FALL 1994 EPA-745-N-94-003
                     Chemicals in Progress

    7  EPA Calls for New Dioxin
       Data to Complete
       Reassessment Effort

    9  OPPT Launches
       Information Gathering
       Effort on the New River

   29  Community-Based Lead
       Abatement Demonstration
       Project: A Multi-Agency
       Approach to
       Environmental Justice

   In an effort to save costs,
   we are updating our
   mailing list for Chemicals
   in Progress Bulletin. If you
   would like to continue to
   receive your free copy of
   the Bulletin, you must flit
   out and mail in the form
   on the inside of the back
   cover by February 1, 1995.
TRI Chemical Expansion Rule Issued

On November 28, 1994, EPA finalized a rule to add 286 chemicals to the
list of chemicals for which Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) reporting is
required. In a related action, EPA also announced a final rule allowing
facilities that report low volumes of chemical releases to TRI to submit a
shorter, less time-consuming form — often compared to the IRS's E-Z tax
form — by establishing "streamlined reporting" of TRI data.

TRI  is a database of toxic chemicals maintained by EPA under Section
313  of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.
Companies must report to EPA and the states on their releases of these
chemicals into the environment and their transfer of these chemicals off-
site  for waste management. EPA makes the data available to the public,
for use in assessing risks in their communities. The expansion of TRI by
286  chemicals brings the total number of chemicals or chemical catego-
ries  on TRI up to 654.

"TRI data has allowed the public to be informed and involved in envi-
ronmental decision-making as they never were before," noted Carol
Browner, EPA Administrator, in announcing the expansion. "Expanding
the list of TRI chemicals is a major step forward in increasing the useful-
ness of this instrument."

EPA believes that broadening the scope of the chemical list will pro-
vide citizens with a more complete picture of chemicals that impact
                                          TRI Rule continued on page 5
OPPT Director  Greenwood  Departs

After four years as director of the Office of Pollution Prevention and
Toxics and 16 years of government service at EPA, Mark Greenwood
announced on October 17 that he was leaving public service at the
end of October to take a position with the Washington office of Ropes
& Gray, a Boston-based law firm.
                                            OPPT continued on page 7
     VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Table of Contents
1   OPPT Director Greenwood

30  "Common Sense" Work Begins
    on Electronics Industry

31  CBI  Reform: Final Action Plan

32  FOSTTA Reports on FY 1994

1   TRI  Chemical Expansion Rule

3   EPA Holds Public Meeting on
    TRI  "Phase 3" byMattGillen

4   RTKNet to Offer Speeches

6   1987-1992 TRI Now Available
    on CD-ROM by Geraldine

Existing Chemicals Program
7   EPA Calls for New Dioxin Data
    to Complete Reassessment

8   OPPTS and Region 5 Convene
    Mercury Task Force

8   TSCA Testing and Product
    Stewardship Agreements Signed
    for DGEBPA

g   OPPT Launches Information
    Gathering Effort on the New
    River by Michelle Price

10  35th ITC Report Transmitted

10  Use Cluster Scoring System: A
    Use-Based Approach to Setting
Design for the Environment
11 DfE Reaches Milestone in
   Printing Project Screen Printing
   CTSA Released

12 Dry Cleaning CTSA in the Works

13 EPA Lays Groundwork for PWB

13 CTSA: Key Information Tool

14 DfE: The Environmental
   Paradigm for the 21st Century
   by Joe Breen and Paul Anastas

Pollution Prevention Activities

17 FY 1994 PPIS Grants Award $6
   Million to States

19 EPA/GSA Cleaners Project
   Serves as Pilot for Defining
   Environmentally Preferable
   Products  by Eun-Sook Goidel
   and Tom Murray

21 33/50 Case Study Profiles

22 33/50 Program Hits the Home
   Stretch: What Next?

23 EPA and Industry Associations
   Meet to Discuss Pollution
   Prevention by Leah Yasenchak

24 National Pollution Prevention
   Roundtable 1994 Fall

Lead, Asbestos, PCBs
25 Informing Families about Lead
   Hazards in Housing

26 Lead Training & Certification
   Grants Awarded to States

26 Worker Training Grants for
   Lead-Based Paint Abatement
27  Lead Training and Accreditation
    Requirements: Persevering in
    the Battle Against Lead

Environmental Justice
28  Community-Based Lead
    Abatement Demonstration
    Project: A Multi-Agency
    Approach to Environmental

29  New Pollution Prevention
    Grants for Environmental Justice

33  OPPT Chemical Factsheets

34  OPPT Explores (and Exploits)
    the Internet

35  Public Access Initiative by Linda
    A. Travers

36  NHATS FY 1986 Results

37  Index to 1994 Articles
For correspondence and
    Chemicals in
    Progress. Bulletin
    U.S. EPA (7407)
    401 M Street, S.W.
    Washington, D,C. 20460

    Mike McDonell, Co-Editor
    Wanda Woodburn, Co-Editor
    Gilah Langner
    Free Hand  Press, Layout

EPA Holds Public Meeting on TRI "Phase 3"
by Matt Gillen
EPA's Office of Pollution Preven-
tion and Toxics (OPPT) held a
public meeting on September 28,
1994 to hear input from stake-
holders on the concept of a third
phase of TRI expansion that
would collect facility-level chemi-
cal use information along with
additional information on occu-
pational demographics. About
125 people attended the meeting,
representing trade associations,
environmental and public interest
groups, labor organizations, state
and federal agencies, environ-
mental justice groups, and law
TRI-Phase 3 is one of two project
tracks that evolved out of earlier
discussions with stakeholders on
the creation of a "Chemical Use
Inventory" (GUI). Facility use
information refers to data about
the throughput of chemicals at a
particular site, also known as
materials accounting data. (A
second project track, the TSCA
Inventory Update Rule (IUR),
would collect data about the
commercial flow and end-use of
chemicals once they leave a
manufacturing facility.)

Materials accounting tends to
evoke strong opinions from all
sides, and this meeting was no
exception. A key focus of com-
ments at the meeting was the
value of materials accounting
data, which includes such infor-
mation as the amount of a toxic
chemical brought on site, the
amount consumed, the amount
put into products, etc. Environ-
mental community speakers
strongly supported the collection
of such data as a right-to-know
         TRI Phase 3 continued on next page
  In his comments at the public meeting, OPPT
  Office Director Mark Greenwood "played back"
  some of the things that he has been hearing
  about TRI Phase 3.
  To the public interest community, Greenwood
  stated that EPA strongly believes that additional
  information on use and exposure should be col-
  lected. However, he pointed out  "that it is not yet
  dear to a large group of people that a national
  materials accounting approach is the best way to do
  that."  Greenwood described industry's concerns
  that input and output information might not "help
  the public ... answer the question, Am I safe?" and
  that only a small number of people might eventu-
  ally use the data. He also relayed industry concerns
  that misuse of the data may occur regardless of
  intentions, because it is technically difficult to use
  the data to make comparisons across facilities. He
  suggested that the environmental community think
  broadly about how the data will be used, and be
                flexible at this early stage about the type of data
                elements to be considered.
                To the business community, Greenwood sug-
                gested that engaging the  issue of what is appro-
                priate for reporting in this area even if some
                would prefer that the issue  just go away. Green-
                wood called materials accounting "part of... an
                inevitable debate about the full extent and outer
                bounds  of right-to-know."  He described right-to-
                know as a "very powerful policy direction" that is
                "going to be part of your world for a long time."
                Information is a major element in the evolving
                self-empowerment approach being taken by the
                public, and providing information is seen as a
                valuable and cost-effective EPA service. Green-
                wood predicted that right-to-know would remain
                a priority no matter who  runs EPA in years to
                come. Greenwood closed by stating that he
                hoped that these "tough messages" would be
                taken in a way that encouraged stakeholders to
                look for consensus opportunities and to avoid
                polarization as  the issue moves forward.
     VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

TRI  "Phase  3"
Phase! from previous page
 issue, claiming that the data fill in
 important gaps. To these speak-
 ers, disclosure of these data
 would lead to accountability on
 claims of source reduction and
 other pollution prevention activi-
 ties. Thus,  it would help make TRI
 into a better pollution prevention
 scorecard. Materials accounting
 was also seen as providing impor-
 tant data for chemical accident
 prevention, and for tracking the
 amounts of toxics in products.
 Industry and trade association
 speakers, on the other hand,
 were skeptical that materials
accounting data would add much
value to TRI. These speakers
claimed that the existing pollution
prevention data elements were
adequate to allow measurement
of pollution prevention progress.
Materials accounting data were
characterized as expensive to
collect and report, and while not
proving very useful to citizens,
could reveal valuable information
to competitors. Industry speakers
expressed concern that materials
accounting data would confuse
the public about risk, and would
be a distraction from the work of
reducing releases and transfers.

Other topics discussed at the
meeting included the pros and
   RTKNet to Offer

   OPPT's Information Manage-
   ment Division is initiating a
   pilot project on electronic
   submissions for public meet-
   ings. Individuals speaking at
   public meetings will be invited
   to furnish diskettes containing
   their speeches to the Agency;
   the material will be made
   available on the Right-To-
   Know-Network (RTKNet).
   For further  information,
   contact Gwen Shepard at 202-
   260-1607 or Lisa Flemming at
   Currently, the TRI Phase 3 issue
   paper and several speeches
   presented at the September 28,
1994 TRI Phase 3 public meet-
ing are available on RTKNet.
Diskettes were supplied to EPA
by the Legal Environmental
Assistance Foundation, Environ-
mental Health Coalition, U.S.
PIRG, Ecology Center, National
Wildlife Federation and the
Louisiana Environmental Action

RTKNet is an on-line, publicly
accessible network that trans-
mits information arising from
the right-to-know provisions of
the EPCRA legislation. For
access information, contact:
RTKNet, Unison Institute,  1731
Connecticut Ave. NW, Washing-
ton, DC 20009-1146, tel: 202-
797-7200, fax: 202-234-8584.
You can also register on-line by
modem at 202-234-8570.
cons of adding occupational
exposure indicators to TRI;
whether EPA has the authority to
add such data  elements; the
experience of New Jersey and
Massachusetts, which already
require materials accounting
reporting; the relationship of use
data to risk; and concerns about
redundancy in existing agency
information collection.  Departing
OPPT Office Director Mark
Greenwood provided a series of
"tough messages" to  both the
industry and public interest
community (see box on previous
page) on the need to be open at
this early stage of discussion.

As TRI-Phase 3 is in the explor-
atory' stage, future meetings  are
likely. EPA  has not made any
decisions yet on how this issue
•will be pursued further, other than
that it will follow the chemical and
facility expansion efforts that are
already underway.  Additional
background information is pro-
vided in an OPPT Issues Paper
entitled:  "Expansion of the Toxics
Release Inventory (TRI) to gather
chemical use information: TRI-
Phase  3: Use Expansion." An
administrative record (AR 128) has
been established to provide public
access to comments provided by
various stakeholders. OPPT is
reviewing the comments and will
proceed with further evaluation of
the issues.  Stay tuned.
Matt Gillen works in OPPT's
Environmental Assistance Divi-
sion as a project manager in
charge of exploring options for
TRI-Phase 3.

TRI  Rule Issued
From page 1
their communities. In addition,
the expansion will focus
industry's attention on further
pollution prevention or source
reduction opportunities. Finally,
the expansion will provide a
broad, multimedia picture of
these additional chemicals, not
currently evident or possible from
single-media permitting or data
collection activities.
Over the past year, EPA has added
34 chemicals to the TRI list,
including ozone-depleting HCFCs
and chemicals regulated under the
Resource Conservation and Recov-
ery Act (RCRA). This new addition
of 286 chemicals is based on the
acute human health effects of
these chemicals, their carcinoge-
nicity or other chronic health
effects, and/or their environmental
effects. Roughly half of the new
chemicals added are active ingre-
dients in pesticides.
In introducing the streamlined
reporting rule, Browner said, "We
had to make some difficult deci-
sions as to how to balance the
benefits of more data with our
practical concerns associated with
data processing and with concerns
on the part of industry about
increasing the burden of reporting.
On the one hand, we believe it is
appropriate to streamline TRI
reporting by minimizing unneces-
sary data collection and reporting.
On the other, we are concerned
about preserving a substantial
amount of detailed data for the
public." Browner stressed that the
streamlined reporting rule is a
compromise arrived at following
extensive consultation with many
parties including industry, labor
unions, and public interest groups.

The streamlined reporting rule has
its roots in EPA's need to respond
to petitions from the Small Busi-
ness Administration and the
American Feed Industry Associa-
tion that requested relief from the
TRI reporting burden. Under the
new rule, facilities meeting the TRI
reporting thresholds of 25,000
pounds for the manufacturing and
processing of a listed chemical
(and 10,000 for otherwise using a
listed chemical), but which
estimate that their annual report-
able amount  of the listed chemi-
cal does not exceed 500 pounds
per year, can take advantage of
an alternate threshold of 1 million
pounds. Facilities that take advan-
tage of this alternate threshold
need  only submit a short certifica-
tion form instead of the more
extensive and time-consuming TRI
reporting form. In other words, the
new rule stipulates  that only
facilities which report more than
500 pounds of a TRI chemical, or
manufacture, process, or use more
than 1 million pounds of a TRI
chemical, need complete the
longer form.  Prior to the passage
of this new rule, all facilities
reporting to the TRI completed
the same extensive form.
Future expansion plans for the TRI
include expanding the type of
facilities that are required to report
beyond the manufacturing sector.
At this point, EPA plans to include
"On the one hand, we
believe it is appropriate
to streamline TRI reporting
by minimizing unnecessary
data collection and
reporting. On the other,
we are concerned about
preserving a substantial
amount of detailed data
for the public."
    EPA Administrator Carol Browner
other industrial sectors which
appear to have significant releases
of TRI chemicals. These sectors
include energy production (electric
utilities),  materials extraction
(metal and coal mining), and
materials distribution (bulk termi-
nals and  freight transportation),
and waste management.  Facilities
in the transportation sector, prima-
rily airports, also appear  to have
significant releases. A TRI facility
expansion rule is scheduled for
proposal in the fall. EPA is also
supporting an international effort
to promote the concept of toxic
chemical release inventories.
For more information on these TRI
rules, contact the EPCRA Hotline at
      VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

1987-1992 TRI Now Available  on  CD-ROM
by Geraldine Nowak
TRI data from 1987 to 1992 are
available on CD-ROMs, The new
CD-ROM format updates and
supersedes all previously pub-
lished TRI  data on optical disc.
Beginning  in 1991 facilities sub-
jected to TRI reporting also
provided data on their source
reduction and recycling activities
for past, current, and projected
reporting years.

The CD-ROM disc includes a
separate file of information about
the health,  safety and ecological
effects of TRI chemicals. The
information is derived from the
Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet
prepared by the New Jersey
Department of Health Right to
Know Program and is supple-
mented by EPA's Office of Pollu-
tion Prevention and Toxics.
TRI is updated annually and has
many uses. It is an important tool
for national analysis across chemi-
cals and/or industries, and pro-
vides a basis for linking with
other environmental data. It is
also a good tool for finding
information about toxic chemicals
used and released in neighbor-
hoods, helping grassroots groups
as well as EPA work with industry
to reduce emissions, and identify-
ing areas with environmental
justice issues.

The software supports search,
retrieval, and display of TRI
records, export of data to dBASE
or Lotus 1-2-3 format, computing
of basic statistics, plus many more
features for accessing specific data.

The CD-ROM operates on an IBM
PC or compatible platform,
requiring 640K RAM (with 540K
RAM for the TRI files), DOS 3.3 or
above,  a CD-ROM drive, Microsoft
CD-ROM extensions, monitor,
hard disk drive and printer (op-
tional). The CD-ROM is published
by the U.S. Government Printing
Office (GPO) using the KAware
Retrieval System developed by
Knowledge Access International
of Mountain View, California.

The CD-ROM can be ordered
from GPO or the National Techni-
cal Information Service (NTIS).
GPO: stock number 055-000-
00469-2, $33, tel: 202-512-1800,
fax: 202-512-2250. NTIS: order
number PB94-504230, $45, tel:
703-487-4650, fax: 703-321-8547.

Information about TRI and
customer assistance is available
 The software supports
 search, retrieval, and
 display of TRI records,
 export of data to dBASE
 or Lotus 1-2-3 format,
 computing  of basic
 statistics, plus many
 more features for
 accessing specific data.
from the TRI User Support (TRI
US) desk at 202-260-1531 (tel) or
202-260-4659 (fax). A limited
supply of CDs are available free
to EPA staff, other government
offices, and public or academic
libraries. Customer comments on
the TRI CD-ROM are welcomed
by fax or mail (address: TRI US,
401 M Street SW (7407), Washing-
ton DC 20460).

Geraldtne Nowak is project leader
for the Information Management
Division's TRI CD-ROM program.

     Existing Chemicals Program
EPA Calls for New Dioxin  Data
to  Complete  Reassessment Effort
On September 13, 1994, EPA
released a draft reassessment of
dioxin risk and issued a sweep-
ing call to scientists, industries,
federal, state, and local govern-
ments, public interest groups,
and hospital facilities across the
nation for new data on dioxin.
This effort to collect additional
data is designed to fill gaps in
EPA's  knowledge of dioxin
sources and  emissions so that the
final dioxin reassessment docu-
ment is as accurate and up-to-
date as possible.

The draft dioxin reassessment is
the result of EPA's three-year
scientific review, the most exhaus-
tive scientific review of a single
compound ever undertaken by
the Agency. While it expands
EPA's understanding of dioxin
toxicology, the reassessment is
not yet complete and is not
expected to be until late 1995,
after the completion of scientific
peer review.

The draft reassessment comprises
six volumes and totals over 2,000
pages. It deals with both cancer
and non-cancer effects, known
sources of dioxin  in the environ-
ment,  and current levels of hu-
man exposure. The report
reaffirms the link between dioxin
and cancer and concludes that
dioxin exposure at some level
may result in a number of non-
cancer health effects in humans.
The report also identifies sources
of dioxin known to contribute to
environmental contamination.

During the 120-day comment
period, EPA will be taking public
comments on the draft document.
Early in  1995, the Agency's
Science Advisory Board (SAB) will
conduct a formal scientific peer
review. The Agency will conclude
the reassessment later in 1995,
incorporating appropriate changes
from public comments and the
SAB review. Copies of the draft
reassessment are available from:

CERI/ORD Publications Center
26 W. Martin Luther King Drive
Cincinnati, OH 45268
Tel: 513-569-7562.
Fax: 513-569-7566
OPPT Director Greenwood Departs
OPPT from page 1
"For me this is an opportunity to
return to my profession, a step I
have always expected to do at
some point in time," Greenwood
wrote in an all-hands memo,
"From a professional and personal
point of view, I look forward to
this new endeavor with great

Assistant Administrator Lynn
Goldman announced that upon
Greenwood's departure, Joe
Carra, Deputy Director, will serve
as Acting Director. Carra ap-
pointed Susan Hazen, director of
the Environmental Assistance
Division (EAD), to fill the
deputy's position on an acting
basis. Jim Willis, Hazen's second
in command, will be acting
division director of EAD during
her absence.

Lynn Goldman, Assistant Adminis-
trator for Prevention, Pesticides
and Toxic Substances (OPPTS),
will be responsible for naming a
new director of OPPT, the sixth
since the passage of the Toxic
Substances Control Act (TSCA)
and the creation of the office in
1976. At press time,  no successor
to Greenwood had been named.
     VOL. 15/NO. 3 FALL 1994

     Existing Chemicals Program
OPPTS and Region 5
Convene Mercury Task Force
Dr. Lynn Goldman, Assistant
Administrator for OPPTS, and Val
Adamkus, Region 5 Administra-
tor, have formed an EPA-wide
task force to improve coordina-
tion within EPA on mercury-
related issues and actions. The
Great Lakes National Program
Office (GLNPO) suggested the
need to create such a national
task force as an outgrowth of
work underway within Region 5.
GLNPO had developed a series
of recommendations designed to
help achieve the virtual elimina-
tion of mercury from the Great
Lakes ecosystem, and some of
these recommendations, if
adopted, may require issuing
national policies or regulations.

OPPTS and Region 5  received
nominations to the task force
from all major program offices at
EPA Headquarters and from all of
the Regional Offices.  The first task
force meeting occurred on Octo-
ber 12, 1994 in Washington, D.C.
The task force briefed Lynn
Goldman and Val Adamkus on
the uses of mercury, the sources
and nature of releases, existing
regulations which control mer-
cury, and current Agency activities
involving mercury which need to
be coordinated across EPA. These
activities include the Office of
Solid Waste's rulemaking on the
disposal of mercury lights, the
Office of Air's Report to Congress
on Mercury, and the formulation
of an EPA position regarding the
sale of mercury from the National
Defense Stockpile.

For further information on the
Mercury Task Force, contact Jim
Darr (202-260-3441), Dave Top-
ping (202-260-7737), or Elizabeth
LaPlante (312-353-2694).
TSCA Testing and Product Stewardship
Agreements  Signed  for DGEBPA
Three major manufacturers of the
diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
(DGEBPA) have signed a TSCA §4
Enforceable Consent Agreement
(EGA) to conduct certain needed
health effects tests as well as
glove permeation tests on
DGEBPA. The companies are
Shell Chemical Company, the
Dow Chemical Company and the
Ciba-Geigy Corporation.

The TSCA §4 EGA became effec-
tive on August 1, 1994, the date of
its publication in the Federal
Register (see 59 FR 38917). This
EGA resulted from OPPT's "Open
Season" initiative wherein testing
proposals were solicited from the
industry on chemicals for which
final TSCA §4 test rules had not as
yet been issued (see 57 FR
A unique feature of the DGEBPA
testing program  is that it is ac-
companied by a Memorandum of
Understanding (MOU) between
OPPT and the three DGEBPA
manufacturers. Under the MOU,
the companies have agreed to
develop and implement a volun-
tary DGEBPA Product Stewardship
Program. This MOU, which went
into effect on August 1, 1994,
reflects OPPT's ongoing efforts to
expand the use of its TSCA
Chemical Testing Program to
achieve documentable progress
by the industry in important
OPPT mission-related activities
such as pollution prevention,
waste minimization, risk commu-
nication, and risk reduction.
Copies of the DGEBPA TSCA §4
EGA and MOU can be obtained
from OPPT's Public Docket Office
(Docket # 542168).

     Existing Chemicals Program
 OPPT Launches Information
 Gathering Effort on the New River
 EPA and SEDESOL join forces to address pollution
by Michelle Price
EPA has launched an information
gathering effort aimed at address-
ing pollution in areas near the
New River, which flows north
from Mexico into the United
States through Mexicali in Baja
California and the Imperial Valley
of California. On September 21,
1994, Assistant Administrator Lynn
Goldman issued administrative
subpoenas under TSCA section 11
to 95 U.S. parent companies with
facilities in the vicinity of
Mexicali, Mexico. The purpose of
this information gathering exer-
cise is to develop information to
assist in conducting a monitoring
program for the New River, to
ensure citizens in the New River
vicinity are protected in the event
an imminent hazard or unreason-
able risk exists, and to ensure that
citizens are provided with infor-
mation on chemicals released into
the New River.

Aiso on September 21, EPA and
Mexico's environmental agency,
the Secretariat for Social Devel-
opment (SEDESOL), announced a
cooperative effort aimed at
addressing pollution in the New
River area. Under current envi-
ronmental agreements between
the U.S. and Mexico regarding
industrial waste management in
the border area, EPA and
SEDESOL agreed to carry out
measures expanding cooperative
efforts to reduce pollution in the
New River on both sides of the
border. In this regard, and in
accordance with each country's
applicable laws, both agencies
agreed to exchange information
on industrial waste generation
and management.
Citizens living in the vicinity of
the New River have expressed
concern about the river's pollu-
tion and the threats it might pose
to health and the environment
through several citizens' petitions.
Since December 1993, EPA has
received three petitions under
TSCA section 21, one from Impe-
rial County, CA, and two joint
petitions (EHC et al.) from the
Environmental Health Coalition
(EHC), Comite Ciudadano Pro
Restauracion del Canon del Padre
y Servicios Comunitarios (Comite
Ciudadano), and the Southwest
Network for Environmental and
Economic Justice (SNEEJ). EPA
responded to the Imperial County
petition in the Federal Register on
March 23, 1994. As a result of the
action taken on September 21 by
EPA and SEDESOL, EHC et ai.
withdrew their petitions.

The requested information will
allow EPA and SEDESOL to
conduct risk assessments, deter-
mine the relative contribution of
industries in each country to the
New River pollution, narrow the
scope of the monitoring program
of the New River to be conducted
by EPA in cooperation with
SEDESOL, the State of California,
and the U.S. Geological Survey,
and assist in the health consulta-
tion on the New River to be done
by the Agency for Toxic Sub-
stances and Disease Registry. EPA
and SEDESOL plan to make the
information collected through this
effort available to the public, to
the extent possible.

Michelle Price works in OPPT's
Environmental Assistance Divi-
sion. She is project manager on
this information gathering effort.
     VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Existing Chemicals Program
 Use Cluster  Scoring System:
 A Use-Based  Approach to Setting  Priorities
EPA's Office of Pollution Preven-
tion and Toxics is developing a
system for use in screening and
prioritizing chemicals, known as
the Use Cluster Scoring System
(UCSS). The UCSS was designed
around the concept of identifying
and analyzing clusters of chemi-
cals that can be used to perform a
particular task.

For example, instead of consider-
ing a single chemical that is used
in paint stripping, a set of chemi-
cals that can perform as paint
strippers is considered. By screen-
ing and scoring these "use clus-
ters," EPA can work directly with
industries and users on effective
means of risk reduction. The
UCSS may also assist other public
and private sector organizations in
identifying clusters of potential
concern and providing an initial
indication of potentially safer
substitutes for classes of chemi-
The computerized version of the
UCSS contains nearly 400 clusters
with over 3700 chemicals. The
system is under review by the
Engineering Committee of the
Science Advisory Board and has
received comments from various
EPA program  offices as well as
non-EPA interested parties.
  35th  ITC Report Transmitted

  The 35th Report of the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee
  (ITC) will be transmitted to the Administrator of EPA in the near
  future. In this Report, the ITC is revising its TSCA section 4(e)
  Priority Testing List by designating a group of 25 chemicals for
  dermal absorption testing because they are of regulatory interest
  to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The ITC is
  also revising its List by removing 110 previously-recommended
  chemicals, including 28 of 43 isocyanates, 27 of 89 aldehydes, 25
  of 26 sulfones, 7 of 11 cyanoacrylates, 4 of 14 diaryl ethers,  and
  19 of 35 chemicals originally recommended for subchronic (90-
  day) toxicity testing.

     Design for the Environment
DfE Reaches Milestone  in  Printing Project
Screen Printing CTSA Released
EPA's Design for the Environment
(DFE) Printing Project recently
achieved a major milestone,
releasing a draft analysis, called a
Cleaner Technology Substitutes
Assessment (CTSA), on Screen
Printing in September 1994. This
CTSA represents the culmination
of many months of research into
alternative methods for reclaiming
screens in screen printing. This is
the first draft CTSA that EPA has
completed,  and  it will be used as
a model for future assessments of
risk reduction and pollution
prevention opportunities in other

In screen printing, inks are
pressed through a screen mesh to
print an image onto paper, plastic,
or electronic equipment. Instead
of discarding screens after each
use, printers clean or "reclaim"
their screens in order to print
additional images. Screen recla-
mation involves using a solvent to
remove the ink, stencil, and
sometimes a "ghost image" or
haze that may remain on the
screen. DfE and the screen print-
ing industry have been working
together to evaluate alternative
ways to reclaim screens in order
to make the process more envi-
ronmentally benign, cost effective,
and productive.
The CTSA closely examines five
screen reclamation processes.
These processes were first tested
in a laboratory setting. Then, 23
volunteer printing facilities tested
the methods in 30-day production
runs. Information collected
included the time spent on ink
removal using the alternative
systems, the volume of products
used, and the appearance of the
screen following each step in the
reclamation process.

Lithography and
Flexography are Next
The DfE Program is also planning
to complete CTSAs for both the
lithographic and flexographic
segments of the printing industry.
Draft CTSAs in these areas are
expected to be completed in
Lithography is a printing process
that applies different colors of ink
onto paper (such as posters,
reports, and flyers) using large
rollers. When a job is completed,
inks must be washed from the
rollers using solvents, a process
called "blanket washing," in order
to apply a new color or to start a
new project. DfE  is working with
the lithography industry to iden-
tify alternative blanket washes.
Laboratory analysis of 40 alterna-
tive blanket washes has been
completed to date.  In October,
volunteer lithography shops
tested these alternatives, which
were donated by suppliers.

DfE is also forging a partnership
with the flexography industry to
assess the environmental risk,
performance, cost, and pollution
prevention opportunities in using
alternative flexographic inks.
Flexography is a process used to
print on the packaging of many
frozen, boxed, and canned foods.
Many different types of inks can
be used for flexography, some of
which are solvent-based.

Based on these different technical
studies, DfE will develop several
information products to assist the
printing industry in making
environmentally informed
choices. EPA is producing case
studies and a video highlighting
successful pollution prevention
and waste minimization strategies
in screen print companies. For
more information on these and
other technical assistance tools,
call EPA's Pollution Prevention
Information Clearinghouse at 202-
                                      VOL. 15/NO. 3 FALL 1994

     Design for the Environment
Dry Cleaning CTSA  in the Works
The DfE Dry Cleaning Project will
soon release CTSAs comparing
the trade-offs between traditional
and alternative professional
garment cleaning technologies.
EPA expects to release a draft
CTSA on existing technologies
first, and a second on emerging
technologies in late 1995.
The first CTSA will examine
traditional, solvent-based tech-
nologies. The new or alternative
technologies to be addressed in
the second CTSA include the
• Multiprocess wet cleaning —
  A method of customized hand
  cleaning that uses soaps and a
  controlled application of water/
• Machine wet cleaning — A
  mechanized, water-based
  method that varies the washing
  technique based on the type of
  fabric involved.
• Liquid CO2 technology — A
  technology that uses the sol-
  vent properties of CO2 at high
  pressures to clean clothes.
• Microwave drying — A "quick-
  dry" technology that uses micro-
  waves instead of heat, thereby
  reducing garment  shrinkage.
  Microwave technology could
  potentially make water-based
  techniques more viable.
The CTSA is the culmination of
two years of EPA research con-
ducted in a cooperative partner-
ship with interested parties
ranging from Greenpeace to Dow
Chemical. The overall mission of
the partnership is to promote
pollution prevention and better
work practices within the profes-
sional garment cleaning industry.
The Dry Cleaning Project is also
pursuing one promising alterna-
tive technology identified in
recent research — multiprocess
wet cleaning. A short-term study
on the performance and costs of
multiprocess wet cleaning was
completed in 1993. To further test
the viability of this and other
water-based approaches, EPA will
soon launch an 18-month demon-
stration project. Three demonstra-
tion sites, located in cities across
the United States, will mirror
typical neighborhood dry cleaning
shops in terms of size, pounds of
clothing cleaned daily, and
number of employees. One
facility will offer alternative
cleaning technologies only, while
the other two will offer both wet
and dry cleaning services.
To advance the use of safer
alternative cleaning methods, EPA
has also been working with the
Federal Trade Commission to
make the garment care label "Dry
Clean Only" less restrictive. Public
comment is being received
through October 16,  1994, on a
Federal Register notice regarding
proposed changes to the label.
The dry cleaning CTSA is
the culmination of two
years of EPA research
conducted in a cooperative
partnership with interested
parties ranging from
Greenpeace to Dow
Chemical. The overall
mission  of the partnership
is to promote pollution
prevention and better work
practices within the
professional garment
cleaning industry.
In an ongoing effort to keep the
dry cleaning industry and the
public up-to-date on the project,
EPA is conducting many outreach
activities. These include develop-
ing brochures and fact sheets on
alternative cleaning processes,
compiling case studies and
success stories, and exhibiting at
trade shows.

     Design for the Environment
EPA Lays Groundwork for PWB Study
Printed wiring boards (PWBs) are
the substrates that connect vital
electronic components (e.g.,
semiconductors, electronic chips)
of electronic assemblies. Several
major U.S. industries, including
the automotive, computer, and
defense industries, depend on
efficient PWB production  for use
in their products.
Although the electronics industry
is generally thought of as  "clean,"
a 1993 industry-led study  found
that PWB manufacture accounts
for a majority of the environmen-
tal impact associated with com-
puter workstation production. In
fact, 79% of the energy used, 95%
of the water used, and 95% of the
hazardous waste  generated during
the manufacture of a computer
workstation occurs during the
production of PWBs.

The results of this study led EPA's
DfE Program to form a partnership
with the PWB industry to jointly
evaluate ways to minimize the
industry's environmental impacts
and yet remain competitive. The
DfE project stakeholders are
currently in the process of identify-
ing and engaging other stakehold-
ers in the project, including repre-
sentatives of the environmental,
environmental justice, and labor
communities. Anyone interested in
participating in this project is
encouraged to contact the Pollu-
tion Prevention Information
Clearinghouse at 202-260-1023.
During the initial phase of this
project, EPA, industry, and other
stakeholders have begun to lay the
groundwork necessary to begin
developing a CTSA for a key
process step in PWB manufacture.
At the first meeting of the DfE
PWB Technical Workgroup in
September 1994, the workgroup
identified four PWB manufacturing
process steps as candidates for
detailed analysis in the CTSA,
based on their perceived environ-
mental and human health risks
and associated regulatory compli-
ance costs to PWB manufacturers.
EPA will evaluate candidate process
steps and rank them by relative risk
using EPA's use cluster scoring
system—a system for comparing
the relative risk of various process
steps (see story, p. 10).
Other documents will be devel-
oped during the course of the
project, including a pollution
prevention survey of the PWB
industry, a profile  of the size,
distribution,  and economic status
of the industry, and a description
of available processes and chemi-
cals used to  carry out each major
PWB manufacture process step.
After the development of these
technical work products and the
CTSA, EPA will assist the PWB
industry and other project stake-
holders to demonstrate alternative
processes and technologies and to
develop a variety of outreach
tools to promote pollution pre-
vention, including training materi-
als and workshops. EPA also
plans to develop software to help
small PWB companies identify
and monitor pollution  prevention
activities. The long-term goal of
the DfE PWB project is to effect
voluntary behavior changes
within the PWB industry that
result in the  generation of fewer
toxic and non-toxic materials,
reductions in workplace expo-
sures, and less use of energy and
natural resources.
  CTSA: Key Information Tool
  EPA's DfE Program forms cooperative partner-
  ships with industry, government, institutions, and
  professional groups to identify pollution preven-
  tion and waste minimization opportunities. In
  each area of partnership, EPA  and its partners
  gather information on the performance, cost, and
  environmental and health risks of existing and
                alternative technologies. This information is then
                compiled and analyzed in a document known as
                a Cleaner Technologies Substitute Assessment
                (CTSA). A CTSA examines the tradeoffs among
                different options and provides DfE partners with
                the knowledge to make informed decisions about
                altering their products and operations.
     VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Design for the Environment
DfE: The  Environmental  Paradigm for the 21st Century
by Joe Breen and PaulAnastas
DfE: The Environmental Para-
digm for the 21st Century was the
subject of an international sympo-
sium at the ACS National Meeting
held in Washington, DC on
August 21-25, 1994. The event
was sponsored by OPPT in
collaboration with the American
Chemical Society's Committee for
Environmental Improvement and
Division of Environmental Chem-
istry, the Dow Corning Corpora-
tion, the Council for Chemical
Research, and the Gulf Coast
Hazardous Substance Research
Center. The symposium afforded
an opportunity for analytical and
synthetic chemists, chemical
engineers, economists, industrial
and environmental scientists,
management, and policy makers
to report progress and exchange
ideas on the implementation of
pollution prevention as an inte-
gral part of our national environ-
mental and economic policies.

Businesses operating in the  1990s
face a variety of competing
demands to keep costs low  and
quality high while staying com-
petitive in a global marketplace,
and meeting consumer prefer-
ences for more environmentally
friendly products. Designing for
the environment is a real-world
strategy for organizing and man-
aging these  demands for the next
century. EPA's DfE program,
building on a concept pioneered
by industry, aims to help busi-
nesses incorporate environmental
considerations into the design and
redesign of products, processes,
and technical and management
Businesses design for the environ-
ment in a variety of ways:

• By implementing pollution
  prevention, energy efficiency,
  and other resource conserva-
  tion measures;
• By producing and using fewer
  toxic and nontoxic materials;
• By making products that can be
  refurbished, disassembled, and
  recycled; and

• By keeping careful track of the
  environmental costs associated
  with each product or process.
Through its DfE program, OPPT
creates voluntary partnerships
with industry, professional organi-
zations, state and local govern-
ments, other federal agencies, and
the public. OPPT's efforts are
directed at giving businesses the
information needed to design for
the environment and at helping
businesses use this information to
make  informed choices. Within
each business, the DfE program
works to ensure that information
reaches the people who make the
choices — from buyers to indus-
trial design engineers to molecu-
lar designers.
The role of the chemist — the
Benign By Design Chemist — is
central to the success of the DfE
OPPT is promoting the
fundamental revision of
undergraduate and
graduate school curricula
in chemistry to promote
and incorporate the
concepts of environmentally
benign chemical synthesis
and processing.
approach, The traditional synthe-
ses of high-volume industrial
chemicals use toxic feedstocks or
catalysts, or they create hazardous
and toxic by-products. In coopera-
tion with the National Science
Foundation and the Department of
Energy, OPPT is  encouraging
university research into alternative
production methods that minimize
or eliminate hazardous substances.
OPPT is also promoting the
fundamental revision of under-
graduate and graduate school
curricula in chemistry to promote
and incorporate the concepts of
environmentally benign chemical
synthesis and processing.

The DfE Symposium in Washing-
ton involved 14 sessions including
a plenary, with some 110 presen-
                Continued on next page

     Design for the Environment
Design for the
Continued from previous page
rations overall. The program
included sessions on designing
chemistry curricula to reflect
environmentally benign synthesis
and processing, designing safer
chemicals for industry and agri-
culture,  and integrating environ-
mentally concerns into industrial
process  analytical chemistry. Case
studies from the printing,
drycleaning, aerospace, and video
film processing industries were
presented. The case studies
reported on DfE as the new
environmental paradigm formu-
lated to  meet our  national goal of
"prosperity without pollution" in
the next century.

Highlights of
the Symposium
Environmentally Benign Synthesis
and Processes in the Chemistry
Curriculum. There are a variety
of issues involved in the interface
between chemistry and the
environment. These two sessions
dealt with different approaches to
the teaching of environmental
chemistry; the use of microscale
equipment and other techniques
to bring pollution prevention into
the laboratory, and ways to bring
environmentally benign synthesis
into the  curriculum at different
academic levels as well as into in-
service training for industrial
professionals. Sunday, August
21st: AM session (2 tapes) and PM
session (2 tapes).
Designing Chemical Synthesis and
Processes for the Environment.
These two sessions emphasized
practical examples of alternative
synthetic pathways for pollution
prevention. Topic explored the use
of supercritical fluids and carbon
dioxide as reaction media and
spray paint solvents.; reactions to
produce organic isocyanates,
oxychemicals, emulsin, and
alkylates; and new efforts to
practice pollution prevention
through the application of new
process design techniques. High-
lights included: "Chemical and
Catalytic Transformations in
Supercritical Fluids," by Tumas,, Los Alamos National Labs.;
"Expert System for Solvent Substi-
tution," by Timber-lake and
Govind, University of Cincinnati;
and "Biocatalytic Conversion of
Halogenated Aromatic Compounds
to carbohydrates and Other Chiral
Synthons," by Hudltckey, Virginia
Polytechnic Institute and  State
University. Monday, August 22nd
AM session (2 tapes) and PM
session (2 tapes).

DfE: Program Overview and
Case Studies. This session show-
cased OPPT's program on full-
cost  accounting, cleaner dry
cleaning and screen  printing
technologies, and the EPA-GSA
green cleaning products survey.
Non-OPPT presentations in-
cluded: "DfE and Industrial
Ecology/1 by Dambach, AT&T;
"Effective Partnering for Improv-
ing the Environment," by Koch,
Dow Chemical; and "DfE, by
Fiksel,  Decision Focus. Tuesday,
August 23rd AM session (2 tapes).

DfE and The Stuff of Dreams for
The Year 2040. A plenary session
featured two vastly differing
perspectives of the 21st century.
The futuristic vision of
nanotechnologist, K. Eric
Drexler's "Molecular Manufactur-
ing For the Environment," and the
practical insights of global tech-
nologist, Joel S. Hirschhorn's
"Enabling Global Implementation
of Industrial Pollution Prevention"
offered thought-provoking and
exciting challenges to the audi-
ence to  stretch their vision of the
next century.

Designing Chemical Safety in
Communities and Industry and
Designing Information Tools and
Data Bases for Better Decisions.
Two mini-sessions presented  a
combination of industrial efforts
to implement inherently safer
chemistry in the real world at
Union Carbide, Dow Chemical,
and Rohm and Haas, and of EPA
information tools and databases
as a basis for decision making.

The Tuesday, August 23rd PM
session (2 tapes) included a
plenary  and two mini-sessions.

Cleaner Production: The Interna-
tional Perspective. Italy, Thailand,
Japan, The Netherlands, Latin
America  and France were repre-
sented is this wide ranging day-
long program. Six presentations
by industrial and academic re-
searchers from Italy clearly made
the point that cleaner  production

Design lot the Environment continued on next page
     VOL 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Design for the Environment
Design for the
Continued from previous page
has a broad base of support from
the Italian government and
chemical industry. Presentations
included: "Opportunities for
Cleaner Production in Thailand,"
by de Mesa, Thailand Environ-
ment Institute; "Caprolactam via
Ammoxidation," by Petrini,,
ENICHEM, Italy; "Biodegradation,
Enzymes, and Mechanisms," by
Bertini and Luchinat, Universities
of Florence and Bologna, Italy;
and "Pollution Prevention in
Italy," by Tundo, University of
Venice. Wednesday, August 24th
AM session (2 tapes) and PM
session (2 tapes).
Designing Safer Chemicals. These
two sessions explored approaches
to the design of chemicals that
retain their functional efficacy
while reducing their toxicity.
Topics covered included
bioactivation and its role in
toxicity, retrometabolism,
isosterism, and the use computers
in toxicology. Safer nitriles,
haloalkanes, marine antifoulants,
emulsion polymers, and high-
solids coatings were presented.
Highlights were "A Biochemical
Based Approach for Designing
Safer Nitriles," by Devito, OPPT;
and "Everybody Wins," by
Sugarman,, Pi-Tech. Thurs-
day, August 25th AM session (2
tapes) and PM session (2 tapes).

Videotapes of the DfE sympo-
sium sessions are available from
Films for Educators, Inc., 420
East 55th Street, New York, NY
10022. (For ordering and price
information, call 1-800-722-7340,
NYC local 212-486-6577, fax 212-
980-9826.) Extended printed
abstracts of the DfE Symposium
are available from the ACS
Division of Environmental Chem-
istry. Contact Dr.  Robert Pad-
dock, Center for Great Lakes
Studies, University of Wisconsin-
Milwaukee, 600 E. Greenfield
Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53204-
2944 (414-382-1731) for details.

Information on the OPPT DfE
and Green Chemistry Programs
may be obtained  from: Joe
Breen, 202-260-1573 or Paul
Anastas, 202-260-2257.

Joe Breen will be assuming the
duties of chief of the DfE staff.
Paul Anastas will  be Acting Chief
of the Industrial Chemical Branch.
                                      CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

     Pollution Prevention
 FY1994 PPIS  Grants Award $6 Million to States
OPPT and the ten EPA Regional
Offices have awarded approxi-
mately $6 million to 66 state and
tribal organizations under the
Pollution Prevention Incentives
for States (PPIS) grant program.
These grants and cooperative
agreements support state and
tribal programs that address the
reduction or elimination of pollu-
tion across all environmental
media. Since 1989, over $30
million has been awarded to
support state and tribal pollution
prevention efforts. FY 1994
represented the sixth round of
awards and was made through
the EPA Regional Offices. The
projects may last up to  three
years. Recipients of the grants are
required to match the federal
funds by at least 50 percent. The
state and tribal contributions may
come from dollars, in-kind goods
and services, or third party contri-
butions. For more information
contact Lena Hann-Ferris, 202-
260-2237, in EPA's Pollution
Prevention Division. Below are
the FY 1994 PPIS grant recipients:

Connecticut Technical
Assistance Program       $66,000

Houlton Band of
Maliseet Indians (Maine) $10,000
Maine Department of
Environmental Protection
- Green Fund            $60,000
Massachusetts Office
of Technical Assistance   $60,000
Massachusetts Toxics
Use Reduction Institute   $50,000
Mohegan Tribe
New Hampshire
Department of
Environmental Services   $70,000

Northeast Waste
Management Officials'
(NEWMOA)             $30,000

Rhode Island Department
of Environmental
Management            $70,000

Vermont Health
Department             $12,000

University of Massachusetts
Department of
Entomology             $50,000

University of Vermont
- Indoor Air in Schools
Conference             $12,000
Vermont Department
of Environmental

New York State
Department of Health    $86,363

New York State
Energy Office           $87,880
New York State
Energy Office

Puerto Rico
Quality Board
Delaware Department of
Natural Resources &
Environmental Control   $90,000

Maryland Department
of the Environment      $90,000

Pennsylvania Department
of the Environment      $90,000

The Schuylkill Center
for Environmental
Education (PA)         $130,000

Virginia Department of
Environmental Quality   $90,000

West Virginia Department
of Environmental
Protection              $90,000

Alabama Department
of Environmental
Management            $80,000

Florida Department of
Environmental Protection $80,000

Georgia Department of
Natural Resources        $85,000

Georgia Tech Research
Corporation              $9,999

Kentucky Natural Resource
& Environmental
Protection Cabinet       $80,000

Mississippi Department of
Environmental Quality   $65,000

North Carolina
Department of
Environment, Health
& Natural Resources     $40,000
                                     VOL. 15/NO. 3 FALL 1994

              Pollution Prevention
PPIS Grants
from previous page
North Carolina
Department of
Environment,  Health
& Natural Resources
South Carolina
Department of Health &
Environmental Control   $80,000

Tennessee Department
of Environment
& Conservation          $79,998

Illinois Environmental
Protection Agency
Michigan Department
of Commerce

Chippewa Tribe

Minnesota Pollution
Control Agency

Ohio Environmental
Protection Agency
Purdue University

Wisconsin Department
of Natural Resources
City of Austin, Texas     $70,000   REGION 8
         Texas Natural Resource
         Conservation Commission
         (TNRCC)               $92,925

         University of Texas
         at Austin, LBJ School
$80,000   of Public Affairs         $60,000

         REGION 7
         Iowa Waste
         Reduction Center        $90,000

         Kansas Department
         of Agriculture           $15,000

         Kansas State University   $30,800

         Lincoln-Lancaster County
Three Affiliated Tribes,
Fort Berthold
Indian Reservation       $60,000

Utah Department of
Environmental Quality  $104,400

Wyoming Department of
Environmental Quality  $102,000

Arizona Department of
Environmental Quality  $180,000

California Department
of Toxic Substances
Control                $200,000






Health Department

Missouri Department of
Natural Resources
Nebraska Department of
Environmental Quality
St. Louis Regional
Commerce &
Growth Association
University of
University of
University of







University of
Nevada, Reno $200

Chugachmiut Community
Health Services Division $25
State of Alaska,

Department of
Conservation $100
State of Idaho,
Department of
Health & Welfare $180
State of Oregon,
Department of
Environmental Quality $100





Louisiana Department of
Environmental Quality    $77,000

Louisiana Department of
Environmental Quality    $80,075

New Mexico
Economic Development
Department            $200,000
         Colorado Department
         of Health              $104,000
         Montana State University $104,000

         South Dakota Department
         of Environment &
         Natural Resources       $101,996
State of Washington
Department of Ecology   $75,000

State of Washington
Department of Ecology   $100,000

     Pollution Prevention
EPA/GSA Cleaners Project Serves as  Pilot for
Defining Environmentally Preferable  Products
by Eun-Sook Goidel
and Tom Murray
The federal government is the
nation's single largest consumer,
purchasing more than $200 billion
of goods and services each year.
Harnessing federal purchasing
power to reduce or avoid adverse
environmental impacts was the
rationale behind President
Clinton's Executive Order on
Federal Acquisition, Recycling and
Waste Prevention (Executive Order
#12873) signed in October 1993-
Consideration is already given to
performance, cost and safety
issues. The Executive Order adds
environmental considerations to
the purchasing equation. Section
503 of the order requires EPA to
"issue guidance that recommends
principles that Executive agencies
should use in making determina-
tions for the preference and
purchase of environmentally
preferable products."

But, what is meant by "environ-
mentally preferable?" The Execu-
tive Order defines it as "products
or services that have a lesser or
reduced effect on human health
and the environment when
compared with competing prod-
ucts or services that serve the
same purpose." Translating this
into workable policy is a chal-
lenge for OPPT, which has been
tasked with writing the guidance
under section 503.
There is no consensus on the
meaning of "environmentally
preferable," nor is there a com-
mon language or standard by
which to make comparisons.
Does it mean the absence or a
presence of an attribute? Is one
product preferable to another if it
is made with  a less toxic material,
but requires more energy to
perform its function? Is a product
made with 50% recycled content,
but contained in a package with
heavy metals, environmentally
preferable? Comparisons such as
these often require trade-offs, e.g.,
less toxic materials for more
energy/material use or less water
pollution at the expense of more
air pollution.

These examples, apart from
showing the  complexity of
determining what is "better" for
the environment,  also illustrate
the importance of a life cycle
approach in determining environ-
mental preferability of products
and services. Rather than focus-
ing on a single aspect or single
impact, we need to make envi-
ronmental improvements in  as
many life cycle stages and for as
many attributes of a product as
possible: from design, raw
material and  energy extraction,
and natural resource use,
through manufacture, distribu-
tion, use and maintenance to
ultimate disposal.
Rather than focusing on
a single aspect or single
impact, we need to
make environmental
improvements in as many
life cycle stages and for
as many attributes of a
product as possible.
Although a life cycle approach is
conceptually desirable, tools to
translate these concepts into
practice, such as Life Cycle
Assessment, are still under devel-
opment. Until these tools are
more fully developed and better
scientific information is available,
defining what is environmentally
preferable will inevitably involve
value judgements and  subjective
decisions. Even with more refined
tools, it is uncertain whether there
will ever be a commonly agreed-
upon ranking of environmental
problems. Local conditions may
dictate very different rankings. A
process that requires large
amounts of water may not be
preferable in water-scarce regions
of the Southwest;  whereas a
           EPA/GSA continued on next page
     VOL. 15/NO. 3 FALL 1994

     Pollution Prevention
EPA/GSA Cleaners
from previous page
process that generates large
amounts solid waste may be less
desirable in the landfill-scarce

In implementing the section 503 of
the Executive Order, EPA will take
a two-pronged approach.  First,
EPA will issue general umbrella
guidance which will articulate
EPA's policy statement on "green"
products and will also serve as a
broad framework within which
federal agencies can initiate efforts
to orient their purchasing  decisons
toward environmentally preferable
products. EPA plans to publish this
general guidance in draft form in
the Federal Register before the end
of this year. At least one public
meeting will be held to solicit
comment from interested  parties.

EPA will then follow up with
more specific guidance for par-
ticular product categories. Product
categories could include not just
common supplies but also ser-
vices, facilities, and/or systems.
How such  a program might work
for a specific product category is
exemplified by the current GSA/
EPA Cleaners project. This project
consists of two phases. In the first
phase (nearing completion), EPA
and GSA are looking at specific
brands of cleaning products that
were field tested by GSA in a
courthouse in Philadelphia, The
products are used on windows,
bathrooms, and other situations
that require frequent cleaning.
The products were tested for
efficacy and reported health
impacts when used by mainte-
nance workers to clean the
courthouse. EPA also conducted
an assessment of risk to humans
and aquatic life that might arise
from product use.
In the second phase, EPA is
helping GSA develop guidance
that may be used to purchase
environmentally preferable general
purpose cleaning products. Initial
guidance has been developed for
cleaning products and is being
circulated for review prior to use
by GSA. Also in this phase, focus
groups of federal purchasers of
cleaning products are being put
together to help EPA and GSA
understand the best way to com-
municate environmental informa-
tion about cleaning products.

The primary purpose of pilot
projects such as this is to demon-
strate the workability of general
guidance and to provide practical,
user-friendly information to
procurement and contracting
officers, i.e., those "in the
trenches," that will assist them in
making environmentally prefer-
able purchasing decisions. A
number of other pilots  are envi-
sioned in the short to medium
term. In addition, outreach and
training programs tailored to each
federal agency will need to be

For additional information about
environmentally preferable prod-
ucts guidance development,
contact Eun-Sook Goidel at 202-
260-3296. For information on the
GSA/EPA cleaners projects, contact
Tom Murray at 202-260-1876.

Eun-Sook Goidel is a project
manager in OPPT's Pollution
Prevention Division. Tom Murray
is a branch chief in OPPT's
Economics, Exposure and
Technology Division.
                                        CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

   Pollution Prevention
 33/50  Case Study  Profiles
One of EPA's objectives in imple-
menting the 33/50 Program is to
publicize the actions taken by
individual companies, large and
small, aimed at reducing direct
environmental releases. EPA has
developed a series of concise
profiles of company reduction
efforts. Fourteen profiles are
available individually, plus a
summary document of all  14
profiles for quick review.

The following profiles are now

Acme Metals Incorporated
Aldan Rubber Company
Aladdin Industries Inc.
Anchor Fence, Inc.
Carpenter Technology Corporation
Dexter Shoe Company
Douglas & Lomason Company
HADCO Corporation
Johnson & Johnson
Olin Corporation
Parker Hannifin Corporation
Printed Circuit Corporation
Raytheon Company
U.S. Steel  Group

Sample contents of one of the
profiles is included in the accompa-
nying box. For more information
on 33/50 company profiles, contact
Mike Burns at 202-260-6394.
Snapshot of a 33/50 Company

Anchor Fence, Inc. is a manufacturer of high quality link fencing
systems, gates, and specialty fencing products. The company has
one facility located in Baltimore, MD, employing approximately 85
The company has undertaken the following activities to reduce
releases of selected  chemicals:
• Releases of methyl ethyl ketone have been reduced 93%
  (113,000 pounds) through substitution of water based formula-
  tions of primers for pipes and fittings. This action accounts for
  all of the observed decrease in releases of this chemical. In
  addition, all solvent based paint applications are being strictly
  monitored to determine which can be converted to water based
  products in the future.
• Improvements in  the operation of the company's waste water
  treatment system  have resulted in a 50% reduction in releases
  of lead, nickel, and zinc compounds between 1988 and  1992.
  These improvements consist primarily of adjusting the pH  of
  the system to increase efficiency of metals removal.
• Eliminating the use of dichloromethane at the plant by shifting
  the PVC stripping process for off-quality products to an off-site
  cleaning company that uses a  hot salt bath PVC removal pro-
  cess. This change resulted in cost savings for the company.
• Examination of solvent based cleaning processes using toluene
  and methyl ethyl  ketone to determine where solvent evapora-
  tion can be reduced. The company intends to install a water-
  cooled component cleaning tank to further reduce releases of
  the solvents.
By 1992, Anchor Fence had reduced release of these chemicals by
87% from 1988 levels. Virtually all of this reduction was a result of
substitution of methyl ethyl  ketone-based  primers with a water-
based formulation.
   VOL 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Pollution Prevention
33/50 Program Hits the  Home Stretch: What Next?
As 1995 approaches, the 33/50
Program enters its last TRI report-
ing year. The Program is aiming
to build on the momentum
established -with the early
achievement of the interim 33%
pollution reduction goal. Nearly
1,300 companies are being asked
to boost their commitment to a
cleaner environment in  a healthy
economy in a number of ways:
(a) pushing beyond the limits of
initial goals for reducing toxic
releases and transfers; (b)  bring-
ing more of their facilities into the
33/50 Program; (c) expanding
reduction commitments to include
chemicals other than the 17 target
pollutants in the 33/50 Program;
(d) reducing chemical emissions
in international operations; and
(e) reducing toxic wastes at the

33/50 Public
Recognition Activities
Company participation in the 33/
50 Program is recognized offi-
cially in 33/50 Certificates  of
Appreciation. The 33/50 Program
also issues Certificates of Achieve-
ment to companies that reach
their pollution reduction goals.
Now, the 33/50 Program is work-
ing with EPA Regional Offices and
other outside groups to identify
categories and criteria for 33/50
Awards in the summer of 1995.
The 33/50 certificates and awards
serve as powerful public symbols
of going beyond the requirements
of environmental regulations. Like
good housekeeping seals of
approval, 33/50 certificates are the
mark of cleaner companies.

33/50 — The
Next Generation
What happens to EPA's 33/50
Program after 1995? Consensus on
the value of voluntary partner-
ships in promoting pollution
prevention is growing. Other
voluntary environmental protec-
tion programs are cropping up
throughout the country. A power-
ful new trend toward environ-
mental stewardship is emerging in
corporate America. Should an-
other national 33/50 Program
follow the current one? If so, what
form should it take? EPA is begin-
ning the process of considering
"what next" after 33/50. Ideas and
suggestions are welcome; please
contact the 33/50 Program Direc-
tor at 202-260-6907.
Should another national
33/50 Program follow
the current one? EPA is
beginning the process of
considering "what next"
after 33/50.
                                    CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

     Pollution Prevention
EPA and  Industry Associations
Meet to Discuss  Pollution Prevention
by Leah Yasenchak

Representatives from EPA, other
Federal government agencies, and
over 120 industry and trade
associations met on November 9
to discuss the role of trade asso-
ciations in promoting pollution
prevention. Many associations
have already taken steps to
promote pollution prevention and
the environmentally  sound use of
chemicals among their members.
The meeting presented an oppor-
tunity for associations to learn
from one another and to build
partnerships  with EPA. This one-
day conference sponsored by
OPPT was the first of its kind for
the Agency.

New Directions for  EPA
EPA and industry have made great
strides in environmental improve-
ment through the traditional
command and control  method.
However, EPA believes we are
reaching the  limits of what this
approach can accomplish. EPA is
looking at new and more effective
approaches to addressing envi-
ronmental concerns. The Agency
is moving in  the direction of
voluntary programs,  partnerships
with industry, a focus on pollu-
tion prevention rather than
pollution treatment,  and a focus
on chemical  use in addition to
chemical production. This meet-
ing was an important step in
involving industry associations in
this new direction.
After a keynote address by Dr.
Lynn Goldman, EPA Assistant
Administrator of OPPTS, panelists
from EPA discussed resources the
Agency has available to help
industries engage in pollution
prevention. An information fair
also gave participants the oppor-
tunity to see the types of re-
sources available, and to learn
about existing pollution preven-
tion initiatives.

Barriers Faced by
A panel of association representa-
tives discussed barriers faced by
associations in encouraging
pollution prevention  among their
member industries. Many barriers
were identified during the discus-
sion. These included lack of
resources, encompassing time,
money, and technically skilled
staff; lack of flexibility on the part
of government, industry, and
associations alike; and industry
confusion over the definition of
pollution prevention. Anci-trust
concerns were identified as a
barrier to cooperation across
industries, as were the varied
characteristics of individual
industries and the different regu-
lations and technologies under
which they operate.
Conflicts between EPA's tradi-
tional "command and control"
approach and the newer pollu-
tion prevention approach were
cited as causing distrust and a
drain on resources; technologi-
cally specific regulations take
away from the creativity and
flexibility needed for a successful
pollution prevention program. In
addition, the lack of recognition
for pollution prevention efforts,
fear of unknown obstacles, and
the low priority given to pollu-
tion prevention by top industry
officials all contribute to an
unwillingness to commit to a
pollution prevention program.

The panel offered several sugges-
tions on ways to overcome these
barriers. Communication, educa-
tion, and trust are keys to getting
all parties to discuss problems
and work out mutually accept-
able solutions. Total involvement
at all levels, meaning top man-
agement commitment and com-
plete employee involvement in
the program, is necessary to
create a pollution prevention
culture. The use of case studies
illustrating successful pollution
prevention programs and linking
pollution prevention to bottom
line profits can help to elevate
pollution prevention as a priority.
Associations can use their cred-
ibility with their members to get
the pollution prevention message
                 Continued on next page
                                      VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Pollution Prevention
across, and can help leverage
resources to accomplish the task.

Effective Association
Another panel discussed how
these groups can effectively
provide leadership for pollution
prevention activities. A successful
pollution prevention program for
an association should be industry-
based and industry-driven. The
partnerships should be based on
trust, carefully thought out and
clearly defined, and have the
broad involvement of association
members. Associations should
strive to provide competent
technical assistance and recognize
the importance of industry profits
in setting program  priorities. They
should focus on obtaining flexible
regulation compliance and en-
courage industry to improve
performance to reduce the need
for further legislation. To leverage
resources more effectively, asso-
ciations can create public advisory
panels or work with existing
pollution prevention programs,
such as EPA's Design for the
Environment or another of EPA's
many voluntary programs.

Future Activities
The day concluded with discus-
sions on future actions EPA and
associations can take to continue
the valuable dialogue and partner-
ship. EPA plans to  establish
committees of association repre-
sentatives to look at different
areas of concern. Proposed
follow-up activities include
development of a code of envi-
ronmental management practices
for chemical users,  a recognition
program to highlight pollution
prevention efforts of individual
companies, and development of a
list of pollution prevention ex-
perts who are willing to speak at
association meetings. Also under
consideration is a workshop
directed at association staff in
building a proactive environmen-
tal program, a committee to
explore the best ways to improve
the technical ability and resources
of associations, and an effort to
identify problems shared by
several associations to allow for a
coordinated solution.

A follow-up meeting is planned to
continue the momentum from this
meeting. If you are interested in
becoming involved in this initia-
tive, please contact Leah
Yasenchak, OPPT, 202-260-7854.

Leah Yasenchak recently Joined the
Environmental Assistance Division
and is working with environmental
and Industry groups.
   National Pollution Prevention
   Roundtable 1994  Fall Conference
  The National Pollution Preven-
  tion Roundtable's fall confer-
  ence was hosted by the
  Minnesota Office of Environ-
  mental Assistance and the
  Minnesota Technical Assistance
  Program in Minneapolis on
  November 2-4, 1994. This
  season's meeting focused on a
  variety of pollution prevention
  issues with sessions ranging
  from facility planning to regula-
  tory integration to measurement.
  EPA Assistant Administrator Dr.
  Lynn Goldman provided the
  opening keynote with Minne-
  sota Senator Paul Wellstone.
  David Kling, Director of EPA's
  Pollution Prevention Division,
  and Kirsten Oldenburg, Senior
  Analyst at the Office of Technol-
  ogy Assessment, also provided
  key prevention issue updates.
A majority of the meeting
focused on the creation of
partnerships with other preven-
tion programs and the need to
share expertise. Hence, several
sessions involved participants
from the Clean Air Act Small
Business Assistance Programs
and the National Institute of
Standards and Technologies'
Manufacturing Extension Part-
nership who called for opportu-
nities to work together, expand
the horizons of pollution preven-
tion, and build on unique
programmatic strengths. These
groups have been and will
continue to be  key stakeholders
in assisting business, providing
pollution prevention informa-
tion, and supporting vital pro-
grams that further the mutual
objectives of pollution preven-
tion and business excellence.

      Lead, Asbestos, PCBs
 Informing Families about  Lead Hazards in Housing
EPA and the Department of
Housing and Urban Development
(HUD) recently released a joint
regulatory proposal requiring the
disclosure of lead-based paint
before the sale or lease of most
residential housing. The regula-
tion is required under section
1018 of the Residential Lead-
Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act
of 1992. When final, the rule will
provide families with information
on protecting themselves from
lead-based paint hazards.

The proposal includes  a series of
required actions before the sale or
lease of housing built before

• Sellers, lessors, and agents will
   be required to provide the
   lessee or purchaser with EPA's
   pamphlet, Protect Your Family
   From Lead In Your Home,
   currently under development.
• Sellers, lessors, and agents will
   be required to disclose all
   known lead-based paint and/or
   lead-based paint  hazards to
   prospective purchasers or

• Purchasers will be entitled to
   up to 10 calendar days to
   conduct a risk assessment or
   inspection for lead-based paint
   hazards, unless otherwise
   mutually agreed.

• Agents acting on  behalf of the
  seller or lessor will be required
  to ensure compliance with
  these provisions.
Title X also required EPA to issue
regulations requiring that owners
and occupants receive EPA's lead
information pamphlet before the
commencement of paid renova-
tions in pre-1978 housing. EPA
proposed its renovation regula-
tions in March of 1994 and hopes
to issue final regulations in Spring
To support both rules, EPA is
developing a lead hazard informa-
tion pamphlet, in consultation
with the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, the
Consumer Product Safety Com-
mission, and HUD. Recognizing
the expected distribution  of the
pamphlet under the two
rulemakings (approximately 20-30
million people per year),  EPA has
taken extensive measures to craft
a pamphlet that is both informa-
tive and readable to a lay audi-
ence. These actions have  included
a 60 day public comment period,
focus test in five cities targeting
lower-literacy audiences, and a
public meeting to solicit informal
input from stakeholders.

EPA's goal in developing the
pamphlet and the regulations is to
provide families with information
on lead hazard exposure preven-
tion before they take actions that
may increase their exposure
hazards. Approximately three
quarters of the nation's housing
stock contains lead-based paint. If
properly managed and main-
tained, this paint poses little risk.
Approximately three
quarters of the nation's
housing stock contains
lead-based paint.
If improperly managed, however,
lead from paint can threaten the
health of occupants, especially
children under 6 years of age.
Over time, low-level exposure to
lead from paint, dust, and soil can
cause a range of health problems
including permanent damage to
the brain, nervous system and
kidneys. Because of its effects on
fetal development, lead exposure
can also be harmful to pregnant
women and women of child-
bearing age. In sufficiently high
levels, lead can also cause health
problem in adults. Such exposure
is largely preventable, however, if
individuals are informed of the
need to take precautionary mea-
sures. EPA's and HUD's new
regulations will contribute to such
an informed public.
                                     VOL 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Lead, Asbestos, PCBs
Lead Training  &  Certification  Grants Awarded  to States
EPA's Chemical Management
Division is pleased to announce
the award and distribution of
$11,200,000 in FY 1994 to develop
and carry out authorized state
programs for the training of
individuals engaged in lead-based
paint activities, the accreditation of
training programs for these indi-
viduals, and the certification of
contractors engaged in lead-based
paint activities. These activities are
authorized under section 404(g) of
TSCA as amended, and will help
to achieve the Agency's goal of
preventing lead poisoning.
The new assistance program has
now appeared in both the Federal
Register (.see 59 FR 10131, March 3,
1994) and in the Federal Catalog
of Domestic Assistance (see
66.707). It provides for non-
matching grants  in the form of
cooperative agreements.
In FY 1994, all parties who applied
for assistance  received some level
of support, based in part upon a
risk-based "lead-burden" calcula-
tion which considered the magni-
tude of the applicant's lead
problem relative to other eligible
jurisdictions. Forty-six states were
awarded funds, along with 18
Indian  Governing Bodies and the
District of Columbia. Most recipi-
ents began their federally-sup-
ported  program activities in mid to
late 1994.
A wide array of activities are
eligible for funding under the
program. These include, but are
not limited to, developing state
legislation or regulations, training
state employees, establishing or
updating lead-related databases,
comprehensive planning to ad-
dress lead hazards at the state
level, developing procedures for
training and certifying lead abate-
ment professionals, fostering
certification reciprocity with other
states, and public education and
outreach activities. The underlying
requirement, however, is that all
such activities must lead toward
the state obtaining authorization to
administer its own TSCA section
404(g) program at the earliest
practicable time.
Worker Training Grants for
Lead-Based  Paint Abatement
EPA was given $2.8 million in
Congressional add-on funds in FY
1994 for grants to be used for
worker training in lead paint
abatement. A Federal Register
Notice on April 20,1994 an-
nounced the availability of this
money and solicited preproposals
from non-profit organizations with
prior experience in training work-
ers to remove lead-based paint.

Applications were received from
31 eligible organizations. A review
team of six EPA staff members
analyzed, rated, and ranked the
preproposals according to the
criteria listed in the FR Notice.
Eleven organizations, with scores
exceeding 80%, were selected to
receive grants which ranged from
$28,000 to $708,000.
As specified  in the Notice, the
groups selected were environ-
mental equity-based organizations
that had experience in providing
safety and/or health services to
minorities and other low-income
residents of the community.

The following organizations
received grants:
Maine Labor Group
on Health                 $28,000
The Salvation Army         $71,000
American GI Forum-
National Veterans Outreach  $106,000
Center for Health Promotion-
Brighton Medical Center     $138,000
Liberty Family
Learning Center
White Lung Association
of New Jersey
Plasterers' & Cement
Masons' International
Midwest Center for
Health & Safety
Temple University
Laborers-AGC Education
& Training Fund
United Brotherhood
of Carpenters






                                       CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

     Lead, Asbestos, PCBs
Lead Training and Accreditation Requirements:
Persevering in the  Battle  Against  Lead
In a major effort to provide a
qualified workforce to assist in
eliminating lead-based paint
hazards, EPA has proposed a
national program (as required by
sections 402 and 404 of TSCA) to
ensure that individuals engaged in
lead-based paint activities are
properly trained and certified, that
training program providers are
accredited, and that firms en-
gaged in such activities are
certified. The proposed rule also
includes provisions for EPA to
establish standards for conducting
lead-based paint activities.
Other provisions of the proposal
include procedures for states to
apply to EPA for authorization to
administer and enforce their own
lead training, certification, and
accreditation programs. Under
the proposed rule, EPA would
approve state programs that
provide "adequate enforcement"
and that are "as protective as"
the federal program.
The proposed rule sets up three
categories of buildings for which
individuals would be trained and
certified to conduct specific lead-
based paint activities.  The catego-
ries are:

• Target Housing  (public housing
  and private residences built
  before 1978);
• Public Buildings, such  as
  daycare centers, schools and
  other facilities frequented by
  children; and
• Commercial Buildings and
  Superstructures, including
  facilities such as industrial
  warehouses, power plants,
  bridges, watertowers, and other
  structures that have been
  painted with lead-based paint.
Individuals engaged in lead-based
paint activities in these buildings
would be required to obtain
training and certification in the
appropriate job category or disci-
pline. Firms would be required to
use only trained and certified
workers to conduct lead-based
paint activities. Individuals and
firms would apply for certification
to an authorized state authority or
EPA. The training  individuals
receive must be from a training
provider that has been accredited
by an authorized state or EPA.

The proposed rule also estab-
lishes seven work disciplines. Five
disciplines are in the target
housing and public building
category. Two disciplines are in
the commercial building and
superstructure category. Course
curricula for each of the seven
disciplines are also included in
the proposed rule. The disciplines
are as follows:
Target Housing and
Public Buildings:
   1) Inspector Technician
    2)  Risk Assessor
    3)  Supervisor
    4)  Planner/Project Designer
    5)  Worker

Commercial Buildings
and Superstructures:
    1)  Supervisor
    2)  Worker
Standards have also been pro-
posed by EPA and would specifi-
cally apply to the lead-based
paint activities established in the
rule. Additionally the Agency
proposes to segregate lead-based
paint activities within the relevant
building category. The lead-based
paint activities established in the
proposed rule are:

Target Housing
and Public Buildings:
• Inspection
• Identification of lead-based paint
• Risk Assessment
• Abatement

Commercial Buildings
and Superstructures:
• Identification of lead-based paint
• Deleading
• Demolition
The proposed standards are
performance-based and were
developed to ensure that
lead-based paint activities are
conducted safely, effectively
and reliably.
     VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

     Environmental Justice
Community-Based  Lead
Abatement Demonstration  Project:
A Multi-Agency Approach to EnvironmentalJustlce
EPA, along with the Departments
of Labor, Health and Human
Services, and Housing and Urban
Development have embarked on
a Lead Environmental Justice
Initiative. The purpose of the
initiative is to support the creation
of state, tribal, and local govern-
mental partnerships with commu-
nity/grassroots organizations in
order to address the reduction or
elimination of disproportionate
lead exposure to disadvantaged
communities through community-
based training, education, and
abatement activities.

The initiative makes grants avail-
able to support the creation of
community-based activity to:

(1) prevent the poisoning of
    disadvantaged children via
    low-cost, leaded-paint

(2) empower the targeted,
    disadvantaged, urban and  rural
    communities via education and
    training; and

(3) enable the community
    economically via further
    enterprise and employment

The grants will require the  state,
tribal, or local governmental entity
to identify and enter into a full
partnership with grassroots and/or
community-based organizations
(CBO) to implement the project in
a targeted, disadvantaged commu-
nity. Eligible activities under the
grants will include the Govern-
ment/CBO partnership working
together to:

(1) prioritize the targeted
   community's lead problems;

(2) plan and implement a lead-
   based paint abatement
   training program for selected
   community residents;

(3) create a community-tailored
   lead poisoning education

(4) devise a scheme whereby the
   trainees abate the
   community's lead-based paint
   hazards using the entire range
   of available (from low-cost to
   full abatement) abatement
   methods; and

(5) devise a means to use funds
   to provide further economic
   development and opportunity
   for the targeted community.

The Administration for Children
and Families (HHS), the National
Center for Environmental Health
(HHS), the Office of Lead-Based
Paint Abatement and Poisoning
Prevention (HUD), and EPA's
Office of Pollution Prevention and
Toxics have been cooperating to
make the initiative a reality.
Currently, the partnership is
working on the creation of a
Memorandum of Understanding
to coordinate activity on the
initiative, and is investigating the
prospect of releasing a joint
Notice of Funds Availability to
advertise the initiative.
                                     CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

     Environmental Justice
New Pollution  Prevention Grants
for Environmental Justice
EPA is providing grants to help
bring pollution prevention ap-
proaches to bear on environmen-
tal problems faced by minority
and low income communities.
Potential recipients include
community groups, service
providers, non-profits, and aca-
demic institutions.
Pollution prevention is EPA's
preferred approach to environ-
mental protection, and this grant
program is designed to use the
principles and approaches that
have evolved under the preven-
tion program to address environ-
mental justice concerns of various
communities. For example, tools
like TRI have been powerful in
helping communities to bring
information to bear on environ-
mental questions, and they should
be valuable as well for issues of
environmental justice. The new
grants are expressly for pollution
prevention and environmental
justice. There are other Agency
resources for addressing environ-
mental issues that do not involve
The following are examples of
approaches that demonstrate the
value of pollution prevention
approaches for environmental
justice issues:
• TRI and Public information:
using environmental information
to advance environmental justice,
for example, by providing minor-
ity and low income communities
with the information, software, or
other tools to use TRI to persuade
industries to reduce emissions.

• Financing: providing assistance
in obtaining financing community
businesses to implement pollution
prevention solutions.

• Education and Outreach:
developing and distributing
educational and outreach materi-
als on applying pollution preven-
tion solutions that are expressly
designed for issues faced in
particular communities.

• Agriculture: providing funds to
address the impact of pesticides
and agricultural chemicals on
farmworkers by supporting
alternatives to pesticide and
chemical use; and training for
field personnel who can under-
stand and apply integrated pest
management in the field.

• Resource efficiency: encourage
better use of resources, for ex-
ample, by energy efficiency, water
conservation, or waste reduction
in community housing and busi-
EPA is also open to other preven-
tion approaches that communities
might come up with. The objec-
tives of the program are to:
• Allow experimentation with
broad range of prevention ap-
• Assure that grants are available
for the full range of constituencies
involved in the environmental
justice activities (eg.: tribes, rural
and urban communities).

• Leverage existing institutions
and create partnerships to ad-
vance pollution prevention and
environmental justice.

The majority of grants are ex-
pected to be under $50K, al-
though larger grants  may be
appropriate for service providers
that will pass funds through to the
communities. Decisions on grants
awards will be made by the EPA
Regional Offices. For further
information on this program,
please contact Chen  Wen at 202-
260-4109, fax 202-260-0178.
                                      VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

"Common  Sense" Work
Begins on Electronics Industry
On July 20, EPA Administrator
Carol M. Browner announced the
selection of the first six major U.S.
industries to participate in a new
effort to transform the current
process of environmental regula-
tion into a comprehensive system
for strengthened environmental
protection. The new program,
called the Common Sense Initia-
tive,  is designed to achieve
greater environmental protection
at less cost by creating pollution
prevention and pollution control
strategies on an industry-by-
industry basis, rather than by the
current pollutant-by-pollutant
The six industries participating in
the first phase of the Common
Sense Initiative are automobile
assembly, computers and elec-
tronics, iron and steel, metal
plating and finishing, petroleum
refining, and printing. These six
industries comprise a sizable
piece of the American economy,
accounting for over 11% of Gross
Domestic Product and employing
nearly 4 million people. They also
account for 12.4% of the toxic
releases reported by all American
industry in 1992.

For each of the six pilot indus-
tries, Administrator Browner will
convene a high-level team of
stakeholders, to include industry
executives, environmental leaders,
government officials, and labor
and environmental justice repre-
sentatives. The six Common Sense
Teams will examine every aspect
of environmental regulation as it
affects an industry and the envi-
ronment. Each team will focus its
work in the following six interre-
lated areas: pollution prevention,
regulation, reporting, compliance,
permitting, and environmental
technology. Sector teams will use
a consensus based approach so
that recommendations developed
for achieving "cleaner, cheaper,
and smarter" environmental
solutions will have the momentum
to be implemented successfully.
Administrator Browner has desig-
nated OPPTS along with EPA
Regions 1 and 9 as the co-leads
for the Electronics and Computers
industry sector. On September 26
nearly 100 stakeholders, repre-
senting environmental, environ-
mental justice, and labor groups
along with state and local  officials
and industry representatives,
convened in Washington, D.C. for
the first Electronics and Comput-
ers Sector Common Sense  Initia-
tive meeting. The purpose of the
meeting was to address process
issues pertaining to the initiative
and to begin identifying projects
to be included in a draft
workplan. The next meeting of
electronics sector stakeholders is
tentatively scheduled for Decem-
ber, 1994.

For more information regarding
the Electronics Industry Common
Sense Initiative, please  call John
Robison at 202-260-3590.
                                     CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

 CBI  Reform:  Final Action Plan  Progress
One way of looking at OPPT's
"Going Public" initiative is as a
two-sided coin. On one side are
the Right-to-Know initiatives
aimed at making more useful
toxics data available to the public.
The other side of the coin is CBI
Reform. The purpose behind this
program is to reduce the amount
of data coming into EPA as
confidential business information
(CBI). The goal of this effort is to
have more information available
to the public, thereby enhancing
the public role in environmental
decision making.

OPPT's TSCA CBI Final Action
Plan, released in June 1994,
explicitly incorporates both sides
of the "Going Public" initiative
into the various action items.

• Information Dissemination.
OPPT has made a concerted
effort to disseminate useful toxics
data to the public. Raw sanitized
data derived from the Inventory
Update Rule (IUR) have been
disseminated to states. The entire
collection of non-CBI IUR data
has been made available to the
public through RTKNet. Addi-
tionally, summaries of section
8(e) Notice of Substantial Risk
studies are available. Plans for
chemical fact sheets are also
being implemented.

• CBI Reform. A variety of
regulatory and voluntary activities
related to CBI reform have been
identified.  In the fall, EPA released
proposed amendments to the Part
2, "Public Information" regula-
tions. These amendments provide
for moderate changes in the way
filings are directed to the Agency
and ensure that all requests for
confidential business information
protection are carefully consid-
ered by submitters. Additionally a
structure is provided for CBI
claims to expire after a period of
With regard to voluntary activities,
the dialogue OPPT has fostered
with industry and states has
begun to pay off. Industry has
sponsored a series of educational
activities to advise the regulated
community of the importance of
limiting claims to only that infor-
mation which is actually confiden-
tial. Two more sessions are
planned for 1995. As a result of
these activities and EPA's continu-
ing review of CBI claims, inappro-
priate CBI claims have been

One example of the value of the
dialogue with states and industry
occurred last May during the
Congressional reauthorization
hearings when the Chemical
Manufacturers Association ac-
knowledged that a major flaw of
TSCA, as written, was that states
did not have access to confiden-
tial business information. Since
May, industry and states along
with OPPT have been struggling
to come up with ways for states
to secure access to state-specific
data which has been  claimed as
The dialogue OPPT has
fostered with industry and
states has begun to pay off.
confidential. Several potential
mechanisms have been identified
and implementation work is
under way.

For further information on TSCA
CBI Reform issues, contact Frank
Caesar at 202-260-0425 or Scott
Sherlock at 202-260-1536, both of
the Information Management
                                      VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

 FOSTTA  Reports on FY1994 Progress
The Forum on State and Tribal
Toxics Action (FOSTTA) serves as
a mechanism for state and tribal
officials to cooperate  in address-
ing toxics-related issues and to
improve communication and
coordination among states, tribes,
and EPA. FOSTTA is not a lobby-
ing organization and does not
adopt formal position statements.
Members of FOSTTA do not
represent their respective state or
tribe's position on toxics issues,
but rather their own individual

In FY 1994, FOSTTA met three
times, in October, February, and
June. During the  year, two new
workgroups were created to deal
with pollution prevention and
environmental  justice. Each
workgroup is comprised of
members from the four  existing
FOSTTA Projects — TRI, Lead,
State and Tribal Enhancement,
and Chemical Management. These
workgroups will discuss federal
and state perspectives on pollu-
tion prevention and environmen-
tal justice and take these
perspectives back to their
Projects, thus permitting these
two important cross-program
issues to permeate all of
FOSTTA's efforts.

The TRI Project  provided excel-
lent comments and suggestions to
EPA for the TRI expansion efforts.
The Project was also able to have
states included on the TRI facility
expansion work group,  and
obtained a FOSTTA membership
on a subcommittee of the Na-
tional Advisory Council for Envi-
ronmental Policy and Technology

The Lead Project identified
approaches for encouraging
reciprocity among states for
training, accreditation, and certifi-
cation programs, helped design a
lead accreditation program at the
state level, worked on develop-
ing a Model State Plan that
incorporated the provisions of
Title X, and is working on an
approach for involving all fifty
states in lead program design
and implementation.

The State and Tribal Enhance-
ment Project worked on devel-
oping more flexible and generic
approaches to state toxics grants,
developed a state toxics needs
assessment that documents state
toxics activities and their per-
ceived needs for additional
control actions, and worked on
reforming the TSCA Confidential
Business Information policy to
increase state access to CBI.
The Chemical Management
Project developed a cooperative
data exchange for selected toxics
information for TSCA-regulated
facilities, obtained a commitment
from EPA to require companies to
notify states of effluent limits
contained in TSCA section 5(e)
Consent Orders, and helped
develop procedures for state use
of the Federal Insecticide, Fungi-
cide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
and TSCA Tracking System

In FY 1995, the first meeting was
held on October 24-25 in Alexan-
dria, VA; another meeting is
scheduled for March. All FOSTTA
meetings are open to the public;
notifications of these meetings are
published in the Federal Register.
                                      CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

 OPPT Chemical  Factsheets  Project
OPPT is developing a series of
two-page factsheets on TRI
chemicals. These information
summaries describe how people
might be exposed to these chemi-
cals, how exposure to them might
affect one's health and the envi-
ronment, what happens to the
chemicals in the environment,
who regulates them, and whom
to contact for additional informa-
tion. Each fact sheet has a support
document that includes chemical-
specific technical information and
Work on these documents began
last spring and a draft factsheet
on methylene chloride was
prepared by OPPT. A set of five
chemical factsheets, including
four previously-available ones,
were made available on TRKNet
and the Internet. The purpose
was to see which data elements
best suited user needs and how
they might be used by the public.
A total of 28 commenters re-
sponded with suggestions.

The content and format for the
fact sheets are a direct result of
workgroup discussions and public
input to the OPPT draft. OPPT
has worked together with pro-
gram offices (including ORD, OW,
reach agreement on the initial
selection of chemicals and the
content of the factsheets and
support documents.

Plans for the release of the fact
sheets and support documents
include electronic means (i.e.,
Networks, NLM, CD-ROM, dis-
kettes, etc.) with accompanying
user manuals where appropriate,
and developing and printing a
brochure (factsheet only) for
distribution to the public through
the TSCA  Assistance Information
Service. Contact: Eileen Gibson at
                                    VOL 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

 OPPT Explores (and Exploits)  the Internet
OPPT has entered the electronic
age!  In an effort to expand
OPPT's information dissemination
initiatives, we are participating in a
pilot project, supported by EPA's
Office of Information Resources
Management (OIRM), which offers
an EPA public access gopher
server as a vehicle to reach a wide
audience via Internet.
By now,  most people have heard
of the Internet, the network of
information sources  and services
linking over 20 million users
worldwide. With a computer, a
modem, a telephone line, and
certain types of connectivity
software, anyone can be part of
the Internet community. To access
EPA's server, a connection which
allows gopher access is required.
The address for EPA's public
access gopher server is
A gopher server (named after the
Golden Gopher, mascot of the
University of Minnesota where the
software was developed) can be
imagined as an access door to
information organized into lay-
ered menu options.  EPA's gopher,
for example, offers about fifteen
choices on its primary menu,
most of which will lead the user
to a  secondary level menu with
additional choices. The user signs
on to the gopher server, is pre-
sented with a top level  menu, and
then can "travel" up and down all
the menu paths to follow what-
ever looks interesting.
OPPT is using the EPA public
access gopher to provide fre-
quently requested documents to
the public. One such document is
the instruction manual for the
1994 TSCA Inventory Update
Rule,  (Instructions for Reporting
for the Partial Updating of the
Chemical Inventory Data Basest
This document is found in the
gopher menu area selected from
the following menu options (each
level of options is separated by a
slash  "\"): \EPA Offices and
RegionsX Office of Prevention,
Pesticides, and Toxic Substances
\Toxic Substances \TSCA Inven-
tory Update Rule (IUR) 1994. The
document has been subdivided
into chapters to make it easier to
view online or download the
relevant chapters. Several of the
figure files must be downloaded
to the local computer to be read.
In the same location is posted a
Question and Answers document
containing questions commonly
asked of the IUR support staff. It
is expected that this file may be
updated regularly during the
reporting cycle. Also in this
location are  a number of other
items of interest:
• 1992 TRI data available in a
   number of spread sheet formats
   which may be downloaded and
   read into standard PC spread
   sheet software. (While the
   majority of these data are de-
   rived from the 1992 collection,
   other files permit comparisons
   with earlier reporting years.)
• Geographical information system
  (GIS) files, derived on a state-by-
  state basis from the TRI data
  collection, which may be used in
  mapping emission patterns.

• Minimum Pre-Market Data/
  Structure Activity Relationships
  Study, in which certain end-
  points for selected chemicals
  empirically evaluated in Europe
  were compared against the
  estimated values derived by
  OPPT using automated quanti-
  tative structure activity relation-
  ship (QSAR) techniques.

• Chemicals on Reporting Rules
  (CORR) database, which cross-
  references certain chemicals and
  their corresponding regulations.

OPPT has also placed the text of
the proposed TSCA Biotechnology
Rule and related support docu-
ments on the public access gopher
server. These documents are found
by navigating from the top level
menu to Rules, Regulations, and
LegislationV Toxic ProgramsV
Proposed Rules\ Biotechnology
Proposed Rule.

With electronic access to docu-
ments, the burden of document
requests to the TSCA Hotline
should be lessened, fewer photo-
copies made, and storage of extra
copies will be minimized.

Within the next few months,
OPPT will be expanding its
electronic  document selection.
Keep your eyes open for addi-
tional offerings.
                                      CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

 Public Access Initiative
by Linda A. Travers
Over the last few months, OPPT
has taken a lead role in an
Agency-wide Integrated Public
Access Initiative. The three steps
of the initiative are to set infor-
mation data standards across the
Agency, to create a master facility
index to link major databases
through a central facility identifi-
cation number, and to then
provide public access to the
consolidated environmental data.
This will be accomplished by
creating a single facility identifi-
cation number, by regularly
collecting facility-specific identi-
fying information for the entire
Agency, and sharing this informa-
tion with each specific program.
This consolidated approach will
provide increased access to
information for the public,
reduce the burden on the regu-
lated community, and increase
the utility  of the data for EPA.
Why undertake such an initiative?
When people ask for information
about environmental risks in their
communities, they do not differ-
entiate risks to the air versus risks
to the water, nor do they solely
want information about possible
pesticide or chemical exposure.
Typically,  the public wants to
understand the state of the envi-
ronment in which they live,
including the hazardous and solid
waste in their neighborhoods, the
pollution in their rivers and
streams, and quality of the air
they breathe.
Unfortunately, the disjointed and
overlapping approach of EPA's
current information systems
would discourage even the most
diligent public user. In order to
provide a comprehensive view of
the state of the environment, the
Agency must integrate and make
available to the public complete
information about sources of
pollution, how people and envi-
ronmental systems respond to
pollutants and other stresses, and
what people can do to lower risks
to their health and environment.

A consolidated master facility
index system will reduce the
reporting burden for industry.
Currently, each facility or com-
pany responding to an EPA data
collection must include similar
facility identification data on
every form. Each Agency collec-
tion requires a slightly different
variation of the data. A master
facility index would allow indus-
try to submit a single set of
identifying information, which can
then be referenced through a
common facility ID number on all
other Agency submissions. This
streamlining will save industry
time and resources, reduce the
burden of the Agency in maintain-
ing duplicative data, and eliminate
the confusion of having  conflict-
ing information for the same
facility. This integrated reporting
is the first step towards identifying
other opportunities for reduced
reporting requirements.
When people ask for
information about
environmental risks in
their communities, they
do not differentiate risks
to the air versus risks to
the water, nor do they
solely want information
about possible pesticide
or  chemical exposure.
The master facility index used
across the Agency's numerous
databases would also provide a
complete profile of the environ-
mental status of a facility. This
new linked environmental data
will allow EPA to provide mean-
ingful access to the American
people of the environmental state
of their communities.
This project is the logical exten-
sion of several Agency initiatives
into the information resources
arena. It provides a holistic
approach to environmental
information for the entire
Agency. Once the environmental
data across all programs can be
linked and integrated, a  compre-
hensive view can be examined
on a ecosystem, pollution pre-
            Access continued on next page
                                      VOL. 15/NO.3 FALL 1994

Public Access
Access from previous page
vention, or enforcement ap-
proach. Integrated information
will facilitate examination of all
facilities of a particular corpora-
tion or of an entire industry.
Integrating environmental data
encourages innovative ideas and
allows flexibility in implementing
environmental policy, the corner-
stone of the Common Sense
Initiative. Without linking cross-
media data, it is difficult if not
impossible to implement whole-
industry initiatives.

An integrated public access
approach builds on the public's
right-to-know and provides all
available environmental data to
the general public. By improving
public access to and understand-
ing of the data we possess, we
will help improve the effective-
ness of citizens in protecting
themselves and their environment
and reduce unnecessary fears
about environmental conditions
that do not present real risk. The
Toxic Release Inventory has
shown us the value to the public
of examining all releases together,
whether it is releases into the air,
water, or waste disposal. This
approach will be expanded to
provide the public with all avail-
able data on specific chemicals,
facility profiles, and complete
corporate profiles.

In early 1995 EPA will begin a
negotiated rulemaking process
with our partners in the states,
industry, labor organizations, and
environmentalists. The Agency
will concurrently work on techni-
cal and data standards to assist in
implementation. We will also
continue dissemination  efforts
utilizing the Internet, in prepara-
tion for more integrated data. The
Agency recognizes the limits of its
own capabilities to address the
tremendous range of environmen-
tal issues, and the importance of
empowering the public to assist
in the protection  of their own

Linda Travers is the director of
OPPT's Information Management
   NHATSFY1986 Results
   Until 1992, EPA conducted an annual National Human Adipose
   Tissue Survey (NHATS) to quantify the levels of selected chemi-
   cals in the adipose tissue of humans in the U.S. population. Final
   results for FY 1986 have been published in two volumes. Copies
   of volumes I and II of "Semivolatile Organic Compounds in the
   General U.S. Population-NHATS FY86 Results" can be obtained by
   calling Khoan T. Dinh of the Technical Programs Branch, CMD,
   at 202-260-3891.
                                      CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

Index to 1994 Articles
Index to  1994 Articles
General Information
TSCA Section 21 Petitions	Spring 1994
Lynn Goldman Brings Medical, Health
Service, Environmental Background to OPPTS	Spring 1994
A New Vision For TSCA	 Summer 1994
Final Action Plan for TSCA CBI Reform	Summer 1994
OPPT Director Greenwood Resigns	Fall 1994
"Common Sense" Work
Begins on Electronics Industry	Fall 1994
CBI Reform: Final Action Plan Progress	Fall 1994
FOSTTA Reports on FY 1994 Progress	Fall 1994
OPPT Establishes New Chemicals
Pollution  Prevention Recognition Project	Spring 1994

TRI Releases Decline 6.6% in 1992	Spring 1994
TRI Chemical Expansion Rule Issued	Spring 1994
Regions and States Make
Broad Use of TRI Data in 1993	Summer 1994
TRI Industry Expansion Focuses on Five Sectors.... Summer 1994
EPA Holds Public Meeting on
TRI "Phase 3"  by Matt Gillen	Fall 1994
TRI Chemical Expansion Rule Issued
by Geraldine Nowak	Fall 1994
1987-1992 TRI Now Available on CD-ROM
by Geraldine Nowak	Fall 1994
Existing Chemicals
Existing Chemical Program
Establishes Priorities for PY94	Spring 1994
Formaldehyde Exposure Testing in New Housing	Spring 1994
RM2 and POST-RM2 Activity Chart	Spring 1994, Summer 1994
ATSDR Chemicals Added to Master Testing List	Spring 1994
TSCA 1994 Inventory Update Rule Collection	Summer 1994
Q's & A's on the Inventory Update Rule	Summer 1994
Enforcement Initiative Targets
Late 19901UR Reporters	Summer 1994
SIETIS Database Created for Silicone	Summer 1994
34th Report of the TSCA
Interagency Testing Committee	Summer 1994
Update on Machine
Fluids-UAW Section 21 Petition	Summer 1994
             EPA Calls for New Dioxdn Data
             to Complete Reassessment Effort	Fall 1994
             OPPTS and Region 5 Convene Mercury Task Force	Fall 1994
             TSCA Testing and Product Stewardship
             Agreements Signed for DGEBPA	Fall 1994
             OPPT Launches Information Gathering
             Effort on the New River by Michelle Price	Fall 1994
             35th ITC Report Transmitted 	Fall 1994
             Use Cluster Scoring System:
             A Use-Based Approach to Setting Priorities	Fall 1994

             Design  for the Environment
             Green Chemistry: Benign by Design byjoeBreen .... Spring 1994
             DfE Printing Project Enters
             Product  Demonstration Phase	Spring 1994
             EPA Technology Innovation
             Strategy  Emphasizes Partnerships	Spring 1994
             DfE Assessment on Dry
             Cleaning Due in August	Summer 1994
             DfE Reaches Milestone in Printing Project	Fall 1994
             Italics: Screen Printing CTSA Released	Fall 1994
             Dry Cleaning CTSA in the Works	Fall 1994
             CTSA: Key Information Tool	Fall 1994
             EPA Lays Groundwork for PWB Study	Fall 1994
             DfE:  The Environmental Paradigm for the
             21st Century by Joe Breen and Paul Anastas	Fall 1994

             Pollution Prevention
             Proposed Pulp and Paper Rule Integrates
             Multi-Media Source Reduction Measures	Spring 1994
             33/50 Program Achieves '92
             Reduction  Goal One Year Early	Spring 1994
             Conference to Promote Voluntary Initiatives	Spring 1994
             Fifty-Two Pollution Prevention Grants Awarded	Spring 1994
             Pollution Prevention Clearinghouse
             Receives High Marks for Information Services	Spring 1994
             National Roundtable of State Pollution
             Prevention Programsr 1994 Spring Conference	Spring 1994
             Environmental Management Standards:
             Is EPA ISOlated?  by Mary McKiel	Spring 3994
             P2 Round-Up of Activities	Summer 1994
             10th  Annual P2 Conference	Summer 1994
VOL 157 NO. 3 FALL 1994

Index to 1994 Articles
National Pollution Prevention
Roundtable 1994 Fall Conference	Fall 1994

FY 1994 PPIS Grants Award $6 Million to States	Fall 1994

EPA/GSA Cleaners Project Serves as Pilot for
Defining Environmentally Preferable Products
byEun-Sook Goidel and Tom Murray	Fall 1994

33/50 Case Study Profiles	Fall 1994

33/50 Program Hits the Home Stretch: What Next?	Fall 1994

EPA and Industry Associations Meet to
Discuss Pollution Prevention by Leah Yasenchak	Fall 1994

Lead, Asbestos,  PCBs

PCB Petition Denied	Spring 1994

Asbestos Accreditation Extended
to Public & Commercial Buildings	Summer 1994

Agency Proposes to Simplify
Redassification of PCB Transformers	Summer 1994

Final Rule on PCB
Exemption Petitions Published	Summer 1994

Informing Families about Lead Hazards in Housing	Fall 1994

Lead Training & Certification
Grants Awarded to States	Fall 1994

Worker Training Grants for
Lead-Based Paint Abatement	Fall 1994

Lead Training and Accreditation Requirements:
Persevering in the Battle Against Lead	Fall 1994
EPA's Proposed TSCA
Biotechnology Rule Reviewed at OMB	Summer 1994

TSCA Approved Field Testing
of Genetically-Modified Bacteria	Summer 1994

Ecological Tier Testing
Schemes for Microorganisms Workshop	Summer 1994
             Environmental Justice
             OPPT Signs On for
             Environmental Justice Strategy ....
Summer 1994
             Community-Based Lead
             Abatement Demonstration Project:
             A Multi-Agency Approach to Environmental Justice	Fall 1994

             Clinton Administration Proposes Reforms
             in Nation's Pesticide and Food Safety Laws	Spring 1994
             Enforcement Reorganization	Spring 1994

             International Community
             Steps Up Focus on Toxics Inventories	Spring 1994
             OECD Member Countries Consider
             Limiting Lead in Consumer Products	Spring 1994
             Report of the 3rd  SIDS Review Meeting	Spring 1994
             Final Report on Joint U.S./E.U. Study of SAR	Summer 1994

             TSCA Hotline
             Q&A: Exporter Responsibilities	Spring 1994
             Exporter Responsibilities: Clarification	Summer 1994

             ECOSAR: New Ecotoxicity Software Available	Spring 1994
             OPPT Chemical Factsheets Project	Fall 1994
             OPPT Explores (and Exploits) the Internet	Fall 1994
             Public Access Initiative by Linda A. Travers	Fall 1994
             NHATS FY 1986 Results	Fall 1994
                                              CHEMICALS IN PROGRESS

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