United States
Environmental Protection
Administration And
Resources Management
July 1989
Policies, Legal  Authorities,
And Structures  For
Management In
Trinidad And Tobago
  Prepared for the Government of Trinidad and Tobago
  Ministry of the Environment and National Service

  Submitted by
  C. Morgan Kinghorn, Jr.
  Deputy Assistant Administrator for Administration
  and Resources Management
  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

  Consultant to the
  Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization
  May 23, - June 2, 1989 '
                                    Printed on Recycled Paper

       Prepared for the Government of Trinidad and Tobago
        Ministry of the Environment and National Service

                 Submitted by
              C. Morgan Kinghorn, Jr.
          Deputy Assistant Administrator for Administration
              and Resources Management
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency*

                Consultant to the
     Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization
               May 23 - June 2,1989

Policies, Legal Authorities and Structures
for Environmental Management in
Trinidad and Tobago
Chapter I
Organization, Structure and
Purpose of the Consultation
Chapter  II
Executive Summary
The State of the Environment in Trinidad and Tobago
The Current Status of Environmental
The Legislative Basis for Action
Environmental Management
The Key Processes
An Approach to Environmental
Environmental Action
Chapter III
The State of the
Environment in
Trinidad and Tobago
The Environmental Framework
The Need to Define the Problem
An Environmental Philosophy
The Importance of Prevention
The Role of the Public Sector
The Broader Regional and International Perspective
The Importance of Information.
Chapter IV
rr«i_  /"i       o      r   Background
The Current StatUS Of   The Process of Analysis
Environmental         ^n Environmental Management Consensus
                        Confusing Words with Deeds
Management in        Rationale for Continued Progress
Trinidad and Tobago
   *The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Environmental Protection
       Agency or PAHO/WHO. They are the views of the author. This Report Is printed on recycled paper.

Policies, Legal Authorities and Structures
for Environmental Management in
Trinidad and Tobago
 Chapter V
 The Legislative
 Basis for Action
 Statement of Policy
 Administrative Structure
 Prohibition of Pollution
 Importance of the Acts
 Chapter VI
 for the Future
 Management or Consultation
 Managing the Leadership Function
 Building an Infrastructure
 The Public at Large
 Non governmental Groups
 The Private Sector
 The Press
 The International Community
 Environmental Health
 Chapter VII
 The Key Processes:
 Creating the
 The Basic Foundation
 Environmental Planning
 Information and Data
 Human Resources
 Financing Environmental Management
 Compliance Strategy
 Chapter VIII
 A Blueprint for
 Traditional Environmental Management
 New Industrial Development
 The Control of Industrial Pollution
 Environmental Action
 A Management Structure
Draft Prohibition and Control of Pollution Act
Draft Environmental Protection Policy Act


        This consultation was under-
.aken at the request of the Ministry of
Environment and National Service to
the Pan American Health Organiza-
tion/World Health Organization  for
technical assistance to review the cur-
rent status of environmental manage-
ment in Trinidad and Tobago. The
consultation  took place from May 22
toJune2,1989. TheconsultantwasC.
Morgan Kinghom, Jr., Deputy Assis-
tant Administrator for Administration
and  Resources Management at the
United States Environmental Protec-
tion Agency. The views and recom-
mendations expressed in this report
reflect those of the consultant and not
necessarily of any of the organizations

         The primary focus of the
consultation was to assess the options
facing the recently established Minis-
try  to begin  to implement a govern-
mental structure for improving envi-
ronmental  protection. In particular,
he author was requested to advise and
critique regarding the:
        (a)     The Development of
National  Environmental  Policy  and
Legislation; and
        (b)     Organization plans
for the environmental portfolio of the
new Ministry;

        The consultation was spon-
sored  by the Pan  American Health
Organization/World Health Organiza-
tion . The author would like to thank the
generous support of Dr. Dorothy Blake,
PAHO/WHO  Representative  in
Trinidad and Tobago, for her leader-
ship and skill in organizing this consul-
tation; and Terrence Thompson, Envi-
ronmental Engineer, PAHO, for his m
country support and assistance in  the
consultation.  While the  consultation
lasted only fourteen days,  an extensive
number of interviews and discussions
were held with a variety of governmen-
tal and non governmental officials in-
volved in environmental management.

        The author wishes to express
his appreciation to the large number of
individuals who cooperated with the
consultation and who  were generous
with their time as well as their com-
ments. The author hopes that the re-
sults of the consultation are taken as
suggestions  and recommendations
with which to improve the process of
environmental management within the
Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. In
many ways,  this consultation reiter-
ates some of the recommendations of
the recent past.  Hopefully, its struc-
ture will provide a more consolidated
view by which to approach the subject
at hand.


                         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
(Chapter III.       The State of the Environment in Trinidad and Tobago)

       •   The Nation needs to define the environmental problems, listing in detail the environmental
             issues facing Trinidad and Tobago.

       |   Assess the issues in terms of source and nature of the pollutants.

       •   Priorilization of the issues with some relationship to risk to human health, important ecosys-
             tems, or critical environmental sources such as drinking water.

       •   Trinidad and Tobago need to develop an underlying philosophy of dealing with environ-
             mental issues on a preventive bases and dealing with the issues right the first time.

       |   The public sector needs to take the lead and help to establish a baseline for
             environmental action.

       |   A broader perspective, regional and international, needs to be taken in developing an
             environmental management infrastructure.

       |   A fundamental step is for the new Ministry to develop an accurate and
             understandable information base for environmental pollution control.

Chapter IV.     The Current Status of Environmental Management ii
                                   Trinidad and Tobago

     The draft environmental legislation should be enacted as expeditiously as possible
     after time for public comment.

     The National Environmental Authority, contained in the draft environmental acts, is the next key
     element in establishing a long term structure for environmental protection. The National Environ-
     mental Board with broad authority must act as a strong operating entity  for that Authority and not
     just in an advisory function.

     Trinidad and Tobago should continue to lead the Caribbean community in enacting comprehensive
     environmental legislation.

     There is a growing competitive advantage with the international donor community for Nations with
     strong environmental programs. Trinidad and Tobago should take advantage of this movement.
              Chapter V.        The Legislative Basis for Action
     The new environmental legislation can provide a basis of "equity" upon which environmental control
     can take place. The legislative authority will establish an equal framework for the private and public sector.

     The new legislation with perhaps a few alterations, should proceed to public comment now and enactment
     at the earliest possible date.  There is no need to ensure complete integration with all other existing stat-
     utes and authorities.

     The National Environmental Board must be a strongly independent operating board with broad nationwide
     composition and not simply an advisory group representative of sectoral interests.

     Considerations should be given in the new statutes for:

      _    Determination of relative priority for environmental action based on some measure of risk to the
            public or ecosystems that makes appropriate sense for Tnnidad and Tobago.

      g    The control act as well as the policy act should promote waste minimization and recycling more
            directly. There should be provisions for a variety of incentives where feasible for companies and
            organizations using recycling and waste minimization techniques.

      g    The right of citizens and non governmental groups to petition the government and to bring court
            action to compel certain kinds of environmental action would be a critical improvement to the acts.

      _    Public comments should include not only the opportunity for written comments but also for public
            meetings in the specific area of development. These public meetings should be a requirement of
            the environmental impact  assessment process under certain conditions.

I           Chapter VI.  Environmental  Management — Choices

V,	for the Future	)

•     While coordination will be a primary function of the new Ministry, management implies some control
        over resources, people, and processes. The Ministry must be given additional resources as it moves
        into new areas of responsibility to build on its powers and authorities for coordination.

I     Major issues of national importance should be raised by the new Ministry to the highest levels of gov-
        ernment discussion.

        A Ministerial Working Group on the Environment should be established to discuss specific approaches
        to key environmental policy issues.

        A series of Inter-Ministry Working Groups, at the Permanent Secretary level and as needed at the tech
        nical level, should be established to formulate specific means to implement the policy choices of the Cabi

        The new Ministry must define clearly its Mission and role in a very public way.

        The Minister of the Environment and National Service should build, from within, a new team involving
        all of the key elements merged together.

        The Ministry must engender national interest in environmental issues:

         •    Undertake a contest for a new "logo" for the Ministry among school age

         •    Establish regional forums to discuss environmental issues.

         •    Expand media coverage within Trinidad and Tobago on specific
               environmental issues in an in-depth manner.

        The Ministry must undertake effort to develop an environmental infrastructure:

         •     Institute a vastly increased educational effort aimed at the youngest children.

         •    Work with international organizations and, through bi-latcral or other agreements with other
               Nations to develop public information materials.

         •     Work with other Ministries to generate an institutional framework to promote the establishment
               of environmental groups within Trinidad and Tobago.

         |     Discuss the possibility with existing international environmental organizations, such as the
               Conservation Foundation, of obtaining their assistance in establishing local environmental

         |     Utilize to the fullest and appropriate extent the expertise and information of the private sector.

         |     Establish at the Ministerial level, an Environmental Business Roundtable  to meet regularly to
               discuss specific environmental issues and  their joint solution.

  Chapter VI.  Environmental Management —  Choices for the Future

            |    Work with the national and local press — at the reporter and editorial  levels, to develop a
                  deeper understanding of environmental issues.

            |    Build on the current leadership of Trinidad and Tobago in regional environmental issues to
                  resolve as many in a regional manner as possible, thu>> sharing solutions as well as resources.

            |    Cooperate with international and national organizations, such as PAHO/WHO and the
                  Ministry of Health,  to continue to expand the concept of environmental health protection.

            •    Utilize the growing concern on the pan of donor organizations for a single spokesperson for
                  the environment to Trinidad and Tobago's best advantage.
I     Chapter VII.  The Key Processes — Creating the Infrastructure        I

    |       The two draft statutes should be enacted as quickly as possible after wide opportunity for public

    |       The new Ministry should play a major role in the environmental impact assessment process includ
             ing the power of veto on certain types of major projects defined by size or potential impact to the

    |       The Ministry should take a sa fundamental duly the establishment of a useful information
             base on environmental problems.

    •       The existing Institute for Marine Affairs should be renamed and appropriately restructured as the
             Institute for Environmental Affairs and become the key repository of environmental information
             for policy decision making.

    |       The Ministry should use the resources of the existing Institute for Marine Affairs, the Solid Waste
             Management Company, and the Forestry Division  as the key environmental management units
             and bring them more closely aligned to reach newly defined and  common environmental goals.

    I       The Ministry should undertake, with appropriate technical assistance, a process of environmental
             assessment lead by the Institute.

    I       The public needs access to environmental information and the Ministry should be careful to limit
             the situations in which information can be withheld from the public.

    |       While much can be done with existing resources and improved coordination, the new Ministry
             will undoubtedly need additional human and financial resources.  The Ministry should define the
             specific resource issues — assuming enactment of thenew legislation in the next six months —
             and push for their resolution.


Chapter VJI. The Key Processes — Creating the Infrastructure
    The Ministry should promote the use of a variety of innovative financing mechanisms with which
    to assist in the operation of the Ministry or the Environmental Authority under the new Act.  The
    choices range from environmental taxes on production to environmental fees including the
    establishment of an environmental trust fund.

    Environmental compliance on existing authorities will continue to be the responsibility of the
    particular Ministry. One option for consideration would be to provide the new Ministry with a
    minimal core of oversight inspectors to ensure there is indeed compliance on the most critical
    forms of potential pollution.

    On new industrial pollution control, the emphasis will have to rely primarily on self compliance.
    However, there will need to be established an  environmental inspectorate to ensure that the
    largest industrial sources do indeed comply with the regulations agreed to in the negotiation
       Chapter  VIII.  A Blueprint for Environmental Action
  The Ministry should consider a three pronged approach to environmental management:

    g     For traditional environmental issues ie., those currently managed through existing
          authorities and Ministries not under the authority of the new Ministry, coordination and
          integration should be the main focus.

    •     For new development activities, the new Ministry should work closely with the Division
          of Town and Country Planning and become an active participant in the environmental
          impact assessment process. On certain types of development activities, the new Minis-
          try should be given the dominant authority.

    |     For the control of industrial pollution not yet pan of the legal framework of* Trinidad and
          Tobago, the new Ministry needs to build a larger expertise. This would include its own
          Industrial Pollution Inspectorate to ensure compliance as well as additional resources for
          the Environmental Institute.

   The Ministry needs a specific plan for environmental action items that focus the atten-
   tion of the public on  the action of the Ministry rather than continuing — albeit critical —
   resource and organizational issues.

    •      Establishment of an environmental trust fund.

    g      The use of the concept of national service to activate the public on environmental action.


Chapter VIII.  A Blueprint for Environmental Action
 The consideration of control of lead in gasoline, a"winable" issue that would generate
 public support for the new Ministry and its mission.
 An assessment and action plan to protect the Northern Range.

 Involve the public and private sectors in an ongoing dialogue on environmental manage-
 ment issues.  Establish the Environmental Business Roundtable. Create a widely repre-
 sentative Environmental Advisory Council.

 Utilize extensive media coverage to gam the attention of the public.

                                      AND TOBAGO
The Environmental
        Any discussion of environ-
mental management must essentially
flow from an analysis of the environ-
mental problems facing Trinidad and
Tobago. Among those individuals who
are most environmentally active, two
phrases define the environmental is-
sues: (1) pollution is uncontrolled and
(2) there is a nearly total lack of a
national  concern over that pollution.
Regardless of the specific types of pol-
lution or their causes, these two over-
riding issues must be dealt with when
an environmental management scheme
is constructed.   In essence, Trinidad
and Tobago must decide where to start
first and how to generate the public
support to do so. The discussion that
follows is designed to place the envi-
ronmental  management issues in a
broader framework. These ideas sug-
gest that there should be some overrid-
ing environmental objectives based on
the specific issues in Trinidad and To-
Defining the Problem

       There have been a number of
surveys completed to help define the
environmental problems facing Trinidad
and Tobago. The first task is a broad
listing of environmental issues. That
listing has been done numerous times
with  relatively similar results.  Most
analyses of the environmental issues in
Trinidad and Tobago have centered

     | Liquid and solid waste man-
agement (including serious sewage is-

     I Destruction of important wa-
tershed resources from deforestation and
uncontrolled development;

     I Hazardous waste management
— managing the waste stream and dis-

     | Industrial pollution affecting
both air and water bodies, ultimately the
ocean and its critical ecosystems.
       In more recent times, the po-
tential impact of emissions from lead
in gasoline is beginning to be discussed
as potentially one of the more critical
environmental health issues.  Noise
pollution  is another problem that is
generally  acknowledged as a senous
"nuisance" issue. Only  recently has
the problem of noise properly become
discussed  as an environmental pollut-
ant. Both the issues of lead and noise
pollution have been mentioned in the
1987 Field Study on  Environmental
Management as well as the more re-
cent letter from the head of the Stand-
ing Committee  on the Environment,
Dr. James.

       The second step is to begin
assessing the sources of these problem
—in specific terms, including thename
of the source of (he pollution and the
nature of the pollution. This step has
not been taken in a consistent fashion
throughout the country. The informa-
tion, if it exists, needs to be pulled
together by the new Ministry in a co-
herent form. If the information docs

not exist, it must be developed.  A
study was done several years ago under
UNEP sponsorship that attempted to
define some key geographic areas as
well as categorize major industries upon
which  to focus such an assessment.
For instance, it was thought that about
one half of all manufacturing locations
were in the Carom River Basin. Thus
an assessment of that Basin as an entity
in and of itself would be an excellent
starting point. The assessments, there-
fore, should be made with some clear
cut organization either around similar
industrial sources refmery(ies), sugar
cane production, oil producing opera-
tions, etc.,  or around logical geo-
graphic units, such as the Caroni River
Basin. To the extent possible, such an
assessment should be so organized so
as to also fall into logical, existing
political or governmental units that
could ultimately be responsible for im-
plementing  the  environmental  pro-
grams addressing the specific issues.

        Finally, and perhaps the most
important task given the wide range of
environmental issues and the very tight
fiscal situation, is a prioritization of
the sources of pollution. This pnonti-
zalion should be done on a variety of
levels: the degree of risk to human
health; the danger to important eco-
systems; and  the danger  to critical
drinking water sources. Since envi-
ronmental action is focused on  spe-
cific entities, such a  prioritization
should lead to a listing of the most
critical sources of pollution however
that is defined for Trinidad and To-
bago. That listing would provide the
basis for environmental management
on a priority basis.
The Importance of Preven-

        Trmdidad and Tobago need
more than an organized  approach to
defining  its    pollution problems.
Trinidad and Tobago should consider a
clear environmental management phi-
losophy upon which to base its specific
management options. Thisconsultancy
was not structured to analyze specific
environmental problems.  However, it
is quite clear that for the most part the
environmental  issues  are generally
understood at least by those committed
to protecting the environment.    The
issue that was continually stressed by
most observers was the importance of
dealing with the key environmental
issues right the first time.  Trinidad
and Tobago simply does  not have the
landmass to easily resolve some of the
more serious environmental problems.
Other nations larger in geography do
have the option of walking away from
sitesof pollution and rebuilding in some
instances.  Trinidad and Tobago does
not have that alternative. In  addition,
the  structure of the ecosystem is so
fragile that in some cases  it will not be
possible to restore areas after they are
damaged by polluuon. Therefore, it is
imperative that Trinidad  and Tobago
address theirmost serious environmental
issues now. Whileinsomccascsitmay
already be too late to utilize a strong
prevent!veenvironmenial program, the
approach Trinidad  and Tobago  ulti-
mately take should focus precisely on

Public Sector Leadership

        In the past several years, and
perhaps for the near future, much of the
development activity in Trinidad and
Tobago has been by way of the public
sector. It will be extremely important
for the public sector, therefore, to take
a leadership  role in addressing envi-
ronmental concerns. This essentially
means lhatTnnidad and Tobago should
consider using the public sector enter-
prises involved in industrial activity as
the leaders in establishing an effective
environmental  policy  and environ-
mental controls on their own facilities.
Like in other sectors, such as planning,
the public sector must not be consid-
ered separate but an integral leader in
responsible  environmental  manage-
ment. Unless the public sector's activi-
ties areenvironmen tally adequate, little
can be expected of the private sector.
A Broader Perspective

        As part of an environmental
philosophy, Trinidad and Tobago must
build on their leadership status with the
Caribbean community as witnessed at
the recent Port of Spain CARICOM
Ministers Conference on the Environ-
ment. The most striking thing from that
Conference was the similarity of envi-
ronmental issues country to country.
While that "oneness"  may have been
understood, the impact of listening to
each Minister or his representative de-
tail the same environmental issues time
and time again was impressive as well
as constructive. Thus, Trinidad and To-
bago should take the leadership to view
its solutions as possible solutions for
others in the Caribbean. In some cases,
this might be an approach to join with
others in specific solutions that cry out
for regional solutions.  One example
would be to formulate regional agree-
ments to construct waste disposal  fa-
cilities of different technical makeup
that might be more appropriate in one
country  and not in another.
   "Trinidad  and Tobago must decide where to start first and
             how to generate the public  support to do  so..."

        One Nation's geology, for
instance, mightnotsupportaparticu-
lar hazardous waste disposal  tech-
nology while another might support
it.  What is clear,  is that it simply
does not make sense for each nation
to construct the same type of solu-
tions to the hazardous waste problem
in every country.  While cross bound-
ary solutions to hazardous waste dis-
posal become quickly controversial,
at least solutions for waste generated
within the  Caribbean community
should be examined in a manner that
looks beyond each Nation's borders
and individual problems.

         In other cases, it may make
sense to build upon existing institu-
tions, such as the current Institute of
Marine Affairs, to serve a much wider
population  thus saving valuable re-
sources.  In short, Trinidad and To-
bago should focus its specific solu-
tions as broadly as possible to take
advantage of a larger analytic and
resource base throughout the region.

Environmental  Informa-

        Finally, the new Ministry
needs to take the lead now and ulti-
mately through the Authority to de-
velop accurate environmental infor-
mation from all the available and to
be created data.  There is no single
organization or Ministry responsible
for environmental data. The Ministry
needs to become that repository as
soon as possible. In many cases, the
data exists and needs  to be trans-
formed  into useful information for
decision  making on  environmental
issues. In other cases, the data needs
to be created and in most cases the
Ministry should become  the single
place to focus on environmental data

        Trinidad and Tobago need
to increase its ability to utilize data
systems to integrate all the environ-
mental information so that decision
makers can have that data available to
them to make regulatory decisions as
well as environmental impact assess-
ments. Where possible, Tnnidad and
Tobago should expand (he  regional
cooperative  ventures in information
gathering and analysis.  Technical as-
sistance from those countries, like the
United States, that have begun to utilize
geographic information systems for
regulatory decision making and a vari-
ety of environmental siting decisions
should be expanded.   The  Ministry
should develop improved relationships
with organizations such as the United
Stales  Environmental  Protection
Agency on information creation, analy-
sis, and dissemination.

        This information is  in many
ways more important than being needed
for technical decision making. While
that purpose is obviously a critical one,
the information also  needs to be for-
matted, analyzed, and designed to acti-
vate in a measured way an  environ-
mental ethic for the Nation. A consis-
tent theme heard throughout the review
period was that the people of Trinidad
do not have a  strong environmental
concern or ethic.  And although  there
are many reasons for this, some obvi-
ous, some not so obvious, it echoes the
concern of the National Consultation
of five years ago.  The Ministry of the
Environmentand National Service must
undertake a program to educate and
mobilize the public to become involved
in environmental issues directly affect-
ing them. Without this basic funda-
mental  underpinning,  any  environ-
mental management program  will sim-
ply weaken over time.

        The  section  which  immedi-
ately follows is a selected summary of
environmental issues from a variety of
documents discussed  in this consulta-
tion. This summary should return the
Ministry to the first essential step -- the
establishment of a generally agreed
upon, prioritized, and working docu-
ment detailing the environmental prob-
lems to be addressed in Trinidad and
        Such a document would in-
clude a broad discussion of  environ-
mental issues in a more comprehensive
manner than the following summaries.
However, such a document should also
go to considerable detail, be organized
by geographic area wherever feasible
(so as to make ultimate regulatory deci-
sions perhaps easier to construct and
implement), and include some analysis
regarding the degree of pollution, the
potential or real impact on people (ex-
posure estimates) and impacts on the
ecosystems. This information would
be the  basis for choices on environ-
mental controls throughout the Nation.
Without such an information blueprint,
the entire environmental management
process will be confused and without a
focus or goal.


Source of
Action Plan for
Administration --
James Letter,

Management in
Trinidad and
Toha?o --Field
Study 1987


Significant water
pollution from a
variety of sources:
untreated or partially
treated pollutants
from Beer and Rum
distilleries; raw
sewage; oil; silt;
Pesticide and
fertilizer run-off from
agricultural lands;
Oil and related
pollution to rivers
and other water
No water resources
management in
Carom Basin;
sedimentation from
soil erosion caused
by a variety of
actions including
squatter settlements,
deforestation and

Pollution caused by
agricultural activities
including pesticides.
organic waste, animal
waste and industrial
waste discharges;
Pollution from the
dumping of deter-
gents, insecticides
and disposal of
sanitary waste and
Pollution from
effluent from the
sugar and rum
industry is serious;

Pollution from raw
Heavy metal wastes;

Chaos in operation
and maintenance of
package sewage
treatment plants;
Impact from dump-
ing of industrial
effluents into rivers;

Lack of pretreatment
requirements for
industrial emissions;

Disposal facilities
need to be estab-

Area Needing Attention
Pollution from
automobile painting
and furniture shops
island wide;
Automobile pollution
exhausts, particularly
from lead;
Smoke from domes-
tic and agricultural
Lack of emission stan-
dards; visibile emis-

No program to Hi8h levels of lead
control toxic wastes; from gasoline in air
(and soil);
Lack of adequately
mntrnlled and No 3UtO emission
IfUIIUUllCU allU — — -~ ~ -~
regulated hazardous standards;
waste disposal
facilities; Air pollution, while
often localized, arises
from cement manu-
facturing, bauxite
transferring, refining,
iron and steel
ammonia manufac-
turing and lead

                   Selected Environmental Area Needing Attention
In wetland areas,
pollution from solid
wastes, oil, raw
sewage and a variety
of industrial pollut-

Sandmining is having
serious negative
impacts on coastal
ecosystems such as
coral reefs;
Significant defores-
tation from excessive
logging, squatting,
quarrying, and

logging is impacting
the gene pool of
forest ecosystems;
Significant noise
levels from industry,
traffic and domestic
sources are common-
Significant ecological
damage from a variety
of sources: sandmm-
mg; bottom trawling;
nver diversion; aban-
doned  quarry  sites;
aerial  spraying  of
chemicals; indiscrimi-
nate logging; reclama-
tion  activities;  solid
waste dumps in wet-

Defacement  issues
including  indiscrimi-
nate dumping of do-
mestic garbage;
 Destruction of
 nursery areas from
 bottom trawling

 Destruction of near-
 shore habitats from
 land erosion, runoff,
 and sedimentation;

 Impacts from marine
 disposal of petroleum

 Destruction of fish
 and habitats caused
 by leaking of toxic
 wastes from  in-land
 dump sites and
 pollution from
 offshore drilling;

 Destruction of coral
 reefs caused by
 excessive collection
 of corals and shells,
 siltation and pollu-
 Destruction of
 Forests for quarrying,
 uncontrolled logging,
 subsistence farming;

 Confusion over
 protection of key
 habitat areas such as
 Caroni swamp;

 Lack of national
 policy on use of state
 Has received little
 attention although
 often discussed as a
 significant problem;

Source of
Project for the
Protection of the
Coastal and
Marine Environ
ment of Carib-
bean Islands --
McGraw Study,
Post 1980
                           Selected Environmental Area Needing Attention
 Runoff of pesticides
 and fertilizers from
Significant Problems
with maintenance of
sewage treatment
 Study has a detailed listing by geographic area of pollution sources and their general
 impact on the environment.
Human Health
Effects of Pesti-
cides •- Davies
Report (PAHO)
Study has extensive information on pesticide use and environmental problems associated
with the use.
Trinidad and
Thoughts on
Environment •
Williams Study
Impact on soil
erosion caused by
demand for housing
and squatters
throughout hilly
areas of urban belt;
 Study is most interesting for its historical context and the remark-
 able similarity between environmental issues now and nearly
 twenty years ago.

                  Selected Environmental Area Needing Attention
 Greatest potential for
 coastal pollution is in
 the western and
 southern coastlines
 from intensive
 discharge of indus-
 trial and domestic
 wastes from the
 Caroni River Basin
 and other rivers to the
                      Contamination of soil
                      and runoff into
                      nearest streams from
                      waste crude oil; this
                      is probably the most
                      serious pollution
                      problem in southern
                                                                                      Serious pesticide
                                                                                      management prob-
                                                                                      lems exist;

                                                                                      Human pesticide
                                                                                      poisonings were

                                                                                      80% of pesticides
                                                                                      imported are used in
                                                                                      the sugar cane
have been made for
an aquatic park at
Buccoo Reef;
In the south, land use
dominated by oil
exploitation and

New issues surround-
ing offshore oil
development need to
be addressed;
Need for intensive
research in  pollution
prevention tech-
niques associated
with the oil industry;

Recent epidemics of
typhoid and polio-
myelitis and appear-
ance of gastroenteri-
tis remind Nation of
need for continuing
need for environ-
mental management;

                         IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

       The  environmental  issues
facing Trinidad and Tobago, as de-
scribed above, should place, one would
expect, an enormous pressure upon
the government to begin organizing
improved responses to environmental
protection. And, to say the least, the
current status of environmental man-
agement in Trinidad and  Tobago  is
expectant with opportunity. This fluid
status is the result of a relatively recent
series of significant events, culminat-
ing less than four months ago with the
establishment of a new Ministry of the
Environment and National Service.
This new organization is first, as are
other  environmental  organizations
around the world, an amalgamation of
a variety of entities that somehow
mvolveenvironmental issues to a more
or lesser degree.  And like other or-
ganizations in other countries who have
had the courage to establish such cen-
tral managementstructures to deal with
jnvironmental issues, the Ministry of
the Environment and National Serv-
ice is also the result of compromise.
    The Ministry, therefore, does not
contain all the entities of management
involving the environment that might
be expected if nothing went  before.
And the Ministry contains other func-
tions that some observers might ques-
tion as to their relationship to the envi-
ronment at all.  Finally, each of the
absorbed functions of this particular
entity bring with them programs and
missions as well as the people operating
those missions that may or may not be
— yet — fully knowledgeable of their
new status.  The important fact, how-
ever, is that the Govemmentof Trinidad
and Tobago has taken a key initial step
to strengthen environmental manage-
ment by the creation of a central organi-
zation to deal with a broad array of very
troubling environmental issues facing
the Nation.
   The new Ministry is most recently
the result of an essentially political de-
cision by the Government of Trinidad
and Tobago, and one that came with
suddenness.  However, the Ministry is
also the natural result of a series  of con-
centrated  examinations on environ-
mental management over a relatively
short periodoftimebeginningjustabout
five years ago, although its roots go
back much further. As a first step in
understanding  the status of environ-
mental management, it is critical  to
understand the growing consensus  of
many in leadership positions within
Trinidad and Tobago of the need  to
create a focus and central authority to
begin the management of environmental
issues within the Country.

The Process of Analysis

   In 1984, the Ministry of Health and
the Environment initiated what was
called the "National Consultation on
Environmental Health and Protection".
As with this current consultation, the
Pan American Health  Organization/
World Health Organization, was instru-
mental in collaborating with the Gov-
ernment of Tnnidad and Tobago on the
issues surrounding environmental health

management.  A Planning Committee
was  established to provide detailed
proposals for consideration by the Gov-
ernment. That Committee's composi-
tion reflected the pervasiveness of en-
vironmental issues as well as the mtru-
siveness of over twelve Ministries and
Governmentauthorities involved in im-
plementing programs  directly affect-
ing environmental concerns. Based on
the Committee's efforts, a National
Consultation was organized for Sep-
tember 1985 to focus on improving en-
vironmental management in Trinidad
and Tobago.

       The  1985  Consultation,  as
indicated in the Committee's Report of
that year, had a series of objectives that
were designed to focus on improving
the environment of the Nation's people.
The conclusions of the Consuluiuon,
however, were critical in detailing, lor
the first time, the U-y environmental
management problems that needed to
be resolved in Trinidad and Tobago. In
essence, the issues needing resolution
were identified as:
    The Consultation was a landmark
in  environmental  management  in
Trinidad and Tobago. All of the Com-
mittee's recommendations are still rele-
vant today as we shall see in the later
sections of this Report. However, the
bottom line of the Consultation's con-
clusions was that the Nation simply did
not have a sufficient infrastructure to
address environmental issues in an ef-
fective way.

   The second landmark element in a
continuing progression of examinations
of environmental management came in
late 1986 in relationship to the Govern-
ment's attempt to resolve a particular
environmental  issue — an additional
landfill for the disposal of waste. The
Government established  a Standing
Committee whose first and primary
function was  to make recommenda-
tions for the placement of the alterna-
tive landfill. However, this Committee
was also given an additional "term of
reference" which became perhaps the
most critical component in the prog-
                 Thel985 National Consultation
              No national environmental policy;

              No strategies or statutes to enable the Na-
              tion to combat specific pollution issues;

               No  organization to coordinate environ-
              mental , work throughout the Government;

              Significant lack of environmental data, in-
              formation, and  research; and

              "Lack of national pride among a large seg-
              ment of the population...."
rcss to improve environmental manage-
ment within the Nation. The Committed
became the Standing Committee on
the Environment that took to heart its
term of reference to "formulate propos-
als for government policy on the envi-
ronment" and "to make recommenda-

        In April of 1987, the Standing
Committee published a key document
entitled Guidelines  for Environmental
Administration in Trinidad and Tobago.
The Standing Committee, chaired by
Dr. Carol James of the Forestry Divi-
sion, made sweeping proposals for im-
proving environmental  management.
Those proposals focused on three essen-
tial elements:

     •  The establishment of a broad
national environmental policy;

     •  The creation of a National En-
vironmental Authority to coordinate all
environmental  management in the Na-
tion; and

     •  The enactment of a broad Na-
tional Environmental Act giving the
specific legislative authority to move
forward to protect the environment

        The tone should sound famil-
iar. Many of the recommendations of
the Standing  Committee necessarily
gave additional impetus to those ele-
ments resulting from the Consultation a
short time before. However, the Stand-
ing Committee's Guidelines were ex-
ceptionally complete and did  indeed
provide an excellent operating frame-
work for dramatically improving the
degree  of environmental  management
in Trinidad and Tobago.

        The next significant drumbeat
for improved environmental manage-
ment was the major contribution by the
Pan  American  Health  Organization
(PAHO)/World Health Organization. In
a proposal in April 1987, PAHO/WHO
Engineer  Ronald Williams recom-
mended specific structure includingi
environmental management council and
a division  within the Government to

 detail in specific terms the organiza-
 tional structure and purpose for the
 designation of "one agency, suitably
 staffed and equipped to coordinate all
 environmental matters" as was earlier
 recommended in the Standing Com-
mittee's report the same month.

       The  PAHO supported-pro-
posal gave additional specificity to the
earlier proposals. But more critically,
the Williams study framed the issues
more broadly:

   •  the "one agency" should be
representative of a "broad array of in-
terests" which would move it away from
a group simply representing existing
bureaucracies"; and
    •  the organization  would be
given specific powers to enforce envi-
ronmental legislation and standards.
          The Williams report was im-
   portant for three reasons.  First, the
   report recognized that to improve envi-
   ronmental management within Trinidad
   and Tobago, the coordinating agency
   should be more broadly representa-
   tive and not simply a grouping of sec-
   toral bureaucracies. Second, the Wil-
   liams report for the first time strongly
   signaled the need for an authority be-
   yond basic coordination of existing
   functions, but one with some specific
   powers to  take strong environmental
   action. But perhaps most important, the
   Williams proposal outlined a careful
   progression of growing responsibilities
   to be given to the new division. This
   concept rightly recognized the need for
   careful and measured integration of
   environmental issues into the basic
   fabric of the Government rather than a
   sudden restructuring of all authorities.

     In June 1988,alittlc more thanayear
                         after the Williams study, a report en-
                         titled Environmental Management in
                         Trinidad and Tobago was completed.
                         This study was prepared for the Gov-
                         ernment by the UNEP under the leader-
                         ship of Ralph M. Field, a consultant.
                         The Field study again reiterated many
                         of  the substantive recommendations
                         provided to the Government during the
                         previous three year period. However,
                         the Field study began to move deeper
                         into fundamental questions of specific
                         pollution problems and the underlying
                         reasons why the Government had not
                         organized effectively.

                                The primary contributions of
                         the Field report were (1) its detailing of
                         possible actions to make specific im-
                         provements in the structure of environ-
                         ment management; (2) the focus on the
                         "political will" — or lack thereof— of
                         the nation's leadership to truly move
      /The National
      (Consultation on the
The Progress  of  Environmental
   Management in  Trinidad  & Tobago
           No Environmental
           Policy Framework
                     f The Standing Committee
                      ion the Environment
                                       me Need for Policies
                                        and Structure
                       ield Report
                      on Environmental
                                 Williams Report
                                 on Environmental
                                 Management (PAHO)
   A Structure:

 he Ministry of
invironment &
National  Service

forward in environmental management;
and (3) the issue of how to pay for the
environmental management improve-

An Environmental Management
        In a relatively short period of
time, 1984 to 1989, the analytic frame-
work for new environmental manage -
ment structures within Trinidad andTo-
bagohascomefullcircleas the diagram
on the previous page indicates.

    The key point of
 this process  how-
 ever, is that there has
 developed over the
 past several years an
 influential coreof in-
 dividuals in Trinidad
 and Tobago,  both
 within the Govern-
 ment (career as well
 as political) as well
 as outside that  have
 focused the environ-
 mental management
 issues  superbly.
 While the creation of
 the Ministry may or
 may not have been in
 direct relation to that
 focusing process, the
 decision  to  create
 such a Ministry,  an
 essential political de-
 cision, should be re-
 garded as an impor-
 tant end point to the
 first stage of educa-
 tion of the  highly
 committed over the
 past five years and as
 a starting point for a
 broader involvement
 of the people  of
 Tnnidad and Tobago
 in  environmental
 consensus building. Paraphrasing Min-
 ister of the Environmental and  Na-
 tional Service Myers's statementat the
 Port of Spain Ministerial Conference
 on the Environment, the establishment
 of the Ministry is the first step in mov-
             ing beyond words into deeds.

             Confusing Words with Deeds

                     The key issue at the moment
             for environmental  management  in
             Trinidad and Tobago is clearly "what
             next."  There is a growing amount of
             frustration with the relatively influen-
             cial group of individuals involved with
             this analytic process over the last five
             years. That frustration is normal given
             the degree of progress made but with
             the amount of work still to be done. The
             one word that continued to be stated
"...the decision to create the Ministry-should be
regarded as an important end point to the first
stage of education for the environmentally com-
mitted and a starting point for a broader involve-
ment of the people..."
             Schedule of the Ministry
 in Chapter V, is ultimately the key "next
 step." The Authority should be so struc-
 tured to become the center environ-
 mental management force in Trinidad
 and Tobago. Furthermore, its authority
 should be bolstered by structuring the
 Board like a strong operating Board of
 Directors of a corporation. The current
 draft acts give the Board such power:
 the authority to Act in that way must
 come from the political will of those in
 the Government who will administer
 and staff the new structure.

    And beyond the very serious envi-
          ronment  issues facing
          Trinidad and Tobago, there
          are a number of other very
          real reasons that the Gov-
          ernment should not confuse
          words with deeds and move
          quickly forward to the next
          logical progression — the
          enactment of the National
          Environmental Policy and
          Act as well as the full re-
         source staffing for the new
         Ministry and the National
         Environmental Authority as
         called for in the Act.
  Environmental/Ecological Resource Management and Control
  Forestry, Parks and Open Spaces
  Herb Culture (for Pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals)

  National Service

  Statutory Boards and Similar Bodies

  Institute of Marine Affairs
  Zoological Society of Trinidad and Tobago

  Specified Slate Enterprises

  Trinidad and Tobago Forest Products Co. Ltd. (TANTEAK)
  Trinidad and Tobago Waste Management Co. Ltd.
             throughout the consultation  was the
             importance of political will  to move
             beyond the establishment of a Ministry
             of a handful of professionals.
                 The establishment of a  National
             Environmental Authority, as discussed
          Rationale for Contin-
                It is critically impor-
          tant at this stage that the
          Government move as expe-
          diliously as feasible to enact
          the enabling legislation to
          begin the process of envi-
          ronmental  improvement.
          There are several key rea-
          sons beyond the primary en-
          vironmental one.   First,
          Trinidad and Tobago is in a
          unique position to provide
          leadership  to the entire
          Caribbean community on
          environmental protection.
          The analytic work done to
date on the programmatic and statutory
tools for  environmental management
puts them in the forefront in the area.
The new Ministry provides the frame-
work for continued action.  And the
commitment and knowledge of the

leadership of that Ministry will ensure
an integrative and area wide approach
to resolving environmental issues criti-
cal to Trinidad and Tobago but also the
wider community.

        Second, there is a growing
interest on the part of the interna-
tional community,  particularly the
donor community, for closely tying
development activities with the envi-
ronment. In nearly all cases, it is more
than talk;  an effective environmental
program within a Nation is becoming a
competitive advantage with the inter-
national community.

A Statement of Policy and
Granting of Authority

        As a direct outcome of the
National Consultation and the Steer-
ing Committee on the Environment,
there is currently before the govern-
ment two key pieces  of legislation:
first, a "Draft Environmental Pro-
tection Policy Act" and second,  a
draft "Prohibition  and Control of
Pollution Act."  These two pieces of
legislation are key elements  in the
progression of environmental manage-
ment in Trinidad and Tobago.

        The Environmental Protec-
tion Policy Act would do several criti-
cal things::

    •   Declare, for the first time, a
national environmental  policy for
Trinidad and

   •   Create a National Environ-
mental Authority with broad consulta-
tive, coordinative, and legal authori-
ties to protect the environment; and

    •   Initiate a new Environmental
Appeal Tribunal to provide more timely
judicial action involving environmental

        First,  this  Act would give
Trinidad andTobagoaconcise national
policy on the environment the essence
of which is:

        "...it is the continuing policy
of the State,...to use all practicable
means and   measures,...in order to
foster and promote, create and main-
tain the conditions under which man
and nature can exist in productive har-
mony and fulfil the social,  economic
and other requirements of present and
future generations of Trinidad and

        This is, in essence, a defini-
tion of sustainable development, a bal-
ancing if you wish  of the  environ-
mental, development (economic) and
social needsof the Nation. Itisaproper
recognition that progress in the envi-
ronmental area will need to come in a
measured and  careful manner.  The
importance of  a National Policy for
Trinidad and Tobago is not simply in
the words, which are quite adequate.
The importance is really in the passage
of the Act itself, which is a statement by
the Government that environmental
policy will  become another real and
active force in  the  Nation's business,
alongside development, economic plan-
ning, and financial  management.

        The establishment of a Na-
tional Policy is important in itself, but
the questions raised of the polmeal will
within the Country to manage the Na-
tion's business consistent with that
environmental policy will continue to
beaconcem. However, the importance
of the passage of this policy should not
be understated. It is an important next
step in the progression  of improved
environmental  management.  It will
help establish an environmental ethic
for the Nation.  Yet even if it is not
enacted, but at least goes through pub-

 lie comment as is anticipated with both
 this Act and the Prohibition and Con-
 trol Act, it  will help raise the public
 consciousness and be a way for the
 new Ministry to raise the issue of envi-
 ronmental management to a broader
 audience, including a wider audience
 in government.

 Administrative  Management

        The second critical purpose
 of the Act is to establish  a National
 Environmental Authority with a Di-
 rector, a  National Environmental
 Board with a Chairman, and a new
 legal  entity,    an Environmental
Appeal Tribunal.  The power of the
Authority is  extremely broad, includ-
ing thekey functions outlined below.
        Furthermore,  the Authority
would have additional responsibilities
involving other agencies.  It would (1)
be the primary coordinating body on
issues related  to the environment as
well as the principal Agency on issues
involving protection of the environment.
In addition, the authority  is given re-
sponsibility to review all existing legal
authorities and regulations to ensure
they are in conformity with the intent of
the Environmental Policy Act. The Au-
thority can, on its own initiative, give
advice to existing agencies and advise
on laws, standards and regulations for
the protection of the environment. In
short, the  Act would give extremely
broadly defined authorities to the new
              The Powers of the National Environmental Authority

             to advise the Minister on all environmental matters;

             to coordinate and monitor all activities of implementing
                     Ministries and Agencies;

             to develop guidelines for standards for pollution control;

             to foster international cooperation, maintain a data
                     bank on expertise, maintain records on environ-
                     mental information;

             to maintain high level of environmental consciousness
                     with the public and environmental groups;

             to take necessary legal action involving activities
                     detrimental to the environment as well as any
                     other action necessary for the effective enforce-
                     ment of the Act;

             to obtain any information it needs; and

             to make regulations regarding the submission of
                     environmental impact statements, including fees
                     and the granting of licenses and permits.
        The National Environmental
Board, Chaired  and  composed of
members appointed by the President,
would have equally broad authorities:
        to advise the Minister and the
Authority on all environmental matters;
        to review the activities of the
Authority and make recommendations;
        to recommend to the Minister
additional environmental policies;
        use expert  panels;  submit
annual reports to Parliament; and

        to take any other action  it
deems necessary for the effective en-
forcement of the Act.

        This draft statute would  pro-
vide sufficient authorities for the  new
Environmental Authority  to  bring
muscle to environmental management
in Trinidad and Tobago. The Act would
also provide additional financing mecha-
nisms, through fees  and licenses, to
help finance the managementactivities.
The Board, because  of its appointed
structure (by the President) could be-
come a professional and independent
force for sustained environmental
management. That should be  the in-
tent of the drafters as the Board would
have the authority to analyze difficult
environment issues and suggest solu-
tions independently of either the Minis-
try   or the Authority.  It  would and
should act as an independent quality
control agent for environmental man-
agement. The Government has already
approved an  initial  staffing for the
Authority, albeit a small core of five po-

The Authority to Prohibit and
Control Pollution

        The "Prohibition and Control
of Pollution Act" is the engine that will
ultimately drive environmental action
within Trinidad and Tobago. The legal
framework created in this legislation

would provide the National Environ-
mental Authority with the clear au-
thority to protect the environment.
The Act's objectives, as defined would
be to:
        (1) protect the environment
and natural resources; (2) prevent as
well as control pollution;   and  (3)
promote and implement the National
Environmental Policy Act.

         This Act, unlike the Policy
Act, gives specificity toenvironmental
management by organizing powers to
prohibit and control pollution through
a variety of media control programs,
the atmosphere, soil,  water and then
liquid  wastes.  The mecha-
nism for preventing and con-
trolling pollution is the use of
the "power to attach  condi-
tions"  on the receipt of gov-
ernment approval to  repair,
alter, replace, install  equip-
ment of any sort.  Other au-
thorities, such as monitoring    	
requirements, are also avail-
able.  The Act would also provide
broad  and appropriate authorities to
make regulations covering all aspects
of potential environmental pollution.

Importance of the Prohibition
and Control of Pollution Act

        The primary importance of
this Act is to lay a specific regulatory
framework from which the Authority
can establish equity throughout the
Nation on environmental pollution
control. By equity is meant a standard
by which all involved must operate.
Some observers argue that with all the
statutesalready on the book for health,
toxics, planning, nuisance and all the
other more traditional regulatory au-
thorities nothing additional is neces-
sary. However, with no specific regu-
latory authority particularly for indus-
trial sources of pollution, it is difficult
to be taken seriously over the long run.
Without the specific  regulatory au-
thority, the Ministry really must rely
totally  on coordination and "moral
suasion" to implement environmental
control through these existing statutes
    which for the most pan have environ-
    mental management as a secondary
    thought if at all.   As the Field Study
    indicated, such a consultant role can
    be very frustrating.

           There is continuing discus-
    sion over the drafting of this Act as
    well as the previous Act involving the
    Policy and the Authority.   There  is
    some thought being given to delaying
    the submission of the Act to Parlia-
    ment, following public comment, un-
    til all appropriate changes can be sug-
    gested to all other acts involved in en-
    vironmental management.   Such an
    approach is unnecessary. The admin-
 vide an adequate basis for strong envi-
 ronmental action. The policy andcon-
 trol act also establishes the appropriate
 tone for environmental  action.  The
 framework provides for a system heav-
 ily reliant on coordination and consul-
 tation which is a traditional method of
 public activity in Trinidad and Tobago.

        There are a variety of areas
 that could  be altered to improve the
 statute. However, many of these sug-
 gestions might be more appropriate for
 the designers of a regulatory approach
 during implementation by the Environ-
 mental Authority.  Some of these are
 dealt with in other sections of this re-
"The draft environmental legislation would pro-
vide  a strong and substantive basis for effective
environmental action in Trinidad  and Tobago..."
   istrative system in Trinidad and To-
   bago, like those in many other coun-
   tries is quite used  to managing with
   considerable overlap and appropriate
   confusion. This draft Act provides a
   strong and substantive basis for ef-
   fective  environmental  action.  It
   should not be delayed pending what
   could be an endless analysis of related
   and unrelated authorities.  That job
   should and can be done by the Author-
   ity as it implements in regulations the
   powers of these two draft Acts.

           The enactment of the "con-
   trol" Act will require the strongest of
   political wills as it will  provide the
   substance for environmental manage-
   ment While it is critical to have this
   Act undergo public comment, without
   eventual enactment the forward prog-
   ress for environmental management
   could be substantially slowed.  It is
   time to move forward now.


           The draft policy and regula-
   tory acts are sufficiently broad to pro-
port in more detail but are summarized


        The draft environmental pol-
icy act as well as the regulatory draft act
should deal with the establishment of
priorities based on some measure of
risk to the public or ecosystems. While
the act is broad enough to include this
consideration, the drafters may want to
consider moreexplicitly the use of a va-
riety of tools of risk management and

        The National Environmental
Board  appears to be construed  as a
strongly independent advisory board.
The N.E.B. clearly needs to be more
than an advisory board to function as an
active board of directors  in a corpora-
tion would act.  The draft policy act
seems to provide the board with the
very type of independence and author-
ity it clearly will  need. In addition to
"...advising, reviewing, recommending,
and submitting" the Board's authorities
also include:

"(0   to  take any other action it
deems necessary for the effective en-
forcement of this Act...."

  This independent action-based au-
thority is essential if the Board wishes
to act as a relatively independent force
for environmental protection.  Mere
advisory functions, by themselves, will
not work.

  The independence of the Board is
critical so as to provide long term sus-
tainable support for environmental ac-
tion within the Government. While it is
important to keep the Board of man-
ageable size, its composition must be
very broadly representative.   The
recommendations of  the Williams
Report that such a board needs to be
broadly representative both of gov-
crnment(ie., the representatives should
be knowledgeable of broader areas and
not just individual sectors of the gov-
ernment) and of the private  and non
governmental  sectors are still well
stated. The Board should be composed
of individuals representing  broadly
defined environmental issues or con-
cerns rather than individual organiza-
tions or Ministries.

        Theregulatory control act and
perhaps the policy act, should more di-
rectly  promote recyling and  waste
minimization.  More needs to be said
in the national policy language regard-
ing these two components. The regu-
latory and control act should make it
clear that recycling and waste minimi-
zation will be a fundamental force in
environmental managementin the regu-
latory stage.

  Another area for discussion here is
the  issue of expanding the  right of
citizens and  perhaps  non  govern-
mental groups to petition and bring
action in court to force a particular ac-
tion.  Although important, the basic
right of the public to comment on en-
vironmental issues either in writing or
in person is not in itself sufficient to
generate  environmental   interest
throughout the Nation. There is a grow-
ing practice throughout the world to
provide special or expanded rights of
citizens to force actions on the  pan of
their government to protect the environ-
ment. The draft statutes do not provide
for this activity either in the policy draft
or in  the regulatory  action  draft.  In
many other countries, the right of citi-
zens or citizen groups to have special
standing in court is  the fundamental
force  to improve the  environment
Without such a right, the normal dead-
lock between the regulated community
and the regulator often remains at dead-

        Other suggested changes are
included in later sections. However, in
general, the draft legislation provides
for a  strong  foundation for improv-
ing environmental management. The
Acts should be put before the people of
Tnmdad and Tobago for comment and
then enacted after appropriate re-draft-
ing.   It does not make sense to wait
much longer in hopes of clarify ing every
section's relationship toevery other law
or every bureaucracy's working con-
nections to environmental issues. The
Nation needs (he statutory structure to
move significantly forward on environ-
mental protection.


                         CHOICES FOR THE FUTURE
   The Government of Trinidad and
Tobago has reached a critical juncture
in environmental management.  The
creation of the Ministry of Environ-
ment and National Service earlier this
year was a sudden and important event
The two draft environmental Acts dis-
cussed in the last section would pro-
vide a strong and necessary foundation
for that structure. However, there are
a number of basic choices that the
Nation must make in managing the en-
vironmental decision making process.
This section is a discussion of those

How Active a Role
Management or Coordination

       One of the looming issues in
the creation of a  Ministry  and ulti-
mately  some organization structure,
perhaps the Authority and the Advi-
sory Board, is the role that this new
environmental management infrastruc-
ture should play. The issue is partially
one of timing.  Until there are deci-
sions made as to additional resources
and a more firm statutory basis for ac-
tion,   the role of the newly created
Ministry may have to focus on coordi-
nation of ongoing environmental ac-
tivities. As the Chairperson of the Stand-
ing Committee on the Environment
recently suggested:

       "It is strongly advised that the
Ministry of the Environment and Na-
tional Service explore initially, unoffi-
cial channels to win the co-operation of
the various sectors, both governmental
and private, to solve the wide range of
problems listed...."

       In reality, however, the issue
is one of primary role — coordination
or management. The issue is the same
whether or not the act of creating a
Ministry is as far as the Government
goes in the near term or there is indeed
created a  broader statutory authority.
The difference is really only one of

       Clearly, all parties involved in
the debate on environmental manage-
ment see coordination as the funda-
mental role of the new Ministry itself
and as the backbone of the new Au-
thority and Advisory Counsel, if in-
deed they are created. There are sim-
ply too many people, too many Agen-
cies, and too many external forces in
the environmental  debate to assume
that even if a total grant of ultimate
authority were provided it would work
well.  It wouldn't. So  there  is no
question among all the observers that
coordination is and will  continue to
be a key element in successful envi-
ronmental management.   No one is
going to wave a wand and  make disap-
pear the 14 agencies or the 42 statutes,
that currently affect some portion of
the environmental puzzle. Therefore,
whatever resources and personnel are
ultimately provided to the new Minis-
try, the function of coordination should
be a primary consideration.

        However,  in  the environ-
mental field coordination cannot be
the prime consideration at least in the

long run. Coordination can only bring
you so far and when the issues get
very heated, as they always do in en-
vironmental protection, coordination
is simply not enough. Management
implies some level of control over
resources, people, and or processes.
The  new Ministry  simply  cannot
function for long in a credible way
with less than a handful of personnel,
albeit talented and dedicated people.
Even without the additional  mecha-
nisms the two draft Acts would pro-
vide, coordination in and of  itself is
not a sufficient authority to move
much forward on environmental man-
agement in Trinidad and Tobago.

        Coordination works very well
among groups of the already  commit-
ted. There has been an enormous de-
gree of  selflessness in many Minis-
tries to analyze environment  issues to
the degree that has been done in the
Nation.  However, the need now is to
expand  that  group  of individuals
committed to environmental protec-
tion and that will take more than coor-
dination and discussion. It will take
dedicated action to move beyond
new bureaucratic structures. And
that action could, at least initially,
take the form of a series of coordi-
native mechanisms to expand that
group of committed individuals as
well as organizations.


        Coordination must first
begin within the government itself
at a variety of levels. At the Minis-
terial level, one of two things needs
to happen,  preferably both.  The
first is that the new Ministry must
raise additional issues to the level
of the Cabinet when those issues are
of critical importance to the Nation's
environment. This is coordination at
the highest level and accomplishes
several objectives, one of them clearly
the most significant:  it raises  environ-
mental concerns to the highest level of
government and begins the debate.  It
is also highly important as Trinidad
and Tobago improve their  environ-
 mental management, that the issues of
 major import, such as the protection of
 the Northern Range, the regulation of
 industrial pollution, and indeed the new
 environmental statutes  themselves,
 receive full debate and discussion by
 the very individuals who will ultimately
 make the resolution of those issue pos-

         The second elementof coordi-
 nation is to create a mechanism to pro-
 mote ongoing coordination on environ-
 mental issues with the key Ministries
 on a regular basis.  A "Ministerial
 Working Group on the Environment"
 would be composed of the Ministers of
 the most critical operational functions
 affecting the environment: as starters,
 the  Ministers of  Health, Town and
 Country Planning, and Energy along
 with the new Minister of the Environ-
 ment would meet on a regular basis to
 discuss specific approaches to specific
 environment issues.  On an as needed
 basis, other Ministries would be invited
 to participate in the Working Group.
 These sessions would be lead by the
 Management or

I Raise Issues to the Cabinet

I Establish a Ministerial Level
  Working Group on the Envi-

• Establish Inter-Ministry
  Working Groups on the
 Minister of the Environment and Na-
 tional Service and would be informal
 discussion sessions attended only by
 the Ministers and the appropriate Per-
 manent  Secretaries.  But more than
 informal sessions, the focus would be
 on committing the appropriate Minis-
 tries to the effective resolution of spe-
 cific environmental  issues that need
support from within their Ministries.

        These two coordmative ac-
tions could bring a more cohesive ap-
proach to environmental management
Regardless of future action on legisla-
tion, the implementation of most envi-
ronmental activity will be a multi-sec-
toral approach.  Environmental poli-
cies must first get a full hearing at the
highest levels of the government. How-
ever, those issues must then receive
regular attention from the key organi-
zations if they are ever to be resolved.

        As a balance to this top-down
approach, there need to be established
throughout government at the Perma-
nent Secretary level as well  as at the
technical level additional working
groups. It is quite  clear from all the
discussions regarding environmental
management, that the success or fail-
ure of programs reside with the tech-
nical experts in the Ministries. The
new Ministry of the Environment and
National  Service needs to establish
Inter-Ministry Working   Groups
on the Environment at the Perma-
 nent Secretary level, much like the
 Ministerial Working Group.  These
 working  groups should be of two
 types, in  some cases combined into
 one but in other cases there may be
 several different groups. On the one
 hand, there may be issues that re-
 quire ongoing working sessions be-
 tween thePermanent Secretaries of
 several Ministries.  In other  cases,
 the focus of the work would be at the
 technical level which in many of the
 environmental issues is the key ele-
 ment. Like the Ministerial group,
 these sessions need to be scheduled,
 specific, and regularized. Initially,
 they should focus on implementa-
tion  issues necessary to  begin  the
operations of the new Ministry.  As
will be suggested  in later sections,
some of these groups  might focus on
(1) Environment Data collection and
management; (2) Assessment of Pol-
lution Sources; (3) Pollution compli-
ance choices; or (4) Public education
and training.  The  purpose of these
meetings would be to commit the re-

spective Ministries, at the Permanent
Secretary level to broad outlines of
policy and then at the technical level
to a specific and particular action on
the environment to implement those
policies choices.

Managing the Leadership

        The second area for consid-
eration in improving environmental
management is the question of leader-
ship. In the most frank terms, outside
the area of the environmentally ac-
tive, there are not great expectations
for the new environmental bureauc-
racy.  There is  hope, but not many
expectations.  However, that attitude,
while perhaps  disappointing, is a
challenge and an opportunity. The
First objective of the Minister and his
Ministry should be to define clearly
and succinctly for the Nation what
the Ministry is all about. This is the
essence of leadership and it is the
primary, and perhaps the most impor-
tant challenge. The Minister of Envi-
ronment and National Service must
focus his energies on raising the ex-
pectations for environmental protec-
tion in Trinidad and Tobago. And that
is a task that involves not only the
broader expectations of the popula-
tion as a whole, but  in a narrower
sense, his own bureaucracy.

        The creation of the Ministry
gives the beginnings of form and struc-
ture to environmental management.
The Minister must work at eliminat-
ing ambiguity as to the mission of
the Ministry.  Environmental issues
need to be brought before the Nation,
either as suggested in the previous
section through traditional govern-
mental mechanisms, or more bluntly
through an enhanced interest in envi-
ronmental issues on the pan of the
public.  And part of the leadership
challenge will clearly be to  expand
the interest in environmental protec-
tion  of the various publics — the
people, the press, and non govern-
mental groups.
              Managing the Leadership Function
        Define the Role of the Ministry

        Eliminate Ambiguity as to Mission

        Build a Consensus of that Mission within the Ministry
        The new Ministry is a key
step in giving substance to environ-
mental management.  If the two stat-
utes discussed earlier arc enacted, that
would be additional, perhaps the criti-
cal, impetus. However, regardless of
the timing of the enactment of the new
legislation.the leadership function will
be crucial.  The recent  CARICOM
Ministers Conference on the Environ-
ment, managed by the new Minister,
was a witness to the potential impact of
leadership.  That type of success in
bringing people together, discussing
common environmental issues, and es-
tablishing mechanisms to  work to-
gether is precisely the leadership chal-
lenge within Trinidad and Tobago.


       First, the new Ministry must
build an effective team from within.
The new Ministry is the combination
of several disparate elements and as in
any new structure, they need to under-
stand their roles and contributions to
what is likely to be a new mission. The
new Ministry has among others, some
key  components:   the  Institute of
Marine Affairs; theTrinidad and To-
bago Waste Management Company,
Ltd., and the Forestry Division. While
all of these agencies have an environ-
mental component to their individual
missions, the new Ministry  should
formulate a consolidated mission state-
ment building on the solid expertise of
the individuals within thoseunits. This
will require the personal  attention of
the new Minister and his senior advis-

       Following  on the successes
of the CARICOM Ministers Confer-
ence on the Environment held in  late
May 1989, the new Minister must begin
to bring environmental issues to the
Nation's attention within Trinidad and
Tobago. This might be as simple as a
national contest for the development
of a "logo" for the new Ministry perhaps
at the primary and secondary school level.
Such a program could help to capture the
attention of the Nation on the fact  that
there is a new Ministry focused on envi-
ronmental issues.  The effort could also
involve a more substantive discussion in
local  communities on  environmental
issues.  Possibly, the Minister  could
develop a series of "Regional Forums"
on environmental issues.  Such commu-
nity  meetings, supported by local  or-
ganizations,  would help raise environ-
mental issues as well as involve the com-
munity. Additional media coverage of
environmental issues on national televi-
sion would also help focus the Minis-
try's role in people's minds.

Building an Environmental
Infrastructure - Moving Beyond
the Committed

        There are four key elements in
building an environmental infrastructure:
the public at large; public interest groups
(non-governmental   organizations
(NGOs)), the private sector, and the press.
In Tnmdad and Tobago, each of these
elements seriously lacks an organiza-
tional interest in environmental issues.
For  the Ministry and ultimately  the
Government to be successful in manag-
ing the complicated and potentially divi-
sive  environmental issues, these four
groups must be nurtured and educated on
environmental issues.  The key purpose
for building un infrastructure is to build

a system that can result in an effective
decision making process in the envi-
ronmental arena.

        If the only forces available
were government and the private sec-
tor it is unlikely that environmental
action would move very far. That is,
more or less, the situation in Trinidad
and Tobago. What seems to be so
critical for environmental management
in Trinidad and Tobago, particularly
for the long haul, is the creation of
other forces to support, in an effective
manner,  environmental protection.
Without these other forces,  ie., an
environmentally active public; a press
with  the interest and ability to dig into
environmental complexities and sus-
tain an intercstin them; public interest
groups  actively  supporting broad
environmental issues — and some-
times local izedones; and without some
industrial leadership,  the ability to
sustain environmental protection sim-
ply will not exist.

        Obviously, the creation of
such an infrastructure is not without
risk  for the public
servants both career
and political that are
being asked to help
develop it.  Getting
the public interested
and      perhaps
strongly motivated
can be a dangerous
and sometimes self
defeating  activity
particularly in  the
environmental field
where there arc of-
ten no  really clear
cut or simple solu-
tions. The same risk
goes for educating
the press and engen-
dering the  creation
of environmental or
the non governmen-
tal groups.  How-
ever, it is a question
of leadership  and
building infrastruc-
tures to protect the
     environment of Trinidad and Tobago
     for the future. The new Ministry needs
     to reach out beyond the relatively small
     group of the most committed and build
     a broader foundation of support.


     The Public at Large

            Every  analysis on environ-
     mental management in  Trinidad  and
     Tobago has dealt with the distinct lack
     of an environmental ethic on the part
     of the people themselves. The National
     Consultation of 1985 stated the issue
     quite clearly that one of the major prob-
     lems in environmental  management
mending the government:
   "Mount a massive public educa-
 fon/publfc Rations drive  to false
 ritizen consciousness about the ettvi-
       **Lack of national pride among i
     arge segment of the population 01
     rrinidad and Tobago/'
            The findings of the Standing
     Committee on Environment two years
     later again emphasized the importance
     of the public's education by recom-
        There  is, therefore, nothing
unique about the call for the develop-
ment of the public interest as a major
component of the environmental infra-
structure. Nearly every observer con-
tacted on this issue insisted that such a
development must begin at the earliest
age, in primary school. Trinidad and
Tobago is a very young country. There
is an  enormous potential for a bal-
anced environmental education—that
is an education that engenders environ-
mental protection but in a way that rec-
ognizes  the difficulty  of choices and
indeed the necessity to balance risks
against protection. The Ministry should
work with  the appropriate  institutions
within the country to begin  a project of
environmental awareness. The Ministry
should also work within the region for
appropriate guidance and assistance on
Building an  Environmental Infrastructure
 Begin environmental education programs with the very

 Engender broader groups of committed non- governmental

 Establish an Environmental Business Roundtable to help
 capture the private sector's experience and involvement;

 Develop with the press an increased understanding and longer
 term commitment to environmental issues;

 Build a regional and international perspective on the environ-
 ment ;

 Build on an expanded definition of environmental health;

 Use environmental protection competitively in the interna-
 tional market place;

projects that have worked elsewhere
to enhance the publics interest and in-
volvement in environmental issues.
There is no  magic formula. It will
simply take sustained effort within
Trinidad and Tobago to formulate
educational programs that will make
sense to its own people. Appropriate
technical assistance from international
groups, such as PAHO or the UNEP,
bi-lateral agreements or other mecha-
nisms could be helpful.

        While the development of a
sustained public  involvement in en-
vironmental issues requires educa-
tional programs, the creation of an
environmental  awareness requires in-
volvement in government processes
— whether that be the planning proc-
ess and public comment or a focus on
specific actions where citizens need
to become involved. In all cases, the
Ministry can be a force to engender
such involvement. The public needs
to feel "personal" about some of the
key environmental issues for them to
become involved. That is why public
comment provisions must involve
more than written comment by the al-
ready involved. Public participation
must be encouraged and expected.
The public should have additional ac-
cess to environmental issues and  to
the courts or other public  forum  to
press for action.

Non-Governmental Groups

        There does not appear to be
any nation-wide environmentally fo-
cused  non-governmental group  in
Trinidad and Tobago. Simplistically,
there are no environmental interest
groups whose primary focus is to pro-
mote  environmental  management.
There are a variety of associations
with an environmental interest  as a
subsidiary to their primary purpose.
One example is the Employers Con-
sultative Association (EGA) which
recently held a seminar on industrial
waste management. Thereareorgani-
zations interested in ecology as  well
as specific issues in certain locations.
But there is  simply no organization
devoted to promoting environmental

        This is a critical gap for im-
proving environmental management.
In all countries there is the normal ten-
sion between environmental and devel-
opment or economic issues.  This ten-
sion often results in gridlock on envi-
ronmental decisions, particularly statu-
tory changes.  While the public can
often be strongly behind "the environ-
ment" even a strongly committed pub-
lic often cannot bring its power to bear
on specific environmental decisions at
the National level. The difference is
often the focus and influence of the
environmental interest groups. With-
out this element of the environmental
infrastructure it is going  to be very
difficult in the long run to sustain action
to protect the environment.

        It is critically important that
the new Ministry give considerable
thought to how to engender broader,
national groupings of environmental
interests in the Nation. Much can be
done through "jawboning" by bringing
similar interests together from several
        The  Ministry should begin
discussions with key internationally
supported environmental interest
groups (Conservation Foundation,
Sierra Club, etc.) to obtain their sug-
gestions as to how to establish the ap-
propriate climate for such organiza-
tions in Trinidad and Tobago.  There
may even be the ability to utilize (he
resources  of these organizations for
technical assistance and training.

The Private Sector

        The third component neces-
sary to build an environmental infra-
structure is to engage the private sec-
tor in Trinidad and Tobago. There is a
clear cut chasm between the  public
and private sectors particularly in ref-
erence to  the environment. For ex-
ample, the existing Standing Commit-
tee has no private sector, or for that
matter  no non governmental repre-
sentation. This is not uniquetoTrinidad
and Tobago.  However, the implica-
tions of such  a dichotomy is particu-
larly expensive to the Nation both  in
terms of environmental protection as
      "...The technical abilities of the private sector simply
      cannot and should not be ignored as a valuable re-
      source in protecting the environment..."
different locations on issues that cross
town or geographic areas.  However,
these  groups tend  not to outlast the
particular issue. More important, per-
haps,  would be for the  Ministry to
carefully nurture environmental in-
terest  group  participation  in  the
processes of government so that there
is a reason to get involved in an organ-
izational sense. The focus could be on
a particular issue — the protection of
the Northern Range, that  could engen-
der wider interest throughout  the na-
tion. Or, the focus could be on ensur-
ing participation by organizations in
the processes of government, including
standing in court to bring citizen action
against polluters or even against the
government to force action.
well as rare skills.

private sector  simply cannot and
should not be ignored as a valuable
resource in protecting the environ-
ment.   Perhaps in Trinidad and To-
bago, a better phrase would be the in-
dustrial sector, whether it be truly "pri-
vate" or one of the publ ic corporations
or entities.   Environmental  issues
quickly  become technical and often
very expensive to analyze. No coun-
try can afford to ignore the industrial
resource. Therefore, the new Minis-
try must build an ongoing and more
effective relationship  with the  in-
dustrial sector. The first step is to
build an understanding of where  the

Ministry is headed in developing an
environmental protection program for
the Nation. The second step is foster-
ing cooperation in reaching those ob-
jectives. The new Ministry must begin
to build those liaisons at the highest
level and begin a series of working re-
lationship at the technical level.

         In addition to the building of
bridges between the public and indus-
trial sectors, the Ministry needs to be-
gin  establishing  an information
base. This can best be done through
information requested by the Minis-
try and prepared and submitted by the
industrial sector.   At a  later stage,
these information relationships  will
naturally  develop  in  a  system for
industrial self compliance informa-
tion for environmental regulations.

         On the industrial side,  cor-
porations need to develop a more thor-
ough understanding of the benefits of
environmental prevention activities.
It is becoming increasingly  evident
that pollution prevention at the source
of manufacture pays considerable
dividends for corporations.   There
needs to be a  more effective commu-
nication of these principles between
the eventual regulator and the regu-
lated community. This point needs to
be emphasized by the Ministry with
particular application to  the major
industries in Trinidad and Tobago.

         At the highest level, how-
ever, the Ministry should consider the
establishment of a Environmental
Business Roundtable, chaired by the
Minister and one of the leading indus-
trialists in Trinidad and Tobago.  The
purpose of the Roundtable would be
to meet quarterly to discuss specific
environmental issues and the options
available for their resolution.   The
Roundtable would, as appropriate,
spin  off  industrial/governmental
working groups to develop the appro-
priate information upon which envi-
ronmental action could take place. In
this way, the  talents and capabilities
of the industrial sector would not be
lost to the government.
The Press

        The  press  in  Trinidad and
Tobago takes an interest in environ-
mental issues but not a sustained inter-
est. For obvious reasons, the press is an
important component in the environ-
mental infrastructure.   The Ministry
has already begun to reach out to the
press on environmental issues. How-
ever, there should be a more concerted
effort at the reporter and editorial
levels to develop a more in depth
understanding of the environmental
issues  facing Trinidad and Tobago.
However, and more important, the press
needs to be educated in the importance
of sustaining their interest and that of
their readers. They are an important
element in public education.

        The Ministry should develop
public forums on environmental issues
andas a public service have them placed
on television with particular reference
to the younger viewer. The Ministry
itself needs to develop a strong sense
of the press and how it can be utilized
more effectively to take to the Nation
its environmental message.
The Broader Framework—The
International  and   Regional

 A Regional Perspective

        It is very difficult to resolve
environmental issues within the bor-
ders of aspecific country. Trinidad and
Tobago is no exception. The world
community is currently undergoing an
environmental  transformation  with
concern, interest, and  action taking
place throughout the globe on environ-
mental issues. Trinidad and Tobago
should utilize that growing international
concern to its best advantage.

        In a philosophical tone, the
shanngof environmental issues,as was
done at the recent CARICOM Minis-
ters Conference on the Environment
held in Port of Spam in late May 1989,
brings a community of support to iden-
tical issues. Itwasclearat that particu-
lar conference, that the participating
Nations from the Caribbean commu-
nity were facing the same environ-
mental issues with the same relatively
weak  environmental management in-
frastructures that Trinidad and Tobago
are  now trying to strengthen.  The
leadership presented by Trinidad and
Tobago was significant and should be
built upon for the future.

        The  international commu-
nity can  provide  "environmental
courage" to some extent. It is a forum
for discussion and a potential forum
for the resolution of some of the most
difficult environmental issues — both
substantively and administratively. For
instance, the ultimate resolution of the
disposal of hazardous waste within the
Caribbean community (putting aside
the more difficult issues of hazardous
waste  imports into the  Caribbean
community) is a regional issue and one
that should generate ongoing discus-
sions  as to the most environmentally
safe method  of disposing of waste
throughout the region. That is a basic
substantive policy decision  that the
new Ministry should continue to ex-
ploit in its best sense and attempt to
resolve in a broader context.

        On the administrative side,
there  has been considerable regional
cooperation which should beexpanded.
There simply is not enough talent any-
where in  the world  to generate the
technical  expertise  twenty or thirty
times over in the environmental field.
Trinidad and Tobago needs to con-
tinue its leadership role in formulating
regional solutions to technical issues:
the building of increased capacity for
chemical testing at facilities serving
the entire Caribbean community; the
development of improved information
centers, again serving the Caribbean
community. It simply makes no sense
for the Nations of the Caribbean, with
such similar environmental issues, to
move forward individually on all these

Broadening the Definition of Envi-
ronmental Health

        One of the emerging themes
of the Caricom Ministerial Confer-
ence on  the Environment was that
"man" should be the focus of environ-
mental protection programs. Indeed,
the significant improvements made in
more  traditional international health
arena need to be expanded into the
broader realm of environmental health
management. Traditionally, the focus
of environmental health has been on
communicable diseases. However, as
one observer has noted:

        "...the demands of a growing
population, increasing urbanization,
industrialization and expanding agri-
cultural production have created new
and emerging environmental health
problems....Epidemiological evidence
shows that non-communicable  ill-
issues facing Tnnidad and Tobago. In
turn, Tnn idad andTobago needs to press
these organizations to expand their tech-
nical assistance beyond the more tradi-
tional health areas and into the broader
impacts of environmental health. These
are the areas of hazardous waste  and
toxic chemicals and their  chronic  im-
pacts on human health. However, to do
so will require considerable rethinking
with the country on the focus of its own
health programs.

        The regional and internauonal
health and environmental organizations
need to bring  this  broader view to
environmental decision  making.   The
traditional sectoral  examinations sim-
ply are no longer sufficient in the envi-
ronmental field. The resolution, as we
have seen earlier, of environmental is-
sues is not a single Ministry's function:
it  is indeed the responsibility of the
                  The Broader Framework
 "...The ability to become increasingly competitive in inter-
 national markets will likely be a function of a Nation's envi-
 ronmental effort.
nesses have largely replaced commu-
nicable ones as the leading causes of

        This changing structure and
focus of the  more traditional health
community in Trinidad and Tobago,
and undoubtedly throughout the world,
are an enormous challenge. The new
Ministry should continue to capitalize
on the excellent support it has received
from a variety of international organi-
zations, such as the Pan American
Health Organization (PAHO/WHO)
and the United Nations Environmental
Programs.  These organizations have
the potential to be continuing powerful
allies in the development of environ-
mental data as to cause and effect. And
because of their broader international
and regional scope, such organizations
as PAHO/WHO can bring compara-
tive information with  which  to help
balance  the specific  environmental
entire government.  This broader re-
gional and international  expertise
brought by organizations such as PAHO/
WHO enhance the critical requirement
to focus on Caribbean integration par-
ticularly as it relates to environmental
issues. Trinidad and Tobago, with its
leadership in industrial development in
the region, can also expand on its grow-
ing environmental leadership and build
on the successes of the CARICOM Con-
ference in Port of Spain.

Environmental  Protection  Will Pav

        It is quite clear that institutions
involved  in international  finance are
becoming increasingly aware of the
importance of environmental protec-
tion for what has been popularly termed
sustained development.  Although the
issue of  sustainable development is
many years old, its does appear possible
that the donor and financial commu-
nity are becoming increasingly stub-
born about the necessity to include
environmental issues in all develop-
ment  projects.   Thus, Trinidad  and
Tobago can for itself, as well  as the
region, improve  its own competitive
stature by moving aggressively  for-
ward on stricter environmental review
processes as well as controls.

        Clearly, the international fi-
nancial  community is looking to a
broader view in the Nations where they
are investing. The ability to become
increasingly competitive will  likely
be a function of a Nation's environ-
mental  effort.   Donor organizations
have reached a point where they prefer
a one stop approach to environmental
issues associated with a particular proj-
ect.  A nation such  as Trinidad and
Tobago, with a single Minister respon-
sible for coordination of environmental
issues should exploit that advantage to
its fullest. The Ministry must have an
input into the industrial planning proc-
esses as well as the financial investment
decisions within  the Nation to  ensure
that all parties have adequately covered
the environmental issues.


        What is most interesting about
all these choices is that they all  can be
accomplished without furtherorganiza-
tional or statutory changes. That is not
to say that additional authorities are not
needed—they certainly arc.  However,
issues of coordination, leadership, de-
veloping an environmental infrastruc-
ture can all begin to happen under the
existing structure of the new Ministry.
Such activity will indeed require coor-
dination. And such activity whether as
a precursor to additional statutory au-
thority or asajomtresponscjsessenual
to a long term movement to improve en-
vironmental management. But such ac-
tivity will  also require changing of
people's current roles and views within
the new Ministry's bureaucracy. And
finally, such activities will undoubtedly
require more human and financial re-


        The  previous  section dis-
cussed some basic environmental man-
agement decisions facing Trinidad and
Tobago, and in particular the Ministry
of Environment and National Service.
It is important, however, to move from
that philosophical, but  important
framework to a discussion of choices
on  very  specific  environmental
management processes.

The Basic Foundation for Ac-

esses to analyze is the process of deci-
sion making within a country which is
used to make the environmental regu-
latory control decisions.  The situation
in Tnnidad and Tobago as discussed in
the previous section is similar to other
countries in the area: lack of a strong
environmental interest infrastructure.
The differences between countries are
matters of degree.  However,  the ap-
proach Trinidad and Tobago  take to
improve their environmental manage-
ment must fit in. The approach must
make sense to Trinidad and Tobago or it
simply will not work.  Therefore, there
must  be choices  made on  the
"threshold" process of when to take
regulatory action. It is, in essence, the
setting of an "equity" baseline from
which  everyone begins to negotiate

        In deciding on the threshold
issue, clearly the governmental proc-
esses within Trinidad and Tobago fol-
low the philosophy of many European
countries that provides forconsiderable
discretion on the part of the regulator, in
the case of Tnnidad perhaps the Au-
thority.  Furthermore, the administra-
tive practice in Trinidad and Tobago
calls for considerable negotiation, prag-
matism, and gradual implementation of
standards rather than the sudden instal-
lation of  technology  based require-
ments. Whether or not Trinidad and
Tobago have reached or will reach a
point where "technology forcing" pro-
cedures are utilized.suchas in the United
States and Japan, environmental prog-
ress will depend to a great extent on the
ability of the government to bring the
regulated communities effectively into
the environmental management proc-

        Thus what will face the lead-
ers of Tnnidad and Tobago  when they
begin establishing their regulatory sys-
tem either before or after their statutes
are enacted, will be  several threshold
questions.  A  key one will focus on
what will the standard for  action be?
And it is likely that the standard will
match their approach to other regulated
activities: wide discretion and environ-
mental action heavily dependent upon
consultation and negotiation.  Given
that likelihood, at least initially, it is all
the more important  the the statutes
creating a National Environmental
Policy  and an Authority as well as a

statutory framework be enacted as
quickly as possible.

        There are several areas involv-
ing the basic threshold issues that could
be strengthened either in the draft stat-
utes or perhaps preferably during im-
plementation of those statutes underihe
generic authority. As mentioned ear-
lier, there needs to be more preference
given to waste prevention and innova-
tive mechanism s to promote prevention
and recycling. There is underway, cur-
rently, with the leadership of the Minis-
ter for the Environment and National
Service, an attempt to promote in a
more organized fashion the recycling of
materials at the Beetham landfill. These
types of innovative support for  rela-
tively small butimportantentreprenurial
initiative should  be encouraged.   But
for the long run, the Ministry should
work  with the Caribbean community
and other organizations to assess what
it can do in the prevention and recycling
area at the very beginning of its process
development Many other Nations have
begun to come full circleon these issues
now realizing  their importance  to a
        In addition,  in  examining
    "...Trinidad and To-
    bago have a real op-
    portunity to manage
    environmental issues
    in ways most other Na-
    tion's  wish they had
    begun -  as an inte-
    grated whole...."
land—they do seem to provide suffi-
cient lattilude for a broader approach
to be taken during implementation. If
the drafters do not believe that is the
case then there should be modifica-
tions made. What Trinidad and To-
bago should try to avoid is to design
an environmental management  sys-
tem that focuses the solutions media
by media, ie., water, land, and air.

        What should be examined is
an integrated approach that recog-
nizes that pollution is not necessar-
ily organized along such clear cut
lines. In an island nation, that should
be all the morecleargi ven the fact that
      Trinidad and Tobago should build into their system,
      from the beginning, as many incentives and systems to
      promote pollution prevention and recycling initiatives
      as are feasible.
approaches to improvingenvironmental
management, Trinidad and Tobago has
a real opportunity in leapfrogging some
of the historical lessons other countries
have learned. For instance, many other
countries with longer histories of envi-
ronmental management are now mov-
ing toward a "cross media" approach.
This is essentially a broader look at the
sources and results of pollution than has
been done traditionally. While the draft
statutes are organized along the more
traditional means — air, water,  and
nearly any pollutant, whether it be
deposited in the air, rivers, or on land
ultimately becomes a pollutant to the
marine environment.  Therefore, in
the broadest context, Trinidad and
Tobago should utilize an  environ-
mental management approach that rec-
ognizes the necessity to build institu-
tions and train individuals in broader
rather than narrower fields.

        For the new Ministry for in-
stance, this broader approach implies
a widening of the scope of what the
individual units currently do:  the Divi-
sion of Forestry, the Institute of Marine
Affairs, and the Trinidad and Tobago
Waste Management Co., Ltd., and per-
haps portions of WASA.  And on the
other hand itrequires a merging together
in a more comprehensive manner those
same organizations.   To  continue to
manage the Division of Forestry only as
aDivision of Forestry isnotenough. The
Division of Forestry should expand its
expertise beyond its traditional lines and
become the focus for  the  Ministry  on
natural resource management through-
out the country.  Trinidad  and Tobago
have a real opportunity to manage envi-
ronmental  issues in ways most other
Nation's wish they had begun—as an in-
tegrated whole. This process has other
implications for the types of human re-
sources hired and the kinds of training
provided to existing personnel.  It also
has major implications for retraining of
existing personnel throughout the other
Ministries on the broader ramifications
of environment management. That train-
ing needs to begin soon.

Environmental Planning

        The  environmental  planning,
and in particular the environmental im-
pact assessment components of the proc-
ess are fundamental systems by which

the Ministry of Environment and Na-
tional Service can help to ensure that at
a minimum environmental concerns be-
come coequal with development issues.
The draft statute provides for some au-
thority in this area:

        "...the minister in  conjunction
with the relevant agencies may make
regulations for or with respect to (a) the
submission of environmental  impacts
statements"....(and) (c) prescribe "stan-
dards or criteria for the implementation
of any declared environmental policy or
classification  for the protection of the
environment and for protecting benefi-
cial uses."

        In addition,  the statute would
provide authority to obtain fees for the
granting of permits or licenses.  In addi
lion to these authorities, there is a draf

Town and Country Planning Act that
would greatly improve the current basis
for environmental impact assessments.
This draft Act would  provide for  an
environmental  protection area survey
"with a view to determining whether
any area in Trinidad and Tobago may
be declared to be an environmental
protection area."  Within such areas,
there would be a presumption of  no

        Furthermore,  the draft Town
and Country Planning  Act would pro-
vide authority for the Minister of Town
and Country Planning  to require envi-
ronmental impact assessments (1) in
any protection area or in any other land
where the production  would result in
waste products or is likely to have a sig-
nificant effect on the environment, (2)
involves minerals or mining, or (3) in
an area of "environ-
mental significance."
          for what are called "protection areas."
          However, new development is so fun-
          damentally important in the environ-
          mental protection scheme, whateverthe
          statutory basis, the environmental min-
          istry should be given the final approval
          at least on those projects  critical be-
          cause of a certain size, scope, or poten-
          tial impact.

                  Another aspect of the environ-
          mental impact assessment process is the
          lack of presumption that the public needs
          more than the ability to submit written
          comments. The draft Town and Coun-
          try  Planning Act calls for "written
          comments on or objections to the as-
          sessment" butdoes not provide for public
          forums for discussions in the areas
          directly affected by the proposed de-
          velopment.   It would be particularly
          helpful if both the environmental  and
        The environ-
mental impact assess-
 nent process as out-
lined above is the key
fundamental  process
by which the Ministry
of Environment and
National  Service can
affect  new  develop-
ment  It is therefore
critical that the provi-
sions of both Acts be
incorporated into the
Environmental   Act.
The combination of authority for the
Minister to make appropriate regula-
tions on environmental impact assess-
ments gives him the authority to help
guide that process. And the creation of
a broad environmental protection sur-
vey would help begin the process of
defining environmental issues in the
Nation. While again, these processes
are fundamentally consultative, it would
be important if the statutes made clear
that either the Minister of the Environ-
mental had a "veto" over the final deci-
sions on environmental impact assess-
 ments or had "the predominant" author-
ity. This would be particularly impor-
tant for any development being assessed
             Key Elements of
         Environmental Planning

A National Environmental Assessment needs
 to be completed;

A "veto" on the most significant projects that
would do serious environmental damage;

 More active public involvement is  essential;
          town and country planning legislation
          stated that for large scale development
          that not only are written comments
          requested, but that there must be held a
          public meeting or meetings in the area
          directly affected by the proposed devel-
          opment. The traditional public involve-
          ment is through  a particular interest
          group writing the appropriate Minister.
          Any public meetings, when they are
          held, are generally held in Port of Spain
          and not necessarily in the location close
          to the development This broad brush
          approach to public involvement simply
          does not generate adequate public inter-
          est over the long run.
        A  final aspect of environ-
mental impactassessment and the plan-
ning process is the application to both
the public and private sectors.  In the
draft Town and Country Planning Act
there is a final phrase to the effect "This
Act applies to the State."  If in effect
there is some question given the his-
torical practice in Trinidad and Tobago
that an Act does not necessarily apply
to the state and the statecorporations as
well as the private sector, then this fact
should be made clear in the draft envi-
ronmental acts also.

        The bottom line is that  the
environmental impactassessmentproc-
ess is an integral and perhaps the pri-
mary method to ensure future environ-
mental protection. The Ministry of En-
vironment and National Service and
         ultimately  the  Environ-
         mental Authority must play
         a key role in that process.
         And the role must be, in the
         end, more than simply advi-
         sory. In areas determined to
         be  environmentally  pro-
         tected, the Ministry should
         have  the predominant  re-
         sponsibility for approving
         any exceptions to develop-
         ment. In the general assess-
         ment process, outside  the
         proposed areas of environ-
         mental concern, theenviron-
         mental Ministry must also
         play more than an advisory
role. It should have veto or compara-
tive authority on projects defined ei-
ther  by  their size or their  potential
pollution to be "significant."  Thedraft
environmental statute and/or the town
and country  planning draft should be
more direct in these areas.
 Information and Data

        There is undoubtedly a great
deal of data on environmental issues in
Trinidad and Tobago. However, there
does not appear to much information,
in the sense that the Ministry could
begin to make some key decisions on

priorities in environmental protection.
Therefore, a fundamental task for
the new Ministry is to develop a con-
solidated data base of existing envi-
ronmental information that can be
used for decision making. In addition,
the Ministry needs to develop the ca-
pability to replicate and update that in-
formation on a regular basis.

        In the environmental  Held,
information is the essential ingredient
for success. Therefore, the Ministry
of Environment and National Serv-
ice must be thesole depository within
the Nation  on environmental and
environmental health data. In some
cases it will have to draw from existing
data whether that be from the Ministry
of Health, Energy, or Town and Coun-
try Planning. In other cases, particu-
larly in those areas focusing on newly
regulated  sources,  the Ministry will
have to be the source and owner of that
data and information.

        The Institute  for  Marine
Affairsshould be renamed the Insti-
tute for Environmental Affairs. The
Institute has been involved with de-
velopmental activities as well as sup-
port for information needs throughout
the Caribbean area. It is critical that
the Institute remain in the Schedule for
the Ministry of Environment and Na-
tional Service.  While ultimately, all
pollution problems within Trinidad and
Tobago impact the marine environ-
ment  which is  the Insti-
tute's primary focus, un-    	
doubtedly the skills  and
the responsibilities of the
Institute will have to be
altered and expanded de-
pending on the priorities
given to particular envi-
ronmental issues. For ex-
ample, the Institute will
need to develop skills in
other media of pollution
— air and land in particu-
lar. But the core staff has
an excellent reputation and
the Institute must become
the main source of environmental, not
just marine, information.
           Furthermore, the Trinidad and
   Tobago  Solid Waste  Management
   Company, Ltd., also contained in the
   Ministry's  Schedule, should become
   the focal point for information associ-
   ated with solid and ultimately hazard-
   ous waste.  The Forestry Division is a
   valuable resource management organi-
   zation and should provide  the  new
   Ministry with solid expertise in manag-
   ing natural resources beyond the for-
   ests.  The combination of the newly
   named  and  structured  Institute  for
   Environmental  Affairs,  the  Forestry
   Division and  the T&T SWMC should
   provide significant environmental man-
   agementexpertisealong the enure spec-
   trum  from  information to natural re-
   source management.  However, it will
   take considerable teambuilding within
   the Ministry to bring these disparate or-
   ganizations into more focus.

           The Ministry should begin a
   detailed process of environmental as-
   sessment. The Institute should become
   the manager of that process.  The first
   step would be an assessment of real and
   potential pollution sources.  The next
   step would be to quantify the type and
   amount of emissions from at least the
   largest sources to begin a process of pn-
   oritization.  The final step would be to
   assesspollution control options for each
   major source:  what is currently being
   done and what are the variety of options
   for further control. The Ministry should
   then work with the Ministry of Health
   and other organizations such as PAHO/

The Essential basis for action;

Expanded Institute for Environ-
mental Affairs

Widescale availability of information
to the public;
   WHO to assess the human health link-
   age of the major sources of pollution to
help refine the priority setting process.

        To complete the assessment,
the Ministry should then begin work-
ing with the individual sources to dis-
cuss the health impacts, the control
options, and a schedule for implemen-
tation of the controls where appropri-
ate.  In many if not most cases,  the
Ministry should require the sources to
submit environmental emission data
in a form determined by the Ministry.
The draft environmental acts provide
this authority.  In lieu of that precise
authority,  the Ministry should begin
such information gathering through
discussions with the priority sources
on  a  voluntary basis.  These "self
monilonng"reports would provide the
Ministry with ongoing environmental
emission  data first as a baseline  for
future action and ultimately as a track-
ing system for  environmental prog-
ress. Thenew Act should make itclear
than any  falsification  of such  self
monitoring information is appropri-
ately punishable. Wherever possible,
the environmental priorities should be
define in geographic units that would
enable communities  to become  in-
volved in the discussions including
public forums on the environmental

        A key issueon environmental
data that will have to be addressed by
the Ministry is the degree to which
the data is available to the general
public, including the press and envi-
          ronmental or non govern-
          mental groups.  In general,
          the Ministry should err on
          the side of public disclosure
          of environmental data col-
          lected from sources.  While
          many  negotiations will
          likely take place at the local
          level, where environmental
          protection will ultimately be
          implemented,  the impor-
          tanceof information topub-
          lic involvement must not be
          understated. To the extent
          that negotiations  between
the source of pollution and the local in-
spector are hampered by too much

public discussion then the issue in-
deed needs balance.  However, the
Ministry must not forget the very di-
rect relationship between useful infor-
mation and the development of an in-
formed  and  environmentally  con-
cerned public. The bottom line is that
there should be specific  protections
which limit the kind of information
to be held in confidence. The ability
to see information is all the more criti-
cal under the type of informal system
that Trinidad and Tobago is likely to
operate  under in the environmental
field. Cooperation implies an under-
standing and  knowledge of compli-
ance or lack thereof. Without that in-
formation on performance, the public
will not  be well protected. The limits
on information as trade secrets should
be very carefully crafted.

Human Resources

        The human resource issue is
likely to become a fundamental one
for the Ministry of the Environment
and National Service.  The Ministry
itself has only a small core of staff,
literally counted on one hand. The
Schedule for  the Ministry includes
several entities, including the Institute
of Marine Affairs, the Forestry Divi-
sion, and  two state enterprises, the
Trinidad and Tobago Forest Products
Co., and the Solid Waste Management
Co.  While these organizations can
provide a resource base from which to
draw from, it is clear that as the Minis-
try expands  its  environmental effort
additional human resources will have
to be invested. The proposed environ-
mental authority will need staffing al-
though there is approval for a core
group of staff to be established includ-
ing a director.

        Trinidad and Tobago is also
currently implementing an Adminis-
trative Reform Package designed to re-
focus the bureaucracy.  In effect, addi-
tional resources from outside the gov-
ernment are going to  be difficult  to
obtain  if not impossible.  Therefore,
the Ministry must look to within the
Government for either additional per-
sonnel  or positions.   This financial
tightness is going to make the need for
coordination in the initial stages all the
more critical. It is unlikely that the
Ministry  will be able to adequately
function without additional resources
from some source. Additional discus-
sions within the government need to
take place around specific needs for the
new Ministry based on the current au-
thorities and those expected with the
new  legislation.  Currently there ap-
pears to be a stalemate with everyone
waiting everyone else out.

        As will be suggested later, the
area that will undoubtedly require new
personnel and resources will be the ar-
                      Human Resources

            Additional resources will clearly be
                    needed as regulatory programs are
                    implemented in new areas;

            The transferred entities such as the
                    Forestry Division, can provide a
                    core environmental  workforce;
eas of environmental protection not
now done by any other organization
— the new regulatory authorities for
the control of industrial pollution. It is
likely that the Ministry will need to es-
tablish its own inspectorate for this
area complementing other like organi-
zations in other Ministries.  For the
most pan, the Ministry will have to
rely on local councils or similar or-
ganizations to implement its environ-
mental policies. That is why it will be
critical for the Ministry to establish
close links through the appropriate
Ministries with local organizations.
However, in some areas, additional
resources will be critical.

Financing Environmental Man-

        The Ministry needs to assess
alternative financing mechanisms to
help pay for environmental manage-
ment  From the discussions during
this consultation, it is clear that there
is a general altitude of not paying
directly for services. This includes all
services including such things as hunt-
ing licenses. There is a growing num-
ber  of financing  alternatives that
should be considered and if possible
included as a general authority in the
environmental statutes before they are
enacted.   The draft prohibition act
includes authority for certain types of
fees but the legislation should  be
analyzed to ensure that the authority is
broad enough so that during program
implementation useful options are not
precluded. The following is an ex-
ample of possible financing ap-
proaches that should be considered by
the Ministry and the Government of
Tnnidad and Tobago.

Environmental Taxes on Production

        Trinidad and Tobago could
initiate fees on the production or proc-
essing of certain substances such  as
oil or chemicals. In the United States,
such a tax  is placed on oil and certain
chemicals to help pay for the cleanup
of abandoned hazardous waste sites.

The  tax receipts are placed into a
Trust Fund and then appropriated by
the U.S. Congress each year. These
taxes were established to provide the
financial support fora particular pro-
gram and cannot be used for any
other Federal effort.  Another possi-
bility would be an environmental tax
on gasoline sales that could be used
for environmental management in
general or directed toward specific
programs of permits issued to that
particular industry.

Emission Fees

        Emission fees, based on an
amount per ton of a particular
pollutant em iited, can raise addi-
tional funds.  The fees can be
placed on theemissions of sulfur
dioxide from power plants for
instance.  These fees would be
set at a level that is relatively
low.  They are intended to raise
revenues and not act as a disin-
centive for polluting.  Obviously,
the particular level depends on
the Country's situation.  Such
fees  generally would support a
specific regulatory permit proc-
ess to improve the quality and or
timeliness of a particular permit
and  the  ongoing compliance

Pollution Fees

        These  are  similar to
emission fees but are  set at a con-
siderably higher level .  Their
purpose is to generate emission
reductions due to their cost. As
a company reduces its emissions
of the particular pollutant, their fees
are reduced appropriately. It is one
of many market based approaches to
environmental pollution control.
Environmental Trust Fund

        The establishment of an en-
vironmental trust fund could serve
several different purposes.  As was
suggested dunng this consultation,
one possibility would be to have a series
of competitions for posters, mascots for
the environment, etc., with school age
children. The sales of the posters and
material could then be placed in a trust
fund for use for environmental projects.
This relatively small  scale effort would
greatly assist the generation of  public
concern and  interest in  the environ-

         At the other end of the spec-
trum some of the fees mentioned above
could be deposited in  a  broader trust
fund to make the operation of some
portion of the Ministry or the Authority
self perpetuating. If  possible, the draft
  —  -v Environmental
        J   Financing

    Environmental Taxes
    Emission Fees
    Pollution Reduction Fees
    Environmental Trust Fund
    Creative Financing
legislation should include authority to
create a broadly  based environmental
trust fund.  The revenues of this trust
fund would provide ongoing and rela-
tively stable financial support for the
operations of the Ministry as  well as
possible financial support for infrastruc-
ture  development (such as loans for
waste treatment or drinking water sys-
tems) or for support of ongoing opera-
tiona and maintenance of public treat-
ment plants.
        As a still more innovative
approach, some of the receipts from
the trust fund could be used for more
innovative financial mechanisms such
as a revolving fund that would pro-
vide financial support for construc-
tion of certain public environmental

Generation  of Other Types of

        There are other innovative
mechanisms to help finance the op-
erations of  the Ministry and in par-
ticular the Authority once it gets op-
erational. A recent example was the
    authority given the Ministry of
    Energy  to accept funds from
    the private sector (and public
    entities where appropriate) to
    istry'spersonnel. Given thecon-
    siderable need to develop an en-
    vironmental  infrastructure
    within the Ministry of Environ-
    ment and National Service, the
    draft acts should be clear on the
    authority of the Ministry to gen-
    erate such income where appro-

        Any of these  fees can be
    considered controversial. How-
    ever, the financial situation in
    Trinidad and Tobago, like other
    countries, is extremely tight.  It
    is clear that the Government in
    general will need to look at in-
    novative ways to  finance par-
    ticular operations. The Minis-
    try of Environmental and Na-
    tional  Service, while relying a
    great deal on coordination and
implementation  of  its  programs
through other Ministries, must ulti-
mately have new sources of funds
with which  to operate. The Ministry
should evaluate the above possibili-
ties as well as others and move for-
ward as quickly as feasible.

Compliance Strategy

        The compliance process for
Trinidad and  Tobago will have to

lean heavily on consultation and nego-
tiation.  While a more direct approach
may be desired by some, if there is to be
environmental regulatory  authorities
as proposed in the draft legislation, the
day to day compliance strategy will be

        Furthermore, like most com-
pliance strategies it must be self enforc-
ing— for the most part Therefore, the
new Ministry needs to have a core in-
spectorate for industrial pollution
control as well as for oversite of key
complianceactivities managed by other
Ministries under existing legal authori-
ties. The information base for indus-
trial pollution should come from the in-
dustries themselves in what are called
self monitoring reports in other coun-
tries.  This would lessen the size of the
new staff needed to some degree and
the information should be processed
electronically wherever possible.

        As recommended earlier to
generate a public infrastructure, there
should be provisions for the  involve-
ment of citizens as well as certain non
governmental groups to take legal ac-
tion to compel both the government as
well as industry to take certain kinds of
action.  And finally, as recommended
earlier, the public's right to access of
compliance information should be pre-
sumed to be unlimited with only mini-
mal constraints based on carefully de-
fined rules of proprietary data. Again in
an environment of consultative compli-
ance,  the importance of free access to
that compliance data is critical to the
very consultative process itself.

                                               J 4ulJU
An  Approach to Environ-
mental Management
       Given the discussions in the
previous sections as well as the wealth
of information in the relatively recent
studies mentioned above,  it is pos-
sible to take the analysis one step fur-
ther — to  recommend  a  possible
management  approach to  environ-
mental issues as well as to suggest
some  action  agenda  items for the
Ministry.  This approach is primarily
designed for the immediate short and
mid-term but would provide a strong
foundation for additional  environ-
mental management actions after the
appropriate legislation is enacted.

       The  approach consists of
three elements: (1) a broad policy
framework for environmental man-
agement that  focuses on methods to
provide a management framework for
new and existing environmental is-
sues;  (2) a series of environmental
actions that could take place within the
existing legislative and administrative
framework; and (3) a suggested organ-
izational framework within which to
organize this approach. First, the pol-
icy framework.

The Policy Framework

Traditional Environmental

       An approach to environmental
management can be broken into three
components. The first is the focus on
the traditional environmental issues
defined as those currently managed,
some better than others,  by existing
Ministries and organizations.  These
issues have been  those that generally
relate to acute effects such as the envi-
ronmental health impacts from improper
sewage treatment or inadequate public
water systems.  A substantial infra-
structure already exists  throughout
the government comprising over 40
agencies.  The suggestion is that, for
the most part, the focus of the Minis-
try of En vironmental and Public Serv-
ice should be on coordination and

       Forexample, the Ministerof
the Environment and National Serv-
ice would continue  to  rely on the
Ministry of Health to continue to im-
plement the provisions of the Public
Health Act that would relate to envi-
ronmental management.  The City,
Borough & County Council would
continue to enforce the Litter Act
where it  relates to environmental
management. These existing organi-
zations all with considerable local
presence would be the day to day
contact on environmental issues that
involve their particular authorities.
                                                                            The Trinidad and Tobago

Waste Management Co. Ltd., (Waste
Management Co.) has been included
in the Schedule of the Ministry of the
Environment and National  Service.
This was an important element in the
integration effort. However, further
thought should be given to the place-
mentof the non-distributional portions
of the Water and Sewage Authority
(WASA) into the new Ministry.  The
primary reason for this suggestion is
that the water and sewage functions are
so integral  to environmental health
protection that they simply need to be
organizationally  placed  within  the
Ministry involved with directing envi-
ronmental improvement.  In addition,
and not an unimportant element, the
transfer would provide a needed addi-
tional human resource element for the
new Ministry.

        But for the most part, the his-
torical  relationships, except for those
already transferred to the new Minis-
try, and the additional suggestion re-
aged in its current home, the Ministry of

        However, the Ministry of En-
vironment and National Service should
not, and likely does not, assume that all
these existing mechanisms are working
well. In such cases, the Ministry should
use its authorities of persuasion to enlist
additional support for environmental
management where it is needed.  One
obvious area is continued pressure to
improve the operation of sewage treat-
ment plants and begin to gain better
control over a growing sewage problem
in many parts of the country. Another
area would be an assessment of the
major public drinking water systems to
ascertain their level of maintenance and

        In some areas, the new Minis-
try should encourage other Ministries
and organizations to take on new efforts
in environmental management.  One
area in particular that was mentioned
could elicit the assistance of the Min-
istry of Health as well as international
organizations such as the Pan Ameri-
can Health Organization/World Health
Organization. In the area of solid and
hazardous waste, the Ministry could
utilize the strengths of the T&T Waste
Management Co. Ltd., to begin a pub-
lic education program in the risks as-
sociated with improper solid and haz-
ardous waste disposal. This would be
a key area of potential technical assis-
tance  with  organizations  such as
PAHO/WHO or the U.S.  Environ-
mental Protection Agency.

        But the essence of this ele-
ment of environmental management is
to focus on utilizing the best of what
exists to move the environmental is-
sues forward. They must be selected
carefully and with a clear  eye as to
relative  priorities of the issues. The
importance of both technical level as
well as policy level relationships can-
not be overemphasized.
                                 The Policy .Framework
                 Area for Control
        /^Traditional Environmental Issues
        I   (drinking water, sewage treatment,
          toxics,pesticides, nuisance, oil etc.)
        /C~New Industrial Development
        I      (acti vKiesltiaT woulcTrequIre review"
        |   under Environmental Impact Assess-
        I   ments)
                  Environmental Management Mechanism

                  Coordination & Integration of Existing'
                  Ministries & Organizations             I
                  Coordination with Active Role in EISj)
                 "ProcessaliffA^obverceFtanrProjecfs I

           Control of Industrial Follutibn
          I [New Sources; existing sources; legal
          (authority as detailed In the Draft Control
          | Act, focusing on controls not already
          iunder other Ministries)
                   New Bureaucracy (Ministry's portfolio with
                  new Integration of existing components; new
                  inspectorate for industrial compliance; newly ex-  I
                  panded Institute with  abilities to establish       |
                  national standards)                         J
 gardmg WASA, would remain in ef-
 fect. The implementation of the Toxic
 Substances Control Act, a relatively
 new responsibility with its own grow-
 ing pains, would continue to be man-
previously would be an analysis of the
relationships of environmental pollut-
ants to the three leading causes of death
in thecountry: heart disease, cerebro vas-
culardisease, and cancer. The Ministry
        While in  general terms, a
ing and often frustrating, there are
strong elements within existing organi-
zations that appear to be strongly sup-

portive of environmental activities. This
element of the approach will require
the development of a number of inno-
vative and coordinative mechanisms

        The two most critical ones
would be the Ministerial  Council on
the Environment, lead by the Minister
of the Environment and National Serv-
ice to discuss, on a regular basis, envi-
ronmental policy issues. These issues
would be those of national scope, such
as the future of the Northern Range, or
the priorization of environmental regu-
lation, or the establishment of new fi-
nancing mechanisms for environmental
managementsupport. But perhaps more
important than a discussion of the pol-
icy issue itself would be the charge of
the Council to com mil shared resources
and the time of their bureacracies to the
specific effort agreed upon in the pol-
icy discussions.

        Hence, if an agreed upon ap-
proach were taken to protect the North-
em Range for future generations, the
Council would outline in a policy frame-
work the precise  approach and each
appropriate Minister would commit
their specific Ministries and specific
people to the coordination and implem-
entation effort.

        A second key element would
be a series of Working Councils on the
Environment, lead by the  Permanent
Secretary of the Environment and Na-
tional Service along with the appropri-
ate Permanent Secretaries of other Min-
istries.  The purpose of these groups
would be to focus on a series of ongoing
issues that would overlap specific pol-
icy decisions. The first three areas that
would be  obvious choices would be
Councils on Data  and Information
Management, Regulatory  Coordina-
tion, and Environmental Compliance.

        The precise purpose of these
types of Councils would be to coordi-
nate efforts in those functions, such as
information and compliance, that rely
on a variety of Ministries and organiza-
tions to operate properly. It makes little
sense for instance to have several dif-
ferent organizations compiling similar
or even identical data and information
bases or systems for environmental as-
sessments or compliance. The compli-
ance function itself, which in this ele-
ment of the approach will heavily rely
on the existing inspectorates through-
out the country, is ripe for coordination
activities to ensure that the environ-
mental issues are an  integral compo-
nent of the ongoing compliance func-
tions of other Ministries.

        Totheextent practicable, these
Councils, particularly  the working
councils, should include ad hoc repre-
sentatives from the non public sectors,
both private sector and non-govern-
mental groups. Particularly in the data
management arena, theapproach should
be as broad as possible involving the
Caribbean community.

        The essence of th is element of
the policy framework is  to focus  on
utilizing the best of what exists to move
the environmental issues forward. The
issues and the coordination mechan isms
must be chosen with great care and with
a clear eye as to relative priorities of the
issues. There is, in effect, only so much
coordination that can occur and only so
much environmental  "till" to existing
Ministries'primary missions which may
not be particularly environmental and
in fact many be antithecal to a focus on
environment.  However, there is a great
need for coordination both at the high-
est level (Ministerial) and at the techni-
cal level. Unless the technical person-
nel become undersanding of the envi-
ronmental mission and its needs  no
degree of coordination will be success-
New Industrial Development

        The second  element of  this
policy framework is bring more focus
on environmental  issues during  the
environmental impactassessmentproc-
ess. Environmental management must
clearly involve, ultimately, the control
of new the pollution aspects of indus-
trial development. This portion of the
policy framwork will continue, to some
extent ,to rely on extensive coordina-
tion with other Ministries and govern-
mental entities.  However, the reli-
ance purely on coordination needs to
change somewhat.

         The ability of the new Minis-
try to influence major environmental
issues will rely on its ability to influ-
ence new development in both thepublic
and private sector. Most recent devel-
opment has come from the public sec-
tor. This sector is therefore, the most
critical at the moment Therefore, the
second element of the policy frame-
work must focus on the Ministry's in-
volvement in the environmental plan-
ning and assessment processes.

         As was discussed above, the
in volvementcouldincludeawide range
of statutory as well as more informal
procedural changes.  This will require
considerable  coordination  with the
Town and Country Planning Division.
This Ministry has both an interest as
well as someexpertise in environmental
issues and should become a valuable
ally at the technical level with the
Ministry of the Environment and Na-
tional Service.  However, the  Town
and Country Planning Division is in-
herently adevelopment related bureauc-
racy and there is a need for additional
training and  sensitizing on  environ-
mental issues.

        The Ministry of Environment
and National Service should utilize the
expertise of  the  Institute of Marine
Affairs (to be renamed  the Environ-
mental Institute)  ,  the  T&T Waste
Management Co., and components of
WAS A   to  develop  environmental
information data bases.  The Institute
has already done significant work for
the Town and Country Planning Divi-
sion and that will and should continue.
However, its focus must become more
clearly aligned with the environmental
issues and the broader resources con-
tained in WASA and the Waste Com-
pany need to be brought to bear on the

         The clearest issue in this ele-
 ment of the policy framework, how-
 ever, is the importance of providing
 the new Ministry a key role in the en-
 vironmental impact assessment proc-
 ess.  As was mentioned earlier in the
 section on legislation, it is critical that
 the Ministry have more than a coordi-
 native or comment function on envi-
 ronmental impact assessments.  That
 is only the first requirement. The key
 requirement is to build into the process
 a veto function for the Ministry based
 on environmental assessments of par-
 ticularly critical projects or develop-
 ments. Without the clearance of the
 Ministry of the Environmental and
 National Service a particular project
 could not proceed without appropriate
 modification. This type of authority
 can be provided in statute, as is the
 case in the United States or it can be
 provided by consultation. The impor-
 tant issues is to have a clear signal sent
 that the new Ministry is an active player
 and in certain types of development
 the key player ultimately on environ-
 mental grounds
The Control of Industrial Pollu-
        The  final  component of the
proposed policy framework is the Min-
istry's  focus on areas that  will rest
primarily on the ability of the Minis-
try itself  to create an effective bu-
reaucracy of its own to ensure envi-
ronmental compliance. The key area of
potential growth and responsibility for
the Ministry of Environment and Na-
tional Service is the potential new regu-
latory control  of industrial pollution.
These are areas that are essentially un-
touched currently by other Ministries
and organizations in terms of environ-
mental management.  It is the area that
in the mid and long run, the Ministry is
going to have  to develop additional
capabilities with additional resources
including people. It is very likely that
the Ministry will need its own inspec-
torate for ensuring compliance in this
        Much of this responsibility will
come with the enactment of the new
statutory authorities.  However, it is
strongly suggested that the Ministry not
wait for those authorities to be enacted
to begin the process of developing a
regulatory  framework  for  industrial
pollution control.   It was  suggested
earlier that a framework of industrial
cooperation be established to assess the
pollution problems within the country
and then make priority decisions as to
what to manage first. That is the essence
of this element of environmental man-

        In addition to the framework
of cooperation that needs to be estab-
lished and nurtured, it is important that
the environmental assessment of pollu-
tion sources and their impacts be made
as soon as possible so that a regulatory
strategy can be established that meets
those needs.

        It is quite possible that the new
Ministry will not need to await addi-
tional statutory authority to address some
of the  key  national  environmental is-
sues facing the Nation's  industries.
While the new statutes are indeed key
elements  for the sustainability of the
environmental programs, it is  quite
feasible that many of the problems once
defined and given some priority can
begin to be attacked under the mecha-
nisms described in the first two policy

        But the Ministry needs  to as-
sess  the pollution problems so it can
begin to define in concrete  terms the
regulatory approaches that  would be
necessary to begin to control the exist-
ing and future pollution.  Only when the
Ministry gets that specific - with spe-
cific sites and specific pollution ~ will
its agenda become clear. Without that
clarity, it will be impossible to assess in
much detail the extent of support for
environmental cleanup in Trinidad and
Tobago.  And without that clarity, it is
impossible for anyone to know, includ-
ing the regulated community, what is
expected of them.
        These threeelements comprise
a working arrangement for the new
Ministry.   Given its limited but not
small resource base, if one includes the
Instituteof Marine Affairs, the Forestry
Division, the Waste management Co.,
and portions of WASA, the Ministry
could  focus its attention on both the
past -- the traditional environmental
management issues - as well as on the
future. And the lilt should be on the
future to establish the mechanisms and
the relationships to move forward with

Some Environmental

        The end result of all of these
suggestions on environmental manage-
ment should be  environmental action
within Trinidad and Tobago. Much of
the current attention of environmental
activists throughout the world has to do
with chronic impacts of environmental
degradation. Theseinclude illness such
as potential cancer fromchemical pol-
lution, illnesses associated with chemi-
cals  in drinking  water supplies or from
the leaching of hazardous waste sites.
The  international  community is com-
ing together on  issues associated with
global  warming and  ozone depletion
where the impacts have begun to be felt
already in the judgment of some, but
whose ultimate environmental impacts
will be felt decades away. Therefore, it
is getting increasingly difficult for en-
vironmental managers-unless the im-
pact is  acute ~ to gain the attention of
the public  and bureacracies to respond
in a timely fashion.

        Therefore, environmental ac-
tion is a difficult process to manage.  It
is easier when affects are more acute. It
is  very difficult  to engender  public
support for other environmental issues
when the impacts are much more long
term. Butthalisoneof the issues facing
Trinidad and Tobago as well as most
other Nations.  The new Ministry as
well as the government of Trinidad and
Tobago need  some  environmental
"wins" to energize the people and insti-

tutions in the country. Furthermore,
some successful environmental action
will make a strong statement that envi-
ronmental management can work  in
the Nation. The following suggestions
are designed to construct one of many
possible plans for action, regardless of
whether there are new statutory under-
pinnings or new resources.  The job
will not be easy given the enormous
process of coordination and integra-
tion, or the significant lack of addi-
tional human and other resources within
the Ministry.   These suggestions are
meant to be a roadmap for environ-
mental action in the very near future
that could lay a foundation for future
success with a broader statutory and
environmental mandate.

Environmental Trust Fund
        The Ministry should establish
an environmental trust fund composed
of deposits from sales of environmental
posters created by school children on a
variety of environmental themes. The
size of the trust fund is not important
What is important is to build around the
concept a series of activities to involve
school age children in environmental
projects. The posters would also gener-
ate an interest in the children to learn
how to protect the environment.

that could generate interest, the "logo"
for the new Ministry is another. Envi-
ronmental fairs could be established in
local communities where seedlings and
plants could be sold and the proceeds
deposited  into the Trust  Fund.  The
Fund could then be utilized to educate
school children and the public on envi-
ronmental management.

        On a larger scale, and perhaps
for the longer term, the Ministry should
push for an environmental trust fund, as
a separate component from that sug-
gested above, to provide long term and
steady financing for environmental
administration.   Such  a  trust  fund,
composed of taxes and/or fees on a
variety of sources, would provide the
funding for the regulatory, informa-
tion, and research components of the
Ministry. Furthermore, if feasible, the
Fund could support additional infra-
structure improvements through inno-
vative financing mechanisms  to sup-
port the operation and maintenance of
existing sewage treatment and drinking
water supply systems.

National Service

        The   National   Service
concept is still in  its conceptual stage
but it can be an integral component of
the Ministry's primary function of en-
vironmental management.   This  Na-
tional Service component could be the
focus of public education and involve-
ment in environmental activities. Spe-
cific actions could include service in
national parks, reforestation, cleanup
campaigns  on  litter,  monitoring of
pollution control,  organizing environ-
mental work groups, etc. The concept
of national  service and environmental
action is a natural match and should be
explored if only on a voluntary basis.

Lead in Gasoline

        Lead in gasoline is undoubt-
edly a problem in the heavily populated
areas of the country.  The concentra-
tions of automobile and truck traffic in
many portions of the Nation would
clearly lead to a  conclusion that the
issue of lead in gasoline needs to be
carefully examined.

        The Ministry should under-
take an  examination of the degree of
lead in gasoline and its pollution im-
pacts in  Trinidad and Tobago particu-
larly on  the young. If necessary, tech-
nical assistance could be provided by
international organizations or those of
other countries, such as the United States
Environmental Protection Agency
which have dealt with lead in gasoline
to assess the problem and its environ-
mental consequences.

         Lead in gasoline is a  serious
potential problem; and if solutions could
be found on a voluntary basis it would
bcasigmficantenvironmental improve-
ment in the near term.

Northern Range

        From a number of discussions
in Trinidad and Tobago, the issues of
developmentand pollution in the north-
ern range seem to one of the most criti-
cal environmental management chal-
lenges facing the country. It is also an
issue that would require wide scale
cooperation from a  variety of Minis-
tries, organizations, and people.  The
Ministry, working most closely with
the Division of Forestry and the Marine
Institute as well as other key Ministries
should develop a national white paper
on the issues in the northern range m-
cludingalternativeoptionsfor environ-
mental protection.

        The  issue is  central  to the
concept of including environmental
concerns in national development is-
sues. This issue is a key one because it
involves the very types of issues that
will  face the Ministry as it pushes for
environmental management: develop-
ment concerns and environmental con-
cerns;  integration of competing inter-
ests of different sectors of the Nation;
and  competing institutional interests
within different Ministries.

The Private and Public

        As is mentioned throughout
this consultation, there is a great need
to bring together the public and private
sectors in environmental management.
The  resources are simply too limited
for Trinidad and Tobago not to take ad-
vantage of expertise from all sectors.
The Ministry should begin to establish
as quickly as possible  a  variety of
working groups to bring together the
two sectors. One suggestion already
made is to establish an Environmental
Business Roundtable to gam the work-
ing  expertise of  the  private sector.

However, there should be a variety of
mechanisms established to open com-
munications and to begin working on
specific issues. The question of envi-
ronmental pollution information is a
key area that will require the coopera-
tion of both the public and private sec-
tors. A key step would be for the Min-
istry to establish now an Environmental
Advisory  Council composed of  the
broadest  spectrum  of  individuals
throughout the Nation.  The Council
would build upon the excellent suc-
cessesoftheStandingCommittee. How-
ever, the intent would be to expand the
core of environmentally  aware and
committed.  The role of the Council
would be what its name implies: advise
to the Ministry and the government on
environmental action  rather than  or-
ganization. To do so, it would have to
be composed  of individuals of wide
standing from all parts of the Nation as
well as the wider Region.

Media Blitz
        For a lack of any other term,
the Ministry needs to organize a media
blitz over the next twelve months to
gain the attention of the public as well
as the bureaucracy.  People need to
know that the Ministry exists; they need
to know what it is doing; and they need
to know how to get involved. The new
Minister has already been highly vis-
ible and this is an extremely important
role to maintain. The involvement of
the media could be through a series of
articles on  hazardous  waste issues in
the country run over several days in the
national newspapers. Additional tele-
vision discussion or commentary shows
would assist in carrying the Ministry's
message to the nation. The media could
be useful in educating the public on
some  of the key environmental action
initiatives suggested above.

        Whether these specific recom-
mendations for environmental  action
are the most  appropriate is for  the
Ministry to decide. However, the Min-
istry does need to define its objectives
over the next year in very specific terms,
publicize them, and then go after them.
While organization issues are ultimately
critical, there needs to be an environ-
mental action roadmap that moves for-
ward regardless of resource, organiza-
tion, or statutory issues. Without a two
pronged approach,  it is unlikely the
Ministry can excite the public suffi-
ciently to  generate the necessary  sup-
port for the longer term organizational
and resource issues.

A Management Structure

        There have been a number of
suggestions  made for  organizational
structures  for the new  Ministry  both
immediately and in the longer run  after
enactmentofthedraft legislation. While
itis tempting to suggest such structures,
it is difficult -- and  somewhat prema-
ture  to  do so -- until the  very basic
decisions  are made on policies, ap-
proaches, and most important, environ-
mental issues.

        But assuming that the Minis-
try has Ihe wisdom (or the folly!) to fol-
low  all of this  report's recommenda-
tions to the letter, the organization chart
on the following page is a depiction of
how the Ministry could be organized.

        The structure of the chart is
designed to indicate elements that have
already been created; those that could
be created under existing authority; and
those that likely would need additional
statutory authority  or  administrative
action to become functional.

        While most of the recommen-
dations are contained in this report in
other sections, some elements require
further explanation. First, working from
the top, The National Advisory Council
on the Environment would be a mecha-
nism to significantly broaden external
support for environmental management
issues. As constructed here, it would be
composed primarily of non government
sector individuals representing broad

        The Environmental Business
Roundtable would be similarly com-
posed of non-governmental representa-
tives but would function much like the
Ministerial  Council in that the mem-
bers would discuss broad policy issues
as well as make commitments to re-
solve specific regulatory problems. Both
the National Advisory Council and the
Roundtable would report directly to the

        The Science Advisory Board,
not mentioned previously,  would be
one of several possible mechanisms to
provide the Minister with advice and
consent on specific environmental ap-
proaches.  The Board would be com-
posed of representatives of academia,
public  and private research, and other
entities. It would be particularly helpful
in the early stages of regulatory devel-
opment as the Ministry chooses specific
approaches to resolving environmental

        The Ministerial Council and
the Working Councils are discussed in
detail above and do not need additional

        The structure below that of the
proposed  National Environmental
Board (which is clearly organized as a
Board of Directors managing the Na-
tional  Environmental  Authority)  is
designed to be suggestive of the types of
functions that need to be organized in
some cohesive structure. While it may
not be organizationally appropriate, for
instance to place the Waste Manage-
ment  Authority "under" a particular
activity, the design of the chart is meant
to indicate where indeed those func-
tions of those authon ties should primar-
ily be housed.

        The lowest series of boxes are
additional functional suggestions for the
organizational structures immediately
above.  The lines are not particularly
clean cut in the environmental arena
and that should be one of the hallmarks
of any  structure.   The organization
should be as focused on broad issues as
possible and not sectors of interest.

                                     Ministry of the
                                 Environment and National
                                    Appendix A

     An Act Relating to the Prevention, Abatement and  Control of Pollution of the Environment and
                               for Purposes Connected Therewith
Short Title, application
and commencement
          1. (1) This Act may be cited as the Prohibition and Control of
Pollution Act,  1989 and shall apply to the whole of Trinidad and Tobago

          (2) This Act shall come into force on such date as the Minister
may appoint by notification in the Gazette and the Minister may appoint
different dates for the coming into force of different provisions of this Act
and may bring all or any provisions thereof into force either in the whole
of Trinidad and Tobago to which the notification applies or such area as may
be specified in the notification

         2 In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —

           "Authority" means the National Environmental Authority,

          "beneficial use" means a use of the environment or any element
or segment of the environment that is conducive to public health, welfare or
safety and which requires protection from the effects of any activities that
would impair the environment;
                                   "Board1 means the National Environmental Board;

                                "Chairman" means the  chairman  of  the National Environmental
                                  "control equipment" includes -

           (a) any apparatus for collecting wastes;

          (b) an automatic device used for securing the more efficient opera
tion of any equipment;

           (c) any device to indicate or  record pollution or to give warn-
ing of excessive pollution, and

           (d) any other device used for the purpose of limiting pollution.

       "craft"  means  any description of air, land or sea vehicle, whether
capable of propelling  itself or not;

       "Director" means the Director of the  National Environmental Author-

       "element" in relation to theenvironmentmeans any of the principal
constituent parts of the environment including water,  atmosphere,  soil,
vegetation, climate, sound, odour, aesthetics, fish and wildlife;

       "environment" means the physical factors of the surroundings of the
human beings including land, water, atmosphere, climate, sound, odour, taste,
the biological factors of animals and plants and the social factor of aesthetics;

       "Environmental Management" means the  management  of  activities
within the potentials  and constraints of  environmental systems.

       "industrial plant" means any plant used for the generation of power or
for any industrial use or for the operation of ships, dredges, locomotives,
cranes orother machines,

       "Minister" means the Minister charged with the responsibility for the
environmental (sic);

       "monitoring programme" means all actions taken and equipment used
for the purpose of detecting or measuring quantitatively or qualitatively the
presence, amount or level of any substance; characteristic or effect,

       "natural resources" means naturally occurring renewable and non-
renewable assets of Trinidad and Tobago;

       "occupier" means a person in occupation or control of premises, and
in relation to premises, different parts of which are occupied by different
persons, means therespective persons in occupation or control of each part;

       "owner" m relation to any premises means _

              (a) the registered proprietor of the premises;

               (b) the lessee of a lease including a sub-lease of the premises
whether registered or not;

               (c) the agent or trustee of any of the  owners described in
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this definition or wheresuch owner as described in
paragraphs (a) and (b) cannot be traced or has   died, his legal personal

               (d)the person  for the time being receiving the rent of the
premises whether on his own account or as agent or  trustee or as receiver or
who would receive if such premises were let to a tenant;

               (e) any  person in occupation of  the premises; and in
relation to any craft includes the agent, the person registered as the owner
of the craft or in the absence of registration, the person owning the craft
except that in the case of a craft owned byany country and operated by a
companywhich in that country is registered as the craft's operator, owner
shall include such country.

       "petroleum" means any mixture of naturally occurring hydrocar-
bons and hydrocarbon compounds;

       "petroleum products" means any finished orpartly finished pro-
duct derived from petroleum by any refinishing process;

       'pollutant" means any substance whetherliquid, solid or gaseous
which directly or indirectly _

              (a)  alters the quality of any segment or element of the
receiving environment so as to effect any beneficial use adversely;

              (b)or is  hazardous or  potentially hazardous to health
and includes objectionable odours,  radioactivity.and any apparatus/
substance including noise, temperature  change or physical chemical or
biological change to any  segment or element of the environment.

       "pollution" means any direct or indirect alteration of the physical,
thermal, chemical, biological, or radioactive  properties of any part of the
environment  by discharging, emitting, or depositing wastes, including
noise or any other substance so as to affect any beneficial use adversely to
cause a condition which is hazardous or potentially hazardous to public
health safety or welfare or to animals, birds, wildlife, fish or aquatic life,
or to plants or to cause a contravention of any condition, limitation or re-
striction to which a licence under this Act is subject;

       "practicable"  means reasonably practicable having regard to,
among other things, local conditions and circumstances and to the current
state of technical knowledgeand the term "practicable means" includes the
provision  of and the efficient maintenance of plant and the proper use
thereof and the supervision by or on behalf of the occupier of any process
or operation;

       "premises" includes messuages, buildmgs.lands, and heredita-
ments of every tenureand any machinery, plant or vehicle used in connec-
tion with any trade carried on at any premises, and includes structures
used for the purpose of conducting petroleum exploration,

       "prescribed" means prescribed by or under this Act or continued
in operation by this Act;

       "prescribed premises" means any premises prescribed by the

       "Secretary" means Secretary to the Board,

       "segment" in relation to the environment means any portion or
portions of the environment expressed in terms of volume, space, area.
quantity, quality, or time or any combination thereof;

       "soil" includes earth, sand, rock, shales,  minerals and vegetation
in the soil,

Objectives of the Act
Power to attach conditions
       "trade" means any trade, business or undertaking whether ordinarily
earned out at .fixed premises or at varying  places which results in the
discharge  of wastes  and includes any  activity prescribed to be a trade,
business or undertaking for the purposes of this Act,

       "treatment system" means equipment or device  constructed or in-
stalled which is used to treat potentially harmful substances to acceptable

        "waste" includes any matter prescribed to be waste and any matter
whether liquid, solid, gaseous or radioactive, which is discharged, emitted or
deposited  in the environment in such volume, compositionor manner as to
cause an adverse alteration of the environment

       3. The objectives of the Act are

                       (a) to protect the environment and the natural re-
sources from the various forms of pollution,

                        (b) to prevent and control pollution in all its forms
and from whatever source;

                        (c) to  promote and implement the environmental
policy or  policies enshrined in the Environmental Protection Policy Act
                            PART II


       4. The Authority may, in conjunction with the relevant authorities,
require the recipient of Government approval ~
                        or on any premises,
                        or on any premises;
                                               (l)to repair, alter or  replace any equipment in
                                               (2) to install  and  operate control equipment in
Prescribed Premises
                        (3) to  repair,   alter  or  replace  any  control
equipment installed in or on any premises,

                        (4) at his own  expense, to conduct a monitoring
programs designed to provide the Authority with information concerning the
characteristics, quality or effects of the emission, discharge or deposit  in
respect of which approval is granted, which information recorded by such
programme shall be supplied to the Authority at such time and in such manner
as may be specified by the Authority,

                       (5) to carry out any of the requirements imposed on
him under the foregoing provisions of this paragraph within such period as
may be specified in the conditions;

                        (6) to  install   and  operate  waste  treatment
systems in or on any premises

                        (7) to  adhere  to  any  regulations governing the
reuse of waste or  refuse. '

      5. The Minister, after consultation with the relevant Authorities may

Requirement and
approval of plans
Power to specify discharge
Restrictions on pollution
of the atmosphere
prescribe the premises  (hereinafter referred to as prescribed premises)
the construction, occupation or use of which by any person shall be an
offence under this Act unless the Authority has been consulted by existing
authorities and has given approval.

           6. Every application to carry out any work, building, erection
or alteration on prescribedpremises   shall,  in   addition  to  the
plans,specifications and  information  normally required  by  existing
authorities,  be accompanied  by  an environmental impact statement in
accordance with the requirements of the provisions  of the  Town  and
Country Planning Act.

          7  The Authority, in conjunction with the relevant authorities,
may specify conditions for the  emission, discharge, or deposit of wastes
or the emission of noise into any area, segment, or element of the environ-
ment and may set aside  any area, segment or element of the environment
within  which  the emission, discharge  or  deposit  is prohibited or

         8  (1) No  Person, natural or juridical, shall emit or discharge
into the atmosphere any wastes which may be injurious to human health and
life, the flora, fauna, natural  resources or public or private property or
likely  to become a nuisance in contravention of  the laws, regulations,
standards  or  the conditions specified by the Authority acting in concert
with the relevant authorities

           (2) Without limiting the generality of sub-section (Da person
shall be deemed to emit or discharge wastes into the atmosphere if
                                         (a) he Places any matter where it may be released into the
                                          (b) he causes or permits the discharge of odours which by
                           virtue of their nature, concentration, volume or extent are obnoxious or

                                          (c) he burns any wastes of the trade, process or industry;

                                         (d) he uses any fuel, burning equipment not equipped with
                           any device or control equipment required to be fitted to such equipment

                                      (3)  The potential sources of Atmospheric pollution are listed
                           m the First Schedule.

                                     (4) The emissions from mobile or fixed artificial installations
                           shall be subject to the study and control by the Authority in conjunction
                           with the relevant agencies Activities pertaining to the control of pollution
                           caused by natural phenomena shall beconducted by the competent institu-
                           tions in this field acting in concert with the Authority.

                                    (5) The Authority, in coordination with the relevant institutions
                           or agencies  shall  prepare and execute programmes involving  aspects
                           concerned with the causes, effects, significance and methods of prevention
                           and control of atmospheric pollution.

                                     (6) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty
                           of an offence and shall be liable  to a fine of not less than One Hundred
                           Thousand Dollars ($ 100,000) in the case of a corporation and Ten Thousand
                           Dollars ($ 10,000) m the case of an individual or to imprisonment of a period
                           not exceeding five (5) years and to a further fine of One Thousand Dollars

Restrictions on pollution
Restrictions on
pollution of the soil
($1,000) a day in the case of a corporation and One Hundred Dollars ($100)
in the case of an individual for every day that the offence is    ^
continued after a notice by the Authority requiring him to cease the act
specifiedtherem has been served upon him

          9 (1) No person, natural or juridical noise shall, emit or cause or
per mil to be emitted, any noise greater  in volume, intensity or quality in
contravention  of the  laws, regulations, standards or conditions specified
 by the Authority acting in concert with the relevant authorities.

           (2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of
an offence and shall be liable to s fine of not less than Five Thousand Dollars
($5,000) or toimprisonment of a period not exceeding three years (3) or to both
and to a further fine of Five Hundred Dollars ($500) aday for every day that
the offence is continued after a notice by the Authority requiring him to cease
the act specified therein has been served upon him.

        10.  (1) No person, natural or juridical shall, discharge any wastes
or pollutants which may  change the characteristics of the soil and affect
human health, flora and fauna, natural resources and other property in
contravention of laws, regulations, standards or conditions specified by the
Authority acting in concert with the relevant authorities.

         Notwithstanding the generality of sub-section (Da person shall be
deemed to pollute any soil or surface of  any land if -

     (a) he places, in or on any soil or in any place where it may gain access
to any soil, any matter whether solid, liquid or gaseous; or

     (b) he establishes on any land a refuse dump, garbage tip, soil and rock
disposal site, sludge deposit site.waste injection well or otherwiseuses  land
for the disposal of or are pository for  solid or liquid wastes so as to be
obnoxious offensive "or fatal to human beings or interfere with underground
aquifers or be detrimental to any beneficial use of the soil or the surface of the

        (2) The potential sources of soil pollution are listed in the Second

        (3) The Authority acting in concert with the relevant authorities shall
limit, regulate or prohibit the use of such substances as pesticides, herbi-
cides, fertilizers, detergents, toxic chemicals.radioactivematerials and other
substances the use of which may cause pollution.

        (4) The Authority, in coordination with the municipalities, and other
relevant authorities shall plan, regulate, establish rules for, control and
supervise the  systems of collection, transportation, storage and processing
and final disposition of wastes in the urban and rural environment.

        (5) The Authority, shall regulate the storage, processing, recycling
and disposition of wastes from industrial products which by their nature may
not be biodegradable such as plastics, glass, aluminium and chemicals.

       (6) Any person, natural or juridical, who contravenes sub-section (1)
shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine of not less than One
Hundred Thousand Dollars ($100,000) in the case of a corporation and Ten
Thousand Dollars ($10,000) in the case of an individual or to imprisonment not
exceeding five (5) years or both and to a further fine of One Thousand Dollars
($1,000) a day in the case of a corporation and One Hundred Dollars ($100)
a day in the case of an individual for everyday that the offence is continued
after a notice by the Authority requiring him to cease the act specified therein

Restrictions on Pollution
of Waters of Trinidad & Tobago
Development of
Standards and regulations
for discharge of liquid wastes

Degree of treatment
for liquid wastes
has been served upon him.

         11. (1) No person, natural or juridical, shall emit,  discharge  or
deposit any waste particularly industrial wastes, sewage and petroleutr
or petroleum products  into the  drainage systems or streams, ditches
rivers, lakes (man-made or natural) or other inland or maritime  waters
(archipelagic  waters, territorial waters, exclusive economic zone or water
superjacent to the continental shelf) which may contain pollutants thai
may be harmful to human life or health, the flora, fauna, and other property
private or public and the natural resources in contravention of the laws
regulations, standards and  conditions specified by the Authority actmj
in concert with the relevant authorities

           (2) Without limiting the generality of sub-section (Da persor
shall be deemed to emit, discharge or deposit wastes into thewaters ol
Trinidad and Tobago if _

                      (a) he places any wastes in or on any waters or in a
place where it may gain access to any waters,

                      (b) he places any waste in a position where it falls
descends, drains, evaporates, is washed, is blown, or percolates or is hkel>
to fall, descend, drain, evaporate or be washed, be blown or percolated mtc
waters or knowingly or through his negligence, whether directly or indi-
rectly causes or permits any wastes to be placed in such a position, or

                       (c)he causes the temperature of the receiving
waters to be raised or lowered by more than the prescribed limits

                       (d)  he causes the acidity or alkalinity of the re
ceiving waters to be raised or lowered by more than the prescribed limits

                        (e)  he causes the oxygen content of the receiving
waters to be lowered to less than the prescribed limit.

           (3) No person shall discharge or spill any petroleum or petro
leum products into any part  of the sea outside the waters of Trinidad and
Tobago if such discharge or spill will result in petroleum or petroleum
products being carried, spread or washed into the waters of Trinidad and

           (4) The Authority shall regulate the disposition of wastes fron
industrial products which by their nature may not be biodegradable sucr
as plastic, glass, aluminium  and chemicals

         (5) Any person who contravenes sub-section (1) and (3) shall b<
guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine of not less than One Hundrec
Thousand Dollars ($ 100.000) in the case of a corporation and Ten Thousanc
Dollars ($10,000) in  the  case of an individual and to imprisonment no1
exceeding five (5) years or to both and to a further fine of One Thousand
Dollars ($1,000) in the case of a corporation and One Hundred Dollars
($100) in the case of an individual for  every  day that   the offence i<
continued after a notice by the  Authority requiring him to cease the act
specified therein has been served upon him.

        12  The Authority, acting in concert withthe relevant Authorities
shall develop standards for discharge of liquid wastes and regulations for
the  discharge of liquid wastes in accordance with the  quality of the
receiving waters.

              13. The Authority, acting in concert with the relevant au-

Supervision of treatment
Power to prohibit use
of any material or equipment
Power to require occupier
to install, operate, repair
or close down etc.
Occupier to maintain
and operate equipment
thonties shall determine the  degree of treatment of the liquid wastes to be
discharged into the receiving waters

             14 The Authority is authorized to systems supervise the con-
struction of treatment systems as well as operation  and  maintenance  in
conjunction with the other relevant agencieswith the aim of achieving the ob-
jectives ofthis Act

            15. The Minister, after consultation with the relevant Agencies
may by Order published in the Gazette
                        trade or industry;
                                              (a) prohibit the use of  any materials for any process,
                                             (b) prohibit whether by description or by brand name
                        the use of any equipment or industrial plant, within the areas specified in the
                        waste material.
                                              (c) prohibit entry into Trinidad and Tobago of toxic
           16  Where any pollutants are being or are likely to be emitted,
discharged or deposited from any premises irrespective of whether such
premises are prescribed premises or not, the Authority may by notice in writ-
ing require the occupier of these premises to _

                         tional control equipment;
                        (a) cease all operations believed to be causing such

                        (b) install and operate control equipment or addi-
                         (c) repair,  alter or  replace  any equipment or
control equipment on these premises,

                         (d) to  install,   alter,  replace and maintain any
waste treatment systems on these premises;

                        (e) make structural changes to buildings and ap-
purtenances, such as chimneys, drains, piping, etc.,

                       (f) close down all buildings and cease all activity at
the premises within such time and in such manner as may be specified in the

               17 The occupier of any premises where equipment, control
equipment or waste treatment system  is  permitted under this  Act  shall
maintain such  equipment or control equipment in those premises in an
efficient condition and shall  operate the  equipment or control equipment
in a proper and efficient manner.

Occupier to furnish
Power to enter and inspect
Penalty for offences
not otherwise provided for
Offences by bodies
                                                PART III

         18. (1) The Director of the Authority, may by notice require the
occupier of any premises to furnish to him within such a period as may
be specified in the  notice such information relating to any equipment,
control equipment, waste treatment systems or industrial plant found on
such premises or as to any wastes discharged or likely to be discharged

           (2) Any person who, when required by the Director to answer
any questions or to furnish any information, fails to answer such question
and  to furnish any  such  information as is required or gives any answer
or information that is false or misleading in any material respect shall be
guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Five Thousand
Dollars ($5,000) or toimpnsonment not exceeding six (6) months or both.

        19. The Authority or any other officer duly authorized in writing
by the Authority may at any reasonable  time enter any premises whether
 prescribed or otherwise and may _

                        (a) examine and inspect any equipment, control
              monitoring equipment,  treatment  system  or industrial
                          ,  equipment,
                            (b) take samples of any pollutants that are
emitted, discharged or deposited or are likely to be or are of a class or kind
that are usually emitted.discharged or deposited from such premises;

                      (c) examine  any books,  records  or  documents
relating to the performance or use of such equipment, control equipment,
monitoring equipment, treatment system or industrial plant or relating to
the emission, discharge or deposit from such  premises;

                             (d) photograph  such  premises  as  he
considers necessary or make copies of any books, records or  documents
seen in the course of such examination, or

                        (e) take samples of any fuel substance or mate-
rial used,  likely to be used  or usually used in  such  trade, industry or
process carried on  in or on such premises.

         20  Every omission or neglect to comply with, and every act done
or attempted to be done contrary to, the provisions  of this Act or any
regulations made thereunder or any breach of the conditions and restric-
tions subject to or upon which approval is granted under this  Act or any
regulations made thereunder shall be  an offence against this Act and in
respect of any offence for which no penalty is expressly provided, the
offender shall be liable to a  fine of Five Thousand Dollars ($5,000) or to
imprisonment not exceeding one (1) year or to both.

        21. (1) Where an offence against this Act or any regulations  made
thereunder has been committed by a company, firm, society or other body
of persons, any person who at the time of the commission of the offence was
a director,manager, or other  similar officer or a partner of the company,
firm, society or other body of persons or who was purporting to act in such
capacity shall be  deemed to be guilty of that offence unless he proves that

Who may prosecute
Power of recovery
of costs and expenses
Power to detain and sell craft
                        the offence was committed without his consent or connivance and that he had
                        exercised all such diligence as to prevent the commission of the offence as he
                        ought to have exercised having regard to the nature of his functions in that
                        capacity and to all the circumstances.

                              (2) Whenever it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that a contra-
                        vention of the provisions of this Act or any regulations made thereunder has
                        been committed by any clerk, servant or agent when acting m the course of his
                        employment  the principal shall also be liable for such contravention and to
                        the penalty provided thereof unless he proves to the satisfaction of the court
                        that the same was committed without his knowledge or consentor that he had
                        exercised all due diligence as to prevent the same and to ensure the observance
                        of such provisions provided that nothing in this section shall be deemed to
                        exempt such  clerk, servant or agent from liability in respect of any penalty
                        provided by this Act or regulations made thereunder for any contravention
                        proved to have been committed by him.
      22  Prosecutions in respect of  offences committed under this Act or
regulations made thereunder may be conducted by the National Environmental
Authority or any officer duly authorized in writing by it or by any officer of
any local authority to which any powers under this Act have been delegated.

      23. (1) Where any segment or element of the environment is polluted
by   any  person  in   contravention of this Act or the regulations  made
thereunder the Director of the NationalEnvironmental Authority may take
such action as is necessary to remove, disperse, destroy, or mitigate the
pollution and may recover from that person all costs and expenses incurred
in connection therewith.

           (2) A Certificate of the Director stating that -

                         (a) it is of the opinion that a person named in the
certificate is responsible for such pollution shall be prima facie evidence for
the purposes of any proceedings under this section;

                         (b) the sum incurred m carrying out all or any of
the work required under sub-section (1) shall be conclusiveproof of the sum
and shall not be subject to any appeal or review in any court.

         (3) All and any sum payable by such person shall be a first charge
on any property or interest held by such person

             (4) Where the discharge or  spillage of  petroleum, petroleum
products or any other products or wastes is from_

                       (a) any craft or two or more craft the owner of such
craft shall be liable or the owners of all such craft shall be jointly and
severally liable;

                       (b)any apparatus used m transferring oil or any
other products or wastes from or to any craft (whether to or from a place on
land or to or from a craft), the person m charge of the apparatus and the em-
ployer of that person   shall be jointly and severally liable,

                         (c) any place on land, the occupier shall be liable

              24. (1) Where  the National Environmental Authority  has
reason to believe that any  discharge or spillage of petroleum, petroleum
products or other  products or wastes was from  any craft, he may detain the

                          craft and the craft may be so detained until the owner deposits with the
                          Government such sum or furnishes such security as would in the opinion of
                          the Authority be adequate to meet the costs and expenses which would be
                          incurred to remove or eliminate the petroleum, petroleum products or other
                          products or wastes.

                                     (2) If such detained craft proceeds to sea before it is released
                          the owner, the master and any person who sends the craft to sea shall be
                          guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine of not less than One Hundred
                          Thousand Dollars ($100,000) or to imprisonment not exceeding two years
                          or to both.

                                     (3) Where the owner is unable to pay any fine imposed or the
                          costs and expenses incurred in removing or eliminating the petroleum, pe-
                          troleum products or other products or wastes the Authority may apply to
                          the court for the sale of such vessel and the proceeds used towards the fine
                          or the costs  and expenses of  removing or eliminating the petroleum,
                          petroleum products or  other products or wastes'

Compensation                        25. Where any segment or element of the environment is polluted
                          by any person in  contravention of this Act or the  Regulations  made
                          thereunder  and such pollution has causedany bodily injury, illness or
                          death or caused damage to buildings, property or premises, orcaused any
                          other loss to any one, the  Director, in consultation with  the National
                          Environmental Board and any other relevant authorities any carry out an
                          assessment of such loss and losses and award compensation to any aggrieved
                          person provided that the aggrieved person has submitted a claim for such
                          compensation within a period of six months after the pollution in question

                                  26 (1) In addition to and not in derogation of any of the powers
                          contained in any other provisions of this  Act,  the Minister mconj unction
                          with the relevant agencies may makeregulations for or with respect to

                                   (a) the submission  of environmental impacts statements and
                          the required fee for the assessment of such statements;

                                  (b) the granting of licenses and per mits.mcluding waste discharge
                          licenses or permits, and any fees required;

                                  (c) prescribing standards or criteria for the implementation of any
                          declared environmental  policy or classification for the protection of the
                          environment and for protectingbeneficial uses.

                                    (d) prescribing standards or criteria for determining when any
                          matter, action or thing is  poisonous, noxious, objectionable, detrimental to
                          health,  or within any other description referred.to in this Act;

                                  (e)  prohibiting the discharge, emission, or deposit into the envi-
                          ronment of any matter whether liquid, solid, or gaseous, or of radio-activity
                          and prohibiting or regulating the use of any specified fuel,

                                   (f)  prescribing  ambient air and water quality standards and
                          emission  standards and specifying the maximumpermissible concentra-
                          tions of any matter that may be present in or discharged into the environ-

                                  (g) prohibiting  the use of any equipment.facility. vehicle, or ship
                          capable of causing pollution or regulating the construction, installation or
                          operation thereof so as to prevent or minimize pollution;

                                  (h) prohibiting  the use of  such substances, the use of which

may cause pollution;

       (i) prescribing   the  collection, transportation, storage, processing
  and reuse of waste or refuse, whether biodegradable or non-biodegradable

       (j) requiring  the giving of pollution warnings or alerts,

       (k) prohibiting or regulating the open burning of refuse  or other
combustible matter,

       (1) regulating the establishment of sites for the disposal of solid or
liquid wastes on or in land or at sea;

       (m) defining objectionable noise and prescribing standards for toler-
able noise,

       (n) prohibiting or  regulating bathing, swimming, boating or other
aquatic activity in or around any waters that may be detrimental to health or
welfare or for preventing pollution,

       (o) any matter or thing which by this Act is authorized or required or
permitted to be prescribed or whichis necessary or expedient to be prescribed
for carrying this Act intoeffect;

       (p) requiring ships in Trinidad and Tobago waters to be fitted with
such equipment as  may be prescribed for the purpose of preventing or
reducing  oil pollution,

       (q) requiring ships in Trinidad and Tobago waters to carry such oil
 record books as may be prescribed, the master of such ships to record such
particulars as may be prescribed and to transmit such books to such persons
as may be specified,

       (r) restricting the transfer of oil to or from a ship in Trinidad and
Tobago waters and prescribing the circumstances when such transfers may be
carried out;

       (s) requiring the  master of any ship and the owner of any oil refinery
to report discharges and  spillages  of oil or  mixture  containing  oil  into
Trinidad and Tobago waters;

       (t) requiring the oil refineries carrying on business in Trinidad and
Tobago to store such substance or material and  equipment necessary to deal
with any oil pollution of the Trinidad and Tobago waters that may arise in the
 course of their business;

       (u) requiring the oil refineries carrying on business to install such
equipment as may be prescribed for the purpose of reducing or preventing any
trade effluent from containing oil,

     (v) requiring ships using any port of Trinidad and Tobago to discharge
or deposit oil residues, wastes intooil reception facilities, the fees to be levied
for the use of such facilities, and conditions upon which the vessels may use
such facilities.

          (2) Any such regulation may be general or may be restricted in
operation as to time, place,  persons, or circumstances whether anysuch time,
place, person or circumstance is determined or ascertainable before, at or
after the making of the regulations.

                                                PART IV

                                        APPEAL AND APPEAL TRIBUNAL

                                     27. (1) Any person who is aggrieved by the requirements or
Appeal                     decisions of the Authority under this Act may within such ti me and in such
                          manner as may be prescribed, appeal to the Environmental Appeal Tribu-

                                        (2) The Environmental Appeal Tribunal may after hearing
                          the Authority and the appellants make such order as it deems fit

                                    28 (1) For the purposes of this Act, the Minister shall appoint
                          an Environmental Appeal Tribunal consisting of three me mbers one of whom
Environmental Appeal           shall be from the legal profession and the other two shall be professional
                          persons of considerable experience in the area of environmental protection
                          They shall be appointed by a notification in the Gazette by the Minister for
                          a period not exceeding three years, and any persons so appointed shall be
                          eligible for reappomtment

                                        (2) The Minister shall appoint a Chairman of the Environ-
                          mental Appeal Tribunal from those appointed

                                       (3) The Minister may revoke the appointment of the Chair-
                          man or the appointment of the other members without assigning anyreason
                                       (4) A member of the Environmental Appeal Tribunal having
                          an interest in any matter before the Tnbunai shall disclose to the Environ-
                          mental Appeal Tribunal the fact of his interest and the nature thereof, and
                          such disclosure shall be recorded and such member shall take no part in
                          any proceedings of the Environmental Appeal Tribunal relating to such mat-

                                        (5) Every decision of the Environmental Appeal Tribunal
                          shall be made by the Chairman of the Environmental Appeal Tribunal after
                          considering the opinion of the other two  members but in making his de-
                          cision the Chair man shall not be bound to confer m to the opinion of the other
                          two members or either of them provided that the Chairman shall record his
                          reasons for dissenting therefrom

                                        (6) In addition to all the powers granted to the Environ-
                          mental Appeal Tribunal under this Act the Environmental Appeal Tribunal
                          shall also have power to award costs or make any order in respect of any
                          appeal before it

                                        (7) The rules of procedure for thehearmg of appeal under
                          this Act shall follow  insofar as applicable, the Subordinate Courts  Rules
                          and the Chairman shall keep a record of such hearing.

                                        (8) A member shall be entitled to such remuneration or
                          allowances as may be determined by the Minister

                         FIRST SCHEDULE
 Para (3), 8      Potential Sources of Atmospheric Pollution
 Artificial - Originated by technological development and man's action
such as  factories, boilers,  thermoelectric plants, petroleum refineries,
chemical plants, steam generators, airships, self propelled vehicles, incin-
eration, exploitation, processing and transportation of industrial minerals.

 Natural   - Caused by natural phenomena such as eruptions, precipitation,
earthquakes, droughts, landslides
                    SECOND SCHEDULE

 Para (2), 10        Potential Sources of Soil Pollution

 Radioactive substances.

 Solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from agriculture, industry and municipali-

 Pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, detergents,

 Oil Spills
17th January, 1989

                               Appendix B

            AN ACT to establish an Environmental Policy forTrimdad and Tobago,  to Provide for
       the Establishment of a National Environmental Authority, to Ensure the Protection of the
      Environment andthe Natural Resources of Trinidad and Tobago; and for Purposes Connected
                                        . Therewith
Short Title
apphcauon,and commencement
       PART I (A)


1.     (1) This Act  may be cited as the Environmental
      Protection Policy Act, 1989 and shall apply
      to the whole of Trinidad  and Tobago

      (2) This Act shall come into force on such date as
      the Minister may appoint by notification in the
      Gazette and  the Minister may appoint different dates
      for the coming into force of different provisions of
      this Act and may bring all or any provisions thereof
      into force either in the whole of Trinidad and Tobago
      to which the notification applies or such area as may
      be specified in the notification.

                                    2 In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires -

                                                 "Authority" means the National Environmental

                                                 "Board" means the National Environmental

                                                 "Chairman"  means  the chairman of  the
                                                   National Environmental Board;

                                                 "Director" means the Director of the
                                                   National Environmental Authority;

                                                 "environment" means the physical factors of
                                                  the surroundings of the human beings
                                                   including land, water, atmosphere,
                                                   climate, sound, odour, taste, the
                                                   biological factors of animals and plants
                                                   and the social factor of aesthetics;

                                                 "Environmental Management" means the
                                                   management  of  activities  within  the
                                                   potentials   and   constraints   of
                                                  environmental systems.

                                                 "Minister" means the Minister charged with
                                                   the responsibility for the environment,

                                                 "natural resources"  means naturally occuri-
                                                  mg renewable  and  non-renewable assets of
                                                  Trinidad and Tobago,

                                                 "Secretary" means Secretary to the Board,

                                               PART I (B)

                                      DECLARATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLIO

                                  3 The Government of Trinidad and Tobago recognises  the
                                        interrelationship  of  the elements or segments of
                                       the environment, man's interrelationship with these
                                       and consequently the impact of man's activities on
                                       the environment, in particular the influences of
                                       population   growth,   high density   urbanization,
                                       industrial expansion, resource  exploitation, new
                                       expanding technological advances and tourism develop-
                                       ment  The Government further recognizes the critical
                                       importance of maintaining and restoring environmental
                                       quality for the over all welfare  and development of man
                                       It is therefore declared that it is the continuing  policy of
                                       the State, in cooperation with other public and private
                                       organizations to use all practicable means and
                                       measures, including financial and technical
                                       assistance m order to foster and promote, create
                                       and maintain the conditions under which man and
                                       nature can exist in productive  harmony and fulfil
                                       the social, economic and other  requirements of
                                       present and future generations of Trinidad and

                                              To this end, the Government recognizes the need
                                              for the careful planning and management of the
                                              natural resources of air, water, land, flora,
                                              fauna, among others and the preservation of our
                                              historical heritage.

                                              Most importantly, the Government also
                                              recognizes that Human Health, which is a state
                                              of complete physical, mental and social well
                                              being and not merely the absence of disease or
                                              infirmity, is a fundamental human right and
                                              therefore the attainment of the highest
                                              possible level of health is an important social
                                              goal for Trinidad and Tobago

objectives of the Act                    4. The objectives of the Act are:

                                                  (a) to protect the natural resources of
                                                    Trinidad and Tobago and promote their
                                                    wise use;

                                                  (c) to provide  the necessary adminis-
                                                    trative framework for planning and
                                                    coordinating environmental manage-

                                                 (d) to provide the legal framework for
                                                    safeguarding the environment from
                                                    actions which are detrimental to the
                                                    overall maintenance of the physical,
                                                    biological and chemical resources of
                                                    the nation,

                                                  (e) to ensure the proper implementation
                                                    of those policies and the enforcement
                                                    of those legal provisions which would
                                                    have the effect of protecting the
                                                    nation's environment and the
                                                    resources therein

                                                  (f) to ensure  the rehabilitation  of
                                                    degraded areas

                                               PART II


Establishment and                    5. (1) There is established with responsibility to the Minister a
Composition of National        body known as the National Environmental Authority, hereafter the Au-
Envuonmenlal Authority        thority, Which Shall COHSlSt Of.

                                                  (a) A National Environmental Board which
                                                    shall be appointed by the President.

                                                  (b) A Director appointed by the Board who
                                                    shall be responsible to the Board;

                                                  (c) Specialised   Units  that  may  be
                                                    established by the Minister on the

                                                      recommendation of the National
                                                      Environmental Board that are to carry
                                                      out the functions of the Authority
                                                      under the supervision of the
Powers and Functions of the
National Environmental Authority             6. The powers and f unctions of the Authority are -

                                                 (a) to advise the Minister with responsibility
                                                       for the Environment on all aspects of
                                                       Environmental Management in accordance
                                                        with  the National Environmental Policy
                                                       of the Government of Trinidad and Tobago;

                                                     (b) to coordinate and monitor all activi-
                                                       ties of implementing Ministries and
                                                       Agencies and to ensure that all
                                                       activities take place within environ-
                                                       mentally tolerable limits;

                                                     (c) to develop guidelines and strategies
                                                       for all environmental activities
                                                       relating to standards for pollution
                                                      control,  management of natural
                                                       resourcesland environmental planning
                                                       at all levels of Government;

                                                     (d) to foster international cooperation
                                                       and to act as a focal point for
                                                       liaising with international Environ-
                                                       mental agencies especially with
                                                       respect to Treaties or Conventions to
                                                       which this country is a signatory;

                                                    (e) to keep an up-to-date data bank on
                                                       expertise in environmental
                                                       disciplines locally, m the Caribbean
                                                       and elsewhere,

                                                     (f) to maintain up-to-date records on
                                                       international and local environmental

                                                     (g) to liaise with regional data banks
                                                       and local agencies which produce
                                                       reports and other publications on
                                                      environmental matters,

                                                    (h) to maintain a high level of environ-
                                                       mental consciousness through public
                                                      education and through fostering good
                                                       public relations between the various
                                                       sectoral interests undertaking envi-
                                                       ronmental activities;

                                                     (i) to initiate and coordinate actions
                                                       required Ito redress environmental
                                                       emergencies or activities which can

                                                   pose serious threats to the national

                                                 (j) to call public  hearings  on
                                                   potentially  controversial
                                                  environmental  issues;

                                                 (k) to commission studies and investiga-
                                                  tions to determine the state of the.
                                                  local environment and  to
                                                  remedial or  preventative action
                                                  protect the environment.

                                                 (1) to provide  consultancy services for
                                                  undertaking environmental impact
                                                   assessments, pollution control,
                                                  restoration of degraded environments
                                                  and  other such  matters,

                                                (m) to  report  to  the Minister
                                                   matters concerning the protection and
                                                  enhancement of the environment and
                                                  upon any amendments desirable to any
                                                   laws affecting pollution and the
                                                  environment and upon any matters
                                                   referred to  it by the Minister.

                                                 (n) to  publish  quarterly reports on the
                                                  state of the environment.

                                                 (o) to take the necessary legal action to
                                                   restrain  persons,   natural   or,
                                                   juridical,   from   initiating  or
                                                  continuing  actions which may  be
                                                  detrimental  to the  environment

                                                (pj to take any other  action which  may be
                                                   necessary for the effective enforce-
                                                   ment of this Act and consequently the
                                                  protection of the environment
Establishment and Composition          7 Tne National Environmental Board shall consist of -
of Lhe National Environmental
Board                                             (a) a Chairman who shall be appointed by
                                                    the President on the advice of the

                                                 (b) a Secretary who shall be appointed by
                                                    the Board;

                                                  (c) a Director who shall be a member of
                                                    the Board;

                                                 (d) twelve (12) Members, appointed by the
                                                    President on the advice of theMimster,
                                                    representing Government Agencies and  pro-
                                                    fessional groups/ organizations, at least four
                                                    (4). but no more than five (5) to be drawn
                                                    from these professional groups/organiza-
                                                    tions    Membership should  represent

                                                    the  following sectors,  industrial  develop
                                                    ment,  energy/mining,  land use planning,
                                                    nature conservation, tourism, marine envi-
                                                    ronment,   'finance,  community environ-
                                                    ment, environmental health and protection,
                                                    legal and waste management.

tows and funcuons of £e                g rne p^^s ^d f unctions of the National Environmental Board
National Environmental Board
                        are —

                                                 (a) to advise  the Minister  and
                                                    Authority of all matters pertaining
                                                    to the environment,

                                                 (b) to review the activities  of the
                                                    Authority  and to advise the Minister
                                                    on requirements for its efficient operations,

                                                 (c) to recommend to the Minister national
                                                    policies for the protection, conservation and
                                                    management of human and natural resources,

                                                 (d) to coopt any persons as panels of
                                                    experts to assist the Board at their
                                                    request in relation to special problems

                                                 (e) to submit annual reports for the
                                                    consideration of Parliament.

                                                 (f) to take any other action it deems
                                                   necessary for the effective enforce-
                                                    ment of this Act and consequently the
                                                    protection of the environment

Deputy chaiiman                      9 A Deputy Chairman shall be elected by the National Environ-
                                      mental Board from among its members at its first meeting.

Alternates                           10(1) The Minister  may in respect of member appointed,
                                      except the Chairman, appoint one person to be an  alternate
                                      member to attend in place of the member at meetings of the
                                      Board if the member is for any reason unable  to attend

                                    (2) When attending meetings of the Board the alternate mem-
                                      ber shall for all purposes be deemed to be a member of the

                                     (3) An alternate member shall, unless he sooner resigns or
                                      his appointment is sooner revoked, cease to be an  alternate
                                      when themember in respect to whom he is an alternate
                                      member ceases to be a member of the Board

Duration of office                     !! Every appointed member of the Board shall, unless  he sooner
and eligibility of                           resigns or  his appointment revoked, hold office  for a
                                      term not exceeding three years and shall be eligible for re-

                                12(1) The following  persons shall be disqualified from
                                      being appointed or being members of the Board -

                                                 (a) a person who is of unsound mind or is

                                                      otherwise incapable of performing his

                                                    (b) a person who has been found guilty of
                                                      an offence involving fraud, dishonesty
                                                        under the laws of Trinidad and Tobago,

                                                    (c) a person who is an undischarged
                                                      bankrupt having been adjudged or
                                                      otherwise declared bankrupt under any
                                                      law in force in Trinidad and Tobago

                                             (2) An appointed member of the Board shall
                                                be deemed to have vacated 'his office -

                                                    (a) upon his death;

                                                    (b) upon his resignation,

                                                    (c) upon his failure to attend three (3)
                                                      regular consecutive meetings of the
                                                      Board without permission from the
                                                      Board; or

                                                    (d) if he becomes disqualified  under
                                                      sub-section (1) and a new member
                                                       shall be appointed in his place in
                                                      accordance with the provisions of
                                                       this Act
Calling of Meetings,
quoium, voting and                         13(1) The Board shall meet once a month and shall, in
imnutes                                          addition, meet as and when convened by the

                                           (2) Seven (7) Members shall be a quorum
                                                 at any of the meetings of the Board

                                           (3) If on a question to be determined by
                                                the Board there is an equality of votes, the
                                                Chairman or if the Chairman is absent the
                                                presiding member shall have a casting vote in
                                                addition to his deliberative vote.

                                           (4) Subject to this Act, the Board shall determine its
                                               own procedure.

                                           (5) Minutes  shall be  kept  of  all  proceedings of
                                               the Board and copies thereof shall be  submitted
                                               to the Minister

Presiding officer                           j 4  (j) The chairman of the Board shall preside at all
81 Meeungs                                       meetings of the Board

                                            (2) If, owing to the absence or inability to act due to
                                               illness or any other causes the Chairman of the
                                               Board is unable to preside at any meeting, the
                                               Deputy Chairman shall preside at the meeting;

                                            (3) No business shall be transacted at any meeting of
                                               the Board in the absence of the Chairman and the
                                               Deputy Chairman until a  member has been

                                            elected to preside over the  meeting.
                                 15(1) Every appointed member may be paid a sum as may
                                             be determined by the Minister in respect of
                                            his attendance at a meeting of the Board

                                     (2) The Chairman may be paid such additional allowances or
                                            honorarium as may be determined by the Minister.

"          110118                    ] 6 The Director- sha11 have the responsibility for -

                                                (a) the   overall   direction   and
                                                   administration of the Authority and
                                                   coordination of all its units;

                                                (b) development of policies, guidelines
                                                  and strategies for implementation by
                                                   Ministries and Agencies responsible
                                                  for particular areas of environmental
                                                  management, for example, establishing
                                                  minimum standards, development of
                                                   funding, controls, Environmental
                                                  Impact Assessments requirements,
                                                   licenses and permits in conjunction
                                                  with the Board,

                                                (c) to recommend to implementing agencies
                                                  the appropriate training needed to
                                                  ensure that adequate levels of
                                                  environmental management are

                                                (d) development  of  mechanisms  for
                                                  participation by relevant agency
                                                   personnel in local, regional and
                                                   international meetings, seminars,
                                                  workshops, courses or conferences;

                                                (e) sourcing international financing for
                                                  local research and development
                                                  projects which would have positive
                                                  impacts on environmental management.

                                                (f) any other action that may be needed
                                                  from time to time to ensure the
                                                  maintenance of the integrity of the

                                             PART III

                                        COORDINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL
                                        ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT
Power of the National
Environmental Authority                    17. (1) The National Environmental Authority shall be the
and relationships with other                           coordinating Agency with respect to  matters
 8encies                                      relating  to  the environment  and shall be the
                                            principal Agency with respect to the  protection of
                                            the environment and its resources

                                         (2) The National Environmental Authority shall cause to
                                                be reviewed the present Statutory Authority,
                                                administrative regulations and existing policies
                                                of the agencies of Government to ensure that such
                                                authority, regulations and policies are in confor-
                                                mity with the intent purposes and procedures set
                                                forth in  this Act

                                          (3) The Authority may on its own initiative give advice
                                                to existing agencies when it considers environ
                                                mental protection action necessary.

                                         (4) The Authority shall advise on the establishment
                                                of laws, standards and regulations for the protec-
                                                tion of the environment where necessary.

                                         (5) To assist it in its role as the coordinating Agency,
                                                the Authority may require m writing or otherwise
                                                any information that it  may consider necessary
                                                and relevant

                                          (6) Any action taken by an implementingagency with
                                                respect to the environment shall bereported in
                                                writing to the Authority

Power to ensure ^compliance «,ih              18  The  Natlonal  Environmental  Authority shall, through
Env^nmcntal Provens
                                               natural or juridical, taking any action likely to
                                               impact adversely on the environment comply with
                                               the provisions of the Acts  listed in the First
                                               Schedule relating to the protection  of natural
                                               resources  and environmental management.

Compliance with condmonsof                19. ( 1 ) Any person natural or juridical, seeking the required
Agencies with responsibility                             Government approval for any action likely to
for the Environment                                  impact adversely on the environment and its
                                               resources, shall comply with the conditions
                                               attached to the granting of such approval by those
                                               agencies listed in the Second Schedule charged
                                               with the responsibility for managing the environ
                                               ment and protecting the  natural resources of
                                               Trinidad and Tobago

                                       (2) Failure to comply with those reclamation and rehabili
                                               tation and environmental impact assessment shall
                                               be   considered a contravention of this Act and
                                               any person, natural or juridical, so contravening
                                               this Act shall be subject to the appropriate
                                               action taken against him under this Act

                                   20. ( 1 ) In addition to and not in  derogation of any of  the
                                               powers contained in any other provisions of this
                                               Act, the Minister, in conjunction with the other
                                               relevant agencies may make regulations  for or
                                               with respect to —

                                                   (a) the submission  of  environmental
                                                      impacts statements and the required
                                                      fee for the assessment of such

                                                (b) the granting of licenses and permits,
                                                   including waste discharge licenses or
                                                   permits, and any fees required,

                                                 (c) prescribing standards or criteria for
                                                  the implementation of any declared
                                                   environmental policy or classification for the
                                                   protection of the environment and for pro
                                                   tecting beneficial use;

                                       (2) Any such regulation may be general or  may be re
                                            stncted in operation as to time  Place, persons or
                                            circumstances whether any  such time, place, person
                                            or circumstance is determined or ascertainable
                                            before  at or after the making  of the regulations

                                              PART IV

                                          APPEAL AND APPEAL TRIBUNAL

                                   21. (1) Any person who is aggrieved by therequirements or
                                     decisions of the Authority under this Act may within such
Appeal                                 time and in such manner as may be  prescribed, appeal to the
                                     Environmental Appeal Tribunal.

                                        (2) The Environmental Appeal Tribunal may after hearing
                                            the Officer and the appellants  make such order as it
                                            deems fit

                                   22.  (1) For the purposes of this Act the Minister  shall be
                                            appoint an Environmental Appeal Tribunal
Environmental Appeal                              consisting of three members  one of whom shall be
  bun                                        from the legal profession and the other two shall
                                            be professional persons of considerable  experience
                                            in the area of environmental protection
                                            They shall  be appointed by a notification in the
                                            Gazette by the Minister for a period not exceeding
                                            three years, and any persons so appointed shall be
                                            eligible for reappomtment.

                                     (2) The Minister shall appoint a Chairman of the Environ-
                                 mental AppealTnbunal from those appointed.

                                     (3) The Minister may revoke the appointment of the Chair mat
                                             or the appointment of the other members without
                                             assigning anyreason therefor

                                      (4) A  member of the Environmental Appeal Tribunal having
                                            an interest in any matter before the Tribunal shall
                                            disclose to the Environmental  Appeal Tribunal the
                                            fact of his interest and the nature thereof, and such
                                            disclosure shall be  recorded and such member shall
                                            take no part in any proceedings of the Environmental
                                            Appeal Tribunal relating to  such matter

                                     (5) Every decision of the Environmental Appeal Tribunal
                                          shall be made by the Chairman of the Environmental
                                          AppealTnbunal after considering the opinion of the
                                         other two members but in making his decision the Chair
                                          man shall not be bound to conform to the opinion of the

       other two members or either of them provided that the
       Chair manshall record his reasons for dissenting there

  (6) In addition to all the powers granted to the Environmental
       Appeal Tribunal under this Act the Environmental
       Appeal Tribunal shall also have power to award costs or
       make any order in respect of an appeal before it

  (7) The rules of procedure for the  hearing of appeal under
       this Act shall follow insofar as applicable, the Subordi-
       nate Courts Rules and the Chairman shall keep a record
       of such hearing.

  (8) A member shall be entitled to  such remuneration or allow
       ances as may be determined
       by the Minister
                    FIRST SCHEDULE
Section 18     List of Acts Containing Provisions for Managing
          the Environment and Protecting the Natural Resources

         Constitution of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
                                               Chap 1 01
         Port of Spain Corporation Act       (Ch 39 NO  1)
                                               Chap 25:**
         San Fernando Corporation Act      (Ch 39 No. 7)
                                               Chap 25.**
         Anma Corporation Act            (Ch. 39 No.ll)
                                               Chap 25 **
         Point Fortm Corporation Act             No 1211980
         Dry River Act                           Chap 26:50
         Public Health Act          (Ch  12 No 4) Chap 28**
         Housing Act                            Chap 33 01
         Slum Clearance and Housing Act          Chap 33 02
         Town and Country Planning Act           Chap 35:01
         Chaguaramas Development Authority Act  Chap 35 02
         Advertisements Regulations Act          Chap 35 53
         Marine Areas (Preservation and Enhancement) Act
                                               Chap 37:02
         Botanic Gardens Act                     Chap 41:03
        Water and Sewerage Act                  Chap 54:40
         Waterworks and Water Conservation Act   Chap 54-41
         Petroleum Act                          Chap 62.01
         Agricultural Fires Act                  Chap 63 02
         Forest Act                             Chap 66-01
         Sawmills Act                           Chap 66 02
         Conservation of Wildlife Act             Chap 67.01
         Fisheries Act                           Chap 67:51
         Dogs Act                               Chap 67.54
         Mongoose Act                           Chap 67 55
         Tourist Board Act                       Chap 87-53
         Zoological Society of Trinidad and Tobago Act
                                               No 12/1952
         Litter Act                              Chap 30.52
         Summary Offences Act                   Chap 11 02
         Motor Vehicle and Road Traffic Act       Chap 48 50
         Civil Aviation Act (Air Navigation Ord, Ch 19)
                                               Chap 49.**
         Continental Shelf Act                    Chap 1 52

         Oil Pollution of Territorial Waters Act            Chap 37 03
         Territorial Sea Act                              Chap 1 52
         Mines, Borings and Quarries Act                  Chap 61 '01

                    SECOND SCHEDULE

Section 19         List of Agencies Which Set Conditions
                With Respect to the Environment

         Town and Country Planning Division
         Water and Sewerage Authority
         Ministry of Food Production, Marine Exploitation, Forestry
          and the Environment
         Ministry of Health
         Ministry of Energy, Labour, Employment and Manpower
          Port-of-Spain City Council
          San Fernando City Council
          An ma Borough Council
          Point Fortin Borough Council
          Licensing Authority, Ministry of Settlement and Public
           Utilities Trinidad and Tobago Police Force
          Ministry of Settlement and Public Utilities
          Transport Division, Ministry of Public Utilities
          The National Housing Authority
          Forestry Division, Ministry of Food Production, Marine
           Exploitation, Forestry and the Environment
          Fisheries Division, Ministry of Food Production, Marine
           Exploitation, Forestry and the Environment
         Trinidad and Tobago Tourism Development Authority
         Tobago House of Assembly
          Extension Services Division, Ministry of Food Production,
           Marine Exploitation Forestry and the Environment
          The Agricultural Engineering Division, Ministry of Food
           Production, Marine Exploitation, Forestry and the
          Lands and Surveys Division
          Veterinary Services Division, Ministry of Food Production,
           Marine Exploitation, Forestry and the Environment
          Agricultural Services Division, Ministry of Food Production,
           Marine Exploitation, Forestry and the Environment
         Bureau of Standards
          Ministry of Industry, Enterprise and Tourism
          The Harbour Master's Division
          The Port Authority
          The Airport's Authority
          The Environmental Health Division
          Insect  Vector Control Division
          Public Health Engineering Division
          Occupational Health Division
          Chemistry, Food and Drug Division
          Ministry of Finance and the Economy
          Ministry of Planning and Mobilization
          Drainage Division
          Ministry of National Security and Citizenship
          Ministry of Sports, Culture and Creative Arts
          Office of the Prime  Minister
17th January, 1989