United States
                      Environmental Protection
                      Office of
                      Public Awareness (A-107)
                      Washington DC 20460
                         November-December 1977


Task  Force

An interagency task force,
composed of members
from each of three
government agencies
(The Environmental
Protection Agency, the
Department of the Interior,
and the Department of
Agriculture Soil
Conservation Service) has
been convened to study
irrigation  efficiency. The
EPA member is Joe Krivak,
Chief, Nonpoint Source
Branch and the alternate
member is Darwin Wright,
Office of  Research and

The Interagency Task
Force on  Irrigation
Efficiencies was
established to examine the
problem of inefficient
irrigation in the United
States and develop
regarding appropriate
Federal objectives,
policies, agency roles, and
action programs. The
Interagency Task Force
has established a
Technical Work Group,
with headquarters in
Denver, to accomplish the
required assembly,
review and analysis of
data and to prepare a
report. EPA members of
        Continued on page 7
Methods of on lot
disposal, which include
traditional septic tanks as
well as new technological
innovations, have
precipitated new
management techniques
for local sewer authorities
to ensure proper disposal
of on lot waste. On lot
disposal is particularly
desirable when centralized
systems are technically
impossible to build or too
costly from a cost-benefit
   New Methods
   The "Mound System" is
   one new method now
   being used in areas where
   a high water table or
   shallow soil condition
   make traditional septic
   tanks unsafe. This system
   is costlier than traditional
   septic tanks because a
   pump may be required.
   Here the mound consists
   of permeable soil, imported
   to the site to act as an
   additional layer of
   filtration capacity before
   effluent reaches the
   original soil. The aim of
   the mound system is to
   prevent dangerous
   contamination of ground
   water from on lot waste.
   The system provides for
   additional levels of
   filtration through imported
   soil before the waste
   soaks into the shallow

   New England is an area
especially adapted to this
method, and Monroe
County, New York, has
already established design
standards for the mound

Another method for on lot
disposal is an aerobic, or
system. Costlier, but more
effective than the mound
system, the aerobic system
filters oxygen through
waste, allowing aerobic
microbes to treat the waste
water. When a disinfection
unit is added to the system,
the unit acts like a
miniature treatment plant,
producing a higher quality
effluent than a septic tank.
Disposal on surface can
then be made. However,
regular maintance is
required. This system has
been successfully used in
demonstrations in Boyd
County, Kentucky.
         Continued on page 6
                                     PERFORATED fVC PIPE'

                                      SANO FILL-

                                  li.JJIj/H !?.	
            CLJHf FILL


hi * mound system, •ffluwttlrom a tytlc tank is pumpfd Into • mound of sand wrhteh Mnr*s u
 GPCOG  Promotes
 Septic System
 How do you hold down
 the cost for private
 homeowners of correcting
 septic system failures? Two
 legislative bills proposed
 by the Greater Portland
 (Maine) Council of
 Governments were
 recently passed by the
 Maine legislature to
 mitigate the high economic
 and socia| consequences
 of correcting pollution
 from septic system failure.

 More than one-half of the
 population of Maine relies
 on septic systems of some
 sort. Health hazards and
 water pollution from failing
 septic systems are
 problems of statewide
 concern, but the costs for
 correcting failures may be
 a heavy burden on the

 To assess public attitudes
 regarding septic system
 use and wastewater
 treatment alternatives,
 GPCOG's Public
 Participation Coordinator,
 Barbara Horton, distributed
 a questionnaire. With
 encouragement from
 television, radio and
 community business, the
 questionnaire was
 returned by over 350
 citizens in the planning

 GPCOG found many
 citizens in the planning
 area did not favor
 expanding existing sewer
 systems, since
 construction, operation
 and maintenance costs are
 high and expansion could
 lead to greater
development. Also, they
found that many people
were converting their
 seasonal shore-side
 homes into full-year
 residences, greatly
 increasing the potential
 for septic system failures
 by inadequate septic
 systems. Since septic
 systems in seasonal homes
 are often small and home-
 made, using them year-
 round increases the
 potential for septic
 system failure. Many
 citizens in the area felt
 this could be a significant

 Recognizing the impact of
 septic system use
 in the state, the Maine
 legislature passed
 legislation proposed by
 GPCOG which (1) allows
 municipalities to enact
 measures giving  septic
 system users a ten-year
 period in which to pay
 back the costs of
 correcting malfunctioning
 systems, and  (2) requires
 a permit from a local
 plumbing inspector before
 conversion of seasonal
 systems for year-round

and economically-
feasible solutions were
implemented by the State
of Maine in response to
the efforts of GPCOG 208.
 The first compendium of
 Water Quality
 accomplishments from the
 new WQM
 Clearinghouse will be
 published in December,   >
 comprising 58 case studies
 from 40 WQM agencies.

 The coordinator of the
 clearinghouse is Terry
 Peters, at EPA
 headquarters in
 Washington, D.C., who
 publishes biweekly case
 studies that are later
 compiled into the
 quarterly compendium.

 The goal of the WQM
 Clearinghouse is to
 demonstrate through case
 studies what the Water
 Quality Management
 Program has done to make
 our waters fishable and
 swimmable by control of
 point and nonpoint
 sources of pollution, and
 to provide guidance for
 other agencies.

The question then
becomes: what is an
"accomplishment"? The
WQM Accomplishments
Clearinghouse carefully
 gathers information from
 the Regional Offices and
 local agencies, and then
subjectively determines
whether an
accomplishment is
evident. The clearinghouse
looks to whether the
outcome of the agency's
work has been made to
promote water quality,
wnether the agency has
been directly involved in
the outcome, and whether
the agency has developed
an implementable solution.
If, given these criteria, an
"accomplishment" is
evident, the experiences
of the agency are disclosed
in a case study which
becomes a part of the

Agencies can review these
case studies to see
whether prior experiences
of other agencies can
provide guidance toward
solutions for their local

When one reads through
the compendium, one
identifies steps common
to all successful programs.
A step-by-step approach
seems most effective: (1)
identify the problem^ (2)
develop technical
alternatives, (3) propose
arrangements, (4) build
public support, and (5)
implement the preferred



Will  Geer



"There was a time when
we took a drink of water
for granted That time has
slowly faded. Today, our
rapidly growing population
areas are facing problems
that require a lot of future
planning. The experts are
asking for your help. You
can be an important part
of this planning ..."

The speaker isn't Doug
Costle or Barbara Blum,
but Will Geer of the
popular "Waltons"
television program. The
face is smiling and familiar
to millions; the message is
pollution control
planning; and the spots
will be heard around the
country on television as
public service

The office of Public
Awareness and 208  Public
Participation Coordinators
will be distributing these
30-second spot
announcements to local

Following Will Geer's
introduction, the listener is
encouraged to contact the
local areawide agency to
determine how he or she
can become involved in
areawide planning.
208  Agency
Utah's Waters
TV announcements have been produced featuring Will Geer
The Weber River Water
Quality Planning Council
played an integral role in
the implementation of a
locally-funded stormwater
regulatory program to
control runoff in Davis
County, Utah.

Urban development in
Davis County over the
past ten years has climbed
the foothills of the
Wasatch Mountain Range
from its earlier
containment in the
flatlands of the Great Salt
Lake. This development
on the former shorelines of
ancient Lake Bonneville
created pressure on
existing storm sewers.

Stormwater runoff was
identified early as the
major source of nonpoint
pollution in the area. The
WRWQPC collected data
on water quality and
performed wasteload
allocations and segment
classifications. From this
data base, a stormwater
master plan was developed
for Davis County, which
includes Utah's second
largest city, Ogden.

The masterplan included
storm sewer flows based
on known snowfall and
rainfall levels over the past
ten years. It covers both
existing and projected
development in the

Local authorities shared
responsibilities for
construction of the
stormwater facilities. City
officials in the County
approved priorities for
projects, and found those
deficiences requiring
immediate attention. The
Davis County
Commissioners endorsed
the plan developed by the
208 Agency. When the
plan was finalized, all
sixteen cities in the County
approved the stormwater
management plan.

Davis County agreed to
make the major
improvements to the
system, and the cities
agreed to build the
smaller facilities.
Developers were required
under ordinance to
conform with the master
plan by constructing their
projects such that
stormwater runoff is the
same before and after

Davis County agreed to
establish a stormwater
magagement department
in May, 1977. The County
borrowed money on its
tax assessment for the
department to start
construction of the
facilities as soon as

The WRWQPC was
instrumental in improving
waters of the fast-growing
Salt Lake Valley by   \
developing a strategy
with the backing of the
Davis County
Commissioners, and then
choosing that
management technique
most likely to expedite
implementation of the




Looks  at



208 Planning in the
Nation's Capital
encompasses careful
consideration of all
elements of a community's
needs, a situation similar
to plans for other
metropolitan areas. The
Interstate Commission on
the Potomac River Basin
recently reviewed issues
important to Washington,
D.C., area planning in its
publication, Potomac

The Commission asked
various outspoken
citizens to outline their
major considerations for
metropolitan area
planning. The result was a
plethora of interwoven
considerations: needs for
developing the inner city;
needs for considering the
economic impact; needs
for considering the impact
of urban activity on
downstream growth and
ecology; and needs for
improvement of nonpoint
source technology.

Walter Scheiber (Executive
Director of the Washington
Council of Governments)
stressed a rational
"balanced" approach,
giving proper local
consideration to water
supply, an acute
problem in the
Washington area;
downstream effects; and
sludge disposal.
provisions are the key, he
claims, in making the 208
plan in Washington more
than a great expectation,
but a reasonable course
of action.

Foster Shannon (President
of the Metropolitan
Washington Board of
Trade) stressed the
economic impact of
planning on residential,
commerical and
institutional growth. He
was concerned with
water supply, as well as
with water quality.

The Rev. Jerry A. Moore
(Chairman of the 208
Water Resources Planning
Board) is concerned about
paying for the plan,
questioning whether the
District of Columbia can
meet additional burdens
of separate facilites for
urban run-off and point
sources, badly needed by
the area.

Insensitivity to
downstream damage was
criticized by Elgin
Dunnington (Research
associate with the
University of Maryland
Center for Environmental
and Estuarine Studies)
who noted that the
greatest harm from
Washington's urban
activities is felt
downstream in the lower
Potomac River estuaries.

Thornton Secor (Resource
questioned whether we
have the technology
available to make
nonpoint source control
effective. He believes that
farmers in the Washington
area are especially
affected by the 208 plan
and that all social and
economic needs must be
assessed in the 208 plan.
Harry Murray (member of
the Citizen Advisory
Committee, an arm of the
District of Columbia
government) believes the
planning process for
water resources will affect
housing rehabilitation
and inner city growth.  He
warns against piecemeal
planning that will not
address all social and
cultural realities of

Joseph Rodgers
(President of an
engineering consulting
firm in Rockville,
Maryland) urged the
public sector to make
responsible contributions
to planning, since the
private sector cannot meet
the financial resources
necessary for such a plan.
He wants a federal and
regional impetus that will
contribute toward clean
water goals without
stagnating development.

The Metropolitan
Washington Council of
Governments approach to
208 planning i s purposive,
but thoughtful-
attributes necessary to a
totally-integrated 208
plan. The many dynamic,
and oftenly-conflicting
factors in planning will be
used by WASH COG to
fashion a plan responsive
to the greater good of the
How Others
See Us
The United States
Department of Agriculture
is informing units of its
Agricultural Stabilization
and Conservation Service
(ASCS) about EPA's
efforts to make American
waters fishable and
swimmable by 1983.
Weldon B. Denny, USDA
Deputy Administrator for
Programs, has announced
a USDA slide show about
Section 208 of the FWPCA.

The 13-minute slide show
with cassette sound tract
has been developed by
ASCS to  provide greater
understanding between
EPA and  USDA about how
the ASCS can assist the
planning  and
implementation of Section
208, and how ASCS and
USDA can have input into
the 208 effort.

Copies will be distributed
to EPA headquarters and
to Regional Offices of
EPA, as well as to ASCS
staff on the national, state
and county levels.

USDA has encouraged its
personnel to review the
slide show with  its
regional and state staffs,
to consider the status of
208  in their areas and to
work cooperatively with
Section 208.

Can Diapers Abate
PCB Contamination?
                        Check  Out CETAH  WQM
The East Central Michigan
Planning and
Development Region
(ECMPDR) successfully
delayed the
dredging of sediments in
the Saginaw River and
Bay until potential harmful
affects from PCB
contamination and
possible solutions to the
problem could be

Recent studies by the
ECMPDR had found high
levels of polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCB) in the
Saginaw River and Bay.
Even though point sources'
of PCB were abated,
sediment in the river and
bay was contaminated,
and any unsettling or
agitation of the river or bay
would result in
resuspension of the
contaminated sediment.

Understanding these facts,
ECMPDR was alarmed
when it learned of a
proposed Corps of
Engineers dredging and
disposal project for the
river and bay.

Working with the Corps of
Engineers, the United
States Congressman from
the local Michigan District,
and the Michigan
Department of Natural
Resources, ECMPDR
argued successfully for
additional sampling and
analysis before the
dredging began.

A mathematical model was
developed to determine
wasteload allocations for
the dredging project.
 Because of the program,
wasteload allocations were
developed for the first
time for the Saginaw River
and Bay, based on
computer models.

The sampling found
incredible concentrations
of PCB, ranging from
negligible amounts to 22
parts per million (current
standards call for only one
part per trillion). Given the
propensity for the river to
resuspend the
contaminants, the resulting
concentration of PCB
could have been 20,000
times greater than that
allowed under water
quality standards!

The project was held in
abeyence despite strong
demands from commercial
shipping concerns.
Alternatives are being
investigated, including
turbidity barriers, or
"diapers" to allow the
necessary dredging^
without unsettling the
river bed. The agency is
investigating funding
under Section 115 for
removal and disposal of
the toxic pollutants.
 Local 208 Agencies should
 assess whether the
 Employment and Training
 Act (CETA) may provide a
 cooperative source of
 assistance for
 implementing nonpoint
 source pollution control

 CETA is Title 8 of United
 States Code, and provides
 employment opportunities
 for young people in areas
 of high unemployment.
 Selected youth assist
 federal, state, county and
 city governments with
 various projects, ranging
 from  landscaping for
 public buildings to
 research projects for
 extension services.

 The Department of Labor,
 through the Departments
 of Agriculture and  Interior,
, administers the law.
 Approximately $223
 Million will go to CETA in

 The Forest Service and the
 Soil Conservation Service
 plan  projects for
 CETA that will effect
 nonpoint source
Clearinghouse for


A system, enabling a 208
agency, or any other
interested entity, to be
aware of what has been
done by other 208
agencies within a given
subject-area, has been
initiated by 208.

The Water Planning
Division's Information
Distribution Center will
publish a {compilation of
abstracts of 208-related
publications submitted to
them. WQM reports,
speeches and working
papers are especially

Authors should submit
their own abstracts along
with each document. The
compilation will be
published quarterly
starting in February.
Entries should be
addressed to:

208 Abstracts, WH-554
c/o Dan Burrows, EPA
401 M St. SW
Washington, D.C. 20460
1978 Calendar of National  Meetings
Jan 22-25
Jan 31- Feb2
 National Association of
 Home Builders
 Conference, featuring
 "Alert on 208"

 National Association of
 Regional Councils
 Federal Briefing

 Second Annual State
 Conference on Water
 Quality Management

 Water Pollution Control
 Federation Annual
 Washington, DC
  Denver, CO
 Anaheim, CA

Continued from page 1

Local Sewer
Authorities Change
their Management

Because on lot disposal,
including traditional septic
tank use, has become a
more viable alternative for
many areas than
centralized sewer systems,
the resulting increased use
of on lot disposal has
created new problems for
sewer authorities. In
response to problems of
ground water
contamination resulting
from faulty operation of on
lot disposal systems, local
sewer authorities are using
new techniques to cope
with the peculiar local
and isolated problems of
on lot disposal.

Various levels of oversight
and involvement by sewer
authorities have been
developed to solve these
concentrated local

For example, Ventura
(California) County,
monitors groundwater for
its users and responds to
requests for assistance in
testing  and repairing on lot
disposal systems. The
system  is financed through
a special tax assessment,
most of which goes for

El Dorado (California)
County has created a
special  management
district  to handle on lot
disposal. As a condition
for receiving a permit for
on lot disposal, property
owners are required to
follow the district's
regulations: granting a
permanent easement to
inspect the system, and
maintaining on lot systems
safely. Without gaining a
permit, it is impossible to
construct a building
utilizing on lot disposal.

Santa Cruz (California)
County requires
easements, but also
provides for private
compaines to maintain and
pump the on lot systems


 Handbook  for

 Silviculture! BMP

A Procedure Handbook
for Silvicultural Best
 Management Practices
 is expected this spring.
According to Lee Mulkey,
project officer at the EPA
Athens Labratories, the
 handbook is the  product
of an interagency
agreement between EPA
and the U.S. Forest
Service. A draft of the
document has been
distributed for review to
over 150 different

The draft gives a method
and framework to analyze
specific forest settings to
prevent nonpoint sources
of water pollution from
silivicultural activities.

Some of the issues
discussed by the draft
handbook include surface
erosion, chemicals,
dissolved oxygen and

The last third of the
handbook presents
procedural, reduction and
preventative Best
Management Practices
for cutting and
transporting timber. Fuel
treatment methods, site
presentation, and stocking
control are also addressed.
 A  Grass  Roots
 Approach  to
 Erosion Control
 Unique arrangements to
 combat the perennial
 problems of erosion and
 sedimentation have been
 adopted by the
 Association of Monterey
 Bay Area Governments.

 AM BAG, the designated
 208 agency for the Central
 California Coast, has
 joined forces with the U.S.
 Soil Conservation Service
 and a local  resource
 conservation district to
 fight erosion and sediment
 in the Salinas Valley, the
 "satad bowl of the world,"
 where agriculture depends
 on the continuing
 stability of fertile soils and
 a good supply of clean

 Identified as one of the six
 priority water quality
 problems in the AM BAG
 region, erosion and
 sediment is one of the
 "dirtiest" problems to deal
 with because it is so
 widespread and because
 it results from a variety of
 activities in the public
 and private  sector.

 A part of the unique
 arrangements is the
 Personnel Act agreement
 between AM BAG and the
 SCS. Through this
 agreement,  a resource
 conservationist has joined
 the AM BAG planning
 staff for the duration of
the two-year 208 planning

The resource
conservationist first
 identified specific
problems and the
applicable best
management practices
(BMP). He is now
focusing his attention on
methods of implementing
BMP's, determining which
governmental agency (or
group of agencies) is best
suited to implement an
erosion and sediment
control program, and
assessing how to best
finance the program.

Another approach, the
most innovative of the
agreements, is through a
contract between AM BAG
and the Gloria Resource
Conservation District. The
District, funded by
money, has hired a soil
conservation technician to
work directly with
landowners in the
agricultural area to
implement some BMP's
for erosion and sediment
problems. A limited
amount of funds received
by the District has been
set aside to be used on a
cost-share basis for more
serious problems. Through
an agreement between the
District and SCS, the
technician works out of
the SCS office, and is
provided supervision by
the SCS. The AM BAG
contract has accelerated
the Districts program and
is developing information
for the 208 planning study.

Dividends are already
being realized. Technical
assistance, like -that of the
Soil Conservation Service,
which has been
underfunded for years, is
being made available on a
direct basis without much
red tape. The technician is
being favorably received
         Continued on page 8

Task Force
Continued from page 1

the Technical Work Group
include Pat Godsil, Gene
Viers, and Bill Galegar.

The objective of the
Technical Work Group is
to identify irrigation water
use and management
problems in the United
States and to recommend
objectives, policies, roles
and action programs for
Federal, state, and private
interests to address such
problems.  The study will
address the current status
of irrigated agriculture and
the resulting social,
economic, and
environmental settings;
summarize state water
laws and institutions;
determine problems in
irrigation water use;
determine special problems
in humid areas; summarize
ongoing programs
assisting irrigation;
develop alternate
opportunities for
improving irrigation water
use and management; and
determine the costs,
impacts, and effectiveness
of alternative measures

The InteragencyTask
Force report will consider
irrigation water use and
management both on  farm
and in water delivery
systems. Federal and non-
Federal irrigation
developments will be
included. The report will
stress developments in the
western United States, but
a separate  section will deal
with irrigation
development in humid,
eastern areas.

In addition to
representatives of the
Department of Agriculture
(Soil Conservation
Service, Agricultural
Research Service,
Economic and Statistics
Service, Extension
Service); the Department
of the Interior (Bureau of
Reclamation, Bureau of
Indian Affairs, Fish and
Wildlife Service); and the
Environmental Protection
Agency, non-Federal
agencies have been invited
to participate in the study.
The work plan for the
study was developed with
the help of representatives
from the State of Utah
representing the
Interstate Conference on
Water Problems (ICWP).
Assistance with the study
will be forthcoming from
the states through the
ICWP and other
organizations of
representatives from the
western states.

The Technical Work Group
will collect and evaluate
the accuracy and
usefulness of available
data on irrigation
efficiencies and
environmental, social, and
economic conditions as
affected by irrigation
development. Physical,
legal, and institutional
restraints in efficient
irrigation water use and
management will be
identified through review
of existing documents and
through knowledge of
technical people working
with irrigators,
conservation districts, and
water user organizations.

A public involvement
program will be carried
out by the Technical Work
Group throughout the
study as information
becomes available and as
study decisions need to be
made. Public input will be
supplied through State
representatives, interest
groups, and organizations
in the fields  of agriculture
 and natural resources. The
 general public may
 respond to information
 presented at public
 meetings or through press
Interests in
 The South Alabama
 Regional Planning
 Commission (SARPC),
 the areawide WQM
 agency for Mobile, was
 instrumental in achieving
 State adoption of anti-
 degradation policies for
 the Theodore Ship
 Channel and local
 commitment to performing
 industrial waste
 management functions.

 The Theodore Ship
 Channel is a major project
 of the U.S. Army Corps of
 Engineers in Mobile Bay.
 The Corps of Engineers
 had recommended
 building a dead-end barge
 canal extension to serve
 the 4,000 acre Industrial
 Park, which is partially
 developed. This canal
 extension would lack any
 capacity to assimilate
wastes. Construction of
the canal and industrial
facilities had caused
 nonpoint source pollution,
and their operation would
further degradewater
quality without adequate
control measures.

Faced with these
concerns, the 208 agency
monitored current
pollution problems and
applied mathematical and
physical modeling, with
the help of the Corps of
Engineers, to forecast
future problems. In
addition, the local 201
agency studied the
compatibility of industrial
and municipal wastes
from the industrial park
and determined that a
separate industrial facility
would be required. Based
on these findings, SARPC
recommended control
measures for point and
nonpoint pollution in the

The Alabama Water
Improvement Commission
then adopted policies,
proposed by SARPC, to
maintain and improve
water quality in the ship
channel. These policies
address both point and
nonpoint sources and
require best management
practices for  construction
activities and urban runoff.
EPA Region  IV reinforced
these policies by stating
that future NPDES permits
would have to confrom
with them.

The Mobile City Water
and Sewer Board,
recommendations of
SARPC, became the
Waste Water Treatment-
Discharge Management
Authority for the channel
and industrial park. To
exercise its new,
responsibilities, the
authority will construct a
30-inch industrial waste
discharge line and outfall.

Industrial Wastes
Continued from page 7

DeGussa Alabama, Inc., a
major industry in the
industrial park, had
planned to build an 18-
inch discharge line to
handle its waste water.
This firm has pledged the
projected cost of its
pipeline to help finance
the facility for the entire
park. The remainder of the
construction funds will
come from revenue bonds
and user fees.

Pollution control in the
 Theodore Ship Channel
 required an integrated
 solution, involving diverse
 private and public
 interests. SARPC played
 a primary role in
 establishing the technical
 basis for the industrial
 waste management
 program. The WQM
 agency also coordinated
 decision-making by
 industries and
 governmental agencies,
 which cooperated to
 promote both economic
 development and
 environmental protection.
Continued from page 5

pollution control. The
Training Division of the
Forest Service, whose
Director is Leon Anderson,
is the leading agency for
the Department of

Potential projects include
roadside erosion  control,
streambank stabilization,
and conservation activities
on publicly-owned land.
Regional, state, county
and city parks,
playgrounds and schools
will benefit from these

208 Agencies, especially
those with public lands in
need of nonpoint source
pollution control, should
investigate interfacing
their activities with those
of CETA.
Grass Roots
Continued from page 6

by landowners, and many
BMP's are being
voluntarily implemented.
In fact, this approach
appears so successful that
other conservation districts
in the region are
considering similar

This approach appears to
be the sort of "grass roots"
solution to water quality
problems which Congress
had in mind when it
funded the 208 program.

(Submitted for publication by
the 'Association of Monterey
Bay Area Governments.')
 United States
 Environmental Protection
Office of
Public Awareness (A-107)
Washington DC 20460
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