in    Progress
                     DECEMBER 1991
                           OFFICE OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES
                           U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

 1   Design for the Environment
    Initiatives Planned by OTS

3   How to Gain Access to
    OTS Data

6   New Chemicals Program:
    At the Vanguard of Protecting
    Health, Environment
Design for the Environment
DfE Concepts Are Being Integrated into OTS Activities

By Mark A. Greenwood
Director, Office of Toxic Substances

A number of industries are adding environmental and health concerns to the factors
they weigh when making business decisions. These industries have discovered the
advantages of taking steps to prevent pollution in the early stages of product design,
rather than continuing to dispose of or treat millions of pounds of waste and
emissions each year. In doing so, they are joining a Design for the Environment
(DfE) movement already under way in other nations, particularly in the European
Community and Japan.

The central idea behind DfE is to lessen or eliminate the potential for pollution at
its source by fundamentally altering products, processes, and social systems. This
idea is very much consistent with the concept of "sustainable development," which
was advanced in 1987 by the World Commission on Environment and Develop-
ment. The goal of sustainable development is for industrial progress to continue
(1) while allowing the earth and its organisms to sustain themselves and (2) without
causing any deterioration in the environment or quality of life.

DfE is most effectively accomplished by anticipating every aspect of a product's life
cycle, from production through disposal, while the product is still on the drawing
board.  For example, the typical car contains about 180 pounds of plastic. When
a car is disposed of, however, the different plastics cannot be easily sorted, so it is
not commercially  practical to recycle them.  To counter this problem, BMW
introduced a new series of small cars in the United States last June in which the cars'
plastics are stamped by type so they can be sorted quickly and accurately. This is
one of the many "Design for" techniques being embraced by the auto and other
industries. Design for Ease of Assembly, Design for Field Repair, and Design for
Transportability are some other examples.
D«tlgn continued on page 14
                                           VOL12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                          Public Access to Information
                                    OTS Is Reviewing Validity of CBI Claims
                                    Inappropriate Claims Keep Information from Public
In the past decade,
the number of CBI
claims has increased
EPA is taking steps to increase public
access to information about toxic
chemicals by reviewing and, when
appropriate, challenging company
claims of confidential business infor-
mation (CBI) for data submitted un-
der the Toxic Substances Control Act

Under section 14 of TSCA, EPA is
required to protect CBI data from
disclosure if disclosure is likely to
harm a business's competitive posi-
tion.  However, inappropriate CBI
claims improperly restrict the public's
ability to independently evaluate
chemical risks and  to participate in
the process to regulate chemicals.

In the past decade, the number of CBI
claims has increased dramatically. In
1981, only 4 percent of the
premanufacture notices filed with
EPA contained information that was
claimed CBI. By 1990, that figure
had risen to 98 percent. Indications
are that not all these CBI claims are

In September 1990, OTS began to
systematically challenge CBI claims.
Attention was initially focused on
health and safety studies required by
TSCA section 8(d) and notices of sub-
stantial risk required by section 8(e)
because section I4(b) of TSCA does
not allow these submissions to
be claimed as CBI. So tar, OTS has
challenged 80 section 8(d) CBI claims
and 47 section 8(e) CBI claims. In
every case, the submitter has amended
the submission. OTS is beginning to
review CBI claims made in Notices of
Commencement of Manufacture and
Import under section 5 of TSCA and
in submissions under the TSCA In-
ventory Update Rule.

"Public participation is a key compo-
nent of OTS programs," OTS Direc-
tor Mark A. Greenwood said. "Chal-
lenging CBI claims is an important
means for improving the public's
access to information about chemical
risks and how OTS makes decisions
about them."

OTS reviews CBI claims by asking
the questions listed below.  If the
answer to any of these questions is
"no," the submission may not meet
the legal definition of CBI, and OTS
may seek to make the information
avaikble to the public by challenging
the claim.
• Does TSCA allow the information
  to be claimed as CBI?
• Is the information that is ckimed
  as confidential known only to the
  company that is making the  CBI
• Has the company made reasonable
  efforts to ensure that the informa-
  tion  is and will remain confiden-
• Is the information obtainable only
  from the submitter?
• Is disclosure of the information
  likely to cause substantial
  harm to the company's competitive

                                           Public Access to Information
OTS Information Is Available through Many Sources
Filing a FOIA Request Is Frequently Unnecessary
Test results, risk studies, environmen-
tal releases, and other data that indus-
try submits to EPA's Office of Toxic
Substances (OTS) are generally avail-
able to the public. Many people
think that it is necessary to submit a
request under the Freedom of Infor-
mation Act (FOIA) to obtain these
data.  However, filing a FOIA request
is frequently unnecessary.  OTS has
set up a number of systems to make
data available to the public as easily as
possible.  Some of the information
available without submitting  a FOIA
request is summarized below. Ad-
dresses and telephone numbers of the
data sources are listed on page 4.

Substantial and significant risk studies
When a company obtains information
that a chemical might pose a substan-
tial risk to human health or the envi-
ronment, section 8(e) of the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA) re-
quires that the information be re-
ported to EPA within 15 days. Sec-
tion 8(e) submission summaries can
be obtained from the TSCA Assis-
tance Information Service (TSCA
hotline) or the National Technical
Information Service (NTIS). In addi-
tion, much of the information is avail-
able online through the Toxic Sub-
stances Control Act Test Submissions
(TSCATS) database.  The information
reported may include data on chemi-
cal toxicity, exposure, epidemiology,
monitoring, and environmental fate.

Health and safety and toxic test
data studies
Section 8(d) of TSCA requires indus-
try to submit to OTS copies of un-
published studies for a designated list
of chemicals. Information about
these studies is indexed and summa-
rized in the TSCATS database. It
takes approximately six months  from
the date of submission for this infor-
mation to be available on TSCATS.
If the information is required imme-
diately, it is necessary to use the
FOIA process.
   OTS has set up a number of
systems to make data available to
 the public as easily as possible.
Under section 4 of TSCA, EPA can
require chemical manufacturers and
processors to test potentially harmful
chemicals already in use and to de-
velop data on the chemical's health
and environmental effects. This infor-
mation is indexed in the TSCATS
database. The studies themselves can
be purchased on microfiche from
NTIS or Chemical Information Sys-
tems, Inc. They can also be reviewed
and copied at the OTS Public Docket
Room at EPA headquarters in Wash-
ington, D.C.

Additionally, prior to 1990, OTS
prepared Chemical Hazard Informa-
tion Profiles (CHIPs) on existing
chemicals that were screened by EPA.
CHIPs reports can be obtained from
the TSCA hotline.
Manufacture or Import
of a new chemical substance
Section 5 of TSCA requires any per-
son who intends to manufacture or
import a new chemical substance to
provide EPA with all available data
on the chemical structure, produc-
tion, use, release, exposure, and
health and environmental effects of
the substance.  Submissions may
consist of a premanufacture notice
(PMN), a polymer or low-volume
exemption notice, or a test-marketing
exemption application. Exemption
applications and notices take certain
production or chemical parameters
into account  that, if verified to meet
requirements, exempt the manufac-
turer of the substance from being
subject to a full PMN review.

Section 5 submissions are maintained
and available for viewing in the OTS
Public Docket Room at EPA head-
quarters. Persons unable to visit the
docket room or who need more infor-
mation than  is maintained in the
docket may submit a written request
for information. (The submitter of
section 5 data may designate any part
of the information supplied to EPA
as confidential business information
[CBI]. CBI data are deleted from all
documents available to the public.)

Confidential Business Information (CBI)
Under section 14 of TSCA, EPA is
required to protect CBI from disclo-
sure.  Therefore, FOIA requests for
CBI will be denied. If the submitter

SOU/CM continued on page 4
      VOL.12 /N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                           Public Access to Information
Sources continued from page 3

of the FOIA request appeals the de-
nial, EPA will ask the company that
filed the CBI to substantiate its
claim. The information will be re-
leased if it is determined that  it does
not meet the legal criteria for  CBI.

A company can obtain a copy  of its
own CBI submission to EPA by sub-
mitting a written request on company
letterhead.  The letter must name the
person to whom the information is to
be released, be signed by a corporate
official (CEO, president, or vice presi-
dent), and be notarized.  It  is  inappro-
priate to use FOIA to request  this
information. The letter should be
mailed to the OTS Document Control
Officer, Office of Toxic Substances
(TS-790), U.S. EPA, 401 M Street,
S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460.

TSCA Test Submissions System
TSCATS is an index of unpublished,
nonconfidential studies covering
chemical testing results  and adverse
effects of chemicals on health  and
ecological  systems. The studies are
submitted by industry under  several
sections of TSCA. TSCATS is com-
mercially available in many different
formats in multiple media (online,
microfiche, and CD-ROM) from nu-
merous sources. The Office of Toxic
Substances Chemical Library can
provide additional information on
how to access TSCATS.

EPA is seeking to improve the useful-
ness of these studies by increasing the
number of studies abstracted  in
TSCATS, developing new TSCATS
products (constituency-based indices,
floppy diskettes, annotated bibliogra-
phies, CD-ROM), looking at ways to
link TSCATS to other information
sources, and increasing awareness of
the service. OTS is also evaluating
the addition of EPA's interpretation
of the test data.
TSCA Inventory
Any chemical that has been manufac-
tured, imported, or processed for a
commercial purpose since 1977 is
listed in the TSCA Inventory. The
inventory is avaikble at public
libraries and all federal depository
libraries. It can also be purchased
I Sources for OTS Information
Government Printing Office
c/o Superintendent of Documents
Washington, D.C. 20402
(202) 783-3238
National Library of Medicine
TRI Representative,
Specialized Information Services
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20894
National Technical Information Service
5285 Port Royal Road
Springfield, VA 22161
(703) 487-4650
OTS Document Control Office
401  M Street, S.W. (TS-790)
Washington, D.C.  20460
FAX: (202) 260-955 5
OTS Public Docket Office
401  M Street, S.W. (TS-793)
Room G-004, Northeast Mall
Washington, D.C. 20460
(202) 260-7099
Toxic Release inventory User Support
401  M Street, S.W. (TS-793)
Room B-011, Northeast Mall
Washington, D.C. 20460
TSCA Assistance Information Service
(TSCA hotline)
401 M Street, S.W. (TS-799)
Washington, D.C. 20460
Phone: (202)554-1404
FAX: (202) 554-5603
TDD:  (202)554-0551
Office of Toxic Substances Chemical
401 M Street, S.W. (TS-793)
Room B-002, Northeast Mall
Washington, D.C. 20460
(202) 260-3944
CAS Online
TSCA Inventory search requests:
(800) 848-6533
Dialog Information Services
TSCA Inventory search requests:
(800) ALERT91 (253-7891)
Online access to inventory:
Chemical  Information Systems, Inc.
7215 York Road
Baltimore, MD 21212
(301) 321-8440
(800) CIS-USER (247-8737)
                                           CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

                                            Public Access to Information
from the Government Printing Office
(GPO) and NTIS. Additionally, CAS
Online and Dialog Information Ser-
vices, which are commercial services,
provide inventory searches.  Other
companies may offer similar services
in the future; contact the TSCA
hotline for an up-to-date list.  (Some
of the information submitted to EPA
for the inventory is CBI and is de-
leted from the version of the inven-
tory that is avaikble to the public.)

Toxics Release Inventory
Under section 313 of the Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-
Know Act of 1986, EPA collects
information about environmental
releases and off-site transfers of over
300 toxic chemicals. The informa-
tion is compiled in the Toxics Re-
lease Inventory (TRI).  The data are
submitted annually to EPA by cer-
tain industrial facilities that employ
10 or more people and include names
and addresses of facilities that manu-
facture, process, or otherwise use
these chemicals. The data are avail-
able in several media and from several

The "automated" version of the data,
called the Toxics  Release Inventory
System, is available to the public
through the National Library of
Medicine's TOXNET system. TRI is
easily searchable through a series of
user-friendly menus. Calculations
and other simple analytical capabili-
ties are also provided.  Data from
 1987, 1988, and  1989 are currently
available. In the  spring of 1992,
1990 data will be added. For infor-
mation about establishing an account
and learning to search the TOXNET
TRI database, contact the National
Library of Medicine.

TRI data are available at federal de-
pository libraries and many local pub-
lic libraries. EPA has just produced
the second CD-ROM version of TRI,
which includes data from 1987, 1988,
and  1989.  This disk, as well as floppy
disk versions  of TRI and the micro-
fiche versions, can be purchased from

Local libraries or EPA's TRI User
Support can help in locating the near-
est library that carries TRI material.
Toxic Release Inventory User Support
Pilot (TRI/US)
TRI/US was established mainly to
help occasional TRI users locate,
identify, and retrieve TRI data. Sup-
port services include general TRI
information and referrals, National
Library of Medicine searches on
TOXNET/TRI, the downloading or
copying of TRI data to Lotus or
dBASE floppy diskettes, and ad hoc
TRI reports specially programmed
for easy understanding and use. OTS
began the TRI/US Pilot on October
1, 1990.
I Information Is Needed Quickly in
   Emergency Situations
 When a young child fell into a creek
 and received chemical burns on his
 feet from the mud sediment, the state
 in which he lived sought information
 about whether the mud was contami-
 nated by toxic chemicals. The state
 requested that EPA provide informa-
 tion about the locations of chemical
 plants in the area and  the chemicals
 produced at these plants. EPA was
 able to provide this information by
 searching its various databases.

 In emergency situations such as this,
 federal, state, or local officials should
 submit a letter on official letterhead
 to the OTS document control officer
 describing the information required
 and the circumstances that require
 prompt action. The letter can be
 faxed to the OTS Document Control
 Office at (202) 260-9555.

 The document control officer will
 immediately search OTS databases
 and fax any relevant information
 found to the requesting party. The
 document control office will  follow
 up by providing the information on
 paper, microfiche, or disk by mail.
       VOL12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                          New Chemicals
                                    New Chemicals Program
                                    Intervention to Prevent Risk Is Program's Basis
Evaluating chemical-
related risks and making
decisions before a
substance enters the
marketplace is the best
way there is to prevent
In recent years, EPA's New Chemi-
cals Program has reviewed, on aver-
age, nearly 2,300 new chemical sub-
stances each year. The review allows
the agency to anticipate how exposure
to each substance may affect people or
the environment. By assessing sub-
stances before they are manufactured
or imported, the agency can act to
prevent harmful exposure to people or
the environment.

The PMN process
Anyone who plans to manufacture or
import a new chemical substance
must submit a premanufacture notice
(PMN) to EPA at least 90 days prior
to the activity.  The New Chemicals
Program, which is part of the Office
of Toxic Substances (OTS), reviews
PMN notices and identifies any new
chemical substances that require
regulatory action.

Section 5 of the Toxic Substances
Control Act (TSCA) mandates review
of new chemicals.  The kw, enacted
by Congress in 1976, gives EPA
broad authority to identify and con-
trol unreasonable risks from new

TSCA defines a "new chemical" as
any substance not listed on the Inven-
tory of Chemical Substances, com-
monly referred to as the TSCA Inven-
tory.  The inventory, created in 1979,
is a compilation of substances re-
ported to EPA  as being available in
commerce at that time. Since 1979,
substances have been added to the
inventory when they complete the
PMN process and enter commerce.
About 70,000 chemicals are currently
on the TSCA Inventory. (Chemicals
on the TSCA Inventory are called
"existing chemicals." See Chemicals-
in-Progress Bulletin, volume 12, num-
ber 3, for information about EPA's
Existing Chemicals Program.)

Assessing potential risk
EPA toxicologists, chemists, bio-
chemists, engineers, and scientists in
other disciplines work together to
predict the potential risks to humans
or the environment from each new
substance.  To assess toxic hazards,
they  draw on data submitted with
PMN forms, other information avail-
able to  the agency, structure-activity
relationships, and exposure and re-
lease modeling.

TSCA does not require that new
chemicals be tested prior to PMN
submission. However, manufacturers
and importers must submit to EPA
information on chemical identity,
production volume, byproducts, use,
environmental release, disposal prac-
tices, and human exposure.  Also
required is information about all
existing health and environmental
data  in the possession of the PMN
submitter, parent company, or affili-
ates and a description of any existing
data  known to or reasonably
ascertainable by the submitter.

More than half of the PMN forms
submitted do not include toxicologi-
cal data. In these cases, OTS scien-
tists  assess the chemical's structural
similarity to known toxic chemi-
cals—called a structure-activity rela-
tionship—to predict toxicity.  They
generally focus on the relatively few

                                              New Chemicals
new i. hemicals of Createsr  conc'crn—
those that arc strucnirally related to
known toxic chemicals and those
about which little is known.

OTS's assessment ot potential risk
posed by new chemical substances
incorporates an assessment of expo-
sure.  In  the absence of data on the
PMN substance itself and the activi-
ties surrounding its production and
use, EPA reviewers must rely on a
worst-case scenario to predict poten-
11.1! exposure.

TSCA  requires EPA to weigh the
possible  risks from use ot  new chemi-
cals against the potential  benefits to
society that the new substances can
provide.   Some new chemicals, for
example, can replace more ha/ardous
substances already  on the market.  It
such a substitution is likely, EPA will
trv to minimize rhe renulatorv burden
 Results of PMN review
 Situe  19^9, the New Chemicals Pro-
 gram lias reviewed almost 20,000 new
 substances. This figure includes
 nearly 16,000 PMNs and approxi-
 mately 1,000 low-volume, test-mar-
 ket, and polymer exemptions. Al-
 most (K) percent of the PMNs submit-
 ted complete the review process with-
 out being  restricted or regulated in
 any uay.

 It it is determined that a new chemi-
 cal substance may pose a risk to
 he-alt h or the environment, however,
 the at'ency can take action  under sec-
 tion 5 of TSCA to control that  risk.
 In some cases, HPA requires develop-
 ment ot additional test data to address
 agciu v concerns.  During the testing
 period, the agency may allow use of
  £  2000'
               Total Notices Received*
           1979   '980  1*'  1982  1983  1984   1985  1986  1987   1988  1989  1990  1991
                                  Fiscal Year
        "Totd (f) of TSCA allows EPA to  prohibit
any commercial development or use ot
the substance.  EPA has issued section
Mt) bans  in tour cases.
SNURs extend restrictions
Section 5(e) consent orders are bind-
ing only on the PMN submitter.
Once a substance completes the PMN
review and enters commerce, other
companies can manufacture or import
the substance without restriction.
Consequently, EPA routinely follows
the signing of a section 5(e) consent
order with a significant new use rule
(SNUR). New-chemical SNURs
generally require manufacturers and
importers to notify EPA before under-
taking any activities not permitted by
the section  5(e) consent order.  EPA
also uses SNURs when tise of a new
substance may present risks to  health
or the environment, if exposures or
releases differ from those described in
the PMN.

EPA issued 1 M new-chemical
SNURS from September .30, 1990,

New Chemicals Program continued on page 30
                                               VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

TSCA Section 4 Testing  Is Yielding Important Data
Last year, Midwest steel companies
proposed using octylphenol to aid a
biocide in dispersing zebra mussels
from their cooling-water systems. To
evaluate how discharge of octylphenol
would affect the aquatic life of the
Grand Calumet River and other
streams into which it would be dis-
charged, EPA Region 5, in  Chicago,
began a search for data.

Data were available from  testing re-
quired under section 4 of the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA).  This
section of TSCA allows EPA to require
industry to conduct testing of a chemi-
cal when insufficient test data exist on
the toxic effects of the substance.

Deciding testing needs
The Interagency Testing Committee
(ITC) recommended 4-(l, 1,3,3-
tetramethylbutyl) phenol—one of the
isomers of octyiphenol—for testing in
1982, and EPA implemented the test-
ing recommendation in 1984.  The
majority of testing EPA requires under
section 4 of TSCA is  recommended by
the ITC.  Congress created the ITC to
recommend industrial chemicals for
testing and to coordinate testing of
industrial chemicals conducted or
sponsored by the 18 federal agencies
represented on the ITC.

EPA and other federal agencies also
spawn a number of testing initiatives.
For instance, EPA used section 4 to
obtain subchronic toxicity and chemi-
cal fate data on 33 chemicals being
considered for delisting as hazardous
wastes by the agency's Office of Solid
Waste. EPA also recently proposed
chemical testing that would meet
needs of both EPA's Office of Water
and the federal Consumer Product
Safety Commission. Rules have also
been proposed to test high-produc-
tion solvents that have exposure po-
tential for neurotoxicity and other
chemicals believed to cause develop-
mental or reproductive effects.

Types of section 4 testing
The agency has used TSCA section 4
to require 439 health effects tests,
299 environmental effects tests, and
243 chemical fate tests since 1979-
As a result, high-quality test data are
now available on more than 175
chemicals. Tests on additional
chemicals are being completed, and
EPA has proposed  testing for another
93 chemicals.

Whether the testing required under
section 4 is comprehensive or selec-
tive depends on gaps in existing in-
formation. For some chemicals, a
lack  of health effects data necessitates
a complete test battery that includes
pharmacokinetics,  acute, subchronic,
developmental, reproductive, neuro-
logical, mutagenic, and carcinogenic
testing.  For most chemicals, though,
fewer and more selective tests are
required to fill data gaps or to deter-
mine whether a potentially unreason-
able hazard exists.  Screening-level
tests may also be required to help
determine the need and priority for
more comprehensive testing.

EPA may require industry to provide
(1) environmental  testing, which
typically includes acute fish, inverte-
brate, and algal tests; (2) chronic fish
(early life stage) and invertebrate
testing when acute toxicity levels are
indicated in short-term studies; (3)
bioconcentration or sediment toxicity
testing when chemicals have a propen-
sity to accumulate in fat or sorb to
sediments; (4) chemical fate testing to
evaluate sorption to soils and sedi-
ments; and (5) tests to determine bio-
degradation, water solubility, volatil-
ity, hydrolysis, or photolysis.

Information pays off in decision making
Testing efforts and data  sharing are
starting to pay off. In the case of 4-
(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl) phenol, the
data demonstrated that the compound
is extremely toxic to aquatic life and
persists in the environment.

Using these data, EPA Region 5 con-
cluded that octylphenol  should not be
discharged into the Grand Calumet
River or other streams with similar
hydrological conditions. EPA also
established that discharge of octyl-
phenol into  the water would exceed
the standard permitted by the Clean
Water Act.  Thus, EPA  Region 5
decided it was unable to approve the
proposed use of octylphenol and is
continuing to file objections to all
steel company applications for state
National Pollutant Discharge Elimina-
tion System permits to use octylphenol
as a dispersant.

Public access to test data
An index to the test data is available
through the Toxic Substances Control
Act Test Submissions (TSCATS) data-
base. TSCATS is accessible online
through a number of vendors. See
page 4 for more information about
how to access TSCATS.

                                           General Information/Existing Chemicals
EPA Provides Grant to Establish Pollution Prevention Center
A national pollution prevention cen-
ter will be established at the Univer-
sity of Michigan in Ann Arbor. The
center will develop coursework in
pollution prevention that can be used
in undergraduate and graduate classes
in engineering, business, and natural
resources.  The curricula will be pro-
vided to other colleges and universi-
ties once they have proved successful
at the University of Michigan.

In addition to developing pollution
prevention curricuk, the center will
work with industry, professional
associations, environmental groups,
and other universities to more effec-
tively reduce pollution. This out-
reach effort will include arranging
student internships at business and
industrial facilities, offering depart-
mental and interdepartmental semi-
nars for faculty members, and offer-
ing short summer courses in business
and engineering for professionals.

The center will work with industry,
   professionals, environmental
  groups, and other universities
       to reduce pollution.
The university began development of
the center in October 1991 with a
$320,000 pollution prevention grant
from EPA. The University of Michi-
gan will provide $161,012 during
the center's first three years of opera-
tion. The university is seeking addi-
tional funds from the business com-
munity and professional associations.
Choices about environmental controls
should not assume that pollution
generated by production is a given,
EPA Deputy Administrator Hank
Habicht said. "The best way to make
sure that people think about prevent-
ing pollution as a routine part of every
plan to construct or modify a produc-
tion process is to teach them why it
should be a part of their basic business
or engineering education," he said.

EPA and the University of Michigan
announced establishment of the center
in September 1991.  Twenty-eight
colleges and universities submitted
proposals to EPA for the pollution
prevention center.
 EPA Proposes Ban on Acrylamide and NMA Grouts
On October 2, EPA issued a proposed
rule under sections 6(a) and 8(a) of
the Toxic Substances Control Act
(TSCA) to prohibit the manufacture,
distribution, and use of acrylamide
grout (56 FR 49863).  The proposed
rule would also prohibit all uses of
N-methylolacrylamide (NMA) grout,
except for sewer line repair. After a
period of three years, the proposed
rule would also prohibit the manufac-
ture, importation, and distribution in
commerce of NMA grout for any
purpose and the use of NMA grout
for sewer line repair.
The proposed rule is intended to
reduce risks faced by workers exposed
to acrylamide, a potent human neu-
rotoxin and a probable human car-
cinogen. NMA is a derivative of
acrylamide and is used for the same
applications as acrylamide grout.

Of all known uses of acrylamide,
sewer grouting has been identified as
the application that presents the
greatest potential worker exposure.
Workers who use acrylamide grout
for sealing sewer lines, manholes, and
other minor applications are exposed
through inhalation and dermal con-
tact. Although there is less evidence
on the health effects associated with
exposure to NMA, EPA believes that
they are comparable to those associ-
ated with exposure to acrylamide.

The deadline for written comments
on the proposed rule was January 16,
      VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                         Existing Chemicals
Summary of Existing Chemicals Program's RM2 Activity
EPA's Office of Toxic Substances
(OTS) screens, establishes testing
requirements for, assesses, and devel-
ops strategies for managing risks
posed by chemicals currently in
production or use. This is accom-
plished through the Existing Chemi-
cals Program.

The Existing Chemicals Program has
two levels of review: Risk Manage-
ment One (RM1) and Risk Manage-
ment Two (RM2).  RM1 review iden-
tifies chemicals for placement on the
Risk Reduction List. The list is the
bridge between RM1 and RM2.
RM2 begins when a chemical is se-
lected from the Risk Reduction List
for review.

Activity in RM2 focuses on (1) im-
proving understanding about hazards
posed by and levels of exposure to
particular chemicals and (2) develop-
ing and adopting strategies to reduce
or eliminate risks posed by individual
chemicals to human health or the
environment.  RM2 activities
through September 1991 are summa-
rized in the accompanying chart.
(RM1 activities were described in
Chemicals-in-Progress Bulletin, volume
12, number 3.) Persons interested in
obtaining more information on a
chemical or decision listed in the
chart can visit or contact the OTS
Public Reading Room, NE-G004,
401 M Street, S.W., Washington,
D.C. 20460; phone, (202) 260-7099.
The room is open from 8 a.m. to
noon and  1 p.m. to 4 p.m., Monday
through Friday.
RM2 Chemical Activities as of October 1991
Chemical Name
1,1,2, 2-Tetrachlorofithane
1 , 2 Dichloropropane
2-Ethylhexanoic acid
2, 6-Dimethylphenol
3,3 Dichlorobenzidine
Acrylic acid
Antimony and compounds
Aryl phosphates
Benzidine dye cluster
Brominated flame retardants
RM1 Decision
Dropped from further review
Dropped from further review
Risk reduction
Risk reduction
Dropped from further review
Risk reduction
RM2 Decision

RM2 risk-management analysis begun. Letter of concern sent
Aug. 13, 1991. RM strategy determination Nov. 1991
Entered in queue for RM2 analysis

RM2 risk-management analysis begun
Will be evaluated in RM2 as part of the indoor air cluster
Risk reduction under benzidine
dye cluster
Risk reduction
Risk reduction
Dropped from further review
Cluster formed at C.I. Direct Blue 15
RM1 meeting

RM2 risk-management analysis begun

RM2 risk-management analysis begun. Letter of concern sent June
19, 1991. RM strategy determination Oct. 1991
Entered in queue for RM2 analysis

RM2 risk-management analysis begun


RM2 Chemical Activity as of October 1991
Chemical Name
C.I. (color index)
Direct Blue 15
C-9 aromatic hydrocarbons
Carpet emissions reduction
Chloranil/violet blue 23
(dioxin contamination issue)
Chlorinated paraffins
Diisodecylphenyl phosphite
Ethyl acetate
Formaldehyde/pressed wood
Hydrogen cyanide
Mesityl oxide
Persistent bioaccumulators
cluster of chemicals
Phosphoric acid production
Propylene glycol, t-butyl ether
Propylene oxide
Refractory ceramic fibers
Sodium cyanide
Vinyl acetate
RM1 Decision
Risk reduction
Risk reduction under benzidine
dye duster
Dropped from further review
Risk reduction
Risk reduction
Risk reduction
Risk reduction
Dropped from further review
RM2 Decision
Entered in queue for RM2 analysis

RM2 risk management begun

RM2 risk-management analysis begun
RM2 risk-management analysis begun
RM2 risk-management analysis begun. Letter of concern sent
Aug. 2, 1991
RM2 risk-management analysis begun

Added to paints/coatings cluster after RM1 meeting
Dropped from further review
Dropped from further review
Dropped from further review
Rescheduled for October 1991

No RM1 meeting. Risk management under way
Risk reduction
Dropped from further review
Risk reduction
Dropped from further review
Dropped from further review
Risk reduction
Dropped from further review
Dropped from further review
Risk reduction
Risk reduction
Risk reduction

RM2 risk-management analysis begun. Letter of concern sent
Aug. 2, 1991

Entered in queue for RM2 analysis

RM2 risk-management analysis begun

RM2 risk-management analysis begun
RM2 risk-management analysis begun
Entered in queue for RM2 analysis
Added to paints/coatings cluster and revaluation on completion of exposure studies

                                VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

Test Data for SIDS Chemicals  Being Developed by OECD Member Nations
Thirteen nations are working coop-
eratively to develop base-level data
for chemicals that are produced in
large quantities worldwide.  The
voluntary effort focuses on substances
of potential health or environmental
concern for which few test data are
currently available publicly.

The testing effort, known as the
Screening Information Data Set
(SIDS) program, is being conducted
under the auspices of the Organiza-
tion for Economic Cooperation  and
Development (OECD). (See Chemi-
cals-in-Progress Bulletin, volume 12,
number 1, for information about the
SIDS program.) The chemicals the
program covers are among the more
than 1,300 high-volume substances
listed in the OECD's inventory of
international high-volume chemicals.
Such chemicals are manufactured (1)
in excess of 1,000 tons a year in two
or more OECD member countries or
(2) in excess of 10,000 tons a year in
one OECD member country.

Testing on more than 30 SIDS
chemicals is due to be completed in
late spring 1992.  The U.S.  chemical
industry has responsibility for nine of
these chemicals. Participating  com-
panies are Dow Chemical, DuPont,
Eastman Kodak, Exxon, Silicones
Health Council, 3M Company, and
Union Carbide.

The OECD has assigned responsibil-
ity for 61 additional SIDS chemicals
to member countries, and a second
round of testing will begin  soon.
The United States has responsibility
for 12 of these chemicals. Allocation
of responsibility for a third  round of
I  Schedule of SIDS Testing
A step-by-step schedule of the SIDS testing program is shown below.  Follow-
ing allocation of chemicals, the OECD collects any existing information on the
chemicals. This information is evaluated, and participating nations propose a
testing plan to fill any gaps in information. After member countries review
the testing plan, test data are developed.
                               Round 1
        Round 2
Allocation of chemicals to          April 1990*       Sept. 1991*       Nov. 1991*
OECD countries
Request for available data         April 1990*       Sept. 1991*       Dec. 1991 *
sent out by OECD
Data received by OECD           Aug. 1990*        Jan. 1992        April 1992
Dossiers and SIDS testing         Oct. 1990*        May 1992        Aug. 1992
plans prepared by lead country
Dossiers reviewed by OECD       Nov. 1990*       Sept. 1992       Dec. 1992
countries and agreement
reached on testing plans
SIDS testing started              May 1991*        Dec. 1992       March 1993
SIDS testing completed           May 1992        Feb. 1994       June 1994
Initial review meeting to set        Oct. 1992         To Be           To Be
priority for further work                           Determined       Determined
* Activity completed
SIDS chemicals was assigned in
November 1991 and involved ap-
proximately 40 additional chemicals.
The United States was assigned 15

Issues resolved
At a meeting in spring 1991, OECD
members resolved several issues about
how to handle high-volume chemi-
cals used solely as intermediates.
Members agreed on the hazard and
exposure information needed to assess
intermediates; they also agreed to
defer handling of intermediates under
the SIDS program.
A workshop was held in December
1991 on the analysis of environmen-
tal release and exposure for SIDS
chemicals.  Another workshop is
scheduled for February 1992 on the
analysis of consumer and occupa-
tional exposure for SIDS chemicals.

For more Information
For more information about the SIDS
program, contact the TSCA Assis-
tance Information Service (TSCA
hotline).  See page 32 for information
about how  to contact the TSCA

Second Round of SIDS Testing To Begin
OECD Assigns 61 Chemicals to  Member Nations
CAS Number
 Chemical Name
Nation Conducting Tests
Urea                                 Finland
Ethylene                              Netherlands
Acetone cyanhydrin                     United Kingdom
Trichloroacetic acid                     Germany
Methyl ethyl ketone                     United States
Propanenitrile, 2-hydroxy-                Japan
Chloroacetic acid                       Sweden
Dicumyl peroxide                       Belgium
o-Cresol                              France
2,4-Dichlorotoluene                     Japan
Butanedioic acid, methylene-             France
Benzene, 1-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-      Italy
Terephthalic acid                       Italy
4-methoxy-aniline                      Germany
Benzene, 1,4-diethyl-                   Japan
Maleic acid, dibutyl ester                 Austria
1 -Butene                              Canada
Ethylene glycol                        Canada
Phosphoric acid, dibutyl ester             Japan
Dimethylaminoethanol                   United Kingdom
M.I.B.K                               United States
Acetic anhydride                       Canada
Melamine                             Austria
Di-iso-Butyl ketone                     France
3-Picoline                             Belgium
1 -Amino-3-dimethylaminopropane         Germany
Butane, 1-chloro-                       Japan
Methyl caprylate                       United States
Diethylenetriamine                     Netherlands
Diethanolamine                        United Kingdom
1 -Octene                             United States
Dodecanoic acid, methyl ester            United States
N.N.-Dimethyldodecylamine              Germany
1 -Dodecene                          United States
3-Buten-2-ol, 2-methyl- C5H10O          Switzerland
3-Butyn-2-ol, 2-methyl- C5H8O           Germany
Dimethyl terephthalate                  Italy
Benzene, 1-methyl-2,4-dinitro-            Germany
n-Decane                             Italy
Chloroprene                          Germany
Sodium lauryl sulfate                   Germany
Cyclododecane                        France
3H-lndol-3-one, 2-(1,3-dihydro-3-oxo-2H-   Japan
Phenol, 2,4,6-trimethyl-                  Netherlands
1-Hexene                             United States
Tetradecane                          Italy
1,4-Benzenediamine, N-( 1,3-dimethylbutyl  Germany
1 -Tetradecene                         United States
Atrazine                              Switzerland
Dimethyl chlorothiophosphate            United States
Diethyl  chlorothiophosphate              United States
Phenol, 3-methyl-4-nitro-                Japan
Ethenesulfonic acid, sodium salt          Belgium
Acetic acid, chloro-, sodium salt           Sweden
Phosphorodithioic acid, O,O-bis(2-ethylh   United States
Methanol, methoxy-                    Japan
D and C Red No. 7                     Japan
2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol           Japan
Tripropylene glycol                     Japan
Phosphoric acid, methylphenyl diphenyl e   Japan
Phosphorodithioic acid, O,O-diisooctyl e    United States
Note: If you have information on
any of these chemicals, please contact
Charles Auer, director of EPA's Ex-
isting Chemical Assessment Division,
through the TSCA Assistance Infor-
mation Service (TSCA hotline). See
page 32 for information on how to
contact the hotline. Or, contact
Sandra L. Tirey, of the Chemical
Manufacturers Association (CMA),
2501 M Street, N.W., Washington,
B.C., 20037; telephone, (202)  887-
1274; FAX, (202) 887-1237.
                            VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

     Design for the Environment
Design continued from page 1
OTS Is establishing four DIE Initiatives
Any business—whether it is a part of
the agricultural sector, the energy
sector, or any other—can find ways
to integrate DfE principles into its
activities.  In the Office of Toxic
Substances (OTS), we have tradition-
ally focused on the industrial manu-
facturing sector.  Currently, we are
making DfE principles a driving
force in many OTS programs, a force
that will help set the direction for
OTS activity in the future.

OTS is establishing four initiatives
that put DfE principles into action.
My hope is that these initiatives will
stimulate industry to voluntarily
shift toward designing chemicals,
processes, and end products that are
environmentally sound.

Clean Production Program
As its name indicates, OTS's new
Clean Production Program is much
more than  a means to address con-
cerns about individual chemicals—it
is a broad effort to promote develop-
ment of cleaner, more environmen-
tally sound technological processes.

A principal tool in implementation
of the Clean Production Program
will be "use clusters"—groups of
chemicals used for the same or simi-
lar purposes, such as paint strippers.
By examining use clusters, rather
than single chemicals, OTS can
evaluate potential risks from all
chemical substances and technologies
associated  with a use and  identify
safer substitutes and cleaner tech-
nologies. The use cluster concept will
encompass new, as well as existing,
chemicals.  Once a cluster has been
defined, OTS will search the New
Chemicals Program's database of sub-
stances submitted for premanufac-
ture review. New substances that fit
into the cluster will be added to it.

The Clean Production Program will
use three primary criteria to set pri-
orities for addressing particular pro-
cesses and use clusters: (1) potential
for reducing risk; (2) the significance
of the process or use to multiple pro-
gram initiatives across EPA, both
regulatory and nonregulatory; and (3)
the importance of the process or
chemical to agency pollution preven-
tion efforts, including the ongoing
33/50 Program (a program to encour-
age industry to voluntarily reduce use
of 17 highly toxic chemicals).  Clus-
ters identified through OTS's Exist-
ing Chemicals Program and from a
list used by the European Community
will also be considered.

Using information developed through
use cluster analyses, OTS will work
with companies to apply DfE prin-
ciples to particular areas of concern—
namely, to identify substitute chemi-
cals and technologies that are most
promising from an environmental
perspective. For the public and in-
dustry, the Clean Production Program
will provide a clearer picture of EPA's
assessment of the relative risks of
substances and technologies, as well as
information about substances for
which EPA is considering regulatory
or other action.
Chemical Design Project
The traditional approach to synthesiz-
ing chemicals is to produce the great-
est yield at the least cost. Many of the
synthetic steps, or synthetic pathways,
that produce high yields also generate
toxic byproducts or use high-risk
solvents and catalysts. These toxins
could be reduced  or eliminated from
the process if alternative synthetic
sequences were found.

This is a relatively new concept that
OTS would like to encourage among
researchers in the field of synthetic
organic chemistry. We are considering
two options: (1) funding several con-
ferences to encourage academia and
industry to investigate environmen-
tally safer pathways for chemical syn-
thesis or (2) funding basic research at
a number of universities to  develop
examples of alternative pathways.

OTS's ultimate goal is to facilitate
widespread use of environmental cri-
teria in devising synthetic sequences.
This has the potential to minimize or
eliminate the pollution from toxic
wastes that now results from chemical

Printing Industry Pilot
OTS is helping the printing industry
design a pollution prevention pro-
gram, which will integrate DfE prin-
ciples and use cluster screening. OTS
will produce several guides on incor-
porating pollution prevention  mea-
sures into print shop operations, con-
ducting a pollution prevention audit,
and identifying safer substitutes for
chemical substances and technologies
now in use.

                                            Design for the Environment/General Information
Most printing companies are small,
and this joint effort with Printing
Industries of America, a trade associa-
tion, gives us the opportunity to
work with firms that do not generally
have much interaction with OTS.

Pollution Prevention Center
OTS is providing funds to establish a
pollution prevention center at the
University of Michigan. The pollu-
tion prevention center will develop
curricula that apply DfE principles,
rather than a pollution-control per-
spective.  The curricula will be pro-
vided to other colleges and universi-
ties for use in engineering, business,
and natural resources courses.
Graduate students and professionals
who participate in university pro-
grams will then have the necessary
background  to implement DfE prin-
ciples in their work. (See page 9 for
more information about the pollution
prevention center at the University of

DfE is an evolving concept
It is too soon to say how the DfE
movement will mature.  It has great
potential, however, to change the
nature of many decisions about
chemical development and use. In
OTS, we view our role in DfE as that
of helping to set the pace of change
through cooperative programs with
industry, academia, and other gov-
ernment programs. We think we are
making a good start, and we plan to
continue to seek ways to apply DfE
principles to achieve EPA's pollution
prevention objectives.
92 Companies Receive Letters of Concern
About Four Chemicals
The Office of Toxic Substances (OTS)
has sent letters to 92 companies ask-
ing them to reduce or eliminate gen-
eration of four chemicals—acryloni-
trile, hydrazine, chlorinated paraffins,
and 1,2-dichloroethane.  During a
preliminary review, EPA identified a
potential risk to human health or the
environment from each of the chemi-
cals. OTS is now undertaking a more
intensive assessment of the four
chemicals through its Existing
Chemicals Program.

While the chemicals are in the next
stage of agency review, OTS is asking
industry to voluntarily implement
measures to prevent pollution when
using the chemicals. OTS Director
Mark A. Greenwood has sent letters
stating the agency's concerns about
the chemicals to companies  with
facilities that manufacture, process,
or use any of the chemicals.  Mr.
Greenwood also asked the companies
to submit any additional hazard or
exposure data in their possession that
would help EPA fully assess the
chemicals' risks.

OTS has not evaluated pollution
prevention measures for each facility
that uses the chemicals, and is there-
fore unable to recommend specific
pollution prevention measures to  the
firms. However, such measures may
be addressed when OTS completes its
full assessment of the chemicals.
During the full assessment,  OTS will
review hazard and exposure  issues,
pollution prevention activities, and
risk management options.

The OTS "letters of concern" are an
example of agency efforts to encour-
age voluntary pollution prevention
activities by industry. As additional
chemicals that pose potential risk  to
human health or the environment are
identified, OTS will continue to use
the letters, prior to taking any regu-
latory action,  to request that compa-
nies initiate pollution prevention
I List of Chemicals
Chemical Group
Potential Risk
Carcinogenic! ty
1,2-Dichloroethane    Carcinogenicity
                                            VOL12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

 Justice Department and EPA Take Action to Enforce Lead Laws and Regulations
 Use of Six Environmental Statutes Broadens Effect of Agency's Enforcement Program
 The Department of Justice and EPA
 have begun an enforcement initiative
 to reduce lead exposure to the public
 and the environment, with particular
 emphasis on reducing risks associated
 with high blood lead levels in chil-
 dren. In July 1991, the Justice De-
 partment filed 24 judicial enforce-
 ment actions in the nation's federal
 courts while EPA took administrative
 action against 12 facilities and as-
 sessed more than $10 million in pen-

 The initiative is the first in which
 EPA has coordinated enforcement
 actions directed at a specific pollutant
 through the simultaneous use of dif-
 ferent environmental laws. Used
 together, the statutes address a num-
 ber of lead compliance problems
 across the nation. The statutes cited
 in the enforcement actions were the
 Resource Conservation and Recovery
 Act, the Comprehensive Environ-
 mental Response, Compensation, and
 Liability Act (also known as the
 Superfund law), the Clean Water Act,
 the Safe Drinking Water Act, the
 Clean Air Act, and the Emergency
 Planning and Community Right-to-
 Know Act.

 The enforcement actions are part of
 EPA's Strategy for Reducing Lead
 Exposures, which the agency issued
 in February 1991- EPA is working
 under the lead strategy to signifi-
 cantly reduce lead exposures through
 enforcement, pollution prevention
 control programs, and education and
 training activities.

 Lead causes a variety of health and
 environmental problems. It is a
 highly toxic metal, producing a range
 of acute and chronic health effects,
 particularly in children and fetuses.
 Effects include nervous and reproduc-
 tive system disorders, delays in neu-
 rological and physical development,
 cognitive and behavioral changes, and
EPA Proposes Penalty for Alleged Violations of TSCA Section 8(e)
EPA has proposed a $175,000 pen-
alty against Halocarbon Products
Corp., a specialty chemical manufac-
turer, for allegedly violating section
8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control
Act (TSCA). Section 8(e) of TSCA
requires that anyone who obtains
information that reasonably supports
the conclusion that a chemical pre-
sents a substantial risk of injury to
health or to the environment report
that information to EPA.

During a manufacturing process used
by Halocarbon, on or about February
1, 1989, crackertrap residue was
released at the company's facility in
Hackensack, New Jersey. At least
two workers were exposed to the
substance, and three days later, one
worker died of lung injuries and an-
other was severely incapacitated.
Crackertrap residue contains
untreated chlorotrifluoroethylene,
monochloropentafluoropropene, and
other materials.

An EPA inspection uncovered the
company's failure to inform the
agency of the health effects of the
release—the death and injury—and
the agency filed an administrative
compkint against the company in
July 1990.

Halocarbon Products Corp. argued
that the company had notified the
Occupational Safety and Health Ad-
ministration of the death and injury
of the workers and that this notifica-
tion discharged the firm of its re-
sponsibility to submit the informa-
tion to EPA under section 8(e) of
TSCA. In July 1991, EPA Adminis-
trative Law Judge Frank Vander-
heyden rejected the company's argu-
ment. The case is pending.
                                          CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

 Company Agrees to Pay $2.2 Million Penalty for PMN Violations
 Fine Is Largest Ever Imposed by EPA for a New-Chemical Violation
 EPA and Moore Business Forms Inc.,
 of Illinois, have signed a consent
 agreement settling charges that the
 company made or imported six new
 chemical substances without notify-
 ing EPA. Moore agreed to pay a $2.2
 million penalty, which is the largest
 fine ever imposed for violating the
 new-chemical provisions of the Toxic
 Substances Control Act (TSCA). Sec-
 tion 5 of TSCA requires that EPA be
 notified at least 90 days before a new
 chemical is imported or manufac-

 The company disclosed the vioktions
 to EPA after discovering the problem
 during an internal audit. EPA pro-
 posed a penalty of $ 11.1 million for
 the violations.  Due to the immediate
 disclosure of the violations, however,
 the agency reduced the fine by half.
 The penalty was reduced by another
 30 percent to reflect the company's
 willingness to implement additional
 compliance measures.

 In the complaint, EPA also cited
 Moore for failing to comply with
 section 13 of TSCA, which requires
 that importers provide a statement to
 the U.S. Customs Service certifying
 that any chemical substances being
 brought into this country are in com-
 pliance with U.S. laws.

 The consent agreement is the first to
 include an Emergency Planning and
Community Right-to-Know Act
(EPCRA) compliance audit and an
EPCRA compliance program. In the
consent agreement, Moore officials
agreed to (1) complete compliance
audits at its U.S. facilities to encom-
pass sections 5, 8, and 13 of TSCA
and sections 304, 311, 312, and 313
of EPCRA and (2) implement a
corporatewide compliance program
for TSCA and EPCRA. The TSCA
and EPCRA audits are to go back to
1981  in some cases. Stipulated pen-
alties  up to $50,000 are to be paid for
specific violations discovered in the

The six chemicals were used in car-
bonless copy paper, computer paper,
and note pads that Moore developed
at the company's research facility on
Grand Island in New York.  The
products were manufactured in a
number of facilities across the coun-
try and sold nationally.
EPA Seeks Penalties for Failure to Comply with PMN Rules
In separate actions, EPA has issued
administrative complaints against
two major chemical companies for
failing to provide the agency with
premanufacture notices (PMNs) prior
to importing or manufacturing new
chemical substances. PMNs are man-
dated by section 5 of the Toxic Sub-
stances Control Act (TSCA).

• EPA is seeking more than $2 mil-
  lion in penalties for 273 separate
  violations of TSCA by Allied Col-
  loids, Inc., of Suffolk, Virginia.
  The complaint alleges that since
  1983,  Allied Colloids imported
  and manufactured seven new
  chemical substances in the United
  States and distributed them for
  commercial purposes. The com-
  pany failed to submit PMNs for
  these substances. The complaint
  also alleges that the company
  falsely certified or failed to properly
  certify importation of the sub-
  stances under section 13 of TSCA
  and that it failed to submit timely
  notices of commencement of manu-
  facture or import.

 I EPA assessed penalties of more
  than $4.75 million against Mobay
  Corporation, of Pittsburgh, Penn-
  sylvania, for over 400 vioktions of
  TSCA.  The agency alleges that
  Mobay falsely certified that imports
  of new chemical substances were in
  compliance with TSCA, filed in-
  complete PMNs that did not in-
  clude all the known trade names
  and intended uses for the chemical
  substances, provided false informa-
  tion to EPA regarding the dates
  that certain substances were first
  imported, improperly reported
  certain substances to the TSCA
  Inventory during the initial report-
  ing period, and submitted inaccu-
  rate or unsupported TSCA Inven-
  tory update information.
     VOL.12 /N0.4 DECEMBER 1991


Company Agrees to Pay Fine for Testing Violations
Under TSCA Section 4

A&D International, a small chemical import company, has agreed to pay a
$12,000 fine to settle charges that it failed to meet testing requirements of the
dioxin/furan test rule (40 CFR 766). Under section 4 of the Toxic Substances
Control Act (TSCA), EPA can require chemical makers and importers to test
chemicals that pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment.

EPA proposed a fine of $26,500 for three charges that the company failed to file
testing documents in a timely manner, failed to follow agency-approved test
protocols, and failed to ensure that the tests complied with EPA's Good Labora-
tory Practices.  EPA reduced the penalty after A&D documented it was  unable
to pay the proposed fine. The company also agreed not to manufacture or im-
port chloranil or to encourage anyone else to import chloranil. Chloranil was
part of the dioxin/furan  test rule because of the likelihood that its production
will result in dioxin/furan contamination.
Other Enforcement Actions

• EPA has proposed a penalty of $131,000 against British Airways Ltd. for
  failing to comply with PCB regulations at the airline's facility at JFK Inter-
  national Airport in New York City.  The airline was cited for failure to prop-
  erly mark PCB areas and PCB transformers, keep quarterly inspection and
  maintenance records, and prepare and maintain an annual report of PCB ac-
  tivities over several years.

• EPA signed consent agreements with five companies that had failed to file
  Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reports. The companies agreed to pay penal-
  ties totaling $114,900 and to make improvements at their facilities to benefit
  the environment.  The companies, which are all based in  New York, are
  Crawford Furniture, Jamestown; Endicott Forging and Manufacturing,
  Endicott; Falconer Metals Specialties, Lakewood; John Mezzalingua Associ-
  ates, Manilius; and Tel-Tru Manufacturing, Rochester.
                               I Update: Carpet Policy

                               Several voluntary testing programs to
                               evaluate and reduce the total emis-
                               sions of volatile organic compounds
                               from carpet and carpet-related mate-
                               rials have been established through
                               the Carpet Policy Dialogue. Descrip-
                               tions of the testing programs follow.

                               • The Carpet Cushion Council signed
                                 an agreement in September 1991
                                 to voluntarily test total emissions
                                 of volatile organic compounds from
                                 carpet cushion.
                               • The Floor Covering Manufacturers
                                 Committee of the National Asso-
                                 ciation of Floor Covering Distribu-
                                 tors signed an agreement in Sep-
                                 tember 1991 to voluntarily test the
                                 total emissions of volatile organic
                                 compounds from adhesive products
                                 used in carpet installations.
                               • The Carpet and Rug Institute be-
                                 gan a voluntary testing program in
                                 June 1991 to evaluate the total
                                 emissions of volatile organic com-
                                 pounds from carpets.

                               Information has also been developed
                               about installation technology and
                               practices that may limit emissions of
                               volatile organic compounds from
                               carpet, carpet cushion, installation
                               adhesives, and styrene butadiene

                               EPA began the Carpet Policy Dia-
                               logue in August 1990. Representa-
                               tives of carpet and carpet-related
                               industries, public interest groups,
                               labor, EPA, and other federal agen-
                               cies participated in the project.

    L mtmCTIQN *C ENCY
                        AGENCY 1ISEJJN LV_

New PMN Form

EPA is gathering information about
measures taken by industry to prevent
pollution. An increasing number of
companies are voluntarily providing
the data when they submit the
premanufacture notice (PMN) form,
which is required prior to manufac-
turing or importing new chemical

The PMN form has been revised to
include a page on which submitters
can describe efforts to reduce expo-
sures to or releases of a new substance.
                                                                          Since the revised PMN form became
                                                                          available in March 1991, six out of
                                                                          every 10 PMN forms submitted to
                                                                          EPA have included pollution preven-
                                                                          tion information. The agency will
                                                                          use the data in assessing the potential
                                                                          health and environmental implications
                                                                          of the new substances.

                                                                          Copies of the new form and instruction
                                                                          manual are available from the TSCA
                                                                          Assistance Information Service (TSCA
                                                                          hotline). For information on how to
                                                                          contact the hotline, see page 32.
33/50 Program

The 33/50 Program is designed to
encourage industry to reduce use of
17 highly toxic chemicals through
voluntary actions. By late August,
EPA had invited about 6,000 compa-
nies to participate in the program.
These companies own or operate
more than 12,000 facilities that re-
ported releasing one or more of the
17 chemicals in 1988.

According to the Toxics Release
Inventory (TRI), 1.4 billion pounds
of the 17 chemicals were released to
the environment or transferred to
waste management facilities in 1988.
The goal of the 33/50 Program is to
reduce these emissions by 33 percent
by the end of next year and by 50
percent—or 700 million pounds—by
the end of 1995.

EPA initiated the pollution preven-
tion program a year ago.  At that
time, 600 companies identified as
generating the greatest amount of
                              the 17 chemicals were invited to
                              participate. Since July, the agency
                              has received 100 new commitments
                              to participate in the program. This
                              is in addition to the commitments
                              already on record from 247 compa-
                              nies to cut 262 million pounds of
                              releases and transfers of these chemi-
                              cals by 1995. A number of compa-
                              nies have also extended their com-
                              mitments (1) to other chemicals (in
                              some cases, to all chemicals covered
                              by TRI, the Clean Air Act, or other
                              regulatory programs) and (2) to
                                     some or all of their facilities in other

                                     Despite this encouraging early re-
                                     sponse, the participation of many
                                     more companies will be necessary to
                                     dramatically cut chemical emissions.
                                     Industry's response to the most recent
                                     round of letters and the ability of
                                     individual companies to meet their
                                     reduction targets—and then keep on
                                     reducing—will determine whether
                                     the 33/50 Program meets its 1995
                              I Chemicals Targeted by the 33/50 Program
                                i Benzene
                                i Cadmium and compounds
                                Carbon tetrachloride
                                Chromium and compounds
                                Lead and compounds
                                Mercury and compounds
                                     • Methyl ethyl ketone
                                     • Methyl isobutyl ketone
                                     • Nickel and compounds
                                     • Tetrachloroethylene
                                     • Toluene
                                     • Trichloroethane
                                     • Trichloroethylene
                                     • Xylene(s)
                                           VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                               Toxics Release Inventory
                                         Seven Chemicals Added to TRI Reporting List
                                         The chemicals listed in the next col-
                                         umn were added to the list of toxic
                                         chemicals subject to Toxics  Release
                                         Inventory (TRI) reporting require-
                                         ments in 1991. TRI reports include
                                         the maximum amounts of the chemi-
                                         cals stored at reporting facilities dur-
                                         ing the year; the names and locations
                                         of off-site facilities to which toxic
                                         wastes were shipped; and the treat-
                                         ment or disposal methods used for
                                         wastes. TRI data are available to the
                                         public. See pages 4 and  5 for infor-
                                         mation on how to obtain TRI data.
                                                     Chemical Name
                                                                                   75-63-8     Bromotr'rfluoronriethane
                                                                                   75-59-4     Trichlorofluoromethane
                                                                                   75-71-8     Dichlorodifluoromethane
                                                                                   76-14-2     Dichforotetrafluoroethane
                                                                                   76-15-3     (Mono)chloropentafluoroethane
                                                                                   124-73-2    Dibromotelrafluoroethane
                                                                                              (Baton 2402)
                                                                                   353-59-3    Bromochlorodifluoromelhane
                                         Toxics Release Inventory Section 313 Petitions
Receipt Date  Chemical Name
                                   Action    130-Day  Proposed Rule   Final Rule or
                                 Requested   Deadline   FR Pub Date   Denial Pub Data
11/25/86      Inorganic Fluorides
04/30/87      Orthophenylphenol
05/15/87      Cobalt & Compounds
05/15/87      Nickel & Compounds
05/15/87      Manganese & Compounds
07/13/88      Ethylene
07/13/88      Propylene
09/09/88      Cyclohexane
04/14/89      Cadmium Selenide
04/14/89      Cadmium Sulfide
05/15/89      Decarbromodiphenyl Oxide
06/27/89      Cr/Sb/Ti Buff Rutile
08/07/89      Barium Sulfate
09/05/89      Antimony Compound
09/07/89      Zinc Borate Hydrate
09/19/89      Barium Sulfate
12/12/89      Sulfuric Acid
01/29/90      Zinc Sulfide

08/24/87      Titanium Dioxide
08/19/87      Titanium Dioxide
              Titanium Dioxide
              Titanium Dioxide
Safe Water Foundation of Texas         List
Dow Chemical Company                Delist
Hall Chemical Company                Delist
Hall Chemical Company                Delist
Hall Chemical Company                Delist
Chemical Manufacturers Assoc.          Delist
Chemical Manufacturers Assoc.          Delist
Chemical Manufacturers Assoc.          Delist
SCM Chemicals, Inc.                   Delist
SCM Chemicals, Inc.                   Delist
Great Lakes Chemical Corp.             Delist
Dry Color Manufacturers Assoc.         Delist
Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Assoc.    Delist
Synthetics Product Company            Delist
U.S. Borax Research Corp.              Delist
Dry Color Manufacturers Assoc.         Delist
ECOLAB Inc.                         Delist
Ore and Chemical Corp.                Delist
Dupont De Nemours and Co.            Delist
SCM Chemicals, Inc. and Didier         Delist
Taylor Refractories Corp.
Didier Taylor Refractories Corp.          Delist
Kemira Oy.                          Delist


                                                                                              TRI Petitions continued on page 22
                                               CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

                                               Toxics Release Inventory
Receipt Date  Chemical Name
  Action     180-Day  Proposed Rule    Final Rule or
Requested    Deadline   FR Pub Date  Denial Pub Date
10/06/87      Cl Add Blue 9

10/06/87      Cl Acid Blue 9

10/07/87      Melamine Crystal
04/22/88      Sodium Hydroxide Solution
06/01/88      Cl Pigment Blue 15
06/01/88      Cl Pigment Green 7
06/01/88      Cl Pigment Green 36
08/09/88      Sodium Sulfate
09/30/88      Alum. Oxide (Non-Fibrous)
07/27/89      Terephthalic Acid
01 /09/90      Seven CFCs and Halons
11/19/90       Phosphoric Acid
12/24/90       SulfuricAcid
05/21/91       Chromium (III) Compounds
09/11/91       Hydrochloric Acid

02/09/87       Butyl Benzyl Phthalate
01/23/89       Ammonium Sulfate (SOLN)
12/24/90       SulfuricAcid
Ecological and lexicological Assoc.
of the Dyestuffs Manufacturing
Ecological and lexicological Assoc.
of the Dyestuffs Manufacturing
Melamine Chemical Company
Chlorine  Institute Inc.
Dry Color Manufacturers Assoc.
Dry Color Manufacturers Assoc.
Dry Color Manufacturers Assoc.
Hoechst  Celanese Corp.
Aluminum Association, et al.
Amoco Corp.
Natural Resources Defense Council
and Governors Mario Cuomo of
New York, Madeleine Kunin of
Vermont, Thomas Kean of New

The Fertilizer Institute
American Cyanamid
California Products Corp.
Monsanto Chemical Co.
Allied Signal, Inc.
American Cyanamid
Delist    05/18/91
Modify   06/29/91
Delist    11/17/91
Modify   03/09/92
                        / /
                        / /
                        / /
                        / /
TRI Grants Awarded

Ten states have received grants to im-
prove their Toxics Release Inventory
(TRI) data management programs.
EPA's Office of Toxic Substances
(OTS) announced the awards, which
totaled $800,000, in October 1991.

This is the second year the grants have
been available to assist in data man-
agement, analysis, use, and quality as-
surance. States, Indian tribes, and
U.S. territories were eligible to apply
for the funds through the TRI Data
Capabilities Grant Program. Twenty
states, requesting a total of $1.7 mil-
lion in aid, applied  for grants.
 The overall objective of the grants
 program is to help states prevent or
 eliminate risks in communities from
 toxic chemicals.  The criteria used to
 make selections included (1) potential
 benefit of the proposed improvements;
 (2) technical feasibility and likelihood
 of implementation of the proposed im-
 provements; (3) appropriateness of
 grant request to the program; (4) need
 for assistance; (5) likelihood of the
 proposed program's continuation; and
 (6) how well the proposed program is
 integrated with other existing pro-
 grams or how well it incorporates a
 multimedia approach.  Other factors,
          such as geographic distribution of
          projects and availability of regional re-
          sources to manage the grants were also

          Summaries of the projects that were
          selected follow:

          Alabama received $75,000 to initiate
          basic data quality activities  to ensure
          that EPA and the state maintain  con-
          sistent TRI data; promote reporting
          requirements to industry; promote
          avaikbility of TRI data to the public;
          and incorporate TRI data in compara-
                                               VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

      Toxics Release Inventory
tive risk screening efforts being con-
ducted by the state.

Indiana received $90,000 to perform
data quality assessments of TRI data;
incorporate the data in planning for
waste minimization efforts; and tar-
get specific areas for early reductions
of emissions.

Kansas received $122,000 to develop
a manual describing techniques for
creating a geographical information
data management system that de-
scribes identifying techniques, soft-
ware design, and operational aspects
of designing this type of system.  The
state will develop and test a series of
sample comparisons of TRI data us-
ing several criteria (geographical
units, population areas, environmen-
tally sensitive areas, etc.) and conduct
a pilot test to demonstrate system
accuracy and compliance elements
within a specified area.

Maine received $87,000 to use TRI
data to identify nonreporters; help
develop Maine's Toxic Use Reduction
Program; establish priorities for
Maine's Air Toxics Program; and
support development of licensing and
permitting procedures.

Mississippi received $45,500 to start a
program to manage TRI data state-
wide. Reports on statewide releases,
using TRI data, will be prepared by
the Department of Environmental
Quality for use by the Waste Mini-
mization Division, the State Emer-
gency Response Commission, and
Local Emergency Planning Commit-
tees.  Reports will be available to the
public. This information is intended
to assist in the development of the
state's emergency planning measures
and use of TRI information for tar-
geting industrial release reductions.

New York received $125,000 to con-
duct a program to improve TRI data
quality and use; produce health risk
rankings; determine any geographic
"hot spots'" of environmental concern;
and develop a linkage between TRI
data and the state's permit compli-
ance data for two communitywide

Texas received $75,000 to develop
source reduction and pollution pre-
vention opportunities by using TRI
data to identify facilities, chemicals,
and geographic areas as targets for
pollution prevention activities.

Virginia received $19,000 to integrate
three years of TRI data into one data-
base; integrate Emergency Planning
and Community Right-to-Know Act
(EPCRA) section 313 data with in-
formation from sections 311 and  312
of EPCRA and other state-collected
data; and use TRI data to target in-
dustrial facilities  for reductions of
toxic releases.

Washington received $52,000 to en-
sure that industrial facilities have met
TRI reporting requirements and  that
release estimates submitted are accu-
rate.  This will confirm that TRI data
accurately represent chemical emis-
sions in the state and will increase the
usefulness of TRI data to the state's
environmental programs.

Wisconsin received $109,500 to inte-
grate five state toxics databases; carry
out pollution prevention activities;
and screen health risks for environ-
mental "hot spots."
Applications for grants will be ac-
cepted in 1992. Information about
the TRI Data Capabilities Grant Pro-
gram is available from Tim Crawford,
Economics and Technology Division
(TS-779), U.S. EPA, 401 M Street,
S.W., Washington, D.C.  20460;
telephone, (202) 260-1715.
I  Analysis of TRI Data
   Is Available

The report Toxics in the Community
provides an analysis of data collected
for the 1989 Toxics Release Inven-
tory (TRI), including comparisons
with data from previous years.

Toxics in the Community includes de-
tailed information about the scope
and requirements of section 313 of
the Emergency Planning and Com-
munity Right-to-Know Act
(EPCRA), which established the in-
ventory.  It also provides examples of
different ways the data are being
used, such as in state pollution pre-
vention efforts.

A  limited number of copies of the re-
port are available from the EPCRA
Information Hotline. The hotline
operates from 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m.
Eastern time, Monday through Fri-
day. It can be reached by calling
(800) 535-0202 or (703) 920-9877.

Toxics in the Community can also be  or-
dered from the Government Printing
Office, c/o Superintendent of Docu-
ments, Washington, D.C. 20402;
telephone, (202) 783-3238. Its order
number is 055-000-00387-4.

                                         TSCA Section 8(e) Notices
                                         Under section 8(e) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), anyone who
                                         obtains information that indicates a chemical might pose a substantial risk to
                                         human health or the environment must report that information to EPA within
                                         15 working days of obtaining it.

                                         The Office of Toxic Substances (OTS), which responds to TSCA section 8(e)
                                         submissions,  has changed its format fordoing so.  As of October 1, 1990, OTS
                                         began issuing "submission summaries," rather than "status reports, " following
                                         initial section 8(e) notices. Submission summaries contain a detailed account-
                                         ing of the toxicological and other data contained within the 8(e) submission,
                                         but no information regarding EPA's evaluation or disposition of the case.

                                         Below is a list of TSCA section 8(e) notices received between May 1, 1991, and
                                         July 31, 1991. In the list, "S" indicates that a sanitized, or nonconfidential,
                                         version of the document is available, and "P" indicates that a portion of the
                                         submission is protected under the Privacy Act.
Log NO. 8EHQ-
0591-1231 S
Chemical Name
Propylamine, Methoxy-
Diphenyl Ether, Substituted
Type of Information
Allergenicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
0591-1232 S

0491-1233 S





0591-1238 S

0591-1239 S

0591-1240 S
Phenoxy Propionate

Ethane, 1,1,1-Trichloro-
Freon 113

Quinoline, 1,2-Dihydro-2,2,4-Trimethyl-

Vinyl Acrylate

Diatomaceous Earth
Silica, Amorphous





Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Allergenicity (Animal)

Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Chronic Toxicity (Animal)

Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)

Human Exposure (Monitoring)
Oncogenicity (Human)

Oncogenicity (Animal)
Chronic Toxicity (Animal)

Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Oncogenicity (Human)
Chronic Toxicity (Human)

Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
                                               VOL12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

• TSCA Section 8(e) Notices
Log No. 8EHQ-
0591-1241 S
0591-1242 S
Chemical Name
Cyclopentanol, Halo-Substituted
Stannane, Dibutyldichloro-
Carbonochloridic Acid, 1 ,2,2,6,6,-
Type of Information
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
Reproductive Toxictty/Terato. (Animal)
Clastogenicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
0591-1245 S

0591-1247 S



0591-1250 S


0591-1252 S

0591-1253 S



Pentamethyl-4-Piperdinyl Ester,

7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]Heptane-3-               2386-87-0
Carboxylic Acid, 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]
Hept-3-Ylmethyl Ester
Naphthalenesulfonic Acid, Dinonyl-,          57855-77-3
Calcium Salt

Fuel, Diesel (Exhaust)                      None
Carbon Black                              1333-86-4
Titanium Oxide, (TI02)                      13463-67-7

Phenols, Sulfur Bridged Substituted          Confidential
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid,               84-74-2
Dibutyl Ester
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic Acid,               131-11-3
Dimethyl Ester

Ethane, 1,1 1-Trichloro-                     71-55-6

Diamine, Halogenated Aromatic Ether        Confidential

Styrene                                   100-42-5
Nickel                                     7440-02-0
Nickel Carbonyl, (NI(CO)4), (T-4)-            13463-39-3

Aikane, Halogenated                       Confidential
Methylene Chloride                         75-09-2
Cadmium                                 7440-43-9
Chromium, Hexavalent Ion                  18540-29-9

T-Octylamine                              107-45-9

Phosphonic Acid, Ethyl-, Diethyl Ester        78-38-6
Phosphorous Acid, Triphenyl Ester           101-02-0
Phosphoric Acid, Triphenyl Ester             115-86-6
2,6,7-Trioxa-1-Phosphabicyclo[2.2.2]         824-11-3
Octane. 4-Ethyl-
2,6,7-Trioxa-1-Phosphabicyck)-[2.2.2]        1005-93-2
Octane, 4-Ethyl, 1-Oxide
2-Propanol, 1-Chloro-, Phosphate (3:1)       13674-84-5
2,4,8,10-Tetraoxa-3,9-Diphosphaspiro        26741-53-7
[5.5]Undecane, 3,9-Bis[2,4-Bis(1,1-
                                                                                           Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Allergenicity (Human)
Chronic Toxicity (Animal)
Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics (Animal)

Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)

Ecotoxicity/Aquatic Toxicity
Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)

Subacute Toxicity (Animal)

Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Subchronic Toxicity (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)

Human Exposure (Monitoring)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Oncogenicity (Human)
Env. Occurrence/Release/Fate
Human Exposure (Monitoring)

Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
                                                    CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

                                                   TSCA Section 8(e) Notices
Log No. 8EHQ-
Chemicai Name
Type of Information
0591-1256 (cont'd)

0691-1258 S

0691-1259 S

0691-1260 S

0691-1261 S




0691-1265 S

0691-1266 S

0691-1267 S




0691-1272 S

0691-1273 S

0691-1274 S
Phosphonic Acid, Methyl-, (5-Ethyl-2-        41203-81 -0
Methyl Methyl Ester, P-Oxide
Phosphonic Acid, Methyl-, Bist(5-Ethyl-      42595-45-9
5-yl)Methyl] Ester, P.P'-Dioxide
Phenol, Isopropylated, Phosphate (3:1)      68937-41-7

1,3-Butanediamine, N.N.N'.N'-              97-84-7
Hydrazide, N-Substituted Alkanoic Acid      Confidential

Silicons Mixture                           Confidential

RIM-OCP Catalyst B                       Confidential

Bicycloalkarte                             Confidential

Cydoaliphatic Epoxide ERL-4221            2386-87-0

Acetate, 2-Methyl Butyl                    624-41-9
Acetate, N-Amyl                           628-63-7

Chlorinated Dibenzodioxins                 Unknown

Acrylate, Substituted                       Confidential

Hydrazone                               Confidential

Benzoheterocycle                         Confidential
Ethane, 2,2-Dichtoro-1,1,1-Trifluoro-         306-83-2
HCFC-123                               306-83-2

Phenol, 4,4',4"-Ethylidynetris-               27955-94-8

Ethoxyamine (Production Process)          None
Hydroxylamine, O-Ethyl- (Production         None
Ethoxyamine, 2-Propane                   Unknown
EJhoxyamine                             624-86-2

Miscellaneous Chemicals                   None
Naphthalene, 2-Amino                     91-59-8
Phenol, 4-(2-Naphthalenylamino)-           93-45-8

Phenol, Substituted                        Confidential
Pyrazole, 3-Amino-5-Methyl-                31230-17-8

Heterocycle                              Confidential
                       Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)
                       Subacute Toxiclty (Animal)
                       Acute Toxicity (Anima!)
                       Immunotoxicity (Animal)

                       Neurotoxicity (Animal)
                       Acute Toxicity (Animal)

                       Acute Toxicity (Animal)
                       Subchronic Toxicity (Animal)
                       Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
                       Human Exposure (Monitoring)

                       Allergenicity (Animal)

                       Neurotoxicity (Animal)
                       Acute Toxicity (Animal)

                       Allergenicity (Animal)

                       Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Human)
                       Human Exposure (Monitoring)

                       Neurotoxicity (Animal)
                       Acute Toxicity (Animal)

                       Neurotoxicity (Animal)
                       Acute Toxicity (Animal)

                       Neurotoxicity (Animal)
                       Acute Toxicity (Animal)

                       OncogenioJty (Animal)
                       Chronic Toxicity (Animal)

                       Ecotoxicity/Aquatic Toxicity

                       Acute Toxicity (Human)
                       Human Exposure (Monitoring)

                       Epidemiology /Clinical
                       Human Exposure (Product Contamination)

                       Acute Toxicity (Animal)
                       Allergenicity (Animal)

                       Mutagenicity (In Vitro)

                       Subchronic Toxicity (Animal)
                                                   VOL.12 /N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

Log No. 8EHQ-
0791-1275 S
0791-1276 S
0791-1 279 S
0791-1 282 S
0791-1 284 S
079 1-1 285 S
!• TSCA Section 8(e) Notices
Chemical Name CAS No.
Hydrazide, N-Aminothioxo Substituted
Alkanoic Acid
Ether, Diaryl, (II)
Benzeneacetic Acid, 4-Methoxy-
Asphalt Flux
Residues, (Petroleum), Vacuum
Residues, (Petroleum), Thermal Cracked
Extracts, (Petroleum), Heavy Paraffinic
Distillate Solvent
Extracts, (Petroleum), Heavy Naphthenic
Distillate Solvent
Distillates, (Petroleum), Petroleum
Residues Vacuum
Succinic Anhydride Isethionate, C14-
Alkeny!-, Sodium Salt
Cellulose, Insulation
Man-Made Vitreous Fibers
Refractory Ceramic Fiber
Thermolite, Cellulose Insulation
1 18-75-2
Type of Information
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Mutagenicity (In Vitro)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Subchronic Toxicity (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Chronic Toxicity (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
0791-1287 S


0791-1289 S


3-Pyrazolidinone, 4,4-Dimethyl-1-            2654-58-2

Benzene, Reaction Products With            109037-76-5
Chlorine and Sulfur Chloride (S2CL2),

Pyrimidinamine                            Confidential
Methane, Bromochlorodifluoro-              353-59*3
Carboxylic Acid, 1,4,5,8-Naphthalene        52671 -72-4
Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Acute Toxicity (Human)
Human Exposure (Accidental)
Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics (Animal)

Allergenicity (Animal)
                                                   CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

                                                 TSCA Section 8(e) Notices
Log No. 8EHQ-
0791-1 295 S
0791-1301 S
079 1-1 302 S
079 1-1 303 S
0791-1307 S
079 1-1 308 S
Chemical Name
Silicons Emulsion Y-12386
Siloxane, Polydimathyl, Emulsion
X-CIDE 370 Industrial Biocide
Quaternary Ammonium Compounds,
(Oxydi-2, 1 -Ethanediyl)Bis[Coco
Alkyldimethyl, Bichlorides
Alcohol Ethoxy Sulfates
Alkyl Sutfates
Oxiranemethanaminium, N,N,N-
Trimethyl-. Chloride
Benzene, 2-lsocyanato-1,3-Bis
Thiadiazole, 2,5-Dimercapto-1,3,4-
(Reaction Product)
Dioxins, Brominated
Oioxins, Dibenzo-Para-
Antiblaze 19 (Production Process)
Misc. Chemicals
Aryl Phosphite, Alkyl Disubstituted
Sulfanylurea, Aryl
Acetamide, Multisubstituted
Acetaldehyde, Trichloro-
Acetic Acid, Trichloro-
Ethanol, 2.2,2-Trichloro-
2-Propenoic Acid, 1 ,2-Ethanediylbis
(Oxy-2,1-Etrianediyl) Ester
Methane, Bromonitro-
1 15-20-8
Type of Information
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Ecotoxicity/Aquatic Toxicity
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
Human Exposure (Monitoring)
Human Exposure (Accidental)
Ertv. Occurrence/Release/Fate
Human Exposure (Monitoring)
Emergency Incident of Env. Contamination
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
Subchronic Toxicity (Animal)
Reproductive Toxicity/Terato. (Animal)
Subchronic Toxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics (Human)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)
Neurotoxicity (Animal)
0791-1309 S


Lead, Tetraethyl
Subacute Toxicity (Animal)

Neurotoxicity (Animal)
Acute Toxicity (Animal)

Oncogenicity (Human)
                        VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                            TSCA Section 8(e) Information
New Volume of TSCA Section 8(e) Status  Reports
Is Available
         Preliminary Evaluations
         Of Initial TSCA
         Section 8(e)
         Substantial Risk Notices
         January 1989 - September 1990
                                      LPA recently published a new bound
                                      volume of the agency's status reports
                                      for submissions received from indus-
                                      try under section H(c) of the Toxic
                                      Substances Control Act (TSCA).  The
                                      status reports contain preliminary
                                      evaluations of the submissions.

                                      Section 8(e) requires that any manu-
                                      facturer, processor, or distributor who
                                      obtains information that reasonably
                                      supports a conclusion that a chemical
                                      substance presents a substantial risk
                                      io human health or to the environ-
ment report that information to EPA within 13 days of obtaining it.

The volume includes status reports for section H(e) submissions 8EHQ-0189-
0779 through 8EHQ-0990-1 08-1, A limned number of copies of the publica-
tion are available at no charge from the TSCA Assistance- Information Service
(TSCA hotline)-  See page 32 for information on contacting  the- TSCA hotline.

Copies can also be purchased from the National Technical Information Service
(NT1S). Also available from NTIS are the six previously published volumes of
TSCA section 8(e) status reports.

NTIS can be contacted by writing to NTIS, ;>285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,
Virginia 22161, or by calling  (7()3) <187- i6U> or (800) W-N'TIS.
NTIS Publication Number

PB# 91-233643

PB# 89-182687

PB# 87-176004

PBS 87-129409


PB# 81-145732

PB# 80-221609
                                       Submission Numbers in Document
                                       8EHQ-0189-0779 to 8EHO0990-1084

                                       8EHQ-0187-0649 to 8EHQ-1288-0778

                                       8EHQ-0185-0542 to 8EHQ-1286-0648

                                       8EHQ-0183-0468 to 8EHQ-1284-0541

                                       8EHQ-0280-0331 to 8EH01282-0467

                                       8EHQ-0779-0292 io 8EHQ-0180-0330

                                       8EHQ-0777-0001 to 8EHQ-0679-0291
I Availability of 8(e)
   Notices and FYI

Section 8(e) notices and FYI submis-
sions are available to the public in a
number of ways.
• They can be reviewed and photo-
  copied at EPA headquarters in the
  OTS Public Reading Room, NE-
  G001, 401 M Street, SAX'., Wash-
  ington, D.C. 20-160; phone, (202)
  260-7099. The room is open from
  8 a.m. to noon and 1 p.m. to 4
  p.m., Monday through Friday.
• A copy of a full section 8(e) or FYI
  submission can be obtained by writ-
  ing to EPA, Freedom of Information
  (A101), Washington, D.C. 20-160.
  Duplication of the first 1 66 pages of
  any document is free.  At the 1 67th
  page, there is a S25 fee and an addi-
  tional SO. 1 5  charge for each page.
  For example, duplication of a 167-
  page document will cost S25.1 5.
• Single copies of section 8(e) submis-
  sion summaries are available from
  the TSCA Assistance Information
  Service (TSCA hotline).  See page
  32 for information on how to con-
  tact the TSCA hotline.
                                            CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

                                        FYI Submissions
                                        For Your Information (FYI) submissions are voluntary submissions that cover a
                                        wide variety of information and may include data on chemical toxicity and
                                        exposure, epidemiology, monitoring, and environmental fate.  FYIs are submit-
                                        ted by chemical manufacturers, chemical processors, federal, state, or local
                                        agencies, foreign governments, academic institutions, public interest and
                                        environmental groups, and the general public.

                                        The FYI classification system was established by the Office of Toxic Substances
                                        to distinguish such submissions from notices submitted formally to EPA under
                                        section 8{e) of TSCA,

                                        Listed below are the FYI submissions received between June 8, 1991, and July
                                        19, 1991.  In the list, "S" indicates that a sanitized, or nonconfidential, version
                                        of the document is available, and "P" indicates that a portion of the submission
                                        is protected under the Privacy Act.
Chemical Name
Type of Information








 Hydrocyanic Acid                        74-90-8
 2-Propenoic Acid, Butyl Ester              141-32-2
 2-Propenoic Acid. Butyl Ester,              25750-84-9
 Polymer with Ethene

 Molybdenum Oxida, (M003)               1313-27-5
 Sodium Molybdate                       7631-95-0
 Ammonium Molybdate                    27546-07-2

 Methanol                              67-56-1

 Hexane                               110-54-3

 Phenol, Polymer with Formaldehyde        9003-35-4

 Ethanol                               64-17-5
 Propane, 1,2,3-Trichloro-                 96-18-4

 Carbamodtthioic Acid, Dimetfiyl-,           128-04-1
 Sodium Salt

 Gasoline, Unleaded                     None
                    Acute Toxicity (Human)
                    Human Exposure (Accidental)

                    Human Exposure (Product Contamination)
                    Acute Toxicity (Animal)
                    Allergenicity (Animal)
                    Clastogenicity (Animal)

                    Metabolism/Pharmacckinetics (Animal)

                    Acute Toxicity (Animal)

                    Miscellaneous Toxicity Studies (Animal)
                    Ecotoxicity/Aquatic Toxicity

                    Subctironic Toxicity (Animaf)

                    Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics (Human)
                                              VOL12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                           New Chemicals
Ntvr Chemical* Program continued from page 7

through October 1, 1991. Just three
years ago, the agency was able to issue
only 10 to 12 new-chemical SNURs a
year due to a time-consuming
rulemaking process. In October
1989, EPA changed the process for
issuing SNURs that extend section
5(e) orders. This change has  allowed
the agency, as a matter of course, to
quickly apply the same regulatory
standards in a section 5(e) order to all
manufacturers and importers of the
new chemical. More than 300 new-
chemical SNURs have been  issued
since the new SNUR regulations were

Control of existing chemicals
EPA is able to protect human health
and the environment from harmful
exposure to existing chemicals
through the New Chemicals Program.
About 9,000 chemical substances that
are on the TSCA Inventory entered
commerce after completing  the New
Chemicals Program review process.
EPA has regulated an estimated 1,400
of these 9,000 substances through
consent orders, SNURs, and produc-
tion and test-marketing restrictions
placed on low-risk substances (PMN
exemption categories).

Establishing  controls on new chemi-
cals before they enter the marketplace
has proved more effective than agency
efforts to regulate existing chemicals
that were already on the market when
TSCA took effect.  TSCA allows those
substances to be regulated only
through rulemaking, which is most
often conducted on a chemical-by-
chemical basis. The promulgation of
rules requires greater resources to
gather and analyze data on the part of
both industry and EPA.
PMN exemptions
Another way the New Chemicals
Program regulates chemicals that
enter the marketplace is through
PMN exemption categories. EPA
has determined that certain new sub-
stances are of relatively low risk.
These substances are subjected to a
shorter review if the submitter agrees
to adhere to the agency's strictly
defined conditions under which the
chemicals can be manufactured, used
in production, or imported.

EPA is planning to expand the PMN
exemption criteria (1) to allow the
agency to focus resources on chemi-
cals that pose the greatest risks and
(2) to encourage the manufacture of
lower-risk substances as substitutes
for substances of known concerns.
OTS hopes the expanded criteria will
encourage companies to choose to
manufacture chemicals that are eli-
gible for the shorter review.

Influencing the chemical marketplace
Over the past few years, efforts by the
New Chemicals Program to inform
the chemical community about the
criteria used to assess chemicals have
encouraged development of safer

For example, heightened awareness of
the program's concerns about certain
categories of substances has prompted
some chemical companies to screen
new chemicals in-house before ap-
proaching the agency. These in-
house assessments may result in a
decision against developing a chemi-
cal commercially or a search for a less
toxic substitute.

Also, an increasing number of com-
panies are contacting EPA prior to
submitting a PMN to discuss what
test data the agency needs to assess
the chemical's risks.  When test data
are included with the PMN submis-
sion, EPA can more accurately assess
risks associated with the chemicals.
The availability of data allows the
agency to limit its use of structure-
activity relationships and worst-case
scenarios, which in turn may make
regulatory action unnecessary. In the
past year, almost half of the PMN
submitters had technical, procedural,
or regulatory discussions with the
New Chemicals Program prior to
submitting a chemical for review.

For more Information
For more information, contact the
TSCA Assistance Information Service
(TSCA hotline). See page 32 for in-
formation on how to reach the TSCA
I Requirements under
   Section 5(e) Consent

Consent orders negotiated by chemical
manufacturers and EPA can require
any combination of the following:
• protective clothing or respiratory
  equipment for workers exposed to
  the chemical;
• worker training programs;
• restrictions on distributing the
• hazard communications programs
  for the chemical's purchasers;
• limitations on how much of the
  chemical can be produced;
• limitations on disposal of the chemi-
• prohibitions or limitations on re-
  leases of the chemical to water;
• recordkeeping; and
• testing.

                                      General Information
Send All Correspondence to

Environmental Assistance Division (TS-799)
Office of Toxic Substances
401 M Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460

Editor:  Jane Gurin
Would You Like to Receive the
Chemicals-in-Progress Bulletin1*

The Chemicals-in-Progress Bulletin is published by EPA's Office of Toxic
Substances.  If you are not currently receiving the bulletin and would like
to become a subscriber, or if you would like to stop receiving the bulle-
tin, please fill out and send in the form below.  Or, tape a mailing label
onto it.

D Please add my name to the mailing list for the Chemicals-in-Progress

GI no longer want to receive the Chemicals-in-Progress Bulletin.

D I'd like a copy of the following OTS publications):
Company or Organization Name
                   Type of Business
Street Address
Zip Code
                  Pollution Prevention
                  Conference for the Pulp
                  and Paper Industry
                  Set for March

                  EPA is sponsoring an international
                  conference to share information and
                  technology about preventing pollu-
                  tion in the pulp and paper industry.
                  Manufacturers, equipment suppliers,
                  government managers, and the public
                  are invited to attend.  The conference
                  will be held in Washington, D.C.,
                  March 11 -13, 1992. For more infor-
                  mation, call (800) 726-4853  or
                  (202) 429-0776.

                  Proceedings of Paint-
                  Stripping Conference
                  Are Available

                  Manufacturers, government officials,
                  and people who work with paint-
                  stripping chemicals and processes
                  met last February to discuss alterna-
                  tive paint-stripping technologies and
                  the regulatory process. The confer-
                  ence, sponsored by the Office of
                  Toxic Substances, attracted partici-
                  pants from around the world.

                  Proceedings from the conference are
                  now available from the National
                  Technical Information Service
                  (NTIS). The order number is PB91-

                  5285 Port Royal Road
                  Springfield, Virginia 22161
                  Phone: (703) 487-4650 or
                                      VOL.12/N0.4 DECEMBER 1991

                                          TSCA Hotline
TSCA Hotline: Question & Answer
Qi  My company needs to submit
several Preliminary Assessment Infor-
mation Rule (PAIR) forms in re-
sponse to a recent TSCA section 8(a)
PAIR rule.  I found a copy of the form
we need in 40 CFR 712. However,
the form says that Office of Manage-
ment and Budget (OMB) approval of
this form expired on March 31, 1984.
Can I still use this form or is there a
new one? Can I photocopy the form
in the CFR?  A post office box in
Rockville, Maryland, is listed as a
return address on the form; is the post
office box still in use?

Al  OMB has approved the contin-
ued use of the PAIR form shown in
40 CFR 712. However, the form
shown in the CFR is for informational
purposes only; photocopies will not be
accepted. The Office of Toxic Sub-
stances' Document Control Office is
                                    the only source of PAIR forms.  Each
                                    PAIR form is individually numbered
                                    and tracked; be sure to order a sepa-
                                    rate form for each manufacturing site.
                                    The Rockville address shown on the
                                    PAIR form is no longer in use.  The
                                    completed PAIR form should be
                                    returned to the Document Control

                                    To obtain PAIR forms and submit
                                    completed forms, contact
                                    Document Control Office (TS-790)
                                    Office of Toxic Substances
                                    U.S. EPA
                                    401 M Street, S.W.
                                    Washington, D.C. 20460
                                    (202)  260-1532

                                    For all other information, contact the
                                    TSCA Assistance Information Service
                                    (TSCA hotline) at right.
TSCA Hotline
Call (202) 554-1404

The TSCA Assistance Information
Service (TSCA hotline) operates
Monday through Friday, from 8:30
a.m. to 5 p.m. Eastern time. To
speak to an information specialist,
call (202) 554-1404.  FAX requests
for documents are received every day,
at all times, on (202) 554-5603.
Documents can also be requested by
deaf persons who have TDD equip-
ment by dialing (202) 554-0551.

To request assistance by mail, write
to the Environmental Assistance
Division at the address provided on
page 31.
Office of Toxic Substances (TS-799)
401 M Street, S.W.
Washington, D.C. 20460

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