A                                           ITAS8-079 (2-9)
    IS?  EPA/ITAS
    ^^                                            March 5, 1990
                  FY90 Telecommunications Planning

                    Network Vision Revised Report
                               Draft
                             Prepared for

                United States Environmental Protection Agency
                     National Data Processing Division
                Information Technology Architectural Support
                        Contract No. 68-W8-0083
                       Prepared by the Viar Team
              Technology Planning and Management Corporation
                          Headquarters Park
                         Beta Building/Suite 220
                           2222 Highway 54
                          Durham, NC 27713
/                                                  Viar
 tplTIC                                       & company

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                      1.0   INTRODUCTION
     The Environmental  Protection  Agency  is  chartered by
Congress to protect the environment and human health.  It
performs this mission,  in part, by collecting and processing
expansive amounts of environmental data.  The National Data
Processing Division  (NDPD) supports the Agency's mission by
providing robust and reliable data communications services to
the EPA and its environmental partners.

     Environmental program data collection and information
distribution requirements are constantly  growing.  New
applications, image processing for example,  have been
introduced to improve the flow and enhance the value of
Agency data.  As requirements grow, network  planners are
challenged to optimize  and improve network services.

     A strategic telecommunication vision is a valuable
planning tool.  This 1995 telecommunications vision report
describes the applications and communication services that
support the Agency mission.  It also describes the
implementation plan that will create the  network designed to
deliver those services.

     1.1   Background

     The deployment of  new technologies has  created a
revolution in the telecommunications,  data processing,  and
Management Information  Systems (MIS)  industries.   Low cost
memory and micro-processors have changed  the characteristics
and economics of computing.  Likewise, digital and fiber
transmission technology, and Local Area Networks (LANs)  have
changed the characteristics and economics of communications.

     The personal computer  (PC), for example, has drastically
changed the office-place.  Utilizing micro-processors and LAN
technology,  PCs have altered the way in which workers prepare
documents,  perform calculations,  and correspond with co-
workers.   New and emerging PC software will  change the way we
interact with data and other workers.

     Further change will occur as  information workers become
familiar with existing and emerging technologies.  Industry
trends indicate that PCs and workstations will become
standardized, more powerful,  less expensive,  and more
importantly, easier to operate.  In addition, PCs will
communicate with a variety of host processor, LAN file
servers,  and other PCs.  The PC will become the desk-top
device of choice for many Agency users.

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     Technology enhancements are also affecting the
telecommunications industry.  High speed dedicated digital
services  (1.544 Mbps) and switched digital services (56 and
64 Kbps) are common throughout the continental U.S. -  both
commercially and via FTS2000.  As fiber technology improves,
the cost for these high bandwidth services will decrease
rapidly, thus making high speed services available and
affordable throughout the Agency.

     New data and service requirements create a demand for
additional bandwidth.  Video, document distribution,  file
transfer, scientific visualization, CIS,  and other
applications can generate sizeable data streams.  The future
EPA network will require high speed digital services to
satisfy the bandwidth demands.

     Thus, NDPD anticipates an ever increasing demand for
telecommunications services in 1995 and beyond.  Satisfying
the potential demand in an effective non-disruptive manner is
the key to successful planning.  The EPA's Telecommunications
Vision for 1995 begins a process that anticipates future
requirements, identifies technical solutions,  and develops a
network evolution plan.  This vision will be revised annually
to update the five year perspective.
     1.2   Purpose

     A strategic vision is a valuable planning tool.  It
helps managers formulate goals, establish directions,  and
allocate both human and financial resources.  For NDPD's
clients, it identifies the network services under
consideration and the time-frames when they may become
available.

     The purpose of this report is to identify the available
suite of data communications services in 1995 to satisfy
mission-based and administrative requirements.  Also
identified are the technological and financial factors that
will influence the types of services and their availability.
Having identified these items, the report then recommends an
orderly implementation schedule to create the network  that
satisfies the "VISION for Telecommunications".

     Once approved, the vision objectives and the
implementation schedule will become a guide for long-range
data communications planning.  An ongoing annual review will
assure that the plan is updated each year to accommodate new
EPA requirements and technology enhancements.

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     2 . 0   EVOLUTION  OF  TELECOMMUNICATIONS  SERVICES
     2.1   Historical  Perspective

     The EPA  network  has  undergone  significant  changes  since
its initial deployment.   Limited at first to punch card input
and print line output, today's network transmits text, data,
binary  files, and graphics  information.

     Remote Job  Entry (RJE)  workstations, the first EPA
communications device, transmitted punch card data to the
host which, in turn,  processed the data and returned printed
reports.  The RJE "computer  room" was the information
collection and distribution  point for the remote sites.

     The first evolution  began with the introduction of the
on-line, ASCII video  display terminal  (VDT).  Using 300 bps
dial modems, the VDTs communicated with the host through
public  data networks.  The VDTs allowed individuals to enter
and retrieve host data on-line.  Although limited to line-by-
line input and output, the ASCII devices were,  nonetheless,
the first step in connecting the information worker's desktop
with the host processor.

     The next step  in the evolution occurred when the network
was modernized to improve IBM host access.  Full screen 3270
(or equivalent)  display terminals became the Agency standard
communications device.  Dedicated data circuits connected the
remote  3270 display devices  to the NCC host.  Full screen
formatting and faster data transmission speeds  increased the
quality and quantity  of the  information delivered to the
users.

     This modernization program was completed with the
implementation of a private  X.25 network.  ASCII VDTs used
this X.25 network to  communicate with IBM and non-IBM hosts
(DEC and PRIME).  The DEC, Prime, and LIMs machines
communicated via the  X.25 network as well.

     Throughout the network's evolution, the primary network
service objective has always been host(IBM, DEC, Prime,  etc.)
connectivity.  Other  network services, EMAIL (an external
system), Bulk Data Transfer(BDT), micro-to-mainframe file
transfer for example, were added to the existing networks to
provide additional user capabilities.

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     2.2   Future  Network  Services

     In 1995 the network will support a combination of
traditional and new services.  Many of the existing host
connection services for ASCII VDTs, RJEs,  and 3270 devices
communication will still be present.  Likewise,   host-to-host:
services,   (i.e., DEC-to-DEC), EMAIL, BDT,  and micro-mainframe
services will be available, although, perhaps in a  somewhat
different format.

     New network services,   including those exclusive to host
processors, are integrated  into the EPA networks.   Slowly but
steadily,  the emphasis of these services will shift from  host
connectivity to information delivery.  Network services as a
result will expand dramatically to include the following:

     Document  Distribution -  Distribution of  editable  word
             processing documents among registered EPA users.

     File  Transfer -  Two-way,  simple  file transfer  between
             PCs,  LAN  servers,  DEC and IBM systems,  and other
             processing platforms.

     National  Extended  LAN  - PC  and workstation
             connection (where  authorized)  to any  Agency  LAN
             and their attached servers and hosts.

     Electronic Mail  and  Messaging - Agency-wide
             distribution of electronic mail  to  LAN and host
             attached  PCs and terminal devices.

     Directory  Services -  User,  data,  and applications
             locator services.

     Video  Conferencing -  Two  way interactive  and one-way
             multi-site broadcast video teleconferencing  at
             all EPA major  sites.

     Image  Distribution -  On-line  viewing and  distribution
             of remotely scanned and stored documents.

     Off-Site  LAN  Access   - Dial-Up (Digital and Non-
             Digital)  access to LAN applications  (EMAIL,
             Calendaring,  etc.).

     Application  Peer  Communications  -   Program-to-program
             data exchange.

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Other Services that will be available on a limited basis,
include the following:
     Co-Operative Processing -  PC/LAN  Server(s)/Host(s)
          distributed application processing.

     Electronic  Conferencing -  Simultaneous multi-
          workstation screen  image viewing and content
          manipulation.

     VSAT Services - Remote  site  (hazardous  waste  site,
          disaster site) communications via portable, compact
          satellite  dishes.   Voice, data, and potentially
          video services will be  supported.

     Electronic  Distribution  Services  - Electronic
          distribution of software, files, charts, graphs, or
          print images to one or  multiple recipients (user or
          systems).

     Inter-Agency Connection  Services  -  FTS2000  packet
          and  circuit connections for EMAIL and document
          exchange services among Federal Agencies.

     State  LAN Connections  - LAN-to-LAN communications  for
          States  and Local Governments.
The combination of existing and new services will produce
many tangible benefits for the EPA including:

     - Work-at-home support programs
     - Network-wide data access and data exchange
     - Worker-to-worker data and document exchange
     - Workgroup problem solving and consensus building
     - Visual presentations of complex analytical results
     - High network availability
     - Responsive transaction and file processing.


     For many EPA users, host access services are still the
only network requirement in 1995.  Others,  however,  are using
a suite of network services - peer communications,
cooperative processing, document distribution,  etc.,  to
perform their assigned tasks.  In either case,  the network
provides consistent simple user interface.

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                 3 . 0   INFLUENTIAL  FACTORS
     The EPA networks in 1995 are influenced by many factors
including application requirements,  workstation capabilities,
communications technology,  regulatory issues, and budget
constraints.  This network vision considers EPA data
transmission requirements,  technology trends, Federal
Information Procurement Standards (FIPS) for the Government
OSI Profile (GOSIP),  emerging standards, FTS2000,  and cost
factors.  This section of the report identifies the network
applications that have the greatest impact upon the EPA
network architecture.  It also identifies the likely
combination of carrier services, hardware, and software than
will be needed to satisfy the requirements of future
applications.
     3 . 1  Application  Factors

     At present, the EPA network is designed to support
communications for a large base of 3270  (full screen)
terminal devices.   These terminal devices typically submit
transaction requests  (@ 100-200 characters per transaction)
to a host processor which responds with one or more output
screen (s)  (@ 200 - 2000 characters per screen).  The 3270 is
a keyed input device, and therefore can submit transactions
only as fast as the operator can input the data.
Consequently, the 3270's data generation capabilities  are
finite and predictive.

     Intelligent workstations have created a new class of
network devices.  PCs and scientific workstations are
equipped with communications hardware and software that can
transmit and receive documents and files far larger and
faster than the 3270 devices.  In addition,  PCs and
intelligent workstations can exchange data with hosts,  file
servers,  and other workstations.   A network designed for PCs
and workstations,  consequently has inherently different
characteristics than those designed for 3270 devices.

     In 1995 the EPA network supports many familiar and
several new applications.  Those having the greatest network
impact include the following:

   Document Distribution - Local  and wide-area distribution
           of editable word processing documents.

   Electronic Forms  Generation  - On-line  forms  preparation
           and electronic routing.

   Distributed EMAIL  -  Agency-wide distribution  of LAN
           originated and host originated electronic messages.

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   Image Processing  -  LAN  and wide-area distribution of
          scanned document images.

   Scientific Visualization -  Local  and remote access to
          high resolution graphics from hosts,  scientific
          workstations, and supercomputers.

   Geographical  Information  Systems  -  Local  and  remote
          communications with regional and national
          processors that graphically depicts geological,
          demographic, and environmental data.

   Video Teleconferencing - Near  full motion,  two-way
          interactive and multi-site broadcast  video services
          for major EPA locations.

   Distributed Printing  -  Host printer  output  distribution
          to high quality laser printers located at regional
          offices and other EPA facilities.
The impact of these applications on the  communications
network is twofold.  First,  network capacities  are  upgraded
to accommodate bandwidth consuming services  such  as image and
video.  Second,  connectivity options are expanded to support
LAN to LAN and workstation to workstation communications.

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     3 . 2  Technology   Factors

     Many  factors, including technology,   influence the
architecture and design of the Agency's 1995 network.  In
this section we identify those technologies - transmission
services  (switched and dedicated), hardware, and software -
that are most likely to influence the Agency's future network
directions.
                        TRANSMISSION
     3.2.1   Dedicated  Circuits

     FTS2000 provides the EPA networks high speed digital
data services to all its major locations.  In 1995,  Tl (1.544
Mbps) and T3 (45 Mbps) service prices are approximately 1.5
times the 1990 cost for 56 Kbps and Tl services respectively.
The Headquarters, RTF, and Cincinnati facilities are
connected by T3 circuits.  Regional offices and the larger
Office of Research and Development laboratory sites are
connected to the NCC with one or more Tl circuits (see FIGURE
1).  State and contractor sites use 56 Kbps or fractional Tl
data services as needed.
     3.2.2   FTS2QQO  Switched  Services   fISDNl

     FTS2000 supplies  Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN)  to nearly all government locations by 1995.  Switched
64 Kbps service prices average about $6.00 per hour, making
them an affordable alternative to private dedicated lines.
ISDN services are used to supplement the bandwidth of the
leased line network during peak activity.  In the event of a
leased line outage, multiple ISDN connections are used to re-
establish communications to Regional office and laboratory
sites.   FTS2000 ISDN services are also used by the EPA for
infrequent or short duration inter-agency communications.

     3.2.3   Commercial  Switched   Services

     Commercial ISDN services are generally, but not
universally available throughout the continental U.S. in
1995.  Where available, ISDN services are used by the home-
workforce, contractors, smaller lab sites,  state and local
agencies etc.,  for infrequent or short duration
communications.  Like FTS2000 prices, commercial ISDN prices
average about $6.00 per hour.

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                      BACK  BONE TOPOLOGY
1
HUB SITES




REGIONAL OFFICES



LAB
                                 FIGURE 1

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     Some  foreign countries are able to use  international
ISDN services to communicate with the EPA.  Availability of
these services in 1995, however, varies greatly among
countries .

     Analog dial services are still used  in  1995, however,
9600 bps is the standard transmission speed.  Slower data
speeds, 1200 and 2400 bps, are only accommodated on a limited
basis.
     3.2.4   FTS2000  Packet  Services

     FTS2000 packet  services connect the public, municipal
and state governments, contractors, and others with EPA
computer systems.  The packet services are used to enter
data, execute host transactions, exchange files, documents,
and EMAIL.  Other Federal Agencies that communicate
infrequently with the EPA, are also connected via the packet
network.

     3.2.5   VSAT

     Very Small Aperture Terminal  (VSAT) services employ
compact dishes and operate at data transmission speeds up to
1.544 Mbps  (Tl) in 1995.  One-time and recurring VSAT costs
are greatly reduced due to competition from fiber networks.
Remote locations - hazardous waste sites, and environmental
disaster sites - are linked via VSAT services where FTS2000
is not available.  Critical EPA network links are backed up
by VSAT in the event of FTS2000 service disruption.
     3.2.6   Metropolitan  Area  Networks

     Local telephone operating companies, as a means of
expanding into the value added services marketplace,  are
providing high capacity fiber connections in major cities.
Although availability is somewhat limited in 1995, the IEEE
802.6 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) standards-based
networks are viable alternatives to dedicated point-to-point
circuits in major cities.  EPA locations with campus
environments, RTP and Boston for example, use MANs for
interconnecting EPA LANs in different buildings.   State
offices and contractors located in cities with a significant
EPA presence also use MANs for connection to the EPA network

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                    LOCAL  AREA NETWORKS
     3.2.7   Transmission   Plant

     IEEE 802.3  (CSMA/CD) and  IEEE 802.5  (token ring) local
area networks are dominant, both today and in 1995.  CSMA/CD
LANs are preferred for laboratory sites while 4 or 16 Mbit
token rings are preferred for  office LANs.  Both CSMA/CD and
token ring LANs use twisted pair wiring for PC and
workstation attachment.

     Fiber backbone LANs are implemented  at nearly all
locations to interconnect departments and other LANs.
Special purpose workstations,  in some instances, connect
directly to the fiber backbone.  Backbone bridges, high
performance LAN servers, and special purpose workstations are
connected to the fiber via the 100 Mbps, Fiber Distributed
Data Interface  (FDDI)  LAN.
                          EQUIPMENT
     3.3  1 Front  End  Processors

     Front End Processors  (FEP) are still an important
network component, however, their role has diminished as
extended LANs provide communication alternative.  In 1995 the
performance and throughput of FEPs is upgraded to accommodate
multiple Tl connections, FDDI, and high speed channel
interfaces, though all do not operate concurrently.

     The FEPs are used for state SNA Network Interconnect
(SNI),  remote 3270 devices, RJE workstations, and token ring
connections.  Primarily used as an SNA concentration device,
the FEPs are a mainstay for traditional IBM host
communications.
     3.3.2   X. 25   Switches

     As a requirement for GOSIP, X.25 is an important network
architecture for the EPA in 1995.  X.25 switches operate at
all major EPA facilities and laboratory sites.  They provide
a variety of wide-area communications services for LANs, VAX
processors,  and host systems.  Where extended LANs or ISDN
connections are not practical, the X.25 network provides
connection alternatives.  A few state and other government
Agencies are connected to the EPA X.25 network for host
access, EMAIL, LAN access and other services.

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     3.3.3   Intelligent  Nodal   Processors
     Intelligent Nodal Processors(INP) manage the wide-area
connections and the bandwidth of the backbone network.  INPs
are installed at each of the EPA's major sites where Tl
and/or T3 circuits are installed.  A multipurpose device,  the
INPs combine the functions performed by LAN bridges, routers,
and Tl multiplexors that were independent devices in 1990.

     Communications intensive applications, video and
scientific visualization for example, require the EPA to
implement a high-bandwidth network (Tl and T3).  The INPs
perform the critical task of bandwidth management for host
connections, LAN connections, video,  and other services.
Aided by simple, expert systems, the INPs dynamically
allocate bandwidth to match service demands.  When bandwidth
demand exceed capacity, the INPs automatically acquire ISDN
services to increase the aggregate bandwidth  (see FIGURE 2).
Peak period and unusual traffic loads are thus accommodated
without upgrading or adding dedicated circuits.
     3.3.4   LAN  Bridges and  Routers

     LAN bridges and routers, an inexpensive means for inter-
connecting two or more LANs, are widely implemented in the
future network.  LAN bridges, efficient but limited as
network controller, are used to link multiple departmental
LANs within a building or campus.   Interconnected LANs create
the functional equivalence of a single, campus-wide LAN,  or
an "Extended-LAN".  The Extended-LAN gives all authorized
users access to all applications,  files,  and peripherals
within the domain of the campus LAN.

     Routers, inherently more intelligent devices than
bridges, interconnect the campus LANs at major EPA facilities
in 1995 to create a National Extended LAN.  Routers control
the wide-area data flow, and provide security,  network
management and other features essential to operate a national
network.  (FIGURE 3 demonstrates the relationship between
bridges and routers.)  Routers use the OSI standard routing
protocols commercially introduced in 1993.  This stable and
internationally accepted LAN routing protocol makes it
possible to extend EPA LAN connections to include states and
other non-EPA sites.

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                        DYNAMIC BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION
TIME1
           ASSIGNED
             PIPE
TIME 2
ASSIGNED
  PIPE
     DYNAMICALLY
     ALLOCATED
       PIPE
                                                                           VIDEO
                                                                          384 Kbpa
                                                                                      ISDN
               LEGEND:
                     SNA
                             X.25
EXTENDED LAN  Lv.vJ VIDEO
UNUSED
                                           FIGURE 2

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NETWORKED LANS
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                                      POTENTIAL LAN TYPES:
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       FIGURES

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     The national Extended-LAN also allows regional and
headquarter officials to exchange documents and files as
easily over the Extended-LAN as they could over the local
area network.  Remote data sharing, cooperative processing,
document distribution, E-mail, and other network applications
rely on the Extended-LAN to establish connections for
transparent information distribution.
     3.3.5   LAN   Communications   Servers

     LAN users are required to access systems that are not
connected to the Extended-LAN.  SNA, X.25, and ISDN
communications servers provide wide area communication for
the LAN users and applications.
          3.3.6   LAN  Gateways

     Token Ring and CSMA/CD LAN gateways are installed at
sites where both are operational.  The gateway provides
transparent access to compatible software applications,
files,  and peripherals on both LANs.
                           SOFTWARE

     3.4.1   Wide-Area  Network  Protocols

     SNA and X.25 network  protocols are still the dominate,
EPA network protocols.  Inexpensive bandwidth in 1995,
however, has reduced some  of the cost constraints which have
heretofore precluded the Agency from implementing other wide-
area network protocols.  The backbone network (comprised of
Tl and T3 circuits), simultaneously,  albeit independently,
accommodates SNA, OSI LAN  routing, and TCP/IP protocols.

     3.4.2   FTAM

     The OSI standard and  GOSIP mandated application for File
Transfer, and Access Management (FTAM)  is widely implemented
in 1995.  The vendor independent,  operating system
independent file transfer  application gives the Agency a
consistent file transfer mechanism that spans all processing
platforms including DEC, and IBM host,  supercomputers,  and
LAN servers.  PCs, for example, can use a LAN based FTAM
program to up-load files to a DEC or IBM host or a
supercomputer.  Similarly, the NCC IBM hosts can use an FTAM
application program to down-load files to a LAN server, DEC
system or another IBM host.  FTAM applications are resident

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on all Agency processor types  (DEC,  IBM, supercomputer,
etc.), scientific workstation, and LAN  servers.  FTAM
provides numerous features, such as  security, accounting,
remote file management, record and field level access in
addition to simple file transfer.

      3.4.3   X. 400

      X.400 applications, an OSI standard for message exchange
mandated by FIPS, provide transparent electronic mail
distribution services among the Agency's LANs and host-based
EMAIL systems.  External EMAIL services, FTS2000 mail for
example, have an X.400 gateway service  to communicate with
Agency EMAIL systems.  Enhanced X.400 standards are expanded
to support document, binary file, and graphics distribution
services in 1995.

      3.4.4   Virtual  Terminal

      Data presentation and screen mapping services for
character mode  (line and full screen) terminals are
standardized by the OSI Virtual Terminal application.  In
1995, VT applications reside on the Agency's major processing
platforms (IBM, DEC, etc.)  and many LAN communications server
platforms.  VT allows a 3270, for example,  to execute
applications (written to support the VT interface)  on the DEC
and Unix systems.
     3.4.5   Directory  Services

     X.500, the OSI standard for  directory services and
another GOSIP mandated application, has a prominent role in
the Agency's future networks.  Directories contain
information concerning user, data, and application system
characteristics.  They also contain the corresponding network
addresses where users, data, and  applications reside.

     Directory services provide transparent user, data, and
application access in a decentralized network.  Distribution
services, EMAIL, and document delivery services for example,
depend upon directory services to determine the network
address for message,  file,  and data delivery.
     3.4.6   Office  Document  Architecture

     The GOSIP standard for Office Document Architecture
(ODA) provides the Agency with a standard document exchange
format.  Simple documents (text and minimal graphics)  are
exchanged independent of the word processing package used to
create the document.  Internally,  ODA has limited use since
WordPerfect is an Agency adapted standard.  Externally,  ODA

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allows EPA to exchange revisable documents with states, other
Federal Agencies, and parties that have adopted other ODA
compliant, word processing packages.
     3.4.7   Computer'  Graphics  Metafile

     The GOSIP Computer Graphics Metafile  (CGM) standard
defines an independent format for graphics exchange.  In
1995, graphics produced with CGM conforming applications can
be viewed by other CGM conforming applications.  A PC
graphics application, for example, can view the output from a
supercomputer graphics model providing they both use CGM.  In
the future, CGM allows graphics output to be distributed
electronically to litigation support staff, legislative
representatives, and states as needed to clarify or identify
complex environment issues.
     3.4.8   Electronic  Data  Interchange

     The Electronic Data Interchange  (EDI) standard defines a
common electronic interchange format for sending and
receiving common business forms.  It is widely used for
purchasing related activities (purchase orders, shipping
notices, delivery confirmations, and invoices).  By 1995,  the
Agency has adapted EDI to support its financial activities
and superfund programs.

     New electronic data capture methods are constantly under
review to reduce the paper handling labor burden and improve
data quality.  If an EDI standard format for reporting
environmental data can be developed by 1995,  it will greatly
expand the Agency's interaction with industry and commercial
interest.

     3.4.9   LU  6.2  and  Cooperative  Processing

     LU 6.2 and Remote Procedure Call protocols allow the EPA
to design application programs that execute on a variety of
processors (PC, Vax,  or IBM host).   The industry defacto
protocols take advantage of the processing power of the end
systems (PCs or host)  to create applications that have unique
data exchange and file handling characteristics.  Application
tasks are divided and executed on optimized processing
platforms connected via the network (local and wide-area).

     In 1995 some EPA applications will use cooperative
processing techniques which, in turn,  generate transaction
and data requests faster than human driven applications.
Consequently, cooperative processing applications generate a
significant wide area and local area workload for the
network.

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     3.4.10   Client/Server  SOL  Models

     Future implementations of Client/Server SQL models, tie
together  (at the application level) the data from LAN and
host database systems.  End system applications (the client
residing on a PC or host) issue SQL queries that are
forwarded from local to regional to mainframe databases
(servers) as needed to satisfy the query request.   The entire
transaction is transparent to the end user and application
program.

     Client/server SQL models are another form of cooperative
processing that generate transactions faster than existing
terminal based application systems.  Consequently,
client/server SQL models also generate a significant workload
for both the local and wide area network.

     3.4.11   SAA

     The System Applications Architecture (SAA) defines a set
of guidelines for application development in the IBM
processing environment.  The architecture specifies common
program interfaces, file handling techniques,  screen
management techniques, and communications interfaces.
Applications adopting the SAA guidelines that are portable to
various IBM processing platforms,  including mainframes,
minis,  and OS/2 personal computers.

     The impact of SAA is unknown at this time, however, the
SAA concept for developing applications has potential network
implications.   First,  consistent use of standard
communications and database interfaces promotes data exchange
across the network.  Second, consistent interfaces  streamline
the development effort, allowing developers to generate
cooperative processing applications quickly.

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                     4.0   NETWORK  MANAGEMENT
     The burden of network  management has increased with the
implementation of intelligent PCs and workstations, LANs,
peer communications, cooperative processing, and distributed
databases.  Whereas response time was once a function of the
transmission and processing time for a single circuit,
application, and database,  in 1995 it will be a function of
many components including LANs, networks, cooperative
applications, local and remote databases.  As the number and
variety of network services increase, so coo will the
complexity of network management.

     The management effort  required to operate the EPA data
networks in 1995 is massive.  Even highly skilled operators
and technicians cannot assimilate all of the information
needed to maintain consistent performance in a complex
environment of cooperative applications,  distributed
databases, and local and wide area networks.  Intelligent,
integrated network management systems are critical for
successful network operation.

     Proprietary aspects of each vendor's product and the
large number of managed components preclude a single network
management system from performing comprehensive,  real-time,
all-encompassing network management.  As a result, future
networks are managed by a coalition of proprietary and OSI
management systems.   The proprietary systems perform the
product specific problem identification,  isolation and
resolution.  These systems, however, will report significant
events, line and equipment failures for example,  to an
umbrella management system that monitors the health of the
overall network.

     OSI Network Management  (OSI/NM) standards are nearly
complete in 1995,  but they alone are not sufficient to meet
all of the requirements for EPA.  Network management products
have implemented the OSI/NM protocol standard for NM data
exchange (CMIP/CMIS).  Proprietary systems use CMIP/CMIS to
exchange data concerning significant events.  OSI security,
performance, and fault management standards have been fully
defined in 1995, however,  off-the-shelf products are not
mature nor sufficiently robust to satisfy large network
requirements.

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     Many  skilled  technicians,  supported by  special purpose
network management applications software and hardware, are
needed to  operate and maintain  complex networks.  Despite the
enhancements  in technology, complex networks are still labor
intensive  and expensive to manage.  Network management
vendors IBM,  AT&T, DEC, and EDS for example, are vendors that
leverage their manpower, equipment, and expertise to market
comprehensive network management services.

If we take a  closer look at network management in 1995, the
following  characteristics are found:

     4 . 1   Hardware  /  Software   Fault  Tolerance

     Key network hardware devices  (LAN servers, LAN gateways,
INPs, X.25 switches, etc.) are built to tolerate hardware and
software faults.  They operate  in  locked-door, lights-out
environments.  Redundant processors, data transfer buses,
memory units, and disk storage devices automatically assume
operation  when a hardware or software fault is detected.

     Research Triangle Park, the EPA headquarters, and the
Regional Sites, are equipped with  Uninterrupted Power
Supplies (UPS) for communications  equipment and critical LAN
servers.   The UPS system protects  the local servers and
maintains  remote site communication service during nominal
power disruptions.

     Application and operating  systems software are designed
to tolerate detectable hardware and software faults.   Lights-
out, unattended operation requires successful system and
application software re-starts following service disruptions.
     4.2   Software  Distribution  and  Control

     Communications and operating system software for network
equipment, LAN servers, and national applications are
validated, maintained,  and distributed from a central
location.  Configuration software and executable code are
electronically distributed to all sites.  National
application program changes are coordinated via the central
change control process.

     NDPD installed, operated, and maintained LAN servers
support Agency standard communications software and national
application software at each site.  PC and workstation
software releases and version number validation routines are
used to ensure application consistency throughout the Agency.

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     4.3   D 5. s t zribut ed  Management/Cent rali. zed   Reporting

     Intelligent  communications  software  (X.25, LU  6.2, etc.)
allows the PC and workstation to establish and maintain both
application and network management sessions.  Poor network
performance, application time-outs, high error rates, and
lost connections are reported directly to the network
management system.  Device and application generated problem
reports are required to manage the seamless connection,
distributed processing environment of the future.

     Specialized  systems manage  hardware, software, and
communication facilities.  SNA and token ring LANs are
monitored and controlled by Netview.  Other EPA network
components  (INPs, X.25 switches, modems, and multiplexors
etc,)  use their proprietary management systems for fault
identification and correction.  As significant events occur,
the proprietary systems notify Netview according to pre-
established reporting rules.  Software generated alarms are
forwarded to Netview as well.

     A central management system oversees the operation of
the entire network.  The central system  (e.g, Netview, EMA,
or UNMA)  collects significant event and activity data from
each of the individual management systems (see FIGURE 4).
The data is evaluated, filtered, and correlated based upon
the relationships defined in the configuration database.  The
central management system uses this information to segregate
the symptoms from the problems and suggest a restoration
action when determinable.

     Substantial processing power and disk storage are
required to perform the central management functions.  Expert
systems applications diagnose network problems,  manage
configuration data, and collect and analyze performance data.
     4 . 4   Problem  Management

     The central network management system, Netview, the
modem diagnostic system, and the diagnostic system of the
INPs cooperate in problem determination and problem
management.  Intelligent communications software in each of
these devices detect and report problems,  and attempt to re-
establish connections and improve performance based upon
available resources.

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                                          CENTRAL/ DISTRIBUTED
                                          NETWORK MANAGEMENT
                           Central Management
                                System
                           Netview
Management
Objectives:

Performance
Fault
Configuration
Security
Accounting
                          Monitors*
                          Control
                           Expert
                           Systems
OSI Management
    System
                                      LAN
                                 Operating System
                                              FIGURE 4

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     The central management system continually updates the
network status.  Service disruptions and recurring error
conditions are forwarded to the expert analysis systems.
Historical data of recurring events is analyzed to detect and
avoid repetitious failures.
     4.5   Change   Control/  Configuration  Management

     Problem determination  systems and directory services are
heavily dependent upon an accurate configuration database.
Automated systems generate much of the data, however,
periodic manual updates and verifications are needed to
guarantee complete  accuracy.
     4 . 6   Capacity  Planning

     Performance data collection tools are significant aids
in capacity planning.  Performance and utilization data are
correlated with event data to produce a comprehensive
picture of how and when the network is used and when it is
used.   It also depicts overall network utilization.  The
captured network usage data, along with new application data
requirements, allow network planners to model various
scenarios for adding and re-configuring services.
     4.7
     Intelligent communication processors capture session and
network usage data that is entered directly into network
accounting systems.  Directory services and configuration
databases contain the data needed to correlate the
utilization data to users.
     4.8   Security

     Switched  (dial) network connections are more prevalent
in 1995.  An expanded community of dial-in users, a home
work-force and public access for example, connect to the
Agency backbone with inexpensive switched services.  The
expansion of dial-in services presents additional security
risks.

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     EPA  ISDN  servers  use  the  Automatic Number  Identification
 (AMI) feature  of ISDN  to identify a caller's telephone
number.   Pre-subscribed and valid numbers are granted network
access without an additional network signon.  Calls which do
not have  a verifiable  ANI  are  required to enter a network
logon and password.

     Regular and established users have security profiles
integrated into the directory  services.  The profiles are
compared  to the network user address to determine signon
validity  at session initiation time.  The directory services
forwards  an ecrypted version of the validated id to
circumvent multiple log-in requirements.
Summary

     As the options  for connectivity, data location, and
application location increase, so do the requirements for
network management in 1995.  The complex environment and
endless possibilities for communications among intelligent
devices make manual network management impossible.  Automated
network data management reporting systems,  relational
databases, and expert systems are adopted to cope with the
demands of an Agency-wide network.  The investment expense
and expertise needed to perform comprehensive network
management dictates that network management be conducted by
contractors specializing in network management.

     OSI network management standards are potential solutions
to multi-vendor network management integration, however,
political pressures have and will impede the development and
implementation process.  Furthermore, the standards process
has difficulty keeping pace with new service offerings and
technical advancements.  Consequently,  proprietary, expert
system driven network management systems (i.e., Netview,  EMA,
etc.)  are the vital management tools throughout the near
future.

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           5. 0   MIGRATION  TO THE  VISION NETWORK
     New communication  services will be  added  to the EPA
network as service demands dictate and as affordable
technological solutions become commercially available.  New
hardware and software will be introduced in stages so that
neither users nor implementors are overwhelmed by massive
change.  An orderly migration will be needed to reach the
goals established for the 1995 network.

     A solid infrastructure will be needed to  provide the
services demanded in 1995.  The Agency's local area and wide
area data highways  (LANs and backbone network) will be
upgraded to accommodate the large volume of traffic generated
by applications such as scientific visualization, image, and
video conferencing.  Fiber LAN backbones and powerful LAN
servers will expand the capacity of LANs while Tl and T3
circuits will expand the capacity of the backbone network.
On-demand switched digital services, ISDN for example, will
further supplement the backbone network creating a network
infrastructure that will be flexible and responsive to
service demands.

     Special purpose networks, Extended-LAN, video, and image
processing networks, for example,  will be built on top of the
transmission plant foundation.  New network services,
including file transfer, document transfer, and cooperative
processing, will utilize new and existing networks to deliver
these functions to the EPA network users (see FIGURE 5).

     Service delivery will be guided by user demand and
commercial product availability.  The users may want new
functions,  directory services for example,  before commercial
products are sufficiently mature to warrant implementation.
FIGURES 6,  7, and 8 depict the EPA's service implementation
schedule based upon the anticipated service demands and
mature product availability.  Note the dashed lines depict an
initial deployment and testing phase,  and the solid lines
depict wide spread implementation.

     A network modernization program will occur from 1990
through 1995.  As part of that modernization program,  the
Agency will implement new hardware,  software,  network
management, and transmission services.   FIGURES 9,  10,  and
11, depict the implementation schedules for these respective
components.

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     Implementation  schedules  will be  influenced by a variety
of factors including, standards development, pricing, product
maturity, service demand, and  budgetary constraints.  The
schedules identify four phases of acquisition and
implementation based upon today's understanding of technology
viability and service demands.  They are as follows:

          Study  - white paper  analysis of  technology

          Evaluate - marketplace  survey, alternatives and
                impact  analysis

     -    Procure -  procurement activities and contract(s)
                award

     -    Implement  - phase  1  implementation, testing, and
                functional  validation

          Support and Update - full implementation and
                ongoing  support.
Once the five year implementation schedule has been approved
by EPA management, it will guide future planning and budget
activities in years 1992-1994.

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NETWORK SERVICES IN 1995
        NETWORK MANAGEMENT
            TRANSACTION PROCESSING
              DIRECTORY SERVICES
                VISUALIZATION
               CLIENT/SERVER SQL
            CO-OPERATIVE PROCESSING
                FILE TRANSFER
             DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTION
                   EMAIL
                   EDI
                   IMAGE
           EXTENDED LAN
        WIDE AREA
 T1 - T3     ISDN   VSAT
L

A


N
         N
         E
         T
         W
         o
         R
         K
M
A
N
A
G
E
M
E
N
T
        NETWORK MANAGEMENT
        FIGURES

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                        TELECOM  SERVICES
WIDE AREA  SERVICES
                           1990
1991
1992
                                                          1993
                                                                     1994
   TERMINAL SERVICES




   FTS2000  VIDEO




   NATIONAL X.25 SNA




   ON-LINE  IMAGE




   NATIONAL LAN CONNECTIVITY



   FTS2000  ISDN             VXXXXXXW




   INTER-AGENCY NETWORKING




   DOCUMENT DISTRIBUTION




   EMAIL IN-HOUSE




   EPA  VIDEO




   CLIENT LAN  CONNECTIONS




   DIRECTORY  SERVICES




   VSAT
                                             kXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
LEGEND:
         INITIAL DEPLOYMENT




              SPREAD USE
                                      FIGURE 6

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                        TELECOM   SERVICES
HOST  ACCESS

   TERMINAL  (ASCII,  3270)

   RJE  (SNA)

   WORKSTATION (WAN)

   WORKSTATION (LAN)

   RJE  (BSC)

   WORKSTATION (FTS2000 ISDN)

   WORKSTATION (PUBLIC ISDN)


LAN SERVER ACCESS


  FACILITY  LAN

  CAMPUS  LAN


  NATIONAL LAN

   REMOTE  DIAL (EPA)

  STATE AND CONTRACTOR LAN


   PUBLIC DIAL

   METROPOLITAN LAN

LEGEND:
                            1990
            1991
                                                  1992
                                 1993
                   1994
SSSSSSSSSBSJ^^


VXXXXXXXXXXXXX


vXXXVVVVVVNXNXVVVV
ssaaagssagsssia^^

                    NXXXXXXXXXXX
                              VNXXXXXXXVSSSSSSSSSSS
VVVXXXXXXXXXXV

^xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx'
SSSSS
          VWWVWWWWWW
                             vXXXXXXXXXXXV
                             xxxxxxxxv
                               xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx^C1*
        ^ INITIAL DEPLOYMENT
          WIDE SPREAD USE
            FIGURE 7

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                           TELECOM   SERVICES
HOST COMMUNICATION
       SERVICES

     TRANS PROCESSING


     FILE TRANSFER (FTAM)
     COOPERATIVE PROCESSING
     (LU6.2,  CLIENT/SERVER)

     REMOTE FILE  SERVER
     (SQL  SERVER)

     VIRTUAL TERMINAL
     OSI/GATEWAY
     DIRECTORY SERVICES
     EDI
     LAN SERVER BACKUPS
1990
    LEGEND:

    ^x-vxxwv  INITIAL DEPLOYMENT

    eoaws!SS!aewS!OWS WIDE SPREAD USE
1991
                      1992
                     1993
1994
          wVVVVVVVNXVVVWW
          .XVW.VW.V
                    COvXXXW
                                                       xvww
                                                            xvwwwv
                                                            vVVWWW
                                                            wWVWWV
             FIGURE 8

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MAJOR HARDWARE ACQUISITIONS
Product

Campus
Bridges
WAN
Routers
INPs
LAN
Communication
Servers
FDDI
X.25
Switches

1990
Implement
Study and
Evaluate
Study
Evaluate
Study
Implement

1991
Support and
Update
Procure and
Implement
Evaluate
Procure and
Implement
Evaluate
Support and
Update
Year
1992

Support and
Update
Procure
Support and
Update
Procure


1993
Reevaluate

Implement

Implement
Reevaluate

1994

Reevaluate


Support and
Update

             FIGURES

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MAJOR SOFTWARE AND SERVICE ACQUISITIONS
Product

X.400
FTAM
Directory
Services
EDI
Cooperative
Processing
Software:
LAN & Host
Video
Conferencing
T1 Circuits
T3 Circuits
802.6 MANs
ISDN
Year
1990
Evaluate and
Procure
Evaluate
Study
Study
Study and
Evaluate

Procure and
Implement


Study and
Evaluate
1991
Implement
Procure and
Implement
Evaluate
Evaluate and
Procure
Procure and
Implement
Procure
Support and
Update
Study

Procure
1992
Support and
Update
Support and
Update
Procure
Implement
Support and
Update
Implement

Evaluate
Study
Implement
1993


Implement
Support and
Update

Support and
Update

Implement
Evaluate
Support and
Update
1994


Support and
Update





Procure and
Implement

        FIGURE 10

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MAJOR NETWORK MANAGEMENT ACQUISITIONS
Product
Proprietary
Products
(Netview)
OSI
Based Products
NM Integration
Tools
Expert System
Applications
Year
1990
Implement
Study
Study

1991
Support and
Update
Evaluate
Evaluate
Study
1992

Procure
Procure
Evaluate
1993

Implement
Implement
Procure and
Implement
1994

Support and
Update

Support and
Update
         FIGURE 11

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                     6.0 CONCLUSION
     In the  1980s the EPA modernized its telecommunications
network to replace batch systems with on-line systems and
replace line mode terminals with full screen display
terminals.  The modernization effort produced many tangible
benefits including improved productivity, data collection,
and information retrieval.

     Standardization on the 3270 device and SNA was a key
strategy for the 1980s modernization.  Emphasizing the 3270
allowed the developers to write applications for a single
terminal interface.  SNA simplified the network design,
upgraded terminal access speeds, and improved network
support.  As a result, service and reliability were improved.

     As the decade proceeded, X.25 also emerged as a
strategic communications vehicle for the Agency.  ASCII
terminals were migrated from public data networks onto the
Agency X.25 network to improve service to DEC,  Prime and
EMAIL systems.  DEC and Prime systems also took advantage of
the X.25 network to communicate within their respective
communities.  As with the SNA network,  the X.25 modernization
greatly improved user services and support.

     A new modernization plan will emerge in the 1990s.  The
proliferation of intelligent devices and the availability of
discretionary computing and data storage sources will
generate data transmission requirements that the 1980s
network (designed for ASCII and 3270 devices)  cannot
accommodate.  Image transfer, video,  document interchange,
and other applications will generate the additional data
traffic that necessitates modernization.

     Although reliable data communication services have
always been important, in the 1990s it will become
imperative.  Computing and telecommunications will be
integrated further into the workers basic job functions,
creating a communication dependency that may have no
substitutions.  Electronic imaging and electronic document
distribution, for example, will circumvent the need to
photocopy originals and distribute paper copies.  When
electronic distribution methods displace paper distribution
methods, the network must become extremely reliable.

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     Technological advancements  will  dramatically  increase
the number of telecommunication  services and their potential
transmission capabilities.  At the same time, costs for these
powerful and flexible services will decrease dramatically as
fiber and computer technology continue to improve.  As a
result, while Agency services may increase tenfold from now
until 1995, their corresponding  costs do not increase
proportionally.

     The infusion of special purpose  processing devices, LAN
servers, scientific workstations and  image processors for
example, compound the problem of integrating data located on
diverse computing systems.  A mixed environment of state
computer systems further magnifies the problems which inhibit
data integration.  The requirement to integrate data,
internal and external, necessitates the adoption of standard
application and data communication techniques.  Of these
standards, OSI and IBM's SAA embraced protocols, appear to be
most advantageous to the Agency.

     Standards development and acceptance, however, is a
political process.  As such, it  can be fiercely competitive
and very slow, sometimes taking  four or more years to
complete.  Technological advances, however,  are emerging
daily thereby creating a service availability/standards gap
which forces tough decisions concerning non-standard
implementations.

     By 1995, existing and emerging standards for
telecommunications hardware and transmission services are
well defined and available in off-the-shelf products.   IEEE
802.3,  IEEE 802.5, IEEE 802.6, FDDI,   ISDN, T3, and other
accepted standards make it possible for vendors to offer
expansive transmission bandwidth for local and wide-area
networks.  EPA will use the high bandwidth services to
support image, video, graphics,  and Extended-LAN
requirements.  Standard network protocols, LU 6.2, SNA,  X.25,
GOSIP,  OSI LAN routing, and ISDN, for example, provide the
connections needed to support the various Agency terminal and
processing platforms.

     While transmission service  options abound because
hardware standards are widely accepted,  software standards
do not have similar universal acceptance.  As vendors
increasingly distinguish their products through software
capabilities, they are reluctant to adopt standards that
mitigate their competitive advantage.

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     Slow standards development not withstanding, the EPA
must invest heavily in software to provide the file,
document, and data distribution services the Agency needs in
1995.  Software standards, LU 6.2, SQL Client/Server, X.400,
ODA, CGM, FTAM, and others, are key components of the
modernization plan.  Additional investments in network
management systems and directory services are also required
to make network services reliable and transparent to the end
user.

     Thus the challenge of the 1990s will be the creation of
a consistent software environment that fully exploits the
information processing capabilities afforded by powerful CPUs
and high speed telecommunications.

-------