United States
                  Environmental Protection
                                  Office of
                                  Public Awareness (A-107)
                                  Washington DC 20460
           OPA 57/9
                                                           riarch 1979
Hazardous Waste
Quantities of
Hazardous Wastes
                 The  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976
                 requires the U.S. Environmental  Protection Agency
                 (EPA) to institute a national hazardous waste
                 regulatory program.  Key provisions are for develop-
                 ment of criteria  to determine which wastes are
                 hazardous; institution of a system to track wastes
                 from point of generation to point of disposal; and
                 standards for operation of disposal facilities.
                 States may obtain EPA authorization to conduct their
                 own  regulatory program.  In States that choose not
                 to develop a hazardous waste program, or do not gain
                 authorization for a program, EPA must administer the

                 Proposed Federal  regulations list about 160 wastes
                 and  waste streams, in addition to four characteri-
                 stics for identifying a waste as hazardous:
                 ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity.

                 "Hazardous waste" includes acids, toxic chemicals,
                 caustics, explosives, and other  harmful or potential
                 harmful wastes.

                 EPA  estimates that 10 to 15 percent of the annual
                 production of about 34.5 million metric tons (wet)
                 of industrial waste is hazardous.  Quantities of
                 hazardous waste are expected to  increase by 3 per-
                 cent annually.

                 EPA  estimates that 90 percent of hazardous waste is
                 managed by practices which will  not meet new Federal

                 Major hazardous waste generators, among 17 indus-
                 tries EPA has studied in detail, are:
Million Metric
Tons (Wet Basis)
(1977  Estimates)
                Organic Chemicals.. 11.7
                Primary Metals	  9.0
                Electroplating	  4.1
                Inorganic Chemicals  4.0
Textiles	  1.9
Petroleum Refining..1.8
Rubber & Plastics...1.0
Other	1.0
                                                      Total  34.5

70 to 80 percent of these industries' hazardous waste is disposed of on
the generator's property:

  80 percent is disposed of in nonsecure ponds, lagoons, or landfills

  10 percent is incinerated without proper controls

  10 percent is managed acceptably as compared to proposed Federal
     standards, i.e., by controlled incineration, neutralization,
     secure landfills, and recovery.

  About 60 percent hazardous waste is in the form of liquid of sludge.

  Ten States generate 65 percent of all hazardous waste:  Texas, Ohio,
  Pennsylvania, Louisiana, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Tennessee,
  West Virginia, California.

How Damage Occurs
  Major routes for damage are:

    (1) direct contact with toxic wates
    (2) fire and explosions
    (3) groundwater contamination via leachate
    (4) surface water contamination via runoff or overflow
    (5) air pollution via open burning, evaporation, sublimation, and
        wind erosion
    (6) poison via the food chain  (bioaccumulation)

    EPA has information on over 400 cases of damage to health or the
    environment due to improper hazardous waste management.

Technology and Facilities

  Environmentally adequate technology options are feasible for treat-
  ment and disposal of hazardous wastes; their costs are substantially
  in excess of1 inadequate practices  (e.g., open dumping).  Secure
  chemical landfills are significantly less expensive than other
  treatment options; however, costs vary according to type and volume
  of waste handled.

     Secure chemical landfill....  $30-55/Metric Ton
     Incineration  (land based)...  $75-26S/Metric Ton  ($110 typical)
     Landspreading	  $2-25/Metric Ton  ($6  typical)
     Chemical fixation	  $10-30/Metric Ton
     Physical, chemical,                    \
        biological treatment	  variable

  The 17  industries EPA has  studied  in detail now spend  $155 million
  annually for hazardous waste management; this will increase to an
  estimated $750 million a year under proposed regulations, according
  to EPA  estimates.  Cost of  proper  hazardous waste management will be
  about 0.28 percent of annual value of production  (approximately $267
  billion) for the 17  industries.

  At least 20 industrial waste exchanges, i.e.,  information clearing-
  houses  that provide  information  on specific wastes to  companies
  interested in using  the wastes as  raw materials, are  now in operation,

Federal Regulations

  Seven sets of regulations and guidelines have been proposed and/or
  are being developed by EPA under Subtitle C of the Resource Conser-
  vation and Recovery Act:
                                                  Proposed in
  Subtitle Section     Title of Regulation        Federal Register

  3001            Identification and listing of   December 18, 1978
                  Hazardous Waste

  3002            Standards-Applicable to         December 18, 1978
                  Generators of Hazardous Waste

  3003            Standards Applicable to         April 28, 1978
                  Transporters of Hazardous Waste1

  3004            Standards Applicable to Hazar-  December 18, 1978
                  dous Waste Facilities

  3005            Permits  for Treatment, Storage  February 1979
                  or Disposal of Hazardous Waste2    (tentative)

  3006            Guidelines for Development of   February 1, 1978
                  State Hazardous Waste Programs2   (to be reproposed in
                                                   February 1979

  3010            Notification System             July 11, 1978

  Cradle-to-grave control  via manifests and reporting is the  keystone
  of the program; only permitted sites may treat, store, or dispose
  of hazardous waste.

  EPA anticipates an estimated 285,000 notifications from generators,
  transporters, and those  who treat, store, or dispose of hazardous
  waste.  An estimated 30,000 permits will be issued by EPA and the
  States over the next 5  to 6 years  to those who store, treat, or dis-
  pose of hazardous waste.

  Other EPA Acts related  to hazardous waste controls:

    Clean Air Act—sets standards  for hazardous air pollutants.

    Clean Water Act—prohibits discharge of toxic pollutants  in toxic
    amounts into navigable waters  of the United States.
        Department of Transportation also proposed regulations  pursuant
    to  the  Hazardous Materials Transportation Act pertaining  to trans-
    portation of hazardous waste,  which were published in  the Federal
    Register,  May 25, 1978.

   2Sections 3005 and 3006 will be integrated with proposed rules under
    the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Safe Drinking Water Act—authorizes EPA to set maximum contaminant
    levels for  public drinking water  systems.

    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act—authorizes EPA
    to regulate registration, treatment, disposal, and storage of all
    pesticides,  including labeling  requirements.

    Toxic Substances Control Act—authorizes EPA to obtain data on
    health effects of chemical substances and to regulate  the manufac-
    ture, use,  and disposal of a  chemical substance or mixture where

State Programs

  EPA anticipates that 41 States  will apply for "interim authorization,"
  which allows  States to operate  the  program for a period  of 2 years
  after promulgation of the Federal regulations while upgrading their

  Within 2 years of promulgation, States must apply for  and secure
  "full authorization."  The three  criteria for "full authorization"
  are:   (1) equivalence to Federal  program;  (2) consistency with other
  State and Federal programs; and (3)  adequacy of enforcement.

  FY 79 grants  specifically for hazardous waste program  development
  total $15 million.  The President's FY 80 budget requests $18.4
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