March 1988
                   Prepared for:

               Regulatory Innovations Staff
            Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation
            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                  401M Street, SW
                Washington, D.C. 20460

This source  guide to  information and  training on environmental
auditing was prepared  by  Policy  Planning  &  Evaluation, Inc.,
Vienna,   Virginia,   under   contract  No.  68-01-7252  for  the
Regulatory Innovations  Staff,  Office  of  Policy,  Planning and
Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

This document was prepared for distribution to attendees at EPA's
March  1988  "  Environmental  Auditing  Conference  for  Federal
Agencies".   Any mention  of organizations, products, or services
described in this document should not be construed  to constitute
endorsement  by   EPA  or  Policy  Planning  &  Evaluation,  Inc.
Further, neither  EPA  nor  PP&E  guarantee  the  quality  of the
products and  services described  in this document, nor that they
will  necessarily  continue  to  be  offered  by  the  respective

All information  on products,  services, costs, etc. presented in
this  document  are  accurate,  to  the  best  of   the  authors'
knowledge,  as  of  March  1988.    Any omission of environmental
auditing organizations, products, or services are inadvertent and
much regretted.

If you  have comments  on this document or wish to identify items
for inclusion in any potential revisions of this document, please
inform  EPA's  Regulatory  Innovations  Staff, PM-223, 401 M St.,
S.W.,  Washington, D.C. 20460.


                        Table of Contents

     General Introduction	1

A.   Training:   Courses	2
          The Environmental Audit	3
          Environmental Audits Course	5
          Mastering Environmental,  Health, and Safety
            Auditing Techniques	7
          Environmental, Health, and Safety Auditing:
            New Direction/New Strategies	9
          Environmental, Health, and Safety Auditing:
            Advanced Skills and Techniques	11
          Environmental Compliance Audits and Due Diligence.... 12
          Environmental Auditing:  Risk Management for
            the Future	14

B.   Training:   Seminars and Presentations	15
          Environmental Auditing Applications	16
          Waste Minimization & Environmental Programs
            Within DOD	17

C.   Training:   University Certificate Programs	18
          Certificate Program in Environmental Auditing	19

D.   Professional Organizations and Associations	21
          Environmental Auditing Roundtable..	22
          Institute for Environmental Auditing	24
          Environmental Auditing Forum	26

E.   "Generic Auditing"	28
          The Institute of Internal Auditors	29
          International Loss Control Institute	31

F.   EPA Sources of Information on Environmental Auditing	33

G.   Periodicals	35
          Environmental Auditor	36

                      GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this document is to provide a reference source for
persons interested in acquiring  training  in  or  information on
environmental  auditing.    The  information in this document has
been categorized into six areas:

     A.   Training:  Environmental auditing courses.

     B.   Training:      Environmental   auditing   seminars  and
          presentations as part of larger conferences.

     C.   Training:      University   certificate   programs   in
          environmental auditing.

     D.   Professional   Environmental   Auditing  Organizations:
          Organizations and associations devoted to environmental

     E.   "Generic"  Auditing:      Sources   of  information  and
          training  on  general  auditing  skills  and techniques
          (usually focused on operations and financial auditing).

     F.   EPA Sources of Information on Environmental Auditing.

     G.   Periodicals:  A publication devoted specifically to the
          field of environmental auditing.

A more  detailed description  about each area is presented at the
beginning of the respective section.

The information for this document was obtained primarily from two
sources:   brochures and  other materials released by the various
organizations  describing   their  products   and  services;  and
interviews with appropriate persons in those organizations.  More
information about organizations,  products,  or  services  may be
obtained by contacting each organization directly.  Addresses are

Often we have borrowed phrases and terminology from the brochures
because we  felt they  best described  the focus  of the services
being offered.  At the same time we have tried to be objective in
describing each program or organization.

Any   comments   on   this   document  can  be  directed  to  the
Environmental  Auditing  Project,  Regulatory  Innovations Staff,
Mail  code  PM-223,  U.S.  Environmental Protection Agency, 401  M
Street, SW, Washington, D.C. 20460.

                     A.  TRAINING:   COURSES

This section  describes various programs, courses, seminars, etc.
offered by different  organizations.    Typically,  each training
program  runs  from  between  one  to  four  days,  has  a  fixed
scheduled, and is open to the public.   In addition,  many of the
organizations  offer  in-house  training  programs  at company or
agency facilities.   Costs  for  hotel  accommodation  or related
expenses are not included in the registration fees.

Each program description in this section contains essentially the
same type of information:

     •    Title of program, course, or seminar

     •    Source (organization)  offering the  training, with the

     •    Profile of the training program

     •    Topics covered

     •    Schedule

     •    Faculty, and

     •    Cost.

Title:    The Environmental Audit

Source:   Federal  Publications, Inc.
          1120 20th St.,  N.W.
          Washington,  D.C.  20036


The  course  is  a  program  of  training in methods of planning,
conducting, and using an environmental audit.  Its  purpose is to
provide assistance  to those involved in the process of designing
and incorporating an audit  system into  the activities  of their
respective  organizations.     The  course  includes  lectures and
question-answer sessions.  Course participants receive  a copy of
the book  All About  Environmental Auditing.  by Ridgway M. Hall,
Jr. and David R. Case, who are members of the course faculty.
Topics Covered

The course is divided into five main areas:

•    "Reasons for an  audit"  discusses  the  role  of  audits as
     management  tools  to  ensure cost-effective compliance;  and
     the use of audits to prevent violations, even during periods
     of growth and expansion of the organization.

•    "Planning  the  audit"  discusses the criteria for selecting
     the members of the  audit  team,  the  scope  of  review and
     subjects   to   cover   (such  as  regulatory  requirements,
     maintenance  procedures,   and   monitoring   systems),  and
     financial considerations.

•    "Regulatory   requirements"    presents   an   overview   of
     environmental controls, such as various federal,  state,  and
     local laws,  permits, and compliance schedules; and outlines
     the implications of  these  controls  on  on-site compliance
     obligations for air emissions, water discharges, etc.

•    "Conducting  the  audit"  describes the process of obtaining
     information through the  use  of  documents, questionnaires,
     interviews,   and   site   visits;   discusses   aspects  of
     confidentiality and how to protect it;  and provides an audit
     checklist,  highlights  points  of  pollution  discharge  to
     inspect; and reviews aspects of maintenance procedures.

•    "Using the audit" presents a systematic process of analyzing
     the  results   (including  organizing  the  information  and
     determining compliance); applying the  results to determine,
     among other  things, how  costs may  be reduced, and ways to
     limit potential liability; and coordinating compliance.

The course is for two days and was last held in San  Francisco on
November 16-17,  1987, and  in Washington, D.C. on October 15-16,
1987.  No information is currently available on future courses.

Core Faculty

Ridgway M.  Hall, Jr.  is a  partner in  the Washington,  D.C. law
firm of Crowell & Moring.

David  R.  Case  is  an  attorney in private practice, and is the
General Counsel  of  the  Hazardous  Waste  Treatment  Council, a
national trade organization.

Additional Faculty

The core  faculty is  supplemented by  speakers with expertise in
hazardous waste management regulation, and in the engineering and
policy analysis  aspects of industrial chemical waste management.

The  registration  fee  is  $675.  Course  registrants  receive a
complimentary  copy  of  the  course text All About Environmental

Environmental Audits
and Yourself
Protecting Your Company
Government Institutes Inc.
966 Hungerford Drive, #24
Rockville, MO 20850

The purpose  of the course is to teach managers and engineers how
to  audit  their  facilities  for  environmental  compliance  and
protect  themselves   from  liabilities.     The  course  includes
lectures  and  question-answer  sessions.     Course  participants
receive  a  copy  of  the  book  Environmental  Audits, edited by
Lawrence B. Cahill and Raymond W. Kane, who  are also  members of
the course faculty.
Topics Covered
     "Current Federal  & State Agency Activities in Environmental
     Auditing" presents auditing from  a regulator's perspective;
     describes EPA's  current policy  on auditing;  and reports on
     State activities in environmental auditing.

     "Legal Issues You Should Address Before and After the Audit"
     discusses  the  potential  civil and criminal liabilities of
     the auditing  company  and  the  auditors;  outlines current
     enforcement strategies  and compliance issues; and addresses
     the problem of formulating  a corporate  policy on reporting

     "Conducting the  Audit—What Questions  You Should Ask; What
     You Should Look For"  reviews specific,  common problems and
     compliance issues  typically found  during audits; uses case
     studies to point out problems.

     "Description and  Comparison  of  Existing  Industrial Audit
     Programs" surveys a variety of industrial programs; outlines
     both  the  differences   and   similarities   in  management
     approaches, policies,  and procedures;  and reviews complete
     software   available   for   recordkeeping   and   reporting

     "Special Purpose Audits" defines the special audit needs and
     techniques for RCRA  insurance;  risk  assessments; property
     sales and transfers; underground storage tanks; and off-site
     hazardous waste disposal vendors.

The course  is for two days and was  last held   in Washington,  D.C.
on March  8-9, 1988.  The  next course  is tentatively  scheduled for
July 27-29,  1988 in Hilton Head,  SC,  and   the  subsequent   one for
October 20-21,  1988 in Washington,  D.C.

Core Faculty
(Lawrence    Cahill   is    vice  president   of   HART   Environmental
Management  Corporation,   an  environmental  management  consulting

"Raymond Kane is also a vice president  at  HART.

(Additional  Faculty

The course  also generally includes presentations by a  lawyer,  an
i£PA  representative,  and one   or  more   corporate  environmental

.The registration  fee for  the  course   is  $795,   which  includes  a
copy of the course  text Environmental  Audits.

Title:    Mastering Environmental,  Health,  and  Safety Auditing

Source:   Arthur D. Little, Inc.
          Center For Environmental Assurance
          15 Acorn Park
          Cambridge, MA 02140


The course is designed to train environmental, health, and safety
(EHS)  auditors  in  state-of-the-art   auditing  techniques  and
methodologies.    This  is an intensive, skills-oriented training
course focusing  on the  practical aspects  of conducting audits.
The course is designed specifically for EHS professionals serving
as audit  team members,  as well  as for  managers and attorneys.
Course   participants   are   provided   with   audit  protocols,
presentation  summaries,  and   monographs   on   specific  audit
techniques.   The course includes lectures and case studies.

Topics Covered

The course has four sections—reviewing the basics;  understanding
internal controls;  gathering audit  evidence;  and  reporting and
critiquing the audit.  Discussions include topics such as:

•    "Overview   of   the   Audit   Process"  presents  the  five
     fundamental audit steps:   understanding management systems,
     assessing  internal   controls,  gathering  audit  evidence,
     evaluating audit findings, and reporting exceptions.

•    "Protocols  and  Questionnaires"  provides  participants the
     opportunity to develop plans for an EHS auditing case study.

•    "Assessing Internal  Controls" allows participants to review
     sample working papers to identify critical control points in
     facility EHS management systems.

•    "Data-Gathering Techniques"  puts participants   in the roles
     of actual audit team  members, and  allows them  to interact
     with key  facility personnel  to obtain information relevant
     to the completion of the case study.

•    "Preparing the Audit Close-Out" is a session for audit teams
     to review  and evaluate  evidence gathered during the audit,
     and to develop a list of  exceptions to  present to facility
     management at the mock close-out meeting.

•    "Difficult  Audit   Situations"  discusses  audit  problems,
     alternatives for resolving conflicts, and reporting critical

The course  is for  four days  and is offered 4-6 times per year.
During 1988, courses are  currently  scheduled  for  April 26-29,
July 12-15, September 13-16, and November 1-4.


The  course  is  conducted  by  members  of  the Arthur D. Little
consulting staff.

The cost  of  the  four-day  course  is  $795,  which  includes a
complete set of course materials.

Environnental,   Health,
Direction/New Strategies
and  Safety  Auditing:
Arthur D.  Little,  Inc.
Center For Environmental Assurance
15 Acorn Park
Cambridge, MA 02140

This seminar  is designed  to provide  environmental, health,  and
safety  (EHS)  professionals  (including  audit program managers,
auditors,  attorneys, and other interested parties) with the tools
to critically  evaluate and update their organization's EHS audit
program  or  plans.     Participants  are   provided  with  audit
protocols,  presentation  summaries,  and  related material.   The
course consists primarily of lectures.

Topics Covered

•    "Context for  New  EHS  Auditing  Directions"  discusses the
     changing focus  of EHS audits, and ways to meet the needs of
     top management through an audit program.

•    "Methods   for   Enhancing   Audit   Program  Effectiveness"
     describes ways  to create  audit program independence within
     the organization; ways to balance key audit program elements
     to  ensure  program  effectiveness;,  and  characteristics of
     leading audit programs.

•    "Strategies for  Increasing the  Quality of  EHS Audit Field
     Work"  focuses  on  mastering basic audit skills; developing
     effective   internal   procedures    and    standards;   and
     understanding  key  principles  and  techniques  for writing
     audit reports.

•    "Emerging Issues in EHS Auditing" introduces  issues such as
     auditing  overseas   locations,  auditor  certification  and
     liability, and special purpose audits.

•    "Future Trends in EHS Auditing" discusses  what auditing may
     be like  in the 1990's, and the changing focus to management
     system audits.


The seminar, called an "executive briefing", is for  one day, and
is held  4-6 times per year at locations across the United States
and Canada.  It was last held on December 10,  1987 and  the next
course is scheduled for April 14, 1988 in Cambridge, MA.

The  course  is  conducted  by  members  of  the Arthur D. Little
consulting staff.

The  registration  fee  is  $495,  which   includes  all  program

Title:    Environmental, Health,  and Safety  Auditing:   Advanced
          Skills and Techniques

Source:   Arthur D. Little, Inc.
          Center for Environmental Assurance
          15 Acorn Park
          Cambridge, MA 02140


This course is specifically  designed for  environmental, health,
and safety  auditors who  have either attended Arthur D. Little's
four-day basic audit skills and  techniques  course,  or  have at
least two years' experience as full-time auditors.  This advanced
training  program  is  an  interactive  course  that  focuses  on
enhancing auditors  skills and techniques, and allows auditors to
refine their auditing approach.  Course participants are provided
with a training manual, presentation summaries, and monographs on
specific audit techniques.   The course  includes lectures, small
group discussions, role playing, and other exercises.

Topics Covered

This course  is divided into five sections—refining interviewing
skills, developing working papers, selecting samples, formulating
accurate findings, and enhancing team leadership skills.


The  two-day  course  is  next  scheduled for June  14-15, 1988 in
Cambridge, MA.


The course is conducted by senior  members of  Arthur D. Little's
consulting   staff,    and   by   several   industrial   auditing


The cost of the course is $595, which includes a  complete set of
course materials.

Title:    Environmental Compliance Audits and Due Diligence

Source:   Center for Professional Advancement
          P.O. Box H
          East Brunswick, NJ 08816

The  course  is  designed  to  provide a working knowledge of the
environmental audit process.   There is  special emphasis  on the
implications  for  real  estate  and other business transactions,
permitting, and selection of  waste  management  facilities.   It
focuses  on   practical  information  on  design  of  the  audit,
organizational  approaches  to  facilitate  the  audit,  and data
acquisition and  evaluation.   The course  is intended for a wide
range of participants including engineers, scientists, attorneys,
and environmental managers.  It consists primarily of lectures.

Topics Covered

•    "Resource  Conservation  and  Recovery Act" discusses issues
     pertaining to  permitting  and  compliance,  hazardous waste
     handling  and  storage,  documentation  and  record keeping,
     evaluating haulers, and audits of off-site facilities.

•    "Water  and  Air"  focuses  on  NPDES   and  air  permitting
     requirements,   and   includes   a   discussion   on  recent
     developments in toxics regulation.

•    "Superfund"    covers    hazardous    substance    releases,
     investigations,  remedial  options,  SARA,  risk assessment,
     cost estimates, and using audits as  a tool  to identify and
     minimize risks.

•    "Real  Estate  and  Business Transactions—Due Diligence and
     Allocating the Risks" presents the concept  of due diligence
     from both the seller's and the buyer's perspective.  It also
     discusses how to allocate risks, and SEC disclosure issues.

•    "Compliance  Audits—Practical   Guides"   outlines:     EPA
     guidelines for  audits; roles  of a company's management and
     staff in an audit;   interview  and  questionnaire responses;
     and confidentiality and privilege issues.

The course is for three days and was last held in East Brunswick,
NJ, on September 14-16, 1987.  The next course has not been



scheduled yet, but is expected to be scheduled for September 1988
at the  same location.  The course curriculum and faculty members
are also expected to be the same.

Core Faculty

Dr. James H. Clarke  is President of AWARE Inc. in Nashville, TN

Bryant C. Danner is  a  partner  in  the  law  firm  of  Latham &
Watkins,   which   has   offices  in  several  cities,  including
Washington, D.C.

Additional Faculty

The course  also  includes  presentations  by  other  lawyers and
environmental managers.


The course registration fee is $830, which includes course notes.

Title:    Environmental Auditing:  Risk Management for the Future

Source:   University of Wisconsin--Madison
          Department of Engineering Professional Development
          432 North Lake Street
          Madison, WI 53706


The course  is designed for environmental managers, attorneys and
consultants who deal with  environmental  risks,  regulators, and
insurance  professionals.     No  prior  auditing  experience  is
necessary.  The course is a  joint effort  between the University
of  Wisconsin--Madison   and  the   Institute  for  Environmental
Auditing  (described in this  document's  section  on professional

Topics Covered

•    Guidelines for developing an environmental auditing program

•    Using auditing checklists

•    Liability and legal responsibilities of auditing

•    Conducting specialty  audits for  underground storage tanks,
     waste minimization, and  environmental  impairment liability


The course  is for  two days and is planned for June 7-8, 1988 at
the University of Wisconsin, Madison.


Courses are taught by the following guest speakers:

     Frank Priznar, Booz, Allen & Hamilton, Bethesda, MD.
     Bill Gulledge, Environmental  Insurance  Management, McLean,
     John Palmisano, AER*X Division, RMT Inc., Washington, D.C.
     John Laumer, National Safety Council, Chicago, IL.
     Mary Morningstar, Jellinek, Schwartz, & Connoly, Washington,
•    Victor Young, ARCO, Los Angeles, CA.


The registration fee is $485.


The  courses  described  in  the  previous  section  are  offered
exclusively as training packages  in environmental  auditing.   In
contrast, the programs described in this section are presented in
conjunction with, or as part of, a larger conference in a related
professional  field.    In  addition, every year professional  and
environmental organizations sponsor conferences where the primary
focus is  not environmental auditing, but which sometimes include
a session on auditing.  Examples of such  organizations and their
addresses are:

1.    Water  Pollution Control Federation
     601 Wythe Street
     Alexandria,  VA 22314-1994

2.    Air Pollution Control Association
     Box 2861
     Pittsburgh,  PA 15230-2861

3.    American Institute of Chemical Engineers
     345 East 47th Street
     New York, NY 10017

4.    Hazardous Waste Treatment Council
     1440 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 310
     Washington,  D.C. 20005

5.    HAZTECH International
     13555 Bel-Red Road
     Bellevue, WA 98009

6.    HazMat Central
     c/o Tower Conference Management Co.
     800 Roosevelt Road, Bldg. E—Suite 408
     Glen Ellyn,  IL 60137-5835

7.    National Association of Environmental Professionals
     P.O. Box 9400
     Washington,  D.C. 20016

Title:    Environmental Auditing Applications

Source:   HAZMACON 88
          c/o Association of Bay Area Governments
          P.O. Box 2050
          Oakland, CA 94604-2050

"Environmental  Auditing  Applications"  is  one  of the training
seminars  being  presented  at  HAZMACON  88.    HAZNACON   is  a
conference and  exposition on hazardous materials management that
features  lectures,  exhibits  and  training  seminars,   and  is
sponsored by the Association of Bay Area Governments.

The seminar,  which is  presented by the University of California
at  Irvine,    reviews   and   demonstrates   the   principles  of
environmental auditing and examines emerging areas where auditing
may be valuable.  The seminar also involves  a practical exercise
in devising an auditing strategy for a specific case.  Results of
the case study are presented and evaluated by student teams.

The seminar has applications  ranging from  evaluating the safety
of   real   estate   transactions   of   industrial  property  to
establishing risk, hazards, and  liabilities  of  using hazardous
materials in manufacturing.

Although HAZMACON is for three days, the seminar on environmental
auditing is for one day only.  Hazmacon is to be held in Anaheim,
CA on April 5-7, 1988, and the seminar, along with other training
workshops, is to be held a day earlier on April 4.


Dr.  R.  Nichols  Hazelwood  is  the  Director  of  Environmental
Programs, IT Corp., Irvine, CA.

Vinay Dighe is with Occidental Petroleum Corp., Los Angeles, CA.

The fee-for the seminar is $115.

Title:    Waste Minimization & Environnental Programs within DOD

Source:   American Defense Preparedness Association
          Rosslyn Center, Suite 900
          1700 N. Moore Street
          Arlington, VA 22209-1942


The symposium  deals with hazardous waste minimization issues and
the implementation of  environmental  programs  at  Department of
Defense installations.   It  focuses on the concerns and problems
faced by DOD installations  in  anticipating  and  complying with
regulatory requirements.   The  symposium is  intended as a forum
for the government" and the  private  sector  to  share  ideas, to
exchange  information  on  operations,  and to share solutions to
common concerns.

The symposium is meant for persons from government  and industry,
from both professional and technical fields.  Such fields include
funding,  planning,  identifying,  and   designing  environmental
programs;  and  handling,  storing,  transporting, and minimizing
materials that present environmental hazards.

Topics Covered

Among the  topics  discussed  are  environmental  audits  for the
Army's  industrial  base,  Army,  Navy,  Air  Force  and  Defense
Logistics  Agency  environmental  programs,   waste  minimization
initiatives, and water quality assessments of DOD installations.


The symposium is for three days and was last held on April 28-30,
1987  in  Long  Beach,  California.     The  next   symposium  is
tentatively  scheduled  for  October  19-21, 1988 in New Orleans,
Louisiana.  The topics are expected to be the same.


The faculty is comprised of guest speakers from  various agencies
and  organizations,  including  the  EPA, the Navy, the Army, the
U.S. Congress Office of  Technology Assessment,  and a  number, of
private consulting firms.


The registration  fee for  the 1987  symposium was  $235 for  ADPA
members, and  $255 for  non-members (this  includes membership to
ADPA).   The fee  for members of the U.S. Government and academia
was $125.  No information is available on the fee for 1988.


One  training  program  in  environmental  auditing  is currently
offered for academic credit.  That  program is  described in this
section.   The program  is structured  differently from the other
programs described in the  earlier sections.   It  has courses of
longer duration,  each offered in sessions that coincide with the
university academic quarters.  Furthermore, the  program leads to
a certificate of proficiency in environmental auditing.

Title:    Certificate Program in Environmental Auditing

Source:   University of California,  Irvine
          University Extension
          P.O. Box AZ
          Irvine, California 92716

The program  is designed  to expand  the knowledge and management
skills of environmental professionals  in environmental auditing.
The program  provides both theoretical and practical information,
and is oriented towards  imparting  to  program  participants the
skills necessary to perform environmental audits.

The program  is run like other university academic programs:   the
curriculum is spread over several months, with each course within
the program  normally being offered during a different quarter of
the school  year,  and  each participant  is graded  at the course

Each  of  the  four  courses  in environmental auditing is for 30
hours and contributes to 3 units of credit.  In addition,  because
the  Certificate  Program  in  Environmental  Auditing  builds on
courses already established in  the  closely  related Certificate
Program in  Hazardous Materials  Management, two courses from the
latter  program  are   prerequisites   for   enrollment   in  the
environmental auditing program.

Persons interested  in the program may opt either to complete the
180  course   hours  (six   3-unit  courses)   required  for  the
certificate,  or  simply  to  take  one  or  more courses without
completing the requirements for the certificate.
Sample Topics
     "Introduction  to  Environmental  Auditing"  deals  with the
     basic theories of environmental auditing.  The audit process
     is described, methods for defining environmental audit goals
     and boundaries are developed, and techniques are presented.

     "Audit Skills  and Techniques"  covers methods for planning,
     conducting,  evaluating,  and  reporting   on  environmental
     audits.   Includes case examples and structured role-playing,
     and discussions on topics such as  modifying protocols, data
     gathering techniques, interviewing, and reporting findings.

     "Audit  Systems  Design  and  Tools"  presents  criteria for
     environmental auditing systems design, and discusses how


     auditing tools are developed for specific  situations.  This
     is  done  through  case  studies,  'with audit examples being
     chosen from industrial, business, and government operations.

     "Seminar  in  Environmental  Auditing"   presents  specific,
     unique  examples  of  actual  audits, and examines the basic'
     environmental   principles   that   underlie   environmental
     compliance efforts.   The objective is to develop and define
     auditable  standards  by   which   environmental  compliance
     management can be assessed.

Each course  is for  about five  weeks, with sessions once a week
for six hours each, totalling 30  hours.   The last  course to be
held  was  "Introduction  to Environmental Auditing" (February 22
through March 28, five  Mondays,  2-5  p.m.  and  6:30-9:30), and
classes were  held in Fountain Valley, near Irvine.  The schedule
for future courses is not currently available.

Core Faculty

R. Nichols  Hazelwood,  Director  of  Environmental  Programs, IT
Corporation, teaches "Introduction to Environmental Auditing".
The names  of instructors for the other courses are not currently

The registration fee for  each  course  is  $250.    In addition,
candidates  must   pay  a   nonrefundable  fee  of  $25  with  an
Application  for  Candidacy  upon  entering  the  program.    The
registration  fee   does  not   include  the  cost  of  the  text
Environmental Auditing;  Fundamentals and Techniques.  by J. Ladd
Greeno, Gilbert S. Hedstrom, and Maryanne DiBerto, which is $60.

This  section  describes  three organizations dedicated solely to
the  practice  and  professional   development  of  environmental
audit ing.

The organizations  are primarily  forums for the dissemination of
information on environmental auditing,  and present opportunities
for  members   to  interact  with  professionals  in  government,
industry, law, etc.   Membership to  any of  the organizations is
open to all interested professionals.

The type  of information  presented for each organization in this
section is essentially the same:

     •    Name and address of the organization

     •    A description of the organization's activities, such as
          meetings, conferences, and training programs

     •    Publications

     •    Profile of participants

     •    Organizational structure, and

     •    Membership and other costs.

                                             Prof 1 Organizations
Organization:  Environmental Auditing Roundtable

Address:       P.O. Box 23798
               L'Bnfant Plaza Station
               Washington, D.C.  20026-3798


The  Environmental  Auditing  Roundtable (EAR) is an organization
dedicated to furthering the development and professional practice
of environmental  auditing.   It serves  primarily as a forum for
sharing information.  It was founded in 1982  by several managers
of corporate environmental audit programs.


•    Quarterly meetings:   EAR  members  conduct two-day meetings
     every  quarter,  generally  in  the  Washington,  D.C. area.
     Meeting  agendas   typically  include  a  description  of  a
     corporate audit  program;  formal  presentations  on various
     auditing topics; group exercises; and informal discussions.

•    Work  groups:    EAR  members engage in informal sessions to
     exchange information and facilitate  in-depth discussions on
     topics  such  as  audit  system  design,  audit  procedures,
     auditor qualifications, international audits,  legal issues,
     and computer applications.

•    Committees:   Members can  volunteer for standing committees
     on  EAR  programs,  communications,   nominations,  finance,
     training and education, and membership; or ad hoc committees
     addressing specific issues of interest to members.

Sample Agenda Topics

Recent EAR meetings have included presentations, discussions, and
written  material   on:    environmental  auditing  programs  and
practices; regulatory agency policies; requirements for audits in
enforcement    actions;    auditing    community    right-to-know
requirements under SARA Title III; federal agency audit programs;
internal reporting  of audit findings; auditor education, auditor
certification, and audits for real estate transactions.

•    Publications on environmental auditing  programs, practices,
     and issues  are frequently available at EAR meetings or from
     EAR participants and speakers.

•    Highlights of each meeting are sent to members.


                                             Prof 1 Organizations
Profile of Participants
Most EAR members are practicing environmental, health, and safety
auditors with extensive field experience.  However, membership is
open to anyone with  a professional  interest in  the practice of
environmental  auditing.    Members  represent  a wide variety of
professional disciplines and  organizations,  including industry,
consulting firms, government agencies, and law firms.

Organizational Structure

Membership  in  the  Roundtable  is  open  to  all  environmental
auditors and other interested professionals.  The officers of the
organization  are  the  five  Directors,  elected pursuant to the
EAR's by-laws to constitute the  Board  of  Directors.  The Board
establishes  administrative  policies,  and among its members are
the Chairperson and Treasurer.   The  Board allocates  the duties
and responsibilities  to perform  the administrative functions of
the organization.    These  functions  are  performed  by several
committees that  have been established as a permanent part of the
organization.  Members are governed  by  by-laws  and  a  code of
Membership and Other Fees

Members pay  an initiation fee of $35 to join the Roundtable.  In
addition, members wishing to attend the quarterly meetings  pay a
fee usually  of $35  per meeting to cover luncheon costs, meeting
room and audio-visual equipment rentals, etc.

                                             Prof 1 Organizations


Institute for Environmental Auditing

P.O.  Box 23686,  L'Enfant Plaza
Washington,  D.C.  20026-3686
The Institute for Environmental Auditing (IEA) is an organization
dedicated  to  the  enhancement  of  the  environmental  auditing
profession.  Its goals are to provide a  forum for  education for
auditors,  and  to  establish  the  professional  status of those
engaged in the field.  The IEA was chartered in 1987.


•    Meetings:    The IEA has active chapters in several states in
     the U.S.,  which conduct periodic meetings.

•    Training:     The  IEA  is  in  the  process  of developing a
     training  program  in  environmental  auditing fundamentals.
     With  the  Air  Pollution  Control  Association the IEA will
     present one-day training sessions  in several  locations.  A
     second,  more   extensive  two-day   course  is  also  being
     developed in association with the University  of Wisconsin's
     Department of Engineering Professional Development.

•    Other:    Members  of  IEA  contribute  to  State regulatory
     initiatives and  present  position  papers  on environmental
     audit ing.


The IEA  publishes a quarterly newsletter called "Working Papers"
for its members.  It includes environmental auditing articles and
news,    and   information   on   training   programs,  employment
opportunities,    and   publications   related   to  environmental

Profile of Participants

Membership  is  open  to  all  interested  professionals.   These
include professionals from the fields of consulting, engineering,
law, and finance, as well as from regulatory agencies.
Organizational Structure

The IEA  is a non-profit organization incorporated in Washington,
D.C., whose membership is open to all interested professionals.


                                             Prof 1 Organizations

The organization consists of a board  of directors,  an executive
director, an  administrative committee (responsible for finances,
membership,  correspondence,  and  business),  and  an activities
committee  (responsible  for  newsletters, local chapter support,
training, and conferences).  The IEA has five chapters—the Rocky
Mountain, Pacific  Northwest, New  York State,  Atlanta, and Mid-
Atlantic chapters.

Membership and Other Fees

Members pay an annual fee of $50, which  entitles members  to the
newsletter,  to  attend  meetings,  and  discounts  on any future
publications.  Fees for  seminars vary  according to  the type of
seminar being sponsored.

                                             Prof 1 Organizations

               Environmental Auditing Forun

               c/o Mr. Vinay Dighe
               Occidental Petroleum
               10889 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 1160
               Los Angeles, CA 90024
The two goals of  the Environmental  Auditing Forum  (EAF) are to
provide opportunities  for the  exchange of ideas and information
about environmental auditing concepts, principles, and practices;
and to  facilitate development of improved environmental auditing
and protection programs.   EAF was founded in 1986 to better serve
the needs of interested persons in California.

•    Meetings:    The  EAF  generally meets quarterly, usually in
     California; and meetings typically  consist of presentations
     and  group  discussions.    A  meeting agenda usually covers
     three main areas:
          A discussion of an actual audit
          a company.
                                           program implemented by
          A discussion  of enforcement  issues at the federal and
          state level, initiated by a member from the government.

          An update on legislative activities that may affect the
          field   of   environmental   auditing,   especially  in

Meeeting attendees receive minutes of the EAF meetings.
Profile of Participants

EAF   meeting   attendees   represent   industry;
government, consulting, insurance, and banking.
Organizational Structure

The  EAF  is  governed  by  a five-member steering committee.  In
addition, there is an  informal  advisory  committee  that drafts
issues for the steering committee to develop policy positions.


                                             Prof 1 Organizations
Membership and Other Fees:

Individuals  are  required  to  pay  a  fee of $10 per year to be
included on  the  mailing  list  for  information  on activities.
Registration fee  for meetings is $30, which covers the cost of a
luncheon, equipment and room rental, etc.

                     B.  "GENERIC" AUDITING
This section  presents information  on organizations and training
programs for auditing other than environmental auditing.  Because
the   principles   of   auditing,   whether  financial  auditing,
operations auditing,  or environmental auditing,  are basically the
same,  this  section  may  help  the  reader to put environmental
auditing in perspective with other types of auditing.  Also, some
skills  learned  from  one  type  of  audit  training  are  often
applicable to other types of audits.

Although only  two  organizations  have  been  described  in this
section, information  on training programs for "generic" auditing
skills and techniques may be available from various Federal audit
agencies.     These  training  programs  will  probably  focus  on
financial  or operations auditing,  and may  be available  only to
employees  of  the same  agency.   Examples of  such agencies, and
their addresses are:

     •    Air Force Audit Agency
          AFAA/DA, Building 528
          Norton Air Force Base, CA 92409-6001

     •    Army Audit Agency
          HQDA (SAAG-PRP)
          3101 Park Center Drive
          Alexandria, VA 22302-1596

     •    General Accounting Office
          Training Center, Room 7424
          441 G St.,  N.W.
          Washington, D.C. 20548

                                             'Generic" Auditing
Organization:  The Institute of Internal Auditors

Address:       249 Maitland Ave.,  P.O. Box 1119
               Altamont Springs, FL 32701


The  Institute  of  Internal  Auditors  (IIA) is an international
professional  organization   to  promote   the  dissemination  of
knowledge in the area of internal  (primarily financial) auditing.
It consists of more  than 30,000  members in  102 countries, with
180 chapters and affiliates worldwide.  It was founded in 1941 in
New York.
Educational Programs

•    Three to  five  day  seminars  range  from  basics,  such as
     techniques  for   the  beginning   financial  or  operations
     auditor, to specialized subjects  such as  internal auditing
     for the oil and gas industry.

•    Special  interest   conferences  address  topics  that  have
     broader  impact  on  the  profession  of  internal auditing.
     Recent  conferences   have  focused  on  telecommunications,
     fraud, contract and construction auditing, internal auditing
     in  government,  and  relevant  legislation.  No courses are
     offered specifically on environmental auditing.

•    IAA Media-Assisted Training Programs  include video-assisted
     seminars, audio cassettes, self-study programs, and in-house


Annual  international  and  regional   conferences  give  members
opportunities  to  meet  and  share  perspectives  with people in
disciplines  such  as  government,  industry,  construction,  and
Certified Internal Auditor Program

The  program  is  designed  to  enhance  recognition  of internal
auditing and  provide the  proper direction  to internal auditors
who   seek   to   further   their  professional  development  and
advancement.   Members  are  certified  after  being  tested, and
certification  is  considered  a mark of professional achievement
and commitment.


                                             "Generic" Auditing
•    The HA  publishes a  journal, "Internal Auditor", which has
     up-to-date information on auditing practices and techniques.

•    A  newsletter,   "HA  Today",  provides  news  on  internal
     auditing and highlights chapter activities.

•    A manual, "Professional Internal Auditing Standards Volume",
     defines the  criteria by  which the operators of an internal
     auditing department are to be evaluated.

•    A software package, "auditMASTERPLAN" incorporates the IIA's
     "Standards" (as  defined in the manual), and is based on the
     book "Planning for the Internal Audit Function".

In addition, various publications on internal auditing, which are
not published by the HA, are also available for sale to members.


Membership costs  vary for  management level  and for staff level
members.  Managers  pay  annual  dues  of  $110  plus  a one-time
application fee of $15;  staff members pay annual dues of $60 plus
the $15 application fee.   These  fees includes  subscriptions to
the  bi-monthly   journal  "Environmental  Auditor"  and  to  the
newsletter "HA Today";  and entitles the member to  reduced rates
for seminars,  conferences, and  publications.  Costs of seminars
and conferences vary from $545 to  $845 for  members and  $595 to
$895 for nonmembers.

                                             'Generic" Auditing
Organization:  International Loss Control Institute

Address:       Highway 78
               P.O. Box 345
               Loganville, GA 30249


The International Loss Control Institute is an organization whose
primary function is to offer courses  related to  safety and loss
control.   These are designed to help a company or agency improve
their  efficiency,  protect  their  resources,  and  reduce their
costs.   In addition,  the ILCI offers on-site training, auditing
and consulting services, training packages, and books, films, and
videotapes on a variety of related subjects.


The  ILCI  offers  eight  courses  on  subjects  such  as  safety
management, loss control management, and resource management.  Of
particular interest are two courses for safety auditors:

•    "Accredited  Safety  Auditors  Course"  presents methods and
     techniques of safety program  management auditing, including
     interviews, examination of records, and inspections; reviews
     critical  terminology  and  program  requirements  to assure
     consistency within  the International  Safety Rating System;
     and defines the activities involved in managing a safety and
     health program.

•    "Accredited  Safety  Auditors  Review Course" is designed to
     update  Accredited  Safety  Auditors'  knowledge  and skills
     related to  the International  Safety Rating  System; and to
     provide  practical   tools   that   can   aid   auditors  in
     implementing  effective   loss  control  programs  in  their
     respective organizations.


The duration of the eight courses varies from  two to  five days.
The  first  auditors  course  is  for  five days and the auditors
review course is for three days.  Most of the  courses, including
the  two  on  auditing,  are  offered several times a year and at
different locations.


The registration fee is different  for  each  course,  and varies
from $342  to $750  for ILCI  members, and  $380 to $950 for non-
members .

                                             "Generic" Auditing
Other Services
     The ILCI  can tailor  their courses to the specific needs of
     an organization.

     The  ILCI's  Membership  Program   allows  organizations  to
     benefit  from   the  International   Safety  Rating  System,
     particularly in  terms  of  establishing  health  and safety
     standards, measuring and evaluating the effectiveness of the
     health and safety program, and correcting deficiencies.

     The  ILCI's  auditing   and   consulting   services  include
     comprehensive evaluations of the effectiveness of health and
     safety programs, and  identification  of  program activities
     contributing to safety and loss control.

     The  ILCI  offers  reference  manuals, computer software for
     management, books,  training packages,   reports, periodicals,
     films, and videotapes.

Information on  environmental auditing  is available from several
offices in  the  EPA  as  well  as  from  a  number  of documents
published by  the EPA.   Three EPA offices, with their mail codes
and telephone numbers, are listed below.  All are located  at 401
M Street, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20460.

     1.   Office of Federal Activities, A-104
          Federal Facilities Compliance Staff     (202) 382-3270

     2.   Office of Enforcement and Compliance Monitoring, LE-133
          Compliance Policy Planning Branch       (202) 382-7550

     3.   Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, PM-223
          Regulatory Innovations Staff            (202) 382-2726

Publications available from the EPA under various categories are:

A.   Policy and Guidance

     1.   "Environmental  Auditing   Policy  Statement",  Federal
          Register Vol. 51, No. 131, Wednesday, July 9, 1986, pp.

     2.   "Final  EPA  Policy  on  the Inclusion of Environmental
          Auditing   Provisions   in   Enforcement  Settlements",
          November 1986.

B.   Bibliographies

     1.   Annotated Bibliography on Environmental Auditing. March

C.   Protocols

     1.   Environmental  Audit  Protocol   for   EPA   Facilities.
          November 1986.

     2.   Multi-Media Compliance Audit Procedures.  June 1987.

D.   Reports and Case Studies

     1.   "Study  of   the  Benefits   of  Environmental   Auditing
          Provisions in Enforcement Settlements", March 1988.

     2.   "Current Practices in Environmental  Auditing",  February

     3.   "Duties to Report or Disclosure  Information  on  the


                                                  EPA Sources
          Environmental   Aspects    of   Business   Activities",
          September 1985.

     4.   "Benefits of  Environmental Auditing:    Case Examples",
          December 1984.

In  addition,  the  Office  of  Federal Activities is planning to
publish materials on environmental  protocols  and  guidelines on
environmental  auditing  program  design  for  Federal  agencies.
These materials may be available late in 1988.

                         G.  PERIODICALS
Articles   on   environmental   auditing   regularly   appear  in
professional journals,  magazines,  and  other  periodicals.    In
addition,  one  journal  is  devoted  to  the applied practice of
environmental  auditing.    That  journal  is  discussed  in this

Name:     Environmental Auditor

Source:   Springer  International
          Springer-Verlag New  York,  Inc.
          175 Fifth Avenue
          New York, NY  10010


The journal is dedicated to serving   all  professionals  interested
in environmental auditing.  Its goals are to  encourage  the use of
environmental auditing  as a   means  of achieving  and maintaining
compliance  with  environmental   requirements;   to  evaluate  the
effectiveness  of   environmental  management   systems;   to assess
risks; and to identify  and correct environmental hazards.

The  journal's  thesis  is  that  through environmental auditing,
businesses can anticipate pollution  control problems and  related
environmental  concerns,  rather  than being  forced to react to
crises as they  occur.    A  typical   issue   will   examine legal,
scientific,  and  economic  problems   and solutions,   and  raise
environmental issues  for further  analysis.


The first issue is  expected to appear in   May 1988.   Four issues
per year  are planned.   Persons  interested in subscribing to the
journal can get more  information  from the address  above.


Persons interested  in contributing manuscripts to  the journal may
contact the editors at:

                    ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITOR
                    P.O. Box 3818
                    Hartford,  CT  06103
                    (203) 528-9677


The cost of subscription is $168.50  per year.
           U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
           Library. Room 2404  FM-211-A
           401 M Street, S.W.
                     DC   20460