
printer. This manual is set in
Palatine (printed  on a 1000-dpi
laser printer).
Display Typeface
Heads, subheads, captions, and
outlines may simply be set in vary-
ing sizes and weights of the body
type, or a sans-serif type (preferably
Univers, but Helvetica is accept-
able) may be used.  Univers is also
recommended for labeling charts,
graphs, and similar illustrations.

Type Case, Form, And Weight
The text should be set in caps and
lower case. Titles, sub-titles, and
heads should have  the initial letter
of each word capitalized—including
"a," "of," "the," etc. This eliminates
uncertainty and the need to reset
when line lengths are changed.
   Use all caps only for unusual
and extreme emphasis or to denote
an acronym.
   Most text should be set in a
medium weight, while words or
phrases to be emphasized due to
their importance  to the content
should be  in boldface. Italics may
be used to signify quotes, cite titles,
or to put the correct emphasis on  a
word for clarity of  meaning

                                                                             Margins for  this booklet
                                                                             were set in WordPerfect
                                                                             at 0.625" on both left and
                                                                             right.  Binding offset was
                                                                             set at 0.225"  to allow for
                                                                             3-hole punching.
Cover Type Size
For 4" x 9" and 5-%" x 8-W' covers the
titles should be set in 24 point and
the identification elements in 8 point.
For 8-VV1 x 11" covers the titles should
be 30 point and the identification
elements in 9 point. For periodicals,
up to 48-point type may be used.
Title typesizes may be increased
somewhat to keep extremely short
titles from "getting lost" on the page.
Subtitles, especially lengthy ones,
may be set in a smaller size than the
Body Type Size And Column Width
Reference materials, which are meant
to be consulted rather than read at
length, may be set as small as 8-point.
Type sizes for heads, outlines, and
figures may vary as proportion and
aesthetics dictate (the most common
error is making display type too
large). Otherwise, the table below
shows the proper type sizes and
distance between lines (leading) for
each of the  column widths allowed
by the Graphic Standards System.
Landscape Formats
Avoid using landscape formats when-
ever possible.  If numerous tables or
columnar materials demand a land-
scape orientation, the margins and
columns will be dictated by the form
of the data.  Covers for landscape
booklets follow the same pattern as
8V4" x 11" portrait booklets, with the
title beginning three inches from the
left edge of the paper.
Standard Formats With Recommended Type Sizes
All dimensions are In inches except for those marked as points.
Shin margins as necessary for hole punch and other special bindings.
Page Dimension
Number of Columns
Column Width
Left Margin
Right Margin
Type Size (points)
Leading (points)
Or- WP Adj: Primary
WP Adj: Secondary
5.62 x 8.75



Spaces between text columns are 0.2", between subhead columns and text are 0.15'.

4"x9"—  Placement Of Cover Elements
                                    United States   .          Number
                                    Environmental Protection       Date

                                    Office or Region (Mail Code)	^^
                        vvEPA  Title

     4" x 9" —Layout Grids
All diagrams are drawn to
scale using pica measurements
                               •-1  1/2
                                                                     -14 1/2-

2 Column Grid

1 column Gnd with Tide Column

1 Column Gnd

5%"x 8%" — Placement Of Cover Elements
                                          United-States            Number
                                          Environmental Protection     Date
                                          Office or Region (Mail Code)


5%"x 83/4" — Layout Grids
              -1 1/2
                                                      -1 1/2

                                                                       •14 1/2-

3 Column Grid

2 Column Gnd
1 Column Gnd
with Title Column

8y2"x 11" —Layout Grids

All grids in this format begin 2 1/2 picas from the left side of the page
1 column)

i 11

i *
1 . * "35
Top of page
(2 column)

i i
23 ' ,1, * 23
Top of page
(1+2 column)

i H


,1 , * 17 ,1 , '17
All grids in this format end 3 picas from the bottom edge of the page

(3 column)
                     Top of page.
(4 column)
                      Top of page.

81/2"x 11" — Placement Of Cover Elements
                  United States
                  Environmental Protection
                 •Office [AA] or Region
                 (Mail Code)
Main Title

Publication Number
                 United States
                 Environmental Protection
                Office [AA] or Region
                (Mail Code)
Category  or
Series Title

Publication Number

 As a general rule, disclaimers are not
 required for publications in which
 EPA is informing the public or
 indicating environmentally preferable
 procedures.  Both OCEPA and the
 Office of General Counsel strongly
 discourage statements that attempt to
 absolve EPA of any responsibility for
 the "usefulness" of a publication.
    In documents, such as conference
 proceedings, that include articles by
 non-EPA individuals expressing their
 own opinions, a disclaimer such as
 the following should appear.
    The material in this document has
    been subject to Agency technical
    and policy review and approved
    for publication as an EPA report.
    The views expressed by individual
    authors, however, are their own
    and do not necessarily reflect
    those of the U.S. Environmental
    Protection Agency.
    All draft documents require a  dis-
 claimer. That disclaimer should state
 that the document is in draft, should
 not be quoted or cited, and has not
 been subject to required EPA policy
< and/or technical reviews.  In addi-
 tion, the disclaimer should indicate
 when the report is scheduled to be
 released in final, official form.
                                                                              EPA  Requirements
   For technical and scientific articles
which are based on EPA-supported
work and published in professionally
peer-reviewed (refereed) journals, a
statement should be prominently
displayed that the work on which the
article is based was "supported in
whole, or in part, by the U.S. Envi-
ronmental Protection Agency under
contract/grant/cooperative agree-
ment/inter-agency agreement number
   In those rare instances where a
document cannot be brought up to
Agency standards and yet is in final
form, an explanatory disclaimer is
called for. It should state that the
document had been subject to  Agency
technical and policy review but failed
to meet Agency standards for  publi-
cation as an EPA document. In
addition, some explanation for the
shortcomings must be included. The
explanation should discuss the tech-
nical shortcomings (e.g., the monitor-
ing equipment was improperly cali-
brated) rather than procedural issues
(e.g., the grant, or grantee, expired.)
   For material produced for
independent publication by an
employee  on his or her own time and
using no EPA resources, no
disclaimer is necessary unless that
employee's relationship to EPA is
mentioned.  In the latter case,  a
disclaimer should state that the views
expressed are those of the author(s)
and do not necessarily reflect  those of
   In all cases where particular
companies, trade or service names,
product names, or other commercial
references are cited, a disclaimer such
as the following is essential.
   Mention of trade names, products,
   or services does  not convey, and
   should not be interpreted as
   conveying, official EPA approval,
   endorsement, or recommendation.

Mailing Publications
The Agency and the Postal Service
have rules governing addresses,
labels, self-mailers, use of the EPA
mailing permit, and method of
paying for postage.
   When space and format allow, the
Editorial Services Division's layout
artists can set up a publication so  that
it may be mailed without being
placed in an envelope.
   Each piece of mail must have a
complete and current address. The
last line of all United States addresses
should include the city, state, and zip
code. If possible, use the new zip  + 4
code. For all foreign items, the coun-
try should be the last line of the
address. The address label should be
typed or printed by a computer and
not hand written.

 EPA Requirements
   To eliminate the need for the Post
 Office to cancel and postmark mail,
 and to achieve other efficiencies, EPA
 now uses the postage meter system.
 All metered mail pieces must have a
 complete return address in the upper
 left corner along with the words
 "Official Business, Penalty for Private
 Use $300."
   For the return address, the
 Agency must be listed on the first
 line, followed by a complete address
 including the zip code. With one
 exception, all mail leaving the Agency
 will be stamped via a postage meter
 in the EPA mail room.
   The exception is the mailing
 permit imprint that allows the
 mailing to be taken directly  to the
 Post Office with EPA's mailing
 permit number already imprinted.
The self-mailer does not need to be
individually stamped. Permit (bulk)
mailings must contain at least 200
pieces of identical size and weight or
weigh at least 50 pounds. If  fewer
copies of publications with  self-
mailers are sent to the mail room, the
mail handlers will have to overlay the
imprints with metered stamps. If a
contractor or anyone else puts permit-
printed publications in the mail, the
Postal Sendee will not deliver them.
   The format of the permit imprint
should be cleared through the head-
quarters Mail Management Staff (PM-
215, 202 260-2040) prior to printing.
   A contractor may mail on behalf
of the Agency. If the Agency is
paying for the postage, the contractor
must be authorized by the Mail
Management Staff to deliver it to the
Post Office. Mail Management will
also work with the contractor to
assure that all Agency and Postal
regulations are met.
   The mailer must  provide docu-
mentation of the postal expenditure
after the mailing has been accepted
by the Post Office.
   Mail Management charges
programs for the cost of postage for
large mailings. This  is done by using
Miscellaneous Obligation Document,
EPA Form 2550-10.
   In deciding the class of mail to be
used, bear in mind that the longer the
item is in transit, the lower the cost of
the postage.  The class of mail should
be displayed on the  envelope or self-
   For more detailed information,
refer to EPA Mail Management
Manual #4821 available from the
headquarters Distribution Unit
   When planning the funding of
publications or audiovisual products,
it is often important to know the
appropriation category of the funds
that are to be used.
   The production of publications,
TV public service announcements,
photographs, etc., are deemed
management and administration
support items and are recorded in
EPA's finance system as Salaries and
Expenses appropriation expenditures.
Therefore, whenever funds are trans-
ferred to OCEPA to cover such costs.
Salaries and Expenses accounting
data must be used.
   Any questions concerning
resource usage or reimbursement
should be directed to The Director,
Office of Executive Support, Office of
the Administrator.

                                                                          Printing  Regulations
Unless otherwise indicated, all
citations in this section are from
Government Printing and Binding
Regulations, published by the Joint
Committee on Printing of the United
States Congress.

Printing  Defined
"The term 'printing' ... shall be
construed to include and apply to the
processes of composition [which
includes "electronic character
generating devices"] platemaking,
presswork, binding, and microform."
Printing does not include  "duplicat-
ing" (i.e., photocopying) less than
"5000 production units of  any one
page" and less than "25,000 produc-
tion units in the aggregate of multiple
   Desk-top publishing pTP)
systems (and even word-processors)
are included under the term
"composition." GPO is has long been
considering new regulations to cover
such systems.  Until such  decisions
are made, control of DTP  systems has
been left in the hands of each
agency's print shop. At the moment,
EPA Printing  Management is not
involved  in controlling the use of
DTP systems unless they lead to
violations of other printing regula-
tions. For assistance in using DTP
systems to produce program-specific
publications (newsletters,  leaflets,
etc.), consult the Editorial Services
Division of OCEPA.
Who May Print
"All printing, binding, and blank-
book work [tablets and such] for ...
every executive department [EPA]
shall be done at the Government
Printing Office, except... with the
approval of the Joint Committee on
Printing." This means that, unless
there is prior, specific approval from
Congress, the publication must be
printed through GPO. EPA's-Printing
Management office is considered an
extension of GPO.

Not Contractors Or Grantees
[35-1] "The inclusion of printing with-
in contracts ... is prohibited unless
authorized by the Joint Committee on
   [36-1] "The inclusion of printing
within grants is prohibited unless
authorized by the JCP."
   [From Public Law 101-163, section
308] No funds "may be obligated or
expended by any entity of the execu-
tive branch for the procurement from
commercial sources of any printing."
   [From a letter dated January 25,
1990, from Senator Wendell H. Ford,
Chairman of the Joint Committee on
Printing] "These provisions [in Public
Law 101-163] also apply to any type-
setting or other printing services
(including desk-top publishing servic-
es) that may be offered by graphic-
design contractors or any other
service/support contractors."
Penalties For Violations
Any federal employee who circum-
vents these regulations by having a
commercial shop print a document,
either directly or through a contractor
or grantee, or who approves of such
an action, will have committed an
illegal act and can be subject to civil
and criminal statutes under Titles 18
and 31 of the U.S. Code pertaining to
money and finance laws.  In addition,
such violations risk bringing sanc-
tions onto the Agency that would
severely hamper the publishing
process for everyone.

Mailing-List  Validation
"All departments shall make neces-
sary revisions to their mailing lists at
least once each year in order to elimi-
nate waste in government funds
caused by publications being improp-
erly addressed or mailed to persons
no longer desiring them.   This meth-
od of revision shall require that
persons receiving publications
indicate that  they wish to continue
receiving the publication  Failure to
reply to a mailing-list revision request
shall require the elimination of the
addressee from the mailing list unless
it is necessary in  the conduct of offi-
cial business to continue mailing
publications to the addressee."
[Section 31]

Printing Regulations
Section 16-1 of the Printing And
Binding Regulations states:
   The printing of Government
   employees' bylines in Government
   publications shall be confined to
   the authors of the articles
   appearing therein, and to the
   photographers who have
   originated the pictures contained
   The term "byline" refers  to any
name listed for  credit as opposed to
employee names that might be inte-
gral to the text itself. The term
"author" can be legitimately applied
only to an individual who has
conceived of, who created, and who
can be held responsible for a text or
section of text.  The term "author"
cannot be stretched to cover
supervisors, managers,  advisors, and
other such "contributors."
Contractor/Grantee Names
If a report is generated by a contrac-
tor or grantee and published as such
without Agency endorsement, then
the contractor/ grantee's authorship
should be recognized and a proper
disclaimer included on the title page.
Otherwise, all public-oriented materi-
als should be issued in the name of
the Agency and the authorship
should not be confused by listing
contractor/grantee names. This
approach is also consistent with
provision 13 of the Printing and
Binding Regulations, which disallows
the printing of "material which
implies in any manner that the
government endorses or favors any
specific commercial product,
commodity, or service."  If it seems
appropriate, the contract or grant
number may be unobtrusively cited.
   The work of grantees may be
acknowledged if their association
with a publication is important to its
acceptability, image, or distribution.
Recycled Printing Paper
Under the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act, section 6002, Part 250
(Guideline for Federal Procurement of
Paper and Paper Products Containing
Recovered Materials) federal agencies
are required to use paper containing
at least 50-percent recycled waste-
paper for printing publications of all
kinds.  Litho-coated (glossy) paper is
not used due to its extra cost and
limited recyclability.
   All EPA publications should not
only be printed on recycled paper,
but should display the phrase
"Printed on Recycled Paper" on the
lower right-hand corner of the front

 Use Of Color
 Section 18-2 of CEO's Printing and
 Binding Regulations cites the following
 categories of multicolor printing as
 having "demonstrable value" to the
 "(a) Maps and technical diagrams
   where additional color is neces-
   sary for clarity.
 "(b) Object identification (medical
   specimens, diseases, plants, flags,
   uniforms, etc.)
 "(c) Safety programs, fire prevention,
   savings bonds programs, and
   competitive areas of personnel re-
 "(d) Areas wherein clearly identifiable
   savings in costs can be soundly
   predicated on multicolor use.
 "(e) Printing for programs required
   by law, whose relative success or
   failure is in direct ratio to the
   degree of public response, and
   where that response can be logi-
   cally attributable to the number of
   colors planned and the manner in
   which they are proposed to be
"(f) Color for promotional or motiva-
   tional purposes such as programs
   concerning public health, safety,
   and consumer benefits; or to
   encourage utilization of gov-
   ernment facilities such as pro-
   grams for Social Security, Medi-
   care, and certain areas of need for
    As examples that do not qualify
 for the use of government printing
 funds, the Joint Committee on Print-
 ing cites printed items:
 "(a) Wherein additional color is used
    primarily for decorative effect.
 "(b) Where additional color is used in
    lieu of effective layout and design.
 "(c) Where additional color is used
    excessively. (Three when two will
    suffice, etc.)
 "(d) Where the inclusion of multicolor
    does not reflect careful, competent
    advance planning that recognizes
    the contribution the use of color is
    expected to make to the ultimate
    In line with these federal regula-
 tions, the use of color in EPA publica-
 tions shall be carefully limited. As a
 rule of thumb,, if a publication's
 audience is seeking the information
 contained within, and needs no
 further motivation to obtain the
 publication, then only one color is
 called for (unless additional color is
 needed for clarity, identification, or
 efficiency). If a publication's audience
 is likely to be receptive to the
 information but unlikely to seek it
 out, then two or more colors could be
 appropriate; especially if the
 document concerns "public health" or
 "consumer" issues.
   This "rule-of-thumb" is not official
 policy and should not be relied on
 without confirmation from EPA's
 Printing Management office.  The
wisest course is to send a written
justification to the Agency Printing
Officer before funds are committed
for designing a publication in more
than one color. Justifications are
most effective if brief and based on
the GPO criteria cited above.
   Good looks and effectiveness need
not be sacrificed on the basis of these
rules.  There is much that can be
done by competent designers to
create top-quality publications using
one or two colors.

Illustrations,  Etc.
Photographs, line drawings, and
other graphic illustrations are limited
by the Joint Committee on Printing to
those that are related to the subject
matter of the publication, in the
public interest, and "restricted to the
minimum size necessary to accom-
plish their purpose."

Employee Photos
Illustrations depicting federal employ-
ees must show them "actually
engaged in an act or service related to
their official duties." Furthermore, no
illustration shall "serve to aggrandize
any individual."  Therefore, unless a
publication is specifically designed to
highlight employees (such as an
awards ceremony program), "mug
shots" of AAs, Division Directors,
Branch Chiefs, and other  employees
shall not be included in publications.

Printing  Regulations
Despite the restrictions cited above,
the use of illustrations to enhance the
communication of information in
publications is encouraged. The
following guidance should prove
• When employing one or two colors,
   photographs—especially photo-
   graphs of people—look best if
   printed in black ink
• When using four colors, special
   colors (such as for rules or display
   type)  must be specified as propor-
   tions of process inks; specifying
   with a system number will force a
   fifth press run.
• Keep illustrations as simple and
   uncluttered as possible, and use
   double care in proofing them.
   And don't forget to contact the
Editorial Services Division of OCEPA
for professional assistance in design
and aquisition of illustrations for
your publication.

"JAN  28  1998
                                    EPA Order 2200.4A
    1. PURPOSE: This Order establishes policy and
    procedural requirements for the review of material
    published or issued by the Environmental Protection
    Agency. The EPA Publications Review Procedure is
    established to:

     a. Assure that materials published or issued by EPA,
    including materials made available through the
    National Technical Information Service, have been
    developed using methodology which will achieve high
    quality results;
     b. Clarify EPA responsibilities for information
    published or issued in the name of the Agency;

     c. Provide for the expeditious approval of publications
    before their public release; and
     d. Identify, for external reporting requirements, all
    periodicals, pamphlets, and audio-visual products
    produced by EPA.
    2. POLICY AND PROCEDURES: The Assistant
    Administrators, General Counsel, Inspector General,
    Associate Administrators, Regional Administrators, and
    the Administrator's Staff Office Directors are the
    responsible officials for the substance, form, and policy
    implications of all materials originated in their
    respective offices. These officials must establish internal
    review  procedures and controls to assure the high
    quality  of their publications and issuances. Each official
    or his designee must indicate concurrence in the
    publication or issuance of all materials by signing the
    appropriate block on EPA Form No. 2340-1. This
    concurrence includes a certification that such materials
    have been adequately reviewed.

    Such materials submitted by EPA contractors and
    assistance recipients shall be processed, respectively, in
    accordance with the pertinent contract clause or the
   .assistance regulation at 40 CFR 30.518.

    The responsible officials listed above shall forward to
    the Office of External Affairs for final  publication

     a. Any material that has policy implications; and

     b. Any periodical as defined by OMB Circular A-3 or
    other item required to be reported to the Office of
    Management and Budget.
               c. Any periodical, pamphlet, or audio-visual product
              as defined in OMB Bulletin 81-16 or its successors.

              Materials published or issued in the name of the
              United States Environmental Protection Agency, audio-
              visual as well as printed materials, whether originated
              by EPA employees, contractors, assistance recipients, or
              consultants, are subject to the EPA Publication Review
              Procedure except
               a. Congressional testimony;
               b. Verbatim testimony from hearings;
               c. Advance Notices of Proposed Rulemaking
              (ANPRMs), proposed or final regulations subject to a
              formal comment period;
               d. Press releases approved by the Office of Public
              Affairs or a counterpart organization within a Regional
              office or laboratory;
               e. Legal opinion, briefs, and memoranda, including
              initial, final, or other decisions in quasi-judicial
              administrative proceedings;
               f. Federal Register Notices;
               g. Notices of Public Hearings;
               h. Requests for Proposal (RFPs);
               i. Articles by EPA employees and assistance recipients
              submitted for publications to refereed scientific journals
              which include a statement indicating that the article
              does not reflect the official views of EPA;
               j. Criteria Documents and other similar documents
              subject to a formal public comment period or review by
              the Science Advisory Board or the Science Advisory
               k. Advisory Committee statements and reports;
               1. Materials generated on an employee's own time
              using private facilities;
               m. Internal policy statements, memoranda, and
               n. Official Agency correspondence;
               o. Publications of the Office of the Inspector General;
               p. Such other materials as are deemed appropriate for
              exclusion by the Office of External Affairs.
              Howard M. Messner
              Assistant Administrator, OARM
June 4, 1984